Sample records for popular weight-loss plans

  1. Popular Weight Loss Strategies: a Review of Four Weight Loss Techniques.

    PubMed

    Obert, Jonathan; Pearlman, Michelle; Obert, Lois; Chapin, Sarah

    2017-11-09

    The purpose of this paper is to review the epidemiology of obesity and the most recent literature on popular fad diets and exercise regimens that are used for weight loss. The weight loss plans that will be discussed in this article include juicing or detoxification diets, intermittent fasting, the paleo diet, and high intensity training. Despite the growing popularity of fad diets and exercise plans for weight loss, there are limited studies that actually suggest these particular regimens are beneficial and lead to long-term weight loss. Juicing or detoxification diets tend to work because they lead to extremely low caloric intake for short periods of time, however tend to lead to weight gain once a normal diet is resumed. Both intermittent fasting and the paleo diet lead to weight loss because of overall decreased caloric intake as well. Lastly, studies on short bursts of high intensity training have shown remarkable weight loss and improvements in cardiovascular health. Review of the literature does suggest that some fad diets and exercise plans do lead to weight loss; however, the studies are quite limited and are all based on the concept of caloric restriction.

  2. Do more specific plans help you lose weight? Examining the relationship between plan specificity, weight loss goals, and plan content in the context of a weight management programme.

    PubMed

    Dombrowski, Stephan U; Endevelt, Ronit; Steinberg, David M; Benyamini, Yael

    2016-11-01

    The conditions under which planning for behaviour change is most effective are not fully understood. In the context of a weight management programme, we examined the interrelationship between plan specificity, type of behaviour planned (diet vs. exercise), and weight loss goals. Prospective design and content analysis of plans formed by participants of a 10-week weight management programme. Participants (n = 239) formulated two plans, for dietary and exercise behaviours, respectively. Plans were rated for specificity by examining the number of plan components. Weight loss goals were assessed by asking how much weight participants intend to lose. Weight was measured objectively each of the 10 weeks. Changes in body mass index (BMI) over time and the interactions between plan specificity and weight loss goals, for all plans and separately for diet and exercise, were estimated using linear mixed models. Plan specificity was unrelated to weight loss, but interacted with weight loss goals in predicting linear change in BMI (t = -2.48): More specific plans were associated with higher decreases in weight in participants with high weight loss goals. Separate interaction tests for plans formulated for diet and exercise change showed that more specific dietary plans, but not exercise plans, were associated with higher decreases in weight in participants with high weight loss goals (t = -2.21). Within a population that is highly motivated to lose weight, the combination of high weight loss goals and formulating detailed plans for changing dietary behaviours may be most effective in supporting weight loss. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? More specific plans are associated with increased performance of health-related behaviours. More motivated individuals form more specific plans. The interrelationship between plan specificity, plan content and behaviour-related goals in relation intervention effectiveness has not been explored to date

  3. Popular Mobile Phone Apps for Diet and Weight Loss: A Content Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zaidan, Sarah; Roehrer, Erin

    2016-07-11

    A review of the literature has revealed that the rates of overweight and obesity have been increasing in Australia over the last two decades and that wellness mobile phone apps play a significant role in monitoring and managing individuals' weight. Although mobile phone app markets (iTunes and Google Play) list thousands of mobile phone health apps, it is not always clear whether those apps are supported by credible sources. Likewise, despite the prevailing use of mobile phone apps to aid with weight management, the usability features of these apps are not well characterized. The research explored how usability taxonomy could inform the popularity of downloaded, socially focused wellness mobile phone apps, in particular weight loss and diet apps. The aim of the study was to investigate the Australian mobile phone app stores (iTunes and Google Play) in order to examine the usability features of the most popular (ie, most downloaded) wellness apps. The design of this study comprises 3 main stages: stage 1, identifying apps; stage 2, development of weight loss and diet evaluation framework; and stage 3, application of the evaluation framework. Each stage includes specific data collection, analysis tools, and techniques. The study has resulted in the development of a justified evaluation framework for weight loss and diet mobile phone apps. Applying the evaluation framework to the identified apps has shown that the most downloaded iTunes and Google Play apps are not necessarily the most usable or effective. In addition, the research found that search algorithms for iTunes and Google Play are biased toward apps' titles and keywords that do not accurately define the real functionality of the app. Moreover, the study has also analyzed the apps' user reviews, which served as justification for the developed evaluation framework. The analysis has shown that ease of use, reminder, bar code scanning, motivation, usable for all, and synchronization are significant attributes

  4. Popular Mobile Phone Apps for Diet and Weight Loss: A Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Roehrer, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Background A review of the literature has revealed that the rates of overweight and obesity have been increasing in Australia over the last two decades and that wellness mobile phone apps play a significant role in monitoring and managing individuals’ weight. Although mobile phone app markets (iTunes and Google Play) list thousands of mobile phone health apps, it is not always clear whether those apps are supported by credible sources. Likewise, despite the prevailing use of mobile phone apps to aid with weight management, the usability features of these apps are not well characterized. Objective The research explored how usability taxonomy could inform the popularity of downloaded, socially focused wellness mobile phone apps, in particular weight loss and diet apps. The aim of the study was to investigate the Australian mobile phone app stores (iTunes and Google Play) in order to examine the usability features of the most popular (ie, most downloaded) wellness apps. Methods The design of this study comprises 3 main stages: stage 1, identifying apps; stage 2, development of weight loss and diet evaluation framework; and stage 3, application of the evaluation framework. Each stage includes specific data collection, analysis tools, and techniques. Results The study has resulted in the development of a justified evaluation framework for weight loss and diet mobile phone apps. Applying the evaluation framework to the identified apps has shown that the most downloaded iTunes and Google Play apps are not necessarily the most usable or effective. In addition, the research found that search algorithms for iTunes and Google Play are biased toward apps’ titles and keywords that do not accurately define the real functionality of the app. Moreover, the study has also analyzed the apps’ user reviews, which served as justification for the developed evaluation framework. Conclusions The analysis has shown that ease of use, reminder, bar code scanning, motivation, usable for

  5. Rapid Weight Loss in Sports with Weight Classes.

    PubMed

    Khodaee, Morteza; Olewinski, Lucianne; Shadgan, Babak; Kiningham, Robert R

    2015-01-01

    Weight-sensitive sports are popular among elite and nonelite athletes. Rapid weight loss (RWL) practice has been an essential part of many of these sports for many decades. Due to the limited epidemiological studies on the prevalence of RWL, its true prevalence is unknown. It is estimated that more than half of athletes in weight-class sports have practiced RWL during the competitive periods. As RWL can have significant physical, physiological, and psychological negative effects on athletes, its practice has been discouraged for many years. It seems that appropriate rule changes have had the biggest impact on the practice of RWL in sports like wrestling. An individualized and well-planned gradual and safe weight loss program under the supervision of a team of coaching staff, athletic trainers, sports nutritionists, and sports physicians is recommended.

  6. Healthy Weight: Healthy Weight Loss Starts With a Plan You Can Stick To

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Weight Healthy Weight Loss Starts With a Plan You Can Stick To Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... based on regular physical activity and an eating plan that is balanced, healthy, and easy to follow. ...

  7. Micronutrient Gaps in Three Commercial Weight-Loss Diet Plans.

    PubMed

    G Engel, Matthew; J Kern, Hua; Brenna, J Thomas; H Mitmesser, Susan

    2018-01-20

    Weight-loss diets restrict intakes of energy and macronutrients but overlook micronutrient profiles. Commercial diet plans may provide insufficient micronutrients. We analyzed nutrient profiles of three plans and compared their micronutrient sufficiency to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for male U.S. adults. Hypocaloric vegan (Eat to Live-Vegan, Aggressive Weight Loss; ETL-VAWL), high-animal-protein low-carbohydrate (Fast Metabolism Diet; FMD) and weight maintenance (Eat, Drink and Be Healthy; EDH) diets were evaluated. Seven single-day menus were sampled per diet ( n = 21 menus, 7 menus/diet) and analyzed for 20 micronutrients with the online nutrient tracker CRON-O-Meter. Without adjustment for energy intake, the ETL-VAWL diet failed to provide 90% of recommended amounts for B 12 , B₃, D, E, calcium, selenium and zinc. The FMD diet was low (<90% DRI) in B₁, D, E, calcium, magnesium and potassium. The EDH diet met >90% DRIs for all but vitamin D, calcium and potassium. Several micronutrients remained inadequate after adjustment to 2000 kcal/day: vitamin B 12 in ETL-VAWL, calcium in FMD and EDH and vitamin D in all diets. Consistent with previous work, micronutrient deficits are prevalent in weight-loss diet plans. Special attention to micronutrient rich foods is required to reduce risk of micronutrient deficiency in design of commercial diets.

  8. Effects of Popular Diets without Specific Calorie Targets on Weight Loss Outcomes: Systematic Review of Findings from Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Stephen D.; Hida, Azumi; Heekin, Kacey; Sowalsky, Kristen; Karabetian, Christy; Mutchie, Heather; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Manini, Todd M.; Barnett, Tracey E.

    2017-01-01

    The present review examined the evidence base for current popular diets, as listed in the 2016 U.S. News & World Report, on short-term (≤six months) and long-term (≥one year) weight loss outcomes in overweight and obese adults. For the present review, all diets in the 2016 U.S. News & World Report Rankings for “Best Weight-Loss Diets”, which did not involve specific calorie targets, meal replacements, supplementation with commercial products, and/or were not categorized as “low-calorie” diets were examined. Of the 38 popular diets listed in the U.S. News & World Report, 20 met our pre-defined criteria. Literature searches were conducted through PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science using preset key terms to identify all relevant clinical trials for these 20 diets. A total of 16 articles were identified which reported findings of clinical trials for seven of these 20 diets: (1) Atkins; (2) Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH); (3) Glycemic-Index; (4) Mediterranean; (5) Ornish; (6) Paleolithic; and (7) Zone. Of the diets evaluated, the Atkins Diet showed the most evidence in producing clinically meaningful short-term (≤six months) and long-term (≥one-year) weight loss. Other popular diets may be equally or even more effective at producing weight loss, but this is unknown at the present time since there is a paucity of studies on these diets. PMID:28758964

  9. N-of-1 study of weight loss maintenance assessing predictors of physical activity, adherence to weight loss plan and weight change.

    PubMed

    Kwasnicka, Dominika; Dombrowski, Stephan U; White, Martin; Sniehotta, Falko F

    2017-06-01

    Behaviour change interventions are effective in supporting individuals to achieve clinically significant weight loss, but weight loss maintenance (WLM) is less often attained. This study examined predictive variables associated with WLM. N-of-1 study with daily ecological momentary assessment combined with objective measurement of weight and physical activity, collected with wireless devices (Fitbit™) for six months. Eight previously obese adults who had lost over 5% of their body weight in the past year took part. Data were analysed using time series methods. Predictor variables were based on five theoretical themes: maintenance motives, self-regulation, personal resources, habits, and environmental influences. Dependent variables were: objectively estimated step count and weight, and self-reported WLM plan adherence. For all participants, daily fluctuations in self-reported adherence to their WLM plan were significantly associated with most of the explanatory variables, including maintenance motivation and satisfaction with outcomes, self-regulation, habit, and stable environment. Personal resources were not a consistent predictor of plan adherence. This is the first study to assess theoretical predictions of WLM within individuals. WLM is a dynamic process including the interplay of motivation, self-regulation, habit, resources, and perceptions of environmental context. Individuals maintaining their weight have unique psychological profiles which could be accounted for in interventions.

  10. Micronutrient Gaps in Three Commercial Weight-Loss Diet Plans

    PubMed Central

    J. Kern, Hua; Brenna, J. Thomas; H. Mitmesser, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Weight-loss diets restrict intakes of energy and macronutrients but overlook micronutrient profiles. Commercial diet plans may provide insufficient micronutrients. We analyzed nutrient profiles of three plans and compared their micronutrient sufficiency to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for male U.S. adults. Hypocaloric vegan (Eat to Live-Vegan, Aggressive Weight Loss; ETL-VAWL), high-animal-protein low-carbohydrate (Fast Metabolism Diet; FMD) and weight maintenance (Eat, Drink and Be Healthy; EDH) diets were evaluated. Seven single-day menus were sampled per diet (n = 21 menus, 7 menus/diet) and analyzed for 20 micronutrients with the online nutrient tracker CRON-O-Meter. Without adjustment for energy intake, the ETL-VAWL diet failed to provide 90% of recommended amounts for B12, B3, D, E, calcium, selenium and zinc. The FMD diet was low (<90% DRI) in B1, D, E, calcium, magnesium and potassium. The EDH diet met >90% DRIs for all but vitamin D, calcium and potassium. Several micronutrients remained inadequate after adjustment to 2000 kcal/day: vitamin B12 in ETL-VAWL, calcium in FMD and EDH and vitamin D in all diets. Consistent with previous work, micronutrient deficits are prevalent in weight-loss diet plans. Special attention to micronutrient rich foods is required to reduce risk of micronutrient deficiency in design of commercial diets. PMID:29361684

  11. The Most Popular Smartphone Apps for Weight Loss: A Quality Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Cade, Janet E

    2015-01-01

    Background Advancements in mobile phone technology have led to the development of smartphones with the capability to run apps. The availability of a plethora of health- and fitness-related smartphone apps has the potential, both on a clinical and public health level, to facilitate healthy behavior change and weight management. However, current top-rated apps in this area have not been extensively evaluated in terms of scientific quality and behavioral theory evidence base. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of the most popular dietary weight-loss smartphone apps on the commercial market using comprehensive quality assessment criteria, and to quantify the behavior change techniques (BCTs) incorporated. Methods The top 200-rated Health & Fitness category apps from the free and paid sections of Google Play and iTunes App Store in Australia (n=800) were screened in August 2014. To be included in further analysis, an app had to focus on weight management, include a facility to record diet intake (self-monitoring), and be in English. One researcher downloaded and used the eligible apps thoroughly for 5 days and assessed the apps against quality assessment criteria which included the following domains: accountability, scientific coverage and content accuracy of information relevant to weight management, technology-enhanced features, usability, and incorporation of BCTs. For inter-rater reliability purposes, a second assessor provided ratings on 30% of the apps. The accuracy of app energy intake calculations was further investigated by comparison with results from a 3-day weighed food record (WFR). Results Across the eligible apps reviewed (n=28), only 1 app (4%) received full marks for accountability. Overall, apps included an average of 5.1 (SD 2.3) out of 14 technology-enhanced features, and received a mean score of 13.5 (SD 3.7) out of 20 for usability. The majority of apps provided estimated energy requirements (24/28, 86%) and used a food

  12. The Exposure Effects of Online Model Pictures and Weight-Related Persuasive Messages on Women's Weight-Loss Planned Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wenjing; Peña, Jorge

    2017-10-01

    This study examined how exposure to pictures of women with different body sizes (thin, obese), physical attractiveness levels (attractive, unattractive), along with exposure to weight-related messages (pro-anorexia, anti-anorexia) embedded in a fashion website affected female participants' planned behavior toward weight loss. Participants exposed to attractive model pictures showed higher intentions, attitudes, and subjective norms to lose weight compared with unattractive models. Additionally, participants exposed to thin and attractive model pictures indicated the highest attitudes and self-efficacy to lose weight, whereas those exposed to thin and unattractive model pictures indicated the lowest. Furthermore, weight-related messages moderated the effect of model appearance (body size and attractiveness) on controllability of weight-loss activities. However, website pictures' body size differences had no main effects on planned behavior toward weight loss. These effects are discussed in the light of social comparison mechanisms.

  13. Effect of weight loss plans on body composition and diet duration.

    PubMed

    Landers, Patti; Wolfe, Megan M; Glore, Stephen; Guild, Ralph; Phillips, Lindsay

    2002-05-01

    Are low carbohydrate high protein (LCHP) diets more effective in promoting loss of weight and body fat and can individuals stay on an Atkins-like diet more easily than on a conventional weight loss diet? A pre-test/post-test randomized group design composed of three cohorts was utilized to test 1) a LCHP ketogenic diet; 2) the Zone diet; and 3) a conventional hypocaloric diabetic exchange diet that supplied < 10%, 40%, and 50% of calories from carbohydrate, respectively. Body composition was measured before and after the intervention treatment period with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Mean weight loss was 5.1 kg for those who completed the 12-week program. There were no significant differences in total weight, fat, or lean body mass loss when compared by diet group. Attrition was substantial for all plans at 43%, 60%, and 36% for LCHP, Zone and conventional diets, respectively.

  14. Prizes for weight loss.

    PubMed Central

    Englberger, L.

    1999-01-01

    A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health. PMID:10063662

  15. Teammates and social influence affect weight loss outcomes in a team-based weight loss competition

    PubMed Central

    Leahey, Tricia M.; Kumar, Rajiv; Weinberg, Brad M.; Wing, Rena R.

    2013-01-01

    Team-based Internet interventions are increasing in popularity as a way of promoting weight loss in large numbers of individuals. Given that social networks influence health behavior change, this study investigated the effects of teammates and social influence on individual weight loss during a team-based weight loss competition. Shape Up Rhode Island 2009 was a 12-week online program open to adult residents of Rhode Island. Participants joined with a team and competed with other teams on weight loss and/or physical activity. OW/OB individuals (N=3,330; 76%female; age=46.1±10.8; BMI=31.2±5.3kg/m2), representing 987 teams, completed the weight loss program. Multilevel modeling was used to examine whether weight loss clustered among teammates and whether percentage of teammates in the weight loss division and reported teammate influence on weight loss were associated with individual weight outcomes. OW/OB completers reported losing 4.2±3.4% of initial body weight. Weight loss was similar among teammates (ICC=.10, p<.001). Moreover, having a greater percentage of teammates in the weight loss division and reporting higher social influence for weight loss were associated with greater percent weight loss (p’s≤.002). Similarly, achieving a clinically significant (5%) weight loss tended to cluster within teams (ICC=0.09;p<.001) and having more teammates in the weight loss division and higher social influence for weight loss were associated with increased likelihood of achieving a 5% weight loss (OR=1.06; OR=1.20, respectively). These results suggest that teammates affect weight loss outcomes during a team-based intervention. Harnessing and maximizing teammate influence for weight loss may enhance weight losses in large-scale team-based weight loss programs. PMID:22310234

  16. Teammates and social influence affect weight loss outcomes in a team-based weight loss competition.

    PubMed

    Leahey, Tricia M; Kumar, Rajiv; Weinberg, Brad M; Wing, Rena R

    2012-07-01

    Team-based internet interventions are increasing in popularity as a way of promoting weight loss in large numbers of individuals. Given that social networks influence health behavior change, this study investigated the effects of teammates and social influence on individual weight loss during a team-based weight loss competition. Shape Up Rhode Island (SURI) 2009 was a 12-week online program open to adult residents of Rhode Island. Participants joined with a team and competed with other teams on weight loss and/or physical activity. Overweight/obese (OW/OB) individuals (N = 3,330; 76% female; age = 46.1 ± 10.8; BMI = 31.2 ± 5.3 kg/m(2)), representing 987 teams, completed the weight loss program. Multilevel modeling was used to examine whether weight loss clustered among teammates and whether percentage of teammates in the weight loss division and reported teammate influence on weight loss were associated with individual weight outcomes. OW/OB completers reported losing 4.2 ± 3.4% of initial body weight. Weight loss was similar among teammates (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.10, P < 0.001). Moreover, having a greater percentage of teammates in the weight loss division and reporting higher social influence for weight loss were associated with greater percent weight loss (P's ≤ 0.002). Similarly, achieving a clinically significant (5%) weight loss tended to cluster within teams (ICC = 0.09; P < 0.001) and having more teammates in the weight loss division and higher social influence for weight loss were associated with increased likelihood of achieving a 5% weight loss (odds ratio (OR) = 1.06; OR = 1.20, respectively). These results suggest that teammates affect weight loss outcomes during a team-based intervention. Harnessing and maximizing teammate influence for weight loss may enhance weight outcomes in large-scale team-based programs.

  17. Success of a weight loss plan for overweight dogs: The results of an international weight loss study

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, John; Bissot, Thomas; Hours, Marie-Anne; Moreno, Bernabe; Feugier, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a global concern in dogs with an increasing prevalence, and effective weight loss solutions are required that work in different geographical regions. The main objective was to conduct an international, multi-centre, weight loss trial to determine the efficacy of a dietary weight loss intervention in obese pet dogs. Methods A 3-month prospective observational cohort study of weight loss in 926 overweight dogs was conducted at 340 veterinary practices in 27 countries. Commercially available dry or wet weight loss diets were used, with the initial energy allocation being 250–335 kJ/kg target body weight0.75/day (60–80 kcal/kg target body weight0.75/day) depending on sex and neuter status. The primary outcome measure was percentage weight loss; the main secondary outcomes were changes in activity, quality of life, and food-seeking behaviour, which were subjectively determined from owner descriptions. Results At baseline, median (range) age was 74 (12 to 193) months and median body condition score was 8 (range 7–9). 896 of the 926 dogs (97%) lost weight, with mean weight loss being 11.4 ±5.84%. Sexually intact dogs lost more weight than neutered dogs (P = 0.001), whilst female dogs lost more weight than male dogs (P = 0.007), with the difference being more pronounced in North and South American dogs (median [Q1, Q3]: female: 11.5% [8.5%, 14.5%]; male: 9.1% [6.3%, 12.1%], P = 0.053) compared with those from Europe (female: 12.3% [8.9%, 14.9%]; male: 10.9% [8.6%, 15.4%]). Finally, subjective scores for activity (P<0.001) and quality of life (P<0.001) increased sequentially, whilst scores for food-seeking behaviour decreased sequentially (P<0.001) during the study. Conclusion This is the largest international multi-centre weight loss study conducted to date in obese dogs. Most dogs lost a clinically significant amount of weight, although there were notable differences between dogs of different sex, neuter status and in different geographical

  18. Insurance Coverage for Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Jarlenski, Marian P.; Gudzune, Kimberly A.; Bennett, Wendy L.; Cooper, Lisa A.; Bleich, Sara N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Given the prevalence of obesity and associated chronic conditions among U.S. adults, wellness benefits are an increasingly popular approach to promoting weight loss. Purpose The goal of the study was to assess overweight and obese adults’ beliefs about the helpfulness of insurance coverage of weight loss–related benefits, their willingness to pay for such benefits, and whether these opinions differ by individuals’ weight or health insurance type. Methods A national survey was fielded in 2012 am ong non-pregnant, overweight and obese adults who had seen a primary care provider in the past year (n=600). Descriptive statistics summarized beliefs about which weight loss–related benefits would be helpful, willingness to pay for such benefits, and agreement about whether health insurers should be able to charge more to obese individuals. Multivariable logistic regression was employed to determine whether beliefs differed by weight category or health insurance type. Analyses were conducted in July 2012. Results The majority (83%) of respondents cited a specific benefit as helpful. Those with private health insurance had a higher probability (89%, 95% CI=86%, 93%) of endorsing any benefit as helpful relative to those with other types of health insurance. Being obese relative to overweight was associated with greater support (57% vs 39%, p<0.05) for preventing health insurers from charging higher premiums to obese individuals. Conclusions In this sample of overweight adults, a large proportion endorsed the value of weight loss–related benefits offered by health plans. However, only about one third were willing to pay extra for them, and half disagreed with the notion that health plans should charge more to obese individuals. Given evidence of their effectiveness, wellness benefits should be offered to all individuals. PMID:23597807

  19. Integration of a physical training program in a weight loss plan for overweight pet dogs.

    PubMed

    Vitger, Anne D; Stallknecht, Bente M; Nielsen, Dorte H; Bjornvad, Charlotte R

    2016-01-15

    To investigate whether a controlled physical training plan for overweight dogs during a weight loss program would improve cardiorespiratory fitness and better preserve lean body mass, compared with results for dogs undergoing a weight loss program based on caloric restriction alone. Prospective, nonrandomized clinical study. 19 client-owned overweight or obese dogs. All dogs were fed the same calorie-restricted diet rationed to achieve a weight loss rate of 1% to 2%/wk for 12 weeks. The fitness-and-diet (FD) group participated in a training program that included underwater and land-based treadmill exercise 3 times/wk. The diet-only (DO) group had no change in exercise routines. Daily activity before and during the intervention was recorded by accelerometry. Before and after intervention, heart rate during exercise was recorded to assess cardiovascular fitness, and body composition was analyzed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Differences between groups were evaluated with t tests and multiple regression analysis. Mean weight loss was 13.9% and 12.9% for the FD and DO groups, respectively (n = 8 dogs/group that completed the study). Mean accelerometer counts during intervention were 13% higher than baseline counts for the FD group. Heart rate during exercise declined after intervention in both groups. Lean body mass was preserved in the FD group and lost in the DO group during intervention. The controlled exercise plan used with a dietary weight loss program prevented loss of lean body mass in dogs. This finding supports inclusion of controlled physical training for obesity management in dogs.

  20. Diet and exercise for weight loss: a review of current issues.

    PubMed

    Volek, Jeff S; Vanheest, Jaci L; Forsythe, Cassandra E

    2005-01-01

    Obesity is a fast growing epidemic that is primarily due to environmental influences. Nutrition and exercise represent modifiable factors with a major impact on energy balance. Despite considerable research, there remains continued debate regarding the energy content and the optimal macronutrient distribution for promoting healthy and effective weight loss. Low-fat diets have been advised for many years to reduce obesity. However, their effectiveness has been recently challenged, partly because the prevalence of obesity continues to rise despite reductions in fat intake. There are also concerns regarding the methodology of clinical trials showing benefits of fat reduction on weight loss. Although often viewed as a fad diet, very low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets are very popular and several recent clinical trials indicate they are more effective at promoting short-term weight loss and improving characteristics of the metabolic syndrome than low-fat diets. However, there is a need to obtain long-term safety and efficacy data. Clearly, weight loss can be achieved with a variety of diet interventions but the effects on other health-related aspects also need to be considered and studied in more detail. Exercise can have positive effects on weight loss, weight control and overall general health, although debate exists concerning the most effective mode, duration and intensity of exercise required to achieve these effects. Importantly, any effective weight control treatment must consider a life-long plan or there will likely be weight regain. Perhaps the most challenging, but rewarding, question that faces researchers is how to predict individual responses to diet and exercise interventions.

  1. Weighing women down: messages on weight loss and body shaping in editorial content in popular women's health and fitness magazines.

    PubMed

    Willis, Laura E; Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to idealized body images has been shown to lower women's body satisfaction. Yet some studies found the opposite, possibly because real-life media (as opposed to image-only stimuli) often embed such imagery in messages that suggest thinness is attainable. Drawing on social cognitive theory, the current content analysis investigated editorial body-shaping and weight-loss messages in popular women's health and fitness magazines. About five thousand magazine pages published in top-selling U.S. women's health and fitness magazines in 2010 were examined. The findings suggest that body shaping and weight loss are a major topic in these magazines, contributing to roughly one-fifth of all editorial content. Assessing standards of motivation and conduct, as well as behaviors promoted by the messages, the findings reflect overemphasis on appearance over health and on exercise-related behaviors over caloric reduction behaviors and the combination of both behaviors. These accentuations are at odds with public health recommendations.

  2. "Guaranteed in Just Six Weeks...". Weight Loss Fads and Fantasies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James H.; Allensworth, Diane D.

    1980-01-01

    The most popular fad diets, weight control devices, salons, and diet clubs are examined and the claims of each are evaluated in relation to their long-term success in producing weight loss and control. (JMF)

  3. Weight Loss Behaviors Used by Active Duty Air Force Personnel to Maintain Compliance with Weight Control Standards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-05-01

    lose weight. The methods of weight loss reported were exercising , skipping meals, using diet pills, and self- induced vomiting. In each case, females...Restrictive Diet Popular Diet Self- induced Vomifing Laxatives Diuretics Diet Pills Exercise Other Note- N = frequency of resf were allowed to...Rate 69 Demographic Data 69 Exercise 70 Weight Loss Beliefs and Practices 71 Additional Data Collected 76 Implications for Military Health Care

  4. Predicting actual weight loss: A review of the determinants according to the theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Chung, Louisa Ming Yan; Fong, Shirley Siu Ming

    2015-01-01

    Weight reduction that corresponds with lifestyle modification is difficult to foster. The theory of planned behaviour has been actively cited in explaining health-related behaviour. This review evaluated the application of the theory of planned behaviour to weight-loss behaviour. Among the three reviewed papers, cross-sectional survey designs and subjective outcome measurements were commonly applied. All of the studies recruited obese female adults as participants, limiting the generalisability of the studies' findings. The theory of planned behaviour can be effectively applied in weight-reduction programmes targeting female obese patients. This review confirmed critiques citing the limitations of experimental studies, the subjective measurement of behaviour and short follow-up periods.

  5. Effects of a popular exercise and weight loss program on weight loss, body composition, energy expenditure and health in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Kerksick, Chad; Thomas, Ashli; Campbell, Bill; Taylor, Lem; Wilborn, Colin; Marcello, Brandon; Roberts, Mike; Pfau, Emily; Grimstvedt, Megan; Opusunju, Jasmine; Magrans-Courtney, Teresa; Rasmussen, Christopher; Wilson, Ron; Kreider, Richard B

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the safety and efficacy of altering the ratio of carbohydrate and protein in low-energy diets in conjunction with a popular exercise program in obese women. Design Matched, prospective clinical intervention study to assess efficacy of varying ratios of carbohydrate and protein intake in conjunction with a regular exercise program. Participants One-hundred sixty one sedentary, obese, pre-menopausal women (38.5 ± 8.5 yrs, 164.2 ± 6.7 cm, 94.2 ± 18.8 kg, 34.9 ± 6.4 kg·m-2, 43.8 ± 4.2%) participated in this study. Participants were weight stable and not participating in additional weight loss programs. Methods Participants were assigned to either a no exercise + no diet control (CON), a no diet + exercise group (ND), or one of four diet + exercise groups (presented as kcals; % carbohydrate: protein: fat): 1) a high energy, high carbohydrate, low protein diet (HED) [2,600; 55:15:30%], 2) a very low carbohydrate, high protein diet (VLCHP) [1,200 kcals; 63:7:30%], 3) a low carbohydrate, moderate protein diet (LCMP) [1,200 kcals; 50:20:30%] and 4) a high carbohydrate, low protein diet (HCLP) [1,200 kcals; 55:15:30%]. Participants in exercise groups (all but CON) performed a pneumatic resistance-based, circuit training program under supervision three times per week. Measurements Anthropometric, body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), fasting blood samples and muscular fitness assessments were examined at baseline and weeks 2, 10 and 14. Results All groups except CON experienced significant reductions (P < 0.05 – 0.001) in waist circumference over 14 weeks. VLCHP, LCHP and LPHC participants experienced similar but significant (P < 0.05 – 0.001) reductions in body mass when compared to other groups. Delta responses indicated that fat loss after 14 weeks was significantly greatest in VLCHP (95% CI: -5.2, -3.2 kg), LCMP (-4.0, -1.9 kg) and HCLP (-3.8, -2.1 kg) when compared to other groups. Subsequent reductions in % body fat were

  6. Quick weight loss: sorting fad from fact.

    PubMed

    Roberts, D C

    This article reviews popular diets for their ability to produce effective weight loss. Most of the "evidence" for fad diets is based on anecdotal findings, theories and testimonials of short term results. The most prominent elements of fad diets are those of ritual and sacrifice. These diets offer quick and painless weight loss while allowing consumption of favourite or tasty foods, but place severe restrictions on certain other foods or food categories. Fad diets often work in the short term because they are low-kilojoule diets in disguise; that is, energy intake as a result of the diet is lower than the person's requirements. Successful long term weight loss depends on the consumption over a long period of time of less energy than is expended. The ideal approach is to increase physical activity while modifying eating behaviour to achieve a nutritionally balanced intake.

  7. Predicting actual weight loss: A review of the determinants according to the theory of planned behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Shirley Siu Ming

    2015-01-01

    Weight reduction that corresponds with lifestyle modification is difficult to foster. The theory of planned behaviour has been actively cited in explaining health-related behaviour. This review evaluated the application of the theory of planned behaviour to weight-loss behaviour. Among the three reviewed papers, cross-sectional survey designs and subjective outcome measurements were commonly applied. All of the studies recruited obese female adults as participants, limiting the generalisability of the studies’ findings. The theory of planned behaviour can be effectively applied in weight-reduction programmes targeting female obese patients. This review confirmed critiques citing the limitations of experimental studies, the subjective measurement of behaviour and short follow-up periods. PMID:28070350

  8. [Motivation for weight loss among weight loss treatment participants].

    PubMed

    Czeglédi, Edit

    2017-12-01

    Unrealistic expectations about weight goal and about weight loss-related benefits can hinder the effort for a successful long-term weight control. To explore weight loss-related goals and their background among overweight/obese patients. Study sample consisted of patients who participated in the inpatient weight loss treatment in the Lipidological Department of Szent Imre Hospital (n = 339, 19% men). Mean age: 50.2 years (SD = 13.47 years), mean BMI: 38.6 (SD = 7.58). self-reported anthropometric data, type and number of treated illnesses, Goals and Relative Weights Questionnaire, Motivations for Weight Loss Scale, Body Shape Questionnaire. Participants would feel disappointed with a possible 10% weight loss in a half-year time span. The acceptable weight loss percentage was higher among women, younger participants and among those who had more excess weight. Motivation regarding the increase in social desirability by weight loss is in association with body dissatisfaction, health related motivation is in association with the number of treated illnesses. Our results are contributing to the understanding of motivational factors behind weight reduction efforts, considering these can improve treatment success rates. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(49): 1960-1967.

  9. Weight-loss medicines

    MedlinePlus

    Prescription weight loss drugs; Diabetes - weight loss drugs; Obesity - weight loss drugs; Overweight - weight loss drugs ... DH, et al.; Endocrine Society. Pharmacological management of obesity: an endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin ...

  10. An analysis of popular weight loss diet types in relation to metabolic syndrome therapeutic guidelines.

    PubMed

    McClendon, Deborah A; Dunbar, Sandra B; Clark, Patricia C; Coverson, Dorothy L

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (Met-S) makes a significant contribution to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In this article, clinical manifestations of Met-S are reviewed clinical interventions to treat the condition are discussed, and five popular diet plans are compared for their appropriateness relative to syndrome therapeutic guidelines.

  11. Resistant starch and energy balance: impact on weight loss and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Janine A

    2014-01-01

    The obesity epidemic has prompted researchers to find effective weight-loss and maintenance tools. Weight loss and subsequent maintenance are reliant on energy balance--the net difference between energy intake and energy expenditure. Negative energy balance, lower intake than expenditure, results in weight loss whereas positive energy balance, greater intake than expenditure, results in weight gain. Resistant starch has many attributes, which could promote weight loss and/or maintenance including reduced postprandial insulinemia, increased release of gut satiety peptides, increased fat oxidation, lower fat storage in adipocytes, and preservation of lean body mass. Retention of lean body mass during weight loss or maintenance would prevent the decrease in basal metabolic rate and, therefore, the decrease in total energy expenditure, that occurs with weight loss. In addition, the fiber-like properties of resistant starch may increase the thermic effect of food, thereby increasing total energy expenditure. Due to its ability to increase fat oxidation and reduce fat storage in adipocytes, resistant starch has recently been promoted in the popular press as a "weight loss wonder food". This review focuses on data describing the effects of resistant starch on body weight, energy intake, energy expenditure, and body composition to determine if there is sufficient evidence to warrant these claims.

  12. Quality of diet plans for weight loss featured in women's magazines. A cross-sectional descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Martinighi, Maiara; Koga da Silva, Edina Mariko

    2017-01-01

    Brazil has the fifth largest population of obese individuals in the world. Women's magazines publish a large number of diet plans, and therefore the objective of this study was to assess the quality of these plans. Cross-sectional descriptive study. We included the Brazilian women's magazines of highest circulation published between January and June 2014 that advertised diets for weight loss on their covers. We extracted the quantities of macro and micronutrients from each of these diet plans and compared these quantities with the World Health Organization nutritional guidelines for adult women. We also checked the total energy quantities of these plans, and any recommendations about water intake and physical activity. We identified 136 potentially eligible magazine issues; 41 were excluded and 95 issues of 6 different magazines were included in the study. We found that 83.1 % of the plans had carbohydrate and fiber levels below the recommendations. On the other hand, the protein and saturated fatty acid levels were above the recommendations in 97.8% and 95.7% of the plans, respectively; 75.7% of the diets had inadequate calcium levels and 70.5% had low iron levels. Only 30 plans specified the total daily quantity of dietary energy and in 53.3% of these, the information was inconsistent with our estimates; 20% of the plans had no recommendations on daily water intake and 37.5% did not give recommendations regarding physical activity practices. The diet plans for weight loss featured in Brazilian women's magazines are of low quality.

  13. Weight Loss Strategies Utilized in a Men's Weight Loss Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Melissa M.; Lutes, Lesley D.; Sherwood, Nancy E.; Ward, Dianne S.; Tate, Deborah F.

    2018-01-01

    Men are underrepresented in weight loss programs and little is currently known about the weight loss strategies men prefer. This study describes the weight loss strategies used by men during a men-only weight loss program. At baseline, 3 months, and 6 months, participants reported how frequently they used 45 weight loss strategies including…

  14. Plants popularly used for loosing weight purposes in Porto Alegre, South Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dickel, Michele Luciane; Rates, Stela Maris Kuze; Ritter, Mara Rejane

    2007-01-03

    In this study, 14 herbalists (herb sellers) were interviewed about popular use of plants with weight loss purpose in Porto Alegre, a South Brazil city. For all identified species, scientific data were reviewed aiming to establish a correlation between popular use and biological properties. Seventy-eight samples were reported as having weigh loss properties. These samples come from 23 species and Asteraceae encompasses the greatest number of representatives. The greatest number of herbalist's citations was Baccharis articulata. The majority of plants have traditional use in Brazil but none is explicitly cited for loosing weight purposes. The pharmacological data are mainly from animal and in vitro studies and do not straight related to obesity. Only Ilex paraguariensis presents clinical data of efficacy in the treatment of obesity. Seven species present pre-clinical data that indicate a potential role in the control of certain conditions which are associated with obesity, such as hyperlipidemia (Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Cuphea carthagenensis, Cynara scolymus, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Ilex paraguariensis) and high levels of blood glucose (Achyrocline satureioides, Baccharis trimera, Campomanesia xanthocarpa). In conclusion, scientific data found are insufficient to guarantee the efficacy and safety of these plants for treating obesity. However, some of them present activities which could be useful to treat certain obesity comorbidities and deserve further studies.

  15. Plastic surgery after weight loss: current concepts in massive weight loss surgery.

    PubMed

    Gusenoff, Jeffrey A; Rubin, J Peter

    2008-01-01

    The authors begin their discussion of current concepts in massive weight loss (MWL) surgery by offering terminological guidelines that help define reconstructive and aesthetic concepts and procedures for the post-MWL patient. Measures for effective preoperative nutritional and metabolic screening include assessment of weight fluctuations over time, constitutional symptoms, and medications and nutritional supplements. Although there is no established body-mass index (BMI) threshold above which surgery should be refused, higher BMIs have been associated with increased complications. Residual medical problems and psychosocial issues require assessment before surgery, with appropriate specialist consultation as necessary. Consultation with patients concerning the different expectations for functional versus aesthetic procedures and issues such as postoperative scarring and the common incidence of wound healing problems is essential. Patient safety is paramount in decisions to combine multiple procedures and plan stages. The authors often recommend combining abdominoplasty and mastopexy. Surgeon experience, operative setting, and a patient's medical status are factors which influence how much surgery should be performed in the same operative setting. Centers of Excellence in body contouring that provide a team approach combining comprehensive patient evaluation, outcomes research, and surgical training may be the optimal approach for treating the massive weight loss patient.

  16. Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis due to dietary weight-loss supplement.

    PubMed

    Akinyemi, Emmanuel; Bercovici, Silvia; Niranjan, Selvanayagam; Paul, Nisha; Hemavathy, Bhakthavatsalam

    2011-05-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements for weight loss and in treatment of obesity are growing in popularity and acceptance in the United States. Most of these supplements can be obtained over the counter and can have serious adverse effects associated with their consumption. We describe 2 patients who developed thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis 2-3 weeks after consuming thyroxine-containing weight-loss supplements. This is the first known case of thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis secondary to dietary supplements. It is important that patients and physicians are aware of the severe adverse reactions associated with dietary supplements. Physicians should as a routine inquire about herbal and dietary supplement consumption during all patient encounters.

  17. Goal setting: Eating, Physical activity & Weight loss

    Cancer.gov

    No matter what your weight loss goal is, the key to reaching your goals is to make changes to your lifestyle behaviors like eating and physical activity. This involves setting realistic expectations and making a plan.

  18. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious medical problems. Weight loss surgery (also called bariatric surgery) can help very obese people lose weight. But ... Gastric banding is the simplest of the three weight loss surgeries. People who get it might not lose as ...

  19. Blogging for weight loss: personal accountability, writing selves, and the weight-loss blogosphere.

    PubMed

    Leggatt-Cook, Chez; Chamberlain, Kerry

    2012-09-01

    Body weight is a key concern in contemporary society, with large proportions of the population attempting to control their weight. However, losing weight and maintaining weight loss is notoriously difficult, and new strategies for weight loss attract significant interest. Writing about experiences of weight loss in online journals, or blogging, has recently expanded rapidly. Weight-loss bloggers typically write about daily successes and failures, report calorie consumption and exercise output, and post photographs of their changing bodies. Many bloggers openly court the surveillance of blog readers as a motivation for accountability to their weight-loss goals. Drawing from a sample of weight-loss blogs authored by women, we explore three issues arising from this practice of disclosing a conventionally private activity within an online public domain. First, we examine motivations for blogging, focusing on accountability. Secondly, we consider the online construction of self, exploring how weight-loss bloggers negotiate discourses around fatness, and rework selves as their bodies transform. Finally, we consider the communities of interest that form around weight-loss blogs. This 'blogosphere' provides mutual support for weight loss. However, participating in online social spaces is complicated and bloggers must carefully manage issues of privacy and disclosure. © 2011 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Mediators of weight loss and weight loss maintenance in middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Pedro J; Silva, Marlene N; Coutinho, Sílvia R; Palmeira, António L; Mata, Jutta; Vieira, Paulo N; Carraça, Eliana V; Santos, Teresa C; Sardinha, Luís B

    2010-04-01

    Long-term behavioral self-regulation is the hallmark of successful weight control. We tested mediators of weight loss and weight loss maintenance in middle-aged women who participated in a randomized controlled 12-month weight management intervention. Overweight and obese women (N = 225, BMI = 31.3 +/- 4.1 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to a control or a 1-year group intervention designed to promote autonomous self-regulation of body weight. Key exercise, eating behavior, and body image variables were assessed before and after the program, and tested as mediators of weight loss (12 months, 86% retention) and weight loss maintenance (24 months, 81% retention). Multiple mediation was employed and an intention-to-treat analysis conducted. Treatment effects were observed for all putative mediators (Effect size: 0.32-0.79, P < 0.01 vs. controls). Weight change was -7.3 +/- 5.9% (12-month) and -5.5 +/- 5.0% (24-month) in the intervention group and -1.7 +/- 5.0% and -2.2 +/- 7.5% in controls. Change in most psychosocial variables was associated with 12-month weight change, but only flexible cognitive restraint (P < 0.01), disinhibition (P < 0.05), exercise self-efficacy (P < 0.001), exercise intrinsic motivation (P < 0.01), and body dissatisfaction (P < 0.05) predicted 24-month weight change. Lower emotional eating, increased flexible cognitive restraint, and fewer exercise barriers mediated 12-month weight loss (R(2) = 0.31, P < 0.001; effect ratio: 0.37), but only flexible restraint and exercise self-efficacy mediated 24-month weight loss (R(2) = 0.17, P < 0.001; effect ratio: 0.89). This is the first study to evaluate self-regulation mediators of weight loss and 2-year weight loss maintenance, in a large sample of overweight women. Results show that lowering emotional eating and adopting a flexible dietary restraint pattern are critical for sustained weight loss. For long-term success, interventions must also be effective in promoting exercise intrinsic motivation and

  1. Diet for rapid weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... loss - rapid weight loss; Overweight - rapid weight loss; Obesity - rapid weight loss; Diet - rapid weight loss ... for people who have health problems because of obesity. For these people, losing a lot of weight ...

  2. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    MedlinePlus

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  3. Weight-ing: the experience of waiting on weight loss.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Nicole M

    2013-03-01

    Perhaps we want to be perfect, strive for health, beauty, and the admiring gaze of others. Maybe we desire the body of our youth, the "healthy" body, the body that has just the right fit. Regardless of the motivation, we might find ourselves striving, wanting, and waiting on weight loss. What is it to wait on weight loss? I explore the meaning of this experience-as-lived using van Manen's guide to phenomenological reflection and writing. Weight has become an increasing focus of contemporary culture, demonstrated, for example, by a growing weight-loss industry and global obesity "epidemic." Weight has become synonymous with health status, and weight loss with "healthier." I examine the weight wait through experiences of the common and uncommon, considering relations to time, body, space, and the other with the aim of evoking a felt, embodied, emotive understanding of the meaning of waiting on weight loss. I also discuss the implications of the findings.

  4. Clozapine-associated weight loss.

    PubMed

    Hanwella, R; de Silva, V; Wijeratne, C; Ketharanathan, T; de Silva, J

    2010-07-01

    Clozapine is associated with weight gain. We report three patients with substantial weight loss following treatment with clozapine. The weight loss observed in the three patients was 33, 18 and 14.4 kg with percentage loss of body weight of 49, 18 and 21 respectively. Two patients had diabetes mellitus. History, physical examination and extensive investigations in the three patients did not reveal any cause that could account for the weight loss.

  5. Pounds Off Digitally study: a randomized podcasting weight-loss intervention.

    PubMed

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Campbell, Marci K; Tate, Deborah F; Truesdale, Kimberly P; Bowling, J Michael; Crosby, Lelia

    2009-10-01

    As obesity rates rise, new weight-loss methods are needed. Little is known about the use of podcasting (audio files for a portable music player or computer) to promote weight loss, despite its growing popularity. A 12-week RCT was conducted. The study sample comprised overweight men and women (BMI=25-40 kg/m(2); n=78) in the Raleigh-Durham NC area. In 2008, participants were randomly assigned to receive 24 episodes of a currently available weight-loss podcast (control podcast) or a weight-loss podcast based on social cognitive theory (SCT) designed by the researchers (enhanced podcast) for 12 weeks. Weight was measured on a digital scale at baseline and follow-up. Both groups also completed questionnaires assessing demographic information, food intake, physical activity, and SCT constructs at the introductory and 12-week meetings. Additional questionnaires at the 12-week meeting assessed perceptions of the intervention. Data collection and analysis occurred in 2008 and intention-to-treat was used. Enhanced group participants (n=41) had a greater decrease in weight (-2.9+/-3.5 kg enhanced group vs -0.3+/-2.1 control group; p<0.001 between groups) and BMI (-1.0+/-1.2 kg/m(2) enhanced group vs -0.1+/-0.7 kg/m(2) control group; p<0.001 between groups) than the control group (n=37) and had greater weight-loss-related knowledge (p<0.05), elaboration (p<0.001), and user control (p<0.001) and less cognitive load (p<0.001). The results of this study suggest that the use of behavioral, theory-based podcasting may be an effective way to promote weight loss. NCT00771095.

  6. Insights From Google Play Store User Reviews for the Development of Weight Loss Apps: Mixed-Method Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Jebb, Susan; Albury, Charlotte; Nourse, Rebecca; Aveyard, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background Significant weight loss takes several months to achieve, and behavioral support can enhance weight loss success. Weight loss apps could provide ongoing support and deliver innovative interventions, but to do so, developers must ensure user satisfaction. Objective The aim of this study was to conduct a review of Google Play Store apps to explore what users like and dislike about weight loss and weight-tracking apps and to examine qualitative feedback through analysis of user reviews. Methods The Google Play Store was searched and screened for weight loss apps using the search terms weight loss and weight track*, resulting in 179 mobile apps. A content analysis was conducted based on the Oxford Food and Activity Behaviors taxonomy. Correlational analyses were used to assess the association between complexity of mobile health (mHealth) apps and popularity indicators. The sample was then screened for popular apps that primarily focus on weight-tracking. For the resulting subset of 15 weight-tracking apps, 569 user reviews were sampled from the Google Play Store. Framework and thematic analysis of user reviews was conducted to assess which features users valued and how design influenced users’ responses. Results The complexity (number of components) of weight loss apps was significantly positively correlated with the rating (r=.25; P=.001), number of reviews (r=.28; P<.001), and number of downloads (r=.48; P<.001) of the app. In contrast, in the qualitative analysis of weight-tracking apps, users expressed preference for simplicity and ease of use. In addition, we found that positive reinforcement through detailed feedback fostered users’ motivation for further weight loss. Smooth functioning and reliable data storage emerged as critical prerequisites for long-term app usage. Conclusions Users of weight-tracking apps valued simplicity, whereas users of comprehensive weight loss apps appreciated availability of more features, indicating that complexity

  7. Weight loss through dehydration in amateur wrestling.

    PubMed

    Yarrows, S A

    1988-04-01

    The desire of the intense, highly competitive athlete to alter body weight without medical supervision commonly results in ineffective, hazardous, and counterproductive abuses that may often endanger health and may affect final growth potential in young wrestlers. Corrective nutrition practices are critical for the endurance athlete to train, compete, and avoid injuries effectively. The best preventive measure may be the education of wrestlers, parents, and coaches about the consequences of rapid and extreme weight loss and the significant role nutrition plays in successful training and competition for the endurance athlete, fluid replacement being a key concern. For as long as wrestlers are required to compete in different weight categories, the popular practice of competing at the lowest possible weight will probably continue. The best course of action nutrition professionals can take is to become acutely aware of the unique nutritional concerns of these athletes in order to make this practice as safe as possible.

  8. Arrhythmogenicity of weight-loss supplements marketed on the Internet.

    PubMed

    Nazeri, Alireza; Massumi, Ali; Wilson, James M; Frank, Christopher M; Bensler, Michael; Cheng, Jie; Saeed, Mohammad; Rasekh, Abdi; Razavi, Mehdi

    2009-05-01

    We examined nonprescription weight-loss supplements marketed on the Internet for ingredients with potential arrhythmogenic and life-threatening cardiac adverse effects. We aimed to define the risks of life-threatening cardiac adverse effects that are associated with weight-loss supplements marketed on the Internet. We entered the key words "weight-loss supplements" and "diet pills" into three popular Internet search engines. The top four nonoverlapping hits from each search engine were purchased. After receipt, the products and their ingredient lists were inspected, and Medline and the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database were searched for reports of significant associations between each ingredient and various key words for life-threatening cardiac adverse effects. All supplements had the list of ingredients on the label. We identified 60 different ingredients (7.25 +/- 4.66 per supplement; range 1-21). Eleven ingredients representing eight different substances (because multiple names were used for some substances) were each associated with two or more reports of life-threatening cardiac complications or death. Eight of the 12 products contained one or more such ingredients, but none of these eight products had warnings about life-threatening cardiac adverse effects on the Web pages, on the labels, or in the package inserts. One product contained ma huang (Chinese ephedra), even though the marketing of ephedra-containing products is banned in the United States. The Internet provides easy access to weight-loss supplements, several of which contain ingredients with potentially life-threatening adverse effects. There is a need for increased public education and awareness regarding such weight-loss products.

  9. Body composition changes after weight-loss interventions for overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Santarpia, Lidia; Contaldo, Franco; Pasanisi, Fabrizio

    2013-04-01

    Weight-loss interventions to correct overweight and obesity are very popular but often inappropriate and unsuccessful. In this review we evaluated studies on body composition changes during and after different medical and surgical interventions aimed at achieving stable weight loss in overweight and obese individuals. Most of the available literature and good clinical practice observations deal mainly with post-menopausal overweight and obese women, and, to a lesser extent adolescents and elderly, female and male, populations. These studies suggest that weight-loss maintenance interventions should have greater consideration and priority than simple weight-loss treatments. At a long term follow up (over one year), relatively high protein, moderately low calorie, low glycemic index diets, associated with a daily, moderate intensity, physical exercise (of at least 30 min), appear to be more successful in limiting long term relapse, maintaining fat free mass and achieving the highest fat loss. Diet alone or physical exercise alone does not produce similar results. Health professional training and practice also appear a challenging target. Adequate dietetic advice plus regular physical exercise avoid the fat-free-mass loss usually observed in the relapse of the weight cycling syndrome and prevent the onset of sarcopenic obesity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  10. Behavioral Weight Loss Treatment in Antipsychotic Treated Youth.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Ginger E; Kolko, Rachel P; Mills, Monica; Gunnarsdottir, Thrudur; Yingling, Michael D; Schweiger, Julia A; Lenze, Eric J; Newcomer, John W; Wilfley, Denise

    2016-05-01

    Antipsychotic-treated youth have increased risk for the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Behavioral weight loss treatments show promise in reducing obesity and diabetes risk in antipsychotic treated adults, but have received no study in antipsychotic treated youth. We describe a rationale for behavioral weight loss interventions in high-weight antipsychotic treated youth, and report behavioral, anthropomorphic, and metabolic findings from a case series of obese antipsychotic-treated adolescents participating in a short-term, family-based behavioral weight loss intervention. We adapted the Traffic Light Plan, a 16-week family-based weight loss intervention that promotes healthy energy balance using the colors of the traffic light to categorize the nutritional value of foods and intensity of physical activity, adapting a social ecological framework to address health behavior change in multiple social contexts. The intervention was administered to three obese adolescents with long-term antipsychotic medication exposure. Efficacy of the intervention was evaluated with a battery of anthropomorphic and metabolic assessments including weight, body mass index percentile, whole body adiposity, liver fat content, and fasting plasma glucose and lipids. Participants and their parents also filled out a treatment satisfaction questionnaire upon study completion. Two males and 1 female (all aged 14 years) participated. All 3 participants attended all 16 sessions, and experienced beneficial changes in adiposity, fasting lipids and liver fat content associated with weight stabilization or weight loss. Adolescents and their parents all reported a high level of satisfaction with the treatment. Family-based behavioral weight loss treatment can be feasibly delivered and is acceptable to antipsychotic-treated youth and their families. Randomized controlled trials are needed to fully evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of behavioral weight loss interventions in

  11. Brain function predictors and outcome of weight loss and weight loss maintenance.

    PubMed

    Szabo-Reed, Amanda N; Breslin, Florence J; Lynch, Anthony M; Patrician, Trisha M; Martin, Laura E; Lepping, Rebecca J; Powell, Joshua N; Yeh, Hung-Wen Henry; Befort, Christie A; Sullivan, Debra; Gibson, Cheryl; Washburn, Richard; Donnelly, Joseph E; Savage, Cary R

    2015-01-01

    Obesity rates are associated with public health consequences and rising health care costs. Weight loss interventions, while effective, do not work for everyone, and weight regain is a significant problem. Eating behavior is influenced by a convergence of processes in the brain, including homeostatic factors and motivational processing that are important contributors to overeating. Initial neuroimaging studies have identified brain regions that respond differently to visual food cues in obese and healthy weight individuals that are positively correlated with reports of hunger in obese participants. While these findings provide mechanisms of overeating, many important questions remain. It is not known whether brain activation patterns change after weight loss, or if they change differentially based on amount of weight lost. Also, little is understood regarding biological processes that contribute to long-term weight maintenance. This study will use neuroimaging in participants while viewing food and non-food images. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging will take place before and after completion of a twelve-week weight loss intervention. Obese participants will be followed though a 6-month maintenance period. The study will address three aims: 1. Characterize brain activation underlying food motivation and impulsive behaviors in obese individuals. 2. Identify brain activation changes and predictors of weight loss. 3. Identify brain activation predictors of weight loss maintenance. Findings from this study will have implications for understanding mechanisms of obesity, weight loss, and weight maintenance. Results will be significant to public health and could lead to a better understanding of how differences in brain activation relate to obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Brain function predictors and outcome of weight loss and weight loss maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Szabo-Reed, Amanda N.; Breslin, Florence J.; Lynch, Anthony M.; Patrician, Trisha M.; Martin, Laura E.; Lepping, Rebecca J.; Powell, Joshua N.; Yeh, Hung-Wen (Henry); Befort, Christie A.; Sullivan, Debra; Gibson, Cheryl; Washburn, Richard; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Savage, Cary R.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity rates are associated with public health consequences and rising health care costs. Weight loss interventions, while effective, do not work for everyone, and weight regain is a significant problem. Eating behavior is influenced by a convergence of processes in the brain, including homeostatic factors and motivational processing that are important contributors to overeating. Initial neuroimaging studies have identified brain regions that respond differently to visual food cues in obese and healthy weight individuals that are positively correlated with reports of hunger in obese participants. While these findings provide mechanisms of overeating, many important questions remain. It is not known whether brain activation patterns change after weight loss, or if they change differentially based on amount of weight lost. Also, little is understood regarding biological processes that contribute to long-term weight maintenance. This study will use neuroimaging in participants while viewing food and non-food images. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging will take place before and after completion of a twelve-week weight loss intervention. Obese participants will be followed though a 6-month maintenance period. The study will address three aims: 1. Characterize brain activation underlying food motivation and impulsive behaviors in obese individuals. 2. Identify brain activation changes and predictors of weight loss. 3. Identify brain activation predictors of weight loss maintenance. Findings from this study will have implications for understanding mechanisms of obesity, weight loss, and weight maintenance. Results will be significant to public health and could lead to a better understanding of how differences in brain activation relate to obesity. PMID:25533729

  13. Does Spirituality Predict Weight Loss In A Behavioral Weight Loss Program?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    SPIRITUALfl 1 A ~~D WEIGHT LOSS APPROVAL SHEET Title of Thesis: "Does Spirituality Predict Weight Loss in a Behavioral Weight Loss Program 7" Name...notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does...not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND

  14. Mechanisms of Weight Regain following Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Blomain, Erik Scott; Dirhan, Dara Anne; Valentino, Michael Anthony; Kim, Gilbert Won; Waldman, Scott Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a world-wide pandemic and its incidence is on the rise along with associated comorbidities. Currently, there are few effective therapies to combat obesity. The use of lifestyle modification therapy, namely, improvements in diet and exercise, is preferable over bariatric surgery or pharmacotherapy due to surgical risks and issues with drug efficacy and safety. Although they are initially successful in producing weight loss, such lifestyle intervention strategies are generally unsuccessful in achieving long-term weight maintenance, with the vast majority of obese patients regaining their lost weight during followup. Recently, various compensatory mechanisms have been elucidated by which the body may oppose new weight loss, and this compensation may result in weight regain back to the obese baseline. The present review summarizes the available evidence on these compensatory mechanisms, with a focus on weight loss-induced changes in energy expenditure, neuroendocrine pathways, nutrient metabolism, and gut physiology. These findings have added a major focus to the field of antiobesity research. In addition to investigating pathways that induce weight loss, the present work also focuses on pathways that may instead prevent weight regain. Such strategies will be necessary for improving long-term weight loss maintenance and outcomes for patients who struggle with obesity.

  15. Does bone loss begin after weight loss ends? Results 2 years after weight loss or regain in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Von Thun, Nancy L; Sukumar, Deeptha; Heymsfield, Steven B; Shapses, Sue A

    2014-05-01

    Short-term weight loss is accompanied by bone loss in postmenopausal women. The longer-term impact of weight loss on bone in reduced overweight/obese women compared with women who regained their weight was examined in this study using a case-control design. Postmenopausal women (N = 42; mean [SD] body mass index, 28.3 [2.8] kg/m; mean [SD] age, 60.7 [5.5] y) were recruited 2 years after the start of a 6-month weight loss trial; those who maintained their weight (weight loss maintainer [WL-M] group) were matched to a cohort of women who regained their weight (weight loss regainer [WL-R] group). Serum hormones and bone markers were measured in a subset. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck, trochanter, spine, radius, and total body, and soft-tissue composition were taken at baseline, 0.5 years, and 2 years. During weight loss, both groups lost 9.3% (3.4%) of body weight, with no significant difference between the groups. After weight loss, weight change was -0.1% (2.7%) and 6.0% (3.3%) in the WL-M (n = 22) and WL-R (n = 20) groups, respectively. After 2 years, both groups lost BMD at the femoral neck and trochanter (P ≤ 0.01), whereas only the WL-M group reduced BMD at the 1/3 radius (P < 0.001). There was greater BMD loss at the trochanter (-6.8% [5.7%]) and 1/3 radius (-4.5% [3.3%]) in the WL-M group compared with the WL-R group after 2 years. Multiple linear regression showed that change in leg fat mass (but not trunk fat) contributed to trochanter BMD loss (P < 0.05). After 2 years, there is no BMD recovery of weight reduction-induced bone loss, irrespective of weight regain. These data suggest that the period after weight loss may be an important point in time to prevent bone loss for those who maintain weight and those who regain weight.

  16. Overweight, Obesity, and Weight Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Back to section menu Healthy Weight Weight and obesity Underweight Weight, fertility, and pregnancy Weight loss and ... section Home Healthy Weight Healthy Weight Weight and obesity Underweight Weight, fertility, and pregnancy Weight loss and ...

  17. Recruitment and Retention for a Weight Loss Maintenance Trial Involving Weight Loss Prior to Randomization

    PubMed Central

    Grubber, J. M.; McVay, M. A.; Olsen, M. K.; Bolton, J.; Gierisch, J. M.; Taylor, S. S.; Maciejewski, M. L.; Yancy, W. S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective A weight loss maintenance trial involving weight loss prior to randomization is challenging to implement due to the potential for dropout and insufficient weight loss. We examined rates and correlates of non‐initiation, dropout, and insufficient weight loss during a weight loss maintenance trial. Methods The MAINTAIN trial involved a 16‐week weight loss program followed by randomization among participants losing at least 4 kg. Psychosocial measures were administered during a screening visit. Weight was obtained at the first group session and 16 weeks later to determine eligibility for randomization. Results Of 573 patients who screened as eligible, 69 failed to initiate the weight loss program. In adjusted analyses, failure to initiate was associated with lower age, lack of a support person, and less encouragement for making dietary changes. Among participants who initiated, 200 dropped out, 82 lost insufficient weight, and 222 lost sufficient weight for randomization. Compared to losing sufficient weight, dropping out was associated with younger age and tobacco use, whereas losing insufficient weight was associated with non‐White race and controlled motivation for physical activity. Conclusions Studies should be conducted to evaluate strategies to maximize recruitment and retention of subgroups that are less likely to initiate and be retained in weight loss maintenance trials. PMID:28090340

  18. Who succeeds in maintaining weight loss? A conceptual review of factors associated with weight loss maintenance and weight regain.

    PubMed

    Elfhag, K; Rössner, S

    2005-02-01

    Weight loss is difficult to achieve and maintaining the weight loss is an even greater challenge. The identification of factors associated with weight loss maintenance can enhance our understanding for the behaviours and prerequisites that are crucial in sustaining a lowered body weight. In this paper we have reviewed the literature on factors associated with weight loss maintenance and weight regain. We have used a definition of weight maintenance implying intentional weight loss that has subsequently been maintained for at least 6 months. According to our review, successful weight maintenance is associated with more initial weight loss, reaching a self-determined goal weight, having a physically active lifestyle, a regular meal rhythm including breakfast and healthier eating, control of over-eating and self-monitoring of behaviours. Weight maintenance is further associated with an internal motivation to lose weight, social support, better coping strategies and ability to handle life stress, self-efficacy, autonomy, assuming responsibility in life, and overall more psychological strength and stability. Factors that may pose a risk for weight regain include a history of weight cycling, disinhibited eating, binge eating, more hunger, eating in response to negative emotions and stress, and more passive reactions to problems.

  19. Emotional eating is associated with weight loss success among adults enrolled in a weight loss program.

    PubMed

    Braden, Abby; Flatt, Shirley W; Boutelle, Kerri N; Strong, David; Sherwood, Nancy E; Rock, Cheryl L

    2016-08-01

    To examine associations between decreased emotional eating and weight loss success; and whether participation in a behavioral weight loss intervention was associated with a greater reduction in emotional eating over time compared to usual care. Secondary data analysis of a randomized controlled trial conducted at two university medical centers with 227 overweight adults with diabetes. Logistic and standard regression analyses examined associations between emotional eating change and weight loss success (i.e., weight loss of ≥7 % of body weight and decrease in BMI). After 6 months of intervention, decreased emotional eating was associated with greater odds of weight loss success (p = .05). The odds of weight loss success for subjects with decreased emotional eating at 12 months were 1.70 times higher than for subjects with increased emotional eating. No differences in change in emotional eating were found between subjects in the behavioral weight loss intervention and usual care. Strategies to reduce emotional eating may be useful to promote greater weight loss among overweight adults with diabetes.

  20. Expectations for Weight Loss and Willingness to Accept Risk Among Patients Seeking Weight Loss Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Christina C.; Hamel, Mary Beth; Apovian, Caroline M.; Blackburn, George L.; Bolcic-Jankovic, Dragana; Colten, Mary Ellen; Hess, Donald T.; Huskey, Karen W.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Schneider, Benjamin E.; Jones, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Weight loss surgery (WLS) has been shown to produce long-term weight loss but is not risk free or universally effective. The weight loss expectations and willingness to undergo perioperative risk among patients seeking WLS remain unknown. Objectives To examine the expectations and motivations of WLS patients and the mortality risks they are willing to undertake and to explore the demographic characteristics, clinical factors, and patient perceptions associated with high weight loss expectations and willingness to assume high surgical risk. Design We interviewed patients seeking WLS and conducted multivariable analyses to examine the characteristics associated with high weight loss expectations and the acceptance of mortality risks of 10% or higher. Setting Two WLS centers in Boston. Participants Six hundred fifty-four patients. Main Outcome Measures Disappointment with a sustained weight loss of 20% and willingness to accept a mortality risk of 10% or higher with WLS. Results On average, patients expected to lose as much as 38% of their weight after WLS and expressed disappointment if they did not lose at least 26%. Most patients (84.8%) accepted some risk of dying to undergo WLS, but only 57.5% were willing to undergo a hypothetical treatment that produced a 20% weight loss. The mean acceptable mortality risk to undergo WLS was 6.7%, but the median risk was only 0.1%; 19.5% of all patients were willing to accept a risk of at least 10%. Women were more likely than men to be disappointed with a 20% weight loss but were less likely to accept high mortality risk. After initial adjustment, white patients appeared more likely than African American patients to have high weight loss expectations and to be willing to accept high risk. Patients with lower quality-of-life scores and those who perceived needing to lose more than 10% and 20% of weight to achieve “any” health benefits were more likely to have unrealistic weight loss expectations. Low quality

  1. Hypnotherapy in Weight Loss Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Gordon; Friesen, John

    1986-01-01

    Investigated effects of hypnosis as a treatment for weight loss among women. The primary hypothesis that hypnosis is an effective treatment for weight loss was confirmed, but seven concomitant variables and the use of audiotapes were not significant contributors to weight loss. (Author/ABB)

  2. Increase the success of weight loss programs by creating an environment for change.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Julie

    2010-12-01

    Veterinary professionals frequently recommend weight loss programs for pets, but success is often elusive. By learning techniques to assess clients' readiness for change, the veterinary team can apply communication tools and strategies to help clients overcome obstacles and barriers to sustainable change. With a better assessment of a client's ability to change, a weight loss plan can be implemented at the right time in the right way to achieve better adherence to the agreed-upon plan and improve patient health.

  3. Does bone loss begin after weight loss ends? Results two years after weight loss or regain in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Von Thun, Nancy L.; Sukumar, Deeptha; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Shapses, Sue A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Short-term weight loss is accompanied by bone loss in postmenopausal women. The longer-term impact on bone in the reduced overweight/obese woman compared to those who regain their weight was examined in this study using a case-control design. Methods Postmenopausal women (n = 42, body mass index of 28.3 ± 2.8 kg/m2; 60.7 ± 5.5 y) were recruited 2 years after the start of a 6 month weight loss trial and those who maintained their weight (WL-M) were matched to a cohort who regained weight (WL-R). Serum hormones and bone markers were measured in a subset. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck (FN), trochanter, spine, radius, and total body and soft tissue composition were taken at baseline, 0.5 and 2 years. Results During WL, both groups lost 9.3 ± 3.4% body weight with no significant difference between groups. After weight loss, weight change was −0.1 ± 2.7 % and 6.0 ± 3.3% in the WL-M (n=22) and WL-R (n=20) groups, respectively. After 2 years, both groups lost BMD at the FN and trochanter (p ≤ 0.01), whereas only the WL-M group reduced BMD at the 1/3 radius (p < 0.001). There was a greater BMD loss at the trochanter (−6.8 ± 5.7%) and the 1/3 radius (−4.5 ± 3.3%) in the WL-M compared to the WL-R group after 2 years. Multiple linear regression showed that change in leg fat mass (but not trunk fat) contributed to trochanter BMD loss (p <0.05). Conclusions After 2 years, there is no BMD recovery of weight reduction-induced bone loss, irrespective of weight-regain. These data suggest that the period after weight loss may be an important point in time to prevent bone loss for both those who maintain or regain weight. PMID:24149920

  4. Weight loss and bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Gary R; Plaisance, Eric P; Fisher, Gordon

    2014-10-01

    Despite evidence that energy deficit produces multiple physiological and metabolic benefits, clinicians are often reluctant to prescribe weight loss in older individuals or those with low bone mineral density (BMD), fearing BMD will be decreased. Confusion exists concerning the effects that weight loss has on bone health. Bone density is more closely associated with lean mass than total body mass and fat mass. Although rapid or large weight loss is often associated with loss of bone density, slower or smaller weight loss is much less apt to adversely affect BMD, especially when it is accompanied with high intensity resistance and/or impact loading training. Maintenance of calcium and vitamin D intake seems to positively affect BMD during weight loss. Although dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is normally used to evaluate bone density, it may overestimate BMD loss following massive weight loss. Volumetric quantitative computed tomography may be more accurate for tracking bone density changes following large weight loss. Moderate weight loss does not necessarily compromise bone health, especially when exercise training is involved. Training strategies that include heavy resistance training and high impact loading that occur with jump training may be especially productive in maintaining, or even increasing bone density with weight loss.

  5. Acute liver injury following Garcinia cambogia weight-loss supplementation: case series and literature review.

    PubMed

    Crescioli, Giada; Lombardi, Niccolò; Bettiol, Alessandra; Marconi, Ettore; Risaliti, Filippo; Bertoni, Michele; Menniti Ippolito, Francesca; Maggini, Valentina; Gallo, Eugenia; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Vannacci, Alfredo

    2018-05-25

    Herbal weight-loss supplements are sold as self-medication products, and are often used under the misconception that their natural origin guarantees their safety. Food supplements are not required to provide any benefit/risk profile evaluation before marketing; however, possible risks associated with use of herbal extracts in food supplements are becoming more and more documented in the literature. Some herbs are listed as the leading cause of herb-induced liver injury, with a severe or potentially lethal clinical course, and unpredictable herb-drug interactions. Garcinia cambogia (GC) extract and GC-containing products are some of the most popular dietary supplements currently marketed for weight loss. Here, we present four cases of acute liver failure in women taking GC extract for weight loss, and a literature review of clinical evidences about hepatic toxicity in patients taking dietary supplements containing GC extract.

  6. Weight loss and retention in a commercial weight-loss program and the effect of corporate partnership.

    PubMed

    Martin, C K; Talamini, L; Johnson, A; Hymel, A M; Khavjou, O

    2010-04-01

    No studies report whether improvements to commercial weight-loss programs affect retention and weight loss. Similarly, no studies report whether enrolling in a program through work (with a corporate partner) affects retention and weight loss. To determine whether: (1) adding evidence-based improvements to a commercial weight-loss program increased retention and weight loss, (2) enrolling in a program through work increased retention and weight loss and (3) whether increased weight loss was because of longer retention. Data were collected on 60 164 adults who enrolled in Jenny Craig's Platinum Program over 1 year in 2001-2002. The program was subsequently renamed the Rewards Program and improved by increasing treatment personalization and including motivational interviewing. Data were then collected on 81 505 participants of the Rewards Program who enrolled during 2005 (2418 of these participants enrolled through their employer, but paid out-of-pocket). Retention (participants were considered active until >or=42 consecutive days were missed) and weight loss (percent of original body weight) from baseline to the last visit (data were evaluated through week 52) were determined. Alpha was set at 0.001. Mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) retention (weeks) was significantly higher among Rewards (19.5 (19.4-19.6)) compared with Platinum (16.3 (16.2-16.4)) participants, and Rewards Corporate (25.9 (25.0-26.8)) compared with Noncorporate (21.9 (21.7-22.1)) participants. Modified intent-to-treat analyses indicated that mean (95% CI) percent weight loss was significantly larger among Rewards (6.36 (6.32-6.40)) compared with Platinum (5.45 (5.41-5.49)) participants, and Rewards Corporate (7.16 (6.92-7.40)) compared with Noncorporate (6.20 (6.16-6.24)) participants, with and without adjustment for baseline participant characteristics. In all cases, greater weight loss was secondary to longer retention. The study was not a randomized controlled trial, rather, a translational

  7. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  8. Sex differences in the composition of weight gain and loss in overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Millward, D Joe; Truby, Helen; Fox, Kenneth R; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Macdonald, Ian A; Tothill, Peter

    2014-03-14

    Sex differences in the ratio of fat mass (FM):fat-free mass (FFM) during weight change should differentially affect the extent of weight change during energy imbalance in men and women. In the present study, we determined FM and FFM contents by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and calculated the P-ratios (protein energy/total energy) of excess weight and weight loss during a randomised controlled trial of four commercial weight loss regimens. Overweight and obese women (n 210) and men (n 77) were studied at baseline and at 2 and 6 months during weight loss on four dietary regimens: Dr Atkins' New Diet Revolution; The Slim-Fast Plan; Weight-Watchers programme; Rosemary Conley's Diet and Fitness Plan. At baseline, the percentage of FFM (%FFM) and P-ratios of excess weight were 40 % and 0·071 for men and 27 % and 0·039 for women. At 2 months, men had lost twice as much weight as women and three times more FFM than women, indicating higher FFM content and P-ratios of weight loss for men, 0·052, than for women, 0·029, with no dietary effects. Between 2 and 6 months, the rate at which weight was lost decreased and the %FFM of weight loss decreased to similar low levels in men (7 %) and women (5 %): i.e. P-ratios of 0·009 and 0·006, respectively, with no dietary effects. Thus, for men compared with women, there were greater FFM content and P-ratios of weight change, which could partly, but not completely, explain their greater weight loss at 2 months. However, protein-conserving adaptations occur with increasing weight loss and over time, more extensively in men, eventually eliminating any sex difference in the composition of weight loss.

  9. Psychosocial outcomes in a weight loss camp for overweight youth

    PubMed Central

    QUINLAN, NICOLE P.; KOLOTKIN, RONETTE L.; FUEMMELER, BERNARD F.; COSTANZO, PHILIP R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is good evidence that youth attending weight loss camps in the UK and US are successful at achieving weight loss. Limited research suggests improvement in body image and self-esteem as well. This study evaluated changes in eight psychosocial variables following participation in a weight loss camp and examined the role of gender, age, length of stay, and body mass index (BMI) in these changes. Methods This was an observational and self-report study of 130 participants (mean age=12.8; mean BMI=33.5; 70% female; 77% Caucasian). The program consisted of an 1 800 kcal/day diet, daily supervised physical activities, cooking/nutrition classes, and weekly psycho-educational/support groups led by psychology staff. Participants completed measures of anti-fat attitudes, values (e.g., value placed on appearance, athletic ability, popularity), body- and self-esteem, weight- and health-related quality of life, self-efficacy, and depressive symptoms. Results Participants experienced significant BMI reduction (average decrease of 7.5 kg [standard deviation, SD=4.2] and 2.9 BMI points [SD=1.4]). Participants also exhibited significant improvements in body esteem, self-esteem, self-efficacy, generic and weight-related quality of life, anti-fat attitudes, and the importance placed on appearance. Changes in self-efficacy, physical functioning and social functioning remained significant even after adjusting for initial zBMI, BMI change, and length of stay. Gender differences were found on changes in self-efficacy, depressive symptoms, and social functioning. Conclusion Participation in weight loss programs in a group setting, such as a camp, may have added benefit beyond BMI reduction. Greater attention to changes in psychosocial variables may be warranted when designing such programs for youth. PMID:19107660

  10. A losing battle: weight regain does not restore weight loss-induced bone loss in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Villalon, Karen L; Gozansky, Wendolyn S; Van Pelt, Rachael E; Wolfe, Pam; Jankowski, Catherine M; Schwartz, Robert S; Kohrt, Wendy M

    2011-12-01

    Previously, we reported significant bone mineral density (BMD) loss in postmenopausal women after modest weight loss. It remains unclear whether the magnitude of BMD change in response to weight loss is appropriate (i.e., proportional to weight loss) and whether BMD is recovered with weight regain. We now report changes in BMD after a 1-year follow-up. Subjects (n = 23) in this secondary analysis were postmenopausal women randomized to placebo as part of a larger trial. They completed a 6-month exercise-based weight loss program and returned for follow-up at 18 months. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed at baseline, 6, and 18 months. At baseline, subjects were aged 56.8 ± 5.4 years (mean ± s.d.), 10.0 ± 9.2 years postmenopausal, and BMI was 29.6 ± 4.0 kg/m(2). They lost 3.9 ± 3.5 kg during the weight loss intervention. During follow-up, they regained 2.9 ± 3.9 kg. Six months of weight loss resulted in a significant decrease in lumbar spine (LS) (-1.7 ± 3.5%; P = 0.002) and hip (-0.04 ± 3.5%; P = 0.03) BMD that was accompanied by an increase in a biomarker of bone resorption (serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, CTX: 34 ± 54%; P = 0.08). However, weight regain was not associated with LS (0.05 ± 3.8%; P = 0.15) or hip (-0.6 ± 3.0%; P = 0.81) bone regain or decreased bone resorption (CTX: -3 ± 37%; P = 0.73). The findings suggest that BMD lost during weight reduction may not be fully recovered with weight regain in hormone-deficient, postmenopausal women. Future studies are needed to identify effective strategies to prevent bone loss during periods of weight loss.

  11. Comparison of weight loss among named diet programs in overweight and obese adults: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Bradley C; Kanters, Steve; Bandayrel, Kristofer; Wu, Ping; Naji, Faysal; Siemieniuk, Reed A; Ball, Geoff D C; Busse, Jason W; Thorlund, Kristian; Guyatt, Gordon; Jansen, Jeroen P; Mills, Edward J

    2014-09-03

    Many claims have been made regarding the superiority of one diet or another for inducing weight loss. Which diet is best remains unclear. To determine weight loss outcomes for popular diets based on diet class (macronutrient composition) and named diet. Search of 6 electronic databases: AMED, CDSR, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, and MEDLINE from inception of each database to April 2014. Overweight or obese adults (body mass index ≥25) randomized to a popular self-administered named diet and reporting weight or body mass index data at 3-month follow-up or longer. Two reviewers independently extracted data on populations, interventions, outcomes, risk of bias, and quality of evidence. A Bayesian framework was used to perform a series of random-effects network meta-analyses with meta-regression to estimate the relative effectiveness of diet classes and programs for change in weight and body mass index from baseline. Our analyses adjusted for behavioral support and exercise. Weight loss and body mass index at 6- and 12-month follow-up (±3 months for both periods). Among 59 eligible articles reporting 48 unique randomized trials (including 7286 individuals) and compared with no diet, the largest weight loss was associated with low-carbohydrate diets (8.73 kg [95% credible interval {CI}, 7.27 to 10.20 kg] at 6-month follow-up and 7.25 kg [95% CI, 5.33 to 9.25 kg] at 12-month follow-up) and low-fat diets (7.99 kg [95% CI, 6.01 to 9.92 kg] at 6-month follow-up and 7.27 kg [95% CI, 5.26 to 9.34 kg] at 12-month follow-up). Weight loss differences between individual diets were minimal. For example, the Atkins diet resulted in a 1.71 kg greater weight loss than the Zone diet at 6-month follow-up. Between 6- and 12-month follow-up, the influence of behavioral support (3.23 kg [95% CI, 2.23 to 4.23 kg] at 6-month follow-up vs 1.08 kg [95% CI, -1.82 to 3.96 kg] at 12-month follow-up) and exercise (0.64 kg [95% CI, -0.35 to 1.66 kg] vs 2.13 kg [95% CI, 0.43 to 3.85 kg], respectively

  12. Food addiction in adults seeking weight loss treatment. Implications for psychosocial health and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Burmeister, Jacob M; Hinman, Nova; Koball, Afton; Hoffmann, Debra A; Carels, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined food addiction symptomology and its relationship to eating pathology and psychological distress among adults seeking weight loss treatment. A primary interest was an examination of the relationship between food addiction symptoms and short-term weight loss. Adults beginning a behavioral weight loss program (N=57) were given the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) as well as measures of psychological distress, disordered eating, weight bias, and weight-focused attitudes. Weight loss was measured after 7 weeks. Severity of food addiction was related to increased depression, emotional eating, binge eating, anti-fat attitudes, internalized weight bias, body shame, and low eating self-efficacy, but not body satisfaction. Increased food addiction symptomology was also related to less weight lost at 7 weeks. Findings suggest that individuals attempting to lose weight while combating symptoms of food addiction may be especially prone to eating-related pathologies, internalized weight bias, and body shame. Importantly, findings provide evidence that food addiction may undermine efforts to lose weight. The pathology associated with addiction (e.g., tolerance, withdrawal) could make the adoption of more healthful eating habits especially difficult. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary intakes associated with successful weight loss and maintenance during the Weight Loss Maintenance Trial

    PubMed Central

    Champagne, Catherine M.; Broyles, Stephanie T; Moran, Laura D.; Cash, Katherine C.; Levy, Erma J.; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Batch, Bryan C.; Lien, Lillian F.; Funk, Kristine L.; Dalcin, Arlene; Loria, Catherine; Myers, Valerie H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Dietary components effective in weight maintenance efforts have not been adequately identified. Objective To determine impact of changes in dietary consumption on weight loss and maintenance during the Weight Loss Maintenance (WLM) clinical trial. Design WLM was a randomized controlled trial. Successful weight loss participants who completed Phase I of the trial and lost 4kg were randomized to one of three maintenance intervention arms in Phase II and followed for an additional 30 months. Participants/setting The multicenter trial was conducted from 2003–2007. This substudy included 828 successful weight loss participants. Methods Dietary Measures The Block Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess nutrient intake levels and food group servings. Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, dietary fiber and fruit/vegetable and dairy servings were utilized as predictor variables. Data collection The FFQ was collected on all participants at study entry (beginning of Phase I). Those randomized to Phase II completed the FFQ at three additional time points; randomization (beginning of Phase II), 12 and 30 months. Intervention The main intervention focused on long term maintenance of weight loss using the Dietary Approaches to Hypertension (DASH) diet. This substudy examined whether changes to specific dietary variables were associated with weight loss and maintenance. Statistical analyses performed Linear regression models that adjusted for change in total energy examined the relationship between changes in dietary intake and weight for each time period. Site, age, race, sex, and a race-sex interaction were included as covariates. Results Participants who substituted protein for fat lost, on average, 0.33 kg per 6-months during Phase I (p<0.0001) and 0.07 kg per 6-months during Phase II (p<0.0001) per 1% increase in protein. Increased intake of fruits and vegetables was associated with weight loss in Phases I and II: 0.29 kg per 6-months (p<0.0001) and 0

  14. Predictors of long-term weight loss in adults with modest initial weight loss, by sex and race.

    PubMed

    Svetkey, Laura P; Ard, Jamy D; Stevens, Victor J; Loria, Catherine M; Young, Deb Y; Hollis, Jack F; Appel, Lawrence J; Brantley, Phillip J; Kennedy, Betty M; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Batch, Bryan C; Corsino, Leonor; Lien, Lillian F; Vollmer, William M

    2012-09-01

    Effective weight management interventions could reduce race-sex disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD), yet little is known about factors associated with successful weight loss maintenance in race-sex subgroups. In the Weight Loss Maintenance trial (WLM), overweight/obese (BMI 25-45 kg/m(2)) adults who lost ≥4 kg in a 6-month behavioral weight loss intervention (phase I) were randomized into one of three 30-month maintenance interventions (phase II). To investigate predictors in subgroups, randomized groups were combined for this analysis. Of 1,685 phase I participants, 1,032 (61%) entered phase II, including 12% black men (BM), 26% black women (BW), 25% white men (WM), and 37% white women (WW). Weight change over the 36-month study ranged from -2.3% (95% confidence interval = -3.1 to -1.5%) in BW to -4.5% (95% confidence interval = -5.7 to -4.0%) in WM, the result of differential weight loss during phase I. Within race, men lost significantly more weight than women, but within sex group, weight loss did not differ significantly between races. Although participants regained weight during phase II, regain did not differ by race-sex group, and mean weight at the end of the study was significantly lower than phase I entry weight for each subgroup. In regression models, phase I weight loss predicted overall 36-month weight loss in all race-sex groups. Healthy dietary pattern at entry, improvement in dietary pattern, or both were predictive in three of four race-sex groups. Few other variables other than initial weight loss and dietary pattern were predictive. Future research should identify additional modifiable influences on long-term maintenance after a modest weight loss.

  15. The role of puberty, media and popularity with peers on strategies to increase weight, decrease weight and increase muscle tone among adolescent boys and girls.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Ricciardelli, Lina A; Finemore, Jennifer

    2002-03-01

    The present study was concerned with the impact of pubertal development, relationships with peers and perceived pressure from the media on body dissatisfaction and body change behaviors among adolescent boys and girls. In particular, the study investigated the underresearched area of strategies to increase weight and muscle. The exploration of body change strategies among adolescent boys has been a neglected area of research. Respondents were 1185 adolescents (527 males, 598 females) who were enrolled in Grades 7 and 9. Participants completed measures of pubertal development, media and peer influence, body dissatisfaction and strategies to lose weight, increase weight and to increase muscle. The findings demonstrated that girls were more likely than boys to adopt strategies to lose weight, whereas boys were more likely to adopt strategies to increase muscle tone (but not weight). For boys in both Years 7 and 9, the main predictors of body change strategies were puberty and, to a lesser extent, perceived popularity with peers. The major influences for Years 7 and 9 girls were puberty and the media, but these mainly focused on weight loss. For Year 9 girls, perceived popularity with opposite-sex peers also predicted body dissatisfaction and strategies to increase muscle tone. The implications of these findings for understanding factors related to a range of body change strategies for adolescent boys and girls are discussed.

  16. The relationship of alcohol use to weight loss in the context of behavioral weight loss treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kase, Colleen A.; Piers, Amani D.; Schaumberg, Katherine; Forman, Evan M.; Butryn, Meghan L.

    2016-01-01

    Despite common wisdom that reducing alcohol intake will facilitate weight loss, little research has examined whether participants in behavioral weight loss treatments actually decrease their alcohol intake, or whether reduced alcohol intake relates to weight loss outcomes in this context. This study examined the relationship of alcohol use to energy intake excluding alcohol and to weight in 283 overweight and obese adults participating in a 26-session behavioral weight loss treatment. The majority of participants consumed low to moderate levels of alcohol at baseline. Participants who consumed alcohol at baseline meaningfully reduced their alcohol intake by end-of-treatment. Alcohol use did not relate to weight at baseline or end-of-treatment when controlling for relevant demographic variables, and change in alcohol use was unrelated to weight change in the overall sample during treatment. However, end-of-treatment alcohol intake did relate to end-of-treatment energy intake excluding alcohol. In addition, behavioral impulsivity and change in alcohol intake interacted to predict weight loss, such that decreases in alcohol intake were associated with greater percent weight loss at end-of-treatment for participants with higher levels of impulsivity. Alcohol consumption may lead to overeating episodes, and highly impulsive individuals may be at risk for increased energy intake during or after episodes of drinking. Therefore, the recommendation to reduce alcohol intake in the context of behavioral weight loss treatment seems warranted, particularly for individuals with high levels of impulsivity. PMID:26792773

  17. The relationship of alcohol use to weight loss in the context of behavioral weight loss treatment.

    PubMed

    Kase, Colleen A; Piers, Amani D; Schaumberg, Katherine; Forman, Evan M; Butryn, Meghan L

    2016-04-01

    Despite common wisdom that reducing alcohol intake will facilitate weight loss, little research has examined whether participants in behavioral weight loss treatments actually decrease their alcohol intake, or whether reduced alcohol intake relates to weight loss outcomes in this context. This study examined the relationship of alcohol use to energy intake excluding alcohol and to weight in 283 overweight and obese adults participating in a 26-session behavioral weight loss treatment. The majority of participants consumed low to moderate levels of alcohol at baseline. Participants who consumed alcohol at baseline meaningfully reduced their alcohol intake by end-of-treatment. Alcohol use did not relate to weight at baseline or end-of-treatment when controlling for relevant demographic variables, and change in alcohol use was unrelated to weight change in the overall sample during treatment. However, end-of-treatment alcohol intake did relate to end-of-treatment energy intake excluding alcohol. In addition, behavioral impulsivity and change in alcohol intake interacted to predict weight loss, such that decreases in alcohol intake were associated with greater percent weight loss at end-of-treatment for participants with higher levels of impulsivity. Alcohol consumption may lead to overeating episodes, and highly impulsive individuals may be at risk for increased energy intake during or after episodes of drinking. Therefore, the recommendation to reduce alcohol intake in the context of behavioral weight loss treatment seems warranted, particularly for individuals with high levels of impulsivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A content analysis of weight stigmatization in popular television programming for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Carlson-McGuire, Ashley; Gollust, Sarah E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-09-01

    This study provides updated information regarding the prevalence and characteristics of weight stigma in popular adolescent television programming, using a sample of favorite shows named by diverse adolescents. Participants in a large, population-based study of Minnesota adolescents (N = 2,793, mean age = 14.4) listed their top three favorite television shows. A coding instrument was developed to analyze randomly selected episodes from the most popular 10 programs. Weight-stigmatizing incidents were compared across television show characteristics and characters' gender and weight status. Half (50%) of the 30 episodes analyzed contained at least one weight-stigmatizing incident. Both youth- and adult-targeted shows contained weight-stigmatizing comments, but the percent of these comments was much higher for youth-targeted (55.6%) than general audience-targeted shows (8.3%). Male characters were more likely than females to engage in (72.7% vs. 27.3%), and be the targets of, weight stigma (63.6% vs. 36.4%), and there was no difference in the amount of weight stigmatizing directed at average weight females compared to overweight females. Targets of these instances showed a negative response in only about one-third of cases, but audience laughter followed 40.9% of cases. The portrayal of weight stigmatization on popular television shows-including targeting women of average weight-sends signals to adolescents about the wide acceptability of this behavior and the expected response, which may be harmful. Prevention of weight stigmatization should take a multi-faceted approach and include the media. Future research should explore the impact that weight-related stigma in television content has on viewers. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Hydroxycut hepatotoxicity: A case series and review of liver toxicity from herbal weight loss supplements

    PubMed Central

    Dara, Lily; Hewett, Jennifer; Lim, Joseph Kartaik

    2008-01-01

    Dietary supplements represent an increasingly common source of drug-induced liver injury. Hydroxycut is a popular weight loss supplement which has previously been linked to hepatotoxicity, although the individual chemical components underlying liver injury remain poorly understood. We report two cases of acute hepatitis in the setting of Hydroxycut exposure and describe possible mechanisms of liver injury. We also comprehensively review and summarize the existing literature on commonly used weight loss supplements, and their individual components which have demonstrated potential for liver toxicity. An increased effort to screen for and educate patients and physicians about supplement-associated hepatotoxicity is warranted. PMID:19058338

  20. The CSIRO Total Wellbeing Diet Book 1: sociodemographic differences and impact on weight loss and well-being in Australia.

    PubMed

    Wyld, Belinda; Harrison, Adam; Noakes, Manny

    2010-12-01

    The CSIRO Total Wellbeing Diet (TWD) publication is an evidence-based weight management strategy utilising a structured higher protein diet as part of a nutritionally balanced lifestyle programme. Despite its popularity, the impact of TWD on weight status, weight loss and food choices of Australians was unknown. An independent representative survey was conducted in 2006. Sociodemographic differences in awareness, use of TWD and the impact on weight status and well-being were investigated via computer-aided telephone interviews and web-based surveys. Australia. A total of 5026 men and women aged 18-60 years. Consumers were highly aware of TWD (66 %) with personal use reported by 7·5 % of the total sample (n 5026). An additional 2·5 % (126 people) were members of a household that used TWD. In all, 80 % of TWD purchasers actively used the eating plan with approximately 3·8 % losing an average self-reported weight loss of 5·7 kg (sd = 1·72 kg; range = 1-13 kg). Results showed that awareness was greatest among women (73·79 % v. 58·27 %), those over 50 years of age (69·39 % v. 62·88 %) with no children in the household (69·00 % v. 64·88 %), tertiary educated people (72·58 % v. 63·22 %) and those with more previous weight loss attempts (79·66 % v. 70·24 %). Logistic regression was unable to predict an identifiable sociodemographic profile of TWD users. The present study shows widespread uptake of TWD in Australia with few sociodemographic differences. Self-reported increased awareness of nutrition and well-being as well as weight loss indicates that TWD has been a successful delivery mechanism for lifestyle advice.

  1. Preferences and motivation for weight loss among knee replacement patients: implications for a patient-centered weight loss intervention.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Christine A; Ledford, Gwendolyn; Hoffman, Sara A; Chang, Rowland W; Cameron, Kenzie A

    2017-08-01

    Most knee replacement patients are overweight/obese, yet are commonly excluded from evidence-based weight loss programs due to mobility limitations and barriers faced around the time of surgery. The purpose of this study was to identify knee replacement patient preferences for weight loss programs and qualitatively understand previous motives for weight loss attempts as well as strategies used to facilitate behavior changes. Patients who were either scheduled to have knee replacement or had one recently completed within the last 3 months were recruited to participate. Patients completed a brief weight loss program preference questionnaire assessing preferred components of a weight loss program (i.e. self-monitoring, educational topics, program duration). Qualitative interviews were completed to identify motives for and strategies used during past weight loss attempts. All interviews were transcribed, de-identified, and analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Twenty patients (11 pre-operative and 9 post-operative) between 47 and 79 years completed the study (55% male, 90% White, and 85% with a BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 ). Patients reported a preference for a weight loss program that starts before surgery, is at least 6 months in duration, and focuses both on diet and exercise. The majority of patients preferred to have a telephone-based program and wanted to track diet and physical activity on a smartphone application. The most common motive for weight loss mentioned by patients related to physical appearance (including how clothing fit), followed by wanting to lose weight to improve knee symptoms or to prevent or delay knee replacement. Strategies that patients identified as helpful during weight loss attempts included joining a formal weight loss program, watching portion sizes, and self-monitoring their dietary intake, physical activity, or weight. This study provides a preliminary examination into the motives for weight loss, strategies utilized during past

  2. Temporality in British young women's magazines: food, cooking and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Rosemary J; Russell, Jean M; Barker, Margo E

    2014-10-01

    The present study examines seasonal and temporal patterns in food-related content of two UK magazines for young women focusing on food types, cooking and weight loss. Content analysis of magazines from three time blocks between 1999 and 2011. Desk-based study. Ninety-seven magazines yielding 590 advertisements and 148 articles. Cluster analysis of type of food advertising produced three clusters of magazines, which reflected recognised food behaviours of young women: vegetarianism, convenience eating and weight control. The first cluster of magazines was associated with Christmas and Millennium time periods, with advertising of alcohol, coffee, cheese, vegetarian meat substitutes and weight-loss pills. Recipes were prominent in article content and tended to be for cakes/desserts, luxury meals and party food. The second cluster was associated with summer months and 2010 issues. There was little advertising for conventional foods in cluster 2, but strong representation of diet plans and foods for weight loss. Weight-loss messages in articles focused on short-term aesthetic goals, emphasising speedy weight loss without giving up nice foods or exercising. Cluster 3 magazines were associated with post-New Year and 2005 periods. Food advertising was for everyday foods and convenience products, with fewer weight-loss products than other clusters; conversely, article content had a greater prevalence of weight-loss messages. The cyclical nature of magazine content - indulgence and excess encouraged at Christmas, restraint recommended post-New Year and severe dieting advocated in the summer months - endorses yo-yo dieting behaviour and may not be conducive to public health.

  3. Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain

    PubMed Central

    Greenway, F L

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major global health problem and predisposes individuals to several comorbidities that can affect life expectancy. Interventions based on lifestyle modification (for example, improved diet and exercise) are integral components in the management of obesity. However, although weight loss can be achieved through dietary restriction and/or increased physical activity, over the long term many individuals regain weight. The aim of this article is to review the research into the processes and mechanisms that underpin weight regain after weight loss and comment on future strategies to address them. Maintenance of body weight is regulated by the interaction of a number of processes, encompassing homoeostatic, environmental and behavioural factors. In homoeostatic regulation, the hypothalamus has a central role in integrating signals regarding food intake, energy balance and body weight, while an ‘obesogenic' environment and behavioural patterns exert effects on the amount and type of food intake and physical activity. The roles of other environmental factors are also now being considered, including sleep debt and iatrogenic effects of medications, many of which warrant further investigation. Unfortunately, physiological adaptations to weight loss favour weight regain. These changes include perturbations in the levels of circulating appetite-related hormones and energy homoeostasis, in addition to alterations in nutrient metabolism and subjective appetite. To maintain weight loss, individuals must adhere to behaviours that counteract physiological adaptations and other factors favouring weight regain. It is difficult to overcome physiology with behaviour. Weight loss medications and surgery change the physiology of body weight regulation and are the best chance for long-term success. An increased understanding of the physiology of weight loss and regain will underpin the development of future strategies to support overweight and obese individuals in their

  4. Randomized Clinical Trial of Portion-Controlled Prepackaged Foods to Promote Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Rock, Cheryl L.; Flatt, Shirley W.; Pakiz, Bilgé; Barkai, Hava-Shoshana; Heath, Dennis D.; Krumhar, Kim C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Providing portion-controlled prepackaged foods in a behavioral counseling intervention may promote more weight and fat loss than a standard self-selected diet. Methods: The primary aim was to test whether providing portion-controlled prepackaged lunch and dinner entrées within a behavioral weight loss intervention promotes greater weight loss at 12 weeks in overweight/obese adults compared to self-selected foods. Other aims were to examine effects on biological factors, fitness, and meal satisfaction. One-half of those assigned to prepackaged entrées were provided items with a higher protein level (>25% energy) as an exploratory aim. Results Participants (N=183) had a baseline weight of 95.9 (15.6) kg (mean [SD]) and BMI of 33.2 (3.5) kg/m2. Weight data at 12 weeks were available for 180 subjects. Weight loss for regular entrée, higher protein entrée and control groups was 8.6 (3.9), 7.8 (5.1), and 6.0 (4.4)%, respectively (P<0.05, intervention vs. control). Intervention participants lost more body fat than controls (5.7 [3.4] vs. 4.4 [3.3] kg, P<0.05). Conclusions A meal plan incorporating portion-controlled prepackaged entrées promotes greater weight and fat loss than a standard self-selected diet, with comparable meal satisfaction. Initial weight loss predicts long-term weight loss so these results are relevant to likelihood of longer term success. PMID:27225596

  5. Human chorionic gonadotrophin and weight loss. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bosch, B; Venter, I; Stewart, R I; Bertram, S R

    1990-02-17

    Low-dose human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) combined with a severe diet remains a popular treatment for obesity, despite equivocal evidence of its effectiveness. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the effects of HCG on weight loss were compared with placebo injections. Forty obese women (body mass index greater than 30 kg/m2) were placed on the same diet supplying 5,000 kJ per day and received daily intramuscular injections of saline or HCG, 6 days a week for 6 weeks. A psychological profile, hunger level, body circumferences, a fasting blood sample and food records were obtained at the start and end of the study, while body weight was measured weekly. Subjects receiving HCG injections showed no advantages over those on placebo in respect of any of the variables recorded. Furthermore, weight loss on our diet was similar to that on severely restricted intake. We conclude that there is no rationale for the use of HCG injections in the treatment of obesity.

  6. The defence of body weight: a physiological basis for weight regain after weight loss.

    PubMed

    Sumithran, Priya; Proietto, Joseph

    2013-02-01

    Although weight loss can usually be achieved by restricting food intake, the majority of dieters regain weight over the long-term. In the hypothalamus, hormonal signals from the gastrointestinal tract, adipose tissue and other peripheral sites are integrated to influence appetite and energy expenditure. Diet-induced weight loss is accompanied by several physiological changes which encourage weight regain, including alterations in energy expenditure, substrate metabolism and hormone pathways involved in appetite regulation, many of which persist beyond the initial weight loss period. Safe effective long-term strategies to overcome these physiological changes are needed to help facilitate maintenance of weight loss. The present review, which focuses on data from human studies, begins with an outline of body weight regulation to provide the context for the subsequent discussion of short- and long-term physiological changes which accompany diet-induced weight loss.

  7. Ain't no mountain high enough? Setting high weight loss goals predict effort and short-term weight loss.

    PubMed

    De Vet, Emely; Nelissen, Rob M A; Zeelenberg, Marcel; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2013-05-01

    Although psychological theories outline that it might be beneficial to set more challenging goals, people attempting to lose weight are generally recommended to set modest weight loss goals. The present study explores whether the amount of weight loss individuals strive for is associated with more positive psychological and behavioral outcomes. Hereto, 447 overweight and obese participants trying to lose weight completed two questionnaires with a 2-month interval. Many participants set goals that could be considered unrealistically high. However, higher weight loss goals did not predict dissatisfaction but predicted more effort in the weight loss attempt, as well as more self-reported short-term weight loss when baseline commitment and motivation were controlled for.

  8. Intermittent Moderate Energy Restriction Improves Weight Loss Efficiency in Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Seimon, Radhika V; Shi, Yan-Chuan; Slack, Katy; Lee, Kailun; Fernando, Hamish A; Nguyen, Amy D; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Shu; Enriquez, Ronaldo F; Lau, Jackie; Herzog, Herbert; Sainsbury, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent severe energy restriction is popular for weight management. To investigate whether intermittent moderate energy restriction may improve this approach by enhancing weight loss efficiency, we conducted a study in mice, where energy intake can be controlled. Male C57/Bl6 mice that had been rendered obese by an ad libitum diet high in fat and sugar for 22 weeks were then fed one of two energy-restricted normal chow diets for a 12-week weight loss phase. The continuous diet (CD) provided 82% of the energy intake of age-matched ad libitum chow-fed controls. The intermittent diet (ID) provided cycles of 82% of control intake for 5-6 consecutive days, and ad libitum intake for 1-3 days. Weight loss efficiency during this phase was calculated as (total weight change) ÷ [(total energy intake of mice on CD or ID)-(total average energy intake of controls)]. Subsets of mice then underwent a 3-week weight regain phase involving ad libitum re-feeding. Mice on the ID showed transient hyperphagia relative to controls during each 1-3-day ad libitum feeding period, and overall ate significantly more than CD mice (91.1±1.0 versus 82.2±0.5% of control intake respectively, n = 10, P<0.05). There were no significant differences between CD and ID groups at the end of the weight loss or weight regain phases with respect to body weight, fat mass, circulating glucose or insulin concentrations, or the insulin resistance index. Weight loss efficiency was significantly greater with ID than with CD (0.042±0.007 versus 0.018±0.001 g/kJ, n = 10, P<0.01). Mice on the CD exhibited significantly greater hypothalamic mRNA expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) relative to ID and control mice, with no differences in neuropeptide Y or agouti-related peptide mRNA expression between energy-restricted groups. Intermittent moderate energy restriction may offer an advantage over continuous moderate energy restriction, because it induces significantly greater weight loss relative to energy

  9. Adherence to a behavioral weight loss treatment program enhances weight loss and improvements in biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Sushama D; Elci, Okan U; Sereika, Susan M; Music, Edvin; Styn, Mindi A; Turk, Melanie Warziski; Burke, Lora E

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To describe participants’ adherence to multiple components (attendance, energy intake, fat gram, exercise goals, and self-monitoring eating and exercise behaviors) of a standard behavioral treatment program (SBT) for weight loss and how adherence to these components may influence weight loss and biomarkers (triglycerides, low density lipoproteins [LDL], high density lipoprotein, and insulin) during the intensive and less-intensive intervention phases. Methods: A secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial consisting of a SBT with either fat-restricted standard or lacto-ovo vegetarian diet. The 12-month intervention was delivered in 33 group sessions. The first six months reflected the intensive phase; the second six months, the less-intensive intervention phase. We conducted the analysis without regard to treatment assignment. Eligible participants included overweight/obese adults (N = 176; mean body mass index = 34.0 kg/m2). The sample was 86.9% female, 70.5% White, and 44.4 ± 8.6 years old. The outcome measures included weight and biomarkers. Results: There was a significant decline in adherence to each treatment component over time (P < 0.0001). In the first six months, adherence to attendance, self-monitoring and the energy goal were significantly associated with greater weight loss (P < 0.05). Adherence to attendance and exercise remained significantly associated with weight loss in the second six months (P < 0.05). Adherence to attendance, self-monitoring and exercise had indirect effects through weight loss on LDL, triglycerides, and insulin (P < 0.05). Conclusions: We observed a decline in adherence to each treatment component as the intervention intensity was reduced. Adherence to multiple treatment components was associated with greater weight loss and improvements in biomarkers. Future research needs to focus on improving and maintaining adherence to all components of the treatment protocol to promote weight loss and maintenance

  10. Do Arabic weight-loss apps adhere to evidence-informed practices?

    PubMed

    Alnasser, Aroub A; Amalraj, Raja E; Sathiaseelan, Arjuna; Al-Khalifa, Abdulrahman S; Marais, Debbi

    2016-09-01

    Mobile technology has been used successfully for promoting health and weight loss and for treating obesity. There is a high prevalence of smartphone and tablet users among the Saudi population. This study aimed to identify whether current Arabic weight-loss apps had features that adhered to evidence-informed practices. The six most relevant app stores were systematically searched using the Arabic words for weight and diet (n = 298). All apps that met the inclusion criteria (n = 65) were downloaded and examined for adherence to 13 evidence-informed practices. Latent class analysis identified two subgroups of apps: self-monitoring (15 % of apps) and advice-giving apps (85 %). The median number of evidence-informed practices was 1 (1, 2), with no apps having more than six and only nine apps including four to six. Meal planning was the most common feature (38 % of apps). These findings identify serious weaknesses in the currently available Arabic weight-loss apps. Thus, existing and future apps should include more features based on the best available evidence in the context of Arab culture.

  11. Does Successful Weight Loss in an Internet-Based Worksite Weight Loss Program Improve Employee Presenteeism and Absenteeism?

    PubMed Central

    Harden, Samantha M.; You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio A.; Hill, Jennie L.; Linnan, Laura A.; Allen, Kacie C.; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Certain risk factors associated with overweight and obesity may lead to reduced productivity in the workforce (i.e., increased absenteeism and presenteeism). Participants in a large, Internet-based worksite weight loss intervention, who were present at follow-up (N = 1,030), completed a self-reported productivity measure (World Health Organization’s Health and Work Performance Questionnaire) at baseline and postintervention. Twenty-two percent of the participants lost a clinically meaningful amount of weight (≥5% weight loss). There were no statistically significant (p < .05) relationships between weight change from baseline to 12 months and change scores of absolute or relative absenteeism or for absolute or relative presenteeism. Within a modestly successful Internet-based, worksite weight loss intervention, weight loss did not improve self-reported absenteeism or presenteeism. Further studies are needed to explore the sensitivity of the World Health Organization’s Health and Work Performance Questionnaire and the long-term effects of weight loss on productivity. PMID:25842385

  12. Does Successful Weight Loss in an Internet-Based Worksite Weight Loss Program Improve Employee Presenteeism and Absenteeism?

    PubMed

    Harden, Samantha M; You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio A; Hill, Jennie L; Linnan, Laura A; Allen, Kacie C; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2015-12-01

    Certain risk factors associated with overweight and obesity may lead to reduced productivity in the workforce (i.e., increased absenteeism and presenteeism). Participants in a large, Internet-based worksite weight loss intervention, who were present at follow-up (N = 1,030), completed a self-reported productivity measure (World Health Organization's Health and Work Performance Questionnaire) at baseline and postintervention. Twenty-two percent of the participants lost a clinically meaningful amount of weight (≥5% weight loss). There were no statistically significant (p < .05) relationships between weight change from baseline to 12 months and change scores of absolute or relative absenteeism or for absolute or relative presenteeism. Within a modestly successful Internet-based, worksite weight loss intervention, weight loss did not improve self-reported absenteeism or presenteeism. Further studies are needed to explore the sensitivity of the World Health Organization's Health and Work Performance Questionnaire and the long-term effects of weight loss on productivity. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  13. First-day newborn weight loss predicts in-hospital weight nadir for breastfeeding infants.

    PubMed

    Flaherman, Valerie J; Bokser, Seth; Newman, Thomas B

    2010-08-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding reduces infant infectious disease. Losing > or =10% birth weight may lead to formula use. The predictive value of first-day weight loss for subsequent weight loss has not been studied. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between weight loss at <24 hours and subsequent in-hospital weight loss > or =10%. For 1,049 infants, we extracted gestational age, gender, delivery method, feeding type, and weights from medical records. Weight nadir was defined as the lowest weight recorded during birth hospitalization. We used multivariate logistic regression to assess the effect of first-day weight loss on subsequent in-hospital weight loss. Mean in-hospital weight nadir was 6.0 +/- 2.6%, and mean age at in-hospital weight nadir was 38.7 +/- 18.5 hours. While in the hospital 6.4% of infants lost > or =10% of birth weight. Infants losing > or =4.5% birth weight at <24 hours had greater risk of eventual in-hospital weight loss > or =10% (adjusted odds ratio 3.57 [1.75, 7.28]). In this cohort, 798 (76.1%) infants did not have documented weight gain while in the hospital. Early weight loss predicts higher risk of > or =10% in-hospital weight loss. Infants with high first-day weight loss could be targeted for further research into improved interventions to promote breastfeeding.

  14. Greater weight loss among men participating in a commercial weight loss program: a pooled analysis of 2 randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Barraj, Leila M; Murphy, Mary M; Heshka, Stanley; Katz, David L

    2014-02-01

    Being overweight and obese are significant health concerns for men and women, yet despite comparable needs for effective weight loss and maintenance strategies, little is known about the success of commercial weight loss programs in men. This study tests the hypothesis that men participating in a commercial weight loss program (Weight Watchers) had significantly greater weight loss than men receiving limited support from health professionals for weight loss (controls). A pooled analysis of weight loss and related physiologic parameter data from 2 randomized clinical trials was conducted. After 12 months, analysis of covariance tests showed that men in the commercial program group (n = 85) lost significantly more weight (P < .01) than men in the control group (n = 84); similar significant differences were observed for body mass index and waist circumference. These results suggest that participation in a commercial weight loss program may be a more effective means to lose weight and maintain weight loss. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. “At 150 kg, you can't run” men's weight loss stories in a popular health magazine provide appropriate examples of good health practice

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Danielle; Han, Gil-Soo; Robinson, Priscilla; Komesaroff, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We explore weight loss stories from 47 men collected from the Australian edition of Men's Health magazine between January 2009 and December 2012. Our analysis uses a mixed methods approach that combines thematic analysis and descriptive statistics to examine weight loss strategies against clinical practice guidelines for the management of overweight and obesity. All the stories reported the use of physical activity for weight loss and most stories detailed dietary changes for weight loss. Our findings indicate that most of the men reportedly used some form of behavioural strategies to assist them in their behaviour change efforts. The weight loss methods used were consistent with clinical practice guidelines, with the exception of some dietary practices. As narratives may assist with behaviour change, stories like those examined in this study could prove to be very useful in promoting weight loss to men. PMID:25750780

  16. Weight-loss maintenance for 10 years in the National Weight Control Registry.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J Graham; Bond, Dale S; Phelan, Suzanne; Hill, James O; Wing, Rena R

    2014-01-01

    The challenge of weight-loss maintenance is well known, but few studies have followed successful weight losers over an extended period or evaluated the effect of behavior change on weight trajectories. To study the weight-loss trajectories of successful weight losers in the National Weight Control Registry (NWCR) over a 10-year period, and to evaluate the effect of behavior change on weight-loss trajectories. A 10-year observational study of self-reported weight loss and behavior change in 2886 participants (78% female; mean age 48 years) in the NWCR who at entry had lost at least 30 lbs (13.6 kg) and kept it off for at least one year. Data were collected in 1993-2010; analysis was conducted in 2012. Weight loss (kilograms; percent weight loss from maximum weight). Mean weight loss was 31.3 kg (95% CI=30.8, 31.9) at baseline, 23.8 kg (95% CI=23.2, 24.4) at 5 years and 23.1±0.4 kg (95% CI=22.3, 23.9) at 10 years. More than 87% of participants were estimated to be still maintaining at least a 10% weight loss at Years 5 and 10. Larger initial weight losses and longer duration of maintenance were associated with better long-term outcomes. Decreases in leisure-time physical activity, dietary restraint, and frequency of self-weighing and increases in percentage of energy intake from fat and disinhibition were associated with greater weight regain. The majority of weight lost by NWCR members is maintained over 10 years. Long-term weight-loss maintenance is possible and requires sustained behavior change. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine Published by American Journal of Preventive Medicine All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence and cost of HIV-associated weight loss in a managed care population.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Javeed; Phillips, Amy L; Freedland, Eric S; Sklar, Ami R; Darkow, Theodore; Harley, Carolyn R

    2009-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence of HIV-associated weight loss among HIV patients in a US managed care population, and compare demographic and clinical characteristics of HIV patients with and without evidence of HIV-associated weight loss. A retrospective observational study was conducted using a large, geographically diverse US managed care population to identify commercial enrollees with HIV/AIDS from 1/1/2005-7/31/2007, based on a combination of HIV/AIDS diagnosis codes or antiretroviral treatment. HIV-associated weight loss status was defined according to an algorithm combining evidence for weight loss-associated conditions, anorexia symptoms, and various treatments for weight loss or wasting. Among HIV patients continuously enrolled in the health plan for one year, patient demographics, treatments, and comorbidities were compared between patients with and without evidence for weight loss. A total of 22,535 patients with HIV/AIDS were identified, including 2098 who met the criteria for weight loss (estimated prevalence 9.3%; 95% CI: 8.9% - 9.7%). Among 12,187 continuously enrolled patients with HIV, 1006 (8.3%) had evidence of HIV-associated weight loss. Patients with HIV-associated weight loss were older (44.1 vs. 42.6 years), and more men had HIV-associated weight loss than women (8.8% vs. 5.3%). A number of comorbidities were more common among patients with HIV-associated weight loss. On average, these patients also had more ambulatory (24.0 vs. 13.4), ER (1.4 vs. 0.8), and inpatient visits (0.5 vs. 0.1). Total annual health care costs for patients with HIV-associated weight loss were more than double (mean $45,686 vs. $19,960) the costs for HIV patients without weight loss. Despite the availability of effective antiretroviral therapy, weight loss remains a problem among patients with HIV. Based on this analysis, almost 1 in 10 managed care patients with HIV have evidence of HIV-associated weight loss. These patients tend to have more comorbidities, use more

  18. Associations of internet website use with weight change in a long-term weight loss maintenance program.

    PubMed

    Funk, Kristine L; Stevens, Victor J; Appel, Lawrence J; Bauck, Alan; Brantley, Phillip J; Champagne, Catherine M; Coughlin, Janelle; Dalcin, Arlene T; Harvey-Berino, Jean; Hollis, Jack F; Jerome, Gerald J; Kennedy, Betty M; Lien, Lillian F; Myers, Valerie H; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen; Svetkey, Laura P; Vollmer, William M

    2010-07-27

    The Weight Loss Maintenance Trial (WLM) compared two long-term weight-maintenance interventions, a personal contact arm and an Internet arm, with a no-treatment control after an initial six-month Phase I weight loss program. The Internet arm focused on use of an interactive website for support of long-term weight maintenance. There is limited information about patterns of website use and specific components of an interactive website that might help promote maintenance of weight loss. This paper presents a secondary analysis of the subset of participants in the Internet arm and focuses on website use patterns and features associated with long-term weight maintenance. Adults at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) who lost at least 4 kilograms in an initial 20-week group-based, behavioral weight-loss program were trained to use an interactive website for weight loss maintenance. Of the 348 participants, 37% were male and 38% were African American. Mean weight loss was 8.6 kilograms. Participants were encouraged to log in at least weekly and enter a current weight for the 30-month study period. The website contained features that encouraged setting short-term goals, creating action plans, and reinforcing self-management habits. The website also included motivational modules, daily tips, and tailored messages. Based on log-in and weight-entry frequency, we divided participants into three website use categories: consistent, some, and minimal. Participants in the consistent user group (n = 212) were more likely to be older (P = .002), other than African American (P = .02), and more educated (P = .01). While there was no significant difference between website use categories in the amount of Phase I change in body weight (P = .45) or income (P = .78), minimal website users (n = 75) were significantly more likely to have attended fewer Phase I sessions (P = .001) and had a higher initial body mass index (BMI) (P < .001). After adjusting for baseline characteristics

  19. Fasting for weight loss: an effective strategy or latest dieting trend?

    PubMed

    Johnstone, A

    2015-05-01

    With the increasing obesity epidemic comes the search for effective dietary approaches for calorie restriction and weight loss. Here I examine whether fasting is the latest 'fad diet' as portrayed in popular media and discuss whether it is a safe and effective approach or whether it is an idiosyncratic diet trend that promotes short-term weight loss, with no concern for long-term weight maintenance. Fasting has long been used under historical and experimental conditions and has recently been popularised by 'intermittent fasting' or 'modified fasting' regimes, in which a very low-calorie allowance is allowed, on alternate days (ADF) or 2 days a week (5:2 diet), where 'normal' eating is resumed on non-diet days. It is a simple concept, which makes it easy to follow with no difficult calorie counting every other day. This approach does seem to promote weight loss, but is linked to hunger, which can be a limiting factor for maintaining food restriction. The potential health benefits of fasting can be related to both the acute food restriction and chronic influence of weight loss; the long-term effect of chronic food restriction in humans is not yet clear, but may be a potentially interesting future dietary strategy for longevity, particularly given the overweight epidemic. One approach does not fit all in the quest to achieve body weight control, but this could be a dietary strategy for consideration. With the obesity epidemic comes the search for dietary strategies to (i) prevent weight gain, (ii) promote weight loss and (iii) prevent weight regain. With over half of the population of the United Kingdom and other developed countries being collectively overweight or obese, there is considerable pressure to achieve these goals, from both a public health and a clinical perspective. Certainly not one dietary approach will solve these complex problems. Although there is some long-term success with gastric surgical options for morbid obesity, there is still a requirement

  20. Prior weight loss exacerbates the biological drive to gain weight after the loss of ovarian function.

    PubMed

    Sherk, Vanessa D; Jackman, Matthew R; Giles, Erin D; Higgins, Janine A; Foright, Rebecca M; Presby, David M; Johnson, Ginger C; Houck, Julie A; Houser, Jordan L; Oljira, Robera; MacLean, Paul S

    2017-05-01

    Both the history of obesity and weight loss may change how menopause affects metabolic health. The purpose was to determine whether obesity and/or weight loss status alters energy balance (EB) and subsequent weight gain after the loss of ovarian function. Female lean and obese Wistar rats were randomized to 15% weight loss (WL) or ad libitum fed controls (CON). After the weight loss period, WL rats were kept in EB at the reduced weight for 8 weeks prior to ovariectomy (OVX). After OVX, all rats were allowed to eat ad libitum until weight plateaued. Energy intake (EI), spontaneous physical activity, and total energy expenditure (TEE) were measured with indirect calorimetry before OVX, immediately after OVX, and after weight plateau. Changes in energy intake (EI), TEE, and weight gain immediately after OVX were similar between lean and obese rats. However, obese rats gained more total weight and fat mass than lean rats over the full regain period. Post-OVX, EI increased more ( P  ≤ 0.03) in WL rats (58.9 ± 3.5 kcal/d) than CON rats (8.5 ± 5.2 kcal/d), and EI partially normalized (change from preOVX: 20.5 ± 4.2 vs. 1.5 ± 4.9 kcal/day) by the end of the study. As a result, WL rats gained weight (week 1:44 ± 20 vs. 7 ± 25 g) more rapidly (mean = 44 ± 20 vs. 7 ± 25 g/week; P  < 0.001) than CON Prior obesity did not affect changes in EB or weight regain following OVX, whereas a history of weight loss prior to OVX augmented disruptions in EB after OVX, resulting in more rapid weight regain. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  1. First-Day Newborn Weight Loss Predicts In-Hospital Weight Nadir for Breastfeeding Infants

    PubMed Central

    Bokser, Seth; Newman, Thomas B.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Exclusive breastfeeding reduces infant infectious disease. Losing ≥10% birth weight may lead to formula use. The predictive value of first-day weight loss for subsequent weight loss has not been studied. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between weight loss at <24 hours and subsequent in-hospital weight loss ≥10%. Methods For 1,049 infants, we extracted gestational age, gender, delivery method, feeding type, and weights from medical records. Weight nadir was defined as the lowest weight recorded during birth hospitalization. We used multivariate logistic regression to assess the effect of first-day weight loss on subsequent in-hospital weight loss. Results Mean in-hospital weight nadir was 6.0 ± 2.6%, and mean age at in-hospital weight nadir was 38.7 ± 18.5 hours. While in the hospital 6.4% of infants lost ≥10% of birth weight. Infants losing ≥4.5% birth weight at <24 hours had greater risk of eventual in-hospital weight loss ≥10% (adjusted odds ratio 3.57 [1.75, 7.28]). In this cohort, 798 (76.1%) infants did not have documented weight gain while in the hospital. Conclusions Early weight loss predicts higher risk of ≥10% in-hospital weight loss. Infants with high first-day weight loss could be targeted for further research into improved interventions to promote breastfeeding. PMID:20113202

  2. A comparison of meal replacements and medication in weight maintenance after weight loss.

    PubMed

    LeCheminant, James D; Jacobsen, Dennis J; Hall, Matthew A; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2005-10-01

    To compare the use of meal replacements or medication during weight maintenance subsequent to weight loss using a very low-energy diet (VLED) in overweight or obese adults. Participants followed a liquid VLED of 2177 kJ for 12 weeks followed by 4 weeks of re-orientation to solid foods. Participants were randomized at week 16 to receive either meal replacements or Orlistat both combined with a structured meal plan containing an energy value calculated to maintain weight loss. Sixty-four women (age = 49.9 +/- 10 y, weight = 101.6 +/- 17.1 kg, height = 164.9 +/- 6.0 cm, BMI = 36.7 +/- 5.4 kg/m(2)) and 28 men (age = 53.7 +/- 9.6 y, weight = 121.8 +/- 16.0 kg, height = 178.7 +/- 5.6 cm, BMI = 37.8 +/- 4.9 kg/m(2)) completed a 1 year weight management program. Behavioral weight management clinics included topics on lifestyle, physical activity (PA), and nutrition. Participants met for 90 min weekly for 26 weeks, and then biweekly for the remaining 26 weeks. Minutes of PA, fruits and vegetables (FV), and pedometer steps were recorded on a daily basis and reported at each group meeting. Body weight was obtained at each group meeting. During VLED, the MR group decreased body weight by 22.8 +/- 6.1 kg and the Orlistat group decreased body weight by 22.3 +/- 6.1 kg. During weight maintenance, there was no significant group by time interaction for body weight, PA, FV consumption, or pedometer steps. At week 16, the meal replacement group had a body weight of 85.4 +/- 14.3 kg that increased to 88.1 +/- 16.5 kg at 52 weeks (p < 0.05). At week 16, the Orlistat group had a body weight of 85.7 +/- 17.9 kg that increased to 88.5 +/- 20.3 kg at 52 weeks (p < 0.05). Subsequent to weight loss from a VLED, meal replacements and Orlistat treatments were both effective in maintaining weight significantly below baseline levels over a 52 week period of time. Meal replacements may be a viable alternative strategy to medications for weight maintenance.

  3. Demographic factors and weight change in a worksite weight loss intervention

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Worksites are increasingly being considered as locations for weight loss programs. We examined predictors of weight loss in employees participating in a 6 month randomized study of a weight loss intervention versus wait-listed control at 4 worksites (2 for-profit and 2 non-profit). Measures included...

  4. Tailoring dietary approaches for weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, C D

    2012-01-01

    Although the ‘Low-Fat' diet was the predominant public health recommendation for weight loss and weight control for the past several decades, the obesity epidemic continued to grow during this time period. An alternative ‘low-carbohydrate' (Low-Carb) approach, although originally dismissed and even vilified, was comparatively tested in a series of studies over the past decade, and has been found in general to be as effective, if not more, as the Low-Fat approach for weight loss and for several related metabolic health measures. From a glass half full perspective, this suggests that there is more than one choice for a dietary approach to lose weight, and that Low-Fat and Low-Carb diets may be equally effective. From a glass half empty perspective, the average amount of weight lost on either of these two dietary approaches under the conditions studied, particularly when followed beyond 1 year, has been modest at best and negligible at worst, suggesting that the two approaches may be equally ineffective. One could resign themselves at this point to focusing on calories and energy intake restriction, regardless of macronutrient distributions. However, before throwing out the half-glass of water, it is worthwhile to consider that focusing on average results may mask important subgroup successes and failures. In all weight-loss studies, without exception, the range of individual differences in weight change within any particular diet groups is orders of magnitude greater than the average group differences between diet groups. Several studies have now reported that adults with greater insulin resistance are more successful with weight loss on a lower-carbohydrate diet compared with a lower-fat diet, whereas adults with greater insulin sensitivity are equally or more successful with weight loss on a lower-fat diet compared with a lower-carbohydrate diet. Other preliminary findings suggest that there may be some promise with matching individuals with certain genotypes

  5. Tailoring dietary approaches for weight loss.

    PubMed

    Gardner, C D

    2012-07-01

    Although the 'Low-Fat' diet was the predominant public health recommendation for weight loss and weight control for the past several decades, the obesity epidemic continued to grow during this time period. An alternative 'low-carbohydrate' (Low-Carb) approach, although originally dismissed and even vilified, was comparatively tested in a series of studies over the past decade, and has been found in general to be as effective, if not more, as the Low-Fat approach for weight loss and for several related metabolic health measures. From a glass half full perspective, this suggests that there is more than one choice for a dietary approach to lose weight, and that Low-Fat and Low-Carb diets may be equally effective. From a glass half empty perspective, the average amount of weight lost on either of these two dietary approaches under the conditions studied, particularly when followed beyond 1 year, has been modest at best and negligible at worst, suggesting that the two approaches may be equally ineffective. One could resign themselves at this point to focusing on calories and energy intake restriction, regardless of macronutrient distributions. However, before throwing out the half-glass of water, it is worthwhile to consider that focusing on average results may mask important subgroup successes and failures. In all weight-loss studies, without exception, the range of individual differences in weight change within any particular diet groups is orders of magnitude greater than the average group differences between diet groups. Several studies have now reported that adults with greater insulin resistance are more successful with weight loss on a lower-carbohydrate diet compared with a lower-fat diet, whereas adults with greater insulin sensitivity are equally or more successful with weight loss on a lower-fat diet compared with a lower-carbohydrate diet. Other preliminary findings suggest that there may be some promise with matching individuals with certain genotypes to

  6. Relationship of cravings with weight loss and hunger. Results from a 6 month worksite weight loss intervention.

    PubMed

    Batra, Payal; Das, Sai Krupa; Salinardi, Taylor; Robinson, Lisa; Saltzman, Edward; Scott, Tammy; Pittas, Anastassios G; Roberts, Susan B

    2013-10-01

    We examined the association of food cravings with weight loss and eating behaviors in a lifestyle intervention for weight loss in worksites. This research was part of a randomized controlled trial of a 6-month weight loss intervention versus a wait-listed control in 4 Massachusetts worksites. The intervention emphasized reducing energy intake by adherence to portion-controlled menu suggestions, and assessments were obtained in 95 participants at baseline and 6 months including non-fasting body weight, food cravings (Craving Inventory and Food Craving Questionnaire for state and trait) and the eating behavior constructs restraint, disinhibition and hunger (Eating Inventory). There were statistically significant reductions in all craving variables in the intervention group compared to the controls. Within the intervention group, changes in craving-trait were significantly associated with weight loss after controlling for baseline weight, age, gender and worksite. However, in a multivariate model with craving-trait and eating behaviors (restraint, disinhibition and hunger), hunger was the only significant predictor of weight change. In contrast to some previous reports of increased food cravings with weight loss in lifestyle interventions, this study observed a broad reduction in cravings associated with weight loss. In addition, greater reductions in craving-trait were associated with greater weight change, but craving-trait was not a significant independent correlate of weight change when hunger was included in statistical models. Studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of hunger suppressing versus craving-suppressing strategies in lifestyle interventions for obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Behavioural factors related with successful weight loss 15 months post-enrolment in a commercial web-based weight-loss programme.

    PubMed

    Neve, Melinda J; Morgan, Philip J; Collins, Clare E

    2012-07-01

    As further understanding is required of what behavioural factors are associated with long-term weight-loss success, the aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of successful weight loss 15 months post-enrolment in a commercial web-based weight-loss programme and which behavioural factors were associated with success. An online survey was completed 15 months post-enrolment in a commercial web-based weight-loss programme to assess weight-related behaviours and current weight. Participants were classified as successful if they had lost ≥5 % of their starting weight after 15 months. Commercial users of a web-based weight-loss programme. Participants enrolled in the commercial programme between August 2007 and May 2008. Six hundred and seventy-seven participants completed the survey. The median (interquartile range) weight change was -2·7 (-8·2, 1·6) % of enrolment weight, with 37 % achieving ≥5 % weight loss. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found success was associated with frequency of weight self-monitoring, higher dietary restraint score, lower emotional eating score, not skipping meals, not keeping snack foods in the house and eating takeaway foods less frequently. The findings suggest that individuals trying to achieve or maintain ≥5 % weight loss should be advised to regularly weigh themselves, avoid skipping meals or keeping snack foods in the house, limit the frequency of takeaway food consumption, manage emotional eating and strengthen dietary restraint. Strategies to assist individuals make these changes to behaviour should be incorporated within obesity treatments to improve the likelihood of successful weight loss in the long term.

  8. Egg breakfast enhances weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Vander Wal, JS; Gupta, A; Khosla, P; Dhurandhar, NV

    2009-01-01

    Objective To test the hypotheses that an egg breakfast, in contrast to a bagel breakfast matched for energy density and total energy, would enhance weight loss in overweight and obese participants while on a reduced-calorie weight loss diet. Subjects Men and women (n=152), age 25–60 years, body mass index (BMI) ≥25 and ≤50 kg m−2. Design Otherwise healthy overweight or obese participants were assigned to Egg (E), Egg Diet (ED), Bagel (B) or Bagel Diet (BD) groups, based on the prescription of either an egg breakfast containing two eggs (340 kcal) or a breakfast containing bagels matched for energy density and total energy, for at least 5 days per week, respectively. The ED and BD groups were suggested a 1000 kcal energy-deficit low-fat diet, whereas the B and E groups were asked not to change their energy intake. Results After 8 weeks, in comparison to the BD group, the ED group showed a 61% greater reduction in BMI (−0.95±0.82 vs −0.59±0.85, P<0.05), a 65% greater weight loss (−2.63±2.33 vs −1.59±2.38 kg, P<0.05), a 34% greater reduction in waist circumference (P<0.06) and a 16% greater reduction in percent body fat (P=not significant). No significant differences between the E and B groups on the aforementioned variables were obtained. Further, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, did not differ between the groups. Conclusions The egg breakfast enhances weight loss, when combined with an energy-deficit diet, but does not induce weight loss in a free-living condition. The inclusion of eggs in a weight management program may offer a nutritious supplement to enhance weight loss. PMID:18679412

  9. Weight maintenance and additional weight loss with liraglutide after low-calorie-diet-induced weight loss: the SCALE Maintenance randomized study.

    PubMed

    Wadden, T A; Hollander, P; Klein, S; Niswender, K; Woo, V; Hale, P M; Aronne, L

    2013-11-01

    Liraglutide, a once-daily human glucagon-like peptide-1 analog, induced clinically meaningful weight loss in a phase 2 study in obese individuals without diabetes. The present randomized phase 3 trial assessed the efficacy of liraglutide in maintaining weight loss achieved with a low-calorie diet (LCD). Obese/overweight participants (≥18 years, body mass index ≥30 kg m(-2) or ≥27 kg m(-2) with comorbidities) who lost ≥5% of initial weight during a LCD run-in were randomly assigned to liraglutide 3.0 mg per day or placebo (subcutaneous administration) for 56 weeks. Diet and exercise counseling were provided throughout the trial. Co-primary end points were percentage weight change from randomization, the proportion of participants that maintained the initial ≥5% weight loss, and the proportion that lost ≥5% of randomization weight (intention-to-treat analysis). ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00781937. Participants (n=422) lost a mean 6.0% (s.d. 0.9) of screening weight during run-in. From randomization to week 56, weight decreased an additional mean 6.2% (s.d. 7.3) with liraglutide and 0.2% (s.d. 7.0) with placebo (estimated difference -6.1% (95% class intervals -7.5 to -4.6), P<0.0001). More participants receiving liraglutide (81.4%) maintained the ≥5% run-in weight loss, compared with those receiving placebo (48.9%) (estimated odds ratio 4.8 (3.0; 7.7), P<0.0001), and 50.5% versus 21.8% of participants lost ≥5% of randomization weight (estimated odds ratio 3.9 (2.4; 6.1), P<0.0001). Liraglutide produced small but statistically significant improvements in several cardiometabolic risk factors compared with placebo. Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders were reported more frequently with liraglutide than placebo, but most events were transient, and mild or moderate in severity. Liraglutide, with diet and exercise, maintained weight loss achieved by caloric restriction and induced further weight loss over 56 weeks. Improvements in some

  10. Comparison of weight loss by weight classification in a commercial, community-based weight loss program

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of our study was to determine the impact of grade of obesity on weight-loss outcomes of a community-based, intensive behavioral counseling program (Weight Watchers Points-Plus). Previous studies have shown that individuals with a higher body mass index (BMI) at the beginning of treatme...

  11. Preserving Healthy Muscle during Weight Loss123

    PubMed Central

    Cava, Edda; Yeat, Nai Chien; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2017-01-01

    Weight loss is the cornerstone of therapy for people with obesity because it can ameliorate or completely resolve the metabolic risk factors for diabetes, coronary artery disease, and obesity-associated cancers. The potential health benefits of diet-induced weight loss are thought to be compromised by the weight-loss–associated loss of lean body mass, which could increase the risk of sarcopenia (low muscle mass and impaired muscle function). The objective of this review is to provide an overview of what is known about weight-loss–induced muscle loss and its implications for overall physical function (e.g., ability to lift items, walk, and climb stairs). The currently available data in the literature show the following: 1) compared with persons with normal weight, those with obesity have more muscle mass but poor muscle quality; 2) diet-induced weight loss reduces muscle mass without adversely affecting muscle strength; 3) weight loss improves global physical function, most likely because of reduced fat mass; 4) high protein intake helps preserve lean body and muscle mass during weight loss but does not improve muscle strength and could have adverse effects on metabolic function; 5) both endurance- and resistance-type exercise help preserve muscle mass during weight loss, and resistance-type exercise also improves muscle strength. We therefore conclude that weight-loss therapy, including a hypocaloric diet with adequate (but not excessive) protein intake and increased physical activity (particularly resistance-type exercise), should be promoted to maintain muscle mass and improve muscle strength and physical function in persons with obesity. PMID:28507015

  12. [Weight maintenance after weight loss - how the body defends its weight].

    PubMed

    Holzapfel, C; Hauner, H

    2011-01-01

    Mean weight loss of most conservative therapeutic weight loss programmes is about five to six kilograms after one year. In our "obesogenic" environment it is difficult for persons to maintain the new weight. Also continuation of the programme cannot prevent a moderate weight increase in the follow-up year. The reasons for this are not clear: individual lifestyle, environmental and genetic factors may play a role, but also the complex regulatory system of the body "to defend its weight". Nevertheless, for weight maintenance a lifelong change of lifestyle is of critical importance. Concerning nutrition a fat-reduced diet with a decrease of energy density together with regular eating habits and adequate portion size promises the greatest benefit and is likely to allow sufficient satiety. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Expert Coaching in Weight Loss: Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kushner, Robert F; Hill, James O; Lindquist, Richard; Brunning, Scott; Margulies, Amy

    2018-01-01

    Background Providing coaches as part of a weight management program is a common practice to increase participant engagement and weight loss success. Understanding coach and participant interactions and how these interactions impact weight loss success needs to be further explored for coaching best practices. Objective The purpose of this study was to analyze the coach and participant interaction in a 6-month weight loss intervention administered by Retrofit, a personalized weight management and Web-based disease prevention solution. The study specifically examined the association between different methods of coach-participant interaction and weight loss and tried to understand the level of coaching impact on weight loss outcome. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed using 1432 participants enrolled from 2011 to 2016 in the Retrofit weight loss program. Participants were males and females aged 18 years or older with a baseline body mass index of ≥25 kg/m², who also provided at least one weight measurement beyond baseline. First, a detailed analysis of different coach-participant interaction was performed using both intent-to-treat and completer populations. Next, a multiple regression analysis was performed using all measures associated with coach-participant interactions involving expert coaching sessions, live weekly expert-led Web-based classes, and electronic messaging and feedback. Finally, 3 significant predictors (P<.001) were analyzed in depth to reveal the impact on weight loss outcome. Results Participants in the Retrofit weight loss program lost a mean 5.14% (SE 0.14) of their baseline weight, with 44% (SE 0.01) of participants losing at least 5% of their baseline weight. Multiple regression model (R2=.158, P<.001) identified the following top 3 measures as significant predictors of weight loss at 6 months: expert coaching session attendance (P<.001), live weekly Web-based class attendance (P<.001), and food log feedback days per week (P<.001

  14. Intermittent Moderate Energy Restriction Improves Weight Loss Efficiency in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Seimon, Radhika V.; Shi, Yan-Chuan; Slack, Katy; Lee, Kailun; Fernando, Hamish A.; Nguyen, Amy D.; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Shu; Enriquez, Ronaldo F.; Lau, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Background Intermittent severe energy restriction is popular for weight management. To investigate whether intermittent moderate energy restriction may improve this approach by enhancing weight loss efficiency, we conducted a study in mice, where energy intake can be controlled. Methods Male C57/Bl6 mice that had been rendered obese by an ad libitum diet high in fat and sugar for 22 weeks were then fed one of two energy-restricted normal chow diets for a 12-week weight loss phase. The continuous diet (CD) provided 82% of the energy intake of age-matched ad libitum chow-fed controls. The intermittent diet (ID) provided cycles of 82% of control intake for 5–6 consecutive days, and ad libitum intake for 1–3 days. Weight loss efficiency during this phase was calculated as (total weight change) ÷ [(total energy intake of mice on CD or ID)–(total average energy intake of controls)]. Subsets of mice then underwent a 3-week weight regain phase involving ad libitum re-feeding. Results Mice on the ID showed transient hyperphagia relative to controls during each 1–3-day ad libitum feeding period, and overall ate significantly more than CD mice (91.1±1.0 versus 82.2±0.5% of control intake respectively, n = 10, P<0.05). There were no significant differences between CD and ID groups at the end of the weight loss or weight regain phases with respect to body weight, fat mass, circulating glucose or insulin concentrations, or the insulin resistance index. Weight loss efficiency was significantly greater with ID than with CD (0.042±0.007 versus 0.018±0.001 g/kJ, n = 10, P<0.01). Mice on the CD exhibited significantly greater hypothalamic mRNA expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) relative to ID and control mice, with no differences in neuropeptide Y or agouti-related peptide mRNA expression between energy-restricted groups. Conclusion Intermittent moderate energy restriction may offer an advantage over continuous moderate energy restriction, because it induces

  15. Weight Loss Practices and Body Weight Perceptions among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharton, Christopher M.; Adams, Troy; Hampl, Jeffrey S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed associations between body weight perception and weight loss strategies. Participants: They randomly selected male and female college students (N = 38,204). Methods: The authors conducted a secondary data analysis of the rates of weight loss strategies and body weight perception among students who completed the…

  16. Biological Mechanisms that Promote Weight Regain Following Weight Loss in Obese Humans

    PubMed Central

    Ochner, Christopher N.; Barrios, Dulce M.; Lee, Clement D.; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Weight loss dieting remains the treatment of choice for the vast majority of obese individuals, despite the limited long-term success of behavioral weight loss interventions. The reasons for the near universal unsustainability of behavioral weight loss in [formerly] obese individuals have not been fully elucidated, relegating researchers to making educated guesses about how to improve obesity treatment, as opposed to developing interventions targeting the causes of weight regain. This article discusses research on several factors that may contribute to weight regain following weight loss achieved through behavioral interventions, including adipose cellularity, endocrine function, energy metabolism, neural responsivity, and addiction-like neural mechanisms. All of these mechanisms are engaged prior to weight loss, suggesting that so called “anti-starvation” mechanisms are activated via reductions in energy intake, rather than depletion of energy stores. Evidence suggests that these mechanisms are not necessarily part of a homeostatic feedback system designed to regulate body weight or even anti-starvation mechanisms per se. Though they may have evolved to prevent starvation, they appear to be more accurately described as anti-weight loss mechanisms, engaged with caloric restriction irrespective of the adequacy of energy stores. It is hypothesized that these factors may combine to create a biological disposition that fosters the maintenance of an elevated body weight and work to restore the highest sustained body weight, thus precluding the long-term success of behavioral weight loss. It may be necessary to develop interventions that attenuate these biological mechanisms in order to achieve long-term weight reduction in obese individuals. PMID:23911805

  17. Selecting a Weight-Loss Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3700, April 2008. Healthy Weight Tip Choose weight-loss programs that encourage healthy behaviors that help you lose weight gradually and maintain your weight over time. Looking for easy-to-use information for eating healthy on the go? The Maintaining a Healthy Weight On the Go pocket guide ...

  18. Intentional Weight Loss and Endometrial Cancer Risk.

    PubMed

    Luo, Juhua; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Hendryx, Michael; Rohan, Thomas; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Thomson, Cynthia A; Felix, Ashley S; Chen, Chu; Barrington, Wendy; Coday, Mace; Stefanick, Marcia; LeBlanc, Erin; Margolis, Karen L

    2017-04-10

    Purpose Although obesity is an established endometrial cancer risk factor, information about the influence of weight loss on endometrial cancer risk in postmenopausal women is limited. Therefore, we evaluated associations among weight change by intentionality with endometrial cancer in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) observational study. Patients and Methods Postmenopausal women (N = 36,794) ages 50 to 79 years at WHI enrollment had their body weights measured and body mass indices calculated at baseline and at year 3. Weight change during that period was categorized as follows: stable (change within ± 5%), loss (change ≥ 5%), and gain (change ≥ 5%). Weight loss intentionality was assessed via self-report at year 3; change was characterized as intentional or unintentional. During the subsequent 11.4 years (mean) of follow-up, 566 incident endometrial cancer occurrences were confirmed by medical record review. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate relationships (hazard ratios [HRs] and 95% CIs) between weight change and endometrial cancer incidence. Results In multivariable analyses, compared with women who had stable weight (± 5%), women with weight loss had a significantly lower endometrial cancer risk (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.95). The association was strongest among obese women with intentional weight loss (HR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.78). Weight gain (≥ 10 pounds) was associated with a higher endometrial cancer risk than was stable weight, especially among women who had never used hormones. Conclusion Intentional weight loss in postmenopausal women is associated with a lower endometrial cancer risk, especially among women with obesity. These findings should motivate programs for weight loss in obese postmenopausal women.

  19. Intentional Weight Loss and Endometrial Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Hendryx, Michael; Rohan, Thomas; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Felix, Ashley S.; Chen, Chu; Barrington, Wendy; Coday, Mace; Stefanick, Marcia; LeBlanc, Erin; Margolis, Karen L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Although obesity is an established endometrial cancer risk factor, information about the influence of weight loss on endometrial cancer risk in postmenopausal women is limited. Therefore, we evaluated associations among weight change by intentionality with endometrial cancer in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) observational study. Patients and Methods Postmenopausal women (N = 36,794) ages 50 to 79 years at WHI enrollment had their body weights measured and body mass indices calculated at baseline and at year 3. Weight change during that period was categorized as follows: stable (change within ± 5%), loss (change ≥ 5%), and gain (change ≥ 5%). Weight loss intentionality was assessed via self-report at year 3; change was characterized as intentional or unintentional. During the subsequent 11.4 years (mean) of follow-up, 566 incident endometrial cancer occurrences were confirmed by medical record review. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate relationships (hazard ratios [HRs] and 95% CIs) between weight change and endometrial cancer incidence. Results In multivariable analyses, compared with women who had stable weight (± 5%), women with weight loss had a significantly lower endometrial cancer risk (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.95). The association was strongest among obese women with intentional weight loss (HR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.78). Weight gain (≥ 10 pounds) was associated with a higher endometrial cancer risk than was stable weight, especially among women who had never used hormones. Conclusion Intentional weight loss in postmenopausal women is associated with a lower endometrial cancer risk, especially among women with obesity. These findings should motivate programs for weight loss in obese postmenopausal women. PMID:28165909

  20. Delay discounting and utility for money or weight loss.

    PubMed

    Sze, Y Y; Slaven, E M; Bickel, W K; Epstein, L H

    2017-03-01

    Obesity is related to a bias towards smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. This bias is typically examined by studying single commodity discounting. However, weight loss often involves choices among multiple commodities. To our knowledge, no research has examined delay discounting of delayed weight loss compared with other commodities. We examined single commodity discounting of money and cross commodity discounting of money and weight loss in a sample of 84 adults with obesity or overweight statuses interested in weight loss. The exchange rate between money and weight loss was calculated, and participants completed two delay discounting tasks: money now versus money later and money now versus weight loss later. Participants discounted weight loss more than money ( p  < 0.001). When participants were divided into those who preferred weight loss ( n  = 61) versus money ( n  = 23), those who preferred money over weight loss discounted weight loss even more than individuals that preferred weight loss ( p  = 0.003). Greater discounting of weight loss for those who preferred money suggest that idiosyncratic preferences are related to multiple commodity discounting, and greater discounting of weight loss across all participants provide insight on important challenges for weight control.

  1. High-protein, low-fat diets are effective for weight loss and favorably alter biomarkers in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Carol S; Tjonn, Sherrie L; Swan, Pamela D

    2004-03-01

    Although popular and effective for weight loss, low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat (Atkins) diets have been associated with adverse changes in blood and renal biomarkers. High-protein diets low in fat may represent an equally appealing diet plan but promote a more healthful weight loss. Healthy adults (n = 20) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 low-fat (<30% energy), energy-restricted groups: high-protein (30% energy) or high-carbohydrate (60% energy); 24-h intakes were strictly controlled during the 6-wk trial. One subject from each group did not complete the trial due to out-of-state travel; two subjects in the high-carbohydrate group withdrew from the trial due to extreme hunger. Body composition and metabolic indices were assessed pre- and post-trial. Both diets were equally effective at reducing body weight (-6%, P < 0.05) and fat mass (-9 to -11%, P < 0.05); however, subjects consuming the high-protein diet reported more satisfaction and less hunger in mo 1 of the trial. Both diets significantly lowered total cholesterol (-10 to -12%), insulin (-25%), and uric acid (-22 to -30%) concentrations in blood from fasting subjects. Urinary calcium excretion increased 42% in subjects consuming the high-protein diet, mirroring the 50% increase in dietary calcium with consumption of this diet; thus, apparent calcium balance was not adversely affected. Creatinine clearance was not altered by diet treatments, and nitrogen balance was more positive in subjects consuming the high-protein diet vs. the high-carbohydrate diet (3.9 +/- 1.4 and 0.7 +/- 1.7 g N/d, respectively, P < 0.05). Thus, low-fat, energy-restricted diets of varying protein content (15 or 30% energy) promoted healthful weight loss, but diet satisfaction was greater in those consuming the high-protein diet.

  2. Expert Coaching in Weight Loss: Retrospective Analysis.

    PubMed

    Painter, Stefanie Lynn; Ahmed, Rezwan; Kushner, Robert F; Hill, James O; Lindquist, Richard; Brunning, Scott; Margulies, Amy

    2018-03-13

    Providing coaches as part of a weight management program is a common practice to increase participant engagement and weight loss success. Understanding coach and participant interactions and how these interactions impact weight loss success needs to be further explored for coaching best practices. The purpose of this study was to analyze the coach and participant interaction in a 6-month weight loss intervention administered by Retrofit, a personalized weight management and Web-based disease prevention solution. The study specifically examined the association between different methods of coach-participant interaction and weight loss and tried to understand the level of coaching impact on weight loss outcome. A retrospective analysis was performed using 1432 participants enrolled from 2011 to 2016 in the Retrofit weight loss program. Participants were males and females aged 18 years or older with a baseline body mass index of ≥25 kg/m², who also provided at least one weight measurement beyond baseline. First, a detailed analysis of different coach-participant interaction was performed using both intent-to-treat and completer populations. Next, a multiple regression analysis was performed using all measures associated with coach-participant interactions involving expert coaching sessions, live weekly expert-led Web-based classes, and electronic messaging and feedback. Finally, 3 significant predictors (P<.001) were analyzed in depth to reveal the impact on weight loss outcome. Participants in the Retrofit weight loss program lost a mean 5.14% (SE 0.14) of their baseline weight, with 44% (SE 0.01) of participants losing at least 5% of their baseline weight. Multiple regression model (R 2 =.158, P<.001) identified the following top 3 measures as significant predictors of weight loss at 6 months: expert coaching session attendance (P<.001), live weekly Web-based class attendance (P<.001), and food log feedback days per week (P<.001). Attending 80% of expert coaching

  3. Weight control behaviors of highly successful weight loss maintainers: the Portuguese Weight Control Registry.

    PubMed

    Santos, Inês; Vieira, Paulo N; Silva, Marlene N; Sardinha, Luís B; Teixeira, Pedro J

    2017-04-01

    To describe key behaviors reported by participants in the Portuguese Weight Control Registry and to determine associations between these behaviors and weight loss maintenance. A total of 388 adults participated in this cross-sectional study. Assessments included demographic information, weight history, weight loss and weight maintenance strategies, dietary intake, and physical activity. Participants lost on average 18 kg, which they had maintained for ~28 months. Their average dietary intake was 2199 kcal/day, with 33 % of energy coming from fat. About 78 % of participants engaged in levels of moderate-plus-vigorous physical activity exceeding 150 min/week (51 % above 250 min/week), with men accumulating 82 more minutes than women (p < 0.05). The most frequently reported strategies for both weight loss and maintenance were keeping healthy foods at home, consuming vegetables regularly, and having daily breakfast. Greater weight loss maintenance was associated with higher levels of physical activity, walking, weight self-monitoring, establishing specific goals, and with reduced portion size use, reduced consumption of carbohydrates, and increased consumption of protein, (p < 0.05). Results indicate that weight loss maintenance is possible through the adoption of a nutritionally-balanced diet and regular participation in physical activity, but also suggest that adopting different (and, to a degree, individualized) set of behavioral strategies is key for achieving success.

  4. Web-Based Interventions for Weight Loss or Weight Loss Maintenance in Overweight and Obese People: A Systematic Review of Systematic Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Sorgente, Angela; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Re, Federica; Simpson, Susan; Perona, Sara; Rossi, Alessandro; Cattivelli, Roberto; Innamorati, Marco; Jackson, Jeffrey B; Castelnuovo, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    Background Weight loss is challenging and maintenance of weight loss is problematic. Web-based programs offer good potential for delivery of interventions for weight loss or weight loss maintenance. However, the precise impact of Web-based weight management programs is still unclear. Objective The purpose of this meta-systematic review was to provide a comprehensive summary of the efficacy of Web-based interventions for weight loss and weight loss maintenance. Methods Electronic databases were searched for systematic reviews and meta-analyses that included at least one study investigating the effect of a Web-based intervention on weight loss and/or weight loss maintenance among samples of overweight and/or obese individuals. Twenty identified reviews met the inclusion criteria. The Revised Assessment of Multiple SysTemAtic Reviews (R-AMSTAR) was used to assess methodological quality of reviews. All included reviews were of sufficient methodological quality (R-AMSTAR score ≥22). Key methodological and outcome data were extracted from each review. Results Web-based interventions for both weight loss and weight loss maintenance were more effective than minimal or control conditions. However, when contrasted with comparable non-Web-based interventions, results were less consistent across reviews. Conclusions Overall, the efficacy of weight loss maintenance interventions was stronger than the efficacy of weight loss interventions, but further evidence is needed to more clearly understand the efficacy of both types of Web-based interventions. Trial Registration PROSPERO 2015: CRD42015029377; http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp? ID=CRD42015029377 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6qkSafdCZ) PMID:28652225

  5. Ineffectiveness of commercial weight-loss programs for achieving modest but meaningful weight loss: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    McEvedy, Samantha M; Sullivan-Mort, Gillian; McLean, Siân A; Pascoe, Michaela C; Paxton, Susan J

    2017-10-01

    This study collates existing evidence regarding weight loss among overweight but otherwise healthy adults who use commercial weight-loss programs. Systematic search of 3 databases identified 11 randomized controlled trials and 14 observational studies of commercial meal-replacement, calorie-counting, or pre-packaged meal programs which met inclusion criteria. In meta-analysis using intention-to-treat data, 57 percent of individuals who commenced a commercial weight program lost less than 5 percent of their initial body weight. One in two (49%) studies reported attrition ≥30 percent. A second meta-analysis found that 37 percent of program completers lost less than 5 percent of initial body weight. We conclude that commercial weight-loss programs frequently fail to produce modest but clinically meaningful weight loss with high rates of attrition suggesting that many consumers find dietary changes required by these programs unsustainable.

  6. The impact of physician weight discussion on weight loss in US adults.

    PubMed

    Pool, Andrew C; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L; Cover, Lindsay A; Lehman, Erik B; Stuckey, Heather L; Hwang, Kevin O; Pollak, Kathryn I; Sciamanna, Christopher N

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States and worldwide is at epidemic levels. Physicians may play a vital role in addressing this epidemic. We aimed to examine the association of a physician's discussion of patients’ weight status with self-reported weight loss. We hypothesized that physician discussion of patients’ being overweight is associated with increased weight loss in patients with overweight and obesity. Data analysis of participants (n = 5054) in the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) in 2005-2008. The main outcome was rates of self-reported weight loss and the association with physicians’ discussion of their patients’ weight status. Overweight and obese participants were significantly more likely to report a 5% weight loss in the past year if their doctor had told them they were overweight (adjusted OR (AOR) 1.88; 95% CI 1.45-2.44; AOR 1.79; 95% CI 1.30-2.46, respectively). Physicians’ direct discussion of their patients’ weight status is associated with clinically significant patient weight loss and may be a targetable intervention. Further studies are needed to determine if increasing physician discussion of patients’ weight status leads to significant weight loss. © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Weight problems and spam e-mail for weight loss products.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Joshua; Shlivko, Sam

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on young adult behaviors with regard to spam e-mails that sell weight loss products. Participants (N = 200) with and without weight problems were asked if they received, opened, and bought products from spam e-mail about weight loss topics in the past year. Psychological factors of self-esteem and perceived stress were measured. Those with weight problems had significantly greater percentages than those without weight problems for receiving (87.7% vs. 73.3%, P = 0.02), opening (41.5% vs. 17.8%, P <0.001), and buying products (18.5% vs. 5.2%, P = 0.003). In the multivariate logistic regression analyses, weight problems were significantly associated with receiving (OR: 3.39, 95% CI: 1.31, 8.82), opening (OR: 3.10, 95% CI: 1.53, 6.29), and buying products (OR: 3.38, 95% CI: 1.16, 9.82). Physicians should consider discussing with patients the potential risks of opening and/or purchasing weight loss products from spam e-mails.

  8. Weight regain is related to decreases in physical activity during weight loss.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuewen; Lyles, Mary F; You, Tongjian; Berry, Michael J; Rejeski, W Jack; Nicklas, Barbara J

    2008-10-01

    To examine whether adaptations in physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) during weight loss were associated with future weight regain in overweight/obese, older women. Thirty-four overweight/obese (BMI = 25-40 kg x m(-2)), postmenopausal women underwent a 20-wk weight loss intervention of hypocaloric diet with (low- or high-intensity) or without treadmill walking (weekly caloric deficit was approximately 11,760 kJ), with a subsequent 12-month follow-up. RMR (via indirect calorimetry), PAEE (by RT3 accelerometer), and body composition (by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) were measured before and after intervention. Body weight and self-reported information on physical activity were collected after intervention and at 6 and 12 months after intervention. The intervention resulted in decreases in body weight, lean mass, fat mass, percent body fat, RMR, and PAEE (P < 0.001 for all). Weight regain was 2.9 +/- 3.3 kg (-3.1 to +9.2 kg) at 6 months and 5.2 +/- 5.0 kg (-2.3 to +21.7 kg) at 12 months after intervention. The amount of weight regained after 6 and 12 months was inversely associated with decreases in PAEE during the weight loss intervention (r = -0.521, P = 0.002 and r = -0.404, P = 0.018, respectively), such that women with larger declines in PAEE during weight loss experienced greater weight regain during follow-up. Weight regain was not associated with changes in RMR during intervention or with self-reported physical activity during follow-up. This study demonstrates that although both RMR and PAEE decreased during weight loss in postmenopausal women, maintaining high levels of daily physical activity during weight loss may be important to mitigate weight regain after weight loss.

  9. Weight loss practices of college wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Oppliger, Robert A; Steen, Suzanne A Nelson; Scott, James R

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the weight management (WM) behaviors of collegiate wrestlers after the implementation of the NCAA's new weight control rules. In the fall of 1999, a survey was distributed to 47 college wrestling teams stratified by collegiate division (i.e., I, II, III) and competitive quality. Forty-three teams returned surveys for a total of 741 responses. Comparisons were made using the collegiate division, weight class, and the wrestler's competitive winning percentage. The most weight lost during the season was 5.3 kg +/- 2.8 kg (mean +/- SD) or 6.9% +/- 4.7% of the wrestler's weight; weekly weight lost averaged 2.9 kg +/- 1.3 kg or 4.3% +/- 2.3% of the wrestler's weight; post-season, the average wrestler regained 5.5 kg +/- 3.6 kg or 8.6% +/- 5.4% of their weight. Coaches and fellow wrestlers were the primary influence on weight loss methods; however, 40.2% indicated that the new NCAA rules deterred extreme weight loss behaviors. The primary methods of weight loss reported were gradual dieting (79.4%) and increased exercise (75.2%). However, 54.8% fasted, 27.6% used saunas, and 26.7% used rubber/plastic suits at least once a month. Cathartics and vomiting were seldom used to lose weight, and only 5 met three or more of the criteria for bulimia nervosa. WM behaviors were more extreme among freshmen, lighter weight classes, and Division II wrestlers. Compared to previous surveys of high school wrestlers, this cohort of wrestlers reported more extreme WM behaviors. However, compared to college wrestlers in the 1980s, weight loss behaviors were less extreme. The WM practices of college wrestlers appeared to have improved compared to wrestlers sampled previously. Forty percent of the wrestlers were influenced by the new NCAA rules and curbed their weight loss practices. Education is still needed, as some wrestlers are still engaging in dangerous WM methods.

  10. Weight-Loss Strategies Used by the General Population: How Are They Perceived?

    PubMed Central

    Julia, Chantal; Péneau, Sandrine; Andreeva, Valentina A.; Méjean, Caroline; Fezeu, Léopold; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Background The rising prevalence of obesity and the social pressure for thinness increase the prevalence of dieting. However, little is known about the overall perception of dieting strategies actually used by the general population. Objectives Our main objective was to investigate perceptions of weight-loss practices in an observational study in order to identify the most favourable strategy. Design Adults from the ongoing Nutrinet-Santé cohort study who had reported engaging in dieting in the three previous years were included in the study. For each diet, detailed information was collected on types of diets, circumstances and perception of the diet, and outcomes. Perceptions were compared across diets using sex-specific mixed effects models. Result Among the 48 435 subjects who had completed the respective questionnaire, 12 673 (26.7%, 87.8% of women) had followed at least one weight-loss diet in the previous three years. Diet plans prescribed by health professionals and diets conforming to official dietary recommendations were the most favourably perceived among all assessed weight-loss strategies. Alternatively, commercial diet plans and self-imposed dietary restrictions were more negatively perceived (Odds ratios (OR) for adherence difficulty 1.30 (95% confidence interval (0.99;1.7)) in men and OR 1.92 (1.76;2.10) in women compared to official nutritional guidelines; OR 1.06 (0.82;1.38) in men and OR 1.39 (1.26;1.54) in women respectively) compared to official nutritional guidelines. Conclusion Official dietary recommendations could be useful tools for maintaining a dietary balance while following a weight-loss diet. PMID:24852440

  11. A structured diet and exercise program promotes favorable changes in weight loss, body composition, and weight maintenance.

    PubMed

    Kreider, Richard B; Serra, Monica; Beavers, Kristen M; Moreillon, Jen; Kresta, Julie Y; Byrd, Mike; Oliver, Jonathan M; Gutierrez, Jean; Hudson, Geoffrey; Deike, Erika; Shelmadine, Brian; Leeke, Patricia; Rasmussen, Chris; Greenwood, Mike; Cooke, Matthew B; Kerksick, Chad; Campbell, Jessica K; Beiseigel, Jeannemarie; Jonnalagadda, Satya S

    2011-06-01

    A number of diet and exercise programs purport to help promote and maintain weight loss. However, few studies have compared the efficacy of different methods. To determine whether adherence to a meal-replacement-based diet program (MRP) with encouragement to increase physical activity is as effective as following a more structured meal-plan-based diet and supervised exercise program (SDE) in sedentary obese women. Randomized comparative effectiveness trial. From July 2007 to October 2008, 90 obese and apparently healthy women completed a 10-week university-based weight loss trial while 77 women from this cohort also completed a 24-week weight maintenance phase. Participants were matched and randomized to participate in an MRP or SDE program. Weight loss, health, and fitness-related data were assessed at 0 and 10 weeks on all subjects as well as at 14, 22, and 34 weeks on participants who completed the weight maintenance phase. Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance for repeated measures. During the 10-week weight loss phase, moderate and vigorous physical activity levels were significantly higher in the SDE group with no differences observed between groups in daily energy intake. The SDE group lost more weight (-3.1 ± 3.7 vs -1.6 ± 2.5 kg; P = 0.03); fat mass (-2.3 ± 3.5 vs -0.9 ± 1.6 kg; P = 0.02); centimeters from the hips (-4.6 ± 7 vs -0.2 ± 6 cm; P = 0.002) and waist (-2.9 ± 6 vs -0.6 ± 5 cm; P = 0.05); and, experienced a greater increase in peak aerobic capacity than participants in the MRP group. During the 24-week maintenance phase, participants in the SDE group maintained greater moderate and vigorous physical activity levels, weight loss, fat loss, and saw greater improvement in maximal aerobic capacity and strength. In sedentary and obese women, an SDE-based program appears to be more efficacious in promoting and maintaining weight loss and improvements in markers of health and fitness compared to an MRP type program with

  12. Will weight loss cause significant dosimetric changes of target volumes and organs at risk in nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy?

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chen, Chuanben; Fei, Zhaodong; Chen, Lisha

    This study aimed to quantify dosimetric effects of weight loss for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Overall, 25 patients with NPC treated with IMRT were enrolled. We simulated weight loss during IMRT on the computer. Weight loss model was based on the planning computed tomography (CT) images. The original external contour of head and neck was labeled plan 0, and its volume was regarded as pretreatment normal weight. We shrank the external contour with different margins (2, 3, and 5 mm) and generated new external contours of head and neck. The volumes of reconstructed external contoursmore » were regarded as weight during radiotherapy. After recontouring outlines, the initial treatment plan was mapped to the redefined CT scans with the same beam configurations, yielding new plans. The computer model represented a theoretical proportional weight loss of 3.4% to 13.7% during the course of IMRT. The dose delivered to the planning target volume (PTV) of primary gross tumor volume and clinical target volume significantly increased by 1.9% to 2.9% and 1.8% to 2.9% because of weight loss, respectively. The dose to the PTV of gross tumor volume of lymph nodes fluctuated from −2.0% to 1.0%. The dose to the brain stem and the spinal cord was increased (p < 0.001), whereas the dose to the parotid gland was decreased (p < 0.001). Weight loss may lead to significant dosimetric change during IMRT. Repeated scanning and replanning for patients with NPC with an obvious weight loss may be necessary.« less

  13. Relations of hedonic hunger and behavioral change to weight loss among adults in a behavioral weight loss program utilizing meal-replacement products.

    PubMed

    Theim, Kelly R; Brown, Joshua D; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Malcolm, Robert R; O'Neil, Patrick M

    2013-11-01

    Greater self-regulatory behavior usage is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments. Hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may impede successful behavior change and weight loss. Adult men and women (N = 111, body mass index M ± SD = 35.89 ± 6.97 kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after a 15-week lifestyle change weight loss program with a partial meal-replacement diet. From pre- to post-treatment, reported weight control behavior usage improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely related. Individuals with higher hedonic hunger scores at baseline showed the greatest weight loss. Similarly, participants with lower baseline use of weight control behaviors lost more weight, and increased weight control behavior usage was associated with greater weight loss-particularly among individuals with low baseline hedonic hunger. Further study is warranted regarding the significance of hedonic hunger in weight loss treatments.

  14. Impact of intermittent fasting on the lipid profile: Assessment associated with diet and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Santos, Heitor O; Macedo, Rodrigo C O

    2018-04-01

    Intermittent fasting, whose proposed benefits include the improvement of lipid profile and the body weight loss, has gained considerable scientific and popular repercussion. This review aimed to consolidate studies that analyzed the lipid profile in humans before and after intermittent fasting period through a detailed review; and to propose the physiological mechanism, considering the diet and the body weight loss. Normocaloric and hypocaloric intermittent fasting may be a dietary method to aid in the improvement of the lipid profile in healthy, obese and dyslipidemic men and women by reducing total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and increasing HDL levels. However, the majority of studies that analyze the intermittent fasting impacts on the lipid profile and body weight loss are observational based on Ramadan fasting, which lacks large sample and detailed information about diet. Randomized clinical trials with a larger sample size are needed to evaluate the IF effects mainly in patients with dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2018 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Predictive Factors for Insufficient Weight Loss After Bariatric Surgery: Does Obstructive Sleep Apnea Influence Weight Loss?

    PubMed

    de Raaff, Christel A L; Coblijn, Usha K; de Vries, Nico; Heymans, Martijn W; van den Berg, Bob T J; van Tets, Willem F; van Wagensveld, Bart A

    2016-05-01

    Important endpoints of bariatric surgery are weight loss and improvement of comorbidities, of which obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the highest accompanying comorbidity (70%). This study aimed to evaluate the influence of OSA on weight loss after bariatric surgery and to provide predictive factors for insufficient weight loss (defined as ≤50% excess weight loss (EWL)) at 1 year follow-up. All consecutive patients, who underwent primary laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy between 2006 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with data on preoperative apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and pre- and postoperative body mass index (BMI) were included. After surgery, the percentage excess weight loss (%EWL) and BMI changes were compared between preoperatively diagnosed OSA-, subdivided in mild, moderate, and severe OSA, and non-OSA patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis evaluated predictive factors for ≤50% EWL. A total of 816 patients, 522 (64%) with and 294 (36%) without OSA, were included. After 1 year, OSA patients achieved less %EWL than non-OSA patients (65.5 SD 20.7 versus 70.3 SD 21.0; p < 0.01). The lowest %EWL was seen in severe OSA patients (61.7 SD 20.2). However, when adjusted for waist circumference, BMI, and age, no effect of OSA was seen on %EWL or changes in BMI. Although AHI, gender, age, BMI, type of surgery, and type II diabetes were predictive factors for ≤50% EWL (area under the curve 0.778), the AHI as variable was of little importance. The presence of OSA does not individually impair weight loss after bariatric surgery.

  16. Perceived Self-Efficacy and Financial Incentives: Factors Affecting Health Behaviors and Weight Loss in a Workplace Weight Loss Intervention.

    PubMed

    Faghri, Pouran D; Simon, Julia; Huedo-Medina, Tania; Gorin, Amy

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate if self-efficacy (SE) and financial incentives (FI) mediate the effect of health behavior on weight loss in a group of overweight and obese nursing-home employees participating in a 16-week weight-loss intervention with 12-week follow-up. Ninety nine overweight/obese (body mass index [BMI] > 25) employees from four nursing-homes participated, with a mean age of 46.98 years and BMI of 35.33. Nursing-homes were randomized to receiving an incentive-based intervention (n = 51) and no incentive (n = 48). Participants' health behaviors and eating and exercise self-efficacy (Ex-SE) were assessed at week 1, 16, and 28 using a self-reported questionnaire. Mediation and moderated mediation analysis assessed relationships among these variables. Eating self-efficacy (Eat-SE) and Ex-SE were significant mediators between health behaviors and weight loss (P < 0.05). Incentives significantly moderated the effects of self-efficacy (P = 0.00) on weight loss. Self-efficacy and FI may affect weight loss and play a role in weight-loss interventions.

  17. Click "like" to change your behavior: a mixed methods study of college students' exposure to and engagement with Facebook content designed for weight loss.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Gina; Weibel, Nadir; Patrick, Kevin; Fowler, James H; Norman, Greg J; Gupta, Anjali; Servetas, Christina; Calfas, Karen; Raste, Ketaki; Pina, Laura; Donohue, Mike; Griswold, William G; Marshall, Simon

    2014-06-24

    Overweight or obesity is prevalent among college students and many gain weight during this time. Traditional face-to-face weight loss interventions have not worked well in this population. Facebook is an attractive tool for delivering weight loss interventions for college students because of its popularity, potential to deliver strategies found in successful weight loss interventions, and ability to support ongoing adaptation of intervention content. The objective of this study was to describe participant exposure to a Facebook page designed to deliver content to overweight/obese college students in a weight loss randomized controlled trial (N=404) and examine participant engagement with behavior change campaigns for weight loss delivered via Facebook. The basis of the intervention campaign model were 5 self-regulatory techniques: intention formation, action planning, feedback, goal review, and self-monitoring. Participants were encouraged to engage their existing social network to meet their weight loss goals. A health coach moderated the page and modified content based on usage patterns and user feedback. Quantitative analyses were conducted at the Facebook post- and participant-level of analysis. Participant engagement was quantified by Facebook post type (eg, status update) and interaction (eg, like) and stratified by weight loss campaign (sequenced vs nonsequenced). A subset of participants were interviewed to evaluate the presence of passive online engagement or "lurking." The health coach posted 1816 unique messages to the study's Facebook page over 21 months, averaging 3.45 posts per day (SD 1.96, range 1-13). In all, 72.96% (1325/1816) of the posts were interacted with at least once (eg, liked). Of these, approximately 24.75% (328/1325) had 1-2 interactions, 23.39% (310/1325) had 3-5 interactions, 25.13% (333/1325) had 6-8 interactions, and 41 posts had 20 or more interactions (3.09%, 41/1325). There was significant variability among quantifiable (ie

  18. When weight management lasts. Lower perceived rule complexity increases adherence.

    PubMed

    Mata, Jutta; Todd, Peter M; Lippke, Sonia

    2010-02-01

    Maintaining behavior change is one of the major challenges in weight management and long-term weight loss. We investigated the impact of the cognitive complexity of eating rules on adherence to weight management programs. We studied whether popular weight management programs can fail if participants find the rules too complicated from a cognitive perspective, meaning that individuals are not able to recall or process all required information for deciding what to eat. The impact on program adherence of participants' perceptions of eating rule complexity and other behavioral factors known to influence adherence (including previous weight management, self-efficacy, and planning) was assessed via a longitudinal online questionnaire given to 390 participants on two different popular weight management regimens. As we show, the regimens, Weight Watchers and a popular German recipe diet (Brigitte), strongly differ in objective rule complexity and thus their cognitive demands on the dieter. Perceived rule complexity was the strongest factor associated with increased risk of quitting the cognitively demanding weight management program (Weight Watchers); it was not related to adherence length for the low cognitive demand program (Brigitte). Higher self-efficacy generally helped in maintaining a program. The results emphasize the importance of considering rule complexity to promote long-term weight management. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dietary self-monitoring, but not dietary quality, improves with use of smartphone app technology in an 8-week weight loss trial.

    PubMed

    Wharton, Christopher M; Johnston, Carol S; Cunningham, Barbara K; Sterner, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Dietary self-monitoring is linked to improved weight loss success. Mobile technologies, such as smartphone applications (apps), might allow for improved dietary tracking adherence. The authors assessed the use of a popular smartphone app for dietary self-monitoring and weight loss by comparing it with traditional diet counseling and entry methods. Diet tracking and weight loss were compared across participants during an 8-week weight loss trial. Participants tracked intake using 1 of 3 methods: the mobile app "Lose It!", the memo feature on a smartphone, or a traditional paper-and-pencil method. App users (n = 19) recorded dietary data more consistently compared with the paper-and-pencil group (n = 15; P = .042) but not the memo group (n = 13). All groups lost weight over the course of the study (P = .001), and no difference in weight loss was noted between groups. Smartphone apps could represent a novel and feasible dietary self-monitoring method for individuals. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Postpartum weight loss and infant feeding.

    PubMed

    Haiek, L N; Kramer, M S; Ciampi, A; Tirado, R

    2001-01-01

    Women are often advised that lactation accelerates loss of the excess weight gained during pregnancy, but the evidence underlying this advice is sparse and conflicting. To help fill this gap, we assessed differences in the rate of postpartum weight loss in the first 9 months postpartum according to method of infant feeding. Two hundred thirty-six women attending two public health clinics in Montreal were weighed in one to four routine infant immunization visits up to the 9th postpartum month. After each weighing, we administered a telephone questionnaire assessing the method of infant feeding (predominantly breast-feeding, mixed-feeding, or predominantly bottle-feeding) and potential confounders. Data were analyzed using unbalanced multivariate repeated measures linear regression. Infant feeding was not associated with statistically significant differences in the rate of weight loss. Gestational weight gain, postpartum smoking, and maternal birthplace were important predictors of postpartum weight change. Although our results cannot exclude an effect of more exclusive or more prolonged breast-feeding, breast-feeding as commonly practiced does not appear to influence the rate of postpartum weight loss. This information should be useful in counseling new or prospective mothers and in avoiding unrealistic expectations.

  1. Brief report: Weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The study objectives were to assess the association between weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children participating in a weight management program. Participants included 265 Mexican American children recruited for a school-based weight management program. Al...

  2. Organizational- and employee-level recruitment into a worksite-based weight loss study.

    PubMed

    Linnan, Laura; Tate, Deborah F; Harrington, Cherise B; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Finkelstein, Eric; Bangdiwala, Shrikant; Birken, Ben; Britt, Ashley

    2012-04-01

    Based on national estimates, the majority of working adults are overweight or obese. Overweight and obesity are associated with diminished health, productivity, and increased medical costs for employers. Worksite-based weight loss interventions are desirable from both employee and employer perspectives. To investigate organizational- and employee-level participation in a group-randomized controlled worksite-based weight loss trial. Using a set of inclusion criteria and pre-established procedures, we recruited worksites (and overweight/obese employees from enrolled worksites) from the North Carolina Community College System to participate in a weight loss study. Recruitment results at the worksite (organization) and employee levels are described, along with an assessment of representativeness. Eighty-one percent (48/59) of community colleges indicated initial interest in participating in the weight loss study, and of those, 17 colleges were enrolled. Few characteristics distinguished enrolled community colleges from unenrolled colleges in the overall system. Eligible employees (n = 1004) at participating colleges were enrolled in the weight loss study. On average, participants were aged 46.9 years (SD = 12.1 years), had a body mass index (BMI) of 33.6 kg/m(2) (SD = 7.9 kg/m(2)), 83.2% were White, 13.3% African American, 82.2% female, and 41.8% reported holding an advanced degree (master's or doctoral degree). Compared with the larger North Carolina Community College employee population, participants most often were women, but few other differences were observed. Employees with reduced computer access may have been less likely to participate, and limited data on unenrolled individuals or colleges were available. Community colleges are willing partners for weight loss intervention studies, and overweight/obese employees were receptive to joining a weight loss study offered in the workplace. The results from this study are useful for planning future worksite

  3. Effects of Weight Loss, Weight Cycling, and Weight Loss Maintenance on Diabetes Incidence and Change in Cardiometabolic Traits in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qing; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Aroda, Vanita R.; Watson, Karol E.; Bray, George A.; Kahn, Steven E.; Florez, Jose C.; Perreault, Leigh; Franks, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study examined specific measures of weight loss in relation to incident diabetes and improvement in cardiometabolic risk factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This prospective, observational study analyzed nine weight measures, characterizing baseline weight, short- versus long-term weight loss, short- versus long-term weight regain, and weight cycling, within the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) lifestyle intervention arm (n = 1,000) for predictors of incident diabetes and improvement in cardiometabolic risk factors over 2 years. RESULTS Although weight loss in the first 6 months was protective of diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 0.94 per kg, 95% CI 0.90, 0.98; P < 0.01) and cardiometabolic risk factors (P < 0.01), weight loss from 0 to 2 years was the strongest predictor of reduced diabetes incidence (HR 0.90 per kg, 95% CI 0.87, 0.93; P < 0.01) and cardiometabolic risk factor improvement (e.g., fasting glucose: β = −0.57 mg/dL per kg, 95% CI −0.66, −0.48; P < 0.01). Weight cycling (defined as number of 5-lb [2.25-kg] weight cycles) ranged 0–6 times per participant and was positively associated with incident diabetes (HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.12, 1.58; P < 0.01), fasting glucose (β = 0.91 mg/dL per cycle; P = 0.02), HOMA-IR (β = 0.25 units per cycle; P = 0.04), and systolic blood pressure (β = 0.94 mmHg per cycle; P = 0.01). After adjustment for baseline weight, the effect of weight cycling remained statistically significant for diabetes risk (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.02, 1.47; P = 0.03) but not for cardiometabolic traits. CONCLUSIONS Two-year weight loss was the strongest predictor of reduced diabetes risk and improvements in cardiometabolic traits. PMID:25024396

  4. Increased vegetable and fruit consumption during weight loss effort correlates with increased weight and fat loss.

    PubMed

    Whigham, L D; Valentine, A R; Johnson, L K; Zhang, Z; Atkinson, R L; Tanumihardjo, S A

    2012-10-01

    Individuals who focused on calorie counting lost more weight than those who focused on increasing vegetable and fruit (V&F) intake in a weight loss program. We now present serum carotenoid data (biomarkers of V&F intake) from both groups and test whether these biomarkers correlate with changes in weight and body fat. Sixty obese volunteers were randomized to one of the following weight loss programs: 500 kcal per day reduction (Reduction) or a focus on consuming eight vegetables per day and 2-3 fruits per day (HiVeg). Volunteers in the Reduction group were 36.8±10.3 years with a body mass index of 33.5; 83% were white, 17% chose not to report race; 70% were not Hispanic or Latino, 13% were Hispanic or Latino and 17% chose not to report ethnicity. Volunteers in the HiVeg group were 30.4±6.6 years with a body mass index of 33.2: 74% white, 11% Asian, 5% black or African American, 5% multiracial and 5% chose not to report race; 89% were not Hispanic or Latino, 5% were Hispanic or Latino and 5% chose not to report ethnicity. Subjects were taught basic nutrition principles, received breakfast and lunch 5 days per week for 3 months, meals 2 days per week during month 4, then regular phone calls to month 12. Total serum carotenoid concentrations increased from baseline to 3 months and remained elevated at 12 months, but there was no difference between groups. Changes in weight, fat and % fat correlated negatively with serum carotenoid concentrations. Increased serum carotenoids (a biomarker for V&F intake) correlated with improved weight and fat loss indicating that increased V&F consumption is an appropriate strategy for weight loss. However, in light of the fact that the Reduction group lost more weight, the consumption of increased V&F for the purpose of weight loss should happen within the context of reducing total caloric intake.

  5. Respiratory weight losses during exercise.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. W.; Nadel, E. R.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.

    1972-01-01

    Evaporative water loss from the respiratory tract was determined over a wide range of exercise. The absolute humidity of the expired air was the same at all levels of exercise and equal to that measured at rest. The rate of respiratory water loss during exercise was found to be 0.019 of the oxygen uptake times (44 minus water vapor pressure). The rate of weight loss during exercise due to CO2-O2 exchange was calculated. For exercise at oxygen consumption rates exceeding 1.5 L/min in a dry environment with a water vapor pressure of 10 mm Hg, the total rate of weight loss via the respiratory tract is on the order of 2-5 g/min.

  6. Meal replacement with a low-calorie diet formula in weight loss maintenance after weight loss induction with diet alone.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, C; Montagna, C; Alcaraz, F; Balsa, J A; Zamarrón, I; Arrieta, F; Botella-Carretero, J I

    2009-10-01

    Weight loss in obesity can reduce morbidity and mortality and benefits persist as long as weight loss is maintained. Weight maintenance is difficult in the long term and new strategies need to be developed to achieve this goal. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of substituting a low-calorie diet formula for a meal in a weight loss program during the maintenance phase. Randomized paralleled clinical trial including 62 adult patients with at least a 5% weight loss with diet alone for 6 months, randomized to two groups: daily replacement of one meal with a low-calorie diet formula, or dieting alone for another 6 months (weight maintenance phase). Weight maintenance or further weight loss occurred in 83.9% of patients in the intervention group, whereas only in 58.1% in the control group (P=0.025). As a whole, patients in the intervention group lost a further 3.2+/-3.7% of initial weight compared with a 1.3+/-3.6% in the control group (P=0.030). Body fat mass diminished in both groups, with no differences between them (1.6+/-3.5 vs 1.0+/-9.3 kg, respectively, P=0.239), and the same happened with free fat mass (0.9+/-3.3 vs 0.4+/-6.7 kg, respectively, P=0.471). A multivariate logistic regression analysis (R (2)=0.114, P=0.023) retained only the intervention as a predictor of the achievement of weight maintenance with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 3.756 (1.138-12.391). Substitution of a low-calorie diet formula for a meal is an effective measure for weight loss maintenance compared with dieting alone.

  7. Low-maintenance energy requirements of obese dogs after weight loss.

    PubMed

    German, Alexander J; Holden, Shelley L; Mather, Nicola J; Morris, Penelope J; Biourge, Vincent

    2011-10-01

    Weight rebound after successful weight loss is a well-known phenomenon in humans and dogs, possibly due to the fact that energy restriction improves metabolic efficiency, reducing post-weight-loss maintenance energy requirements (MER). The aim of the present study was to estimate post-weight-loss MER in obese pet dogs that had successfully lost weight and did not subsequently rebound. A total of twenty-four obese dogs, successfully completing a weight management programme at the Royal Canin Weight Management Clinic, University of Liverpool (Wirral, UK), were included. In all dogs, a period of >14 d of stable weight ( < 1 % change) was identified post-weight loss, when food intake was constant and activity levels were stable (assessed via owners' diary records). Post-weight-loss MER was indirectly estimated by determining dietary energy consumption during this stable weight period. Multivariable linear regression was used to identify factors that were associated with post-weight-loss MER. The mean length of stable weight after weight loss was 54 (SD 34.1) d. During this time, MER was 285 (SD 54.8) kJ/kg(0.75) per d. The rate of prior weight loss and food intake during the weight-loss phase was positively associated with post-weight-loss MER, while the amount of lean tissue lost was negatively associated with post-weight-loss MER. MER are low after weight loss in obese pet dogs (typically only 10 % more than required during weight-loss MER), which has implications for what should constitute the optimal diet during this period. Preserving lean tissue during weight loss may maximise post-weight-loss MER and help prevent rebound.

  8. Relationship of cravings with weight loss and hunger: results from a 6 month worksite weight loss intervention

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We examined the association of food cravings with weight loss and eating behaviors in a 6 month worksite lifestyle weight loss program. This randomized controlled trial of the intervention versus a wait-listed control was conducted at 4 worksites, and 95 participants completed outcome assessments ...

  9. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and energy efficiency in weight loss diets.

    PubMed

    Feinman, Richard D; Fine, Eugene J

    2007-07-30

    controls fatty acid flux and oxidation, 2) the rate of lipolysis is a primary target of insulin, postprandial, and 3) chronic carbohydrate-restricted diets reduce the levels of plasma TAG in response to a single meal. In summary, we propose that, in isocaloric diets of different macronutrient composition, there is variable flux of stored TAG controlled by the kinetic effects of insulin and other hormones. Because the fatty acid-TAG cycle never comes to equilibrium, net gain or loss is possible. The greater weight loss on carbohydrate restricted diets, popularly referred to as metabolic advantage can thus be understood in terms of the principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and is a consequence of the dynamic nature of bioenergetics where it is important to consider kinetic as well as thermodynamic variables.

  10. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and energy efficiency in weight loss diets

    PubMed Central

    Feinman, Richard D; Fine, Eugene J

    2007-01-01

    controls fatty acid flux and oxidation, 2) the rate of lipolysis is a primary target of insulin, postprandial, and 3) chronic carbohydrate-restricted diets reduce the levels of plasma TAG in response to a single meal. In summary, we propose that, in isocaloric diets of different macronutrient composition, there is variable flux of stored TAG controlled by the kinetic effects of insulin and other hormones. Because the fatty acid-TAG cycle never comes to equilibrium, net gain or loss is possible. The greater weight loss on carbohydrate restricted diets, popularly referred to as metabolic advantage can thus be understood in terms of the principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and is a consequence of the dynamic nature of bioenergetics where it is important to consider kinetic as well as thermodynamic variables. PMID:17663761

  11. Early Weight Loss with Liraglutide 3.0 mg Predicts 1-Year Weight Loss and is Associated with Improvements in Clinical Markers.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Ken; O'Neil, Patrick M; Davies, Melanie; Greenway, Frank; C W Lau, David; Claudius, Birgitte; Skjøth, Trine Vang; Bjørn Jensen, Christine; P H Wilding, John

    2016-11-01

    To identify an early response criterion for predicting ≥5% weight loss with liraglutide 3.0 mg at week 56 and to compare efficacy outcomes in early responders (ERs) and early nonresponders (ENRs). Using pooled data from the SCALE Obesity and Prediabetes and SCALE Diabetes trials, weight loss of ≥4% at 16 weeks best predicted ≥5% weight loss after 56 weeks. Weight loss and changes in cardiometabolic risk factors and health-related quality of life were evaluated in ERs (≥4% weight loss at week 16) and ENRs (<4% weight loss at week 16) completing 56 weeks' treatment. Proportions of ERs/ENRs to liraglutide 3.0 mg were 77.3%/22.7% (individuals without type 2 diabetes, T2D) and 62.7%/37.3% (those with T2D). Greater mean weight loss was observed in ERs versus ENRs: 10.8% versus 3.0% (without T2D) and 8.5% versus 3.1% (T2D). In both trials, greater proportions of ERs versus ENRs achieved ≥5%, >10%, and >15% weight loss at week 56 with liraglutide 3.0 mg. Greater improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors and health-related quality of life scores were observed in ERs versus ENRs. The early response criterion was clinically useful to identify individuals who would achieve clinically meaningful weight loss at 56 weeks. © 2016 The Authors Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  12. 38 CFR 4.112 - Weight loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weight loss. 4.112 Section 4.112 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.112 Weight loss. For purposes of evaluating conditions...

  13. 38 CFR 4.112 - Weight loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Weight loss. 4.112 Section 4.112 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.112 Weight loss. For purposes of evaluating conditions...

  14. 38 CFR 4.112 - Weight loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Weight loss. 4.112 Section 4.112 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.112 Weight loss. For purposes of evaluating conditions...

  15. 38 CFR 4.112 - Weight loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Weight loss. 4.112 Section 4.112 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.112 Weight loss. For purposes of evaluating conditions...

  16. 38 CFR 4.112 - Weight loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Weight loss. 4.112 Section 4.112 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.112 Weight loss. For purposes of evaluating conditions...

  17. Click “Like” to Change Your Behavior: A Mixed Methods Study of College Students’ Exposure to and Engagement With Facebook Content Designed for Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Weibel, Nadir; Patrick, Kevin; Fowler, James H; Norman, Greg J; Gupta, Anjali; Servetas, Christina; Calfas, Karen; Raste, Ketaki; Pina, Laura; Donohue, Mike; Griswold, William G; Marshall, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background Overweight or obesity is prevalent among college students and many gain weight during this time. Traditional face-to-face weight loss interventions have not worked well in this population. Facebook is an attractive tool for delivering weight loss interventions for college students because of its popularity, potential to deliver strategies found in successful weight loss interventions, and ability to support ongoing adaptation of intervention content. Objective The objective of this study was to describe participant exposure to a Facebook page designed to deliver content to overweight/obese college students in a weight loss randomized controlled trial (N=404) and examine participant engagement with behavior change campaigns for weight loss delivered via Facebook. Methods The basis of the intervention campaign model were 5 self-regulatory techniques: intention formation, action planning, feedback, goal review, and self-monitoring. Participants were encouraged to engage their existing social network to meet their weight loss goals. A health coach moderated the page and modified content based on usage patterns and user feedback. Quantitative analyses were conducted at the Facebook post- and participant-level of analysis. Participant engagement was quantified by Facebook post type (eg, status update) and interaction (eg, like) and stratified by weight loss campaign (sequenced vs nonsequenced). A subset of participants were interviewed to evaluate the presence of passive online engagement or “lurking.” Results The health coach posted 1816 unique messages to the study’s Facebook page over 21 months, averaging 3.45 posts per day (SD 1.96, range 1-13). In all, 72.96% (1325/1816) of the posts were interacted with at least once (eg, liked). Of these, approximately 24.75% (328/1325) had 1-2 interactions, 23.39% (310/1325) had 3-5 interactions, 25.13% (333/1325) had 6-8 interactions, and 41 posts had 20 or more interactions (3.09%, 41/1325). There was

  18. How adolescent girls interpret weight-loss advertising.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Renee; Broder, Sharon; Pope, Holly; Rowe, Jonelle

    2006-10-01

    While they demonstrate some ability to critically analyze the more obvious forms of deceptive weight-loss advertising, many girls do not recognize how advertising evokes emotional responses or how visual and narrative techniques are used to increase identification in weight-loss advertising. This study examined how girls aged 9-17 years interpreted magazine advertising, television (TV) advertising and infomercials for weight-loss products in order to determine whether deceptive advertising techniques were recognized and to assess pre-existing media-literacy skills. A total of 42 participants were interviewed in seven geographic regions of the United States. In groups of three, participants were shown seven print and TV advertisements (ads) for weight-loss products and asked to share their interpretations of each ad. Common factors in girls' interpretation of weight-loss advertising included responding to texts emotionally by identifying with characters; comparing and contrasting persuasive messages with real-life experiences with family members; using prior knowledge about nutrition management and recognizing obvious deceptive claims like 'rapid' or 'permanent' weight loss. Girls were less able to demonstrate skills including recognizing persuasive construction strategies including message purpose, target audience and subtext and awareness of economic factors including financial motives, credibility enhancement and branding.

  19. Weight Loss, Glycemic Control, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Response to Differential Diet Composition in a Weight Loss Program in Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rock, Cheryl L.; Flatt, Shirley W.; Pakiz, Bilge; Taylor, Kenneth S.; Leone, Angela F.; Brelje, Kerrin; Heath, Dennis D.; Quintana, Elizabeth L.; Sherwood, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test whether a weight loss program promotes greater weight loss, glycemic control, and improved cardiovascular disease risk factors compared with control conditions and whether there is a differential response to higher versus lower carbohydrate intake. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This randomized controlled trial at two university medical centers enrolled 227 overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes and assigned them to parallel in-person diet and exercise counseling, with prepackaged foods in a planned menu during the initial phase, or to usual care (UC; two weight loss counseling sessions and monthly contacts). RESULTS Relative weight loss was 7.4% (95% CI 5.7–9.2%), 9.0% (7.1–10.9%), and 2.5% (1.3–3.8%) for the lower fat, lower carbohydrate, and UC groups (P < 0.001 intervention effect). Glycemic control markers and triglyceride levels were lower in the intervention groups compared with UC group at 1 year (fasting glucose 141 [95% CI 133–149] vs. 159 [144–174] mg/dL, P = 0.023; hemoglobin A1c 6.9% [6.6–7.1%] vs. 7.5% [7.1–7.9%] or 52 [49–54] vs. 58 [54–63] mmol/mol, P = 0.001; triglycerides 148 [134–163] vs. 204 [173–234] mg/dL, P < 0.001). The lower versus higher carbohydrate groups maintained lower hemoglobin A1c (6.6% [95% CI 6.3–6.8%] vs. 7.2% [6.8–7.5%] or 49 [45–51] vs. 55 [51–58] mmol/mol) at 1 year (P = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS The weight loss program resulted in greater weight loss and improved glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. PMID:24760261

  20. Success of women in a worksite weight loss program: Does being part of a group help?

    PubMed

    Rigsby, Andrea; Gropper, Daniel M; Gropper, Sareen S

    2009-04-01

    This study reports the results of a worksite weight loss program which allowed female hospital and nursing home employees to enroll in a worksite weight loss program as individuals or as part of a group. After 8 weeks, employees (irrespective of group versus individual participation) lost an average of 6.2 lb and 1.5% body fat. The initial weight, body fat, and body mass index reductions were all significantly greater, in absolute and percentage terms, among group participants than individual participants. Weight reduction averaged 7.6+1.1 lb for group participants and 4.2+6.4 lb for individual participants; body fat reduction was 1.7+1.3% for group participants and 0.9+1.3% for individual participants. Exercising more frequently was significantly associated with weight loss in those participating as a group, while following a written diet plan was significantly associated with weight loss in those participating as individuals.

  1. DietBet: A Web-Based Program that Uses Social Gaming and Financial Incentives to Promote Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Background Web-based commercial weight loss programs are increasing in popularity. Despite their significant public health potential, there is limited research on the effectiveness of such programs. Objective The objective of our study was to examine weight losses produced by DietBet and explore whether baseline and engagement variables predict weight outcomes. Methods DietBet is a social gaming website that uses financial incentives and social influence to promote weight loss. Players bet money and join a game. All players have 4 weeks to lose 4% of their initial body weight. At enrollment, players can choose to share their participation on Facebook. During the game, players interact with one another and report their weight loss on the DietBet platform. At week 4, all players within each game who lose at least 4% of initial body weight are declared winners and split the pool of money bet at the start of the game. Official weigh-in procedures are used to verify weights at the start of the game and at the end. Results From December 2012 to July 2013, 39,387 players (84.04% female, 33,101/39,387; mean weight 87.8kg, SD 22.6kg) competed in 1934 games. The average amount bet was US $27 (SD US $22). A total of 65.63% (25,849/39,387) provided a verified weight at the end of the 4-week competition. The average intention-to-treat weight loss was 2.6% (SD 2.3%). Winners (n=17,171) won an average of US $59 (SD US $35) and lost 4.9% (SD 1.0%) of initial body weight, with 30.68% (5268/17,171) losing 5% or more of their initial weight. Betting more money at game entry, sharing on Facebook, completing more weigh-ins, and having more social interactions during the game predicted greater weight loss and greater likelihood of winning (Ps<.001). In addition, weight loss clustered within games (P<.001), suggesting that players influenced each others’ weight outcomes. Conclusions DietBet, a social gaming website, reached nearly 40,000 individuals in just 7 months and produced

  2. Early Weight Loss with Liraglutide 3.0 mg Predicts 1‐Year Weight Loss and is Associated with Improvements in Clinical Markers

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, Patrick M.; Davies, Melanie; Greenway, Frank; C.W. Lau, David; Claudius, Birgitte; Skjøth, Trine Vang; Bjørn Jensen, Christine; P.H. Wilding, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify an early response criterion for predicting ≥5% weight loss with liraglutide 3.0 mg at week 56 and to compare efficacy outcomes in early responders (ERs) and early nonresponders (ENRs). Methods Using pooled data from the SCALE Obesity and Prediabetes and SCALE Diabetes trials, weight loss of ≥4% at 16 weeks best predicted ≥5% weight loss after 56 weeks. Weight loss and changes in cardiometabolic risk factors and health‐related quality of life were evaluated in ERs (≥4% weight loss at week 16) and ENRs (<4% weight loss at week 16) completing 56 weeks’ treatment. Results Proportions of ERs/ENRs to liraglutide 3.0 mg were 77.3%/22.7% (individuals without type 2 diabetes, T2D) and 62.7%/37.3% (those with T2D). Greater mean weight loss was observed in ERs versus ENRs: 10.8% versus 3.0% (without T2D) and 8.5% versus 3.1% (T2D). In both trials, greater proportions of ERs versus ENRs achieved ≥5%, >10%, and >15% weight loss at week 56 with liraglutide 3.0 mg. Greater improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors and health‐related quality of life scores were observed in ERs versus ENRs. Conclusions The early response criterion was clinically useful to identify individuals who would achieve clinically meaningful weight loss at 56 weeks. PMID:27804269

  3. Treatment of Obesity: Weight Loss and Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Bruce M.; Kvach, Elizaveta; Eckel, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the mechanisms underlying, and indications for, bariatric surgery in the reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as other expected benefits of this intervention. The fundamental basis for bariatric surgery for the purpose of accomplishing weight loss is the determination that severe obesity is a disease associated with multiple adverse effects on health which can be reversed or improved by successful weight loss in patients who have been unable to sustain weight loss by non-surgical means. An explanation of possible indications for weight loss surgery as well as specific bariatric surgical procedures is presented, along with review of the safety literature of such procedures. Procedures that are less invasive or those that involve less gastrointestinal rearrangement accomplish considerably less weight loss but have substantially lower perioperative and longer-term risk. The ultimate benefit of weight reduction relates to the reduction of the co-morbidities, quality of life and all-cause mortality. With weight loss being the underlying justification for bariatric surgery in ameliorating CVD risk, current evidence-based research is discussed concerning body fat distribution, dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, inflammation, obstructive sleep apnea and others. The rationale for bariatric surgery reducing CVD events is discussed and juxtaposed with impacts on all-cause mortalities. Given the improvement of established obesity-related CVD risk factors following weight loss, it is reasonable to expect a reduction of CVD events and related mortality following weight loss in populations with obesity. The quality of the current evidence is reviewed and future research opportunities and summaries are stated. PMID:27230645

  4. A Dynamical Systems Model for Understanding Behavioral Interventions for Weight Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-Barrientos, J.-Emeterio; Rivera, Daniel E.; Collins, Linda M.

    We propose a dynamical systems model that captures the daily fluctuations of human weight change, incorporating both physiological and psychological factors. The model consists of an energy balance integrated with a mechanistic behavioral model inspired by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB); the latter describes how important variables in a behavioral intervention can influence healthy eating habits and increased physical activity over time. The model can be used to inform behavioral scientists in the design of optimized interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

  5. Psychological well-being, health behaviors, and weight loss among participants in a residential, Kripalu yoga-based weight loss program.

    PubMed

    Braun, Tosca D; Park, Crystal L; Conboy, Lisa Ann

    2012-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in humans is a growing public health concern in the United States. Concomitants include poor health behaviors and reduced psychological well-being. Preliminary evidence suggests yoga and treatment paradigms incorporating mindfulness, self-compassion (SC), acceptance, non-dieting, and intuitive eating may improve these ancillary correlates, which may promote long-term weight loss. We explored the impact of a 5-day residential weight loss program, which was multifaceted and based on Kripalu yoga, on health behaviors, weight loss, and psychological well-being in overweight/obese individuals. Thirty-seven overweight/obese program participants (age 32-65, BMI<25) completed validated mind-fulness, SC, lifestyle behavior, and mood questionnaires at baseline, post-program, and 3-month follow-up and reported their weight 1 year after program completion. Significant improvements in nutrition behaviors, SC, mindfulness, stress management, and spiritual growth were observed immediately post-program (n = 31, 84% retention), with medium to large effect sizes. At 3-month follow-up (n = 18, 49% retention), most changes persisted. Physical activity and mood disturbance had improved significantly post-program but failed to reach significance at 3-month follow-up. Self-report weight loss at 1 year (n = 19, 51% retention) was significant. These findings suggest a Kripalu yoga-based, residential weight loss program may foster psychological well-being, improved nutrition behaviors, and weight loss. Given the exploratory nature of this investigation, more rigorous work in this area is warranted.

  6. Changes in weight control behaviors and hedonic hunger during a 12-week commercial weight loss program.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Patrick M; Theim, Kelly R; Boeka, Abbe; Johnson, Gail; Miller-Kovach, Karen

    2012-12-01

    Greater use of key self-regulatory behaviors (e.g., self-monitoring of food intake and weight) is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments, although this association is less established within widely-available commercial weight loss programs. Further, high hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may present a barrier to successful behavior change and weight loss, although this has not yet been examined. Adult men and women (N=111, body mass index M±SD=31.5±2.7kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after participating in a 12-week commercial weight loss program. From pre- to post-treatment, reported usage of weight control behaviors improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely associated. A decrease in hedonic hunger was associated with better weight loss. An improvement in reported weight control behaviors (e.g., self-regulatory behaviors) was associated with better weight loss, and this association was even stronger among individuals with high baseline hedonic hunger. Findings highlight the importance of specific self-regulatory behaviors within weight loss treatment, including a commercial weight loss program developed for widespread community implementation. Assessment of weight control behavioral skills usage and hedonic hunger may be useful to further identify mediators of weight loss within commercial weight loss programs. Future interventions might specifically target high hedonic hunger and prospectively examine changes in hedonic hunger during other types of weight loss treatment to inform its potential impact on sustained behavior change and weight control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Modified Treatment Algorithm for Pseudogynecomastia After Massive Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Ulrich E; Lorenz, Udo; Daigeler, Adrien; Ziegler, Selina N; Zeplin, Philip H

    2018-06-19

    Pseudogynecomastia is the increased aggregation of fatty tissue in the area of the male breast with resultant female appearance. Two forms can appear: pseudogynecomastia after massive weight loss (pseudogynecomastia obese [PO]) and pseudogynecomastia, which is caused only by adipose tissue (pseudogynecomastia fat). For PO, only the Gusenoff classification with corresponding operative treatment options exists. However, this classification is limited by the fact that it underestimates the extensive variability of residual fat tissue and skin excess, both crucial factors for operative planning. For this reason, we propose a modification of the treatment algorithm for the Gusenoff classification based on our results to achieve more masculine results. A total of 43 male patients with PO were included in this retrospective study (grade 1a, n = 1; grade 1b, n = 1; grade 2, n = 17; grade 3, n = 24). Forty-two mastectomies with a free nipple-areola complex (NAC) transposition (grades 2 and 3) and 1 with a subcutaneous mastectomy (grade 1a) with periareolar lifting were performed. A retrospective chart review was performed to obtain data regarding age, body mass index, body mass index loss, weight loss, reason for weight loss, comorbidities, nicotine, and additional procedures, postoperative sensitive on the NAC transplants and complications. None of the free-nipple grafts were lost. Forty (95%) of 42 patients with mastectomy had a resensitivity on the NAC. For pseudogynecomastia, the treatment algorithm of the Gusenoff classification should be modified and adapted according to our recommendations to achieve more optimal masculine results.

  8. Early weight loss while on lorcaserin, diet and exercise as a predictor of week 52 weight-loss outcomes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Steven R; O'Neil, Patrick M; Astrup, Arne; Finer, Nicholas; Sanchez-Kam, Matilde; Fraher, Kyle; Fain, Randi; Shanahan, William R

    2014-10-01

    To identify an early treatment milestone that optimizes sensitivity and specificity for predicting ≥5% weight loss at Week (W) 52 in patients with and without type 2 diabetes on lorcaserin or placebo. Post hoc area under the curve for receiver operating characteristic analyses of data from three phase 3 trials comparing lifestyle modification+placebo with lifestyle modification+lorcaserin. A total of 6897 patients (18-65 years; BMI, 30-45 or 27-29.9 kg/m(2) with ≥1 comorbidity) were randomized to placebo or lorcaserin 10 mg bid. Changes (baseline to W52) in cardiometabolic parameters were assessed. Response (≥5% weight loss from baseline) at W12 was a strong predictor of W52 response. Lorcaserin patients with a W12 response achieved mean W52 weight losses of 10.6 kg (without diabetes) and 9.3 kg (with diabetes). Proportions achieving ≥5% and ≥10% weight loss at W52 were 85.5% and 49.8% (without diabetes), and 70.5% and 35.9% (with diabetes). Lorcaserin patients who did not achieve a W12 response lost 3.2 kg (without diabetes) and 2.8 kg (with diabetes) at W52. Responders had greater improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors than the modified intent-to-treat (MITT) population, consistent with greater weight loss. ≥5% weight loss by W12 predicts robust response to lorcaserin at 1 year. Copyright © 2014 The Authors Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  9. Sensitivity and Specificity of 50% Excess Weight Loss (50%EWL) and Twelve Other Bariatric Criteria for Weight Loss Success.

    PubMed

    van de Laar, Arnold W; van Rijswijk, A S; Kakar, H; Bruin, S C

    2018-02-27

    Criteria for bariatric weight loss success are numerous. Most of them are arbitrary. None of them is evidence-based. Our objective was to determine their sensitivity and specificity. Thirteen common bariatric weight loss criteria were compared to a benchmark reflecting the gold standard in bariatric surgery. We used an elaborate baseline BMI-independent weight loss percentile chart, based on retrospective data after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB), performed between 2007 and 2017. Percentile curves p31.6 (patients' expectation), p25 (interquartile range), p15.9 (1 standard deviation (SD) below median), and p10.9 (surgeons' goal) were used as possible cutoff for success to determine true or false positive and negative results beyond 1 year. We operated 4497 primary LRYGB patients, with mean follow-up 22 (± 1 SD 19; range 0-109) months, 3031 patients with last result ≥ 1 year, 518 ≥ 5 years. For all four cutoff percentile curves for success, specificities were low (2-72%) for criteria < 35 body mass index (BMI), ≥ 25percentage excess BMI loss (%EBMIL), ≥ 50%EBMIL, ≥ 15 percentage total weight loss (%TWL), ≥ 20%TWL, ≥ 25 percentage excess weight loss (%EWL), and high (83-96%) for < 30 BMI. No criterion had > 80% specificity and sensitivity for a cutoff above p15.9. For p15.9, they were both > 80% for criteria ≥ 10 BMI reduction and ≥ 50%EWL, both > 90% for ≥ 25%TWL and ≥ 35 percentage alterable weight loss (%AWL). All criteria had high sensitivities for all cutoff percentile curves (87-100%), except < 30 BMI (65-78%). For the first time, common bariatric criteria for weight loss success were systematically validated. Most criteria recognized success very well (high sensitivities), but ≥ 15%TWL, ≥ 20%TWL, < 35BMI, ≥ 25%EWL, ≥ 25%EBMIL, and ≥ 50%EBMIL left too many poor responders unnoticed (low specificities). Bariatric weight loss success is best assessed by comparing

  10. Weight loss experiences of obese perimenopausal women with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Su, Mei-Chen; Lin, Hung-Ru; Chu, Nain-Feng; Huang, Chih-Hsung; Tsao, Lee-Ing

    2015-07-01

    To develop a descriptive theory for the weight loss experiences of obese perimenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. Obesity and metabolic syndrome both pose a threat to the health of perimenopausal women; therefore, understanding perimenopausal women's subjective feelings and experiences is beneficial to establishing effective prevention strategies. However, studies have rarely explored these relevant experiences. A qualitative study using the grounded theory method to establish a descriptive theory. Eighteen obese perimenopausal women with metabolic syndrome aged 45-60 years participated in comprehensive interviews. 'Crossing the gaps to making life modifications' was the core category, and 'the awareness of weight gain and health alarm' was the antecedent condition. In the weight loss experience, the following three interaction categories were identified: (1) 'experiencing bad feelings,' (2) 'encountering obstacles' and (3) 'making efforts to transition to a new life.' Some women adhered to new life habits through perceiving social support and by using self-incentives. Finally, women enjoyed and mastered self-monitoring of their health in their new life, and practiced new changes as part of their life. However, some participants felt that making changes to their life was too time-consuming. Therefore, these women chose to live with their abnormal health without making changes. Obese perimenopausal women with metabolic syndrome experienced various gaps in their weight loss process. Although they struggled with many obstacles, these women were able to learn from their experiences and face their health challenges. These findings can guide healthcare professionals to provide appropriate interventions to understand the hidden health problems of this particular group of women. Healthcare professionals should develop a set of plans by which women receive a complete weight loss program and support from professionals and family. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Impacts of efficacy and exemplification in an online message about weight loss on weight management self-efficacy, satisfaction, and personal importance.

    PubMed

    Sarge, Melanie A; Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Health information search is among the most popular Internet activities, requiring health campaigns to attract attention in a context of unprecedented competition with alternative content. The present study reconstructs a similar context that allows selective avoidance and exposure in order to examine which health message characteristics foster particular message impacts. Drawing on social cognitive theory, a 3-session study examined short-term and delayed impacts of efficacy and exemplification as characteristics of a weight loss online message, offered for selective reading among other content, on weight management self-efficacy, satisfaction, and personal importance. Short-term impacts and impacts 2 weeks after exposure reflect that the high-efficacy exemplar version increased self-efficacy and satisfaction, while the high-efficacy base-rate version lowered them. However, the exemplar and base-rate versions of the low-efficacy message increased importance of body weight management.

  12. Instrumentalization of Eating Improves Weight Loss Maintenance in Obesity.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Bodil Just; Iepsen, Eva Winning; Lundgren, Julie; Holm, Lotte; Madsbad, Sten; Holst, Jens Juul; Torekov, Signe Sørensen

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify psychosocial determinants for maintaining weight loss. 42 obese individuals who achieved a 12% weight loss before entering a 52-week weight maintenance program were interviewed qualitatively. Psychosocial factors related to weight loss maintenance were identified in two contrasting groups: weight reducers and weight regainers. Groups were defined by health-relevant weight maintenance (additional weight loss > 3% at week 52, n = 9 versus weight gain > 3%, at week 52, n = 20). Weight reducers reported structured meal patterns (p = 0.008), no comfort eating (p = 0.016) and less psychosocial stress (p = 0.04) compared to weight regainers. The ability to instrumentalize eating behavior emerged as an important factor (p = 0.007). Nutritional knowledge, motivation or exercise level did not differ between groups (p > 0.05). Successful weight loss maintenance was associated with an interplay between behavioral, affective and contextual changes. 'Instrumentalization of eating behavior' seems to be an important element in long-term weight maintenance. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  13. Evidence of noise-induced hearing loss in young people studying popular music.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Christopher

    2011-06-01

    The number of students studying popular music, music technology, and sound engineering courses at both school and university to has increased rapidly in the last few years. These students are generally involved in music-making/recording and listening to a high level, usually in environments with amplified music. Recent studies have shown that these students are potentially exposed to a high risk of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL( and are not covered by the same regulatory framework as employees. This study examined the pure tone air conduction hearing thresholds of 50 undergraduate students, including recent school leavers, on a range of popular music courses, to assess if there was evidence of hearing loss. Forty-four percent of students showed evidence of audiometric notch at 4-6 kHz, and 16% were classified under the UK Occupational Health and Safety guidelines as exhibiting mild hearing loss. Instance of audiometric notch was considerably higher than reported from studies of the general population but was around the same level or lower than that reported from studies of "traditional" music courses and conservatoires, suggesting no higher risk for popular music students than for "classical" music students. No relationship with age was present, suggesting that younger students were as likely to exhibit audiometric notch as mature students. This indicates that these students may be damaging their hearing through leisure activities while still at school, suggesting a need for robust education measures to focus on noise exposure of young people.

  14. Smartphone applications to support weight loss: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrini, Christine A; Pfammatter, Angela F; Conroy, David E; Spring, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    Lower cost alternatives are needed for the traditional in-person behavioral weight loss programs to overcome challenges of lowering the worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity. Smartphones have become ubiquitous and provide a unique platform to aid in the delivery of a behavioral weight loss program. The technological capabilities of a smartphone may address certain limitations of a traditional weight loss program, while also reducing the cost and burden on participants, interventionists, and health care providers. Awareness of the advantages smartphones offer for weight loss has led to the rapid development and proliferation of weight loss applications (apps). The built-in features and the mechanisms by which they work vary across apps. Although there are an extraordinary number of a weight loss apps available, most lack the same magnitude of evidence-based behavior change strategies typically used in traditional programs. As features develop and new capabilities are identified, we propose a conceptual model as a framework to guide the inclusion of features that can facilitate behavior change and lead to reductions in weight. Whereas the conventional wisdom about behavior change asserts that more is better (with respect to the number of behavior change techniques involved), this model suggests that less may be more because extra techniques may add burden and adversely impact engagement. Current evidence is promising and continues to emerge on the potential of smartphone use within weight loss programs; yet research is unable to keep up with the rapidly improving smartphone technology. Future studies are needed to refine the conceptual model’s utility in the use of technology for weight loss, determine the effectiveness of intervention components utilizing smartphone technology, and identify novel and faster ways to evaluate the ever-changing technology. PMID:26236766

  15. Translational research: bridging the gap between long-term weight loss maintenance research and practice.

    PubMed

    Akers, Jeremy D; Estabrooks, Paul A; Davy, Brenda M

    2010-10-01

    The number of US adults classified as overweight or obese has dramatically increased in the past 25 years, resulting in a significant body of research addressing weight loss and weight loss maintenance. However, little is known about the potential of weight loss maintenance interventions to be translated into actual practice settings. Thus, the purpose of this article is to determine the translation potential of published weight loss maintenance intervention studies by determining the extent to which they report information across the reach, efficacy/effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. A secondary purpose is to provide recommendations for research based on these findings. To identify relevant research articles, a literature search was conducted using four databases; 19 weight loss maintenance intervention studies were identified for inclusion. Each article was evaluated using the RE-AIM Coding Sheet for Publications to determine the extent to which dimensions related to internal and external validity were reported. Approximately half of the articles provided information addressing three RE-AIM dimensions, yet only a quarter provided information addressing adoption and maintenance. Significant gaps were identified in understanding external validity, and metrics that could facilitate the translation of these interventions from research to practice are presented. Based upon this review, it is unknown how effective weight loss maintenance interventions could be in real-world situations, such as clinical or community practice settings. Future studies should be planned to address how weight loss maintenance intervention programs will be adopted and maintained, with special attention to costs for participants and for program implementation. Copyright © 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Promoting weight loss methods in parenting magazines: Implications for women.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey H; Roberts, Katherine J; Samayoa-Kozlowsky, Sandra; Glaser, Debra B

    2016-01-01

    Weight gain before and after pregnancy is important for women's health. The purpose of this study was to assess articles and advertisements related to weight loss in three widely read parenting magazines, "Parenting School Years," "Parenting Early Years," and "Parenting," which have an estimated combined readership of approximately 24 million (mainly women readers). Almost a quarter (23.7%, n = 32) of the 135 magazine issues over a four year period included at least one feature article on weight loss. A variety of topics were covered in the featured articles, with the most frequent topics being on losing weight to please yourself (25.2%), healthy ways to lose weight (21.1%), and how to keep the weight off (14.7%). Less than half (45.9%) of the articles displayed author credentials, such as their degree, qualifications, or expertise. A fifth (20.0%, n = 27) of the magazines included at least one prominent advertisement for weight loss products. Almost half (46.9%) of the weight loss advertisements were for weight loss programs followed by weight loss food products (25.0%), weight loss aids (21.9%), and only 6.2% of the advertisements for weight loss were on fitness. Parenting magazines should advocate for healthy weight loss, including lifestyle changes for sustained health.

  17. The Role of Resistance Exercise in Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jeffrey L.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the role of weight training in weight loss, noting how weight training contributes to the creation of a negative energy balance and explaining how resistance exercise can cause an increase in fat oxidation, both acutely and chronically. Resistance exercise has an indirect impact on weight and fat loss through increasing resting metabolic…

  18. Resistance to exercise-induced weight loss: compensatory behavioral adaptations.

    PubMed

    Melanson, Edward L; Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Donnelly, Joseph E; Braun, Barry; King, Neil A

    2013-08-01

    In many interventions that are based on an exercise program intended to induce weight loss, the mean weight loss observed is modest and sometimes far less than what the individual expected. The individual responses are also widely variable, with some individuals losing a substantial amount of weight, others maintaining weight, and a few actually gaining weight. The media have focused on the subpopulation that loses little weight, contributing to a public perception that exercise has limited utility to cause weight loss. The purpose of the symposium was to present recent, novel data that help explain how compensatory behaviors contribute to a wide discrepancy in exercise-induced weight loss. The presentations provide evidence that some individuals adopt compensatory behaviors, that is, increased energy intake and/or reduced activity, that offset the exercise energy expenditure and limit weight loss. The challenge for both scientists and clinicians is to develop effective tools to identify which individuals are susceptible to such behaviors and to develop strategies to minimize their effect.

  19. Weight gain since menopause and its associations with weight loss maintenance in obese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Sénéchal, M; Arguin, H; Bouchard, D R; Carpentier, A C; Ardilouze, J L; Dionne, I J; Brochu, M

    2011-01-01

    To examine the association between weight gain since menopause and weight regain after a weight loss program. Participants were 19 obese women who participated in a 15-week weight loss program and a 12-month follow-up. Main outcomes were: body composition, resting metabolic rate, energy intake, energy expenditure, and weight regain at follow-up. All body composition measures significantly decreased after intervention (all P ≤ 0.01) while all measures of fatness increased significantly after the 12-month follow-up (P ≤ 0.01). Body weight gain since menopause was associated with body weight regain (r = 0.65; P = 0.003) after follow-up even after adjustment for confounders. Weight gain since menopause is associated with body weight regain following the weight loss program. Therefore, weight gain since menopause should be considered as a factor influencing weight loss maintenance in older women.

  20. Women's challenges with postpartum weight loss.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Kristen S; Bushee, Tracy D; Phillips, Jennifer D; Kirkpatrick, Terrie; Catledge, Courtney; Braveboy, Kristin; O'Rourke, Carol; Patel, Neema; Prophet, Malshundria; Cooper, Anita; Mosley, Lori; Parker, Christie; Douglas, Gaye M

    2011-11-01

    This study was designed to examine women's experiences of weight loss during the postpartum period. Understanding women's positive and negative experiences can assist health care providers to successfully intervene in helping women lose weight following pregnancy and avoid long-term weight gain and obesity development. Phenomenology, according to Husserl's perspective. Private location of the women's choosing. Twenty-six women, who ranged in age from 25 to 35 years, and had given birth within the last 5 years, were interviewed regarding their experiences with postpartum weight loss. The majority of the sample was Caucasian. Interviews were transcribed and themes were identified from each of the interviews. Comparisons were made between interviews to identify common experiences between women. Data were analyzed according to the Giorgi method. The women in the study had a wide range of experiences. Themes that emerged from the interviews related to women's challenges with return to prepregnancy weight. These included: time and motivation issues, the need for support, and weight and other struggles. This study provides a look inside the lives of women faced with the reality of losing weight after childbirth. Losing weight after delivery is multi-faceted and influenced by many factors. Interventions to assist women with weight loss should target the challenges described in this paper. When effective strategies are developed, education can be done during pregnancy to prepare for the postpartum period. Ultimately, future research efforts can help us to eliminate pregnancy as a risk factor for obesity in women.

  1. Genetic variants influencing effectiveness of weight loss strategies.

    PubMed

    Deram, Sophie; Villares, Sandra M F

    2009-03-01

    Body weight excess has an increasingly high prevalence in the world. Obesity is a complex disease of multifactorial origin with a polygenic condition affected by environmental factors. Weight loss is a primary strategy to treat obesity and its morbidities. Weight changes through life depend on the interaction of environmental, behavioral and genetic factors. Interindividual variation of weight loss in response to different types of interventions (behavioral, caloric restriction, exercise, drug or surgery) has been observed. In this article, currently available data on the role of candidate gene polymorphisms in weight loss are reviewed. Even though control of weight loss by genotype was described in twin and family studies, it is premature to recommend use of genotyping in the design of therapeutic diets or drug treatment. Future studies will have to be large in order to assess the effects of multiple polymorphisms, and will have to control factors other than diet.

  2. Concomitant changes in sleep duration and body weight and body composition during weight loss and 3-mo weight maintenance.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, Sanne P M; Camps, Stefan G J A; Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Westerterp, Klaas R; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-07-01

    An inverse relation between sleep duration and body mass index (BMI) has been shown. We assessed the relation between changes in sleep duration and changes in body weight and body composition during weight loss. A total of 98 healthy subjects (25 men), aged 20-50 y and with BMI (in kg/m(2)) from 28 to 35, followed a 2-mo very-low-energy diet that was followed by a 10-mo period of weight maintenance. Body weight, body composition (measured by using deuterium dilution and air-displacement plethysmography), eating behavior (measured by using a 3-factor eating questionnaire), physical activity (measured by using the validated Baecke's questionnaire), and sleep (estimated by using a questionnaire with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale) were assessed before and immediately after weight loss and 3- and 10-mo follow-ups. The average weight loss was 10% after 2 mo of dieting and 9% and 6% after 3- and 10-mo follow-ups, respectively. Daytime sleepiness and time to fall asleep decreased during weight loss. Short (≤7 h) and average (>7 to <9 h) sleepers increased their sleep duration, whereas sleep duration in long sleepers (≥9 h) did not change significantly during weight loss. This change in sleep duration was concomitantly negatively correlated with the change in BMI during weight loss and after the 3-mo follow-up and with the change in fat mass after the 3-mo follow-up. Sleep duration benefits from weight loss or vice versa. Successful weight loss, loss of body fat, and 3-mo weight maintenance in short and average sleepers are underscored by an increase in sleep duration or vice versa. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01015508.

  3. MTOR signaling and ubiquitin-proteosome gene expression in the preservation of fat free mass following high protein, calorie restricted weight loss

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Caloric restriction is one of the most efficient ways to promote weight loss and is known to activate protective metabolic pathways. Frequently reported with weight loss is the undesirable consequence of fat free (lean muscle) mass loss. Weight loss diets with increased dietary protein intake are popular and may provide additional benefits through preservation of fat free mass compared to a standard protein, high carbohydrate diet. However, the precise mechanism by which a high protein diet may mitigate dietary weight loss induced reductions in fat free mass has not been fully elucidated. Maintenance of fat free mass is dependent upon nutrient stimulation of protein synthesis via the mTOR complex, although during caloric restriction a decrease (atrophy) in skeletal muscle may be driven by a homeostatic shift favouring protein catabolism. This review evaluates the relationship between the macronutrient composition of calorie restricted diets and weight loss using metabolic indicators. Specifically we evaluate the effect of increased dietary protein intake and caloric restricted diets on gene expression in skeletal muscle, particularly focusing on biosynthesis, degradation and the expression of genes in the ubiquitin-proteosome (UPP) and mTOR signaling pathways, including MuRF-1, MAFbx/atrogin-1, mTORC1, and S6K1. PMID:22974011

  4. Intracellular leptin signaling following effective weight loss.

    PubMed

    Sahin-Efe, Ayse; Polyzos, Stergios A; Dincer, Fadime; Zaichenko, Lesya; McGovern, Rosemary; Schneider, Benjamin; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the effect of ex-vivo leptin treatment before and after weight loss on key-molecules of intracellular leptin signaling in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of obese women. Five healthy obese women underwent a 12-week medical nutrition treatment aiming at inducing 10% weight loss. Isolated PBMCs at baseline, and at weeks 8 and 12 were treated with increasing leptin doses (0, 25 and 75 ng/ml) for 30 min. The phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK), protein kinase B (Akt) and 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) of PBMCs was analyzed using Western blotting. Women lost 10 ± 1% and 13 ± 1% of weight at week 8 and 12, respectively. Circulating leptin and insulin significantly decreased from 39.5 ± 7.7 to 12.2 ± 2.4 ng/ml (p = 0.026) and from 13.0 ± 1.6 to 5.4 ± 0.9 μU/ml (p = 0.005) at week 12, respectively. In the ex vivo study, a significant decrease in STAT3 phosphorylation was observed in the control group after weight loss. Treatment of PBMCs with leptin 75 ng/ml increased significantly ERK, STAT3 and Akt phosphorylation, but no weight loss induced change was observed in response to leptin treatment ex vivo. A 10%-15% weight loss decreases baseline STAT3 phosphorylation ex vivo, but does not alter the effect of increasing doses of leptin on the incremental intracellular phosphorylation of STAT3, ERK, Akt and AMPK. Supraphysiologic leptin doses (75 ng/ml) result in higher protein phosphorylation compared to either physiologic doses or no treatment, before and after weight loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Liraglutide 3.0 mg for weight management: weight-loss dependent and independent effects.

    PubMed

    Bays, Harold; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Hemmingsson, Joanna Uddén; Claudius, Birgitte; Jensen, Christine B; Van Gaal, Luc

    2017-02-01

    As an adjunct to a reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity, treatment with liraglutide 3.0 mg for weight management provides a statistically significant and clinically meaningful weight loss of 5.7%-8.0% compared to 1.6%-2.6% with placebo. The objective of this post hoc analysis was to quantify the relative contribution of weight loss to the treatment effects of liraglutide 3.0 mg on key efficacy endpoints. The analysis utilized data from 4725 participants across three randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials that evaluated the efficacy and safety of liraglutide 3.0 mg versus placebo, as an adjunct to a reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity (ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT01272219, NCT01272232 and NCT01557166). The duration of two of the trials was 56 weeks; one trial was of 32 weeks' duration. A mediation analysis was performed, which ranked the relative contribution of weight loss to the treatment effects of liraglutide 3.0 mg on key cardiometabolic efficacy endpoints, Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) and health-related quality of life (QoL). A limitation of this type of analysis is that it cannot conclusively prove a causal relationship. In individuals without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), endpoints predominantly driven by liraglutide-induced weight loss included waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, AHI, and Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite total and physical function scores. Endpoints predominantly independent of weight loss included the glycemic endpoints hemoglobin A1c and fasting plasma glucose in individuals with and without T2DM. Regardless of the degree of dependence on weight loss according to the mediation analysis, greater weight loss was associated with greater improvement in all endpoints. Treatment with liraglutide 3.0 mg contributes to improved cardiometabolic parameters, AHI and health-related QoL through both weight-loss

  6. [Specific weight loss in hyper- and hypothyroidism (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schlick, W; Schmid, P; Irsigler, K

    1975-02-07

    By means of a new method of extremely precise weight measurement (buoyancy scale) it is possible to measure the continuous weight loss of the human body. This weight loss is made up of three components, viz. the weight difference between produced CO2 and consumed O2, water loss through the lungs and transpiration through the skin. In relation to body weight it is called "specific weight loss." This parameter was measured in healthy human subjects and found to be within a relatively narrow range (16.42 plus or minus 2.55 mg/min/kp body weight). In four patients with hypothyroidism the values were very low (5.5 to 8.5 mg/min/kp). An increased specific weight loss was found in patients with hyperthyroidism (38 to 102 mg/min/kp in clinically severe cases). The applicability of this method to examination of thyroid function is discussed. It is compared to the classical method of basal metabolic rate measurement and its advantages are enumerated.

  7. Mindfulness meditation as an intervention for binge eating, emotional eating, and weight loss: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Katterman, Shawn N; Kleinman, Brighid M; Hood, Megan M; Nackers, Lisa M; Corsica, Joyce A

    2014-04-01

    Mindfulness-based approaches are growing in popularity as interventions for disordered eating and weight loss. Initial research suggests that mindfulness meditation may be an effective intervention for binge eating; however, no systematic review has examined interventions where mindfulness meditation was the primary intervention and no review has examined its effect on subclinical disordered eating or weight. Using the PRISMA method for systematic reviews, we reviewed 14 studies that investigated mindfulness meditation as the primary intervention and assessed binge eating, emotional eating, and/or weight change. Results suggest that mindfulness meditation effectively decreases binge eating and emotional eating in populations engaging in this behavior; evidence for its effect on weight is mixed. Additional research is warranted to determine comparative effectiveness and long-term effects of mindfulness training. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Weight gain since menopause and its associations with weight loss maintenance in obese postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Sénéchal, M; Arguin, H; Bouchard, DR; Carpentier, AC; Ardilouze, JL; Dionne, IJ; Brochu, M

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between weight gain since menopause and weight regain after a weight loss program. Methods Participants were 19 obese women who participated in a 15-week weight loss program and a 12-month follow-up. Main outcomes were: body composition, resting metabolic rate, energy intake, energy expenditure, and weight regain at follow-up. Results All body composition measures significantly decreased after intervention (all P ≤ 0.01) while all measures of fatness increased significantly after the 12-month follow-up (P ≤ 0.01). Body weight gain since menopause was associated with body weight regain (r = 0.65; P = 0.003) after follow-up even after adjustment for confounders. Conclusion Weight gain since menopause is associated with body weight regain following the weight loss program. Therefore, weight gain since menopause should be considered as a factor influencing weight loss maintenance in older women. PMID:21966216

  9. Associations among endocrine, inflammatory, and bone markers, body composition and weight loss induced bone loss.

    PubMed

    Labouesse, Marie A; Gertz, Erik R; Piccolo, Brian D; Souza, Elaine C; Schuster, Gertrud U; Witbracht, Megan G; Woodhouse, Leslie R; Adams, Sean H; Keim, Nancy L; Van Loan, Marta D

    2014-07-01

    Weight loss reduces co-morbidities of obesity, but decreases bone mass. Our aims were to (1) determine if adequate dairy intake attenuates weight loss-induced bone loss; (2) evaluate the associations of endocrine, inflammatory and bone markers, anthropometric and other parameters to bone mineral density and content (BMD, BMC) pre- and post-weight loss; and (3) model the contribution of these variables to post weight-loss BMD and BMC. Overweight/obese women (BMI: 28-37 kg/m2) were enrolled in an energy reduced (-500 kcal/d; -2092 kJ/d) diet with adequate dairy (AD: 3-4 servings/d; n=25, 32.2±8.8 years) or low dairy (LD: ≤1 serving/d; n=26, 31.7±8.4 years). BMD, BMC and body composition were measured by DXA. Bone markers (CTX, PYD, BAP, OC), endocrine (PTH, vitamin D, leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin, amylin, insulin, GLP-1, PAI-1, HOMA) and inflammatory markers (CRP, IL1-β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, cortisol) were measured in serum or plasma. PA was assessed by accelerometry. Following weight loss, AD intake resulted in significantly greater (p=0.004) lumbar spine BMD and serum osteocalcin (p=0.004) concentration compared to LD. Pre- and post-body fat was negatively associated with hip and lumbar spine BMC (r=-0.28, p=0.04 to -0.45, p=0.001). Of note were the significant negative associations among bone markers and IL-1β, TNFα and CRP ranging from r = -0.29 (p=0.04) to r = -0.34 (p=0.01); magnitude of associations did not change with weight loss. Adiponectin was negatively related to change in osteocalcin. Factor analysis resulted in 8 pre- and post-weight loss factors. Pre-weight loss factors accounted for 13.7% of the total variance in pre-weight loss hip BMD; post-weight loss factors explained 19.6% of the total variance in post-weight loss hip BMD. None of the factors contributed to the variance in lumbar spine BMD. AD during weight loss resulted in higher lumbar spine BMD and osteocalcin compared to LD. Significant negative associations were observed between bone

  10. Vitamin D status and weight loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and nonrandomized controlled weight-loss trials.

    PubMed

    Mallard, Simonette R; Howe, Anna S; Houghton, Lisa A

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is associated with lower concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D; however, uncertainty exists as to the direction of causation. To date, meta-analyses of randomized controlled vitamin D-supplementation trials have shown no effect of raising circulating vitamin D on body weight, although several weight-loss-intervention trials have reported an increase in circulating vitamin D after weight reduction. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials to determine whether weight loss compared with weight maintenance leads to an increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. A systematic search for controlled weight-loss-intervention studies published up to 31 March 2016 was performed. Studies that included participants of any age with changes in adiposity and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D as primary or secondary outcomes were considered eligible. We identified 4 randomized controlled trials (n = 2554) and 11 nonrandomized controlled trials (n = 917) for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Random assignment to weight loss compared with weight maintenance resulted in a greater increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D with a mean difference of 3.11 nmol/L (95% CI: 1.38, 4.84 nmol/L) between groups, whereas a mean difference of 4.85 nmol/L (95% CI: 2.59, 7.12 nmol/L) was observed in nonrandomized trials. No evidence for a dose-response effect of weight loss on the change in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was shown overall. Our results indicate that vitamin D status may be marginally improved with weight loss in comparison with weight maintenance under similar conditions of supplemental vitamin D intake. Although additional studies in unsupplemented individuals are needed to confirm these findings, our results support the view that the association between obesity and lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D may be due to reversed causation with increased adiposity leading to suboptimal concentrations of circulating vitamin D. This trial was

  11. An 8-week web-based weight loss challenge with celebrity endorsement and enhanced social support: observational study.

    PubMed

    Hutchesson, Melinda J; Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J; Callister, Robin

    2013-07-04

    participants, there was significantly greater (P=.03) 8-week weight loss in SC (-5.1 kg [-5.5 to -4.6 kg] or -6.0%) compared to BLC participants (-4.5 kg [-4.8, -4.2] or -5.0%). Dropout rates were low and consistent across groups (BLC: 17 (1.8%) vs SC: 2 (0.5%), P=.08) and 48.7% (456/936) of BLC and 51.2% (184/379) of SC participants accessed the website at 8 weeks, with no difference between programs (P=.48). SC participants accessed the discussion forums, menu plans, exercise plans, and educational materials significantly more than BLC participants (P<.05). Using a short-term challenge with persuasive features, including online social support with endorsement by a celebrity personal trainer, as well as a greater energy balance deficit, within a commercial Web-based weight loss program may facilitate greater initial weight loss and engagement with some program components. The results support the need for a more rigorous and prospective evaluation of Web-based weight loss programs that incorporate additional strategies to enhance initial weight loss and engagement, such as a short-term challenge.

  12. Resistance to exercise-induced weight loss: compensatory behavioral adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Melanson, Edward L.; Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Braun, Barry; King, Neil A.

    2013-01-01

    In many interventions that are based on an exercise program intended to induce weight loss, the mean weight loss observed is modest and sometimes far less than the individual expected. The individual responses are also widely variable, with some individuals losing a substantial amount of weight, others maintaining weight, and a few actually gaining weight. The media have focused on the sub-population that loses little weight, contributing to a public perception that exercise has limited utility to cause weight loss. The purpose of the symposium was to present recent, novel data that help explain how compensatory behaviors contribute to a wide discrepancy in exercise-induced weight loss. The presentations provide evidence that some individuals adopt compensatory behaviors, i.e. increased energy intake and/or reduced activity, that offset the exercise energy expenditure and limit weight loss. The challenge for both scientists and clinicians is to develop effective tools to identify which individuals are susceptible to such behaviors, and to develop strategies to minimize their impact. PMID:23470300

  13. Long-term persistence of hormonal adaptations to weight loss.

    PubMed

    Sumithran, Priya; Prendergast, Luke A; Delbridge, Elizabeth; Purcell, Katrina; Shulkes, Arthur; Kriketos, Adamandia; Proietto, Joseph

    2011-10-27

    After weight loss, changes in the circulating levels of several peripheral hormones involved in the homeostatic regulation of body weight occur. Whether these changes are transient or persist over time may be important for an understanding of the reasons behind the high rate of weight regain after diet-induced weight loss. We enrolled 50 overweight or obese patients without diabetes in a 10-week weight-loss program for which a very-low-energy diet was prescribed. At baseline (before weight loss), at 10 weeks (after program completion), and at 62 weeks, we examined circulating levels of leptin, ghrelin, peptide YY, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1, amylin, pancreatic polypeptide, cholecystokinin, and insulin and subjective ratings of appetite. Weight loss (mean [±SE], 13.5±0.5 kg) led to significant reductions in levels of leptin, peptide YY, cholecystokinin, insulin (P<0.001 for all comparisons), and amylin (P=0.002) and to increases in levels of ghrelin (P<0.001), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (P=0.004), and pancreatic polypeptide (P=0.008). There was also a significant increase in subjective appetite (P<0.001). One year after the initial weight loss, there were still significant differences from baseline in the mean levels of leptin (P<0.001), peptide YY (P<0.001), cholecystokinin (P=0.04), insulin (P=0.01), ghrelin (P<0.001), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (P<0.001), and pancreatic polypeptide (P=0.002), as well as hunger (P<0.001). One year after initial weight reduction, levels of the circulating mediators of appetite that encourage weight regain after diet-induced weight loss do not revert to the levels recorded before weight loss. Long-term strategies to counteract this change may be needed to prevent obesity relapse. (Funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00870259.).

  14. Perceptions of Strategies for Successful Weight Loss in Persons with Serious Mental Illness Participating in a Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Vazin, Roza; McGinty, Emma E.; Dickerson, Faith; Dalcin, Arlene; Goldsholl, Stacy; Enriquez, Meghan Oefinger; Jerome, Gerald J.; Gennusa, Joseph V.; Daumit, Gail L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to describe perceptions of weight loss strategies, benefits, and barriers among persons with serious mental illness who lost weight in the ACHIEVE behavioral weight loss intervention. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 20 ACHIEVE participants were conducted and analyzed using an inductive coding approach. Results Participants perceived tailored exercise sessions, social support, and dietary strategies taught in ACHIEVE – such as reducing portion sizes and avoiding sugar-sweetened beverages – as useful weight loss strategies. Health benefits, improved physical appearance, self-efficacy, and enhanced ability to perform activities of daily living were commonly cited benefits of intervention participation and weight loss. Some participants reported challenges with giving up snack food and reducing portion sizes, and barriers to exercise related to medical conditions. Conclusions and Implications for Practice There is emerging evidence that behavioral weight loss interventions can lead to clinically meaningful reductions in body weight among persons with serious mental illness. The perspective of persons with serious mental illness regarding strategies for, benefits of, and barriers to weight loss during participation in behavioral weight loss programs provide insight into which elements of multicomponent interventions such as ACHIEVE are most effective. The results of this study suggest that tailored exercise programs, social support, and emphasis on non-clinical benefits of intervention participation, such as improvements in self-efficacy and the ability to participate more actively in family and community activities, are promising facilitators of engagement and success in behavioral weight loss interventions for the population with serious mental illness. PMID:27054900

  15. Atkins and other low-carbohydrate diets: hoax or an effective tool for weight loss?

    PubMed

    Astrup, Arne; Meinert Larsen, Thomas; Harper, Angela

    The Atkins diet books have sold more than 45 million copies over 40 years, and in the obesity epidemic this diet and accompanying Atkins food products are popular. The diet claims to be effective at producing weight loss despite ad-libitum consumption of fatty meat, butter, and other high-fat dairy products, restricting only the intake of carbohydrates to under 30 g a day. Low-carbohydrate diets have been regarded as fad diets, but recent research questions this view. A systematic review of low-carbohydrate diets found that the weight loss achieved is associated with the duration of the diet and restriction of energy intake, but not with restriction of carbohydrates. Two groups have reported longer-term randomised studies that compared instruction in the low-carbohydrate diet with a low-fat calorie-reduced diet in obese patients (N Engl J Med 2003; 348: 2082-90; Ann Intern Med 2004; 140: 778-85). Both trials showed better weight loss on the low-carbohydrate diet after 6 months, but no difference after 12 months. WHERE NEXT?: The apparent paradox that ad-libitum intake of high-fat foods produces weight loss might be due to severe restriction of carbohydrate depleting glycogen stores, leading to excretion of bound water, the ketogenic nature of the diet being appetite suppressing, the high protein-content being highly satiating and reducing spontaneous food intake, or limited food choices leading to decreased energy intake. Long-term studies are needed to measure changes in nutritional status and body composition during the low-carbohydrate diet, and to assess fasting and postprandial cardiovascular risk factors and adverse effects. Without that information, low-carbohydrate diets cannot be recommended.

  16. Pro: Pretransplant weight loss: yes.

    PubMed

    Lentine, Krista L

    2015-11-01

    The obesity epidemic has not spared the population with renal failure. Obesity impacts prognosis after kidney transplantation, as markers of obesity are associated with worse outcomes (e.g. delayed graft function, graft failure, cardiovascular disease, costs) compared with ideal values in most studies. Obesity is also potentially modifiable. Kidney transplants are a scarce resource and the obligation to steward organs to good outcomes is inherent in transplant practice. Thus, it is appropriate to establish pretransplant weight loss targets and engage obese patients seeking transplantation in shared responsibility agreements to strive to reach goals. Nonetheless, important caveats may qualify the stringency of pretransplant weight loss requirements. Obese patients (who are otherwise healthy enough for transplant) may benefit from transplantation compared with long-term dialysis based on metrics such as improved long-term survival and lower cardiac risk. When optimal weight loss is difficult to achieve, factors in a given program's ability to extend the limits of obesity acceptable for safe and effective transplantation include expertise (e.g. surgical approaches and clinical management), tolerance for risk based on overall performance and tolerance for costs. More research is needed, including formal cost-effectiveness studies of transplantation in obese patients to determine if payers (e.g. Medicare) and society should be compensating programs for clinical and financial risks, and whether the risks are worth taking. To generate evidence to better guide management, prospective evaluations of the impact of intentional weight loss strategies in this population, including studies of dietary change, monitored exercise and bariatric surgery, are also urgently needed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  17. How Adolescent Girls Interpret Weight-Loss Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Renee; Broder, Sharon; Pope, Holly; Rowe, Jonelle

    2006-01-01

    While they demonstrate some ability to critically analyze the more obvious forms of deceptive weight-loss advertising, many girls do not recognize how advertising evokes emotional responses or how visual and narrative techniques are used to increase identification in weight-loss advertising. This study examined how girls aged 9-17 years…

  18. Baby-Friendly Practices Minimize Newborn Infants Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Procaccini, Diane; Curley, Ann L Cupp; Goldman, Martha

    2018-04-01

    It is accepted that newborns lose weight in the first few days of life. Baby-Friendly practices that support breastfeeding may affect newborn weight loss. The objective of this study were: 1) To determine whether Baby-Friendly practices are associated with term newborn weight loss day 0-2 in three feeding categories (exclusively breastfed, mixed formula fed and breastfed, and formula fed). 2) To determine whether Baby-Friendly practices increase exclusive breast feeding rates in different ethnic populations. This was a retrospective case-control study. Term newborn birth weight, neonatal weights days 0-2, feeding type, type of birth, and demographic information were collected for 1,000 births for the year before Baby-Friendly designation (2010) and 1,000 in 2013 (after designation). Ultimately 683 in the first group and 518 in the second met the inclusion criteria. Mean weight loss decreased day 0-2 for infants in all feeding types after the initiation of Baby-Friendly practices. There was a statistically significant effect of Baby-Friendly designation on weight loss for day 0-2 in exclusively breastfed infants (p < 0.01) after controlling for birth weight. Exclusive breast feeding increased in all ethnic groups after Baby-Friendly practices were put in place. There was a decrease in mean weight loss day 0-2 regardless of feeding type after Baby-Friendly designation. Exclusive breast feeding increased in the presence of Baby-Friendly practices.

  19. Weight loss in exclusively breastfed infants delivered by cesarean birth.

    PubMed

    Preer, Genevieve L; Newby, P K; Philipp, Barbara L

    2012-05-01

    Rates of exclusive breastfeeding during the postpartum hospital stay are a key measure of quality maternity care. Often, however, concern for excessive in-hospital weight loss leads to formula supplementation of breastfed infants. The American Academy of Pediatrics defines 7% weight loss as acceptable for breastfed newborns regardless of mode of delivery. Typical weight loss in exclusively breastfed infants delivered by cesarean birth has not been studied nor have possible correlates of greater weight loss in this population. To determine average weight loss in a cohort of exclusively breastfed infants delivered by cesarean birth and to identify correlates of greater than expected weight loss. We performed a retrospective chart review of exclusively breastfed infants delivered via cesarean birth at a Baby-Friendly hospital between 2005 and 2007. Average weight loss was calculated, and multivariate regression analysis was performed. Average weight loss during the hospital stay in our cohort of 200 infants was 7.2% ± 2.1% of birth weight, slightly greater than the American Academy of Pediatrics guideline of 7%. Absence of labor prior to delivery was significantly associated with a greater percentage of weight loss (P = .0004), as were lower gestational age (P = .0004) and higher birth weight (P < .0001). Maternal age, gravity, parity, infant sex, Apgar scores, and prior cesarean birth were not significantly associated. We conclude that for exclusively breastfed infants delivered by cesarean birth in a Baby-Friendly hospital, absence of labor prior to cesarean birth may be a previously unreported risk factor for greater than expected weight loss.

  20. Behavior Change Strategies for Successful Long-Term Weight Loss: Focusing on Dietary and Physical Activity Adherence, Not Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kataura, Martha P.; Block, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article helps Extension professionals guide individuals in a successful long-term weight loss program. A program should focus on behavioral changes (improving eating habits and physical activity), not just weight loss. In order to do this, Extension professionals should implement behavior change strategies that motivate individuals to…

  1. Global warming: is weight loss a solution?

    PubMed

    Gryka, A; Broom, J; Rolland, C

    2012-03-01

    The current climate change has been most likely caused by the increased greenhouse gas emissions. We have looked at the major greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO(2)), and estimated the reduction in the CO(2) emissions that would occur with the theoretical global weight loss. The calculations were based on our previous weight loss study, investigating the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on body weight, body composition and resting metabolic rate of obese volunteers with type 2 diabetes. At 6 months, we observed decreases in weight, fat mass, fat free mass and CO(2) production. We estimated that a 10 kg weight loss of all obese and overweight people would result in a decrease of 49.560 Mt of CO(2) per year, which would equal to 0.2% of the CO(2) emitted globally in 2007. This reduction could help meet the CO(2) emission reduction targets and unquestionably would be of a great benefit to the global health.

  2. Effect of a low fat versus a low carbohydrate weight loss dietary intervention on biomarkers of long term survival in breast cancer patients ('CHOICE'): study protocol.

    PubMed

    Sedlacek, Scot M; Playdon, Mary C; Wolfe, Pamela; McGinley, John N; Wisthoff, Mark R; Daeninck, Elizabeth A; Jiang, Weiqin; Zhu, Zongjian; Thompson, Henry J

    2011-07-06

    Weight loss in overweight or obese breast cancer patients is associated with an improved prognosis for long term survival. However, it is not clear whether the macronutrient composition of the chosen weight loss dietary plan imparts further prognostic benefit. A study protocol is presented for a dietary intervention to investigate the effects of weight loss dietary patterns that vary markedly in fat and carbohydrate contents on biomarkers of exposure to metabolic processes that may promote tumorigenesis and that are predictive of long term survival. The study will also determine how much weight must be lost for biomarkers to change in a favorable direction. Approximately 370 overweight or obese postmenopausal breast cancer survivors (body mass index: 25.0 to 34.9 kg/m²) will be accrued and assigned to one of two weight loss intervention programs or a non-intervention control group. The dietary intervention is implemented in a free living population to test the two extremes of popular weight loss dietary patterns: a high carbohydrate, low fat diet versus a low carbohydrate, high fat diet. The effects of these dietary patterns on biomarkers for glucose homeostasis, chronic inflammation, cellular oxidation, and steroid sex hormone metabolism will be measured. Participants will attend 3 screening and dietary education visits, and 7 monthly one-on-one dietary counseling and clinical data measurement visits in addition to 5 group visits in the intervention arms. Participants in the control arm will attend two clinical data measurement visits at baseline and 6 months. The primary outcome is high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Secondary outcomes include interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF), IGF binding protein-3, 8-isoprostane-F2-alpha, estrone, estradiol, progesterone, sex hormone binding globulin, adiponectin, and leptin. While clinical data indicate that excess weight for height is associated with poor prognosis for long term

  3. Impact of parental weight status on weight loss efforts in Hispanic children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Parents have been shown to play an important role in weight loss for children. Parents are typically involved either as models for change or as supporters of children's weight loss efforts. It is likely that overweight/obese parents will need to be involved in changing the environment for themselv...

  4. A Different Weight Loss Experience: A Qualitative Study Exploring the Behavioral, Physical, and Psychosocial Changes Associated with Yoga That Promote Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Ross, A; Brooks, A; Touchton-Leonard, K; Wallen, G

    2016-01-01

    Yoga interventions improve obesity-related outcomes including body mass index (BMI), body weight, body fat, and waist circumference, yet it is unclear whether these improvements are due to increased physical activity, increased lean muscle mass, and/or changes in eating behaviors. The purpose of this study is to expand our understanding of the experience of losing weight through yoga. Methods. Semistructured interviews were qualitatively analyzed using a descriptive phenomenological approach. Results. Two distinct groups who had lost weight through yoga responded: those who were overweight and had repeatedly struggled in their attempts to lose weight (55%, n = 11) and those who were of normal weight and had lost weight unintentionally (45%, n = 9). Five themes emerged that differed slightly by group: shift toward healthy eating, impact of the yoga community/yoga culture, physical changes, psychological changes, and the belief that the yoga weight loss experience was different than past weight loss experiences. Conclusions. These findings imply that yoga could offer diverse behavioral, physical, and psychosocial effects that may make it a useful tool for weight loss. Role modeling and social support provided by the yoga community may contribute to weight loss, particularly for individuals struggling to lose weight.

  5. Cardiometabolic risk after weight loss and subsequent weight regain in overweight and obese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Beavers, Daniel P; Beavers, Kristen M; Lyles, Mary F; Nicklas, Barbara J

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about the effect of intentional weight loss and subsequent weight regain on cardiometabolic risk factors in older adults. The objective of this study was to determine how cardiometabolic risk factors change in the year following significant intentional weight loss in postmenopausal women, and if observed changes were affected by weight and fat regain. Eighty, overweight and obese, older women (age = 58.8±5.1 years) were followed through a 5-month weight loss intervention and a subsequent 12-month nonintervention period. Body weight/composition and cardiometabolic risk factors (blood pressure; total, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; triglycerides; fasting glucose and insulin; and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance) were analyzed at baseline, immediately postintervention, and 6- and 12-months postintervention. Average weight loss during the 5-month intervention was 11.4±4.1kg and 31.4% of lost weight was regained during the 12-month follow-up. On average, all risk factor variables were significantly improved with weight loss but regressed toward baseline values during the year subsequent to weight loss. Increases in total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance during the postintervention follow-up were significantly (p < .05) associated with weight and fat mass regain. Among women who regained weight, model-adjusted total cholesterol (205.8±4.0 vs 199.7±2.9mg/dL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (128.4±3.4 vs 122.7±2.4mg/dL), insulin (12.6±0.7 vs 11.4±0.7mg/dL), and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (55.8±3.5 vs 50.9±3.7mg/dL) were higher at follow-up compared with baseline. For postmenopausal women, even partial weight regain following intentional weight loss is associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. Conversely, maintenance of or continued weight loss is associated with sustained improvement in the

  6. Postpartum weight loss: weight struggles, eating, exercise, and breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Kristen S; Best, Melissa; Aniello, Tracy B; Phillips, Jennifer D; Hatmaker-Flanigan, Elizabeth

    2013-06-01

    Twenty-four women with children 5 years old or younger were interviewed regarding their experiences in losing weight during the postpartum period. Phenomenological interviews were conducted according to Husserl's perspective. Women who participated in the study revealed the issues related to postpartum weight loss: weight struggles, exercise, breast-feeding, eating, and pregnancy contributions to weight gain. The overall theme that resulted from these in-depth interviews was that women struggle to balance their successes and setbacks in losing weight during the postpartum period.

  7. Chili pepper as a body weight-loss food.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Sharon; Kubatka, Peter; Rodrigo, Luis; Gazdikova, Katarina; Caprnda, Martin; Fedotova, Julia; Zulli, Anthony; Kruzliak, Peter; Büsselberg, Dietrich

    2017-06-01

    Chili has culinary as well as medical importance. Studies in humans, using a wide range of doses of chili intake (varying from a single meal to a continuous uptake for up to 12 weeks), concluded that it facilitates weight loss. In regard to this, the main targets of chili are fat metabolism, energy expenditure, and thermogenesis. To induce weight loss, the active substance of chili, capsaicin, activates Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel sub-family V member 1 (TRPV1) channels) receptors causing an increase in intracellular calcium levels and triggering the sympathetic nervous system. Apart from TRPV1, chili directly reduces energy expenditure by activating Brown Adipose Tissue. Weight loss by chili is also the result of an improved control of insulin, which supports weight management and has positive effects for treatment for diseases like obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. This review summarizes the major pathways by which chili contributes to ameliorating parameters that help weight management and how the consumption of chili can help in accelerating weight loss through dietary modifications.

  8. Adult weight loss diets: metabolic effects and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Matarese, Laura E; Pories, Walter J

    2014-12-01

    The global prevalence of overweight and obesity as a public health concern is well established and reflects the overall lack of success in our ability to achieve and maintain a healthy body weight. Being overweight and obese is associated with numerous comorbidities and is a risk factor for several of the leading causes of death, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and many types of cancer. The foundation of treatment has been diet and exercise. There are >1,000 published weight loss diets, with more appearing in the lay literature and the media on a regular basis. The sheer number of existing diet regimens would suggest that no one diet has been universally successful at inducing and maintaining weight loss. Many of these dietary programs are based on sound scientific evidence and follow contemporary principles of weight loss. Others simply eliminate 1 or more of the essential food groups or recommend consumption of 1 type of food at the expense of other foods with little to no supporting evidence. The focus of this review is on weight loss diets, specifically those with the most supporting scientific evidence and those that are most likely to succeed in achievement and maintenance of desirable body weight. The effects of weight loss diets on energy expenditure, body weight, body composition, and metabolic parameters will be evaluated. Ultimately, the best diet is the one the patient will follow and incorporate into his or her daily life for lifelong maintenance of a healthy body weight. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  9. Increased vegetable and fruit consumption during weight loss effort correlates with increased weight and fat loss

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recommendations to increase vegetable and fruit consumption often accompany guidelines for weight loss. A previous study indicated that people who were instructed to count calories lost more weight than those simply instructed to increase vegetable and fruit intake. The objective was to determine if...

  10. Targeting the postpartum period to promote weight loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Jodie M; Deussen, Andrea R; O'Brien, Cecelia M; Schoenaker, Danielle A J M; Poprzeczny, Amanda; Gordon, Adrienne; Phelan, Suzanne

    2018-06-07

    Many international clinical guidelines recommend that overweight and obese women lose weight prior to pregnancy to reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Women who have recently given birth and plan future pregnancies are an important target population for preconception weight-loss interventions. A systematic review to evaluate postpartum dietary and/or physical activity interventions to promote weight loss and improve health in a subsequent pregnancy was conducted. Five databases-the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE (through PubMed), Embase, the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, and the International Clinical Trials Registry-were searched using the following terms: preconception, pregnancy, postpartum, pregnancy outcomes, body mass index, weight gain, weight loss, weight change, postpartum weight retention, dietary or lifestyle intervention, and randomiz(s)ed controlled trial. The date of last search was November 2017. Data were extracted from each identified study using a standard form. The primary outcomes were weight loss at the completion of the intervention and at follow-up assessments. Secondary endpoints included maternal and infant outcomes in a subsequent pregnancy. Mean differences (MDs) were calculated for continuous data and risk ratios for dichotomous data, both with 95%CIs. A total of 235 abstracts (193 after duplicates were excluded) were identified, from which 37 manuscripts were selected for full-text review. In total, 27 trials were identified for inclusion. Outcome data were available for approximately 75% of participants (n = 3485). A combined dietary and physical activity intervention provided post partum produced greater postpartum weight loss (MD, -2.49 kg; 95%CI, -3.34 to -1.63 kg [random-effects model]; 12 studies, 1156 women), which was maintained at 12 months post partum (MD, -2.41 kg; 95%CI, -3.89 to -0.93 kg [random-effects model]; 4 studies, 405 women), compared with no

  11. IN-HOSPITAL WEIGHT LOSS, PRESCRIBED DIET AND FOOD ACCEPTANCE

    PubMed Central

    LEANDRO-MERHI, Vania Aparecida; SREBERNICH, Silvana Mariana; GONÇALVES, Gisele Mara Silva; de AQUINO, José Luiz Braga

    2015-01-01

    Background Weight loss and malnutrition may be caused by many factors, including type of disease and treatment. Aim The present study investigated the occurrence of in-hospital weight loss and related factors. Method This cross-sectional study investigated the following variables of 456 hospitalized patients: gender, age, disease, weight variation during hospital stay, and type and acceptance of the prescribed diet. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for comparing patients' weight in the first three days in hospital stay and determining which factors affect weight. The generalized estimating equation was used for comparing the food acceptance rates. The significance level was set at 5%. Results The most prescribed diet was the regular (28.8%) and 45.5% of the patients lost weight during their stay. Acceptance of hospital food increased from the first to the third days of stay (p=0.0022) but weight loss was still significant (p<0.0001). Age and type of prescribed diet did not affect weight loss during the study period but type of disease and gender did. Patients with neoplasms (p=0.0052) and males (p=0.0002) lost more weight. Conclusion Weight loss during hospital stay was associated only with gender and type of disease. PMID:25861060

  12. Green tea for weight loss and weight maintenance in overweight or obese adults.

    PubMed

    Jurgens, Tannis M; Whelan, Anne Marie; Killian, Lara; Doucette, Steve; Kirk, Sara; Foy, Elizabeth

    2012-12-12

    Preparations of green tea are used as aids in weight loss and weight maintenance. Catechins and caffeine, both contained in green tea, are each believed to have a role in increasing energy metabolism, which may lead to weight loss. A number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the role of green tea in weight loss have been published; however, the efficacy of green tea preparations in weight loss remains unclear. To assess the efficacy and safety of green tea preparations for weight loss and weight maintenance in overweight or obese adults. We searched the following databases from inception to specified date as well as reference lists of relevant articles: The Cochrane Library (Issue 12, 2011), MEDLINE (December 2011), EMBASE (December 2011), CINAHL (January 2012), AMED (January 2012), Biological Abstracts (January 2012), IBIDS (August 2010), Obesity+ (January 2012), IPA (January 2012) and Web of Science (December 2011). Current Controlled Trials with links to other databases of ongoing trials was also searched. RCTs of at least 12 weeks' duration comparing green tea preparations to a control in overweight or obese adults. Three authors independently extracted data, assessed studies for risk of bias and quality, with differences resolved by consensus. Heterogeneity of included studies was assessed visually using forest plots and quantified using the I(2) statistic. We synthesised data using meta-analysis and descriptive analysis as appropriate; subgroup and sensitivity analyses were conducted. Adverse effects reported in studies were recorded. Due to the level of heterogeneity among studies, studies were divided into two groups; those conducted in Japan and those conducted outside Japan. Study length ranged between 12 and 13 weeks. Meta-analysis of six studies conducted outside Japan showed a mean difference (MD) in weight loss of -0.04 kg (95% CI -0.5 to 0.4; P = 0.88; I(2) = 18%; 532 participants). The eight studies conducted in Japan were not similar

  13. Perceptions relating to body size, weight loss and weight-loss interventions in black South African women: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Draper, Catherine E; Davidowitz, Kesiah J; Goedecke, Julia H

    2016-02-01

    A higher tolerance for a larger body size has been associated with obesity in black South African (SA) women. The aim of the present study was to explore perceptions regarding body size and weight loss in a sample of black women from a low-income community in Cape Town, SA. Qualitative pilot study including five focus groups. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Khayelitsha, Cape Town, SA. Twenty-one black SA women. The majority of participants had positive perceptions of overweight/obesity, which were influenced by community and cultural perceptions, but some inconsistencies were observed as overweight/obesity was also associated with ill health. Participants identified many benefits to weight loss, but due to the association with sickness, they were concerned about being stigmatised in their community. Although participants had knowledge about healthy eating, the main barrier to eating healthily included the perceived higher cost of healthier food and food insecurity. All participants saw exercise as a strategy to lose weight and improve health, and were interested in participating in a community-based exercise intervention, but negative community perceptions and conflicting views regarding who should lead the intervention were identified as barriers. These findings highlight the complexities surrounding participants' perceptions regarding body size, weight loss and weight-loss interventions, and emphasise low socio-economic status as a barrier to change. The study also highlights the strong influence of cultural ideals and community perceptions on personal perceptions. These findings underscore the necessity for culturally appropriate weight-loss interventions in low-income, transitioning communities.

  14. An 8-Week Web-Based Weight Loss Challenge With Celebrity Endorsement and Enhanced Social Support: Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J; Callister, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Using GLMM, including weight data for all participants, there was significantly greater (P=.03) 8-week weight loss in SC (–5.1 kg [–5.5 to –4.6 kg] or –6.0%) compared to BLC participants (–4.5 kg [–4.8, –4.2] or –5.0%). Dropout rates were low and consistent across groups (BLC: 17 (1.8%) vs SC: 2 (0.5%), P=.08) and 48.7% (456/936) of BLC and 51.2% (184/379) of SC participants accessed the website at 8 weeks, with no difference between programs (P=.48). SC participants accessed the discussion forums, menu plans, exercise plans, and educational materials significantly more than BLC participants (P<.05). Conclusions Using a short-term challenge with persuasive features, including online social support with endorsement by a celebrity personal trainer, as well as a greater energy balance deficit, within a commercial Web-based weight loss program may facilitate greater initial weight loss and engagement with some program components. The results support the need for a more rigorous and prospective evaluation of Web-based weight loss programs that incorporate additional strategies to enhance initial weight loss and engagement, such as a short-term challenge. PMID:23827796

  15. Dietary and psych predictors of weight loss after gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Fox, Benjamin; Chen, Ellie; Suzo, Andrew; Jolles, Sally; Greenberg, Jacob A; Campos, Guilherme M; Voils, Corrine I; Funk, Luke M

    2015-08-01

    Identifying severely obese patients who will succeed after bariatric surgery remains challenging. Although numerous studies have attempted to identify preoperative patient characteristics associated with weight loss, the roles of many dietary and psychological characteristics are unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine preoperative dietary and psychological predictors of successful weight loss after bariatric surgery. This retrospective cohort study included all patients who underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass from September 2011-June 2013 at a single institution (n = 124). Patient demographics, comorbidities, dietary and psychological factors, and weight loss outcomes were extracted from the electronic medical record. Bivariate associations between these factors and successful weight loss (≥50% excess body weight) were examined. Factors significant at P ≤ 0.1 were included in a multivariate logistic regression model. On bivariate analysis, absence of either type 2 diabetes or hypertension, preoperative weight <270 lbs, no intentional past weight loss >50 lbs, no previous purging or family history of obesity, and no soda consumption preoperatively were associated with successful weight loss (P < 0.1). On multivariate analysis, successful weight loss was inversely associated with the presence of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio [OR], 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06-0.73), maximum intentional past weight loss >50 lbs (OR, 0.12 [95% CI, 0.04-0.43]), and decreasing soda consumption by >50% (OR, 0.27 [95% CI, 0.08-0.99]). Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, significant previous weight loss, and poor soda consumption habits are more likely to experience suboptimal weight loss after bariatric surgery. Additional preoperative counseling and close postoperative follow-up is warranted for these patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sex differences in the relation of weight loss self-efficacy, binge eating, and depressive symptoms to weight loss success in a residential obesity treatment program.

    PubMed

    Presnell, Katherine; Pells, Jennifer; Stout, Anna; Musante, Gerard

    2008-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine whether weight loss self-efficacy, binge eating, and depressive symptoms predicted weight loss during treatment, and whether gender moderates these associations with prospective data from 297 participants (223 women and 74 men) enrolled in a residential obesity treatment program. Men reported higher initial levels of self-efficacy than women, whereas women reported greater pre-treatment levels of binge eating and depressive symptoms. Higher pre-treatment levels of weight control self-efficacy, binge eating, and depressive symptoms predicted greater weight loss in men, but not in women. Results suggest that certain psychological and behavioral factors should be considered when implementing weight loss interventions, and indicate a need to consider gender differences in predictors of weight loss treatment. Future research should seek to identify predictors of weight loss among women.

  17. A Different Weight Loss Experience: A Qualitative Study Exploring the Behavioral, Physical, and Psychosocial Changes Associated with Yoga That Promote Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, A.; Touchton-Leonard, K.

    2016-01-01

    Yoga interventions improve obesity-related outcomes including body mass index (BMI), body weight, body fat, and waist circumference, yet it is unclear whether these improvements are due to increased physical activity, increased lean muscle mass, and/or changes in eating behaviors. The purpose of this study is to expand our understanding of the experience of losing weight through yoga. Methods. Semistructured interviews were qualitatively analyzed using a descriptive phenomenological approach. Results. Two distinct groups who had lost weight through yoga responded: those who were overweight and had repeatedly struggled in their attempts to lose weight (55%, n = 11) and those who were of normal weight and had lost weight unintentionally (45%, n = 9). Five themes emerged that differed slightly by group: shift toward healthy eating, impact of the yoga community/yoga culture, physical changes, psychological changes, and the belief that the yoga weight loss experience was different than past weight loss experiences. Conclusions. These findings imply that yoga could offer diverse behavioral, physical, and psychosocial effects that may make it a useful tool for weight loss. Role modeling and social support provided by the yoga community may contribute to weight loss, particularly for individuals struggling to lose weight. PMID:27594890

  18. Contributions of Weight Perceptions to Weight Loss Attempts: Differences by Body Mass Index and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Lemon, Stephenie C.; Rosal, Milagros C.; Zapka, Jane; Borg, Amy; Andersen, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have consistently observed that women are more likely to perceive themselves as overweight compared to men. Similarly, women are more likely than men to report trying to lose weight. Less is known about the impact that self-perceived weight has on weight loss behaviors of adults and whether this association differs by gender. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among an employee sample to determine the association of self-perceived weight on evidence-based weight loss behaviors across genders, accounting for body mass index (BMI) and demographic characteristics. Women were more likely than men to consider themselves to be overweight across each BMI category, and were more likely to report attempting to lose weight. However, perceiving oneself to be overweight was a strong correlate for weight loss attempts across both genders. The effect of targeting accuracy of self-perceived weight status in weight loss interventions deserves research attention. PMID:19188102

  19. Predicting successful long-term weight loss from short-term weight-loss outcomes: new insights from a dynamic energy balance model (the POUNDS Lost study)123

    PubMed Central

    Ivanescu, Andrada E; Martin, Corby K; Heymsfield, Steven B; Marshall, Kaitlyn; Bodrato, Victoria E; Williamson, Donald A; Anton, Stephen D; Sacks, Frank M; Ryan, Donna; Bray, George A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Currently, early weight-loss predictions of long-term weight-loss success rely on fixed percent-weight-loss thresholds. Objective: The objective was to develop thresholds during the first 3 mo of intervention that include the influence of age, sex, baseline weight, percent weight loss, and deviations from expected weight to predict whether a participant is likely to lose 5% or more body weight by year 1. Design: Data consisting of month 1, 2, 3, and 12 treatment weights were obtained from the 2-y Preventing Obesity Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS Lost) intervention. Logistic regression models that included covariates of age, height, sex, baseline weight, target energy intake, percent weight loss, and deviation of actual weight from expected were developed for months 1, 2, and 3 that predicted the probability of losing <5% of body weight in 1 y. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, area under the curve (AUC), and thresholds were calculated for each model. The AUC statistic quantified the ROC curve’s capacity to classify participants likely to lose <5% of their body weight at the end of 1 y. The models yielding the highest AUC were retained as optimal. For comparison with current practice, ROC curves relying solely on percent weight loss were also calculated. Results: Optimal models for months 1, 2, and 3 yielded ROC curves with AUCs of 0.68 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.74), 0.75 (95% CI: 0.71, 0.81), and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.84), respectively. Percent weight loss alone was not better at identifying true positives than random chance (AUC ≤0.50). Conclusions: The newly derived models provide a personalized prediction of long-term success from early weight-loss variables. The predictions improve on existing fixed percent-weight-loss thresholds. Future research is needed to explore model application for informing treatment approaches during early intervention. The POUNDS Lost study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995. PMID:25733628

  20. Preoperative thyroid function and weight loss after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Neves, João Sérgio; Souteiro, Pedro; Oliveira, Sofia Castro; Pedro, Jorge; Magalhães, Daniela; Guerreiro, Vanessa; Costa, Maria Manuel; Bettencourt-Silva, Rita; Santos, Ana Cristina; Queirós, Joana; Varela, Ana; Freitas, Paula; Carvalho, Davide

    2018-05-16

    Thyroid function has an important role on body weight regulation. However, the impact of thyroid function on weight loss after bariatric surgery is still largely unknown. We evaluated the association between preoperative thyroid function and the excess weight loss 1 year after surgery, in 641 patients with morbid obesity who underwent bariatric surgery. Patients with a history of thyroid disease, treatment with thyroid hormone or antithyroid drugs and those with preoperative evaluation consistent with overt hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism were excluded. The preoperative levels of TSH and FT4 were not associated with weight loss after bariatric surgery. The variation of FT3 within the reference range was also not associated with weight loss. In contrast, the subgroup with FT3 above the reference range (12.3% of patients) had a significantly higher excess weight loss than patients with normal FT3. This difference remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, type of surgery, TSH and FT4. In conclusion, we observed an association between high FT3 and a greater weight loss after bariatric surgery, highlighting a group of patients with an increased benefit from this intervention. Our results also suggest a novel hypothesis: the pharmacological modulation of thyroid function may be a potential therapeutic target in patients undergoing bariatric surgery.

  1. Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... certain health conditions External Resources Weight loss, weight management, nutrition, meal planning tools… Super Tracker SuperTracker: My Plan Food Diary [PDF – 34KB] Physical Activity Diary [PDF – 52KB] ...

  2. Cluster analysis of the national weight control registry to identify distinct subgroups maintaining successful weight loss.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Lorraine G; Stroebele, Nanette; Wyatt, Holly R; Catenacci, Victoria A; Peters, John C; Stuht, Jennifer; Wing, Rena R; Hill, James O

    2012-10-01

    The National Weight Control Registry (NWCR) is the largest ongoing study of individuals successful at maintaining weight loss; the registry enrolls individuals maintaining a weight loss of at least 13.6 kg (30 lb) for a minimum of 1 year. The current report uses multivariate latent class cluster analysis to identify unique clusters of individuals within the NWCR that have distinct experiences, strategies, and attitudes with respect to weight loss and weight loss maintenance. The cluster analysis considers weight and health history, weight control behaviors and strategies, effort and satisfaction with maintaining weight, and psychological and demographic characteristics. The analysis includes 2,228 participants enrolled between 1998 and 2002. Cluster 1 (50.5%) represents a weight-stable, healthy, exercise conscious group who are very satisfied with their current weight. Cluster 2 (26.9%) has continuously struggled with weight since childhood; they rely on the greatest number of resources and strategies to lose and maintain weight, and report higher levels of stress and depression. Cluster 3 (12.7%) represents a group successful at weight reduction on the first attempt; they were least likely to be overweight as children, are maintaining the longest duration of weight loss, and report the least difficulty maintaining weight. Cluster 4 (9.9%) represents a group less likely to use exercise to control weight; they tend to be older, eat fewer meals, and report more health problems. Further exploration of the unique characteristics of these clusters could be useful for tailoring future weight loss and weight maintenance programs to the specific characteristics of an individual.

  3. A descriptive study of past experiences with weight-loss treatment.

    PubMed

    Burke, Lora E; Steenkiste, Ann; Music, Edvin; Styn, Mindi A

    2008-04-01

    Overweight and obesity affect more than 60% of the adult population in the United States. Most adults who are overweight have a history of previous weight-loss treatment. Exploring individuals' past experiences with weight-loss treatment may allow improvements to the current approach to treatment. To examine individuals' prior experiences with weight-loss treatment, their treatment preferences, and what they found to be most and least satisfying. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Individuals (N=155) who had registered for a weight-loss study wait list and met standard criteria for a weight-loss program (aged 18 to 55 years and body mass index between 25 and 42). Questionnaire packets were mailed to participants. Descriptive analyses of the participants' past history with weight-loss treatment, treatment preference, self-efficacy, therapeutic efficacy, barriers to adherence to weight-loss treatment, barriers to healthy eating, and experiences associated with following a low-fat diet. One hundred ten participants (71%) returned completed questionnaire packets. The sample (82% white, 84% female, aged 42.6+/-8.5 years, and body mass index 33.5+/-5.3) was representative of those who seek weight-loss treatment in research settings. Participants were, on average, aged 21.1+/-8.9 years when they first tried a weight-loss program; 96.3% had tried to lose weight since that first time. The two most frequently tried programs were doing it on their own (93.5%) and commercial programs (70.8%). Barriers included having trouble controlling what I eat when hungry (71.3%), difficulty motivating myself to eat appropriately (66.2%), and using food as a reward (59.3%). Preferred weight-loss regimens were doing it on their own (30.6%) and a research program (22.4%). Participants were not seeking their preferred treatment. These data can be used to improve weight-loss programs by tailoring programs to meet the needs and preferences of participants.

  4. The Influence of Sleep Disordered Breathing on Weight Loss in a National Weight Management Program

    PubMed Central

    Janney, Carol A.; Kilbourne, Amy M.; Germain, Anne; Lai, Zongshan; Hoerster, Katherine D.; Goodrich, David E.; Klingaman, Elizabeth A.; Verchinina, Lilia; Richardson, Caroline R.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objective: To investigate the influence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) on weight loss in overweight/obese veterans enrolled in MOVE!, a nationally implemented behavioral weight management program delivered by the National Veterans Health Administration health system. Methods: This observational study evaluated weight loss by SDB status in overweight/obese veterans enrolled in MOVE! from May 2008–February 2012 who had at least two MOVE! visits, baseline weight, and at least one follow-up weight (n = 84,770). SDB was defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Primary outcome was weight change (lb) from MOVE! enrollment to 6- and 12-mo assessments. Weight change over time was modeled with repeated-measures analyses. Results: SDB was diagnosed in one-third of the cohort (n = 28,269). At baseline, veterans with SDB weighed 29 [48] lb more than those without SDB (P < 0.001). On average, veterans attended eight MOVE! visits. Weight loss patterns over time were statistically different between veterans with and without SDB (P < 0.001); veterans with SDB lost less weight (−2.5 [0.1] lb) compared to those without SDB (−3.3 [0.1] lb; P = 0.001) at 6 months. At 12 mo, veterans with SDB continued to lose weight whereas veterans without SDB started to re-gain weight. Conclusions: Veterans with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) had significantly less weight loss over time than veterans without SDB. SDB should be considered in the development and implementation of weight loss programs due to its high prevalence and negative effect on health. Citation: Janney CA, Kilbourne AM, Germain A, Lai Z, Hoerster KD, Goodrich DE, Klingaman EA, Verchinina L, Richardson CR. The influence of sleep disordered breathing on weight loss in a national weight management program. SLEEP 2016;39(1):59–65. PMID:26350475

  5. Interactive computer-based interventions for weight loss or weight maintenance in overweight or obese people

    PubMed Central

    Wieland, L. Susan; Falzon, Louise; Sciamanna, Chris N; Trudeau, Kimberlee J; Folse, Suzanne Brodney; Schwartz, Joseph E; Davidson, Karina W

    2014-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the number of obese or overweight individuals worldwide will increase to 1.5 billion by 2015. Chronic diseases associated with overweight or obesity include diabetes, heart disease, hypertension and stroke. Objectives To assess the effects of interactive computer-based interventions for weight loss or weight maintenance in overweight or obese people. Search methods We searched several electronic databases, including CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS and PsycINFO, through 25 May 2011. We also searched clinical trials registries to identify studies. We scanned reference lists of included studies and relevant systematic reviews. Selection criteria Studies were included if they were randomized controlled trials or quasi-randomized controlled trials that evaluated interactive computer-based weight loss or weight maintenance programs in adults with overweight or obesity. We excluded trials if the duration of the intervention was less than four weeks or the loss to follow-up was greater than 20% overall. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently extracted study data and assessed risk of bias. Where interventions, control conditions, outcomes and time frames were similar between studies, we combined study data using meta-analysis. Main results We included 14 weight loss studies with a total of 2537 participants, and four weight maintenance studies with a total of 1603 participants. Treatment duration was between four weeks and 30 months. At six months, computer-based interventions led to greater weight loss than minimal interventions (mean difference (MD) −1.5 kg; 95% confidence interval (CI) −2.1 to −0.9; two trials) but less weight loss than in-person treatment (MD 2.1 kg; 95% CI 0.8 to 3.4; one trial). At six months, computer-based interventions were superior to a minimal control intervention in limiting weight regain (MD −0.7 kg; 95% CI −1.2 to −0.2; two trials), but not

  6. Physician Communication Techniques and Weight Loss in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pollak, Kathryn I.; Alexander, Stewart C.; Coffman, Cynthia J.; Tulsky, James A.; Lyna, Pauline; Dolor, Rowena J.; James, Iguehi E.; Namenek Brouwer, Rebecca J.; Manusov, Justin R.E.; Østbye, Truls

    2010-01-01

    Background Physicians are encouraged to counsel overweight and obese patients to lose weight. Purpose It was examined whether discussing weight and use of motivational-interviewing techniques (e.g., collaborating, reflective listening) while discussing weight predicted weight loss 3 months after the encounter. Methods 40 primary care physicians and 461 of their overweight or obese patient visits were audio recorded between December 2006 and June 2008. Patient actual weight at the encounter and 3 months after the encounter (n=426), whether weight was discussed, physicians’ use of Motivational-Interviewing techniques, and patient, physician and visit covariates (e.g., race, age, specialty) were assessed. This was an observational study and data were analyzed in April 2009. Results No differences in weight loss were found between patients whose physicians discussed weight or did not. Patients whose physicians used motivational interviewing–consistent techniques during weight-related discussions lost weight 3 months post-encounter; those whose physician used motivational interviewing–inconsistent techniques gained or maintained weight. The estimated difference in weight change between patients whose physician had a higher global “motivational interviewing–Spirit” score (e.g., collaborated with patient) and those whose physician had a lower score was 1.6 kg (95% CI=−2.9, −0.3, p=.02). The same was true for patients whose physician used reflective statements 0.9 kg (95% CI=−1.8, −0.1, p=.03). Similarly, patients whose physicians expressed only motivational interviewing–consistent behaviors had a difference in weight change of 1.1 kg (95% CI=−2.3, 0.1, p=.07) compared to those whose physician expressed only motivational interviewing–inconsistent behaviors (e.g., judging, confronting). Conclusions In this small observational study, use of motivational-interviewing techniques during weight loss discussions predicted patient weight loss. PMID

  7. Association Between Monetary Deposits and Weight Loss in Online Commitment Contracts

    PubMed Central

    Lesser, Lenard I.; Thompson, Caroline A.; Luft, Harold S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To examine the characteristics of voluntary online commitment contracts that may be associated with greater weight loss. Design Retrospective analysis of weight loss commitment contracts derived from a company that provides web-based support for personal commitment contracts. Using regression, we analyzed whether percentage weight loss differed between participants who incentivized their contract using monetary deposits and those who did not. Setting Online. Participants Users (N = 3857) who voluntarily signed up online in 2013 for a weight loss contract. Intervention Participants specified their own weight loss goal, time period, and self-reported weekly weight. Deposits were available in the following 3 categories: charity, anticharity (a nonprofit one does not like), or donations made to a friend. Measures Percentage weight loss per week. Analysis Multivariable linear regressions. Results Controlling for several participant and contract characteristics, contracts with anticharity, charity, and friend deposits had greater reported weight loss than nonincentivized contracts. Weight change per week relative to those without deposits was −0.33%, −0.28%, and −0.25% for anti-charity, charity, and friend, respectively (P < 0.001). Contracts without a weight verification method claimed more weight loss than those with verification. Conclusion Voluntary use of commitment contracts may be an effective tool to assist weight loss. Those who choose to use monetary incentives report more weight loss. It is not clear whether this is due to the incentives or higher motivation. PMID:27502832

  8. Gastrointestinal Hormones and Bariatric Surgery-induced Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Ionut, Viorica; Burch, Miguel; Youdim, Adrienne; Bergman, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity continues to be a major public health problem in the United States and worldwide. While recent statistics have demonstrated that obesity rates have begun to plateau, more severe classes of obesity are accelerating at a faster pace with important implications in regards to treatment. Bariatric surgery has a profound and durable effect on weight loss, being to date one of the most successful interventions for obesity. Objective To provide updates to the possible role of gut hormones in post bariatric surgery weight loss and weight loss maintenance. Design and Methods The current review examines the changes in gastro-intestinal hormones with bariatric surgery and the potential mechanisms by which these changes could result in decreased weight and adiposity. Results The mechanism by which bariatric surgery results in body weight changes is incompletely elucidated, but it clearly goes beyond caloric restriction and malabsorption. Conclusion Changes in gastro-intestinal hormones, including increases in GLP-1, PYY, and oxyntomodulin, decreases in GIP and ghrelin, or the combined action of all these hormones might play a role in induction and long-term maintenance of weight loss. PMID:23512841

  9. Outcomes and Utilization of a Low Intensity Workplace Weight Loss Program

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Kelly M.; Lovejoy, Jennifer C.; Lange, Jane M.; Hapgood, Jenny E.; Zbikowski, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is related to high health care costs and lost productivity in the workplace. Employers are increasingly sponsoring weight loss and wellness programs to ameliorate these costs. We evaluated weight loss outcomes, treatment utilization, and health behavior change in a low intensity phone- and web-based, employer-sponsored weight loss program. The intervention included three proactive counseling phone calls with a registered dietician and a behavioral health coach as well as a comprehensive website. At six months, one third of those who responded to the follow-up survey had lost a clinically significant amount of weight (≥5% of body weight). Clinically significant weight loss was predicted by the use of both the counseling calls and the website. When examining specific features of the web site, the weight tracking tool was the most predictive of weight loss. Health behavior changes such as eating more fruits and vegetables, increasing physical activity, and reducing stress were all predictive of clinically significant weight loss. Although limited by the low follow-up rate, this evaluation suggests that even low intensity weight loss programs can lead to clinical weight loss for a significant number of participants. PMID:24688791

  10. Dietary patterns in weight loss maintenance: results from the MedWeight study.

    PubMed

    Karfopoulou, Eleni; Brikou, Dora; Mamalaki, Eirini; Bersimis, Fragiskos; Anastasiou, Costas A; Hill, James O; Yannakoulia, Mary

    2017-04-01

    The dietary habits contributing to weight loss maintenance are not sufficiently understood. We studied weight loss maintainers in comparison with regainers, to identify the differentiating behaviors. The MedWeight study is a Greek registry of weight loss maintainers and regainers. Participants had intentionally lost ≥10 % of their weight and either had maintained this loss for over a year, or had regained weight. Questionnaires on demographics and lifestyle habits were completed online. Dietary assessment was carried out by two telephone 24-h recalls. Present analysis focused on 361 participants (32 years old, 39 % men): 264 maintainers and 97 regainers. Energy and macronutrient intake did not differ by maintenance status (1770 ± 651 kcal in maintainers vs. 1845 ± 678 kcal in regainers, p = 0.338), although protein intake per kg of body weight was higher in maintainers (1.02 ± 0.39 vs. 0.83 ± 0.28 g/kg in regainers, p < 0.001). Physical activity energy expenditure was greater for maintainers in men (by 1380 kcal per week, p = 0.016), but not women. Salty snacks, alcohol and regular soda were more frequently consumed by men regainers. Principal component analysis identified a healthy dietary pattern featuring mainly unprocessed cereal, fruit, vegetables, olive oil and low-fat dairy. Male maintainers were 4.6 times more likely to follow this healthy pattern compared to regainers (OR 4.6, 95 % CI 2.0-11.0). No similar finding was revealed in women. Other characteristics of maintainers but not of regainers were: involvement in meal preparation and eating at home for men, and a higher eating frequency and slower eating rate for women. Men maintaining weight loss were much more likely to adhere to a healthy eating pattern. Eating at home, involvement in meal preparation, higher eating frequency and slower eating rate were also associated with maintenance. These lifestyle habits of successful maintainers provide target behaviors to improve

  11. Zonisamide-induced weight loss in schizophrenia: case series.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jaewon; Lee, Moon-Soo; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Jung, In-Kwa; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Weight gain and metabolic disturbances constitute bothersome problems in schizophrenic patients treated with atypical antipsychotics. Several medications, exercise regimens, and lifestyle changes have been used in attempts to ameliorate these problems. We describe 3 patients with schizophrenia who manifested distinct weight loss and reduction in waist circumference during medication with zonisamide. This report suggests that zonisamide might be associated with weight loss in patients with schizophrenia.

  12. Technology- and Phone-Based Weight Loss Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Sheri J.; Nelson, Sandahl H.; Cadmus-Bertram, Lisa A.; Patterson, Ruth E.; Parker, Barbara A.; Pierce, John P.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction For women with an increased breast cancer risk, reducing excess weight and increasing physical activity are believed to be important approaches for reducing their risk. This study tested a weight loss intervention that combined commercially available technology-based self-monitoring tools with individualized phone calls. Design Women were randomized to a weight loss intervention arm (n=36) or a usual care arm (n=18). Setting/Participants Participants were women with a BMI ≥ 27.5 kg/m2 and elevated breast cancer risk recruited from the mammography clinic at the Moores Cancer Center at the University of California San Diego. Intervention Intervention participants used the MyFitnessPal website and phone app to monitor diet and a Fitbit to monitor physical activity. Participants received 12 standardized coaching calls with trained counselors over 6 months. Usual care participants received the U.S. Dietary Guidelines for Americans at baseline and two brief calls over the 6 months. Main outcome measures Weight and accelerometer-measured physical activity were assessed at baseline and 6 months. Data were collected in San Diego, CA, from 2012 to 2014 and analyzed in 2015. Results Participants (n=54) had a mean age of 59.5 (SD=5.6) years, BMI of 31.9 (SD=3.5), and a mean Gail Model score of 2.5 (SD=1.4). At 6 months, intervention participants had lost significantly more weight (4.4 kg vs 0.8 kg, p=0.004) and a greater percentage of starting weight (5.3% vs 1.0%, p=0.005) than usual care participants. Across arms, greater increases in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity resulted in greater weight loss (p=0.01). Conclusions Combining technology-based self-monitoring tools with phone counseling supported weight loss over 6 months in women at increased risk for breast cancer. PMID:27593420

  13. The Role of Stigma in Weight Loss Maintenance Among U.S. Adults.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Quinn, Diane M; Weisz, Bradley M; Suh, Young J

    2017-10-01

    Challenges of maintaining long-term weight loss are well-established and present significant obstacles in obesity prevention and treatment. A neglected but potentially important barrier to weight-loss maintenance is weight stigmatization. We examined the role of weight stigma-experienced and internalized-as a contributor to weight-loss maintenance and weight regain in adults. A diverse, national sample of 2702 American adults completed an online battery of questionnaires assessing demographics, weight-loss history, subjective weight category, experienced and internalized weight stigma, weight-monitoring behaviors, physical activity, perceived stress, and physical health. Analyses focused exclusively on participants who indicated that their body weight a year ago was at least 10% less than their highest weight ever (excluding pregnancy), the weight loss was intentional, and that attempts to lose or maintain weight occurred during the past year (n = 549). Participants were further classified as weight regainers (n = 235) or weight-loss maintainers (n = 314) based on subsequent weight loss/gain. Data were collected in 2015 and analyzed in 2016. Hierarchical logistic regression models showed that internalized weight stigma and subjective weight category made significant individual contributions to prediction of weight-loss maintenance, even after accounting for demographics, perceived stress, experienced stigma, physical health, and weight-loss behaviors. For every one-unit increase in internalized weight stigma, the odds of maintaining weight loss decreased by 28% (95% CI: 14-40%, p < .001). Findings provide initial evidence that overlooked psychosocial factors, like weight stigma, may hinder weight-loss maintenance. Implications for addressing stigma in obesity-focused clinical interventions are highlighted.

  14. The Relationship Between Intuitive Eating and Postpartum Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Leahy, Katie; Berlin, Kristoffer S; Banks, Gabrielle G; Bachman, Jessica

    2017-08-01

    Objective Postpartum weight loss is challenging for new mothers who report limited time and difficulties following traditional weight loss methods. Intuitive eating (IE) is a behavior that includes eating based on physical hunger and fullness and may have a role in encouraging weight loss. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between IE and postpartum weight loss. Methods Women 12-18 months postpartum completed a questionnaire regarding weight changes surrounding pregnancy, exercise, breastfeeding and intuitive eating using the Intuitive Eating Scale. Latent growth curve modeling was utilized to determine the relationship between IE, breastfeeding, weight gain during pregnancy, and postpartum weight trajectories. Results Participants (n = 50) were 28.5 ± 4.9 years old, had an average pre-pregnancy BMI of 26.4 ± 6.8 and the majority were married, and non-Hispanic white. The conditional model revealed that more intuitive eating practices predicted greater postpartum BMI decreases (Est. = -0.10, p < .05) when controlling for breastfeeding duration, exercise duration, and initial BMI and pregnancy BMI changes. Greater pregnancy BMI increases were associated with more rapid postpartum BMI decreases (Est. = -0.34, p < .001) while breastfeeding duration, exercise and initial BMI were not related. Conclusions for Practice Postpartum weight retention is a challenge for many women. Following a more intuitive eating approach to food consumption may encourage postpartum weight loss without the required weighing, measuring, recording and assessing dietary intake that is required of traditional weight loss programs. IE could offer an alternative approach that may be less arduous for new mothers.

  15. 49 CFR 1005.7 - Weight as a measure of loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Weight as a measure of loss. 1005.7 Section 1005.7... VOLUNTARY DISPOSITION OF LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS AND PROCESSING SALVAGE § 1005.7 Weight as a measure of loss. Where weight is used as a measure of loss in rail transit of scrap iron and steel and actual tare and...

  16. 49 CFR 1005.7 - Weight as a measure of loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weight as a measure of loss. 1005.7 Section 1005.7... VOLUNTARY DISPOSITION OF LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS AND PROCESSING SALVAGE § 1005.7 Weight as a measure of loss. Where weight is used as a measure of loss in rail transit of scrap iron and steel and actual tare and...

  17. The Influence of Sleep Disordered Breathing on Weight Loss in a National Weight Management Program.

    PubMed

    Janney, Carol A; Kilbourne, Amy M; Germain, Anne; Lai, Zongshan; Hoerster, Katherine D; Goodrich, David E; Klingaman, Elizabeth A; Verchinina, Lilia; Richardson, Caroline R

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the influence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) on weight loss in overweight/obese veterans enrolled in MOVE!, a nationally implemented behavioral weight management program delivered by the National Veterans Health Administration health system. This observational study evaluated weight loss by SDB status in overweight/obese veterans enrolled in MOVE! from May 2008-February 2012 who had at least two MOVE! visits, baseline weight, and at least one follow-up weight (n = 84,770). SDB was defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Primary outcome was weight change (lb) from MOVE! enrollment to 6- and 12-mo assessments. Weight change over time was modeled with repeated-measures analyses. SDB was diagnosed in one-third of the cohort (n = 28,269). At baseline, veterans with SDB weighed 29 [48] lb more than those without SDB (P < 0.001). On average, veterans attended eight MOVE! visits. Weight loss patterns over time were statistically different between veterans with and without SDB (P < 0.001); veterans with SDB lost less weight (-2.5 [0.1] lb) compared to those without SDB (-3.3 [0.1] lb; P = 0.001) at 6 months. At 12 mo, veterans with SDB continued to lose weight whereas veterans without SDB started to re-gain weight. Veterans with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) had significantly less weight loss over time than veterans without SDB. SDB should be considered in the development and implementation of weight loss programs due to its high prevalence and negative effect on health. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  18. Preoperative predictors of adherence to dietary and physical activity recommendations and weight loss one year after surgery.

    PubMed

    Bergh, Irmelin; Lundin Kvalem, Ingela; Risstad, Hilde; Sniehotta, Falko F

    2016-05-01

    Weight loss and weight loss maintenance vary considerably between patients after bariatric surgery. Postoperative weight gain has partially been explained by lack of adherence to postoperative dietary and physical activity recommendations. However, little is known about factors related to postoperative adherence. The aim of this study was to examine psychological, behavioral, and demographic predictors of adherence to behavior recommendations and weight loss 1 year after bariatric surgery. Oslo University Hospital. In a prospective cohort study, 230 patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass were recruited from Oslo University hospital from 2011 to 2013. They completed a comprehensive questionnaire before and 1 year after surgery. Weight was measured preoperatively, on the day of surgery, and 1-year postoperatively. Mean body mass index was 44.9 kg/m(2) (standard deviation [SD] = 6.0) preoperatively and 30.6 kg/m(2) (SD = 5.2) 1 year after surgery. Patients lost on average 29.2 % (SD = 8.2) of their initial weight. Predictors of dietary adherence were years with dieting experience, readiness to limit food intake, and night eating tendency. Preoperative physical activity and planning predicted postoperative physical activity whereas predictors of weight loss were higher frequency of snacking preoperatively, greater past weight loss, and lower age. Several preoperative psychological predictors were related to postoperative adherence to dietary and physical activity recommendations but were not associated with weight loss. Interventions targeting psychological factors facilitating behavior change during the initial postoperative phase are recommended as this might improve long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dramatic weight loss associated with commencing clozapine.

    PubMed

    Lally, John; McDonald, Colm

    2011-11-08

    The authors report the case of a 44-year-old man with a long history of chronic enduring schizophrenia who experienced dramatic weight loss after commencing treatment with clozapine, an antipsychotic medication characteristically associated with the greatest degree of weight gain among medical treatments for schizophrenia. He was obese with a body mass index (BMI) of 41.5 kg/m(2), but after commencing clozapine therapy he experienced an improvement in psychotic symptoms and 40% loss of his body weight attained through an altered diet and exercise regime, which resulted in him attaining a normal BMI of 24.8 kg/m(2).

  20. Mandatory weight loss during the wait for bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Nicole M; Raine, Kim D; Spence, John C

    2015-01-01

    Mandatory presurgical, behavior-induced weight loss, although not standard, is a relatively common practice among bariatric surgical clinics. We explore the patient's experience of this practice using phenomenology. We gathered experiential accounts from 7 individuals waiting to have the procedure at a large publically funded clinic in western Canada. In writing this article, we focused on four phenomenological themes: "just nod your head and carry on"-silencing through the ideal; waiting and weighing-promoting weight consciousness to the weight conscious; paying for surgical approval through weight loss; and presurgical weight loss and questioning the need for weight loss surgery altogether. We contrast the experiential findings with the clinical literature to question the impact and possible (unintended or unexpected) effects the practice might have, particularly on patients' lives. We situate this article within a larger discussion about the possible contribution of experiential knowledge to clinical guidelines, practices, and pedagogies. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Results of a faith-based weight loss intervention for black women.

    PubMed

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Stolley, Melinda R; Ganschow, Pamela; Schiffer, Linda; Wells, Anita; Simon, Nolanna; Dyer, Alan

    2005-10-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for a variety of chronic diseases. Although weight loss may reduce these risks, weight loss programs designed for black women have yielded mixed results. Studies suggest that religion/spirituality is a prominent component of black culture. Given this, the inclusion of religion/spirituality as an active component of a weight loss program may enhance the benefits of the program. The role of religion/spirituality, however, has not been specifically tested as a mechanism that enhances the weight loss process. This paper presents the results of "Faith on the Move," a randomized pilot study of a faith-based weight loss program for black women. The goals of the study were to estimate the effects of a 12-week culturally tailored, faith-based weight loss intervention on weight loss, dietary fat consumption and physical activity. The culturally tailored, faith-based weight loss intervention was compared to a culturally tailored weight loss intervention with no active faith component. Fifty-nine overweight/obese black women were randomized to one of the two interventions. Although the results were not statistically significant, the effect size suggests that the addition of the faith component improved results. These promising preliminary results will need to be tested in an adequately powered trial.

  2. In pursuit of leanness: the management of appearance, affect and masculinities within a men's weight loss forum.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Eleanor; Gough, Brendan

    2013-05-01

    In a somatic society which promotes visible, idealized forms of embodiment, men are increasingly being interpellated as image-conscious body-subjects. Some research suggests that men negotiate appearance issues in complex and varied ways, partly because image concerns are conventionally feminized. However, little research has considered how overweight men construct body projects in the context of weight loss, or how men talk to each other about weight management efforts. Since sources of information and support for overweight men are now provided online, including dedicated weight loss discussion forums, our analysis focuses on one such forum, linked to a popular male-targeted magazine. We conducted a thematic analysis of selected extracts from seven threads on the forum. Our analysis suggests a widespread focus on appearance, as well as the use of emotion categories when describing difficult bodily experiences. Invariably, however, such talk was carefully constructed and constrained by hegemonic masculinities founded on discipline, work-orientation, pragmatism and self-reliance. The findings are discussed in relation to magazine masculinities and aesthetics, as well as literature on male embodiment.

  3. Onset of Ulcerative Colitis during a Low-Carbohydrate Weight-Loss Diet and Treatment with a Plant-Based Diet: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Mitsuro; Tsuda, Satoko; Komatsu, Masafumi; Tozawa, Haruhiko; Takayama, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are global health concerns. Various effective weight-loss diets have been developed, including the Atkins diet. The Atkins diet is known as an extreme low-carbohydrate diet. This diet reduces body weight and has gained widespread popularity. However, the metabolite profiles of such a diet have been shown to be detrimental to colonic health. Therefore, a concern for the long-term health effects of this diet exists. We encountered a case in which ulcerative colitis developed while the patient was following the Atkins diet.A man, 172 cm in height and weighing 72 kg, at age 36 years followed a low-carbohydrate weight-loss diet. His weight decreased to 66 kg as desired. Thereafter he noticed bloody stool. Colonoscopy revealed diffuse inflammation limited to the rectum, and he was diagnosed with ulcerative colitis. He underwent an educational hospitalization for ulcerative colitis. A plant-based/semivegetarian diet was provided during hospitalization. Bloody stool disappeared during hospitalization and he achieved remission without medication for inflammatory bowel disease.This case indicates that an onset of ulcerative colitis can be an adverse event to a low-carbohydrate weight-loss diet.

  4. Is lost lean mass from intentional weight loss recovered during weight regain in postmenopausal women?

    PubMed

    Beavers, Kristen M; Lyles, Mary F; Davis, Cralen C; Wang, Xuewen; Beavers, Daniel P; Nicklas, Barbara J

    2011-09-01

    Despite the well-known recidivism of obesity, surprisingly little is known about the composition of body weight during weight regain. The objective of this study was to determine whether the composition of body weight regained after intentional weight loss is similar to the composition of body weight lost. The design was a follow-up to a randomized controlled trial of weight loss in which body composition was analyzed and compared in 78 postmenopausal women before the intervention, immediately after the intervention, and 6 and 12 mo after the intervention. All body mass and composition variables were lower immediately after weight loss than at baseline (all P < 0.05). More fat than lean mass was lost with weight loss, which resulted in body-composition changes favoring a lower percentage of body fat and a higher lean-to-fat mass ratio (P < 0.001). Considerable interindividual variability in weight regain was noted (CV = 1.07). In women who regained ≥2 kg body weight, a decreasing trend in the lean-to-fat mass ratio was observed, which indicated greater fat mass accretion than lean mass accretion (P < 0.001). Specifically, for every 1 kg fat lost during the weight-loss intervention, 0.26 kg lean tissue was lost; for every 1 kg fat regained over the following year, only 0.12 kg lean tissue was regained. Although not all postmenopausal women who intentionally lose weight will regain it within 1 y, the data suggest that fat mass is regained to a greater degree than is lean mass in those who do experience some weight regain. The health ramifications of our findings remain to be seen.

  5. Gestational Weight Gain and Post-Partum Weight Loss Among Young, Low-Income, Ethnic Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    ROTHBERG, Bonnie E. Gould; MAGRIPLES, Urania; KERSHAW, Trace S.; RISING, Sharon Schindler; ICKOVICS, Jeannette R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Document weight change trajectories that lead to gestational weight gain or postpartum weight loss outside clinical recommendations established by Institute of Medicine (IOM). Methods Women aged 14-25 receiving prenatal care and delivering singleton infants at term (N=427). Medical record review and four structured interviews conducted: second and third trimester, 6- and 12-months postpartum. Longitudinal mixed modeling to evaluate weight change trajectories. Results Only 22% of participants gained gestational weight within IOM guidelines. 62% exceeded maximum recommendations -- more common among those overweight/obese (BMI≥25.0; p<0.0001). 52% retained ≥10 pounds one-year postpartum. Increased weight gain and retention documented among smokers and women with pregnancy-induced hypertension; breastfeeding promoted postpartum weight loss (all p<.02). BMI by race interaction suggested healthier outcomes for Latinas (p=0.02). Conclusion Excessive pregnancy weight gain and inadequate postpartum weight loss are highly prevalent among young low-income ethnic minority women. Pregnancy and postpartum are critical junctures for weight management interventions. PMID:20974459

  6. A systematic review of medicinal plants used for weight loss in Brazil: Is there potential for obesity treatment?

    PubMed

    Cercato, Luana M; White, Pollyanna A S; Nampo, Fernando K; Santos, Márcio R V; Camargo, Enilton A

    2015-12-24

    Obesity is a pandemic disease and its prevalence is still increasing. Moreover, it has important costs to public health. In Brazil, many plants are used for weight loss by overweight or obese people, but there is a lack of scientific basis for this practice. Many ethnobotanical studies aiming to characterize this usage have been published, but they are still limited by the region considered and the diversity of the popular knowledge. The present study was undertaken to systematically review the ethnobotanical surveys regarding the species utilized to reduce body weight in overweight or obese people in Brazil. Ethnobotanical surveys related to this usage and performed in Brazilian regions were systematically found in MEDLINE, LILACS and Scopus. Thirty-three studies were included in this review. Fifty species were popularly utilized to lose weight. The most cited species were Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC, Annona muricata L. and Hancornia speciosa Gomes. Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. were also cited and are supported by either animal or human investigations that indicate some beneficial activity against obesity. However, for the majority of species cited in the included studies, there is no scientific basis that assures the biological effects of this usage. Many studies have demonstrated important effects of these plants on glycemia, serum lipid levels or body weight control in non-obese conditions, which is not sufficient to recommend the use of these plants to reduce body weight in overweight or obese people. Although many plants are popularly used to reduce weight in overweight or obese people in Brazil, there is little scientific evidence corroborating its usage. Based on the ethnobotanical data presented, this review indicates the plants that should be considered for scientifically controlled studies devoted to investigating their effects on obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Weight Loss and Complementary Health Practices: What the Science Says

    MedlinePlus

    ... lifestyles, including weight-loss and weight management programs. Mindfulness Meditation To date there are only a few studies on the effects of mindfulness as a component of weight-loss programs, but ...

  8. Effects of replacing diet beverages with water on weight loss and weight maintenance: 18-month follow-up, randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Madjd, A; Taylor, M A; Delavari, A; Malekzadeh, R; Macdonald, I A; Farshchi, H R

    2018-04-01

    Beneficial effects of replacing diet beverages (DBs) with water on weight loss, during a 24-week hypoenergetic diet were previously observed. However, it is not known whether this difference is sustained during a subsequent 12-month weight maintenance period. To evaluate effects of replacing DBs with water on body weight maintenance over a 12-month period in participants who undertook a 6-month weight loss plan. Seventy-one obese and overweight adult women (body mass index (BMI): 27-40 kg m -2 ; age: 18-50 years) who usually consumed DBs in their diet were randomly assigned to either substitute water for DBs (water group: 35) or continue drinking DBs five times per week (DBs group: 36) after their lunch for the 6-month weight loss intervention and subsequent 12-month weight maintenance program. A total of 71 participants who were randomly assigned were included in the study by using an intention-to-treat analysis. Greater additional weight loss (mean±s.d.) in the water group was observed compared with the DBs group after the 12-month follow-up period (-1.7±2.8 vs -0.1±2.7 kg, P=0.001). BMI decreased more in the water group than in the DBs group (-0.7±1 vs -0.05±1.1 kg m - 2 , P=0.003). There was also a greater reduction in fasting insulin levels (-0.5±1.4 vs -0.02±1.5 mmol l -1 , P=0.023), better improvement in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (-0.2±0.4 vs -0.1±0.3, P=0.013) and a greater decrease in 2-h postprandial plasma glucose (-0.2±0.3 vs -0.1±0.3 mmol l -1 , P<0.001) in the water group compared with the DBs over the 12-month weight maintenance period. Replacement of DBs with water after the main meal in women who were regular users of DBs may cause further weight reduction during a 12-month weight maintenance program. It may also offer benefits in carbohydrate metabolism including improvement of insulin resistance over the long-term weight maintenance period.

  9. Associated among endocrine, inflammatory, and bone markers, body composition and weight loss induced bone loss

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Weight loss reduces co-¬morbidities of obesity but decreases bone mass. Our aims were to determine whether adequate dairy intake could prevent weight loss related bone loss and to evaluate the contribution of energy-related hormones and inflammatory markers to bone metabolism. Overweight and obese w...

  10. The role of social support in weight loss maintenance: results from the MedWeight study.

    PubMed

    Karfopoulou, Eleni; Anastasiou, Costas A; Avgeraki, Evangelia; Kosmidis, Mary H; Yannakoulia, Mary

    2016-06-01

    The role of social support in weight management is not fully understood, as more support has been linked to both favorable and unfavorable outcomes. We examined social support in relation to weight loss maintenance, comparing between maintainers and regainers of weight loss. The MedWeight study is a Greek registry of people who have intentionally lost ≥10 % of their weight and are either maintaining this loss for over a year (maintainers), or have regained weight (regainers). Demographics and lifestyle habits questionnaires are completed online. Dietary assessment is carried out by two telephone 24 h recalls. Perceived social support was assessed by validated scales examining support from family and friends regarding healthy eating and exercise. 289 maintainers and 122 regainers participated. Regainers received more support compared to maintainers. However, maintainers reported receiving compliments and active participation, whereas regainers receiving verbal instructions and encouragements. Maintainers who received diet support displayed improved dietary intakes, such as lower energy intake; regainers' diet was unaffected by support. Positive, rather than instructive, support appears beneficial in weight loss maintenance.

  11. Preoperative weight loss with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist treatment predicts greater weight loss achieved by the combination of medical weight management and bariatric surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes: A longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Tien; Abbott, Sally; le Roux, Carel W; Wilson, Violet; Singhal, Rishi; Bellary, Srikanth; Tahrani, Abd A

    2018-03-01

    We examined the relationship between weight changes after preoperative glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) treatment and weight changes from the start of medical weight management (MWM) until 12 months after bariatric surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes in a retrospective cohort study. A total of 45 patients (64.4% women, median [interquartile range] age 49 [45-60] years) were included. The median (interquartile range) weight loss from start of MWM until 12 months post-surgery was 17.9% (13.0%-29.3%). GLP-1RA treatment during MWM resulted in 5.0% (1.9%-7.7%) weight loss. Weight loss during GLP-1RA treatment predicted weight loss from the start of MWM until 12 months post-surgery, but not postoperative weight loss after adjustment. The proportion of weight loss from start of MWM to 12 months post-surgery attributed to GLP-1RA treatment was negatively associated with that attributed to surgery, after adjustment. In conclusion, weight change after GLP-1RA treatment predicted the weight loss achieved by a combination of MWM and bariatric surgery, but not weight loss induced by surgery only. Failure to lose weight after GLP-1RA treatment should not be considered a barrier to undergoing bariatric surgery. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Mood and Weight Loss in a Behavioral Treatment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Rena R.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Evaluated the relationship between mood and weight loss for 76 patients participating in two consecutive behavioral treatment programs. Weight losses averaged 12.2 pounds (5.55 kg) during the 10-week program. Positive changes in mood were reported during this interval, and these changes appeared to be related to changes in weight. (Author/RC)

  13. Amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism during massive weight loss following gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Bourron, Olivier; Ciangura, Cécile; Bouillot, Jean-Luc; Massias, Laurent; Poitou, Christine; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2007-11-01

    Gastric bypass is increasingly used in morbidly obese patients to achieve significant reduction of body weight and fat mass and concurrent improvement in co-morbidities. We report the case of a 53-year-old male patient (141 kg, BMI 50 kg/m2), successfully treated by amiodarone for supraventricular arrythmia, who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP). 6 months after surgery, he had lost 45% of his preoperative weight (44.8% of weight loss was lean mass) and developed amiodarone-induced subclinical hyperthyroidism. We hypothesize the following sequence of events: weight loss after RYGBP, therefore fat loss, decrease in distribution volume of amiodarone inducing iodine overload and hyperthyroidism, reinforcing weight loss and particularly loss of lean mass. This report emphasizes the importance of careful monitoring of weight and body composition changes after RYGBP. In this situation, checking thyroid status is recommended, especially when there is a history of thyroid disease or potentially toxic thyroid medication.

  14. High-protein weight-loss diets: are they safe and do they work? A review of the experimental and epidemiologic data.

    PubMed

    Eisenstein, Julie; Roberts, Susan B; Dallal, Gerard; Saltzman, Edward

    2002-07-01

    Recommendations for increased consumption of protein are among the most common approaches of popular or fad diets. This review summarizes the effects of dietary protein on satiety, energy intake, thermogenesis, and weight loss, as well as its effect on a variety of health outcomes in adults. In short-term studies, dietary protein modulates energy intake via the sensation of satiety and increases total energy expenditure by increasing the thermic effect of feeding. Whereas these effects did not contribute to weight and fat loss in those studies in which energy intake was fixed, one ad libitum study does suggest that a high-protein diet results in a greater decrease in energy intake, and therefore greater weight and fat loss. In terms of safety, there is little long-term information on the health effects of high-protein diets. From the available data, however, it is evident that the consumption of protein greater than two to three times the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowance contributes to urinary calcium loss and may, in the long term, predispose to bone loss. Caution with these diets is recommended in those individuals who may be predisposed to nephrolithiasis or kidney disease, and particularly in those with diabetes mellitus.

  15. Weight Loss Supplements: Boon or Bane?

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Reshma Mohamed; Omar, Norfaizatul Shalida

    2017-01-01

    Dietary health supplements for weight loss seem to be the future nowadays. However, this industry is plagued by lack of regulations and ignorance regarding the constituents of the supplements. Of all the supplements consumed, the ones for weight loss are most commonly found in the market. Reports of liver failure, kidney impairment and worsening of chronic ailments in patients who consume these supplements are surfacing recently which make us question the credibility of these products. The safety of these products lie in the clear stating of the ingredients by the manufacturer, well informed patient, knowledgeable physician and tight regulations from the regulatory board. PMID:28814927

  16. Vaping to lose weight: Predictors of adult e-cigarette use for weight loss or control.

    PubMed

    Morean, Meghan E; Wedel, Amelia V

    2017-03-01

    Some traditional cigarette smokers are motivated to smoke to lose weight or control their weight. The current study evaluated whether a subset of adult e-cigarette users reported vaping to lose or control their weight and examined potential predictors of vaping for weight management. Adult e-cigarette users (n=459) who reported wanting to lose weight or maintain their weight completed an anonymous online survey. Participants reported on demographics, vaping frequency, e-cigarette nicotine content, cigarette smoking status, preferred e-cigarette/e-liquid flavors, current weight status (i.e., overweight, underweight), use of dieting strategies associated with anorexia and bulimia, lifetime history of binge eating, self-discipline, and impulse control. Binary logistic regression was used to examine whether vaping for weight loss/control was associated with the aforementioned variables. Participants who reported vaping for weight loss/control (13.5%) were more likely to vape frequently (adjOR=1.15; 95% CI [1.00, 1.31]); be overweight (adjOR=2.80; [1.33, 5.90]); restrict calories (adjOR=2.23; [1.13, 4.42]); have poor impulse control (adjOR=0.59; [0.41, 0.86]); and prefer coffee- (adjOR=2.92; [1.47, 5.80]) or vanilla-flavored e-liquid (adjOR=7.44; [1.56, 36.08]). A subset of adult e-cigarette users reported vaping for weight loss/control, raising concerns about expanded, scientifically unsubstantiated uses of e-cigarettes. Identifying where individuals obtain information about vaping for weight loss (e.g., e-cigarette ads, Internet) and whether weight-related motives promote e-cigarette initiation among e-cigarette naïve individuals is important to informing regulatory efforts. Further research also is needed to better understand the link between e-liquid flavors and weight loss motivations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An exploration of the experiences and perceptions of people who have maintained weight loss.

    PubMed

    Hindle, L; Carpenter, C

    2011-08-01

      In clinical weight-loss trials, the majority of those who lose weight will regain almost all of it within 5 years, yet there is limited evidence about effective strategies to support weight maintenance. The present study aimed to increase understanding of the experiences of those who have been successful at weight maintenance.   This qualitative study used a phenomenological approach. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a purposive sample of 10 participants who had maintained a minimum of 10% weight loss for at least 1 year. Interviews were transcribed and then analysed using a foundational thematic approach based on the Colaizzi method.   Participants believed that a more relaxed approach to weight management with realistic, long-term goals was more appropriate for long-term control. They had a strong reason to lose weight often with a medical trigger and had elicited support to help them. Most described the presence of saboteurs. Participants took personal responsibility for their weight management and were in tune with their nutrition and activity needs. Self-monitoring was a strategy commonly used to support this. They described the lack of positive reinforcement in the maintenance phase as a major difficulty.   This small-scale study provides evidence to suggest the importance of a medical prompt to lose weight; planning for how to manage saboteurs and identifying methods of minimising the impact of a reduction in positive reinforcement. It reinforces the importance of many of the strategies known to support the weight-loss phase. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2011 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  18. Ethnic differences in weight loss behavior among secondary school students in Beirut: the role of weight perception.

    PubMed

    Mehio-Sibai, Abla; Kanaan, Nabil; Chaaya, Monique; Rahal, Boushra; Abdullah, Ahmad; Sibai, Tarek

    2003-01-01

    Assessing the prevalence of weight loss attempts in Beirut, Lebanon, a country characterized by a diversity of ethnic and religious groups and examining the interplay between ethnicity, body mass index (BMI) and weight perception and their relationship to weight loss behavior. A school-based survey of risk behaviors conducted among secondary students (grade 10-12) in 1997. Subjects consisted of 827 boys and girls, aged 15 to 23 years, the majority of whom were Moslems (65.4%). Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the association between ethnicity and weight perception with the likelihood of trying to lose weight controlling for BMI and a number of potential covariates. The prevalence of weight loss attempts was 19.1% and 42.6% in boys and girls respectively. Christians were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight and to attempt weight loss than Moslems across all BMI levels, however this trend was significant in the underweight category. While controlling for BMI did not change appreciably the results observed, after controlling for weight perception, ethnic differences in weight-loss behavior disappeared. Findings of the study suggest that whereas actual weight may constitute only partially the driving force for differentials by ethnicity, the perception of body weight acts as a mediating factor in the relationship between ethnicity and weight loss behavior. Understanding the disparities in weight management behavior across various adolescent groups is key to develop culturally appropriate educational and intervention programs for the youths.

  19. Motivation and Its Relationship to Adherence to Self-Monitoring and Weight Loss in a 16-Week Internet Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Kelly H.; Tate, Deborah F.; Ward, Dianne S.; Bowling, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine changes in motivation and the relationship of motivation to adherence to self-monitoring and weight loss in a 16-week Internet behavioral weight-loss intervention. Design: Two-group randomized design. Setting: This study was conducted over the Internet. Participants: Sixty-six women, ages 22-65, with a body mass index (BMI)…

  20. Impact of Weight Loss Surgery on Esophageal Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Rishi D.; Choksi, Yash A.

    2015-01-01

    Bariatric surgery has come to the forefront of weight loss treatment due to its complex interactions via anatomic, physiologic, and neurohormonal changes leading to sustained weight loss. Unlike lifestyle and pharmacologic options, which fail to show long-term sustained weight loss, bariatric surgery has been shown to decrease overall mortality and morbidity. Bariatric surgery can be purely restrictive, such as laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) or laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG), or restrictive-malabsorptive, such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). These surgeries cause specific anatomic changes that promote weight loss; however, they also have unintended effects on the esophagus, particularly in terms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and esophageal motility. Via restrictive surgery, LAGB has been widely reported to cause significant weight loss, although studies have also shown an increase and worsening of GERD as well as elevated rates of esophageal dilation, aperistalsis, and alterations in lower esophageal sphincter pressure. Along with LAGB, LSG has shown not only a worsening of GERD, but also the formation of de novo GERD in patients who were asymptomatic before the operation. In a restrictive-malabsorptive approach, RYGB has been reported to improve GERD and preserve esophageal motility. Bariatric surgery is a burgeoning field with immense implications on overall mortality. Future randomized, controlled trials are needed to better understand which patients should undergo particular surgeries, with greater emphasis on esophageal health and prevention of GERD and esophageal dysmotility. PMID:27134597

  1. Gestational weight gain and subsequent postpartum weight loss among young, low-income, ethnic minority women.

    PubMed

    Gould Rothberg, Bonnie E; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace S; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2011-01-01

    Document weight change trajectories that lead to gestational weight gain or postpartum weight loss outside clinical recommendations established by the Institute of Medicine. Women aged 14-25 receiving prenatal care and delivering singleton infants at term (n = 427). Medical record review and 4 structured interviews conducted: second and third trimester, 6- and 12-months postpartum. Longitudinal mixed modeling to evaluate weight change trajectories. Only 22% of participants gained gestational weight within Institute of Medicine guidelines. There were 62% that exceeded maximum recommendations-more common among those overweight/obese (body mass index ≥25.0; P < .0001). 52% retained ≥10 lb 1-year postpartum. Increased weight gain and retention documented among smokers and women with pregnancy-induced hypertension; breastfeeding promoted postpartum weight loss (all P < .02). Body mass index by race interaction suggested healthier outcomes for Latinas (P = .02). Excessive pregnancy weight gain and inadequate postpartum weight loss are highly prevalent among young low-income ethnic minority women. Pregnancy and postpartum are critical junctures for weight management interventions. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A review of technology-based interventions to maintain weight loss.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sohye; Lindquist, Ruth

    2015-03-01

    For many decades, healthcare providers and researchers have developed weight-loss interventions to help people achieve weight loss. Unfortunately, it is typical for people to lose weight quickly during the intervention period but then slowly regain weight until they return to their approximate baseline. Technology-based maintenance interventions are among the newest approaches to long-term weight loss. Several advantages make technology helpful for maintaining weight loss. The purpose of this article was to review and critique the randomized controlled trials of technology-based weight-loss maintenance interventions (WLMIs) for adults. A systematic search through electronic databases and a manual citation search were conducted. Limited numbers of controlled trials published since 2000 that included randomization, and technology-based WLMIs were identified. The characteristics of the eight studies were diverse. The average score of study design quality was moderate. The results of the effectiveness of technology-based WLMIs were mixed. Technology-based WLMIs are more likely to be effective than usual care but not more effective than personal contact. Based on the review, guidelines were established for the selection and potential success of technology-based WLMIs. The effectiveness of technology-based maintenance interventions for weight loss varied, and potential strategies and approaches are discussed to improve their effectiveness. Further studies are needed to better evaluate and refine the efficacy of technology-based WLMIs.

  3. Factors associated with choice of a low-fat or low-carbohydrate diet during a behavioral weight loss intervention.

    PubMed

    McVay, Megan A; Voils, Corrine I; Coffman, Cynthia J; Geiselman, Paula J; Kolotkin, Ronette L; Mayer, Stephanie B; Smith, Valerie A; Gaillard, Leslie; Turner, Marsha J; Yancy, William S

    2014-12-01

    Individuals undertaking a weight loss effort have a choice among proven dietary approaches. Factors contributing to choice of either a low-fat/low-calorie diet or a low-carbohydrate diet, two of the most studied and popular dietary approaches, are unknown. The current study used data from participants randomized to the 'choice' arm of a trial examining whether being able to choose a diet regimen yields higher weight loss than being randomly assigned to a diet. At study entry, participants attended a group session during which they were provided tailored feedback indicating which diet was most consistent with their food preferences using the Geiselman Food Preference Questionnaire (FPQ), information about both diets, and example meals for each diet. One week later, they indicated which diet they chose to follow during the 48-week study, with the option of switching diets after 12 weeks. Of 105 choice arm participants, 44 (42%) chose the low-fat/low-calorie diet and 61 (58%) chose the low-carbohydrate diet. In bivariate analyses, diet choice was not associated with age, race, sex, education, BMI, or diabetes (all p > 0.05). Low-carbohydrate diet choice was associated with baseline higher percent fat intake (p = 0.007), lower percent carbohydrate intake (p = 0.02), and food preferences consistent with a low-carbohydrate diet according to FPQ (p < 0.0001). In a multivariable logistic regression model, only FPQ diet preference was associated with diet choice (p = 0.001). Reported reasons for diet choice were generally similar for those choosing either diet; however, concerns about negative health effects of the unselected diet was rated as more influential among participants selecting the low-fat diet. Only three low-carbohydrate and two low-fat diet participants switched diets at 12 weeks. Results suggest that when provided a choice between two popular weight loss dietary approaches, an individual's selection is likely influenced by baseline dietary

  4. Weight Loss Surgery: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... ask your doctor Your diet after gastric bypass surgery Related Health Topics Obesity Weight Control National Institutes of Health The primary NIH organization for research on Weight Loss Surgery is the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive ...

  5. Diet quality of breast cancer survivors after a six-month weight management intervention: Improvements and association with weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Christifano, Danielle N.; Fazzino, Tera L.; Sullivan, Debra A.; Befort, Christie A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Obesity and diet quality are two distinct lifestyle factors associated with morbidity and mortality among breast cancer survivors. The purpose of this study was to examine diet quality changes during a weight loss intervention among breast cancer survivors, and whether diet quality change was an important factor related to weight loss. Methods Participants were overweight/obese breast cancer survivors (n=180) participating in a weight loss intervention. Diet quality scores were calculated using the Healthy Eating Index-2010. Paired sample t-tests were run to examine change in diet quality, and a latent difference model was constructed to examine whether change in diet quality was associated with weight change. Results Participants significantly improved diet quality (p=.001) and lost 13.2%± 5.8% (mean± SD) of their weight (p=.001). Six month HEI score was significantly associated with weight loss, controlling for baseline BMI (p=.003). Improvement in diet quality was also significantly associated with weight loss (p=.01). Conclusion Our findings indicate that a weight loss intervention can result in both clinically significant weight loss and improvement in diet quality, and that improved diet quality is predictive of weight loss. Both weight loss and diet quality are implicated in longevity and quality of life for breast cancer survivors. PMID:27635676

  6. Maintenance of weight loss: a needs assessment.

    PubMed

    DePue, J D; Clark, M M; Ruggiero, L; Medeiros, M L; Pera, V

    1995-05-01

    This study identified facilitators and obstacles to maintenance of weight loss following a very-low-calorie-diet and behavior modification program. A survey was mailed to a random sample of 178 program completers and received a 61% response rate; the most frequent follow-up period was more than 2 years. Twenty-nine percent reported weighing the same (within 10 lbs) or less than the end of their participation in the treatment program (maintainers), while 71% reported their present weight was a mean of 65% higher than their initial weight loss (regainers). Maintainers were significantly more likely to report engaging in regular aerobic exercise, attending a maintenance support group, and confidence in their ability to manage their weight in the future, while regainers were more likely to report stress and motivation as frequent weight management obstacles. Respondents consistently identified the need for low/no cost ongoing support. Maintainers and relapsers reported similar challenges in managing their weight, yet with different results, suggesting the need to identify subgroups for which different post-treatment support options could be applied.

  7. Fat-free mass loss generated with weight loss in overweight and obese adults: What may we expect?

    PubMed

    Dixon, J B; Lambert, E A; Grima, M; Rice, T; Lambert, G W; Straznicky, N E

    2015-01-01

    There is concern that intentional weight loss may generate excessive loss of fat-free mass (FFM). Idealists target minimal loss of FFM, while others consider that FFM loss of up to 25% of weight loss is acceptable. In a cross-sectional study of 275 weight-stable, overweight or obese adults, we used whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure FFM. A range of models was used to estimate the expected ΔFFM/Δweight ratio required to attain the body composition of a weight-stable individual at a lower body mass index (BMI). Higher BMI was associated linearly with higher FFM in men and women. Proportional ΔFFM/Δweight was influenced by sex, BMI and age. Direct scatter plot analysis, quadratic curve fit modelling and linear FFM-BMI modelling provided similar estimates for each model of ΔFFM/Δweight ratio, with 40% for men and 33% for women. These results show that the 25% rule is inappropriate and our estimates are higher than those generally reported after intentional weight loss indicating favourable preservation of FFM. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gary C; Ramanathan, Vivek S; Law, David; Funchain, Pauline; Chen, George C; French, Samuel; Shlopov, Boris; Eysselein, Viktor; Chung, David; Reicher, Sonya; Pham, Binh V

    2010-11-27

    We report three cases of patients with acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements. One patient took Hydroxycut while the other two took Herbalife supplements. Liver biopsies for all patients demonstrated findings consistent with drug-induced acute liver injury. To our knowledge, we are the first institute to report acute liver injury from both of these two types of weight-loss herbal supplements together as a case series. The series emphasizes the importance of taking a cautious approach when consuming herbal supplements for the purpose of weight loss.

  9. Acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gary C; Ramanathan, Vivek S; Law, David; Funchain, Pauline; Chen, George C; French, Samuel; Shlopov, Boris; Eysselein, Viktor; Chung, David; Reicher, Sonya; Pham, Binh V

    2010-01-01

    We report three cases of patients with acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements. One patient took Hydroxycut while the other two took Herbalife supplements. Liver biopsies for all patients demonstrated findings consistent with drug-induced acute liver injury. To our knowledge, we are the first institute to report acute liver injury from both of these two types of weight-loss herbal supplements together as a case series. The series emphasizes the importance of taking a cautious approach when consuming herbal supplements for the purpose of weight loss. PMID:21173910

  10. Thermodynamics of weight loss diets.

    PubMed

    Fine, Eugene J; Feinman, Richard D

    2004-12-08

    BACKGROUND: It is commonly held that "a calorie is a calorie", i.e. that diets of equal caloric content will result in identical weight change independent of macronutrient composition, and appeal is frequently made to the laws of thermodynamics. We have previously shown that thermodynamics does not support such a view and that diets of different macronutrient content may be expected to induce different changes in body mass. Low carbohydrate diets in particular have claimed a "metabolic advantage" meaning more weight loss than in isocaloric diets of higher carbohydrate content. In this review, for pedagogic clarity, we reframe the theoretical discussion to directly link thermodynamic inefficiency to weight change. The problem in outline: Is metabolic advantage theoretically possible? If so, what biochemical mechanisms might plausibly explain it? Finally, what experimental evidence exists to determine whether it does or does not occur? RESULTS: Reduced thermodynamic efficiency will result in increased weight loss. The laws of thermodynamics are silent on the existence of variable thermodynamic efficiency in metabolic processes. Therefore such variability is permitted and can be related to differences in weight lost. The existence of variable efficiency and metabolic advantage is therefore an empiric question rather than a theoretical one, confirmed by many experimental isocaloric studies, pending a properly performed meta-analysis. Mechanisms are as yet unknown, but plausible mechanisms at the metabolic level are proposed. CONCLUSIONS: Variable thermodynamic efficiency due to dietary manipulation is permitted by physical laws, is supported by much experimental data, and may be reasonably explained by plausible mechanisms.

  11. Thermodynamics of weight loss diets

    PubMed Central

    Fine, Eugene J; Feinman, Richard D

    2004-01-01

    Background It is commonly held that "a calorie is a calorie", i.e. that diets of equal caloric content will result in identical weight change independent of macronutrient composition, and appeal is frequently made to the laws of thermodynamics. We have previously shown that thermodynamics does not support such a view and that diets of different macronutrient content may be expected to induce different changes in body mass. Low carbohydrate diets in particular have claimed a "metabolic advantage" meaning more weight loss than in isocaloric diets of higher carbohydrate content. In this review, for pedagogic clarity, we reframe the theoretical discussion to directly link thermodynamic inefficiency to weight change. The problem in outline: Is metabolic advantage theoretically possible? If so, what biochemical mechanisms might plausibly explain it? Finally, what experimental evidence exists to determine whether it does or does not occur? Results Reduced thermodynamic efficiency will result in increased weight loss. The laws of thermodynamics are silent on the existence of variable thermodynamic efficiency in metabolic processes. Therefore such variability is permitted and can be related to differences in weight lost. The existence of variable efficiency and metabolic advantage is therefore an empiric question rather than a theoretical one, confirmed by many experimental isocaloric studies, pending a properly performed meta-analysis. Mechanisms are as yet unknown, but plausible mechanisms at the metabolic level are proposed. Conclusions Variable thermodynamic efficiency due to dietary manipulation is permitted by physical laws, is supported by much experimental data, and may be reasonably explained by plausible mechanisms. PMID:15588283

  12. Weighted Vest Use during Dietary Weight Loss on Bone Health in Older Adults with Obesity.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, Jessica L; Beavers, Daniel P; Henderson, Rebecca M; Yow, Dixie; Crotts, Charlotte; Kiel, Jessica; Nicklas, Barbara J; Beavers, Kristen M

    2017-01-01

    To examine the effects of daily weighted vest use during a dietary weight loss intervention, on (a) hip and spine bone mineral density (aBMD), and (b) biomarkers of bone turnover, in older adults with obesity. 37 older (70.1 ± 3.0 years) adults with obesity (BMI=35.3 ± 2.9) underwent a 22 week dietary weight loss intervention (1100-1300 kcal/day) with (Diet+Vest; n=20) or without (Diet; n=17) weighted vest use (goal: 10+ h/day; weight added incrementally based on amount of weight lost). Total body weight; DXA-acquired aBMD of the total hip, femoral neck and lumbar spine; and biomarkers of bone turnover (OC, BALP, P1NP, CTX) were measured at baseline and follow up. General linear models, adjusted for baseline values of the outcome and gender, were used to examine intervention effects. Average weight loss was significant in both groups (-11.2 ± 4.4 kg and -11.0 ± 6.3 kg, Diet+Vest and Diet groups, respectively), with no difference between groups (p=0.91). Average weighted vest use was 6.7 ± 2.2 h/day. No significant changes in aBMD or biomarkers were observed, although trends were noted for total hip aBMD and BALP. Loss in total hip aBMD was greater in the Diet group compared with Diet+Vest (Δ: -18.7 [29.3, -8.1] mg/cm 2 versus -6.1 [-15.7, 3.5] mg/cm 2 ; p=0.08). BALP increased in the Diet+Vest group by 3.8% (Δ: 0.59 [-0.33, 1.50] μg/L) and decreased by -4.6% in the Diet group (Δ: -0.70 [-1.70, 0.31] μg/L, p=0.07). Weighted vest use during weight loss may attenuate loss of hip aBMD and increase bone formation in older adults with obesity. Further study is warranted.

  13. Effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence in women

    PubMed Central

    Whitcomb, Emily L; Subak, Leslee L

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this research was review the epidemiology of the association of obesity and urinary incontinence, and to summarize the published data on the effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence. Methods A literature review of the association between urinary incontinence and overweight/obesity in women was performed. Case series and clinical trials reporting the effect of surgical, behavioral, and/or pharmacological weight loss on urinary incontinence are summarized. Results Epidemiological studies demonstrate that obesity is a strong and independent risk factor for prevalent and incident urinary incontinence. There is a clear dose-response effect of weight on urinary incontinence, with each 5-unit increase in body mass index associated with a 20%–70% increase in risk of urinary incontinence. The maximum effect of weight on urinary incontinence has an odds ratio of 4–5. The odds of incident urinary incontinence over 5–10 years increase by approximately 30%–60% for each 5-unit increase in body mass index. There appears to be a stronger association between increasing weight and prevalent and incident stress incontinence (including mixed incontinence) than for urge incontinence. Weight loss studies indicate that both surgical and nonsurgical weight loss leads to significant improvements in prevalence, frequency, and/or symptoms of urinary incontinence. Conclusion Epidemiological studies document overweight and obesity as important risk factors for urinary incontinence. Weight loss by both surgical and more conservative approaches is effective in reducing urinary incontinence symptoms and should be strongly considered as a first line treatment for overweight and obese women with urinary incontinence. PMID:24198645

  14. Weight-Loss Expectancies, Relative Weight, and Symptoms of Bulimia in Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thombs, Dennis L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A canonical correlation analysis of various weight concerns in a sample of college women revealed that strong expectations of weight loss benefits and a high relative body weight were positively correlated with the four major symptoms of bulimia. Expectations of increased self-worth and social confidence were linked to eating problems. (RJM)

  15. Validation of clinic weights from electronic health records against standardized weight measurements in weight loss trials.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lan; Lv, Nan; Rosas, Lisa G; Au, David; Ma, Jun

    2017-02-01

    To validate clinic weights in electronic health records against researcher-measured weights for outcome assessment in weight loss trials. Clinic and researcher-measured weights from a published trial (BE WELL) were compared using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient, Bland and Altman's limits of agreement, and polynomial regression model. Changes in clinic and researcher-measured weights in BE WELL and another trial, E-LITE, were analyzed using growth curve modeling. Among BE WELL (n = 330) and E-LITE (n = 241) participants, 96% and 90% had clinic weights (mean [SD] of 5.8 [6.1] and 3.7 [3.9] records) over 12 and 15 months of follow-up, respectively. The concordance correlation coefficient was 0.99, and limits of agreement plots showed no pattern between or within treatment groups, suggesting overall good agreement between researcher-measured and nearest-in-time clinic weights up to 3 months. The 95% confidence intervals for predicted percent differences fell within ±3% for clinic weights within 3 months of the researcher-measured weights. Furthermore, the growth curve slopes for clinic and researcher-measured weights by treatment group did not differ significantly, suggesting similar inferences about treatment effects over time, in both trials. Compared with researcher-measured weights, close-in-time clinic weights showed high agreement and inference validity. Clinic weights could be a valid pragmatic outcome measure in weight loss studies. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  16. Efficacy of a "small-changes" workplace weight loss initiative on weight and productivity outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zinn, Caryn; Schofield, Grant M; Hopkins, Will G

    2012-10-01

    The effect of weight reduction on workplace productivity is unknown. We have investigated a "small-changes" workplace weight loss intervention on weight and productivity outcomes. Overweight/obese employees at two New Zealand worksites (n = 102) received the 12-week intervention. One site received an extra 9-month weight-maintenance component. Magnitudes of effects on weight and productivity were assessed via standardization. Both groups reduced weight at 12 weeks and maintained lost weight at 12 months. There were small possible improvements in productivity at one worksite and trivial reductions at the other by 12 weeks, with little subsequent change during maintenance in either group. At an individual level, weight change was associated with at most only small improvements or small reductions in productivity. Workplace weight loss initiatives may need to be more intensive or multidimensional to enhance productivity.

  17. Prospective Relations between Social Comparison Orientation and Weight Loss Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Arigo, Danielle; Butryn, Meghan L

    2018-06-26

    Maintenance of weight loss after behavioral intervention tends to be poor, and there is need for an improved understanding of factors that are associated with successful maintenance. Social comparison is known to be a powerful influence on treatment outcomes for group-based behavioral weight loss programs, but little is known about the role of individual differences in social comparison orientation (i.e., tendency to value comparison information) in this context. The goal of this study was to examine prospective relations between social comparison orientation and long-term weight loss outcomes (percent weight loss, aerobic-intensity physical activity) among participants in behavioral weight loss treatment. Participants (n = 161, M Age = 54, M BMI = 34.4░kg/m 2 ) completed a measure of social comparison orientation at pre-treatment baseline. Height and weight were measured in the research center and aerobic-intensity physical activity was assessed via accelerometer at baseline, mid- and end-of-treatment, and at 6 and 12 months post-treatment (representing maintenance). Multilevel models tested prospective relations between comparison orientation and treatment outcomes over time, with emphasis on differences during the post-treatment maintenance phase. Stronger (vs. weaker) general comparison orientation was associated with better maintenance of aerobic-intensity physical activity. However, stronger (vs. weaker) orientation toward comparisons with better-off others (i.e., upward comparison) was associated with less weight loss success during and after treatment. Social comparison orientation thus shows meaningful relations with long-term maintenance of key outcomes in group-based behavioral weight loss treatment, and warrants further investigation in this context.

  18. Behaviors and Motivations for Weight Loss in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Callie Lambert; Skelton, Joseph A.; Perrin, Eliana M.; Skinner, Asheley Cockrell

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Examine the association between weight loss behaviors and motivations for weight loss in children and adolescents and the association of weight status with these behaviors and motivations in a nationally representative sample. Methods We examined data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), focusing on children in the United States ages 8-15 years, in repeated cross-sections from 2005–2011. Results Half of participants (N=6117) reported attempting to lose weight, and children who were obese attempted to lose weight more frequently (76%) than children who were a healthy weight (15%). Children reported attempting to lose weight by both healthy and unhealthy means: “exercising” (92%), “eating less sweets or fatty foods” (84%), “skipping meals” (35%), and “starving” (18%). The motivation to be better at sports was more likely to be associated with attempting weight loss through healthy behaviors, whereas children motivated by teasing were more likely to engage in unhealthy behaviors. Motivations for losing weight differed by weight status. Conclusions Many children and adolescents attempt to lose weight, using either or both healthy and unhealthy behaviors, and behaviors differed based on motivations for weight loss. Future research should examine how physicians, parents, and teachers can inspire healthy behavior changes. PMID:26718021

  19. Behaviors and motivations for weight loss in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Brown, Callie Lambert; Skelton, Joseph A; Perrin, Eliana M; Skinner, Asheley Cockrell

    2016-02-01

    To examine the association between weight loss behaviors and motivations for weight loss in children and adolescents and the association of weight status with these behaviors and motivations in a nationally representative sample. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was examined, focusing on children in the United States aged 8-15 years, in repeated cross-sections from 2005 to 2011. Half of participants (N = 6,117) reported attempting to lose weight, and children with obesity attempted to lose weight more frequently (76%) than children who were a healthy weight (15%). Children reported attempting to lose weight by both healthy and unhealthy means: "exercising" (92%), "eating less sweets or fatty foods" (84%), "skipping meals" (35%), and "starving" (18%). The motivation to be better at sports was more likely to be associated with attempting weight loss through healthy behaviors, whereas children motivated by teasing were more likely to engage in unhealthy behaviors. Motivations for losing weight differed by weight status. Many children and adolescents attempt to lose weight, using either or both healthy and unhealthy behaviors, and behaviors differed based on motivations for weight loss. Future research should examine how physicians, parents, and teachers can inspire healthy behavior changes. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  20. A qualitative study comparing commercial and health service weight loss groups, classes and clubs.

    PubMed

    Allan, K; Hoddinott, P; Avenell, A

    2011-02-01

    Group-based interventions for weight loss are popular; however, little is known about how health service groups compare with the commercial sector, from either the participant or the group leader perspective. Currently, health professionals have little guidance on how to deliver effective group interventions. The present study aimed to compare and contrast leaders' and attendees' experiences of health service and commercial weight loss groups, through in-depth interviews and group observations. Purposive sampling, guided by a sampling frame, was employed to identify diverse groups operating in Scotland with differing content, structures and style. Data collection and analysis took place concurrently in accordance with a grounded theory approach. Thirteen semi-structured group observations and in-depth audio-recorded interviews with 11 leaders and 22 attendees were conducted. Identification of themes and the construction of matrices to identify data patterns were guided by the Framework Method for qualitative analysis. Compared to commercial groups, health service 'groups' or 'classes' tended to offer smaller periodic fixed term groups, involving gatekeeper referral systems. Commercial organisations provide a fixed branded package, for 'club' or 'class' members, and most commercial leaders share personal experiences of losing weight. Health service leaders had less opportunity for supervision, peer support or specific training in how to run their groups compared to commercial leaders. Commercial and health service groups differ in access; attendee and leader autonomy; engagement in group processes; and approaches to leadership and training, which could influence weight loss outcomes. Health service groups can provide different group content and experiences, particularly for those with chronic diseases and for populations less likely to attend commercial groups, such as men. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  1. Pre-meal water consumption for weight loss.

    PubMed

    2013-07-01

    Drinking 500 mL of water 30 minutes before each meal can be used in conjunction with a hypocaloric diet to lead to greater weight loss in overweight or obese middle-aged and older adults. Pre-meal water consumption for weight loss is an easy to implement intervention. It has NHMRC Level 2 evidence of efficacy and adverse effects are unlikely. There are some considerations, and the intervention would be contraindicated in patients with congestive cardiac failure, and in those with severe renal impairment.

  2. Using data mining to predict success in a weight loss trial.

    PubMed

    Batterham, M; Tapsell, L; Charlton, K; O'Shea, J; Thorne, R

    2017-08-01

    Traditional methods for predicting weight loss success use regression approaches, which make the assumption that the relationships between the independent and dependent (or logit of the dependent) variable are linear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between common demographic and early weight loss variables to predict weight loss success at 12 months without making this assumption. Data mining methods (decision trees, generalised additive models and multivariate adaptive regression splines), in addition to logistic regression, were employed to predict: (i) weight loss success (defined as ≥5%) at the end of a 12-month dietary intervention using demographic variables [body mass index (BMI), sex and age]; percentage weight loss at 1 month; and (iii) the difference between actual and predicted weight loss using an energy balance model. The methods were compared by assessing model parsimony and the area under the curve (AUC). The decision tree provided the most clinically useful model and had a good accuracy (AUC 0.720 95% confidence interval = 0.600-0.840). Percentage weight loss at 1 month (≥0.75%) was the strongest predictor for successful weight loss. Within those individuals losing ≥0.75%, individuals with a BMI (≥27 kg m -2 ) were more likely to be successful than those with a BMI between 25 and 27 kg m -2 . Data mining methods can provide a more accurate way of assessing relationships when conventional assumptions are not met. In the present study, a decision tree provided the most parsimonious model. Given that early weight loss cannot be predicted before randomisation, incorporating this information into a post randomisation trial design may give better weight loss results. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  3. Rapid Weight Loss vs. Slow Weight Loss: Which is More Effective on Body Composition and Metabolic Risk Factors?

    PubMed

    Ashtary-Larky, Damoon; Ghanavati, Matin; Lamuchi-Deli, Nasrin; Payami, Seyedeh Arefeh; Alavi-Rad, Sara; Boustaninejad, Mehdi; Afrisham, Reza; Abbasnezhad, Amir; Alipour, Meysam

    2017-07-01

    Achieving weight loss (WL) in a short time regardless of its consequences has always been the focus of many obese and overweight people. In this study, anthropometric and metabolic effects of two diets for rapid and slow WL and their consequences were examined. Forty-two obese and overweight individuals were randomly divided to 2 groups; rapid WL (weight loss of at least 5% in 5 weeks) and slow WL (weight loss of at least 5% in 15 weeks). To compare the effects of the rate of WL in 2 groups, the same amount of was achieved with different durations. Anthropometric indices, lipid, and glycemic profiles, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures were evaluated before and after the intervention. Both protocols of rapid WL and slow WL caused reduction in waist circumference, hip circumference, total body water, body fat mass, lean body mass, and resting metabolic rate (RMR). Further reduction in waist circumference, hip circumference, fat mass, and percentage of body fat was observed in slow WL and decreased total body water, lean body mass, fat free mass, and RMR was observed in rapid WL. Improvement in lipid and glycemic profiles was observed in both groups. Reduction of low-density lipoprotein and fasting blood sugar, improvement of insulin resistance, and sensitivity were more significant in rapid WL in comparison to slow WL. Weight Loss regardless of its severity could improve anthropometric indicators, although body composition is more favorable following a slow WL. Both diets improved lipid and glycemic profiles. In this context, rapid WL was more effective. (IRCT2016010424699N2).

  4. Cancer Cachexia: Beyond Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Bruggeman, Andrew R; Kamal, Arif H; LeBlanc, Thomas W; Ma, Joseph D; Baracos, Vickie E; Roeland, Eric J

    2016-11-01

    Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by skeletal muscle loss leading to progressive functional impairment. Despite the ubiquity of cachexia in clinical practice, prevention, early identification, and intervention remain challenging. The impact of cancer cachexia on quality of life, treatment-related toxicity, physical function, and mortality are well established; however, establishing a clinically meaningful definition has proven challenging because of the focus on weight loss alone. Attempts to more comprehensively define cachexia through body composition, physical functioning, and molecular biomarkers, while promising, are yet to be routinely incorporated into clinical practice. Pharmacologic agents that have not been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration but that are currently used in cancer cachexia (ie, megestrol, dronabinol) may improve weight but not outcomes of interest such as muscle mass, physical activity, or mortality. Their routine use is limited by adverse effects. For the practicing oncologist, early identification and management of cachexia is critical. Oncologists must recognize cachexia beyond weight loss alone, focusing instead on body composition and physical functioning. In fact, becoming emaciated is a late sign of cachexia that characterizes its refractory stage. Given that cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome, it requires early identification and polymodal intervention, including optimal cancer therapy, symptom management, nutrition, exercise, and psychosocial support. Consequently, oncologists have a role in ensuring that these resources are available to their patients. In addition, in light of the promising investigational agents, it remains imperative to refer patients with cachexia to clinical trials so that available options can be expanded to effectively treat this pervasive problem.

  5. Web-based weight loss in primary care: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Gary G; Herring, Sharon J; Puleo, Elaine; Stein, Evelyn K; Emmons, Karen M; Gillman, Matthew W

    2010-02-01

    Evidence is lacking regarding effective and sustainable weight loss approaches for use in the primary care setting. We conducted a 12-week randomized controlled trial to evaluate the short-term efficacy of a web-based weight loss intervention among 101 primary care patients with obesity and hypertension. Patients had access to a comprehensive website that used a moderate-intensity weight loss approach designed specifically for web-based implementation. Patients also participated in four (two in-person and two telephonic) counseling sessions with a health coach. Intent-to-treat analysis showed greater weight loss at 3 months (-2.56 kg; 95% CI -3.60, -1.53) among intervention participants (-2.28 +/- 3.21 kg), relative to usual care (0.28 +/- 1.87 kg). Similar findings were observed among intervention completers (-3.05 kg; 95% CI -4.24, -1.85). High rates of participant retention (84%) and website utilization were observed, with the greatest weight loss found among those with a high frequency of website logins (quartile 4 vs. 1: -4.16 kg; 95% CI -1.47, -6.84). The intervention's approach promoted moderate weight loss at 12 weeks, though greater weight loss was observed among those with higher levels of website utilization. Efficacious web-based weight loss interventions can be successfully offered in the primary care setting.

  6. History of weight cycling does not impede future weight loss or metabolic improvements in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Mason, Caitlin; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Imayama, Ikuyo; Xiao, Liren; Kong, Angela; Campbell, Kristin L; Duggan, Catherine R; Wang, Ching-Yun; Alfano, Catherine M; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Blackburn, George L; McTiernan, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Given that the repetitive loss and regain of body weight, termed weight cycling, is a prevalent phenomenon that has been associated with negative physiological and psychological outcomes, the purpose of this study was to investigate weight change and physiological outcomes in women with a lifetime history of weight cycling enrolled in a 12-month diet and/or exercise intervention. 439 overweight, inactive, postmenopausal women were randomized to: i) dietary weight loss with a 10% weight loss goal (N=118); ii) moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise for 45 min/day, 5 days/week (n=117); ii) both dietary weight loss and exercise (n=117); or iv) control (n=87). Women were categorized as non-, moderate- (≥3 losses of ≥4.5 kg), or severe-cyclers (≥3 losses of ≥9.1 kg). Trend tests and linear regression were used to compare adherence and changes in weight, body composition, blood pressure, insulin, C-peptide, glucose, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), C-reactive protein, leptin, adiponectin, and interleukin-6 between cyclers and non-cyclers. Moderate (n=103) and severe (n=77) cyclers were heavier and had less favorable metabolic profiles than non-cyclers at baseline. There were, however, no significant differences in adherence to the lifestyle interventions. Weight-cyclers (combined) had a greater improvement in HOMA-IR compared to non-cyclers participating in the exercise only intervention (P=.03), but no differences were apparent in the other groups. A history of weight cycling does not impede successful participation in lifestyle interventions or alter the benefits of diet and/or exercise on body composition and metabolic outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. How prescriptive support affects weight loss in weight-loss intervention participants and their untreated spouses.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Talea; Gettens, Katelyn; Lenz, Erin; Wojtanowski, Alexis C; Foster, Gary D; Gorin, Amy A

    2018-06-21

    Controlling or prescriptive support styles (e.g., pressure) often hinder weight loss, but can sometimes be beneficial. This secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial examined persuasion, pressure, and indirect social control among cohabiting couples and the effect of these supports on weight loss. Couples ( N Couples = 130) were randomized to either Weight Watchers (WW) or a self-guided control condition (SG). Only one member of each couple received the intervention; the other member of the couple was untreated. Couples were weighed and completed study measures at baseline, 3, and 6 months. Dyadic multilevel models examined BMI change and differences across role (treated participant/untreated spouse) and condition (WW/SG). Prescriptive support predicted BMI change for treated participants in the WW condition only. For treated WW participants, there was no significant decrease in BMI when pressure was high (+1 SD ), B = -.25, p = .22, but a significant decrease when pressure was low (0), B = -.96, p < .001. Additionally, high levels of indirect social control (+1 SD ) predicted greater decreases in BMI compared to low (-1 SD ) indirect social control, B = -.91, p < .001, and, B = -.41, p < .01. Considering both the type and context of support for weight management is worthwhile. Intervention participants had access to treatment resources that may have engendered more effective responses to spouses' concerns or a sense of obligation to their spouse (indirect social control), whereas pressures to lose weight-while engaged in treatment-may have undermined behavior-change efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Potential benefits of weight loss in coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Ades, Philip A; Savage, Patrick D

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight, obesity and insulin resistance in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) exceeds that of the general population. Obesity is associated with a constellation of coronary risk factors that predispose to the development and progression of CHD. Intentional weight loss, accomplished through behavioral weight loss and exercise, improves insulin sensitivity and associated cardio-metabolic risk factors such as lipid measures, blood pressure, measures of inflammation and vascular function both in healthy individuals and patients with CHD. Additionally, physical fitness, physical function and quality of life all improve. There is evidence that intentional weight loss prevents the onset of CHD in high risk overweight individuals. While weight loss associated improvements in insulin resistance, fitness and related risk factors strongly supports favorable prognostic effects in individuals with established CHD, further study is needed to determine if long-term clinical outcomes are improved. © 2014.

  9. Weight loss expectations and body dissatisfaction in young women attempting to lose weight.

    PubMed

    Siervo, M; Montagnese, C; Muscariello, E; Evans, E; Stephan, B C M; Nasti, G; Papa, A; Iannetti, E; Colantuoni, A

    2014-04-01

    Unrealistic weight loss expectations (WLEs) and greater body dissatisfaction may be associated with the poor long-term outcomes of dietary and lifestyle weight loss treatments. We evaluated the association between body size, WLEs and body dissatisfaction in young women attempting to lose weight. Forty-four young healthy women [age range 18-35 years, body mass index (BMI) range 23-40 kg/m2] were recruited. Women were classified as obese (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m2) and non-obese (BMI <30.0 kg/m2). The Body Dissatisfaction scale of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 and the Body Image Assessment for Obesity silhouette charts were used to assess body dissatisfaction. WLEs were categorised according to personal (ideal, happiness, satisfaction, weight history), lifestyle (fitness) and social (career, family acceptance, peer acceptance, mass media, social pressure) factors. Individual WLEs were compared with recommended clinical targets (5%, 10% and 20%) for weight loss. Body dissatisfaction was lower in non-obese subjects and was directly associated with BMI (P < 0.05). WLEs were directly associated with BMI and the obese group reported greater expectations. Five non-obese subjects (23%) desired to lose more than 20% of their body weight, whereas the proportion was significantly higher in the obese group (17 subjects; 74%). Subjects derived the greatest WLEs from mass media, whereas they perceived that family and friends were supportive of a lesser degree of weight loss. We observed a mismatch between clinical and personal expectations, and social pressure and interpersonal relationships appear to have a prominent role with respect to influencing the association. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  10. Improving Weight Loss Outcomes of Community Interventions by Incorporating Behavioral Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Melissa M.; Thomas, J. Graham; Kumar, Rajiv; Weinberg, Brad

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether adding behavioral weight loss strategies could improve the outcomes of a community weight loss campaign. Methods. Shape Up RI is a 12-week, online, team-based program for health improvement in Rhode Island. In study 1, we randomly assigned participants to the standard Shape Up RI program or to the program plus video lessons on weight loss. In study 2, we randomly assigned participants to the standard program or to the program plus video lessons; daily self-monitoring of weight, eating, and exercise; and computer-generated feedback. Results. Adding video lessons alone (study 1) did not result in significantly improved weight loss (2.0 ±2.8 kg vs 1.4 ±2.9 kg; P = .15). However, when the video lessons were supplemented with self-monitoring and feedback (study 2), the average weight loss more than doubled (3.5 ±3.8 kg vs 1.4 ±2.7 kg; P < .01), and the proportion of individuals achieving a weight loss of 5% or more tripled (40.5% vs 13.2%; P < .01). Participants in study 2 submitted self-monitoring records on 78% of days, and adherence was significantly related to outcome. Conclusions. Adding behavioral strategies to community campaigns may improve weight loss outcomes with minimal additional cost. PMID:20966375

  11. The effects of water and non-nutritive sweetened beverages on weight loss and weight maintenance: A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Peters, John C; Beck, Jimikaye; Cardel, Michelle; Wyatt, Holly R; Foster, Gary D; Pan, Zhaoxing; Wojtanowski, Alexis C; Vander Veur, Stephanie S; Herring, Sharon J; Brill, Carrie; Hill, James O

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of water versus beverages sweetened with non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) on body weight in subjects enrolled in a year-long behavioral weight loss treatment program. The study used a randomized equivalence design with NNS or water beverages as the main factor in a trial among 303 weight-stable people with overweight and obesity. All participants participated in a weight loss program plus assignment to consume 24 ounces (710 ml) of water or NNS beverages daily for 1 year. NNS and water treatments were non-equivalent, with NNS treatment showing greater weight loss at the end of 1 year. At 1 year subjects receiving water had maintained a 2.45 ± 5.59 kg weight loss while those receiving NNS beverages maintained a loss of 6.21 ± 7.65 kg (P < 0.001 for difference). Water and NNS beverages were not equivalent for weight loss and maintenance during a 1-year behavioral treatment program. NNS beverages were superior for weight loss and weight maintenance in a population consisting of regular users of NNS beverages who either maintained or discontinued consumption of these beverages and consumed water during a structured weight loss program. These results suggest that NNS beverages can be an effective tool for weight loss and maintenance within the context of a weight management program. © 2015 The Authors, Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  12. Cultural conflicts in the weight loss experience of overweight Latinos.

    PubMed

    Diaz, V A; Mainous, A G; Pope, C

    2007-02-01

    In spite of the high prevalence of obesity in the Latino population, there is limited recent information that can be used by health-care providers to develop culturally appropriate weight loss strategies for this population. Therefore, we describe weight loss experiences, attitudes and barriers in overweight Latino adults. Qualitative study using focus group methodology. Twenty-one overweight adults (body mass index >/=25, age >/=20 years) self-identified as Latinos. Subjects participated in one of three focus groups. Reccurring themes within group discussions were identified by three independent investigators, one who was ethnicity concordant. Themes included the presence of mixed messages when determining one's appropriate weight, with participants' desire to lose weight to be healthy (based on professional advice and personal experience) conflicting with the cultural idea that being overweight is healthy. Participants described discordance when adapting to the mainstream, leading to the loss of healthy traditional habits. Participants expressed interest in weight loss and familiarity with dieting and weight loss interventions. They desired culturally appropriate nutrition education and reassurance regarding healthy dieting from health-care providers. The importance of interactions with peers during education was another relevant theme, and participants were overwhelmingly positive about group education. To improve health promotion for Latinos, cultural factors distinctive to this underserved population, and barriers they articulate, should be considered when developing weight loss interventions.

  13. A cost-effective weight loss program at the worksite.

    PubMed

    Seidman, L S; Sevelius, G G; Ewald, P

    1984-10-01

    A major focus of Lockheed Missiles and Space Company's wellness program (Sunnyvale, Calif.) was to motivate weight loss in a cost-effective manner. The educationally based "Take It Off '83" campaign was created using the concepts of competition and self-responsibility. Seventy percent of the initial 2,499 participants completed the program, and 90% of these lost weight. Program completion rates and weight lost were higher for men than for women and higher for those who participated as team members rather than as individuals. Encouraging the formation of supportive/competitive teams proved to be a very effective means of promoting weight loss. The cost-effective motivation of weight loss in an industrial setting was accomplished successfully through this program (the cost to the company per initial participant was +5.40). Because of these results, the program will be repeated annually.

  14. Exercise Training and Energy Expenditure following Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Gary R.; Fisher, Gordon; Neumeier, William H.; Carter, Stephen J.; Plaisance, Eric P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Determine the effects of aerobic or resistance training on activity related energy expenditure (AEE, kcal/d) and physical activity index (ARTE) following weight loss. It was hypothesized that weight loss without exercise training would be accompanied by a decrease in AEE, ARTE, and non-training physical activity energy expenditure (NEAT) and that exercise training would prevent decreases in free living energy expenditure. Methods 140 pre-menopausal women underwent an average of 25 pound weight loss during an 800 kcal/day diet of furnished food. One group aerobically trained 3 times/wk (40 min/d), another resistance trained 3 times/wk (10 exercises/2 sets x10 repetitions) and the third group did not exercise. DXA was used to measure body composition, indirect calorimetry to measure resting (REE) and walking energy expenditure, and doubly labeled water to measure total energy expenditure (TEE). AEE, ARTE, and non-training physical activity energy expenditure (NEAT) were calculated. Results TEE, REE, and NEAT all decreased following weight loss for the no exercise group, but not for the aerobic and resistance trainers. Only REE decreased in the two exercise groups. The resistance trainers increased ARTE. Heart rate and oxygen uptake while walking on the flat and up a grade were consistently related to TEE, AEE, NEAT, and ARTE. Conclusion Exercise training prevents a decrease in energy expenditure, including free living energy expenditure separate from the exercise training, following weight loss. Resistance training increased physical activity, while ease and economy in walking associates with increased TEE, AEE, NEAT, and ARTE. PMID:25606816

  15. Determinants of Successful Weight Loss After Using a Commercial Web-Based Weight Reduction Program for Six Months: Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Postrach, Elisa; Aspalter, Rosa; Elbelt, Ulf; Koller, Michael; Longin, Rita; Schulzke, Jörg-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Background The Internet is widely available and commonly used for health information; therefore, Web-based weight loss programs could provide support to large parts of the population in self-guided weight loss. Previous studies showed that Web-based weight loss interventions can be effective, depending on the quality of the program. The most effective program tools are visual progress charts or tools for the self-monitoring of weight, diet, and exercises. KiloCoach, a commercial program currently available in German-speaking countries, incorporates these features. A previous investigation showed that the program effectively supports users in losing weight. Objective We investigated weight loss dynamics stratified by weight loss success after 6-month use of KiloCoach. Furthermore, we analyzed possible associations between intensity of program use and weight loss. The results are intended for tailoring user recommendations for weight-loss Internet platforms. Methods Datasets of KiloCoach users (January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2011) who actively used the platform for 6 months or more were assigned to this retrospective analysis. Users (N=479) were 42.2% men, mean age of 44.0 years (SD 11.7), with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 31.7 kg/m2 (SD 3.2). Based on the weight loss achieved after 6 months, 3 success groups were generated. The unsuccessful group lost <5%, the moderate success group lost 5%-9.9%, and the high success group lost ≥10% of their baseline body weight. At baseline, the unsuccessful (n=261, 54.5%), moderate success (n=133, 27.8%), and high success (n=85, 17.8%) groups were similar in age, weight, BMI, and gender distribution. Results After 6 months, the unsuccessful group lost 1.2% (SD 2.4), the moderate success group lost 7.4% (SD 1.5), and the high success group lost 14.2% (SD 3.8) of their initial weight (P<.001). Multivariate regression showed that early weight loss (weeks 3-4), the total number of dietary protocols, and the total number of

  16. The liberating effect of weight loss supplements on dietary control: a field experiment.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yevvon Y; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2014-09-01

    Taking weight-loss supplements may create illusion of protection against weight gain and thereby loosen subsequent dietary self-control. The current study examined whether taking weight-loss supplement would increase food intake and further tested whether positive attitudes toward supplements would increase susceptibility to overeating. Participants were randomly assigned to take either a known placebo or a purported weight loss supplement (actually, the same placebo). After supplement provision, participants' actual food consumption at a reward buffet lunch was recorded. Compared with controls, participants receiving a purported weight loss supplement ate more food at the reward buffet. Perceived progress toward the goal of weight reduction mediated the connection between use of weight loss supplements and subsequent food consumption. Participants with more positive attitudes toward weight loss supplements were more susceptible to the liberating effect of taking weight loss supplements on food intake. Using weight loss supplements may produce unintended consequences on dietary self-regulation. The public should pay more attention to the notion of psychological liberation when using weight loss supplements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Patterns of Weight Change in Black Americans: Pooled Analysis from Three Behavioral Weight Loss Trials

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Knashawn H.; Kumanyika, Shiriki K.; Fassbender, Jennifer E.; Good, Jerene; Localio, A. Russell; Wadden, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Differentiating trajectories of weight change and identifying associated baseline predictors can provide insights for improving behavioral obesity treatment outcomes. Design and Methods Secondary, observational analyses using growth mixture models were conducted in pooled data for 604 black American, primarily female adults in three completed clinical trials. Covariates of identified patterns were evaluated. Results The best fitting model identified three patterns over 2 years: 1) mean weight loss of approximately 2 kg (n=519); 2) mean weight loss of approximately 3 kg at 1 year, followed by ~ 4 kg regain (n=61); and 3) mean weight loss of approximately 20 kg at 1 year followed by ~ 4 kg regain (n=24, with 23 from one study). In final multivariate analyses, higher BMI predicted having pattern 2 (OR[95% CI]) 1.10[1.03, 1.17]) or 3 (OR[95% CI] 1.42[1.25, 1.63]), and higher dietary fat score was predictive of a lower odds of having patterns 2 (OR[95% CI] 0.37[0.15, 0.94]) or 3 (OR[95% CI] 0.23[0.07, 0.79]). Conclusions Findings were consistent with moderate, clinically non-significant weight loss as the predominant pattern across all studies. Results underscore the need to develop novel and more carefully targeted and tailored approaches to facilitating weight loss in black American adults. PMID:25251464

  18. Comparative effectiveness of a portion-controlled meal replacement program for weight loss in adults with and without diabetes/high blood sugar.

    PubMed

    Coleman, C D; Kiel, J R; Mitola, A H; Arterburn, L M

    2017-07-10

    Individuals with type 2 diabetes (DM2) may be less successful at achieving therapeutic weight loss than their counterparts without diabetes. This study compares weight loss in a cohort of adults with DM2 or high blood sugar (D/HBS) to a cohort of adults without D/HBS. All were overweight/obese and following a reduced or low-calorie commercial weight-loss program incorporating meal replacements (MRs) and one-on-one behavioral support. Demographic, weight, body composition, anthropometric, pulse and blood pressure data were collected as part of systematic retrospective chart review studies. Differences between cohorts by D/HBS status were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U-tests and mixed model regression. A total of 816 charts were included (125 with self-reported D/HBS). The cohort with D/HBS had more males (40.8 vs 25.6%), higher BMI (39.0 vs 36.3 kg m - 2 ) and was older (56 vs 48 years). Among clients continuing on program, the cohorts with and without D/HBS lost, on average, 5.6 vs 5.8 kg (NS) (5.0 vs 5.6%; P=0.005) of baseline weight at 4 weeks, 11.0 vs 11.6 kg (NS) (9.9 vs 11.1%; P=0.027) at 12 weeks and 16.3 vs 17.1 kg (13.9 vs 15.7%; NS) at 24 weeks, respectively. In a mixed model regression controlling for baseline weight, gender and meal plan, and an intention-to-treat analysis, there was no significant difference in weight loss between the cohorts at any time point. Over 70% in both cohorts lost ⩾5% of their baseline weight by the final visit on their originally assigned meal plan. Both cohorts had significant reductions from baseline in body fat, blood pressure, pulse and abdominal circumference. Adults who were overweight/obese and with D/HBS following a commercial weight-loss program incorporating MRs and one-on-one behavioral support achieved therapeutic weight loss. The program was equally effective for weight loss and reductions in cardiometabolic risk factors among adults with and without D/HBS.

  19. Comparative effectiveness of a portion-controlled meal replacement program for weight loss in adults with and without diabetes/high blood sugar

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, C D; Kiel, J R; Mitola, A H; Arterburn, L M

    2017-01-01

    Background: Individuals with type 2 diabetes (DM2) may be less successful at achieving therapeutic weight loss than their counterparts without diabetes. This study compares weight loss in a cohort of adults with DM2 or high blood sugar (D/HBS) to a cohort of adults without D/HBS. All were overweight/obese and following a reduced or low-calorie commercial weight-loss program incorporating meal replacements (MRs) and one-on-one behavioral support. Subjects/Methods: Demographic, weight, body composition, anthropometric, pulse and blood pressure data were collected as part of systematic retrospective chart review studies. Differences between cohorts by D/HBS status were analyzed using Mann–Whitney U-tests and mixed model regression. Results: A total of 816 charts were included (125 with self-reported D/HBS). The cohort with D/HBS had more males (40.8 vs 25.6%), higher BMI (39.0 vs 36.3 kg m−2) and was older (56 vs 48 years). Among clients continuing on program, the cohorts with and without D/HBS lost, on average, 5.6 vs 5.8 kg (NS) (5.0 vs 5.6% P=0.005) of baseline weight at 4 weeks, 11.0 vs 11.6 kg (NS) (9.9 vs 11.1% P=0.027) at 12 weeks and 16.3 vs 17.1 kg (13.9 vs 15.7% NS) at 24 weeks, respectively. In a mixed model regression controlling for baseline weight, gender and meal plan, and an intention-to-treat analysis, there was no significant difference in weight loss between the cohorts at any time point. Over 70% in both cohorts lost ⩾5% of their baseline weight by the final visit on their originally assigned meal plan. Both cohorts had significant reductions from baseline in body fat, blood pressure, pulse and abdominal circumference. Conclusion: Adults who were overweight/obese and with D/HBS following a commercial weight-loss program incorporating MRs and one-on-one behavioral support achieved therapeutic weight loss. The program was equally effective for weight loss and reductions in cardiometabolic risk factors among adults with and without D

  20. Effects of climatic variables on weight loss: a global analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ustulin, Morena; Keum, Changwon; Woo, Junghoon; Woo, Jeong-taek; Rhee, Sang Youl

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have analyzed the effects of weather on factors associated with weight loss. In this study, we directly analyzed the effect of weather on intentional weight loss using global-scale data provided by smartphone applications. Through Weather Underground API and the Noom Coach application, we extracted information on weather and body weight for each user located in each of several geographic areas on all login days. We identified meteorological information (pressure, precipitation, wind speed, dew point, and temperature) and self-monitored body weight data simultaneously. A linear mixed-effects model was performed analyzing 3274 subjects. Subjects in North America had higher initial BMIs than those of subjects in Eastern Asia. During the study period, most subjects who used the smartphone application experienced weight loss in a significant way (80.39%, p-value < 0.001). Subjects who infrequently recorded information about dinner had smaller variations than those of other subjects (βfreq.users dinner*time = 0.007, p-value < 0.001). Colder temperature, lower dew point, and higher values for wind speed and precipitation were significantly associated with weight loss. In conclusion, we found a direct and independent impact of meteorological conditions on intentional weight loss efforts on a global scale (not only on a local level). PMID:28106167

  1. Effects of climatic variables on weight loss: a global analysis.

    PubMed

    Ustulin, Morena; Keum, Changwon; Woo, Junghoon; Woo, Jeong-Taek; Rhee, Sang Youl

    2017-01-20

    Several studies have analyzed the effects of weather on factors associated with weight loss. In this study, we directly analyzed the effect of weather on intentional weight loss using global-scale data provided by smartphone applications. Through Weather Underground API and the Noom Coach application, we extracted information on weather and body weight for each user located in each of several geographic areas on all login days. We identified meteorological information (pressure, precipitation, wind speed, dew point, and temperature) and self-monitored body weight data simultaneously. A linear mixed-effects model was performed analyzing 3274 subjects. Subjects in North America had higher initial BMIs than those of subjects in Eastern Asia. During the study period, most subjects who used the smartphone application experienced weight loss in a significant way (80.39%, p-value < 0.001). Subjects who infrequently recorded information about dinner had smaller variations than those of other subjects (β freq.users dinner*time  = 0.007, p-value < 0.001). Colder temperature, lower dew point, and higher values for wind speed and precipitation were significantly associated with weight loss. In conclusion, we found a direct and independent impact of meteorological conditions on intentional weight loss efforts on a global scale (not only on a local level).

  2. Effect of source of funding on weight loss up to 3 years after gastric banding.

    PubMed

    Afoke, Jonathan; Agrawal, Sanjay; Edmond, Janet; Mahon, David; Welbourn, Richard

    2013-04-01

    Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is a popular choice for patients seeking weight loss surgery. Since behavioural change appears to play a role in weight loss outcomes we postulated that publicly funded patients might not do as well as self-payers. This series examines the effect of public funding versus self-pay on patients undergoing LAGB over 1, 2 and 3 years. Consecutive non-randomised cohort series of patient undergoing LAGB over 5 years (September 2003 to December 2008) in a single unit. Age, sex, funding route, body mass index (BMI) and complications were recorded. Per cent excess weight loss (EWL) and the Reinhold criterion for success (proportion achieving 50 % EWL) were assessed. Ninety-nine patients were publicly funded, and 250 patients were self-payers. Initial BMI was significantly higher in publicly funded patients (46.6 vs. 42.3 kg/m(2), p < 0.001) with a higher proportion of males (22.2 vs. 6.0 %, p < 0.001). Mean % EWL was significantly less for publicly funded patients at 1 year (38.1 vs. 53.5 %, p < 0.001) and 2 years (49.6 vs. 64.1 %, p < 0.001), but not at 3 years (59.7 vs. 61.8 %, p = 0.784). Fewer publicly funded patients achieved 50 % EWL at 1 year (24.5 vs. 50.2 %, p < 0.001), but with no significant difference at 2 years (54.8 vs. 67.0 %, p = 0.140) or 3 years (55.2 vs. 66.0 %, p = 0.349). Self-pay patients initially achieved more % EWL and greater success in reaching 50 % EWL after LAGB, but this difference was not maintained. The results suggest that patient motivation, using self-pay as a surrogate marker, may affect early results, but the operation itself is the main determinant of weight loss at 3 years.

  3. Weighing every day matters: daily weighing improves weight loss and adoption of weight control behaviors.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Dori M; Bennett, Gary G; Askew, Sandy; Tate, Deborah F

    2015-04-01

    Daily weighing is emerging as the recommended self-weighing frequency for weight loss. This is likely because it improves adoption of weight control behaviors. To examine whether weighing every day is associated with greater adoption of weight control behaviors compared with less frequent weighing. Longitudinal analysis of a previously conducted 6-month randomized controlled trial. Overweight men and women in Chapel Hill, NC, participated in the intervention arm (N=47). The intervention focused on daily weighing for weight loss using an e-scale that transmitted weights to a study website, along with weekly e-mailed lessons and tailored feedback on daily weighing adherence and weight loss progress. We gathered objective data on self-weighing frequency from the e-scales. At baseline and 6 months, weight change was measured in the clinic and weight control behaviors (total items=37), dietary strategies, and calorie expenditure from physical activity were assessed via questionnaires. Calorie intake was assessed using an online 24-hour recall tool. We used χ(2) tests to examine variation in discrete weight control behaviors and linear regression models to examine differences in weight, dietary strategies, and calorie intake and expenditure by self-weighing frequency. Fifty-one percent of participants weighed every day (n=24) over 6 months. The average self-weighing frequency among those weighing less than daily (n=23) was 5.4±1.2 days per week. Daily weighers lost significantly more weight compared with those weighing less than daily (mean difference=-6.1 kg; 95% CI -10.2 to -2.1; P=0.004). The total number of weight control behaviors adopted was greater among daily weighers (17.6±7.6 vs 11.2±6.4; P=0.004). There were no differences by self-weighing frequency in dietary strategies, calorie intake, or calorie expenditure. Weighing every day led to greater adoption of weight control behaviors and produced greater weight loss compared with weighing most days of the

  4. Effect of weekly physical activity frequency on weight loss in healthy overweight and obese women attending a weight loss program: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Madjd, Ameneh; Taylor, Moira A; Shafiei Neek, Leila; Delavari, Alireza; Malekzadeh, Reza; Macdonald, Ian A; Farshchi, Hamid R

    2016-11-01

    The effect of intensity and duration of physical activity (PA) on weight loss has been well described. However, the effect of the frequency of weekly PA on weight loss is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the frequency of weekly PA sessions while maintaining the same total activity time on weight loss during a 24-wk weight loss program. Overweight and obese women [n = 75; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ): 27-37; age: 18-40 y] who had a normally sedentary lifestyle were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 intervention groups: a high-frequency physical activity (HF) or a low-frequency physical activity (LF) group. The HF group included 50 min/d PA, 6 d/wk (300 min/wk). The LF group included 100 min/d PA, 3 d/wk (300 min/wk). Both groups were advised to follow the same dietary weight loss program. Both groups showed a significant decrease in anthropometric measurements and significant improvements in cardiometabolic disease risk characteristics over the 24 wk of the study. Compared with the HF group, the LF group had a greater decrease in weight (mean ± SD; LF: 9.58 ± 3.77 kg; HF: 7.78 ± 2.68 kg; P = 0.028), BMI (LF: 3.62 ± 1.56; HF: 2.97 ± 1.02; P = 0.029) and waist circumference (LF: 9.36 ± 4.02 cm; HF: 7.86 ± 2.41 cm; P = 0.031). However, there were no significant differences in carbohydrate metabolism characteristics or lipid profile after the 24 wk of intervention. Weekly PA undertaken over fewer sessions of longer duration during the week could be more effective for weight loss than when undertaken as more frequent shorter sessions in overweight and obese women on a weight loss program. This may be helpful for those who are neither willing nor able to schedule time for PA almost every day to achieve weight loss. This trial was registered at www.irct.ir as IRCT201402157754N4. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Predictors of weight loss in low-income mothers of young children.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Kristine K; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne; Klohe-Lehman, Deborah M; Bohman, Thomas M

    2007-07-01

    To identify predictors of weight loss in a tri-ethnic population of low-income mothers. An 8-week dietary and physical activity program was tested. Demographic data were collected at baseline; anthropometric, dietary, physical activity, and psychosocial data were measured at baseline and week 8. A convenience sample of 114 Hispanic, African-American, and white, low-income mothers with a body mass index > or = 25 (calculated as kg/m2) participated in the intervention. Weight-loss classes that incorporated nutrition, physical activity, and behavior modification were administered for 8 weeks. Anthropometry (body weight, weight loss). Analysis of variance, chi2 tests, and Spearman and Pearson correlations were used to test for associations between baseline and change data and total weight loss. Hierarchical regression was employed to assess the marginal importance of factors beyond socioeconomic influences. Correlates of weight loss included less satisfaction with appearance (r=0.24), greater percentage of energy from protein (r=-0.22), enhanced nutrition knowledge (r=-0.23), and higher scores for benefits of weight loss (r =-0.20) at baseline; and the change in healthful eating attitudes (r=-0.28) and social support (r=-0.21) at 8 weeks. The predictive models of baseline and change variables represented 11.4% and 13.8% of the variance, respectively. Weight-management programs serving low-income mothers should provide techniques to enhance social support, attitudes toward healthful eating, benefits of weight loss, and nutrition knowledge.

  6. Rapid Weight Loss vs. Slow Weight Loss: Which is More Effective on Body Composition and Metabolic Risk Factors?

    PubMed Central

    Ashtary-Larky, Damoon; Ghanavati, Matin; Lamuchi-Deli, Nasrin; Payami, Seyedeh Arefeh; Alavi-Rad, Sara; Boustaninejad, Mehdi; Afrisham, Reza; Abbasnezhad, Amir; Alipour, Meysam

    2017-01-01

    Background Achieving weight loss (WL) in a short time regardless of its consequences has always been the focus of many obese and overweight people. In this study, anthropometric and metabolic effects of two diets for rapid and slow WL and their consequences were examined. Methods Forty-two obese and overweight individuals were randomly divided to 2 groups; rapid WL (weight loss of at least 5% in 5 weeks) and slow WL (weight loss of at least 5% in 15 weeks). To compare the effects of the rate of WL in 2 groups, the same amount of was achieved with different durations. Anthropometric indices, lipid, and glycemic profiles, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures were evaluated before and after the intervention. Results Both protocols of rapid WL and slow WL caused reduction in waist circumference, hip circumference, total body water, body fat mass, lean body mass, and resting metabolic rate (RMR). Further reduction in waist circumference, hip circumference, fat mass, and percentage of body fat was observed in slow WL and decreased total body water, lean body mass, fat free mass, and RMR was observed in rapid WL. Improvement in lipid and glycemic profiles was observed in both groups. Reduction of low-density lipoprotein and fasting blood sugar, improvement of insulin resistance, and sensitivity were more significant in rapid WL in comparison to slow WL. Conclusions Weight Loss regardless of its severity could improve anthropometric indicators, although body composition is more favorable following a slow WL. Both diets improved lipid and glycemic profiles. In this context, rapid WL was more effective. (IRCT2016010424699N2) PMID:29201070

  7. Rise of plasma ghrelin with weight loss is not sustained during weight maintenance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ghrelin is postulated to be an orexigenic signal that promotes weight regain after weight loss (WL). However, it is not known whether this putative effect of ghrelin is sustained after weight stabilization. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of plasma ghrelin concentrati...

  8. 48 CFR 252.237-7015 - Loss or damage (weight of articles).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loss or damage (weight of... of Provisions And Clauses 252.237-7015 Loss or damage (weight of articles). As prescribed in 237.7101(d), use the following clause: Loss or Damage (Weight of Articles) (DEC 1991) (a) The Contractor...

  9. 48 CFR 252.237-7015 - Loss or damage (weight of articles).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Loss or damage (weight of... of Provisions And Clauses 252.237-7015 Loss or damage (weight of articles). As prescribed in 237.7101(d), use the following clause: Loss or Damage (Weight of Articles) (DEC 1991) (a) The Contractor...

  10. Monitoring Dosimetric Impact of Weight Loss With Kilovoltage (KV) Cone Beam CT (CBCT) During Parotid-Sparing IMRT and Concurrent Chemotherapy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ho, Kean Fatt, E-mail: hokeanfatt@hotmail.com; Marchant, Tom; Moore, Chris

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Parotid-sparing head-and-neck intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can reduce long-term xerostomia. However, patients frequently experience weight loss and tumor shrinkage during treatment. We evaluate the use of kilovoltage (kV) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for dose monitoring and examine if the dosimetric impact of such changes on the parotid and critical neural structures warrants replanning during treatment. Methods and materials: Ten patients with locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer were treated with contralateral parotid-sparing IMRT concurrently with platinum-based chemotherapy. Mean doses of 65 Gy and 54 Gy were delivered to clinical target volume (CTV)1 and CTV2, respectively, in 30 daily fractions. CBCT wasmore » prospectively acquired weekly. Each CBCT was coregistered with the planned isocenter. The spinal cord, brainstem, parotids, larynx, and oral cavity were outlined on each CBCT. Dose distributions were recalculated on the CBCT after correcting the gray scale to provide accurate Hounsfield calibration, using the original IMRT plan configuration. Results: Planned contralateral parotid mean doses were not significantly different to those delivered during treatment (p > 0.1). Ipsilateral and contralateral parotids showed a mean reduction in volume of 29.7% and 28.4%, respectively. There was no significant difference between planned and delivered maximum dose to the brainstem (p = 0.6) or spinal cord (p = 0.2), mean dose to larynx (p = 0.5) and oral cavity (p = 0.8). End-of-treatment mean weight loss was 7.5 kg (8.8% of baseline weight). Despite a {>=}10% weight loss in 5 patients, there was no significant dosimetric change affecting the contralateral parotid and neural structures. Conclusions: Although patient weight loss and parotid volume shrinkage was observed, overall, there was no significant excess dose to the organs at risk. No replanning was felt necessary for this patient cohort, but a larger patient sample will be

  11. Equivalent weight loss for weight management programs delivered by phone and clinic.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Joseph E; Goetz, Jeannine; Gibson, Cheryl; Sullivan, Debra K; Lee, Robert; Smith, Bryan K; Lambourne, Kate; Mayo, Matthew S; Hunt, Suzanne; Lee, Jae Hoon; Honas, Jeffrey J; Washburn, Richard A

    2013-10-01

    Face-to-face (FTF) weight management is costly and presents barriers for individuals seeking treatment; thus, alternate delivery systems are needed. The objective of this study was to compare weight management delivered by FTF clinic or group conference calls (phone). Randomized equivalency trial in 295 overweight/obese men/women (BMI = 35.1±4.9, Age = 43.8±10.2, Minority = 39.8%). Weight loss (0-6 months) was achieved by reducing energy intake between 1,200 and 1,500 kcal/day and progressing physical activity (PA) to 300 min/week. Weight maintenance (7-18 months) provided adequate energy to maintain weight and continued 300 min/week of PA. Behavioral weight management strategies were delivered weekly for 6 months and gradually reduced during 7-18 months. A cost analysis provided a comparison of expenses between groups. Weight change from baseline to 6 months was -13.4 ± 6.7% and -12.3 ± 7.0% for FTF clinic and phone, respectively. Weight change from 6-18 months was 6.4 ± 7.0% and 6.4 ± 5.2%, for FTF clinic and phone, respectively. The cost to FTF participants was $789.58 more per person. Phone delivery provided equivalent weight loss and maintenance and reduced program cost. Ubiquitous access to phones provides a vast reach for this approach. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  12. Human cardiovascular disease IBC chip-wide association with weight loss and weight regain in the look AHEAD trial.

    PubMed

    McCaffery, Jeanne M; Papandonatos, George D; Huggins, Gordon S; Peter, Inga; Erar, Bahar; Kahn, Steven E; Knowler, William C; Lipkin, Edward W; Kitabchi, Abbas E; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Wing, Rena R

    2013-01-01

    The present study identified genetic predictors of weight change during behavioral weight loss treatment. Participants were 3,899 overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes from Look AHEAD, a randomized controlled trial to determine the effects of intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI), including weight loss and physical activity, relative to diabetes support and education, on cardiovascular outcomes. Analyses focused on associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the Illumina CARe iSelect (IBC) chip (minor allele frequency >5%; n = 31,959) with weight change at year 1 and year 4, and weight regain at year 4, among individuals who lost ≥ 3% at year 1. Two novel regions of significant chip-wide association with year-1 weight loss in ILI were identified (p < 2.96E-06). ABCB11 rs484066 was associated with 1.16 kg higher weight per minor allele at year 1, whereas TNFRSF11A, or RANK, rs17069904 was associated with 1.70 kg lower weight per allele at year 1. This study, the largest to date on genetic predictors of weight loss and regain, indicates that SNPs within ABCB11, related to bile salt transfer, and TNFRSF11A, implicated in adipose tissue physiology, predict the magnitude of weight loss during behavioral intervention. These results provide new insights into potential biological mechanisms and may ultimately inform weight loss treatment. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Associations among Endocrine, Inflammatory, and Bone Markers, Body Composition and Physical Activity to Weight Loss Induced Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    Labouesse, Marie A.; Gertz, Erik R.; Piccolo, Brian D.; Souza, Elaine C.; Schuster, Gertrud U.; Witbracht, Megan G.; Woodhouse, Leslie R.; Adams, Sean H.; Keim, Nancy L.; Van Loan, Marta D.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Weight loss reduces co-morbidities of obesity, but decreases bone mass. PURPOSE Our aims were to 1) determine if adequate dairy intake attenuates weight loss-induced bone loss; 2) evaluate the associations of endocrine, inflammatory and bone markers, anthropometric and other parameters to bone mineral density and content (BMD, BMC) pre- and post-weight loss; 3) model the contribution of these variables to post weight-loss BMD and BMC METHODS Overweight/obese women (BMI: 28–37 kg/m2) were enrolled in an energy reduced (−500 kcal/d; −2092 kJ/d) diet with adequate dairy (AD: 3–4 servings/d; n=25, 32.2 ± 8.8y) or low dairy (LD: ≤ 1 serving/d; n=26, 31.7 ± 8.4 y). BMD, BMC and body composition were measured by DXA. Bone markers (CTX, PYD, BAP, OC), endocrine (PTH, vitamin D, leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin, amylin, insulin, GLP-1, PAI-1, HOMA) and inflammatory markers (CRP, IL1-β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, cortisol) were measured in serum or plasma. PA was assessed by accelerometry. RESULTS Following weight loss, AD intake resulted in significantly greater (p= 0.004) lumbar spine BMD and serum osteocalcin (p=0.004) concentration compared to LD. Pre- and post- body fat were negatively associated with hip and lumbar spine BMC (r= −0.28, p=0.04 to −0.45, p=0.001). Of note were the significant negative associations among bone markers and IL-1β, TNFα and CRP ranging from r = −0.29 (p=0.04) to r = −0.34 (p=0.01); magnitude of associations did not change with weight loss. Adiponectin was negatively related to change in osteocalcin. Factor analysis resulted in 8 pre- and post-weight loss Factors. Pre-weight loss Factors accounted for 13.7% of the total variance in pre-weight loss hip BMD; post-weight loss Factors explained 19.6% of the total variance in post-weight loss hip BMD. None of the Factors contributed to the variance in lumbar spine BMD. CONCLUSION AD during weight loss resulted in higher lumbar spine BMD and osteocalcin compared to LD

  14. Obesity Prevention and Weight Maintenance After Loss.

    PubMed

    German, Alexander James

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is one of the most prevalent medical diseases in pets. Outcomes are often disappointing; many animals either fail to reach target weight or regain weight. This article discusses managing obesity, focusing on prevention. It gives guidance on establishing monitoring programs that use regular body weight and condition assessments to identify animals at risk of inappropriate weight gain, enabling early intervention. Weight management in obese animals is a lifelong process. Regular weight and body condition monitoring are key to identifying animals that rebound early, while continuing to feed a therapeutic weight loss diet can help prevent it from happening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Weight change in a commercial web-based weight loss program and its association with website use: cohort study.

    PubMed

    Neve, Melinda; Morgan, Philip J; Collins, Clare E

    2011-10-12

    There is a paucity of information in the scientific literature on the effectiveness of commercial weight loss programs, including Web-based programs. The potential of Web-based weight loss programs has been acknowledged, but their ability to achieve significant weight loss has not been proven. The objectives were to evaluate the weight change achieved within a large cohort of individuals enrolled in a commercial Web-based weight loss program for 12 or 52 weeks and to describe participants' program use in relation to weight change. Participants enrolled in an Australian commercial Web-based weight loss program from August 15, 2007, through May 31, 2008. Self-reported weekly weight records were used to determine weight change after 12- and 52-week subscriptions. The primary analysis estimated weight change using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) for all participants who subscribed for 12 weeks and also for those who subscribed for 52 weeks. A sensitivity analysis was conducted using the last observation carried forward (LOCF) method. Website use (ie, the number of days participants logged on, made food or exercise entries to the Web-based diary, or posted to the discussion forum) was described from program enrollment to 12 and 52 weeks, and differences in website use by percentage weight change category were tested using Kruskal-Wallis test for equality of populations. Participants (n = 9599) had a mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 35.7 (9.5) years and were predominantly female (86% or 8279/9599) and obese (61% or 5866/9599). Results from the primary GLMM analysis including all enrollees found the mean percentage weight change was -6.2% among 12-week subscribers (n = 6943) and -6.9% among 52-week subscribers (n = 2656). Sensitivity analysis using LOCF revealed an average weight change of -3.0% and -3.5% after 12 and 52 weeks respectively. The use of all website features increased significantly (P < .01) as percentage weight change improved. The weight loss

  16. Weight loss of endodontic sealers, cements and pastes in water.

    PubMed

    Orstavik, D

    1983-08-01

    A solubility test based on weight loss in water, as proposed for standard testing programs (ADA & ISO), was adapted for assessing the solubility of 10 root canal sealers, cements and pastes. The weight loss of the set materials during 24 hr in distilled water at 37 degrees C ranged from -0.84 (AH26) to 22.71 (Kloroperka N-O) weight per cent. The results were reproducible, and the test was considered suitable for routine testing of weight loss in water of endodontic materials. However, the test may not provide information which is directly related to the clinical behavior of the materials.

  17. Effect of moisture loss on red oak sawlog weight

    Treesearch

    Edward L. Adams

    1971-01-01

    A study was made to determine the effect of moisture loss on the weights of red oak sawlogs. The logs, ranging from 9 to 21 inches in scaling diameter and from 8 to 14 feet in length, were dried for a 12-week period. The 21-log sample lost 7.6 percent of the total green sawlog weight. The weight loss for individual logs ranged from 5.3 to 14.5 percent. In general, as...

  18. Exercise Training and Energy Expenditure following Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Gary R; Fisher, Gordon; Neumeier, William H; Carter, Stephen J; Plaisance, Eric P

    2015-09-01

    This study aims to determine the effects of aerobic or resistance training on activity-related energy expenditure (AEE; kcal·d(-1)) and physical activity index (activity-related time equivalent (ARTE)) following weight loss. It was hypothesized that weight loss without exercise training would be accompanied by decreases in AEE, ARTE, and nontraining physical activity energy expenditure (nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT)) and that exercise training would prevent decreases in free-living energy expenditure. One hundred forty premenopausal women had an average weight loss of 25 lb during a diet (800 kcal·d(-1)) of furnished food. One group aerobically trained 3 times per week (40 min·d(-1)), another group resistance-trained 3 times per week (10 exercises/2 sets × 10 repetitions), and the third group did not exercise. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure body composition, indirect calorimetry was used to measure resting energy expenditure (REE) and walking energy expenditure, and doubly labeled water was used to measure total energy expenditure (TEE). AEE, ARTE, and nontraining physical activity energy expenditure (NEAT) were calculated. TEE, REE, and NEAT all decreased following weight loss for the no-exercise group, but not for aerobic and resistance trainers. Only REE decreased in the two exercise groups. Resistance trainers increased ARTE. HR and oxygen uptake while walking on the flat and up a grade were consistently related to TEE, AEE, NEAT, and ARTE. Exercise training prevents a decrease in energy expenditure, including free-living energy expenditure separate from exercise training, following weight loss. Resistance training increases physical activity, whereas economy/ease of walking is associated with increased TEE, AEE, NEAT, and ARTE.

  19. The role of physical activity in producing and maintaining weight loss.

    PubMed

    Catenacci, Victoria A; Wyatt, Holly R

    2007-07-01

    The majority of randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) show only modest weight loss with exercise intervention alone, and slight increases in weight loss when exercise intervention is added to dietary restriction. In most RCTs, the energy deficit produced by the prescribed exercise is far smaller than that usually produced by dietary restriction. In prospective studies that prescribed high levels of exercise, enrolled individuals achieved substantially greater weight loss-comparable to that obtained after similar energy deficits were produced by caloric restriction. High levels of exercise might, however, be difficult for overweight or obese adults to achieve and sustain. RCTs examining exercise and its effect on weight-loss maintenance demonstrated mixed results; however, weight maintenance interventions were usually of limited duration and long-term adherence to exercise was problematic. Epidemiologic, cross-sectional, and prospective correlation studies suggest an essential role for physical activity in weight-loss maintenance, and post hoc analysis of prospective trials shows a clear dose-response relationship between physical activity and weight maintenance. This article reviews the role of physical activity in producing and maintaining weight loss. We focus on prospective, RCTs lasting at least 4 months; however, other prospective trials, meta-analyses and large systematic reviews are included. Limitations in the current body of literature are discussed.

  20. Weight loss and dropout during a commercial weight-loss program including a very-low-calorie diet, a low-calorie diet, or restricted normal food: observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hemmingsson, Erik; Johansson, Kari; Eriksson, Jonas; Sundström, Johan; Neovius, Martin; Marcus, Claude

    2012-11-01

    The effectiveness of commercial weight-loss programs consisting of very-low-calorie diets (VLCDs) and low-calorie diets (LCDs) is unclear. The aim of the study was to quantify weight loss and dropout during a commercial weight-loss program in Sweden (Itrim; cost: $1300/€1000; all participants paid their own fee). This observational cohort study linked commercial weight-loss data with National Health Care Registers. Weight loss was induced with a 500-kcal liquid-formula VLCD [n = 3773; BMI (in kg/m(2)): 34 ± 5 (mean ± SD); 80% women; 45 ± 12 y of age (mean ± SD)], a 1200-1500-kcal formula and food-combination LCD (n = 4588; BMI: 30 ± 4; 86% women; 50 ± 11 y of age), and a 1500-1800-kcal/d restricted normal-food diet (n = 676; BMI: 29 ± 5; 81% women; 51 ± 12 y of age). Maintenance strategies included exercise and a calorie-restricted diet. Weight loss was analyzed by using an intention-to-treat analysis (baseline substitution). After 1 y, mean (±SD) weight changes were -11.4 ± 9.1 kg with the VLCD (18% dropout), -6.8 ± 6.4 kg with the LCD (23% dropout), and -5.1 ± 5.9 kg with the restricted normal-food diet (26% dropout). In an adjusted analysis, the VLCD group lost 2.8 kg (95% CI: 2.5, 3.2) and 3.8 kg (95% CI: 3.2, 4.5) more than did the LCD and restricted normal-food groups, respectively. A high baseline BMI and rapid initial weight loss were both independently associated with greater 1-y weight loss (P < 0.001). Younger age and low initial weight loss predicted an increased dropout rate (P < 0.001). Treatment of depression (OR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9) and psychosis (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.1, 6.3) were associated with an increased dropout rate in the VLCD group. A commercial weight-loss program, particularly one using a VLCD, was effective at reducing body weight in self-selected, self-paying adults.

  1. Estrogen or raloxifene during postmenopausal weight loss: adiposity and cardiometabolic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Van Pelt, R E; Gozansky, W S; Wolfe, P; Kittelson, J M; Jankowski, C M; Schwartz, R S; Kohrt, W M

    2014-04-01

    Estrogen-based hormone therapy (HT) attenuates abdominal fat gain after menopause, but whether HT improves abdominal fat loss during weight loss is unknown. It was hypothesized that HT or a selective estrogen receptor modulator (raloxifene) would augment reductions in abdominal visceral fat during weight loss when compared to placebo, potentially increasing improvements in glucose tolerance and lipid profile. Healthy postmenopausal women (n = 119; age 50-70 yr) underwent a 6-month weight-loss (primarily exercise) intervention with randomization to raloxifene (60 mg/d), HT (conjugated estrogens, 0.625 mg/d), or placebo. Outcomes were change in total and abdominal (visceral and subcutaneous) fat mass, lipid profile, and fasting and post-challenge glucose and insulin. Neither HT nor raloxifene augmented loss of total or abdominal fat mass during exercise-induced weight loss when compared with placebo. Weight loss-induced improvements in risk factors were similar among the three groups, except for a greater reduction in fasted glucose in the HT group (difference in change [95%CI] from placebo; -0.40 [-0.76, -0.05]) and greater reductions in LDL (-0.36 [-0.63, -0.09]) and increases in HDL (0.15 [0.07, 0.24]) in both treatment groups. Postmenopausal HT and raloxifene did not increase abdominal fat loss during weight loss, but did improve some cardiometabolic outcomes. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  2. Serum aminotransferase changes with significant weight loss: sex and age effects.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ayako; Binks, Martin; Sha, Ronald; Wachholtz, Amy; Eisenson, Howard; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2010-02-01

    In obese subjects, the liver may be differentially affected by significant weight loss depending on as yet unknown factors. We explored clinical factors associated with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) changes during significant weight loss in a residential weight loss program. Clinical data from 362 adults who received a comprehensive weight loss intervention (ie, diets, physical fitness, and behavioral modification) in the program were analyzed. Serum ALT was used as a surrogate marker of liver injury. The ALT changes during the program were calculated to create study outcome categories (improvement, no change, or deterioration of ALT during significant weight loss). Variables of demography, lifestyle, and comorbidities at baseline, and total/rate of weight change during the program were explored for associations with the ALT change categories using multiple logistic regression models. Variation by sex was apparent among predictors of ALT deterioration; men with rapid weight loss and women with higher initial body mass index were more likely to experience ALT deterioration, whereas men with prior alcohol consumption were less likely to experience ALT deterioration even after adjusting for baseline ALT (Ps < .03). Variation by age was apparent among predictors of ALT improvement; younger patients with current smoking and older patients with rapid weight loss, diabetes or impaired fasting glucose, or sleep apnea or who followed a reduced-carbohydrate diet were less likely to experience ALT improvement (Ps < .05). A number of clinical factors influence ALT changes during weight loss in sex- and age-specific manners. The patterns that we detected may have pathophysiologic significance beyond the practical implications of our findings in clinical practice related to underlying changes in fat metabolism. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of a reduced carbohydrate and reduced fat diet for LDL, HDL, and VLDL subclasses during 9-months of weight maintenance subsequent to weight loss.

    PubMed

    LeCheminant, James D; Smith, Bryan K; Westman, Eric C; Vernon, Mary C; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2010-06-01

    This study compared LDL, HDL, and VLDL subclasses in overweight or obese adults consuming either a reduced carbohydrate (RC) or reduced fat (RF) weight maintenance diet for 9 months following significant weight loss. Thirty-five (21 RC; 14 RF) overweight or obese middle-aged adults completed a 1-year weight management clinic. Participants met weekly for the first six months and bi-weekly thereafter. Meetings included instruction for diet, physical activity, and behavior change related to weight management. Additionally, participants followed a liquid very low-energy diet of approximately 2092 kJ per day for the first three months of the study. Subsequently, participants followed a dietary plan for nine months that targeted a reduced percentage of carbohydrate (approximately 20%) or fat (approximately 30%) intake and an energy intake level calculated to maintain weight loss. Lipid subclasses using NMR spectroscopy were analyzed prior to weight loss and at multiple intervals during weight maintenance. Body weight change was not significantly different within or between groups during weight maintenance (p>0.05). The RC group showed significant increases in mean LDL size, large LDL, total HDL, large and small HDL, mean VLDL size, and large VLDL during weight maintenance while the RF group showed increases in total HDL, large and small HDL, total VLDL, and large, medium, and small VLDL (p<0.05). Group*time interactions were significant for large and medium VLDL (p>0.05). Some individual lipid subclasses improved in both dietary groups. Large and medium VLDL subclasses increased to a greater extent across weight maintenance in the RF group.

  4. Testosterone and weight loss: the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Traish, Abdulmaged M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose of this article is to examine the contemporary data linking testosterone therapy in overweight and obese men with testosterone deficiency to increased lean body mass, decreased fat mass, improvement in overall body composition and sustained weight loss. This is of paramount importance because testosterone therapy in obese men with testosterone deficiency represents a novel and a timely therapeutic strategy for managing obesity in men with testosterone deficiency. Recent findings Long-term testosterone therapy in men with testosterone deficiency produces significant and sustained weight loss, marked reduction in waist circumference and BMI and improvement in body composition. Further, testosterone therapy ameliorates components of the metabolic syndrome. The aforementioned improvements are attributed to improved mitochondrial function, increased energy utilization, increased motivation and vigor resulting in improved cardio-metabolic function and enhanced physical activity. Summary The implication of testosterone therapy in management of obesity in men with testosterone deficiency is of paramount clinical significance, as it produces sustained weight loss without recidivism. On the contrary, alternative therapeutic approaches other than bariatric surgery failed to produce significant and sustained outcome and exhibit a high rate of recidivism. These findings represent strong foundations for testosterone therapy in obese men with testosterone deficiency and should spur clinical research for better understanding of usefulness of testosterone therapy in treatment of underlying pathophysiological conditions of obesity. PMID:25105998

  5. A Clinical Trial on Weight Loss among Truck Drivers.

    PubMed

    Thiese, M S; Effiong, A C; Ott, U; Passey, D G; Arnold, Z C; Ronna, B B; Muthe, P A; Wood, E M; Murtaugh, M A

    2015-04-01

    The high prevalence of obesity among commercial truck drivers may be related to sedentary nature of the job, lack of healthy eating choices, and lack of exercise. There may be a link between obesity and crash risk, therefore an intervention to reduce obesity in this population is needed. To assess feasibility of a 12-week weight loss intervention for truck drivers with a weight loss goal of 10% of initial body weight. Drivers were selected based on age (≥21 years) and body mass index (≥30 kg/m^2). The drivers participated in a before-after clinical trial. The intervention included a 12-week program that provided information on healthy diet and increasing exercise, and telephone-based coaching using SMART goals. Outcomes included change from baseline in reported energy intake, measured weight, waist, hip, and neck circumference, blood pressure, and point of care capillary blood lipids and hemoglobin A1c. Exit interviews were conducted to gain insight into driver opinions on the program features and usefulness. This study was registered with the NIH Clinical Trials Registry, number NCT02348983. 12 of 13 drivers completed the study. Weight loss was statistically significant (p=0.03). Reported energy (p=0.005), total fat consumption (p=0.04), and saturated fat consumption (p=0.02) intake were also lower after the 12-week intervention. Drivers attributed their weight loss to health coaching and suggested a longer intervention so that they could reach their goal and become accustomed to the changes. This weight loss intervention is feasible for this difficult population. Additional research is needed to compare this intervention with a control group.

  6. Telomere length elongation after weight loss intervention in obese adults.

    PubMed

    Carulli, L; Anzivino, C; Baldelli, E; Zenobii, M F; Rocchi, M B L; Bertolotti, M

    2016-06-01

    Telomeres may be considered markers of biological aging, shorter telomere length is associated with some age-related diseases; in several studies short telomere length has also been associated to obesity in adults and adolescents. However the relationship between telomere complex functions and obesity is still not clear. Aim of the study was to assess telomere length (TL) in adults' obese subjects before and after weight loss obtained by placement of bioenteric intragastric balloon (BIB) for 6months. We enrolled 42 obese subjects before and after BIB placement as weight loss intervention. Blood samples were collected in order to obtain DNA from leukocyte to measure TL by quantitative PCR. Data were analyzed only in 37 subjects with complete data; all presented important body weight loss (124.06±26.7 vs 105.40±23.14, p<0.001) and more interesting they presented a significant increase in TL (3.58±0.83 vs 5.61±3.29, p<0.001). Moreover we observed a significant positive correlation between TL elongation and weight loss (r=0.44, p=0.007) as well as an inverse correlation between TL at baseline and TL elongation (r=-0.35, p=0.03).The predictors of TL elongation were once again weight loss and short TL at baseline (respectively p=0.007 and p=0.003). Our study shows that weight loss is associated to telomere lengthening in a positive correlation: the greater weight loss the greater telomere lengthening; moreover telomere lengthening is more significant in those subjects with shortest telomeres at baseline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of a meal replacement system alone or in combination with phentermine on weight loss and food cravings.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, Christina P; Weldon, Abby J; Daher, Noha S; Schneider, Louise E; Bellinger, Denise L; Berk, Lee S; Hermé, Alyson C; Aréchiga, Adam L; Davis, Willie L; Peters, Warren R

    2016-11-01

    To examine the effects of phentermine combined with a meal replacement program on weight loss and food cravings and to investigate the relationship between food cravings and weight loss. In a 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 77 adults with obesity received either phentermine or placebo. All participants were provided Medifast ® meal replacements, were instructed to follow the Take Shape for Life ® Optimal Weight 5&1 Plan for weight loss, and received lifestyle coaching in the Habits of Health program. The Food Craving Inventory and the General Food Cravings State and Trait Questionnaires were used to measure food cravings. The phentermine group lost 12.1% of baseline body weight compared with 8.8% in the placebo group. Cravings for all food groups decreased in both groups; however, there was a greater reduction in cravings for fats and sweets in the phentermine group compared with the placebo group. Percent weight loss correlated significantly with reduced total food cravings (r = 0.332, P = 0.009), cravings for sweets (r = 0.412, P < 0.000), and state food cravings (r = 0.320, P = 0.007). Both phentermine combined with a meal replacement program and meal replacements alone significantly reduced body weight and food cravings; however, the addition of phentermine enhanced these effects. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  8. Ketosis and appetite-mediating nutrients and hormones after weight loss.

    PubMed

    Sumithran, P; Prendergast, L A; Delbridge, E; Purcell, K; Shulkes, A; Kriketos, A; Proietto, J

    2013-07-01

    Diet-induced weight loss is accompanied by compensatory changes, which increase appetite and encourage weight regain. There is some evidence that ketogenic diets suppress appetite. The objective is to examine the effect of ketosis on a number of circulating factors involved in appetite regulation, following diet-induced weight loss. Of 50 non-diabetic overweight or obese subjects who began the study, 39 completed an 8-week ketogenic very-low-energy diet (VLED), followed by 2 weeks of reintroduction of foods. Following weight loss, circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), leptin, gastrointestinal hormones and subjective ratings of appetite were compared when subjects were ketotic, and after refeeding. During the ketogenic VLED, subjects lost 13% of initial weight and fasting BHB increased from (mean±s.e.m.) 0.07±0.00 to 0.48±0.07 mmol/l (P<0.001). BHB fell to 0.19±0.03 mmol/l after 2 weeks of refeeding (P<0.001 compared with week 8). When participants were ketotic, the weight loss induced increase in ghrelin was suppressed. Glucose and NEFA were higher, and amylin, leptin and subjective ratings of appetite were lower at week 8 than after refeeding. The circulating concentrations of several hormones and nutrients which influence appetite were altered after weight loss induced by a ketogenic diet, compared with after refeeding. The increase in circulating ghrelin and subjective appetite which accompany dietary weight reduction were mitigated when weight-reduced participants were ketotic.

  9. Popular Nutrition-Related Mobile Apps: A Feature Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Fallaize, Rosalind; Lovegrove, Julie A; Hwang, Faustina

    2016-01-01

    Background A key challenge in human nutrition is the assessment of usual food intake. This is of particular interest given recent proposals of eHealth personalized interventions. The adoption of mobile phones has created an opportunity for assessing and improving nutrient intake as they can be used for digitalizing dietary assessments and providing feedback. In the last few years, hundreds of nutrition-related mobile apps have been launched and installed by millions of users. Objective This study aims to analyze the main features of the most popular nutrition apps and to compare their strategies and technologies for dietary assessment and user feedback. Methods Apps were selected from the two largest online stores of the most popular mobile operating systems—the Google Play Store for Android and the iTunes App Store for iOS—based on popularity as measured by the number of installs and reviews. The keywords used in the search were as follows: calorie(s), diet, diet tracker, dietician, dietitian, eating, fit, fitness, food, food diary, food tracker, health, lose weight, nutrition, nutritionist, weight, weight loss, weight management, weight watcher, and ww calculator. The inclusion criteria were as follows: English language, minimum number of installs (1 million for Google Play Store) or reviews (7500 for iTunes App Store), relation to nutrition (ie, diet monitoring or recommendation), and independence from any device (eg, wearable) or subscription. Results A total of 13 apps were classified as popular for inclusion in the analysis. Nine apps offered prospective recording of food intake using a food diary feature. Food selection was available via text search or barcode scanner technologies. Portion size selection was only textual (ie, without images or icons). All nine of these apps were also capable of collecting physical activity (PA) information using self-report, the global positioning system (GPS), or wearable integrations. Their outputs focused

  10. Popular Nutrition-Related Mobile Apps: A Feature Assessment.

    PubMed

    Franco, Rodrigo Zenun; Fallaize, Rosalind; Lovegrove, Julie A; Hwang, Faustina

    2016-08-01

    A key challenge in human nutrition is the assessment of usual food intake. This is of particular interest given recent proposals of eHealth personalized interventions. The adoption of mobile phones has created an opportunity for assessing and improving nutrient intake as they can be used for digitalizing dietary assessments and providing feedback. In the last few years, hundreds of nutrition-related mobile apps have been launched and installed by millions of users. This study aims to analyze the main features of the most popular nutrition apps and to compare their strategies and technologies for dietary assessment and user feedback. Apps were selected from the two largest online stores of the most popular mobile operating systems-the Google Play Store for Android and the iTunes App Store for iOS-based on popularity as measured by the number of installs and reviews. The keywords used in the search were as follows: calorie(s), diet, diet tracker, dietician, dietitian, eating, fit, fitness, food, food diary, food tracker, health, lose weight, nutrition, nutritionist, weight, weight loss, weight management, weight watcher, and ww calculator. The inclusion criteria were as follows: English language, minimum number of installs (1 million for Google Play Store) or reviews (7500 for iTunes App Store), relation to nutrition (ie, diet monitoring or recommendation), and independence from any device (eg, wearable) or subscription. A total of 13 apps were classified as popular for inclusion in the analysis. Nine apps offered prospective recording of food intake using a food diary feature. Food selection was available via text search or barcode scanner technologies. Portion size selection was only textual (ie, without images or icons). All nine of these apps were also capable of collecting physical activity (PA) information using self-report, the global positioning system (GPS), or wearable integrations. Their outputs focused predominantly on energy balance between dietary

  11. Innovation in weight loss programs: a 3-dimensional virtual-world approach.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jeanne D; Massey, Anne P; Devaneaux, Celeste A

    2012-09-20

    The rising trend in obesity calls for innovative weight loss programs. While behavioral-based face-to-face programs have proven to be the most effective, they are expensive and often inaccessible. Internet or Web-based weight loss programs have expanded reach but may lack qualities critical to weight loss and maintenance such as human interaction, social support, and engagement. In contrast to Web technologies, virtual reality technologies offer unique affordances as a behavioral intervention by directly supporting engagement and active learning. To explore the effectiveness of a virtual-world weight loss program relative to weight loss and behavior change. We collected data from overweight people (N = 54) participating in a face-to-face or a virtual-world weight loss program. Weight, body mass index (BMI), percentage weight change, and health behaviors (ie, weight loss self-efficacy, physical activity self-efficacy, self-reported physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption) were assessed before and after the 12-week program. Repeated measures analysis was used to detect differences between groups and across time. A total of 54 participants with a BMI of 32 (SD 6.05) kg/m(2)enrolled in the study, with a 13% dropout rate for each group (virtual world group: 5/38; face-to-face group: 3/24). Both groups lost a significant amount of weight (virtual world: 3.9 kg, P < .001; face-to-face: 2.8 kg, P = .002); however, no significant differences between groups were detected (P = .29). Compared with baseline, the virtual-world group lost an average of 4.2%, with 33% (11/33) of the participants losing a clinically significant (≥5%) amount of baseline weight. The face-to-face group lost an average of 3.0% of their baseline weight, with 29% (6/21) losing a clinically significant amount. We detected a significant group × time interaction for moderate (P = .006) and vigorous physical activity (P = .008), physical activity self-efficacy (P = .04), fruit and vegetable

  12. Weight-loss intervention using implementation intentions and mental imagery: a randomised control trial study protocol.

    PubMed

    Hattar, Anne; Hagger, Martin S; Pal, Sebely

    2015-02-27

    Overweight and obesity are major health problems worldwide. This protocol describes the HEALTHI (Healthy Eating and Active LifesTyle Health Intervention) Program, a 12-week randomised-controlled weight-loss intervention that adopts two theory-based intervention techniques, mental imagery and implementation intentions, a behaviour-change technique based on planning that have been shown to be effective in promoting health-behaviour change in previous research. The effectiveness of goal-reminder text messages to augment intervention effects will also be tested. The trial will determine the effects of a brief, low cost, theory-based weight-loss intervention to improve dietary intake and physical activity behaviour and facilitate weight-loss in overweight and obese individuals. Overweight or obese participants will be randomly allocated to one of three conditions: (1) a psycho-education plus an implementation intentions and mental imagery condition; (2) a psycho-education plus an implementation intentions and mental imagery condition with text messages; or (3) a psycho-education control condition. The intervention will be delivered via video presentation to increase the intervention's applicability in multiple contexts and keep costs low. We hypothesise that the intervention conditions will lead to statistically-significant changes in the primary and secondary outcome variables measured at 6 and 12 weeks post-intervention relative to the psycho-education control condition after controlling for baseline values. The primary outcome variable will be body weight and secondary outcome variables will be biomedical (body mass, body fat percentage, muscle mass, waist-hip circumference ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, triglycerides, blood glucose and insulin levels), psychological (quality of life, motivation, risk perception, outcome expectancy, intention, action self-efficacy, maintenance self

  13. Transforming Your Life: An Environmental Modification Approach to Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Carels, Robert A.; Young, Kathleen M.; Koball, Afton; Gumble, Amanda; Darby, Lynn A.; Oehlhof, Marissa Wagner; Wott, Carissa B.; Hinman, Nova

    2011-01-01

    This investigation compared a traditional behavioral weight loss program with a weight loss intervention emphasizing environmental modification and habit formation and disruption. Fifty-four overweight and obese adults (BMI ≥ 27 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to either a 14-week LEARN or TYL intervention. Forty-two participants completed the six-month follow-up assessment. Treatment outcomes between LEARN and TYL participants were equivalent. During the six-month no-treatment follow-up period, participants evidenced a 3.3 lb (SD = 9.2) weight gain. The TYL intervention appears to represent an attractive option for individuals seeking an alternative to the traditional behavioral approach to weight loss. PMID:20929947

  14. Young adults, technology, and weight loss: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Janna; Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Allen, Jerilyn K

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a major concern in young adults. Technology has been integrated into many weight loss interventions; however little is known about the use of this technology in young adults. The purpose of this study was to explore through focus group sessions the opinions of young adults on the use of technology for weight loss. A total of 17 young adults, between 18 and 25 years of age, participated in three focus group sessions. Major results indicated that young adults have very little knowledge on the use of Smartphone technology for weight loss but would like to use this type of technology to help them lose weight. Results also indicated that young adults struggle to make healthy food choices and have priorities that outweigh exercise and they need support and guidance to make better decisions. In conclusion, young adults would be open to using Smartphone technology for weight loss but also need feedback and guidance to help make healthy decisions.

  15. Young Adults, Technology, and Weight Loss: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Allen, Jerilyn K.

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a major concern in young adults. Technology has been integrated into many weight loss interventions; however little is known about the use of this technology in young adults. The purpose of this study was to explore through focus group sessions the opinions of young adults on the use of technology for weight loss. A total of 17 young adults, between 18 and 25 years of age, participated in three focus group sessions. Major results indicated that young adults have very little knowledge on the use of Smartphone technology for weight loss but would like to use this type of technology to help them lose weight. Results also indicated that young adults struggle to make healthy food choices and have priorities that outweigh exercise and they need support and guidance to make better decisions. In conclusion, young adults would be open to using Smartphone technology for weight loss but also need feedback and guidance to help make healthy decisions. PMID:25789170

  16. Serum markers of bone turnover are increased by modest weight loss with or without weight-bearing exercise in overweight premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Rector, R Scott; Loethen, Joanne; Ruebel, Meghan; Thomas, Tom R; Hinton, Pamela S

    2009-10-01

    Weight loss improves metabolic fitness and reduces morbidity and mortality; however, weight reduction also reduces bone mineral density (BMD) and increases bone turnover. Weight-bearing aerobic exercise may preserve bone mass and maintain normal bone turnover during weight reduction. We investigated the impact of weight-bearing and nonweight-bearing exercise on serum markers of bone formation and breakdown during short-term, modest weight loss in overweight premenopausal women. Subjects (n = 36) were assigned to 1 of 3 weight-loss interventions designed to produce a 5% reduction in body weight over 6 weeks: (i) energy restriction only (n = 11; DIET); (ii) energy restriction plus nonweight-bearing exercise (n = 12, CYCLE); or (iii) energy restriction plus weight-bearing exercise (n = 13, RUN). Bone turnover markers were measured in serum collected at baseline and after weight loss. All groups achieved a ~5% reduction in body weight (DIET = 5.2%; CYCLE = 5.0%; RUN = 4.7%). Osteocalcin (OC) and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) increased with weight loss in all 3 groups (p < 0.05), whereas bone alkaline phosphatase was unaltered by the weight-loss interventions. At baseline, OC and CTX were positively correlated (r = 0.36, p = 0.03), but the strength of this association was diminished (r = 0.30, p = 0.06) after weight loss. Modest weight loss, regardless of method, resulted in a significant increase in both OC and CTX. Low-impact, weight-bearing exercise had no effect on serum markers of bone formation or resorption in premenopausal women during weight loss. Future studies that examine the effects of high-impact, weight-bearing activity on bone turnover and BMD during weight loss are warranted.

  17. [Intractable diarrhoea and severe weight loss by roflumilast].

    PubMed

    Horna, Oihana; Toyas, Carla

    2013-08-04

    Roflumilast is a recently marketed drug, indicated for maintenance treatment of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease associated with chronic bronchitis in adult patients with a history of frequent exacerbations as add on to bronchodilator treatment. The safety data of this drug have always been subjected to controversy and concerns. The Food and Drug Administration rejected the drug after the first evaluation, asking the company to clarify the adverse reactions during the investigation process, the European Medicines Agency approved the drug including a Risk Management Plan, designed to promote a safe use of the drug. During the first months after the marketing process, the Spanish Pharmacovigilance System has already been acquainted of several adverse events notifications; therefore, these patients may be closely monitored, mainly because of digestive and psychiatric disorders. Here we report the case of a female patient who showed a serious digestive clinical profile and a severe weight loss, more than 25% of her initial weight, when a treatment with roflumilast was started. The suspicion of a side effect as the cause of the reported clinical profile and its resolution required 3 hospital admissions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Equivalent weight loss for weight management programs delivered by phone and clinic

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Joseph E.; Goetz, Jeannine; Gibson, Cheryl; Sullivan, Debra K.; Lee, Robert; Smith, Bryan K.; Lambourne, Kate; Mayo, Matthew S.; Hunt, Suzanne; Lee, Jae Hoon; Honas, Jeffrey J.; Washburn, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Face-to-face weight management is costly and presents barriers for individuals seeking treatment; thus, alternate delivery systems are needed. The objective of this study was to compare weight management delivered by face-to-face (FTF) clinic or group conference calls (phone). Design and Methods Randomized equivalency trial in 295 overweight/obese men/women (BMI = 35.1±4.9, Age = 43.8±10.2, Minority = 39.8%). Weight loss (0–6 months) was achieved by reducing energy intake between 1,200– 1,500 kcal/day and progressing physical activity to 300 minutes/week. Weight maintenance (7–18 months) provided adequate energy to maintain weight and continued 300 minutes/week of physical activity. Behavioral weight management strategies were delivered weekly for 6 months and gradually reduced during months 7–18. A cost analysis provided a comparison of expenses between groups. Results Weight change from baseline to 6 months was −13.4 ± 6.7% and −12.3 ± 7.0% for FTF clinic and phone, respectively. Weight change from 6 months to 18 months was 6.4 ± 7.0% and 6.4 ± 5.2%, for FTF clinic and phone, respectively. The cost to FTF participants was $789.58 more person. Conclusions Phone delivery provided equivalent weight loss and maintenance and reduced program cost. Ubiquitous access to phones provides a vast reach for this approach. PMID:23408579

  19. Could habits hold the key to weight loss maintenance? A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Cleo, G; Isenring, E; Thomas, R; Glasziou, P

    2017-10-01

    Despite the significance placed on lifestyle interventions for obesity management, most weight loss is followed by weight regain. Psychological concepts of habitual behaviour and automaticity have been suggested as plausible explanations for this overwhelming lack of long-term weight loss success. Interventions that focus on changing an individual's behaviour are not usually successful at changing an individual's habits because they do not incorporate the strategies required to break unhealthy habits and/or form new healthy habits. A narrative review was conducted and describes the theory behind habit formation in relation to weight regain. The review evaluated the effectiveness of using habits as tools to maintain weight loss. Three specific habit-based weight loss programmes are described: '10 Top Tips', 'Do Something Different' and 'Transforming Your Life'. Participants in these interventions achieved significant weight loss compared to a control group or other conventional interventions. Habit-based interventions show promising results in sustaining behaviour change. Weight loss maintenance may benefit from incorporating habit-focused strategies and should be investigated further. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  20. A weight-loss program adapted to the menstrual cycle increases weight loss in healthy, overweight, premenopausal women: a 6-mo randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Geiker, Nina Rw; Ritz, Christian; Pedersen, Sue D; Larsen, Thomas M; Hill, James O; Astrup, Arne

    2016-07-01

    Hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle influence energy intake and expenditure as well as eating preferences and behavior. We examined the effect in healthy, overweight, premenopausal women of a diet and exercise weight-loss program that was designed to target and moderate the effects of the menstrual cycle compared with the effect of simple energy restriction. A total of 60 healthy, overweight, premenopausal women were included in a 6-mo weight-loss program in which each subject consumed a diet of 1600 kcal/d. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a combined diet and exercise program that was tailored to metabolic changes of the menstrual cycle (Menstralean) or to undergo simple energy restriction (control). Thirty-one women (19 Menstralean and 12 control women) completed the study [mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 32.0 ± 5.2]. Both groups lost weight during the study. In an intention-to-treat analysis, the Menstralean group did not achieve a clinically significant weight loss compared with that of the control group (P = 0.61). In per-protocol analyses, a more-pronounced weight loss of 4.3 ± 1.4 kg (P = 0.002) was shown in adherent Menstralean subjects than in the control group. A differentiated diet and exercise program that is tailored to counteract food cravings and metabolic changes throughout the menstrual cycle may increase weight loss above that achieved with a traditional diet and exercise program in women who can comply with the program. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01622114. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Preoperative fat-free mass: a predictive factor of weight loss after gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Robert, Maud; Pelascini, Elise; Disse, Emmanuel; Espalieu, Philippe; Poncet, Gilles; Laville, Martine; Gouillat, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Weight loss failure occurs in 8% to 40% of patients after gastric bypass (GBP). The aim of our study was to analyse the predictive factors of weight loss at 1 year so as to select the best candidates for this surgery and reduce the failures. We included 73 patients treated by laparoscopic GBP. We retrospectively analysed the predictive factors of weight loss in kilograms as well as excess weight loss in percentage (EWL%) at 1 year. The population was divided into tertiles so as to compare the sub-group with the highest weight loss with the sub-group with the least satisfactory results. The significantly predictive factors of a better weight loss in kilograms were male, higher initial weight (144 versus 118 kg, p = 0.002), a significant early weight loss and a higher preoperative percentage of fat-free mass (FFM%; p = 0.03). A higher FFM% was also associated with a better EWL% (p = 0.004). The preoperative FFM (in kilograms) was the principal factor accounting for the weight loss at 1 year regardless of age, gender, height and initial body mass index (BMI; p < 0.0001). There was a better correlation between FFM and weight loss (Spearman test, p = 0.0001) than between initial BMI and weight loss (p = 0.016). We estimated weight loss at 1 year according to initial FFM using the formula: 0.5 kg of lost weight per kilogram of initial FFM. The initial FFM appears to be a decisive factor in the success of GBP. Thus, the sarcopoenic patients would appear to be less suitable candidates for this surgery.

  2. Choosing a Safe and Successful Weight-Loss Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Reporters Meetings & Workshops Follow Us Home Health Information Weight Management Choosing a Safe and Successful Weight-loss Program ... at NIDDK Technology Advancement & Transfer Meetings & Workshops Health Information ... Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition ...

  3. Value self-confrontation as a method to aid in weight loss.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, S H; Inbar-Saban, N

    1988-03-01

    The impact on weight loss of an adaptation of the Rokeach (1973) value self-confrontation method was investigated in a field experiment. This method confronts people who have ranked their own values with information about the value priorities that discriminate between a positive and a negative reference group. A preliminary study revealed that successful weight losers differ from unsuccessful weight losers in valuing "wisdom" more than "happiness." Eighty-seven overweight adults were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: value self-confrontation, group discussion, or non-treatment control. Value self-confrontation subjects lost more weight than the other subjects over 2 months, and this weight loss persisted for an additional year. Changes in value priorities during the first 2 months suggest that weight loss was mediated by an increase in the importance attributed to wisdom relative to happiness. Implications for the theory of value-behavior relations and for practical application in weight loss programs are discussed.

  4. Health consequences for mother and baby of substantial pre-conception weight loss in obese women: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Price, Sarah; Nankervis, Alison; Permezel, Michael; Prendergast, Luke; Sumithran, Priya; Proietto, Joseph

    2018-04-24

    Current guidelines for the management of obesity in women planning pregnancy suggest lifestyle modification before conception. However, there is little evidence that lifestyle modification alters pregnancy outcomes. Bariatric surgery results in significant weight loss. This appears to reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes for the mother but may increase the risk of adverse outcomes for the infant. In order to reduce the risks of obesity-related adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and offspring, alternative approaches to the management of obesity in women planning pregnancy are needed. This study, a two-arm, parallel group, randomized control trial, will be conducted at the Metabolic Disorders Centre, University of Melbourne. This trial will recruit 164 women aged 18-38 years with a body mass index of 30-55 kg/m 2 who plan to conceive in the next 6-12 months. Women will be randomized to one of two 12-week interventions (Group A and Group B). Group A will aim for modest weight loss (MWL; ≤ 3% body weight) using a hypocaloric diet. Group B will aim for substantial weight loss (SWL; 10-15% body weight) using a modified very low energy diet (VLED) program. All participants will be asked to comply with National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) guidelines for exercise and will be provided with standard pre-pregnancy advice according to Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology guidelines. All participants will then be observed for the subsequent 12 months. If pregnancy occurs within the 12-month follow-up period, data on weight and metabolic status of the mother, and pregnancy outcomes of mother and offspring will be recorded. The primary outcome is maternal fasting plasma glucose at 26-28 weeks' gestation, given that this is known to correlate with pregnancy outcomes. Time to conception, live birth rate, gestational weight gain, and a composite of adverse pregnancy outcomes for mother and baby will comprise

  5. The Tracking Study: Description of a randomized controlled trial of variations on weight tracking frequency in a behavioral weight loss program

    PubMed Central

    Linde, Jennifer A.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Crow, Scott J.; Brelje, Kerrin L.; Pacanowski, Carly R.; Gavin, Kara L.; Smolenski, Derek J.

    2014-01-01

    Observational evidence from behavioral weight control trials and community studies suggests that greater frequency of weighing oneself, or tracking weight, is associated with better weight outcomes. Conversely, it has also been suggested that frequent weight tracking may have a negative impact on mental health and outcomes during weight loss, but there are minimal experimental data that address this concern in the context of an active weight loss program. To achieve the long-term goal of strengthening behavioral weight loss programs, the purpose of this randomized controlled trial (the Tracking Study) is to test variations on frequency of self-weighing during a behavioral weight loss program, and to examine psychosocial and mental health correlates of weight tracking and weight loss outcomes. Three hundred thirty-nine overweight and obese adults were recruited and randomized to one of three variations on weight tracking frequency during a 12-month weight loss program with a 12-month follow-up: daily weight tracking, weekly weight tracking, or no weight tracking. The primary outcome is weight in kilograms at 24 months. The weight loss program integrates each weight tracking instruction with standard behavioral weight loss techniques (goal setting, self-monitoring, stimulus control, dietary and physical activity enhancements, lifestyle modifications); participants in weight tracking conditions were provided with wireless Internet technology (Wi-Fi-enabled digital scales and touchscreen personal devices) to facilitate weight tracking during the study. This paper describes the study design, intervention features, recruitment, and baseline characteristics of participants enrolled in the Tracking Study. PMID:25533727

  6. Greater hunger and less restraint predict weight loss success with phentermine treatment

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Elizabeth A.; McNair, Bryan; Bechtell, Jamie L.; Ferland, Annie; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Eckel, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Phentermine is thought to cause weight loss through a reduction in hunger. We hypothesized that higher hunger ratings would predict greater weight loss with phentermine. Design and Methods This is an observational pilot study in which all subjects were treated with phentermine for 8 weeks and appetite and eating behaviors were measured at baseline and week 8. Outcomes were compared in subjects with ≥5% vs <5% weight loss, and linear regression was used to identify predictors of percent weight loss. Results 27 subjects (37 ± 4.5 yrs, 93.8 ± 12.1 kg, BMI 33.8 ± 3.1 kg/m2) completed the study, with mean weight loss of -5.4 ± 3.3 kg (-5.7 ± 3.2%). Subjects with ≥5% weight loss had higher baseline pre-breakfast hunger (p=0.017), desire to eat (p=0.003), and prospective food consumption (0.006), and lower baseline cognitive restraint (p=0.01). In addition, higher baseline home prospective food consumption (p=0.002) and lower baseline cognitive restraint (p<0.001) were found to be predictors of weight loss. Conclusion These results suggest that individuals reporting greater hunger and less restraint are more likely to achieve significant weight loss with phentermine. This information can be used clinically to determine who might benefit most from phentermine treatment. PMID:26584649

  7. Greater hunger and less restraint predict weight loss success with phentermine treatment.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Elizabeth A; Mcnair, Bryan; Bechtell, Jamie L; Ferland, Annie; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Eckel, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    Phentermine is thought to cause weight loss through a reduction in hunger. It was hypothesized that higher hunger ratings would predict greater weight loss with phentermine. This is an observational pilot study in which all subjects were treated with phentermine for 8 weeks and appetite and eating behaviors were measured at baseline and week 8. Outcomes were compared in subjects with ≥5% vs. <5% weight loss, and linear regression was used to identify predictors of percent weight loss. Twenty-seven subjects (37 ± 4.5 years, 93.8 ± 12.1 kg, BMI 33.8 ± 3.1 kg m(-2) ) completed the study, with mean weight loss of -5.4 ± 3.3 kg (-5.7% ± 3.2%). Subjects with ≥5% weight loss had higher baseline pre-breakfast hunger (P = 0.017), desire to eat (P =0.003), and prospective food consumption (0.006) and lower baseline cognitive restraint (P = 0.01). In addition, higher baseline home prospective food consumption (P = 0.002) and lower baseline cognitive restraint (P < 0.001) were found to be predictors of weight loss. These results suggest that individuals reporting greater hunger and less restraint are more likely to achieve significant weight loss with phentermine. This information can be used clinically to determine who might benefit most from phentermine treatment. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  8. Using Avatars to Model Weight Loss Behaviors: Participant Attitudes and Technology Development

    PubMed Central

    Napolitano, Melissa A.; Hayes, Sharon; Russo, Giuseppe; Muresu, Debora; Giordano, Antonio; Foster, Gary D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Virtual reality and other avatar-based technologies are potential methods for demonstrating and modeling weight loss behaviors. This study examined avatar-based technology as a tool for modeling weight loss behaviors. Methods: This study consisted of two phases: (1) an online survey to obtain feedback about using avatars for modeling weight loss behaviors and (2) technology development and usability testing to create an avatar-based technology program for modeling weight loss behaviors. Results: Results of phase 1 (n = 128) revealed that interest was high, with 88.3% stating that they would participate in a program that used an avatar to help practice weight loss skills in a virtual environment. In phase 2, avatars and modules to model weight loss skills were developed. Eight women were recruited to participate in a 4-week usability test, with 100% reporting they would recommend the program and that it influenced their diet/exercise behavior. Most women (87.5%) indicated that the virtual models were helpful. After 4 weeks, average weight loss was 1.6 kg (standard deviation = 1.7). Conclusion: This investigation revealed a high level of interest in an avatar-based program, with formative work indicating promise. Given the high costs associated with in vivo exposure and practice, this study demonstrates the potential use of avatar-based technology as a tool for modeling weight loss behaviors. PMID:23911189

  9. Motivations for Weight Loss Among Active Duty Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Maclin-Akinyemi, Courtney; Krukowski, Rebecca A; Kocak, Mehmet; Talcott, G Wayne; Beauvais, Alexis; Klesges, Robert C

    2017-09-01

    Rates of overweight and obesity among Active Duty Military Personnel remain high despite fitness test requirements, negative consequences of fitness test failure, and emphasis on weight and appearance standards. Specific motivating factors for weight loss influence weight loss program interest and often differ by gender, race, ethnicity, or age. This study investigates the weight loss motivations endorsed by a diverse population of Active Duty Military Personnel initiating a behavioral weight loss study, to inform the development of future recruitment efforts and program development. Active Duty Military Personnel (n = 248) completed a 16-item questionnaire of weight loss motivations before initiating a behavioral weight loss study. We evaluated endorsement patterns by demographic characteristics (body mass index [BMI], gender, race, ethnicity, age, and military rank). Data collection for this study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Wilford Hall Ambulatory Surgical Center and acknowledged by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Tennessee Health Science Center. Results indicated that improved physical health, improved fitness, improved quality of life, and to live long were endorsed as "very important" motivations by at least three-fourths of the sample. "To pass the fitness test" was endorsed less frequently as a "very important" motivation, by 69% of the sample. A greater proportion of women as compared to men endorsed being very motivated by improving mood/well-being, quality of life, physical mobility, job performance, appearance, and sex life, as well as fitting into clothes. Participants categorized in the "Other" racial group and African Americans more frequently endorsed motivations to improve fitness and physical strength when compared to Caucasians. Moreover, participants in the "Other" race category were significantly more likely to rate their ability to physically defend themselves, improve physical mobility, and improve

  10. The role of physical activity in producing and maintaining weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Catenacci, Victoria A; Wyatt, Holly R

    2015-01-01

    Summary The majority of randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) show only modest weight loss with exercise intervention alone, and slight increases in weight loss when exercise intervention is added to dietary restriction. In most RCTs, the energy deficit produced by the prescribed exercise is far smaller than that usually produced by dietary restriction. In prospective studies that prescribed high levels of exercise, enrolled individuals achieved substantially greater weight loss—comparable to that obtained after similar energy deficits were produced by caloric restriction. High levels of exercise might, however, be difficult for overweight or obese adults to achieve and sustain. RCTs examining exercise and its effect on weight-loss maintenance demonstrated mixed results; however, weight maintenance interventions were usually of limited duration and long-term adherence to exercise was problematic. Epidemiologic, cross-sectional, and prospective correlation studies suggest an essential role for physical activity in weight-loss maintenance, and post hoc analysis of prospective trials shows a clear dose–response relationship between physical activity and weight maintenance. This article reviews the role of physical activity in producing and maintaining weight loss. We focus on prospective, RCTs lasting at least 4 months; however, other prospective trials, meta-analyses and large systematic reviews are included. Limitations in the current body of literature are discussed. PMID:17581621

  11. [Plastic reconstructive operations after weight loss through gastric banding].

    PubMed

    Rhomberg, M; Piza-Katzer, H

    2002-09-01

    The number of patients who desire reconstructive surgery after a huge weight loss through gastric banding is increasing. From 1999 to 2001, 40 reconstructive operations were performed on 25 patients after an average decrease in weight of 58 kg. Six months later, a follow-up examination was done. A questionnaire was handed out and the aesthetic results were judged by five independent plastic surgeons. The department of psychology judged the patient's attitude towards their body, the presentation of their body for attractiveness, satisfaction with life, anxiety and depression, and changes in experience and behavior. The results showed a discrepancy between the subjective satisfaction of the patients and the judgment of the plastic surgeons; the preference for long scars instead of remaining surplus tissue, the necessity of a strict indication for transplantation of one's own tissue, the importance of detailed preoperative information using pictures, advantages and disadvantages of simultaneous operations in different anatomical regions, the need for exact planning and postoperative care as well as the importance of interdisciplinary teamwork. These results will influence the indication for a reconstructive operation in the future.

  12. Intentional weight loss in older adults: useful or wasting disease generating strategy?

    PubMed

    Darmon, Patrice

    2013-05-01

    Strategies for weight management in older adults remain controversial as overweight may protect them against mortality whereas weight loss may have harmful effects by promoting sarcopenia and bone loss. It has been suggested that weight management for obese older adults should focus more on maintaining weight and improving physical function than promoting weight loss. This review aims to specify whether intentional weight loss in older adults is a useful or a wasting disease generating strategy. Recent randomized controlled studies have shown that a supervised, moderate caloric restriction coupled with regular exercise (both aerobic and resistance) in obese older adults do not increase mortality risk and may conversely reduce insulin resistance, metabolic complications, and disabilities without exacerbating lean mass and bone mineral density loss. In obese older adults, moderate weight loss may have beneficial effects on comorbidities, functional performances, and quality of life provided that regular physical activity can be associated. An individual approach considering life expectancy, chronic comorbidities, functional status, personal motivation, and social support should be preferred. More research is needed to define the circumstances in which cautious dietary restrictions are reasonably justified in older adults. In any case, in the oldest (≥80 years) as in frail individuals, it seems reasonable to abstain from recommending weight loss.

  13. Factors associated with choice of a low-fat or low-carbohydrate diet during a behavioral weight loss intervention☆, ☆☆

    PubMed Central

    McVay, Megan A.; Voils, Corrine I.; Coffman, Cynthia J.; Geiselman, Paula J.; Kolotkin, Ronette L.; Mayer, Stephanie B.; Smith, Valerie A.; Gaillard, Leslie; Turner, Marsha J.; Yancy, William S.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals undertaking a weight loss effort have a choice among proven dietary approaches. Factors contributing to choice of either a low-fat/low-calorie diet or a low-carbohydrate diet, two of the most studied and popular dietary approaches, are unknown. The current study used data from participants randomized to the ‘choice’ arm of a trial examining whether being able to choose a diet regimen yields higher weight loss than being randomly assigned to a diet. At study entry, participants attended a group session during which they were provided tailored feedback indicating which diet was most consistent with their food preferences using the Geiselman Food Preference Questionnaire (FPQ), information about both diets, and example meals for each diet. One week later, they indicated which diet they chose to follow during the 48-week study, with the option of switching diets after 12 weeks. Of 105 choice arm participants, 44 (42%) chose the low-fat/low-calorie diet and 61 (58%) chose the low-carbohydrate diet. In bivariate analyses, diet choice was not associated with age, race, sex, education, BMI, or diabetes (all p > 0.05). Low-carbohydrate diet choice was associated with baseline higher percent fat intake (p = 0.007), lower percent carbohydrate intake (p = 0.02), and food preferences consistent with a low-carbohydrate diet according to FPQ (p < 0.0001). In a multivariable logistic regression model, only FPQ diet preference was associated with diet choice (p = 0.001). Reported reasons for diet choice were generally similar for those choosing either diet; however, concerns about negative health effects of the unselected diet was rated as more influential among participants selecting the low-fat diet. Only three low-carbohydrate and two low-fat diet participants switched diets at 12 weeks. Results suggest that when provided a choice between two popular weight loss dietary approaches, an individual's selection is likely influenced by baseline dietary intake pattern

  14. Comparison of physician weight loss goals for obese male and female patients.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Gareth R; Perri, Michael G; Stine, Curtis C; Goble, Mary; Van Vessem, Nancy

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare physicians' weight loss goals for obese male and female patients. This study was conducted in 2008-2009 in Florida, USA. Physicians (N=108; 79.6% primary care specialty) reviewed two hypothetical clinical scenarios that were identical with respect to health status and obesity (BMI=33 kg/m(2)) but differed in the gender of the patient. Physicians then completed a survey about the need for weight loss, intentions to provide weight loss counseling, and weight loss goals (i.e., ideal, successful, and acceptable goal weights) for each hypothetical patient. Physicians strongly agreed that both patients should lose weight and physician counseling and/or treatment referrals would be appropriate; however, physician weight loss goals for male and female patients differed. BMI values calculated from the suggested ideal, successful, and acceptable weight goals were significantly lower for female patients than male patients, 22.0 vs. 25. 2 kg/m(2); 25.4 vs. 27. 8 kg/m(2); and 27.0 vs. 29. 2 kg/m(2), respectively, P values <.001. Physicians endorsed significantly more stringent weight loss goals for obese female patients than obese male patients. Regardless of patient gender, physician goals exceeded the 5-10% losses currently recommended. Additional research is needed to better understand this gender discrepancy in physician expectations for obese patients. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. First Australian experiences with an oral volume restriction device to change eating behaviors and assist with weight loss.

    PubMed

    McGee, Toni L; Grima, Mariee T; Hewson, Ian D; Jones, Kay M; Duke, Ellen B; Dixon, John B

    2012-01-01

    Eating behaviors impact satiety and caloric intake so should be considered in any weight-loss program. A novel custom-made oral device has been designed to be worn in the upper palate while eating in order to slow eating-rate and aid weight loss. The aim of this study was to assess the device's potential impact on weight-loss and gain first impressions among overweight/obese Australians. Twenty participants (M: 6, F: 14, mean age 36 years, BMI 27-33 kg/m(2)) were enrolled in a 4-month open-label trial. Each received a device and nutritionist-delivered diet plan. Weight, compliance, and acceptability were assessed fortnightly. Anthropometry, biochemical and clinical outcomes were measured at baseline and 16 weeks. Sixteen participants completed the study. Mean weight-loss was 4.9 ± 0.9 kg, or 5.2 ± 0.9% initial bodyweight (P < 0.001, n = 20, intention-to-treat). There were no significant adverse events (AEs), but 65% of participants required device adjustment by the dentist. Compliance (defined as >5 uses/week) was achieved by 80% of participants and correlated positively with weight-loss (R = 0.68, P = 0.001). All reported that the device was comfortable and reduced bite-size, promoted chewing and slowed eating-rate. Most observed either no change, or increased satiety, despite reduced meal sizes. For most, speech difficulties discouraged device use in social settings. All reported greater awareness of food choices, portion sizes and eating-rate. Subjective control of dietary behaviors, measured by the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), improved significantly. The device should be explored as an adjunct to dietary composition change in weight-management programs, to assist patients to modify eating behaviors and achieve successful weight-loss.

  16. Innovation in Weight Loss Programs: A 3-Dimensional Virtual-World Approach

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Anne P; DeVaneaux, Celeste A

    2012-01-01

    Background The rising trend in obesity calls for innovative weight loss programs. While behavioral-based face-to-face programs have proven to be the most effective, they are expensive and often inaccessible. Internet or Web-based weight loss programs have expanded reach but may lack qualities critical to weight loss and maintenance such as human interaction, social support, and engagement. In contrast to Web technologies, virtual reality technologies offer unique affordances as a behavioral intervention by directly supporting engagement and active learning. Objective To explore the effectiveness of a virtual-world weight loss program relative to weight loss and behavior change. Methods We collected data from overweight people (N = 54) participating in a face-to-face or a virtual-world weight loss program. Weight, body mass index (BMI), percentage weight change, and health behaviors (ie, weight loss self-efficacy, physical activity self-efficacy, self-reported physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption) were assessed before and after the 12-week program. Repeated measures analysis was used to detect differences between groups and across time. Results A total of 54 participants with a BMI of 32 (SD 6.05) kg/m2 enrolled in the study, with a 13% dropout rate for each group (virtual world group: 5/38; face-to-face group: 3/24). Both groups lost a significant amount of weight (virtual world: 3.9 kg, P < .001; face-to-face: 2.8 kg, P = .002); however, no significant differences between groups were detected (P = .29). Compared with baseline, the virtual-world group lost an average of 4.2%, with 33% (11/33) of the participants losing a clinically significant (≥5%) amount of baseline weight. The face-to-face group lost an average of 3.0% of their baseline weight, with 29% (6/21) losing a clinically significant amount. We detected a significant group × time interaction for moderate (P = .006) and vigorous physical activity (P = .008), physical activity self

  17. Mediators of weight loss in a family-based intervention presented over the internet.

    PubMed

    White, Marney A; Martin, Pamela D; Newton, Robert L; Walden, Heather M; York-Crowe, Emily E; Gordon, Stewart T; Ryan, Donna H; Williamson, Donald A

    2004-07-01

    To assess the process variables involved in a weight loss program for African-American adolescent girls. Several process variables have been identified as affecting success in in vivo weight loss programs for adults and children, including program adherence, self-efficacy, and social support. The current study sought to broaden the understanding of these process variables as they pertain to an intervention program that is presented using the Internet. It was hypothesized that variables such as program adherence, dietary self-efficacy, psychological factors, and family environment factors would mediate the effect of the experimental condition on weight loss. Participants were 57 adolescent African-American girls who joined the program with one obese parent; family pairs were randomized to either a behavioral or control condition in an Internet-based weight loss program. Outcome data (weight loss) are reported for the first 6 months of the intervention. Results partially supported the hypotheses. For weight loss among adolescents, parent variables pertaining to life and family satisfaction were the strongest mediating variables. For parental weight loss, changes in dietary practices over the course of 6 months were the strongest mediators. The identification of factors that enhance or impede weight loss for adolescents is an important step in improving weight loss programs for this group. The current findings suggest that family/parental variables exert a strong influence on weight loss efforts for adolescents and should be considered in developing future programs. Copyright 2004 NAASO

  18. Weight-loss strategies of South African female university students and comparison of weight management-related characteristics between dieters and non-dieters.

    PubMed

    Senekal, Marjanne; Lasker, Gabrielle L; van Velden, Lindsay; Laubscher, Ria; Temple, Norman J

    2016-09-01

    Female university students are at risk for weight gain and use of inappropriate weight-loss strategies. By gaining a greater understanding of the weight-loss strategies used by and weight management related characteristics of these students, effective weight management interventions for this vulnerable group can be developed. Two hundred and fifty female students from South Africa universities, aged 18-25 years, participated in this cross-sectional study; 162 attempted weight loss during the year preceding the study (dieters) and 88 were non-dieters. Weight and height were measured and BMI (kg/m(2)) computed. A self-administered questionnaire was used to record all other variables. Weight loss strategies were described for dieters and compared between BMI groups within the dieters group. Weight management related characteristics were compared between dieters and non-dieters. Statistical tests included Pearson Chi-square test, independent samples t-test or Mann-Whitney U test (depending on distribution of the data). Predictors for a higher BMI and being overweight/obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m(2)) were identified using regression models. Healthy weight-loss strategies included increased exercise and fruit/vegetable intake and decreased intake of sugar and fat containing items; unhealthy methods included eating little food and skipping meals; and extreme weight loss strategies included laxatives and vomiting. The most commonly used weight-loss product was Herbex. Dieters were characterized by a higher BMI, overestimation of their weight (especially normal weight students), dissatisfaction with weight and select body parts, higher intake of breakfast and healthy foods, lower intake of unhealthy foods, higher levels of vigorous physical activity, higher use of select informal weight-loss information sources and experiencing more pressure to lose weight from mothers, siblings and friends. Predictors of higher BMI and/or increased risk for BMI ≥25 included weight-loss attempt

  19. A dynamical model for describing behavioural interventions for weight loss and body composition change

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Barrientos, J.-Emeterio; Rivera, Daniel E.; Collins, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    We present a dynamical model incorporating both physiological and psychological factors that predicts changes in body mass and composition during the course of a behavioral intervention for weight loss. The model consists of a three-compartment energy balance integrated with a mechanistic psychological model inspired by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The latter describes how important variables in a behavioural intervention can influence healthy eating habits and increased physical activity over time. The novelty of the approach lies in representing the behavioural intervention as a dynamical system, and the integration of the psychological and energy balance models. Two simulation scenarios are presented that illustrate how the model can improve the understanding of how changes in intervention components and participant differences affect outcomes. Consequently, the model can be used to inform behavioural scientists in the design of optimised interventions for weight loss and body composition change. PMID:21673826

  20. Effect of intermittent versus continuous energy restriction on weight loss, maintenance and cardiometabolic risk: A randomized 1-year trial.

    PubMed

    Sundfør, T M; Svendsen, M; Tonstad, S

    2018-07-01

    Long-term adherence to conventional weight-loss diets is limited while intermittent fasting has risen in popularity. We compared the effects of intermittent versus continuous energy restriction on weight loss, maintenance and cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with abdominal obesity and ≥1 additional component of metabolic syndrome. In total 112 participants (men [50%] and women [50%]) aged 21-70 years with BMI 30-45 kg/m 2 (mean 35.2 [SD 3.7]) were randomized to intermittent or continuous energy restriction. A 6-month weight-loss phase including 10 visits with dieticians was followed by a 6-month maintenance phase without additional face-to-face counselling. The intermittent energy restriction group was advised to consume 400/600 kcal (female/male) on two non-consecutive days. Based on dietary records both groups reduced energy intake by ∼26-28%. Weight loss was similar among participants in the intermittent and continuous energy restriction groups (8.0 kg [SD 6.5] versus 9.0 kg [SD 7.1]; p = 0.6). There were favorable improvements in waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol with no difference between groups. Weight regain was minimal and similar between the intermittent and continuous energy restriction groups (1.1 kg [SD 3.8] versus 0.4 kg [SD 4.0]; p = 0.6). Intermittent restriction participants reported higher hunger scores than continuous restriction participants on a subjective numeric rating scale (4.7 [SD 2.2] vs 3.6 [SD 2.2]; p = 0.002). Both intermittent and continuous energy restriction resulted in similar weight loss, maintenance and improvements in cardiovascular risk factors after one year. However, feelings of hunger may be more pronounced during intermittent energy restriction. www.clinicaltrials.govNCT02480504. Copyright © 2018 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine

  1. [The effect of sibutramine on weight loss in obese adolescents].

    PubMed

    Franco, Ruth Rocha; Cominato, Louise; Damiani, Durval

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of sibutramine on weight loss in obese adolescents. A double-blind controlled study lasting 13 months. The study included 73 obese adolescents of both sexes aged between 10 and 18 years. Laboratory tests and imaging studies were performed before, during wash-out, and at the end of 13 months. The percentage of patients who lost 10% of their initial weight in the placebo group was 46%, and in the sibutramine group was 75%. When placebo was used, average weight rose by 1.61 kg, and BMI decreased by 0.24 kg/m(2) whereas with the use of sibutramine, weight decreased by 4.47 kg, and average BMI decreased, 2.38 kg/m(2), with p < 0.001. Sibutramine induced significantly more weight loss in obese adolescents compared with placebo, without significant side effects. The weight loss curve was different depending on the moment sibutramine was introduced. This finding indicates that the best time to start sibutramine is when adhesion begins to fail.

  2. A weight-neutral versus weight-loss approach for health promotion in women with high BMI: A randomized-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mensinger, Janell L; Calogero, Rachel M; Stranges, Saverio; Tylka, Tracy L

    2016-10-01

    Weight loss is the primary recommendation for health improvement in individuals with high body mass index (BMI) despite limited evidence of long-term success. Alternatives to weight-loss approaches (such as Health At Every Size - a weight-neutral approach) have been met with their own concerns and require further empirical testing. This study compared the effectiveness of a weight-neutral versus a weight-loss program for health promotion. Eighty women, aged 30-45 years, with high body mass index (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) were randomized to 6 months of facilitator-guided weekly group meetings using structured manuals that emphasized either a weight-loss or weight-neutral approach to health. Health measurements occurred at baseline, post-intervention, and 24-months post-randomization. Measurements included blood pressure, lipid panels, blood glucose, BMI, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, distress, self-esteem, quality of life, dietary risk, fruit and vegetable intake, intuitive eating, and physical activity. Intention-to-treat analyses were performed using linear mixed-effects models to examine group-by-time interaction effects and between and within-group differences. Group-by-time interactions were found for LDL cholesterol, intuitive eating, BMI, weight, and dietary risk. At post-intervention, the weight-neutral program had larger reductions in LDL cholesterol and greater improvements in intuitive eating; the weight-loss program had larger reductions in BMI, weight, and larger (albeit temporary) decreases in dietary risk. Significant positive changes were observed overall between baseline and 24-month follow-up for waist-to-hip ratio, total cholesterol, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, self-esteem, and quality of life. These findings highlight that numerous health benefits, even in the absence of weight loss, are achievable and sustainable in the long term using a weight-neutral approach. The trial positions weight-neutral programs as a

  3. Effects of diet composition on weight loss, metabolic factors and biomarkers in a 1-year weight loss intervention in obese women examined by baseline insulin resistance status

    PubMed Central

    Rock, Cheryl L.; Flatt, Shirley W.; Pakiz, Bilge; Quintana, Elizabeth L.; Heath, Dennis D.; Rana, Brinda K.; Natarajan, Loki

    2018-01-01

    Background Obesity is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer incidence and pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer mortality, which may be explained by several metabolic and hormonal factors (sex hormones, insulin resistance, and inflammation) that are biologically related. Differential effects of dietary composition on weight loss and these metabolic factors may occur in insulin-sensitive vs. insulin-resistant obese women. Objective To examine the effect of diet composition on weight loss and metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory factors in overweight/obese women stratified by insulin resistance status in a 1-year weight loss intervention. Methods and Results Nondiabetic women who were overweight/obese (n = 245) were randomly assigned to a lower fat (20% energy), higher carbohydrate (65% energy) diet; a lower carbohydrate (45% energy), higher fat (35% energy) diet; or a walnut-rich (18% energy), higher fat (35% energy), lower carbohydrate (45% energy) diet. All groups lost weight at follow-up (P < 0.0001), with mean (SEM) percent loss of 9.2 (1.1)% in lower fat, 6.5 (0.9)% in lower carbohydrate, and 8.2 (1.0)% in walnut-rich groups at 12 months. The diet × time × insulin resistance status interaction was not statistically significant in the model for overall weight loss, although insulin sensitive women at 12 months lost more weight in the lower fat vs. lower carbohydrate group (7.5 kg vs 4.3 kg, P = 0.06), and in the walnut-rich vs. lower carbohydrate group (8.1 kg vs 4.3 kg, P = 0.04). Sex hormone binding globulin increased within each group except in the lower carbohydrate group at 12 months (P < 0.01). C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 decreased at follow-up in all groups (P < 0.01). Conclusions Findings provide some support for differential effects of diet composition on weight loss depending on insulin resistance status. Prescribing walnuts is associated with weight loss comparable to a standard lower fat diet in a behavioral weight loss

  4. Effects of diet composition on weight loss, metabolic factors and biomarkers in a 1-year weight loss intervention in obese women examined by baseline insulin resistance status.

    PubMed

    Rock, Cheryl L; Flatt, Shirley W; Pakiz, Bilge; Quintana, Elizabeth L; Heath, Dennis D; Rana, Brinda K; Natarajan, Loki

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer incidence and premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer mortality, which may be explained by several metabolic and hormonal factors (sex hormones, insulin resistance, and inflammation) that are biologically related. Differential effects of dietary composition on weight loss and these metabolic factors may occur in insulin-sensitive vs. insulin-resistant obese women. To examine the effect of diet composition on weight loss and metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory factors in overweight/obese women stratified by insulin resistance status in a 1-year weight loss intervention. Nondiabetic women who were overweight/obese (n=245) were randomly assigned to a lower fat (20% energy), higher carbohydrate (65% energy) diet; a lower carbohydrate (45% energy), higher fat (35% energy) diet; or a walnut-rich (18% energy), higher fat (35% energy), lower carbohydrate (45% energy) diet. All groups lost weight at follow-up (P<0.0001), with mean (SEM) percent loss of 9.2(1.1)% in lower fat, 6.5(0.9)% in lower carbohydrate, and 8.2(1.0)% in walnut-rich groups at 12months. The diet×time×insulin resistance status interaction was not statistically significant in the model for overall weight loss, although insulin sensitive women at 12months lost more weight in the lower fat vs. lower carbohydrate group (7.5kg vs. 4.3kg, P=0.06), and in the walnut-rich vs. lower carbohydrate group (8.1kg vs. 4.3kg, P=0.04). Sex hormone binding globulin increased within each group except in the lower carbohydrate group at 12months (P<0.01). C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 decreased at follow-up in all groups (P<0.01). Findings provide some support for differential effects of diet composition on weight loss depending on insulin resistance status. Prescribing walnuts is associated with weight loss comparable to a standard lower fat diet in a behavioral weight loss intervention. Weight loss itself may be the most critical factor for reducing

  5. Obesity-induced decreases in muscle performance are not reversed by weight loss.

    PubMed

    Seebacher, F; Tallis, J; McShea, K; James, R S

    2017-08-01

    Obesity can affect muscle phenotypes, and may thereby constrain movement and energy expenditure. Weight loss is a common and intuitive intervention for obesity, but it is not known whether the effects of obesity on muscle function are reversible by weight loss. Here we tested whether obesity-induced changes in muscle metabolic and contractile phenotypes are reversible by weight loss. We used zebrafish (Danio rerio) in a factorial design to compare energy metabolism, locomotor capacity, muscle isometric force and work-loop power output, and myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition between lean fish, diet-induced obese fish, and fish that were obese and then returned to lean body mass following diet restriction. Obesity increased resting metabolic rates (P<0.001) and decreased maximal metabolic rates (P=0.030), but these changes were reversible by weight loss, and were not associated with changes in muscle citrate synthase activity. In contrast, obesity-induced decreases in locomotor performance (P=0.0034), and isolated muscle isometric stress (P=0.01), work-loop power output (P<0.001) and relaxation rates (P=0.012) were not reversed by weight loss. Similarly, obesity-induced decreases in concentrations of fast and slow MHCs, and a shift toward fast MHCs were not reversed by weight loss. Obesity-induced changes in locomotor performance and muscle contractile function were not reversible by weight loss. These results show that weight loss alone may not be a sufficient intervention.

  6. The obesity paradox, weight loss, and coronary disease.

    PubMed

    Lavie, Carl J; Milani, Richard V; Artham, Surya M; Patel, Dharmendrakumar A; Ventura, Hector O

    2009-12-01

    Because obesity is a cardiovascular risk factor but is associated with a more favorable prognosis among cohorts of cardiac patients, we assessed this "obesity paradox" in overweight and obese patients with coronary heart disease enrolled in a cardiac rehabilitation and exercise training (CRET) program, making this assessment in patients classified as overweight/obese using both traditional body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat assessments. Additionally, we assessed the efficacy and safety of purposeful weight loss in overweight and obese coronary patients. We retrospectively studied 529 consecutive CRET patients following major coronary events before and after CRET, and compared baseline and post program data in 393 overweight and obese patients (body mass index [BMI] > or =25 kg/m(2)) divided by median weight change (median=-1.5%; mean +2% vs -5%, respectively). In addition, we assessed 3-year total mortality in various baseline BMI categories as well as compared mortality in those with high baseline percent fat (>25% in men and >35% in women) versus those with low baseline fat. Following CRET, the overweight and obese with greater weight loss had improvements in BMI (-5%; P <.0001), percent fat (-8%; P <.0001), peak oxygen consumption (+16%; P <.0001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-5%; P <.02), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (+10%; P <.0001), triglycerides (-17%; P <.0001), C-reactive protein (-40%; P <.0001), and fasting glucose (-4%; P=.02), as well as marked improvements in behavioral factors and quality-of-life scores. Those with lower weight loss had no significant improvements in percent fat, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and fasting glucose. During 3-year follow-up, overall mortality trended only slightly lower in those with baseline overweightness/obesity who had more weight loss (3.1% vs 5.1%; P=.30). However, total mortality was considerably lower in the baseline overweight/obese (BMI > or =25

  7. Health risks, past usage, and intention to use weight loss products in normal weight women with high and low body dysphoria.

    PubMed

    Whisenhunt, B L; Williamson, D A; Netemeyer, R G; Andrews, C

    2003-06-01

    There are many health risks involved with the use of weight loss products by normal weight women. The mass media may compound this problem through the promotion of weight loss products and a thin body size. This study tested women's perceptions of different weight loss product ads to determine if body dysphoria (i.e., an over concern with body size and shape in normal weight people) was associated with risk beliefs, past behaviors, and intention toward using weight loss products. Normal weight women (age range = 18-41 yr), who were classified as either high (n=45) or low (n=43) on a measure of body dysphoria, rated different weight loss products according to their perception of health risks, past behavior, and their intention to consume the products. These products were a dietary fat substitute (olestra), a prescription obesity medication (sibutramine), and an over-the-counter appetite suppressant (phenylpropanolamine). High body dysphoric women reported higher intentions to use the products as well as increased prior use of two of the three weight loss products. High body dysphoric women did not believe that these weight loss products were harmless. They recognized potential health risks associated with using such products, but nonetheless, expressed intention to use these weight loss products at a higher frequency. Also, several variables related to body image were found to effectively discriminate normal weight women at risk for abusing weight loss products. This study found that women who do not need to lose weight but have significant body image concerns were willing to use potentially harmful weight loss products despite the knowledge that such products might pose significant health risks. Techniques utilized by advertising regulatory agencies such as warning labels did not have a strong deterrent effect for stated intentions to use the products. Implications of these findings for public health policy issues were discussed.

  8. Weight Loss and Coronary Heart Disease: Sensitivity Analysis for Unmeasured Confounding by Undiagnosed Disease.

    PubMed

    Danaei, Goodarz; Robins, James M; Young, Jessica G; Hu, Frank B; Manson, JoAnn E; Hernán, Miguel A

    2016-03-01

    Evidence for the effect of weight loss on coronary heart disease (CHD) or mortality has been mixed. The effect estimates can be confounded due to undiagnosed diseases that may affect weight loss. We used data from the Nurses' Health Study to estimate the 26-year risk of CHD under several hypothetical weight loss strategies. We applied the parametric g-formula and implemented a novel sensitivity analysis for unmeasured confounding due to undiagnosed disease by imposing a lag time for the effect of weight loss on chronic disease. Several sensitivity analyses were conducted. The estimated 26-year risk of CHD did not change under weight loss strategies using lag times from 0 to 18 years. For a 6-year lag time, the risk ratios of CHD for weight loss compared with no weight loss ranged from 1.00 (0.99, 1.02) to 1.02 (0.99, 1.05) for different degrees of weight loss with and without restricting the weight loss strategy to participants with no major chronic disease. Similarly, no protective effect of weight loss was estimated for mortality risk. In contrast, we estimated a protective effect of weight loss on risk of type 2 diabetes. We estimated that maintaining or losing weight after becoming overweight or obese does not reduce the risk of CHD or death in this cohort of middle-age US women. Unmeasured confounding, measurement error, and model misspecification are possible explanations but these did not prevent us from estimating a beneficial effect of weight loss on diabetes.

  9. Cohort Study of the Success of Controlled Weight Loss Programs for Obese Dogs.

    PubMed

    German, A J; Titcomb, J M; Holden, S L; Queau, Y; Morris, P J; Biourge, V

    2015-01-01

    Most weight loss studies in obese dogs assess rate and percentage of weight loss in the first 2-3 months, rather than the likelihood of successfully reaching target weight. To determine outcome of controlled weight loss programs for obese dogs, and to determine the factors associated with successful completion. 143 obese dogs undergoing a controlled weight loss program. This was a cohort study of obese dogs attending a referral weight management clinic. Dogs were studied during their period of weight loss, and cases classified according to outcome as "completed" (reached target weight), "euthanized" (was euthanized before reaching target weight), or "stopped prematurely" (program stopped early for other reasons). Factors associated with successful completion were assessed using simple and multiple logistic regression. 87/143 dogs (61%) completed their weight loss program, 11 [8%] died or were euthanized, and the remaining 45 [32%] stopped prematurely. Reasons for dogs stopping prematurely included inability to contact owner, refusal to comply with weight management advice, or development of another illness. Successful weight loss was positively associated with a faster rate (P < .001), a longer duration (P < .001), and feeding a dried weight management diet (P = .010), but negatively associated with starting body fat (P < .001), and use of dirlotapide (P = .0046). Just over half of all obese dogs on a controlled weight loss program reach their target weight. Future studies should better clarify reasons for success in individual cases, and also the role of factors such as activity and behavioral modification. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  10. Effect of weight loss and ketosis on postprandial cholecystokinin and free fatty acid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Chearskul, Supornpim; Delbridge, Elizabeth; Shulkes, Arthur; Proietto, Joseph; Kriketos, Adamandia

    2008-05-01

    Weight regain after weight loss may not be due primarily to voluntary return to social habits but may be explained by changes in peripheral hormonal signals activating hunger and encouraging feeding behavior. The objective of this study was to investigate physiologic adaptations to weight loss that may encourage weight regain. The study had a within-subject repeated-measure design [12 healthy, obese men, 33-64 y, body mass index (in kg/m(2)) 30-46] and was a clinical intervention investigation of circulating metabolites and hunger-satiety responses before and after weight loss. Measures included anthropometry (bioelectrical impedance, body weight, and waist circumference), concentrations of circulating hormones and metabolites [ketone bodies, free fatty acids (FFAs), insulin, leptin, glucose, and cholecystokinin (CCK)], and measures of hunger and satiety at baseline, 8 wk after weight loss with a very-low-energy diet, and 1 wk after weight maintenance. Weight loss led to a reduction in postprandial CCK secretion (P = 0.016). However, when subjects were ketotic (elevated circulating beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations), CCK secretion was sustained at concentrations before weight loss. After weight loss, there were reduced postprandial FFA concentrations (P = 0.0005). The presence of ketosis sustained FFA to concentrations before weight loss (P = 0.60). Rapid weight loss of approximately 10% of initial body weight results in a reduction in postprandial CCK and FFA concentrations.

  11. SU-F-P-25: Dosimetric Changes of Brainstem Caused by Weight Loss During Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hu, W; Yu, C; Cai, Y

    Purpose: To explore dosimetric effects of brainstem (BS) caused by weight loss during the course of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: Seventy-seven patients who were diagnosed with NPC by pathology biopsy have been enrolled. Every patients should receive weight measurement weekly and three times of computed tomography (CT) scans and replanning, at the 15th and 25th fraction during the treatment, respectively. The vertical diameter at the level of odontoid process (d1) and cervical vertebra 3 (d2) be measured from CT images (Supporting document Figure 1). All IMRT plans were designed by inverse planning with commercial treatmentmore » planning systems (Corvus 6.2 version, NOMOS Corporation). The dose differences between plan and actual delivery were generated to compare. Results: The weight loss was more in week 4–5 (3.21±2.19kg) than in week 1–3 (1.79±1.83kg) (Supporting document Figure 2). The d1 and d2 decreased was more significantly in week 4–5 than week 1–3, 2.83±1.75mm vs. 0.55±0.75mm and 2.98±2.96mm vs. 1.23±2.09mm, respectively. The maximum dose to the brainstem (BS Dmax) and the percentage of brainstem volume receiving ≥50Gy (BS V50) increased more significantly in week 4–5 than week 1–3, −3.02±5.49Gy vs. −1.85 ±4.88Gy and −1.85±4.88% vs. −0.77±3.32%, respectively. The changes of d1 and d2 and the BS-V50 and BS-Dmax were closely related to weight loss (p≤0.001)(Supporting document Table 1). Conclusion: The study results indicate that weight loss leads to the vertical diameter reduction, which results has a close relationship with dose of the brainstem during IMRT of NPC. This study was supported by Zhejiang Provincial Medicine and Health Foundation (2013KYB290) and Research Foundation of Science and Technology Department of Zhejiang Province 2015C33257.« less

  12. Epigenetic Patterns in Successful Weight Loss Maintainers: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, Nicola L.; Wing, Rena R.; Kelsey, Karl T.; McCaffery, Jeanne M.

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation changes occur in animal models of calorie restriction, simulating human dieting, and in human subjects undergoing behavioral weight loss interventions. This suggests that obese individuals may possess unique epigenetic patterns that may vary with weight loss. Here, we examine whether methylation patterns in leukocytes differ in individuals who lost sufficient weight to go from obese to normal weight (successful weight loss maintainers; SWLM) vs currently obese (OB) or normal weight (NW) individuals. This study examined peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) methylation patterns in NW (n=16, current/lifetime BMI 18.5-24.9) and OB individuals (n=16, current BMI≥30), and SWLM (n=16, current BMI 18.5-24.9, lifetime maximum BMI ≥30, average weight loss 57.4 lbs) using an Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadArray. No leukocyte population-adjusted epigenome-wide analyses were significant; however, potentially differentially methylated loci across groups were observed in RYR1 (p=1.54E-6), MPZL3 (p=4.70E-6), and TUBA3C (p=4.78E-6). In 32 obesity-related candidate genes, differential methylation patterns were found in BDNF (gene-wide p=0.00018). In RYR1, TUBA3C and BDNF, SWLM differed from OB but not NW. In this preliminary investigation, leukocyte SWLM DNA methylation patterns more closely resembled NW than OB individuals in three gene regions. These results suggest that PBMC methylation is associated with weight status. PMID:25520250

  13. Long-term weight loss maintenance for obesity: a multidisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    Montesi, Luca; El Ghoch, Marwan; Brodosi, Lucia; Calugi, Simona; Marchesini, Giulio; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    The long-term weight management of obesity remains a very difficult task, associated with a high risk of failure and weight regain. However, many people report that they have successfully managed weight loss maintenance in the long term. Several factors have been associated with better weight loss maintenance in long-term observational and randomized studies. A few pertain to the behavioral area (eg, high levels of physical activity, eating a low-calorie, low-fat diet; frequent self-monitoring of weight), a few to the cognitive component (eg, reduced disinhibition, satisfaction with results achieved, confidence in being able to lose weight without professional help), and a few to personality traits (eg, low novelty seeking) and patient–therapist interaction. Trials based on the most recent protocols of lifestyle modification, with a prolonged extended treatment after the weight loss phase, have also shown promising long-term weight loss results. These data should stimulate the adoption of a lifestyle modification-based approach for the management of obesity, featuring a nonphysician lifestyle counselor (also called “lifestyle trainer” or “healthy lifestyle practitioner”) as a pivotal component of the multidisciplinary team. The obesity physicians maintain a primary role in engaging patients, in team coordination and supervision, in managing the complications associated with obesity and, in selected cases, in the decision for drug treatment or bariatric surgery, as possible more intensive, add-on interventions to lifestyle treatment. PMID:27013897

  14. Effect of the Health Tourism weight loss programme on body composition and health outcomes in healthy and excess-weight adults.

    PubMed

    Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Shizuma, Kayoko; Toguchi, Makiko; Mizuhara, Hiroji; Machida, Yukiko; Yamada, Yosuke; Ebine, Naoyuki; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2018-05-01

    Excess weight loss while minimising fat-free mass (FFM) loss is important for health. Travel is a particular period at risk for weight gain and for which the effects of a short-term intensive weight loss programme have not been studied. Therefore, we studied the effect of a novel, 1-week supervised health travel programme combining high volume, low-to-moderate intensity exercise and energy intake restriction on weight, body composition and health outcomes in adults. Weight was also monitored for 12 weeks after the programme. In all, thirty-six subjects (nineteen men, seventeen women) consisting of sixteen excess-weight (BMI: 27·1 (sd 1·7) kg/m2) and twenty healthy-weight (BMI: 22·3 (sd 1·8) kg/m2) individuals participated. Subjects performed 1 h of slow-paced intermittent jogging three times per d and other leisure activities, whereas consuming only provided foods without water restriction. Body mass significantly decreased from pre- to post-intervention in excess-weight and healthy-weight individuals (-3·5 (sd 1·5) and -3·5 (sd 1·3) %, respectively; P<0·001 for both), and losses were maintained at 12 weeks post-intervention in both groups (-6·3 (sd 3·8) and -1·7 (sd 4·0) %, respectively; P<0·01 for both). Fat mass also significantly decreased in both groups (excess weight: -9·2 (sd 4·6) %: healthy weight: -13·4 (sd 9·0) %; P<0·01 for both), whereas FFM was maintained. Similar improvements were observed for blood biochemistry and pressure in both groups. This short-term weight loss intervention yielded favourable outcomes in both excess- and healthy-weight adults, particularly a 3·5 % weight loss with no significant change to FFM. In addition, participants maintained weight loss for at least 12 weeks. Of multiple programme choices, the Health Tourism weight loss programme's results indicate that it is a viable option.

  15. Is two days of intermittent energy restriction per week a feasible weight loss approach in obese males? A randomised pilot study.

    PubMed

    Conley, Marguerite; Le Fevre, Lauren; Haywood, Cilla; Proietto, Joseph

    2018-02-01

    The 5:2 diet (two non-consecutive days of 2460 KJ (600 calories) and 5 days of ad libitum eating per week) is becoming increasingly popular. This pilot study aimed to determine whether the 5:2 diet can achieve ≥5% weight loss and greater improvements in weight and biochemical markers than a standard energy-restricted diet (SERD) in obese male war veterans. A total of 24 participants were randomised to consume either the 5:2 diet or a SERD (2050 KJ (500 calorie) reduction per day) for 6 months. Weight, waist circumference (WC), fasting blood glucose, blood lipids, blood pressure and dietary intake were measured at baseline, 3 and 6 months by a blinded investigator. After 6 months, participants in both groups significantly reduced body weight (P = <0.001), WC (P = <0.001) and systolic blood pressure (P = 0.001). Mean weight loss was 5.3 ± 3.0 kg (5.5 ± 3.2%) for the 5:2 group and 5.5 ± 4.3 kg (5.4 ± 4.2%) for the SERD group. Mean WC reduction for the 5:2 group was 8.0 ± 4.5 and 6.4 ± 5.8 cm for the SERD group. There was no significant difference in the amount of weight loss or WC reduction between diet groups. There was no significant change in diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose or blood lipids in either dietary group. Results suggest that the 5:2 diet is a successful but not superior weight loss approach in male war veterans when compared to a SERD. Future research is needed to determine the long-term effectiveness of the 5:2 diet and its effectiveness in other population groups. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  16. Increased Saliva Cotinine Concentrations in Smokers during Rapid Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaura, Raymond; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined association between saliva cotinine levels and weight loss in nine obese female smokers during participation in protein-sparing modified fast. A significant weight loss was noted at three and six months, yet cotinine level increased significantly during this time. Results suggest that smoking-related health risks may increase during…

  17. Tweeting it off: characteristics of adults who tweet about a weight loss attempt

    PubMed Central

    Pagoto, Sherry; Schneider, Kristin L; Evans, Martinus; Waring, Molly E; Appelhans, Brad; Busch, Andrew M; Whited, Matthew C; Thind, Herpreet; Ziedonis, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to describe adults who use Twitter during a weight loss attempt and to compare the positive and negative social influences they experience from their offline friends, online friends, and family members. Materials and methods Participants (N=100, 80% female, mean age=37.65, SD=8.42) were recruited from Twitter. They completed a brief survey about their experiences discussing their weight loss attempt with their online and offline friends and provided responses to open-ended questions on the benefits and drawbacks of discussing weight on Twitter, Facebook, and weight-specific social networks. Results Participants rated their connections on Twitter and weight loss-specific social networks to be significantly greater sources of positive social influence for their weight loss (F(3)=3.47; p<0.001) and significantly lesser sources of negative social influence (F(3)=40.39 and F(3)=33.68 (both p<0.001)) than their offline friends, family, and Facebook friends. Greater positive social influence from Twitter and Facebook friends was associated with greater weight loss in participants’ most recent weight loss attempt (r=0.30, r=0.32; p<0.01). The most commonly reported benefits of tweeting about weight loss include social support, information, and accountability. The most common drawbacks reported are that interactions were too brief and lacked personal connection. Discussion People who discuss their weight loss on Twitter report more social support and less negativity from their Twitter friends than their Facebook friends and in-person relationships. Conclusions Online social networks should be explored as a tool for connecting patients who lack weight loss social support from their in-person relationships. PMID:24928175

  18. Weight Loss Associated With Employee Income in an Incentivized Employee Wellness Program.

    PubMed

    Fink, Jennifer T; Rich, Jennifer; Smith, David R; Singh, Maharaj; Sutton, Kelly; Mueller, George; Ihrke, Doug M; Skalla, Jessica L; Cisler, Ron A

    2016-12-01

    We examined the relationship between the type of incentivized wellness program and employee weight loss and the effects of participant income. We retrospectively examined employees who participated in one of six weight loss wellness programs, which were categorized for the present analysis: reweigh/body mass index, Coaching, and Weight Watchers/Meal Replacement. Those who participated were eligible for a $350/year insurance premium discount. Employees in the low-income category of $45K or less participated at a higher rate, however, did not lose as much weight as those participants in the higher income categories of $70K or more. We found a positive association with weight loss in two of the categories, reweigh/body mass index, and Weight Watchers/Meal Replacement programs. Wellness programs have a significant impact on employee weight loss, but this relationship may vary across the income level of participants.

  19. What Matters in Weight Loss? An In-Depth Analysis of Self-Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Hill, James O; Kushner, Robert F; Lindquist, Richard; Brunning, Scott; Margulies, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Background Using technology to self-monitor body weight, dietary intake, and physical activity is a common practice used by consumers and health companies to increase awareness of current and desired behaviors in weight loss. Understanding how to best use the information gathered by these relatively new methods needs to be further explored. Objective The purpose of this study was to analyze the contribution of self-monitoring to weight loss in participants in a 6-month commercial weight-loss intervention administered by Retrofit and to specifically identify the significant contributors to weight loss that are associated with behavior and outcomes. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed using 2113 participants enrolled from 2011 to 2015 in a Retrofit weight-loss program. Participants were males and females aged 18 years or older with a starting body mass index of ≥25 kg/m2, who also provided a weight measurement at the sixth month of the program. Multiple regression analysis was performed using all measures of self-monitoring behaviors involving weight measurements, dietary intake, and physical activity to predict weight loss at 6 months. Each significant predictor was analyzed in depth to reveal the impact on outcome. Results Participants in the Retrofit Program lost a mean –5.58% (SE 0.12) of their baseline weight with 51.87% (1096/2113) of participants losing at least 5% of their baseline weight. Multiple regression model (R2=.197, P<0.001) identified the following measures as significant predictors of weight loss at 6 months: number of weigh-ins per week (P<.001), number of steps per day (P=.02), highly active minutes per week (P<.001), number of food log days per week (P<.001), and the percentage of weeks with five or more food logs (P<.001). Weighing in at least three times per week, having a minimum of 60 highly active minutes per week, food logging at least three days per week, and having 64% (16.6/26) or more weeks with at least five food logs

  20. What Matters in Weight Loss? An In-Depth Analysis of Self-Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Painter, Stefanie Lynn; Ahmed, Rezwan; Hill, James O; Kushner, Robert F; Lindquist, Richard; Brunning, Scott; Margulies, Amy

    2017-05-12

    Using technology to self-monitor body weight, dietary intake, and physical activity is a common practice used by consumers and health companies to increase awareness of current and desired behaviors in weight loss. Understanding how to best use the information gathered by these relatively new methods needs to be further explored. The purpose of this study was to analyze the contribution of self-monitoring to weight loss in participants in a 6-month commercial weight-loss intervention administered by Retrofit and to specifically identify the significant contributors to weight loss that are associated with behavior and outcomes. A retrospective analysis was performed using 2113 participants enrolled from 2011 to 2015 in a Retrofit weight-loss program. Participants were males and females aged 18 years or older with a starting body mass index of ≥25 kg/m2, who also provided a weight measurement at the sixth month of the program. Multiple regression analysis was performed using all measures of self-monitoring behaviors involving weight measurements, dietary intake, and physical activity to predict weight loss at 6 months. Each significant predictor was analyzed in depth to reveal the impact on outcome. Participants in the Retrofit Program lost a mean -5.58% (SE 0.12) of their baseline weight with 51.87% (1096/2113) of participants losing at least 5% of their baseline weight. Multiple regression model (R 2 =.197, P<0.001) identified the following measures as significant predictors of weight loss at 6 months: number of weigh-ins per week (P<.001), number of steps per day (P=.02), highly active minutes per week (P<.001), number of food log days per week (P<.001), and the percentage of weeks with five or more food logs (P<.001). Weighing in at least three times per week, having a minimum of 60 highly active minutes per week, food logging at least three days per week, and having 64% (16.6/26) or more weeks with at least five food logs were associated with clinically

  1. Systematic Review of the Mediterranean Diet for Long-Term Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Joseph G; Filion, Kristian B; Atallah, Renée; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2016-04-01

    Although the long-term health benefits of the Mediterranean diet are well established, its efficacy for weight loss at ≥12 months in overweight or obese individuals is unclear. We therefore conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the effect of the Mediterranean diet on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factor levels after ≥12 months. We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library of Clinical Trials for RCTs published in English or French and with follow-up ≥12 months that examined the effect of the Mediterranean diet on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factor levels in overweight or obese individuals trying to lose weight. Five RCTs (n = 998) met our inclusion criteria. Trials compared the Mediterranean diet to a low-fat diet (4 treatment arms), a low-carbohydrate diet (2 treatment arms), and the American Diabetes Association diet (1 treatment arm). The Mediterranean diet resulted in greater weight loss than the low-fat diet at ≥12 months (range of mean values: -4.1 to -10.1 kg vs 2.9 to -5.0 kg), but produced similar weight loss as other comparator diets (range of mean values: -4.1 to -10.1 kg vs -4.7 to -7.7 kg). Moreover, the Mediterranean diet was generally similar to comparator diets at improving other cardiovascular risk factor levels, including blood pressure and lipid levels. Our findings suggest that the Mediterranean diet results in similar weight loss and cardiovascular risk factor level reduction as comparator diets in overweight or obese individuals trying to lose weight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Herbal and nutrient complementary medicines for weight loss: community pharmacists' practices, attitudes, recommendations, information and education needs.

    PubMed

    Taing, Meng-Wong; Tan, Eunice Tze Xin; Williams, Gail M; Clavarino, Alexandra M; McGuire, Treasure M

    2016-05-01

    To investigate pharmacists' herbal/nutrient weight loss complementary medicine (WLCM) practices in the context of other pharmacist weight management support practices (provision of lifestyle advice, orlistat and meal replacement treatments); and gain insight into their attitudes, recommendations, information and education needs. Pharmacists from a randomly selected sample of 214 community pharmacies from different socioeconomic areas in the Greater Brisbane region, Australia, were invited to complete a survey to explore their weight management practices, with a specific focus on herbal/nutrient WLCM practices. Data collected from the sample group represented pharmacist practices within the metropolitan Greater Brisbane region. This survey achieved a 51% response rate. During weight management consultations, a high proportion of customers (37%) sought advice from community pharmacists relating to WLCMs relative to other weight management practices; however, only a small proportion (10%) of pharmacists recommended them. Most were also found to be using resources that may not be evidence-based or do not provide sufficient WLCMs' information. Study results highlight the need for pharmacy professional bodies to develop evidence-based continuing education programmes to assist consumers with popular and widely available WLCMs products. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  3. Impact of sleep, screen time, depression and stress on weight change in the intensive weight loss phase of the LIFE study.

    PubMed

    Elder, C R; Gullion, C M; Funk, K L; Debar, L L; Lindberg, N M; Stevens, V J

    2012-01-01

    The LIFE study is a two-phase randomized clinical trial comparing two approaches to maintaining weight loss following guided weight loss. Phase I provided a nonrandomized intensive 6-month behavioral weight loss intervention to 472 obese (body mass index 30-50) adult participants. Phase II is the randomized weight loss maintenance portion of the study. This paper focuses on Phase I measures of sleep, screen time, depression and stress. The Phase I intervention consisted of 22 group sessions led over 26 weeks by behavioral counselors. Recommendations included reducing dietary intake by 500 calories per day, adopting the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern and increasing physical exercise to at least 180 min per week. Measures reported here are sleep time, insomnia, screen time, depression and stress at entry and post-weight loss intervention follow-up. The mean weight loss for all participants over the intensive Phase I weight loss intervention was 6.3 kg (s.d. 7.1). Sixty percent (N=285) of participants lost at least 4.5 kg (10 lbs) and were randomized into Phase II. Participants (N=472) attended a mean of 73.1% (s.d. 26.7) of sessions, completed 5.1 (s.d. 1.9) daily food records/week, and reported 195.1 min (s.d. 123.1) of exercise per week. Using logistic regression, sleep time (quadratic trend, P=0.030) and lower stress (P=0.024) at entry predicted success in the weight loss program, and lower stress predicted greater weight loss during Phase I (P=0.021). In addition, weight loss was significantly correlated with declines in stress (P=0.048) and depression (P=0.035). Results suggest that clinicians and investigators might consider targeting sleep, depression and stress as part of a behavioral weight loss intervention.

  4. Weight Loss and Diet in Wrestling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Richard

    1980-01-01

    Most weight loss among wrestlers is accomplished by a combination of fasting, induced sweating, and reduced fluid intake resulting in dehydration in the final days prior to competition. The effects of acute thermal dehydration on cardiovascular dynamics are related to a reduction in plasma volume. (JN)

  5. Calorie Estimation in Adults Differing in Body Weight Class and Weight Loss Status.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ruth E; Canning, Karissa L; Fung, Michael; Jiandani, Dishay; Riddell, Michael C; Macpherson, Alison K; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2016-03-01

    Ability to accurately estimate calories is important for weight management, yet few studies have investigated whether individuals can accurately estimate calories during exercise or in a meal. The objective of this study was to determine if accuracy of estimation of moderate or vigorous exercise energy expenditure and calories in food is associated with body weight class or weight loss status. Fifty-eight adults who were either normal weight (NW) or overweight (OW), and either attempting (WL) or not attempting weight loss (noWL), exercised on a treadmill at a moderate (60% HRmax) and a vigorous intensity (75% HRmax) for 25 min. Subsequently, participants estimated the number of calories they expended through exercise and created a meal that they believed to be calorically equivalent to the exercise energy expenditure. The mean difference between estimated and measured calories in exercise and food did not differ within or between groups after moderate exercise. After vigorous exercise, OW-noWL overestimated energy expenditure by 72% and overestimated the calories in their food by 37% (P < 0.05). OW-noWL also significantly overestimated exercise energy expenditure compared with all other groups (P < 0.05) and significantly overestimated calories in food compared with both WL groups (P < 0.05). However, among all groups, there was a considerable range of overestimation and underestimation (-280 to +702 kcal), as reflected by the large and statistically significant absolute error in calorie estimation of exercise and food. There was a wide range of underestimation and overestimation of calories during exercise and in a meal. Error in calorie estimation may be greater in overweight adults who are not attempting weight loss.

  6. Calorie Estimation in Adults Differing in Body Weight Class and Weight Loss Status

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ruth E; Canning, Karissa L; Fung, Michael; Jiandani, Dishay; Riddell, Michael C; Macpherson, Alison K; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Ability to accurately estimate calories is important for weight management, yet few studies have investigated whether individuals can accurately estimate calories during exercise, or in a meal. The objective of this study was to determine if accuracy of estimation of moderate or vigorous exercise energy expenditure and calories in food is associated with body weight class or weight loss status. Methods Fifty-eight adults who were either normal weight (NW) or overweight (OW), and either attempting (WL) or not attempting weight loss (noWL), exercised on a treadmill at a moderate (60% HRmax) and a vigorous intensity (75% HRmax) for 25 minutes. Subsequently, participants estimated the number of calories they expended through exercise, and created a meal that they believed to be calorically equivalent to the exercise energy expenditure. Results The mean difference between estimated and measured calories in exercise and food did not differ within or between groups following moderate exercise. Following vigorous exercise, OW-noWL overestimated energy expenditure by 72%, and overestimated the calories in their food by 37% (P<0.05). OW-noWL also significantly overestimated exercise energy expenditure compared to all other groups (P<0.05), and significantly overestimated calories in food compared to both WL groups (P<0.05). However, among all groups there was a considerable range of over and underestimation (−280 kcal to +702 kcal), as reflected by the large and statistically significant absolute error in calorie estimation of exercise and food. Conclusion There was a wide range of under and overestimation of calories during exercise and in a meal. Error in calorie estimation may be greater in overweight adults who are not attempting weight loss. PMID:26469988

  7. Resting energy expenditure changes with weight loss: racial differences.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuewen; You, Tongjian; Lenchik, Leon; Nicklas, Barbara J

    2010-01-01

    It is controversial whether weight loss reduces resting energy expenditure (REE) to a different magnitude in black and white women. This aim of this study was to determine whether changes in REE with weight loss were different between black and white postmenopausal women, and whether changes in body composition (including regional lean and fat mass) were associated with REE changes within each race. Black (n = 26) and white (n = 65) women (age = 58.2 +/- 5.4 years, 25 < BMI < 40 kg/m(2)) completed a 20-week weight-loss intervention. Body weight, lean and fat mass (total body, limb, and trunk) via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and REE via indirect calorimetry were measured before and after the intervention. We found that baseline REE positively correlated with body weight, lean and fat mass (total, limb, and trunk) in white women only (P < 0.05 for all). The intervention decreased absolute REE in both races similarly (1,279 +/- 162 to 1,204 +/- 169 kcal/day in blacks; 1,315 +/- 200 to 1,209 +/- 185 kcal/day in whites). REE remained decreased after adjusting for changes in total or limb lean mass in black (1,302-1,182 kcal/day, P = 0.043; 1,298-1,144 kcal/day, P = 0.006, respectively), but not in white, women. Changes in REE correlated with changes in body weight (partial r = 0.277) and fat mass (partial r = 0.295, 0.275, and 0.254 for total, limb, and trunk, respectively; P < 0.05) independent of baseline REE in white women. Therefore, with weight loss, REE decreased in proportion to the amount of fat and lean mass lost in white, but not black, women.

  8. A randomized controlled trial of the effect of intrapartum intravenous fluid management on breastfed newborn weight loss.

    PubMed

    Watson, Jo; Hodnett, Ellen; Armson, B Anthony; Davies, Barbara; Watt-Watson, Judy

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effect of conservative versus usual intrapartum intravenous (IV) fluid management for low-risk women receiving epidural analgesia on weight loss in breastfed newborns. A randomized controlled trial. A tertiary perinatal center in a large urban setting. Women experiencing uncomplicated pregnancies who planned to have epidural analgesia and to breastfeed. Healthy pregnant women were randomized to receive an IV epidural preload volume of <500 mLs continuing at an hourly rate of 75-100 mL/h (conservative care) or an epidural preload volume of ≥500 mLs and an hourly rate >125 mL/h (usual care). The primary study outcome was breastfed newborn weight loss >7% prior to hospital discharge. Secondary study outcomes included breastfeeding exclusivity, referral to outpatient breastfeeding clinic support, and delayed discharge. Other outcomes were admission to the neonatal intensive care unit and cord blood pH <7.25. Two hundred women participated (100 in the conservative care and 100 in the usual care groups). Forty-eight of 100 infants in the usual care group and 44 of the 100 infants in the conservative care group lost >7% of their birth weight prior to discharge, p < 0.52 RR 0.92 [0.68-1.24]. A policy of restricted IV fluids did not affect newborn weight loss. Women and their care providers should be reassured that the volumes of IV fluid <2500 mLs are unlikely to have a clinically meaningful effect on breastfed newborn weight loss >7%. Exploratory analyses suggest that breastfed newborn weight loss increases when intrapartum volumes infused are >2500 mLs. Care providers are encouraged to consider volumes of IV fluid infused intrapartum as a factor that may have contributed to early newborn weight loss in the first 48 h of life. © 2012 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  9. Investigating the effects of negative-calorie diet compared with low-calorie diet under exercise conditions on weight loss and lipid profile in overweight/obese middle-aged and older men.

    PubMed

    Rezaeipour, Mohammadreza; Apanasenko, Gennady Leonidovich; Nychyporuk, Vladimir Ivanovich

    2014-01-01

    Negative-calorie diets (NCDs) are among the popular dieting guides for weight loss; however, there is still little knowledge about this method. The present study aimed to determine the effects of a NCD supplemented with exercise on weight loss and lipid profile, and to compare its efficiency with low-calorie diets (LCDs) with exercise among elderly adult men with abnormal weight gain. Participants included sedentary men (aged 45-75 years) who were overweight or obese (n = 37). They were randomly divided into 2 groups: a group with a NCD and exercise, and a group with a LCD with exercise. Of all 37 participants, 30 completed the treatment. Weight assessment parameters, including changes in weight and body composition and blood sample tests, were performed before and 3 months after intervention. All parameters decreased significantly in both groups. Elevation in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels (P < 0.001) was different between the 2 groups. The decline in the total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio was greater in the LCD than the NCD group. Contrary to expectations, both weight-loss diets were equally efficacious.

  10. Commercial programs' online weight loss claims as compared to results from randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Vakil, Rachit M.; Chaudhry, Zoobia W.; Doshi, Ruchi S.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Gudzune, Kimberly A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To characterize weight-loss claims and disclaimers present on websites for commercial weight-loss programs and compare them to results from published randomized controlled trials (RCT). Methods We performed a content analysis of all homepages and testimonials available on the websites of 24 randomly selected programs. Two team members independently reviewed each page and abstracted information from text and images to capture relevant content including demographics, weight loss, and disclaimers. We performed a systematic review to evaluate the efficacy of these programs by searching MEDLINE and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and abstracted mean weight change from each included RCT. Results Overall, the amount of weight loss portrayed in the testimonials was extreme across all programs examined (range median weight loss 10.7 to 49.5 kg). Only 10 out of the 24 programs had eligible RCTs. Median weight losses reported in testimonials exceeded that achieved by trial participants. Most programs with RCTs (78%) provided disclaimers stating that the testimonial's results were non-typical and/or giving a range of typical weight loss. Conclusion Weight loss claims within testimonials were higher than results from RCTs. Future studies should examine whether commercial programs' advertising practices influence patients' expectations or satisfaction with modest weight loss results. PMID:28865085

  11. Endogenous Opioid Mechanisms Are Implicated in Obesity and Weight Loss in Humans.

    PubMed

    Burghardt, Paul R; Rothberg, Amy E; Dykhuis, Kate E; Burant, Charles F; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2015-08-01

    Successful long-term weight loss is challenging. Brain endogenous opioid systems regulate associated processes; however, their role in the maintenance of weight loss has not been adequately explored in humans. In a preliminary study, the objective was to assess central μ-opioid receptor (MOR) system involvement in eating behaviors and their relationship to long-term maintenance of weight loss. This was a case-control study with follow-up of the treatment group at 1 year after intervention. The study was conducted at a tertiary care university medical center. Lean healthy (n = 7) and chronically obese (n = 7) men matched for age and ethnicity participated in the study. MOR availability measures were acquired with positron emission tomography and [(11)C]carfentanil. Lean healthy men were scanned twice under both fasted and fed conditions. Obese men were placed on a very low-calorie diet to achieve 15% weight loss from baseline weight and underwent two positron emission tomography scans before and two after weight loss, incorporating both fasted and fed states. Brain MOR availability and activation were measured by reductions in MOR availability (nondisplaceable binding potential) from the fed compared with the fasted-state scans. Baseline MOR nondisplaceable binding potential was reduced in obese compared with the lean and partially recovered obese after weight loss in regions that regulate homeostatic, hedonic, and emotional responses to feeding. Reductions in negative affect and feeding-induced MOR system activation in the right temporal pole were highly correlated in leans but not in obese men. A trend for an association between MOR activation in the right temporal pole before weight loss and weight regain 1 year was found. Although these preliminary studies have a small sample size, these results suggest that obesity and diet-induced weight loss impact central MOR binding and endogenous opioid system function. MOR system activation in response to an acute meal

  12. Weight-Independent Percentile Chart of 2880 Gastric Bypass Patients: a New Look at Bariatric Weight Loss Results.

    PubMed

    van de Laar, Arnold W; de Brauw, Maurits; Bruin, Sjoerd C; Acherman, Yair I

    2016-12-01

    Percentile charts would be ideal for assessing sufficient weight loss in bariatric surgery. They allow comparing individual results to the outcome of many others, at any postoperative time. Unfortunately, percentile charts can be problematic when comparing unequally heavy peers, a circumstance not uncommon among bariatric patients. We investigate the relevance of this disadvantage and combine new insights to improve the practical use of percentile charts in bariatric surgery. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass outcome expressed with body mass index (BMI), excess weight loss (%EWL), total weight loss (%TWL), and alterable weight loss (%AWL), a new metric rendering outcome independent of baseline BMI, is used to build percentile curves p97/p90/p75/p50/p25/p10/p03 with the lambda-mu-sigma method. We used the %AWL p25 curve as baseline BMI-independent reference for sufficient weight loss and compared it to p25 curves based on common metrics and to traditional criteria ≥50 % EWL, <25 % EWL, and BMI < 35 kg/m 2 . We operated 2880 patients, with baseline BMI of 43.4 kg/m 2 , follow-up 71 %, and mean of 23.3 (0-87.6) months. Independent %AWL outcome is presented in one percentile chart. Percentile curves p25/p50/p75 show 40/48/57 % AWL at nadir 15/16/19 months, 35/45/54 % AWL at 3 years, and 30/38/47 % AWL at 7 years. Traditional criteria and p25 curves based on %EWL and BMI match with most sufficient results (high sensitivities), but overlook many insufficient results (low specificities). We present the first baseline BMI-independent bariatric weight loss percentile chart. It allows comparing heavier patients to lighter peers and vice versa, at any postoperative time, up to 7 years. With these advantages, we compared it to traditional bariatric criteria like ≥50 % EWL and found that they are weak in recognizing insufficient weight loss. The visual aspect of consecutive results plotted on a chart among the percentile curves of peers conveys a

  13. Challenges of a community based pragmatic, randomised controlled trial of weight loss maintenance.

    PubMed

    Randell, Elizabeth; McNamara, Rachel; Shaw, Christine; Espinasse, Aude; Simpson, Sharon Anne

    2015-12-18

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have a reputation for being inherently difficult to deliver as planned and often face unforeseen challenges and delays, particularly in relation to organisational and governance difficulties, participant interest, constraints due to allocation of costs, local investigator interest and lengthy bureaucracy. Recruitment is often difficult and the challenges faced often impact on the cost and delivery of a successful trial within the funded period. This paper reflects upon the challenges faced in delivering a pragmatic RCT of weight loss maintenance in a community setting and suggests some potential solutions. The weight loss maintenance in adults trial aimed to evaluate the impact of a 12 month, individually tailored weight maintenance intervention on BMI 3 years from randomisation. Participants were recruited primarily from participant identification centres (PICs)-GP surgeries, exercise on referral schemes and slimming world. The intervention was delivered in community settings. A recruitment strategy implementation plan was drafted to address and monitor poor recruitment. Delays in opening and recruitment were experienced early on. Some were beyond the control of the study team such as; disagreement over allocation of national health service costs and PIC classification as well as difficulties in securing support from research networks. That the intervention was delivered in community settings was often at the root of these issues. Key items to address at the design stage of future trials include feasibility of eligibility criteria. The most effective element of the recruitment implementation plan was to refocus sources of recruitment and target only those who could fulfil the eligibility criteria immediately. Learnings from this trial should be kept in mind by those designing similar studies in the future. Considering potential governance, cost and research network support implications at the design stage of pragmatic trials of

  14. Personality, attrition and weight loss in treatment seeking women with obesity.

    PubMed

    Dalle Grave, R; Calugi, S; Compare, A; El Ghoch, M; Petroni, M L; Colombari, S; Minniti, A; Marchesini, G

    2015-10-01

    Studies on small samples or in single units applying specific treatment programmes found an association between some personality traits and attrition and weight loss in individuals treated for obesity. We aimed to investigate whether pre-treatment personality traits were associated with weight loss outcomes in the general population of women with obesity. Attrition and weight loss outcomes after 12 months were measured in 634 women with obesity (mean age, 48; body mass index (BMI), 37.8 kg m(-2)) seeking treatment at eight Italian medical centres, applying different medical/cognitive behavioural programmes. Personality traits were assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), eating disorder features with the Binge Eating Scale (BES) and Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ). Within the 12-month observation period, 32.3% of cases were lost to follow-up. After adjustment for demographic confounders and the severity of eating disorders, no TCI personality traits were significantly associated with attrition, while low scores of the novelty seeking temperament scale remained significantly associated with weight loss ≥ 10% (odds ratio, 0.983; 95% confidence interval, 0.975-0.992). Additional adjustment for education and job did not change the results. We conclude that personality does not systematically influence attrition in women with obesity enrolled into weight loss programmes in the community, whereas an association is maintained between novelty seeking and weight loss outcome. Studies adapting obesity interventions on the basis of individual novelty seeking scores might be warranted to maximize the results on body weight. © 2015 World Obesity.

  15. Body mass index and weight loss in overweight and obese korean women: the mediating role of body weight perception.

    PubMed

    Boo, Sunjoo

    2013-12-01

    This study were to assess the relationships among BMI, body weight perception, and efforts to lose weight in a public sample of Korean women who are overweight and obese and to examine the mediating role of body weight perception on the relationship between BMI and weight loss efforts. This cross-sectional study used data from the 2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The sample was 1,739 Korean women 20 years old or older with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 23 kg/m(2). Bivariate relationships among variables of interests were assessed. Three separate regressions were used to test the mediating role of body weight perception on the relationship between BMI and weight loss efforts. BMI and body weight perception were significant correlates of weight loss efforts. BMI was significantly associated with weight perception, but a large proportion of women underestimated their weight. Weight perception partially mediated the relationship between BMI and weight loss efforts in Korean women. In light of the high prevalence of overweight or obesity and the many health consequences associated with obesity, Korean women should be aware of a healthy body weight and try to achieve that weight. Nursing interventions should consider body weight perception to effectively motivate overweight and obese Korean women to lose weight, as necessary. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Determinants of Weight Loss prior to Diagnosis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Retrospective Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Elsherif, Yasser; Alexakis, Christopher; Mendall, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Aims. To identify prevalence, severity, and environmental determinants of weight loss in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients just prior to time of formal diagnosis. Methodology. IBD patients attending outpatient clinic were questioned about weight loss prior to diagnosis and other environmental and demographic variables. The percentage BMI loss was calculated for each subject and factors associated with weight loss were determined. Results. Four hundred and ninety-four subjects were recruited (237 cases of Crohn's disease (CD) and 257 cases of ulcerative colitis (UC)). Overall, 57% of subjects with CD and 51% of subjects with UC experienced significant weight loss prior to diagnosis (>5% BMI loss). Younger age at diagnosis and history of previous IBD surgery were significantly associated with both lower BMI at diagnosis and increased weight loss prior to diagnosis. In CD patients, increasing age at diagnosis was inversely associated with weight loss prior to diagnosis. Ileal disease was a risk factor of weight loss, whereas prior appendectomy was associated with reduced risk of weight loss. Conclusions. Weight loss is a significant problem for many IBD patients at presentation, especially in younger age and CD with ileal involvement. Appendectomy is associated with diminished weight loss.

  17. Effect of weight loss in obese dogs on indicators of renal function or disease.

    PubMed

    Tvarijonaviciute, A; Ceron, J J; Holden, S L; Biourge, V; Morris, P J; German, A J

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a common medical disorder in dogs, and can predispose to a number of diseases. Human obesity is a risk factor for the development and progression of chronic kidney disease. To investigate the possible association of weight loss on plasma and renal biomarkers of kidney health. Thirty-seven obese dogs that lost weight were included in the study. Prospective observational study. Three novel biomarkers of renal functional impairment, disease, or both (homocysteine, cystatin C, and clusterin), in addition to traditional markers of chronic renal failure (serum urea and creatinine, urine specific gravity [USG], urine protein-creatinine ratio [UPCR], and urine albumin corrected by creatinine [UAC]) before and after weight loss in dogs with naturally occurring obesity were investigated. Urea (P = .043) and USG (P = .012) were both greater after weight loss than before loss, whilst UPCR, UAC, and creatinine were less after weight loss (P = .032, P = .006, and P = .026, respectively). Homocysteine (P < .001), cystatin C (P < .001) and clusterin (P < .001) all decreased upon weight loss. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed associations between percentage weight loss (greater weight loss, more lean tissue loss; r = -0.67, r(2) = 0.45, P < .001) and before-loss plasma clusterin concentration (greater clusterin, more lean tissue loss; r = 0.48, r(2) = 0.23, P = .003). These results suggest possible subclinical alterations in renal function in canine obesity, which improve with weight loss. Further work is required to determine the nature of these alterations and, most notably, the reason for the association between before loss plasma clusterin and subsequent lean tissue loss during weight management. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. Effect of Alternate-Day Fasting on Weight Loss, Weight Maintenance, and Cardioprotection Among Metabolically Healthy Obese Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Trepanowski, John F; Kroeger, Cynthia M; Barnosky, Adrienne; Klempel, Monica C; Bhutani, Surabhi; Hoddy, Kristin K; Gabel, Kelsey; Freels, Sally; Rigdon, Joseph; Rood, Jennifer; Ravussin, Eric; Varady, Krista A

    2017-07-01

    Alternate-day fasting has become increasingly popular, yet, to date, no long-term randomized clinical trials have evaluated its efficacy. To compare the effects of alternate-day fasting vs daily calorie restriction on weight loss, weight maintenance, and risk indicators for cardiovascular disease. A single-center randomized clinical trial of obese adults (18 to 64 years of age; mean body mass index, 34) was conducted between October 1, 2011, and January 15, 2015, at an academic institution in Chicago, Illinois. Participants were randomized to 1 of 3 groups for 1 year: alternate-day fasting (25% of energy needs on fast days; 125% of energy needs on alternating "feast days"), calorie restriction (75% of energy needs every day), or a no-intervention control. The trial involved a 6-month weight-loss phase followed by a 6-month weight-maintenance phase. The primary outcome was change in body weight. Secondary outcomes were adherence to the dietary intervention and risk indicators for cardiovascular disease. Among the 100 participants (86 women and 14 men; mean [SD] age, 44 [11] years), the dropout rate was highest in the alternate-day fasting group (13 of 34 [38%]), vs the daily calorie restriction group (10 of 35 [29%]) and control group (8 of 31 [26%]). Mean weight loss was similar for participants in the alternate-day fasting group and those in the daily calorie restriction group at month 6 (-6.8% [95% CI, -9.1% to -4.5%] vs -6.8% [95% CI, -9.1% to -4.6%]) and month 12 (-6.0% [95% CI, -8.5% to -3.6%] vs -5.3% [95% CI, -7.6% to -3.0%]) relative to those in the control group. Participants in the alternate-day fasting group ate more than prescribed on fast days, and less than prescribed on feast days, while those in the daily calorie restriction group generally met their prescribed energy goals. There were no significant differences between the intervention groups in blood pressure, heart rate, triglycerides, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, insulin resistance, C

  19. Malignancy, weight loss, and the small intestinal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Barry, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    The mucosal architecture and mucosal dynamics of the small bowel have been studied in patients with malignant disease not of the gastrointestinal tract but associated with severe weight loss. Mucosal changes in malignant disease are demonstrated by stereomicroscopy, mucosal architectural measurement, and decreased lactose utilization. Measurement of the epithelial DNA loss rate indicates, in association with mucosal measurement, that the architectural changes are caused by a hypoplasia of the epithelium. Similar findings are demonstrated in patients with profound weight loss due to other non-malignant wasting diseases. Although mucosal changes undoubtedly occur in malignant disease, the changes are not specific for malignancy and the concept of `cancer enteropathy' is not tenable. It is suggested that mucosal changes are the effect of and not the cause of cachexia. ImagesFig 1 PMID:4430474

  20. A patient-centered electronic tool for weight loss outcomes after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Wood, G Craig; Benotti, Peter; Gerhard, Glenn S; Miller, Elaina K; Zhang, Yushan; Zaccone, Richard J; Argyropoulos, George A; Petrick, Anthony T; Still, Christopher D

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Current patient education and informed consent regarding weight loss expectations for bariatric surgery candidates are largely based on averages from large patient cohorts. The variation in weight loss outcomes illustrates the need for establishing more realistic weight loss goals for individual patients. This study was designed to develop a simple web-based tool which provides patient-specific weight loss expectations. METHODS. Postoperative weight measurements after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) were collected and analyzed with patient characteristics known to influence weight loss outcomes. Quantile regression was used to create expected weight loss curves (25th, 50th, and 75th %tile) for the 24 months after RYGB. The resulting equations were validated and used to develop web-based tool for predicting weight loss outcomes. RESULTS. Weight loss data from 2986 patients (2608 in the primary cohort and 378 in the validation cohort) were included. Preoperative body mass index (BMI) and age were found to have a high correlation with weight loss accomplishment (P < 0.0001 for each). An electronic tool was created that provides easy access to patient-specific, 24-month weight loss trajectories based on initial BMI and age. CONCLUSIONS. This validated, patient-centered electronic tool will assist patients and providers in patient teaching, informed consent, and postoperative weight loss management.

  1. A Behavioral Weight-Loss Intervention in Persons with Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Daumit, Gail L.; Dickerson, Faith B.; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Dalcin, Arlene; Jerome, Gerald J.; Anderson, Cheryl A.M.; Young, Deborah R.; Frick, Kevin D.; Yu, Airong; Gennusa, Joseph V.; Oefinger, Meghan; Crum, Rosa M.; Charleston, Jeanne; Casagrande, Sarah S.; Guallar, Eliseo; Goldberg, Richard W.; Campbell, Leslie M.; Appel, Lawrence J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Overweight and obesity are epidemic among persons with serious mental illness, yet weight-loss trials systematically exclude this vulnerable population. Lifestyle interventions require adaptation in this group because psychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment are highly prevalent. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of an 18-month tailored behavioral weight-loss intervention in adults with serious mental illness. METHODS We recruited overweight or obese adults from 10 community psychiatric rehabilitation outpatient programs and randomly assigned them to an intervention or a control group. Participants in the intervention group received tailored group and individual weight-management sessions and group exercise sessions. Weight change was assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months. RESULTS Of 291 participants who underwent randomization, 58.1% had schizophrenia or a schizoaffective disorder, 22.0% had bipolar disorder, and 12.0% had major depression. At baseline, the mean body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) was 36.3, and the mean weight was 102.7 kg (225.9 lb). Data on weight at 18 months were obtained from 279 participants. Weight loss in the intervention group increased progressively over the 18-month study period and differed significantly from the control group at each follow-up visit. At 18 months, the mean between-group difference in weight (change in intervention group minus change in control group) was −3.2 kg (−7.0 lb, P = 0.002); 37.8% of the participants in the intervention group lost 5% or more of their initial weight, as compared with 22.7% of those in the control group (P = 0.009). There were no significant between-group differences in adverse events. CONCLUSIONS A behavioral weight-loss intervention significantly reduced weight over a period of 18 months in overweight and obese adults with serious mental illness. Given the epidemic of obesity and weight-related disease among

  2. A behavioral weight-loss intervention in persons with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Daumit, Gail L; Dickerson, Faith B; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Dalcin, Arlene; Jerome, Gerald J; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Young, Deborah R; Frick, Kevin D; Yu, Airong; Gennusa, Joseph V; Oefinger, Meghan; Crum, Rosa M; Charleston, Jeanne; Casagrande, Sarah S; Guallar, Eliseo; Goldberg, Richard W; Campbell, Leslie M; Appel, Lawrence J

    2013-04-25

    Overweight and obesity are epidemic among persons with serious mental illness, yet weight-loss trials systematically exclude this vulnerable population. Lifestyle interventions require adaptation in this group because psychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment are highly prevalent. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of an 18-month tailored behavioral weight-loss intervention in adults with serious mental illness. We recruited overweight or obese adults from 10 community psychiatric rehabilitation outpatient programs and randomly assigned them to an intervention or a control group. Participants in the intervention group received tailored group and individual weight-management sessions and group exercise sessions. Weight change was assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months. Of 291 participants who underwent randomization, 58.1% had schizophrenia or a schizoaffective disorder, 22.0% had bipolar disorder, and 12.0% had major depression. At baseline, the mean body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) was 36.3, and the mean weight was 102.7 kg (225.9 lb). Data on weight at 18 months were obtained from 279 participants. Weight loss in the intervention group increased progressively over the 18-month study period and differed significantly from the control group at each follow-up visit. At 18 months, the mean between-group difference in weight (change in intervention group minus change in control group) was -3.2 kg (-7.0 lb, P=0.002); 37.8% of the participants in the intervention group lost 5% or more of their initial weight, as compared with 22.7% of those in the control group (P=0.009). There were no significant between-group differences in adverse events. A behavioral weight-loss intervention significantly reduced weight over a period of 18 months in overweight and obese adults with serious mental illness. Given the epidemic of obesity and weight-related disease among persons with serious mental illness, our findings

  3. Weight loss and related behavior changes among lesbians.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Sarah; Young, Laura; Dietrich, Mary; Blakemore, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are known risk factors for several modifiable, if not preventable diseases. Growing evidence suggests that lesbians may have higher rates of obesity than other women. This study was designed to describe weight loss and behavior changes related to food choices and exercise habits among lesbians who participated in a predominantly lesbian, mainstream, commercial weight loss program. Behavioral changes were recorded in exercise, quality of food choices, and number of times dining out. Although there were several limitations based on sample size and heterogeneity, the impact of a lesbian-supportive environment for behavior change was upheld.

  4. Weight change among people randomized to minimal intervention control groups in weight loss trials.

    PubMed

    Johns, David J; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Jebb, Susan A; Aveyard, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Evidence on the effectiveness of behavioral weight management programs often comes from uncontrolled program evaluations. These frequently make the assumption that, without intervention, people will gain weight. The aim of this study was to use data from minimal intervention control groups in randomized controlled trials to examine the evidence for this assumption and the effect of frequency of weighing on weight change. Data were extracted from minimal intervention control arms in a systematic review of multicomponent behavioral weight management programs. Two reviewers classified control arms into three categories based on intensity of minimal intervention and calculated 12-month mean weight change using baseline observation carried forward. Meta-regression was conducted in STATA v12. Thirty studies met the inclusion criteria, twenty-nine of which had usable data, representing 5,963 participants allocated to control arms. Control arms were categorized according to intensity, as offering leaflets only, a single session of advice, or more than one session of advice from someone without specialist skills in supporting weight loss. Mean weight change at 12 months across all categories was -0.8 kg (95% CI -1.1 to -0.4). In an unadjusted model, increasing intensity by moving up a category was associated with an additional weight loss of -0.53 kg (95% CI -0.96 to -0.09). Also in an unadjusted model, each additional weigh-in was associated with a weight change of -0.42 kg (95% CI -0.81 to -0.03). However, when both variables were placed in the same model, neither intervention category nor number of weigh-ins was associated with weight change. Uncontrolled evaluations of weight loss programs should assume that, in the absence of intervention, their population would weigh up to a kilogram on average less than baseline at the end of the first year of follow-up. © 2016 The Authors Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  5. A smartphone-supported weight loss program: design of the ENGAGED randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Christine A; Duncan, Jennifer M; Moller, Arlen C; Buscemi, Joanna; Sularz, Alyson; DeMott, Andrew; Pictor, Alex; Pagoto, Sherry; Siddique, Juned; Spring, Bonnie

    2012-11-30

    Obesity remains a major public health challenge, demanding cost-effective and scalable weight management programs. Delivering key treatment components via mobile technology offers a potential way to reduce expensive in-person contact, thereby lowering the cost and burden of intensive weight loss programs. The ENGAGED study is a theory-guided, randomized controlled trial designed to examine the feasibility and efficacy of an abbreviated smartphone-supported weight loss program. Ninety-six obese adults (BMI 30-39.9 kg/m2) will be randomized to one of three treatment conditions: (1) standard behavioral weight loss (STND), (2) technology-supported behavioral weight loss (TECH); or (3) self-guided behavioral weight loss (SELF). All groups will aim to achieve a 7% weight loss goal by reducing calorie and fat intake and progressively increasing moderate intensity physical activity to 175 minutes/week. STND and TECH will attend 8 group sessions and receive regular coaching calls during the first 6 months of the intervention; SELF will receive the Group Lifestyle Balance Program DVD's and will not receive coaching calls. During months 1-6, TECH will use a specially designed smartphone application to monitor dietary intake, body weight, and objectively measured physical activity (obtained from a Blue-tooth enabled accelerometer). STND and SELF will self-monitor on paper diaries. Linear mixed modeling will be used to examine group differences on weight loss at months 3, 6, and 12. Self-monitoring adherence and diet and activity goal attainment will be tested as mediators. ENGAGED is an innovative weight