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Sample records for population des patients

  1. Synthese Spectrale de Populations Stellaires des Galaxies: Separation des Effets D'age et de Metallicite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delisle, Sonya

    Des observations spectroscopiques de 3 galaxies elliptiques normales, 4 lenticulaires, 2 bulbes de spirales (dont celui de la Voie Lactée) et 2 elliptiques naines péculières sont analysées. Les spectres couvrent d'environ 3900 à 10000 Å, donnant accès aux raies du visible qui sont sensibles soit à la métallicité, soit à l'âge. Les largeurs équivalentes des raies sont mesurées selon deux systèmes d'indices spectroscopiques. Les mesures sont faites à plusieurs distances radiales du centre de chaque galaxie afin d'obtenir des gradients. Les indices Hβ, et Mg2 sont comparés à des prédictions de modèles évolutifs théoriques de populations de façon à déterminer les abondances moyennes. Par la suite, deux codes de synthèse spectrale d'optimisation sont utilisés, avec deux bibliothèques spectrales empiriques et deux bibliothèques de largeurs équivalentes (dont une théorique), pour retrouver les contributions des différentes populations stellaires aux spectres intégrés des galaxies. L'information obtenue permettra de séparer les effets d'âge des effets de métallicité et de retracer l'historique de la formation stellaire.

  2. Genetic variability in populations of Aëdes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Craig, George B.; Vandehey, Robert C.; Hickey, William A.

    1961-01-01

    Although Aëdes aegypti shows extensive physiological, bionomic and morphological variation in different populations, the genetic basis for this variation has never been determined. Genetic plasticity influences disease transmission, resistance to control measures, and breeding behaviour. Solutions to problems of public health importance may depend upon an understanding of the present and potential degree of genetic resiliency in mosquito populations. The purpose of the work described in this paper was to demonstrate that a pattern of considerable genetic plasticity exists for A. aegypti and to indicate the range and some of the implications of this plasticity. Observations on over 30 strains of various geographical origins have revealed genetic variation with respect to sex ratio and at least 35 morphological characteristics. Balanced polymorphism is common in laboratory colonies and probably in field populations as well. Inbreeding experiments were conducted to determine the degree of heterozygosity in populations. On the average, every mosquito carried one hidden morphological mutation. PMID:13696190

  3. Evaluation des Connaissances-Attitudes-Pratiques des populations des districts sanitaires de Benoye, Laoukassy, Moundou et N’Djaména Sud sur la rage canine au Tchad

    PubMed Central

    Mindekem, Rolande; Lechenne, Monique; Alfaroukh, Idriss Oumar; Moto, Daugla Doumagoum; Zinsstag, Jakob; Ouedraogo, Laurent Tinoaga; Salifou, Sahidou

    2017-01-01

    Introduction La rage canine demeure une préoccupation en Afrique comme au Tchad. La présente étude vise à évaluer les Connaissances-Attitudes-Pratiques des populations pour la prise en charge appropriée des personnes exposées et une lutte efficace. Méthodes C’était une étude transversale descriptive réalisée en juillet et septembre dans quatre districts sanitaires au Tchad en 2015. Les données ont été collectées à l’aide d’un questionnaire auprès des ménages recrutés suivant un sondage aléatoire à 3 degrés. Résultats C’était 2428 personnes enquêtées avec un niveau maximum primaire (54,12%). L’âge moyen était de 36 ± 13,50 ans. Ils étaient cultivateurs (35,17%), commerçants (18,04%), ménagères (12,81%). La rage était définie comme une maladie transmise du chien à l’homme (41,43%), une altération du cerveau (41,27%), une sous-alimentation (10,26%). Le chat était faiblement connu réservoir (13,84%) et vecteur (19,77%) ainsi que la griffure comme moyen de transmission (4,61%) et la vaccination du chat comme mesure préventive (0,49%). Les premiers soins en cas de morsure à domicile étaient les pratiques traditionnelles (47,69%), le lavage des plaies (19,48%) ou aucune action entreprise (20,43%). Les ménages consultaient la santé humaine (78,50%), la santé animale (5,35%) et les guérisseurs traditionnels (27%). Conclusion La communication en rapport avec des premiers soins à la maison en cas de morsure, la connaissance du chat comme réservoir et vecteur, celle de la griffure comme moyen de transmission et la promotion de la consultation des services vétérinaires en cas de morsure sont nécessaires. PMID:28761600

  4. La planification préalable des soins pour les patients en pédiatrie

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Les progrès médicaux et technologiques ont permis d’ac-croître les taux de survie et d’améliorer la qualité de vie des nourrissons, des enfants et des adolescents ayant des maladies chroniques mettant la vie en danger. La planifi-cation préalable des soins inclut le processus relié aux discussions sur les traitements essentiels au maintien de la survie et la détermination des objectifs des soins de longue durée. Les dispensateurs de soins pédiatriques ont l’obligation éthique d’assimiler cet aspect des soins médicaux. Le présent document de principes vise à aider les dispensateurs de soins à discuter de la planification préalable des soins des patients pédiatriques dans diverses situations. La planification préalable des soins exige des communications efficaces afin de clarifier les objectifs des soins et de s’entendre sur les traitements pertinents ou non pour réaliser ces objectifs, y compris les mesures de réanimation et les mesures palliatives.

  5. L'éducation des adultes et le vieillissement des populations: Tendances et enjeux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bélanger, Paul

    1992-07-01

    The aging of the population is accompanied by profound changes in life cycles, and it calls into question the models of institutional relationship between education, work and leisure time. After reviewing some concepts of aging, the author places the "training-work-retirement" triad in the context of the transformation of paid work and the new scenarios of ways in which people finally leave the labour market. Two questions are then asked: In what way may aging populations change the demand for adult continuing education? And, what is the significance of the present educational response to the problems posed by the aging of the population?

  6. [Le leadership en santé et l'éthique de la gestion des attentes des soignants et des patients].

    PubMed

    Browne, Alister

    2016-03-01

    Les dispensateurs de soins et les patients sont souvent déçus du niveau de soins que les hôpitaux publics peuvent prodiguer. La solution consiste à réduire les attentes. Les dispensateurs devraient être amenés à considérer que leur obligation consiste à prodiguer les meilleurs soins en fonction des ressources. Le public devrait être bien informé des services que les hôpitaux de soins actifs peuvent ou non lui offrir et participer aux prises de décision. Les leaders en santé peuvent jouer des rôles novateurs à cet égard.

  7. Patient population controls.

    PubMed

    Carey, R Neill

    2013-03-01

    Quality control (QC) procedures incorporating patient means, or average of normals (AoN) algorithms, have been used in hematology laboratories and large reference laboratories for decades to monitor analytical processes during the periods between the testing of reference sample QC materials. With the advent of middleware that includes AoN capability, these QC procedures are now available to many more laboratories, including medium-sized hospital laboratories. AoN procedures can improve the control of tests that have low "sigma-metrics," such as electrolytes, where relatively low numbers of patient results can be averaged to provide a high probability of detecting medically significant errors. QC of nearly one-third of the tests whose AoN capabilities have been studied would possibly benefit from AoN procedures in medium-sized laboratories. To obtain satisfactory performance, laboratories must tailor the applications of AoN procedures to their particular volumes and test characteristics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Application de l’analyse des séries chronologiques à la projection d’effectifs de population scolaire par la méthode des composantes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Herbert L.

    2016-01-01

    Cet article veut montrer qu’on peut réécrire des modèles démographiques en vue de réaliser des projections par cohorte, en les transposant dans un modèle économétrique vecteur autoré-gressif (VAR). De cette façon, la méthode des composantes se dote d’un cadre stochastique qui étend son envergure. Le potentiel de cette perspective est illustré à travers l’exemple d’une projection d’effectifs de population scolaire. Il met en valeur une série d’équations qui permet de vérifier la validité de plusieurs choix de modélisations habituellement utilisées dans le domaine de la prévision. PMID:27346921

  9. La chirurgie réfractive de la cataracte: des technologies novatrices élargissent les choix des patients canadiens.

    PubMed

    Potvin, Richard

    2016-11-01

    La chirurgie de la cataracte a toujours consisté à extraire le cristallin opacifié de l'œil pour le remplacer par une lentille artificielle. Cette intervention rend la vision du patient plus nette, sans pour autant corriger l'erreur de réfraction, c'est-à-dire la nécessité de porter des lunettes ou des lentilles cornéennes après l'opération. Les instruments diagnostiques et chirurgicaux modernes permettent désormais de corriger ces erreurs de réfraction au moment de l'opération, ce qui a fait émerger une nouvelle notion, celle de la chirurgie réfractive de la cataracte. Même si cette correction n'est pas nécessaire sur le plan médical, de nombreux patients se réjouissent de la possibilité de ne plus porter de lunettes ou d'en porter moins après l'opération, même s'ils doivent engager des frais.

  10. The LMC geometry and outer stellar populations from early DES data

    SciTech Connect

    Balbinot, E.; Santiago, B. X.; Girardi, L.; Pieres, A.; da Costa, L. N.; Maia, M. A. G.; Gruendl, R. A.; Walker, A. R.; Yanny, B.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Allam, S. S.; Annis, J.; Bernstein, J. P.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Rosell, A. C.; Cunha, C. E.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Neto, A. F.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J. A.; Gruen, D.; Honscheid, K.; James, D.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Miller, C.; Miquel, R.; Ogando, R.; Peoples, J.; Plazas, A.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Tucker, D. L.; Wechsler, R.; Zuntz, J.

    2015-03-14

    The Dark Energy Camera has captured a large set of images as part of Science Verification (SV) for the Dark Energy Survey (DES). The SV footprint covers a large portion of the outer Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), providing photometry 1.5 mag fainter than the main sequence turn-off of the oldest LMC stellar population. We derive geometrical and structural parameters for various stellar populations in the LMC disc. For the distribution of all LMC stars, we find an inclination of i = -38 degrees.14 +/- 0 degrees.08 (near side in the north) and a position angle for the line of nodes of theta(0) = 129 degrees.51 +/- 0 degrees.17. We find that stars younger than similar to 4 Gyr are more centrally concentrated than older stars. Fitting a projected exponential disc shows that the scale radius of the old populations is R->4Gyr = 1.41 +/- 0.01 kpc, while the younger population has R-<4Gyr = 0.72 +/- 0.01 kpc. However, the spatial distribution of the younger population deviates significantly from the projected exponential disc model. The distribution of old stars suggests a large truncation radius of R-t = 13.5 +/- 0.8 kpc. If this truncation is dominated by the tidal field of the Galaxy, we find that the LMC is similar or equal to 24(-6)(+9) times less massive than the encircled Galactic mass. By measuring the Red Clump peak magnitude and comparing with the best-fitting LMC disc model, we find that the LMC disc is warped and thicker in the outer regions north of the LMC centre. Our findings may either be interpreted as a warped and flared disc in the LMC outskirts, or as evidence of a spheroidal halo component.

  11. Étude des anomalies chromosomiques après radiothérapie chez des patients traités pour lymphome malin non-Hodgkinien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahe, M. A.; André, M. J.; Moyon, E.; Le Mevel, A.; Soubeyran, P.; Hamidou, M.; Milpied, N.; Bourdin, S.; Cuillière, J. C.; Chatal, J. F.

    1998-04-01

    Structural chromosome defects were evaluated in the lymphocytes of 30 patients (pts) who had undergone radiotherapy for non Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Twelve had received 20 Grays (Gy) over the abdomen (group I), 12 whole body irradiation at 1.5 Gy (group II) and 6 whole body irradiation at 15 Gy (group III). A cohort of 468 unirradiated pts served as controls. For the irradiated group, 7% of cells had aberrations compared to 0.4% in controls {P <10-6}. The frequency of abnormal cells was statistically higher in group I (12%) than in group II (3.5%) and III (2.5%) . In group I, frequency of aberrations was statistically higher in pts who had additionnal extra-abdominal involved field irradiation, those with evolutive NHL and those receiving chemotherapy at the time of the cytogenetic analysis. Les aberrations chromosomiques ont ,été, mesurées sur les lymphocytes de 30 patients (pts) irradiés pour lymphome malin non-hodgkinien (LNH) selon 3 modalités : 20 Grays (Gy) sur l'abdomen (groupe I : 12 pts), Irradiation corporelle totale 1,5 Gy (groupe II : 12 pts), ou 15 Gy (groupe III : 6 pts). Une population non irradiée de 468 pts a servi de témoin. Dans le groupe irradié, 7 % des cellules présentaient des anomalies contre 0,4 % dans le groupe témoin {P <10-6}. Les aberrations ,étaient statistiquement plus nombreuses dans le groupe I (12 % des cellules) que dans les groupes II (3,5 %) et III (2,5 %). Dans le groupe I, les anomalies , étaient statistiquement plus fréquentes chez les pts ayant eu une irradiation localisée extra-abdominale en complément de celle de l'abdomen ainsi que chez ceux en rechute de leur LNH et ceux recevant une chimiothérapie lors de l',étude cytogénétique.

  12. Les hémodialysés HVC sont-ils vraiment des patients difficiles à traiter?

    PubMed Central

    Krati, Khadija; Cherquaoui, Hind; Oubaha, Sofia; Samlani, Zouhour

    2015-01-01

    L'hépatite C demeure la principale infection virale chez l'hémodialysé, dont la prise en charge thérapeutique ainsi que la gestion de ses effets secondaires restent difficiles. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective portant sur tous les patients atteints d'hépatite C chronique ayant une insuffisance rénale chronique sous hémodialyse, suivis au service de gastroentérologie au CHU Mohamed VI de Marrakech sur une période de Janvier 2004 à Décembre 2014. Sur un total de 355 cas d'hépatite virale C, 13 patients étaient hémodialysés (3,66%). Dix patients ont été traités, soit 76,94% des cas. Le traitement n’était pas indiqué chez 2 patients ayant une fibrose minime sans cytolyse. Il était contre-indiqué chez une patiente multitarée. Deux malades ont eu une réponse virologique rapide et 5 une réponse virologique précoce. Le taux de réponse virologique soutenue était de 40%, 30% des patients étaient non répondeurs. Le traitement fut arrêté chez 2 patientes pour effets secondaires sévères. Un seul patient a été candidat à une transplantation rénale. En analyse multivariée, la réponse virologique soutenue a été significativement associée à certains facteurs prédictifs de bonne réponse thérapeutique: Age jeune ≤40 ans (P=0,0057), fibrose minime F1-F2 (P=0,03), génotype non 1 (P=0,0064), charge virale préthérapeutique <800000 UI/ml (P=0,013), et l'absence d'arrêt thérapeutique (P=0,028). La gestion efficace des effets secondaires du traitement de HVC permet d'obtenir chez l'hémodialysé un taux de réponse virologique soutenue avoisinant celui de la population générale. PMID:27022433

  13. [High risk of strongyloïdes hyperinfection in a patient with sarcoidosis].

    PubMed

    Perez, Pascale; Debourgogne, Anne; Valloton, Thomas; Nani, Abdelbasset; Barraud, Hélène; Machouart, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Strongyloïdes stercoralis infection is a polymorphic and non specific clinical presentation. Often asymptomatic, it can be not seen. However, in patients with immunodeficiency, high parasite load can be observed, consequence of self-infestation cycle, and can spread throughout the body. This presentation of malignant strongyloidiasis presents a mortality rate of 70%. The case report presents a 45 years old patient of Caribbean origin, long time treated with corticosteroids for sarcoidosis, and hospitalized for Strongyloïdes stercoralis colitis with high parasite load, raising fears an evolution to hyperinfection. His last visit to endemic area was in 2002. In conclusion, the potential severity of strongyloidiasis is strongly increased by immunosuppression, including corticosteroids. This risk should be notified prior to initiation of any treatment with corticosteroids, firstly by looking at a stay in endemic areas. The case of our patient illustrates the fact that a long time between risk of contamination and clinical manifestations is not a sufficient criterion for excluding an asymptomatic chronic infection with Strongyloïdes stercoralis. It is therefore recommended for patients who have lived in endemic areas to search the parasite in stool by a sensitive method.

  14. VR-CoDES and patient-centeredness. The intersection points between a measure and a concept.

    PubMed

    Del Piccolo, Lidia

    2017-11-01

    The Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional sequences (VR-CoDES) system has been applied in a wide range of studies, in some of these, because of its attention on healthcare provider's ability to respond to patient emotions, it has been used as a proxy of patient-centeredness. The paper aims to discuss how the VR-CoDES can contribute to the broader concept of patient-centeredness and its limitations. VR-CoDES and patient-centeredness concept are briefly described, trying to detect commonalities and distinctions. The VR-CoDES dimensions of Explicit/non explicit responding and Providing or Reducing Space are analysed in relation to relevant aspects of patient-centred communication. Emotional aspects are encompassed within patient-centeredness model, but they represent only one of the numerous dimensions that contribute to define patient-centeredness as well as Explicit/non explicit responding and Providing or Reducing Space serve different functions during communication. The VR-CoDES can contribute to operationalize the description of emotional aspects emerging in a consultation, by inducing coders to adopt a factual attitude in assessing how health providers react to patient's expression of emotions. To better define empirically which measure affective aspects and dimensions of health provider responses are relevant and may contribute to patient-centeredness in different clinical settings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Managing Your Aging Patient Population.

    PubMed

    McNary, Ann L

    2017-01-01

    This ongoing column is dedicated to providing information to our readers on managing legal risks associated with medical practice. We invite questions from our readers. The answers are provided by PRMS, Inc. (www.prms.com), a manager of medical professional liability insurance programs with services that include risk management consultation, education and onsite risk management audits, and other resources to healthcare providers to help improve patient outcomes and reduce professional liability risk. The answers published in this column represent those of only one risk management consulting company. Other risk management consulting companies or insurance carriers may provide different advice, and readers should take this into consideration. The information in this column does not constitute legal advice. For legal advice, contact your personal attorney. Note: The information and recommendations in this article are applicable to physicians and other healthcare professionals so "clinician" is used to indicate all treatment team members.

  16. Managing Your Aging Patient Population

    PubMed Central

    McNary, Ann L.

    2017-01-01

    This ongoing column is dedicated to providing information to our readers on managing legal risks associated with medical practice. We invite questions from our readers. The answers are provided by PRMS, Inc. (www.prms.com), a manager of medical professional liability insurance programs with services that include risk management consultation, education and onsite risk management audits, and other resources to healthcare providers to help improve patient outcomes and reduce professional liability risk. The answers published in this column represent those of only one risk management consulting company. Other risk management consulting companies or insurance carriers may provide different advice, and readers should take this into consideration. The information in this column does not constitute legal advice. For legal advice, contact your personal attorney. Note: The information and recommendations in this article are applicable to physicians and other healthcare professionals so “clinician” is used to indicate all treatment team members. PMID:28584697

  17. Population pharmacokinetics of micafungin in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Gumbo, Tawanda; Hiemenz, John; Ma, Lei; Keirns, James J; Buell, Donald N; Drusano, George L

    2008-03-01

    We performed population pharmacokinetic analysis of micafungin in adult patients treated with doses between 12.5 and 200 mg/day. Our analysis identified a breakpoint patient weight of 66.3 kg above which serum clearance increased by approximately 50%. Patients with weight >66.3 kg may need larger doses to achieve similar exposures to those <66.3 kg. However, the clinical implications are still unknown.

  18. Caracterisitiques des patients tuberculeux à l'ouest cameroun: 2000-2009

    PubMed Central

    Noubom, Michel; Nembot, Fabrice Djouma; Donfack, Hubert; Mfin, Patrick Stéphane Kouomboua; Tchasse, Floriane

    2013-01-01

    Introduction La tuberculose (TB) reste de nos jours un problème majeur de santé publique dans les pays en voie de développement. Elle devient de plus en plus importante à cause de l'infection au VIH. Cette étude avait pour but de caractériser les patients admis dans le plus grand Centre de Diagnostic et de Traitement de la Tuberculose (CDT) de l'Ouest Cameroun entre 2000 et 2009. Méthodes Les patients de 15 ans et plus admis au CDT de Baleng durant la période allant du 1er janvier 2000 au 31 décembre 2009 ont été inclus. Les données ont étés collectées grâce à une grille pré conçue. Le calcul des fréquences, moyennes et les comparaisons de groupes ont été faites pour ressortir les caractéristiques des participants. Résultats 2556 patients ont été inclus dans l’étude. 64,8% étaient de sexe masculin et l’âge médian étaient de 33ans. 2141 (83,7%) de patients présentaient une TPM+, 319 (12,5%) une TPM- et 96 (3,8%) une TEP. 64,7% des patients résidaient hors du district de santé d'implantation du CDT. 79,16% de patients tuberculeux ont fait le test de dépistage du VIH et la séroprévalence chez ceux testés était de 26,06%. Les différentes évolutions en fin de période de suivi de chaque patient ont été les suivantes: évolution favorable (guéri et traitement terminé) 1954(76,6%); perdus de vue 231(9,0%); décès 230(9,0%); transféré 92(3,6%); échec 49(1,9%). Conclusion Une proportion considérable de patients résident loin du CDT ce qui augmenterait le perdus de vue et les transferts pendant le traitement. En plus vulgariser les autres CDT de la région, il est nécessaire de renforcer le système de transfert pour éviter les perdus de vue entre deux CDT. PMID:24570799

  19. Influence du comportement des accompagnants sur le vécu des patients admis pour hémorragies digestives hautes au CHU campus de Lomé (Togo)

    PubMed Central

    Bagny, Aklesso; Dusabe, Angelique; Bouglouga, Oumboma; Lawson-ananisoh, Mawuli Late; Kaaga, Yeba Laconi; Djibril, Mohaman Awalou; Soedje, Kokou Mensah; Dassa, Simliwa Kolou; Redah, Datouda

    2014-01-01

    Introduction L'hémorragie digestive haute est une urgence, qui constitue souvent pour les patients un danger mortel suscitant inquiétude et agitation. Dans cet état, le patient dépend de ses accompagnants pour ses soins et pour honorer le traitement; mais souvent, il a été observé une discordance entre l'urgence et les comportements des accompagnants. Le but de cette étude était de décrire les facteurs socioéconomiques et psychologiques pouvant influencer les comportements des accompagnants des patients admis pour HDH, estimer l'indice de relation entre ces comportements et les facteurs associés d'une part et le vécu des patients admis pour HDH d'autre part. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude prospective menée de Septembre 2010 à Juin 2011 (soit 10 mois). Nous avions utilisé l'entretien semi-dirigé et l'observation directe pour collecter nos données, ces dernières avaient été traitées par les méthodes statistiques et d'analyse de contenu. Résultats Dans la présente étude, les comportements des accompagnants des patients admis pour HDH sont en majorité marqués par l'abandon (84%) et le manque de sollicitude (80,2%). Ces comportements sont souvent stimulés par les facteurs socioéconomiques tels que les difficultés économiques (83,2%), des conflits intrafamiliaux (85,1%) et des représentations (maladie incurable ou envoûtement) de la maladie par les accompagnants (73,3%) des cas. Quant aux patients, ils vivent ces comportements comme étant des menaces de mort ou des rejets (77,20%) et comme étant une dévalorisation ou une humiliation de la part de leurs accompagnants (70,30%). Les résultats confirment l'existence de lien significatif entre les comportements des accompagnants et les facteurs socio économiques, entre les comportements des accompagnants et des facteurs psychologiques, et entre le vécu des patients admis pour l'HDH et les comportements des accompagnants. Conclusion Des études ultérieures devraient aborder les points

  20. Le Phénomène Wolf-Rayet au Sein des Etoiles chaudes de Populations I et II: Histoire des Vents stellaires et Impact sur la Structure nébulaire circumstellaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosdidier, Yves

    2000-12-01

    -pics de BD +30 3639 suggère une anisotropie transitoire de la distribution des fragments dans le vent; (3) Le phénomène WR apparaît purement atmosphérique: la cinématique des sous-pics, les amplitudes et les échelles de temps caractéristiques des variations, ainsi que les accélérations observées sont similaires pour les deux populations. Mais, pour HD 826, une accélération maximale d'environ 70 m/s2 est détectée, valeur significativement plus importante que celles rapportées pour les autres étoiles WR pop. I & II (environ 15 m/s2). La petitesse du rayon de HD 826 en serait la cause; (4) Comme pour les WR pop. I, de grands paramètres (β supérieur ou égal à 3-10) sont requis pour ajuster les accélérations observées avec une loi de vitesse de type beta. La loi beta sous-estime systématiquement les gradients de vitesse au sein de la région de formation de la raie CIIIl5696; (5) Les vents WR pop. II étant fragmentés, l'estimation des taux de perte de masse actuels à partir de méthodes supposant les atmosphères homogènes conduit à une surestimation i) des taux de perte de masse eux-mêmes, et ii) des masses initiales des étoiles avant qu'elles n'entrent dans la phase WR. IMPACT DES VENTS: (1) Au périastre, de la poussière est détectée dans l'environnement de la binaire WC+OB WR 137. La formation de poussières est soit facilitée, soit provoquée par la collision des deux vents chauds; le rôle capital de la fragmentation des vents (fournissant une compression localisée supplémentaire du plasma) est suggéré (2) La nébuleuse M 1-67 affiche une interaction avec le milieu interstellaire (MIS) non-négligeable (``bow-shock''). Les champs de densité et de vitesse sont très perturbés. Ces perturbations sont reliées, d'une part, à l'histoire des vents issus de WR 124 durant sa propre évolution, d'autre part, à l'interaction avec le MIS. Les fonctions de structure des champs de densitéet de vitesse de M 1-67 ne révèlent aucun indice

  1. Quality of life and brace-treated idiopathic scoliosis: a cross-sectional study performed at the Centre des Massues on a population of 120 children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Deceuninck, J; Bernard, J C

    2012-03-01

    To determine the influence of orthopedic treatment on quality of life (QoL) in children and adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis and treated with either the carbon brace (CMCR, corset monocoque carbone respectant la respiration) or the Lyon brace. To compare these braces. A cross-sectional study on a population of 120 patients with idiopathic scoliosis, visiting for routine evaluation following the onset of an orthopedic treatment at the Centre des Massues in Lyon. Eighty-two patients used the carbon brace and 38 patients used the Lyon brace. The patients completed the SRS-22 questionnaire (where a low score means a bad QoL), an evaluation scale of QoL specific to spinal deformities, and visual analogue scales (VAS) for pain, motivation and QoL ranging from 0 to 100mm. The QoL of Lyon brace-treated patients is significantly worse than that of patients treated with a carbon brace for the overall score (mean±SD, 4.05±0.37 vs 3.77±0.46, P=0.002) as well as for function (P=0.01), pain (P=0.001), and appearance (P=0.004). These results are confirmed by the VAS for QoL (P=0.001). The use of the carbon brace and of the Lyon brace induces a reduction in QoL whatever the evaluation tool, either SRS-22 or VAS. However, the use of the Lyon brace impairs QoL more than the use of the carbon brace. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Achilles tendon rupture in atypical patient populations.

    PubMed

    Kingsley, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Rupture of the Achilles tendon is a significant injury, and the likelihood of a good recovery is directly associated with early diagnosis and appropriate referral. Such injuries are commonly assessed and identified by practitioners working in 'minors' areas of emergency departments or urgent care settings. The literature frequently describes rupture of the Achilles tendon as 'typically sport-related' affecting 'middle-aged weekend warriors', but this aetiology accounts for only about 70% of such injuries. Factors such as the natural ageing process, obesity and use of some commonly prescribed medications, can increase the risk of developing a tendinopathy and subsequent rupture, often from a seemingly insignificant incident. However, research suggests that injuries in this patient population are more likely be missed on first examination. This article describes risk factors that should alert clinicians to the possibility of Achilles tendon rupture in 'atypical' patient populations.

  3. Incidence des accidents vasculaires cérébraux chez les patients VIH positifs sous traitement antirétroviral au long court

    PubMed Central

    Mapoure, Yacouba Njankouo; Nkongni, Ines Nepetsoun; Luma, Henry Namme; Ngahane, Bertrand Hugo Mbtachou; Barla, Esther; Ngwane, Samuel; Mouelle, Albert Soné; Njamnshi, Alfred Kongnyu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Avec l'introduction de la trithérapie dans les années 1996, la morbidité et la mortalité liées à l'infection par le VIH a nettement diminué. Concomitamment avec ce succès clinique, plusieurs changements métaboliques incluant diabète, hypertension artérielle, dyslipidémie et lipodystrophie ont été observés, ceux-ci étant des pourvoyeurs d'accidents vasculaires cérébraux. L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer l'incidence des accidents vasculaires cérébraux chez les patients VIH positifs sous traitement antirétroviral au long court. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude de cohorte rétrospective, menée dans le Centre de Traitement Agrée de l'Hôpital Général de Douala (HGD), avec un recueil des données sur 10 ans allant de Mai 2001 à avril 2010, portant sur les patients VIH positifs adultes sous traitement antirétroviral depuis au moins 6 mois. Les patients étaient suivis selon le protocole national de prise en charge du Cameroun. La survenue d'un AVC a été déterminée par la méthode Kaplan-Meyer tandis que les facteurs associés à la survenue d'un AVC ont été recherché par le test de Khi-2. Le seuil de signification statistique était fixé à 0,05. Résultats 307 patients étaient inclus dont 62,4% de sexe féminin, et l’âge moyen était de 40,1 ± 9,9 ans. L'incidence des AVC était de 1,7% sur 72 mois de suivi sans différence significative entre les femmes et les hommes (P= 0,76). Le taux d'incidence calculé était de 0,3 pour 100 personnes années. Dans 85,7% des cas il s'agissait d'un AVC ischémique. Le délai moyen de survenue d'un AVC était de 33,4 mois. Les facteurs associés à la survenue d'un AVC étaient: les patients ayant initié leur traitement au stade III et IV de l'OMS et le taux de CD4 > 100/mm3 à l'initiation du traitement antirétroviral. Conclusion L'incidence des AVC chez les patients VIH positifs sous traitement antirétroviral est similaire à celle rapportée ant

  4. Coding patient emotional cues and concerns in medical consultations: the Verona coding definitions of emotional sequences (VR-CoDES).

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Christa; Del Piccolo, Lidia; Bensing, Jozien; Bergvik, Svein; De Haes, Hanneke; Eide, Hilde; Fletcher, Ian; Goss, Claudia; Heaven, Cathy; Humphris, Gerry; Kim, Young-Mi; Langewitz, Wolf; Meeuwesen, Ludwien; Nuebling, Matthias; Rimondini, Michela; Salmon, Peter; van Dulmen, Sandra; Wissow, Larry; Zandbelt, Linda; Finset, Arnstein

    2011-02-01

    To present the Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequences (VR-CoDES CC), a consensus based system for coding patient expressions of emotional distress in medical consultations, defined as Cues or Concerns. The system was developed by an international group of communication researchers. First, consensus was reached in different steps. Second, a reliability study was conducted on 20 psychiatric consultations. A Cue is defined as a verbal or non-verbal hint which suggests an underlying unpleasant emotion that lacks clarity. A Concern is defined as a clear and unambiguous expression of an unpleasant current or recent emotion that is explicitly verbalized with or without a stated issue of importance. The conceptual framework sets precise criteria for cues and concerns and for whom (health provider or patient) elicits the cue/concern. Inter-rater reliability proved satisfactory (agreement 81.5%, Cohen's Kappa 0.70). The VR-CoDES CC will facilitate comparative research on provider-patient communication sequences in which patients express emotional distress. The VR-CoDES CC may be used to help clinicians in recognizing or facilitating cues and concerns, thereby improving the recognition of patients' emotional distress, the therapeutic alliance and quality of care for these patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Screening for depression in adolescent paediatric patients: validity of the new Depression Screener for Teenagers (DesTeen).

    PubMed

    Pietsch, Kathrin; Allgaier, Antje-Kathrin; Frühe, Barbara; Rohde, Sabine; Hosie, Stuart; Heinrich, Martina; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2011-09-01

    Depression in adolescents is often hard to detect. In many cases paediatricians are the first point of contact. In order to increase recognition rates, screening instruments may be a helpful support for health care professionals. However, there is a lack of valid and economical screening instruments for primary care patients. Thus, the aim of the study was the development of the new Depression Screener for Teenagers (DesTeen) and its validation in a paediatric sample. 326 patients between 13 and 16 years old completed the DesTeen and a diagnostic interview, serving as gold standard. Prevalence rate for any depressive disorder (minor depression, major depression and dysthymia) was 12.6%. Psychometric properties were calculated. For validity measures, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) for any depressive disorder and the diagnostic subgroups was computed. DesTeen showed a high reliability (Cronbach's α=.87) and a high validity (AUC=.91). For the diagnostic subgroups AUC values did not significantly differ from overall accuracy of any depressive disorder (major depression: AUC=.95, p=.179; dysthymia: AUC=.88, p=.605; minor depression: AUC=.87, p=.327). The optimal cut-off point for any depressive disorder according to the Youden-Index yielded a sensitivity of .90 and a specificity of .80. An abbreviated 5-item version of DesTeen showed no loss in validity (AUC=.90, p=.695). Overall, DesTeen can be regarded as a valid screening instrument for adolescent paediatric patients. For practical use, the 5-item version is even more promising. A replication of these results is essential. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of Clinical Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Coronary Intervention with Drug-Eluting Stents or Bare-Metal Stents: A Nationwide Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Shih-Hsien; Chen, Tzu-Ching; Cheng, Hao-Min; Lee, Jia-Chun; Lang, Hui-Chu; Chen, Chen-Huan

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this propensity score-matched cohort study was to investigate the prognostic impacts of drug-eluting stents (DES) and bare-metal stents (BMS) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study based on the National Health Insurance program. Patients who had undergone coronary stenting between Jan. 2007 and Dec. 2008 were recruited and monitored until the end of 2010. Subjects with either BMS or DES were matched 2:1 by propensity score, which adjusted for age, sex, stent number and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression models were used for prognostic analyses. Results Among a total of 966 patients with a mean age of 66 years, 644 subjects had BMS and 322 subjects had DES. The incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) and death were significantly lower in the DES group as compared with the BMS group for the three-year follow-up duration. With adjustments for age, sex, premium-based monthly salary, levels of hospital care, stent number, CCI, medications, and acute coronary syndrome presentation in the index hospitalization, use of DES rather than BMS was associated with reduced adverse coronary events (hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval: 0.55, 0.38-0.81 in the whole population, and 0.44, 0.26-0.73 in the subgroup patients with stable coronary artery disease). Conclusions Implantation of DES was related to better outcomes than for BMS, in terms of reducing MI and mortality after PCI. The survival benefit for patients with DES was even greater in patients with stable coronary artery disease. PMID:28115802

  7. The LMC geometry and outer stellar populations from early DES data

    SciTech Connect

    Balbinot, Eduardo; Plazas, A.; Santiago, B. X.; Girardi, L.; Pieres, A.; da Costa, L. N.; Maia, M. A. G.; Gruendl, R. A.; Walker, A. R.; Yanny, B.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Allam, S. S.; Annis, J.; Bernstein, J. P.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Cunha, C. E.; Depoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti Neto, A.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J. A.; Gruen, D.; Honscheid, K.; James, D.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Miller, C.; Miquel, R.; Ogando, R.; Peoples, J.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Tucker, D. L.; Wechsler, R.; Zuntz, J.

    2015-03-20

    The Dark Energy Camera has captured a large set of images as part of Science Verification (SV) for the Dark Energy Survey. The SV footprint covers a large portion of the outer Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), providing photometry 1.5 magnitudes fainter than the main sequence turn-off of the oldest LMC stellar population. We derive geometrical and structural parameters for various stellar populations in the LMC disc. For the distribution of all LMC stars, we find an inclination of i = –38.14°±0.08° (near side in the North) and a position angle for the line of nodes of θ₀ = 129.51°±0.17°. We find that stars younger than ~4 Gyr are more centrally concentrated than older stars. Fitting a projected exponential disc shows that the scale radius of the old populations is R>4Gyr = 1.41 ± 0.01 kpc, while the younger population has R<4Gyr = 0.72 ± 0.01 kpc. However, the spatial distribution of the younger population deviates significantly from the projected exponential disc model. The distribution of old stars suggests a large truncation radius of Rt = 13.5 ± 0.8 kpc. If this truncation is dominated by the tidal field of the Galaxy, we find that the LMC is ≃24+9–6 times less massive than the encircled Galactic mass. By measuring the Red Clump peak magnitude and comparing with the best-fit LMC disc model, we find that the LMC disc is warped and thicker in the outer regions north of the LMC centre. As a result, our findings may either be interpreted as a warped and flared disc in the LMC outskirts, or as evidence of a spheroidal halo component.

  8. The LMC geometry and outer stellar populations from early DES data

    DOE PAGES

    Balbinot, Eduardo; Plazas, A.; Santiago, B. X.; ...

    2015-03-20

    The Dark Energy Camera has captured a large set of images as part of Science Verification (SV) for the Dark Energy Survey. The SV footprint covers a large portion of the outer Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), providing photometry 1.5 magnitudes fainter than the main sequence turn-off of the oldest LMC stellar population. We derive geometrical and structural parameters for various stellar populations in the LMC disc. For the distribution of all LMC stars, we find an inclination of i = –38.14°±0.08° (near side in the North) and a position angle for the line of nodes of θ₀ = 129.51°±0.17°. Wemore » find that stars younger than ~4 Gyr are more centrally concentrated than older stars. Fitting a projected exponential disc shows that the scale radius of the old populations is R>4Gyr = 1.41 ± 0.01 kpc, while the younger population has R<4Gyr = 0.72 ± 0.01 kpc. However, the spatial distribution of the younger population deviates significantly from the projected exponential disc model. The distribution of old stars suggests a large truncation radius of Rt = 13.5 ± 0.8 kpc. If this truncation is dominated by the tidal field of the Galaxy, we find that the LMC is ≃24+9–6 times less massive than the encircled Galactic mass. By measuring the Red Clump peak magnitude and comparing with the best-fit LMC disc model, we find that the LMC disc is warped and thicker in the outer regions north of the LMC centre. As a result, our findings may either be interpreted as a warped and flared disc in the LMC outskirts, or as evidence of a spheroidal halo component.« less

  9. Suivi prospectif sur 5 ans des tentatives de suicide en population clinique dans la région de Fès, Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Aarab, Chadya; Elghazouani, Fatima; Aalouane, Rachid; Rammouz, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Au Maroc, les tentatives de suicide (TS) demeurent un sujet mal évalué à cause de considérations socioculturelles et l'absence d'approche longitudinale. L'objectif principal était d’évaluer le devenir des suicidants après 5ans au centre universitaire psychiatrique de Fès, les objectifs secondaires étaient l'estimation de la prévalence des TS, préciser les étiologies les plus fréquentes, et établir une corrélation entre les paramètres sociodémographiques, cliniques et évolutifs. Etude prospective à visée transversale et longitudinale, incluant les suicidants vus à l'hôpital psychiatrique de Fès, avec un suivi longitudinal sur 5ans. L’évaluation a été faite par un hétéro-questionnaire et le Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) cherchant le trouble psychiatrique sous jacent. On a recruté 105 patients suicidants, 62% des femmes, l’âge moyen est de 29,23ans. La prévalence des tentatives de suicide est de 3% sur l'ensemble des consultants à l’établissement. Les troubles de l'humeur, psychotiques et de personnalité ont occupé respectivement 37,6%, 27,7%, et 25,7% des cas. La récidive suicidaire a été notée chez 54% des patients, était significativement corrélée à la vie solitaire (P: 0,039) et à la présence d'antécédents familiaux de TS (P: 0,046). L'utilisation de moyens violents était significativement fréquente chez les patients psychotiques. Après 5ans, 32 patients ont répondu à notre appel. Le taux de récidive était de 15%. On a noté trois cas de décès dont deux suicides confirmés. Les résultats confirment les données de la littérature scientifique avec certaines particularités cliniques et évolutives. PMID:25478042

  10. 21 CFR 312.315 - Intermediate-size patient populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Intermediate-size patient populations. 312.315... for Treatment Use § 312.315 Intermediate-size patient populations. Under this section, FDA may permit an investigational drug to be used for the treatment of a patient population smaller than that...

  11. 21 CFR 312.315 - Intermediate-size patient populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intermediate-size patient populations. 312.315... for Treatment Use § 312.315 Intermediate-size patient populations. Under this section, FDA may permit an investigational drug to be used for the treatment of a patient population smaller than that...

  12. 21 CFR 312.315 - Intermediate-size patient populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intermediate-size patient populations. 312.315... for Treatment Use § 312.315 Intermediate-size patient populations. Under this section, FDA may permit an investigational drug to be used for the treatment of a patient population smaller than that...

  13. 21 CFR 312.315 - Intermediate-size patient populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intermediate-size patient populations. 312.315... for Treatment Use § 312.315 Intermediate-size patient populations. Under this section, FDA may permit an investigational drug to be used for the treatment of a patient population smaller than that...

  14. 21 CFR 312.315 - Intermediate-size patient populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intermediate-size patient populations. 312.315... for Treatment Use § 312.315 Intermediate-size patient populations. Under this section, FDA may permit an investigational drug to be used for the treatment of a patient population smaller than that...

  15. Enrichment design with patient population augmentation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Zhou, Yijie; Zhang, Lanju; Cui, Lu

    2015-05-01

    Clinical trials can be enriched on subpopulations that may be more responsive to treatments to improve the chance of trial success. In 2012 FDA issued a draft guidance to facilitate enrichment design, where it pointed out the uncertainty on the subpopulation classification and on the treatment effect outside of the identified subpopulation. We consider a novel design strategy where the identified subpopulation (biomarker-positive) is augmented by some biomarker-negative patients. Specifically, after sufficiently powering biomarker-positive subpopulation we propose to enroll biomarker-negative patients, enough to assess the overall treatment benefit. We derive a weighted statistic for this assessment, correcting for the disproportionality of biomarker-positive and biomarker-negative subpopulations under enriched trial setting. Screening information is utilized for weight determination. This statistic is an unbiased estimate of the overall treatment effect as that in all-comer trials, and is the basis to power for the overall treatment effect. For analysis, testing will be first performed on biomarker-positive subpopulation; only if treatment benefit is established in this subpopulation will overall treatment effect be tested using the weighted statistic. This design approach differs from typical enrichment design or stratified all-comer design in that the former enrolls only biomarker-positive patients and the latter enrolls a regular all-comer population. It also differs from adaptive enrichment by maintaining the trial design and analysis priority on biomarker-positive subpopulation. Therefore the proposed approach not only warrants a high probability of trial success on biomarker-positive subpopulation, but also efficiently assesses the overall treatment effect in the presence of an uncertain treatment benefit among biomarker-negative patients.

  16. Population pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin in Korean patients.

    PubMed

    Kiem, Sungmin; Ryu, Sung-Mun; Lee, Yun-Mi; Schentag, Jerome J; Kim, Yang-Wook; Kim, Hyeon-Kuk; Jang, Hang-Jae; Joo, Yong-Don; Jin, Kyubok; Shin, Jae-Gook; Ghim, Jong-Lyul

    2016-08-01

    Levofloxacin (LVFX) has different effects depending on the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ratio. While AUC can be expressed as dose/clearance (CL), we measured serial concentrations of LVFX in Koreans and tried to set a Korean-specific equation, estimating the CL of the antibiotic. In total, 38 patients, aged 18-87 years, received once daily intravenous LVFX doses of 500 mg or 250 mg, depending on their renal function. Four plasma samples were obtained according to a D optimal sampling design. The population pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of LVFX were estimated using non-linear mixed-effect modeling (NONMEM, ver. 7.2). The CL of LVFX was dependent on creatinine clearance (CLCR) as a covariate. The mean population PK parameters of LVFX in Koreans were as follows: CL (l/hour) = 6.19 ×  (CLCR/75)(1.32). The CL of LVFX in Koreans is expected to be lower than that in Western people.

  17. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Decisional Engagement Scale (DES-10): A patient-reported psychosocial survey for quality cancer care.

    PubMed

    Hoerger, Michael; Chapman, Benjamin P; Mohile, Supriya G; Duberstein, Paul R

    2016-09-01

    In light of recent health care reforms, we have provided an illustrative example of new opportunities available for psychologists to develop patient-reported measures related to health care quality. Patient engagement in health care decision making has been increasingly acknowledged as a vital component of quality cancer care. We developed the 10-item Decisional Engagement Scale (DES-10), a patient-reported measure of engagement in decision making in cancer care that assesses patients' awareness of their diagnosis, sense of empowerment and involvement, and level of information seeking and planning. The National Institutes of Health's ResearchMatch recruitment tool was used to facilitate Internet-mediated data collection from 376 patients with cancer. DES-10 scores demonstrated good internal consistency reliability (α = .80), and the hypothesized unidimensional factor structure fit the data well. The reliability and factor structure were supported across subgroups based on demographic, socioeconomic, and health characteristics. Higher DES-10 scores were associated with better health-related quality of life (r = .31). In concurrent validity analyses controlling for age, socioeconomic status, and health-related quality of life, higher DES-10 scores were associated with higher scores on quality-of-care indices, including greater awareness of one's treatments, greater preferences for shared decision making, and clearer preferences about end-of-life care. A mini-measure, the DES-3, also performed well psychometrically. In conclusion, DES-10 and DES-3 scores showed evidence of reliability and validity, and these brief patient-reported measures can be used by researchers, clinicians, nonprofits, hospitals, insurers, and policymakers interested in evaluating and improving the quality of cancer care. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Retour vers le futur: l'expérience des patients et le lien avec la qualité, la sécurité et le rendement financier.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Bonnie S; Hagins, Mitch; King, John A; Picciano, Gino; McCafferty, Maureen M; Nelson, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Au Canada, l'amélioration de l'expérience des patients est devenue une priorité des politiques de santé. Le perfectionnement et la normalisation des outils et systèmes pour surveiller les mesures de l'expérience des patients augmentent, tandis que la tendance vers une plus grande reddition de compte sur des améliorations durables et abordables se confirme. Pour de nombreux professionnels de la santé, ce phénomène fait foi d'un intérêt renouvelé pour les besoins et priorités fondamentaux des patients, après des décennies où les changements structurels et technologiques ont dominé les programmes de santé. Pour les leaders en santé canadiens, l'amélioration de l'expérience des patients comporte actuellement de grands défis et de belles possibilités. À cet égard, l'expérience des organisations partenaires du groupe Studer au Canada est à la fois pertinente et instructive. Ces organisations ont adopté un modèle, du nom de Evidence-Based Leadership (EBL, ou leadership fondé sur des données probantes), qui favorise et soutient l'harmonisation de l'ensemble des activités et des comportements, conformément à des objectifs organisationnels précis, y compris des améliorations mesurables de l'expérience des patients. Le présent article expose des études de cas d'organisations qui ont adopté l'EBL. Ces organisations ont réalisé des progrès rapides en matière d'indicateurs de l'expérience des patients, ainsi que dans des secteurs essentiels comme les résultats cliniques, la sécurité et le rendement financier. Les données émergentes sur les facteurs et processus qui sous-tendent ces améliorations sont également abordées.

  19. Development of the Verona coding definitions of emotional sequences to code health providers' responses (VR-CoDES-P) to patient cues and concerns.

    PubMed

    Del Piccolo, Lidia; de Haes, Hanneke; Heaven, Cathy; Jansen, Jesse; Verheul, William; Bensing, Jozien; Bergvik, Svein; Deveugele, Myriam; Eide, Hilde; Fletcher, Ian; Goss, Claudia; Humphris, Gerry; Kim, Young-Mi; Langewitz, Wolf; Mazzi, Maria Angela; Mjaaland, Trond; Moretti, Francesca; Nübling, Matthias; Rimondini, Michela; Salmon, Peter; Sibbern, Tonje; Skre, Ingunn; van Dulmen, Sandra; Wissow, Larry; Young, Bridget; Zandbelt, Linda; Zimmermann, Christa; Finset, Arnstein

    2011-02-01

    To present a method to classify health provider responses to patient cues and concerns according to the VR-CoDES-CC (Del Piccolo et al. (2009) [2] and Zimmermann et al. (submitted for publication) [3]). The system permits sequence analysis and a detailed description of how providers handle patient's expressions of emotion. The Verona-CoDES-P system has been developed based on consensus views within the "Verona Network of Sequence Analysis". The different phases of the creation process are described in detail. A reliability study has been conducted on 20 interviews from a convenience sample of 104 psychiatric consultations. The VR-CoDES-P has two main classes of provider responses, corresponding to the degree of explicitness (yes/no) and space (yes/no) that is given by the health provider to each cue/concern expressed by the patient. The system can be further subdivided into 17 individual categories. Statistical analyses showed that the VR-CoDES-P is reliable (agreement 92.86%, Cohen's kappa 0.90 (±0.04) p<0.0001). Once validity and reliability are tested in different settings, the system should be applied to investigate the relationship between provider responses to patients' expression of emotions and outcome variables. Research employing the VR-CoDES-P should be applied to develop research-based approaches to maximize appropriate responses to patients' indirect and overt expressions of emotional needs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Obtaining vascular access in the obese patient population.

    PubMed

    Houston, Patricia A

    2013-01-01

    Obese patients are a highly specialized population to manage within the health care system. Excess weight contributes to changes in patients' anatomy and physiology. Specialized equipment, including vascular access devices, is required to accommodate their needs. Research has shown that traditional methods of obtaining vascular access can prove unfruitful in the obese patient population. Choosing the most appropriate device in conjunction with practicing the most effective technique will improve vascular access outcomes for obese patients.

  1. Dépistage sérologique de la maladie cœliaque chez des patients marocains atteints de diabète type 1

    PubMed Central

    Bourhanbour, Asmaa Drissi; Ouadghiri, Sanae; Benseffaj, Nadia; Essakalli, Malika

    2016-01-01

    La maladie cœliaque (MC) est l'une des maladies auto-immunes les plus fréquemment associées au diabète de type 1 (DT1). La prévalence de MC dans DT1 varie de 3 à 6%. La présentation clinique de MC dans DT1 est classé comme asymptomatiques dans environ la moitié des cas. L'objectif de notre étude est de déterminer la fréquence des auto-anticorps anti-transglutaminase tissulaire (AtTG) et anti-gliadines (AAG) chez les patients diabétiques de type 1 dans le but de recommander une éventuelle biopsie jéjunale et d'instaurer un régime sans gluten précocement avant l'installation des signes cliniques et des complications de la maladie cœliaque. Les sujets inclus dans cette étude sont des patients atteints de DT1 non traités pour la MC et qui ne présentent pas de signes en faveur de cette pathologie. La détection des AtTG de classe IgG et IgA et AAG classe IgG et IgA a été réalisée par technologie Luminex. Nous avons inclus 31 patients. Il s'agit de 16 hommes et 15 femmes. Les AAG de classe IgA étaient positifs chez 4(13%) patients et chez 7(22,5%) patients pour les IgG. Les AtTG de classe IgA étaient positifs chez 3(10%) patients et chez une patiente (3%) pour les IgG. Dans notre étude l'association du diabète type 1 et des marqueurs biologiques de la MC n'est pas rare d'où l'intérêt de son dépistage systématique chez des diabétiques de type 1. Le diagnostic de cette forme atypique et silencieuse de la MC est important compte tenu du risque de complications sérieuses à type de malabsorption et de cancers digestifs. PMID:27642442

  2. Lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Meldon; Wilson, Lynn; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Srivastava, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille un résumé clinique pratique sur la prescription d’opioïdes à des populations particulières en se fondant sur les recommandations faites dans les lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse. Qualité des données Pour produire les lignes directrices, les chercheurs ont effectué une synthèse critique de la littérature médicale en insistant plus précisément sur les études de l’efficacité et de la sécurité des opioïdes dans des populations particulières. Message principal Les médecins de famille peuvent atténuer les risques de surdose, de sédation, d’usage abusif et de dépendance grâce à des stratégies adaptées à l’âge et à l’état de santé des patients. Dans le cas de patients à risque de dépendance, on devrait réserver les opioïdes aux douleurs nociceptives ou neuropathiques bien définies qui n’ont pas répondu aux traitements de première intention. Il faut procéder lentement au titrage des opioïdes, avec des dispensations fréquentes et une étroite surveillance pour dépister tout signe d’usage abusif. Une dépendance aux opioïdes suspectée est prise en charge au moyen d’une thérapie structurée aux opioïdes, d’un traitement à la méthadone ou à la buprénorphine ou encore d’un traitement fondé sur l’abstinence. Les patients souffrant de troubles de l’humeur ou d’anxiété ont tendance à avoir une réponse analgésique atténuée aux opioïdes, sont à risque plus élevé d’usage abusif et prennent souvent des sédatifs qui interagissent défavorablement avec les opioïdes. Il faut prendre des précautions semblables à celles utilisées avec d’autres patients à risque élevé. Il faut faire un sevrage progressif si la douleur du patient demeure sévère même avec un essai adéquat de thérapie aux opioïdes. Chez les personnes âgées, la s

  3. Enhancing communications with multicultural patient populations.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Laura M; Kinsella, Audrey

    2003-03-01

    Learning more about clients of ours who are from different cultures is a challenging but necessary task. The very characteristics that make up an individual's beliefs, behaviors, and intellectual and spiritual foundations are intrinsic to a person's overall health and well-being, and we must learn to prepare appropriate patient care services. The authors review the different sources that are available to assist home care workers and their multicultural patients.

  4. Approche structurée en pratique familiale pour les patients ayant des problèmes de mémoire

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Linda; Weston, W. Wayne; Heckman, George; Gagnon, Micheline; Lee, F. Joseph; Sloka, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille une approche structurée pour les patients qui présentent des problèmes de mémoire. Sources des données Cette approche se fonde sur un programme agréé de formation clinique sur la mémoire, élaboré par le Centre for Family Medicine Memory Clinic en partenariat avec le Collège des médecins de famille de l’Ontario. Message principal Le recours à une approche structurée de raisonnement clinique peut aider les médecins à poser un diagnostic exact chez des patients qui présentent des problèmes de mémoire. Le délirium, la dépression et les causes réversibles doivent être exclus, pour ensuite faire une différenciation entre le vieillissement cognitif normal, la déficience cognitive légère et la démence. Il est essentiel de procéder à une anamnèse collatérale et à une évaluation fonctionnelle exacte. Les formes courantes de la démence peuvent être cliniquement différenciées par la séquence dans laquelle les symptômes apparaissent et par la façon dont les déficits cognitifs évoluent avec le temps. Habituellement, les signes précoces de la démence d’Alzheimer comportent une déficience de la mémoire épisodique, tandis que la démence due principalement à des causes vasculaires peut se présenter par une perte précoce de la fonction exécutive et de la fonction visuospatiale, ainsi que des caractéristiques cliniques particulières. Conclusion Une approche de raisonnement clinique peut aider les médecins à poser des diagnostics précoces et exacts qui peuvent orienter une prise en charge appropriée et améliorer les soins aux patients qui ont des problèmes de mémoire.

  5. Evaluation du niveau de connaissance des patients sur la gestion du traitement par les antis vitamines K dans le service de cardiologie de Ouagadougou

    PubMed Central

    Samadoulougou, André; Temoua Naibe, Dangwé; Mandi, Germain; Yameogo, Relwendé Aristide; Kabore, Elisé; Millogo, Georges; Yameogo, Nobila Valentin; Kologo, Jonas Koudougou; Thiam/Tall, Anna; Toguyeni, Boubacar Jean Yves; Zabsonre, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Les antivitamines K (AVK), traitement anticoagulant oral le plus largement prescrit, posent un réel problème de santé publique du fait de leur risque iatrogène. L'objectif de cette étude était de préciser le niveau de connaissance des patients sur la gestion de leur traitement par les AVK. Méthodes Il s'est agi d'une enquête transversale descriptive réalisée au CHU-Yalgado Ouédraogo, sur une période de 03 mois : du 1er mars au 31 mai 2012. Un questionnaire a été administré aux patients bénéficiant d'un traitement AVK depuis au moins un mois. Résultats Soixante-dix patients ont été inclus dans l'étude dont 30 hommes. L'âge moyen était de 49 ans ± 16 ans. Les cardiopathies et la maladie thromboembolique veineuse justifiant l'institution du traitement AVK étaient retrouvées respectivement dans 58,6% et 41,4% des cas. Le nom de l'AVK et la raison exacte du traitement étaient connus respectivement dans 91,4% et 67,1% des cas. Plus de la moitié des patients (68,6%) savaient que les AVK rendaient le sang plus fluide. Quarante-six patients (65,7%) citaient l'INR comme examen biologique de surveillance du traitement et seulement 28 patients (40%) connaissaient les valeurs cibles. La majorité des patients ne connaissait pas les risques encourus en cas de surdosage (72,8%) et de sous-dosage (71,4%). Une automédication par anti-inflammatoire non stéroïdien était signalée par 18 patients (25,7%). Les choux (74,3%) et la laitue (62,9%), aliments à consommer avec modération, étaient les plus cités. Conclusion Les connaissances des patients sur la gestion des AVK étaient fragmentaires et insuffisantes pour assurer la sécurité et l'efficacité du traitement. La création d'un programme d'éducation thérapeutique sur les AVK s'avère alors nécessaire. PMID:25870741

  6. Applying the Verona coding definitions of emotional sequences (VR-CoDES) in the dental context involving patients with complex communication needs: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuefang; Black, Rolf; Freeman, Ruth; Herron, Daniel; Humphris, Gerry; Menzies, Rachel; Quinn, Sandra; Scott, Lesley; Waller, Annalu

    2014-11-01

    The VR-CoDES has been previously applied in the dental context. However, we know little about how dental patients with intellectual disabilities (ID) and complex communication needs express their emotional distress during dental visits. This is the first study explored the applicability of the VR-CoDES to a dental context involving patients with ID. Fourteen dental consultations were video recorded and coded using the VR-CoDES, assisted with the additional guidelines for the VR-CoDES in a dental context. Both inter- and intra-coder reliabilities were checked on the seven consultations where cues were observed. Sixteen cues (eight non-verbal) were identified within seven of the 14 consultations. Twenty responses were observed (12 reducing space) with four multiple responses. Cohen's Kappa were 0.76 (inter-coder) and 0.88 (intra-coder). With the additional guidelines, cues and responses were reliably identified. Cue expression was exhibited by non-verbal expression of emotion with people with ID in the literature. Further guidance is needed to improve the coding accuracy on multiple providers' responses and to investigate potential impacts of conflicting responses on patients. The findings provided a useful initial step towards an ongoing exploration of how healthcare providers identify and manage emotional distress of patients with ID. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Breastfeeding in an inner-city patient population.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Jessica M; Thomas, Deepam; Torcato, Brian R; Lisi, Louise M; Robbins, Susan W

    2011-05-01

    In order to determine the proportion of infants seen in safety-net health clinics whose mothers initiated and sustained breastfeeding and to assess predictors of breastfeeding in this largely minority patient population, charts were reviewed for infants treated in the eight Philadelphia Health Centers. Breastfeeding was initiated by 42%; 7.5% breastfed for 180 or more days. Race/ethnicity, mother's age, birth weight, and prematurity were not associated with breastfeeding initiation or maintenance. There were differences in initiation rates between patients born in different hospitals, and between patients seen in different health centers. Hospital and health center differences in breastfeeding initiation and health center differences in breastfeeding maintenance may reflect practice variations and unmeasured differences in patient populations. While breastfeeding rates in this population remain far below targets, the substantial proportion of mothers who did breastfeed and large variations between facilities demonstrate that breastfeeding is possible and can be successfully promoted among economically disadvantaged mothers.

  8. Patient validation of cues and concerns identified according to Verona coding definitions of emotional sequences (VR-CoDES): a video- and interview-based approach.

    PubMed

    Eide, Hilde; Eide, Tom; Rustøen, Tone; Finset, Arnstein

    2011-02-01

    A challenging but main task for clinicians is to identify patients' concerns related to their medical conditions. The study aim was to validate a new coding scheme for identifying patients' cues and concerns. 12 videotaped consultations between nurses and pain patients were coded according to the Verona Coding Scheme for Emotional Sequences (VR-CoDES). During a metainterview each patient watched his/her own video interview with the researcher to confirm or disconfirm the identified cues and concerns. A directive or an open format was applied. Quantitative and qualitative data analyses were performed. Patients' confirmation in relation to the coding gave a sensitivity of 0.95 and specificity of 0.99 in the directive format and a sensitivity of 0.99 and specificity of 0.70 applying the open format. Through a qualitative analysis 83% of researcher-identified cues and concerns were validated. 17% were not confirmed or uncertain. The VR-CoDES seems to capture what are experienced as real concerns to patients, and proves to be a coding scheme with a high degree of ecological validity. The VR-CoDES provides a valid framework for detecting patients' cues and concerns, and should be explored as a training tool to develop clinicians' empathic accuracy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Évolution des conditions d’initiation du traitement antirétroviral des patients infectés par le VIH en Afrique de l’Ouest

    PubMed Central

    Bashi, J.; Balestre, E.; Messou, E.; Maiga, M.; Coffie, P.A.; Zannou, D.M.; Ba-Gomis, O.; Traore, H.A.; Eholie, S.; Minga, A.; Sow, P.S.; Bissagnene, E.; Dabis, F.; Ekouevi, D.K.

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Étudier entre 1996 et 2006, l’évolution des schémas thérapeutiques et du profil clinique et immunologique des patients infectés par le VIH au début du traitement antirétroviral (TARV) en Afrique de l’Ouest. Cadre et méthode Les données issues de 12 centres cliniques adultes (IeDEA West Africa réseau collaboratif de prise en charge de l’infection à VIH) de cinq pays (Bénin, Cote d’Ivoire, Sénégal, Gambie, Mali) ont été mises en commun et analysées. Les patients âgés de 16 ans et plus dont le sexe, la date de naissance et la date d’initiation du TARV étaient connus ont été inclus dans cette étude. Résultats Quatorze mille quatre-cent-quatre-vingt-seize patients avaient débuté un TARV entre 1996–2006 avec 55 % des patients l’ayant débuté entre 2005–2006. La proportion de femmes était de 46 % en 1996–2000 et de 63 % en 2005–2006. L’âge médian à la mise sous traitement était constant: 35 ans chez les femmes et 40 ans chez les hommes. La proportion de patients qui ont débuté le TARV avec un taux de CD4 inférieur à 200 cellules/µl était de 54 % en 1996–2000 et de 64 % en 2005–2006. Les combinaisons thérapeutiques les plus prescrites étaient: AZT/3TC (ou d4T/DDI)/IDV (27 %) en 1996–2000; d4T (ou AZT)/3TC/EFV (59 %) en 2003–2004; et d4T/3TC/NVP (49 %) en 2005–2006. Les traitements de première ligne recommandés par l’OMS étaient débutés dans 83 % de cas en 2005–2006. Conclusion De nouvelles approches pour débuter un TARV plus précocement doivent être développées pour améliorer la survie des patients sous TARV. PMID:20045273

  10. Approche à l’endroit des blessures traumatiques à la main en soins primaires

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Kevin; Hatchell, Alexandra; Thoma, Achilleas

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue la prise en charge initiale des blessures traumatiques communes à la main que voient les médecins de soins primaires. Sources des données Nous avons examiné les données cliniques probantes et les ouvrages spécialisés récents cernés par des recherches dans la base de données électronique MEDLINE. Nous avons utilisé l’opinion d’experts pour compléter les recommandations dans les domaines où les données scientifiques étaient rares. Message principal Les médecins de soins primaires sont couramment appelés à prendre en charge des patients victimes de blessures traumatiques à la main. Dans le contexte d’un cas clinique, nous examinons l’évaluation, le diagnostic et la prise en charge initiale des traumatismes communs à la main. La présentation et la prise en charge des blessures au lit de l’ongle, des amputations de l’extrémité du doigt, des doigts en maillet, des fractures à la main, des lacérations de tendons, des morsures et de la ténosynovite infectieuse seront aussi discutées. Les principes de la prise en charge des blessures traumatiques à la main comportent la réduction et l’immobilisation des fractures, la prescription d’imagerie radiographique post-réduction, l’obtention d’un recouvrement par les tissus mous, la prévention et le traitement des infections et l’assurance d’une prophylaxie antitétanique. Conclusion Il est essentiel d’assurer une évaluation et une prise en charge appropriées des blessures traumatiques à la main pour prévenir une morbidité considérable à long terme dans une population autrement en santé. La reconnaissance sans délai des blessures qui nécessitent une demande de consultation urgente ou rapide auprès d’un chirurgien spécialiste de la main est également critique.

  11. Maladie des vibrations

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shixin (Cindy); House, Ronald A.

    2017-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Permettre aux médecins de famille de comprendre l’épidémiologie, la pathogenèse, les symptômes, le diagnostic et la prise en charge de la maladie des vibrations, une maladie professionnelle importante et courante au Canada. Sources d’information Une recherche a été effectuée sur MEDLINE afin de relever les recherches et comptes rendus portant sur la maladie des vibrations. Une recherche a été effectuée sur Google dans le but d’obtenir la littérature grise qui convient au contexte canadien. D’autres références ont été tirées des articles relevés. Message principal La maladie des vibrations est une maladie professionnelle répandue touchant les travailleurs de diverses industries qui utilisent des outils vibrants. La maladie est cependant sous-diagnostiquée au Canada. Elle compte 3 éléments : vasculaire, sous la forme d’un phénomène de Raynaud secondaire; neurosensoriel; et musculosquelettique. Aux stades les plus avancés, la maladie des vibrations entraîne une invalidité importante et une piètre qualité de vie. Son diagnostic exige une anamnèse minutieuse, en particulier des antécédents professionnels, un examen physique, des analyses de laboratoire afin d’éliminer les autres diagnostics, et la recommandation en médecine du travail aux fins d’investigations plus poussées. La prise en charge consiste à réduire l’exposition aux vibrations, éviter les températures froides, abandonner le tabac et administrer des médicaments. Conclusion Pour assurer un diagnostic rapide de la maladie des vibrations et améliorer le pronostic et la qualité de vie, les médecins de famille devraient connaître cette maladie professionnelle courante, et pouvoir obtenir les détails pertinents durant l’anamnèse, recommander les patients aux cliniques de médecine du travail et débuter les demandes d’indemnisation de manière appropriée. PMID:28292812

  12. Séroprévalence du virus de l'herpès humain-8 chez des patients VIH positif à l'hôpital général de Yaoundé – Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Jacky, Njiki Bikoï; Paul, Ndom; Lilian, Mupang; Sylvie, Agokeng Demanou

    2015-01-01

    L'épidémiologie de l'infection par le virus herpès humain de type 8 (HHV8) associée à celle à VIH, reste encore méconnue au Cameroun, bien que le pays soit considéré comme une zone endémique pour ces deux virus. L'objectif de ce travail était de ressortir le profil de la séroprévalence du HHV8 au sein de notre population d'étude. 57 personnes ont été recrutées à l'Hôpital Général de Yaoundé et suivies sur une durée 12 mois. Des anticorps IgG anti-HHV8 ont été déterminés par ELISA. Des paramètres autres, tels que l'âge, le sexe, le stade des maladies (SK et VIH/SIDA), le protocole ARV, ainsi que les taux de CD4 ont été utilisés pour déterminer les variables associées à la séropositivité au HHV8. Cette association a été évaluée par le test khi carré. La séroprévalence du HHV8 était de 90% dans notre population en début d'étude et de 74% douze mois plus tard, une séroprévalence qui restait élevée quelque soit le profil clinique, la tranche d'âge, le sexe ou le taux de CD4+ de l'individu. Aucune variable de l'étude n'était significativement associée à la séropositivité du HHV8. Le virus HHV8 semblait circuler au sein de notre population d'étude. Cependant l'on constate, douze mois plus tard, l'absence de manifestations cliniques du SK chez les patients VIH+ positifs, malgré des titres très élevés en IgG anti-HHV8. PMID:26090027

  13. Patients, populations and policy: patient outcomes in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Powe, N R

    2001-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease represents an interesting illustration for evaluating an epidemic of chronic illness, the impact of care processes and technology on health outcomes, the impact of financial incentives and cost containment on health outcomes, and the choices society must consider in responding to a chronic illness. The evidence suggests that strong economic pressures exist in the care of chronic kidney disease and that cost containment is important. The results in large part reflect the impact of economic pressures on clinical decision making in the absence of good evidence on outcomes. To improve clinical decision making we need valid evidence linking specific processes of care to patient outcomes. Specific processes amenable to study include the provision of preventive services, physician and nurse technical and interpersonal care and adherence to clinical practice guidelines. The ESRD Quality Study (EQUAL) currently underway and supported by the National Institutes of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, may help to guide physicians and centers in caring for their patients with chronic kidney disease. This investigation examines the relation between process of care and outcomes and expands outcomes measure to include disease-specific quality-of-life measures and patient satisfaction and accounts for case mix using the Index of Co-Existent Disease, a measure of the extent of different comorbid diseases as well as their severity (18,19,20). Better data on how processes of care are linked to health outcomes can inform decision making and allow educated cost cutting and quality maintenance.

  14. Using low molecular weight heparin in special patient populations.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wendy

    2010-02-01

    Clinical trials evaluating low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism and acute coronary syndromes have led to their regulatory approval for these indications in the general population. However, certain patient populations have been excluded from these landmark clinical trials, including patients with renal insufficiency, obese patients and pregnant women. In these special populations, data on safety and efficacy is limited and typically based on pharmacokinetic studies often performed in healthy subjects, or small cohort studies which are generally not powered to evaluate clinical outcomes such as bleeding or recurrent thrombosis. Because LMWH is mainly cleared renally, patients with severe renal insufficiency are at risk of LMWH accumulation and increased bleeding risks. In obese patients, there is concern regarding possible overdosing of therapeutic dose LMWH, since LMWH does not distribute in fat tissue. There are also concerns about possible underdosing of prophylactic dose LMWH in obese individuals using the standard fixed doses, particularly in the extremely obese individuals undergoing bariatric surgery. Last, pregnancy poses challenges with regards to the safety of LMWH during pregnancy and use of LMWH around delivery. This review summarizes the existing data in these special populations and proposes general recommendations for practice.

  15. Modelling the Dynamics of Post-Vaccination Immunity Rate in a Population of Sahelian Sheep after a Vaccination Campaign against Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lancelot, Renaud; Lesnoff, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    Background Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute infectious viral disease affecting domestic small ruminants (sheep and goats) and some wild ruminant species in Africa, the Middle East and Asia. A global PPR control strategy based on mass vaccination—in regions where PPR is endemic—was recently designed and launched by international organizations. Sahelian Africa is one of the most challenging endemic regions for PPR control. Indeed, strong seasonal and annual variations in mating, mortality and offtake rates result in a complex population dynamics which might in turn alter the population post-vaccination immunity rate (PIR), and thus be important to consider for the implementation of vaccination campaigns. Methods In a context of preventive vaccination in epidemiological units without PPR virus transmission, we developed a predictive, dynamic model based on a seasonal matrix population model to simulate PIR dynamics. This model was mostly calibrated with demographic and epidemiological parameters estimated from a long-term follow-up survey of small ruminant herds. We used it to simulate the PIR dynamics following a single PPR vaccination campaign in a Sahelian sheep population, and to assess the effects of (i) changes in offtake rate related to the Tabaski (a Muslim feast following the lunar calendar), and (ii) the date of implementation of the vaccination campaigns. Results The persistence of PIR was not influenced by the Tabaski date. Decreasing the vaccination coverage from 100 to 80% had limited effects on PIR. However, lower vaccination coverage did not provide sufficient immunity rates (PIR < 70%). As a trade-off between model predictions and other considerations like animal physiological status, and suitability for livestock farmers, we would suggest to implement vaccination campaigns in September-October. This model is a first step towards better decision support for animal health authorities. It might be adapted to other species, livestock

  16. Modelling the Dynamics of Post-Vaccination Immunity Rate in a Population of Sahelian Sheep after a Vaccination Campaign against Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Pachka; Lancelot, Renaud; Lesnoff, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute infectious viral disease affecting domestic small ruminants (sheep and goats) and some wild ruminant species in Africa, the Middle East and Asia. A global PPR control strategy based on mass vaccination-in regions where PPR is endemic-was recently designed and launched by international organizations. Sahelian Africa is one of the most challenging endemic regions for PPR control. Indeed, strong seasonal and annual variations in mating, mortality and offtake rates result in a complex population dynamics which might in turn alter the population post-vaccination immunity rate (PIR), and thus be important to consider for the implementation of vaccination campaigns. In a context of preventive vaccination in epidemiological units without PPR virus transmission, we developed a predictive, dynamic model based on a seasonal matrix population model to simulate PIR dynamics. This model was mostly calibrated with demographic and epidemiological parameters estimated from a long-term follow-up survey of small ruminant herds. We used it to simulate the PIR dynamics following a single PPR vaccination campaign in a Sahelian sheep population, and to assess the effects of (i) changes in offtake rate related to the Tabaski (a Muslim feast following the lunar calendar), and (ii) the date of implementation of the vaccination campaigns. The persistence of PIR was not influenced by the Tabaski date. Decreasing the vaccination coverage from 100 to 80% had limited effects on PIR. However, lower vaccination coverage did not provide sufficient immunity rates (PIR < 70%). As a trade-off between model predictions and other considerations like animal physiological status, and suitability for livestock farmers, we would suggest to implement vaccination campaigns in September-October. This model is a first step towards better decision support for animal health authorities. It might be adapted to other species, livestock farming systems or diseases.

  17. Plunging ranula - patient characteristics, treatment, and comparison between different populations.

    PubMed

    Lyly, Annina; Castrén, Eeva; Aronniemi, Johanna; Klockars, Tuomas

    2017-07-28

    To review our clinical experience and characteristics of Finnish patients with plunging ranula and compare our results with reports from other populations. A retrospective study from the electronic hospital records between 2005 and 2016. The Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery of Helsinki University Hospital, Finland. We describe the characteristics and treatment of 41 patients with MRI-confirmed plunging ranula. Most of our patients were young adults and 88% of them were male. Surgery and sclerotherapy were used for treatment. The vast majority of Finnish plunging ranula patients in our cohort were male, suggesting significant population-related differences in plunging ranula gender distribution. Transoral surgery seemed to result in lowest recurrence rate and was the most common treatment in our clinic.

  18. Etude des Abondances de MG et de fe dans la Composante Stellaire des Disques des Galaxies Spirales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauchamp, Dominique

    Je presente ici une technique d'observation par imagerie des disques stellaires des galaxies spirales. Je tente, a l'aide d'un modele evolutif multiphase, de determiner les abondances de fer et de magnesium dans les disques. Dans ce but, je mesure les indices Mg2 et Fe5270 du systeme de Lick. Ces elements representent un choix judicieux d'indicateurs car ils sont formes par des supernovae de deux types differents ayant des durees de vie differentes. Le rapport d'abondances de ces deux elements est un indicateur du taux de formation des populations stellaires. Je decris, en premier lieu, les observations, la technique de mesure, ainsi que son application. J'analyse ensuite les indices mesures. A partir du modele multiphase, j'explore differents parametres physiques des spirales comme le taux de formation stellaire, l'evolution des abondances, les effets possibles de la presence de la barre, etc.

  19. [Population pharmacokinetics applied to optimising cisplatin doses in cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Ramón-López, A; Escudero-Ortiz, V; Carbonell, V; Pérez-Ruixo, J J; Valenzuela, B

    2012-01-01

    To develop and internally validate a population pharmacokinetics model for cisplatin and assess its prediction capacity for personalising doses in cancer patients. Cisplatin plasma concentrations in forty-six cancer patients were used to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model implemented in NONMEN VI software. Pharmacokinetic parameter identification capacity was assessed using the parametric bootstrap method and the model was validated using the nonparametric bootstrap method and standardised visual and numerical predictive checks. The final model's prediction capacity was evaluated in terms of accuracy and precision during the first (a priori) and second (a posteriori) chemotherapy cycles. Mean population cisplatin clearance is 1.03 L/h with an interpatient variability of 78.0%. Estimated distribution volume at steady state was 48.3 L, with inter- and intrapatient variabilities of 31,3% and 11,7%, respectively. Internal validation confirmed that the population pharmacokinetics model is appropriate to describe changes over time in cisplatin plasma concentrations, as well as its variability in the study population. The accuracy and precision of a posteriori prediction of cisplatin concentrations improved by 21% and 54% compared to a priori prediction. The population pharmacokinetic model developed adequately described the changes in cisplatin plasma concentrations in cancer patients and can be used to optimise cisplatin dosing regimes accurately and precisely. Copyright © 2011 SEFH. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. The perception of patients' rights among Belgian population.

    PubMed

    Devroey, Dirk; Deneyer, Michel; Scheys, Ellen; Van De Vijver, Erwin; Van den Block, Lieve

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and perception of specific patients' rights and the problems experienced with their fulfilment among the Belgian population. Participants were recruited through patient association groups and health insurance companies. They completed an Internet-based questionnaire with 20 questions concerning patients' rights. In total, 309 persons completed all questions. The mean age of participants was 46 years (SD = 15), 58% of them were women. Participants judged patients' rights concerning the end of life (88%), affordable health care (87%) and information about health status (85%) as the most important issues. Participants particularly showed concern about their legal rights for care offered in the patients' own language (21%), euthanasia (15%) and affordable health care (14%). The most important problems experienced so far were related to care offered in the patients' own language (12%), affordable health care (11%) and access to their medical file (7%).

  1. Obsessive-compulsiveness in a population of tinnitus patients.

    PubMed

    Folmer, Robert L; Griest, Susan E; Martin, William Hal

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI) to assess obsessive-compulsiveness in a population of 196 tinnitus patients and to correlate MOCI scores with measures of anxiety, depression, and tinnitus severity. Tinnitus severity was positively correlated with measures of anxiety and depression. Depression was positively correlated with MOCI and anxiety scores. MOCI scores exhibited weaker positive correlations with tinnitus severity and anxiety. Effective management of tinnitus requires identification of psychological disorders or symptoms when they are present so that patients can receive appropriate treatment as soon as possible. The MOCI can be used to assess obsessive-compulsiveness in tinnitus patients.

  2. Randomized Comparison of Xience V and Multi-Link Vision Coronary Stents in the Same Multivessel Patient With Chronic Kidney Disease (RENAL-DES) Study.

    PubMed

    Tomai, Fabrizio; Ribichini, Flavio; De Luca, Leonardo; Petrolini, Alessandro; Ghini, Anna S; Weltert, Luca; Spaccarotella, Carmen; Proietti, Igino; Trani, Carlo; Nudi, Francesco; Pighi, Michele; Vassanelli, Corrado

    2014-03-11

    Percutaneous coronary interventions in patients with chronic kidney disease have shown suboptimal results. Drug-eluting stents (DES) might reduce the rate of target vessel revascularization in comparison with bare-metal stents (BMS) in patients with chronic kidney disease. However, given the multiple concomitant individual variables present in such patients, the comparison of neointimal growth after percutaneous coronary intervention is complex and difficult to assess. Randomized Comparison of Xience V and Multi-Link Vision Coronary Stents in the Same Multivessel Patient with Chronic Kidney Disease (RENAL-DES) was a prospective, randomized, multicenter study to directly compare the efficacy in the prevention of clinical restenosis of everolimus-eluting stent (Xience V) and BMS with an identical design (Multi-Link Vision), both implanted in the same patient with multivessel coronary artery disease and chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min). The primary end point of the study was the ischemia-driven target vessel revascularization as detected with myocardial scintigraphy at 12 months. In 215 patients, 512 coronary vessels were successfully treated with the randomly assigned DES (n=257) or BMS (n=255). At 1 year, the rate of ischemia-driven target vessel revascularization for DES and BMS groups was 2.7% (95% confidence interval, 1.1%-5.6%) and 11.4% (95% confidence interval, 7.8% to 16%), respectively, P<0.001. For the multivariate analysis, independent predictors of the ischemia-driven target vessel revascularization were BMS implantation (odds ratio, 4.95; 95% confidence interval, 2.1-11.6; P<0.001) and vessel size (odds ratio, 0.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.7; P=0.006). This is the first randomized trial showing a reduction of clinical restenosis with a new-generation DES in comparison with a BMS of equal design, in patients who have chronic kidney disease with multivessel coronary artery disease. http

  3. L’expérience d’une patiente qui reçoit des soins pour la démence

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Christopher; Forbes, Rev Faye

    2017-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Permettre aux médecins de famille de comprendre « l’expérience vécue » de la démence de la bouche d’une personne atteinte de démence—Faye Forbes, ministre anglicane de 64 ans atteinte de la maladie d’Alzheimer, qui donne son point de vue sur comment vivre avec la démence—et utiliser cette information pour améliorer les soins et les résultats. Sources d’information Une recherche a été effectuée dans MEDLINE sur Ovid entre janvier 2005 et février 2015, à l’aide des mots-clés anglais suivants : dementia, caregiver, perspectives et quality of health care. Les articles qui s’adressaient aux médecins de famille ont été sélectionnés. Des revues pertinentes et des articles de recherche originaux ont été utilisés, le cas échéant, s’ils s’appliquaient aux personnes atteintes de démence et à leurs soignants. Message principal Plusieurs cadres de référence organisent les principales expériences décrites par les patients et leurs soignants. Nous avons utilisé une revue de la littérature qualitative pour fournir un cadre de référence résumant l’expérience de Faye, en fonction des thèmes suivants : tenter d’obtenir un diagnostic, accéder au soutien et aux services, besoins en matière d’information, prise en charge de la maladie, et communication et attitudes. Conclusion Les médecins doivent tenir compte de ces thèmes lorsqu’ils planifient la prise en charge des personnes atteintes de démence. Il importe de tenter de comprendre l’expérience et le point de vue des personnes atteintes de démence et de leurs soignants afin de pouvoir dispenser des soins optimaux. PMID:28115451

  4. Hypernatraemia in an adult in-patient population.

    PubMed Central

    Long, C. A.; Marin, P.; Bayer, A. J.; Shetty, H. G.; Pathy, M. S.

    1991-01-01

    We report a retrospective study of hypernatraemia (serum sodium concentration greater than 150 mmol/l) in an adult in-patient population of a health district during one year. The incidence was 0.3% with at least 60% of cases developing after hospital admission, mainly in elderly patients. Dehydration appeared to be the major cause, with the use of diuretics, depressed conscious level or febrile illness implicated in a majority. Most patients had more than one contributory factor and iatrogenic causes were common. Associated illnesses were often severe and the in-hospital mortality was high (54%) regardless of age. Hypernatraemia in hospitalized patients should be largely avoidable and there is a need for greater awareness of the importance of active maintenance of hydration in susceptible patients. PMID:1924049

  5. Clostridium difficile Infections after Blunt Trauma: A Different Patient Population?

    PubMed Central

    Vanzant, Erin L.; Ozrazgat-Baslanti, Tezcan; Liu, Huazhi; Malik, Seemab; Davis, Ruth; Lanz, Jennifer; Miggins, Makesha V.; Gentile, Lori F.; Cuenca, Angela; Cuenca, Alex G.; Lottenberg, Lawrence; Moore, Frederick A.; Ang, Darwin N.; Bihorac, Azra

    2015-01-01

    -CDI patients, reveals evidence of increased inflammation, immunosuppression, worse acute kidney injury, higher NISS, greater days in the hospital and on the ventilator, higher organ injury scores, and prolonged clinical courses. This supports reports of an increased prevalence of CDI in a younger population not believed previously to be at risk. This unique population may have specific genomic or inflammation-related risk factors that may play more important roles in disease susceptibility. Prospective analysis may allow early identification of at-risk patients, creation of novel therapeutics, and improved understanding of how and why C. difficile colonization transforms into infection after severe blunt trauma. PMID:26207402

  6. Phase II cancer clinical trials with heterogeneous patient populations.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sin-Ho; Chang, Myron N; Kang, Sun J

    2012-01-01

    The patient population for a Phase II trial often consists of multiple subgroups in terms of risk level. In this case, a popular design approach is to specify the response rate and the prevalence of each subgroup, to calculate the response rate of the whole population by the weighted average of the response rates across subgroups, and to choose a standard Phase II design such as Simon's optimal or minimax design to test the response rate for the whole population. In this case, although the prevalence of each subgroup is accurately specified, the observed prevalence among the accrued patients to the study may be quite different from the expected one because of the small sample size, which is typical in most Phase II trials. The fixed rejection value for a chosen standard Phase II design may be either too conservative (i.e., increasing the false rejection probability of the experimental therapy) if the trial accrues more high-risk patients than expected, or too anti-conservative (i.e., increasing the false acceptance probability of the experimental therapy) if the trial accrues more low-risk patients than expected. We can avoid such problems by adjusting the rejection values, depending on the observed prevalence from the trial. In this paper, we investigate the performance of the flexible designs compared with the standard design with fixed rejection values under various settings.

  7. Employment among Patients with Multiple Sclerosis-A Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Bøe Lunde, Hanne Marie; Telstad, Wenche; Grytten, Nina; Kyte, Lars; Aarseth, Jan; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Bø, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate demographic and clinical factors associated with employment in MS. Methods The study included 213 (89.9%) of all MS patients in Sogn and Fjordane County, Western Norway at December 31st 2010. The patients underwent clinical evaluation, structured interviews and completed self-reported questionnaires. Demographic and clinical factors were compared between patients being employed versus patients being unemployed and according to disease course of MS. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors independently associated with current employment. Results After a mean disease duration of almost 19 years, 45% of the population was currently full-time or part- time employed. Patients with relapsing –remitting MS (RRMS) had higher employment rate than patients with secondary (SPMS) and primary progressive (PPMS). Higher educated MS patients with lower age at onset, shorter disease duration, less severe disability and less fatigue were most likely to be employed. Conclusions Nearly half of all MS patients were still employed after almost two decades of having MS. Lower age at onset, shorter disease duration, higher education, less fatigue and less disability were independently associated with current employment. These key clinical and demographic factors are important to understand the reasons to work ability in MS. The findings highlight the need for environmental adjustments at the workplace to accommodate individual ’s needs in order to improve working ability among MS patients. PMID:25054972

  8. Etiologies et pronostic des occlusions intestinales aigues mécaniques à l’Hôpital National de Zinder: étude transversale sur 171 patients

    PubMed Central

    Adamou, Harissou; Magagi, Ibrahim Amadou; Habou, Oumarou; Magagi, Amadou; Maazou, Halidou; Adamou, Mansour; Harouna, Yacouba

    2016-01-01

    L’occlusion intestinale aigue (OIA) mécanique, représente l’une des pathologies les plus fréquentes en chirurgie digestive d’urgence. L’objectif de cette étude était de décrire les aspects étiologiques et pronostiques des occlusions intestinales aigues mécaniques à l’Hôpital National de Zinder (HNZ), Niger. Il s’agissait d’une étude transversale sur 24 mois (Janvier 2013 à Décembre 2014) ayant inclus tous les patients opérés pour OIA. Les occlusions intestinales mécaniques représentaient 24,50% (n=171) des urgences chirurgicales digestives (n=622). L’âge médian était à 25 ans (extrêmes: 1 jour et 95 ans). Le sexe ratio était à 3,5 en faveur des hommes. Les enfants représentaient 38,60% (n=66). Le siège de l’obstacle était sur le grêle dans 60,82% (n=104), colique dans 21,63%(n=37) et mixte dans 17,54% (n=30). Le mécanisme par strangulation constituait 88,89% (n=152) dont les hernies étranglées avec 49,70% (n=85) et les invaginations intestinales aigues avec 19,88% (n=34) des patients. Les malformations ano-rectales et les tumeurs constituaient les principales étiologies par obstruction avec respectivement 7,02% (n=12) et 3,51% (n=6). Une résection intestinale était faite dans 52 cas (30,41%). Les complications septiques prédominaient (n=39/53), dont la suppuration pariétale (n=23). Le séjour moyen était de 7,82 jours. La mortalité globale était 11,70% (n=20). Celle-ci était corrélée statistiquement à la nécrose intestinale (p=0,01) et au retard d’admission (p=0,04). Les étiologies des OIA sont multiples et dominées par les hernies étranglées. La morbi-mortalité élevée qu’elles entrainent pourrait être évitée par la prise en charge précoce avant l’installation d’une nécrose intestinale. PMID:27800103

  9. Stratification of ALS patients' survival: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Marin, Benoît; Couratier, Philippe; Arcuti, Simona; Copetti, Massimiliano; Fontana, Andrea; Nicol, Marie; Raymondeau, Marie; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Preux, Pierre Marie

    2016-01-01

    The natural history of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and patient risk stratification are areas of considerable research interest. We aimed (1) to describe the survival of a representative cohort of French ALS patients, and (2) to identify covariates associated with various patterns of survival using a risk classification analysis. ALS patients recruited in the FRALim register (2000-2013) were included. Time-to-death analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier method and Cox model. A recursive partitioning and amalgamation (RECPAM) algorithm analysis identified subgroups of patients with different patterns of survival. Among 322 patients, median survival times were 26.2 and 15.6 months from time of onset and of diagnosis, respectively. Four groups of patients were identified, depending on their baseline characteristics and survival (1) ALSFRS-R slope >0.46/month and definite or probable ALS (median survival time (MST) 10.6 months); (2) ALSFRS-R slope >0.46/month and possible or probable laboratory-supported ALS (MST: 18.1 months); (3) ALSFRS-R slope ≤0.46/month and definite or probable ALS (MST: 22.5 months), and (4) ALSFRS-R slope ≤0.46/month and possible or probable laboratory-supported ALS (MST: 37.6 months). Median survival time is among the shortest ever reported by a worldwide population-based study. This is probably related to the age structure of the patients (the oldest identified to date), driven by the underlying population (30 % of subjects older than 60 years). Further research in the field of risk stratification could help physicians better anticipate prognosis of ALS patients, and help improve the design of randomized controlled trials.

  10. [Winter surveillance of cold exposure effects on health among the homeless population in the Paris area: data from the Coordinated Health Surveillance of Emergency Department network (Organisation de la surveillance coordonnée des urgences [Oscour(®)])].

    PubMed

    Rouquette, A; Mandereau-Bruno, L; Baffert, E; Laaidi, K; Josseran, L; Isnard, H

    2011-12-01

    A program for helping homeless individuals in winter is implemented from November 1(st) to March 31(st) each year in France. Its aim is to prevent morbidity and mortality in this population during cold spells and periods of severe cold. A health surveillance system of the homeless population in the Paris area has been proposed to evaluate the effectiveness of the program and to alert decision-makers if an unusual increase in cold-weather effects is observed. The goal of this study was the creation of an indicator for the proposed surveillance system based on emergency department activity in the Paris area (Oscour(®) Network - Organisation de la surveillance coordonnée des urgences). The winter 2007-2008 computer medical files of 11 emergency departments in the Paris area were examined to confirm diagnosis and ascertain patient-homelessness for each patient visit which was selected from the Oscour(®) database by the patient chief-complaint or diagnosis code referring to hypothermia or frostbites. The proposed indicator is based on the maximization of three criteria: the positive predictive value, the proportion of people identified as being homeless and the number of emergency department visits. A Shewhart control chart was applied to the indicator for the four winters between 2005 and 2009 in the Paris area. Values beyond the statistical threshold would indicate a need for an adjustment to the program strategy. Two hundred and sixteen medical files were analyzed. An indicator was created, "number of emergency department visits of 15 to 69-years-old persons with chief-complaint or diagnosis code referring to hypothermia". It had a positive predictive value estimated near 85 % and identified 61.7 % people as being homeless. In the winter of 2008-2009, the statistical threshold was reached in December during the first cold spell, and again at the beginning of January during a period of severe cold. Our results support the use of this health indicator

  11. Des Moines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This document, intended for elementary students, contains articles and activities designed to acquaint young people with the history of Des Moines, Iowa. The articles are short, and new or difficult words are highlighted and defined for young readers. "The Raccoon River Indian Agency" discusses the archeological exploration of the indian…

  12. Des Moines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This document, intended for elementary students, contains articles and activities designed to acquaint young people with the history of Des Moines, Iowa. The articles are short, and new or difficult words are highlighted and defined for young readers. "The Raccoon River Indian Agency" discusses the archeological exploration of the indian…

  13. Efficacy and Safety of Fingolimod in an Unselected Patient Population

    PubMed Central

    Andelova, Michaela; Naegelin, Yvonne; Stippich, Christoph; Kappos, Ludwig; Lindberg, Raija L. P.; Sprenger, Till; Derfuss, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Background Fingolimod is a first in class oral compound approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS). The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and neuroradiological responses to fingolimod as well as the safety and tolerability in RR-MS patients in clinical practice. In addition, a panel of pro-inflammatory serum cytokines was explored as potential biomarker for treatment response. Methods We conducted a retrospective, non-randomized, open-label, observational study in 105 patients with RR-MS and measured cytokines in longitudinal serum samples. Results Compared to the year before fingolimod start the annualized relapse rate was reduced by 44%. Also, the percentage of patients with a worsening of the EDSS decreased. Accordingly, the fraction of patients with no evidence of disease activity (no relapse, stable EDSS, no new active lesions in MRI) increased from 11% to 38%. The efficacy and safety were comparable between highly active patients or patients with relevant comorbidities and our general patient population. Conclusions The efficacy in reducing relapses was comparable to that observed in the phase III trials. In our cohort fingolimod was safe and efficacious irrespective of comorbidities and previous treatment. PMID:26734938

  14. Towards better understanding of patient centric drug product development in an increasingly older patient population.

    PubMed

    Stegemann, Sven

    2016-10-30

    The substantial reduction in premature death and longevity is an achievement of modern societies and advances in technology, medical and pharmaceutical sciences. Derived from the effective management of acute and chronic diseases throughout the lifetime the typical age related, later life stage diseases will become more dominant characteristics in future patients as well as other age related impairments or life conditions. Naturally, this leads to patients with complex clinical and functional patterns that are accompanied by the necessity of therapeutic interventions and polypharmacy. With the increasing number of older people and especially those with very high age in the society, new distinct older patient populations are evolving that require patient centered therapies and drug products to maintain safety and efficacy as well as effectiveness. Understanding how the patient populations and their characteristics change from a clinical, daily functioning and a patient perspective is crucial to move towards patient centric drug products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dry Eye Syndrome Risks in Patients With Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chao-Hsien; Yang, Tse-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Chih-Sheng; Lin, Wei-Ming; Kuo, Chia-Nan; Lin, Ming-Chia; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The coexistence of fibromyalgia (FM) and dry eye syndrome (DES) has been previously reported. However, there are few studies on how patients with FM may develop concomitant DES. Patients with chronic widespread pain, like FM, chronic fatigue syndrome, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), was concerned for the rheumatic or psychosomatic disorders which might adequately reflect the long-term risk of DES. We retrieved data on FM patients from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan covering the years 2000 to 2011. Our FM population consisted of 25,777 patients versus 103,108 patients in the non-FM group: the overall incidence of DES in these populations was 7.37/10,000 and 4.81/10,000, respectively. Male FM patients had a higher incidence of DES, with a 1.39-fold DES risk for males and a 1.45-fold for females after adjustment for confounding factor. Notably, FM patients aged ≤49 years had an elevated 80% risk of DES compared with the non-FM group. Without comorbidities, FM patients had an approximately 1.40-fold risk of DES than those without FM. The additive effects of FM and IBS or FM and sleep disturbance were pointed out that the risk for DES would be elevated when the FM patients with IBS or sleep disturbance. FM patients have a higher incidence of DES than that of non-FM patients. They carry long-term DES risks from a relatively young age, particularly those with psychiatric problems. Risk stratification for a timely psychiatric medication intervention and risk modifications are not intended. PMID:26825913

  16. Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Piperacillin in Burn Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Sangil; Han, Seunghoon; Lee, Jongtae; Hong, Taegon; Paek, Jeongki

    2014-01-01

    Piperacillin in combination with tazobactam, a β-lactamase inhibitor, is a commonly used intravenous antibiotic for the empirical treatment of infection in intensive care patients, including burn patients. The purpose of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for piperacillin in burn patients and to predict the probability of target attainment (PTA) using MICs and concentrations simulated from the PK model. Fifty burn patients treated with piperacillin-tazobactam were enrolled. Piperacillin-tazobactam was administered via infusion for approximately 30 min at a dose of 4.5 g (4 g piperacillin and 0.5 g tazobactam) every 8 h. Blood samples were collected just prior to and at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 h after the end of the infusion at steady state. The population PK model of piperacillin was developed using NONMEM. A two-compartment first-order elimination PK model was finally chosen. The covariates included were creatinine clearance (CLCR), day after burn injury (DAI), and sepsis. The final PK parameters were clearance (liters/h) (equal to 16.6 × [CLCR/132] + DAI × [−0.0874]), central volume (liters) (equal to 25.3 + 14.8 × sepsis [0 for the absence or 1 for the presence of sepsis]), peripheral volume (liters) (equal to 16.1), and intercompartmental clearance (liters/h) (equal to 0.636). The clearance and volume of piperacillin were higher than those reported in patients without burns, and the terminal half-life and PTA decreased with the increased CLCR. Our PK model suggests that higher daily doses or longer durations of infusion of piperacillin should be considered, especially for burn patients with a CLCR of ≥160 ml/min. PMID:24752260

  17. Population Pharmacokinetics of Vancomycin in Postoperative Neurosurgical Patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingang; Wu, Yuanxing; Sun, Shusen; Mei, Shenghui; Wang, Jiaqing; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Zhigang

    2015-11-01

    Neurosurgical procedures may damage the blood-brain barrier to allow more vancomycin distribution into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from blood after intravenous administration. However, a large intersubject variability in CSF vancomycin concentration was observed. We aimed to develop a population pharmacokinetic model to guide vancomycin dosing in patients after neurosurgical operation. Blood and CSF samples were collected and determined from postoperative neurosurgical patients after vancomycin administration. A three-compartment (central, peripheral, and CSF) model was proposed to characterize the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin. A nonlinear mixed-effects modeling approach was applied to fit the blood and CSF data simultaneously. The covariate analysis found that the CSF albumin level was strongly associated with the clearance between central and CSF compartment. Visual predictive check indicated that the proposed population pharmacokinetic model agrees well with the observed vancomycin concentrations. Individualized vancomycin dosage regimens could be developed for postoperative neurosurgical patients with different CSF albumin levels through model simulations. The CSF albumin level is a determinant of CSF vancomycin concentration.

  18. [Population-based study of tear production in healthy individuals and patients with dry eye syndrome in Altai Republic].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, A L; Kolbasko, A V; Shirina, M A

    2012-01-01

    For the first time population-based study of tear production was performed, prevalence and risk factors of dry eye syndrome (DES) were determined in native ethnic group of Altai Republic--tubalars. Authors examined 673 people, representing 44% of the whole tubalar population. The mean total tear production (Shirmer test I) was 13,3 +/- 0,3 mm in healthy (without DES signs) tubalars. It ranges in 22,6% of healthy tubalars from 0 to 5 mm, in 20,8%--6 to 11 mm, in 20,5%--12 to 17 mm, in 34,5%-- > 17 mm. Prevalence of DES in tubalar population is 86,18 per thousand. Total tear production (Shirmer test I) in tubalars with DES ranges from 0 to 5 mm in 34%, 6-11 mm in 31,5%, 12-17 mm in 21% and > 17 mm in 13% of eyes. This results showed Shirmer test I to be nonspecific in diagnosis of DES. In author's opinion this test may be useful for follow-up and for assessment of treatment efficacy.

  19. What patients want from the treatment of Dupuytren's disease--is the Unité Rhumatologique des Affections de la Main (URAM) scale relevant?

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, J N; Zhang, W; Scammell, B E; Davis, T R C

    2015-02-01

    Patients awaiting surgery for Dupuytren's contractures listed the problems from their Dupuytren's disease that had led them to request surgery and their relative priorities of the results of surgery. The listed problems were compared with the nine items comprising the Unité Rhumatologique des Affections de la Main (URAM) Dupuytren's disease-specific outcome measure. One hundred and ten patients reported 278 problems. Ninety-four different combinations of problems were provided by patients, and over half (55%) of the problems were not captured by items in the URAM scale. The long-term outcome from surgery was relatively more important to patients than speed of recovery. The URAM tool may not be relevant to patients in the UK, and further assessment of its face validity is required before it is used. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Patient Satisfaction is Not Associated With Self-reported Disability in a Spine Patient Population.

    PubMed

    Abtahi, Amir M; Lyman, Kade Shumway; Brodke, Darrel S; Lawrence, Brandon D; Zhang, Chong; Spiker, William Ryan

    2017-10-01

    This is a retrospective review. To evaluate the relationship between patient functional status and self-assessment of disability as measured by 3 commonly used clinical assessment instruments-the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), the Neck Disability Index (NDI), and the EuroQol (EQ)-5D and patient satisfaction scores in a spine surgery clinic population. Patient satisfaction surveys, which measure the "patient experience of care" are becoming an increasingly important measure of the quality of medical care. Despite the widespread use of patient satisfaction surveys, little is known about the relationship between patient satisfaction and patient functional status or self-assessed level of disability. We retrospectively reviewed records of 231 consecutive patients presenting to a single academic spine surgery center between February 2011 and October 2013 who completed both a patient satisfaction survey as well as one or more patient-reported outcome questionnaires (NDI, ODI, and/or EQ-5D) for a single clinical encounter. Statistical analysis was performed to determine if an association exists between the overall patient satisfaction score and each patient-reported outcome score. Spearman correlation coefficients demonstrated no correlation between any patient-reported outcome score and the patient satisfaction score [NDI=-0.113 (-0.409 to 0.207) P=0.489] [ODI=-0.008 (-0.149 to 0.133) P=0.912] [EQ-5D=0.011 (-0.119 to 0.140) P=0.872] for a single clinical encounter. These results provide evidence against an association between patient-reported functional status or self-assessed level of disability and patient satisfaction in a spine patient population.

  1. Médecine des voyages

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Définir la pratique de la médecine des voyages, présenter les éléments fondamentaux d’une consultation complète préalable aux voyages à des voyageurs internationaux et aider à identifier les patients qu’il vaudrait mieux envoyer en consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages. Sources des données Les lignes directrices et les recommandations sur la médecine des voyages et les maladies liées aux voyages publiées par les autorités sanitaires nationales et internationales ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Une recension des ouvrages connexes dans MEDLINE et EMBASE a aussi été effectuée. Message principal La médecine des voyages est une spécialité très dynamique qui se concentre sur les soins préventifs avant un voyage. Une évaluation exhaustive du risque pour chaque voyageur est essentielle pour mesurer avec exactitude les risques particuliers au voyageur, à son itinéraire et à sa destination et pour offrir des conseils sur les interventions les plus appropriées en gestion du risque afin de promouvoir la santé et prévenir les problèmes médicaux indésirables durant le voyage. Des vaccins peuvent aussi être nécessaires et doivent être personnalisés en fonction des antécédents d’immunisation du voyageur, de son itinéraire et du temps qu’il reste avant son départ. Conclusion La santé et la sécurité d’un voyageur dépendent du degré d’expertise du médecin qui offre le counseling préalable à son voyage et les vaccins, au besoin. On recommande à ceux qui donnent des conseils aux voyageurs d’être conscients de l’ampleur de cette responsabilité et de demander si possible une consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages pour tous les voyageurs à risque élevé.

  2. Perioperative management of special populations: the geriatric patient.

    PubMed

    Loran, David B; Hyde, Brannon R; Zwischenberger, Joseph B

    2005-12-01

    Americans over age 65 represent the fastest growing segment of the United States population. As a result, the demographic landscape of America is changing. Knowledge of aged physiology is necessary to construct a risk-benefit analysis tailored for each patient to improve perioperative outcomes and lower the morbidity and mortality rates among the elderly. Benefit estimates should account for a patient's life expectancy and quality of life before and after surgery. With aging, baseline functions of almost every organ system undergo progressive decline resulting in a decreased physiologic reserve and ability to compensate for stress. Pain control, postoperative cognitive dysfunction, end-of-life issues, and realistic expectations after surgery are paramount issues throughout the perioperative period.

  3. Population pharmacokinetic analysis of colistin in burn patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongtae; Han, Seunghoon; Jeon, Sangil; Hong, Taegon; Song, Wonkeun; Woo, Heungjeong; Yim, Dong-Seok

    2013-05-01

    Colistin is increasingly used as a salvage therapy for nosocomial infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. However, the available pharmacokinetic (PK) data for colistin are limited to guide dosing. The aim of this study was to develop a population PK model of colistin and to identify the optimal dosage regimens for burn patients. Fifty patients with burns ranging from 4% to 85% of total body surface area who had been treated with colistimethate sodium (CMS) were studied. CMS, which is hydrolyzed in vivo to an active metabolite, was intravenously administered every 12 h. Blood samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h after more than five infusions to measure the colistin concentration using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) system. The population PK model was developed using nonlinear mixed effect modeling (NONMEM, v. 6.2). A one-compartment linear PK model for colistin best described the data. The covariates included in the final model were creatinine clearance for the relative fraction of CMS converted into colistin and the presence of edema for the turnover rate constant of CMS converted into colistin. A steady-state 24-h area under the concentration-time curve was simulated from 1,000 virtual patients receiving 150 mg colistin base activity every 12 h using the final model. Relative to previous studies with critically ill patients, the elimination half-life of colistin (6.6 h) was much shorter, and continuous renal replacement therapy was not a significant covariate for any PK parameters.

  4. Respiratory pattern in an adult population of dystrophic patients.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, M G; Romei, M; Lo Mauro, A; Marchi, E; Gandossini, S; Bonato, S; Comi, G P; Magri, F; Turconi, A C; Pedotti, A; Bresolin, N; Aliverti, A

    2011-07-15

    We studied respiratory function and Chest Wall kinematics in a large population of adult patients affected by slow course muscular dystrophies such as Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy (LGMD, n=38), Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD, n=20) and Facio-Scapulo Humeral Dystrophy (FSHD, n=30), through standard spirometry and through the Optoelectronic Plethysmography, to measure the thoraco-abdominal motion during Quiet Breathing and Slow Vital Capacity maneuvers. Within the restrictive pulmonary syndrome characterizing LGMD and FSHD, several different thoraco-abdominal patterns compared to those of healthy subjects were present in the more advanced stages of the disease. These differences were present in the seated position, during the execution of a maximal maneuver such as Slow Vital Capacity. A global respiratory (both inspiratory and expiratory) muscle involvement was more pronounced in the LGMD and FSHD than in the BMD patients, and a significant reduction of abdominal contribution in wheelchair bound patients was observed. In conclusion, OEP technique is able to reveal mild initial modifications in the respiratory muscles in FSHD and LGMD patients, which could be helpful for functional and new therapeutic strategy evaluation.

  5. Population pharmacokinetic analysis of tacrolimus in Chinese myasthenia gravis patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Si; Liu, Zi-Qi; Chen, Rong; Wang, Lei; Huang, Ling; Zhu, Xiao; Zhou, Tian-Yan; Lu, Wei; Ma, Ping

    2017-08-01

    The importance of tacrolimus in the treatment of myasthenia gravis (MG) as a substitute for corticosteroid-dependent immunosuppressive therapy is increasing. Thus far, however, no population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) analysis of tacrolimus in treating MG patients has been published. This article aimed to construct a PopPK model of tacrolimus for Chinese MG patients with the goal of improving its performance in MG treatment. A total of 253 trough concentration records were obtained from 83 Chinese MG patients. The effects of demographics, lifestyle and health status, biochemical test data, disease progression and treatment-related information (including co-administered medications) as covariates on the various parameters were investigated. The covariate selection was based on biological plausibility, clinical significance, statistical significance and reduction in inter-individual variability (IIV). Bootstrap and normalized prediction distribution error (NPDE) analysis were performed to validate the final model. A one-compartment PopPK model with first-order elimination and a fixed absorption phase was constructed. The estimated apparent oral clearance (CL/F) and apparent oral volume of distribution (V/F) were 3.6 L/h and 1700 L, respectively, in the MG patients. Hematocrit and blood urea nitrogen were identified as two covariates that significantly influenced the CL/F. Immunoglobulin treatment (PRO) also had the potential to influence V/F, which was consistent with the clinical observations and the high protein-binding property of tacrolimus. Other covariates including age, weight, gender and co-administered medications had no obvious influence on CL/F or V/F. The first PopPK model of tacrolimus in MG patients was established. The identified covariates were of biological plausibility and clinical importance to help individualize the dosing schedule in MG patients.

  6. Population pharmacokinetic study of isepamicin with intensive care unit patients.

    PubMed Central

    Tod, M; Padoin, C; Minozzi, C; Cougnard, J; Petitjean, O

    1996-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) of isepamicin, a new aminoglycoside, were studied in 85 intensive care unit (ICU) patients and were compared with those observed in 10 healthy volunteers. A parametric method based on a nonlinear mixed-effect model was used to assess population PK. Isepamicin was given intravenously over 0.5 h at dosages of 15 mg/kg once daily or 7.5 mg/kg twice daily. The data were fitted to a bicompartmental open model. Compared with healthy volunteers, the mean values of the PK parameters were profoundly modified in ICU patients: elimination clearance was reduced by 48%, the volume of distribution in the central compartment (Vc) was increased by 50%, the peripheral volume of distribution was 70% higher, the distribution clearance was 146% lower, and the elimination half-life was ca. 3.4 times higher. The interindividual variability in PK parameters was about 50% in ICU patients. Five covariates (body weight [BW], simplified acute physiology score [SAPS], temperature, serum creatinine level, and creatinine clearance [CLCR]) were tentatively correlated with PK parameters by multivariate linear regression analysis with stepwise addition and deletion. The variability of isepamicin clearance was explained by three covariates (BW, SAPS, and CLCR), that of Vc was explained by BW and SAPS, and that of the elimination half-life was explained by CLCR and SAPS. Simulation of the concentration-versus-time profile for 500 individuals showed that the mean peak (0.75 h) concentration was 18% lower in ICU patients than in healthy volunteers and that the range in ICU patients was very broad (28.4 to 95.4 mg/liter). Therefore, monitoring of the isepamicin concentration is in ICU patients is mandatory. PMID:8849264

  7. The collaborative edge: patient empowerment for vulnerable populations.

    PubMed

    Safran, Charles

    2003-03-01

    The problems with access to care and the special needs for educational outreach for disadvantage or vulnerable populations of patients require innovation. This paper describes Baby CareLink use of information technology to support communication, consultation, and collaboration among colleagues as well as with patients, their families, and community resources. In response to the educational, emotional and communication needs of parents of premature infants and the clinicians who care for the infants and support the families, we developed Baby CareLink, a secure collaborative environment. Baby CareLink provides a nurturing environment where parents, even though remote from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, can actively participate in decisions surrounding their baby's care. In a southeastern hospital serving a mostly Medicaid population in a rural setting, more than 300 parents have used Baby CareLink more than 11000 times during the past year. Despite the common wisdom that Medicaid families do not have access to the Internet, approximately 85% of the parents access Baby CareLink from home, at work, from the library or other public access point. The median use of Baby CareLinks from outside the hospital by parents is 17 separate sessions. In a city hospital in the midwestern US which exclusively serves a Medicaid population, experience has been equally encouraging. More than 70 parents have initiated more than 600 secure sessions with Baby CareLink. In contrast to the rural hospital, only 35% of sessions have been initiated outside the hospital. Experience with Baby CareLink suggests that families from all walks of life will use and benefit from collaborative tools that keep them informed and involved in the care of their children. The most significant barrier to wider deployment is bandwidth limitations into the homes of most families. The care of premature infants is a great example of an area where medical knowledge and ability has grown dramatically, and where

  8. L'Infection Nosocomiale en Reanimation des Brules

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; Belefqih, R.; Elouennass, M.; Fouadi, F.E.; Ihrai, I.

    2009-01-01

    Summary L'infection nosocomiale bactérienne étant l'une des principales causes de morbidité et de mortalité chez le brûlé, nous avons réalisé une étude rétrospective portant sur 84 patients hospitalisés au sein du service de réanimation des brûlés de l'Hôpital Militaire d'Instruction Mohammed V de Rabat, sur une période de 3 ans, du premier janvier 2001 au 31 décembre 2003. Les critères d'infection nosocomiale étaient ceux du Center for Disease Control d'Atlanta de 1988. Les taux d'incidence ont été calculés. La population infectée a été comparée à celle non infectée. L'écologie bactérienne du service a été décrite comme aussi l'antibiotype. Il ressort de cette étude la survenue de 87 infections nosocomiales chez 27 patients. L'incidence cumulative était de 103 infections pour 1000 jours de traitement. Pour ce qui est des caractéristiques des infections bactériennes, les sites infectés étaient la peau (77%), le sang (13,8%), les voies urinaires (8%) et les poumons (1,1%). Les principaux germes étaient: Staphylococcus sp. (33,3%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (23%), Enterococcus faecalis et Acinetobacter (8%). Les staphylocoques étaient méticillo-résistants dans 22,2% des cas. Le Pseudomonas et l'Acinetobacter étaient multirésistants (60%). Dans notre étude les facteurs prédictifs de survenue des infections nosocomiales que nous avons retenus après l'étude comparative des populations infectées et non infectées ont été l'âge, le body mass index, l'abbreviated burn severity index et le remplissage initial. En isolant ces paramètres, nous avons pu établir une équation à valeur prédictive de survenue d'infection nosocomiale chez le patient brûlé. PMID:21991158

  9. Ostéosynthèse des fractures des métacarpiens et des phalanges de la main par mini plaque: à propos de 12 cas

    PubMed Central

    Moncef, Erraji; Abdelhafid, Derfoufi; Abdessamad, Kharraji; Omar, Agoumi; Najib, Abdeljaouad; Abdelkrim, Daoudi; Hicham, Yacoubi

    2016-01-01

    Le traitement des fractures instables des métacarpes et des phalanges reste un objet de controverse. Peu de séries ont été rapportées dans la littérature, rendant leur analyse difficile. Nous rapportons une étude rétrospective comportant 12 patients, opérés par cette technique, ayant eu des fractures déplacées des métacarpes ou des phalanges, sur une période de deux ans. Les résultats globaux ont été bons dans 75% des cas, moyenne dans 16,5% des cas et mauvais dans 8,5% des cas. La stabilité du montage par mini plaques des fractures instables des métacarpiens et des phalanges ont permis une mobilisation précoce des articulations de la main, évitant ainsi la raideur. PMID:27800079

  10. Population pharmacokinetics of bevacizumab in cancer patients with external validation.

    PubMed

    Han, Kelong; Peyret, Thomas; Marchand, Mathilde; Quartino, Angelica; Gosselin, Nathalie H; Girish, Sandhya; Allison, David E; Jin, Jin

    2016-08-01

    Bevacizumab is approved for various cancers. This analysis aimed to comprehensively evaluate bevacizumab pharmacokinetics and the influence of patient variables on bevacizumab pharmacokinetics. Rich and sparse bevacizumab serum concentrations were collected from Phase I through IV studies in early and metastatic cancers. Bevacizumab was given intravenously as single agent or in combination with chemotherapy for single- and multiple-dose schedules. Model-building used 8943 bevacizumab concentrations from 1792 patients with colon/colorectal, non-small cell lung, kidney, pancreatic, breast, prostate and brain cancer. Bevacizumab doses ranged from 1 to 20 mg/kg given once every 1, 2 or 3 weeks. A two-compartment model best described the data. The population estimates of clearance (CL), central volume of distribution (V1) and half-life for a typical 70-kg patient were 9.01 mL/h, 2.88 L and 19.6 days. CL and V1 increased with body weight and were higher in males than females by 14 and 18 %, respectively. CL decreased with increasing albumin and decreasing alkaline phosphatase. The final model was externally validated using 1670 concentrations from 146 Japanese patients that were not used for model-building. Mean prediction errors were -2.1, 3.1 and 1.0 % for concentrations, CL and V1, respectively, confirming adequate predictive performance. A robust bevacizumab pharmacokinetic model was developed and externally validated, which may be used to simulate bevacizumab exposure to optimize dosing strategies. Asian and non-Asian patients exhibited similar bevacizumab pharmacokinetics. Given the similarity in pharmacokinetics among monoclonal antibodies, this may inform pharmacokinetic studies in different ethnic groups for other therapeutic antibodies.

  11. Population Dynamics of Patients with Bacterial Resistance in Hospital Environment

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Leilei; Pan, Qiuhui; Gao, Xubin; He, Mingfeng

    2016-01-01

    During the past decades, the increase of antibiotic resistance has become a major concern worldwide. The researchers found that superbugs with new type of resistance genes (NDM-1) have two aspects of transmission characteristics; the first is that the antibiotic resistance genes can horizontally transfer among bacteria, and the other is that the superbugs can spread between humans through direct contact. Based on these two transmission mechanisms, we study the dynamics of population in hospital environment where superbugs exist. In this paper, we build three mathematic models to illustrate the dynamics of patients with bacterial resistance in hospital environment. The models are analyzed using stability theory of differential equations. Positive equilibrium points of the system are investigated and their stability analysis is carried out. Moreover, the numerical simulation of the proposed model is also performed which supports the theoretical findings. PMID:26904150

  12. Population Dynamics of Patients with Bacterial Resistance in Hospital Environment.

    PubMed

    Qu, Leilei; Pan, Qiuhui; Gao, Xubin; He, Mingfeng

    2016-01-01

    During the past decades, the increase of antibiotic resistance has become a major concern worldwide. The researchers found that superbugs with new type of resistance genes (NDM-1) have two aspects of transmission characteristics; the first is that the antibiotic resistance genes can horizontally transfer among bacteria, and the other is that the superbugs can spread between humans through direct contact. Based on these two transmission mechanisms, we study the dynamics of population in hospital environment where superbugs exist. In this paper, we build three mathematic models to illustrate the dynamics of patients with bacterial resistance in hospital environment. The models are analyzed using stability theory of differential equations. Positive equilibrium points of the system are investigated and their stability analysis is carried out. Moreover, the numerical simulation of the proposed model is also performed which supports the theoretical findings.

  13. Population Pharmacokinetics of Benznidazole in Adult Patients with Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aldasoro, E.; Guerrero, L.; Posada, E.; Serret, N.; Mejía, T.; Urbina, J. A.; Gascón, J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to build a population pharmacokinetic (popPK) model to characterize benznidazole (BNZ) pharmacokinetics in adults with chronic Chagas disease. This study was a prospective, open-label, single-center clinical trial approved by the local ethics committee. Patients received BNZ at 2.5 mg/kg of body weight/12 h (Abarax, Elea Laboratory, Argentina) for 60 days. Plasma BNZ samples were taken several times during the study and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-visible detection (HPLC-UV). The popPK analysis was done with NONMEMv.7.3. Demographic and biological data were tested as covariates. Intraindividual, interoccasion, and residual variabilities were modeled. Internal and external validations were completed to assess the robustness of the model. Later on, simulations were performed to generate BNZ concentration-time course profiles for different dosage regimens. A total of 358 plasma BNZ concentrations from 39 patients were included in the analysis. A one-compartment PK model characterized by clearance (CL/F) and the apparent volume of distribution (V/F), with first-order absorption (Ka) and elimination, adequately described the data (CL/F, 1.73 liters/h; V/F, 89.6 liters; and Ka, 1.15 h−1). No covariates were found to be significant for CL/F and V/F. Internal and external validations of the final model showed adequate results. Data from simulations revealed that a dose of 2.5 mg/kg/12 h might lead to overexposure in most patients. A lower dose (2.5 mg/kg/24 h) was able to achieve trough BNZ plasma concentrations within the accepted therapeutic range of 3 to 6 mg/liter. In summary, we developed a population PK model for BNZ in adults with chronic Chagas disease. Dosing simulations showed that a BNZ dose of 2.5 mg/kg/24 h will adequately keep BNZ trough plasma concentrations within the recommended target range for the majority of patients. (This study has been registered at EudraCT under number 2011

  14. Haute prévalence du Burnout dans les unités Tunisiennes prenant en charge des patients en fin de vie

    PubMed Central

    Amamou, Badii; Bannour, Ahmed Souhaiel; Ben Hadj Yahia, Meriem; Ben Nasr, Selma; Ben Hadj Ali, Bechir

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Chez le personnel soignant, le burnout touche un infirmier sur trois. Ce taux est plus élevé dans les unités prenant en charge des patients en fin de vie. L'objectif de notre travail était d'évaluer la fréquence du burnout chez les infirmiers qui travaillent en soins de fin de vie. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude descriptive transversale réalisée entre le 1er Avril et le 31 Mai 2010. 60 infirmiers de six services de Sousse et de Monastir (Tunisie) ont été recrutés. L'évaluation du burnout a été réalisée par deux échelles: MBI (Maslach Burnout Inventory) et BMS (Burnout Measure Short version). Résultats La prévalence du burnout était de 70%; il était élevé chez 81.7%. 80% avaient un niveau élevé d'épuisement émotionnel, 70% avaient un niveau élevé de dépersonnalisation et 17% avaient un niveau bas de sentiment d'accomplissement personnel. Le burnout était plus élevé chez les hommes (70,8% vs 69,4%; p=0,013); ceux qui voulaient améliorer les conditions du travail (70.2% vs. 66.7%; p= 0.017); du salaire (70.2% vs. 66.7%; p= 0.017) et chez les infirmiers suivi en psychiatrie (71.4% vs. 69.8%; p= 0.008). Conclusion Dans notre étude le niveau de burnout était élevé chez les infirmiers prenant en charge des patients en fin de vie. Il était associé au sexe masculin et à l'insatisfaction des conditions de travail et du salaire. D'autres études longitudinales sont nécessaires pour suivre l'évolution de ce syndrome et mettre des stratégies de prévention adéquates. PMID:25584122

  15. Approche au diagnostic de la maladie cœliaque chez les patients ayant une faible densité minérale osseuse ou des fractures de fragilité

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Lorena P.; Khan, Aliya; Sultan, Muhammad; McAssey, Karen; Fouda, Mona A.; Armstrong, David

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux cliniciens une mise à jour sur le diagnostic de la maladie cœliaque (MC), ainsi que des recommandations sur les indications de procéder au dépistage de la MC chez les patients présentant une faible densité minérale osseuse (DMO) ou des fractures de fragilité. Qualité des données Un groupe de travail multidisciplinaire a élaboré des questions cliniquement pertinentes relativement au diagnostic de la MC servant de fondement à une recherche documentaire dans les bases de données MEDLINE, EMBASE et CENTRAL (de janvier 2000 à janvier 2009) à l’aide des mots clés en anglais celiac disease, osteoporosis, osteopenia, low bone mass et fracture. Les ouvrages scientifiques existants comportent des études de niveaux I et II. Message principal La prévalence estimée de la MC asymptomatique est de 2 % à 3 % chez les personnes qui ont une faible DMO. Par ailleurs, un dépistage ciblé est recommandé pour les patients qui ont des T-scores de −1,0 ou moins à la colonne vertébrale ou aux hanches ou des antécédents de fractures de fragilité associées à des symptômes ou à des problèmes reliés à la MC, des antécédents familiaux de MC ou de bas niveaux de calcium urinaire, une insuffisance en vitamine D et des niveaux à la hausse d’hormones parathyroïdiennes en dépit d’un apport suffisant en calcium et en vitamine D. Le dépistage de la MC devrait se faire pendant que le sujet consomme un régime alimentaire contenant du gluten. On procède au dépistage initial par le dosage d’immunoglobuline (Ig) A antitransglutaminase en utilisant la transglutaminase tissulaire humaine recombinante ou une autre transglutaminase tissulaire, en association avec l’immunofluorescence des IgA anti-endomysium. Une biopsie du duodénum est nécessaire pour confirmer le diagnostic de la MC. Le typage des antigènes des leucocytes humains peut aider à confirmer ou à exclure le diagnostic de la MC dans les cas où la s

  16. Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cysteamine in nephropathic cystinosis patients.

    PubMed

    Bouazza, Naïm; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Ottolenghi, Chris; Urien, Saik; Deschenes, Georges; Ricquier, Daniel; Niaudet, Patrick; Chadefaux-Vekemans, Bernadette

    2011-12-23

    Nephropathic cystinosis is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting in an impaired transport of cystine trough the lysosomal membrane causing an accumulation of free cystine in lysosomes. The only specific treatment for nephropathic cystinosis is cysteamine bitartrate. This study was aimed to describe the relationship between cysteamine plasma concentrations and white blood cell cystine levels, and to simulate an optimized administration scheme to improve the management of patients with cystinosis. Cysteamine and cystine concentrations were measured in 69 nephropathic cystinosis patients. A total of 250 cysteamine plasma concentrations and 243 intracellular cystine concentrations were used to perform a population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis. An optimized administration scheme was simulated in order to maintain cystine levels below 1 nmol half-cystine/mg of protein and to investigate the possibility of administrating the treatment less than 4 times a day (QID, recommended). The current dosing recommendations are 1.3 g/m2/day for less than 50 kg BW and 2 g/day thereafter; the maximum dose should not exceed 1.95 g/m2/day. Cysteamine concentrations were satisfactorily described by a one-compartment model. Parameter estimates were standardized for a mean standard bodyweight using an allometric model. WBC cystine levels were adequately described by an indirect response model where the first-order removal rate constant is stimulated by the cysteamine concentrations. According to simulations, in order to increase the percentage of patient with cystine levels below 1 nmol half-cystine/mg of protein, the current dosages could be changed as follows: 80 mg/kg/day (QID) from 10 to 17 kg, 70 mg/kg/day (QID) from 17 to 25 kg, 60 mg/kg/day (QID) from 25 to 40 kg and 50 mg/kg/day (QID) from 40 to 70 kg (these dosages remain under the maximum recommended dose). However an 8-hourly daily treatment (TID) did not provide acceptable cystine levels and should not be

  17. Population pharmacodynamic analysis of octreotide in acromegalic patients.

    PubMed

    Comets, Emmanuelle; Mentré, France; Grass, Peter; Kawai, Ryosei; Marbach, Peter; Vonderscher, Jacky

    2003-01-01

    Octreotide is an octapeptide analog of somatostatin used to normalize growth hormone levels in acromegaly. This article presents a population analysis of the relationship between octreotide and growth hormone concentrations in 94 patients with acromegaly, including 10 patients responding incompletely to subcutaneous treatment (poor responders). Growth hormone and octreotide concentrations were recorded hourly over 12-hour time periods during long-term subcutaneous treatment. Twelve-hour profiles were also collected on different days up to 2 months after intramuscular injection of the long-acting formulation. We modeled the inhibition of growth hormone secretion by octreotide with a direct maximum inhibition model. A joint analysis of both formulations was performed with NONMEM (GloboMax, LLC, Hanover, Md). During model building, we examined the relationships between parameters and demographic covariates or formulations with the use of likelihood ratio tests. The baseline growth hormone level was higher in poor responders and was best described by a bimodal distribution. The maximum inhibition was common to both formulations and had a mean of 90%, with low interindividual variability. Sensitivity to octreotide (50% inhibitory concentration) was found to be slightly lower on average with intramuscular administration than with subcutaneous administration. Given adequate doses of octreotide, in 72% of 94 patients, growth hormone would decrease to levels below 2.5 ng. mL(-1), considered to be a desirable target concentration in acromegaly. This study provides a way to identify poor responders during subcutaneous treatment, allowing an early clinical decision to be made to switch nonresponders to alternative therapies.

  18. A quantitative evidence base for population health: applying utilization-based cluster analysis to segment a patient population.

    PubMed

    Vuik, Sabine I; Mayer, Erik; Darzi, Ara

    2016-11-25

    To improve population health it is crucial to understand the different care needs within a population. Traditional population groups are often based on characteristics such as age or morbidities. However, this does not take into account specific care needs across care settings and tends to focus on high-needs patients only. This paper explores the potential of using utilization-based cluster analysis to segment a general patient population into homogenous groups. Administrative datasets covering primary and secondary care were used to construct a database of 300,000 patients, which included socio-demographic variables, morbidities, care utilization, and cost. A k-means cluster analysis grouped the patients into segments with distinct care utilization, based on six utilization variables: non-elective inpatient admissions, elective inpatient admissions, outpatient visits, GP practice visits, GP home visits, and prescriptions. These segments were analyzed post-hoc to understand their morbidity and demographic profile. Eight population segments were identified, and utilization of each care setting was significantly different across all segments. Each segment also presented with different morbidity patterns and demographic characteristics, creating eight distinct care user types. Comparing these segments to traditional patient groups shows the heterogeneity of these approaches, especially for lower-needs patients. This analysis shows that utilization-based cluster analysis segments a patient population into distinct groups with unique care priorities, providing a quantitative evidence base to improve population health. Contrary to traditional methods, this approach also segments lower-needs populations, which can be used to inform preventive interventions. In addition, the identification of different care user types provides insight into needs across the care continuum.

  19. Clinical Outcomes in Diabetic Patients Who Underwent Percutaneous Coronary Intervention during the Plain Old Balloon Angioplasty (POBA)-, Bare Metal Stents (BMS)- and Drug-eluting Stents (DES)-eras from 1984 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Naito, Ryo; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Konishi, Hirokazu; Tsuboi, Shuta; Ogita, Manabu; Dohi, Tomotaka; Kasai, Takatoshi; Tamura, Hiroshi; Okazaki, Shinya; Isoda, Kikuo; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Objective Diabetes is a negative predictor in coronary artery disease patients. Since the introduction of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), PCI has evolved through technological advances in devices, improvements in operators' techniques and the establishment of effective therapeutic protocols. The aim of this study is to examine the changes in the clinical outcomes following PCI in patients with diabetes. Methods We compared the clinical outcomes in patients with diabetes following PCI from 1984 to 2010 at Juntendo University over three eras (plain old balloon angioplasty (POBA)-, bare metal stents (BMS)- and drug-eluting stents (DES)-eras). The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke and repeat revascularization within 3 years after the index PCI. Results A total of 1,584 patients were examined. The baseline characteristics became unfavorable over time with regard to age, prevalence of hypertension, presentation with acute coronary syndrome and a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. The administration of aspirin, statins and β-blockers increased over time. The event-free survival rate for the 3-year cardiovascular events was lower in the DES-era. The adjusted relative risk reduction for 3-year cardiovascular events was 46 % in the DES-era compared with the POBA-era. Conclusion The incidence of 3-year cardiovascular events decreased from 1984 to 2010 in patients with diabetes following PCI, despite the higher risk profiles in the DES-era. PMID:28049984

  20. Clinical Outcomes in Diabetic Patients Who Underwent Percutaneous Coronary Intervention during the Plain Old Balloon Angioplasty (POBA)-, Bare Metal Stents (BMS)- and Drug-eluting Stents (DES)-eras from 1984 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Naito, Ryo; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Konishi, Hirokazu; Tsuboi, Shuta; Ogita, Manabu; Dohi, Tomotaka; Kasai, Takatoshi; Tamura, Hiroshi; Okazaki, Shinya; Isoda, Kikuo; Daida, Hiroyuki

    Objective Diabetes is a negative predictor in coronary artery disease patients. Since the introduction of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), PCI has evolved through technological advances in devices, improvements in operators' techniques and the establishment of effective therapeutic protocols. The aim of this study is to examine the changes in the clinical outcomes following PCI in patients with diabetes. Methods We compared the clinical outcomes in patients with diabetes following PCI from 1984 to 2010 at Juntendo University over three eras (plain old balloon angioplasty (POBA)-, bare metal stents (BMS)- and drug-eluting stents (DES)-eras). The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke and repeat revascularization within 3 years after the index PCI. Results A total of 1,584 patients were examined. The baseline characteristics became unfavorable over time with regard to age, prevalence of hypertension, presentation with acute coronary syndrome and a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. The administration of aspirin, statins and -blockers increased over time. The event-free survival rate for the 3-year cardiovascular events was lower in the DES-era. The adjusted relative risk reduction for 3-year cardiovascular events was 46 % in the DES-era compared with the POBA-era. Conclusion The incidence of 3-year cardiovascular events decreased from 1984 to 2010 in patients with diabetes following PCI, despite the higher risk profiles in the DES-era.

  1. Radionécrose cérébrale chez des patients irradiés pour cancers du nasopharynx: à propos de 3 cas

    PubMed Central

    El Mazghi, Abderrahman; Lalya, Issam; Loukili, Kaoutar; El Kacemi, Hanan; Kebdani, Taieb; Hassouni, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    La radionécrose cérébrale est une complication tardive, iatrogène, relativement rare de la radiothérapie qui survient après plus de six mois suivant le début du traitement. Elle pourrait s'expliquer par la conjonction de lésions vasculaires, gliales et d'ordre immunologiques. Elle peut mettre en jeu le pronostic fonctionnel et vital du malade. La prévention de cette affection redoutable est fondamentale vu l'absence de traitement potentiellement efficace. Nous rapportons 03 nouveaux cas, chez des patients traités par chimiothérapie d'induction puis radio- chimiothérapie concomitante pour des cancers localement avancés du nasopharynx. Le diagnostic a été orienté par l'IRM spectroscopique et l’évolution était favorable sous corticothérapie dans les 03 cas. PMID:25722784

  2. Causes de décès des patients infectés par le VIH dans le Centre tunisien

    PubMed Central

    Chelli, Jihène; Bellazreg, Foued; Aouem, Abir; Hattab, Zouhour; Mesmia, Hèla; Lasfar, Nadia Ben; Hachfi, Wissem; Masmoudi, Tasnim; Chakroun, Mohamed; Letaief, Amel

    2016-01-01

    La trithérapie antirétrovirale a contribué à une baisse considérable de la mortalité liée au VIH. Les causes de décès sont dominées par les infections opportunistes dans les pays en voie de développement et par les maladies cardiovasculaires et les cancers dans les pays développés. L’objectif était de déterminer les causes et les facteurs de risque de décès des patients infectés par le VIH dans le Centre Tunisien. Une étude transversale auprès des patients infectés par le VIH âgés de plus de 15 ans suivis à Sousse et à Monastir entre 2000 et 2014. Le décès était considéré lié au VIH si la cause était un évènement classant SIDA ou s’il était la conséquence d’une infection opportuniste d’étiologie indéterminée avec des CD4 < 50/mm3, non lié au VIH si la cause n’était pas un évènement classant SIDA, et de cause inconnue si aucune information n’était disponible. Deux cents treize patients, 130 hommes (61%) et 83 femmes (39%), d’âge moyen 40±11 ans ont été inclus. Cinquante quatre patients sont décédés, avec une mortalité de 5,4/100 patients-années. La mortalité annuelle a baissé de 5,8% en 2000-2003 à 2,3% en 2012-2014. La survie était de 72% à 5 ans et de 67% à 10 ans. Les décès étaient liés au VIH dans 70,4% des cas. Les causes de décès les plus fréquentes étaient la pneumocystose pulmonaire et la cryptococcose neuroméningée dans 6 cas (11%) chacune. Les facteurs de risque de décès étaient les antécédents d’infections opportunistes, la durée de la trithérapie antirétrovirale < 12 mois et le tabagisme. Le renforcement du dépistage, l’initiation précoce de la trithérapie antirétrovirale, et la lutte contre le tabagisme sont nécessaires afin de réduire la mortalité chez les patients infectés par le VIH en Tunisie. PMID:28292068

  3. Managing patient populations in primary care: points of leverage.

    PubMed

    Eidus, Robert; Pace, Wilson D; Staton, Elizabeth W

    2012-01-01

    Common "quality" metrics may represent the quality of care for large populations; however, they do not adequately represent quality in individual primary care settings, especially as stand-alone indices. Using discreet threshold values to measure quality in primary care may result in physicians focusing on managing patients by the numbers at the expense of making individualized and nuanced clinical decisions. Current performance measures may be misapplied as proxies for both cost savings and quality. We posit that developing and focusing measurement on high-leverage activities will yield better clinical outcomes and potentially lower cost. As a starting point for further work in this area, we suggest the development of metrics that track identification and management of depression; management of transitions of care; care coordination; team-based care; identification and support of socially frail/isolated individuals; pharmacologic management, including optimizing medication and dealing with adherence issues; and establishment of a therapeutic environment. These processes, or others like them, will require infrastructure that may be costly and time-consuming, and measuring these processes will require thought and effort. Nevertheless, we believe developing metrics based on high-leverage activities will yield greater clinical and economic returns than relying on the metrics currently in place.

  4. Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cysteamine in nephropathic cystinosis patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Nephropathic cystinosis is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting in an impaired transport of cystine trough the lysosomal membrane causing an accumulation of free cystine in lysosomes. The only specific treatment for nephropathic cystinosis is cysteamine bitartrate. This study was aimed to describe the relationship between cysteamine plasma concentrations and white blood cell cystine levels, and to simulate an optimized administration scheme to improve the management of patients with cystinosis. Methods Cysteamine and cystine concentrations were measured in 69 nephropathic cystinosis patients. A total of 250 cysteamine plasma concentrations and 243 intracellular cystine concentrations were used to perform a population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis. An optimized administration scheme was simulated in order to maintain cystine levels below 1 nmol half-cystine/mg of protein and to investigate the possibility of administrating the treatment less than 4 times a day (QID, recommended). The current dosing recommendations are 1.3 g/m2/day for less than 50 kg BW and 2 g/day thereafter; the maximum dose should not exceed 1.95 g/m2/day. Results Cysteamine concentrations were satisfactorily described by a one-compartment model. Parameter estimates were standardized for a mean standard bodyweight using an allometric model. WBC cystine levels were adequately described by an indirect response model where the first-order removal rate constant is stimulated by the cysteamine concentrations. Conclusions According to simulations, in order to increase the percentage of patient with cystine levels below 1 nmol half-cystine/mg of protein, the current dosages could be changed as follows: 80 mg/kg/day (QID) from 10 to 17 kg, 70 mg/kg/day (QID) from 17 to 25 kg, 60 mg/kg/day (QID) from 25 to 40 kg and 50 mg/kg/day (QID) from 40 to 70 kg (these dosages remain under the maximum recommended dose). However an 8-hourly daily treatment (TID) did not provide

  5. Population Pharmacokinetics of Pyronaridine in Pediatric Malaria Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ayyoub, Amal; Methaneethorn, Janthima; Ramharter, Michael; Djimde, Abdoulaye A.; Tekete, Mamadou; Duparc, Stephan; Borghini-Fuhrer, Isabelle; Shin, Jang-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Pyramax is a pyronaridine (PYR)-artesunate (PA) combination for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in adult and pediatric patients. A granule formulation of this combination is being developed for treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria in pediatric patients. The aims of this study were to describe the pharmacokinetics of PYR using a total of 1,085 blood PYR concentrations available from 349 malaria patients younger than 16 years of age with mild to moderate uncomplicated malaria and to confirm the dosing regimen for the pediatric granule formulation. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling using NONMEM software was used to obtain the pharmacokinetic and inter- and intraindividual variability parameter estimates. The population pharmacokinetics of PYR were described by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. Allometric scaling was implemented to address the effect of body weight on clearance and volume parameters. The final parameter estimates of PYR apparent clearance (CL/F), central volume of distribution (V2/F), peripheral volume of distribution (V3/F), intercompartmental clearance (Q/F), and absorption rate constant (Ka) were 377 liters/day, 2,230 liters, 3,230 liters, 804 liters/day and 17.9 day−1, respectively. Covariate model building conducted using forward addition (P < 0.05) followed by backward elimination (P < 0.001) yielded two significant covariate-parameter relationships, i.e., age on V2/F and formulation on Ka. Evaluation of bootstrapping, visual predictive check, and condition number indicated that the final model displayed satisfactory robustness, predictive power, and stability. Simulations of PYR concentration-time profiles generated from the final model show similar exposures across pediatric weight ranges, supporting the proposed labeling for weight-based dosing of Pyramax granules. (These studies have been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00331136 [phase II study] and

  6. Soins primaires des personnes victimes d’une lésion médullaire

    PubMed Central

    McColl, Mary Ann; Aiken, Alice; McColl, Alexander; Sakakibara, Brodie; Smith, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Effectuer une étude de la portée des données empiriques, entre 1980 et 2009, concernant les soins primaires aux adultes victimes d’une lésion médullaire (LME). Sources des données Une recension dans des revues révisées par des pairs de1980 à 2009 à l’aide de CINAHL, PubMed-MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Abstracts et Social Work Abstracts. Sélection des études La recherche électronique au moyen de mots-clés a permis de cerner 42 articles sur les soins primaires et les LME. Des critères d’inclusion ont servi à réduire la liste à un ensemble de 21 articles publiés en anglais qui portaient sur un échantillon de plus de 3 et présentaient une analyse empirique. Synthèse Environ 90 % des personnes atteintes d’une LME ont identifié leur médecin de famille comme étant leur docteur habituel; 63 % avaient un spécialiste des LME. Les personnes vivant à long terme avec une LME développent des rubriques complexes pour naviguer dans leurs systèmes de soins de santé personnels. Les données scientifiques ne sont pas unanimes quant à l’efficacité des programmes d’intervention directe pour le maintien de la santé et la prévention des complications à la suite d’une LME. Les données appuient cependant le suivi périodique par une équipe spécialisée et un bilan de santé annuel complet. La recherche fait valoir un fort degré d’uniformité dans l’identification des problèmes les plus courants soulevés par les personnes atteintes d’une LME en soins primaires, dont la plupart concernent l’incapacité, plus précisément les complications secondaires, comme la dysfonction intestinale ou vésicale et la douleur. Il existe aussi de bonnes données probantes à l’effet que de nombreux problèmes de santé généraux exigent de l’attention dans une telle population, comme les problèmes de la densité osseuse, la dépression et les questions entourant la santé sexuelle et la reproduction. Il y a

  7. Combining population and patient-specific characteristics for prostate segmentation on 3D CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ling; Guo, Rongrong; Tian, Zhiqiang; Venkataraman, Rajesh; Sarkar, Saradwata; Liu, Xiabi; Tade, Funmilayo; Schuster, David M.; Fei, Baowei

    2016-03-01

    Prostate segmentation on CT images is a challenging task. In this paper, we explore the population and patient-specific characteristics for the segmentation of the prostate on CT images. Because population learning does not consider the inter-patient variations and because patient-specific learning may not perform well for different patients, we are combining the population and patient-specific information to improve segmentation performance. Specifically, we train a population model based on the population data and train a patient-specific model based on the manual segmentation on three slice of the new patient. We compute the similarity between the two models to explore the influence of applicable population knowledge on the specific patient. By combining the patient-specific knowledge with the influence, we can capture the population and patient-specific characteristics to calculate the probability of a pixel belonging to the prostate. Finally, we smooth the prostate surface according to the prostate-density value of the pixels in the distance transform image. We conducted the leave-one-out validation experiments on a set of CT volumes from 15 patients. Manual segmentation results from a radiologist serve as the gold standard for the evaluation. Experimental results show that our method achieved an average DSC of 85.1% as compared to the manual segmentation gold standard. This method outperformed the population learning method and the patient-specific learning approach alone. The CT segmentation method can have various applications in prostate cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  8. Combining Population and Patient-Specific Characteristics for Prostate Segmentation on 3D CT Images

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ling; Guo, Rongrong; Tian, Zhiqiang; Venkataraman, Rajesh; Sarkar, Saradwata; Liu, Xiabi; Tade, Funmilayo; Schuster, David M.; Fei, Baowei

    2016-01-01

    Prostate segmentation on CT images is a challenging task. In this paper, we explore the population and patient-specific characteristics for the segmentation of the prostate on CT images. Because population learning does not consider the inter-patient variations and because patient-specific learning may not perform well for different patients, we are combining the population and patient-specific information to improve segmentation performance. Specifically, we train a population model based on the population data and train a patient-specific model based on the manual segmentation on three slice of the new patient. We compute the similarity between the two models to explore the influence of applicable population knowledge on the specific patient. By combining the patient-specific knowledge with the influence, we can capture the population and patient-specific characteristics to calculate the probability of a pixel belonging to the prostate. Finally, we smooth the prostate surface according to the prostate-density value of the pixels in the distance transform image. We conducted the leave-one-out validation experiments on a set of CT volumes from 15 patients. Manual segmentation results from a radiologist serve as the gold standard for the evaluation. Experimental results show that our method achieved an average DSC of 85.1% as compared to the manual segmentation gold standard. This method outperformed the population learning method and the patient-specific learning approach alone. The CT segmentation method can have various applications in prostate cancer diagnosis and therapy. PMID:27660382

  9. Combining Population and Patient-Specific Characteristics for Prostate Segmentation on 3D CT Images.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ling; Guo, Rongrong; Tian, Zhiqiang; Venkataraman, Rajesh; Sarkar, Saradwata; Liu, Xiabi; Tade, Funmilayo; Schuster, David M; Fei, Baowei

    2016-02-27

    Prostate segmentation on CT images is a challenging task. In this paper, we explore the population and patient-specific characteristics for the segmentation of the prostate on CT images. Because population learning does not consider the inter-patient variations and because patient-specific learning may not perform well for different patients, we are combining the population and patient-specific information to improve segmentation performance. Specifically, we train a population model based on the population data and train a patient-specific model based on the manual segmentation on three slice of the new patient. We compute the similarity between the two models to explore the influence of applicable population knowledge on the specific patient. By combining the patient-specific knowledge with the influence, we can capture the population and patient-specific characteristics to calculate the probability of a pixel belonging to the prostate. Finally, we smooth the prostate surface according to the prostate-density value of the pixels in the distance transform image. We conducted the leave-one-out validation experiments on a set of CT volumes from 15 patients. Manual segmentation results from a radiologist serve as the gold standard for the evaluation. Experimental results show that our method achieved an average DSC of 85.1% as compared to the manual segmentation gold standard. This method outperformed the population learning method and the patient-specific learning approach alone. The CT segmentation method can have various applications in prostate cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  10. Impact of high lipoprotein(a) levels on in-stent restenosis and long-term clinical outcomes of angina pectoris patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents in Asian population.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Ho; Rha, Seung-Woon; Choi, Byoung-Geol; Park, Ji-Young; Jeon, Ung; Seo, Hong-Seog; Kim, Eung-Ju; Na, Jin-Oh; Choi, Cheol-Ung; Kim, Jin-Won; Lim, Hong-Euy; Park, Chang-Gyu; Oh, Dong-Joo

    2015-06-01

    Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is known to be associated with cardiovascular complications and atherothrombotic properties in general populations. However, it has not been examined whether Lp(a) levels are able to predict adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents (DES). A total of 595 consecutive patients with angina pectoris who underwent elective PCI with DES were enrolled from 2004 to 2010. The patients were divided into two groups according to the levels of Lp(a): Lp(a) < 50 mg/dL (n = 485 patients), and Lp(a) ≥ 50 mg/dL (n = 111 patients). The 6-9-month angiographic outcomes and 3-year cumulative major clinical outcomes were compared between the two groups. Binary restenosis occurred in 26 of 133 lesions (19.8%) in the high Lp(a) group and 43 of 550 lesions (7.9%) in the low Lp(a) group (P = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the reference vessel diameter, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, total lesion length, and Lp(a) ≥ 50 mg/dL were predictors of binary restenosis. In the Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, Lp(a) > 50 mg/dL was significantly associated with the 3-year adverse clinical outcomes including any myocardial infarction, revascularization (target lesion revascularization (TLR) and target vessel revascularization (TVR)), TLR-major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), TVR-MACE, and All-MACEs. In our study, high Lp(a) level ≥ 50 mg/dL in angina pectoris patients undergoing elective PCI with DES was significantly associated with binary restenosis and 3-year adverse clinical outcomes in an Asian population.

  11. Génotypes du virus de l'hépatite B et marqueurs évolutifs des patients porteurs chroniques de l'AgHBs à Bujumbura

    PubMed Central

    Ntagirabiri, Rénovat; Munezero, Belyse; Nahimana, Caritas; Ndabaneze, Evariste

    2016-01-01

    Introduction L'infection par le virus de l'hépatite B (VHB) est une affection grave suite à ses complications notamment la cirrhose et le carcinome hépatocellulaire (CHC). Les génotypes du VHB influent beaucoup sur son évolution et sur l'efficacité du traitement. Le but était d’évaluer les génotypes du VHB et les profils évolutifs des patients porteurs chroniques de l'AgHBs. Méthodes Étude transversale, menée au Centre hospitalo-universitaire de Kamenge et au Centre des maladies du tube digestif et du foie « CEMADIF » entre Juin 2013 et Mai 2014. Le génotypage, les dosages quantitatifs de l'AgHBe et de l'ADN virale B ont été réalisés au Laboratoire Cerba, Cergy Pontoise, France. L’évaluation de la fibrose était faite par le Fibrotest ou le FibroScan. Résultats Au total, 143 patients, 52,4% de sexe masculin, âge moyen 38,1 ans ont été inclus. Selon les marqueurs évolutifs, 112 patients (78,3%) avaient un AgHBe négatif. Quant à la charge virale, 106 patients (74,2%) avaient une virémie inférieure à 2000UI/ml et une fibrose minime inférieure à 7kpa selon le FibroScan. Parmi eux, 13 malades avaient un ADN du VHB indétectable (<20UI/ml). Les autres 37 patients (26,8%) avaient une charge virale supérieure à 2000UI/ml et parmi eux, 31 avaient un AgHBe positif (>0,8UI/ml). Il a été possible de déterminer le génotype chez 51 patients qui avaient une virémie assez élevée pour permettre techniquement ce dosage. Ces patients avaient tous un génotype A. Conclusion Le génotype A du VHB est le plus fréquent à Bujumbura. Il est associé à un portage inactif élevé. PMID:27222687

  12. Perioperative nurses' knowledge of indicators for pressure ulcer development in the surgical patient population.

    PubMed

    Lupear, Susan Krauser; Overstreet, Maria; Krau, Stephen D

    2015-06-01

    Despite focused attention to improve the quality and safety of patient care, and the financial impact pressure ulcers (PUs) can have on a health care provider or institution, evidence supports that PUs continue to occur in other patient populations during admission to the hospital. An example of a patient population in which evidence indicates that the development of PUs occurs, is patients who have a surgical procedure. The article discusses a project designed to identify potential knowledge deficits among perioperative nurses of indicators for PU development in the surgical patient population.

  13. Visual assessment of the similarity between a patient and trial population: Is This Clinical Trial Applicable to My Patient?

    PubMed

    Cahan, Amos; Cimino, James J

    2016-01-01

    A critical consideration when applying the results of a clinical trial to a particular patient is the degree of similarity of the patient to the trial population. However, similarity assessment rarely is practical in the clinical setting. Here, we explore means to support similarity assessment by clinicians. A scale chart was developed to represent the distribution of reported clinical and demographic characteristics of clinical trial participant populations. Constructed for an individual patient, the scale chart shows the patient's similarity to the study populations in a graphical manner. A pilot test case was conducted using case vignettes assessed by clinicians. Two pairs of clinical trials were used, each addressing a similar clinical question. Scale charts were manually constructed for each simulated patient. Clinicians were asked to estimate the degree of similarity of each patient to the populations of a pair of trials. Assessors relied on either the scale chart, a summary table (aligning characteristics of 2 trial populations), or original trial reports. Assessment time and between-assessor agreement were compared. Population characteristics considered important by assessors were recorded. Six assessors evaluated 6 cases each. Using a visual scale chart, agreement between physicians was higher and the time required for similarity assessment was comparable. We suggest that further research is warranted to explore visual tools facilitating the choice of the most applicable clinical trial to a specific patient. Automating patient and trial population characteristics extraction is key to support this effort.

  14. DUrable polymer-based sTent CHallenge of Promus ElemEnt versus ReSolute integrity (DUTCH PEERS): rationale and study design of a randomized multicenter trial in a Dutch all-comers population.

    PubMed

    Tandjung, Kenneth; Basalus, Mounir W Z; Sen, Hanim; Jessurun, Gillian A J; Danse, Peter W; Stoel, Martin; Linssen, Gerard C M; Derks, Anita; van Loenhout, Ton T; Nienhuis, Mark B; Hautvast, Raymond W M; von Birgelen, Clemens

    2012-04-01

    Drug-eluting stents (DES) are increasingly used for the treatment of coronary artery disease. An optimized DES performance is desirable to successfully treat various challenging coronary lesions in a broad population of patients. In response to this demand, third-generation DES with an improved deliverability were developed. Promus Element (Boston Scientific, Natick, MA) and Resolute Integrity (Medtronic Vascular, Santa Rosa, CA) are 2 novel third-generation DES for which limited clinical data are available. Accordingly, we designed the current multicenter study to investigate in an all-comers population whether the clinical outcome is similar after stenting with Promus Element versus Resolute Integrity. DUTCH PEERS is a multicenter, prospective, single-blinded, randomized trial in a Dutch all-comers population. Patients with all clinical syndromes who require percutaneous coronary interventions with DES implantation are eligible. In these patients, the type of DES implanted will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio between Resolute Integrity versus Promus Element. The trial is powered based on a noninferiority hypothesis. For each stent arm, 894 patients will be enrolled, resulting in a total study population of 1,788 patients. The primary end point is the incidence of target vessel failure at 1-year follow-up. DUTCH PEERS is the first randomized multicenter trial with a head-to-head comparison of Promus Element and Resolute Integrity to investigate the safety and efficacy of these third-generation DES. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prise en charge des troubles de consommation d’opioïdes en première ligne

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Anita; Kahan, Meldon; Nader, Maya

    2017-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Conseiller les médecins quant aux options thérapeutiques à recommander à des populations précises de patients : approche axée sur l’abstinence, traitement d’entretien par la buprénorphine-naloxone ou traitement d’entretien par la méthadone. Sources d’information Une recherche sur PubMed a été effectuée, et on a relevé dans les publications les données sur l’efficacité, l’innocuité et le profil d’effets indésirables de l’approche axée sur l’abstinence, du traitement par la buprénorphine-naloxone et du traitement par la méthadone. Les études d’observation et interventionnelles ont été incluses. Message principal La méthadone et la buprénorphine-naloxone sont substantiellement plus efficaces que l’approche axée sur l’abstinence. La méthadone présente un taux de rétention plus élevé que la buprénorphine-naloxone, alors que la buprénorphine-naloxone présente un risque plus faible de surdose. Les médecins devraient recommander le traitement par la méthadone ou la buprénorphine-naloxone plutôt que l’approche axée sur l’abstinence, et ce, à tous les groupes de patients (données de niveau I). La méthadone est préférable à la buprénorphine-naloxone chez les patients qui présentent un risque élevé d’abandon, comme les usagers d’opioïdes par injection (données de niveau I). Les jeunes et les femmes enceintes qui font usage d’opioïdes par injection devraient aussi recevoir la méthadone d’abord (données de niveau III). Si la buprénorphine-naloxone est prescrite en premier, il faut faire passer rapidement le patient à la méthadone si les symptômes de sevrage, les fortes envies ou la consommation d’opioïdes persistent malgré une dose optimale de buprénorphine-naloxone (données de niveau II). La buprénorphine-naloxone est recommandée chez les usagers d’opioïdes sur ordonnance par voie orale socialement stables, surtout s’ils ont un emploi ou si leurs

  16. Population

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population growth influences many stressors on Narragansett Bay and its Watershed, including all landscape and chemical stressors discussed in other chapters of this report. In numerous ways, population growth affects the condition of the Bay ecosystem, Watershed ecosystem, and h...

  17. Oral manifestations of HIV patients in South Indian population.

    PubMed

    Annapurna, Chandrakala Shekarappa; Prince, Christo Naveen; Sivaraj, S; Ali, I M

    2012-08-01

    To study the prevalence of oral manifestations in HIV-infected patients and to correlate oral manifestations with age, gender, severity, and clinical staging. Fifty patients of either sex diagnosed as HIV positive were included in the study. The data obtained were analyzed statistically using Fisher's exact test and Chi-square test. Among the 50 HIV-infected patients, oral manifestations were found in 40 (80.0%) patients. Thirty (60%) patients were seen in the age range between 31 and 65 years, and 29 (58%) patients were females. Majority of the patients [26 (52%)] were in the clinical staging C, of whom 23 (88.5%) were with manifestations with significant statistical value (P < 0.05). Patients with CD4 count less than 200 had manifestations in 22 (88%) patients. Correlation between reduction in CD4 count and presence of manifestations was significant (P < 0.05). Twenty-eight (80%) patients without antiretroviral therapy (ART) reported with manifestations. Correlation between ART and presence of manifestations was not significant (P = 1.00). Oral manifestations are the indicators for the disease progression. Clinical stage C and lower CD4 count may be useful predictors for HIV, with greater prevalence of oral manifestations.

  18. Implanted Cardiac Defibrillator Care in Radiation Oncology Patient Population

    SciTech Connect

    Gelblum, Daphna Y. Amols, Howard

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: To review the experience of a large cancer center with radiotherapy (RT) patients bearing implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) to propose some preliminary care guidelines as we learn more about the devices and their interaction with the therapeutic radiation environment. Methods and Materials: We collected data on patients with implanted ICDs treated with RT during a 2.5-year period at any of the five Memorial Sloan-Kettering clinical campuses. Information regarding the model, location, and dose detected from the device, as well as the treatment fields, fraction size, and treatment energy was collected. During this time, a new management policy for these patients had been implemented requiring treatment with low-energy beams (6 MV) and close surveillance of the patients in partnership with their electrophysiologist, as they received RT. Results: During the study period, 33 patients were treated with an ICD in place. One patient experienced a default of the device to its initial factory setting that was detected by the patient hearing an auditory signal from the device. This patient had initially been treated with a 15-MV beam. After this episode, his treatment was replanned to be completed with 6-MV photons, and he experienced no further events. Conclusion: Patients with ICDs and other implanted computer-controlled devices will be encountered more frequently in the RT department, and proper management is important. We present a policy for the safe treatment of these patients in the radiation oncology environment.

  19. Oral manifestations of HIV patients in South Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Annapurna, Chandrakala Shekarappa; Prince, Christo Naveen; Sivaraj, S.; Ali, I. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To study the prevalence of oral manifestations in HIV-infected patients and to correlate oral manifestations with age, gender, severity, and clinical staging. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients of either sex diagnosed as HIV positive were included in the study. The data obtained were analyzed statistically using Fisher's exact test and Chi-square test. Results: Among the 50 HIV-infected patients, oral manifestations were found in 40 (80.0%) patients. Thirty (60%) patients were seen in the age range between 31 and 65 years, and 29 (58%) patients were females. Majority of the patients [26 (52%)] were in the clinical staging C, of whom 23 (88.5%) were with manifestations with significant statistical value (P < 0.05). Patients with CD4 count less than 200 had manifestations in 22 (88%) patients. Correlation between reduction in CD4 count and presence of manifestations was significant (P < 0.05). Twenty-eight (80%) patients without antiretroviral therapy (ART) reported with manifestations. Correlation between ART and presence of manifestations was not significant (P = 1.00). Interpretation and Conclusion: Oral manifestations are the indicators for the disease progression. Clinical stage C and lower CD4 count may be useful predictors for HIV, with greater prevalence of oral manifestations. PMID:23066291

  20. [Population].

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    Data on the population of Venezuela between 1975 and 1977 are presented in descriptive tables and graphs. Information is included on the employed population according to category, sex, and type of economic activity, and by sex, age, and area on the employment rate and the total, the economically active, and the unemployed population.

  1. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Pat; Landahl, John

    This pamphlet has been prepared in response to a new problem, a rapidly increasing population, and a new need, population education. It is designed to help teachers provide their students with some basic population concepts with stress placed on the elements of decision making. In the first section of the pamphlet, some of the basic concepts of…

  2. Low back pain patients in a psychiatric population.

    PubMed

    Maruta, T; Swanson, D W; Swenson, W M

    1976-01-01

    Thirty-one patients with low back pain resistant to medical and surgical treatment were studied. On admission to the psychiatric service, these patients revealed apparent features of conversion and hysterical personality, as characterized also by the MMPI profile. During hospitalization, however, there was increased appearance and recognition of anxious-depressive features. We suggest that these patients should be treated by the combined approach of supportive psychotherapy and physiotherapy, with appropriate use of antidepressants.

  3. La haute fiabilité en soins de santé: la création d'une culture et d'une mentalité favorisant la sécurité des patients.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Bonnie S; Hagins, Mitch; Picciano, Gino; King, John A; Marshall, David A; Nelson, Brian; Deao, Craig

    2017-03-01

    Les préjudices que subissent les patients recevant des soins de santé représentent un fardeau considérable et peuvent avoir de graves répercussions sur les patients et les familles ainsi que sur la capacité des systèmes de santé de gérer l'accès des patients, leurs déplacements dans le système et les temps d'attente. L'intérêt pour la science de la haute fiabilité, mise au point à l'origine dans des secteurs comme l'aviation commerciale, qui ont un bilan exceptionnel en matière de sécurité, est une nouvelle tendance en soins de santé qui pourrait aider les organisations et les systèmes à atteindre le but ultime : zéro préjudice subi par les patients. Cet article fait valoir que zéro préjudice au patient est un impératif fondamental et que la science de la haute fiabilité peut aider à accélérer et à soutenir les progrès vers ce but vital. Bien que les pratiques utilisées dans d'autres secteurs ne soient pas facilement transférables aux soins de santé et qu'il n'existe pas encore un seul modèle éprouvé pour les organisations à haute fiabilité en santé, des organisations de premier plan commencent à faire la démonstration de stratégies efficaces propres aux soins de santé. L'expérience du réseau international d'organisations partenaires du groupe Studer est utilisée pour illustrer et comprendre ces premiers efforts. Le cadre Evidence-Based Leadership(SM) (leadership fondé sur les données probantes) du groupe Studer est appliqué dans différents milieux de soins de santé pour transformer la culture et la gestion du changement visant à favoriser une haute fiabilité. Il propose une démarche et des ressources pour progresser vers le but zéro préjudice subi par les patients et tous les avantages liés à l'utilisation efficiente de nos précieuses ressources en soins de santé.

  4. Appréciation de la sévérité de l'affection des patients admis en réanimation par la mesure de la CRP

    PubMed Central

    Djuma, Jackson; Kalenga, Prosper; Kazadi, Costa; Orbegozo, Diego; Vincent, Jean Louis

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La CRP est produite en grande quantité dans les processus inflammatoires aigus et chroniques. L'hypothèse de ce travail est que la CRP permet, à faible coût, d'apprécier la sévérité des patients admis en réanimation. Méthodes La valeur journalière du taux sérique de CRP a été corrélée aux scores APACHE II à l'admission et SOFA pris quotidiennement durant le séjour en réanimation. La population étudiée était constituée de 100 patients admis en réanimation aux cliniques universitaires de Bruxelles. Résultats Les patients septiques avaient un taux de CRP plus élevé comparé aux non septiques. Les patients ayant une CRP élevée avaient les scores APACHE (26 ± 6 vs 20 ± 9, p < 0,05), SOFA à l'admission (8 ± 4 vs 4 ± 3, p < 0.05), SOFA maximum plus élevés (9 ± 4 vs 7 ± 3 et 9 ± 4 vs 7 ± 3, p < 0.05) et un séjour en réanimation plus long. Les patients ayant un plus grand nombre d'organes défaillants ont la CRP la plus élevée (365 mg/L vs 80 mg/L, 205 mg/L vs 60 mg/L, 110 mg/L vs 60 mg/L, 150 mg/L vs 60 mg/L). Conclusion Chez les patients présentant un taux sérique de CRP élevé, les scores de gravité (APACHE et SOFA), le pourcentage de patients présentant une infection et la durée du séjour en réanimation sont plus élevés. PMID:26301005

  5. Higher risk of death among MEN1 patients with mutations in the JunD interacting domain: a Groupe d'etude des Tumeurs Endocrines (GTE) cohort study.

    PubMed

    Thevenon, Julien; Bourredjem, Abderrahmane; Faivre, Laurence; Cardot-Bauters, Catherine; Calender, Alain; Murat, Arnaud; Giraud, Sophie; Niccoli, Patricia; Odou, Marie-Françoise; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Barlier, Anne; Lombard-Bohas, Catherine; Clauser, Eric; Tabarin, Antoine; Parfait, Béatrice; Chabre, Olivier; Castermans, Emilie; Beckers, Albert; Ruszniewski, Philippe; Le Bras, Morgane; Delemer, Brigitte; Bouchard, Philippe; Guilhem, Isabelle; Rohmer, Vincent; Goichot, Bernard; Caron, Philippe; Baudin, Eric; Chanson, Philippe; Groussin, Lionel; Du Boullay, Hélène; Weryha, Georges; Lecomte, Pierre; Penfornis, Alfred; Bihan, Hélène; Archambeaud, Françoise; Kerlan, Véronique; Duron, Françoise; Kuhn, Jean-Marc; Vergès, Bruno; Rodier, Michel; Renard, Michel; Sadoul, Jean-Louis; Binquet, Christine; Goudet, Pierre

    2013-05-15

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN1), which is secondary to mutation of the MEN1 gene, is a rare autosomal-dominant disease that predisposes mutation carriers to endocrine tumors. Although genotype-phenotype studies have so far failed to identify any statistical correlations, some families harbor recurrent tumor patterns. The function of MENIN is unclear, but has been described through the discovery of its interacting partners. Mutations in the interacting domains of MENIN functional partners have been shown to directly alter its regulation abilities. We report on a cohort of MEN1 patients from the Groupe d'étude des Tumeurs Endocrines. Patients with a molecular diagnosis and a clinical follow-up, totaling 262 families and 806 patients, were included. Associations between mutation type, location or interacting factors of the MENIN protein and death as well as the occurrence of MEN1-related tumors were tested using a frailty Cox model to adjust for potential heterogeneity across families. Accounting for the heterogeneity across families, the overall risk of death was significantly higher when mutations affected the JunD interacting domain (adjusted HR = 1.88: 95%-CI = 1.15-3.07). Patients had a higher risk of death from cancers of the MEN1 spectrum (HR = 2.34; 95%-CI = 1.23-4.43). This genotype-phenotype correlation study confirmed the lack of direct genotype-phenotype correlations. However, patients with mutations affecting the JunD interacting domain had a higher risk of death secondary to a MEN1 tumor and should thus be considered for surgical indications, genetic counseling and follow-up.

  6. Intracranial haemorrhage among a population of haemophilic patients in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Antunes, S V; Vicari, P; Cavalheiro, S; Bordin, J O

    2003-09-01

    Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in haemophilic patients. The overall incidence of ICH has been reported to range from 2.2% to 7.5% in patients with haemophilia. From 1987 to 2001, 401 haemophilic patients from the Serviço de Hemofilia, Disciplina de Hematologia e Hemoterapia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo were evaluated. The episodes of ICH were documented by CT scan and the anatomic location, clinical presentation, relationship to trauma and clinical factors, including the presence of HIV infection and the presence of inhibitor, were reviewed. Among 401 haemophilic patients, 45 ICH episodes in 35 (8.7%) patients with age ranging from 4 days to 49 years (mean 10.6 years) were observed. A history of recent trauma was documented in 24 (53.3%) cases. Seventeen (37.8%) episodes occurred in more than one site of bleeding, 12 (26.7%) were subdural, seven (15.5%) subarachnoid, four (8.9%) epidural, two (4.4%) intracerebral and one (2.2%) intraventricular. The most frequent symptoms were headache and drowsiness. All patients were submitted to replacement therapy and neurosurgical intervention was performed in eight (17.8%) patients. Despite the treatment, three (8.6%) haemophilia A patients died due to the ICH event and three presented late sequelae. The most important aspect of ICH management is the early replacement therapy in haemophilic patients. This prompt treatment will increase the chances of a better prognosis. Another impact measure consists in the administration of the deficient coagulation factor after every head trauma, even when considered minor.

  7. Sounding the 'citizen-patient': the politics of voice at the Hospice Des Quinze-vingts in post-revolutionary Paris.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Ingrid

    2011-10-01

    This essay explores new models of the citizen-patient by attending to the post-Revolutionary blind 'voice'. Voice, in both a literal and figurative sense, was central to the way in which members of the Hospice des Quinze-Vingts, an institution for the blind and partially sighted, interacted with those in the community. Musical voices had been used by members to collect alms and to project the particular spiritual principle of their institution since its foundation in the thirteenth century. At the time of the Revolution, the Quinze-Vingts voice was understood by some political authorities as an exemplary call of humanity. Yet many others perceived it as deeply threatening. After 1800, productive dialogue between those in political control and Quinze-Vingts blind members broke down. Authorities attempted to silence the voice of members through the control of blind musicians and institutional management. The Quinze-Vingts blind continued to reassert their voices until around 1850, providing a powerful form of resistance to political control. The blind 'voice' ultimately recognised the right of the citizen-patient to dialogue with their political carers.

  8. Patient and provider population dynamics analysis in a large dental organization: a tool for management.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Charles W

    2010-12-01

    Health care managers are faced with difficult decisions on a daily basis. Some of those issues involve productivity. Statistical analyses of patient and provider population dynamics offer an important tool with which to base decisions. In this study, two representative clinics out of seven were selected. The patient and provider populations were subjected to the means square successive difference test and a linear regression test. The results differed from management perceptions. Provider decision processes in clinic A were more efficient than those in clinic B. There was no relationship between provider presence and the patient population in both clinics. The patient populations in both clinics displayed random arrivals. Specific recommendations to management from the results of this study include: billeting decisions, appointing process decisions, emergency policies, and the need for a focused marketing plan. There are many useful tools with which to study population dynamics. This is one example.

  9. Stigmatisation in onychomycosis patients: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Szepietowski, Jacek C; Reich, Adam

    2009-07-01

    Patients with onychomycosis may experience significant psychosocial problems, similarly to other skin diseases. The objectives of this study were to analyse the level of stigmatisation among subjects with onychomycosis and the effect of anti-mycotic therapy on this feeling. This prospective study was carried out among 1684 patients (1050 women and 634 men, mean age 52.2 ± 15.5 years) with onychomycosis. All subjects were asked to fulfil the stigmatisation questionnaire at the baseline visit and after the completion of the anti-mycotic therapy. Stigmatisation level was assessed with reference to gender, age, education, type and duration of onychomycosis and the number of involved nails. Patients with onychomycosis reported markedly increased feeling of stigmatisation. Fingernail involvement was the major variable negatively influencing the stigmatisation level. Female patients and younger ones appeared to be more stigmatised. No significant relationships were found between stigmatisation level and education, number of involved fingernails or toenails, as well as the duration of onychomycosis. The anti-mycotic therapy resulted in significant reduction of all analysed aspects of stigmatisation to about 40% of the baseline level. Onychomycosis should be considered as an important problem for patients, significantly reducing their physical, mental and social well-being, also leading to marked stigmatisation of patients. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Evaluation des indicateurs d’alerte précoce de la résistance du VIH aux ARV en Côte d’Ivoire en 2011

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Kouadio Jean; Damey, Néto Florence; Konan, Diby Jean Paul; Aka, Joseph; Aka-Konan, Sandrine; Ani, Alex; Bonle, Marguerite Te; Kouassi, Dinard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction En 2001, l'Organisation des Nations Unies recommandait de rendre disponible les médicaments antirétroviraux dans les pays à ressources limitées. Cependant, l'utilisation de ces médicaments à grande échelle s'accompagne du développement de résistance du virus. En Côte d'Ivoire, plusieurs sites prescrivent les antirétroviraux. Cette étude avait pour objectif d'évaluer les facteurs programmatiques associés à un risque élevé d'émergence de résistance du VIH aux antirétroviraux. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une cohorte rétrospective sur 20 sites de prise en charge des personnes vivant avec le VIH. La population d'étude était constituée des personnes ayant initié leur traitement antirétroviral sur les sites en 2008-2009. L'estimation de la taille de l'échantillon a été faite à partir de la stratégie d'échantillonnage de l'OMS. Résultats Sur 20 sites, 98% des prescriptions initiales étaient conformes aux directives nationales et 20% des sites avaient 100% de prescriptions conformes. Au total, 33% des patients étaient perdus de vue au cours des 12 premiers mois de traitement antirétroviral et 20% des sites avaient moins de 20% de perdus de vue. A 12 mois, 51% des patients demeuraient sous traitement de première intention approprié et 11% des sites ont atteint le seuil d'au moins 70% de patients sous traitement de première intention approprié. Un seul site n'a pas connu de rupture d'antirétroviraux sur les 12 mois. Conclusion Des insuffisances relevées dans la prise en charge des personnes vivant avec le VIH traduisent l'existence d'un risque important de résistance du virus aux antirétroviraux en 2008-2009. Pour minimiser ce risque les pratiques de prescription devraient être améliorées, un système de recherche des absents aux rendez-vous devrait être mis en place et la disponibilité constante des antirétroviraux devraient être assurée. PMID:28250876

  11. Association Between Patient-Reported Measures of Psychological Distress and Patient Satisfaction Scores in a Spine Surgery Patient Population

    PubMed Central

    Abtahi, A.M.; Brodke, D.S.; Lawrence, B.D.; Zhang, C.; Spiker, W.R.

    2015-01-01

    Update This article was updated on June 10, 2015, because of previous errors. The title had previously read “Association Between Patient-Reported Measures of Psychological Distress and Patient Satisfaction Scores After Spine Surgery.” It has been changed to “Association Between Patient-Reported Measures of Psychological Distress and Patient Satisfaction Scores in a Spine Surgery Patient Population” to reflect the fact that not all patients had undergone surgery when they completed their questionnaires. The last sentence in the Background paragraph of the Abstract had previously read “The goal of this study was to determine whether psychological distress influences outpatient satisfaction scores following spine surgery.” It now reads “The goal of this study was to determine whether psychological distress influences outpatient satisfaction scores in a spine surgery patient population.” The last sentence before the Materials and Methods section, which previously read “Our aim in conducting this study was to determine whether psychological distress, as measured with the Distress and Risk Assessment Method (DRAM) questionnaire, influences outpatient satisfaction scores following spine surgery,” now reads: “Our aim in conducting this study was to determine whether psychological distress, as measured with the Distress and Risk Assessment Method (DRAM) questionnaire, influences outpatient satisfaction scores in a spine surgery patient population.” Finally, the second sentence in the Materials and Methods section, “Every patient who completed both a patient satisfaction survey and a DRAM questionnaire for the same encounter at any point during the study period was included in this study,” has been changed to “Every patient who completed both a patient satisfaction survey and a DRAM questionnaire for the same encounter, before or after the surgery, at any point during the study period was included in this study.” An erratum has been published

  12. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    In an effort to help meet the growing interest and concern about the problems created by the rapid growth of population, The International Planned Parenthood Federation has prepared this booklet with the aim of assisting the study of the history and future trends of population growth and its impact on individual and family welfare, national,…

  13. Effect of Daily Migraine Prevention on Health Care Utilization in an Insured Patient Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-25

    PATIENT POPULATION 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER CAPT DEVINE JOSHUA W 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER...INSURED PATIENT POPULATION 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER CAPT DEVINE JOSHUA W 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...INSURED PATIENT POPULATION 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER CAPT DEVINE JOSHUA W 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK

  14. Identification of medically compromised dental patients in a Portuguese population.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Helder José; Quintanilla, José Maria

    2013-01-01

    The age of the patients, the presence of one or more chronic disorders and the patients' drug regimens can influence dental treatment and oral health. This is a prospective, descriptive study to identify subjects with compromised health who received dental treatment between November 2010 and June 2011 at private dental practices run by graduates of the Portuguese Catholic University. Application software in Microsoft Excel was developed containing the questionnaire, based on the EMRRH (European medical risk related history), which allowed the collection of data from 1603 adult patients. Microsoft Excel, G*Power and SPSS V.18 were used for statistical treatment. The five most frequent medical conditions found were: 1) hypertension, 21.0%; 2) arrhythmias, 11.2%; 3) Angina pectoris, 8.3%; 4) allergies, 77%; 5) thyroid disease, 6.2%. The medications taken related to these were: a) antihypertensives, 11.0%; b) antidepressants, anxiolytics and hypnotics, 10.6%; c) acetylsalicylic acid, 4.2%; d) antiarrhythmic and sympathomimetic drugs, 4.1%; e) haemostatic treatment, 3.6%. 42.7% of the patients had no medical risks, 32.9% were classified as ASA II, 11.7% as ASA III and 12.7% as ASA IV. This study emphasises the importance of often-neglected anamnesis in oral care. The high prevalence of patients with medical conditions should be continuously studied to verify the changes over time and should be expanded to other regions and countries.

  15. Cost of care for cancer patients in England: evidence from population-based patient-level data

    PubMed Central

    Laudicella, Mauro; Walsh, Brendan; Burns, Elaine; Smith, Peter C

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health systems are facing the challenge of providing care to an increasing population of patients with cancer. However, evidence on costs is limited due to the lack of large longitudinal databases. Methods: We matched cost of care data to population-based, patient-level data on cancer patients in England. We conducted a retrospective cohort study including all patients age 18 and over with a diagnosis of colorectal (275 985 patients), breast (359 771), prostate (286 426) and lung cancer (283 940) in England between 2001 and 2010. Incidence costs, prevalence costs, and phase of care costs were estimated separately for patients age 18–64 and ⩾65. Costs of care were compared by patients staging, before and after diagnosis, and with a comparison population without cancer. Results: Incidence costs in the first year of diagnosis are noticeably higher in patients age 18–64 than age ⩾65 across all examined cancers. A lower stage diagnosis is associated with larger cost savings for colorectal and breast cancer in both age groups. The additional costs of care because of the main four cancers amounts to £1.5 billion in 2010, namely 3.0% of the total cost of hospital care. Conclusions: Population-based, patient-level data can be used to provide new evidence on the cost of cancer in England. Early diagnosis and cancer prevention have scope for achieving large cost savings for the health system. PMID:27070711

  16. Utilitarian prioritization of radiation oncology patients based on maximization of population tumour control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, M. A.; Li, W.; Jennings, L.; Kearvell, R.; Bydder, S.

    2013-06-01

    An objective method for establishing patient prioritization in the context of a radiotherapy waiting list is investigated. This is based on a utilitarian objective, being the greatest probability of local tumour control in the population of patients. A numerical simulation is developed and a clinical patient case-mix is used to determine the influence of the characteristics of the patient population on resulting optimal patient scheduling. With the utilitarian objective, large gains in tumour control probability (TCP) can be achieved for individuals or cohorts by prioritizing patients for that fraction of the patient population with relatively small sacrifices in TCP for a smaller fraction of the population. For a waiting list in steady state with five patients per day commencing treatment and leaving the list (and so with five patients per day entering the list), and a mean wait time of 35 days and a maximum of 90 days, optimized wait times ranged from a mean of one day for patients with tumour types with short effective doubling times to a mean of 66.9 days for prostate cancer patients. It is found that, when seeking the optimal daily order of patients on the waiting list in a constrained simulation, the relative rather than absolute value of TCP is the determinant of the resulting optimal waiting times. An increase in the mean waiting time mostly influences (increases) the optimal waiting times of patients with fast-growing tumours. The proportional representation of groups (separated by tumour type) in the patient population has an influence on the resulting distribution of optimal waiting times for patients in those groups, though has only a minor influence on the optimal mean waiting time for each group.

  17. Managing special populations among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Marquess, Jonathan G

    2011-12-01

    Glycemic goals and the therapies used to achieve them must be individualized for each patient based on several factors, one of the more important being coexisting conditions such as renal disease, liver disease, and cardiovascular disease. The potential to lower hemoglobin A(1c) and the possible long-term benefits of diabetes treatments must be balanced with safety issues, adverse effects, tolerability, ease of use, long-term adherence, and expense. The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American Diabetes Association have addressed these concerns by developing treatment guidelines to maximize efficacy and safety in the majority of patients with type 2 diabetes. Other organizations, including the American Medical Directors Association and the American Geriatric Society, have also published guidelines for diabetes management for patients in long-term care facilities. This review discusses the safety profiles of antidiabetic drugs, and the special treatment needs with respect to these drugs for patients with diabetes and comorbidities such as renal disease, liver disease, and cardiovascular disease.

  18. Evolution of attitudes of the population towards the mental patient.

    PubMed

    Yllá, L; González-Pinto Arrillaga, A; Ballesteros, J; Guillén, V

    2007-01-01

    The research work we are presenting on attitudes toward mental illness among the general population of Vizcaya is, to a certain extent, a continuation of an investigation line we began in 1979. We have used the same questionnaire as in 1979 (Cohen and Struening), slightly modifying it to adapt it to current circumstances with a completely random sample. Cronbach's alpha is 0.8236 and the confidence interval for the difference is 95%. The attitude towards the mentally ill is better nowadays than several decades ago. This is probably because of the deep changes that have occurred in our society which has led those people who previously had a stereotyped attitude and were prejudiced to become more diversified in their opinions with full knowledge of the facts because of better information. Its factor synthesis explains 32.9% of the variation. The factors resulting from this work are: a) negative attitude toward the mentally ill (explains 14% variation); b) interpersonal/social etiology (explains 7.2% variation); c) authoritarianism (accounting for 4.8% variation); d) restrictiveness (explains 3.1% variation), and e) prejudice (explains 3% variation). The population has a less magical and prejudicial and a more informed idea of mental illness. Thus the factorial contents are much more disseminated. Consequently, these factors explain a relatively low percentage of variation.

  19. US Hemophilia Treatment Center population trends 1990-2010: patient diagnoses, demographics, health services utilization.

    PubMed

    Baker, J R; Riske, B; Drake, J H; Forsberg, A D; Atwood, R; Voutsis, M; Shearer, R

    2013-01-01

    For several decades, US government agencies have partially supported regional networks of Hemophilia Treatment Centers (HTC). HTC multidisciplinary teams provide comprehensive and coordinated diagnosis, treatment, prevention, education, outreach and surveillance services to improve the health of people with genetic bleeding disorders. However, national data are scarce on HTC-patient population trends and services. The aim of the study was to examine national trends over the past 20 years in patient diagnoses, demographics and health services utilization among the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-supported HTC network. Diagnoses, demographics and health services utilization data from 1990 to 2010 were aggregated from all HTCs using the Hemophilia Data Set (HDS). From 1990 to 2010, the HTC population grew 90% from 17 177 to 32 612. HTC patients with von Willebrand's disease increased by 148%, females by 346%, Hispanic patients by 236% and African Americans by 104%. Four thousand and seventy-five deaths were reported. From 2002 to 2010, annual comprehensive evaluations grew 38%, and persons with severe haemophilia on a home intravenous therapy programme rose 37%. In 2010, 46% of patients were less than 18 years vs. 24% for the general US population. The Hemophilia Data Set documents the growth and diversity of the US Hemophilia Treatment Center Network's patient population and services. Despite disproportionate deaths due to HIV, the HTC patient base grew faster than the general US population. The HDS is a vital national public health registry for this rare-disorder population.

  20. Alcohol Drinking Pattern: A Comparison between HIV-Infected Patients and Individuals from the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Maria Leticia R.; Barcellos, Nemora T.; Alencastro, Paulo R.; Wolff, Fernando H.; Moreira, Leila B.; Gus, Miguel; Brandão, Ajacio B. M.; Fuchs, Flavio D.; Fuchs, Sandra C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption is highly prevalent in the general population and among HIV-infected population. This study aimed to compare the pattern of alcohol consumption and to describe characteristics associated with heavy alcohol consumption in individuals from the general population with patients infected with HIV. Methods Participants for this analysis came from a population-based cross-sectional study and from a consecutive sampling of patients infected with HIV. Participants aged 18 years or older were interviewed using similar questionnaires with questions pertaining to socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, and HIV-related characteristics, among others. Blood pressure and anthropometric measures were measured using standardized procedures. Results Weekly alcohol consumption was more prevalent among individuals from the general population than HIV-infected patients: 57.0 vs. 31.1%, P<0.001. The prevalence of heavy episodic drinking was higher in the population sample as well: 46.1 vs. 17.0%, P<0.001. In the general population, heavy alcohol consumption was more prevalent in men. Cigarette smoking was independently associated with heavy alcohol consumption among HIV infected (Prevalence Ratio; PR = 5.9; 95%CI 2.6–13.9; P<0,001) and general population (PR = 2.6; 95%CI 1.9–3.0; P<0.001). Years at school were inversely associated with heavy alcohol consumption among HIV-infected patients and directly associated among participants from the general population, even after controlling for sex, age, skin color, and smoking. Conclusions Heavy alcohol consumption is more prevalent in the general population than among HIV-infected patients. Individuals aware about their disease may reduce the amount of alcoholic beverages consumption comparatively to healthy individuals from the general population. PMID:27362541

  1. Alcohol Drinking Pattern: A Comparison between HIV-Infected Patients and Individuals from the General Population.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Maria Leticia R; Barcellos, Nemora T; Alencastro, Paulo R; Wolff, Fernando H; Moreira, Leila B; Gus, Miguel; Brandão, Ajacio B M; Fuchs, Flavio D; Fuchs, Sandra C

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is highly prevalent in the general population and among HIV-infected population. This study aimed to compare the pattern of alcohol consumption and to describe characteristics associated with heavy alcohol consumption in individuals from the general population with patients infected with HIV. Participants for this analysis came from a population-based cross-sectional study and from a consecutive sampling of patients infected with HIV. Participants aged 18 years or older were interviewed using similar questionnaires with questions pertaining to socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, and HIV-related characteristics, among others. Blood pressure and anthropometric measures were measured using standardized procedures. Weekly alcohol consumption was more prevalent among individuals from the general population than HIV-infected patients: 57.0 vs. 31.1%, P<0.001. The prevalence of heavy episodic drinking was higher in the population sample as well: 46.1 vs. 17.0%, P<0.001. In the general population, heavy alcohol consumption was more prevalent in men. Cigarette smoking was independently associated with heavy alcohol consumption among HIV infected (Prevalence Ratio; PR = 5.9; 95%CI 2.6-13.9; P<0,001) and general population (PR = 2.6; 95%CI 1.9-3.0; P<0.001). Years at school were inversely associated with heavy alcohol consumption among HIV-infected patients and directly associated among participants from the general population, even after controlling for sex, age, skin color, and smoking. Heavy alcohol consumption is more prevalent in the general population than among HIV-infected patients. Individuals aware about their disease may reduce the amount of alcoholic beverages consumption comparatively to healthy individuals from the general population.

  2. Azole preexposure affects the Aspergillus fumigatus population in patients.

    PubMed

    Alanio, Alexandre; Cabaret, Odile; Sitterlé, Emilie; Costa, Jean-Marc; Brisse, Sylvain; Cordonnier, Catherine; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2012-09-01

    The relationship between the azole preexposure of 86 patients and the genotype, azole susceptibility, and cyp51A polymorphisms of 110 corresponding Aspergillus fumigatus isolates was explored. Isolates carrying serial polymorphisms (F46Y and M172V with or without N248T with or without D255E with or without E427K) had higher itraconazole MICs (P = 0.04), although <2 μg/ml using the EUCAST methodology, were associated with two genetic clusters (P < 0.001) and with voriconazole preexposure of patients (P = 0.016). Voriconazole preexposure influences the distribution of A. fumigatus isolates with selection of isolates carrying cyp51A polymorphisms and higher itraconazole MICs.

  3. Minocycline-Induced Cutaneous Hyperpigmentation in an Orthopedic Patient Population

    PubMed Central

    Hanada, Yuri; Berbari, Elie F.; Steckelberg, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence and evaluate risk factors for development of minocycline-induced cutaneous hyperpigmentation in patients with orthopedic infections. Methods. Patients with orthopedic infections evaluated at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) and treated with minocycline from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2011 were retrospectively identified. Long-term minocycline suppression was defined as daily minocycline use for at least 3 months. A proportional hazards model was used to evaluate potential risk factors. Results. Of 291 patients receiving long-term minocycline suppression, 54% (156 of 291) developed hyperpigmentation after a mean follow-up of 4.8 years (range, 0.3–13.2 years); 88% involved blue-gray pigmentation of normal skin that appeared most commonly in the lower (75%) and upper extremities (44%). The mean duration of minocycline therapy before hyperpigmentation was 1.5 years (range, 0.1–9 years) with a mean cumulative dosage of 107.3 g (range, 8.6–657 g). Notable risk factors include a history of vitamin D deficiency (relative risk [RR], 6.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.91–15.27; P = .0052), presence of a shoulder prosthesis (RR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.23–6.56; P = .0062), noncirrhotic liver pathology (RR, 3.63; 95% CI, 1.11–8.75; P = .0359), and use of a concurrent medication also known to cause hyperpigmentation (RR, 4.75; 95% CI, 1.83–10.1; P = .0029). Conclusions. Hyperpigmentation associated with the use of long-term minocycline suppression in patients with orthopedic infections is common. PMID:26835479

  4. Nonlinear Population Pharmacokinetics of Sirolimus in Patients With Advanced Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, K; Cohen, E E W; House, L K; Ramírez, J; Zhang, W; Ratain, M J; Bies, R R

    2012-01-01

    Sirolimus, the prototypical inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin, has substantial antitumor activity. In this study, sirolimus showed nonlinear pharmacokinetic characteristics over a wide dose range (from 1 to 60 mg/week). The objective of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) model to describe the nonlinearity of sirolimus. Whole blood concentration data, obtained from four phase I clinical trials, were analyzed using a nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NONMEM) approach. The influence of potential covariates was evaluated. Model robustness was assessed using nonparametric bootstrap and visual predictive check approaches. The data were well described by a two-compartment model incorporating a saturable Michaelis–Menten kinetic absorption process. A covariate analysis identified hematocrit as influencing the oral clearance of sirolimus. The visual predictive check indicated that the final pharmacokinetic model adequately predicted observed concentrations. The pharmacokinetics of sirolimus, based on whole blood concentrations, appears to be nonlinear due to saturable absorption. PMID:23887441

  5. Some Chronic Rhinosinusitis Patients Have Significantly Elevated Populations of Seven Fungi in their Sinuses

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Objectives/Hypothesis: To measure the populations of 36 fungi in the homes and sinuses of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and non-CRS patients. Study Design: Single-blind cross-sectional study. Methods: Populations of 36 fungi were measured in sinus samples and in the home...

  6. Some Chronic Rhinosinusitis Patients Have Significantly Elevated Populations of Seven Fungi in their Sinuses

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Objectives/Hypothesis: To measure the populations of 36 fungi in the homes and sinuses of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and non-CRS patients. Study Design: Single-blind cross-sectional study. Methods: Populations of 36 fungi were measured in sinus samples and in the home...

  7. Comparison of health state values derived from patients and individuals from the general population.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Mihir; Tan, Ru San; Ng, Raymond; Choo, Su Pin; Chia, Whay Kuang; Toh, Chee Keong; Lam, Carolyn; Lee, Phong Teck; Latt, Nang Khaing Zar; Rand-Hendriksen, Kim; Cheung, Yin Bun; Luo, Nan

    2017-08-14

    Utility values are critical for cost-utility analyses that guide healthcare decisions. We aimed to compare the utility values of the 5-level EuroQoL-5Dimension (EQ-5D-5L) health states elicited from members of the general public and patients with heart disease or cancer. In face-to-face interviews with 157 heart disease patients, 169 cancer patients, and 169 members from the general population, participants valued 10 EQ-5D-5L health states using a composite Time Trade-Off method. Pooling utility values for all health states, heart disease patients and cancer patients had mean utility values lower by 0.11 points (P value = 0.014) and 0.06 points (P value = 0.148), respectively, compared to the general population. Adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, differences in health state utility values between the patient and the general populations were rendered non-significant, except that heart disease patients gave higher utility values (mean difference = 0.08; P value = 0.007) to mild health states than the general population. Difference in utility values, defined as utility value of a better health state minus that of a poorer health state, was higher among heart disease patients compared to the general population, before and after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Patients may differ from members of the general population in the strength of their preferences for hypothetical health states. Using utility values derived from the general population may under-estimate the comparative effectiveness of healthcare interventions for certain diseases, such as heart diseases.

  8. Do we really know our patient population in database research? A comparison of the femoral shaft fracture patient populations in three commonly used national databases.

    PubMed

    Samuel, A M; Lukasiewicz, A M; Webb, M L; Bohl, D D; Basques, B A; Varthi, A G; Leslie, M P; Grauer, J N

    2016-03-01

    While use of large national clinical databases for orthopaedic trauma research has increased dramatically, there has been little study of the differences in populations contained therein. In this study we aimed to compare populations of patients with femoral shaft fractures across three commonly used national databases, specifically with regard to age and comorbidities. Patients were identified in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) and National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB). The distributions of age and Charleston comorbidity index (CCI) reflected a predominantly older population with more comorbidities in NSQIP (mean age 71.5; sd 15.6), mean CCI 4.9; sd 1.9) than in the NTDB (mean age 45.2; sd 21.4), mean CCI = 2.1; sd 2.0). Bimodal distributions in the NIS population showed a more mixed population (mean age 56.9; sd 24.9), mean CCI 3.2; sd 2.3). Differences in age and CCI were all statistically significant (p < 0.001). While these databases have been commonly used for orthopaedic trauma research, differences in the populations they represent are not always readily apparent. Care must be taken to understand fully these differences before performing or evaluating database research, as the outcomes they detail can only be analysed in context. Researchers and those evaluating research should be aware that orthopaedic trauma populations contained in commonly studied national databases may differ substantially based on sampling methods and inclusion criteria. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  9. The prevalence of culture-confirmed toenail onychomycosis in at-risk patient populations.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A K; Daigle, D; Foley, K A

    2015-06-01

    Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nail and is the most common nail affliction in the general population. Certain patient populations are at greater risk of infection and the prevalence of onychomycosis reported in the literature has yet to be summarized across these at-risk groups. We performed a systematic review of the literature and calculated pooled prevalence estimates of onychomycosis in at-risk patient populations. The prevalence of dermatophyte toenail onychomycosis was as follows: general population 3.22% (3.07, 3.38), children 0.14% (0.11, 0.18), the elderly 10.28% (8.63, 12.18), diabetic patients 8.75% (7.48, 10.21), psoriatic patients 10.22% (8.61, 12.09), HIV positive patients 10.40% (8.02, 13.38), dialysis patients 11.93% (7.11, 19.35) and renal transplant patients 5.17% (1.77, 14.14). Dialysis patients had the highest prevalence of onychomycosis caused by dermatophytes, elderly individuals had the highest prevalence of onychomycosis caused by yeasts (6.07%; 95% CI = 3.58, 10.11) and psoriatic patients had the highest prevalence of onychomycosis caused by non-dermatophyte moulds (2.49%; 95% CI = 1.74, 3.55). An increased prevalence of onychomycosis in certain patient populations may be attributed to impaired immunity, reduced peripheral circulation and alterations to the nail plate which render these patients more susceptible to infection.

  10. Risk of fragility fracture among patients with sarcoidosis: a population-based study 1976-2013.

    PubMed

    Ungprasert, P; Crowson, C S; Matteson, E L

    2017-02-16

    Incidence of fragility fracture of a population-based cohort of 345 patients with sarcoidosis was compared with age and sex-matched comparators. The incidence of fragility fracture was higher among patients with sarcoidosis with hazard ratio (HR) of 2.18.

  11. Increased risk of chronic liver disease in patients with bipolar disorder: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jer-Hwa; Chien, I-Chia; Lin, Ching-Heng

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and incidence of chronic liver disease in patients with bipolar disorder. We used a random sample of 766,427 subjects aged ≥18 years from the National Health Research Institute database in the year 2005. Subjects with at least one primary diagnosis of bipolar disorder in 2005 were identified. Patients with a primary or secondary diagnosis of chronic liver disease were also defined. We compared the prevalence and associated factors of chronic liver disease between patients with bipolar disorder and the general population in 2005. We also compared the incidence of chronic liver disease in patients with bipolar disorder and the general population from 2006 to 2010. The prevalence of chronic liver disease in patients with bipolar disorder (13.9%) was 2.68 times higher than that of the general population (5.8%) in 2005. The average annual incidence of chronic liver disease in patients with bipolar disorder from 2006 to 2010 was also higher than that of the general population (2.95% vs. 1.73%; risk ratio: 1.71; 95% confidence interval: 1.46-2.01). Patients with bipolar disorder had a significantly higher prevalence and incidence of chronic liver disease than those in the general population, and younger patients with bipolar disorder have a much higher prevalence and incidence than those in the general population. Male sex, second-generation antipsychotic or antidepressant use, and hyperlipidemia were associated factors for chronic liver disease in patients with bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Empirical validation of patient versus population preferences in calculating QALYs.

    PubMed

    Weyler, Eva-Julia; Gandjour, Afschin

    2011-10-01

    A fundamental assumption of the quality-adjusted life year model is mutual utility independence between life years and health status. However, this assumption may not hold for severe health states: living in a severe health state may cause disutility beyond a so-called maximal endurable time (MET). It is unknown, however, whether persons without experience of a disease, who are often used in health state valuation exercises, account for MET. Using data from 159 respondents from two convenience samples in Germany who were presented a health state description of depression, this study shows that persons without experience of depression had a lower rate of MET than persons with a history of depression. Furthermore, they had more preference reversals in case of MET, thus violating a fundamental principle of rational choice theory. While these findings suggest that severe health states should be assessed by patients rather than the community, confirmation in additional studies outside Germany and based on other health-state valuation techniques and diseases is recommended. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  13. Empirical Validation of Patient versus Population Preferences in Calculating QALYs

    PubMed Central

    Weyler, Eva-Julia; Gandjour, Afschin

    2011-01-01

    A fundamental assumption of the quality-adjusted life year model is mutual utility independence between life years and health status. However, this assumption may not hold for severe health states: living in a severe health state may cause disutility beyond a so-called maximal endurable time (MET). It is unknown, however, whether persons without experience of a disease, who are often used in health state valuation exercises, account for MET. Using data from 159 respondents from two convenience samples in Germany who were presented a health state description of depression, this study shows that persons without experience of depression had a lower rate of MET than persons with a history of depression. Furthermore, they had more preference reversals in case of MET, thus violating a fundamental principle of rational choice theory. While these findings suggest that severe health states should be assessed by patients rather than the community, confirmation in additional studies outside Germany and based on other health-state valuation techniques and diseases is recommended. PMID:21517837

  14. Drug prescription patterns in patients with Addison's disease: a Swedish population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Björnsdottir, Sigridur; Sundström, Anders; Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Blomqvist, Paul; Kämpe, Olle; Bensing, Sophie

    2013-05-01

    There are no published data on drug prescription in patients with Addison's disease (AD). Our objective was to describe the drug prescription patterns in Swedish AD patients before and after diagnosis compared with population controls. We conducted a population-based cohort study in Sweden. Through the Swedish National Patient Register and the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, we identified 1305 patients with both a diagnosis of AD and on combination treatment with hydrocortisone/cortisone acetate and fludrocortisone. Direct evidence of the AD diagnosis from patient charts was not available. We identified 11 996 matched controls by the Register of Population. We determined the ratio of observed to expected number of patients treated with prescribed drugs. Overall, Swedish AD patients received more prescribed drugs than controls, and 59.3% of the AD patients had medications indicating concomitant autoimmune disease. Interestingly, both before and after the diagnosis of AD, patients used more gastrointestinal medications, antianemic preparations, lipid-modifying agents, antibiotics for systemic use, hypnotics and sedatives, and drugs for obstructive airway disease (all P values < .05). Notably, an increased prescription of several antihypertensive drugs and high-ceiling diuretics was observed after the diagnosis of AD. Gastrointestinal symptoms and anemia, especially in conjunction with autoimmune disorders, should alert the physician about the possibility of AD. The higher use of drugs for cardiovascular disorders after diagnosis in patients with AD raises concerns about the replacement therapy.

  15. Association between fetal DES-exposure and psychiatric disorders in adolescence/adulthood: evidence from a French cohort of 1002 prenatally exposed children.

    PubMed

    Soyer-Gobillard, Marie-Odile; Paris, Françoise; Gaspari, Laura; Courtet, Philippe; Sultan, Charles

    2016-01-01

    In utero diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure has been demonstrated to be associated with somatic abnormalities in adult men and women. Conversely, the data are contradictory regarding the association with psychological or psychiatric disorders during adolescence and adulthood. This work was designed to determine whether prenatal exposure to DES affects brain development and whether it is associated with psychiatric disorders in male and female adolescents and young adults. HHORAGES Association, a national patient support group, has assembled a cohort of 1280 women who took DES during pregnancy. We obtained questionnaire responses from 529 families, corresponding to 1182 children divided into three groups: Group 1 (n = 180): firstborn children without DES treatment, Group 2 (n = 740): exposed children, and Group 3 (n = 262): children born after a previous pregnancy treated by DES. No psychiatric disorders were reported in Group 1. In Group 2, the incidence of disorders was drastically elevated (83.8%), and in Group 3, the incidence was still elevated (6.1%) compared with the general population. This work demonstrates that prenatal exposure to DES is associated with a high risk of psychiatric disorders in adolescence and adulthood.

  16. Patients with multiple sclerosis do not necessarily consume more alcohol or tobacco than the general population.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, Yara Dadalti; Gomes, Sidney; Goncalves, Marcus Vinicius M; Machado, Suzana C Nunes; Morales, Rogerio de Rizo; Oliveira, Francisco Tomas M de; Oliveira, João Filipe de; Olmo, Neide R Simoes; Parolin, Monica K Fiuza; Siquineli, Fabio; Stoney, Patrick N

    2015-10-01

    Purpose Recent papers suggest that patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are prone to alcohol misuse. This may be due to the combination of a lifelong and disabling disease with a psychiatric profile typical of MS. The objective of the present study was to assess these findings in a culturally different population of patients with MS.Method The present case-control transversal study assessed 168 patients with MS and 168 control subjects from Brazil.Results There were no evidence that patients with MS drank more alcohol or, smoked more than did controls. In fact, control subjects had a significantly higher alcohol consumption. The only trait associated to higher alcohol consumption was anxiety, both for patients and controls.Conclusion Unlike previous reports in the literature, patients with MS in our study did not drink or smoked more than a control population.

  17. Predictive value of serum bradykinin and desArg9-bradykinin levels for chemotherapeutic responses in active tuberculosis patients: A retrospective case series

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xu; Nguyen, Duc T.M.; Li, Yaojun; Lyu, Jianxin; Graviss, Edward A.; Hu, Tony Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need for methods that can rapidly and accurately assess therapeutic responses in patients with active tuberculosis (TB) in order to predict treatment outcomes. Exposure to bacterial pathogens can rapidly activate the plasma contact system, triggering the release of bradykinin (BK) and its metabolite desArg9-bradykinin (DABK) to induce inflammation and innate immune responses. We hypothesized that serum BK and DABK levels might act as sensitive immune response signatures for changes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) burden, and therefore examined how serum levels of these markers corresponded with anti-TB therapy in a small cohort of active TB cases. Methods Nanotrap Mass-Spectrometry (MS) was used to analyze serial blood specimens from 13 HIV-negative adults with microbiologically confirmed active TB who were treated with first-line anti-TB chemotherapy. MS signal for BK (m/z 1060.5) and DABK (m/z 904.5) serum peptides were evaluated at multiple time-points (before, during, and after treatment) to evaluate how BK and DABK levels corresponded with disease status. Results Serum BK levels declined from pretreatment baseline levels during the early stage anti-TB therapy (induction phase) and tended to remain below baseline levels during extended treatment (consolidation phase) and after therapy completion. BK levels were consistent with induction phase sputum culture conversions indicative of decreased Mtb burden reflecting good treatment responses. Serum DABK levels tended to increase during the induction phase and decrease at consolidation and post-therapy time points, which may indicate a shift from active disease to chronic inflammation to a disease free state. Elevated BK and DABK levels after treatment completion in one patient may be related to the subsequent recurrent TB disease. Conclusions Our pilot data suggests that changes in the circulating BK and DABK levels in adult TB patients can be used as potential surrogate markers

  18. Diffusion des Metaux et Evolution Stellaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcotte, Sylvain

    forces de 40% la gravite a la base de la zone convective. Ces forces radiatives sont assez grandes pour avoir un impact significatif sur les variations d'abondance de ces elements. Cet effet est neglige dans les modeles solaires publies. Nos modeles solaires montrent que les donnees du projet OPACITE pour le fer sont trop deficientes dans leur etat actuel pour pouvoir etre utilisees dans des calculs evolutifs. Nous confirmons que la diffusion doit etre prise en compte pour reproduire les donnes helioseismologiques. Nous discutons en detail de la manipulation des donnees monochromatiques. Il en ressort que les donnees d'OPAL sont superieures aux donnees tirees de OP. Les donnees de OP sont utiles pour les forces radiatives dans deux applications. Premierement pour determiner les corrections a apporter aux accelerations radiatives de OPAL pour tenir compte de la redistribution de l'impulsion lors de la photoionisation, puis parce que le sampling de OPAL perd de sa validite a basse temperature et pour les metaux tres peu abondants. Finalement nous avons calcule des modeles d'etoiles de population II de faible metallicite. Nous montrons dans un premier temps que la diffusion des metaux n'a pas d'effet significatif sur l'evolution de ces etoiles. Nous montrons egalement que l'incertitude sur l'age des amas globulaires associe a la diffusion est sous-estimee. Quoique la difference s'amenuise il existe toujours un desaccord avec l'age de l'Univers tel que determine a partir de la loi de Hubble.

  19. The Association between Symptoms of Dry Eye Syndrome and Metabolic Outcome in a General Population in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Won; Park, Jong Woon

    2016-07-01

    Dry eye syndrome (DES) is recognized as a public health concern. One of the pathophysiologies in the development of DES is inflammation, and metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is highly prevalent in the general population, is a well-known chronic and systemic inflammatory condition. Despite the increasing interest regarding a relationship between DES and MetS, information is lacking on the association between DES and MetS and its individual components. We investigated the association between DES symptoms and MetS and its components among adults aged ≥ 19 years using population-based data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V. A sample group of 15,294 adults (42.67% men and 57.33% women) completed household interviews in which they provided blood (for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, and glucose) and anthropometric measurements (including waist circumference, weight, and height) to define MetS. We also collected information regarding sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors. The survey results showed that 11.50% of men and 22.35% of women experienced DES and 5.30% of patients had both DES and diagnosis of MetS, including 204 men and 606 women. Thus, no significant difference was observed between DES and the diagnosis of MetS according to sex (P = 0.4008 in men; P = 0.0804 in women); however, a significant association was observed between DES and hypertriglyceridemia in women (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.01-1.29). Therefore, hypertriglyceridemia might be an important factor in the association between DES and MetS. Further longitudinal research is needed to evaluate this relationship.

  20. Patient Preferences of a Low-Income Hispanic Population for Mental Health Services in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Herman, Patricia M; Ingram, Maia; Rimas, Heather; Carvajal, Scott; Cunningham, Charles E

    2016-09-01

    We used a discrete-choice conjoint experiment to model the mental health services preferences of patients of a federally-qualified health center serving a primarily low-income, Hispanic farmworker population in southwestern Arizona. The two attributes that had the largest influence on patient choices (i.e., received the highest importance scores) were where patients receive these services and the language and cultural awareness of the provider who prescribed their treatment. Simulations indicated that the clinic could substantially improve its patients' welfare with even a single change. The single most effective change in terms of patient preferences would be to offer behavioral health services onsite.

  1. Adverse events in hospitalised cancer patients: a comparison to a general hospital population.

    PubMed

    Haukland, Ellinor Christin; von Plessen, Christian; Nieder, Carsten; Vonen, Barthold

    2017-09-01

    Patients with cancer are often treated by many healthcare providers, receive complex and potentially toxic treatments that can increase the risk for iatrogenic harm. The aim of this study is to investigate whether hospitalised cancer patients are at higher risk of adverse events (AEs) compared to a general hospital population. A total of 6720 patient records were retrospectively reviewed comparing AEs in hospitalised cancer patients to a general hospital population in Norway, using the IHI Global Trigger Tool method. 24.2 percent of admissions for cancer patients had an AE compared to 17.4% of admissions of other patients (p < .001, rr 1.39, 95% CI 1.19-1.62). However, cancer patients did not have a higher rate of AEs per 1000 patient days compared to other patients, 37.1 vs. 36.0 (p = .65, rr 0.94, 95% CI 0.90-1.18). No particular cancer category is at higher risk. The rate of AEs increases by 1.05 times for each day spent in hospital. For every year increase in age, the risk for AEs increases by 1.3%. Cancer patients more often have hospital-acquired infections, other surgical complications and AEs related to medications. Because of higher age, longer length of stay and surgical treatment, hospitalised cancer patients experience AEs more often than other patients.

  2. Population Pharmacokinetics and Therapeutic Efficacy of Febuxostat in Patients with Severe Renal Impairment.

    PubMed

    Hira, Daiki; Chisaki, Yugo; Noda, Satoshi; Araki, Hisazumi; Uzu, Takashi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Yano, Yoshitaka; Morita, Shin-Ya; Terada, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of severe renal dysfunction (estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 ml/min/1.73 m(2), including hemodialysis) on the pharmacokinetics and therapeutic effects of febuxostat using a population pharmacokinetic analysis. This study recruited patients with hyperuricemia who were initially treated with allopurinol, but were switched to febuxostat, and it consists of 2 sub-studies: a pharmacokinetic study (26 patients) and retrospective efficacy evaluation study (51 patients). The demographic and clinical data of patients were collected from electronic medical records. Plasma febuxostat concentrations were obtained at each hospital visit. Population pharmacokinetic modeling was performed with NONMEM version 7.2. A total of 128 plasma febuxostat concentrations from 26 patients were used in the population pharmacokinetic analysis. The data were best described by a 1-compartment model with first order absorption. Covariate analysis revealed that renal function did not influence the pharmacokinetics of febuxostat, whereas actual body weight significantly influenced apparent clearance and apparent volume of distribution. The retrospective efficacy analysis showed the favorable therapeutic response of febuxostat switched from allopurinol in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment. No serious adverse event associated with febuxostat was observed irrespective of renal function. The population pharmacokinetic analysis and therapeutic analysis of febuxostat revealed that severe renal dysfunction had no influence on the pharmacokinetic parameters of febuxostat. These results suggest that febuxostat is tolerated well by patients with severe renal impairment. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. The Effect of Discussing Pain on Patient-Physician Communication in a Low-Income, Black, Primary Care Patient Population

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Stephen G.; Eggly, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Patients and physicians report that discussions about pain are frequently frustrating and unproductive. However, the relationship between discussions about pain and patient-physician communication is poorly understood. We analyzed 133 video-recorded visits and patient self-report data collected at a clinic providing primary care to a low-income, black patient population. We used “thin slice” methods to rate two or three 30-second video segments from each visit on variables related to patient and physician affect (ie, displayed emotion) and patient-physician rapport. Discussions about pain were associated with a .32 increase in patient unease (P < .001) and a .21 increase in patient positive engagement (P = .004; standardized coefficients) compared to discussions about other topics during the same visit. Discussions about pain were not significantly associated with patient-physician rapport, physician unease, or physician positive engagement. Patient pain severity was significantly associated with greater physician and patient unease (P = .01), but not with other variables. Findings suggest that primary care patients, but not their physicians, display significantly greater emotional intensity during discussions about pain compared to discussions about other topics. Perspective This study used direct observation of video-recorded primary care visits to show that discussions about pain are associated with heightened displays of both positive and negative patient emotions. These displays of emotion could potentially influence pain-related outcomes. PMID:23623573

  4. [Heterogeneity in phage sensitivity in populations of S. aureus vegetating in patients and carriers].

    PubMed

    Adarchenko, A A

    1977-12-01

    It was found that the S. aureus populations vegetating in patients and carriers were heterogeneous by phagegroup reference of the strains isolated in 31.1 and 23.9% of cases, respectively, and in 35.9 and 26.9%--phagovars. The frequency and the extent of variability of the populations in the patients depended on the character of the disease, the site of infection and the association of the focus with the external environment, and in carriers--on the localization and the carrier category. S. aureus populations habituating in the patients with the primary purulent processes and mastitis, as in the closed processes and in cases of extrahospital infection consisted, with rare exception, of the strains of one phagovar. In a considerable number of patients with purulent processes after the incision (38.0%), with infected wounds (37.2%), and particularly with burns (78.6%) of the S. aureus population consisted of 2, 3 and even 4 phagovars. Variable were also populations vegetating in patients with open processes (47.1%) and in hospital (26.5%) and mixed infection (52.6%). The phage-type composition of the S. aureus populations in carriers was also characterized by heterogeneity, which was more pronounced in chronic carriers and in case of localization of the processes in the nose. On the basis of the data obtained the minimal number of cultures which should be studied from the microbial focus in order to obtain objective data on the composition of phagovars in the population of various categories of patients and carriers was calculated.

  5. Population pharmacokinetics and dose optimisation of ritonavir-boosted atazanavir in Thai HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Punyawudho, Baralee; Thammajaruk, Narukjaporn; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Avihingsanon, Anchalee

    2017-03-01

    There is evidence that Thai patients receiving standard doses of ritonavir (RTV)-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r) have high exposure to atazanavir (ATV) leading to a higher risk of toxicity. A lower dose of ATV/r may provide adequate exposure in this population. However, pharmacokinetic data on ATV/r in Thai patients required for dose adjustment are limited. This study aimed to develop a population pharmacokinetic model of ATV/r and to determine the influence of patient characteristics on ATV pharmacokinetics. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to estimate the proportion of patients achieving target ATV trough concentration (Ctrough) with the standard ATV/r dose of 300/100 mg and a low dose of 200/100 mg once daily (OD). A total of 127 Thai HIV-infected patients were included in this study. One random blood sample was collected to determine ATV and RTV concentrations at each clinic visit from 100 patients. Intensive data from 27 patients enrolled in previous studies were also included. Data were analysed using the non-linear mixed-effects modelling approach. A one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination and absorption lag time best described the data. The population mean clearance of ATV/r was 4.93 L/h in female patients and was 28.7% higher in male patients. Simulation results showed a higher proportion of patients achieving ATV Ctrough within the target range with ATV/r 200/100 mg compared with 300/100 mg. The 200/100 mg OD dose of ATV/r provides adequate ATV exposure in Thai HIV-infected patients. Therefore, a lower dose of ATV/r should be considered for Thai and Asian populations.

  6. Patient Loyalty in a Mature IDS Market: Is Population Health Management Worth It?

    PubMed Central

    Carlin, Caroline S

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand patient loyalty to providers over time, informing effective population health management. Study Setting Patient care-seeking patterns over a 6-year timeframe in Minnesota, where care systems have a significant portion of their revenue generated by shared-saving contracts with public and private payers. Study Design Weibull duration and probit models were used to examine patterns of patient attribution to a care system and the continuity of patient affiliation with a care system. Clustering of errors within family unit was used to account for within-family correlation in unobserved characteristics that affect patient loyalty. Data Collection The payer provided data from health plan administrative files, matched to U.S. Census-based characteristics of the patient's neighborhood. Patients were retrospectively attributed to health care systems based on patterns of primary care. Principal Findings I find significant patient loyalty, with past loyalty a very strong predictor of future relationship. Relationships were shorter when the patient's health status was complex and when the patient's care system was smaller. Conclusions Population health management can be beneficial to the care system making this investment, particularly for patients exhibiting prior continuity in care system choice. The results suggest that co-located primary and specialty services are important in maintaining primary care loyalty. PMID:24461030

  7. Patient loyalty in a mature IDS market: is population health management worth it?

    PubMed

    Carlin, Caroline S

    2014-06-01

    To understand patient loyalty to providers over time, informing effective population health management. Patient care-seeking patterns over a 6-year timeframe in Minnesota, where care systems have a significant portion of their revenue generated by shared-saving contracts with public and private payers. Weibull duration and probit models were used to examine patterns of patient attribution to a care system and the continuity of patient affiliation with a care system. Clustering of errors within family unit was used to account for within-family correlation in unobserved characteristics that affect patient loyalty. The payer provided data from health plan administrative files, matched to U.S. Census-based characteristics of the patient's neighborhood. Patients were retrospectively attributed to health care systems based on patterns of primary care. I find significant patient loyalty, with past loyalty a very strong predictor of future relationship. Relationships were shorter when the patient's health status was complex and when the patient's care system was smaller. Population health management can be beneficial to the care system making this investment, particularly for patients exhibiting prior continuity in care system choice. The results suggest that co-located primary and specialty services are important in maintaining primary care loyalty. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  8. Evolutionary consequences of intra-patient phage predation on microbial populations.

    PubMed

    Seed, Kimberley D; Yen, Minmin; Shapiro, B Jesse; Hilaire, Isabelle J; Charles, Richelle C; Teng, Jessica E; Ivers, Louise C; Boncy, Jacques; Harris, Jason B; Camilli, Andrew

    2014-08-26

    The impact of phage predation on bacterial pathogens in the context of human disease is not currently appreciated. Here, we show that predatory interactions of a phage with an important environmentally transmitted pathogen, Vibrio cholerae, can modulate the evolutionary trajectory of this pathogen during the natural course of infection within individual patients. We analyzed geographically and temporally disparate cholera patient stool samples from Haiti and Bangladesh and found that phage predation can drive the genomic diversity of intra-patient V. cholerae populations. Intra-patient phage-sensitive and phage-resistant isolates were isogenic except for mutations conferring phage resistance, and moreover, phage-resistant V. cholerae populations were composed of a heterogeneous mix of many unique mutants. We also observed that phage predation can significantly alter the virulence potential of V. cholerae shed from cholera patients. We provide the first molecular evidence for predatory phage shaping microbial community structure during the natural course of infection in humans.

  9. Who are medical marijuana patients? Population characteristics from nine California assessment clinics.

    PubMed

    Reinarman, Craig; Nunberg, Helen; Lanthier, Fran; Heddleston, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Marijuana is a currently illegal psychoactive drug that many physicians believe has substantial therapeutic uses. The medical literature contains a growing number of studies on cannabinoids as well as case studies and anecdotal reports suggesting therapeutic potential. Fifteen states have passed medical marijuana laws, but little is known about the growing population of patients who use marijuana medicinally. This article reports on a sample of 1,746 patients from a network of nine medical marijuana evaluation clinics in California. Patients completed a standardized medical history form; evaluating physicians completed standardized evaluation forms. From this data we describe patient characteristics, self-reported presenting symptoms, physician evaluations, other treatments tried, other drug use, and medical marijuana use practices. Pain, insomnia, and anxiety were the most common conditions for which evaluating physicians recommended medical marijuana. Shifts in the medical marijuana patient population over time, the need for further research, and the issue of diversion are discussed.

  10. Des ballons pour demain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Régipa, R.

    A partir d'une théorie sur la détermination des formes et des contraintes globales d'un ballon de révolution, ou s'en rapprochant, une nouvelle famille de ballons a été définie. Les ballons actuels, dits de ``forme naturelle'', sont calculés en général pour une tension circonférencielle nulle. Ainsi, pour une mission donnée, la tension longitudinale et la forme de l'enveloppe sont strictement imposées. Les ballons de la nouvelle génération sont globalement cylindriques et leurs pôles sont réunis par un câble axial, chargé de transmettre une partie des efforts depuis le crochet (pôle inférieur), directement au pôle supérieur. De plus, la zone latérale cylindrique est soumise à un faible champ de tensions circonférencielles. Ainsi, deux paramètres permettent de faire évoluer la distribution des tensions et la forme de l'enveloppe: - la tension du câble de liaison entre pôles (ou la longueur de ce câble) - la tension circonférencielle moyenne désirée (ou le rayon du ballon). On peut donc calculer et réaliser: - soit des ballons de forme adaptée, comme les ballons à fond plat pour le bon fonctionnement des montgolfières infrarouge (projet MIR); - soit des ballons optimisés pour une bonne répartition des contraintes et une meilleure utilisation des matériaux d'enveloppe, pour l'ensemble des programmes stratosphériques. Il s'ensuit une économie sensible des coûts de fabrication, une fiabilité accrue du fonctionnement de ces ballons et une rendement opérationnel bien supérieur, permettant entre autres, d'envisager des vols à très haute altitude en matériaux très légers.

  11. [Weight gain among the patients in methadone maintenance program as come-back to population norm].

    PubMed

    Okruhlica, L; Slezáková, S

    2008-01-01

    Clinical experience reveals a weight increase among patients with opiate dependence after their admission to methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). The objective of the present study was to find out whether there was a significant weight increase among MMT patients, and if so, to what extent this change in weight differed from the existing statistical norm of the general population. The sample consisted of 274 MMT patients of the CPLDZ Bratislava with the average age of 26.3 years, 69% were males. Only those patients were included into the study that had stayed in MMT for at least one year. Two main comparisons of their body mass index (BMI) were done: 1. at entry into MMT, and one year after entry; 2. a comparison of BMI one year after treatment entry with BMI of the general Slovak population. Underweight was present in 10% of the patients entering MMT, 72% had BMI within a normal range, 15% were overweight, and 3% were obese. A significant shift towards higher BMI categories was reported one year after treatment entry: 5%, 58%, 29% and 8%, respectively (p < 0.001), which is still significantly lower than in the general population: 4%, 49%, 34% a 13% (p < 0.001). Our results indicate that weight increase in MMT patients should not be considered a direct side-effect, because it is not possible to differentiate between a drug effect and changed behavioural eating stereotypes that could be identical to those in the general population.

  12. Effets perturbateurs endocriniens des pesticides organochlores.

    PubMed

    Charlier, C; Plomteux, G

    2002-01-01

    entreprises F.Mayo puis par la Geigy Co. a d-abord intéressé l-armée, puis l-agriculture. Dès la fin de la 2(ème) guerre mondiale, des mises en garde furent lancées à propos des effets nocifs du produit (4). Un déclin des populations de grives, d-aigles chauves, d-orfaies et de mammifères consommateurs de poissons fut constaté à partir des années 50 et dénoncé par Rachel Carson dans son célèbre appel du « Silent Spring » de 1962. Bien qu-il soit interdit en Occident depuis les années 70, ce produit a été tellement utilisé et présente une rémanence si longue qu-une contamination ubiquitaire existe aujourd-hui encore. De plus, ce produit continue à être produit aux USA pour être utilisé à des fins de démoustification dans les pays en voie de développement. Il en va de même de l-Hexachlorobenzène (HCB), un autre organochloré dont l-usage est interdit sous nos latitudes, mais reste fréquent dans d-autres pays. Ces deux exemples indiquent que le problème de la contamination continue à nous concerner, même pour des produits dont l-usage est aujourd-hui strictement réglementé ou interdit. Des effets sur la faune semblent encore actuellement devoir être attribués à ces produits. La diminution de la population des phoques dans la mer de Wadden pourrait être due à la forte contamination en composants organochlorés des poissons dont ces phoques se nourrissent (5). Exposé au DDT et à son métabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroéthylène (DDE), le Seratherodon mossambicus présente une réduction de la sécrétion de cortisol par une action toxique cytospécifique sur l-axe hypothalamo-hypophysaire (6). Des travaux récents ont montré que le DDT et le DDE se lient chez les oiseaux et les mammifères au moyen de liaisons covalentes aux cellules de la zona fasciculata - homologue du tissu interrénal du poisson - induisant des microhémorragies. Cette « défaillance » cortisolique peut s-accompagner d-une perturbation du m

  13. Interventional differences among Huntington's disease patients by disease progression in commercial and medicaid populations.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Karen E; Divino, Victoria; DeKoven, Mitch; Langbehn, Douglas; Warner, John H; Giuliano, Joseph; Lee, Won Chan

    2014-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that spans distinct disease stages over 15-20 years. Various interventions are available which may allow patients to live outside of a nursing home for a longer time. However, little is known about use of these interventions by disease stage and by insurance type. We compared use of interventions among early, middle and late stages of HD in commercial (C) and Medicaid (M) health insurance populations. HD patients (ICD-9-CM 333.4) were identified from Thomson Reuters' MarketScan C and M database (2002-2009) and hierarchically grouped into disease stages based upon the presence of defining clinical markers. A total of 1,272 HD patients (752/520 C/M) were identified. While stage distribution was nearly uniform in the C database - 34.0/35.5/34.0% (early/middle/late stage) - in the M population the majority were late stage (74.0%). Overall mean age was similar between C and M populations. Among late-stage patients, more M patients resided in a nursing home (M:73.8% v. C:40.6%) and received hospice care (M:18.4% v. C:11.3%). Physical therapy (PT) and home assistance were the most frequent interventions used by middle-stage patients, however more C patients received PT (C:64.0% v. M:37.1%) while more M patients received home assistance (M:75.3% v. C:53.2%). Among late-stage patients, PT was also higher in the C population (56.3% v. 48.3%). More M patients had assistive devices at home in both middle (M:25.8% v. C:9.7%) and late stages (M:35.6% v.C:23.4%). Apparent interventional differences emerged which varied by disease stage and insurance type.

  14. Dental students' reflections on their experiences with a diverse patient population.

    PubMed

    Victoroff, Kristin Zakariasen; Williams, Kristin A; Lalumandier, James

    2013-08-01

    Recent developments, including national reports and new accreditation standards, have emphasized the need for dental students to be prepared to address the needs of a diverse patient population. The purpose of this study was to explore students' descriptions of and reflections on their day-to-day interactions with a diverse patient population in the clinical setting, using a qualitative approach. All dental students (sixty-six) enrolled in the third year of the D.M.D. program at a Midwestern dental school were required to write a paper reflecting on their experiences working with a diverse patient population in the general dental clinic of the school as part of a behavioral sciences course. All third-year dental students were invited to participate in the study. The students' papers were deidentified prior to data analysis. Forty-two students' papers describing a total of 126 patient-student interactions were reviewed. Data analysis resulted in identification of three key themes: 1) development of cultural awareness and recognition of the need to understand each patient as a unique individual, 2) desire to build rapport with all patients, and 3) realization that the development of cultural competence is a lifelong learning process requiring ongoing experiences working with a diverse patient population. Review of student reflection papers is valuable in providing faculty with an understanding of students' degree of development of cultural competence. A greater understanding of students' day-to-day experiences with a diverse patient population can provide insights for dental educators who develop cultural competence curricula.

  15. Impact of chronic statin therapy on clinical presentation and underlying lesion morphology in patients undergoing percutaneous intervention: an ADAPT-DES IVUS substudy.

    PubMed

    Kadohira, Tadayuki; Mintz, Gary S; Souza, Cristiano F; Witzenbichler, Bernhard; Metzger, D Christopher; Rinaldi, Michael J; Mazzaferri, Ernest L; Duffy, Peter L; Weisz, Giora; Stuckey, Thomas D; Brodie, Bruce R; Crowley, Aaron; Kirtane, Ajay J; Stone, Gregg W; Maehara, Akiko

    2017-05-01

    Previous intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) studies have not established a relationship between chronic statin use and plaque morphology and composition in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We sought to use pre-PCI grayscale and virtual histology (VH)-IVUS to assess plaque morphology and composition in patients treated with chronic statin therapy compared with patients who were not taking statins before admission and PCI. In a prespecified substudy of the Assessment of Dual AntiPlatelet Therapy with Drug-Eluting Stents study, pre-PCI grayscale and VH-IVUS were performed in 780 patients with 916 culprit and 765 nonculprit lesions. Overall, 338 patients were treated with chronic statin therapy before admission. Statin-treated patients were older and had a higher prevalence of coronary risk factors. Statin-treated patients were more likely to present with stable angina, whereas non-statin-treated patients more frequently presented with acute myocardial infarction. Grayscale and VH-IVUS findings showed that lesions in statin-treated patients had a smaller plaque burden, but more dense calcium. Statin-treated patients had more calcified thick-cap fibroatheromas (9.2 vs. 3.7%, P=0.0007), but fewer VH-defined thin-cap fibroatheromas (45.2 vs. 56.1%, P=0.001) or plaque ruptures (26.6 vs. 38.4%, P=0.0001). In a propensity-matched population (n=249 in each group), similar results were obtained as regards clinical presentation and grayscale and VH-IVUS findings. Chronic statin use in patients with coronary artery disease was associated with more stable clinical presentation and IVUS findings consistent with greater lesion stability (fewer VH-thin-cap fibroatheromas and plaque ruptures and more calcified thick-cap fibroatheromas).

  16. Early Clinical Experience with a Polymer-Free Biolimus A9 Drug-Coated Stent in DES-Type Patients Who Are Poor Candidates for Prolonged Dual Anti-Platelet Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kinnaird, Tim; Butt, Mehmood; Abdul, Fairoz; Yazji, Khaled; Hailan, Ahmed; Gallagher, Sean; Ossei-Gerning, Nicholas; Chase, Alexander; Choudhury, Anirban; Smith, David; Anderson, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Prolonged dual anti-platelet therapy (DAPT) may cause excess bleeding in certain patients. The biolimus-A9 drug-coated stent (BA9-DCS) has a rapid drug-elution profile allowing shortened DAPT. Data were gathered on the early experience implanting this stent in drug-eluting stent eligible patients deemed to be at high risk of bleeding. Background and Methods The demographics, procedural data and clinical outcomes were gathered prospectively for 249 patients treated with a BA9-DCS stent at 2 UK centres, and compared to a cohort of patients treated in the same period with drug-eluting stents (PCI-DES). Results Operator-defined BA9-DCS indications included warfarin therapy, age, and anaemia. Patients receiving a BA9-DCS were older (71.6±11.8 vs. 64.8±11.6yrs, p<0.001), more often female (38.2 vs. 26.8%, P<0.001), and more likely to have comorbidity including chronic kidney disease or poor LV function than PCI-DES patients. The baseline Mehran bleed risk score was also significantly higher in the BA9-DCS group (19.4±8.7 vs. 13.1±5.8, p<0.001). Of the BA9-DCS cohort, 95.5% of patients demonstrated disease fitting NICE criteria for DES placement. The number of lesions treated (1.81±1.1 vs. 1.58±0.92, p = 0.003), total lesion length (32.1±21.7 vs. 26.1±17.6mm, p<0.001), number of stents used (1.93±1.11 vs. 1.65±1.4, p = 0.007) and total stent length (37.5±20.8 vs. 32.4±20.3, p<0.01) were greater for BA9-DCS patients. DAPT was prescribed for 3.3±3.9 months for BA9-DCS patients and 11.3±2.4 months for PCI-DES patients (p<0.001). At follow up of 392±124 days despite the abbreviated DAPT course stent related event were infrequent with ischemia-driven restenosis PCI (2.8 vs. 3.4%, p = 0.838), and stent thrombosis (1.6 vs. 2.1%, p = 0.265) rates similar between the BA9-DCS ad PCI-DES groups. After propensity scoring all clinical end-points were similar between both cohorts. Conclusions This early experience using polymer-free BA9 drug-coated stents in

  17. Identification d'indicateurs de risque des populations victimes de conflits par imagerie satellitaire. Etude de cas: Le nord de l'Irak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubareka, Sarah Betoul

    Remote sensing and security, terms which are not usually associated, have found a common platform this decade with the conjuring of the GMOSS network (Global Monitoring for Security and Stability), whose mandate is to discover new applications for satellite-derived imagery to security issues. This study focuses on human security, concentrating on the characterisation of vulnerable areas to conflict. A time-series of satellite imagery taken from Landsat sensors from 1987 to 2001 and the SRTM mission imagery are used for this purpose over a site in northern Iraq. Human security issues include the exposure to any type of hazard. The region of study is first characterised in order to understand which hazards are and were present in the past for the region of study. The principal hazard for the region of study is armed conflict and the relative field data was analysed to determine the links between geographical indicators and vulnerable areas. This is done through historical research and the study of open-sourced information about disease outbreaks; the movements of refugees and the internally displaced; and humanitarian aid and security issues. These open sources offer information which are not always consistent, objective, or normalized and are therefore difficult to quantify. A method for the rapid mapping and graphing and subsequent analysis of the situation in a region where limited information is available is developed. This information is coupled with population numbers to create a "risk map": A disaggregated matrix of areas most at risk during conflict situations. The results show that describing the risk factor for a population to the hazard conflict depends on three complex indicators: Population density, remoteness and economic diversity. Each of these complex indicators is then derived from Landsat and SRTM imagery and a satellite-driven model is formulated. This model based on satellite imagery is applied to the study site for a temporal study. The output

  18. Some chronic rhinosinusitis patients have elevated populations of fungi in their sinuses.

    PubMed

    Murr, Andrew H; Goldberg, Andrew N; Pletcher, Steven D; Dillehay, Kelsey; Wymer, Larry J; Vesper, Stephen J

    2012-07-01

    To measure the populations of 36 fungi in the homes and sinuses of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and non-CRS patients. Single-blind cross-sectional study. Populations of 36 fungi were measured in sinus samples and in the home vacuum cleaner dust of CRS (n = 73) and non-CRS patients (n = 16) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Etest strips containing amphotericin B, anidulafungin, caspofungin, fluconazole, and voriconazole were used to test the susceptibility of seven potentially relevant fungi. Seven fungi (Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides types 1 and 2, Cladosporium herbarum, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium crustosum, and Penicillium chrysogenum type 2) were discovered at very high concentrations in some CRS patients. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of these seven fungi demonstrated species specific sensitivities. Four CRS patients with marked elevations of fungal populations in their sinus samples underwent endoscopic sinus surgery. After surgical treatment, the fungal populations were reduced by several orders of magnitude. Seven fungi were found in very high concentrations in the sinuses of some CRS patients. Not one of the five common antifungal agents could control all seven of these fungi based on in vitro tests. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Patient satisfaction with community pharmacy: comparing urban and suburban chain-pharmacy populations.

    PubMed

    Malewski, David F; Ream, Aimrie; Gaither, Caroline A

    2015-01-01

    Patient satisfaction with pharmaceutical care can be a strong predictor of medication and other health-related outcomes. Less understood is the role that location of pharmacies in urban or suburban environments plays in patient satisfaction with pharmacy and pharmacist services. The purpose of this study was to serve as a pilot examining urban and suburban community pharmacy populations for similarities and differences in patient satisfaction. Community pharmacy patients were asked to self-administer a 30-question patient satisfaction survey. Fifteen questions addressed their relationship with the pharmacist, 10 questions addressed satisfaction and accessibility of the pharmacy, and five questions addressed financial concerns. Five urban and five suburban pharmacies agreed to participate. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis. Most patients reported high levels of satisfaction. Satisfaction with pharmacist relationship and service was 70% or higher with no significant differences between locations. There were significant differences between the urban and suburban patients regarding accessibility of pharmacy services, customer service and some patient/pharmacist trust issues. The significant differences between patient satisfaction in the suburban and urban populations warrant a larger study with more community pharmacies in other urban, suburban and rural locations to better understand and validate study findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Temporal trends in stroke incidence in South Asian, Chinese and white patients: A population based analysis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nadia A; McAlister, Finlay A; Pilote, Louise; Palepu, Anita; Quan, Hude; Hill, Michael D; Fang, Jiming; Kapral, Moira K

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about potential ethnic differences in stroke incidence. We compared incidence and time trends of ischemic stroke and primary intracerebral hemorrhage in South Asian, Chinese and white persons in a population-based study. Population based census and administrative data analysis in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia, Canada using validated ICD 9/ICD 10 coding for acute ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke (1997-2010). There were 3290 South Asians, 4444 Chinese and 160944 white patients with acute ischemic stroke and 535 South Asian, 1376 Chinese and 21842 white patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. South Asians were younger than whites at onset of stroke (70 vs. 74 years for ischemic and 67 vs. 71 years for hemorrhagic stroke). Age and sex adjusted ischemic stroke incidence in 2010 was 43% lower in Chinese and 63% lower in South Asian than in White patients. Age and sex adjusted intracerebral hemorrhage incidence was 18% higher in Chinese patients, and 66% lower in South Asian relative to white patients. Stroke incidence declined in all ethnic groups (relative reduction 69% in South Asians, 25% in Chinese, and 34% in white patients for ischemic stroke and for intracerebral hemorrhage, 79% for South Asians, 51% for Chinese and 30% in white patients). Although stroke rates declined across all ethnic groups, these rates differed significantly by ethnicity. Further study is needed to understand mechanisms underlying the higher ischemic stroke incidence in white patients and intracerebral hemorrhage in Chinese patients.

  1. "Community vital signs": incorporating geocoded social determinants into electronic records to promote patient and population health.

    PubMed

    Bazemore, Andrew W; Cottrell, Erika K; Gold, Rachel; Hughes, Lauren S; Phillips, Robert L; Angier, Heather; Burdick, Timothy E; Carrozza, Mark A; DeVoe, Jennifer E

    2016-03-01

    Social determinants of health significantly impact morbidity and mortality; however, physicians lack ready access to this information in patient care and population management. Just as traditional vital signs give providers a biometric assessment of any patient, "community vital signs" (Community VS) can provide an aggregated overview of the social and environmental factors impacting patient health. Knowing Community VS could inform clinical recommendations for individual patients, facilitate referrals to community services, and expand understanding of factors impacting treatment adherence and health outcomes. This information could also help care teams target disease prevention initiatives and other health improvement efforts for clinic panels and populations. Given the proliferation of big data, geospatial technologies, and democratization of data, the time has come to integrate Community VS into the electronic health record (EHR). Here, the authors describe (i) historical precedent for this concept, (ii) opportunities to expand upon these historical foundations, and (iii) a novel approach to EHR integration.

  2. A survey of the conditionally released forensic patient population in New South Wales.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Andrew; Kumar, Varad; Rodriguez, Marcelo; Allnutt, Stephen

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the demographic and clinical variables of the conditionally released forensic patient population in New South Wales. Data were gathered from 74 conditionally released forensic patients. Of this population, 37% had committed homicides and 50% had committed serious violent offences (attempted murder, grievous bodily harm or robbery). Approximately two-thirds had their first admission to a psychiatric hospital before the age of 30. The majority (83%) of patients were diagnosed with schizophrenia and 55% had a history of substance use disorders; 24% were deemed to have been intoxicated at the time of the offence. Conditionally released forensic patients in NSW show similar characteristics to those in other jurisdictions. Areas identified for further evaluation are comorbid substance use and rehabilitation, longer term outcomes and the under representation of indigenous persons.

  3. The Italian multiregional thalassemia registry: Centers characteristics, services, and patients' population.

    PubMed

    Conte, Rosa; Ruggieri, Lucia; Gambino, Arianna; Bartoloni, Franco; Baiardi, Paola; Bonifazi, Donato; Bonifazi, Fedele; Felisi, Mariagrazia; Giannuzzi, Viviana; Padula, Rosa; Pepe, Alessia; Putti, Maria Caterina; Del Vecchio, Giovanni Carlo; Maggio, Aurelio; Filosa, Aldo; Iacono, Angela; Mangiarini, Laura; Ceci, Adriana

    2016-08-01

    The prognosis of beta-Thalassemia major and other congenital hemoglobinopathies has profoundly changed over the last decades. Moreover, only few countries in Europe provide dedicated services and the description of the measures for patients monitoring and treatment is overall very scarce. The HTA-Thal project is aimed to identify the services available in Italy and to collect epidemiological and clinical data on the thalassemic population (HTA-Thal Registry). A map of the existing centers was created and two electronic questionnaires were completed with information on the services and patients. On 182 centers identified, 60 completed the two questionnaires. Centers resulted to be extremely heterogeneous in terms of size, age of patients in care, and services availability. The transition of pediatric patients to adult centers was not guaranteed. Thousand eight hundred and seventy-three beta-Thalassemia major patients (of which 259 pediatrics), regularly transfused, were registered. Deferasirox is the most used chelator as monotherapy (616 patients) and its use prevails in younger patients. A higher number of patients (847 patients) use Deferoxamine, either alone (448 patients) or in combination with DFP (399 patients), while 782 patients use Deferiprone alone (383 patients) or in combination (399 patients). 31.6 and 66.6% of centers were not equipped for specialized visits or local MRI, respectively. Centers with 30-80 patients show the high percentage of patients appropriately monitored when compared to smaller or bigger centers. This analysis confirms the importance of patients' registries for the collection of large datasets and the need for dedicated 'specialized centers' equipped to provide the best standard treatment to patients.

  4. Population pharmacokinetics of dolutegravir in HIV-infected treatment-naive patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianping; Hayes, Siobhán; Sadler, Brian M; Minto, Ilisse; Brandt, Julie; Piscitelli, Steve; Min, Sherene; Song, Ivy H

    2015-01-01

    Aim Dolutegravir is the newest integrase inhibitor approved for HIV treatment and has demonstrated potent antiviral activity in patient populations with a broad range of treatment experience. This analysis aimed to characterize the population pharmacokinetics of dolutegravir in treatment-naive patients and to evaluate the influence of patient covariates. Methods A population pharmacokinetic model was developed using a non-linear mixed effect modelling approach based on data from 563 HIV-infected, treatment-naive adult patients in three phase 2/3 trials who received dolutegravir (ranging from 10–50 mg once daily) alone or in combination with abacavir/lamivudine or tenofovir/emtricitabine. Results The pharmacokinetics of dolutegravir were adequately described by a linear one compartment model with first order absorption, absorption lag time and first order elimination. Population estimates for apparent clearance, apparent volume of distribution, absorption rate constant and absorption lag time were 0.901 l h–1, 17.4 l, 2.24 h−1, and 0.263 h, respectively. Weight, smoking status, age and total bilirubin were predictors of clearance, weight was a predictor of volume of distribution and gender was a predictor of bioavailability. However, the magnitude of the effects of these covariates on steady-state dolutegravir plasma exposure was relatively small (<32%) and was not considered clinically significant. Race/ethnicity, HBV/HCV co-infection, CDC classification, albumin, creatinine clearance, alanine aminotransferase or aspartate aminotransferase did not influence the pharmacokinetics of dolutegravir in this analysis. Conclusions A population model that adequately characterizes dolutegravir pharmacokinetics has been developed. No dolutegravir dose adjustment by patient covariates is necessary in HIV-infected treatment-naive patients. PMID:25819132

  5. Population pharmacokinetics of dolutegravir in HIV-infected treatment-naive patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianping; Hayes, Siobhán; Sadler, Brian M; Minto, Ilisse; Brandt, Julie; Piscitelli, Steve; Min, Sherene; Song, Ivy H

    2015-09-01

    Dolutegravir is the newest integrase inhibitor approved for HIV treatment and has demonstrated potent antiviral activity in patient populations with a broad range of treatment experience. This analysis aimed to characterize the population pharmacokinetics of dolutegravir in treatment-naive patients and to evaluate the influence of patient covariates. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed using a non-linear mixed effect modelling approach based on data from 563 HIV-infected, treatment-naive adult patients in three phase 2/3 trials who received dolutegravir (ranging from 10-50 mg once daily) alone or in combination with abacavir/lamivudine or tenofovir/emtricitabine. The pharmacokinetics of dolutegravir were adequately described by a linear one compartment model with first order absorption, absorption lag time and first order elimination. Population estimates for apparent clearance, apparent volume of distribution, absorption rate constant and absorption lag time were 0.901 l h(-1) , 17.4 l, 2.24 h(-1) , and 0.263 h, respectively. Weight, smoking status, age and total bilirubin were predictors of clearance, weight was a predictor of volume of distribution and gender was a predictor of bioavailability. However, the magnitude of the effects of these covariates on steady-state dolutegravir plasma exposure was relatively small (<32%) and was not considered clinically significant. Race/ethnicity, HBV/HCV co-infection, CDC classification, albumin, creatinine clearance, alanine aminotransferase or aspartate aminotransferase did not influence the pharmacokinetics of dolutegravir in this analysis. A population model that adequately characterizes dolutegravir pharmacokinetics has been developed. No dolutegravir dose adjustment by patient covariates is necessary in HIV-infected treatment-naive patients. © 2015 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. Meeting meaningful use criteria and managing patient populations: a national survey of practicing physicians.

    PubMed

    DesRoches, Catherine M; Audet, Anne-Marie; Painter, Michael; Donelan, Karen

    2013-06-04

    Meaningful use, as defined by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, will require the aggregation of patient data to enable population assessment. Little is known about the proportion of physicians who are able to meet meaningful use criteria or their use of electronic health records (EHRs) to manage patient populations. To evaluate physicians' reports of EHR adoption and ease of use and their ability to use EHRs for patient panel management. National mailed survey of practicing physicians (response rate of 60%). Late 2011 and early 2012. 1820 primary care physicians and specialists in office-based practices. Proportion of physicians who have a basic EHR and meet meaningful use criteria and ease of use of computerized systems designed for patient population management tasks. A total of 43.5% of physicians reported having a basic EHR, and 9.8% met meaningful use criteria. Computerized systems for managing patient populations were not widespread; fewer than one half of respondents reported the presence of computerized systems for any of the patient population management tasks included in the survey. Physicians with such functionalities reported that these systems varied in ease of use. Physicians with an EHR that met meaningful use criteria were significantly more likely than those not meeting the standard to rate panel management tasks as easy. Ease-of-use measures are subjective. Few physicians could meet meaningful use criteria in early 2012 and using computerized systems for the panel management tasks was difficult. Results support the growing evidence that using the basic data input capabilities of an EHR does not translate into the greater opportunity that these technologies promise. Commonwealth Fund and Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.

  7. Development of a scale to assess cancer stigma in the non-patient population.

    PubMed

    Marlow, Laura A V; Wardle, Jane

    2014-04-23

    Illness-related stigma has attracted considerable research interest, but few studies have specifically examined stigmatisation of cancer in the non-patient population. The present study developed and validated a Cancer Stigma Scale (CASS) for use in the general population. An item pool was developed on the basis of previous research into illness-related stigma in the general population and patients with cancer. Two studies were carried out. The first study used Exploratory factor analysis to explore the structure of items in a sample of 462 postgraduate students recruited through a London university. The second study used Confirmatory factor analysis to confirm the structure among 238 adults recruited through an online market research panel. Internal reliability, test-retest reliability and construct validity were also assessed. Exploratory factor analysis suggested six subscales, representing: Awkwardness, Severity, Avoidance, Policy Opposition, Personal Responsibility and Financial Discrimination. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed this structure with a 25-item scale. All subscales showed adequate to good internal and test-retest reliability in both samples. Construct validity was also good, with mean scores for each subscale varying in the expected directions by age, gender, experience of cancer, awareness of lifestyle risk factors for cancer, and social desirability. Means for the subscales were consistent across the two samples. These findings highlight the complexity of cancer stigma and provide the Cancer Stigma Scale (CASS) which can be used to compare populations, types of cancer and evaluate the effects of interventions designed to reduce cancer stigma in non-patient populations.

  8. Population pharmacokinetics of intravenous levofloxacin 500 mg/day dosage in infected patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Zhu, Li-Qin; Wang, Nan; Zhao, Xuequn; Yang, Wenjie; Ji, Shuangmin; Sun, Liying

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the population pharmacokinetic features of levofloxacin in Chinese infected patients. A total of 27 Chinese adult infected patients were treated with intravenous levofloxacin (500 mg/day). In total, 49 plasma samples of levofloxacin were collected immediately after intravenous dripping and before administration on the 3rd, 4th or 5th day. A nonlinear mixed effect model was used to model the population pharmacokinetic (PK) behavior of levofloxacin. The final population pharmacokinetic models were validated using the bootstrap method. Some covariates, including demographic characteristics and hematological and biological indicators, were analyzed. A structural model was developed based on a one-compartment model with intravenous infusion and first-order elimination. The typical population values for pharmacokinetic parameters of apparent clearance (CL) and apparent distribution volume (V) were 5.84 L/h and 43.3L, respectively. The inter-individual variabilities of CL and V were 7.75% and 6.4%, respectively, while the intra-individual variability of observed concentrations was 0.06 microg/mL. The covariates of age and AST influenced the CL and V values determined by the final model. The present study developed population pharmacokinetic models for levofloxacin in infected Chinese patients. The results detailed here could provide a reference for individualized levofloxacin therapy in the clinical setting.

  9. Drinking patterns and problems among primary care patients: a comparison with the general population.

    PubMed

    Cherpitel, C J

    1991-01-01

    While problem drinking is believed to be over-represented in primary care practice, additional research in this area is needed. A probability sample of 394 patients attending all county-operated primary care clinics in Contra Costa County, California, were breathalyzed and interviewed regarding drinking patterns and alcohol problems. These data are compared with those obtained from a representative general population sample of over 3000 respondents living in the same county. While the clinic population reported higher rates of abstinence compared with the general population (38 versus 17%), among drinkers the clinic sample reported higher rates of heavy drinking. In the clinic sample 14% reported a physical health problem related to drinking and 22% reported three or more symptoms of alcohol dependence during the last year, compared with 3 and 10%, respectively, in the general population. The clinic sample was demographically different from those in the general population which could account, in part, for differences in heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems between the two populations. The prevalence of heavy and problem drinking in this primary care practice suggests the potential of primary care settings for early identification and treatment of alcohol-misusing patients.

  10. Are Indian patients with juvenile-onset ankylosing spondylitis taller than reference population?

    PubMed Central

    Sandhya, Pulukool; Danda, Debashish; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Paucity of growth retardation has been observed by us in patients with juvenile-onset ankylosing spondylitis (JAS) in a tertiary care health centre in south India. We, therefore, undertook this pilot study to assess and compare anthropometry of patients with JAS who were 15 yr and older with that of adult onset ankylosing spondylitis (AAS) and matching Indian reference population. Methods: Consecutive male patients (December 2009- October 2012) with JAS and AAS fulfilling Modified New York Criteria were selected after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Demography and anthropometry were noted. Height of both patient groups as well as their parents and siblings were compared with that of the reference population. Mid-parental height and delta height were derived. Those with delta height of >8.5 cm were compared with the remaining. Multivariate logistic regression was done for variables that were found to be significant by chi-square in bivariate analysis. Similar analysis was done for BMI also. Results: There was no significant difference in anthropometric variables between JAS and AAS groups. Twenty eight of the 30 (93.33%) JAS patients were taller as compared to the reference population. Twenty six (86.67%) AAS patients were taller than the reference population. The mean heights of JAS (170.67 ± 6.94 cm) and AAS (168.2 ± 5.94 cm) patients were significantly higher than the reference value of 163.11 cm; both P<0.001. Logistic regression revealed that tallness in JAS was associated positively with hypermobility (OR=23.46,95%CI 1.2-447.2, P=0.036). No significant association was detected for height in AAS and for BMI in both JAS and AAS groups. Interpretation & conclusions: No growth retardation was seen in patients with JAS in our study. Majority of patients with JAS and AAS were taller than reference population. The difference between mean height of JAS and AAS was not significant. Larger studies involving different populations are

  11. A Population Pharmacokinetic Model for Vancomycin in Adult Patients Receiving Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Healy, JR; Thoma, BN; Peahota, MM; Ahamadi, M; Schmidt, L; Cavarocchi, NC; Kraft, WK

    2016-01-01

    The literature on the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in patients undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy is sparse. A population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for vancomycin in ECMO patients was developed using a nonlinear mixed effects modeling on the concentration–time profiles of 14 ECMO patients who received intravenous vancomycin. Model selection was based on log‐likelihood criterion, goodness of fit plots, and scientific plausibility. Identification of covariates was done using a full covariate model approach. The pharmacokinetics of vancomycin was adequately described with a two‐compartment model. Parameters included clearance of 2.83 L/hr, limited central volume of distribution 24.2 L, and low residual variability 0.67%. Findings from the analysis suggest that standard dosing recommendations for vancomycin in non‐ECMO patients are adequate to achieve therapeutic trough concentrations in ECMO patients. This further shows that ECMO minimally affects the PK of vancomycin in adults including in higher‐weight patients. PMID:27639260

  12. Serum Lipoprotein Abnormalities in Patients with Ischaemic Heart Disease: Comparisons with a Control Population

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, B.; Chait, A.; Oakley, C. M. O.; Wootton, I. D. P.; Krikler, D. M.; Onitiri, A.; Sigurdsson, G.; February, A.

    1974-01-01

    The frequency and nature of abnormalities of serum lipoproteins have been studied, using quantitative techniques, in 143 patients with ischaemic heart disease (I.H.D.). Rigorous selection criteria were used. The findings were related to the distribution of lipoprotein concentrations in a carefully screened control population. Hyperlipoproteinaemia occurred in 55% of patients and in 11 out of 15 patients aged less than 40 years. Raised triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations in very low density lipoprotein were the most frequent abnormalities followed by raised cholesterol content of low density lipoprotein. In young patients high density lipoprotein levels were subnormal. Hyperlipoproteinaemia of W.H.O. types IIa, IIb, III, IV, and V all seemed to be over-represented in I.H.D. I.H.D. patients with type IIa, IIb, and IV abnormalities were all significantly younger than I.H.D. patients with normal lipoprotein levels. PMID:4370367

  13. The effect of patient sex on the incidence of early adverse effects in a population of elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Conti, D; Ballo, P; Boccalini, R; Boccherini, A; Cantini, S; Venni, A; Pezzati, S; Gori, S; Franconi, F; Zuppiroli, A; Pedullà, A

    2014-07-01

    Patient sex is known to influence the response to general and regional anaesthesia and recovery after surgery. However, most studies come from analyses carried out on middle-aged patients. As most of the patients admitted to the post-anaesthesia recovery room in our institution are elderly, we took the opportunity to investigate the association between sex and incidence of early adverse events in this older population of patients after major surgery. Consecutive patients undergoing general, orthopaedic, urological and gynaecological surgery, admitted to the recovery room of our institution over a 15-month period, were retrospectively studied. The following adverse events were considered in the analysis: shivering, postoperative nausea and vomiting, hypotension and hypertensive responses, new arrhythmias requiring treatment, acute respiratory failure and desaturation. A total of 1347 patients (mean age 73.3±15.1 years, 61.4% women) were included. Women showed a higher incidence of shivering (relative difference +48%, P=0.0003), postoperative nausea and vomiting (+91%, P<0.0001), hypotension (+32%, P=0.044) and desaturation (+60%, P=0.0030) than men. The incidence of hypertensive response, arrhythmias and acute respiratory failure were not statistically significantly different. The findings of this exploratory study suggest that women have a higher risk of early postoperative adverse events even in a more elderly population.

  14. Methods of Suicide among Cancer Patients: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Kuo-Hsuan; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2010-01-01

    A 3-year nationwide population-based data set was used to explore methods of suicide (violent vs. nonviolent) and possible contributing factors among cancer patients in Taiwan. A total of 1,065 cancer inpatients who committed suicide were included as our study sample. The regression shows that those who had genitourinary cancer were 0.55 times (p…

  15. Patients Taking Imatinib for CML Have Similar Risk of Death as General Population

    Cancer.gov

    In an international study, the risk of death for chronic myelogenous leukemia patients treated with imatinib (Gleevec) who had been in remission for at least 2 years was not different from that of the general population, according to an article in the March 21, 2011 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

  16. [Vitamin B12 levels in the patient population attending an urban health centre in Madrid].

    PubMed

    Camarero-Shelly, M

    2017-04-27

    Vitamin B12 levels are usually measured in Primary Care when the patients have symptoms or risk factors associated with its deficiency, mostly in the elderly. However, no evidence has been found to support the recommendation of screening in the general population. The aim of this study is to assess the relevance of having extended the screening of vitamin B12 deficiency to a younger population, after observing an increase in the prescription of this injected vitamin in a population under 65 years, by analysing the vitamin B12 values obtained. A descriptive, retrospective, observational study was conducted on a sample consisting of 5,531 patients from Barajas Health Primary Centre, Madrid, between 2008 and 2012, and on whom a blood test was performed for any reason, with values of vitamin B12. A deficiency was found in 9.1% (SD 2.3) of the patients, of whom 49.4% were less than 65 years. The deficiencies were associated (P<.001, 95% CI) with age, dementia, changes in blood red cell counts, memory, and with the taking of metformin and proton pump inhibitors (P=.007). The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in our served population is similar in patients older and younger than 65 years. The extended screening was relevant. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Existing general population models inaccurately predict lung cancer risk in patients referred for surgical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Isbell, James M; Deppen, Stephen; Putnam, Joe B; Nesbitt, Jonathan C; Lambright, Eric S; Dawes, Aaron; Massion, Pierre P; Speroff, Theodore; Jones, David R; Grogan, Eric L

    2011-01-01

    Patients undergoing resections for suspicious pulmonary lesions have a 9% to 55% benign rate. Validated prediction models exist to estimate the probability of malignancy in a general population and current practice guidelines recommend their use. We evaluated these models in a surgical population to determine the accuracy of existing models to predict benign or malignant disease. We conducted a retrospective review of our thoracic surgery quality improvement database (2005 to 2008) to identify patients who underwent resection of a pulmonary lesion. Patients were stratified into subgroups based on age, smoking status, and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) results. The probability of malignancy was calculated for each patient using the Mayo and solitary pulmonary nodules prediction models. Receiver operating characteristic and calibration curves were used to measure model performance. A total of 189 patients met selection criteria; 73% were malignant. Patients with preoperative PET scans were divided into four subgroups based on age, smoking history, and nodule PET avidity. Older smokers with PET-avid lesions had a 90% malignancy rate. Patients with PET-nonavid lesions, PET-avid lesions with age less than 50 years, or never smokers of any age had a 62% malignancy rate. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the Mayo and solitary pulmonary nodules models was 0.79 and 0.80, respectively; however, the models were poorly calibrated (p<0.001). Despite improvements in diagnostic and imaging techniques, current general population models do not accurately predict lung cancer among patients referred for surgical evaluation. Prediction models with greater accuracy are needed to identify patients with benign disease to reduce nontherapeutic resections. Copyright © 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Patient navigation improves cancer diagnostic resolution: an individually randomized clinical trial in an underserved population.

    PubMed

    Raich, Peter C; Whitley, Elizabeth M; Thorland, William; Valverde, Patricia; Fairclough, Diane

    2012-10-01

    Barriers to timely resolution of abnormal cancer screening tests add to cancer health disparities among low-income, uninsured, and minority populations. We conducted a randomized trial to evaluate the impact of lay patient navigators on time to resolution and completion of follow-up testing among patients with abnormal screening tests in a medically underserved patient population. Denver Health, the safety-net health care system serving Denver, is one of 10 performance sites participating in the Patient Navigation Research Program. Of 993 eligible subjects with abnormal screening tests randomized to navigation and no-navigation (control) arms and analyzed, 628 had abnormal breast screens (66 abnormal clinical breast examinations, 304 BIRADS 0, 200 BIRADS 3, 58 BIRADS 4 or 5) whereas 235 had abnormal colorectal and 130 had abnormal prostate screens. Time to resolution was significantly shorter in the navigated group (stratified log rank test, P < 0.001). Patient navigation improved diagnostic resolution for patients presenting with mammographic BIRADS 3 (P = 0.0003) and BIRADS 0 (P = 0.09), but not BIRADS 4/5 or abnormal breast examinations. Navigation shortened the time for both colorectal (P = 0.0017) and prostate screening resolution (P = 0.06). Participant demographics included 72% minority, 49% with annual household income less than $10,000, and 36% uninsured. Patient navigation positively impacts time to resolution of abnormal screening tests for breast, colorectal, and prostate cancers in a medically underserved population. By shortening the time to and increasing the proportion of patients with diagnostic resolution patient navigation could reduce disparities in stage at diagnosis and improve cancer outcomes. 2012 AACR

  19. Patient Navigation Improves Cancer Diagnostic Resolution: An Individually Randomized Clinical Trial in an Underserved Population

    PubMed Central

    Raich, Peter C.; Whitley, Elizabeth M.; Thorland, William; Valverde, Patricia; Fairclough, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Background Barriers to timely resolution of abnormal cancer screening tests add to cancer health disparities among low income, uninsured and minority populations. We conducted a randomized trial to evaluate the impact of lay patient navigators on time to resolution and completion of follow-up testing among patients with abnormal screening tests in a medically underserved patient population. Methods Denver Health (DH), the safety-net healthcare system serving Denver, is one of ten performance sites participating in the Patient Navigation Research Program (PNRP). Of 993 eligible subjects with abnormal screening tests randomized to navigation and no-navigation (control) arms and analyzed, 628 had abnormal breast screens (66 abnormal clinical breast examinations, 304 BIRADS 0, 200 BIRADS 3, 58 BIRADS 4 or 5) while 235 had abnormal colorectal and 130 had abnormal prostate screens. Results Time to resolution was significantly shorter in the navigated group (stratified log rank test, p<0.001). Patient navigation improved diagnostic resolution for patients presenting with mammographic BIRADS 3 (p=0.0003) and BIRADS 0 (p=0.09), but not BIRADS 4/5 or abnormal breast exams. Navigation shortened the time for both colorectal (p=0.0017) and prostate screening resolution (p=0.06). Participant demographics included 72% minority, 49% with annual household income less than $10,000, and 36% uninsured. Conclusions Patient navigation positively impacts time to resolution of abnormal screening tests for breast, colorectal and prostate cancers in a medically underserved population. Impact By shortening the time to and increasing the proportion of patients with diagnostic resolution patient navigation could reduce disparities in stage at diagnosis and improve cancer outcomes. PMID:23045537

  20. Vertebral and Intraspinal Anomalies in Indian Population with Congenital Scoliosis: A Study of 119 Consecutive Patients

    PubMed Central

    S, Rajasekaran; G, Balamurali; Shetty, Ajoy

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective case study by clinical and radiological data analysis. Purpose To analyze different types of vertebral anomalies and the incidence of associated intraspinal anomalies in the Indian population. Overview of Literature This is the largest study of congenital scoliosis and associated intraspinal anomalies in Indian population. Incidence of intraspinal anomaly in this series is 47% which is higher than previous literature. Hemivertebra was the most common anomaly as seen in previous studies. Methods A total of 119 patients with congenital scoliosis who underwent surgery between December 2006 and December 2012 were studied. Data was reviewed with medical records, plain radiographs, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Results Thoracolumbar curve was most common, seen in 43.6% of patients. In addition to scoliotic deformity, kyphosis was seen in 26% of patients. Failure of formation, the most common vertebral anomaly, was seen in 51.2% of patients, failure of segmentation was seen in 19.3% of patients, and there were 29.4% patients having both formation and segmentation anomalies. Hemivertebra was the most common vertebral anomaly seen in 66.3% of patients and for whom 63.2% were in thoracic spine. Intraspinal anomalies were associated with 47% of patients with congenital scoliosis. Tethered cord was the most common intraspinal abnormality and was found in 48.2% patients with intraspinal anomalies. The patients with failure of segmentation and mixed deformities were found to have a significantly higher incidence of intraspinal anomalies (65% and 57%, respectively) than those with failure of formation (34%). Out of 31 patients with kyphotic deformity 29% had intraspinal anomalies, and amongst them tethered cord was the most common anomaly seen in 66% patients. Out of 12 patients with neurocutaneous markers, 83% patients had intraspinal anomaly. Conclusions Intraspinal anomalies were seen in 47% of patients with congenital scoliosis in the

  1. Effects of type 2 diabetes mellitus on the population pharmacokinetics of rifampin in tuberculosis patients.

    PubMed

    Chang, Min Jung; Chae, Jung-Woo; Yun, Hwi-Yeol; Lee, Jangik I; Choi, Hye Duck; Kim, Jihye; Park, Jong Sun; Cho, Young-Jae; Yoon, Ho Il; Lee, Choon-Taek; Shin, Wan Gyoon; Lee, Jae-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a well-known risk factor to develop tuberculosis (TB). Some reports indicate the serum concentrations of anti-TB drugs are lower in patients with TB and DM than those with TB only. Therefore, we developed a nonlinear mixed-effects model (NONMEM) to determine the population PK parameters of rifampin and assessed the effects of DM status in patients with TB. One-compartment linear modeling with first-order absorption was evaluated using the 206 plasma samples of rifampin from 54 patients with DM. Based on the final model, DM affected the absorption rate constant (ka) and the volume of distribution (Vd) of rifampin. The body mass index (BMI) of the patients affected rifampin clearance (CL). The ka of rifampin in patients with TB and DM was greater than that in patients with TB only. Further, the predicted Vd in patients with DM was greater than that in patients without DM. As Vd is inversely correlated with plasma concentrations, the rifampin concentrations were predicted to be lower in the patients with DM. The authors recommend administering the greater doses of rifampin for the treatment of TB in patients with DM compared with the doses for the patients without DM to prevent treatment failure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Patient Populations, Clinical Associations, and System Efficiency in Healthcare Delivery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yazhuo

    The efforts to improve health care delivery usually involve studies and analysis of patient populations and healthcare systems. In this dissertation, I present the research conducted in the following areas: identifying patient groups, improving treatments for specific conditions by using statistical as well as data mining techniques, and developing new operation research models to increase system efficiency from the health institutes' perspective. The results provide better understanding of high risk patient groups, more accuracy in detecting disease' correlations and practical scheduling tools that consider uncertain operation durations and real-life constraints.

  3. Obstetrician/gynecologist care considerations: practice changes in disease management with an aging patient population.

    PubMed

    Raglan, Greta; Lawrence, Hal; Schulkin, Jay

    2014-03-01

    Demographic changes across the country are leading to an increased proportion of older Americans. This shift will likely lead to changes in the patient population seen by obstetrician/gynecologists, and practices may need to adapt to the needs of older women. This article looks at mental health, sexual health, bone loss, cardiovascular disease and cancer as areas in which obstetrician/gynecologists may experience changes with the increasing age of patients. While this is by no means a comprehensive list of changing areas of practice, it offers a guide for reflecting on the future of obstetrician/gynecologists training, and the importance of considering the needs of older patients in practice.

  4. Radiation exposures of cancer patients from medical X-rays: how relevant are they for individual patients and population exposure?

    PubMed

    Brix, Gunnar; Nissen-Meyer, Sven; Lechel, Ursula; Nissen-Meyer, Johannes; Griebel, Jürgen; Nekolla, Elke A; Becker, Christoph; Reiser, Maximilian

    2009-11-01

    X-ray procedures have a substantial impact not only on patient care but also on man-made radiation exposure. Since a reliable risk-benefit analysis of medical X-rays can only be performed for diagnosis-related groups of patients, we determined specific exposure data for patients with the ten most common types of cancer. For all patients with the considered cancers undergoing medical X-ray procedures in a maximum-care hospital between 2000 and 2005, patient- and examination-specific data were retrieved from the hospital/radiology information system. From this data, the cumulative 5-year effective dose was estimated for each patient as well as the mean annual effective dose per patient and the mean patient observation time for each cancer site. In total, 151,439 radiographic, fluoroscopic, and CT procedures, carried out in 15,866 cancer patients (age, 62+/-13 years), were evaluated. The mean 5-year cumulative dose varied between 8.6 mSv (prostate cancer) and 68.8 mSv (pancreas cancer). Due to an increasing use of CT scans, the mean annual effective dose per patient increased from 13.6 to 18.2 mSv during the 6-year period. Combining the results obtained in this study for a particular hospital with cancer incidence data for Germany, we estimated that cancer patients having X-ray studies constitute at least 1% of the population but receive more than 10% of the total effective dose related to all medical X-ray procedures performed nationwide per year. A large fraction of this dose is radiobiologically ineffective due to the reduced life expectancy of cancer patients.

  5. Erectile Dysfunction in Patients with Sleep Apnea – A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yu-Chung; Yang, Chih-Jen; Wu, Meng-Ni; Hsu, Chung-Yao; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Chong, Inn-Wen; Huang, Ming-Shyan

    2015-01-01

    Increased incidence of erectile dysfunction (ED) has been reported among patients with sleep apnea (SA). However, this association has not been confirmed in a large-scale study. We therefore performed a population-based cohort study using Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) database to investigate the association of SA and ED. From the database of one million representative subjects randomly sampled from individuals enrolled in the NHI system in 2010, we identified adult patients having SA and excluded those having a diagnosis of ED prior to SA. From these suspected SA patients, those having SA diagnosis after polysomnography were defined as probable SA patients. The dates of their first SA diagnosis were defined as their index dates. Each SA patient was matched to 30 randomly-selected, age-matched control subjects without any SA diagnosis. The control subjects were assigned index dates as their corresponding SA patients, and were ensured having no ED diagnosis prior to their index dates. Totally, 4,835 male patients with suspected SA (including 1,946 probable SA patients) were matched to 145,050 control subjects (including 58,380 subjects matched to probable SA patients). The incidence rate of ED was significantly higher in probable SA patients as compared with the corresponding control subjects (5.7 vs. 2.3 per 1000 patient-year; adjusted incidence rate ratio = 2.0 [95% CI: 1.8-2.2], p<0.0001). The cumulative incidence was also significantly higher in the probable SA patients (p<0.0001). In multivariable Cox regression analysis, probable SA remained a significant risk factor for the development of ED after adjusting for age, residency, income level and comorbidities (hazard ratio = 2.0 [95%CI: 1.5-2.7], p<0.0001). In line with previous studies, this population-based large-scale study confirmed an increased ED incidence in SA patients in Chinese population. Physicians need to pay attention to the possible underlying SA while treating ED patients. PMID:26177206

  6. Prevalence of latex allergy in a population of patients diagnosed with myelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Claudio A S; Petriz, Natalia A; Busaniche, Julio N; Cortines, María C; Frangi, Fernando A; Portillo, Santiago A; de Badiola, Francisco I

    2016-02-01

    Latex allergy is one of the main reasons of anaphylaxis in the operating room. The prevalence of this condition is higher among patients with myelomeningocele. Epidemiological data obtained from Argentine patients is scarce. To estimate the prevalence of latex sensitivity and latex allergy in a population of patients with myelomeningocele and to describe associated risk factors. Descriptive, cross-sectional, observational study. Family and personal history of allergy, number of surgeries, history of symptoms caused by having been in contact with latex or cross-reactive foods, eosinophil count, measurement of total immunoglobulin E and specific immunoglobulin E levels by means of skin and serologic testing for latex, aeroallergens and cross-reactive fruit. Eighty-two patients diagnosed with myelomeningocele were assessed: 41 were males and their average age was 15.3 ± 7.66 years old. Out of all patients, two did not complete skin and serologic testing. Among the remaining 80 patients, 16 (19.51%) had latex allergy, 46 (57.5%) were not allergic, and 18 (22%) showed sensitivity but not allergy. Having undergone more than five surgeries was a risk factor associated with latex allergy (p= 0.035). No significant association was observed with the remaining outcome measures. According to this study, the prevalence of latex allergy in this population of patients is 19.51% and the most important risk factor for this condition is a history of having undergone more than five surgeries. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  7. Des Vents et des Jets Astrophysiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauty, C.

    well expected result from the theory. Although, collimation may be conical, paraboloidal or cylindrical (Part 4), cylindrical collimation is the more likely to occur. The shape of outflows may then be used as a tool to predict physical conditions on the flows or on their source. L'éjection continue de plasma autour d'objets massifs est un phénomène largement répandu en astrophysique, que ce soit sous la forme du vent solaire, de vents stellaires, de jets d'étoiles en formation, de jets stellaires autour d'objets compacts ou de jets extra-galactiques. Cette zoologie diversifiée fait pourtant l'objet d'un commun effort de modélisation. Le but de cette revue est d'abord de présenter qualitativement le développement, depuis leur origine, des diverses théories de vents (Partie 1) et l'inter disciplinarité dans ce domaine. Il s'agit d'une énumération, plus ou moins exhaustive, des idées proposées pour expliquer l'accélération et la morphologie des vents et des jets, accompagnée d'une présentation sommaire des aspects observationnels. Cette partie s'abstient de tout aspect faisant appel au formalisme mathématique. Ces écoulements peuvent être décrits, au moins partiellement, en résolvant les équations magnétohydrodynamiques, axisymétriques et stationnaires. Ce formalisme, à la base de la plupart des théories, est exposé dans la Partie 2. Il permet d'introduire quantitativement les intégrales premières qu'un tel système possède. Ces dernières sont amenées à jouer un rôle important dans la compréhension des phénomènes d'accélération ou de collimation, en particulier le taux de perte de masse, le taux de perte de moment angulaire ou l'énergie du rotateur magnétique. La difficulté de modélisation réside dans l'existence de points critiques, propres aux équations non linéaires, qu'il faut franchir. La nature physique et la localisation de ces points critiques fait l'objet d'un débat important car ils sont la clef de voute de la r

  8. Colonisation of dentures by Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA in out-patient and in-patient populations.

    PubMed

    Lewis, N; Parmar, N; Hussain, Z; Baker, G; Green, I; Howlett, J; Kearns, A; Cookson, B; McDonald, A; Wilson, M; Ready, D

    2015-09-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important human pathogen, and colonisation with this organism can result in localised or systemic infections which may be fatal. One hundred in-patients admitted to a London teaching hospital and 100 out-patients attending prosthetic dentistry clinics were recruited into this study. Of the 100 out-patients, 27 % harboured S. aureus on their dentures, compared to 33 % of in-patients. Only one out-patient had MRSA colonising their dentures whereas 12 % of the in-patients harboured MRSA. The median total bacterial count of the denture plaque samples was 6.2 × 10(7) cfu/sample and 6.9 × 10(7) cfu/sample for the out-patient and in-patient populations, respectively. In most instances, where present, S. aureus comprised less than 1 % of the total viable denture microbiota. Phage typing demonstrated that EMRSA-15 and non-typeable strains were harboured on dentures. The results of this study have revealed that dentures are a potential reservoir of MRSA and so account should be taken of these findings when planning decontamination procedures for elimination of this pathogen.

  9. Analysis of Turner syndrome patients within the Jordanian population, with a focus on four patients with Y chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Daggag, H; Srour, W; El-Khateeb, M; Ajlouni, K

    2013-01-01

    This study presents findings in Turner syndrome (TS) patients from the Jordanian population, with focus on 4 patients with Y chromosomal abnormalities. From 1989 to 2011, 504 patients with TS stigmata were referred to our institute for karyotyping, resulting in 142 positive TS cases. Of these, 62 (43.7%) had the typical 45,X karyotype and the remaining individuals (56.3%) were found to be mosaics. Fifteen TS patients (10.5%) carried a structural abnormality of the Y chromosome and presented with the mosaic 45,X/46,XY karyotype. From these, 4 TS cases were investigated further. Karyotyping revealed that 1 patient carried a small supernumerary marker chromosome, whereas cytogenetic and molecular analyses showed that 3 patients carried 2 copies of the SRY gene. Further analysis by SRY sequencing revealed no mutations within the gene. The analyzed patients were found to be phenotypically either females or males, depending on the predominance of the cell line carrying the Y chromosome. This study demonstrates the importance of detailed cytogenetic analysis (such as FISH) in TS patients, and it also emphasizes the need for molecular analysis (such as PCR and sequencing) when fragments of the Y chromosome are present.

  10. The prevalence of QT prolongation in a population of patients with substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Scott, Alexander J; Dunlop, Adrian J; Brown, Amanda; Sadler, Craig; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2017-03-01

    Drug induced QT prolongation occurs in patients with substance use disorders from prescription medications that prolong the QT, such as methadone. Knowing the prevalence of QT prolongation in this population is important for prescribers. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of QT prolongation in patients with current substance use disorders. We undertook a retrospective review of electrocardiograms (ECG) from patients with substance use disorders from an urban general hospital with a large drug and alcohol service and toxicology unit. ECGs were taken from patients seen by the alcohol and drug unit over three years. The QT interval was measured manually on each ECG and defined as abnormal if above the line on the QT nomogram. The QT was also heart rate corrected using Fridericia's formula (QTcF) to investigate associated factors. Nine of 446 (2.0%; 95% confidence interval 1.0-3.9%) patients had an ECG with a prolonged QT interval. Three were prescribed methadone for opiate dependence (80, 90 and 125 mg daily), one also with hypokalemia; one prescribed escitalopram with hypokalaemia/hypomagnesaemia; three more with hypokalaemia alone. Only two patients had a prolonged QT with no identifiable cause. There was no association between QTcF and sex (P = 0.34), but there was a statistically significant association with age (Pearson R = 0.19, 95% confidence interval 0.10-0.28, P < 0.0001). QT prolongation is rare in patients with substance use disorders and is most likely similar to the general population once cases related to methadone use and electrolyte abnormalities are excluded. [Scott AJ, Dunlop AJ, Brown A, Craig S. The prevalence of QT prolongation in a population of patients with substance use disorders. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:239-244]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  11. Existing General Population Models Inaccurately Predict Lung Cancer Risk in Patients Referred for Surgical Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Isbell, James M.; Deppen, Stephen; Putnam, Joe B.; Nesbitt, Jonathan C.; Lambright, Eric S.; Dawes, Aaron; Massion, Pierre P.; Speroff, Theodore; Jones, David R.; Grogan, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    Background atients undergoing resections for suspicious pulmonary lesions have a 9-55% benign rate. Validated prediction models exist to estimate the probability of malignancy in a general population and current practice guidelines recommend their use. We evaluated these models in a surgical population to determine the accuracy of existing models to predict benign or malignant disease. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of our thoracic surgery quality improvement database (2005-2008) to identify patients who underwent resection of a pulmonary lesion. Patients were stratified into subgroups based on age, smoking status and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) results. The probability of malignancy was calculated for each patient using the Mayo and SPN prediction models. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and calibration curves were used to measure model performance. Results 89 patients met selection criteria; 73% were malignant. Patients with preoperative PET scans were divided into 4 subgroups based on age, smoking history and nodule PET avidity. Older smokers with PET-avid lesions had a 90% malignancy rate. Patients with PET- non-avid lesions, or PET-avid lesions with age<50 years or never smokers of any age had a 62% malignancy rate. The area under the ROC curve for the Mayo and SPN models was 0.79 and 0.80, respectively; however, the models were poorly calibrated (p<0.001). Conclusions Despite improvements in diagnostic and imaging techniques, current general population models do not accurately predict lung cancer among patients ref erred for surgical evaluation. Prediction models with greater accuracy are needed to identify patients with benign disease to reduce non-therapeutic resections. PMID:21172518

  12. Prevalence of substance use disorders in psychiatric patients: a nationwide Danish population-based study.

    PubMed

    Toftdahl, Nanna Gilliam; Nordentoft, Merete; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    The present study established the national prevalence of substance use disorders (SUDs) among Danish psychiatric patients. Furthermore, patients with SUDs and those without SUDs were compared on a range of socio-demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics. Data were obtained from several Danish population-based registers. The study population was defined as all individuals with incidents of schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder, other psychoses, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and personality disorders since 1969. The prevalence of SUDs was examined for the following psychoactive substances: alcohol, opioids, cannabis, sedatives, cocaine, psycho-stimulants and hallucinogens. A total of 463,003 patients were included in the analysis. The prevalence of any lifetime SUD was: 37 % for schizophrenia, 35 % for schizotypal disorder, 28 % for other psychoses, 32 % for bipolar disorder, 25 % for depression, 25 % for anxiety, 11 % for OCD, 17% for PTSD, and 46 % for personality disorders. Alcohol use disorder was the most dominating SUD in every psychiatric category (25 % of all included patients). Patients with SUDs were more often men, had fewer years of formal education, more often received disability pension and died due to unnatural causes. The study was the most comprehensive of its kind so far to estimate the prevalence of SUDs in an unselected population-based cohort, and it revealed remarkably high prevalence among the psychiatric patients. The results should encourage continuous focus on possible comorbidity of psychiatric patients, as well as specialised and integrated treatment along with increased support of patients with comorbid disorders.

  13. The patient perspective: utilizing focus groups to inform care coordination for high-risk medicaid populations.

    PubMed

    Sheff, Alex; Park, Elyse R; Neagle, Mary; Oreskovic, Nicolas M

    2017-07-25

    Care coordination programs for high-risk, high-cost patients are a critical component of population health management. These programs aim to improve outcomes and reduce costs and have proliferated over the last decade. Some programs, originally designed for Medicare patients, are now transitioning to also serve Medicaid populations. However, there are still gaps in the understanding of what barriers to care Medicaid patients experience, and what supports will be most effective for providing them care coordination. We conducted two focus groups (n = 13) and thematic analyses to assess the outcomes drivers and programmatic preferences of Medicaid patients enrolled in a high-risk care coordination program at a major academic medical center in Boston, MA. Two focus groups identified areas where care coordination efforts were having a positive impact, as well as areas of unmet needs among the Medicaid population. Six themes emerged from the focus groups that clustered in three groupings: In the first group (1) enrollment in an existing medical care coordination programs, and (2) provider communication largely presented as positive accounts of assistance, and good relationships with providers, though participants also pointed to areas where these efforts fell short. In the second group (3) trauma histories, (4) mental health challenges, and (5) executive function difficulties all presented challenges faced by high-risk Medicaid patients that would likely require redress through additional programmatic supports. Finally, in the third group, (6) peer-to-peer support tendencies among patients suggested an untapped resource for care coordination programs. Programs aimed at high-risk Medicaid patients will want to consider programmatic adjustments to attend to patient needs in five areas: (1) provider connection/care coordination, (2) trauma, (3) mental health, (4) executive function/paperwork and coaching support, and (5) peer-to-peer support.

  14. Prevalence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding risk factors among the general population and osteoarthritis patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Hyuck; Yun, Jae Moon; Chang, Chong Bum; Piao, Heng; Yu, Su Jong; Shin, Dong Wook

    2016-01-01

    AIM To assess the prevalence of possible risk factors of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) and their age-group specific trend among the general population and osteoarthritis patients. METHODS We utilized data from the National Health Insurance Service that included claims data and results of the national health check-up program. Comorbid conditions (peptic ulcer, diabetes, liver disease, chronic renal failure, and gastroesophageal reflux disease), concomitant drugs (aspirin, clopidogrel, cilostazol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, steroid, anticoagulants, and SSRI), personal habits (smoking, and alcohol consumption) were considered as possible UGIB risk factors. We randomly imputed the prevalence of infection in the data considering the age-specific prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in Korea. The prevalence of various UGIB risk factors and the age-group specific trend of the prevalence were identified. Prevalence was compared between osteoarthritis patients and others. RESULTS A total of 801926 subjects (93855 osteoarthritis patients) aged 20 and above were included. The prevalence of individual and concurrent multiple risk factors became higher as the age increased. The prevalence of each comorbid condition and concomitant drug were higher in osteoarthritis patients. Thirty-five point zero two percent of the overall population and 68.50% of osteoarthritis patients had at least one or more risk factors of UGIB. The prevalence of individual and concurrent multiple risk factors in younger age groups were also substantial. Furthermore, when personal habits (smoking, and alcohol consumption) and H. pylori infection were included, the prevalence of concurrent multiple risk factors increased greatly even in younger age groups. CONCLUSION Prevalence of UGIB risk factors was high in elderly population, but was also considerable in younger population. Patient with osteoarthritis was at higher UGIB risk than those without osteoarthritis

  15. Prevalence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding risk factors among the general population and osteoarthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Hyuck; Yun, Jae Moon; Chang, Chong Bum; Piao, Heng; Yu, Su Jong; Shin, Dong Wook

    2016-12-28

    To assess the prevalence of possible risk factors of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) and their age-group specific trend among the general population and osteoarthritis patients. We utilized data from the National Health Insurance Service that included claims data and results of the national health check-up program. Comorbid conditions (peptic ulcer, diabetes, liver disease, chronic renal failure, and gastroesophageal reflux disease), concomitant drugs (aspirin, clopidogrel, cilostazol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, steroid, anticoagulants, and SSRI), personal habits (smoking, and alcohol consumption) were considered as possible UGIB risk factors. We randomly imputed the prevalence of infection in the data considering the age-specific prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in Korea. The prevalence of various UGIB risk factors and the age-group specific trend of the prevalence were identified. Prevalence was compared between osteoarthritis patients and others. A total of 801926 subjects (93855 osteoarthritis patients) aged 20 and above were included. The prevalence of individual and concurrent multiple risk factors became higher as the age increased. The prevalence of each comorbid condition and concomitant drug were higher in osteoarthritis patients. Thirty-five point zero two percent of the overall population and 68.50% of osteoarthritis patients had at least one or more risk factors of UGIB. The prevalence of individual and concurrent multiple risk factors in younger age groups were also substantial. Furthermore, when personal habits (smoking, and alcohol consumption) and H. pylori infection were included, the prevalence of concurrent multiple risk factors increased greatly even in younger age groups. Prevalence of UGIB risk factors was high in elderly population, but was also considerable in younger population. Patient with osteoarthritis was at higher UGIB risk than those without osteoarthritis. Physicians should consider

  16. Atopic manifestations are more common in patients with Crohn disease than in the general population.

    PubMed

    Myrelid, P; Dufmats, M; Lilja, I; Grinn, C; Lannerstad, O; Sjödahl, R

    2004-08-01

    The role of TNF-alpha in Crohn disease is now well established and anti-TNF-alpha is frequently used as a second- or third-line treatment. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is traditionally associated with macrophages but has recently also been found in mast cells of the ileal wall in patients with Crohn disease. As it is well known that mast cells and TNF-alpha play important roles in atopic manifestations like asthma, allergic rhinitis; and eczema the aim of this study was to investigate whether these are seen more commonly in Crohn patients than in the general population. Patients with Crohn disease (n = 308), aged 18-50 years, living in the Linköping region in southeast Sweden, were asked to answer a questionnaire regarding the presence of any kind of atopic manifestations. The questionnaire was also sent to 930 controls collected from the Southeastern Region Population Registry. The controls were matched according to age, sex, and place of residence. The response rate among the Crohn patients was 91% (280/308) and among controls 84% (779/930). Eczema was a significantly more frequent manifestation, being almost twice as common in Crohn patients (27%) as in the general population (16%). Adjustment by logistic regression for place of residence, gender, age and coexistence of any other atopic manifestation did not change the odds ratios significantly. Atopic manifestations as a group, and eczema as a single manifestation, are significantly more frequent in Crohn patients than in the general population.

  17. Patient prioritization of comorbid chronic conditions in the Veteran population: Implications for patient-centered care

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Lorilei M; Hill, Jennifer N; Smith, Bridget M; Bauer, Erica; Weaver, Frances M; Gordon, Howard S; Stroupe, Kevin T; Hogan, Timothy P

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Patients with comorbid chronic conditions may prioritize some conditions over others; however, our understanding of factors influencing those prioritizations is limited. In this study, we sought to identify and elaborate a range of factors that influence how and why patients with comorbid chronic conditions prioritize their conditions. Methods: We conducted semi-structured, one-on-one interviews with 33 patients with comorbidities recruited from a single Veterans Health Administration Medical Center. Findings: The diverse factors influencing condition prioritization reflected three overarching themes: (1) the perceived role of a condition in the body, (2) self-management tasks, and (3) pain. In addition to these themes, participants described the rankings that they believed their healthcare providers would assign to their conditions as an influencing factor, although few reported having shared their priorities or explicitly talking with providers about the importance of their conditions. Conclusion: Studies that advance understanding of how and why patients prioritize their various conditions are essential to providing care that is patient-centered, reflecting what matters most to the individual while improving their health. This analysis informs guideline development efforts for the care of patients with comorbid chronic conditions as well as the creation of tools to promote patient–provider communication regarding the importance placed on different conditions. PMID:27928501

  18. Prendre le virage des partenariats.

    PubMed

    Sebestyen, Norma; Sulatycky, Ron; Rondos, Spyro; Davis, Sheila

    2015-11-01

    Deux projets démontrent que la mise en œuvre de données colligées sur le terrain peut contribuer à régler des problèmes dans le milieu de la santé pour favoriser de meilleurs résultats et de plus grandes efficiences. Dans le premier exemple, une vaste coalition de partenaires publics et privés de l'Alberta recourt aux techniques de mesures améliorées et à la méthodologie du Triple objectif pour améliorer les résultats cliniques de populations de cas complexes et lourds du quartier Eastwood d'Edmonton. On espère que les conclusions novatrices qui en sont tirées seront adaptées à d'autres régions de la province. Dans le deuxième exemple, la Childhood Obesity Foundation s'associe à Merck au Canada et à Ayogo (une société de thérapies numériques située à Vancouver) et utilise le concept novateur de la « ludification » pour mobiliser les jeunes de plus en plus sédentaires du Canada et modifier leurs comportements. © 2015 Collège canadien des leaders en santé

  19. Investigation of the maxillary lateral incisor agenesis and associated dental anomalies in an orthodontic patient population

    PubMed Central

    Kamak, Hasan; Yildirim, Hanifi; Ceylan, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of maxillary lateral incisor (MLI) agenesis and associated dental anomalies as well as skeletal patterns in an orthodontic population, and then to compare it with the prevalence of these anomalies in the general population. Study Design: The material of the present study included the records of the 3872 orthodontic patients. The followings were recorded for each subject with the agenesis of MLI: Age, sex, unilateral or bilateral absence, anterior-posterior skeletal relationship of the maxilla and mandible, and presence of associated dental anomalies. The occurrence of these anomalies was compared with data previously reported for the general populations. Results: Of the 3872 patients examined, 94 were found to have agenesis of the MLI, representing a prevalence of 2.4 per cent, with females being more frequently observed. The most commonly found associated anomalies were ectopic eruption of maxillary canines and reduced or peg- shaped contralateral incisor with the frequencies of 21.3 per cent and 20.2 per cent respectively. Conclusions: Patients with agenesis of MLI showed a significantly higher prevalence of skeletal Class III malocclusion compared with the general population. The prevalence of ectopic eruption, transposition, and transmigration of the maxillary canine and reduced or peg- shaped MLIs were significantly increased. Key words:Hypodontia, missing laterals, associated dental anomalies. PMID:22549676

  20. The brave new world of older patients: preparing general practice training for an ageing population.

    PubMed

    Bonney, Andrew; Phillipson, Lyn; Jones, Sandra C; Hall, Julie; Sharma, Rashmi

    2015-11-01

    Develop and pilot test evidence-based resources for general practice training practices to enhance older patients' (65+ years) interactions with General Practice Registrars (GPRs). In Australia, general practice trainees, referred to as GPRs, see fewer older patients and patients with chronic conditions than doctors who have completed their specialist GP training. This reduces learning opportunities for GPRs in the management of these important patient groups. Therefore, developing effective strategies to improve GPR-older patient interaction is critical to primary care training, to meet the current and future needs of an ageing population. Adopting a social marketing approach, GPR practice resources were developed to address knowledge and attitudinal barriers at the practice and patient level to improve older patient comfort, and willingness to engage, with GPR care. Two focus groups with older patients (n=18) and interviews with staff of training practices (n=12) were utilised to pre-test resources. Amended resources were pilot tested and evaluated in a naturalistic GPR training practice setting using a structured patient questionnaire (n=44). Pilot evaluation suggests improved comfort and willingness of older patients to interact with GPRs. In all, 54% of survey participants indicated they would be more likely to make an appointment with a Registrar in the future as a result of exposure to the resources. In all, 40% of patients would feel comfortable having a GPR manage a complex or chronic condition, which compares favourably with 28% of similarly aged patients in previous research. The use of tailored, engaging and informative GPR resources for older patients and practice staff may be an important contributor to addressing the growing problem of ensuring GPRs are adequately engaged in treating older patients. The adoption of a social marketing framework was instrumental in enhancing the acceptance and effectiveness of this intervention.

  1. Transferring patients home to die: what is the potential population in UK critical care units?

    PubMed

    Coombs, Maureen A; Darlington, Anne-Sophie E; Long-Sutehall, Tracy; Pattison, Natalie; Richardson, Alison

    2017-03-01

    Most people when asked, express a preference to die at home, but little is known about whether this is an option for critically ill patients. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken to describe the size and characteristics of the critical care population who could potentially be transferred home to die if they expressed such a wish. Medical notes of all patients who died in, or within 5 days of discharge from seven critical care units across two hospital sites over a 12-month period were reviewed. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were developed and applied to identify the number of patients who had potential to be transferred home to die and demographic and clinical data (eg, conscious state, respiratory and cardiac support therapies) collected. 7844 patients were admitted over a 12-month period. 422 (5.4%) patients died. Using the criteria developed 100 (23.7%) patients could have potentially been transferred home to die. Of these 41 (41%) patients were diagnosed with respiratory disease. 53 (53%) patients were conscious, 47 (47%) patients were self-ventilating breathing room air/oxygen via a mask. 20 (20%) patients were ventilated via an endotracheal tube. 76 (76%) patients were not requiring inotropes/vasopressors. Mean time between discussion about treatment withdrawal and time of death was 36.4 h (SD=46.48). No patients in this cohort were transferred home. A little over 20% of patients dying in critical care demonstrate potential to be transferred home to die. Staff should actively consider the practice of transferring home as an option for care at end of life for these patients. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Transferring patients home to die: what is the potential population in UK critical care units?

    PubMed Central

    Coombs, Maureen A; Darlington, Anne-Sophie E; Long-Sutehall, Tracy; Pattison, Natalie; Richardson, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Most people when asked, express a preference to die at home, but little is known about whether this is an option for critically ill patients. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken to describe the size and characteristics of the critical care population who could potentially be transferred home to die if they expressed such a wish. Methods Medical notes of all patients who died in, or within 5 days of discharge from seven critical care units across two hospital sites over a 12-month period were reviewed. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were developed and applied to identify the number of patients who had potential to be transferred home to die and demographic and clinical data (eg, conscious state, respiratory and cardiac support therapies) collected. Results 7844 patients were admitted over a 12-month period. 422 (5.4%) patients died. Using the criteria developed 100 (23.7%) patients could have potentially been transferred home to die. Of these 41 (41%) patients were diagnosed with respiratory disease. 53 (53%) patients were conscious, 47 (47%) patients were self-ventilating breathing room air/oxygen via a mask. 20 (20%) patients were ventilated via an endotracheal tube. 76 (76%) patients were not requiring inotropes/vasopressors. Mean time between discussion about treatment withdrawal and time of death was 36.4 h (SD=46.48). No patients in this cohort were transferred home. Conclusions A little over 20% of patients dying in critical care demonstrate potential to be transferred home to die. Staff should actively consider the practice of transferring home as an option for care at end of life for these patients. PMID:26628534

  3. Risk Assessment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in a Population of Patients Undergoing Ambulatory Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Stierer, Tracey L.; Wright, Christopher; George, Anu; Thompson, Richard E.; Wu, Christopher L.; Collop, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: The aims of this study were to: (a) assess the prevalence of diagnosed OSA and symptoms of undiagnosed OSA in a cohort of ambulatory surgical patients, and (b) characterize the frequency of postoperative complications in outpatients with a diagnosis of or a propensity to OSA. Methods: Patients presenting for ambulatory surgery completed a self-administered questionnaire. Using a previously validated prediction model, the probability for OSA was determined. Patients with ≥ 70% propensities were considered to be at high risk of having the disorder. Relevant perioperative data and complications were tracked and recorded, and differences in median estimated propensities for OSA were considered by these data. Results: Three-thousand five hundred fifty-three patients completed the preoperative survey. A total of 2139 patients had perioperative data and estimated propensity scores. Ninety-four of the 2139 (4.4%) patients gave a self-reported prior diagnosis of OSA. One hundred three (4.8%) patients were found to be at high risk of OSA based on the survey and prediction model. Seventy-five percent of the patients with > 70% propensity for OSA had not yet been diagnosed. There was no association between OSA propensity scores and unplanned hospital admission, however there was an association of increased propensity with difficult intubation, intraoperative use of pressors, and postoperative oxygen saturation in the PACU. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that undiagnosed OSA may be relatively common in an ambulatory surgical population. There was no relationship between unplanned hospital admission and diagnosis of or increased risk of OSA. However, there was an association of increased perioperative events requiring additional anesthetic management in patients with a diagnosis of, or with a higher propensity to OSA. Citation: Stierer TL; Wright C; George A; Thompson RE; Wu CL; Collop N. Risk assessment of obstructive sleep apnea in a

  4. Risk of Cancer in Patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yu-Wen; Hu, Li-Yu; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Teng, Chung-Jen; Kuan, Ai-Seon; Chen, San-Chi; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Liu, Chia-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the risk of cancer among patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) by using a nationwide population-based data set. Method Patients newly diagnosed with IDA and without antecedent cancer between 2000 and 2010 were recruited from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of cancer types among patients with IDA were calculated. Results Patients with IDA exhibited an increased overall cancer risk (SIR: 2.15). Subgroup analysis showed that patients of both sexes and in all age groups had an increased SIR. After we excluded patients diagnosed with cancer within the first and first 5 years of IDA diagnosis, the SIRs remained significantly elevated at 1.43 and 1.30, respectively. In addition, the risks of pancreatic (SIR: 2.31), kidney (SIR: 2.23), liver (SIR: 1.94), and bladder cancers (SIR: 1.74) remained significantly increased after exclusion of patients diagnosed with cancer within 5 years after IDA diagnosis. Conclusion The overall cancer risk was significantly elevated among patients with IDA. After we excluded patients diagnosed with IDA and cancer within 1 and 5 years, the SIRs remained significantly elevated compared with those of the general population. The increased risk of cancer was not confined to gastrointestinal cancer when the SIRs of pancreatic, kidney, liver, and bladder cancers significantly increased after exclusion of patients diagnosed with IDA and cancer within the first 5 years. This finding may be caused by immune activities altered by IDA. Further study is necessary to determine the association between IDA and cancer risk. PMID:25781632

  5. Using the verona coding definitions of emotional sequences (VR-CoDES) and health provider responses (VR-CoDES-P) in the dental context.

    PubMed

    Wright, Alice; Humphris, Gerry; Wanyonyi, Kristina L; Freeman, Ruth

    2012-10-01

    To show if cues, concerns and provider responses (defined in VR-CoDES and VR-CoDES-P manuals) are present, can be reliably coded and require additional advice for adoption in a dental context. Thirteen patients in a dental practice setting were videoed with either their dentist or hygienist and dental nurse present in routine treatment sessions. All utterances were coded using the Verona systems: VR-CoDES and the VR-CoDES-P. Rates of cue, concerns and provider responses described and reliability tested. The VR-CoDES and VR-CoDES-P were successfully applied in the dental context. The intra-rater ICCs for the detection of cues and concerns and provider response were acceptable and above 0.75. A similar satisfactory result was found for the inter-rater reliability. The VR-CoDES and the VR-CoDES-P are applicable in the dental setting with minor supporting guidelines and show evidence of reliable coding. The VR-CoDES and the VR-CoDES-P may be helpful tools for analysing patient cues and concerns and the dental professionals' responses in the dental context. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identifying Elements of Patient-Centered Care in Underserved Populations: A Qualitative Study of Patient Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Sheela; Hasnain, Memoona; Vadakumchery, Tracy; Hamad, Judy; Shah, Raveena; Hoersch, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Patient-centered care is an important goal in the delivery of healthcare. However, many patients do not engage in preventive medical care. In this pilot study, we conducted twenty in depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews at the University of Illinois at Chicago Health Sciences campus in a four month time frame. Many patients were underserved and underinsured, and we wanted to understand their experiences in the healthcare system. Using content analysis, several themes emerged from the interview data. Participants discussed the need for empathy and rapport with their providers. They identified provider behaviors that fostered a positive clinical relationship, including step-by step explanations of procedures, attention to body language and clinic atmosphere, and appropriate time management. Participants identified cost as the most common barrier to engaging in preventive care and discussed children and social support as motivating factors. A long-term relationship with a provider was an important motivator for preventive care, suggesting that the therapeutic alliance was essential to many patients. Conversely, many participants discussed a sense of dehumanization in the healthcare system, reporting that their life circumstances were overlooked, or that they were judged based on insurance status or ethnicity. We discuss implications for provider training and healthcare delivery, including the importance of patient-centered medical homes. PMID:25993110

  7. [Association of insulinase gene polymorphisms with type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients from the Moscow population].

    PubMed

    Slominskiĭ, P A; Pivovarova, O V; Shadrina, M I; Artem'eva, A V; Pfaipffer, F G; Rudovich, N N; Agadzhanian, S E; Pronin, V S; Limborskaia, S A

    2009-01-01

    Association of 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of insulinase (IDE) gene with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) in the Moscow population has been examined. Three polymorphic markers (rs7078413, rs7899603, and rs551266) associated with the risk of T2D development have been revealed. Allele and genotype frequency distribution for these three markers differed significantly only in the sample of females between T2D patients and control individuals, while only in case of rs7078413 SNP genotype frequencies varied significantly in the total population.

  8. Thromboelastographic reference ranges for a cirrhotic patient population undergoing liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    De Pietri, Lesley; Bianchini, Marcello; Rompianesi, Gianluca; Bertellini, Elisabetta; Begliomini, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    AIM To describe the thromboelastography (TEG) “reference” values within a population of liver transplant (LT) candidates that underline the differences from healthy patients. METHODS Between 2000 and 2013, 261 liver transplant patients with a model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score between 15 and 40 were studied. In particular the adult patients (aged 18-70 years) underwent to a first LT with a MELD score between 15 and 40 were included, while all patients with acute liver failure, congenital bleeding disorders, and anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet drug use were excluded. In this population of cirrhotic patients, preoperative haematological and coagulation laboratory tests were collected, and the pretransplant thromboelastographic parameters were studied and compared with the parameters measured in a previously studied population of 40 healthy subjects. The basal TEG parameters analysed in the cirrhotic population of liver candidates were as follows: Reaction time (r), coagulation time (k), Angle-Rate of polymerization of clot (α Angle), Maximum strenght of clot (MA), Amplitudes of the TEG tracing at 30 min and 60 min after MA is measured (A30 and A60), and Fibrinolysis at 30 and 60 min after MA (Ly30 and Ly60). The possible correlation between the distribution of the reference range and the gender, age, MELD score (higher or lower than 20) and indications for transplantation (liver pathology) were also investigated. In particular, a MELD cut-off value of 20 was chosen to verify the possible correlation between the thromboelastographic reference range and MELD score. RESULTS Most of the TEG reference values from patients with end-stage liver disease were significantly different from those measured in the healthy population and were outside the suggested normal ranges in up to 79.3% of subjects. Wide differences were found among all TEG variables, including r (41.5% of the values), k (48.6%), α (43.7%), MA (79.3%), A30 (74.4%) and A60 (80

  9. Forefoot Surgery in Elderly Compared With Younger Patient Populations: Complications and Type of Procedure.

    PubMed

    Vermersch, Thibault; Fessy, Michel Henri; Besse, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    In forefoot surgery, the presenting complaints and expected benefits differ between elderly and younger patients. The present study mapped forefoot procedures recommended to elderly patients compared with those recommended to the general population and assessed the complications according to age group and comorbidity. Consecutive patients were included in a single-center, continuous, retrospective case-control study. Three age groups were defined: <65 years, 65 to 74 years, and ≥ 75 years. All patients, regardless of age, underwent the same procedure; elderly-specific techniques such as the Keller procedure were not used. A total of 321 patients were included, with a mean age of 60.6 (range 16 to 86) years. A similar procedure was used in all 3 groups, but at differing frequencies, with arthrodesis and minor procedures increasing with increasing patient age. In all 3 groups, in the population as a whole, the incidence of delayed healing, deep infection, and nonunion was 9%, 1%, and 2%, respectively. These complications were independent of age group. In the <65-year-old group, just as in the study population as a whole, arthrodesis associated with resection arthroplasty resulted in greater rates of delayed healing and deep infection. The complications rates were equivalent among the 3 age groups. Major surgical procedures should be avoided in elderly patients, if possible. However, no particular procedure is contraindicated in the elderly, although the method of fixation must be robust owing to the frequency of osteoporosis. A first step would be to achieve consensus on the age threshold for "elderliness."

  10. Assessing Predictive Performance of Published Population Pharmacokinetic Models of Intravenous Tobramycin in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bloomfield, Celeste; Staatz, Christine E.; Unwin, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Several population pharmacokinetic models describe the dose-exposure relationship of tobramycin in pediatric patients. Before the implementation of these models in clinical practice for dosage adjustment, their predictive performance should be externally evaluated. This study tested the predictive performance of all published population pharmacokinetic models of tobramycin developed for pediatric patients with an independent patient cohort. A literature search was conducted to identify suitable models for testing. Demographic and pharmacokinetic data were collected retrospectively from the medical records of pediatric patients who had received intravenous tobramycin. Tobramycin exposure was predicted from each model. Predictive performance was assessed by visual comparison of predictions to observations, by calculation of bias and imprecision, and through the use of simulation-based diagnostics. Eight population pharmacokinetic models were identified. A total of 269 concentration-time points from 41 pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis were collected for external evaluation. Three models consistently performed best in all evaluations and had mean errors ranging from −0.4 to 1.8 mg/liter, relative mean errors ranging from 4.9 to 29.4%, and root mean square errors ranging from 47.8 to 66.9%. Simulation-based diagnostics supported these findings. Models that allowed a two-compartment disposition generally had better predictive performance than those that used a one-compartment disposition model. Several published models of the pharmacokinetics of tobramycin showed reasonable low levels of bias, although all models seemed to have some problems with imprecision. This suggests that knowledge of typical pharmacokinetic behavior and patient covariate values alone without feedback concentration measurements from individual patients is not sufficient to make precise predictions. PMID:27001806

  11. Population pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone in critically ill septic patients: a reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Garot, Denis; Respaud, Renaud; Lanotte, Philippe; Simon, Nicolas; Mercier, Emmanuelle; Ehrmann, Stephan; Perrotin, Dominique; Dequin, Pierre-François; Le Guellec, Chantal

    2011-01-01

    AIMS To investigate the population pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone in critically ill patients suffering from sepsis, severe sepsis or septic shock. METHODS Blood samples were collected at preselected times in 54 adult patients suffering from sepsis, severe sepsis or septic shock in order to determine ceftriaxone concentrations using high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection. The pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone were assessed on two separate occasions for each patient: on the second day of ceftriaxone therapy and 48 h after catecholamine withdrawal in patients with septic shock, or on the fifth day in patients with sepsis. The population pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone were studied using nonlinear mixed effects modelling. RESULTS The population estimates (interindividual variability; coefficient of variation) for ceftriaxone pharmacokinetics were: a clearance of 0.88 l h−1 (49%), a mean half-life of 9.6 h (range 0.83–28.6 h) and a total volume of distribution of 19.5 l (range 6.48–35.2 l). The total volume of distribution was higher than that generally found in healthy individuals and increased with the severity of sepsis. However, the only covariate influencing the ceftriaxone pharmacokinetics was creatinine clearance. Dosage simulations showed that the risk of ceftriaxone concentrations dropping below the minimum inhibitory concentration threshold was low. CONCLUSIONS Despite the wide interpatient variability of ceftriaxone pharmacokinetic parameters, our results revealed that increasing the ceftriaxone dosage when treating critically ill patients is unnecessary. The risk of ceftriaxone concentrations dropping below the minimum inhibitory concentration threshold is limited to patients with high glomerular filtration rates or infections with high minimum inhibitory concentration pathogens (>1 mg l−1). PMID:21545483

  12. Assessing Predictive Performance of Published Population Pharmacokinetic Models of Intravenous Tobramycin in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Celeste; Staatz, Christine E; Unwin, Sean; Hennig, Stefanie

    2016-06-01

    Several population pharmacokinetic models describe the dose-exposure relationship of tobramycin in pediatric patients. Before the implementation of these models in clinical practice for dosage adjustment, their predictive performance should be externally evaluated. This study tested the predictive performance of all published population pharmacokinetic models of tobramycin developed for pediatric patients with an independent patient cohort. A literature search was conducted to identify suitable models for testing. Demographic and pharmacokinetic data were collected retrospectively from the medical records of pediatric patients who had received intravenous tobramycin. Tobramycin exposure was predicted from each model. Predictive performance was assessed by visual comparison of predictions to observations, by calculation of bias and imprecision, and through the use of simulation-based diagnostics. Eight population pharmacokinetic models were identified. A total of 269 concentration-time points from 41 pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis were collected for external evaluation. Three models consistently performed best in all evaluations and had mean errors ranging from -0.4 to 1.8 mg/liter, relative mean errors ranging from 4.9 to 29.4%, and root mean square errors ranging from 47.8 to 66.9%. Simulation-based diagnostics supported these findings. Models that allowed a two-compartment disposition generally had better predictive performance than those that used a one-compartment disposition model. Several published models of the pharmacokinetics of tobramycin showed reasonable low levels of bias, although all models seemed to have some problems with imprecision. This suggests that knowledge of typical pharmacokinetic behavior and patient covariate values alone without feedback concentration measurements from individual patients is not sufficient to make precise predictions. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Comparison of various risk indicators among patients with chronic and aggressive periodontitis in davangere population

    PubMed Central

    Vandana, Kharidhi Laxman; Nadkarni, Rahul Dilip; Guddada, Kaveri

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to compare various risk indicators of chronic periodontitis (CP) and aggressive periodontitis (AP) among patients of Davangere population. Materials and Methods: Totally, 89 CP and 90 AP patients were selected from outpatient Department of Periodontics, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere. Various clinical parameters proven to be risk indicators were determined for each patient such as age, gender, occupation, oral hygiene habits, personal habits, income, level of education, place of residence, frequency of dental visits, various oral hygiene indices, gingival status, wasting diseases, malocclusion, laboratory investigations, and the results were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: This study demonstrated that AP is manifested early in life in susceptible individuals. Proven risk indicators for AP and CP in the present study population included young age, place of residence, income and education levels, frequency of dental visits. Patients with AP had better oral hygiene habits and oral hygiene index results than patients with CP. Paan chewing and smoking could be considered as risk factors, both in CP and AP cases. The similar association of plaque scores but higher bleeding tendency in AP patients supported the fact of higher susceptibility of AP patients to periodontal breakdown. Malocclusion being present in the majority of cases could also be put forth as a risk factor for AP and CP. Conclusion: This study identifies the different risk indicators for CP and AP and demonstrates the need for constructing nationwide oral health promotion programs to improve the level of oral health awareness and standards in Indian population. PMID:26392693

  14. Discordance of Somatic Mutations Between Asian and Caucasian Patient Populations with Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jia, Feifei; Teer, Jamie K; Knepper, Todd C; Lee, Jae K; Zhou, Hong-Hao; He, Yi-Jing; McLeod, Howard L

    2017-04-01

    Differences in response to cancer treatments have been observed among racially and ethnically diverse gastric cancer (GC) patient populations. In the era of targeted therapy, mutation profiling of cancer is a crucial aspect of making therapeutic decisions. Mapping driver gene mutations for the GC patient population as a whole has significant potential to advance precision therapy. GC patients with sequencing data (N = 473) were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA; n = 295), Moffitt Cancer Center Total Cancer Care™ (TCC; n = 33), and three published studies (n = 145). In addition, relevant somatic mutation frequency data were obtained from cBioPortal, the TCC database, and an in-house analysis tool, as well as relevant publications. We found that the somatic mutation rates of several driver genes vary significantly between GC patients of Asian and Caucasian descent, with substantial variation across different geographic regions. Non-parametric statistical tests were performed to examine the significant differences in protein-altering somatic mutations between Asian and Caucasian GC patient groups. The frequencies of somatic mutations of five genes were: APC (Asian: Caucasian 6.06 vs. 14.40%, p = 0.0076), ARIDIA (20.7 vs. 32.1%, p = 0.01), KMT2A (4.04 vs. 12.35%, p = 0.003), PIK3CA (9.6 vs. 18.52%, p = 0.01), and PTEN (2.52 vs. 9.05%, p = 0.008), showing significant differences between Asian and Caucasian GC patients. Our study found significant differences in protein-altering somatic mutation frequencies in diverse geographic populations. In particular, we found that the somatic patterns may offer better insight and important opportunities for both targeted drug development and precision therapeutic strategies between Asian and Caucasian GC patients.

  15. Seroepidemiological study of Toxoplasma gondii infection in a population of Iranian epileptic patients.

    PubMed

    Babaie, Jalal; Sayyah, Mohammad; Gharagozli, Kourosh; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Golkar, Majid

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurologic disorders. Underlying cause of epilepsy is unknown in 60 % of the patients. Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite which is capable of forming tissue cysts in brain of chronically infected hosts including humans. Some epidemiological studies suggested an association between toxoplasmosis and acquisition of epilepsy. In this study we determined seroprevalence of latent Toxoplasma infection in a population of Iranian epileptic patients. Participants were classified in three groups as Iranian epileptic patients (IEP, n = 414), non-epileptic patients who had other neurologic disorders (NEP, n = 150), and healthy people without any neurologic disorders (HP, n = 63). The presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies and IgG titer in the sera were determined by ELISA method. Anti-T. gondii IgG seroprevalence obtained 35.3 %, 34.7 % and 38.1 % in IEP, NEP and HP, respectively. The seroprevalence rate was not significantly different among the three groups (P = 0.88). Anti-T. gondii IgG titer was 55.7 ± 78, 52.4 ± 74 and 69.7 ± 92 IU/ml in IEP, NEP and HP, respectively. There was not any statistically significant difference in the antibody titer between the study groups (P = 0.32). The rate of T. gondii infection in epileptic patients was not higher than non-epileptic patients and healthy people in the Iranian population.

  16. Unveiling changes in the landscape of patient populations in cancer early drug development.

    PubMed

    Hierro, Cinta; Azaro, Analía; Argilés, Guillem; Elez, Elena; Gómez, Patricia; Carles, Joan; Rodon, Jordi

    2016-11-09

    The introduction of new Molecularly Targeted Agents (MTA) has changed the landscape in Early Drug Development (EDD) over the last two decades, leading to an improvement in clinical trial design. Previous Phase 1 (Ph1) studies with cytotoxics focused on safety objectives, only recruiting heavily pre-treated cancer patients, have been left behind. In this review, we will illustrate the slow although unstoppable change that has increasingly been observed in those populations candidate to participate in EDD trials with the advent of MTA. As more evidence regarding oncogene addiction becomes available, molecular-biomarker driven selection has been implemented among Molecularly-Selected Population (MSP) studies. New Window-Of-Opportunity (WOO) and Phase 0 (Ph0) studies have been developed in order to assess whether a MTA produces the hypothetical proposed biological effect. The rising need of getting early pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics data has led to the conduction of Healthy Volunteer (HV) studies, in part favoured for the particular and different toxicity profile of these MTA. However, several challenges will need to be addressed in order to boost the implementation of these new clinical trial designs in the forthcoming years. Among the problems to overcome, we would highlight a better coordination effort between centers for ensuring adequate patient accrual among small patient populations and a deepening into the ethics implied in enrolling patients in studies with no therapeutic intent. However, these tribulations will be certainly compensated by the possibility of opening a new horizon of treatment for diseases with dismal prognosis.

  17. Analysis of the elderly patient population in a tertiary-care university hospital.

    PubMed

    Juárez, A; Garde, J; Caballero, C; Iranzo, V; Gavilá, J; Safont, M; Blasco, A; Camps, C

    2009-05-01

    A progressively ageing population and the high association between advanced age and cancer has resulted in an increased interest in the field of geriatric oncology with the objective being a more effective diagnosis and treatment of these patients. We performed an epidemiological analysis on an intent-to-treat of elderly population within our healthcare unit. This is a retrospective study of all patients attended in our Medical Oncology Department during the year 2002. A total 667 patients were assessed, 42% older than 70 years of age. The most frequent tumour sites were lung, colorectal and breast. The most frequent histology was adenocarcinoma. The diagnosis in advanced stages was significantly higher in older age group (76% vs. 59%). The use of symptom-control follow-up and palliative-care, compared with radio- and chemo-therapy, was higher in older age group. However, we observed no statistically significant differences with respect to inclusion in clinical trials. In conclusion, the elderly represents an important percentage of patients receiving cancer care. The distributions by sites and histology types are similar in both groups of age. Although the election of palliative treatment is more frequent in elderly population, the most frequently used treatments in both groups, were radiotherapy and chemotherapy. We didn't observe any significant differences about the inclusion in clinical trials.

  18. Influence of erroneous patient records on population pharmacokinetic modeling and individual bayesian estimation.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Aize Franciscus; Touw, Daniël J; Marcus, Marco A E; Neef, Cornelis; Proost, Johannes H

    2012-10-01

    Observational data sets can be used for population pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling. However, these data sets are generally less precisely recorded than experimental data sets. This article aims to investigate the influence of erroneous records on population PK modeling and individual maximum a posteriori Bayesian (MAPB) estimation. A total of 1123 patient records of neonates who were administered vancomycin were used for population PK modeling by iterative 2-stage Bayesian (ITSB) analysis. Cut-off values for weighted residuals were tested for exclusion of records from the analysis. A simulation study was performed to assess the influence of erroneous records on population modeling and individual MAPB estimation. Also the cut-off values for weighted residuals were tested in the simulation study. Errors in registration have limited the influence on outcomes of population PK modeling but can have detrimental effects on individual MAPB estimation. A population PK model created from a data set with many registration errors has little influence on subsequent MAPB estimates for precisely recorded data. A weighted residual value of 2 for concentration measurements has good discriminative power for identification of erroneous records. ITSB analysis and its individual estimates are hardly affected by most registration errors. Large registration errors can be detected by weighted residuals of concentration.

  19. Predictors of Death among Patients Who Completed Tuberculosis Treatment: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Juan-Pablo; Orcau, Angels; Rius, Cristina; Casals, Marti; de Olalla, Patricia Garcia; Moreno, Antonio; Nelson, Jeanne L.; Caylà, Joan A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mortality among patients who complete tuberculosis (TB) treatment is still high among vulnerable populations. The objective of the study was to identify the probability of death and its predictive factors in a cohort of successfully treated TB patients. Methods A population-based retrospective longitudinal study was performed in Barcelona, Spain. All patients who successfully completed TB treatment with culture-confirmation and available drug susceptibility testing between 1995–1997 were retrospectively followed-up until December 31, 2005 by the Barcelona TB Control Program. Socio-demographic, clinical, microbiological and treatment variables were examined. Mortality, TB Program and AIDS registries were reviewed. Kaplan-Meier and a Cox regression methods with time-dependent covariates were used for the survival analysis, calculating the hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Among the 762 included patients, the median age was 36 years, 520 (68.2%) were male, 178 (23.4%) HIV-infected, and 208 (27.3%) were alcohol abusers. Of the 134 (17.6%) injecting drug users (IDU), 123 (91.8%) were HIV-infected. A total of 30 (3.9%) recurrences and 173 deaths (22.7%) occurred (mortality rate: 3.4/100 person-years of follow-up). The predictors of death were: age between 41–60 years old (HR: 3.5; CI:2.1–5.7), age greater than 60 years (HR: 14.6; CI:8.9–24), alcohol abuse (HR: 1.7; CI:1.2–2.4) and HIV-infected IDU (HR: 7.9; CI:4.7–13.3). Conclusions The mortality rate among TB patients who completed treatment is associated with vulnerable populations such as the elderly, alcohol abusers, and HIV-infected IDU. We therefore need to fight against poverty, and promote and develop interventions and social policies directed towards these populations to improve their survival. PMID:21980423

  20. Cognition in patients with burn injury in the inpatient rehabilitation population.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Maulik; Goldstein, Richard; Nadler, Deborah; Mathews, Katie; Slocum, Chloe; Gerrard, Paul; DiVita, Margaret A; Ryan, Colleen M; Zafonte, Ross; Kowalske, Karen; Schneider, Jeffrey C

    2014-07-01

    To analyze potential cognitive impairment in patients with burn injury in the inpatient rehabilitation population. Rehabilitation patients with burn injury were compared with the following impairment groups: spinal cord injury, amputation, polytrauma and multiple fractures, and hip replacement. Differences between the groups were calculated for each cognitive subscale item and total cognitive FIM. Patients with burn injury were compared with the other groups using a bivariate linear regression model. A multivariable linear regression model was used to determine whether differences in cognition existed after adjusting for covariates (eg, sociodemographic factors, facility factors, medical complications) based on previous studies. Inpatient rehabilitation facilities. Data from Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation from 2002 to 2011 for adults with burn injury (N=5347) were compared with other rehabilitation populations (N=668,816). Not applicable. Comparison of total cognitive FIM scores and subscales (memory, verbal comprehension, verbal expression, social interaction, problem solving) for patients with burn injury versus other rehabilitation populations. Adults with burn injuries had an average total cognitive FIM score ± SD of 26.8±7.0 compared with an average FIM score ± SD of 28.7±6.0 for the other groups combined (P<.001). The subscale with the greatest difference between those with burn injury and the other groups was memory (5.1±1.7 compared with 5.6±1.5, P<.001). These differences persisted after adjustment for covariates. Adults with burn injury have worse cognitive FIM scores than other rehabilitation populations. Future research is needed to determine the impact of this comorbidity on patient outcomes and potential interventions for these deficits. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Association between insurance status and patient safety in the lumbar spine fusion population.

    PubMed

    Tanenbaum, Joseph E; Alentado, Vincent J; Miller, Jacob A; Lubelski, Daniel; Benzel, Edward C; Mroz, Thomas E

    2017-03-01

    Lumbar fusion is a common and costly procedure in the United States. Reimbursement for surgical procedures is increasingly tied to care quality and patient safety as part of value-based reimbursement programs. The incidence of adverse quality events among lumbar fusion patients is unknown using the definition of care quality (patient safety indicators [PSI]) used by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). The association between insurance status and the incidence of PSI is similarly unknown in lumbar fusion patients. This study sought to determine the incidence of PSI in patients undergoing inpatient lumbar fusion and to quantify the association between primary payer status and PSI in this population. A retrospective cohort study was carried out. The sample comprised all adult patients aged 18 years and older who were included in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) that underwent lumbar fusion from 1998 to 2011. The incidence of one or more PSI, a validated and widely used metric of inpatient health-care quality and patient safety, was the primary outcome variable. The NIS data were examined for all cases of inpatient lumbar fusion from 1998 to 2011. The incidence of adverse patient safety events (PSI) was determined using publicly available lists of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis codes. Logistic regression models were used to determine the association between primary payer status (Medicaid and self-pay relative to private insurance) and the incidence of PSI. A total of 539,172 adult lumbar fusion procedures were recorded in the NIS from 1998 to 2011. Patients were excluded from the secondary analysis if "other" or "missing" was listed for primary insurance status. The national incidence of PSI was calculated to be 2,445 per 100,000 patient years of observation, or approximately 2.5%. In a secondary analysis, after adjusting for patient demographics and hospital characteristics, Medicaid

  2. Trauma patients who present in a delayed fashion: a unique and challenging population.

    PubMed

    Kao, Mary J; Nunez, Hector; Monaghan, Sean F; Heffernan, Daithi S; Adams, Charles A; Lueckel, Stephanie N; Stephen, Andrew H

    2017-02-01

    A proportion of trauma patients present for evaluation in a delayed fashion after injury, likely due to a variety of medical and nonmedical reasons. There has been little investigation into the characteristics and outcomes of trauma patients who present delayed. We hypothesize that trauma patients who present in a delayed fashion are a unique population at risk of increased trauma-related complications. This was a retrospective review from 2010-2015 at a Level I trauma center. Patients were termed delayed if they presented >24 hours after injury. Patients admitted within 24 hours of their injury were the comparison group. Charts were reviewed for demographics, mechanism, comorbidities, complications and outcomes. A subgroup analysis was done on patients who suffered falls. During the 5-y period, 11,705 patients were admitted. A total of 588 patients (5%) presented >24 h after their injury. Patients in the delayed group were older (65 versus 55 y, P < 0.001) and more likely to have psychiatric comorbidities (33% vs. 24%, P = 0.0001) than the control group. They were also more likely to suffer substance withdrawal (8.9% vs. 4.1%, P < 0.001) but had toxicology testing for drugs and alcohol done at significantly lower rates. Patients that presented delayed after falls were similar in age and injury severity score (ISS) but more likely to suffer substance withdrawal when compared to those with falls that presented within 24 hours. Patients with falls that presented delayed had toxicology testing at significantly lower rates than the comparison group. Trauma patients that present to the hospital in a delayed fashion have unique characteristics and are more likely to suffer negative outcomes including substance withdrawal. Future goals will include exploring strategies for early intervention, such as automatic withdrawal monitoring and social work referral for all patients who present in a delayed fashion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Patient-reported outcome measures in a population of medically indigent patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Rivera, Diana V; Rodríguez-Navedo, Yerania; Nieves-Plaza, Mariely; Vilá, Luis M

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine patient-reported outcomes measures in indigent patients with systemic lupus erythematosus receiving their healthcare through the Puerto Rico government managed care system and compare these measures with non-indigent patients treated in a private fee-for-service setting. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a cohort of 98 Puerto Ricans with systemic lupus erythematosus. Patients from the public group (n = 40) were treated in a university-based specialized systemic lupus erythematosus clinic and the private group (n = 58) in a community-based rheumatology practice. Demographic and clinical features and patient-reported outcomes measures per LupusPRO instrument were determined. LupusPRO captures quality-of-life measures in 12 domains. Differences among study groups were examined using chi-square, Fisher’s exact, t-tests, and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: The mean (standard deviation) age of the study population was 44.9 (12.0) years; 94 (95.9%) were women. Patients in the public setting were younger and were more likely to have renal disease and elevated anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies, and being treated with azathioprine and cyclophosphamide. Patients from the public sector were more likely to have better quality-of-life measures in the LupusPRO domains of pain/vitality and coping. No significant differences were observed for the domains of lupus symptoms, physical health, emotional health, body image, cognition, procreation, lupus medications, desires/goals, social support, and satisfaction with medical care. Conclusion: Despite having a lower socioeconomic status and worse clinical status, systemic lupus erythematosus patients from the public sector had equal or better patient-reported outcomes measures than those treated in the private setting. This favorable outcome may be associated with the comprehensive healthcare received by these patients in a specialized lupus clinic. PMID:27721978

  4. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Dry Eye Syndrome in a United States Veterans Affairs Population

    PubMed Central

    GALOR, ANAT; FEUER, WILLIAM; LEE, DAVID J.; FLOREZ, HERMES; CARTER, DAVID; POUYEH, BOZORGMEHR; PRUNTY, WILLIAM J.; PEREZ, VICTOR L.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the prevalence of dry eye syndrome (DES) and its associated risk factors in a US Veterans Affairs population receiving ocular care services. DESIGN Retrospective study. METHODS SETTINGS Patients were seen in the Miami and Broward Veterans Affairs eye clinics between 2005 and 2010. PATIENTS POPULATION Patients were divided into cases and controls with regard to their dry eye status (cases = ICD9 code for DES plus dry eye therapy; controls = patients without ICD9 code plus no therapy). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The prevalence of DES and its associated risk factors. RESULTS A total of 16 862 patients were identified as either a dry eye case (n = 2056) or control (n = 14 806). Overall, 12% of male and 22% of female patients had a diagnosis of DES, with female gender imparting a 2.40 increased risk (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.04–2.81) over male gender. Several medical conditions were found to increase DES risk including post-traumatic stress disorder (odds ratio [OR] 1.97, 95% CI 1.75–2.23), depression (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.73–2.10), thyroid disease (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.46–2.26), and sleep apnea (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.97–2.46) (all analyses adjusted for gender and age). The use of several systemic medications, including anti-depressant medications (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.79–2.17), anti-anxiety medication (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.58–1.91), and anti–benign prostatic hyperplasia medications (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.51–1.86), was likewise associated with an increased risk of DES. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of DES was found to be high in both men and women in our eye care population. This is the first study to demonstrate that in a veteran population, several diagnoses were significantly associated with DES, including post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. PMID:21684522

  5. Monitoring of patients on long-term glucocorticoid therapy: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fardet, Laurence; Petersen, Irene; Nazareth, Irwin

    2015-04-01

    About 1% of the general population receives long-term systemic glucocorticoids. The monitoring provided to these patients is unknown. We conducted a population-based cohort study using The Health Improvement Network database. A total of 100,944 adult patients prescribed systemic glucocorticoids for >3 months between January 2000 and December 2012 were studied. The monitoring done before prescribing glucocorticoid therapy and during exposure to the drug was examined. This included measurement of body weight, blood pressure, lipids, glucose and potassium levels, referrals for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA-scan) or to an ophthalmologist/optician, and vaccinations. We assessed factors associated with the odds of being monitored before and during exposure. Before glucocorticoid initiation, weight and blood pressure were monitored in < 20% and < 50% of patients, respectively. Glucose and lipid levels were monitored in less than one-third of the patients, while DEXA-scan and eye monitoring were offered to <15% of them. Vaccination against flu and pneumococcus was given to 57% and 46% of the patients, respectively. During exposure to the drug, <60% of patients who were prescribed the drug for more than a year had their weight, glucose, or lipid levels recorded at least once and <25% of patients were referred at least once for DEXA-scan or screening for eye diseases. Overall, the odds of being monitored were higher in older patients and in those with comorbidities. There were variations in the level of monitoring provided across the UK, but the monitoring has improved over the last 12 years. Although the extent of monitoring of people on long-term glucocorticoids has improved over time, the overall monitoring provided is not satisfactory, particularly in young patients and those without comorbidities.

  6. Management of patients with hepatitis C in a community population: diagnosis, discussions, and decisions to treat.

    PubMed

    Rocca, Liliana Gazzuola; Yawn, Barbara P; Wollan, Peter; Kim, W Ray

    2004-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C, a treatable condition caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV), can be found in almost all primary care and community practices. The rate of hepatitis C treatment is low, however. This study explores the frequency of hepatitis C treatment, documented discussions of treatment consideration, and the reasons treatment may not be offered in a community population. This study is a retrospective medical record review of care provided to all patients in Olmsted County, Minn, who had a confirmed diagnosis of hepatitis C. Using all records from all health care providers in Olmsted County, the rates of documented discussions regarding hepatitis C treatment and the treatment rates by specialty of diagnosing physician were assessed. In addition, comorbidities listed as reasons not to treat and or comorbid conditions in patients without a documented treatment discussion were assessed. Of the 366 patients with hepatitis C, 62% were men. Hepatitis C was more commonly diagnosed by generalist physicians (41% of cases). Treatment discussions were documented for 77% of patients with hepatitis C diagnosed by either a generalist or a gastrointestinal specialist (gastroenterologist or hepatologist) compared with 46% of patients with hepatitis C diagnosed by other physicians. Generalists' patients were more likely to have documented contraindications to treatment and were only one half as likely to receive hepatitis C treatment compared with patients with hepatitis C diagnosed by gastrointestinal specialists (16% vs 33%). Documented attempts to treat or reassess after resolution of potentially reversible contraindications to hepatitis C therapy were infrequent. In this community population, hepatitis C treatment was discussed with the majority of patients with a diagnosis of hepatitis C; however, the actual treatment rate was low. Many opportunities exist for treating more patients for HCV infection, particularly those found during emergency care and chemical dependency

  7. Management of Patients With Hepatitis C in a Community Population: Diagnosis, Discussions, and Decisions to Treat

    PubMed Central

    Rocca, Liliana Gazzuola; Yawn, Barbara P.; Wollan, Peter; Kim, W. Ray

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND Chronic hepatitis C, a treatable condition caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV), can be found in almost all primary care and community practices. The rate of hepatitis C treatment is low, however. This study explores the frequency of hepatitis C treatment, documented discussions of treatment consideration, and the reasons treatment may not be offered in a community population. METHODS This study is a retrospective medical record review of care provided to all patients in Olmsted County, Minn, who had a confirmed diagnosis of hepatitis C. Using all records from all health care providers in Olmsted County, the rates of documented discussions regarding hepatitis C treatment and the treatment rates by specialty of diagnosing physician were assessed. In addition, comorbidities listed as reasons not to treat and or comorbid conditions in patients without a documented treatment discussion were assessed. RESULTS Of the 366 patients with hepatitis C, 62% were men. Hepatitis C was more commonly diagnosed by generalist physicians (41% of cases). Treatment discussions were documented for 77% of patients with hepatitis C diagnosed by either a generalist or a gastrointestinal specialist (gastroenterologist or hepatologist) compared with 46% of patients with hepatitis C diagnosed by other physicians. Generalists’ patients were more likely to have documented contraindications to treatment and were only one half as likely to receive hepatitis C treatment compared with patients with hepatitis C diagnosed by gastrointestinal specialists (16% vs 33%). Documented attempts to treat or reassess after resolution of potentially reversible contraindications to hepatitis C therapy were infrequent. CONCLUSIONS In this community population, hepatitis C treatment was discussed with the majority of patients with a diagnosis of hepatitis C; however, the actual treatment rate was low. Many opportunities exist for treating more patients for HCV infection, particularly those found

  8. Doctors' recognition and management of melanoma patients' risk: An Australian population-based study.

    PubMed

    Madronio, C M; Armstrong, B K; Watts, C G; Goumas, C; Morton, R L; Curtin, A; Menzies, S W; Mann, G J; Thompson, J F; Cust, A E

    2016-12-01

    Guidelines recommend that health professionals identify and manage individuals at high risk of developing melanoma, but there is limited population-based evidence demonstrating real-world practices. A population-based, observational study was conducted in the state of New South Wales, Australia to determine doctors' knowledge of melanoma patients' risk and to identify factors associated with better identification and clinical management. Data were analysed for 1889 patients with invasive, localised melanoma in the Melanoma Patterns of Care study. This study collected data on all melanoma diagnoses notified to the state's cancer registry during a 12-month period from 2006 to 2007, as well as questionnaire data from the doctors involved in their care. Three-quarters (74%) of patients had doctors who were aware of their risk factor status with respect to personal and family history of melanoma and the presence of many moles. Doctors working in general practice, skin cancer clinics and dermatology settings had better knowledge of patients' risk factors than plastic surgeons. Doctors were 15% more likely to know the family history of younger melanoma patients (<40years) than of those ≥80 years (95% confidence interval 4-26%). Early detection-related follow-up advice was more likely to be given to younger patients, by doctors aware of their patients' risk status, by doctors practising in plastic surgery, dermatology and skin cancer clinic settings, and by female doctors. Both patient-related and doctor-related factors were associated with doctors' recognition and management of melanoma patients' risk and could be the focus of strategies for improving care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Aspects epidemiologiques, cliniques et therapeutiques des otites externes: à propos de 801 cas

    PubMed Central

    Bathokedeou, Amana; Essobozou, Pegbessou; Akouda, Patassi; Essohanam, Boko; Eyawelohn, Kpémissi

    2014-01-01

    L'objectif de ce travail etait de déterminer l’épidémiologie, la clinique et la thérapeutique des otites externes (OE). Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective d'une année menée du 1er janvier au 31 décembre 2006 dans le service ORL du CHU-Tokoin. Huit cent un cas d'otite externe (OE) soit 11,9% des consultations étaient recensés. Le sexe féminin représentait 476 cas (59,42%). Le sex ratio était de 0,68. L’âge moyen des patients était de 25,4 ans avec des extrêmes de 05 mois et 81 ans. La tranche d’âge de 0-15 ans était la plus fréquente avec 360 cas (45%). L'allergie dans 74 cas (60,66%), la lésion de grattage dans 24 cas (19,67%), les corps étrangers du conduit auditif externe dans 18 cas (14,75%) et la natation dans 6 cas (4,92%) étaient les facteurs favorisants. L'otalgie dans 638 cas (79,65%) était le symptôme le plus fréquent. Les différentes formes cliniques des otites externes se répartissaient comme suit: otite externe diffuse dans 612 cas (76,40%), furoncle du CAE 126 dans cas (15,73%), otomycose dans 58 cas (7,24%), zona du conduit auditif externe dans 3 cas (0,37%) et otite externe nécrosante dans 2 cas (0,25%). Les gouttes auriculaires étaient administrées à tous les patients. L’évolution avait noté 799 patients (99,75%) guéris sans complication, un cas de décès et un cas de guérison avec séquelle. Traitée correctement, l'otite externe guérit sans complication. Son éviction passe par une sensibilisation des populations sur l'entretien du conduit auditif externe. PMID:25379111

  10. Oral health related quality of life is important for patients, but what about populations?

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Gary D.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To review population-based research into oral health related quality of life. Methods Narrative review of selected publications. Results In the 1970s, there were two incentives to assess non-clinical aspects of health: 1) a desire to understand impacts of disease on individuals’ quality of life; 2) a search for population-level measures that might better quantify the impact of health care systems on populations. Dental researchers responded to those incentives, creating dozens of questionnaires that assess individuals’ ratings of subjective oral health and quality of life. This has been a boon for clinical dental research, for example, by showing marked improvements in subjective oral health in patients receiving implant-supported dentures. Also, health surveys show poorer subjective oral health among disadvantaged population groups. However, the same measures show only modest benefits of general dental care. Furthermore, several population surveys show that today’s young adults, who grew up with widespread exposure to preventive dental programs, have poorer subjective oral health than earlier generations that experienced unprecedented levels of oral disease. Yet to materialize is the hope that “socio-dental indicators” of subjective oral health might provide a meaningful metric to demonstrate population-level benefits of dental care. A fundamental limitation is that population health is a contextual measure, not merely the aggregated health status of individuals within the population. Conclusion While researchers have successfully broken with clinical dogma by assessing subjective dimensions of individuals’ oral health, they have failed to explicitly ask people to assess the oral health of the community in which they live. PMID:22998303

  11. Determination des Parametres Atmospheriques des Etoiles Naines Blanches de Type DB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauchamp, Alain

    1995-01-01

    Les etoiles naines blanches dont les spectres visibles sont domines par des raies fortes d'helium neutre sont subdivisees en trois classes, DB (raies d'helium neutre seulement), DBA (raies d'helium neutre et d'hydrogene) et DBZ (raies d'helium neutre et d'elements lourds). Nous analysons trois echantillons de spectres observes de ces types de naines blanches. Les echantillons consistent, respectivement, de 48 spectres dans le domaine du visible (3700-5100 A). 24 dans l'ultraviolet (1200-3100 A) et quatre dans la partie rouge du visible (5100-6900) A). Parmi les objets de l'echantillon visible, nous identifions quatre nouvelles DBA, ainsi que deux nouvelles DBZ, auparavant classees DB. L'analyse nous permet de determiner spectroscopiquement les parametres atmospheriques, soit la temperature effective, la gravite de surface, ainsi que l'abondance relative de l'hydrogene, N(H)/N(He), dans le cas des DBA. Pour les objets plus chauds que ~15,000 K, la gravite de surface determinee est fiable, et nous obtenons les masses stellaires avec une relation masse -rayon theorique. Les exigences propres a l'analyse de ces objets ont requis d'importantes ameliorations dans la modelisation de leurs atmospheres et distributions de flux de radiation emis par ces derniers. Nous avons inclus dans les modeles d'atmospheres, pour la premiere fois a notre connaissance, les effets dus a la molecule He_sp{2 }{+}, ainsi que l'equation d'etat de Hummer et Mihalas (1988), qui tient compte des perturbations entre particules dans le calcul des populations des differents niveaux atomiques. Nous traitons la convection dans le cadre de la theorie de la longueur de melange. Trois grilles de modeles d'atmospheres a l'ETL (equilibre thermodynamique local) ont ete produites, pour un ensemble de temperatures effectives, gravites de surface et abondances d'hydrogene couvrant les proprietes des etoiles de nos echantillons; elles sont caracterisees par differentes parametrisations appelees, respectivement

  12. Nonparametric approach to population pharmacokinetics in oncology patients receiving aminoglycoside therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Inciardi, J F; Batra, K K

    1993-01-01

    A nonparametric expectation maximization approach to the study of population pharmacokinetics is described for an aminoglycoside antibiotic. The method is used to explore population estimates for gentamicin clearance (liters per hour per creatinine clearance) and volume of distribution (liters per kilogram) in tumor patients. Joint and marginal probability distributions are plotted and further characterized by using standard descriptors such as mean, median, mode, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis. Results of additional analyses using hematologic or solid tumor subpopulations agree with those of a recent larger study which found no significant pharmacokinetic differences between these groups. Nonparametric maximum-expectation analyses are convenient and allow exploratory analysis of population estimates directly from routine laboratory information. PMID:8517689

  13. Population pharmacokinetics of erlotinib in Japanese patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Emoto-Yamamoto, Y; Iida, S; Kawanishi, T; Fukuoka, M

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the pharmacokinetics of erlotinib in Japanese patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to investigate the relationship between erlotinib exposure and the occurrence of interstitial lung disease (ILD)-like events. Population pharmacokinetics analysis was performed using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling software (NONMEM) based on 348 plasma samples from 97 patients obtained in two phase II clinical studies. Individual empirical Bayesian estimates (EBEs) of apparent oral clearance (CL/F) and Cmax were compared between the patients who developed and did not develop ILD-like events. A 1-compartment model with first-order absorption and first-order elimination was used to describe the plasma concentrations of erlotinib. The estimated population pharmacokinetics parameters were as follows: 4·71 L/h for CL/F, 163 L for apparent volume of distribution (Vc /F) and 1·97 h(-1) for absorption rate constant (Ka ). Total bilirubin (TBIL) and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) were identified as statistically significant covariates for CL/F. No differences in CL/F and Cmax were observed between the patients with ILD-like events and those without ILD-like events. A population pharmacokinetics model of erlotinib was developed and validated in Japanese patients. There was no relationship between exposure of erlotinib before the occurrence of ILD-like events and the occurrence of ILD-like events when erlotinib was administered at the same dosage. The high plasma concentration of erlotinib reported in patients after the onset of ILD-like events may be explained by CL/F decrease which occurs along with increasing levels of AGP which was identified as a covariate for CL/F. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Survival of patients with a new diagnosis of heart failure: a population based study

    PubMed Central

    Cowie, M; Wood, D; Coats, A; Thompson, S; Suresh, V; Poole-Wilson, P; Sutton, G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To describe the survival of a population based cohort of patients with incident (new) heart failure and the clinical features associated with mortality.
DESIGN—A population based observational study.
SETTING—Population of 151 000 served by 82 general practitioners in west London.
PATIENTS—New cases of heart failure were identified by daily surveillance of acute hospital admissions to the local district general hospital, and by general practitioner referral of all suspected new cases of heart failure to a rapid access clinic.
INTERVENTIONS—All patients with suspected heart failure underwent clinical assessment, and chest radiography, ECG, and echocardiogram were performed. A panel of three cardiologists reviewed all the data and determined whether the definition of heart failure had been met. Patients were subsequently managed by the general practitioner in consultation with the local cardiologist or admitting physician.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Death, overall and from cardiovascular causes.
RESULTS—There were 90 deaths (83 cardiovascular deaths) in the cohort of 220 patients with incident heart failure over a median follow up of 16 months. Survival was 81% at one month, 75% at three months, 70% at six months, 62% at 12 months, and 57% at 18 months. Lower systolic blood pressure, higher serum creatinine concentration, and greater extent of crackles on auscultation of the lungs were independently predictive of cardiovascular mortality (all p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS—In patients with new heart failure, mortality is high in the first few weeks after diagnosis. Simple clinical features can identify a group of patients at especially high risk of death.


Keywords: heart failure; prognosis; survival; epidemiology PMID:10768897

  15. Analysis of immune cell populations in atrial myocardium of patients with atrial fibrillation or sinus rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Smorodinova, Natalia; Bláha, Martin; Melenovský, Vojtěch; Rozsívalová, Karolína; Přidal, Jaromír; Ďurišová, Mária; Pirk, Jan; Kautzner, Josef; Kučera, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia and despite obvious clinical importance remains its pathogenesis only partially explained. A relation between inflammation and AF has been suggested by findings of increased inflammatory markers in AF patients. Objective The goal of this study was to characterize morphologically and functionally CD45-positive inflammatory cell populations in atrial myocardium of patients with AF as compared to sinus rhythm (SR). Methods We examined 46 subjects (19 with AF, and 27 in SR) undergoing coronary bypass or valve surgery. Peroperative bioptic samples of the left and the right atrial tissue were examined using immunohistochemistry. Results The number of CD3+ T-lymphocytes and CD68-KP1+ cells were elevated in the left atrial myocardium of patients with AF compared to those in SR. Immune cell infiltration of LA was related to the rhythm, but not to age, body size, LA size, mitral regurgitation grade, type of surgery, systemic markers of inflammation or presence of diabetes or hypertension. Most of CD68-KP1+ cells corresponded to dendritic cell population based on their morphology and immunoreactivity for DC-SIGN. The numbers of mast cells and CD20+ B-lymphocytes did not differ between AF and SR patients. No foci of inflammation were detected in any sample. Conclusions An immunohistochemical analysis of samples from patients undergoing open heart surgery showed moderate and site-specific increase of inflammatory cells in the atrial myocardium of patients with AF compared to those in SR, with prevailing population of monocyte-macrophage lineage. These cells and their cytokine products may play a role in atrial remodeling and AF persistence. PMID:28225836

  16. Epidemiological survey of haemophiliacs with inhibitors in France: orthopaedic status, quality of life and cost--the 'Statut Orthopédique des Patients Hémophiles' avec Inhibiteur study.

    PubMed

    Stieltjes, Natalie; Torchet, Marie F; Misrahi, Laure; Roussel-Robert, Valérie; Lambert, Thierry; Guérois, Claude; Bertrand, Marie A; Briquel, Marie E; Borel-Derlon, Annie; Dirat, Gérard

    2009-01-01

    The physical condition of severe haemophilia and the impact of advances in replacement therapy have been much studied, but little work has been done on patients who developed inhibitors. The 'Statut Orthopédique des Patients Hémophiles avec Inhibiteur' study was conducted in France in order to assess the orthopaedic status and quality of life of such patients, and the cost of their medical management. Fifty haemophiliacs aged 12-63 years with a history of high-responder inhibitors were included. Clinical assessment showed that only 12% of the patients had a nil pain score and 2% a nil clinical score, as per Gilbert scale. The mean clinical score was significantly higher in patients over 35 years of age than in younger ones. However, younger patients appeared to have a more impaired orthopaedic status than young haemophiliacs without inhibitors of similar age in previous published cohorts. Surprisingly, older haemophiliacs tended to have the best mental quality of life, contrasting with their highly impaired orthopaedic condition and physical quality of life. The mean cost of clinical resources consumed during the year preceding enrolment was Euro 268 999, 99% of which was related to clotting factor. Marked between-patient differences in cost were noted. Our study suggests that the management of haemophiliacs with inhibitors should be improved in order to prevent haemophilic arthropathy to an extent similar to that of patients without inhibitors. Cost-benefit assessment of any therapeutic strategy should always be combined with quality-of-life evaluation.

  17. Missed strokes using computed tomography imaging in patients with vertigo: population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Keerat; Austin, Peter C; Kapral, Moira K; Lu, Hong; Atzema, Clare L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the proportion of emergency department (ED) patients with a diagnosis of peripheral vertigo who received computed tomography (CT) head imaging in the ED and to examine whether strokes were missed using CT imaging. This population-based retrospective cohort study assessed patients who were discharged from an ED in Ontario, Canada, with a diagnosis of peripheral vertigo, April 2006 to March 2011. Patients who received CT imaging (exposed) were matched by propensity score methods to patients who did not (unexposed). If performed, CT imaging was presumed to be negative for stroke because brain stem/cerebellar stroke would result in hospitalization. We compared the incidence of stroke within 30, 90, and 365 days subsequent to ED discharge between groups, to determine whether the exposed group had a higher frequency of early strokes than the matched unexposed group. Among 41 794 qualifying patients, 8596 (20.6%) received ED head CT imaging, and 99.8% of these patients were able to be matched to a control. Among exposed patients, 25 (0.29%) were hospitalized for stroke within 30 days when compared with 11 (0.13%) among matched nonexposed patients. The relative risk of a 30- and 90-day stroke among exposed versus unexposed patients was 2.27 (95% confidence interval, 1.12-4.62) and 1.94 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-3.43), respectively. There was no difference between groups at 1 year. Strokes occurred at a median of 32.0 days (interquartile range, 4.0-33.0 days) in exposed patients, compared with 105 days (interquartile range, 11.5-204.5) in unexposed patients. One fifth of patients diagnosed with peripheral vertigo in Ontario received imaging that is not recommended in guidelines, and that imaging was associated with missed strokes. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Higher prevalence of dementia in patients with schizophrenia: A nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ku, Hyemin; Lee, Eui-Kyung; Lee, Kyoung-Uk; Lee, Min-Young; Kwon, Jin-Won

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of dementia in patients with and without schizophrenia, with a particular focus on age-specific and sex-specific differences. We conducted a population-based study using the National Health Insurance claims database from 2010 to 2013. Using a 10:1 matching ratio, 248,919 patients without schizophrenia and 26,591 patients with schizophrenia were identified based on the ICD-10 code. Patients with dementia were extracted by diagnosis or use of anti-dementia drugs. Conditional logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association between schizophrenia and dementia. The prevalence of dementia was significantly higher in schizophrenia patients compared with that in matched non-schizophrenia patients (9.9% versus 2.2%, P < 0.0001). After adjusting for Charlson comorbidity index and underlying comorbidities, conditional logistic regression showed that schizophrenia was associated with dementia (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 4.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.4-5.1). When stratified by sex, the AOR was 5.6 (95% CI, 5.0-6.2) among women and 4.0 (95% CI, 3.6-4.5) among men. Moreover, the association between dementia and schizophrenia was strong in elderly patients. The AOR of dementia prevalence was 6.6 (95% CI, 6.1-7.2) in patients aged ≥65 years and 3.4 (95% CI, 3.0-3.8) in patients aged <65 years. Schizophrenia patients were more likely to have dementia compared with non-schizophrenia patients. This association seems greater in higher prevalence groups such as women and patients aged ≥65 years. Further investigation on the mechanism is required. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Combined Population Dynamics and Entropy Modelling Supports Patient Stratification in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brehme, Marc; Koschmieder, Steffen; Montazeri, Maryam; Copland, Mhairi; Oehler, Vivian G.; Radich, Jerald P.; Brümmendorf, Tim H.; Schuppert, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Modelling the parameters of multistep carcinogenesis is key for a better understanding of cancer progression, biomarker identification and the design of individualized therapies. Using chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) as a paradigm for hierarchical disease evolution we show that combined population dynamic modelling and CML patient biopsy genomic analysis enables patient stratification at unprecedented resolution. Linking CD34+ similarity as a disease progression marker to patient-derived gene expression entropy separated established CML progression stages and uncovered additional heterogeneity within disease stages. Importantly, our patient data informed model enables quantitative approximation of individual patients’ disease history within chronic phase (CP) and significantly separates “early” from “late” CP. Our findings provide a novel rationale for personalized and genome-informed disease progression risk assessment that is independent and complementary to conventional measures of CML disease burden and prognosis.

  20. Designing an illustrated patient satisfaction instrument for low-literacy populations.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Janet; Aguirre, Abigail; Ravenell, Karima; Kovath, Kim; McDevit, Lindsay; Murphy, John; Asch, David A; Shea, Judy A

    2004-11-01

    Up to 25% of adults in the United States have difficulty with everyday reading tasks. As patients, adults with low literacy may not be able to complete many self-administered written questionnaires, which often are used to obtain information from patients and to gauge their satisfaction with care. We developed an illustrated version of a patient satisfaction instrument used by the Veterans Health Administration. This paper describes the extensive design process used to develop, pilot-test, and revise this 63-item illustrated instrument. A total of 438 patients were interviewed over a 1-year period to obtain feedback on illustrations, with at least 15 people viewing and commenting on each picture and revision. All pictures were revised, with the majority revised at least 4 times. We report on this iterative design process as well as on lessons we learned in illustrating questions for low-literacy populations.

  1. Development of a scale to assess cancer stigma in the non-patient population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Illness-related stigma has attracted considerable research interest, but few studies have specifically examined stigmatisation of cancer in the non-patient population. The present study developed and validated a Cancer Stigma Scale (CASS) for use in the general population. Methods An item pool was developed on the basis of previous research into illness-related stigma in the general population and patients with cancer. Two studies were carried out. The first study used Exploratory factor analysis to explore the structure of items in a sample of 462 postgraduate students recruited through a London university. The second study used Confirmatory factor analysis to confirm the structure among 238 adults recruited through an online market research panel. Internal reliability, test-retest reliability and construct validity were also assessed. Results Exploratory factor analysis suggested six subscales, representing: Awkwardness, Severity, Avoidance, Policy Opposition, Personal Responsibility and Financial Discrimination. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed this structure with a 25-item scale. All subscales showed adequate to good internal and test-retest reliability in both samples. Construct validity was also good, with mean scores for each subscale varying in the expected directions by age, gender, experience of cancer, awareness of lifestyle risk factors for cancer, and social desirability. Means for the subscales were consistent across the two samples. Conclusions These findings highlight the complexity of cancer stigma and provide the Cancer Stigma Scale (CASS) which can be used to compare populations, types of cancer and evaluate the effects of interventions designed to reduce cancer stigma in non-patient populations. PMID:24758482

  2. Population pharmacokinetics of nevirapine in Malaysian HIV patients: a non-parametric approach.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Suzana; Yusuf, Wan Nazirah Wan; Woillard, Jean Baptiste; Choon, Tan Soo; Hassan, Norul Badriah

    2016-07-01

    Nevirapine is the first non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor approved and is widely used in combination therapy to treat HIV-1 infection. The pharmacokinetics of nevirapine was extensively studied in various populations with a parametric approach. Hence, this study was aimed to determine population pharmacokinetic parameters in Malaysian HIV-infected patients with a non-parametric approach which allows detection of outliers or non-normal distribution contrary to the parametric approach. Nevirapine population pharmacokinetics was modelled with Pmetrics. A total of 708 observations from 112 patients were included in the model building and validation analysis. Evaluation of the model was based on a visual inspection of observed versus predicted (population and individual) concentrations and plots weighted residual error versus concentrations. Accuracy and robustness of the model were evaluated by visual predictive check (VPC). The median parameters' estimates obtained from the final model were used to predict individual nevirapine plasma area-under-curve (AUC) in the validation dataset. The Bland-Altman plot was used to compare the AUC predicted with trapezoidal AUC. The median nevirapine clearance was of 2.92 L/h, the median rate of absorption was 2.55/h and the volume of distribution was 78.23 L. Nevirapine pharmacokinetics were best described by one-compartmental with first-order absorption model and a lag-time. Weighted residuals for the model selected were homogenously distributed over the concentration and time range. The developed model adequately estimated AUC. In conclusion, a model to describe the pharmacokinetics of nevirapine was developed. The developed model adequately describes nevirapine population pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected patients in Malaysia.

  3. eSalud: Designing and Implementing Culturally Competent eHealth Research With Latino Patient Populations

    PubMed Central

    Banas, Jennifer; Smith, Jeremiah; Languido, Lauren; Shen, Elaine; Gutierrez, Sandra; Cordero, Evelyn; Flores, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    eHealth is characterized by technology-enabled processes, systems, and applications that expedite accurate, real-time health information, feedback, and skill development to advance patient-centered care. When designed and applied in a culturally competent manner, eHealth tools can be particularly beneficial for traditionally marginalized ethnic minority groups, such as Latinos, a group that has been identified as being at the forefront of emerging technology use in the United States. In this analytic overview, we describe current eHealth research that has been conducted with Latino patient populations. In addition, we highlight cultural and linguistic factors that should be considered during the design and implementation of eHealth interventions with this population. With increasing disparities in preventive care information, behaviors, and services, as well as health care access in general, culturally competent eHealth tools hold great promise to help narrow this gap and empower communities. PMID:25320901

  4. [Are Depressed People Aggressive People? Differences Between General Population and Depressive Patients].

    PubMed

    Otte, Stefanie; Lang, Fabian U; Vasic, Nenad; Shenar, Riad; Rasche, Katharina; Ramb, Charlotte; Dudeck, Manuela; Streb, Judith

    2017-01-01

    IntroductionThe study aimed to investigate the relationship between depression and aggression. Material and Methods681 depressive and non-depressive subjects of the general population as well as 132 depressive patients completed the Beck Depression Inventory Revised (BDI-II) as well as the Short Questionnaire for Gathering Factors of Aggressiveness (K-FAF). ResultsDepressive patients and depressive subjects of the general population did not merely report the highest levels of self-aggressiveness but also reached the highest scores on the scales of reactive and proactive aggression, indicating a high level of externalizing aggressiveness. DiscussionThe results support the neurobiological approach of the etiology of depressive disorders. Conclusions For future research of depressive disorders and aggression the investigation of the mediating roles of a low serotonin-level is recommended.

  5. Disease impact and patient insight--a study on a local population of asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, N S; Chan, M Y; Hiew, F L; Sharif, S A; Vijayasingham, P; Thayaparan, T; Loh, L C

    2003-10-01

    The cornerstone of asthma management is achieving adequate symptom control and patient education. We studied in our local population of asthmatic patients how well their symptoms were controlled with currently prescribed treatment and their insight into the disease and its management. Over a 6-month period, 93 asthmatics recruited from two local government health clinics and a state hospital were interviewed using a standard questionnaire. Patients were classified into 4 groups based on the treatment they were on according to Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) treatment guidelines. The number of patients in Step 1 (rescue medication alone), Step 2 (1 controller medication), Step 3 (2 controller medications) and Step 4 (at least 3 controller medications) were 8, 39, 34 and 12, respectively. Except for day symptoms in Step 1 group, fewer than 50% achieved minimum day or night symptoms and no restriction of daily activities. Questions on patient insight were only available for 50 patients. Weather change (74%), air pollution (66%) and physical stress (46%) were the three highest ranked common asthma triggers. More than half correctly recognized the important symptoms of a serious asthma attack but fewer than 15% were familiar with the peak flow meter and its use or with the asthma self-management plan. Most patients perceived that their treatment had helped reduce disease severity and exacerbations. We conclude that symptom control and some aspect of patient education are still lacking in our local asthmatics.

  6. Osteoporosis in adult patients with atopic dermatitis: A nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ching-Ying; Lu, Ying-Yi; Lu, Chun-Ching; Su, Yu-Feng; Tsai, Tai-Hsin; Wu, Chieh-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate osteoporosis risk in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients. This study included patients in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research dataset. The population-based study included all patients aged 20-49 years who had been diagnosed with AD during 1996-2010. In total, 35,229 age and gender-matched patients without AD in a 1:1 ratio were randomly selected as the non-AD group. Cox proportional-hazards regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to measure the hazard ratios and the cumulative incidences of osteoporosis, respectively. During the follow-up period, 360(1.02%) AD patients and 127(0.36%) non-AD patients developed osteoporosis. The overall incidence of osteoporosis was4.72-fold greater in the AD patients compared to the non-AD patients (1.82 vs. 0.24 per 1,000 person-years, respectively) after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Osteoporosis risk factors included female gender, age, advanced Charlson Comorbidity Index, depression and use of corticosteroids. The dataset analysis showed that AD was significantly associated with subsequent risk of osteoporosis.

  7. Osteoporosis in adult patients with atopic dermatitis: A nationwide population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chun-Ching; Su, Yu-Feng; Tsai, Tai-Hsin; Wu, Chieh-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate osteoporosis risk in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients. This study included patients in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research dataset. The population-based study included all patients aged 20–49 years who had been diagnosed with AD during 1996–2010. In total, 35,229 age and gender-matched patients without AD in a 1:1 ratio were randomly selected as the non-AD group. Cox proportional-hazards regression and Kaplan–Meier analyses were used to measure the hazard ratios and the cumulative incidences of osteoporosis, respectively. During the follow-up period, 360(1.02%) AD patients and 127(0.36%) non-AD patients developed osteoporosis. The overall incidence of osteoporosis was4.72-fold greater in the AD patients compared to the non-AD patients (1.82 vs. 0.24 per 1,000 person-years, respectively) after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Osteoporosis risk factors included female gender, age, advanced Charlson Comorbidity Index, depression and use of corticosteroids. The dataset analysis showed that AD was significantly associated with subsequent risk of osteoporosis. PMID:28207767

  8. Use and need for psychosocial support in cancer patients: a population-based sample of patients with minor children.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Johanna Christine; Beierlein, Volker; Romer, Georg; Möller, Birgit; Koch, Uwe; Bergelt, Corinna

    2013-06-15

    Cancer patients and their minor children have been shown to experience psychological distress. The objectives of the current study were to 1) describe the need for and use of psychosocial support and 2) determine predictors of family-centered support use in patients with minor children. A population-based sample of 1809 patients was recruited via 2 cancer registries. The eligibility criteria were age 25 years to 55 years, an initial diagnosis received no longer than 6 years before this survey, and having at least 1 minor child. Medical characteristics and self-report measures were used. Overall, approximately 38% cases were identified as being borderline or probable anxiety cases and 16% were identified as being borderline or probable depression cases. Since diagnosis, 44% of the patients had used psychosocial support and 9% had received family-focused and child-focused support. These patients perceived a lower quality of life and poorer family functioning. Approximately 73% of patients with children wanted information concerning or psychosocial services to support their children or parenting. Use of family-centered support was not found to be predicted by disease-related factors (eg, cancer staging) but rather by subjective needs (eg, mental health and having a distressed child in the family). The results of the current study emphasize the importance of child and parenting concerns in psychosocial care in oncology. Screenings for children and appropriate training programs for health care may increase awareness of this issue. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  9. Management and prevention of acute and chronic lateral ankle instability in athletic patient populations

    PubMed Central

    McCriskin, Brendan J; Cameron, Kenneth L; Orr, Justin D; Waterman, Brian R

    2015-01-01

    Acute and chronic lateral ankle instability are common in high-demand patient populations. If not managed appropriately, patients may experience recurrent instability, chronic pain, osteochondral lesions of the talus, premature osteoarthritis, and other significant long-term disability. Certain populations, including young athletes, military personnel and those involved in frequent running, jumping, and cutting motions, are at increased risk. Proposed risk factors include prior ankle sprain, elevated body weight or body mass index, female gender, neuromuscular deficits, postural imbalance, foot/ankle malalignment, and exposure to at-risk athletic activity. Prompt, accurate diagnosis is crucial, and evidence-based, functional rehabilitation regimens have a proven track record in returning active patients to work and sport. When patients fail to improve with physical therapy and external bracing, multiple surgical techniques have been described with reliable results, including both anatomic and non-anatomic reconstructive methods. Anatomic repair of the lateral ligamentous complex remains the gold standard for recurrent ankle instability, and it effectively restores native ankle anatomy and joint kinematics while preserving physiologic ankle and subtalar motion. Further preventative measures may minimize the risk of ankle instability in athletic cohorts, including prophylactic bracing and combined neuromuscular and proprioceptive training programs. These interventions have demonstrated benefit in patients at heightened risk for lateral ankle sprain and allow active cohorts to return to full activity without adversely affecting athletic performance. PMID:25793157

  10. Management and prevention of acute and chronic lateral ankle instability in athletic patient populations.

    PubMed

    McCriskin, Brendan J; Cameron, Kenneth L; Orr, Justin D; Waterman, Brian R

    2015-03-18

    Acute and chronic lateral ankle instability are common in high-demand patient populations. If not managed appropriately, patients may experience recurrent instability, chronic pain, osteochondral lesions of the talus, premature osteoarthritis, and other significant long-term disability. Certain populations, including young athletes, military personnel and those involved in frequent running, jumping, and cutting motions, are at increased risk. Proposed risk factors include prior ankle sprain, elevated body weight or body mass index, female gender, neuromuscular deficits, postural imbalance, foot/ankle malalignment, and exposure to at-risk athletic activity. Prompt, accurate diagnosis is crucial, and evidence-based, functional rehabilitation regimens have a proven track record in returning active patients to work and sport. When patients fail to improve with physical therapy and external bracing, multiple surgical techniques have been described with reliable results, including both anatomic and non-anatomic reconstructive methods. Anatomic repair of the lateral ligamentous complex remains the gold standard for recurrent ankle instability, and it effectively restores native ankle anatomy and joint kinematics while preserving physiologic ankle and subtalar motion. Further preventative measures may minimize the risk of ankle instability in athletic cohorts, including prophylactic bracing and combined neuromuscular and proprioceptive training programs. These interventions have demonstrated benefit in patients at heightened risk for lateral ankle sprain and allow active cohorts to return to full activity without adversely affecting athletic performance.

  11. Smaller than expected cognitive deficits in schizophrenia patients from the population-representative ABC catchment cohort.

    PubMed

    Lennertz, Leonhard; An der Heiden, Wolfram; Kronacher, Regina; Schulze-Rauschenbach, Svenja; Maier, Wolfgang; Häfner, Heinz; Wagner, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Most neuropsychological studies on schizophrenia suffer from sample selection bias, with male and chronic patients being overrepresented. This probably leads to an overestimation of cognitive impairments. The present study aimed to provide a less biased estimate of cognitive functions in schizophrenia using a population-representative catchment area sample. Schizophrenia patients (N = 89) from the prospective Mannheim ABC cohort were assessed 14 years after disease onset and first diagnosis, using a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. A healthy control group (N = 90) was carefully matched according to age, gender, and geographic region (city, rural surrounds). The present sample was representative for the initial ABC cohort. In the comprehensive neuropsychological assessment, the schizophrenia patients were only moderately impaired as compared to the healthy control group (d = 0.56 for a general cognitive index, d = 0.42 for verbal memory, d = 0.61 for executive functions, d = 0.69 for attention). Only 33 % of the schizophrenia patients scored one standard deviation unit below the healthy control group in the general cognitive index. Neuropsychological performance did not correlate with measures of the clinical course including age at onset, number of hospital admissions, and time in paid work. Thus, in this population-representative sample of schizophrenia patients, neuropsychological deficits were less pronounced than expected from meta-analyses. In agreement with other epidemiological studies, this suggests a less devastating picture of cognition in schizophrenia.

  12. Predictors of suicide in the patient population admitted to a locked-door psychiatric acute ward

    PubMed Central

    Fosse, Roar; Ryberg, Wenche; Carlsson, Merete Kvalsvik; Hammer, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Objective No prior study appears to have focused on predictors of suicide in the general patient population admitted to psychiatric acute wards. We used a case-control design to investigate the association between suicide risk factors assessed systematically at admission to a locked-door psychiatric acute ward in Norway and subsequent death by suicide. Method From 2008 to 2013, patients were routinely assessed for suicide risk upon admission to the acute ward with a 17-item check list based on recommendations from the Norwegian Directorate of Health and Social Affairs. Among 1976 patients admitted to the ward, 40 patients, 22 men and 18 women, completed suicide within December 2014. Results Compared to a matched control group (n = 120), after correction for multiple tests, suicide completers scored significantly higher on two items on the check list: presence of suicidal thoughts and wishing to be dead. An additional four items were significant in non-corrected tests: previous suicide attempts, continuity of suicidal thoughts, having a suicide plan, and feelings of hopelessness, indifference, and/or aggression. A brief scale based on these six items was the only variable associated with suicide in multivariate regression analysis, but its predictive value was poor. Conclusion Suicide specific ideations may be the most central risk markers for suicide in the general patient population admitted to psychiatric acute wards. However, a low predictive value may question the utility of assessing suicide risk. PMID:28301590

  13. Cancer patients' awareness about their diagnosis: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Nord, C; Mykletun, A; Fosså, S D

    2003-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate Norwegian cancer patients' awareness of their prior cancer diagnosis in a general population-based study. A cross-sectional population-based study of cancer patients' responses to the index question: 'Do you have or have you had cancer?' was carried out. We assessed correctness of the response in relation to cancer site, date of diagnosis, marital status, age and education. Smoking was chosen as a marker of health awareness. A total of 65,330 persons participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (HUNT-II), performed in 1995-1997. The database of HUNT-II was merged with the Cancer Registry of Norway (CRN), thus identifying each of the 2983 (4 percent) participants with an invasive cancer diagnosis. Excluding basal cell epithelioma, a total of 20 percent of the patients denied their prior cancer diagnosis. This group consisted mainly of men (54 percent) and those who were diagnosed as very young or as elderly. More smokers than non-smokers were unaware of their prior malignancy (24 percent versus 20 percent). A 20 percent rate of patients who denied their former malignancy is surprisingly and unacceptably high. Disclosure of a cancer diagnosis should help the patient to develop increased health awareness. It should enable a person to report his or her former cancer diagnosis when necessary.

  14. Cognitive profile of patients with burning mouth syndrome in the Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Hirofumi; Himachi, Mika; Furukawa, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Shiho; Shoki, Harumi; Motoya, Ryo; Saito, Masato; Abiko, Yoshihiro; Sakano, Yuji

    2010-07-01

    The present study investigated which cognitive characteristics, including cancer phobia, self-efficacy, pain-related catastrophizing, and anxiety sensitivity, affect burning mouth syndrome (BMS) symptoms in the Japanese population. A total of 46 BMS patients (44 women and 2 men; mean age, 59.98 +/- 9.57 years; range, 30-79 years) completed a battery of questionnaires, including measures of pain severity, oral-related quality of life (QOL), stress-response, pain-related catastrophizing, self-efficacy, anxiety sensitivity, and tongue cancer phobia. The Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), and Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI) scores in the BMS patients were compared with the scores of Japanese healthy participants (PCS, n = 449; GSES, n = 278; ASI, n = 9603) reported in previous studies. Catastrophizing and anxiety sensitivity were significantly higher in the BMS patients than in the healthy subjects (P < 0.001). In BMS patients, catastrophizing was significantly correlated with pain severity, stress-response, psychological disability, social disability, and handicap. Cancer phobia was significantly correlated with psychological disability and handicap. Since catastrophizing showed a higher correlation with BMS symptoms than cancer phobia, catastrophizing might be a more significant cognitive factor affecting symptoms than cancer phobia in BMS patients in the Japanese population.

  15. National Incidence of Patient Safety Indicators in the Total Hip Arthroplasty Population.

    PubMed

    Tanenbaum, Joseph E; Knapik, Derrick M; Wera, Glenn D; Fitzgerald, Steven J

    2017-09-01

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services use the incidence of patient safety indicators (PSIs) to determine health care value and hospital reimbursement. The national incidence of PSI has not been quantified in the total hip arthroplasty (THA) population, and it is unknown if patient insurance status is associated with PSI incidence after THA. All patients in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) who underwent THA in 2013 were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. The incidence of PSI was determined using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, diagnosis code algorithms published by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The association of insurance status and the incidence of PSI during the inpatient episode was determined by comparing privately insured and Medicare patients with Medicaid/self-pay patients using a logistic regression model that controlled for patient demographics, patient comorbidities, and hospital characteristics. In 2013, the NIS included 68,644 hospitalizations with primary THA performed during the inpatient episode. During this period, 429 surgically relevant PSI were recorded in the NIS. The estimated national incidence rate of PSI after primary THA was 0.63%. In our secondary analysis, the privately insured cohort had significantly lower odds of experiencing one or more PSIs relative to the Medicaid/self-pay cohort (odds ratio, 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.29-0.76). The national incidence of PSI among THA patients is relatively low. However, primary insurance status is associated with the incidence of one or more PSIs after THA. As value-based payment becomes more widely adopted in the United States, quality benchmarks and penalty thresholds need to account for these differences in risk-adjustment models to promote and maintain access to care in the underinsured population. Copyright

  16. Social Role Participation in Patients With Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Cross-Sectional Comparison With Population Controls.

    PubMed

    van Genderen, Simon; Plasqui, Guy; Landewé, Robert; Lacaille, Diane; Arends, Suzanne; van Gaalen, Floris; van der Heijde, Désirée; Heuft, Liesbeth; Luime, Jolanda; Spoorenberg, Anneke; Gignac, Monique; Boonen, Annelies

    2016-12-01

    Participation in social roles for persons with chronic disease is important for their quality of life, but interpretation of the data on participation is difficult in the absence of a benchmark. This study aimed to compare social role participation in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) to population controls using the Social Role Participation Questionnaire (SRPQ). There were 246 AS patients and 510 population controls who completed the SRPQ, which assesses participation in 11 roles (with scores ranging 1-5) across 4 dimensions (importance, satisfaction with performance, satisfaction with time, and physical difficulty), and additionally ranked their 3 most important roles. The ranking of role importance, the SRPQ dimension scores, and the gap between importance and satisfaction with performance of roles were compared between patients and controls. Patients (62% male; mean ± SD age 51 ± 12 years) and controls (70% male; mean ± SD 42 ± 15 years) ranked intimate relationships, relationships with children/stepchildren/grandchildren, and employment as the most important roles. Compared to controls, patients gave higher scores on the SRPQ to importance (3.75 versus 3.43), but reported lower satisfaction with performance (3.19 versus 3.58) and greater physical difficulty (3.87 versus 4.67) (P ≤ 0.05 for all). The largest differences in gaps between importance and satisfaction with performance for patients compared to controls were seen in the physical leisure, hobbies, and traveling and vacation categories, in which patients assigned higher importance but reported especially low satisfaction. As society places increasing emphasis on individual responsibility to participate fully in social roles, the current data suggest that health care providers should pay more attention to participation restrictions experienced by patients with AS. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  17. Prevalence and Diagnostic Approach to Sleep Apnea in Hemodialysis Patients: A Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Forni Ogna, Valentina; Ogna, Adam; Pruijm, Menno; Bassi, Isabelle; Zuercher, Emilie; Halabi, Georges; Phan, Olivier; Bullani, Roberto; Teta, Daniel; Gauthier, Thierry; Cherpillod, Anne; Mathieu, Claudine; Mihalache, Alexandra; Cornette, Francoise; Haba-Rubio, José; Burnier, Michel; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    Background. Previous observations found a high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in the hemodialysis population, but the best diagnostic approach remains undefined. We assessed OSA prevalence and performance of available screening tools to propose a specific diagnostic algorithm. Methods. 104 patients from 6 Swiss hemodialysis centers underwent polygraphy and completed 3 OSA screening scores: STOP-BANG, Berlin's Questionnaire, and Adjusted Neck Circumference. The OSA predictors were identified on a derivation population and used to develop the diagnostic algorithm, which was validated on an independent population. Results. We found 56% OSA prevalence (AHI ≥ 15/h), which was largely underdiagnosed. Screening scores showed poor performance for OSA screening (ROC areas 0.538 [SE 0.093] to 0.655 [SE 0.083]). Age, neck circumference, and time on renal replacement therapy were the best predictors of OSA and were used to develop a screening algorithm, with higher discriminatory performance than classical screening tools (ROC area 0.831 [0.066]). Conclusions. Our study confirms the high OSA prevalence and highlights the low diagnosis rate of this treatable cardiovascular risk factor in the hemodialysis population. Considering the poor performance of OSA screening tools, we propose and validate a specific algorithm to identify hemodialysis patients at risk for OSA for whom further sleep investigations should be considered. PMID:26229952

  18. Prevalence and Diagnostic Approach to Sleep Apnea in Hemodialysis Patients: A Population Study.

    PubMed

    Forni Ogna, Valentina; Ogna, Adam; Pruijm, Menno; Bassi, Isabelle; Zuercher, Emilie; Halabi, Georges; Phan, Olivier; Bullani, Roberto; Teta, Daniel; Gauthier, Thierry; Cherpillod, Anne; Mathieu, Claudine; Mihalache, Alexandra; Cornette, Francoise; Haba-Rubio, José; Burnier, Michel; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    Previous observations found a high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in the hemodialysis population, but the best diagnostic approach remains undefined. We assessed OSA prevalence and performance of available screening tools to propose a specific diagnostic algorithm. 104 patients from 6 Swiss hemodialysis centers underwent polygraphy and completed 3 OSA screening scores: STOP-BANG, Berlin's Questionnaire, and Adjusted Neck Circumference. The OSA predictors were identified on a derivation population and used to develop the diagnostic algorithm, which was validated on an independent population. We found 56% OSA prevalence (AHI ≥ 15/h), which was largely underdiagnosed. Screening scores showed poor performance for OSA screening (ROC areas 0.538 [SE 0.093] to 0.655 [SE 0.083]). Age, neck circumference, and time on renal replacement therapy were the best predictors of OSA and were used to develop a screening algorithm, with higher discriminatory performance than classical screening tools (ROC area 0.831 [0.066]). Our study confirms the high OSA prevalence and highlights the low diagnosis rate of this treatable cardiovascular risk factor in the hemodialysis population. Considering the poor performance of OSA screening tools, we propose and validate a specific algorithm to identify hemodialysis patients at risk for OSA for whom further sleep investigations should be considered.

  19. Patient Population Loss At A Large Pioneer Accountable Care Organization And Implications For Refining The Program.

    PubMed

    Hsu, John; Price, Mary; Spirt, Jenna; Vogeli, Christine; Brand, Richard; Chernew, Michael E; Chaguturu, Sreekanth K; Mohta, Namita; Weil, Eric; Ferris, Timothy

    2016-03-01

    There is an ongoing move toward payment models that hold providers increasingly accountable for the care of their patients. The success of these new models depends in part on the stability of patient populations. We investigated the amount of population turnover in a large Medicare Pioneer accountable care organization (ACO) in the period 2012-14. We found that substantial numbers of beneficiaries became part of or left the ACO population during that period. For example, nearly one-third of beneficiaries who entered in 2012 left before 2014. Some of this turnover reflected that of ACO physicians-that is, beneficiaries whose physicians left the ACO were more likely to leave than those whose physicians remained. Some of the turnover also reflected changes in care delivery. For example, beneficiaries who were active in a care management program were less likely to leave the ACO than similar beneficiaries who had not yet started such a program. We recommend policy changes to increase the stability of ACO beneficiary populations, such as permitting lower cost sharing for care received within an ACO and requiring all beneficiaries to identify their primary care physician before being linked to an ACO. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  20. Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Olmesartan, the Active Metabolite of Olmesartan Medoxomil, in Patients with Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kodati, Devender; Kotakonda, Harish Kaushik; Yellu, Narsimhareddy

    2017-08-01

    Olmesartan medoxomil is an orally given angiotensin II receptor antagonist indicated for the treatment of hypertension. The aim of the study was to establish a population pharmacokinetic model for olmesartan, the active metabolite of olmesartan medoxomil, in Indian hypertensive patients, and to evaluate effects of covariates on the volume of distribution (V/F) and oral clearance (CL/F) of olmesartan. The population pharmacokinetic model for olmesartan was developed using Phoenix NLME 1.3 with a non-linear mixed-effect model. Bootstrap and visual predictive check were used simultaneously to validate the final population pharmacokinetic models. The covariates included age, sex, body surface area (BSA), bodyweight, height, creatinine clearance (CLCR) as an index of renal function and liver parameters as indices of hepatic function. A total of 205 olmesartan plasma sample concentrations from 69 patients with hypertension were collected in this study. The pharmacokinetic data of olmesartan was well described by a two-compartment linear pharmacokinetic model with first-order absorption and an absorption lag-time. The mean values of CL/F and V/F of olmesartan in the patients were 0.31565 L/h and 44.5162 L, respectively. Analysis of covariates showed that age and CLCR were factors influencing the clearance of olmesartan and the volume of distribution of olmesartan was dependent on age and BSA. The final population pharmacokinetic model was demonstrated to be appropriate and effective and it can be used to assess the pharmacokinetic parameters of olmesartan in Indian patients with hypertension.

  1. Population pharmacokinetics of daptomycin in adult patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoying; Khadzhynov, Dmytro; Peters, Harm; Chaves, Ricardo L; Hamed, Kamal; Levi, Micha; Corti, Natascia

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this population pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis was to provide guidance for the dosing interval of daptomycin in patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). A previously published population PK model for daptomycin was updated with data from patients undergoing continuous veno-venous haemodialysis (CVVHD; n = 9) and continuous veno-venous haemodiafiltration (CVVHDF; n = 8). Model-based simulations were performed to compare the 24 h AUC, Cmax and Cmin of daptomycin following various dosing regimens (4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 mg kg(-1) every [Q] 24 h and Q48 h), with the safety and efficacy exposure references for Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia/right-sided infective endocarditis. The previously developed daptomycin structural population PK model could reasonably describe data from the patients on CRRT. The clearance in patients undergoing CVVHDF and CVVHD was estimated at 0.53 and 0.94 l h(-1) , respectively, as compared with 0.75 l h(-1) in patients with creatinine clearance (CrCl) ≥ 30 ml min(-1) . Daptomycin Q24 h dosing in patients undergoing CRRT resulted in optimal exposure for efficacy, with AUC comparable to that in patients with CrCl ≥ 30 ml min(-1) . In contrast, Q48 h dosing was associated with considerably lower AUC24-48h in all patients for doses up to 12 mg kg(-1) and is therefore inappropriate. Q24 h dosing of daptomycin up to 12 mg kg(-1) provides comparable drug exposure in patients on CVVHD and in those with CrCl ≥ 30 ml min(-1) . Daily daptomycin use up to 8 mg kg(-1) doses are appropriate for patients on CVVHDF, but higher doses may increase the risk of toxicity. © 2016 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.

  2. Population pharmacokinetics of daptomycin in adult patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaoying; Khadzhynov, Dmytro; Peters, Harm; Chaves, Ricardo L.; Levi, Micha; Corti, Natascia

    2016-01-01

    Aim The objective of this population pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis was to provide guidance for the dosing interval of daptomycin in patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Methods A previously published population PK model for daptomycin was updated with data from patients undergoing continuous veno‐venous haemodialysis (CVVHD; n = 9) and continuous veno‐venous haemodiafiltration (CVVHDF; n = 8). Model‐based simulations were performed to compare the 24 h AUC, C max and C min of daptomycin following various dosing regimens (4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 mg kg−1 every [Q] 24 h and Q48 h), with the safety and efficacy exposure references for Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia/right‐sided infective endocarditis. Results The previously developed daptomycin structural population PK model could reasonably describe data from the patients on CRRT. The clearance in patients undergoing CVVHDF and CVVHD was estimated at 0.53 and 0.94 l h−1, respectively, as compared with 0.75 l h−1 in patients with creatinine clearance (CrCl) ≥ 30 ml min−1. Daptomycin Q24 h dosing in patients undergoing CRRT resulted in optimal exposure for efficacy, with AUC comparable to that in patients with CrCl ≥ 30 ml min−1. In contrast, Q48 h dosing was associated with considerably lower AUC24–48h in all patients for doses up to 12 mg kg−1 and is therefore inappropriate. Conclusions Q24 h dosing of daptomycin up to 12 mg kg−1 provides comparable drug exposure in patients on CVVHD and in those with CrCl ≥ 30 ml min−1. Daily daptomycin use up to 8 mg kg−1 doses are appropriate for patients on CVVHDF, but higher doses may increase the risk of toxicity. PMID:27628437

  3. The Risk of Asthma in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Te-Chun; Lin, Cheng-Li; Wei, Chang-Ching; Chen, Chia-Hung; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between asthma and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is controversial. We examined the risk of asthma among AS patients in a nationwide population. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the National Health Insurance (NHI) system of Taiwan. The cohort included 5,974 patients newly diagnosed with AS from 2000 to 2010. The date of diagnosis was defined as the index date. A 4-fold of general population without AS was randomly selected frequency matched by age, gender and the index year. The occurrence and hazard ratio (HR) of asthma were estimated by the end of 2011. Results The overall incidence of asthma was 1.74 folds greater in the AS cohort than in the non-AS cohort (8.26 versus 4.74 per 1000 person-years) with a multivariable Cox method measured adjusted HR of 1.54 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.34–1.76). The adjusted HR of asthma associated with AS was higher in women (1.59; 95% CI, 1.33–1.90), those aged 50–64 years (1.66; 95% CI, 1.31–2.09), or those without comorbidities (1.82; 95% CI, 1.54–2.13). Conclusion Patients with AS are at a higher risk of developing asthma than the general population, regardless of gender and age. The pathophysiology needs further investigation. PMID:25658339

  4. Patient safety is not enough: targeting quality improvements to optimize the health of the population.

    PubMed

    Woolf, Steven H

    2004-01-06

    Ensuring patient safety is essential for better health care, but preoccupation with niches of medicine, such as patient safety, can inadvertently compromise outcomes if it distracts from other problems that pose a greater threat to health. The greatest benefit for the population comes from a comprehensive view of population needs and making improvements in proportion with their potential effect on public health; anything less subjects an excess of people to morbidity and death. Patient safety, in context, is a subset of health problems affecting Americans. Safety is a subcategory of medical errors, which also includes mistakes in health promotion and chronic disease management that cost lives but do not affect "safety." These errors are a subset of lapses in quality, which result not only from errors but also from systemic problems, such as lack of access, inequity, and flawed system designs. Lapses in quality are a subset of deficient caring, which encompasses gaps in therapeutics, respect, and compassion that are undetected by normative quality indicators. These larger problems arguably cost hundreds of thousands more lives than do lapses in safety, and the system redesigns to correct them should receive proportionately greater emphasis. Ensuring such rational prioritization requires policy and medical leaders to eschew parochialism and take a global perspective in gauging health problems. The public's well-being requires policymakers to view the system as a whole and consider the potential effect on overall population health when prioritizing care improvements and system redesigns.

  5. An evaluation of the patient population for aesthetic treatments targeting abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, Daniel P; Avram, Mathew M; Cohen, Steven R; Duncan, Diane I; Goldman, Mitchel P; Weiss, Elliot T; Young, V Leroy

    2014-06-01

    A large and growing population of patients currently seeks minimally invasive therapeutic options for the aesthetic treatment of localized, central abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). We sought to evaluate the ideal population for aesthetic treatment of central abdominal SAT, highlight the existing disparities between SAT in obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30; BMI) and nonobese (BMI < 30) patients, and review the available FDA-cleared, minimally invasive treatment options for central abdominal adiposity. The cosmetic issue of localized, central (periumbilical) abdominal adiposity in nonobese individuals is quite distinct from abdominal bulging secondary to obesity. Given the recognized clinical and physiologic differences between obese and nonobese counterparts, the exclusion of obese patients from clinical study by currently available FDA-cleared devices targeting abdominal fat, and the status of obesity as a chronic, systemic disease requiring medical, surgical, and/or lifestyle-altering therapies, minimally invasive therapeutic options for aesthetic reductions in central abdominal SAT must be limited to the nonobese population. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Pentoxifylline Inhibits WNT Signalling in β-Cateninhigh Patient-Derived Melanoma Cell Populations

    PubMed Central

    Talar, Beata; Gajos-Michniewicz, Anna; Talar, Marcin; Chouaib, Salem; Czyz, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Background The heterogeneity of melanoma needs to be addressed and combination therapies seem to be necessary to overcome intrinsic and acquired resistance to newly developed immunotherapies and targeted therapies. Although the role of WNT/β-catenin pathway in melanoma was early demonstrated, its contribution to the lack of the melanoma patient response to treatment was only recently recognized. Using patient-derived melanoma cell populations, we investigated the influence of pentoxifylline on melanoma cells with either high or low expression of β-catenin. Findings Our results indicate that pentoxifylline inhibits the activity of the canonical WNT pathway in melanoma cell populations with high basal activity of this signalling. This is supported by lowered overall activity of transcription factors TCF/LEF and reduced nuclear localisation of active β-catenin. Moreover, treatment of β-cateninhigh melanoma cell populations with pentoxifylline induces downregulation of genes that are targets of the WNT/β-catenin pathway including connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF-M), a melanocyte- and melanoma cell-specific regulator. Conclusions These results suggest that pentoxifylline, a drug approved by the FDA in the treatment of peripheral arterial disease, might be tested in a subset of melanoma patients with elevated activity of β-catenin. This pharmaceutical might be tested as an adjuvant drug in combination therapies when the response to immunotherapy is prevented by high activity of the WNT/β-catenin pathway. PMID:27351373

  7. CYP3A5*3 and bilirubin predict midazolam population pharmacokinetics in Asian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Seng, Kok-Yong; Hee, Kim-Hor; Soon, Gaik Hong; Sapari, Nur Sabrina; Soong, Richie; Goh, Boon-Cher; Lee, Lawrence Soon-U

    2014-02-01

    We aim to evaluate the influence of covariates, including cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) genetic polymorphisms, on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam (MDZ) in Asian cancer patients, using a population pharmacokinetic approach. Pharmacokinetic data were obtained from 24 adult cancer patients who received an intravenous bolus dose of 1 mg MDZ as a CYP3A phenotyping probe, 1-day before starting FOLFIRI chemotherapy. Concentrations of MDZ and its major metabolites, 1'-hydroxymidazolam (1OHM) and 1'-hydroxymidazolam glucuronide (HMG) were measured using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The population pharmacokinetic study was conducted using NONMEM. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and genetic polymorphisms were screened as covariates. A two-compartment model for MDZ and two sequential compartments representing 1OHM and HMG best described the data. The CYP3A5*3 and total bilirubin level significantly influenced MDZ clearance. The population typical MDZ clearance for CYP3A5*3 expressers was 22% lower than non-expressers. Baseline bodyweight was a statistically significant covariate for clearance and distribution volume of 1OHM. Creatinine clearance was positively correlated with HMG clearance. Our data indicate that CYP3A5*3, total bilirubin, bodyweight, and creatinine clearance are important predictors of MDZ and metabolite pharmacokinetics. Further studies in more patients are needed to explore the links between the identified covariates and the disposition of MDZ and its metabolites.

  8. Treatment outcome in a population-based 'real-world' cohort of chronic myeloid leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Geelen, Inge G P; Thielen, Noortje; Janssen, Jeroen J W M; Hoogendoorn, Mels; Roosma, Tanja J A; Willemsen, Sten P; Visser, Otto; Cornelissen, Jan J; Westerweel, Peter E

    2017-08-31

    Real-world evaluations of the efficacy and safety of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia are scarce. A nationwide population-based chronic myeloid leukemia registry was analyzed to evaluate (deep) response rates to first and subsequent treatment lines and eligibility for a treatment cessation attempt in adults diagnosed between January 2008 and April 2013 in the Netherlands. The registries covered 457 patients; 434 in chronic (95%) and 15 patients (3%) in advanced disease phase. 75% of the patients in chronic phase were treated with imatinib and 25% with a second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor. At 3 years 44% of patients had discontinued their first line treatment, mainly due to intolerance (21%) or treatment failure (19%). At 18 months 73% of patients had achieved a complete cytogenetic response and 63% a major molecular response. Deep molecular responses (MR4.0 and MR4.5) were achieved in 69% and 56% of patients at 48 months. All response milestones were achieved faster in patients treated upfront with a second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor, but ultimately also patients initially treated with imatinib reached similar levels of responses. The 6-year cumulative incidence of stop attempt eligibility according to EURO-SKI criteria was 31%. Our findings show that in a 'real-world' setting the long-term outcome of patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors is excellent and the conditions for an attempt to stop tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy are met by a third of the patients. Copyright © 2017, Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  9. Prevalence of monosodium urate deposits in a population of rheumatoid arthritis patients with hyperuricemia.

    PubMed

    Petsch, Christina; Araujo, Elizabeth G; Englbrecht, Matthias; Bayat, Sara; Cavallaro, Alexander; Hueber, Axel J; Lell, Michael; Schett, Georg; Manger, Bernhard; Rech, Juergen

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the prevalence of monosodium urate (MSU) crystal deposits, indicative for gout, in a population of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with concomitant hyperuricemia and to analyze the clinical and disease-specific characteristics of RA patients who exhibit MSU crystal deposits. Overall, 100 consecutive patients with the diagnosis of RA and a serum urate level above 6mg/dl underwent dual energy computed tomography (DECT) of both feet and hands to search for MSU crystals in a prospective study between October 2011 and July 2013. Presence and extent of MSU crystal deposits on DECT was assessed by automated volume measurement. Demographic and disease-specific characteristics were recorded and included into two logistic regression models to test for the factors associated with MSU crystal deposits in RA. Hyperuricemic RA patients were mostly male (55%), over 60 years of age (63 ± 11 years), had established disease (8.7 ± 10.5 years) and a mean disease activity score 28 (DAS 28) of 3.2. In total, 20 out of 100 patients displayed MSU crystal deposits in DECT. Interestingly, the majority (70%) of the RA patients positive for MSU crystal deposits were seronegative RA patients. Hence, every third seronegative RA patient had MSU crystal deposits. According to logistic regression model analysis, seronegative status correlated positively with presence of urate deposits (p = 0.019). These data show that a considerable number of RA patients display periarticular MSU crystal deposits. Seronegative patients were shown to be predominantly affected with every third patient being positive for urate deposits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Risk of cholecystitis in patients with cancer: a population-based cohort study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Reimar W; Thomsen, Henrik F; Nørgaard, Mette; Cetin, Karynsa; McLaughlin, Joseph K; Tarone, Robert E; Fryzek, Jon P; Sørensen, Henrik T

    2008-12-15

    To the authors' knowledge, little information is available regarding the incidence of cholecystitis among patients with cancer. The authors conducted a population-based historical cohort study of 51,228 patients with incident cancer, identified in medical databases of western Denmark between 1995 and 2003. A general population comparison cohort of 512,280 persons was assembled using the Danish Civil Registration System. The occurrence of cholecystitis in the 2 groups was determined by linkage to the regional Hospital Discharge Registry. In all, 230 incident diagnoses of cholecystitis were identified in the cancer cohort during 130,185 person-years (median follow-up time: 1.6 years), corresponding to an incidence rate of 1.8 of 1000 person-years. After adjustment for confounders, the relative risk (RR) for cholecystitis among cancer patients compared with the general population cohort was 1.38 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.20-1.58). Overall, the RR for cholecystitis was doubled during the first 6 months after cancer diagnosis (RR = 1.95; 95% CI, 1.50-2.54), after which the RR declined but remained greater than 1 throughout the rest of the follow-up period (RR = 1.23; 95% CI, 1.05-1.45). Cancer patients between the ages of 51 and 70 years had the highest risk increase for cholecystitis compared with other age groups. During the first 6 months after a cancer diagnosis, pancreatic cancers (12 cholecystitis events; RR = 9.44 [95% CI, 5.18-17.18]) and colorectal cancers (10 cholecystitis events; RR = 4.98 [95% CI, 2.65-9.34]) were found to be associated with the greatest cholecystitis risk increase compared with other tumor types. After 6 months, most cancers were associated with a relatively small increased risk, although there was an RR of 4.72 (95% CI, 1.99-11.21) based on 5 cholecystitis events among thyroid cancer patients. The results of the current study indicate that cholecystitis occurs more frequently among cancer patients than in the general population

  11. Overweight and obese patients in a primary care population report less sleep than patients with a normal body mass index.

    PubMed

    Vorona, Robert D; Winn, Maria P; Babineau, Teresa W; Eng, Benjamin P; Feldman, Howard R; Ware, J Catesby

    2005-01-10

    Insufficient sleep and obesity are common in the United States. Restricted sleep causes important neurocognitive changes, including excessive daytime sleepiness and altered mood. This may result in work-related injuries and automotive crashes. Evidence links sleep loss to hormonal changes that could result in obesity. This article examines the association between restricted sleep and obesity in a heterogeneous adult primary care population. A total of 1001 patients from 4 primary care practices participated in this prospective study. Patients completed a questionnaire administered by a nurse or study coordinator concerning demographics, medical problems, sleep habits, and sleep disorders. Professional staff measured height and weight in the office. The relationship between body mass index (BMI) and reported total sleep time per 24 hours was analyzed after categorizing patients according to their BMI (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) as being of normal weight (<25), overweight (25-29.9), obese (30-39.9), or extremely obese (> or =40). Analyzable forms from 924 patients aged between 18 and 91 years indicated that (1) the mean BMI was 30; (2) women slept more than men; (3) overweight and obese patients slept less than patients with a normal BMI (patients reported less sleep in a nearly linear relationship from the normal through the obese group); and (4) this trend of decreasing sleep time was reversed in the extremely obese patients. This study found that reduced amounts of sleep are associated with overweight and obese status. Interventions manipulating total sleep time could elucidate a cause-and-effect relationship between insufficient sleep and obesity.

  12. Population pharmacokinetics of rifapentine and its primary desacetyl metabolite in South African tuberculosis patients.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Grant; Wilkins, Justin; McFadyen, Lynn; McIlleron, Helen; Smith, Peter; Simonsson, Ulrika S H

    2005-11-01

    This study was designed to describe the population pharmacokinetics of rifapentine (RFP) and 25-desacetyl RFP in a South African pulmonary tuberculosis patient population. Special reference was made to studying the influence of previous exposure to rifampin (RIF) and the variability in pharmacokinetic parameters between patients and between occasions and the influence of different covariates. Patients were included in the study if they had been receiving first-line antimycobacterial therapy (rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol) for not less than 4 weeks and not more than 6 weeks and were divided into three RFP dosage groups based on weight: 600 mg, <45 kg; 750 mg, 46 to 55 kg; and 900 mg, >55 kg. Participants received a single oral dose of RFP together with concomitant antimycobacterial agents, excluding RIF, on study days 1 and 5 after they ingested a soup-based meal. The RFP and 25-desacetyl RFP concentration-time data were analyzed by nonlinear mixed-effect modeling using NONMEM. The pharmacokinetics of the parent drug were modeled separately, and the individual pharmacokinetic parameters were used as inputs for the 25-desacetyl RFP pharmacokinetic model. A one-compartment disposition model was found to best describe the data for both the parent and the metabolite, and the metabolite was assumed to be formed only from the central compartment of the parent drug. Prior treatment with RIF did not alter the pharmacokinetics of RFP but appeared to increase the excretion of 25-desacetyl RFP in a nonlinear fashion. The RFP oral clearance and volume of distribution were found to increase by 0.049 liter/h and 0.691 liter, respectively, with a 1-kg increase from the median weight of 50 kg. The oral clearance of 25-desacetyl RFP was found to be 35% lower in female patients. The model developed here describes the population pharmacokinetics of RFP and its primary metabolite in tuberculosis patients and includes the effects of prior administration with RIF and

  13. Population Pharmacokinetics of Rifapentine and Its Primary Desacetyl Metabolite in South African Tuberculosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Langdon, Grant; Wilkins, Justin; McFadyen, Lynn; McIlleron, Helen; Smith, Peter; Simonsson, Ulrika S. H.

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to describe the population pharmacokinetics of rifapentine (RFP) and 25-desacetyl RFP in a South African pulmonary tuberculosis patient population. Special reference was made to studying the influence of previous exposure to rifampin (RIF) and the variability in pharmacokinetic parameters between patients and between occasions and the influence of different covariates. Patients were included in the study if they had been receiving first-line antimycobacterial therapy (rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol) for not less than 4 weeks and not more than 6 weeks and were divided into three RFP dosage groups based on weight: 600 mg, <45 kg; 750 mg, 46 to 55 kg; and 900 mg, >55 kg. Participants received a single oral dose of RFP together with concomitant antimycobacterial agents, excluding RIF, on study days 1 and 5 after they ingested a soup-based meal. The RFP and 25-desacetyl RFP concentration-time data were analyzed by nonlinear mixed-effect modeling using NONMEM. The pharmacokinetics of the parent drug were modeled separately, and the individual pharmacokinetic parameters were used as inputs for the 25-desacetyl RFP pharmacokinetic model. A one-compartment disposition model was found to best describe the data for both the parent and the metabolite, and the metabolite was assumed to be formed only from the central compartment of the parent drug. Prior treatment with RIF did not alter the pharmacokinetics of RFP but appeared to increase the excretion of 25-desacetyl RFP in a nonlinear fashion. The RFP oral clearance and volume of distribution were found to increase by 0.049 liter/h and 0.691 liter, respectively, with a 1-kg increase from the median weight of 50 kg. The oral clearance of 25-desacetyl RFP was found to be 35% lower in female patients. The model developed here describes the population pharmacokinetics of RFP and its primary metabolite in tuberculosis patients and includes the effects of prior administration with RIF and

  14. Self-reported health status in coronary heart disease patients: a comparison with the general population.

    PubMed

    De Smedt, Delphine; Clays, Els; Annemans, Lieven; Pardaens, Sofie; Kotseva, Kornelia; De Bacquer, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    The aim of our study was to compare Euroqol-5D (EQ-5D) outcomes in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients with those from the general population. We aimed to identify those dimensions which were mostly impaired. EQ-5D results (both the dimensions and the EQ-5D visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS)) from a European sample (11 countries) of coronary patients were compared with published age- and gender-specific normative data. EQ-5D outcomes differed across countries and gender. Overall, the age-adjusted EQ-VAS scores were significantly lower in coronary patients compared with the general population, both in males (mean difference (MD)= -5.24(-7.59 to -2.88)) and in females (MD= -8.32 (-11.69 to -4.95)). Coronary patients had a significantly higher risk to report moderate or severe problems related to anxiety/depression (odds ratio (OR) male=1.84 (1.14-2.95); OR female=3.20 (2.32-4.40)). Furthermore, female coronary patients reported more problems on the mobility (OR=2.00 (1.38-2.90)), usual activity (OR= 2.54 (1.81-3.57)) and pain/discomfort dimension (OR=1.73 (1.23-2.43)) whereas in males, a borderline significant OR was found on the mobility (OR=1.43 (0.97-2.11)) and usual activity dimension (OR=1.44 (0.94-2.20)). The difference between the general population and the CHD patients attenuated as age increased. CHD has a negative influence on patient's self-reported health status, both the EQ-VAS as well as the EQ-5D dimensions (with the exception of self-care in both genders and pain/discomfort in males) were impaired. The relative impairment was the greatest in female patients and the differences in the proportion of reported problems diminished with increasing age. The EQ-5D instrument is appropriate in capturing problems related to anxiety/depression, pain/discomfort, mobility and usual activities. Within clinical practice, particular attention should be given to females and younger CHD patients. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  15. Adult Celiac Disease: Patients Are Shorter Compared with Their Peers in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilzadeh, Abbas; Ganji, Azita; Goshayeshi, Ladan; Ghafarzadegan, Kamran; Afzal Aghayee, Mehdi; Mosanen Mozafari, Homan; Saadatniya, Hassan; Hayatbakhs, Abdolrasol; Ghavami Ghanbarabadi, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Delay in diagnosis of celiac disease (CD) occurs frequently, although its consequences are mostly not known. One of the presented symptoms in pediatric patients with CD is the short stature. However, far too little attention has been paid to physical features including height of adult patients with CD. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether patients suffering from CD are shorter in comparison with the general population without CD. As well, we evaluated probable correlations between demographic and physical features, main complains, serum anti tTG level, and intestinal pathology damage between short (lower quartile) versus tall stature (upper quartile) patients with CD. METHODS This was a retrospective cross-sectional study on 219 adult patients diagnosed as having CD in the Celiac Disease Center, between June 2008 and June 2014 in Mashhad, Iran. The exclusion criteria were ages less than 18 and more than 60 years. Height was compared with a group of 657 age- and sex matched control cases from the healthy population. The probable influencing factors on height such as intestinal pathology, serum level of anti-tissue transglutaminase(anti-tTG), serum vitamin D, and hemoglobin level at the time of diagnosis were assessed and were compared in short (lower quartile) versus tall stature (upper quartile) patients with CD. RESULTS Both male (n=65) and female (n=154) patients with CD were shorter than their counterpart in the general population (males: 168.5±8.6 to 171.3±7.2cm, p <0.01 and females: 154.8±10.58 to 157.8±7.2 cm, p <0.01). Spearman linear correlation showed height in patient with CD was correlated with serum hemoglobin (p <0.001, r=0.285) and bone mineral density (p<0.001) and not with serum vitamin D levels (p =0.024, r=0.237), but was not correlated with anti-tTG serum levels (p=0.97). CD patients with upper and lower quartile of height in men and women had no significant difference in the anti-tTG level and degree of duodenal pathology

  16. Prévalence de l'hypertension artérielle dans la population des meuniers de la ville de Lubumbashi, République Démocratique du Congo

    PubMed Central

    Ngombe, Léon Kabamba; Cowgill, Karen; Monga, Ben Bondo; Ilunga, Benjamin Kabyla; Stanis, Wembonyama Okitotsho; Numbi, Oscar Luboya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif était de comparer la prévalence de l'hypertension artérielle chez les meuniers dans la ville de Lubumbashi qui sont exposés d'une manière permanente aux bruits des machines de transformation des céréales à la prévalence de l'hypertension artérielle chez un groupe des gardiens. Méthodes Quic'est une étude descriptive transversale qui a concerné 286 meuniers et 115 agents d'une entreprise de gardiennage. Apres un consentement éclairé, un auto questionnaire a été administré aux enquêtés et des mesures de poids, taille, et tension artérielle ont été prises. Résultats La prévalence de l'HTA chez les meuniers était 49.3% et celle des gardes était 20.9%, pour un ratio de prévalence de 2.4. significativement élevée par rapport aux contrôles (49.3% vs 20.9%) et le ratio de prévalence était de 2.4. Les facteurs de risque tels que: l’âge, l'indice de masse corporelle, l'ancienneté, la durée de travail ont été significativement élevés chez les meuniers par rapport aux gardiens. Conclusion Nous avons trouvé une prévalence élevée de l'HTA chez les meuniers. Nos résultats suggèrent que cette prévalence est probablement due à l'environnement du milieu de travail des meuniers (bruits, vibration des machines) et ce dernier constitue un facteur de risque de l'hypertension artérielle. PMID:26889333

  17. Cartographie des disques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameury, Jean-Marie

    2001-01-01

    Two techniques are frequently used to produce images of the accretion disc in an eclipsing binary: eclipse mapping and Doppler tomography. From the light curve, one can deduce the radial distribution of the effective temperature, assuming axial symmetry. On the other hand, from the variation of the line profile one can reconstruct an image in the velocity space, which can be converted into a real image if one knows the kinematics of the system. Deux techniques sont couramment utilisées pour obtenir des images des disques dans les systèmes binaires à éclipses. En utilisant la courbe de lumière, on peut remonter à la distribution radiale de la brillance de surface, en supposant que celle-ci a une symètrie axiale. D'autre part, les profils de raies renseignent sur la distribution de vitesse des régions émissives leur variation temporelle permet de réaliser une image dans l'espace des vitesses, que l'on peut ensuite transformer en carte dans l'espace (x,y) si on connaît la cinématique du système.

  18. Comorbidity in Adult Bone Sarcoma Patients: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Aggerholm-Pedersen, Ninna; Keller, Johnny; Baerentzen, Steen; Safwat, Akmal

    2014-01-01

    Background. Comorbidity is an important prognostic factor for survival in different cancers; however, neither the prevalence nor the impact of comorbidity has been investigated in bone sarcoma. Methods. All adult bone sarcoma patients from western Denmark treated at the Aarhus Sarcoma Centre in the period from 1979 to 2008 were identified through a validated population-based database. Charlson Comorbidity Index scores were computed, using discharge diagnoses from the Danish National Patient Registry. Survival was assessed as overall and disease-specific mortality. The impact of comorbidity was examined as rates according to the level of comorbidity as well as uni- and multivariately using proportional hazard models. Results. A total of 453 patients were identified. The overall prevalence of comorbidity was 19%. The prevalence increased with age and over the study period. In patients with Ewing/osteosarcoma, comorbidity was not associated with an increased overall or disease-specific mortality. However, patients with bone sarcomas other than Ewing/osteosarcoma had increased overall mortality. Independent prognostic factors for disease-specific survival were age, tumor size, stage at diagnosis, soft tissue involvement, grade, and surgery. Conclusion. The prevalence of comorbidity in bone sarcoma patients is low. Comorbidity impaired survival in patients with non-Ewing/nonosteosarcoma, histology. This emphasizes the importance of not only treating the sarcoma but also comorbidity. PMID:24723789

  19. Risks of subsequent epilepsy among patients with hypertensive encephalopathy: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tzu-Tsao; Lin, Chi-Yu; Huang, Wen-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Li; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2013-11-01

    To determine whether the diagnosis of hypertensive encephalopathy (HE) is linked to an increased risk of subsequent epilepsy by using a nationwide population-based retrospective study. Our study featured a study cohort and a comparison cohort. The study cohort consisted of all patients with newly diagnosed HE between 1997 and 2010, compiled from universal insurance claims data on patients with hypertension taken from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The comparison cohort comprised the remaining hypertensive patients without encephalopathy. The follow-up period was terminated following the development of epilepsy, death, withdrawal from the National Health Insurance system, or the end of 2010. We determined the cumulative incidences and hazard ratios (HRs) of epilepsy development. The incidence of subsequent epilepsy was 2.25-fold higher in the patients with HE than in comparisons (4.17 vs. 1.85 per 1000 person-years), with an adjusted HR of 2.06 (95% CI=1.66-2.56) in the multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis. The incidence of epilepsy was higher in men, younger patients with HE, and those with brain disorders. We found that, in Taiwan, patients with HE are at an increased risk of subsequent epilepsy. Physicians should be aware of HE's link to epilepsy when assessing patients with HE. © 2013.

  20. Quality of Life Is Related to Social Support in Elderly Osteoporosis Patients in a Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lina; Li, Yun; Wang, Jieyu; Zhu, Hong; Yang, Wei; Cao, Ruojin; Qian, Yuying; Feng, Ming

    2015-01-01

    To explore the association between quality of life and social support in elderly osteoporosis patients in a Chinese population. A total of 214 elderly patients who underwent bone mineral density screening were divided into two groups: elderly patients with primary osteoporosis (case group, n = 112) and normal elderly patients (control group, n = 102). Quality of life and social support were compared between the two groups. Quality of life and social support were significantly different between the case and control groups. The physical function, role-physical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social-functioning, role-emotional and mental health scores in case group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.01). The objective support, subjective support, utilization of support, and total scores in case group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.01). Quality of life and social support were positively correlated in the case group (r = 0.672, P < 0.01). Quality of life and social support in elderly patients with osteoporosis in China were poorer than in elderly patients without osteoporosis and were positively correlated. Our findings indicate that increased efforts to improve the social support and quality of life in elderly osteoporosis patients are urgently needed in China. Further longitudinal studies should be conducted to provide more clinical evidence to determine causative factors for the observed association between risk factors and outcomes.

  1. Quality of Life Is Related to Social Support in Elderly Osteoporosis Patients in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lina; Li, Yun; Wang, Jieyu; Zhu, Hong; Yang, Wei; Cao, Ruojin; Qian, Yuying; Feng, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the association between quality of life and social support in elderly osteoporosis patients in a Chinese population. Methods A total of 214 elderly patients who underwent bone mineral density screening were divided into two groups: elderly patients with primary osteoporosis (case group, n = 112) and normal elderly patients (control group, n = 102). Quality of life and social support were compared between the two groups. Results Quality of life and social support were significantly different between the case and control groups. The physical function, role-physical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social-functioning, role-emotional and mental health scores in case group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.01). The objective support, subjective support, utilization of support, and total scores in case group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.01). Quality of life and social support were positively correlated in the case group (r = 0.672, P < 0.01). Conclusion Quality of life and social support in elderly patients with osteoporosis in China were poorer than in elderly patients without osteoporosis and were positively correlated. Our findings indicate that increased efforts to improve the social support and quality of life in elderly osteoporosis patients are urgently needed in China. Further longitudinal studies should be conducted to provide more clinical evidence to determine causative factors for the observed association between risk factors and outcomes. PMID:26061550

  2. Multiple myeloma and infections: a population-based study on 9253 multiple myeloma patients.

    PubMed

    Blimark, Cecilie; Holmberg, Erik; Mellqvist, Ulf-Henrik; Landgren, Ola; Björkholm, Magnus; Hultcrantz, Malin; Kjellander, Christian; Turesson, Ingemar; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y

    2015-01-01

    Infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with multiple myeloma. To estimate the risk of bacterial and viral infections in multiple myeloma patients, we used population-based data from Sweden to identify all multiple myeloma patients (n=9253) diagnosed from 1988 to 2004 with follow up to 2007 and 34,931 matched controls. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the risk of infections. Overall, multiple myeloma patients had a 7-fold (hazard ratio =7.1; 95% confidence interval = 6.8-7.4) risk of developing any infection compared to matched controls. The increased risk of developing a bacterial infection was 7-fold (7.1; 6.8-7.4), and for viral infections 10-fold (10.0; 8.9-11.4). Multiple myeloma patients diagnosed in the more recent calendar periods had significantly higher risk of infections compared to controls (P<0.001). At one year of follow up, infection was the underlying cause in 22% of deaths in multiple myeloma patients. Mortality due to infections remained constant during the study period. Our findings confirm that infections represent a major threat to multiple myeloma patients. The effect on infectious complications due to novel drugs introduced in the treatment of multiple myeloma needs to be established and trials on prophylactic measures are needed.

  3. Risk of Periodontal Disease in Patients With Asthma: A Nationwide Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Te-Chun; Chang, Pei-Ying; Lin, Cheng-Li; Wei, Chang-Ching; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2017-08-01

    Studies have reported an association between asthma and oral diseases, including periodontal diseases. The aim of this retrospective study is to investigate risk of periodontal diseases for patients with asthma. Using the claims data of National Health Insurance of Taiwan and patients without a history of periodontal diseases, 19,206 asthmatic patients, who were newly diagnosed from 2000 through 2010, were identified. For each case, four comparison individuals without history of asthma and periodontal disease were randomly selected from the general population and frequency matched (categorical matched) by sex, age, and year of diagnosis (n = 76,824). Both cohorts were followed to the end of 2011 to monitor occurrence of periodontal diseases. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) of periodontal disease were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Overall incidence of periodontal diseases was 1.18-fold greater in the asthma cohort than in the comparison cohort (P <0.001). Patients with at least three emergency visits annually had an aHR of 55.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 50.6 to 61.7) for periodontal diseases compared with those with a mean of less than one visit. Patients with at least three admissions annually also had a similar aHR (51.8) for periodontal disease. In addition, asthmatic patients on inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy had greater aHRs than non-users (aHR = 1.12; 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.23). In the studied population, asthmatic patients are at an elevated risk of developing periodontal diseases. The risk is much greater for those with emergency medical demands or hospital admissions and those on ICS treatment.

  4. Evaluating screening colonoscopy quality in an uninsured urban population following patient navigation.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Keith; Fritz, Cassandra; Polite, Blase; Kim, Karen

    2017-03-01

    Patient navigation (PN) increases screening colonoscopy completion in minority and uninsured populations. However, colonoscopy quality is under-reported in the setting of PN and quality indicators have often failed to meet benchmark standards. This study investigated screening colonoscopy quality indicators after year-one of a PN initiative targeting the medically uninsured. This was a retrospective analysis of 296 outpatient screening colonoscopies. Patients were 45 to 75 years of age with no history of bowel cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, or colorectal surgery. The screening colonoscopy quality indicators: adenoma detection rate (ADR), cecal intubation rate (CIR), and bowel preparation quality were compared in 89 uninsured Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) patients who received PN and 207 University Hospital patients who received usual care. The FQHC PN and University Hospital cohorts were similar in female sex (69% vs. 70%; p = 0.861) and African American race (61% vs. 61%; p = 0.920). The FQHC PN cohort was younger (57 years vs. 60 years; p < 0.001). There was no difference in ADR (33% vs. 32%; p = 0.971) or CIR (96% vs. 95%; p = 0.900) comparing the FQHC PN and University Hospital cohorts. The FQHC PN patients had a greater likelihood of an optimal bowel preparation on multivariate logistic regression (odds ratio 4.17; 95% confidence interval 1.07 to 16.20). Uninsured FQHC patients who received PN were observed to have intra-procedure quality indicators that exceeded bench-mark standards for high-quality screening colonoscopy and were equivalent to those observed in an insured University Hospital patient population.

  5. ARIES-3: ambrisentan therapy in a diverse population of patients with pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Badesch, David B; Feldman, Jeremy; Keogh, Anne; Mathier, Michael A; Oudiz, Ronald J; Shapiro, Shelley; Farber, Harrison W; McGoon, Michael; Frost, Adaani; Allard, Martine; Despain, Darrin; Dufton, Christopher; Rubin, Lewis J

    2012-04-01

    Ambrisentan is an oral, once daily, endothelin receptor antagonist approved for treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Previous studies of ambrisentan were limited to patients with Group 1 PAH and often excluded patients receiving other pulmonary hypertension (PH) therapies. ARIES-3 was an open-label study evaluating efficacy and safety of ambrisentan in patients with various PH etiologies and background PH medications. Patients received 5 mg ambrisentan once daily for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) at week 24. A total of 224 patients with PH due to idiopathic and familial PAH (31%), connective tissue disease (18%), chronic hypoxemia (22%), chronic thromboembolic disease (13%), or other etiologies (16%) were enrolled and 53% of patients received stable background PAH therapies. After 24 weeks of therapy, an increase in 6MWD (+21 m; 95% CI: 12-29) and a decrease in B-type natriuretic peptide (-26%; 95% CI: -34 to -16%) was observed in the overall population compared to baseline; however, increases in 6MWD were not observed in several non-Group 1 PH subpopulations. Peripheral edema, headache, and dyspnea were the most common adverse events. This study reconfirms the results of previous placebo-controlled studies, which demonstrate that ambrisentan is well tolerated and provides benefit in patients with PAH. Definitive conclusions regarding the safety and efficacy of ambrisentan in specific non-Group 1 PH etiologies cannot be determined and larger, controlled studies will be necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of ambrisentan in these populations. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Pattern of ankylosing spondylitis in an Iranian population of 98 patients.

    PubMed

    Nazarinia, Mohammad Ali; Ghaffarpasand, Fariborz; Heiran, Hamid Reza; Habibagahi, Zahra

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence and pattern of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) can vary from country to country, according to genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to analyze the patterns of disease in a population of Iranian patients with AS. We performed a prospective study (2002-2007) analyzing 98 patients with diagnosis of AS according to the modified New York criteria. Selected patients underwent complete clinical (initial symptom, axial and peripheral involvement, heel enthesitis, extra-articular manifestations) and radiological (sacroiliac, lumbar, thoracic, and cervical spine) investigations, and these data were compared with sex, age at onset, and HLA-B27. There was predominance of men (71.4%), adult onset (>16 years, 90.8%), and positive HLA-B27 (73.4%). Family history of AS was noted in 14.3% of the patients. The predominant initial symptoms were inflammatory low back pain (44.2%). Radiological findings included syndesmophytes in 34.7% and "bamboo spine" in 16.3% of patients. Acute anterior uveitis was noted in 44.9% of patients. Male sex was associated with involvement of shoulder (P = 0.001). Female sex and juvenile-onset AS were associated with extra-articular involvement. Positive HLA-B27 was associated with hip involvement (P = 0.042) and adult-onset AS (P = 0.035). Analysis of the patterns of disease in this population of 98 southern Iranian patients with AS revealed that female sex and juvenile-onset AS were associated with extensive extra-axial involvement; and HLA-B27 was associated with hip involvement.

  7. Population pharmacokinetic modeling of hydromorphone in cardiac surgery patients during postoperative pain therapy.

    PubMed

    Jeleazcov, Christian; Saari, Teijo I; Ihmsen, Harald; Mell, Jan; Fröhlich, Katharina; Krajinovic, Ljubica; Fechner, Jörg; Schüttler, Jürgen

    2014-02-01

    Hydromorphone is a µ-selective opioid agonist used in postoperative pain therapy. This study aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone in cardiac surgery patients during postoperative analgesia with target-controlled infusion and patient-controlled analgesia. In this study, 50 adult patients were enrolled to receive intravenous hydromorphone during postoperative pain therapy. Arterial plasma samples were collected for measurements of drug concentration. Population pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. Results were validated and simulations were carried out to evaluate results. Data from 49 patients (age range, 40-81 yr) were analyzed. The pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone were best described by a three-compartment model. Age was incorporated as a significant covariate for elimination clearance and central volume of distribution. Scaling all parameters with body weight improved the model significantly. The final estimates of the model parameters for the typical adult patient (67 yr old, weighing 70 kg) undergoing cardiac surgery were as follows: CL1 = 1.01 l/min, V1 = 3.35 l, CL2 = 1.47 l/min, V2 = 13.9 l, CL3 = 1.41 l/min, and V3 = 145 l. The elimination clearance decreased by 43% between the age of 40 and 80 yr, and simulations demonstrated that context-sensitive half-time increased from 26 to 84 min in 40- and 80-yr-old subjects, respectively. The final pharmacokinetic model gave a robust representation of hydromorphone pharmacokinetics. Inclusion of age and body weight to the model demonstrated a significant influence of these covariates on hydromorphone pharmacokinetics. The application of this patient-derived population model in individualized pain therapy should improve the dosing of hydromorphone in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

  8. Population Pharmacokinetics of Doripenem in Critically Ill Patients with Sepsis in a Malaysian Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Aziz, Mohd H; Abd Rahman, Azrin N; Mat-Nor, Mohd-Basri; Sulaiman, Helmi; Wallis, Steven C; Lipman, Jeffrey; Roberts, Jason A; Staatz, Christine E

    2015-10-19

    Doripenem has been recently introduced in Malaysia and is used for severe infections in the intensive care unit. However, limited data currently exist to guide optimal dosing in this scenario. We aimed to describe the population pharmacokinetics of doripenem in Malaysian critically ill patients with sepsis and use Monte Carlo dosing simulations to develop clinically relevant dosing guidelines for these patients. In this pharmacokinetic study, 12 critically ill adult patients with sepsis receiving 500 mg of doripenem every 8 h as a 1-hour infusion were enrolled. Serial blood samples were collected on 2 different days, and population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using a nonlinear mixed-effects modeling approach. A two-compartment linear model with between-subject and between-occasion variability on clearance was adequate in describing the data. The typical volume of distribution and clearance of doripenem in this cohort were 0.47 liters/kg and 0.14 liters/kg/h, respectively. Doripenem clearance was significantly influenced by patients' creatinine clearance (CL(CR)), such that a 30-ml/min increase in the estimated CL(CR) would increase doripenem CL by 52%. Monte Carlo dosing simulations suggested that, for pathogens with a MIC of 8 mg/liter, a dose of 1,000 mg every 8 h as a 4-h infusion is optimal for patients with a CL(CR) of 30 to 100 ml/min, while a dose of 2,000 mg every 8 h as a 4-h infusion is best for patients manifesting a CL(CR) of >100 ml/min. Findings from this study suggest that, for doripenem usage in Malaysian critically ill patients, an alternative dosing approach may be meritorious, particularly when multidrug resistance pathogens are involved. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Volcanisme, activité anthropique et circulation des masses océaniques : leur influence respective sur la distribution des populations d'ostracodes dans la baie de Kagoshima (île de Kyushu, Japon)Impact of volcanism, human activities, and water mass circulation on the distribution of ostracod populations in Kagoshima Bay (Kyushu Island, southern Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodergat, Anne-Marie; Oki, Kimihiko; Ishizaki, Kunihiro; Rio, Michel

    2002-11-01

    The distribution of ostracod populations in Kagoshima Bay (Japan) is analysed with reference to different environmental parameters. The bay is an area of volcanic activity of Sakurajima volcano under the influence of the Kuroshio Current. Most of the Head environment is occupied by an acidic water mass. Numbers of individual and species decrease from the Mouth of the bay towards the Basin and Head environments. In this latter, acidic water mass has a drastic effect on ostracod populations, whereas volcanic ashes and domestic inputs are not hostile. Ostracod distribution is influenced by the quality and structure of water masses. To cite this article: A.-M. Bodergat et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 1053-1059.

  10. Neuropathy-specific alterations in a Mexican population of diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Carbajal-Ramírez, Angélica; García-Macedo, Rebeca; Díaz-García, Carlos Manlio; Sanchez-Soto, Carmen; Padrón, Araceli Méndez; de la Peña, Jorge Escobedo; Cruz, Miguel; Hiriart, Marcia

    2017-08-25

    Neuropathy is one of the major complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our first aim was to determine the clinical characteristics of a population of diabetic patients with different types of neuropathy. Our next goal was to characterize the cytokine profile (IL-6 and IL-10), nerve growth factor (NGF) and circulating cell-adhesion molecules in these patients. Finally, we aimed to compare the renal function among the groups of neuropathic patients. In a cross-sectional study, we included 217 diabetic patients classified in three groups: sensory polyneuropathy with hypoesthesia (DShP) or hyperesthesia (DSHP), and motor neuropathy (DMN). Two control groups were included: one of 26 diabetic non-neuropathic patients (DNN), and the other of 375 non-diabetic (ND) healthy subjects. The participants were attending to the Mexican Institute of Social Security. The circulating levels of NGF were significantly lower in diabetic patients, compared to healthy subjects. The range of IL-6 and IL-10 levels in neuropathic patients was higher than the control groups; however, several samples yielded null measurements. Neuropathic patients also showed increased circulating levels of the adhesion molecules ICAM, VCAM, and E-Selectin, compared to the ND group. Moreover, neuropathic patients showed reduced glomerular filtration rates compared to healthy subjects (82-103 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), data as range from 25th-75th percentiles), especially in the group with DMN (45-76 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)). Some particular alterations in neuropathic patients included -but were not limited to- changes in circulating NGF, cell adhesion molecules, inflammation, and the worsening of the renal function. This study supports the need for further clinical surveillance and interventions considering a neuropathy-related basis.

  11. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in spontaneous brain abscess patients: a population-based comparative cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bartek, Jiri; Jakola, Asgeir S; Skyrman, Simon; Förander, Petter; Alpkvist, Peter; Schechtmann, Gaston; Glimåker, Martin; Larsson, Agneta; Lind, Folke; Mathiesen, Tiit

    2016-07-01

    There is a need to improve outcome in patients with brain abscesses and hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is a promising treatment modality. The objective of this study was to evaluate HBOT in the treatment of intracranial abscesses. This population-based, comparative cohort study included 40 consecutive adult patients with spontaneous brain abscess treated surgically between January 2003 and May 2014 at our institution. Twenty patients received standard therapy with surgery and antibiotics (non-HBOT group), while the remaining 20 patients also received adjuvant HBOT (HBOT group). Resolution of brain abscesses and infection was seen in all patients. Two patients had reoperations after HBOT initiation (10 %), while nine patients (45 %) in the non-HBOT group underwent reoperations (p = 0.03). Of the 26 patients who did not receive HBOT after the first surgery, 15 (58 %) had one or several recurrences that lead to a new treatment: surgery (n = 11), surgery + HBO (n = 5) or just HBO (n = 1). In contrast, recurrences occurred in only 2 of 14 (14 %) who did receive HBOT after the first surgery (p < 0.01). A good outcome (Glasgow Outcome Score [GOS] of 5) was achieved in 16 patients (80 %) in the HBOT cohort versus 9 patients (45 %) in the non-HBOT group (p = 0.04). HBOT was associated with less treatment failures and need for reoperation and seemingly with improved long-term outcome. Further, HBOT was well tolerated and safe. Prospective studies are warranted to establish the role of HBOT in the treatment of brain abscesses.

  12. Remote follow-up of pacemakers in a selected population of debilitated elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Folino, Antonio Franco; Breda, Roberto; Calzavara, Patrizia; Borghetti, Francesca; Comisso, Jennifer; Iliceto, Sabino; Buja, Gianfranco

    2013-03-01

    The majority of patients with pacemakers are very elderly, many being >85-years old. They often suffer from serious illnesses and have great difficulty in walking. The aim of our study was to compare remote pacemaker monitoring with in-home checks of pacemakers, in terms of applicability, efficacy, and cost in a selected population of debilitated elderly patients. We selected 72 subjects (mean age 87 ± 8 years) among elderly debilitated patients with Medtronic pacemakers, compatible with the Carelink(®) remote monitoring system (13 patients with DDD pacemaker; 59 patients with single-lead VDD pacemaker). Remote follow-up was compared with in-home checks performed by nurses in 326 patients in similar clinical conditions. A total of 190 transmissions were received by remote monitoring (mean transmissions per month: 7.0; mean per patient: 2.6; range 1-6) during 27 months of follow-up. In this period, seven pacemakers were replaced owing to battery exhaustion, after a mean of 6.7 years from implantation. The occurrence of atrial or ventricular high-rate episodes was reported in 98 transmissions (53%). Nineteen patients died (annual mortality: 11.7%). On comparing the costs borne by the hospital for in-home checks, both for medical personnel and transportation, the estimated average saving was €32 per year per patient. Our study shows that the remote follow-up of pacemakers is a reliable, effective, and cost-saving procedure in elderly, debilitated patients. Moreover, remote controls provided an accurate and early diagnosis of arrhythmia occurrence.

  13. Injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans des milieux fissures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mnif, Thameur

    Le travail presente ici est un bilan du travaux de recherche effectues sur l'injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans lu milieux fissures. Un certain nombre de coulis a base de ciment Portland et microfin ont ete selectionnes afin de caracteriser leur capacite a penetrer des milieux fissures. Une partie des essais a ete menee en laboratoire. L'etude rheologique des differents melanges a permis de tester l'influence de l'ajout de superplastifiant et/ou de fumee de silice sur la distribution granulometrique des coulis et par consequent sur leur capacite a injecter des colonnes de sable simulant un milieu fissure donne. La classe granulometrique d'un coulis, sa stabilite et sa fluidite sont apparus comme les trois facteurs principaux pour la reussite d'une injection. Un facteur de finesse a ete defini au cours de cette etude: base sur la classe granulometrique du ciment et sa stabilite, il peut entrer dans la formulation theorique du debit d'injection avant application sur chantier. La deuxieme et derniere partie de l'etude presente les resultats de deux projets de recherche sur l'injection realises sur chantier. L'injection de dalles de beton fissurees a permis le suivi de l'evolution des pressions avec la distance au point d'injection. L'injection de murs de maconnerie a caractere historique a montre l'importance de la definition de criteres de performance des coulis a utiliser pour traiter un milieu donne et pour un objectif donne. Plusieurs melanges peuvent ainsi etre predefinis et mis a disposition sur le chantier. La complementarite des ciments traditionnels et des ciments microfins devient alors un atout important. Le choix d'utilisation de ces melanges est fonction du terrain rencontre. En conclusion, cette recherche etablit une methodologie pour la selection des coulis a base de ciment et des pressions d'injection en fonction de l'ouverture des fissures ou joints de construction.

  14. Banding cytogenetic analysis in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in a Brazilian population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cytogenetic studies in Brazilian population about childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most common childhood malignancy, are scarce. Moreover, Brazilian race is very heterogeneous and is made by the confluence of people of several different origins, from the original Native Brazilians, with the influx of Portuguese colonizers, Black African slaves, and recent European, Arab and Japanese immigration. The purpose of this prospective, multicentric study was to assess the sociodemographic, clinic and cytogenetic characteristics of the children treated for ALL in the Northeast region of Brazil. Results This study includes thirty patients between 4 months and 17 years old treated for ALL from January 1st, 2009 to November 30th, 2010. Cytogenetic analysis showed that in nineteen out of thirty patients (64%) presented some chromosome abnormalities, in which 53% corresponds to numerical abnormalities, 21% structural and numerical abnormalities, and 26% only structural changes. Moreover, seven patients presented complexes karyotype not yet described in the literature. Taken together these results show the importance of the cytogenetic analysis in ALL pediatric patients and illustrates that the studied population presented unexpected complexes karyotypes which were correlated to poor outcome. Conclusion The results demonstrate the importance of banding cytogenetics for ALL diagnosis despite the use of most modern techniques such as FISH and aCGH, and provide reliable insight into the ALL in Brazil. PMID:24025689

  15. OVERCOMING BARRIERS To DIVERSITY IN CHIROPRACTIC PATIENT AND PRACTITIONER POPULATIONS: A COMMENTARY.

    PubMed

    Young, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the diversity of practitioner and patient populations has been identified as a worthy goal in the chiropractic profession, which has predominantly white male practitioners and white female patients in the USA. Toward that end, 'diversity' has been the topic of several papers and was the theme of a 2012 conference of chiropractic educators. However, generally just the microcosm of the interactions of practitioners with patients or teachers with students has been discussed. The macrocosm of larger societal issues and government policies has not been broached. Examples of issues and policies that affect diversity within a profession include portrayals of, and value judgements on diversity by the media and politicians, as well as public funding for healthcare and education. Diversity was defined in this paper to mean differences in race, sex, sexual orientation, economic status, ethnicity, religion and other life circumstances in a population. The purpose of this paper is to raise awareness of evidence that social issues and government policy affect the diversity of practitioners and patients, and to suggest that the barriers to diversity present in these realms be addressed with a cogent, profession-wide effort in order to help increase the diversity of people involved with chiropractic.

  16. ABCB5 identifies a therapy-refractory tumor cell population in colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Brian J.; Schatton, Tobias; Zhan, Qian; Gasser, Martin; Ma, Jie; Saab, Karim R.; Schanche, Robin; Waaga-Gasser, Ana-Maria; Gold, Jason S.; Huang, Qin; Murphy, George F.; Frank, Markus H.; Frank, Natasha Y.

    2012-01-01

    Identification and reversal of treatment resistance mechanisms of clinically refractory tumor cells is critical for successful cancer therapy. Here we show that ATP-binding cassette member B5 (ABCB5) identifies therapy-refractory tumor cells in colorectal cancer patients following fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemoradiation therapy and provide evidence for a functional role of ABCB5 in colorectal cancer 5-FU resistance. Examination of human colon and colorectal cancer specimens revealed ABCB5 to be expressed only on rare cells within healthy intestinal tissue, whereas clinical colorectal cancers exhibited substantially increased levels of ABCB5 expression. Analysis of successive, patient-matched biopsy specimens obtained prior to and following neoadjuvant 5-FU-based chemoradiation therapy in a series of colorectal cancer patients revealed markedly enhanced abundance of ABCB5-positive tumor cells when residual disease was detected. Consistent with this finding, the ABCB5-expressing tumor cell population was also treatment-refractory and exhibited resistance to 5-FU-induced apoptosis in a colorectal cancer xenograft model of 5-FU monotherapy. Mechanistically, shRNA-mediated ABCB5 knockdown significantly inhibited tumorigenic xenograft growth and sensitized colorectal cancer cells to 5-FU-induced cell killing. Our results identify ABCB5 as a novel molecular marker of therapy-refractory tumor cells in colorectal cancer patients and point to a need for consistent eradication of ABCB5-positive resistant tumor cell populations for more effective colorectal cancer therapy. PMID:21652540

  17. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: an analysis of patient characteristics in the Asian population.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, H; Lee, W Y; Fook-Chong, S; Yu, S L

    2011-03-01

    We aimed to identify the variables associated with ovarian hyperstimulation in Asian patients and compare them with western standards. This is a retrospective case record analysis of 79 patients with ovarian hyperstimulation at a tertiary restructured hospital. Gonadotropin doses resulting in hyperstimulation did not vary between long and antagonist cycles in women less than 35 years with polycystic ovaries (PCO). Mean oestradiol levels at hyperstimulation were not different between PCO and non-PCO patients in a long cycle. Hyperstimulation was mostly due to higher starting doses. Total follicle counts of more than 20 on Day 5-7 after stimulation may be predictive of subsequent hyperstimulation. Hyperstimulation tended to be more severe in lean PCO patients, and prophylactic albumin helped to reduce its severity. Gonadotropin doses at stimulation should start at 150 iu or less in women below 35 years of age, with a step up of 37.5 iu, as necessary. Transfer should be abandoned in the presence of high oestradiol levels (more than 5,000 pg/ml), when the total number of intermediate and large follicle count exceeds 30 on the day of oocyte retrieval, or when more than 19 eggs are retrieved. Variables in the Asian population appear to be similar to those in the western population.

  18. A population pharmacokinetic model for perioperative dosing of factor VIII in hemophilia A patients.

    PubMed

    Hazendonk, Hendrika; Fijnvandraat, Karin; Lock, Janske; Driessens, Mariëtte; van der Meer, Felix; Meijer, Karina; Kruip, Marieke; Gorkom, Britta Laros-van; Peters, Marjolein; de Wildt, Saskia; Leebeek, Frank; Cnossen, Marjon; Mathôt, Ron

    2016-10-01

    The role of pharmacokinetic-guided dosing of factor concentrates in hemophilia is currently a subject of debate and focuses on long-term prophylactic treatment. Few data are available on its impact in the perioperative period. In this study, a population pharmacokinetic model for currently registered factor VIII concentrates was developed for severe and moderate adult and pediatric hemophilia A patients (FVIII levels <0.05 IUmL(-1)) undergoing elective, minor or major surgery. Retrospective data were collected on FVIII treatment, including timing and dosing, time point of FVIII sampling and all FVIII plasma concentrations achieved (trough, peak and steady state), brand of concentrate, as well as patients' and surgical characteristics. Population pharmacokinetic modeling was performed using non-linear mixed-effects modeling. Population pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated in 75 adults undergoing 140 surgeries (median age: 48 years; median weight: 80 kg) and 44 children undergoing 58 surgeries (median age: 4.3 years; median weight: 18.5 kg). Pharmacokinetic profiles were best described by a two-compartment model. Typical values for clearance, intercompartment clearance, central and peripheral volume were 0.15 L/h/68 kg, 0.16 L/h/68 kg, 2.81 L/68 kg and 1.90 L/68 kg. Interpatient variability in clearance and central volume was 37% and 27%. Clearance decreased with increasing age (P<0.01) and increased in cases with blood group O (26%; P<0.01). In addition, a minor decrease in clearance was observed when a major surgical procedure was performed (7%; P<0.01). The developed population model describes the perioperative pharmacokinetics of various FVIII concentrates, allowing individualization of perioperative FVIII therapy for severe and moderate hemophilia A patients by Bayesian adaptive dosing. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  19. Predicting patient ‘cost blooms’ in Denmark: a longitudinal population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Tamang, Suzanne; Milstein, Arnold; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Pedersen, Lars; Mackey, Lester; Betterton, Jean-Raymond; Janson, Lucas; Shah, Nigam

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To compare the ability of standard versus enhanced models to predict future high-cost patients, especially those who move from a lower to the upper decile of per capita healthcare expenditures within 1 year—that is, ‘cost bloomers’. Design We developed alternative models to predict being in the upper decile of healthcare expenditures in year 2 of a sample, based on data from year 1. Our 6 alternative models ranged from a standard cost-prediction model with 4 variables (ie, traditional model features), to our largest enhanced model with 1053 non-traditional model features. To quantify any increases in predictive power that enhanced models achieved over standard tools, we compared the prospective predictive performance of each model. Participants and Setting We used the population of Western Denmark between 2004 and 2011 (2 146 801 individuals) to predict future high-cost patients and characterise high-cost patient subgroups. Using the most recent 2-year period (2010–2011) for model evaluation, our whole-population model used a cohort of 1 557 950 individuals with a full year of active residency in year 1 (2010). Our cost-bloom model excluded the 155 795 individuals who were already high cost at the population level in year 1, resulting in 1 402 155 individuals for prediction of cost bloomers in year 2 (2011). Primary outcome measures Using unseen data from a future year, we evaluated each model's prospective predictive performance by calculating the ratio of predicted high-cost patient expenditures to the actual high-cost patient expenditures in Year 2—that is, cost capture. Results Our best enhanced model achieved a 21% and 30% improvement in cost capture over a standard diagnosis-based model for predicting population-level high-cost patients and cost bloomers, respectively. Conclusions In combination with modern statistical learning methods for analysing large data sets, models enhanced with a large and diverse set of features

  20. Bone mineral density in patients with hand osteoarthritis compared to population controls and patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Haugen, I K; Slatkowsky‐Christensen, B; Ørstavik, R; Kvien, T K

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Several studies have revealed increased bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with knee or hip osteoarthritis, but few studies have addressed this issue in hand osteoarthritis (HOA). The aims of this study were to compare BMD levels and frequency of osteoporosis between female patients with HOA, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and controls aged 50–70 years, and to explore possible relationships between BMD and disease characteristics in patients with HOA. Methods 190 HOA and 194 RA patients were recruited from the respective disease registers in Oslo, and 122 controls were selected from the population register of Oslo. All participants underwent BMD measurements of femoral neck, total hip and lumbar spine (dual‐energy x ray absorptiometry), interview, clinical joint examination and completed self‐reported questionnaires. Results Age‐, weight‐ and height‐adjusted BMD values were significantly higher in HOA versus RA and controls, the latter only significant for femoral neck and lumbar spine. The frequency of osteoporosis was not significantly different between HOA and controls, but significantly lower in HOA versus RA. Adjusted BMD values did not differ between HOA patients with and without knee OA, and significant associations between BMD levels and symptom duration or disease measures were not observed. Conclusion HOA patients have a higher BMD than population‐based controls, and this seems not to be limited to patients with involvement of larger joints. The lack of correlation between BMD and disease duration or severity does not support the hypothesis that higher BMD is a consequence of the disease itself. PMID:17502356

  1. System-Level Reform in Healthcare Delivery for Patients and Populations Living with Chronic Disease.

    PubMed

    Wedge, Richard; Currie, Douglas W

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare in Canada has generally not kept pace with the evolving needs of patients since the creation of medicare in the 1960s. Budgets for hospitals, physicians and prescription drugs make up the bulk of spending in health, despite the need for better prevention and management of chronic disease, the needed expansion of home-based care services and the call for reform of front-line primary care. Over the past decade, a number of Canadian health authorities have adopted the US-based Institute for Healthcare Improvement Triple Aim philosophy (better population health, better patient experience and better per capita cost of care) in order to build system-level change. The Atlantic Healthcare Collaboration was one attempt to initiate system-level reform in healthcare delivery for patients living with chronic disease.

  2. Obesity in the Kaiser Permanente Patient Population and Positive Outcomes of Online Weight-Management Programs

    PubMed Central

    Bachman, Keith H; Histon, Trina M; Remmers, Carol

    2007-01-01

    We review what is known about the effects of obesity in the Kaiser Permanente (KP) population and discuss outcomes for two nationally available effective online programs, HealthMedia Balance® (Balance) and 10,000 Steps®. Obese KP patients often have health problems related to overweight and report difficulties with self-care, yet with the proper support, they can avail themselves of effective treatment to manage both obesity and associated conditions that affect quality of life. Clinicians should be aware of potential problems with functional status and self-care in their obese patients, provide brief assessment and advice, and refer obese patients to effective national and regional weight-management programs. PMID:21461090

  3. A novel method of estimating cost of therapy by using patient population characteristics: analysis of fluoroquinolones in various populations with different distributions of renal function.

    PubMed

    Enzweiler, Kevin A; Bosso, John A; White, Roger L

    2003-07-01

    Formulary decisions regarding a given drug class are often made in the absence of patient outcome and/or sophisticated pharmacoeconomic data. Analyses that consider factors beyond simple acquisition costs may be useful in such situations. For example, the cost implications of using manufacturers' recommendations for dosing in patients with renal dysfunction may be important, depending on the distribution of various levels of renal function within a patient population. Using four 1000-patient populations representing different renal function distributions and a fifth population of our medical center's distribution, we determined the costs of therapy for intravenous and oral levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin for a 10-day course of therapy for community-acquired pneumonia. Costs considered were average wholesale prices (AWPs), 50% of AWP, or same daily price, plus intravenous dose preparation and administration costs when applicable. Costs for each renal function distribution were examined for significant differences with an analysis-of-variance test. Also, costs of failing to adjust dosing regimens for decreased renal function were determined. Differences in fluoroquinolone costs (AWP, 50% AWP, or when matched as the same daily price) among the populations were found. When considering same daily prices, differences among populations ranged from about 35,000 dollars with intravenous gatifloxacin to more than 51,000 dollars for intravenous levofloxacin (all fluoroquinolones, p>0.05). Within a population, differences in costs among the intravenous fluoroquinolones ranged from 47,000-99,000 dollars. Rank orders of the drugs and population costs of therapy were affected by the pricing structure used and varied by the specific population and drug. Differences among the fluoroquinolones or populations were much smaller (<2100 dollars) when considering oral regimens. Costs potentially incurred by failing to adjust dosing for renal function were substantial

  4. [Breast cancer with triple-negative phenotype in the Russian patient population. Clinical and morphologic features].

    PubMed

    Zhukova, L G

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence of breast cancer with triple-negative phenotype (TN BC) in the Russian population as well as to compare the clinical and morphological features and outcomes for women with TN BC with other types of breast cancer. We studied a cohort of 499 patients with breast cancer without distant metastases, diagnosed between 2002 and 2011 at N.N.Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center in Moscow. Triple-negative breast cancers were defined as those that had "negative" level of estrogens and progesteron receptors and were HER2neu negative. 330 (66.2%) of patients has triple negative tumors, 81 (16.2%)--ER and PR negative and HER-2 positive tumors, and 88 (17.6%)--ER and/or ER positive and HER-2 negative tumors. Further was evaluated disease-free and overall survival. 18.5 % of all analyzed patients had triple negative phenotype. Median follow-up was 40.5 months. Characteristic features of the TN BC were: TN breast cancer, compared with other subtypes, characterized by a higher incidence of clinical and morphological features associated with an aggressive course of the disease: the age less than 35 years, grade 3, non- specified invasive histology, high level of Ki-67, the rapid development of the disease, which manifests itself in small terms of the first complaints before the diagnosis. TN BC patients has poorer 5-year overall survival (73.6 + 3.6%) and the 5-year disease-free survival (70.6 + 3.5%), which is significantly lower than the comparable survival of patients with other subtypes of breast cancer (p < 0.001). The results of our study confirm the similarity of majority of clinical and morphological characteristics, course and prognosis of the disease of the Russian population of TN BC patients with those in Europe and the United States.

  5. Survival in Mediterranean ambulatory patients with chronic heart failure. A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Frigola-Capell, Eva; Comin-Colet, Josep; Davins-Miralles, Josep; Gich-Saladich, Ignasi J; Wensing, Michel; Verdú-Rotellar, Jose M

    2013-07-01

    Scarce research has been performed in ambulatory patients with chronic heart failure in the Mediterranean area. Our aim was to describe survival trends in our target population and the impact of prognostic factors. We carried out a population-based retrospective cohort study in Catalonia (north-east Spain) of 5659 ambulatory patients (60% women; mean age 77 [10] years) with incident chronic heart failure. Eligible patients were selected from the electronic patient records of primary care practices from 2005 and were followed-up until 2007. During the follow-up period deaths occurred in 950 patients (16.8%). Survival after the onset of chronic heart failure at 1, 2, and 3 years was 90%, 80%, 69%, respectively. No significant differences in survival were found between men and women (P=.13). Cox proportional hazard modelling confirmed an increased risk of death with older age (hazard ratio=1.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.07), diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio=1.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.33-1.76), chronic kidney disease (hazard ratio=1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.45-2.05), and ischemic heart disease (hazard ratio=1.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.36). Hypertension (hazard ratio=0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.84) had a protective effect. Service planning and prevention programs should take into consideration the relatively high survival rates found in our area and the effect of prognostic factors that can help to identify high risk patients. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical validity of a population database definition of remission in patients with major depression

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Major depression (MD) is one of the most frequent diagnoses in Primary Care. It is a disabling illness that increases the use of health resources. Aim: To describe the concordance between remission according to clinical assessment and remission obtained from the computerized prescription databases of patients with MD in a Spanish population. Methods Design: multicenter cross-sectional. The population under study was comprised of people from six primary care facilities, who had a MD episode between January 2003 and March 2007. A specialist in psychiatry assessed a random sample of patient histories and determined whether a certain patient was in remission according to clinical criteria (ICPC-2). Regarding the databases, patients were considered in remission when they did not need further prescriptions of AD for at least 6 months after completing treatment for a new episode. Validity indicators (sensitivity [S], specificity [Sp]) and clinical utility (positive and negative probability ratio [PPR] and [NPR]) were calculated. The concordance index was established using Cohen's kappa coefficient. Significance level was p < 0.05. Results 133 patient histories were reviewed. The kappa coefficient was 82.8% (confidence intervals [CI] were 95%: 73.1 - 92.6), PPR 9.8% and NPR 0.1%. Allocation discrepancies between both criteria were found in 11 patients. S was 92.5% (CI was 95%: 88.0 - 96.9%) and Sp was 90.6% (CI was 95%: 85.6 - 95.6%), p < 0.001. Reliability analysis: Cronbach's alpha: 90.6% (CI was 95%: 85.6 - 95.6%). Conclusions Results show an acceptable level of concordance between remission obtained from the computerized databases and clinical criteria. The major discrepancies were found in diagnostic accuracy. PMID:20149222

  7. Profil épidémiologique des tumeurs malignes primitives des glandes salivaires : à propos de 154 cas

    PubMed Central

    Setti, Khadija; Mouanis, Mohamed; Moumni, Abdelmounim; Maher, Mostafa; Harmouch, Amal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Les tumeurs des glandes salivaires sont des tumeurs rares représentant 3à 5% des tumeurs de la tête et du cou. La classification de l'OMS 2005 distingue les tumeurs épithéliales, les tumeurs mésenchymateuses, les tumeurs hématologiques et les tumeurs secondaires. Méthodes Notre travail consiste en une étude rétrospective réalisée sur une période de 10 ans allant de janvier 2002 à janvier 2012. Les critères d'inclusion étaient: l'âge, le sexe, le siège de la tumeur et le type histologique. Résultats L'incidence annuelle des tumeurs malignes primitives des glandes salivaires dans notre série était de 15 cas par an. Cent cinquante quatre cas de tumeurs malignes primitives des glandes salivaires ont été colligés sans prédominance de sexe (78 femmes (50,6%) et 76 hommes (49,4%)). La moyenne d'âge était de 60 ans avec des extrêmes de 4 et 83 ans et un pic de fréquence entre 51et 70 ans. Deux tiers des cas (65%) avaient une localisation au niveau des glandes principales avec 66 cas au niveau de la parotide (43%) et 34 cas au niveau de la glande sous maxillaire (22%). Cinquante quatre patients avaient une tumeur maligne des glandes salivaires accessoires (35%) dont 61% au niveau du palais. Aucun cas de tumeur maligne de la glande sublinguale n'a été recensé dans notre étude. Le type histologique prédominant dans notre série était le carcinome adénoïde kystique et retrouvé chez 43 patients (27,9%), suivi de l'adénocarcinome sans autre indication chez 37 patients (24%) puis du carcinome mucoépidermoïde chez 16 patients (10,4%) et de l'adénocarcinome polymorphe de bas grade également chez 16 patients (10. 4%). Conclusion Les tumeurs malignes des glandes salivaires représentent un ensemble hétérogène de maladies de caractérisation complexe et de fréquence variable. PMID:25120861

  8. Prevalence and characteristics of pain in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease compared to the Norwegian general population.

    PubMed

    Bentsen, Signe Berit; Rustøen, Tone; Miaskowski, Christine

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of pain in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared to a sample from the Norwegian general population. This cross-sectional study evaluated 100 COPD patients with and without pain and 333 individuals from the Norwegian population with pain. After controlling for age and sex, a significantly higher percentage of patients with COPD (45%) reported pain than the general population (34%; P = .02). No differences were found in pain intensity scores, pain interference score, or number of pain locations between COPD patients and the general population. COPD patients reported moderate-to-severe pain located primarily in the chest, shoulders, neck, and thorax. For both groups, the most common pain treatment was analgesic use. Acupuncture/transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation was used more frequently by COPD patients (P < .001) while physiotherapy was used more frequently by the general population (P = .007) to treat their pain. Pain is a significant problem for COPD patients. Additional research is warranted to replicate these findings and to provide a more detailed characterization of how pain changes over time and influences COPD patients' ability to function and their quality of life. Compared to the general population, pain is more common in patients with COPD and ranges from moderate to severe in its intensity. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Vatalanib population pharmacokinetics in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome: CALGB 10105 (Alliance)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Owzar, Kouros; Gupta, Pankaj; Larson, Richard A; Mulkey, Flora; Miller, Antonius A; Lewis, Lionel D; Hurd, David; Vij, Ravi; Ratain, Mark J; Murry, Daryl J

    2014-01-01

    Aims Vatalanib is an oral anti-angiogenesis agent that inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, which in patients showed auto induction of metabolism and variability in pharmacokinetic (PK) disposition. The objective was to characterize the population PK and time-dependent change in vatalanib clearance and assess exposure–toxicity relationship in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Methods This was an open-label phase II study of vatalanib in MDS patients receiving 750–1250 mg once daily in 28-day cycles. Serial blood samples were obtained and plasma vatalanib concentrations measured by HPLC. Population PK analysis was performed using nonmem 7.2 with FO estimation since FOCE failed. The final model was evaluated using goodness-of-fit plots, bootstrap analysis, and visual predictive check. Results Pharmacokinetic data were complete for 137 patients (86 M, 51 F), of median age 70 years (range 20–91). A one-compartment model with lagged first-order absorption and time-dependent change in oral clearance was fitted to the vatalanib plasma concentration versus time data. The population means for pre-induction and post-induction oral clearance were 24.1 l h–1 (range: 9.6–45.5) and 54.9 l h–1 (range: 39.8–75.6), respectively. The apparent oral clearance increased 2.3-fold, (range: 1.7–4.1-fold) from first dose to steady state. Our data did not identify a significant relationship of the predefined covariates with vatalanib pharmacokinetics, although power to detect such a relationship was limited. Conclusions Vatalanib pharmacokinetics were highly variable and the extent of auto induction was not determined to correlate with any of the pre-defined covariates. PMID:24838014

  10. Self-efficacy, transition, and patient outcomes in the sickle cell disease population.

    PubMed

    Molter, Brittany L; Abrahamson, Kathleen

    2015-06-01

    Severe pain is a common symptom of sickle cell disease (SCD). Transitions between adult and pediatric care are a point of particular vulnerability for patients, increasing the risk for poor pain management. The purpose of this literature review was to investigate the relationships among self-efficacy, transition, and SCD health outcomes. A systematic literature search was performed within CINAHL, Academic Search Premier, MEDLINE, and PubMed on published papers between 2003 and 2013. After applying exclusion criteria, 20 articles were used in the final review. Few studies were identified that directly tested the relationship between self-efficacy and SCD outcomes. Although there are few studies on this topic, most demonstrated positive correlations between self-efficacy during transition and positive patient outcomes in the SCD population. Additional studies are needed to support causation. Studies were commonly limited by small sample sizes and attrition. Furthermore, there is a large gap in the literature regarding how self-efficacy can be increased in these patients. Interventions that promote self-efficacy have the potential to improve SCD pain outcomes, but more research is needed to develop interventions to increase these adolescents' self-efficacy. If providers can identify individuals in this population with low self-efficacy, they may be able to intervene early to improve patient outcomes. Most identified studies point to the positive correlation between self-efficacy and positive health outcomes in adolescents with SCD. Self-efficacy has the potential to guide self-care interventions and further research with the SCD population.

  11. Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Atherothrombotic Disease: A Population-Based Longitudinal Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wen-Hsien; Hsu, Po-Chao; Chu, Chun-Yuan; Su, Ho-Ming; Lee, Chee-Siong; Yen, Hsueh-Wei; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Voon, Wen-Chol; Lai, Wen-Ter; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung

    2014-01-01

    Background Atherothrombotic diseases including cerebrovascular disease (CVD), coronary artery disease (CAD), and peripheral arterial disease (PAD), contribute to the major causes of death in the world. Although several studies showed the association between polyvascular disease and poor cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in Asian population, there was no large-scale study to validate this relationship in this population. Methods and Results This retrospective cohort study included patients with a diagnosis of CVD, CAD, or PAD from the database contained in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Bureau during 2001–2004. A total of 19954 patients were enrolled in this study. The atherothrombotic disease score was defined according to the number of atherothrombotic disease. The study endpoints included acute coronary syndrome (ACS), all strokes, vascular procedures, in hospital mortality, and so on. The event rate of ischemic stroke (18.2%) was higher than that of acute myocardial infarction (5.7%) in our patients (P = 0.0006). In the multivariate Cox regression analyses, the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of each increment of atherothrombotic disease score in predicting ACS, all strokes, vascular procedures, and in hospital mortality were 1.41, 1.66, 1.30, and 1.14, respectively (P≦0.0169). Conclusions This large population-based longitudinal study in patients with atherothrombotic disease demonstrated the risk of subsequent ischemic stroke was higher than that of subsequent AMI. In addition, the subsequent adverse CV events including ACS, all stroke, vascular procedures, and in hospital mortality were progressively increased as the increase of atherothrombotic disease score. PMID:24647769

  12. Smoking, cessation, and cessation counseling in patients with cancer: A population-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Apoorva T; Toll, Benjamin A; Chagpar, Anees B; Judson, Benjamin L

    2016-04-15

    Smoking is known to be carcinogenic and an important factor in the outcome of cancer treatment. However, to the authors' knowledge, smoking habits and smoking cessation counseling in patients with cancer have been poorly studied. The authors sought to analyze smoking habits among Americans diagnosed with cancer in a nationally representative dataset. The cancer supplement of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) in 2010 was used to obtain information regarding self-reported smoking behavior in a representative sample of the US population. Cancer history, smoking history, quitting behavior, cessation counseling, cessation approaches, and sociodemographic variables were analyzed. A total of 27,157 individuals were interviewed for the NHIS in 2010, representing 216,052,891 individuals, 7,058,135 of whom had ever smoked and 13,188,875 of whom had been told that they had cancer. Approximately 51.7% of individuals diagnosed with cancer and who were active smokers reported being counseled to quit smoking by a health professional within the previous 12 months. Cancer survivors were no more likely to quit smoking than individuals in the general population. Those diagnosed with a tobacco-related cancer were found to be no more likely to report quitting smoking than those with other types of cancers. Rates of quitting did not appear to vary based on the type of smoking cessation method used (P = .50). Patients with cancer, including those diagnosed with a tobacco-related cancer, do not appear to be more likely to quit smoking than the general population. Only approximately one-half of patients with cancer who smoke are counseled to quit. Smoking cessation in patients with cancer is an important area for intervention and investigation. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  13. Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Patients with Insomnia: A Population-based Historical Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Ling; Chien, Wu-Chien; Chung, Chi-Hsiang; Wu, Fei-Ling

    2017-08-18

    We investigated the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in patients with and without insomnia. In this historical cohort study, we performed a secondary analysis of data from 2001 to 2010, which was obtained from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Database. We developed a Cox proportional hazard regression model to estimate the effects of insomnia on T2DM risk. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was applied to compare the differences in the cumulative incidence of T2DM between the groups with and without insomnia. During the follow-up period, the T2DM incidence rate of patients with insomnia was significantly higher than that of patients without insomnia (34.7 vs. 24.3 per 1000 person-years). Overall, patients with insomnia had a higher risk of T2DM than did patients without insomnia [adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.10-1.19]. Among patients aged younger than 40 years, those with insomnia had a higher risk of T2DM than did the comparison cohort (adjusted HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.14-1.55). Compared with patients without insomnia, the risk tended to increase with the duration of follow-up in patients with insomnia; when the insomnia duration was <4 years, 4-8 years, and >8 years, the risk of T2DM increased by 1.14, 1.38, and 1.51 times (95% CI, 1.03-1.17, 1.15-1.49, and 1.20-1.86), respectively. Patients with insomnia had a higher risk of T2DM, and this risk was particularly pronounced among the young-aged (≤40 years) population. Chronic insomnia could be an important risk factor for T2DM. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Accelerometer Quantification of Physical Activity and Activity Patterns in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis and Population Controls.

    PubMed

    van Genderen, Simon; Boonen, Annelies; van der Heijde, Désirée; Heuft, Liesbeth; Luime, Jolanda; Spoorenberg, Anneke; Arends, Suzanne; Landewé, Robert; Plasqui, Guy

    2015-12-01

    To compare the total amount of physical activity (TPA) and time spent in various activity intensities of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and population controls, and to explore factors related to physical activity (PA). Subjects were asked to wear a triaxial accelerometer for 7 days and to complete a series of questionnaires. Multivariable regressions were used to assess generic determinants of TPA in patients and controls, and in patients to explore demographic and disease-specific determinants of various PA intensities. One hundred and thirty-five patients [51 ± 13 yrs, 60% men, body mass index (BMI) 26.0 ± 4.3 kg/m(2)] and 99 controls (45 ± 12 yrs, 67% men, BMI 25.1 ± 4.3 kg/m(2)) were included. Patients did not differ from controls regarding TPA (589 vs 608 vector count/min, p = 0.98), minutes/day spent in sedentary (524 vs 541, p = 0.17), and light PA (290 vs 290 p = 0.95), but spent fewer minutes/day in moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA; 23 vs 30 min/day, p = 0.006). Perceived functional ability (physical component summary of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36) and BMI were associated with TPA independent of having AS (p interaction = 0.21 and 0.94, respectively). Additional analyses in patients showed that time spent in MVPA was negatively influenced by BMI, physical function (Bath AS Functional Index), and disease duration. In patients ≥ 52 years old, a higher Bath AS Disease Activity Index was associated with less time spent in sedentary and more time spent in light activities. Compared with controls, patients with AS had similar TPA, but may avoid engagement in higher intensities of PA. Lower levels of functional ability and higher BMI were associated with lower TPA in both patients and controls.

  15. Prescription Patterns of Sorafenib and Outcomes of Patients with Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A National Population Study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Li-Chun; Chen, Pei-Jer; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Chen, Ho-Min; Lai, Mei-Shu; Shao, Yu-Yun; Cheng, Ann-Lii

    2017-05-01

    Sorafenib is the current standard treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We analyzed national prescription patterns and treatment outcomes of patients who received sorafenib for advanced HCC. We established a nation-wide cohort of patients who started receiving treatment with sorafenib for advanced HCC between August 2012 and July 2013 from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan and also retrieved demographic and prescription data. The databases of National Death Registry and Taiwan Cancer Registry were used for survival outcomes and cancer diagnosis information, respectively. A total of 3,293 patients were enrolled. The median overall survival (OS) and time to treatment discontinuation (TTD) of all patients were 6.8 and 2.6 months, respectively. Upon the first prescription of sorafenib, 58.4% of patients received the standard dose (800 mg/day). Among them, 61.9% had subsequent dose reduction. A total of 41.6% of patients initially received lower than standard doses; 36.1% of them had subsequent dose escalation to 800 mg/day. Being male (odds ratio=1.41; p<0.001) and treatment year of 2012 (odds ratio=1.28; p=0.002) were associated with the standard initial dose. Patients who received standard initial dose of sorafenib, compared to patients who received lower initial doses, exhibited longer OS (median of 7.8 vs. 6.6 months, p<0.001) but similar TTD (median of 2.6 vs. 2.9 months, p=0.840). A considerable number of patients with advanced HCC received less than the standard dose of sorafenib. The treatment outcomes in the general population were consistent with those reported in clinical trials. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  16. High Risk of Depressive Disorders in Patients With Gout: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Changchien, Te-Chang; Yen, Yung-Chieh; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Ming-Chia; Liang, Ji-An; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-12-01

    Metabolic abnormalities are common in patients with depressive disorders. However, the relationship between gout and depression is unclear. We explored the causal relationship among gout, antigout medication, and the associated risk of incidental depressive disorders.In this nationwide cohort study, we sampled data from the National Health Insurance Research Database to recruit 34,050 patients with gout as the gout cohort and 68,100 controls (without gout) as the nongout cohort. Our primary endpoint was the diagnosis of depressive disorders during follow-up. The overall study population was followed up until depression diagnosis, withdrawal from the NHI program, or the end of the study. The differences in demographic and clinical characteristics between both cohorts were determined using the Chi-square test for categorical variables and the t-test for continuous variables. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to examine the effect of gout on the risk of depression, represented using the hazard ratio with the 95% confidence interval.Patients with gout exhibited a higher risk of depressive disorders than controls did. The risk of depressive disorders increased with age and was higher in female patients and those with hypertension, stroke, and coronary artery disease. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug and prednisolone use was associated with a reduced risk of depression. Patients with gout who had received antigout medication exhibited a reduced risk of depressive disorders compared with nongout patients.Our findings support that gout increases the risk of depressive disorders, and that antigout medication use reduces the risk.

  17. The risk of atrial fibrillation in patients with gout: a nationwide population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Yu-Jui; Tsai, Tzu-Hsien; Chang, Hui-Ping; Chua, Sarah; Chung, Sheng-Ying; Yang, Cheng-Hsu; Lin, Cheng-Jei; Wu, Chiung-Jen; Hang, Chi-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have found that systemic inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). Gout is a chronic systemic inflammatory disorder, but little evidence exists regarding whether the risk of AF is increased in patients with gout. The National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan was used in this study, and gout was defined as the occurrence of at least one episode of an acute gout attack requiring medical treatment. A total of 63264 gout and 63264 age- and gender-matched patients were included as the study population. The Cox model was used to evaluate the risk of AF in patients with gout. Patients with gout experienced a greater frequency of co-morbidities compared to patients without gout. The cumulative incidences of AF were 4.61% and 3.04% in patients with and without gout, respectively (log-rank test, P < 0.001). After adjusting for co-morbidities and prescription medication use, gout was found to be associated with AF [hazard ratio (HR), 1.38]. Moreover, the HR for AF decreased with increasing age in our study. Gout was found to be associated with an increased risk of developing AF after adjusting for potential confounders. PMID:27599578

  18. Survival of patients with mixed phenotype acute leukemias: A large population-based study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Runhua; Munker, Reinhold

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about the incidence and treatment outcome of patients with acute biphenotypic leukemias. The World Health Organization (WHO) established the term of acute leukemia of ambiguous phenotype in 2001 (revised in 2008) introducing the term of mixed phenotype acute leukemias. Using the database of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry (SEER), we identified 313 patients with mixed phenotype acute leukemias and compared them with 14,739 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 34,326 patients with acute myelogenous leukemias diagnosed between 2001 and 2011. As a further control group, 1777 patients were included who were not classified as myeloid, lymphoid or biphenotypic (other acute leukemias). The incidence of mixed phenotype acute leukemias is 0.35 cases/1,000,000 person-years. In a multivariate analysis, the prognosis depends strongly on age (as with other leukemias) and it has the worst outcome of all four types of leukemia. However, the prognosis has improved, comparing 2001-2005 with 2006-2011. We present the first comprehensive, population-based study of acute biphenotypic or mixed phenotype acute leukemias according to the WHO classification. Especially in older patients, the prognosis is unfavorable and new treatments should be investigated. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Risk of cancer among patients with herpes zoster infection: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Ping; Liu, Chia-Jen; Hu, Yu-Wen; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Lin, Yi-Tsung; Fung, Chang-Phone

    2012-01-01

    Background: Whether the risk of cancer is increased among patients with herpes zoster is unclear. We investigated the risk of cancer among patients with herpes zoster using a nationwide health registry in Taiwan. Methods: We identified 35 871 patients with newly diagnosed herpes zoster during 2000–2008 from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We analyzed the standardized incidence ratios for various types of cancer. Results: Among patients with herpes zoster, 895 cases of cancer were reported. Patients with herpes zoster were not at increased risk of cancer (standardized incidence ratio 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.93–1.06). Among the subgroups stratified by sex, age and years of follow-up, there was also no increased risk of overall cancer. Interpretation: Herpes zoster is not associated with increased risk of cancer in the general population. These findings do not support extensive investigations for occult cancer or enhanced surveillance for cancer in patients with herpes zoster. PMID:22988158

  20. Prevalence of maxillary lateral incisor agenesis and associated skeletal characteristics in an orthodontic patient population.

    PubMed

    Bassiouny, Dalia S; Afify, Ahmed R; Baeshen, Hosam A; Birkhed, Dowen; Zawawi, Khalid H

    2016-08-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of maxillary lateral incisor agenesis and associated skeletal characteristics in an orthodontic patient population. The records of the 1066 patients seeking orthodontic treatment were screened for maxillary lateral incisor agenesis (MLIA). The following data were recorded for each subject: age; gender; unilateral or bilateral agenesis of MLI and side. The lateral cephalogram of each subject with MLIA was digitally traced. The data were compared to age-matched control orthodontic patients with skeletal Class I. The prevalence of maxillary lateral incisor agenesis was 4.9% (52 patients) in which 63.5% were females. There was a significant difference between MLIA patients and controls in sagittal relationships (ANB, Wits, AB plane, angle of convexity and Co-A/Co-Gn differential analyses) p < 0.05. Patients with maxillary lateral incisor agenesis showed a significant tendency for skeletal Class III compared with the Class I control. This could be attributed to maxillary hypoplasia/retrognathia.

  1. Efficacy of ivermectin in a patient population concomitantly infected with intestinal helminths and ectoparasites.

    PubMed

    Heukelbach, Jörg; Wilcke, Thomas; Winter, Benedikt; Sales de Oliveira, Fabíola Araújo; Sabóia Moura, Rômulo César; Harms, Gundel; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2004-01-01

    Ivermectin (CAS 70288-86-7) is a potent antiparasitic drug. However, studies have not been published evaluating the efficacy of ivermectin in a patient population concomitantly infected with intestinal helminths and ectoparasites. Here the results of an open trial on the efficacy of ivermectin in a heavily poly-parasitized population in northeast Brazil are presented. Two hundred and fifty-one patients were enrolled. Two doses of ivermectin (200 microg/kg) were given at an interval of 10 days. The cure rates for intestinal helminthiases were: 100% for strongyloidiasis and enterobiasis, 99% for ascariasis, 84% for trichuriasis, 68% for hookworm disease, and 50% for hymenolepiasis. Cure rates for ectoparasitoses were: 100% for cutaneous larva migrans, 99% for pediculosis, 88% for scabies and 64% for tungiasis. The results show that two doses of ivermectin are highly efficacious for most intestinal helminths and ectoparasites simultaneously present in an impoverished population. The drug seems to be particularly useful when polyparasitism is expected to occur or when public health measures aim to reduce both intestinal helminthiases and parasitic skin diseases by mass chemotherapy.

  2. Prevalence of autoimmune disease in moyamoya disease patients in Western Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Bin; Liu, Yi; Zhou, Liang-Xue; Sun, Hong; He, Min; You, Chao

    2015-04-15

    The pathogenesis of moyamoya remains to be elucidated and an immunologic basis has been suggested. For gaining further insight into the pathogenesis of moyamoya, we explored the epidemiological characteristics of autoimmune disease in moyamoya disease (MMD) in Western Chinese population. Retrospective clinical characteristic analysis of patients with angiographically confirmed MMD was performed and compared with the general Chinese population. A significantly higher prevalence of autoimmune disease was observed, particularly type 1 diabetes mellitus (P<0.001, 7.0% vs 1.2%, χ(2) test) and Graves disease (P<0.001, 7.0% vs 0.34%, χ(2) test) in the general Chinese population. The overall prevalence of autoimmune disease in MMD was up to 31.0% (44/142). This study suggested higher overall prevalence of autoimmune disease in MMD in Western China when compared with the general Chinese population. The findings further supported that autoimmune abnormality might associate with MMD and autoimmune component to pathogenesis of moyamoya vasculopathy.

  3. Population Pharmacokinetics of Valproic Acid in Pediatric Patients With Epilepsy: Considerations for Dosing Spinal Muscular Atrophy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jason H.; Jayaraman, Bhuvaneswari; Swoboda, Kathryn J.; Barrett, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) dosing strategies used in recent clinical trials in patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) have utilized a paradigm of monitoring trough levels to estimate drug exposure with subsequent dose titration. The validity of this approach remains uncertain and could be improved by understanding sources of pharmacokinetic variability. A population pharmacokinetic analysis of VPA in pediatric patients with epilepsy was recently performed. The pooled data set included 52 subjects with epilepsy, ages 1 to 17 years, who received intravenous and/or various oral formulations. The data was best fit by a 2-compartment model; inclusion of age and weight reduced intersubject variability for clearance (41%), central volume (70%), and peripheral volume (42%) over the base model. The final model for clearance and volume parameters was clearance = 0.854 · (weight/70)0.75; central volume of distribution = 10.3 · (weight/70)1.0 · (age/8.5)−0.267; peripheral volume of distribution = 4.08 · (weight/70)1.0; and intercompartmental clearance = 5.34 · (weight/70)0.75. Application of the model to data from a clinical trial in SMA patients suggests altered kinetics, perhaps based on underlying physiologic differences such as alterations in lean body mass. Future studies in SMA should incorporate modeling and simulation techniques to support individualized dosing and further assess if additional patient-specific factors necessitate alternative dosing strategies. PMID:22167565

  4. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in diabetes: patient populations, safety, efficacy, and pharmacoeconomics.

    PubMed

    Pozzilli, Paolo; Battelino, Tadej; Danne, Thomas; Hovorka, Roman; Jarosz-Chobot, Przemyslawa; Renard, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The level of glycaemic control necessary to achieve optimal short-term and long-term outcomes in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) typically requires intensified insulin therapy using multiple daily injections or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. For continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, the insulins of choice are the rapid-acting insulin analogues, insulin aspart, insulin lispro and insulin glulisine. The advantages of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion over multiple daily injections in adult and paediatric populations with T1DM include superior glycaemic control, lower insulin requirements and better health-related quality of life/patient satisfaction. An association between continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and reduced hypoglycaemic risk is more consistent in children/adolescents than in adults. The use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion is widely recommended in both adult and paediatric T1DM populations but is limited in pregnant patients and those with type 2 diabetes mellitus. All available rapid-acting insulin analogues are approved for use in adult, paediatric and pregnant populations. However, minimum patient age varies (insulin lispro: no minimum; insulin aspart: ≥2 years; insulin glulisine: ≥6 years) and experience in pregnancy ranges from extensive (insulin aspart, insulin lispro) to limited (insulin glulisine). Although more expensive than multiple daily injections, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion is cost-effective in selected patient groups. This comprehensive review focuses on the European situation and summarises evidence for the efficacy and safety of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, particularly when used with rapid-acting insulin analogues, in adult, paediatric and pregnant populations. The review also discusses relevant European guidelines; reviews issues that surround use of this technology; summarises the effects of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion on patients

  5. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in diabetes: patient populations, safety, efficacy, and pharmacoeconomics

    PubMed Central

    Battelino, Tadej; Danne, Thomas; Hovorka, Roman; Jarosz‐Chobot, Przemyslawa; Renard, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Summary The level of glycaemic control necessary to achieve optimal short‐term and long‐term outcomes in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) typically requires intensified insulin therapy using multiple daily injections or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. For continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, the insulins of choice are the rapid‐acting insulin analogues, insulin aspart, insulin lispro and insulin glulisine. The advantages of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion over multiple daily injections in adult and paediatric populations with T1DM include superior glycaemic control, lower insulin requirements and better health‐related quality of life/patient satisfaction. An association between continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and reduced hypoglycaemic risk is more consistent in children/adolescents than in adults. The use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion is widely recommended in both adult and paediatric T1DM populations but is limited in pregnant patients and those with type 2 diabetes mellitus. All available rapid‐acting insulin analogues are approved for use in adult, paediatric and pregnant populations. However, minimum patient age varies (insulin lispro: no minimum; insulin aspart: ≥2 years; insulin glulisine: ≥6 years) and experience in pregnancy ranges from extensive (insulin aspart, insulin lispro) to limited (insulin glulisine). Although more expensive than multiple daily injections, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion is cost‐effective in selected patient groups. This comprehensive review focuses on the European situation and summarises evidence for the efficacy and safety of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, particularly when used with rapid‐acting insulin analogues, in adult, paediatric and pregnant populations. The review also discusses relevant European guidelines; reviews issues that surround use of this technology; summarises the effects of continuous subcutaneous insulin

  6. Psychological distress in a Department of Veterans Affairs spine patient population.

    PubMed

    Patton, Chad M; Hung, Man; Lawrence, Brandon D; Patel, Alpesh A; Woodbury, Ashley M; Brodke, Darrel S; Daubs, Michael D

    2012-09-01

    The veteran population presents a unique confluence of biopsychosocial factors in the treatment of spinal conditions. In addition to poorer health status and higher numbers of chronic medical conditions compared with the general population, previous reports have highlighted the high prevalence of psychological disorders within the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health system. To our knowledge, no study has specifically evaluated psychological distress in patients with a spinal disorder within the VA health system. To determine the prevalence of psychological distress among spine patients in a VA hospital and if higher levels of distress correlated with patient demographics and self-reported patient outcome scores. Cross-sectional evaluation of adult patients at a regional VA outpatient orthopedic spine surgery clinic. One hundred forty-nine adult patients presenting for treatment of spine-related disorders. Patients were evaluated using the Distress and Risk Assessment Method (DRAM), a validated survey consisting of the Zung Depression Scale and the Modified Somatic Perception Questionnaire. In addition, self-reported pain, disability, and quality of life were assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS) for neck or back pain and the Neck Disability Index or Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) depending on the patient's location of pain. The DRAM survey was used to determine the prevalence of psychological distress by classifying patients into normal, at-risk, and severe distress groups. Visual analog scale scores for neck and back pain, and self-reported disability scores, and demographic data including age, gender, combat experience, and use of antidepressant, anxiolytic, or narcotic medications were obtained at the time of enrollment. The DRAM survey identified 79.9% of patients as having some degree of psychological distress, whereas the remaining 20.1% were classified as normal. Among those with psychological distress, 43.6% of patients were categorized as

  7. Symptom patterns in dissociative identity disorder patients and the general population.

    PubMed

    Ross, Colin A; Ness, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The authors used the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule to compare structured interview symptom patterns in a general population sample (N= 502) and a sample of patients with clinical diagnoses of dissociative identity disorder (N= 303). Based on the Trauma Model, the authors predicted that the patterns would be similar in the 2 samples and that symptom scores would be higher in participants reporting childhood sexual abuse in both samples. They predicted that symptom scores would be higher among women with dissociative identity disorder reporting sexual abuse than among women in the general population reporting sexual abuse, with the clinical sample reporting more severe abuse. These predictions were supported by the data. The authors conclude that symptom patterns in dissociative identity disorder are typical of the normal human response to severe, chronic childhood trauma and have ecological validity for the human race in general.

  8. Predictors of severe outcomes in patients with Clostridium difficile infection from a Hispanic population.

    PubMed

    Paláu-Dávila, Laura; Garza-González, Elvira; Gutiérrez-Delgado, Eva María; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián

    2017-01-01

    Factors associated with complicated Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) may vary among populations, and predictors of severe outcomes in CDI have not been studied in Hispanic patients. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with a higher risk of colectomy, all-cause mortality, and CDI-associated mortality in a Hispanic population. We performed a retrospective study of all hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of CDI between January 1, 2011 and September 30, 2015 in a 450-bed teaching hospital in Monterrey, northeast Mexico. Three main outcomes were defined: fulminant colitis with subsequent colectomy, all-cause mortality within 30 days of diagnosis, and CDI-attributable mortality. Of 261 patients with diarrhea, 176 were diagnosed with CDI. For colectomy, Charlson comorbidity index, ICU stay and mechanical ventilation prior to CDI diagnosis, days with diarrhea prior to treatment, total days of hospital stay and days after CDI diagnosis, elevated ATLAS score, days of diarrhea post CDI treatment, and treatment failure significantly predicted the necessity of surgical treatment with colectomy. Treatment failure, persistent diarrhea, and a high ATLAS score were identified as risk factors for severe outcomes of CDI. A low albumin concentration and high creatinine were associated with higher overall mortality.

  9. Population Pharmacokinetics of 3-Aminopyridine-2-Carboxaldehyde Thiosemicarbazone (Triapine®) in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kolesar, Jill; Brundage, Richard C.; Pomplun, Marcia; Alberti, Dona; Holen, Kyle; Traynor, Anne; Ivy, Percy; Wilding, George

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for 3-AP pharmacokinetics and to evaluate the effect of ABCB1 polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetic profile of 3-AP and to assess the relationship between 3AP disposition and patient covariates. Methods A total of 40 patients with advanced cancer from two phase 1 studies were included in the population PK model building. Patients received 3-AP 25–105 mg/m2 IV on day 1. 3-AP plasma and erythrocyte levels were sampled at 10 timepoints over a 24-hour period and measured by a validated HPLC method. Data were analyzed by a nonlinear mixed-effects modeling approach using the NONMEM system. Results 3AP pharmacokinetics were described as a 3-compartment model with first-order elimination. One compartment representing the plasma and another representing erythrocyte concentrations. Gender was associated with volume of distribution, in which women had a lower V2. The number of cycles administered was associated with clearance; those with decreased clearance were more likely to receive less than 2 cycles before going off study. Conclusion This study suggests that monitoring 3-AP plasma concentrations in the first cycle and dose adjustment in those with decreased clearance may be helpful in decreasing toxicity associated with the 3-AP. PMID:20440618

  10. Defining a Patient Population With Cirrhosis: An Automated Algorithm With Natural Language Processing.

    PubMed

    Chang, Edward K; Yu, Christine Y; Clarke, Robin; Hackbarth, Andrew; Sanders, Timothy; Esrailian, Eric; Hommes, Daniel W; Runyon, Bruce A

    The objective of this study was to use natural language processing (NLP) as a supplement to International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) and laboratory values in an automated algorithm to better define and risk-stratify patients with cirrhosis. Identification of patients with cirrhosis by manual data collection is time-intensive and laborious, whereas using ICD-9 codes can be inaccurate. NLP, a novel computerized approach to analyzing electronic free text, has been used to automatically identify patient cohorts with gastrointestinal pathologies such as inflammatory bowel disease. This methodology has not yet been used in cirrhosis. This retrospective cohort study was conducted at the University of California, Los Angeles Health, an academic medical center. A total of 5343 University of California, Los Angeles primary care patients with ICD-9 codes for chronic liver disease were identified during March 2013 to January 2015. An algorithm incorporating NLP of radiology reports, ICD-9 codes, and laboratory data determined whether these patients had cirrhosis. Of the 5343 patients, 168 patient charts were manually reviewed at random as a gold standard comparison. Positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), sensitivity, and specificity of the algorithm and each of its steps were calculated. The algorithm's PPV, NPV, sensitivity, and specificity were 91.78%, 96.84%, 95.71%, and 93.88%, respectively. The NLP portion was the most important component of the algorithm with PPV, NPV, sensitivity, and specificity of 98.44%, 93.27%, 90.00%, and 98.98%, respectively. NLP is a powerful tool that can be combined with administrative and laboratory data to identify patients with cirrhosis within a population.

  11. Caspofungin Population Pharmacokinetics in Critically Ill Patients Undergoing Continuous Veno-Venous Haemofiltration or Haemodiafiltration.

    PubMed

    Roger, Claire; Wallis, Steven C; Muller, Laurent; Saissi, Gilbert; Lipman, Jeffrey; Brüggemann, Roger J; Lefrant, Jean-Yves; Roberts, Jason A

    2016-12-29

    Sepsis and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) can both significantly affect antifungal pharmacokinetics. This study aimed to describe the pharmacokinetics of caspofungin in critically ill patients during different CRRT modes. Patients receiving caspofungin and undergoing continuous veno-venous haemofiltration (CVVH) or haemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) were eligible to take part in the study. Blood samples were collected at seven sampling times during a dosing interval. Demographics and clinical data were recorded. Population pharmacokinetic analysis and Monte-Carlo simulation were undertaken using Pmetrics. Twelve pharmacokinetic profiles from nine patients were analysed. The caspofungin CRRT clearance (CL) was 0.048 ± 0.12 L/h for CVVH and 0.042 ± 0.042 L/h for CVVHDF. A two-compartment linear model best described the data. Patient weight was the only covariate affecting drug CL and central volume. The mean (standard deviation) parameter estimates were 0.64 ± 0.12 L/h for CL, 9.35 ± 3.56 L for central volume, 0.25 ± 0.19 per h for the rate constant for drug distribution from central to peripheral compartments and 0.19 ± 0.10 per h from peripheral to central compartments. Based on simulation results, a caspofungin 100 mg loading dose followed by a 50 mg maintenance dose for patients with a total body weight of ≤80 kg best achieved the pharmacokinetic/PD targets whilst a 70 mg maintenance dose was required for patients with a weight of >80 kg. No caspofungin dosing adjustment is necessary for patients undergoing either form of CRRT. However, higher than recommended loading doses of caspofungin are required to achieve pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic targets in critically ill patients. Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01403220.

  12. Screening for Fabry's disease in young patients with ischemic stroke in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaowei; Xue, Sufang; Zhao, Jingyan; Wu, Jian

    2017-04-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder frequently associated with cerebrovascular disease. Data regarding Fabry disease and ischemic stroke has been lacking in China. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of Fabry disease and the distribution of the alpha-galactosidase A (α-GalA) gene - GLA mutations in young stroke patients in the Chinese population and its association with stroke subtypes. A total of 357 ischemic stroke patients admitted to Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, aged 18-55 years old, including 293 patients with cerebral infarction and 64 patients with transient ischemic attack, were enrolled in this study. Mutations in the GLA gene were screened by Sanger sequencing. Enzyme levels were measured to further confirm the disease in patients with the gene mutation. The mutation frequency was compared among different stroke subtypes and further compared with the control group individually. No pathogenic mutations in the coding regions of the GLA gene were identified in this group of patients and thus no Fabry disease was found in our study. However, the frequency of an intronic polymorphism c.-10C>T was significantly different among different Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment subtypes (p < 0.01). The frequency of the c.-10C>T polymorphism in patients with stroke due to other causes and undetermined causes was much higher than that in the control group (OR = 3.18, 95% CI: 1.29-7.83, p < 0.01). Fabry disease is a rare disease, and it will not benefit to screen all stroke patients. In addition, our results suggested that the c.-10C>T polymorphism may be a risk factor for ischemic stroke of other and undetermined causes. Further study is required to confirm our findings.

  13. Prevalence and risk of migraine in patients with rosacea: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Egeberg, Alexander; Ashina, Messoud; Gaist, David; Gislason, Gunnar H; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2017-03-01

    Rosacea features increased neurovascular reactivity; migraine is a complex neurologic disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of headache associated with nausea and increased sensitivity to light and sound. We evaluated the prevalence and risk of new-onset migraine in patients with rosacea. All Danish individuals 18 years of age or older were linked in nationwide registers. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by Cox regression. In the total cohort (n = 4,361,688), there were 49,475 patients with rosacea. Baseline prevalence of migraine was 7.3% and 12.1% in the reference population and in patients with rosacea, respectively. The fully adjusted HR of migraine was 1.31 (95% confidence interval 1.23-1.39) for patients with rosacea. Patients with phymatous rosacea (n = 594) had no increased risk of migraine (adjusted HR 0.45; 95% confidence interval 0.11-1.80), whereas patients with ocular rosacea (n = 6977) had a 69% increased risk (adjusted HR 1.69; 95% confidence interval 1.43-1.99). Notably, the risk was higher among patients age 50 years or older than in younger individuals, and the risk was only significant among women. We were unable to distinguish between migraine subtypes. We found a significantly higher prevalence and risk of incident migraine especially in female patients with rosacea. These data add to the accumulating evidence for a link between rosacea and the central nervous system. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effectiveness of Chemoradiation for Head and Neck Cancer in an Older Patient Population

    SciTech Connect

    VanderWalde, Noam A.; Meyer, Anne Marie; Deal, Allison M.; Layton, J. Bradley; Liu, Huan; Carpenter, William R.; Weissler, Mark C.; Fleming, Mary E.; and others

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare chemoradiation therapy (CRT) with radiation therapy (RT) only in an older patient population with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Methods and Materials: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database (1992-2007), we identified a retrospective cohort of nonmetastatic HNSCC patients and divided them into treatment groups. Comparisons were made between CRT and RT cohorts. Propensity scores for CRT were estimated from covariates associated with receipt of treatment using multivariable logistic regression. Standardized mortality ratio weights (SMRW) were created from the propensity scores and used to balance groups on measured confounders. Multivariable and SMR-weighted Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of death for receipt of CRT versus RT among the whole group and for separate patient and tumor categories. Results: The final cohort of 10,599 patients was 68% male and 89% white. Median age was 74 years. Seventy-four percent were treated with RT, 26% were treated with CRT. Median follow-up points for CRT and RT survivors were 4.6 and 6.3 years, respectively. On multivariable analysis, HR for death with CRT was 1.13 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-1.20; P<.01). Using the SMRW model, the HR for death with CRT was 1.08 (95% CI: 1.02-1.15; P=.01). Conclusions: Although the addition of chemotherapy to radiation has proven efficacious in many randomized controlled trials, it may be less effective in an older patient population treated outside of a controlled trial setting.

  15. Bowel Obstruction in Elderly Ovarian Cancer Patients: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Stephen J.; Winner, Megan; Hershman, Dawn L.; Wright, Jason D.; Feingold, Daniel L.; Allendorf, John D.; Neugut, Alfred I.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Bowel obstruction is a common pre-terminal event in abdominal/pelvic cancer that has mainly been described in small single-institution studies. We used a large, population-based database to investigate the incidence, management, and outcomes of obstruction in ovarian cancer patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS We identified patients with stages IC-IV ovarian cancer, aged 65 years or older, in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database diagnosed between January 1, 1991 and December 31, 2005. We modeled predictors of inpatient hospitalization for bowel obstruction after cancer diagnosis, categorized management of obstruction, and analyzed the associations between treatment for obstruction and outcomes. RESULTS Of 8607 women with ovarian cancer, 1518 (17.6%) were hospitalized for obstruction subsequent to cancer diagnosis. Obstruction at cancer diagnosis (HR=2.17, 95% CI: 1.86–2.52) and mucinous tumor histology (HR=1.45, 95% CI: 1.15–1.83) were associated with increased risk of subsequent obstruction. Surgical management of obstruction was associated with lower 30-day mortality (13.4% in women managed surgically vs. 20.2% in women managed non-surgically), but equivalent survival after 30 days and equivalent rates of post-obstruction chemotherapy. Median post-obstruction survival was 382 days in women with obstructions of adhesive origin and 93 days in others. CONCLUSION In this large-scale, population-based assessment of patients with advanced ovarian cancer, nearly 20% of women developed bowel obstruction after cancer diagnosis. While obstruction due to adhesions did not signal the end of life, all other obstructions were pre-terminal events for the majority of patients regardless of treatment. PMID:23274561

  16. A population pharmacokinetic model for perioperative dosing of factor VIII in hemophilia A patients

    PubMed Central

    Hazendonk, Hendrika; Fijnvandraat, Karin; Lock, Janske; Driessens, Mariëtte; van der Meer, Felix; Meijer, Karina; Kruip, Marieke; Gorkom, Britta Laros-van; Peters, Marjolein; de Wildt, Saskia; Leebeek, Frank; Cnossen, Marjon; Mathôt, Ron

    2016-01-01

    The role of pharmacokinetic-guided dosing of factor concentrates in hemophilia is currently a subject of debate and focuses on long-term prophylactic treatment. Few data are available on its impact in the perioperative period. In this study, a population pharmacokinetic model for currently registered factor VIII concentrates was developed for severe and moderate adult and pediatric hemophilia A patients (FVIII levels <0.05 IUmL−1) undergoing elective, minor or major surgery. Retrospective data were collected on FVIII treatment, including timing and dosing, time point of FVIII sampling and all FVIII plasma concentrations achieved (trough, peak and steady state), brand of concentrate, as well as patients’ and surgical characteristics. Population pharmacokinetic modeling was performed using non-linear mixed-effects modeling. Population pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated in 75 adults undergoing 140 surgeries (median age: 48 years; median weight: 80 kg) and 44 children undergoing 58 surgeries (median age: 4.3 years; median weight: 18.5 kg). Pharmacokinetic profiles were best described by a two-compartment model. Typical values for clearance, intercompartment clearance, central and peripheral volume were 0.15 L/h/68 kg, 0.16 L/h/68 kg, 2.81 L/68 kg and 1.90 L/68 kg. Interpatient variability in clearance and central volume was 37% and 27%. Clearance decreased with increasing age (P<0.01) and increased in cases with blood group O (26%; P<0.01). In addition, a minor decrease in clearance was observed when a major surgical procedure was performed (7%; P<0.01). The developed population model describes the perioperative pharmacokinetics of various FVIII concentrates, allowing individualization of perioperative FVIII therapy for severe and moderate hemophilia A patients by Bayesian adaptive dosing. PMID:27390359

  17. Evidence of recombination in Hepatitis C Virus populations infecting a hemophiliac patient

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aim Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients affected by hereditary bleeding disorders. HCV, as others RNA virus, exploit all possible mechanisms of genetic variation to ensure their survival, such as recombination and mutation. In order to gain insight into the genetic variability of HCV virus strains circulating in hemophiliac patients, we have performed a phylogenetic analysis of HCV strains isolated from 10 patients with this kind of pathology. Methods Putative recombinant sequence was identified with the use of GARD program. Statistical support for the presence of a recombination event was done by the use of LARD program. Results A new intragenotypic recombinant strain (1b/1a) was detected in 1 out of the 10 hemophiliac patient studied. The recombination event was located at position 387 of the HCV genome (relative to strain AF009606, sub-type 1a) corresponding to the core gene region. Conclusion Although recombination may not appear to be common among natural populations of HCV it should be considered as a possible mechanism for generating genetic diversity in hemophiliacs patients. PMID:19922637

  18. Prescription profile of pyridostigmine use in a population of patients with myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Machado-Alba, Jorge Enrique; Calvo-Torres, Luis Felipe; Gaviria-Mendoza, Andrés; Augusto MejíA-Vélez, César

    2017-02-18

    We determined the pyridostigmine prescription pattern in a population of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted by using a prescription database of 3.5 million individuals from which patients who had been diagnosed with MG and for whom pyridostigmine had been prescribed were selected. A total of 306 outpatients with MG were found, and 258 were receiving pyridostigmine (mean age 53.0 ± 18.0 years). The calculated prevalence of MG was 86.7 cases per million persons. Monotherapy was used by 53.1% of the patients, prednisolone was used by 21.7%, and 30.2% used other immunomodulators. Medications for other comorbidities were taken by 74.8% of the patients, and 43.4% had prescriptions that could potentially trigger worsening symptoms. Pyridostigmine is being prescribed at doses close to the defined daily doses predominantly as monotherapy. A high proportion of patients were also prescribed a medication that could aggravate their condition, including some that can trigger a myasthenic crisis. Muscle Nerve, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The influence of age on the management of patients with diabetes in the Israeli population.

    PubMed

    Tirosh, Amit; Stern, Zvi; Mazar, Marianna; Calderon-Margalit, Ronit

    2013-08-01

    The authors' aim was to study the association between age and the quality of community health care of diabetes mellitus (DM). This was a cross-sectional study of patients with DM in the setting of a large health maintenance organization (HMO) in Israel. The population included DM patients aged 40-84 years who were identified at emergency rooms or through the HMO's computerized database. A set of quality care indicators were determined. Logistic regressions were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) for diabetes care indicators, controlling for age and other potential confounders. Older patients were more likely to be in the target range of glycemic control and to be vaccinated against influenza. Patients older than age 70 years received fewer recommendations for physical activity (OR 0.41, P<0.01) and self-foot examination (OR 0.57, P=0.024). The authors found decreased performance of recommendations for physical activity and self-foot examination, and a higher performance of annual blood tests and immunizations among elderly patients with diabetes.

  20. Serum trace element differences between Schizophrenia patients and controls in the Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lei; Chen, Tianlu; Yang, Jinglei; Zhou, Kejun; Yan, Xiaomei; Chen, Wenzhong; Sun, Liya; Li, Linlin; Qin, Shengying; Wang, Peng; Yang, Ping; Cui, Donghong; Burmeister, Margit; He, Lin; Jia, Wei; Wan, Chunling

    2015-10-12

    Little is known about the trace element profile differences between Schizophrenia patients and healthy controls; previous studies about the association of certain elements with Schizophrenia have obtained conflicting results. To identify these differences in the Han Chinese population, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used to quantify the levels of 35 elements in the sera of 111 Schizophrenia patients and 110 healthy participants, which consisted of a training (61/61 for cases/controls included) and a test group including remaining participants. An orthogonal projection to latent structures model was constructed from the training group (R(2)Y = 0.465, Q(2)cum = 0.343) had a sensitivity of 76.0% and a specificity of 71.4% in the test group. Single element analysis indicated that the concentrations of cesium, zinc, and selenium were significantly reduced in patients with Schizophrenia in both the training and test groups. The meta-analysis including 522 cases and 360 controls supported that Zinc was significantly associated with Schizophrenia (standardized mean difference [SMD], -0.81; 95% confidence intervals [CI], -1.46 to -0.16, P = 0.01) in the random-effect model. Information theory analysis indicated that Zinc could play roles independently in Schizophrenia. These results suggest clear element profile differences between patients with Schizophrenia and healthy controls, and reduced Zn level is confirmed in the Schizophrenia patients.

  1. Serum trace element differences between Schizophrenia patients and controls in the Han Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Lei; Chen, Tianlu; Yang, Jinglei; Zhou, Kejun; Yan, Xiaomei; Chen, Wenzhong; Sun, Liya; Li, Linlin; Qin, Shengying; Wang, Peng; Yang, Ping; Cui, Donghong; Burmeister, Margit; He, Lin; Jia, Wei; Wan, Chunling

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the trace element profile differences between Schizophrenia patients and healthy controls; previous studies about the association of certain elements with Schizophrenia have obtained conflicting results. To identify these differences in the Han Chinese population, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used to quantify the levels of 35 elements in the sera of 111 Schizophrenia patients and 110 healthy participants, which consisted of a training (61/61 for cases/controls included) and a test group including remaining participants. An orthogonal projection to latent structures model was constructed from the training group (R2Y = 0.465, Q2cum = 0.343) had a sensitivity of 76.0% and a specificity of 71.4% in the test group. Single element analysis indicated that the concentrations of cesium, zinc, and selenium were significantly reduced in patients with Schizophrenia in both the training and test groups. The meta-analysis including 522 cases and 360 controls supported that Zinc was significantly associated with Schizophrenia (standardized mean difference [SMD], −0.81; 95% confidence intervals [CI], −1.46 to −0.16, P = 0.01) in the random-effect model. Information theory analysis indicated that Zinc could play roles independently in Schizophrenia. These results suggest clear element profile differences between patients with Schizophrenia and healthy controls, and reduced Zn level is confirmed in the Schizophrenia patients. PMID:26456296

  2. Prevalence and characteristics of non-syndromic hypodontia among Turkish orthodontic patient population

    PubMed Central

    Gökkaya, Berna; Motro, Melih; Kargül, Betül

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hypodontia is often used as a collective term for congenital absence of primary or secondary teeth, although specifically it describes the absence of one to six teeth excluding third molars. The prevalence of hypodontia varies from 0.03 to 10.1% in various populations. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, we reviewed the records of Turkish orthodontic patients treated between 1994 and 2003. A total of 1236 orthodontic patients (507 girls, 729 boys) were included in this study. The age of the patients ranged from 11 to 20 years. Data were collected and entered into the SPSS 20 program for statistical analysis. The Chi-square test was used to analyze differences in the distribution of hypodontia, sex, and malocclusion type. Results: In the total sample of 1236 patients who were orthodontically treated, hypodontia was found in 82 children, including 45 girls and 37 boys. The prevalence of hypodontia was 7%. Patients with more severe hypodontia showed a tendency to exhibit a class II relationship. The mandibular second premolar were the most commonly missing teeth in 48 girls and 26 boys. Conclusion: Hypodontia may lead to some clinical problems including malocclusions, esthetic and functional complaints, and also psychological problems. All cases should be evaluated by an interdisciplinary approach for appropriate treatment choice. Our data emphasize the importance of detailed and careful radiographic examination. This helps in long-term and effective treatment planning according to a child's individual requirements. PMID:26236675

  3. Treatment of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in a population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Legoff, Jorge A; Krause, Megan L; Crowson, Cynthia S; Muskardin, Theresa Wampler; Mason, Thomas; Matteson, Eric L

    2016-06-01

    A population-based cohort was utilized to evaluate medications and intra-articular injection utilization for patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) to inform clinical practice and further research. In a geographically defined population, all incident cases of JIA cases were identified between January 1, 1994 and December 31, 2013 based first on diagnosis code followed by medical chart confirmation. Medications and intra-articular glucocorticoid injections were abstracted. Predictors of the first disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD)/biologic and injections were reported as a hazard ratio (HR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for age and sex. Kaplan-Meier methods evaluated therapy at 6 months and 1 year. Injections were reported per 100 person-years (py) with 95 % CI using the Poisson methods. Seventy-one incident cases were identified. Forty-two (59 %) were female with mean age (standard deviation) at diagnosis of 8.2 (5.3) years. Twenty-six (37 %) utilized at least one DMARD or biologic, in which 77 % of these were prescribed in the first 6 months. Subtype of JIA was significantly associated with DMARDs/biologics (p < 0.001). Intra-articular injections were performed in 48 %. The rate of intra-articular injections was 20.7 per 100 py (95 % CI 16.5, 25.6). The rate of joint injections was higher in the first year after diagnosis (p < 0.001) and more common in recent years (p < 0.001). The majority of patients with JIA in a modern population-based cohort do not require DMARDs or biologics. In those who do, the majority receives these within the first 6 months. Intra-articular injections were utilized in almost half of patients with JIA and were increasingly used.

  4. Androgenetic alopecia in the paediatric population: a retrospective review of 57 patients.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, M E; Cantatore-Francis, J; Orlow, S J

    2010-08-01

    Hair loss is an unwelcome event at any age, but it can be particularly distressing for adolescents and their families. While androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common form of hair loss in adults, little is known about its prevalence, clinical features and response to treatments in the paediatric population. To better characterize the causes of alopecia in a paediatric population. We performed a retrospective chart review to identify all patients with hair loss seen in an academic paediatric dermatology practice at New York University over a 12-year period to better characterize the causes of alopecia in this population. We review the clinical and histological features, natural progression and associated laboratory abnormalities of AGA in 57 paediatric patients. AGA was identified as the most frequent cause of hair loss in adolescents and the second most common diagnosis overall. The male to female ratio was 2 : 1 and the average age at initial presentation with AGA was 14.8 years. Adolescent girls had diffuse thinning or thinning at the crown, and boys frequently presented with female pattern hair loss. When biopsies were performed, perifollicular inflammation was a common finding. A family history of AGA was reported in 83% of patients. Laboratory evaluation for androgens revealed polycystic ovarian syndrome in three girls and late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia in one boy. AGA is the most common form of hair loss in adolescents, and can be the presenting sign of an underlying endocrine disorder. An accurate and timely diagnosis is essential for appropriate medical and psychosocial intervention when warranted.

  5. A simple dosing scheme for intravenous busulfan based on retrospective population pharmacokinetic analysis in korean patients.

    PubMed

    Choe, Sangmin; Kim, Gayeong; Lim, Hyeong-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon; Ghim, Jong-Lyul; Jung, Jin Ah; Kim, Un-Jib; Noh, Gyujeong; Bae, Kyun-Seop; Lee, Dongho

    2012-08-01

    Busulfan is an antineoplastic agent with a narrow therapeutic window. A post-hoc population pharmacokinetic analysis of a prospective randomized trial for comparison of four-times daily versus once-daily intravenous busulfan was carried out to search for predictive factors of intravenous busulfan (iBu) pharmacokinetics (PK). In this study the population PK of iBu was characterized to provide suitable dosing recommendations. Patients were randomized to receive iBu, either as 0.8 mg/kg every 6 h or 3.2 mg/kg daily over 4 days prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In total, 295 busulfan concentrations were analyzed with NONMEM. Actual body weight and sex were significant covariates affecting the PK of iBu. Sixty patients were included in the study (all Korean; 23 women, 37 men; mean [SD] age, 36.5 [10.9] years; weight, 66.5 [11.3] kg). Population estimates for a typical patient weighing 65 kg were: clearance (CL) 7.6 l/h and volume of distribution (V(d)) 32.2 l for men and 29.1 L for women. Inter-individual random variabilities of CL and V(d) were 16% and 9%. Based on a CL estimate from the final PK model, a simple dosage scheme to achieve the target AUC(0-inf) (defined as median AUC(0-inf) with a once-daily dosage) of 26.18 mg/l·hr, was proposed: 24.79·ABW(0.5) mg q24h, where ABW represents the actual body weight in kilograms. The dosing scheme reduced the unexplained interindividual variabilities of CL and Vd of iBu with ABW being a significant covariate affecting clearance of iBU. We propose a new simple dosing scheme for iBu based only on ABW.

  6. A Simple Dosing Scheme for Intravenous Busulfan Based on Retrospective Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis in Korean Patients

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Sangmin; Kim, Gayeong; Lim, Hyeong-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon; Ghim, Jong-Lyul; Jung, Jin Ah; Kim, Un-Jib; Noh, Gyujeong; Lee, Dongho

    2012-01-01

    Busulfan is an antineoplastic agent with a narrow therapeutic window. A post-hoc population pharmacokinetic analysis of a prospective randomized trial for comparison of four-times daily versus once-daily intravenous busulfan was carried out to search for predictive factors of intravenous busulfan (iBu) pharmacokinetics (PK). In this study the population PK of iBu was characterized to provide suitable dosing recommendations. Patients were randomized to receive iBu, either as 0.8 mg/kg every 6 h or 3.2 mg/kg daily over 4 days prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In total, 295 busulfan concentrations were analyzed with NONMEM. Actual body weight and sex were significant covariates affecting the PK of iBu. Sixty patients were included in the study (all Korean; 23 women, 37 men; mean [SD] age, 36.5 [10.9] years; weight, 66.5 [11.3] kg). Population estimates for a typical patient weighing 65 kg were: clearance (CL) 7.6 l/h and volume of distribution (Vd) 32.2 l for men and 29.1 L for women. Inter-individual random variabilities of CL and Vd were 16% and 9%. Based on a CL estimate from the final PK model, a simple dosage scheme to achieve the target AUC0-inf (defined as median AUC0-inf with a once-daily dosage) of 26.18 mg/l·hr, was proposed: 24.79·ABW0.5 mg q24h, where ABW represents the actual body weight in kilograms. The dosing scheme reduced the unexplained interindividual variabilities of CL and Vd of iBu with ABW being a significant covariate affecting clearance of iBU. We propose a new simple dosing scheme for iBu based only on ABW. PMID:22915993

  7. Population pharmacokinetics of ganciclovir following administration of valganciclovir in paediatric renal transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Baudouin, Véronique; Zhang, Daolun; Deschênes, Georges; Le Guellec, Chantal; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne

    2009-01-01

    To develop a population pharmacokinetic model for valganciclovir in paediatric renal transplant recipients, identify covariates that explain variability, and determine valganciclovir dosage regimens for cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis in children. The pharmacokinetics of valganciclovir were described with plasma concentrations from 22 patients (age range 3-17 years) using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling (NONMEM) software. A two-compartment model with lag-time and first-order absorption and elimination was developed. The final model was validated using a bootstrap and visual predictive check. The dosage regimens of valganciclovir for CMV prophylaxis in children were simulated using the final model. The mean population pharmacokinetic parameters were apparent systemic clearance (CL) 10.1L/h, apparent central volume of distribution 5.2 L, apparent peripheral volume of distribution 30.7 L, inter-tissue clearance 3.97 L/h, absorption rate constant 0.369 h-1 and lag-time 0.743 h. The covariate analysis identified creatinine clearance (CL(CR)) and bodyweight (WT) as individual factors influencing the apparent oral clearance: CL= 8.04 x (CL(CR)/89)(2.93) + 3.62 x (WT/28) L/h. The results of the simulation showed that for a typical patient (WT 28 kg and CL(CR) 89 mL/min), an area under the plasma concentration-time curve of 43 +/- 10.6 mg x h/mL will be achieved with valganciclovir 500 mg once daily. The dosage regimens of valganciclovir for CMV prophylaxis have been defined using the final population pharmacokinetic model based on WT and CLCR for paediatric renal transplantation patients.

  8. Incidence of utilization- and symptom-defined COPD exacerbations in hospital- and population-recruited patients

    PubMed Central

    Erdal, Marta; Johannessen, Ane; Eagan, Tomas Mikal; Bakke, Per; Gulsvik, Amund; Grønseth, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to estimate the impact of recruitment source and outcome definition on the incidence of acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) and explore possible predictors of AECOPD. Patients and methods During a 1-year follow-up, we performed a baseline visit and four telephone interviews of 81 COPD patients and 132 controls recruited from a population-based survey and 205 hospital-recruited COPD patients. Both a definition based on health care utilization and a symptom-based definition of AECOPD were applied. For multivariate analyses, we chose a negative binomial regression model. Results COPD patients from the population- and hospital-based samples experienced on average 0.4 utilization-defined and 2.9 symptom-defined versus 1.0 and 5.9 annual exacerbations, respectively. The incidence rate ratios for utilization-defined AECOPD were 2.45 (95% CI 1.22–4.95), 3.43 (95% CI 1.59–7.38), and 5.67 (95% CI 2.58–12.48) with Global Initiative on Obstructive Lung Disease spirometric stages II, III, and IV, respectively. The corresponding incidence rate ratios for the symptom-based definition were 3.08 (95% CI 1.96–4.84), 3.45 (95% CI 1.92–6.18), and 4.00 (95% CI 2.09–7.66). Maintenance therapy (regular long-acting muscarinic antagonists, long-acting beta-2 agonists, inhaled corticosteroids, or theophylline) also increased the risk of AECOPD with both exacerbation definitions (incidence rate ratios 1.65 and 1.73, respectively). The risk of AECOPD was 59%–78% higher in the hospital sample than in the population sample. Conclusion If externally valid conclusions are to be made regarding incidence and predictors of AECOPD, studies should be based on general population samples or adjustments should be made on account of a likely higher incidence in other samples. Likewise, the effect of different AECOPD definitions should be taken into consideration. PMID:27621614

  9. Statistical inference for clinical trials with binary responses when there is a shift in patient population.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lan-Yan; Chi, Yunchan; Chow, Shein-Chung

    2011-05-01

    In clinical research, it is not uncommon to modify a trial procedure and/or statistical methods of ongoing clinical trials through protocol amendments. A major modification to the study protocol could result in a shift in target patient population. In addition, frequent and significant modifications could lead to a totally different study that is unable to address the medical questions that the original study intended to answer. In this article, we propose a logistic regression model for statistical inference based on a binary study endpoint for trials with protocol amendments. Under the proposed method, sample size adjustment is also derived.

  10. Cardiac surgery in special populations, Part 2: Women, pregnant patients, and Jehovah's Witnesses.

    PubMed

    Vaska, P L

    1997-02-01

    This is the second in a series of articles that discusses cardiac surgery in patients who belong to special populations. Women are often the victims of sex bias regarding their referral to cardiac testing, and are consequently sicker when they present for heart surgery. Pregnant women undergoing cardiac surgery require vigilant care while undergoing surgery, with anticoagulant administration and valve selection to achieve positive maternal and fetal outcomes. Progressive improvements in technology, perioperative care, and pharmaceutical development has made cardiac surgery in Jehovah's Witnesses safer than in the past.

  11. [Treatment of vitamin D deficiency in the general population and in patients with chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Mozzillo, Giusi Rosaria; Scognamiglio, Bernadette; Russo, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D is an essential micronutrient for humans. Vitamin D functions are not limited to the regulation of bone; it plays many pleiotropic effects due to ubiquitous distribution of VDR (Vitamin D Receptor). The vitamin D deficiency (defined as plasma levels of 25 - OH - vitamin D < 30 ng / ml) is now a public health problem worldwide. It is therefore essential to define protocols for supplementation of vitamin D in the general population and in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and indications on the use of different Vitamins D available.

  12. Family Violence Among Older Adult Patients Consulting in Primary Care Clinics: Results From the ESA (Enquête sur la santé des aînés) Services Study on Mental Health and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Préville, Michel; Mechakra-Tahiri, Samia Djemaa; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Mathieu, Véronique; Quesnel, Louise; Gontijo-Guerra, Samantha; Lamoureux-Lamarche, Catherine; Berbiche, Djamal

    2014-01-01

    Objective To document the reliability and construct validity of the Family Violence Scale (FVS) in the older adult population aged 65 years and older. Method: Data came from a cross-sectional survey, the Enquête sur la santé des aînés et l’utilisation des services de santé (ESA Services Study), conducted in 2011–2013 using a probabilistic sample of older adults waiting for medical services in primary care clinics (n = 1765). Family violence was defined as a latent variable, coming from a spouse and from children. Results: A model with 2 indicators of violence; that is, psychological and financial violence, and physical violence, adequately fitted the observed data. The reliability of the FVS was 0.95. According to our results, 16% of older adults reported experiencing some form of family violence in the past 12 months of their interview, and 3% reported a high level of family violence (FVS > 0.36). Our results showed that the victim’s sex was not associated with the degree of violence (β = 0.02). However, the victim’s age was associated with family violence (β = −0.12). Older adults, aged 75 years and older, reported less violence than those aged between 65 and 74 years. Conclusion: Our results lead us to conclude that family violence against older adults is common and warrants greater public health and political attention. General practitioners could play an active role in the detection of violence among older adults. PMID:25161067

  13. Doctor Shopping Behavior for Zolpidem Among Insomnia Patients in Taiwan: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Tzu-Hsuan; Lee, Yen-Ying; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Lin, You-Meei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Although zolpidem is listed as a controlled drug in Taiwan, patients' behavior has not been restricted and has led to the problem of doctor shopping behavior (DSB), leading to overutilization of medical resources and excess spending. The National Health Insurance Administration in Taiwan has instituted a new policy to regulate physicians' prescribing behavior and decrease DSB. This retrospective study aimed to analyze the DSB for zolpidem by insomnia patients and assess related factors. Design and Participants: Data were extracted from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database in Taiwan. Individuals with a diagnosis of insomnia who received more than one prescription of zolpidem in 2008 were followed for 24 mo. Doctor shopping was defined as ≥ 2 prescriptions by different doctors within ≥ 1 day overlapping in the duration of therapy. The percentage of zolpidem obtained through doctor shopping was used as an indicator of the DSB of each patient. Results: Among the 6,947 insomnia patients who were prescribed zolpidem, 1,652 exhibited DSB (23.78%). The average dose of zolpidem dispensed for each patient during 24 mo was 244.21 daily defined doses. The doctor shopping indicator (DSI) was 0.20 (standard deviation, 0.23) among patients with DSB. Younger age, chronic diseases, high number of diseases, higher premium status, high socioeconomic status, and fewer people served per practicing physicians were all factors significantly related to doctor shopping behavior. Conclusion: Doctor shopping for zolpidem appears to be an important issue in Taiwan. Implementing a proper referral system with efficient data exchange by physician or pharmacist-led medication reconciliation process might reduce DSB. Citation: Lu TH, Lee YY, Lee HC, Lin YM. Doctor shopping behavior for zolpidem among insomnia patients in Taiwan: a nationwide population-based study. SLEEP 2015;38(7):1039–1044. PMID:25761979

  14. Clinical features of colorectal cancer patients in advanced age: a population-based approach.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Stefania; Colantoni, Alessandra; Kaleci, Shaniko; Benatti, Piero; Tesini, Ester; de Leon, Maurizio Ponz

    2016-03-01

    In the immediate future, the number of geriatric patients will continue to rise; consequently we should expect an increase of colorectal cancer, a disease of the elderly population. Through the data of a Cancer Registry, we examined (a) the effect of ageing on the main features of colorectal cancer; (b) changes in management, especially for individuals older than 80 years; and (c) changes in prognosis and survival in subgroups of patients with different age. The Registry provided information on colorectal cancer up to 2010 (27 years). A total of 5293 patients were registered; these were divided into three groups: A (0-64 years), B (65-79) and C (80 or more). Three periods of observation were chosen: 1 (1984-1992), 2 (1993-2001) and 3 (2001-2010). Group A included 1571 patients (29 %), Group B 2539 (48 %) and Group C 1183 (22.3 %). The fraction of old individuals increased during the 27 years of the investigation. In these patients, tumours were predominantly localized to the right colon (42.6 %). The rate of surgery and ratio between curative and palliative approaches were similar among the three groups (p < 0.38). There was disparity (p < 0.002) in the administration of chemotherapy (5.8 % of the elderly vs 34.4 % in remaining patients). Survival increased over time in all three groups. In the elderly, average 5-year survival was 31 % in period 1 and 55 % in period 3. These data show that in Western countries, the standard of care for colorectal cancer diagnosed in geriatric patients has improved over the last 30 years.

  15. Adrenal cortical neoplasms in the pediatric population: a clinicopathologic and immunophenotypic analysis of 83 patients.

    PubMed

    Wieneke, Jacqueline A; Thompson, Lester D R; Heffess, Clara S

    2003-07-01

    Adrenal cortical neoplasms in pediatric patients (<20 years) are rare. The clinical manifestations and biologic behavior of these lesions can be quite distinct from their histologically similar counterparts in the adult population, making pathologic criteria for distinguishing benign from malignant tumors equivocal. We undertook a study of 83 adrenal cortical neoplasms to determine if adult clinical and histologic features can be applied to pediatric patients in an outcome-based analysis. Most of the patients (50 girls and 33 boys) presented with hormone-related symptoms present for a mean of 6.8 months. The tumors ranged in size from 2 to 20 cm (mean 8.8 cm). Histologic parameters examined included capsular and/or vascular invasion, extraadrenal soft tissue extension, growth pattern, cellularity, necrosis, cytoplasmic eosinophilia, nuclear pleomorphism, nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio, prominent nucleoli, mitotic figures, atypical mitotic figures, bands of fibrosis, and calcifications. Immunophenotypically, there was reactivity with inhibin, vimentin, CK5, and focally with p53 and Ki-67. All patients underwent adrenalectomy, and 20 patients received adjuvant therapy. All patients with tumors classified as adenomas (n = 9) were alive, without evidence of disease (mean 14.7 years), whereas 21 patients with carcinomas had died with disease (mean 2.4 years). Only 31% of histologically malignant tumors behaved in a clinically malignant fashion. Features associated with an increased probability of a malignant clinical behavior included tumor weight (>400 g), tumor size (>10.5 cm), vena cava invasion, capsular and/or vascular invasion, extension into periadrenal soft tissue, confluent necrosis, severe nuclear atypia, >15 mitotic figures/20 high power fields, and the presence of atypical mitotic figures. Vena cava invasion, necrosis, and increased mitotic activity (>15 mitotic figures/20 high power fields) independently suggest malignant clinical behavior in multivariate

  16. Plasma and erythrocyte membrane phospholipids and fatty acids in Italian general population and hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Dessì, Mariarita; Noce, Annalisa; Bertucci, Pierfrancesco; Noce, Gianluca; Rizza, Stefano; De Stefano, Alessandro; Manca di Villahermosa, Simone; Bernardini, Sergio; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Di Daniele, Nicola

    2014-03-21

    Dyslipidemia and abnormal phospholipid metabolism are frequent in uremic patients and increase their risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD): ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may reduce this risk in the general population. In this study we compared the plasma and erythrocyte cell membrane composition of PUFAs in a group of Caucasian hemodialysis (HD) patients and in a control group of healthy subjects and evaluated the erythrocyte/cell membrane fatty acid ratio as a marker of the dietary intake of phospholipids. The relationship between ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids and the possible differences in PUFAs concentrations were also investigated. After obtaining a fully informed consent, a total of ninety-nine HD patients and 160 non uremic control subjects from "Tor Vergata" University Hospital were enrolled into the study. None of them took antioxidant drugs or dietary supplements for at least 90 days prior to the observation. Blood samples were analysed by gas-chromatographic coupled to a mass spectrometric detector.The daily intake of total calories, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates is significantly lower in HD patients than in controls (p < 0.001). Most plasma and erythrocyte PUFA were also reduced significantly in HD patients (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that many classes of PUFAs are lacking in HD patients, due to the removal of nutrients during the dialysis and to persistent malnutrition. A dietary treatment addressed to increase plasma ω-3 PUFAs and to optimize ω-6/ω-3 ratio may exert a protective action and reduce the risk of CVD in HD patient.

  17. Population pharmacokinetics of dapsone administered biweekly to human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

    PubMed Central

    Gatti, G; Merighi, M; Hossein, J; Travaini, S; Casazza, R; Karlsson, M; Cruciani, M; Bassetti, D

    1996-01-01

    The population pharmacokinetics of dapsone were examined in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients receiving dapsone at a dosage of 100 mg twice weekly for the prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Nonlinear mixed-effect modeling was used to determine the best pharmacostatistical model for the data. A one-compartment open model with first-order absorption and elimination was used as the structural pharmacokinetic model. Several covariates were tested for their influence on pharmacokinetic parameters. Rifampin was found to increase the values of clearance/bioavailability (CL/F) and volume of distribution/ bioavailability (V/F) by approximately 70%. CL/F and V/F were 1.83 liters/h and 69.6 liters, respectively, for patients not taking rifampin. The effect of rifampin on the pharmacokinetic parameters of dapsone was appreciably less than expected on the basis of studies with healthy volunteers. Increased bilirubin levels were associated with a significant decrease in the absorption rate constant (Ka). However, this finding may be considered clinically irrelevant because the post hoc Bayesian estimates of Ka for patients with high bilirubin levels ( > 1.2 mg/dl) were at the lower bound of the values for patients with normal bilirubin levels. The value of Ka was 0.957 h-1 for a patient with a bilirubin level of 0.7 mg/dl. After inclusion of covariates in the model, the interpatient variability was 35% for CL/F, not significant for V/F, and 85% for Ka. Simulation of plasma concentration-versus-time curves indicated that the administration of 100 mg of dapsone biweekly is associated with sustained dapsone levels in the plasma of the majority of the patients. Dosage adjustments for patients concomitantly treated with rifampin may be necessary. PMID:9124833

  18. Does the applied polytrauma definition notably influence outcome and patient population? - a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Stephan; Krenn, Philipp; Heinz, Thomas; Negrin, Lukas Leopold

    2017-08-31

    Although the term "polytrauma" has been in use for decades, no generally accepted definition exists. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that different polytrauma definitions applied to a specific patient population result in diverse subgroups of individuals, who in turn present a varying outcome. All patients (≥18 years) treated at our level I trauma center within a time period of three years were classified according to 11 selected polytrauma definitions and included in our study, if they were rated "polytraumatized" by at least one of these definitions. All patients, who met the criteria of a certain definition, were combined to the relevant definition-positive group, thus resulting in 11 patient subgroups. Their demographic data (number of patients, mean patient age, mean Injury Severity Score value, median number of ventilator days, median length of stay at the intensive care unit and at the hospital, mortality rate and odds ratio) were statistically compared. Three hundred seventy-five patients (73% male) with a mean age of 47 years met the inclusion criteria and were allocated to the relevant subgroups; their patient number varied from 55 to 346 and their mean Injury Severity Score value ranged from 4 to 75. Not surprisingly, all examined parameters were subject to variations. Whereas most definition-positive groups showed a mortality rate of about 21% to 30%, 18% of the individuals, who met the criteria according to Blacker, and 40% of the polytrauma victims according to Schalamon died. The Pape 1-, Schalamon-, and Berlin-positive groups presented a significant odds ratio with regard to mortality that considerably exceeded 1. A polytrauma definition can only be a reliable tool in classifying trauma victims if it provides a significant odds ratio with regard to mortality that considerably exceeds 1 and if it succeeds in capturing patients with multiple severe injuries and a higher mortality rate without reducing the number of polytraumatized

  19. Revue systématique sur la contribution des femmes distributeurs communautaires dans la lutte contre l'onchocercose en Afrique sub-saharienne

    PubMed Central

    Vouking, Marius Zambou; Tadenfok, Carine Nouboudem; Evina, Christine Danielle; Nsangou, Moustapha; Bonono, Cécile-Renée; Yondo, David

    2014-01-01

    Le Programme Africain de lutte contre l'Onchocercose (APOC) fut lancé en 1995, comme complément au brillant programme de lutte contre l'onchocercose en Afrique de l'Ouest. En 2011, plus de 80 millions de personnes ont bénéficié de cette intervention grâce à la contribution de 268 718 Distributeurs Communautaires (DC). Ses résultats significatifs occultent le rôle des femmes DC dans cette lutte cette maladie. L'objectif de cette analyse est de déterminer la contribution des femmes DC dans le traitement de l'onchocercose sous directive communautaire en Afrique sub-saharienne, et d’évaluer leur acceptation dans ledit programme. Comme stratégie de recherche, nous avons identifié toutes les études pertinentes de Janvier 1995 à Décembre 2012. Des recherches ont été effectuées dans les bases de données suivantes: Medline, Embase (Excerpta Medica Database), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), LILAS (Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences). Nous avons également consulté les sites d'APOC et de l'OMS AFRO. Deux auteurs ont indépendamment évalué la pertinence des articles potentiels à l'aide des critères d'inclusion et d'exclusion bien définis. Six (6) des 25 études ont rempli les critères d'inclusion. Une étude a montré que 81% des populations où il y avait des femmes DC ont reçu l'Ivermectine par rapport à 78% des villages où n'exerçaient pas de femmes DC. Une autre étude a montré qu'il y a eu une prise de conscience croissante dans les IDC en faveur de l'acceptation de la participation des femmes à la distribution communautaire de l'Ivermectine. De plus, 70% des membres de la communauté interrogés dans certaines zones endémiques, ont déclaré que les femmes étaient plus engagées, persuasives et plus patientes que les hommes dans la distribution de l'Ivermectine. Au terme de cette étude, les évaluations qui ont été effectuées donnent à penser que les femmes peuvent jouer

  20. Drug-eluting stents in patients with end-stage renal disease: meta-analysis and systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Latif, Ahmed; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Mesgarzadeh, Paymon; Ziada, Khaled M

    2010-12-01

    The study sought to examine the total weight of evidence regarding the use of drug eluting (DES) and bare metal stents (BMS) in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). The potential superiority of DES over BMS in reducing target lesion or vessel revascularization (TLR or TVR) in patients with ESRD on dialysis has not been established. Small studies comparing DES to BMS in this population have yielded inconclusive results mainly due to the small sample size. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, CINAHL, and the Cochrane CENTRAL database of controlled clinical trials (December 2009) for controlled trials comparing DES to BMS in ESRD patients. We conducted a fixed-effects meta-analysis across seven eligible studies (n = 869 patients). Compared with BMS-treated patients, DES-treated patients had significantly lower TLR/TVR (OR 0.55 CI: 0.39-0.79) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) (OR 0.54; CI: 0.40-0.73). The absolute risk reduction (ARR) with DES in TLR/TVR was -0.09 (CI: -0.14 to -0.04; NNT 11) and in MACE was -0.13 (CI: -0.19 to -0.07; NNT 8). A trend towards lower incidence of all cause mortality was also noted with DES (OR 0.68; CI: 0.45-1.01). No significant differences were noted between both groups in the relative or absolute risk of myocardial infarction. The use of DES in patients with ESRD is safe and yields significant reduction in the risk of TLR/TVR and MACE. Larger randomized studies are needed to confirm the results of this meta-analysis and establish the appropriate stent choice in this high risk population. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Grundlagen des Tissue Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Jörg; Blum, Janaki; Wintermantel, Erich

    Die Organtransplantation stellt eine verbreitete Therapie dar, um bei krankheitsoder unfallbedingter Schädigung eines Organs die Gesamtheit seiner Funktionen wieder herzustellen, indem es durch ein Spenderorgan ersetzt wird. Organtransplantationen werden für die Leber, die Niere, die Lunge, das Herz oder bei schweren grossflächigen Verbrennungen der Haut vorgenommen. Der grosse apparative, personelle und logistische Aufwand und die Risiken der Transplantationschirurgie (Abstossungsreaktionen) sowie die mangelnde Verfügbarkeit von immunologisch kompatiblen Spenderorganen führen jedoch dazu, dass der Bedarf an Organtransplantaten nur zu einem sehr geringen Teil gedeckt werden kann. Sind Spenderorgane nicht verfügbar, können in einzelnen Fällen lebenswichtige Teilfunktionen, wie beispielsweise die Filtrationsfunktion der Niere durch die Blutreinigung mittels Dialyse ersetzt oder, bei mangelnder Funktion der Bauchspeicheldrüse (Diabetes), durch die Verabreichung von Insulin ein normaler Zustand des Gesamtorganismus auch über Jahre hinweg erhalten werden. Bei der notwendigen lebenslangen Anwendung apparativer oder medikamentöser Therapie können für den Patienten jedoch häufig schwerwiegende, möglicherweise lebensverkürzende Nebenwirkungen entstehen. Daher werden in der Forschung Alternativen gesucht, um die Funktionen des ausgefallenen Organs durch die Implantation von Zellen oder in vitro gezüchteten Geweben möglichst umfassend wieder herzustellen. Dies erfordert biologisch aktive Implantate, welche die für den Stoffwechsel des Organs wichtigen Zellen enthalten und einen organtypischen Stoffwechsel entfalten.

  2. Fragility Fractures in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Osteoarthritis Compared with the General Population.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yuri; Turkiewicz, Aleksandra; Wingstrand, Hans; Englund, Martin

    2015-11-01

    To determine the rate ratios of hip and distal radius fractures in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), hip osteoarthritis (OA), and knee OA. Cohort study using healthcare data (1998-2012) covering the entire population of the Skåne region of Sweden. We found an increased rate of hip fracture in both female [standardized fracture rate ratio (SFR) 1.54, 95% CI 1.40-1.70] and male patients with RA (SFR 1.81, 95% CI 1.51-2.17). The hip fracture rate in female OA was reduced by 10-20%, and trochanteric fracture tended to have a higher rate ratio compared with the cervical. The 50-80% increased rate of hip fracture adds to the total burden of RA while the shifted distribution of cervical/trochanteric fractures in OA is in support of subchondral bone alterations.

  3. FFR guided PCI on long coronary lesions: 2-year clinical results with 2nd or newer generation DES

    PubMed Central

    Arvydas, Baranauskas; Vilhelmas, Bajoras; Povilas, Budrys; Aleksandras, Laucevičius; Giedrius, Davidavičius

    2016-01-01

    Background. Despite improvements in drug-eluting stent (DES) technology, treatment strategies for long coronary artery lesions remain a controversial issue. The aim of our study was to evaluate the long-term clinical results after FFR guided PCI on long coronary lesions. Materials and methods. A total of 74 consecutive patients with significant (mean FFR 0.61 ± 0.11) coronary artery lesions ≥30 mm in length were included in the prospective study. All patients were treated with FFR guided PCI implanting newer generation Biolimus, Everolimus or Zotarolimus eluting stents. Clinical endpoints – target vessel revascularization (TVR) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) – were recorded at 1 and 2 years. Results. 100% angiographic procedure success was achieved, the mean post procedural FFR was 0.88 ± 0.06. At 2-year follow-up, 6 (8.1%) patients had ischemia driven TVR, all within the first 12 months. There were no target vessel related acute coronary syndromes and definite stent thromboses in the study group. At 2 years, the total MACE rate was 29.7%. There was a trend towards a higher TVR rate in patients with overlapping DES vs single DES implanted (9.6 vs 4.5%, p = 0.6). On regression analysis, the total stent length had no influence on the TVR rate. Conclusions. At 2 years after stenting long coronary lesions with newer generation DES the TVR rate was 8.1%, which is acceptable in the high cardiovascular risk population with diffuse coronary artery disease. The total stent length did not affect the long-term clinical outcomes. PMID:28356786

  4. Population pharmacokinetic analysis of voriconazole and anidulafungin in adult patients with invasive aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Mould, Diane R

    2014-08-01

    To assess the pharmacokinetics (PK) of voriconazole and anidulafungin in patients with invasive aspergillosis (IA) in comparison with other populations, sparse PK data were obtained for 305 adults from a prospective phase 3 study comparing voriconazole and anidulafungin in combination versus voriconazole monotherapy (voriconazole, 6 mg/kg intravenously [IV] every 12 h [q12h] for 24 h followed by 4 mg/kg IV q12h, switched to 300 mg orally q12h as appropriate; with placebo or anidulafungin IV, a 200-mg loading dose followed by 100 mg q24h). Voriconazole PK was described by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption and mixed linear and time-dependent nonlinear (Michaelis-Menten) elimination; anidulafungin PK was described by a two-compartment model with first-order elimination. For voriconazole, the normal inverse Wishart prior approach was implemented to stabilize the model. Compared to previous models, no new covariates were identified for voriconazole or anidulafungin. PK parameter estimates of voriconazole and anidulafungin are in agreement with those reported previously except for voriconazole clearance (the nonlinear clearance component became minimal). At a 4-mg/kg IV dose, voriconazole exposure tended to increase slightly as age, weight, or body mass index increased, but the difference was not considered clinically relevant. Estimated voriconazole exposures in IA patients at 4 mg/kg IV were higher than those reported for healthy adults (e.g., the average area under the curve over a 12-hour dosing interval [AUC0-12] at steady state was 46% higher); while it is not definitive, age and concomitant medications may impact this difference. Estimated anidulafungin exposures in IA patients were comparable to those reported for the general patient population. This study was approved by the appropriate institutional review boards or ethics committees and registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00531479).

  5. Molecular analysis of fungal populations in patients with oral candidiasis using internal transcribed spacer region.

    PubMed

    Ieda, Shinsuke; Moriyama, Masafumi; Takeshita, Toru; Takashita, Toru; Maehara, Takashi; Imabayashi, Yumi; Shinozaki, Shoichi; Tanaka, Akihiko; Hayashida, Jun-Nosuke; Furukawa, Sachiko; Ohta, Miho; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Nakamura, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is closely associated with changes in the oral fungal flora and is caused primarily by Candida albicans. Conventional methods of fungal culture are time-consuming and not always conclusive. However, molecular genetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of fungal rRNA is rapid, reproducible and simple to perform. In this study we examined the fungal flora in patients with oral candidiasis and investigated changes in the flora after antifungal treatment using length heterogeneity-polymerization chain reaction (LH-PCR) analysis of ITS regions. Fifty-two patients with pseudomembranous oral candidiasis (POC) and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. Fungal DNA from oral rinse was examined for fungal species diversity by LH-PCR. Fungal populations were quantified by real-time PCR and previously-unidentified signals were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. Relationships between the oral fungal flora and treatment-resistant factors were also examined. POC patients showed significantly more fungal species and a greater density of fungi than control individuals. Sixteen fungi were newly identified. The fungal populations from both groups were composed predominantly of C. albicans, though the ratio of C. dubliniensis was significantly higher in POC patients than in controls. The diversity and density of fungi were significantly reduced after treatment. Furthermore, fungal diversity and the proportion of C. dubliniensis were positively correlated with treatment duration. These results suggest that C. dubliniensis and high fungal flora diversity might be involved in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis. We therefore conclude that LH-PCR is a useful technique for diagnosing and assessing the severity of oral candidal infection.

  6. Molecular Analysis of Fungal Populations in Patients with Oral Candidiasis Using Internal Transcribed Spacer Region

    PubMed Central

    Ieda, Shinsuke; Moriyama, Masafumi; Takashita, Toru; Maehara, Takashi; Imabayashi, Yumi; Shinozaki, Shoichi; Tanaka, Akihiko; Hayashida, Jun-Nosuke; Furukawa, Sachiko; Ohta, Miho; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Nakamura, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is closely associated with changes in the oral fungal flora and is caused primarily by Candida albicans. Conventional methods of fungal culture are time-consuming and not always conclusive. However, molecular genetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of fungal rRNA is rapid, reproducible and simple to perform. In this study we examined the fungal flora in patients with oral candidiasis and investigated changes in the flora after antifungal treatment using length heterogeneity-polymerization chain reaction (LH-PCR) analysis of ITS regions. Fifty-two patients with pseudomembranous oral candidiasis (POC) and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. Fungal DNA from oral rinse was examined for fungal species diversity by LH-PCR. Fungal populations were quantified by real-time PCR and previously-unidentified signals were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. Relationships between the oral fungal flora and treatment-resistant factors were also examined. POC patients showed significantly more fungal species and a greater density of fungi than control individuals. Sixteen fungi were newly identified. The fungal populations from both groups were composed predominantly of C. albicans, though the ratio of C. dubliniensis was significantly higher in POC patients than in controls. The diversity and density of fungi were significantly reduced after treatment. Furthermore, fungal diversity and the proportion of C. dubliniensis were positively correlated with treatment duration. These results suggest that C. dubliniensis and high fungal flora diversity might be involved in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis. We therefore conclude that LH-PCR is a useful technique for diagnosing and assessing the severity of oral candidal infection. PMID:24979710

  7. Antidepressants and risk of dementia in migraine patients: A population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cynthia Wei-Sheng; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Pan-Yen; Thielke, Stephen; Su, Kuan-Pin; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2017-04-07

    To ascertain the relationship between receipt of antidepressant agents and the risk of subsequent dementia in migraine patients. A population-based case-control analysis, using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. We identified 1774 patients with dementia and 1774 matched nondementia controls from migraine patients enrolled in the Taiwan National Health Insurance program between 2005 and 2011. The proportional distributions of exposure to three classes of antidepressant were compared between dementia and nondementia groups. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of dementia based on antidepressant exposure. The proportions of subjects taking tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and new-generation antidepressants (NGAs) in dementia versus nondementia groups are 52.3 vs 51.2%, 25.5 vs 30.7%, and 18.8 vs 6.26%, respectively. The adjusted ORs of dementia were 1.02 (95% CI=0.89, 1.17; P=0.56) for TCAs, 0.58 (95% CI=0.50, 0.69; P<0.001) for SSRIs, and 4.23 (95% CI=3.34, 5.37; P<0.001) for NGAs. Treatment with SSRIs was associated with a decreased risk of dementia in migraine patients. TCAs showed no association with dementia risk, and NGAs showed increased risk. Given the possibility of confounding by indication, additional prospective trials and basic research are needed before drawing conclusions about the population-level risks for dementia onset conferred by antidepressant medications.

  8. Health Literacy Rates in a Population of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis in Southwestern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhaowei; Haig, Sara L; Pope, Janet E; Rohekar, Sherry; Rohekar, Gina; LeRiche, Nicole G H; Thompson, Andrew E

    2015-09-01

    To determine the rate of low health literacy in the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) population in southwestern Ontario. For the study, 432 patients with RA were contacted, and 311 completed the assessment. The health literacy levels of the participants were estimated using 4 assessment tools administered in the following order: the Single Item Literacy Screener (SILS), the Medical Term Recognition Test (METER), the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), and the Shortened Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (STOFHLA). The rates of low literacy as estimated by STOFHLA, REALM, METER, and SILS were 14.5%, 14.8%, 14.1%, and 18.6%, respectively. All 4 assessment tools were statistically significantly correlated. STOFHLA, REALM, and METER were strongly correlated with each other (r = 0.59-0.79), while SILS only demonstrated moderate correlations with the other assessment tools (r = 0.33-0.45). Multiple linear regression and binary logistic regression analyses revealed that low levels of education and a lack of daily reading activity were common predictors of low health literacy. Using a non-English primary language at home was found to be a strong predictor of low health literacy in STOFHLA, REALM, and METER. Male sex was found to be a significant predictor of poor performance in REALM and METER, but not STOFHLA. Low health literacy is an important issue in the southwestern Ontario RA population. About 1 in 7 patients with RA may not have the necessary skills to become involved in making decisions regarding their personal health. Rheumatologists should be aware of the low health literacy levels of patients with RA and should consider identifying patients at risk of low health literacy.

  9. Population pharmacokinetics of ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX in patients with prior myocardial infarction
.

    PubMed

    Röshammar, Daniel; Bergstrand, Martin; Andersson, Tomas; Storey, Robert F; Hamrén, Bengt

    2017-05-01

    The population pharmacokinetics of ticagrelor and its active metabolite AR-C124910XX were characterized following ticagrelor 60 mg or 90 mg twice daily oral long-term treatment in 4,426 patients with a history of myocardial infarction. The ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX plasma concentration-time data were described by one-compartment models with first-order absorption or metabolite formation and elimination. Systemic exposure to ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX were stable over time. Ticagrelor apparent clearance (CL/F) was 17 L/h for the 60-mg and 15.4 L/h for the 90-mg dose. The CL/F of AR-C124910XX was 11.1 L/h for the 60-mg and 9.95 L/h for the 90-mg dose. Both ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX CL/F were independently influenced by body weight, sex, age, smoking, and Japanese ethnicity. Female sex and age > 75 years were the only categorical covariates, having more than 20% effect on AR-C124910XX CL/F. Ticagrelor CL/F was 6% higher and 11% lower, whereas AR-C124910XX CL/F was 26% higher and 34% lower for patients weighing 110 and 50 kg, respectively, compared with an 83 kg patient. The small differences in exposure to both ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX between demographic subgroups were in accordance with the consistent efficacy and safety outcomes observed across the population. The results were similar to those observed previously in patients with acute coronary syndromes.
.

  10. Métastases pleuro-pulmonaires des néoplasies extra-thoraciques

    PubMed Central

    Badri, Farid; Batahar, Salma Ait; Idrissi, Safae El; Sajiai, Hafsa; Serhane, Hind; Amro, Lamyae

    2017-01-01

    Les poumons reçoivent la totalité du drainage veineux du corps expliquant la grande fréquence des métastases pleuro-pulmonaires de plusieurs cancers. L'objectif était d'étudier les manifestations radio-cliniques des métastases pleuro-pulmonaires des cancers extra-thoraciques. Nous rapportons une étude rétrospective de patients porteurs de métastase pleuro-pulmonaire colligés dans notre service entre janvier 2006 et décembre 2014. 76 dossiers ont été étudiés. La moyenne d'âge était de 50 ans (extrêmes allant de 21 ans jusqu'à 89 ans) avec une prédominance masculine dans 57,8% des cas. La symptomatologie clinique était faite principalement de toux (32,8% des cas), de dyspnée (23,7% des cas) et d'hémoptysie (11,2% des cas). Les cancers primitifs à l'origine des différentes métastases pleuro-pulmonaires retrouvés dans notre série sont dominés respectivement par le cancer du sein dans 27,6% des cas, les cancers digestifs dans 15,8% des cas, les cancers génitaux dans 9,2% des cas, les sarcomes dans 7,8% des cas, le cancer rénal dans 5,2% des cas, le cancer de la vessie dans 5,2% des cas, le cancer de la prostate dans 3,9% cas, les cancers ORL dans 3,9% des cas, les cancers thyroïdiens dans 3,9% des cas, le cancer de la peau dans 2,6% des cas et le cancer primitif d'origine indéterminée dans 14,4% des cas. Plusieurs aspects radiologiques des métastases pleuro-pulmonaires ont été retrouvés dans notre série, ils peuvent être isolés ou en association. L'aspect radiologique le plus fréquent est celui du lâcher de ballon présent dans 52,6% des cas, suivi des pleurésies présentes dans 34,2% des cas, des micronodules diffus présents dans 23,6% des cas et un nodule unique présent dans 3,94% des cas. Les cancers secondaires pleuro-pulmonaires sont fréquents. Ils viennent en 3ème position après les métastases ganglionnaires et hépatiques et ils sont retrouvés dans 30% des autopsies de patients porteurs d'une néoplasie. PMID

  11. Broadened population-level frequency tuning in the auditory cortex of tinnitus patients.

    PubMed

    Sekiya, Kenichi; Takahashi, Mariko; Murakami, Shingo; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Okamoto, Hidehiko

    2017-03-01

    Tinnitus is a phantom auditory perception without an external sound source and is one of the most common public health concerns that impair the quality of life of many individuals. However, its neural mechanisms remain unclear. We herein examined population-level frequency tuning in the auditory cortex of unilateral tinnitus patients with similar hearing levels in both ears using magnetoencephalography. We compared auditory-evoked neural activities elicited by a stimulation to the tinnitus and nontinnitus ears. Objective magnetoencephalographic data suggested that population-level frequency tuning corresponding to the tinnitus ear was significantly broader than that corresponding to the nontinnitus ear in the human auditory cortex. The results obtained support the hypothesis that pathological alterations in inhibitory neural networks play an important role in the perception of subjective tinnitus.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Although subjective tinnitus is one of the most common public health concerns that impair the quality of life of many individuals, no standard treatment or objective diagnostic method currently exists. We herein revealed that population-level frequency tuning was significantly broader in the tinnitus ear than in the nontinnitus ear. The results of the present study provide an insight into the development of an objective diagnostic method for subjective tinnitus.

  12. Broadened population-level frequency tuning in the auditory cortex of tinnitus patients

    PubMed Central

    Sekiya, Kenichi; Takahashi, Mariko; Murakami, Shingo; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2017-01-01

    Tinnitus is a phantom auditory perception without an external sound source and is one of the most common public health concerns that impair the quality of life of many individuals. However, its neural mechanisms remain unclear. We herein examined population-level frequency tuning in the auditory cortex of unilateral tinnitus patients with similar hearing levels in both ears using magnetoencephalography. We compared auditory-evoked neural activities elicited by a stimulation to the tinnitus and nontinnitus ears. Objective magnetoencephalographic data suggested that population-level frequency tuning corresponding to the tinnitus ear was significantly broader than that corresponding to the nontinnitus ear in the human auditory cortex. The results obtained support the hypothesis that pathological alterations in inhibitory neural networks play an important role in the perception of subjective tinnitus. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Although subjective tinnitus is one of the most common public health concerns that impair the quality of life of many individuals, no standard treatment or objective diagnostic method currently exists. We herein revealed that population-level frequency tuning was significantly broader in the tinnitus ear than in the nontinnitus ear. The results of the present study provide an insight into the development of an objective diagnostic method for subjective tinnitus. PMID:28053240

  13. Utility of C-2 (Cyclosporine) monitoring in postrenal transplant patients: A study in the Indian population.

    PubMed

    Thakur, V; Kumar, R; Gupta, P N

    2008-07-01

    The study was planned and conducted to assess the benefit of C-2 levels (blood cyclosporine levels two hours postdosing) monitoring over trough (C0) levels (predosing) in postrenal transplant patients. The patient population included 34 postrenal transplant individuals (28 males and six females, mean age of 39.9 +/- 12.3 years). The patients were first-transplant patients and were receiving a microemulsion form of cyclosporine A (CsA) as an immunosuppressant along with azathioprine and prednisolone. In addition, they were not on any enzyme inducer/inhibitor drugs, except for diltiazem. Timed collection of C0 and C-2 samples was done and the samples were immediately processed using the cedia cyclosporine plus assay kit. Estimation was done on a Beckman synchron CX5CE fully automated chemistry analyzer. Serum urea nitrogen and creatinine levels were checked. Poor graft survival was found in this population with 29.3% patients showing graft rejection. The graft rejection patients were assigned to two groups: group I with chronic graft rejection patients (17.6%) and group II with acute graft rejection patients (11.7%). Group III consisted of graft survival patients (70.7%). Mean +/- SD was calculated for C0 and C2 levels. Individual values for C0 and C-2 were plotted on a scatter chart. C0 and C-2 levels were normalized by calculating them as the percentage of their targets (data not shown) and compared using the Kruskal Wallis one-way analysis of variance. C0 levels in all the three groups were within the recommended therapeutic range (150-300 ng/mL) (P < 0.182). Blood C-2 concentrations did not achieve the recommended target levels in these patients. One-way analysis of variance for C-2 values when expressed as the percentage of the target values did not show any significant difference between these groups (P < 0.84). No significant difference was found in C0 levels between groups I, II, and group III patients when expressed as the percentage of the target values (P

  14. SEROPREVALENCE OF HTLV IN A POPULATION OF HIV1-INFECTED PATIENTS IN MIDWESTERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    KOZLOWSKI, Aline Garcia; de MATOS, Márcia Alves Dias; CARNEIRO, Megmar Aparecida dos Santos; LOPES, Carmen Luci Rodrigues; TELES, Sheila Araújo; VICENTE, Carolina Paulo; MARTINS, Regina Maria Bringel

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) may affect the clinical course of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV1). Both infections are common in endemic areas because these viruses share similar routes of transmission. The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of HTLV1/2 in a population of HIV1-infected patients in the state of Goiás, Midwestern Brazil. Of the 505 studied patients, four (0.79%) were positive for anti-HTLV1/2 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with HTLV1 infection confirmed by line immunoassay (LIA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in all of the ELISA-positive samples. No cases of HTLV2 infection were observed. The prevalence of HTLV1/HIV1 coinfection was 0.79% (4/505; 95% CI: 0.25-2.16). All the coinfected patients reported sexual risk behaviors and only one reported intravenous drug use. Sequencing of the viral long terminal repeat (LTR) region and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the four HTLV1 isolates belonged to the Transcontinental a subgroup of the Cosmopolitan (1a) subtype, the most frequent subgroup detected in Brazil. This study shows a low prevalence of HTLV1/2 in HIV1-infected patients in Midwestern Brazil. PMID:27828621

  15. A Population Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Analysis of Peginesatide in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease on Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Himanshu; Tsai, Max C.; Fiedler-Kelly, Jill; Qiu, Ping; Vakilynejad, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Peginesatide (OMONTYS®) is an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent that was indicated in the United States for the treatment of anemia due to chronic kidney disease in adult patients on dialysis prior to its recent marketing withdrawal by the manufacturer. The objective of this analysis was to develop a population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic model to characterize the time-course of peginesatide plasma and hemoglobin concentrations following intravenous and subcutaneous administration. Plasma samples (n = 2,665) from 672 patients with chronic kidney disease (on or not on dialysis) and hemoglobin samples (n = 18,857) from 517 hemodialysis patients (subset of the 672 patients), were used for pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model development in NONMEM VI. The pharmacokinetic profile of peginesatide was best described by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption and saturable elimination. The relationship between peginesatide and hemoglobin plasma concentrations was best characterized by a modified precursor-dependent lifespan indirect response model. The estimate of maximal stimulatory effect of peginesatide on the endogenous production rate of progenitor cells (Emax) was 0.54. The estimate of peginesatide drug concentration required for 50% of maximal response (EC50) estimates was 0.4 µg/mL. Several significant (P<0.005) covariates affected simulated peginesatide exposure by ≤36%. Based upon ≤0.2 g/dL effects on simulated hemoglobin levels, none were considered clinically relevant. PMID:23840463

  16. A Population Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Analysis of Peginesatide in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease on Dialysis.

    PubMed

    Naik, Himanshu; Tsai, Max C; Fiedler-Kelly, Jill; Qiu, Ping; Vakilynejad, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Peginesatide (OMONTYS®) is an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent that was indicated in the United States for the treatment of anemia due to chronic kidney disease in adult patients on dialysis prior to its recent marketing withdrawal by the manufacturer. The objective of this analysis was to develop a population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic model to characterize the time-course of peginesatide plasma and hemoglobin concentrations following intravenous and subcutaneous administration. Plasma samples (n = 2,665) from 672 patients with chronic kidney disease (on or not on dialysis) and hemoglobin samples (n = 18,857) from 517 hemodialysis patients (subset of the 672 patients), were used for pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model development in NONMEM VI. The pharmacokinetic profile of peginesatide was best described by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption and saturable elimination. The relationship between peginesatide and hemoglobin plasma concentrations was best characterized by a modified precursor-dependent lifespan indirect response model. The estimate of maximal stimulatory effect of peginesatide on the endogenous production rate of progenitor cells (Emax) was 0.54. The estimate of peginesatide drug concentration required for 50% of maximal response (EC50) estimates was 0.4 µg/mL. Several significant (P<0.005) covariates affected simulated peginesatide exposure by ≤36%. Based upon ≤0.2 g/dL effects on simulated hemoglobin levels, none were considered clinically relevant.

  17. Implications of vitamin D deficiency in lithiasic patient and in general population.

    PubMed

    Millán-Rodríguez, F; Gavrilov, P; Gracia-García, S; Angerri-Feu, O; Sánchez-Martín, F M; Villavicencio-Mavrich, H

    2015-05-01

    Vitamin D deficiency causes problems in mineral metabolism but also overall health. In first place a review of the topic was carried out. Then, in order to contextualize it in lithiasic patient, a study on Vitamin D deficiency and its possible relationship with impaired PTH levels is performed. A review of topics such as metabolism, epidemiology and the relationship of vitamin D deficiency with several pathologies was performed. Besides a multivariate analysis and a correlation study between vitamin D and PTH levels was conducted in 100 lithiasic patients. We present a review of Vitamin D metabolism, receptors and functions, as well as about its valuation methodology and the treatment of its deficiency. Lithiasic patients show a higher vitamin D deficiency than general population. Vitamin D deficiency has been significantly associated with increased PTH levels. In addition, there is enough literature showing a relationship between vitamin D deficiency not only with bone disease, but also with multiple diseases. vitamin D levels should be measured in all lithiasic patients, and those with vitamin D deficiency should be treated. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. The hospital costs of stroke patients in Chinese island populations: an 11-year tendency analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaomei; Zou, Safeng; Zhu, Bo; Shi, Jingpu

    2015-05-01

    The impact of stroke is devastating the life of patients, families, and even the communities. The cost of treatment; however, has the tendency of increasing nowadays, which has brought a heavy burden to patients and their families. Our study aims to collect the data of the hospital cost among stroke patients in Chinese island populations over the past decade and provide the scientific improvement for stroke. We retrospectively collected the basic information and hospital costs of the stroke patients in Dalian Changhai Hospital from 2003 to 2013 using the Information Registration System of Inpatient. The total cumulative hospital admissions for stroke in Dalian Changhai Hospital were 1367 and showed a rising tendency from 2003 to 2013. Our results illustrated that the annual cumulative hospital costs of stroke inpatients increased rapidly in the past 11 years (the average rise was 37.71% per year), and the mean hospital cost per admission was 1.66% higher than that before, when the mean length of hospital days showed a downward tendency. Medication cost was found to be the largest part in the overall hospital cost (as a high percentage of 73.94%); however, traditional Chinese medicine only occupied quite a small proportion in the medicines. The hospital cost for stroke in Dalian Changhai County has brought an increasingly heavy economic burden to the local government and residents. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. UNC13A influences survival in Italian ALS patients: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Chiò, Adriano; Mora, Gabriele; Restagno, Gabriella; Brunetti, Maura; Ossola, Irene; Barberis, Marco; Ferrucci, Luigi; Canosa, Antonio; Manera, Umberto; Moglia, Cristina; Fuda, Giuseppe; Traynor, Bryan J.; Calvo, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The common variant rs12608932, located within an intron of UNC13A gene on chromosome 19p13.3, has been suggested to influence susceptibility to ALS, as well as survival, in patients of north European descent. To examine this possibility further, we evaluated the association of rs12608932 with susceptibility and survival in a population-based cohort of 500 Italian ALS patients and 1,457 Italian control samples. Although rs12608932 was not associated to ALS susceptibility in our series (p=0.124), it was significantly associated with survival under the recessive model (median survival for AA/AC genotypes = 3.5 years [IQR 2.2–6.4]; CC = 2.5 years [IQR 1.6–4.2]; p=0.017). Furthermore, rs12608932 genotype remained an independent prognostic factor in Cox multivariable analysis adjusting for other factors known to influence survival (p=0.023). Overall, minor allele carrier status of rs12608932 was strongly associated with an ~1-year reduction of survival in ALS patients, making it a significant determinant of phenotype variation. The identification of UNC13A as a modifier of prognosis among sporadic ALS patients potentially provides a new therapeutic target aimed at slowing disease progression. PMID:22921269

  20. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Social Avoidance of Recovered SARS Patients in the Hong Kong General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Joseph T. F.; Yang, Xilin; Wong, Eric; Tsui, H. Y.

    2006-01-01

    The study investigated the general population's perceived infectivity of asymptomatic and recovered severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) patients and factors associated with avoidance and discriminatory attitudes, including demographic background, SARS-related perceptions and emotional response to the SARS epidemic. A population-based survey…

  1. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Social Avoidance of Recovered SARS Patients in the Hong Kong General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Joseph T. F.; Yang, Xilin; Wong, Eric; Tsui, H. Y.

    2006-01-01

    The study investigated the general population's perceived infectivity of asymptomatic and recovered severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) patients and factors associated with avoidance and discriminatory attitudes, including demographic background, SARS-related perceptions and emotional response to the SARS epidemic. A population-based survey…

  2. Associations of Moyamoya patients with HLA class I and class II alleles in the Korean population.

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hoon; Pyo, Chul-Woo; Yoo, Do-Sung; Huh, Pil-Woo; Cho, Kyung-Souk; Kim, Dal-Soo

    2003-01-01

    Moyamoya disease is characterized by progressive cerebrovascular occlusion at the peripheral internal carotid artery and development of abnormal collateral circulation at the cerebral basal region. Although abnormal thrombogenesis, inflammation and autoimmune process might be involved in the etiology, the genetic pathogenesis of Moyamoya disease is still unknown. To evaluate the association of Moyamoya disease with HLA alleles in the Korean population, we investigated HLA class I and class II alleles in 28 Moyamoya patients and 198 unrelated healthy controls. The frequency of HLA-B35 allele was significantly increased in the patients compared to the controls (32.1% vs. 10.1%, RR=4.2, p<0.008). Further analysis of HLA-B35 on onset age and sex showed that this allele was significantly increased compared to the controls in both late-onset and female group. Especially, HLA-B35 was the most significantly increased in female of late-onset group compared to the controls. These results suggest that HLA-B35 may be an useful genetic marker for Moyamoya disease, and particularly in females of late onset group in the Korean population. PMID:14676447

  3. Genetic similarities and differences between discoid and systemic lupus erythematosus patients within the Polish population

    PubMed Central

    Czajkowski, Rafał; Kaszewski, Sebastian; Gawrych, Mariusz; Jakubowska, Aneta; Grzybowski, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Many studies have shown that some SNPs might be a risk factor for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but little is known about potential susceptibility loci of the skin types of the disease. Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) is the most common form of the cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Nevertheless, a genetic contribution to DLE is not fully recognized. Aim We aimed to analyze three SNPs located in the STAT4 (rs7574865), ITGAM (rs1143679) and TNXB (rs1150754) genes in both DLE and SLE patients from Poland. Material and methods SNPs were genotyped using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Statistical significance of the differences between patient and control groups in both allele and genotype frequencies were calculated using two tailed Fisher’s exact test. The correction for multiple testing by the Bonferroni adjustment and odds ratio were also calculated. Results For the first time, we have shown that the polymorphisms located in the STAT4 (rs7574865), but not in the ITGAM (rs1143679) nor the TNXB (rs1150754) genes, might be associated with the development of DLE within the Polish population. The variation of the three investigated SNPs was found to be associated with SLE in our dataset. Conclusions The results of our study suggest differences in the molecular background between DLE and SLE within the Polish population. PMID:28670251

  4. Cerebellar function and ischemic brain lesions in migraine patients from the general population.

    PubMed

    Koppen, Hille; Boele, Henk-Jan; Palm-Meinders, Inge H; Koutstaal, Bastiaan J; Horlings, Corinne Gc; Koekkoek, Bas K; van der Geest, Jos; Smit, Albertine E; van Buchem, Mark A; Launer, Lenore J; Terwindt, Gisela M; Bloem, Bas R; Kruit, Mark C; Ferrari, Michel D; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2017-02-01

    Objective The objective of this article is to obtain detailed quantitative assessment of cerebellar function and structure in unselected migraine patients and controls from the general population. Methods A total of 282 clinically well-defined participants (migraine with aura n = 111; migraine without aura n = 89; non-migraine controls n = 82; age range 43-72; 72% female) from a population-based study were subjected to a range of sensitive and validated cerebellar tests that cover functions of all main parts of the cerebellar cortex, including cerebrocerebellum, spinocerebellum, and vestibulocerebellum. In addition, all participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain to screen for cerebellar lesions. As a positive control, the same cerebellar tests were conducted in 13 patients with familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1; age range 19-64; 69% female) all carrying a CACNA1A mutation known to affect cerebellar function. Results MRI revealed cerebellar ischemic lesions in 17/196 (8.5%) migraine patients and 3/79 (4%) controls, which were always located in the posterior lobe except for one control. With regard to the cerebellar tests, there were no differences between migraine patients with aura, migraine patients without aura, and controls for the: (i) Purdue-pegboard test for fine motor skills (assembly scores p = 0.1); (ii) block-design test for visuospatial ability (mean scaled scores p = 0.2); (iii) prism-adaptation task for limb learning (shift scores p = 0.8); (iv) eyeblink-conditioning task for learning-dependent timing (peak-time p = 0.1); and (v) body-sway test for balance capabilities (pitch velocity score under two-legs stance condition p = 0.5). Among migraine patients, those with cerebellar ischaemic lesions performed worse than those without lesions on the assembly scores of the pegboard task ( p < 0.005), but not on the primary outcome measures of the other tasks. Compared with controls and non

  5. Applying the WHO conceptual framework for the International Classification for Patient Safety to a surgical population

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, L. M.; Woods, D. M.; Yanes, A. F.; Skaro, A. I.; Daud, A.; Curtis, T.; Wymore, E.; Holl, J. L.; Abecassis, M. M.; Ladner, D. P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Efforts to improve patient safety are challenged by the lack of universally agreed upon terms. The International Classification for Patient Safety (ICPS) was developed by the World Health Organization for this purpose. This study aimed to test the applicability of the ICPS to a surgical population. Design A web-based safety debriefing was sent to clinicians involved in surgical care of abdominal organ transplant patients. A multidisciplinary team of patient safety experts, surgeons and researchers used the data to develop a system of classification based on the ICPS. Disagreements were reconciled via consensus, and a codebook was developed for future use by researchers. Results A total of 320 debriefing responses were used for the initial review and codebook development. In total, the 320 debriefing responses contained 227 patient safety incidents (range: 0–7 per debriefing) and 156 contributing factors/hazards (0–5 per response). The most common severity classification was ‘reportable circumstance,’ followed by ‘near miss.’ The most common incident types were ‘resources/organizational management,’ followed by ‘medical device/equipment.’ Several aspects of surgical care were encompassed by more than one classification, including operating room scheduling, delays in care, trainee-related incidents, interruptions and handoffs. Conclusions This study demonstrates that a framework for patient safety can be applied to facilitate the organization and analysis of surgical safety data. Several unique aspects of surgical care require consideration, and by using a standardized framework for describing concepts, research findings can be compared and disseminated across surgical specialties. The codebook is intended for use as a framework for other specialties and institutions. PMID:26803539

  6. Oral and maxillofacial trauma in patients with epilepsy: prospective study based on an outpatient population.

    PubMed

    Nonato, Eduardo Ruocco; Borges, Moacir Alves

    2011-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate oral and maxillofacial trauma caused by falls during epileptic seizures. A prospective case-control study was carried out among patients recruited from both the Epileptic Outpatient Clinic and the Emergency Room of Hospital de Base during 2006. The study group was composed of patients with epilepsy that had been diagnosed by a specialist. Oral and maxillofacial trauma was diagnosed using a questionnaire together with physical and radiographic examinations. A control group was formed from non-epileptic relatives or neighbors of the patients. The two groups were compared with regard to the number and type of oral and maxillofacial trauma events suffered. Odds ratios with a 95% confidence interval, dependency analysis and the Pearson χ(2) test were used for statistical analysis, and the significance level was set at p≤0.05. A total of 159 patients with epilepsy (91 males; 57.3%) and 68 control individuals (28 males; 41.1%) were enrolled in the study. The frequencies of oromaxillary trauma in the study and control groups were 23.9% and 4.4%, respectively. Generalized tonic-clonic, generalized and non-classified seizures were strongly associated with trauma. The commonest lesions were fractures of dental tooth crowns (32.9%), followed by tooth avulsion (7.6%), tooth luxation (5%) and fracturing of prostheses in edentulous patients (3.8%). This work shows that injuries to the face and teeth are statistically more common in patients with epilepsy than in the general population, and that individuals who suffer seizures without aura are the most affected.

  7. Risk of dementia in patients with celiac disease: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lebwohl, Benjamin; Luchsinger, José A; Freedberg, Daniel E; Green, Peter H R; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2016-01-01

    Patients with celiac disease (CD) frequently report cognitive symptoms when they are exposed to gluten, and cognitive deficits have been quantified in patients with newly diagnosed CD. To determine whether patients with CD have an increased risk of dementia. Using a population-based database of older adults (age ≥50 years) with histologically proven CD (duodenal/jejunal villous atrophy) from all 28 pathology departments in Sweden, we compared the incidence of a subsequent dementia diagnosis to those of age- and gender-matched controls. Among patients with CD (n = 8,846) and controls (n = 43,474), the median age was 63 years and 56% were female. During a median follow-up time of 8.4 years, dementia was diagnosed in 4.3% of CD patients and 4.4% of controls (HR 1.07; 95% CI 0.95-1.20). Although there was an increased risk of dementia in the first year following a diagnosis of CD (HR 1.73; 95% CI 1.15-2.61), this risk was not present in the whole observation period. Among those subjects with a dementia subtype specified, the increased risk was restricted to vascular dementia (HR 1.28; 95% CI 1.00-1.64) and was not present for Alzheimer's dementia (HR 1.12; 95% CI 0.91-1.37). Patients with CD are not at increased risk for dementia overall, though subgroup analysis suggests that they may be at increased risk for vascular dementia.

  8. [Incidence of dependence-related lesions in a population of critical patients].

    PubMed

    Roca-Biosca, Alba; Rubio-Rico, Lourdes; de Molina-Fernández, María Inmaculada; Tuset-Garijo, Gemma; Colodrero-Díaz, Encarnación; García-Fernández, Francisco Pedro

    2016-01-01

    To determine the incidence of various types of dependence-related lesions (DRL) on a population of critically ill patients. Descriptive, longitudinal and prospective study in an Intensive Care Unit from January 2014 to January 2015. Adult patients who did not present DRL at the moment of admission were included. Those with brain death and/or stay at the unit for more than two days were excluded. Patients were studied till they developed DRL, were exitus, discharged or stayed for more than 14 days. Each patient was evaluated daily till DRL did develop or was excluded from the study. If DRL did develop it was photographed and related data were recorded. The comparison between quantitative variables of normal distribution was done with the t de Student. The Mann-Whitney U was used to compare the other variables. Qualitative variables were compared through Pearson's chi square. In both cases p≤.05 was considered significant. 295 patients were included, 27.45% of them developed DRL. The density of incidence was 41 DRL/1,000 days at risk. 50.62% of DRL were categorized as PU. 17.28% were moisture injuries, 13.58% were due to friction and the rest were combined injuries. The risk according to EMINA and Braden scale was significantly different in the group of patients with lesions compared to the group without them. Not all injuries were caused by pressure. Specific prevention strategies based on different causal mechanisms are required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Gram and acridine orange staining for diagnosis of septic arthritis in different patient populations.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Gregory; Seghrouchni, Khalid; Ruffieux, Etienne; Vaudaux, Pierre; Gayet-Ageron, Angèle; Cherkaoui, Abdessalam; Godinho, Eduardo; Lew, Daniel; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Uçkay, Ilker

    2014-06-01

    The sensitivity of Gram staining is known to be suboptimal for the diagnosis of native joint septic arthritis. We lack information about the accuracy of Gram compared to other microscopic staining techniques for predicting infection in different patient populations. This was a cohort study with cost evaluations at the Orthopaedic Service of Geneva University Hospitals (January 1996-October 2012). Among 500 episodes of arthritis (196 with immunosuppression, 227 with underlying arthroplasties and 69 with gout or other crystals in synovial fluid), Gram staining revealed pathogens in 146 episodes (146/500, 29 %) or in 146 of the 400 culture-positive episodes (37 %). Correlation between the Gram and acridine staining of the same sample was good (Spearman 0.85). Overall, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Gram stain for rapid diagnosis of septic arthritis was 0.37, 0.99, 0.99 and 0.28, respectively, compared to microbiological cultures. Quite similar values were recorded across the different patient subpopulations, in particular for sensitivity values that were 0.33 for patients with prosthetic joint infections, 0.40 for immunosuppressed patients, 0.36 for patients under antibiotic administration and 0.52 for patients with concomitant crystalline disease. The sensitivity of Gram or acridine orange staining for a rapid diagnosis of episodes of septic arthritis is suboptimal compared to microbiological culture, regardless of underlying conditions, immunosuppression or antibiotic therapy. The sensitivity in the presence of synovial fluid crystals is moderate. Acridine orange and Gram stains are equivalent.

  10. Epidermal growth factor