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Sample records for population validation study

  1. A cross-sectional validation study of EQ-5D among the Malaysian adult population.

    PubMed

    Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Liau, Siow Yen

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the construct validity of the EQ-5D instrument among the Malaysian population. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among Malaysian adults in three northern states of Malaysia. A pre-developed questionnaire consisting of both the EQ-5D and SF-12 items was used for data collection. Concurrent, convergent, and known group validity of EQ-5D were assessed against SF-12 and several known relationships with participants' demographic and illness characteristics. A total of 596 Malaysians participated in the study. The mean EQ-5D score was 0.93 (SD = 0.13), while the mean physical component score (PCS-12) and mental component score (MCS-12) scores were 48.9 (SD = 7.4) and 49.1 (SD = 8.0), respectively. Participants with a current medical problem had lower PCS-12 and MCS-12 scores and reported more problems with all of the EQ-5D dimensions; they also had lower EQ-5D and EQ-VAS scores (P < 0.05). Convergent validity was supported by a moderately positive correlation between EQ-5D and EQ-VAS with MCS-12 and PCS-12 scores; moreover, the stronger effect sizes between PCS-12 and the physical dimensions of EQ-5D as well as between MCS-12 with anxiety/depression scores further supported the convergent validity of EQ-5D. Responses to the EQ-5D dimensions only supported two of the four known group validity hypotheses of higher quality of life among individuals who are better educated and no medical problem. No association was found between income and gender with EQ-5D score. This study has demonstrated acceptable construct validity of the EQ-5D among the Malaysian population.

  2. Validation Study of the Mini-Mental State Examination in Urdu Language for Pakistani Population

    PubMed Central

    Awan, Safia; Shahbaz, Naila; Akhtar, Syed Wasim; Ahmad, Arsalan; Iqbal, Sadaf; Ahmed, Sellal; Naqvi, Haider; Wasay, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Validation study of the Mini-Mental State Examination in Urdu language for Pakistani population Objective: This study was conducted primarily to validate and determine the optimal cutoff score in the diagnosis of dementia among Pakistani’s and study the effects of gender and education on the MMSE performance in our population. Methods: Four hundred participants took part in the study. Patient with dementia recruited from five major hospitals from Pakistan. The MMSE was translated into Urdu. Results: There were 61 men and 39 women in dementia group and 225 men and 75 women in the control group. The mean score of Urdu MMSE were lower in patients with dementia 18.5 ± 5.6 (range 0-30) as compared to the controls 26.8 ± 2.6 (range 7-30). This difference between groups was statistically significant (p<0.001). Educational based MMSE score below 15 yielded perfect sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of dementia. Conclusions: These finding confirm the influence of level of education on MMSE score and education stratified cutoff scores should be used while screening for cognitive impairment in this population. PMID:26191094

  3. Validation study of human figure drawing test in a Colombian school children population.

    PubMed

    Vélez van Meerbeke, Alberto; Sandoval-Garcia, Carolina; Ibáñez, Milciades; Talero-Gutiérrez, Claudia; Fiallo, Dolly; Halliday, Karen

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this article was to assess the validity of the emotional and developmental components of the Koppitz human figure drawing test. 2420 children's drawings available in a database resulting from a previous cross sectional study designed to determine the prevalence of neurological diseases in children between 0 and 12 years old in Bogota schools were evaluated. They were scored using the criteria proposed by Koppitz, and classified into 16 groups according to age, gender, and presence/absence of learning or attention problems. The overall results were then compared with the normative study to assess whether descriptive parameters of the two populations were significantly different. There were no significant differences associated with presence/absence of learning and attention disorders or school attended within the overall sample. An Interrater reliability test has been made to assure the homogeneity of scoring by the evaluator team. There were significant differences between this population and that of the original study. New scoring tables contextualized for our population based on the frequency of appearance in this sample are presented. We can conclude that various ethnic, social, and cultural factors can influence the way children draw the human figure. It is thus important to establish local reference values to adequately distinguish between normality and abnormality. The new scoring tables proposed here should be followed up with a clinical study to corroborate their validity.

  4. Validation of the SQUASH Physical Activity Questionnaire in a Multi-Ethnic Population: The HELIUS Study

    PubMed Central

    Gademan, M. G. J.; Snijder, M. B.; Engelbert, R. H. H.; Dijkshoorn, H.; Terwee, C. B.; Stronks, K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the reliability and validity of the SQUASH physical activity (PA) questionnaire in a multi-ethnic population living in the Netherlands. Methods We included participants from the HELIUS study, a population-based cohort study. In this study we included Dutch (n = 114), Turkish (n = 88), Moroccan (n = 74), South-Asian Surinamese (n = 98) and African Surinamese (n = 91) adults, aged 18–70 years. The SQUASH was self-administered twice to assess test-re-test reliability (mean interval 6–7 weeks) and participants wore an accelerometer and heart rate monitor (Actiheart) to enable assessment of construct validity. Results We observed low test-re-test reliability; Intra class correlation coefficients ranged from low (0.05 for moderate/high intensity PA in African Surinamese women) to acceptable (0.78 for light intensity PA in Moroccan women). The discrepancy between self-reported and measured PA differed on the basis of the intensity of activity: self-reported light intensity PA was lower than measured but self-reported moderate/high intensity PA was higher than measured, with wide limits of agreement. The discrepancy between questionnaire and Actiheart measures of moderate intensity PA did not differ between ethnic minority and Dutch participants with correction for relevant confounders. Additionally, the SQUASH overestimated the number of participants meeting the Dutch PA norm; Cohen’s kappas for the agreement were poor, the highest being 0.30 in Dutch women. Conclusion We found considerable variation in the test-re-test reliability and validity of self-reported PA with no consistency based on ethnic origin. Our findings imply that the SQUASH does not provide a valid basis for comparison of PA between ethnic groups. PMID:27575490

  5. Mastoid triangle for sex determination in adult Nigerian population: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Jaja, Blessing N R; Ajua, Christiana O; Didia, Blessing C

    2013-11-01

    In the quest for a simple, reliable technique to estimate the sex of human remains several novel metric skeletal indices have been reported. Only a few have been examined for utility in populations different from those in which they were developed. In this study, the mastoid process was evaluated for sex determination using 102 lateral cephalograms of a Nigerian sample of known age and sex. The asterion-mastoidale distance and mastoid triangular area were sexually dimorphic with mean values higher in males compared with females (p = 0.02). On analysis of the discriminant function, overall accuracy for sex classification was 55%. On cross-validation, the triangular area accurately identified 80% of females and 48% of males. The asterion-mastoidale distance was slightly more accurate at sexing the sample. The practical utility of the mastoid triangle area technique to differentiate sex in Nigerian populations is not supported by the results of this study.

  6. Validation of Blood-Based Assays Using Dried Blood Spots for Use in Large Population Studies

    PubMed Central

    CRIMMINS, EILEEN; KIM, JUNG KI; McCREATH, HEATHER; FAUL, JESSICA; WEIR, DAVID; SEEMAN, TERESA

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of health in large population studies has increasingly incorporated measures of blood-based biomarkers based on the use of dried blood spots (DBS). The validity of DBS assessments made by labs used by large studies is addressed by comparing assay values from DBS collected using conditions similar to those used in the field with values from whole blood samples. The DBS approach generates values that are strongly related to whole blood levels of HbA1c, cystatin C, and C-reactive protein. Assessing lipid levels reliably with DBS appears to be a greater challenge. However, even when DBS values and values from venous blood are highly correlated, they are often on a different scale, and using conventional cutoffs may be misleading. PMID:24784986

  7. Construct Validity of the GRE Aptitude Test across Populations--An Empirical Confirmatory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rock, D. A.; And Others

    The study evaluated the invariance of the construct validity and thus the interpretation of Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) Aptitude Test scores. A systematic procedure for investigation of test bias from a construct validity frame of reference was developed and applied. Invariant construct validity was defined as similar patterns of loadings…

  8. Validation of the pooled cohort risk score in an Asian population - a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chia, Yook Chin; Lim, Hooi Min; Ching, Siew Mooi

    2014-11-20

    The Pooled Cohort Risk Equation was introduced by the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) 2013 in their Blood Cholesterol Guideline to estimate the 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk. However, absence of Asian ethnicity in the contemporary cohorts and limited studies to examine the use of the risk score limit the applicability of the equation in an Asian population. This study examines the validity of the pooled cohort risk score in a primary care setting and compares the cardiovascular risk using both the pooled cohort risk score and the Framingham General Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) risk score. This is a 10-year retrospective cohort study of randomly selected patients aged 40-79 years. Baseline demographic data, co-morbidities and cardiovascular (CV) risk parameters were captured from patient records in 1998. Pooled cohort risk score and Framingham General CVD risk score for each patient were computed. All ASCVD events (nonfatal myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease (CHD) death, fatal and nonfatal stroke) occurring from 1998-2007 were recorded. A total of 922 patients were studied. In 1998, mean age was 57.5 ± 8.8 years with 66.7% female. There were 47% diabetic patients and 59.9% patients receiving anti-hypertensive treatment. More than 98% of patients with pooled cohort risk score ≥7.5% had FRS >10%. A total of 45 CVD events occurred, 22 (7.2%) in males and 23 (3.7%) in females. The median pooled cohort risk score for the population was 10.1 (IQR 4.7-20.6) while the actual ASCVD events that occurred was 4.9% (45/922). Our study showed moderate discrimination with AUC of 0.63. There was good calibration with Hosmer-Lemeshow test χ2 = 12.6, P = 0.12. The pooled cohort risk score appears to overestimate CV risk but this apparent over-prediction could be a result of treatment. In the absence of a validated score in an untreated population, the pooled cohort risk score appears to be

  9. Satisfaction with Life Scale (SLS-6): First validation study in Parkinson's disease population.

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, Leire; Portillo, Mari Carmen; Rodriguez-Blazquez, Carmen; Martínez-Castrillo, Juan Carlos; Rodriguez-Violante, Mayela; Serrano-Dueñas, Marcos; Campos-Arillo, Víctor; Garretto, Nelida Susana; Arakaki, Tomoko; Álvarez, Mario; Pedroso-Ibáñez, Ivonne; Carvajal, Ana; Martinez-Martin, Pablo

    2016-04-01

    To explore the psychometric attributes of a new Satisfaction with Life Scale (SLS-6) in a wide Spanish-speaking population with Parkinson's disease (PD). This was an international, cross-sectional study. Several rater-based and patient-reported outcomes measures for evaluation of PD (e.g., Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's Disease-Motor) and other constructs (e.g., Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire, Scale for Living with Chronic Illness) were applied together with the SLS-6. Acceptability, scaling assumptions, reliability, precision, and construct validity were tested. The study included 324 patients from five countries, with age (mean ± standard deviation) 66.67 ± 10.68 years. None of the SLS-6 items had missing values and all acceptability parameters fulfilled the standard criteria. Scaling assumptions allowed the calculation of a summary index from items 2 to 6, complementary to the global evaluation (item 1). For these five items, Cronbach's alpha was 0.85; the corrected item-total correlation 0.53-0.73; inter-item correlation, 0.45-0.70, with an item homogeneity index of 0.55. The standard error of measurement, based on Cronbach's alpha for a single observation, was 3.48. SLS-6 correlations were moderate to strong (rs ≥ 0.35) with the patient-reported outcomes and weak to moderate with the rater-based assessments used in the study. The SLS-6 total score was significantly different according to PD severity levels established according to Hoehn and Yahr staging, Clinical Impression of Severity Index, and Patient-Based Global Impression of Severity scale. The results suggest that SLS-6 is an easy, feasible, acceptable, consistent, precise and valid measure to evaluate satisfaction with life in PD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Validation study of the Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire in a multi-ethnic Asian population.

    PubMed

    Mahadeva, Sanjiv; Chan, Wah-Kheong; Mohazmi, Mohammed; Sujarita, Ramanujam; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2011-11-01

    Outcome measures for clinical trials in dyspepsia require an assessment of symptom response. There is a lack of validated instruments assessing dyspepsia symptoms in the Asian region. We aimed to translate and validate the Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire (LDQ) in a multi-ethnic Asian population. A Malay and culturally adapted English version of the LDQ were developed according to established protocols. Psychometric evaluation was performed by assessing the validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability and responsiveness of the instruments in both primary and secondary care patients. Between April and September 2010, both Malay (n=166) and Malaysian English (n=154) versions were assessed in primary and secondary care patients. Both language versions were found to be reliable (internal consistency was 0.80 and 0.74 (Cronbach's α) for Malay and English, respectively; spearman's correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability was 0.98 for both versions), valid (area under receiver operating curve for accuracy of diagnosing dyspepsia was 0.71 and 0.77 for Malay and English versions, respectively), discriminative (median LDQ score discriminated between primary and secondary care patients in Malay (11.0 vs 20.0, P<0.0001) and English (10.0 vs 14.0, P=0.001), and responsive (median LDQ score reduced after treatment in Malay (17.0 to 14.0, P=0.08) and English (18.0 to 11.0, P=0.008) to dyspepsia. The Malaysian versions of the LDQ are valid, reliable and responsive instruments for assessing symptoms in a multi-ethnic Asian population with dyspepsia. © 2011 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Fundamentals of population pharmacokinetic modelling: validation methods.

    PubMed

    Sherwin, Catherine M T; Kiang, Tony K L; Spigarelli, Michael G; Ensom, Mary H H

    2012-09-01

    Population pharmacokinetic modelling is widely used within the field of clinical pharmacology as it helps to define the sources and correlates of pharmacokinetic variability in target patient populations and their impact upon drug disposition; and population pharmacokinetic modelling provides an estimation of drug pharmacokinetic parameters. This method's defined outcome aims to understand how participants in population pharmacokinetic studies are representative of the population as opposed to the healthy volunteers or highly selected patients in traditional pharmacokinetic studies. This review focuses on the fundamentals of population pharmacokinetic modelling and how the results are evaluated and validated. This review defines the common aspects of population pharmacokinetic modelling through a discussion of the literature describing the techniques and placing them in the appropriate context. The concept of validation, as applied to population pharmacokinetic models, is explored focusing on the lack of consensus regarding both terminology and the concept of validation itself. Population pharmacokinetic modelling is a powerful approach where pharmacokinetic variability can be identified in a target patient population receiving a pharmacological agent. Given the lack of consensus on the best approaches in model building and validation, sound fundamentals are required to ensure the selected methodology is suitable for the particular data type and/or patient population. There is a need to further standardize and establish the best approaches in modelling so that any model created can be systematically evaluated and the results relied upon.

  12. External Validation of the Pathologic Nodal Staging Score for Prostate Cancer: A Population-based Study.

    PubMed

    Rieken, Malte; Kluth, Luis A; Seitz, Christian; Abufaraj, Mohammad; Foerster, Beat; Mathieu, Romain; Karakiewicz, Pierre I; Bachmann, Alexander; Briganti, Alberto; Rouprê, Morgan; Gönen, Mithat; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Seebacher, Veronika

    2017-08-24

    We sought to externally validate our pathologic nodal staging score (pNSS) model, which allows for quantification of the likelihood that a pathologically node-negative patient will not have lymph node (LN) metastasis after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer (PCa) in a population-based cohort. We analyzed data from 50,598 patients treated with radical prostatectomy and pelvic LN dissection using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. We estimated the sensitivity of pathologic nodal staging using a β-binomial model and developed a novel pNSS model, which represents the probability that a patient's PCa has been correctly staged as node negative as a function of the number of examined LNs. These findings were compared against those from the original cohort of 7135 patients. The mean and median number of LNs removed was 6.5 and 5, respectively (range, 1-89; interquartile range, 2-8), and 96.9% of the patients (n = 49,020) had stage pN0. Similar to the original cohort, the probability of missing a positive LN decreased with the increasing number of LNs examined. In both the validation and the original cohort, the number of LNs needed to correctly stage a patient's disease as node negative increased with more advanced tumor stage, higher Gleason sum, positive surgical margins, and higher preoperative prostate-specific antigen levels. We have confirmed that the number of examined LNs needed for adequate nodal staging in PCa depends on the pathologic tumor stage, Gleason sum, surgical margins status, and preoperative prostate-specific antigen. We externally validated our pNSS in a population-based cohort, which could help to refine decision-making regarding the administration of adjuvant therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Family Early Literacy Practices Questionnaire: A Validation Study for a Spanish-Speaking Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kandia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric validity of a Spanish translated version of a family involvement questionnaire (the FELP) using a mixed-methods design. Thus, statistical analyses (i.e., factor analysis, reliability analysis, and item analysis) and qualitative analyses (i.e., focus group data) were assessed.…

  14. Family Early Literacy Practices Questionnaire: A Validation Study for a Spanish-Speaking Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kandia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric validity of a Spanish translated version of a family involvement questionnaire (the FELP) using a mixed-methods design. Thus, statistical analyses (i.e., factor analysis, reliability analysis, and item analysis) and qualitative analyses (i.e., focus group data) were assessed.…

  15. The Patient Activation Measure: a validation study in a neurological population.

    PubMed

    Packer, Tanya L; Kephart, George; Ghahari, Setareh; Audulv, Åsa; Versnel, Joan; Warner, Grace

    2015-07-01

    To assess the validity of the Patient Activation Measure (PAM13) of patient activation in persons with neurological conditions. "The Everyday Experience of Living with and Managing a Neurological Condition" (The LINC study) surveyed 948 adults with neurological conditions residing in Canada in 2011 and 2012. Using data for 722 respondents who met coding requirements for the PAM-13, we examined the properties of the measure using principle components analysis, inter-item correlations and Cronbach's alpha to assess unidimensionality and internal consistency. Rasch modeling was used to assess item performance and scaling. Construct validity was assessed by calculating associations between the PAM and known correlates. PAM-13 provides a suitably reliable and valid instrument for research in patients with neurological conditions, but scaling problems may yield measurement error and biases for those with low levels of activation. This is of particular importance when used in clinical settings or for individual client care. Our study also suggests that measurement of activation may benefit from tailoring items and scaling to specific diagnostic groups such as people with neurological conditions, thus allowing the PAM-13 to recognize unique attributes and management challenges in those conditions. The PAM-13 is an internally reliable and valid tool for research purposes. The use of categorical activation "level" in clinical settings should be done with caution.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy studies of fine-needle aspiration show wide variation in reporting of study population characteristics: implications for external validity.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Robert L; Narra, Krishna K; Witt, Benjamin L; Factor, Rachel E

    2014-01-01

    Study comparisons rest on the assessment of applicability or external validity. Population characteristics are an important component of external validity and, although there has been a heightened awareness of deficiencies in reporting in diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) studies, the reporting of populations in DTA studies has not been investigated. To assess the quality of reporting of population descriptions in DTA studies for fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Literature survey of common population parameters and usage patterns in FNAC DTA studies. We randomly selected 20 FNAC DTA studies in 4 categories (salivary glands, lung, thyroid, and pancreas) and determined the frequency of parameter usage. Studies showed considerable variability in reporting patterns. On average, studies reported 2 to 4 parameters to describe study populations. Age, sex, and lesion size were most frequently reported. Sixteen percent of studies did not provide any population description. Population parameters were used to describe the sample population more frequently than to describe the selection process (P = .001). There were significant differences in the number of parameters specified by anatomic site (P = .001). Only 21% of studies provided a flow diagram. Thirty-three percent of studies mentioned the target population. Studies show considerable variability in the description of sample populations and the population selection process. Studies often fail to provide flow diagrams or to provide a clear statement of the research problem. There is considerable opportunity for studies to improve both descriptions of sample populations and the process used to select them.

  17. Validity of the "streitberger" needle in a chinese population with acupuncture: a randomized, single-blinded, and crossover pilot study.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chang-Cai; Wen, Xiu-Yun; Jiang, Li; Xie, Min-Jun; Fu, Wen Bin

    2013-01-01

    We studied the validity of a "Streitberger" needle as a valid approach in a Chinese population with experience of acupuncture. Volunteers were recruited from students of the School of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine. Sixty students receiving education in acupuncture theory and experience in practical acupuncture were tested in study determining whether needling with the placebo needle felt any different from conventional acupuncture. Outcomes included measures of penetration sensation, VAS ratings, and Deqi sensation questionnaire. As a result, needle penetration, VAS ratings for either needle and Deqi sensation were not significantly different between two kinds of needles. Our findings show that the use of "Streitberger" needle is credible in a Chinese population with acupuncture experience.

  18. Urinary metabolic biomarkers of hepatocellular carcinoma in an Egyptian population: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Mohamed I F; Gomaa, Asmaa I; Cox, I Jane; Patel, Madhvi; Williams, Horace R T; Crossey, Mary M E; Thillainayagam, Andrew V; Thomas, Howard C; Waked, Imam; Khan, Shahid A; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

    2011-04-01

    The advent of metabonomics has seen a proliferation of biofluid profiling studies of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The majority of these studies have been conducted in single indigenous populations making the widespread applicability of candidate metabolite biomarkers difficult. Presented here is a urinary proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of mainly hepatitis C virus infected Egyptian patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, which corroborates findings of a previous study from our group of mainly hepatitis B-infected Nigerian patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Using multivariate statistical analysis, in the form of orthogonal signal-corrected partial least squared discriminant analysis, the sensitivity and specificity of the technique for distinguishing patients with tumors from healthy controls and patients with cirrhosis was 100%/94% and 81%/71%, respectively. Discriminatory metabolites included glycine, trimethylamine-N-oxide, hippurate, citrate, creatinine, creatine, and carnitine. This metabolic profile bears similarity to profiles identified in the Nigerian cohort of subjects indicative of tumor effects on physiology, energy production, and aberrant chromosomal methylation. This is the first study to identify similarly altered urine metabolic profiles of hepatocellular carcinoma in two etiologically and ethnically distinct populations, suggesting that altered metabolism as a result of tumorogenesis is independent of these two factors.

  19. The self-assessment scale of cognitive complaints in schizophrenia: a validation study in Tunisian population.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ines; Kebir, Oussama; Ben Azouz, Olfa; Dellagi, Lamia; Rabah, Yasmine; Tabbane, Karim

    2009-10-08

    Despite a huge well-documented literature on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, little is known about the own perception of patients regarding their cognitive functioning. The purpose of our study was to create a scale to collect subjective cognitive complaints of patients suffering from schizophrenia with Tunisian Arabic dialect as mother tongue and to proceed to a validation study of this scale. The authors constructed the Self-Assessment Scale of Cognitive Complaints in Schizophrenia (SASCCS) based on a questionnaire covering five cognitive domains which are the most frequently reported in the literature to be impaired in schizophrenia. The scale consisted of 21 likert-type questions dealing with memory, attention, executive functions, language and praxia. In a second time, the authors proceeded to the study of psychometric qualities of the scale among 105 patients suffering from schizophrenia spectrum disorders (based on DSM- IV criteria). Patients were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Global Assessment Functioning Scale (GAF scale) and the Calgary Depression Scale (CDS). The scale's reliability was proven to be good through Cronbach alpha coefficient equal to 0.85 and showing its good internal consistency. The intra-class correlation coefficient at 11 weeks was equal to 0.77 suggesting a good stability over time. Principal component analysis with Oblimin rotation was performed and yielded to six factors accounting for 58.28% of the total variance of the scale. Given the good psychometric properties that have been revealed in this study, the SASCCS seems to be reliable to measure schizophrenic patients' perception of their own cognitive impairment. This kind of evaluation can't substitute for objective measures of cognitive performances in schizophrenia. The purpose of such an evaluation is to permit to the patient to express his own well-being and satisfaction of quality of life.

  20. The Self-Assessment Scale of Cognitive Complaints in Schizophrenia: A validation study in Tunisian population

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Ines; Kebir, Oussama; Ben Azouz, Olfa; Dellagi, Lamia; Rabah, Yasmine; Tabbane, Karim

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite a huge well-documented literature on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, little is known about the own perception of patients regarding their cognitive functioning. The purpose of our study was to create a scale to collect subjective cognitive complaints of patients suffering from schizophrenia with Tunisian Arabic dialect as mother tongue and to proceed to a validation study of this scale. Methods The authors constructed the Self-Assessment Scale of Cognitive Complaints in Schizophrenia (SASCCS) based on a questionnaire covering five cognitive domains which are the most frequently reported in the literature to be impaired in schizophrenia. The scale consisted of 21 likert-type questions dealing with memory, attention, executive functions, language and praxia. In a second time, the authors proceeded to the study of psychometric qualities of the scale among 105 patients suffering from schizophrenia spectrum disorders (based on DSM- IV criteria). Patients were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Global Assessment Functioning Scale (GAF scale) and the Calgary Depression Scale (CDS). Results The scale's reliability was proven to be good through Cronbach alpha coefficient equal to 0.85 and showing its good internal consistency. The intra-class correlation coefficient at 11 weeks was equal to 0.77 suggesting a good stability over time. Principal component analysis with Oblimin rotation was performed and yielded to six factors accounting for 58.28% of the total variance of the scale. Conclusion Given the good psychometric properties that have been revealed in this study, the SASCCS seems to be reliable to measure schizophrenic patients' perception of their own cognitive impairment. This kind of evaluation can't substitute for objective measures of cognitive performances in schizophrenia. The purpose of such an evaluation is to permit to the patient to express his own well-being and satisfaction of quality of life. PMID

  1. Validation study of the Mini-Mental State Examination in a Malay-speaking elderly population in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Norlinah M; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Chong, Heng-Thay; Rahman, Abdul Hamid Abdul; Razali, Rosdinom; Esther, Ebernezer; Basri, Hamidon B

    2009-01-01

    In view of the differing sensitivity and specificity of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in the non-English-speaking populations, we conducted the first validation study of the Malay version (M-MMSE) in Malaysia among 300 subjects (from the community and outpatient clinics). Three versions were used: M-MMSE-7 (serial 7), M-MMSE-3 (serial 3) and M-MMSE-S (spell 'dunia' backwards). Dementia was assessed using the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV. The optimal cutoff scores were obtained from the receiver operating characteristics curves. Seventy-three patients (24.3%) had dementia and 227 (75.7%) were controls. Three hundred patients completed the M-MMSE-7, 160 the M-MMSE-3 and 145 the M-MMSE-S. All 3 versions were valid and reliable in the diagnosis of dementia. The optimal cutoff scores varied with each version and gender. In the control group, significant gender differences were observed in the patients with the lowest educational status. Increasing educational levels significantly improved the M-MMSE performance in both genders. All 3 versions of the M-MMSE are valid and reliable as a screening tool for dementia in the Malaysian population, but at different cutoff scores. In those with the lowest educational background, gender-adjusted cutoff scores should be applied. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Validating a therapy-oriented complication grading system in lumbar spine surgery: a prospective population-based study.

    PubMed

    Bellut, David; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Schultze, Dania; Ginsberg, Howard J; Regli, Luca; Sarnthein, Johannes

    2017-09-18

    The aim of the present study was to validate a therapy-oriented complication grading system in a well-defined neurosurgical patient population in which complications may entrain neurological deficits, which are severe but not treated. The prospective patient registry of the Department of Neurosurgery, University of Zurich provides extensive population-based data. In this study we focused on complications after lumbar spine surgeries and rated their severity by Clavien-Dindo grade (CDG). Analyzing 138 consecutive surgeries we noted 44 complications. As to treatment, CDG correlated with the length of hospital stay and treatment cost. As to patient outcome, CDG correlated with performance and outcome (McCormick). The present study demonstrates the correlation between outcome scales and the CDG. While the high correlation of CDG with costs seems self-evident, the present study shows this correlation for the first time. Furthermore, the study validates the CDG for a surgical subspecialty. As a further advantage, CDG registers any deviation from the normal postoperative course and allows comparison between surgical specialties.

  3. The Use of the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale in a Population of Teenager Pregnant Women in Mexico: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Alvarez, Antonio; Salas-Martinez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Background :Depression may occur in teenager pregnant women. The use of a validated tool for screening depression is highly recommended. The Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) is a screening tool for depression used in women during the postnatal period and pregnancy. However, the EPDS has not been validated in teenager pregnant women. Therefore, we sought to validate a Spanish translated Mexican version of the EPDS in a population of teenager pregnant women. Methods: One hundred and twenty teenager pregnant women attending routine prenatal consultations in a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico participated in the study. All participants submitted a revised Spanish translated Mexican version of the EPDS and were examined by a psychiatrist to evaluate the presence of depression by using DSM-IV criteria. Results: Of the 120 teenager pregnant women studied, 2 had major depression and 25 had minor depression according to the DSM-IV criteria. The optimal EPDS cut-off for screening combined major and minor depression in teenager pregnant women was 8/9. At this threshold, we found a sensitivity of 70.4%, a specificity of 84.9%, a positive predictive value of 47.6%, a negative predictive value of 91.0%, and an area under the curve of 0.81 (95% confidence interval: 0.56-1.07). Conclusion: The EPDS can be used for screening depression in Mexican teenager pregnant women whenever a cut-off score of 8/9 is used. PMID:25493092

  4. Population Health Metrics Research Consortium gold standard verbal autopsy validation study: design, implementation, and development of analysis datasets

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Verbal autopsy methods are critically important for evaluating the leading causes of death in populations without adequate vital registration systems. With a myriad of analytical and data collection approaches, it is essential to create a high quality validation dataset from different populations to evaluate comparative method performance and make recommendations for future verbal autopsy implementation. This study was undertaken to compile a set of strictly defined gold standard deaths for which verbal autopsies were collected to validate the accuracy of different methods of verbal autopsy cause of death assignment. Methods Data collection was implemented in six sites in four countries: Andhra Pradesh, India; Bohol, Philippines; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Mexico City, Mexico; Pemba Island, Tanzania; and Uttar Pradesh, India. The Population Health Metrics Research Consortium (PHMRC) developed stringent diagnostic criteria including laboratory, pathology, and medical imaging findings to identify gold standard deaths in health facilities as well as an enhanced verbal autopsy instrument based on World Health Organization (WHO) standards. A cause list was constructed based on the WHO Global Burden of Disease estimates of the leading causes of death, potential to identify unique signs and symptoms, and the likely existence of sufficient medical technology to ascertain gold standard cases. Blinded verbal autopsies were collected on all gold standard deaths. Results Over 12,000 verbal autopsies on deaths with gold standard diagnoses were collected (7,836 adults, 2,075 children, 1,629 neonates, and 1,002 stillbirths). Difficulties in finding sufficient cases to meet gold standard criteria as well as problems with misclassification for certain causes meant that the target list of causes for analysis was reduced to 34 for adults, 21 for children, and 10 for neonates, excluding stillbirths. To ensure strict independence for the validation of methods and assessment of

  5. Validation of nomogram for disease free survival for colon cancer in UK population: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kazem, M A; Khan, A U; Selvasekar, C R

    2016-03-01

    To externally validate the MSKCC nomogram in a UK population, and determine if it could be used in our practice here in the UK. The colon cancer database from a district general hospital in England was used to extract all patients who had a curative colon cancer resection. Inclusion criteria were all patients who had curative elective colon cancer resection between 01/01/1998 and 31/12/2003. Patients were followed up for up to ten years. Five and ten year predictions were calculated for each patient, and plotted against the actual recurrence using a ROC curve, and AUC was calculated for both the five and ten year nomogram. 138 patients were included in the study. Overall five year recurrence rate was 26.8% with a mean follow up of 60.24 months (SD = 38.6). 118 patients were included in the five year nomogram validation, and 102 patients were included in the ten year nomogram validation. A ROC curve was plotted for both the five and ten year nomogram and AUC was calculated. For the five year nomogram AUC was 0.673, and for the ten year nomogram AUC was 0.687. Two cut off points were identified for each nomogram and this divided the cohort into low, medium and high risk groups for recurrence. Cox regression showed there was significant difference between all groups for both nomograms. The MSKCC colon cancer nomogram was validated in our cohort, but it is recommended to be used in conjunction with AJCC TNM staging system. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Validating prediction scales of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Spain: the SPREDIA-2 population-based prospective cohort study protocol.

    PubMed

    Salinero-Fort, Miguel Ángel; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen; Mostaza Prieto, José; Lahoz Rallo, Carlos; Abánades-Herranz, Juan Carlos; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; Laguna Cuesta, Fernando; Estirado De Cabo, Eva; García Iglesias, Francisca; González Alegre, Teresa; Fernández Puntero, Belén; Montesano Sánchez, Luis; Vicent López, David; Cornejo Del Río, Víctor; Fernández García, Pedro J; Sabín Rodríguez, Concesa; López López, Silvia; Patrón Barandío, Pedro

    2015-07-28

    The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing worldwide. When diagnosed, many patients already have organ damage or advance subclinical atherosclerosis. An early diagnosis could allow the implementation of lifestyle changes and treatment options aimed at delaying the progression of the disease and to avoid cardiovascular complications. Different scores for identifying undiagnosed diabetes have been reported, however, their performance in populations of southern Europe has not been sufficiently evaluated. The main objectives of our study are: to evaluate the screening performance and cut-off points of the main scores that identify the risk of undiagnosed T2DM and prediabetes in a Spanish population, and to develop and validate our own predictive models of undiagnosed T2DM (screening model), and future T2DM (prediction risk model) after 5-year follow-up. As a secondary objective, we will evaluate the atherosclerotic burden of the population with undiagnosed T2DM. Population-based prospective cohort study with baseline screening, to evaluate the performance of the FINDRISC, DANISH, DESIR, ARIC and QDScore, against the gold standard tests: Fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance and/or HbA1c. The sample size will include 1352 participants between the ages of 45 and 74 years. sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, likelihood ratio positive, likelihood ratio negative and receiver operating characteristic curves and area under curve. Binary logistic regression for the first 700 individuals (derivation) and last 652 (validation) will be performed. All analyses will be calculated with their 95% CI; statistical significance will be p<0.05. The study protocol has been approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Carlos III Hospital (Madrid). The score performance and predictive model will be presented in medical conferences, workshops, seminars and round table discussions. Furthermore, the predictive model

  7. Validating prediction scales of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Spain: the SPREDIA-2 population-based prospective cohort study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Salinero-Fort, Miguel Ángel; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen; Mostaza Prieto, José; Lahoz Rallo, Carlos; Abánades-Herranz, Juan Carlos; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; Laguna Cuesta, Fernando; Estirado De Cabo, Eva; García Iglesias, Francisca; González Alegre, Teresa; Fernández Puntero, Belén; Montesano Sánchez, Luis; Vicent López, David; Cornejo Del Río, Víctor; Fernández García, Pedro J; Sabín Rodríguez, Concesa; López López, Silvia; Patrón Barandío, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing worldwide. When diagnosed, many patients already have organ damage or advance subclinical atherosclerosis. An early diagnosis could allow the implementation of lifestyle changes and treatment options aimed at delaying the progression of the disease and to avoid cardiovascular complications. Different scores for identifying undiagnosed diabetes have been reported, however, their performance in populations of southern Europe has not been sufficiently evaluated. The main objectives of our study are: to evaluate the screening performance and cut-off points of the main scores that identify the risk of undiagnosed T2DM and prediabetes in a Spanish population, and to develop and validate our own predictive models of undiagnosed T2DM (screening model), and future T2DM (prediction risk model) after 5-year follow-up. As a secondary objective, we will evaluate the atherosclerotic burden of the population with undiagnosed T2DM. Methods and analysis Population-based prospective cohort study with baseline screening, to evaluate the performance of the FINDRISC, DANISH, DESIR, ARIC and QDScore, against the gold standard tests: Fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance and/or HbA1c. The sample size will include 1352 participants between the ages of 45 and 74 years. Analysis: sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, likelihood ratio positive, likelihood ratio negative and receiver operating characteristic curves and area under curve. Binary logistic regression for the first 700 individuals (derivation) and last 652 (validation) will be performed. All analyses will be calculated with their 95% CI; statistical significance will be p<0.05. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol has been approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Carlos III Hospital (Madrid). The score performance and predictive model will be presented in medical conferences, workshops

  8. Individual maternal and child exposure to antibiotics in hospital - a national population-based validation study.

    PubMed

    Almqvist, C; Örtqvist, A K; Gong, T; Wallas, A; Ahlén, K M; Ye, W; Lundholm, C

    2015-04-01

    Exposure to antibiotics in early life may affect future health. Most antibiotics are prescribed in outpatient care, but inpatient exposure is also important. We estimated how specific diagnoses in hospitals corresponded to individual antibiotic exposure. All pregnant women and children from birth to 5 years of age with infectious diseases and common inpatient diagnoses between July 2005 and November 2011 were identified from the Swedish National Patient Register. Random samples of individuals from predefined groups were drawn, and medical records received from the clinics were manually reviewed for antibiotics. Medical records for 4319 hospital visits were requested and 3797 (88%) were received. A quarter (25%) of children diagnosed as premature had received antibiotics, and in children from one to 5 years of age, diagnoses associated with bacterial infections were more commonly treated with antibiotics (62.4-90.6%) than those associated with viruses (6.3-22.2%). Pregnant women who had undergone a Caesarean section were more likely to be treated with antibiotics than those who had had a vaginal delivery (40.1% versus 11.1%). This study defines the proportion of new mothers and young children who received individual antibiotic treatment for specific inpatient diagnoses in Sweden and provides a useful basis for future studies focusing on antibiotic use. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Validation of a Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire (SLAQ) for population studies.

    PubMed

    Karlson, E W; Daltroy, L H; Rivest, C; Ramsey-Goldman, R; Wright, E A; Partridge, A J; Liang, M H; Fortin, P R

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop an economical way of tracking disease activity for large groups of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in clinical studies. A Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire (SLAQ) was developed to screen for possible disease activity using items from the Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (SLAM) and tested for its measurement properties. The SLAQ was completed by 93 SLE patients just prior to a scheduled visit. At the visit, a rheumatologist, blinded to SLAQ results, examined the subject and completed a SLAM. Associations among SLAQ, and SLAM (omitting laboratory items) and between individual items from each instrument were assessed with Pearson correlations. Correlations between pairs of instruments were compared using Student's t-tests. The mean score across all 24 SLAQ items was 11.5 (range 0-33); mean SLAM without labs was 3.0 (range 0-13). The SLAQ had a moderately high correlation with SLAM-nolab (r = 0.62, P < 0.0001). Correlations between patient-clinician matched pairs of items ranged from r = 0.06 to 0.71. Positive predictive values for the SLAQ ranged from 56 to 89% for detecting clinically significant disease activity. In studies of SLE, symptoms suggesting disease can be screened by self-report using the SLAQ and then verified by further evaluation.

  10. High-dose methotrexate in adults with osteosarcoma: a population pharmacokinetics study and validation of a new limited sampling strategy.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, Charlotte; Mercier, Cedric; Yang, Chenguang; Monjanel-Mouterde, Suzanne; Ciccolini, Joseph; Fanciullino, Raphaelle; Pourroy, Bertrand; Deville, Jean-Laurent; Duffaud, Florence; Bagarry-Liegey, Danielle; Durand, Alain; Iliadis, Athanassios; Favre, Roger

    2008-03-01

    Preoperative high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) with folinic acid (leucovorin) rescue is still a mainstay in the treatment of osteosarcoma. This anticancer agent is characterized by a narrow therapeutic index and wide interpatients variability. To ensure effective and safe administration of HD-MTX, we had earlier developed an adaptive-dosing schedule with a feedback strategy. In our institute, the MTX dosage was tailored according to individual pharmacokinetics parameters, determined in real time both from two blood samples (3.5 and 4.5 h) and from Bayesian population parameters. Up to 20 g of MTX was safely administered as 8-h infusions. Low MTX elimination rate has, however, been reported in 15-20% of the patients, and forecasting the MTX elimination phase and the management of leucovorin rescue is still a challenging issue in clinical oncology. This study aims at identifying the clinical or biological covariates related to impaired MTX clearance, and at validating a new limited sampling strategy (LSS), allowing for the accurate prediction of the MTX terminal elimination phase. This retrospective study was carried out on 49 patients (30 men, 19 women; mean age, 26.7 years) treated for osteosarcoma with HD-MTX. The population and individual pharmacokinetics parameters were computed, before the identification of the relevant covariates. Different LSSs were then tested, to predict accurately when the MTX plasma concentrations would drop below 0.2 micromol/l, the threshold associated with the end of the rescue of leucovorin with alkaline hydration. Two main covariates (creatinemia clearance and alanine aminotransferase) were correlated with MTX clearance. Conversely, the impact of body surface area on MTX pharmacokinetics was weak, suggesting that dosing schedules based on body surface area were inadequate and potentially hazardous. A new LSS predicting accurately when the MTX concentration would reach 0.2 micromol/l has been validated; blood samples are stopped as soon

  11. Validity of medico-administrative data related to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in France: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Vasta, Rosario; Boumédiene, Farid; Couratier, Philippe; Nicol, Marie; Nicoletti, Alessandra; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Marin, Benoit

    2017-02-01

    The accuracy of French medico-administrative data concerning amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is to date unknown. We aimed to assess the validity of hospital discharge data (HDD) and health insurance data (HID) related to ALS. A retrospective population-based study was performed. The French register of ALS in Limousin (FRALim) was used as gold standard (2000-2013 period). All patients discharged from the regional hospitals with a 'G12.2' code in their HDD (according to the International Classification of Disease-10th version) or having a G12 HID code were considered. In the study period, the register included a total of 322 incident ALS patients. Among 451 subjects identified through HDD, 290 were true incident ALS cases, corresponding to 90.1% (95% CI 86.3-93.1) sensitivity and 64.3% (95% CI 59.7-68.7) positive predictive value (PPV). A total of 184 subjects were identified through HID, 142 of which were true ALS cases. This corresponded to 44.1% (95% CI 38.6-49.7) sensitivity and 75.5% (95% CI 68.7-81.5) PPV. The combination of both HDD and HID led to 93.8% (95% CI 90.6-96.2) sensitivity and 60.8% (95% CI 56.3-65.1) PPV. This study shows that French HDD and HID, even if combined, are not per se suitable for accurate and exhaustive direct identification of ALS cases.

  12. Self-assessment of genital anatomy and sexual function within a Belgian, Dutch-speaking female population: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Bronselaer, Guy; Callens, Nina; De Sutter, Petra; De Cuypere, Griet; T'Sjoen, Guy; Cools, Martine; Hoebeke, Piet

    2013-12-01

    Data on self-perceived genital anatomy and sensitivity should be part of the long-term follow-up of genitoplasty procedures. However, no normative data, based on a large sample, exist to date. Validation of the Self-Assessment of Genital Anatomy and Sexual Function, Female version (SAGAS-F) questionnaire within a Belgian, Dutch-speaking female population. Seven hundred forty-nine women with no history of genital surgery (aged 18-69 years, median 25 years) completed an Internet-based survey of whom 21 women underwent a gynecological examination as to correlate self-reported genital sensitivity assessed in an experimental setting. The SAGAS-F enables women to rate the sexual pleasure, discomfort, intensity of orgasm, and effort required for achieving orgasm in specified areas around the clitoris and within the vagina, as well as genital appearance. The latter was similarly evaluated by an experienced gynecologist, and women were asked to functionally rate the anatomical areas pointed out with a vaginal swab. Sexual pleasure and orgasm were strongest, and effort to attain orgasm and discomfort was lowest when stimulating the clitoris and sides of the clitoris (P < 0.05). Vaginal sensitivity increased with increasing vaginal depth, but overall orgasmic sensitivity was lower as compared with the clitoris. Functional scores on the SAGAS-F and during gynecological examination corresponded highly on most anatomical areas (P < 0.05). Gynecologist's ratings corresponded highly with the women's ratings for vaginal size (90%) but not for clitoral size (48%). Replication of the original pilot study results support the validity of the questionnaire. The SAGAS-F discriminates reasonably well between various genital areas in terms of erotic sensitivity. The clitoris itself appeared to be the most sensitive, consistent with maximum nerve density in this area. Surgery to the clitoris could disrupt neurological pathways and compromise erotic sensation and pleasure. © 2013

  13. Lymph node counts are valid indicators of the quality of surgical care in bladder cancer: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Siemens, D Robert; Mackillop, William J; Peng, Yingwei; Wei, Xuejiao; Berman, David; Booth, Christopher M

    2015-10-01

    To describe lymph node counts in routine clinical practice and evaluate their association with outcomes to explore its utility as a quality indicator. Electronic records of treatment and surgical pathology reports were linked with the population-based Ontario Cancer Registry to identify all patients who underwent cystectomy between 1994 and 2008. Temporal trends were described over 3 periods: 1994 to 1998, 1999 to 2000, and 2004 to 2008. Multivariate generalized linear regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with the use of pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND). A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to explore the associations between PLND and survival. The study population included 2,802 patients. Use of PLND (50%, 62%, and 85%, correspondingly), median node yield (5, 6, and 9, correspondingly), and node density (56%, 50%, and 39%, correspondingly) all improved over the study periods, 1994 to 1998, 1999 to 2000, and 2004 to 2008 (P<0.001). In multivariate analysis, factors associated with not having PLND include advanced age, female sex, lower socioeconomic status, low surgeon volume, and partial cystectomy. In adjusted analyses, patients who did not receive a PLND had inferior overall (hazard ratio = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.15-1.38) and cancer-specific (hazard ratio = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.11-1.36) survival. Node yield, as well as density, was also associated with long-term survival. There is significant variation in use and quality of PLND at cystectomy in routine practice. Node counts are independently associated with long-term survival, and this association is persistent despite adjustment for provider-related variables. These results suggest that lymph node counts are a valid quality indicator of surgical care of muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of the type D personality construct in the Korean population: a validation study of the Korean DS14.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hong Euy; Lee, Moon-Soo; Ko, Young-Hoon; Park, Young-Min; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Kim, Yong-Ku; Han, Changsu; Lee, Hwa-Young; Pedersen, Susanne S; Denollet, Johan

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a Korean version of the Type D Personality Scale-14 (DS14) and evaluate the psychiatric symptomatology of Korean cardiac patients with Type D personality. Healthy control (n = 954), patients with a coronary heart disease (n = 111) and patients with hypertension and no heart disease (n = 292) were recruited. All three groups completed DS14, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), the state subscale of Spielberger State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD), and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). The Korean DS14 was internally consistent and stable over time. 27% of the subjects were classified as Type D. Type D individuals had significantly higher mean scores on the STAI-S, CESD, and GHQ compared to non-Type D subjects in each group. The Korean DS14 was a valid and reliable tool for identifying Type D personality. The general population and cardiovascular patients with Type D personality showed higher rate of depression, anxiety and psychological distress regarding their health. Therefore, identifying Type D personality is important in clinical research and practice in chronic medical disorders, especially cardiovascular disease, in Korea.

  15. Validity and reliability of portfolio assessment of student competence in two dental school populations: a four-year study.

    PubMed

    Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; McCracken, Michael S; Woldt, Janet L; Brennan, Robert L

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically investigate the validity and reliability of portfolio assessment in two U.S. dental schools using a unified framework for validity. In the process of validation, it is not the test that is validated but rather the claims (interpretations and uses) about test scores that are validated. Kane's argument-based validation framework provided the structure for reporting results where validity claims are followed by evidence to support the argument. This multivariate generalizability theory study found that the greatest source of variance was attributable to faculty raters, suggesting that portfolio assessment would benefit from two raters' evaluating each portfolio independently. The results are generally supportive of holistic scoring, but analytical scoring deserves further research. Correlational analyses between student portfolios and traditional measures of student competence and readiness for licensure resulted in significant correlations between portfolios and National Board Dental Examination Part I (r=0.323, p<0.01) and Part II scores (r=0.268, p<0.05) and small and non-significant correlations with grade point average and scores on the Western Regional Examining Board (WREB) exam. It is incumbent upon the users of portfolio assessment to determine if the claims and evidence arguments set forth in this study support the proposed claims for and decisions about portfolio assessment in their respective institutions.

  16. Validation and cross-cultural adaptation of the 'Fibromyalgia Participation Questionnaire' to the Spanish population: study protocol.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Calvente, M; Medina-Porqueres, I; Fontalba-Navas, A; Pena-Andreu, J M; de Vos-Martin, C

    2015-09-01

    There are few high-quality instruments to evaluate the participation and social functioning of fibromyalgia patients. The Fibromyalgia Participation Questionnaire (FPQ) is a questionnaire that evaluates these aspects with high reliability and validity in its German original version. The aim of this work was to describe the translation and cross-cultural adaptation process of the FPQ into Spanish and its validation to ensure the equivalence against the original version. The questionnaire will be translated according to the FACIT methodology, and it will be tested in the Clinical Management Unit of North Almeria Health Area. This methodology includes several stages: double forward translation, reconciled version, back-translation, review of the previous versions and development of the prefinal version for the pretest. Once the pretest ends, the final version of the questionnaire will be developed, which will be subjected to a validation process to study its psychometric properties. Reliability will be studied by internal consistency and test-retest reliability through Cronbach's alpha and Pearson's correlation coefficient, respectively. External and construct validity will be analysed using correlation coefficients, content validity with an empirical analysis, and a differential item functioning analysis will be employed to measure discriminative validity. The presence of ceiling and floor effects will be calculated too. The validation of the FPQ into different languages will allow better evaluation and treatment based on the observed limitations fibromyalgia patients suffer from, as well as bringing the possibility to compare between other countries and generalize its use in the scientific community.

  17. A two-reservoir, hollow-fiber bioreactor for the study of mixed-population dynamics: design aspects and validation of the approach.

    PubMed

    Manjarrez, E S; Albasi, C; Riba, J P

    2000-08-20

    A two-reservoir, membrane bioreactor for carrying out studies of mixed-population dynamics in batch fermentations is presented. Mixing requirements and design aspects for the validity of the approach are given and discussed. Equations describing mixing times between the reservoirs are presented and compared to the experimental results. The validity of the approach is demonstrated by the study of an amensalistic-type interaction, the protein-mediated killer phenomenon between two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The validation consisted in the comparison between the results obtained in actual mixed culture and the results obtained by keeping the strains separated. A good agreement was found which demonstrates the viability of the designed bioreactor.

  18. The burden of headache disorders in Pakistan: methodology of a population-based nationwide study, and questionnaire validation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Large geographical gaps in our knowledge of the prevalence and burden of headache disorders include Pakistan, a country with major problems of poverty, illiteracy and security. We report implementation in this country of standard methods developed by Lifting The Burden (LTB) for population-based burden-of-headache studies. Methods We surveyed six locations from the four provinces: Lahore and Multan (Punjab), Karachi and Sukkur (Sindh), Abbottabad (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) and Gwadar (Baluchistan). We randomly selected rural and urban households in each, which were visited by trained non-medical interviewers from the same locations. One randomly selected adult member (18–65 years) of each household was interviewed using LTB’s structured questionnaire translated into Urdu, the national language. Validation was performed among patients and accompanying attendants in three (urban and rural) medical facilities. After responding to the questionnaire, these participants were re-interviewed and diagnosed by a neurologist (gold standard). Results The survey was completed by 4,223 respondents (1,957 [46.3%] male, 2,266 [53.7%] female, 1,443 [34.2%] urban, 2,780 [65.8%] rural, mean age 34.4 ± 11.0 years). The participation rate was 89.5%. There were 180 participants (46.1% male, 53.9% female, 41.7% urban, 58.3% rural, mean age 39.4 ± 14.2 years) in the validation sample, of whom 147 (81.7%) reported headache in the last year. The questionnaire was 100% sensitive in screening for headache and for headache on ≥15 days/month, and showed good agreement with the gold-standard diagnoses (kappa = 0.77). It was relatively insensitive for TTH. The questionnaire’s default diagnosis of probable MOH when medication overuse accompanied headache on ≥15 days/month was not supported by evidence of causation in most cases seen by the neurologist. In public-health terms, precise diagnosis in these cases matters less than reliably detecting the coexistence of

  19. Validation of the Framingham general cardiovascular risk score in a multiethnic Asian population: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chia, Yook Chin; Gray, Sarah Yu Weng; Ching, Siew Mooi; Lim, Hooi Min; Chinna, Karuthan

    2015-05-19

    This study aims to examine the validity of the Framingham general cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk chart in a primary care setting. This is a 10-year retrospective cohort study. A primary care clinic in a teaching hospital in Malaysia. 967 patients' records were randomly selected from patients who were attending follow-up in the clinic. Baseline demographic data, history of diabetes and smoking, blood pressure (BP), and serum lipids were captured from patient records in 1998. Each patient's Framingham CVD score was computed from these parameters. All atherosclerotic CVD events occurring between 1998 and 2007 were counted. In 1998, mean age was 57 years with 33.8% men, 6.1% smokers, 43.3% diabetics and 59.7% hypertensive. Median BP was 140/80 mm Hg and total cholesterol 6.0 mmol/L (1.3). The predicted median Framingham general CVD risk score for the study population was 21.5% (IQR 1.2-30.0) while the actual CVD events that occurred in the 10 years was 13.1% (127/967). The median CVD points for men was 30.0, giving them a CVD risk of more than 30%; for women it is 18.5, a CVD risk of 21.5%. Our study found that the Framingham general CVD risk score to have moderate discrimination with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.63. It also discriminates well for Malay (AUC 0.65, p=0.01), Chinese (AUC 0.60, p=0.03), and Indians (AUC 0.65, p=0.001). There was good calibration with Hosmer-Lemeshow test χ(2)=3.25, p=0.78. Taking into account that this cohort of patients were already on treatment, the Framingham General CVD Risk Prediction Score predicts fairly accurately for men and overestimates somewhat for women. In the absence of local risk prediction charts, the Framingham general CVD risk prediction chart is a reasonable alternative for use in a multiethnic group in a primary care setting. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Validation of the Framingham general cardiovascular risk score in a multiethnic Asian population: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Sarah Yu Weng; Ching, Siew Mooi; Lim, Hooi Min; Chinna, Karuthan

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to examine the validity of the Framingham general cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk chart in a primary care setting. Design This is a 10-year retrospective cohort study. Setting A primary care clinic in a teaching hospital in Malaysia. Participants 967 patients’ records were randomly selected from patients who were attending follow-up in the clinic. Main outcome measures Baseline demographic data, history of diabetes and smoking, blood pressure (BP), and serum lipids were captured from patient records in 1998. Each patient's Framingham CVD score was computed from these parameters. All atherosclerotic CVD events occurring between 1998 and 2007 were counted. Results In 1998, mean age was 57 years with 33.8% men, 6.1% smokers, 43.3% diabetics and 59.7% hypertensive. Median BP was 140/80 mm Hg and total cholesterol 6.0 mmol/L (1.3). The predicted median Framingham general CVD risk score for the study population was 21.5% (IQR 1.2–30.0) while the actual CVD events that occurred in the 10 years was 13.1% (127/967). The median CVD points for men was 30.0, giving them a CVD risk of more than 30%; for women it is 18.5, a CVD risk of 21.5%. Our study found that the Framingham general CVD risk score to have moderate discrimination with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.63. It also discriminates well for Malay (AUC 0.65, p=0.01), Chinese (AUC 0.60, p=0.03), and Indians (AUC 0.65, p=0.001). There was good calibration with Hosmer-Lemeshow test χ2=3.25, p=0.78. Conclusions Taking into account that this cohort of patients were already on treatment, the Framingham General CVD Risk Prediction Score predicts fairly accurately for men and overestimates somewhat for women. In the absence of local risk prediction charts, the Framingham general CVD risk prediction chart is a reasonable alternative for use in a multiethnic group in a primary care setting. PMID:25991451

  1. Remission, continuation, and incidence of eating disorders during early pregnancy: A validation study on a population-based birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Hunna J.; Von Holle, Ann; Hamer, Robert M.; Berg, Cecilie Knoph; Torgersen, Leila; Magnus, Per; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Sullivan, Patrick; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to validate previously published rates of remission, continuation, and incidence of broadly defined eating disorders during pregnancy. The previous rate modeling was done by our group (Bulik et al. 2007) and yielded participants halfway into recruitment of the planned 100,000 pregnancies in the Norwegian Mother and Child (MoBa) Cohort at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. This study aimed to internally validate the findings with the completed cohort. Methods 77267 pregnant women enrolled at 17 weeks gestation between 2001 and 2009 were included. Participants were split into a “training” sample (n=41243) based on participants in the MoBa version 2 dataset of the original study and a “validation” sample (n=36024) comprising individuals in the MoBa version 5 dataset that were not in the original study (Bulik et al. 2007). Internal validation of all original rate models involved fitting a calibration model to compare model parameters between the “training” and “validation” samples as well as bootstrap estimates of bias in the entire version 5 dataset. Results Remission, continuation, and incidence estimates from the “training” sample remained stable when evaluated via a split sample validation procedure. Pre-pregnancy prevalence estimates in the “validation” sample were 0.1% for anorexia nervosa, 1.0% for bulimia nervosa (BN), 3.3% for binge eating disorder (BED), and 0.1% for purging disorder (EDNOS-P). In early pregnancy, estimates were 0.2% for BN, 4.8% for BED, and <0.01% for EDNOS-P. Consistent with the original study, incident BN and EDNOS-P during pregnancy were rare. For BED, the adjusted incidence rate in the “validation” sample was 1.17 per 1000 person-weeks. The highest rates were for full or partial remission for BN and EDNOS-P, and continuation for BED. Conclusions This study provides evidence of validity of previously estimated rates of remission, continuation, and incidence of

  2. The validation of a three-stage screening methodology for detecting active convulsive epilepsy in population-based studies in health and demographic surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Ngugi, Anthony K; Bottomley, Christian; Chengo, Eddie; Kombe, Martha Z; Kazungu, Michael; Bauni, Evasius; Mbuba, Caroline K; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Newton, Charles R

    2012-11-21

    There are few studies on the epidemiology of epilepsy in large populations in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC). Most studies in these regions use two-stage population-based screening surveys, which are time-consuming and costly to implement in large populations required to generate accurate estimates. We examined the sensitivity and specificity of a three-stage cross-sectional screening methodology in detecting active convulsive epilepsy (ACE), which can be embedded within on-going census of demographic surveillance systems.We validated a three-stage cross-sectional screening methodology on a randomly selected sample of participants of a three-stage prevalence survey of epilepsy. Diagnosis of ACE by an experienced clinician was used as 'gold standard'. We further compared the expenditure of this method with the standard two-stage methodology. We screened 4442 subjects in the validation and identified 35 cases of ACE. Of these, 18 were identified as false negatives, most of whom (15/18) were missed in the first stage and a few (3/18) in the second stage of the three-stage screening. Overall, this methodology had a sensitivity of 48.6% and a specificity of 100%. It was 37% cheaper than a two-stage survey. This was the first study to evaluate the performance of a multi-stage screening methodology used to detect epilepsy in demographic surveillance sites. This method had poor sensitivity attributed mainly to stigma-related non-response in the first stage. This method needs to take into consideration the poor sensitivity and the savings in expenditure and time as well as validation in target populations. Our findings suggest the need for continued efforts to develop and improve case-ascertainment methods in population-based epidemiological studies of epilepsy in LMIC.

  3. A population based validation study of self-reported pensions and benefits: the Nord-Trøndelag health study (HUNT)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Measures of disability pensions, sickness certification and long-term health related benefits are often self-reported in epidemiological studies. Few studies have examined these measures, and the validity is yet to be established. We aimed to estimate the validity of self-reported disability pension, rehabilitation benefit and retirement pension and to explore the benefit status and basic characteristics of those not responding to these items. A large health survey (HUNT2) containing self-reported questionnaire data on sickness benefits and pensions was linked to a national registry of pensions and benefits, used as “gold standard” for the analysis. We investigated two main sources of bias in self-reported data; misclassification - due to participants answering questions incorrectly, and systematic missing/selection bias - when participants do not respond to the questions. Sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predicative value, agreement and Cohen’s Kappa were calculated for each benefit. Co-variables were compared between non-responders and responders. Results In the study-population of 40,633, 9.2% reported receiving disability pension, 1.4% rehabilitation benefits and 6.1% retirement pension. According to the registry, the corresponding numbers were 9.0%, 1.7% and 5.4%. Excluding non-responders, specificity, NPV and agreement were above 98% for all benefits. Sensitivity and PPV were lower. When including non-responders as non-receivers, specificity got higher, sensitivity dropped while the other measures changed less. Between 17.7% and 24.1% did not answer the questions on benefits. Non-responders were older and more likely to be female. They reported more anxiety, more depression, a higher number of somatic diagnoses, less physical activity and lower consumption of alcohol (p < 0.001 for all variables). For disability pension and retirement pension, non-responders were less likely to receive benefits than responders

  4. De novo development and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in a schilbid catfish, Silonia silondia (Hamilton, 1822) and their validation for population genetic studies.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Sangeeta; Jena, J K; Singh, Rajeev K; Mohindra, Vindhya; Lakra, W S; Deshmukhe, Geetanjali; Pathak, Abhinav; Lal, Kuldeep K

    2016-02-01

    The stock characterization of wild populations of Silonia silondia is important for its scientific management. At present, the information on genetic parameters of S. silondia is very limited. The species-specific microsatellite markers were developed in current study. The validated markers were used to genotype individuals from four distant rivers. To develop de novo microsatellite loci, an enriched genomic library was constructed for S. silondia using affinity-capture approach. The markers were validated for utility in population genetics. A total number of 76 individuals from four natural riverine populations were used to generate data for population analysis. The screening of isolated repeat sequences yielded eleven novel polymorphic microsatellite loci. The microsatellite loci exhibited high level of polymorphism, with 6-24 alleles per locus and the PIC value ranged from 0.604 to 0.927. The observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosities ranged from 0.081 to 0.84 and 0.66 to 0.938, respectively. The AMOVA analysis indicated significant genetic differentiation among riverine populations (overall FST = 0.075; P < 0.0001) with maximum variation (92.5%) within populations. Cross-priming assessment revealed successful amplification (35-38 %) of heterologous loci in four related species viz. Clupisoma garua, C. taakree, Ailia coila and Eutropiichthys vacha. The results demonstrated that these de novo polymorphic microsatellite loci are promising for population genetic variation and diversity studies in S. silondia. Cross-priming results indicated that these primers can help to get polymorphic microsatellite loci in the related catfish species of family Schilbidae.

  5. Validity of self-reported measures for surveillance of periodontal disease in two western New York population-based studies.

    PubMed

    Genco, Robert J; Falkner, Karen L; Grossi, Sara; Dunford, Robert; Trevisan, Maurizio

    2007-07-01

    Public health and other population-based studies often depend on participants' self-reported disease status to assess prevalence, incidence, and disease trends. We sought to assess the feasibility of self-reported periodontal disease measures using dental history questions combined with demographic and medical history to predict periodontal disease. We evaluated results from two separate population-based studies carried out at the University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, i.e., the "Periodontal Infection and Risk for Myocardial Infarction Study," a study of 1,578 adults assessing the association between periodontal disease and myocardial infarction and the "Periodontal Disease Research Center" (the Erie County Study), an epidemiologic risk assessment study of 1,438 adults. In each study, an extensive list of oral health questions was asked, and a comprehensive medical history, blood analysis using chemistry and hematology tests, and demographic data were collected. Using a predefined measure of severity of periodontal disease, we compared patients with severe disease to all others (i.e., those with moderate and no or mild disease). We examined areas under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating curve to determine the best models, adding one, two, or three dental variables in all possible combinations. The AUC maximized at 0.76, and the combined sensitivity and specificity maximized at 142 and were comparable in both studies. Self-reported measures of periodontal disease are moderately predictive of clinical attachment loss. The demographic variables of age, race, smoking, gender, and diabetes mellitus accounted for much of the predictive power for self-reported periodontal disease; however, increases in sensitivity and specificity in the C statistics occurred when questions, including "Gum surgery in the past?," "Sore gums in the past?," "Scaling in the past?," "Bleeding gums now?," "Periodontal surgery in the past 2 years?," and "Chewing satisfaction?," were

  6. Validity of body composition methods across ethnic population groups.

    PubMed

    Deurenberg, P; Deurenberg-Yap, M

    2003-10-01

    Most in vivo body composition methods rely on assumptions that may vary among different population groups as well as within the same population group. The assumptions are based on in vitro body composition (carcass) analyses. The majority of body composition studies were performed on Caucasians and much of the information on validity methods and assumptions were available only for this ethnic group. It is assumed that these assumptions are also valid for other ethnic groups. However, if apparent differences across ethnic groups in body composition 'constants' and body composition 'rules' are not taken into account, biased information on body composition will be the result. This in turn may lead to misclassification of obesity or underweight at an individual as well as a population level. There is a need for more cross-ethnic population studies on body composition. Those studies should be carried out carefully, with adequate methodology and standardization for the obtained information to be valuable.

  7. Development and validation of a quantification method for cucurbitacins E and I in rat plasma: Application to population pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Fiori, Giovana Maria Lanchoti; D'Agate, Salvatore; Rocha, Adriana; Pereira, Ana Maria Soares; Pasqua, Oscar Della; Lopes, Norberto Peporine

    2017-02-20

    Cucurbitacin E is a potential drug candidate due to its anticancer activity, recognition of its molecular targets, and synergism with other drugs used for cancer treatment. However, the use of cucurbitacin E in clinical practice is not possible because of important knowledge gaps in its preclinical and clinical pharmacokinetic characteristics. Cucurbitacin E is hydrolyzed to cucurbitacin I in plasma and in human liver microsomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the population pharmacokinetics of cucurbitacin E and of its metabolite cucurbitacin I in rats. The method for the sequential analysis of cucurbitacins E and I in rat plasma was developed using LC-MS/MS. Plasma aliquots of 50μL were deproteinized with acetonitrile and clobazam was added as internal standard. The extracts were injected into an RP-18 column and eluted with a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of acetonitrile:water:methanol (32:35:33, v/v/v). The method was precise and accurate, showing linearity in the range of 1-100ng cucurbitacin E/mL plasma and of 0.4-200ng cucurbitacin I/mL plasma. The method was applied to the pharmacokinetic evaluation of cucurbitacin E administered intravenously to male Wistar rats (1mg/kg). Serial blood samples were collected up to 24h after administration. The plasma concentrations of cucurbitacin E were quantified up to 16h, while the plasma concentrations of cucurbitacin I remained below the limit of quantification. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed for cucurbitacin E using the NONMEM program, with adequate goodness of fit and predictive performance. The following pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained: release time of 0.45h, volume of distribution of 27.22L, clearance of 4.13L/h, and elimination half-life of 4.57h.

  8. External validation of the international risk prediction algorithm for major depressive episode in the US general population: the PredictD-US study.

    PubMed

    Nigatu, Yeshambel T; Liu, Yan; Wang, JianLi

    2016-07-22

    Multivariable risk prediction algorithms are useful for making clinical decisions and for health planning. While prediction algorithms for new onset of major depression in the primary care attendees in Europe and elsewhere have been developed, the performance of these algorithms in different populations is not known. The objective of this study was to validate the PredictD algorithm for new onset of major depressive episode (MDE) in the US general population. Longitudinal study design was conducted with approximate 3-year follow-up data from a nationally representative sample of the US general population. A total of 29,621 individuals who participated in Wave 1 and 2 of the US National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and who did not have an MDE in the past year at Wave 1 were included. The PredictD algorithm was directly applied to the selected participants. MDE was assessed by the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule, based on the DSM-IV criteria. Among the participants, 8 % developed an MDE over three years. The PredictD algorithm had acceptable discriminative power (C-statistics = 0.708, 95 % CI: 0.696, 0.720), but poor calibration (p < 0.001) with the NESARC data. In the European primary care attendees, the algorithm had a C-statistics of 0.790 (95 % CI: 0.767, 0.813) with a perfect calibration. The PredictD algorithm has acceptable discrimination, but the calibration capacity was poor in the US general population despite of re-calibration. Therefore, based on the results, at current stage, the use of PredictD in the US general population for predicting individual risk of MDE is not encouraged. More independent validation research is needed.

  9. Associations of iron metabolism genes with blood manganese levels: a population-based study with validation data from animal models

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Given mounting evidence for adverse effects from excess manganese exposure, it is critical to understand host factors, such as genetics, that affect manganese metabolism. Methods Archived blood samples, collected from 332 Mexican women at delivery, were analyzed for manganese. We evaluated associations of manganese with functional variants in three candidate iron metabolism genes: HFE [hemochromatosis], TF [transferrin], and ALAD [δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase]. We used a knockout mouse model to parallel our significant results as a novel method of validating the observed associations between genotype and blood manganese in our epidemiologic data. Results Percentage of participants carrying at least one copy of HFE C282Y, HFE H63D, TF P570S, and ALAD K59N variant alleles was 2.4%, 17.7%, 20.1%, and 6.4%, respectively. Percentage carrying at least one copy of either C282Y or H63D allele in HFE gene was 19.6%. Geometric mean (geometric standard deviation) manganese concentrations were 17.0 (1.5) μg/l. Women with any HFE variant allele had 12% lower blood manganese concentrations than women with no variant alleles (β = -0.12 [95% CI = -0.23 to -0.01]). TF and ALAD variants were not significant predictors of blood manganese. In animal models, Hfe-/- mice displayed a significant reduction in blood manganese compared with Hfe+/+ mice, replicating the altered manganese metabolism found in our human research. Conclusions Our study suggests that genetic variants in iron metabolism genes may contribute to variability in manganese exposure by affecting manganese absorption, distribution, or excretion. Genetic background may be critical to consider in studies that rely on environmental manganese measurements. PMID:22074419

  10. Validation of Bengali perceived stress scale among LGBT population.

    PubMed

    Mozumder, Muhammad Kamruzzaman

    2017-08-29

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) population encounter more stressful life circumstances compared to general population. Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) can be a useful tool for measuring their stress. However, psychometric properties of PSS have never been tested on LGBT population. This cross sectional study employed a two-stage sampling strategy to collect data from 296 LGBT participants from six divisional districts of Bangladesh. Exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were carried out on PSS 10 along with analysis of reliability and validity. EFA revealed a two-factor structure of PSS for LGBT population explaining 43.55% - 51.45% of total variance. This measurement model was supported by multiple fit indices during CFA. Acceptable Cronbach's alpha indicated internal consistency reliability and high correlations with Self Reporting Questionnaire 20 demonstrated construct validity of PSS 10 for LGBT population. This study provided evidence of satisfactory psychometric properties of Bengali PSS 10 in terms of factor structure, internal consistency and validity among LGBT population.

  11. Validation of the 10-item Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D-10) in Zulu, Xhosa and Afrikaans populations in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Baron, Emily Claire; Davies, Thandi; Lund, Crick

    2017-01-09

    The 10-item Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D-10) is a depression screening tool that has been used in the South African National Income Dynamics Study (NIDS), a national household panel study. This screening tool has not yet been validated in South Africa. This study aimed to establish the reliability and validity of the CES-D-10 in Zulu, Xhosa and Afrikaans. The CES-D-10's psychometric properties were also compared to the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), a depression screening tool already validated in South Africa. Stratified random samples of Xhosa, Afrikaans and Zulu-speaking participants aged 15 years or older (N = 944) were recruited from Cape Town Metro and Ethekwini districts. Face-to-face interviews included socio-demographic questions, the CES-D-10, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS). Major depression was determined using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. All instruments were translated and back-translated to English. Construct validity was examined using exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves were used to investigate the CES-D-10 and PHQ-9's criterion validity, and compared using the DeLong method. Overall, 6.6, 18.0 and 6.9% of the Zulu, Afrikaans and Xhosa samples were diagnosed with depression, respectively. The CES-D-10 had acceptable internal consistency across samples (α = 0.69-0.89), and adequate concurrent validity, when compared to the PHQ-9 and WHODAS. The CES-D-10 area under the Receiver Operator Characteristic curve was good to excellent: 0.81 (95% CI 0.71-0.90) for Zulu, 0.93 (95% CI 0.90-0.96) for Afrikaans, and 0.94 (95% CI 0.89-0.99) for Xhosa. A cut-off of 12, 11 and 13 for Zulu, Afrikaans and Xhosa, respectively, generated the most balanced sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (Zulu: 71.4, 72.6% and 16.1%; Afrikaans: 84.6%, 84.0%, 53.7%; Xhosa: 81

  12. Worthing physiological scoring system: derivation and validation of a physiological early-warning system for medical admissions. An observational, population-based single-centre study.

    PubMed

    Duckitt, R W; Buxton-Thomas, R; Walker, J; Cheek, E; Bewick, V; Venn, R; Forni, L G

    2007-06-01

    Several physiological scoring systems (PSS) have been proposed for identifying those at risk of deterioration. However, the chosen specific physiological values chosen and the scores allocated have not been prospectively validated. In this study, we investigate the relative contributions of the ventilatory frequency, heart rate, arterial pressure, temperature, oxygen saturation, and conscious level to mortality in order to devise a robust scoring system. All data were collected on admission to the emergency unit. Precise 'intervention-calling scores' could then be derived to trigger interventions. Our observational, population-based single-centred study took place in a 602-bedded district general hospital. Patients admitted to the emergency care unit at Worthing general hospital during an initial study period between July and November 2003 (n = 3184) and a further validation period between October and November 2005 (n = 1102) were included. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that a ventilatory frequency > or = 20 min(-1), heart rate > or =102 min(-1), systolic blood pressure < or = 99 mm Hg, temperature <35.3 degrees C, oxygen saturation < or = 96%, and disturbed consciousness were associated with an increase in mortality. The Worthing PSS was developed from the regression coefficients associated with each variable. The model showed good discrimination with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.74, excluding age as a variable. The discrimination of this system was significantly better than the early-warning scoring system. A simple validated scoring system to predict mortality in medical patients with precise 'intervention-calling scores' has been developed.

  13. Developing a synthetic national population to investigate the impact of different cardiovascular disease risk management strategies: A derivation and validation study.

    PubMed

    Knight, Josh; Wells, Susan; Marshall, Roger; Exeter, Daniel; Jackson, Rod

    2017-01-01

    Many national cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor management guidelines now recommend that drug treatment decisions should be informed primarily by patients' multi-variable predicted risk of CVD, rather than on the basis of single risk factor thresholds. To investigate the potential impact of treatment guidelines based on CVD risk thresholds at a national level requires individual level data representing the multi-variable CVD risk factor profiles for a country's total adult population. As these data are seldom, if ever, available, we aimed to create a synthetic population, representing the joint CVD risk factor distributions of the adult New Zealand population. A synthetic population of 2,451,278 individuals, representing the actual age, gender, ethnicity and social deprivation composition of people aged 30-84 years who completed the 2013 New Zealand census was generated using Monte Carlo sampling. Each 'synthetic' person was then probabilistically assigned values of the remaining cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors required for predicting their CVD risk, based on data from the national census national hospitalisation and drug dispensing databases and a large regional cohort study, using Monte Carlo sampling and multiple imputation. Where possible, the synthetic population CVD risk distributions for each non-demographic risk factor were validated against independent New Zealand data sources. We were able to develop a synthetic national population with realistic multi-variable CVD risk characteristics. The construction of this population is the first step in the development of a micro-simulation model intended to investigate the likely impact of a range of national CVD risk management strategies that will inform CVD risk management guideline updates in New Zealand and elsewhere.

  14. Developing a synthetic national population to investigate the impact of different cardiovascular disease risk management strategies: A derivation and validation study

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Rod

    2017-01-01

    Background Many national cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor management guidelines now recommend that drug treatment decisions should be informed primarily by patients’ multi-variable predicted risk of CVD, rather than on the basis of single risk factor thresholds. To investigate the potential impact of treatment guidelines based on CVD risk thresholds at a national level requires individual level data representing the multi-variable CVD risk factor profiles for a country’s total adult population. As these data are seldom, if ever, available, we aimed to create a synthetic population, representing the joint CVD risk factor distributions of the adult New Zealand population. Methods and results A synthetic population of 2,451,278 individuals, representing the actual age, gender, ethnicity and social deprivation composition of people aged 30–84 years who completed the 2013 New Zealand census was generated using Monte Carlo sampling. Each ‘synthetic’ person was then probabilistically assigned values of the remaining cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors required for predicting their CVD risk, based on data from the national census national hospitalisation and drug dispensing databases and a large regional cohort study, using Monte Carlo sampling and multiple imputation. Where possible, the synthetic population CVD risk distributions for each non-demographic risk factor were validated against independent New Zealand data sources. Conclusions We were able to develop a synthetic national population with realistic multi-variable CVD risk characteristics. The construction of this population is the first step in the development of a micro-simulation model intended to investigate the likely impact of a range of national CVD risk management strategies that will inform CVD risk management guideline updates in New Zealand and elsewhere. PMID:28384217

  15. External validation of a COPD prediction model using population-based primary care data: a nested case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Nwaru, Bright I; Simpson, Colin R; Sheikh, Aziz; Kotz, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Emerging models for predicting risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) require external validation in order to assess their clinical value. We validated a previous model for predicting new onset COPD in a different database. We randomly drew 38,597 case-control pairs (total N = 77,194) of individuals aged ≥35 years and matched for sex, age, and general practice from the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink database. We assessed accuracy of the model to discriminate between COPD cases and non-cases by calculating area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROCAUC) for the prediction scores. Analogous to the development model, ever smoking (OR 6.70; 95%CI 6.41–6.99), prior asthma (OR 6.43; 95%CI 5.85–7.07), and higher socioeconomic deprivation (OR 2.90; 95%CI 2.72–3.09 for highest vs. lowest quintile) increased the risk of COPD. The validated prediction scores ranged from 0–5.71 (ROCAUC 0.66; 95%CI 0.65–0.66) for males and 0–5.95 (ROCAUC 0.71; 95%CI 0.70–0.71) for females. We have confirmed that smoking, prior asthma, and socioeconomic deprivation are key risk factors for new onset COPD. Our model seems externally valid at identifying patients at risk of developing COPD. An impact assessment now needs to be undertaken to assess whether this prediction model can be applied in clinical care settings. PMID:28304375

  16. Original and REGICOR Framingham Functions in a Nondiabetic Population of a Spanish Health Care Center: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Buitrago, Francisco; Calvo-Hueros, Juan Ignacio; Cañón-Barroso, Lourdes; Pozuelos-Estrada, Gerónimo; Molina-Martínez, Luis; Espigares-Arroyo, Manuel; Galán-González, Juan Antonio; Lillo-Bravo, Francisco J.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE Risk functions can help general practitioners identify patients at high cardiovascular risk, but overprediction inevitably leads to a disproportionate number of patients being targeted for treatment. To assess predicted cardiovascular risk, we analyzed the 10-year performance of the original and REGICOR Framingham coronary risk functions in nondiabetic patients. METHODS Ours was a longitudinal, observational study of a retrospective cohort of patients observed for 10 years in primary care practices in Badajoz, Spain. Our cohort comprised 447 nondiabetic patients aged 35 to 74 years who had no evidence of cardiovascular disease and were not on lipid-lowering or antihypertensive therapy. We assessed the patients’ 10-year coronary risk measurement from the time of their recruitment. We also estimated the percentage of patients who were candidates for antihypertensive and lipid-lowering therapy. RESULTS The actual incidence rate of coronary events was 6.7%. The original Framingham equation overpredicted risk by 73%, whereas the REGICOR Framingham function underpredicted risk by 64%. The Brier scores were 0.06364 and 0.06093 (P = .365) for the original Framingham and REGICOR Framingham functions, respectively, and the remaining discrimination and calibration parameters were also highly similar for both functions. The original Framingham function classified 14.8% of the population as high risk and the REGICOR Framingham function classified 6.9%. The proportions of patients who, according to the original Framingham and REGICOR functions, would be candidates for lipid-lowering therapy were 14.3% and 6.7%, and for antihypertensive therapy they were 12.5% and 7.8%, respectively. CONCLUSION The original Framingham equation overestimated coronary risk whereas the REGICOR Framingham function underestimated it. The original Framingham function selected a greater percentage of candidates for antihypertensive and lipid-lowering therapy. PMID:21911762

  17. Original and REGICOR Framingham functions in a nondiabetic population of a Spanish health care center: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Francisco; Calvo-Hueros, Juan Ignacio; Cañón-Barroso, Lourdes; Pozuelos-Estrada, Gerónimo; Molina-Martínez, Luis; Espigares-Arroyo, Manuel; Galán-González, Juan Antonio; Lillo-Bravo, Francisco J

    2011-01-01

    Risk functions can help general practitioners identify patients at high cardiovascular risk, but overprediction inevitably leads to a disproportionate number of patients being targeted for treatment. To assess predicted cardiovascular risk, we analyzed the 10-year performance of the original and REGICOR Framingham coronary risk functions in nondiabetic patients. Ours was a longitudinal, observational study of a retrospective cohort of patients observed for 10 years in primary care practices in Badajoz, Spain. Our cohort comprised 447 nondiabetic patients aged 35 to 74 years who had no evidence of cardiovascular disease and were not on lipid-lowering or antihypertensive therapy. We assessed the patients' 10-year coronary risk measurement from the time of their recruitment. We also estimated the percentage of patients who were candidates for antihypertensive and lipid-lowering therapy. The actual incidence rate of coronary events was 6.7%. The original Framingham equation overpredicted risk by 73%, whereas the REGICOR Framingham function underpredicted risk by 64%. The Brier scores were 0.06364 and 0.06093 (P = .365) for the original Framingham and REGICOR Framingham functions, respectively, and the remaining discrimination and calibration parameters were also highly similar for both functions. The original Framingham function classified 14.8% of the population as high risk and the REGICOR Framingham function classified 6.9%. The proportions of patients who, according to the original Framingham and REGICOR functions, would be candidates for lipid-lowering therapy were 14.3% and 6.7%, and for antihypertensive therapy they were 12.5% and 7.8%, respectively. The original Framingham equation overestimated coronary risk whereas the REGICOR Framingham function underestimated it. The original Framingham function selected a greater percentage of candidates for antihypertensive and lipid-lowering therapy.

  18. Population-Based Study of Intra-Household Gender Differences in Water Insecurity: Reliability and Validity of a Survey Instrument for Use in Rural Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Alexander C.; Kakuhikire, Bernard; Mushavi, Rumbidzai; Vořechovská, Dagmar; Perkins, Jessica M.; McDonough, Amy Q.; Bangsberg, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of persons worldwide lack adequate access to water. Water insecurity, which is defined as having limited or uncertain availability of safe water or the ability to acquire safe water in socially acceptable ways, is typically overlooked by development organizations focusing on water availability. To address the urgent need in the literature for validated measures of water insecurity, we conducted a population-based study in rural Uganda with 327 reproductive-age women and 204 linked men from the same households. We used a novel method of photo identification so that we could accurately elicit study participants’ primary household water sources, thereby enabling us to identify water sources for objective water quality testing and distance/elevation measurement. Our psychometric analyses provided strong evidence of the internal structure, reliability, and validity of a new 8-item Household Water Insecurity Access Scale. Important intra-household gender differences in perceptions of water insecurity were observed, with men generally perceiving household water insecurity as being less severe compared to women. In summary, the Household Water Insecurity Access Scale represents a reliable and valid measure of water insecurity, particularly among women, and may be useful for informing and evaluating interventions to improve water access in resource limited settings. PMID:27105413

  19. Anxiety measures validated in perinatal populations: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Meades, Rose; Ayers, Susan

    2011-09-01

    Research and screening of anxiety in the perinatal period is hampered by a lack of psychometric data on self-report anxiety measures used in perinatal populations. This paper aimed to review self-report measures that have been validated with perinatal women. A systematic search was carried out of four electronic databases. Additional papers were obtained through searching identified articles. Thirty studies were identified that reported validation of an anxiety measure with perinatal women. Most commonly validated self-report measures were the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS). Of the 30 studies included, 11 used a clinical interview to provide criterion validity. Remaining studies reported one or more other forms of validity (factorial, discriminant, concurrent and predictive) or reliability. The STAI shows criterion, discriminant and predictive validity and may be most useful for research purposes as a specific measure of anxiety. The Kessler 10 (K-10) may be the best short screening measure due to its ability to differentiate anxiety disorders. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21 (DASS-21) measures multiple types of distress, shows appropriate content, and remains to be validated against clinical interview in perinatal populations. Nineteen studies did not report sensitivity or specificity data. The early stages of research into perinatal anxiety, the multitude of measures in use, and methodological differences restrict comparison of measures across studies. There is a need for further validation of self-report measures of anxiety in the perinatal period to enable accurate screening and detection of anxiety symptoms and disorders. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Statistical validation of structured population models for Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Adoteye, Kaska; Banks, H T; Cross, Karissa; Eytcheson, Stephanie; Flores, Kevin B; LeBlanc, Gerald A; Nguyen, Timothy; Ross, Chelsea; Smith, Emmaline; Stemkovski, Michael; Stokely, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    In this study we use statistical validation techniques to verify density-dependent mechanisms hypothesized for populations of Daphnia magna. We develop structured population models that exemplify specific mechanisms and use multi-scale experimental data in order to test their importance. We show that fecundity and survival rates are affected by both time-varying density-independent factors, such as age, and density-dependent factors, such as competition. We perform uncertainty analysis and show that our parameters are estimated with a high degree of confidence. Furthermore, we perform a sensitivity analysis to understand how changes in fecundity and survival rates affect population size and age-structure.

  1. Validity and intra-observer reliability of three-dimensional scanning compared to conventional anthropometry for children and adolescents from a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Glock, Fabian; Vogel, Mandy; Naumann, Stephanie; Kuehnapfel, Andreas; Scholz, Markus; Hiemisch, Andreas; Kirsten, Toralf; Rieger, Kristin; Koerner, Antje; Loeffler, Markus; Kiess, Wieland

    2017-01-04

    BackgroundConventional anthropometric measurements are time consuming and require well trained medical staff. To use three-dimensional whole body laser scanning in daily clinical work, validity and reliability have to be confirmed.MethodsWe compared a whole body laser scanner to conventional anthropometry in a group of 473 children and adolescents from the Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases (LIFE-Child). Concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) were calculated separately for sex, weight and age to assess validity. Overall CCC (OCCC) were used to analyze intra-observer reliability.ResultsBody height and the circumferences of waist, hip, upper arm and calf had an "excellent" (CCC ≥ 0.9), neck and thigh circumference a "good" (CCC ≥ 0.7) and head circumference a "low" (CCC < 0.5) degree of concordance over the complete study population. We observed dependencies of validity on sex, weight and age. Intra-observer reliability of both techniques is "excellent" (OCCC ≥ 0.9).ConclusionScanning is faster, requires a less intensive staff training and provides more information. It can be used in an epidemiologic setting with children and adolescents but some measurements should be considered with caution due to reduced agreement with conventional anthropometry.Pediatric Research (2017); doi:10.1038/pr.2016.274.

  2. Validation of diagnostic codes for intussusception and quantification of childhood intussusception incidence in Ontario, Canada: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ducharme, Robin; Benchimol, Eric I; Deeks, Shelley L; Hawken, Steven; Fergusson, Dean A; Wilson, Kumanan

    2013-10-01

    To validate an algorithm to identify cases of intussusception using the health administrative data of Ontario, Canada, and to apply the algorithm to estimate provincial incidence of intussusception, preceding the introduction of the universal rotavirus vaccination program. We determined the accuracy of various combinations of diagnostic, procedural, and billing codes using the chart-abstracted diagnoses of patients of the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario as the reference standard. We selected an algorithm that maximized positive predictive value while maintaining a high sensitivity and used it to ascertain annual incidence of intussusception for fiscal years 1995-2010. We explored temporal trends in incidence using Poisson regression. The selected algorithm included only the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 or ICD-10 code for intussusception in the hospitalization database and was sensitive (89.3%) and highly specific (>99.9%). The positive predictive value of the ICD code was 72.4%, and the negative predictive value was >99.9%. We observed the highest mean incidence (34 per 100000) in male children <1 year of age. Temporal trends in incidence varied by age group. There was a significant mean decrease in incidence of 4% per year in infants (<1 year) until 2004 and rates stabilized thereafter. We have demonstrated that intussusception can be accurately identified within health administrative data using validated algorithms. We have described changes in temporal trends in intussusception incidence in Ontario and established a baseline to allow ongoing monitoring as part of vaccine safety surveillance. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Validity of Diagnostic Codes and Prevalence of Physician-Diagnosed Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis in Southern Sweden – A Population-Based Register Study

    PubMed Central

    Löfvendahl, Sofia; Theander, Elke; Svensson, Åke; Carlsson, Katarina Steen; Englund, Martin; Petersson, Ingemar F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To validate diagnostic codes for psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and estimate physician-diagnosed prevalence of psoriasis and PsA in the Skåne region, Sweden. Methods In the Skåne Healthcare Register (SHR), all healthcare consultations are continuously collected for all inhabitants in the Skåne region (population 1.2 million). During 2005–2010 we identified individuals with ≥1 physician-consultations consistent with psoriasis (ICD-10). Within this group we also identified those diagnosed with PsA. We performed a validation by reviewing medical records in 100 randomly selected cases for psoriasis and psoriasis with PsA, respectively. Further, we estimated the pre- and post-validation point prevalence by December 31, 2010. Results We identified 16 171 individuals (psoriasis alone: n = 13 185, psoriasis with PsA n = 2 986). The proportion of ICD-10 codes that could be confirmed by review of medical records was 81% for psoriasis and 63% for psoriasis with PsA with highest percentage of confirmed codes for cases diagnosed ≥2 occasions in specialized care. For 19% and 29% of the cases respectively it was not possible to determine diagnosis due to insufficient information. Thus, the positive predicted value (PPV) of one ICD-10 code for psoriasis and psoriasis with PsA ranged between 81–100% and 63–92%, respectively. Assuming the most conservative PPV, the post-validation prevalence was 1.23% (95% CI: 1.21–1.25) for psoriasis (with or without PsA), 1.02% (95% CI: 1.00–1.03) for psoriasis alone and 0.21% (95% CI: 0.20–0.22) for psoriasis with PsA. The post-validation prevalence of PsA in the psoriasis cohort was 17.3% (95% CI: 16.65–17.96). Conclusions The proportion of diagnostic codes in SHR that could be verified varied with frequency of diagnostic codes and level of care highlighting the importance of sensitivity analyses using different case ascertainment criteria. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed psoriasis and Ps

  4. Predicting glycated hemoglobin levels in the non-diabetic general population: Development and validation of the DIRECT-DETECT prediction model - a DIRECT study

    PubMed Central

    Heymans, Martijn W.; Koopman, Anitra D. M.; Nijpels, Giel; Stehouwer, Coen D.; Thorand, Barbara; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Meisinger, Christa; Peters, Annette; de las Heras Gala, Tonia; Glümer, Charlotte; Pedersen, Oluf; Cederberg, Henna; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Pearson, Ewan R.; Franks, Paul W.; Rutters, Femke; Dekker, Jacqueline M.

    2017-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis To develop a prediction model that can predict HbA1c levels after six years in the non-diabetic general population, including previously used readily available predictors. Methods Data from 5,762 initially non-diabetic subjects from three population-based cohorts (Hoorn Study, Inter99, KORA S4/F4) were combined to predict HbA1c levels at six year follow-up. Using backward selection, age, BMI, waist circumference, use of anti-hypertensive medication, current smoking and parental history of diabetes remained in sex-specific linear regression models. To minimize overfitting of coefficients, we performed internal validation using bootstrapping techniques. Explained variance, discrimination and calibration were assessed using R2, classification tables (comparing highest/lowest 50% HbA1c levels) and calibration graphs. The model was externally validated in 2,765 non-diabetic subjects of the population-based cohort METSIM. Results At baseline, mean HbA1c level was 5.6% (38 mmol/mol). After a mean follow-up of six years, mean HbA1c level was 5.7% (39 mmol/mol). Calibration graphs showed that predicted HbA1c levels were somewhat underestimated in the Inter99 cohort and overestimated in the Hoorn and KORA cohorts, indicating that the model’s intercept should be adjusted for each cohort to improve predictions. Sensitivity and specificity (95% CI) were 55.7% (53.9, 57.5) and 56.9% (55.1, 58.7) respectively, for women, and 54.6% (52.7, 56.5) and 54.3% (52.4, 56.2) for men. External validation showed similar performance in the METSIM cohort. Conclusions/interpretation In the non-diabetic population, our DIRECT-DETECT prediction model, including readily available predictors, has a relatively low explained variance and moderate discriminative performance, but can help to distinguish between future highest and lowest HbA1c levels. Absolute HbA1c values are cohort-dependent. PMID:28187151

  5. [SURPS French version validation in a Quebec adolescent population].

    PubMed

    Castonguay-Jolin, Laura; Perrier-Ménard, Eveline; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Garel, Patricia; Séguin, Jean R; Conrod, Patricia J

    2013-09-01

    Objective: The Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) has been developed to screen personality risk factors for substance misuse. This scale assesses 4 high-risk personality traits using a 23-item, self-report questionnaire. SURPS helps guiding targeted approaches to prevention of substance abuse and misuse. It has been validated in the United Kingdom, English Canada, Sri Lanka, and China. This study aims to validate this scale in a sample of French-speaking adolescents from Quebec as well as its sensitivity in a clinical sample of adolescents. Method: Two hundred two 15-year-old youths from a community sample completed a French version of SURPS as well as other measures of personality and substance use. This study reports the internal consistency and concurrent validity of the scale, as well as a factor analysis of items. Further, 40 youths (mean age 15.7 years) from a clinical population completed SURPS and their scores were compared with those of the community sample. Results: SURPS French translation has good internal consistency and demonstrated a 4-factor structure very similar to the original scale. The 4 subscales show good concurrent validity, and 3 of the subscales were found to correlate with measures of substance use. Finally, 95% of the clinical sample was identified at high risk for substance misuse according to SURPS cut-off scores. Conclusion: SURPS French translation seems to be a valid and sensitive scale that can be used in a French-speaking adolescent population from Quebec.

  6. Validation of the Orofacial Esthetic Scale in the general population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Orofacial Esthetic Scale (OES) is an eight-item instrument to assess how patients perceive their dental and facial esthetics. In this cross-sectional study we investigated dimensionality, reliability, and validity of OES scores in the adult general population in Sweden. Methods In a random sample of the adult Swedish population (response rate: 39%, N=1159 subjects, 58% female, mean age (standard deviation): 49.2 (17.4) years), dimensionality of OES was investigated using factor analytic methods to determine how many scores are needed to characterize the construct. Reliability of scores was calculated using Cronbach’s alpha. Score validity was determined by correlating the OES summary score with a global indicator of orofacial esthetics (OE). Results Factor analyses provided support that a single score can sufficiently characterize OE. A Cronbach’s alpha of 0.93 indicated excellent reliability. A validity coefficient of r=0.89 (95% confidence interval: 0.87-0.90) indicated that OES summary scores correlated highly with a global OE assessment. Conclusions The OES is a promising instrument to measure the construct OE. Factor analyses supported that this construct can be assessed with one score, offering a feasible and acceptable standardized assessment of OE. The present study extends the OES use to the general population, an important target population for assessment of orofacial esthetics. PMID:23158767

  7. Development and validation of a new, sensitive immunochemical assay for O⁶-methylguanine in DNA and its application in a population study.

    PubMed

    Georgiadis, Panagiotis; Kaila, Stella; Makedonopoulou, Paraskevi; Fthenou, Eleni; Chatzi, Leda; Pletsa, Vasiliki; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A

    2011-01-01

    Investigations of the presence of the precarcinogenic DNA adduct O⁶-methylguanine (O6-meG) in humans and its association with exposure or cancer risk have been hindered by the absence of analytic methods of adequate sensitivity and throughput. We report the development, validation, and application of an ELISA-type assay for O6-meG appropriate for large-scale population studies. In the new analytic method, restriction enzymes are used to digest DNA to fragments of size expected to contain no more than one O6-meG residue. Anti-adduct antisera are used to transfer O6-meG-containing fragments to a solid surface, where they are detected using anti-ssDNA antisera, the high ratio of normal nucleotides to adducts providing a strong signal enhancement. An assay with a limit of detection of 1.5 adducts/10⁹ nucleotides using 10 μg of DNA, a dynamic range of approximately two orders of magnitude and satisfactory precision and accuracy characteristics was established and validated. Analysis of samples from 120 subjects from the Rhea mother-child cohort in Crete led to the detection of O6-meG in 70% of maternal and 50% of cord blood buffy coat samples at mean levels of 0.65 and 0.38 adducts/10⁸ nucleotides, respectively. The frequent observation of O6-meG in human DNA is compatible with dietary compounds (e.g. N-nitroso compounds or their precursors), or endogenous processes being responsible for the formation of this adduct. The new assay opens the way for large-scale population studies of O6-meG as a biomarker of exposure or risk. The approach used in this assay can, in principle, be extended to any DNA adduct for which suitable antisera are available. ©2011 AACR.

  8. Morbidity and mortality of complex spine surgery: a prospective cohort study in 679 patients validating the Spine AdVerse Event Severity (SAVES) system in a European population.

    PubMed

    Karstensen, Sven; Bari, Tanvir; Gehrchen, Martin; Street, John; Dahl, Benny

    2016-02-01

    Most literature on complications in spine surgery has been retrospective or based on national databases with few variables. The Spine AdVerse Events Severity (SAVES) system has been found reliable and valid in two Canadian centers, providing precise information regarding all adverse events (AEs). This study aimed to determine the mortality and examine the incidence of morbidity in patients undergoing complex spinal surgery, including pediatric patients, and to validate the SAVES system in a European population. A prospective, consecutive cohort study was conducted using the SAVES version 2010 in the period from January 1, 2013 until December 31, 2013. A retrospective analysis was performed on all patients operated from November 1, 2011 until October 31, 2012 for comparison. Patients undergoing spinal surgery at a tertiary referral center comprised the patient sample. Morbidity and mortality were determined according to the newest version of the SAVES system and compared with the Canadian cohort. Other outcomes were length of stay, readmission, unplanned second surgery during index admission, as well as wound infections requiring revision. All patients undergoing spinal surgery at an academic tertiary referral center in the study period were prospectively included. The newest version of SAVES system was used, and a research coordinator collected all intraoperative and perioperative data prospectively. Once a week all patients were reviewed for additional events, validation of the data, and clarification of any questions. Patients were grouped according to the type of admission (elective of emergency) and age, and subgrouped according to a major diagnostic group. The survival status was registered on January 31, 2014 to obtain 30-day survival. A total of 679 consecutive cases were included with 100% data completion. The in-hospital mortality was 1.3% and the 30-day mortality was 2.7%; all occurring after emergency procedures. The number of intraoperative AEs was 162

  9. Factor Structure, Reliability and Criterion Validity of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ): A Study in Dutch Population and Patient Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoekstra, Rosa A.; Bartels, Meike; Cath, Danielle C.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2008-01-01

    The factor structure of the Dutch translation of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ; a continuous, quantitative measure of autistic traits) was evaluated with confirmatory factor analyses in a large general population and student sample. The criterion validity of the AQ was examined in three matched patient groups (autism spectrum conditions (ASC),…

  10. Factor Structure, Reliability and Criterion Validity of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ): A Study in Dutch Population and Patient Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoekstra, Rosa A.; Bartels, Meike; Cath, Danielle C.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2008-01-01

    The factor structure of the Dutch translation of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ; a continuous, quantitative measure of autistic traits) was evaluated with confirmatory factor analyses in a large general population and student sample. The criterion validity of the AQ was examined in three matched patient groups (autism spectrum conditions (ASC),…

  11. Dental age assessment on panoramic radiographs in a Swiss population: a validation study of two prediction models.

    PubMed

    Birchler, Flavia A; Kiliaridis, Stavros; Combescure, Christophe; Vazquez, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Dental age assessment methods are widely used for age estimation. This study aimed to analyse the accuracy of a meta-analysis method to estimate dental age in Swiss individuals and to detect potential limitations of the method. Precision of repeated tooth staging using Demirjian's classification on maxillary and mandibular teeth was also assessed. Panoramic radiographs of 50 Swiss white healthy children were analysed. Developing teeth on the left maxilla and mandible and all third permanent molars were staged following Demirjian's classification. Dental age was calculated for each subject, using a random effects model and a fixed effect model, and compared with chronological age. The mean error of the dental age ranged between -3 and +1 months for both the calculation models. Dental age calculated with the fixed effect model overestimated the age of the subjects (average + 0.10 y, ranging from -1.95 y to +2.16 y) compared with their chronological age, whereas the random effects model underestimated the age (average -0.32 y, ranging from -2.24 y to +1.61 y). Demirjian's method allowed a precise repeated staging of maxillary and mandibular developing teeth. For both calculation models, dental age correlated well, on average, with chronological age of Swiss subjects younger than 12 years. The random effects model showed a better accuracy for these subjects than the fixed effect model. However, both models underestimated the chronological age in subjects older than 12 years.

  12. Validation of a genome-wide association study implied that SHTIN1 may involve in the pathogenesis of NSCL/P in Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yirui; Sun, Yimin; Huang, Yongqing; Pan, Yongchu; Yin, Aihua; Shi, Bing; Du, Xuefei; Ma, Lan; Lan, Feifei; Jiang, Min; Shi, Jiayu; Zhang, Lei; Xiao, Xue; Zhou, Zhongwei; Jiang, Hongbing; Wang, Lin; Yang, Yinxue; Cheng, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Orofacial clefts are among the most common birth defects in humans worldwide. A large-scale, genome-wide association study (GWAS) in the Chinese population recently identified several genetic risk variants for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P). We selected 16 significant SNPs from the GWAS I stage (P < 1.00E-5) that had not been replicated to validate their association with NSCL/P in 1931 NSCL/P cases and 2258 controls. Ultimately, we identified a NSCL/P susceptibility loci (rs17095681 at 10q25.3, intron of SHTN1 and 27.2 kb downstream of VAX1, Pmeta = 3.80E-9, OR = 0.64) in Chinese Han and Hui populations. This locus was not high LD with the reported loci in 10q25.3. It was a newly identified independent locus in 10q25.3 associated with NSCL/P. These results imply that SHTIN1 may involve in the pathogenesis of NSCL/P advance our understanding of the genetic susceptibility to NSCL/P. PMID:28008912

  13. Water intake: validity of population assessment and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Gandy, Joan

    2015-06-01

    Good hydration is vital for good health and well-being. Until recently, there was little interest in collecting data on water and drink and beverage intake. However, there is increasing evidence that a low water intake or mild dehydration may be linked with the risk of chronic diseases. Accurate estimates of intake in populations are essential to explore these relationships. This will enable the identification of specific populations at the risk of low water intake and allow exposure assessment of potential contaminates and specific nutrients present in drinks and beverages. In addition, data from these population studies are used as the basis of national and international recommendations on water intake and to set and evaluate national health policies. For example, EFSA based their recommendations on data from population studies from 13 European countries. The range of intakes varied from 720 to 2621 mL/day; this diversity cannot be explained by environmental differences alone. However, this variability may, at least partially, be explained by the inconsistency in methodologies used as none of surveys used a dietary assessment tool validated for total water intake or beverage and drink intake. It is reasonable to suggest that this may result in incomplete data collection and it raises questions on the validity of the recommendations. The relationship between water consumption and health warrants further investigation, and robust methodologies are essential to ensure that these data are accurate and useful for setting public health priorities and policies.

  14. Development and validation of a population-based prediction scale for osteoporotic fracture in the region of Valencia, Spain: the ESOSVAL-R study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Today, while there are effective drugs that reduce the risk of osteoporotic fracture, yet there are no broadly accepted criteria that can be used to estimate risks and decide who should receive treatment. One of the actual priorities of clinical research is to develop a set of simple and readily-available clinical data that can be used in routine clinical practice to identify patients at high risk of bone fracture, and to establish thresholds for therapeutic interventions. Such a tool would have high impact on healthcare policies. The main objective of the ESOSVAL-R is to develop a risk prediction scale of osteoporotic fracture in adult population using data from the Region of Valencia, Spain. Methods/Design Study design: An observational, longitudinal, prospective cohort study, undertaken in the Region of Valencia, with an initial follow-up period of five years; Subjects: 14,500 men and women over the age of 50, residing in the Region and receiving healthcare from centers where the ABUCASIS electronic clinical records system is implanted; Sources of data: The ABUCASIS electronic clinical record system, complemented with hospital morbidity registers, hospital Accidents & Emergency records and the Regional Ministry of Health's mortality register; Measurement of results: Incident osteoporotic fracture (in the hip and/or major osteoporotic fracture) during the study's follow-up period. Independent variables include clinical data and complementary examinations; Analysis: 1) Descriptive analysis of the cohorts' baseline data; 2) Upon completion of the follow-up period, analysis of the strength of association between the risk factors and the incidence of osteoporotic fracture using Cox's proportional hazards model; 3) Development and validation of a model to predict risk of osteoporotic fracture; the validated model will serve to develop a simplified scale that can be used during routine clinical visits. Discussion The ESOSVAL-R study will establish a

  15. CANFOR Portuguese version: validation study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The increase in prisoner population is a troublesome reality in several regions of the world. Along with this growth there is increasing evidence that prisoners have a higher proportion of mental illnesses and suicide than the general population. In order to implement strategies that address criminal recidivism and the health and social status of prisoners, particularly in mental disordered offenders, it is necessary to assess their care needs in a comprehensive, but individual perspective. This assessment must include potential harmful areas like comorbid personality disorder, substance misuse and offending behaviours. The Camberwell Assessment of Need – Forensic Version (CANFOR) has proved to be a reliable tool designed to accomplish such aims. The present study aimed to validate the CANFOR Portuguese version. Methods The translation, adaptation to the Portuguese context, back-translation and revision followed the usual procedures. The sample comprised all detainees receiving psychiatric care in four forensic facilities, over a one year period. A total of 143 subjects, and respective case manager, were selected. The forensic facilities were chosen by convenience: one prison hospital psychiatric ward (n=68; 47.6%), one male (n=24; 16.8%) and one female (n=22; 15.4%) psychiatric clinic and one civil security ward (n=29; 20.3%), all located nearby Lisbon. Basic descriptive statistics and Kappa weighted coefficients were calculated for the inter-rater and the test-retest reliability studies. The convergent validity was evaluated using the Global Assessment of Functioning and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale scores. Results The majority of the participants were male and single, with short school attendance, and accused of a crime involving violence against persons. The most frequent diagnosis was major depression (56.1%) and almost half presented positive suicide risk. The reliability study showed average Kappa weighted coefficients of 0.884 and 0

  16. Validation of an obstetric comorbidity index in an external population.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, A; Lix, L M; Johnson, J-A; Currie, G; Lyon, A W; Bernier, F; Tough, S C

    2015-12-01

    An obstetric comorbidity index has been developed recently with superior performance characteristics relative to general comorbidity measures in an obstetric population. This study aimed to externally validate this index and to examine the impact of including hospitalisation/delivery records only when estimating comorbidity prevalence and discriminative performance of the obstetric comorbidity index. Validation study. Alberta, Canada. Pregnant women who delivered a live or stillborn infant in hospital (n = 5995). Administrative databases were linked to create a population-based cohort. Comorbid conditions were identified from diagnoses for the delivery hospitalisation, all hospitalisations and all healthcare contacts (i.e. hospitalisations, emergency room visits and physician visits) that occurred during pregnancy and 3 months pre-conception. Logistic regression was used to test the discriminative performance of the comorbidity index. Maternal end-organ damage and extended length of stay for delivery. Although prevalence estimates for comorbid conditions were consistently lower in delivery records and hospitalisation data than in data for all healthcare contacts, the discriminative performance of the comorbidity index was constant for maternal end-organ damage [all healthcare contacts area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.70; hospitalisation data AUC = 0.67; delivery data AUC = 0.65] and extended length of stay for delivery (all healthcare contacts AUC = 0.60; hospitalisation data AUC = 0.58; delivery data AUC = 0.58). The obstetric comorbidity index shows similar performance characteristics in an external population and is a valid measure of comorbidity in an obstetric population. Furthermore, the discriminative performance of the comorbidity index was similar for comorbidities ascertained at the time of delivery, in hospitalisation data or through all healthcare contacts. © 2015 The Authors. BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics

  17. Positive predictive value of cardiac examination, procedure and surgery codes in the Danish National Patient Registry: a population-based validation study

    PubMed Central

    Adelborg, Kasper; Sundbøll, Jens; Munch, Troels; Frøslev, Trine; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Schmidt, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Objective Danish medical registries are widely used for cardiovascular research, but little is known about the data quality of cardiac interventions. We computed positive predictive values (PPVs) of codes for cardiac examinations, procedures and surgeries registered in the Danish National Patient Registry during 2010–2012. Design Population-based validation study. Setting We randomly sampled patients from 1 university hospital and 2 regional hospitals in the Central Denmark Region. Participants 1239 patients undergoing different cardiac interventions. Main outcome measure PPVs with medical record review as reference standard. Results A total of 1233 medical records (99% of the total sample) were available for review. PPVs ranged from 83% to 100%. For examinations, the PPV was overall 98%, reflecting PPVs of 97% for echocardiography, 97% for right heart catheterisation and 100% for coronary angiogram. For procedures, the PPV was 98% overall, with PPVs of 98% for thrombolysis, 92% for cardioversion, 100% for radiofrequency ablation, 98% for percutaneous coronary intervention, and 100% for both cardiac pacemakers and implantable cardiac defibrillators. For cardiac surgery, the overall PPVs was 99%, encompassing PPVs of 100% for mitral valve surgery, 99% for aortic valve surgery, 98% for coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and 100% for heart transplantation. The accuracy of coding was consistent within age, sex, and calendar year categories, and the agreement between independent reviewers was high (99%). Conclusions Cardiac examinations, procedures and surgeries have high PPVs in the Danish National Patient Registry. PMID:27940630

  18. Using a Web-Based Approach to Assess Test-Retest Reliability of the "Hypertension Self-Care Profile" Tool in an Asian Population: A Validation Study.

    PubMed

    Koh, Yi Ling Eileen; Lua, Yi Hui Adela; Hong, Liyue; Bong, Huey Shin Shirley; Yeo, Ling Sui Jocelyn; Tsang, Li Ping Marianne; Ong, Kai Zhi; Wong, Sook Wai Samantha; Tan, Ngiap Chuan

    2016-03-01

    ICC scores of 0.671, 0.762, and 0.720 for these respective domains showed good test-retest reliability. The correlation of the HTN-SCP scores and patients' reported self-management measures were significant, except for keeping their food diary. HTN-SCP showed satisfactory internal consistency and test-retest reliability in an English literate Asian population. A web-based approach is feasible if similar studies are needed to validate its translated versions of the tool for wider application in the local multilingual population.

  19. Risk Prediction for Breast, Endometrial, and Ovarian Cancer in White Women Aged 50 y or Older: Derivation and Validation from Population-Based Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Park, Yikyung; Kreimer, Aimée R.; Lacey, James V.; Pee, David; Greenlee, Robert T.; Buys, Saundra S.; Hollenbeck, Albert; Rosner, Bernard; Gail, Mitchell H.; Hartge, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers share some hormonal and epidemiologic risk factors. While several models predict absolute risk of breast cancer, there are few models for ovarian cancer in the general population, and none for endometrial cancer. Methods and Findings Using data on white, non-Hispanic women aged 50+ y from two large population-based cohorts (the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial [PLCO] and the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study [NIH-AARP]), we estimated relative and attributable risks and combined them with age-specific US-population incidence and competing mortality rates. All models included parity. The breast cancer model additionally included estrogen and progestin menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) use, other MHT use, age at first live birth, menopausal status, age at menopause, family history of breast or ovarian cancer, benign breast disease/biopsies, alcohol consumption, and body mass index (BMI); the endometrial model included menopausal status, age at menopause, BMI, smoking, oral contraceptive use, MHT use, and an interaction term between BMI and MHT use; the ovarian model included oral contraceptive use, MHT use, and family history or breast or ovarian cancer. In independent validation data (Nurses' Health Study cohort) the breast and ovarian cancer models were well calibrated; expected to observed cancer ratios were 1.00 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.96–1.04) for breast cancer and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.97–1.19) for ovarian cancer. The number of endometrial cancers was significantly overestimated, expected/observed = 1.20 (95% CI: 1.11–1.29). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs; discriminatory power) were 0.58 (95% CI: 0.57–0.59), 0.59 (95% CI: 0.56–0.63), and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.66–0.70) for the breast, ovarian, and endometrial models, respectively. Conclusions These models predict absolute risks for breast, endometrial, and

  20. Validity of Administrative Data in Identifying Cancer-related Events in Adolescents and Young Adults: A Population-based Study Using the IMPACT Cohort.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sumit; Nathan, Paul C; Baxter, Nancy N; Lau, Cindy; Daly, Corinne; Pole, Jason D

    2017-07-20

    Despite the importance of estimating population level cancer outcomes, most registries do not collect critical events such as relapse. Attempts to use health administrative data to identify these events have focused on older adults and have been mostly unsuccessful. We developed and tested administrative data-based algorithms in a population-based cohort of adolescents and young adults with cancer. We identified all Ontario adolescents and young adults 15-21 years old diagnosed with leukemia, lymphoma, sarcoma, or testicular cancer between 1992-2012. Chart abstraction determined the end of initial treatment (EOIT) date and subsequent cancer-related events (progression, relapse, second cancer). Linkage to population-based administrative databases identified fee and procedure codes indicating cancer treatment or palliative care. Algorithms determining EOIT based on a time interval free of treatment-associated codes, and new cancer-related events based on billing codes, were compared with chart-abstracted data. The cohort comprised 1404 patients. Time periods free of treatment-associated codes did not validly identify EOIT dates; using subsequent codes to identify new cancer events was thus associated with low sensitivity (56.2%). However, using administrative data codes that occurred after the EOIT date based on chart abstraction, the first cancer-related event was identified with excellent validity (sensitivity, 87.0%; specificity, 93.3%; positive predictive value, 81.5%; negative predictive value, 95.5%). Although administrative data alone did not validly identify cancer-related events, administrative data in combination with chart collected EOIT dates was associated with excellent validity. The collection of EOIT dates by cancer registries would significantly expand the potential of administrative data linkage to assess cancer outcomes.

  1. From home range dynamics to population cycles: validation and realism of a common vole population model for pesticide risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Magnus

    2013-04-01

    Despite various attempts to establish population models as standard tools in pesticide risk assessment, population models still receive limited acceptance by risk assessors and authorities in Europe. A main criticism of risk assessors is that population models are often not, or not sufficiently, validated. Hence the realism of population-level risk assessments conducted with such models remains uncertain. We therefore developed an individual-based population model for the common vole, Microtus arvalis, and demonstrate how population models can be validated in great detail based on published data. The model is developed for application in pesticide risk assessment, therefore, the validation covers all areas of the biology of the common vole that are relevant for the analysis of potential effects and recovery after application of pesticides. Our results indicate that reproduction, survival, age structure, spatial behavior, and population dynamics reproduced from the model are comparable to field observations. Also interannual population cycles, which are frequently observed in field studies of small mammals, emerge from the population model. These cycles were shown to be caused by the home range behavior and dispersal. As observed previously in the field, population cycles in the model were also stronger for longer breeding season length. Our results show how validation can help to evaluate the realism of population models, and we discuss the importance of taking field methodology and resulting bias into account. Our results also demonstrate how population models can help to test or understand biological mechanisms in population ecology.

  2. The fairness, predictive validity and acceptability of multiple mini interview in an internationally diverse student population--a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Maureen E; Dowell, Jon; Husbands, Adrian; Newell, John; O'Flynn, Siun; Kropmans, Thomas; Dunne, Fidelma P; Murphy, Andrew W

    2014-12-21

    International medical students, those attending medical school outside of their country of citizenship, account for a growing proportion of medical undergraduates worldwide. This study aimed to establish the fairness, predictive validity and acceptability of Multiple Mini Interview (MMI) in an internationally diverse student population. This was an explanatory sequential, mixed methods study. All students in First Year Medicine, National University of Ireland Galway 2012 were eligible to sit a previously validated 10 station MMI. Quantitative data comprised: demographics, selection tool scores and First Year Assessment scores. Qualitative data comprised separate focus groups with MMI Assessors, EU and Non-EU students. 109 students participated (45% of class). Of this 41.3% (n = 45) were Non-EU and 35.8% (n = 39) did not have English as first language. Age, gender and socioeconomic class did not impact on MMI scores. Non-EU students and those for whom English was not a first language achieved significantly lower scores on MMI than their EU and English speaking counterparts (difference in mean 11.9% and 12.2% respectively, P<0.001). MMI score was associated with English language proficiency (IELTS) (r = 0.5, P<0.01). Correlations emerged between First Year results and IELTS (r = 0.44; p = 0.006; n = 38) and EU school exit exam (r = 0.52; p<0.001; n = 56). MMI predicted EU student OSCE performance (r = 0.27; p = 0.03; n = 64). In the analysis of focus group data two overarching themes emerged: Authenticity and Cultural Awareness. MMI was considered a highly authentic assessment that offered a deeper understanding of the applicant than traditional tools, with an immediate relevance to clinical practice. Cultural specificity of some stations and English language proficiency were seen to disadvantage international students. Recommendations included cultural awareness training for MMI assessors, designing and piloting culturally neutral stations, lengthening station

  3. Incidence of Hospitalization for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection amongst Children in Ontario, Canada: A Population-Based Study Using Validated Health Administrative Data

    PubMed Central

    Pisesky, Andrea; Benchimol, Eric I.; Wong, Coralie A.; Hui, Charles; Crowe, Megan; Belair, Marc-Andre; Pojsupap, Supichaya; Karnauchow, Tim; O'Hearn, Katie; Yasseen, Abdool S.; McNally, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Importance RSV is a common illness among young children that causes significant morbidity and health care costs. Objective Routinely collected health administrative data can be used to track disease incidence, explore risk factors and conduct health services research. Due to potential for misclassification bias, the accuracy of data-elements should be validated prior to use. The objectives of this study were to validate an algorithm to accurately identify pediatric cases of hospitalized respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) from within Ontario’s health administrative data, estimate annual incidence of hospitalization due to RSV and report the prevalence of major risk factors within hospitalized patients. Study Design and Setting A retrospective chart review was performed to establish a reference-standard cohort of children from the Ottawa region admitted to the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO) for RSV-related disease in 2010 and 2011. Chart review data was linked to Ontario’s administrative data and used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of algorithms of RSV-related ICD-10 codes within provincial hospitalization and emergency department databases. Age- and sex-standardized incidence was calculated over time, with trends in incidence assessed using Poisson regression. Results From a total of 1411 admissions, chart review identified 327 children hospitalized for laboratory confirmed RSV-related disease. Following linkage to administrative data and restriction to first admissions, there were 289 RSV patients in the reference-standard cohort. The best algorithm, based on hospitalization data, resulted in sensitivity 97.9% (95%CI: 95.5–99.2%), specificity 99.6% (95%CI: 98.2–99.8%), PPV 96.9% (95%CI: 94.2–98.6%), NPV 99.4% (95%CI: 99.4–99.9%). Incidence of hospitalized RSV in Ontario from 2005–2012 was 10.2 per 1000 children under 1 year and 4.8 per 1000 children aged 1 to 3 years. During the surveillance period, there was no identifiable

  4. Incidence of Hospitalization for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection amongst Children in Ontario, Canada: A Population-Based Study Using Validated Health Administrative Data.

    PubMed

    Pisesky, Andrea; Benchimol, Eric I; Wong, Coralie A; Hui, Charles; Crowe, Megan; Belair, Marc-Andre; Pojsupap, Supichaya; Karnauchow, Tim; O'Hearn, Katie; Yasseen, Abdool S; McNally, James D

    2016-01-01

    RSV is a common illness among young children that causes significant morbidity and health care costs. Routinely collected health administrative data can be used to track disease incidence, explore risk factors and conduct health services research. Due to potential for misclassification bias, the accuracy of data-elements should be validated prior to use. The objectives of this study were to validate an algorithm to accurately identify pediatric cases of hospitalized respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) from within Ontario's health administrative data, estimate annual incidence of hospitalization due to RSV and report the prevalence of major risk factors within hospitalized patients. A retrospective chart review was performed to establish a reference-standard cohort of children from the Ottawa region admitted to the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO) for RSV-related disease in 2010 and 2011. Chart review data was linked to Ontario's administrative data and used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of algorithms of RSV-related ICD-10 codes within provincial hospitalization and emergency department databases. Age- and sex-standardized incidence was calculated over time, with trends in incidence assessed using Poisson regression. From a total of 1411 admissions, chart review identified 327 children hospitalized for laboratory confirmed RSV-related disease. Following linkage to administrative data and restriction to first admissions, there were 289 RSV patients in the reference-standard cohort. The best algorithm, based on hospitalization data, resulted in sensitivity 97.9% (95%CI: 95.5-99.2%), specificity 99.6% (95%CI: 98.2-99.8%), PPV 96.9% (95%CI: 94.2-98.6%), NPV 99.4% (95%CI: 99.4-99.9%). Incidence of hospitalized RSV in Ontario from 2005-2012 was 10.2 per 1000 children under 1 year and 4.8 per 1000 children aged 1 to 3 years. During the surveillance period, there was no identifiable increasing or decreasing linear trend in the incidence of hospitalized RSV

  5. Considering the needs of English language learner populations: an examination of the population validity of reading intervention research.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brooke A; Klingner, Janette K

    2014-01-01

    This article synthesizes reading intervention research studies intended for use with struggling or at-risk students to determine which studies adequately address population validity, particularly in regard to the diverse reading needs of English language learners. An extensive search of the professional literature between 2001 and 2010 yielded a total of 67 reading intervention studies targeting at-risk elementary students. Findings revealed that many current research studies fail to adequately describe the sample, including the accessible and target populations, and to disaggregate their findings based on demographic characteristics. When population validity issues are not addressed, researchers cannot generalize findings to other populations of students, and it becomes unclear what intervention strategies work, especially with English language learner student populations. However, 25 studies did specifically recognize and address the needs of English language learners, indicating more researchers are taking into consideration the diverse needs of other struggling student populations. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2012.

  6. Relationship between Obesity and Massive Transfusion Needs in Trauma Patients, and Validation of TASH Score in Obese Population: A Retrospective Study on 910 Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    De Jong, Audrey; Deras, Pauline; Martinez, Orianne; Latry, Pascal; Jaber, Samir; Capdevila, Xavier; Charbit, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Background Prediction of massive transfusion (MT) is challenging in management of trauma patients. However, MT and its prediction were poorly studied in obese patients. The main objective was to assess the relationship between obesity and MT needs in trauma patients. The secondary objectives were to validate the Trauma Associated Severe Hemorrhage (TASH) score in predicting MT in obese patients and to use a grey zone approach to optimize its ability to predict MT. Methods and Findings An observational retrospective study was conducted in a Level I Regional Trauma Center Trauma in obese and non-obese patients. MT was defined as ≥10U of packed red blood cells in the first 24h and obesity as a BMI≥30kg/m². Between January 2008 and December 2012, 119 obese and 791 non-obese trauma patients were included. The rate of MT was 10% (94/910) in the whole population. The MT rate tended to be higher in obese patients than in non-obese patients: 15% (18/119, 95%CI 9‒23%) versus 10% (76/791, 95%CI 8‒12%), OR, 1.68 [95%CI 0.97‒2.92], p = 0.07. After adjusting for Injury Severity Score (ISS), obesity was significantly associated with MT rate (OR, 1.79[95%CI 1.00‒3.21], p = 0.049). The TASH score was higher in the obese group than in the non-obese group: 7(4–11) versus 5(2–10)(p<0.001). The area under the ROC curves of the TASH score in predicting MT was very high and comparable between the obese and non-obese groups: 0.93 (95%CI, 0.89‒0.98) and 0.94 (95%CI, 0.92‒0.96), respectively (p = 0.80). The grey zone ranged respectively from 10 to 13 and from 9 to 12 in obese and non obese patients, and allowed separating patients at low, intermediate or high risk of MT using the TASH score. Conclusions Obesity was associated with a higher rate of MT in trauma patients. The predictive performance of the TASH score and the grey zones were robust and comparable between obese and non-obese patients. PMID:27010445

  7. External validation and comparison of two nomograms predicting the probability of Gleason sum upgrading between biopsy and radical prostatectomy pathology in two patient populations: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Utsumi, Takanobu; Oka, Ryo; Endo, Takumi; Yano, Masashi; Kamijima, Shuichi; Kamiya, Naoto; Fujimura, Masaaki; Sekita, Nobuyuki; Mikami, Kazuo; Hiruta, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to validate and compare the predictive accuracy of two nomograms predicting the probability of Gleason sum upgrading between biopsy and radical prostatectomy pathology among representative patients with prostate cancer. We previously developed a nomogram, as did Chun et al. In this validation study, patients originated from two centers: Toho University Sakura Medical Center (n = 214) and Chibaken Saiseikai Narashino Hospital (n = 216). We assessed predictive accuracy using area under the curve values and constructed calibration plots to grasp the tendency for each institution. Both nomograms showed a high predictive accuracy in each institution, although the constructed calibration plots of the two nomograms underestimated the actual probability in Toho University Sakura Medical Center. Clinicians need to use calibration plots for each institution to correctly understand the tendency of each nomogram for their patients, even if each nomogram has a good predictive accuracy.

  8. Validation studies and proficiency testing.

    PubMed

    Ankilam, Elke; Heinze, Petra; Kay, Simon; Van den Eede, Guy; Popping, Bert

    2002-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) entered the European food market in 1996. Current legislation demands the labeling of food products if they contain <1% GMO, as assessed for each ingredient of the product. To create confidence in the testing methods and to complement enforcement requirements, there is an urgent need for internationally validated methods, which could serve as reference methods. To date, several methods have been submitted to validation trials at an international level; approaches now exist that can be used in different circumstances and for different food matrixes. Moreover, the requirement for the formal validation of methods is clearly accepted; several national and international bodies are active in organizing studies. Further validation studies, especially on the quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods, need to be performed to cover the rising demand for new extraction methods and other background matrixes, as well as for novel GMO constructs.

  9. PSI-Center Validation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, B. A.; Akcay, C.; Glasser, A. H.; Hansen, C. J.; Jarboe, T. R.; Marklin, G. J.; Milroy, R. D.; Morgan, K. D.; Norgaard, P. C.; Shumlak, U.; Sutherland, D. A.; Victor, B. S.; Sovinec, C. R.; O'Bryan, J. B.; Held, E. D.; Ji, J.-Y.; Lukin, V. S.

    2014-10-01

    The Plasma Science and Innovation Center (PSI-Center - http://www.psicenter.org) supports collaborating validation platform experiments with 3D extended MHD simulations using the NIMROD, HiFi, and PSI-TET codes. Collaborators include the Bellan Plasma Group (Caltech), CTH (Auburn U), HBT-EP (Columbia), HIT-SI (U Wash-UW), LTX (PPPL), MAST (Culham), Pegasus (U Wisc-Madison), SSX (Swarthmore College), TCSU (UW), and ZaP/ZaP-HD (UW). The PSI-Center is exploring application of validation metrics between experimental data and simulations results. Biorthogonal decomposition (BOD) is used to compare experiments with simulations. BOD separates data sets into spatial and temporal structures, giving greater weight to dominant structures. Several BOD metrics are being formulated with the goal of quantitive validation. Results from these simulation and validation studies, as well as an overview of the PSI-Center status will be presented.

  10. Clinical Validity of the ADI-R in a US-Based Latino Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanegas, Sandra B.; Magaña, Sandra; Morales, Miguel; McNamara, Ellyn

    2016-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) has been validated as a tool to aid in the diagnosis of Autism; however, given the growing diversity in the United States, the ADI-R must be validated for different languages and cultures. This study evaluates the validity of the ADI-R in a US-based Latino, Spanish-speaking population of 50 children…

  11. Clinical Validity of the ADI-R in a US-Based Latino Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanegas, Sandra B.; Magaña, Sandra; Morales, Miguel; McNamara, Ellyn

    2016-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) has been validated as a tool to aid in the diagnosis of Autism; however, given the growing diversity in the United States, the ADI-R must be validated for different languages and cultures. This study evaluates the validity of the ADI-R in a US-based Latino, Spanish-speaking population of 50 children…

  12. External validation and comparison of three prediction tools for risk of osteoporotic fractures using data from population based electronic health records: retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dagan, Noa; Cohen-Stavi, Chandra; Leventer-Roberts, Maya; Balicer, Ran D

    2017-01-19

     To directly compare the performance and externally validate the three most studied prediction tools for osteoporotic fractures-QFracture, FRAX, and Garvan-using data from electronic health records.  Retrospective cohort study.  Payer provider healthcare organisation in Israel.  1 054 815 members aged 50 to 90 years for comparison between tools and cohorts of different age ranges, corresponding to those in each tools' development study, for tool specific external validation.  First diagnosis of a major osteoporotic fracture (for QFracture and FRAX tools) and hip fractures (for all three tools) recorded in electronic health records from 2010 to 2014. Observed fracture rates were compared to probabilities predicted retrospectively as of 2010.  The observed five year hip fracture rate was 2.7% and the rate for major osteoporotic fractures was 7.7%. The areas under the receiver operating curve (AUC) for hip fracture prediction were 82.7% for QFracture, 81.5% for FRAX, and 77.8% for Garvan. For major osteoporotic fractures, AUCs were 71.2% for QFracture and 71.4% for FRAX. All the tools underestimated the fracture risk, but the average observed to predicted ratios and the calibration slopes of FRAX were closest to 1. Tool specific validation analyses yielded hip fracture prediction AUCs of 88.0% for QFracture (among those aged 30-100 years), 81.5% for FRAX (50-90 years), and 71.2% for Garvan (60-95 years).  Both QFracture and FRAX had high discriminatory power for hip fracture prediction, with QFracture performing slightly better. This performance gap was more pronounced in previous studies, likely because of broader age inclusion criteria for QFracture validations. The simpler FRAX performed almost as well as QFracture for hip fracture prediction, and may have advantages if some of the input data required for QFracture are not available. However, both tools require calibration before implementation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  13. External validation and comparison of three prediction tools for risk of osteoporotic fractures using data from population based electronic health records: retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Stavi, Chandra; Leventer-Roberts, Maya; Balicer, Ran D

    2017-01-01

    Objective To directly compare the performance and externally validate the three most studied prediction tools for osteoporotic fractures—QFracture, FRAX, and Garvan—using data from electronic health records. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Payer provider healthcare organisation in Israel. Participants 1 054 815 members aged 50 to 90 years for comparison between tools and cohorts of different age ranges, corresponding to those in each tools’ development study, for tool specific external validation. Main outcome measure First diagnosis of a major osteoporotic fracture (for QFracture and FRAX tools) and hip fractures (for all three tools) recorded in electronic health records from 2010 to 2014. Observed fracture rates were compared to probabilities predicted retrospectively as of 2010. Results The observed five year hip fracture rate was 2.7% and the rate for major osteoporotic fractures was 7.7%. The areas under the receiver operating curve (AUC) for hip fracture prediction were 82.7% for QFracture, 81.5% for FRAX, and 77.8% for Garvan. For major osteoporotic fractures, AUCs were 71.2% for QFracture and 71.4% for FRAX. All the tools underestimated the fracture risk, but the average observed to predicted ratios and the calibration slopes of FRAX were closest to 1. Tool specific validation analyses yielded hip fracture prediction AUCs of 88.0% for QFracture (among those aged 30-100 years), 81.5% for FRAX (50-90 years), and 71.2% for Garvan (60-95 years). Conclusions Both QFracture and FRAX had high discriminatory power for hip fracture prediction, with QFracture performing slightly better. This performance gap was more pronounced in previous studies, likely because of broader age inclusion criteria for QFracture validations. The simpler FRAX performed almost as well as QFracture for hip fracture prediction, and may have advantages if some of the input data required for QFracture are not available. However, both tools require calibration

  14. Validation of IRS PCR, a molecular typing method, for the study of the diversity and population dynamics of Legionella in industrial cooling circuits.

    PubMed

    Jakubek, D; Le Brun, M; Leblon, G; Dubow, M; Binet, M

    2013-02-01

    Legionella bacteria are ubiquitous in aquatic environments. Members of the species Legionella pneumophila are responsible for more than 98% of cases of Legionnaires' disease in France. Our objective was to validate a molecular typing method called infrequent restriction site PCR (IRS PCR), applied to the study of the ecology of Legionella and to compare this method with reference typing methods, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and sequence-based Typing (SBT). PFGE and SBT are considered as gold methods for the epidemiological typing of Leg. pneumophila strains. However, these methods are not suitable to an ecological monitoring of Legionella in natural environments where a large number of strains has to be typed. Validation of IRS PCR method was performed by the identification of 45 Leg. pneumophila isolates from cooling circuits of thermal power plants by IRS PCR, PFGE and SBT. The parameters of each method were measured and compared to evaluate the effectiveness of IRS PCR. The results of this study showed that IRS PCR has a discriminating power similar or better than that of the reference methods and thus that, by its speed and low cost represents an appropriate tool for the study of the ecology of Legionella in cooling circuits.

  15. Population pharmacokinetics of bevacizumab in cancer patients with external validation.

    PubMed

    Han, Kelong; Peyret, Thomas; Marchand, Mathilde; Quartino, Angelica; Gosselin, Nathalie H; Girish, Sandhya; Allison, David E; Jin, Jin

    2016-08-01

    Bevacizumab is approved for various cancers. This analysis aimed to comprehensively evaluate bevacizumab pharmacokinetics and the influence of patient variables on bevacizumab pharmacokinetics. Rich and sparse bevacizumab serum concentrations were collected from Phase I through IV studies in early and metastatic cancers. Bevacizumab was given intravenously as single agent or in combination with chemotherapy for single- and multiple-dose schedules. Model-building used 8943 bevacizumab concentrations from 1792 patients with colon/colorectal, non-small cell lung, kidney, pancreatic, breast, prostate and brain cancer. Bevacizumab doses ranged from 1 to 20 mg/kg given once every 1, 2 or 3 weeks. A two-compartment model best described the data. The population estimates of clearance (CL), central volume of distribution (V1) and half-life for a typical 70-kg patient were 9.01 mL/h, 2.88 L and 19.6 days. CL and V1 increased with body weight and were higher in males than females by 14 and 18 %, respectively. CL decreased with increasing albumin and decreasing alkaline phosphatase. The final model was externally validated using 1670 concentrations from 146 Japanese patients that were not used for model-building. Mean prediction errors were -2.1, 3.1 and 1.0 % for concentrations, CL and V1, respectively, confirming adequate predictive performance. A robust bevacizumab pharmacokinetic model was developed and externally validated, which may be used to simulate bevacizumab exposure to optimize dosing strategies. Asian and non-Asian patients exhibited similar bevacizumab pharmacokinetics. Given the similarity in pharmacokinetics among monoclonal antibodies, this may inform pharmacokinetic studies in different ethnic groups for other therapeutic antibodies.

  16. Critical validation studies of neurofeedback.

    PubMed

    Gruzelier, John; Egner, Tobias

    2005-01-01

    The field of neurofeedback training has proceeded largely without validation. In this article the authors review studies directed at validating sensory motor rhythm, beta and alpha-theta protocols for improving attention, memory, and music performance in healthy participants. Importantly, benefits were demonstrable with cognitive and neurophysiologic measures that were predicted on the basis of regression models of learning to enhance sensory motor rhythm and beta activity. The first evidence of operant control over the alpha-theta ratio is provided, together with remarkable improvements in artistic aspects of music performance equivalent to two class grades in conservatory students. These are initial steps in providing a much needed scientific basis to neurofeedback.

  17. Using the Bayesian Improved Surname Geocoding Method (BISG) to create a working classification of race and ethnicity in a diverse managed care population: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Adjaye-Gbewonyo, Dzifa; Bednarczyk, Robert A; Davis, Robert L; Omer, Saad B

    2014-02-01

    To validate classification of race/ethnicity based on the Bayesian Improved Surname Geocoding method (BISG) and assess variations in validity by gender and age. Secondary data on members of Kaiser Permanente Georgia, an integrated managed care organization, through 2010. For 191,494 members with self-reported race/ethnicity, probabilities for belonging to each of six race/ethnicity categories predicted from the BISG algorithm were used to assign individuals to a race/ethnicity category over a range of cutoffs greater than a probability of 0.50. Overall as well as gender- and age-stratified sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated and used to identify optimal cutoffs for race/ethnicity assignment. The overall cutoffs for assignment that optimized sensitivity and specificity ranged from 0.50 to 0.57 for the four main racial/ethnic categories (White, Black, Asian/Pacific Islander, Hispanic). Corresponding sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV ranged from 64.4 to 81.4 percent, 80.8 to 99.7 percent, 75.0 to 91.6 percent, and 79.4 to 98.0 percent, respectively. Accuracy of assignment was better among males and individuals of 65 years or older. BISG may be useful for classifying race/ethnicity of health plan members when needed for health care studies. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  18. Beverage Intake Assessment Questionnaire: Relative Validity and Repeatability in a Spanish Population with Metabolic Syndrome from the PREDIMED-PLUS Study.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Pêgo, Cíntia; Nissensohn, Mariela; Kavouras, Stavros A; Babio, Nancy; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Martín Águila, Adys; Mauromoustakos, Andy; Álvarez Pérez, Jacqueline; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2016-07-30

    We assess the repeatability and relative validity of a Spanish beverage intake questionnaire for assessing water intake from beverages. The present analysis was performed within the framework of the PREDIMED-PLUS trial. The study participants were adults (aged 55-75) with a BMI ≥27 and <40 kg/m², and at least three components of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). A trained dietitian completed the questionnaire. Participants provided 24-h urine samples, and the volume and urine osmolality were recorded. The repeatability of the baseline measurement at 6 and 1 year was examined by paired Student's t-test comparisons. A total of 160 participants were included in the analysis. The Bland-Altman analysis showed relatively good agreement between total daily fluid intake assessed using the fluid-specific questionnaire, and urine osmolality and 24-h volume with parameter estimates of -0.65 and 0.22, respectively (R² = 0.20; p < 0.001). In the repeatability test, no significant differences were found between neither type of beverage nor total daily fluid intake at 6 months and 1-year assessment, compared to baseline. The proposed fluid-specific assessment questionnaire designed to assess the consumption of water and other beverages in Spanish adult individuals was found to be relatively valid with good repeatability.

  19. Beverage Intake Assessment Questionnaire: Relative Validity and Repeatability in a Spanish Population with Metabolic Syndrome from the PREDIMED-PLUS Study

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-Pêgo, Cíntia; Nissensohn, Mariela; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Babio, Nancy; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Martín Águila, Adys; Mauromoustakos, Andy; Álvarez Pérez, Jacqueline; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    We assess the repeatability and relative validity of a Spanish beverage intake questionnaire for assessing water intake from beverages. The present analysis was performed within the framework of the PREDIMED-PLUS trial. The study participants were adults (aged 55–75) with a BMI ≥27 and <40 kg/m2, and at least three components of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). A trained dietitian completed the questionnaire. Participants provided 24-h urine samples, and the volume and urine osmolality were recorded. The repeatability of the baseline measurement at 6 and 1 year was examined by paired Student’s t-test comparisons. A total of 160 participants were included in the analysis. The Bland–Altman analysis showed relatively good agreement between total daily fluid intake assessed using the fluid-specific questionnaire, and urine osmolality and 24-h volume with parameter estimates of −0.65 and 0.22, respectively (R2 = 0.20; p < 0.001). In the repeatability test, no significant differences were found between neither type of beverage nor total daily fluid intake at 6 months and 1-year assessment, compared to baseline. The proposed fluid-specific assessment questionnaire designed to assess the consumption of water and other beverages in Spanish adult individuals was found to be relatively valid with good repeatability. PMID:27483318

  20. Validation of the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire in 3 year old children of a multi-ethnic Asian population: The GUSTO cohort study.

    PubMed

    Quah, Phaik Ling; Cheung, Yin Bun; Pang, Wei Wei; Toh, Jia Ying; Saw, Seang-Mei; Godfrey, Keith M; Yap, Fabian; Chong, Yap Seng; Mary, Chong Foong-Fong

    2017-02-20

    The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was developed to measure eating behaviors related to obesity risk in children. However, this questionnaire has not been validated for use in South East Asia, where parenting practices are different from those in western countries and child obesity rates are increasing. The aim of this study was to examine the validity of the CEBQ administered to mothers of children aged 3 years in Singapore. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine if the original 35-item, 8-factor model was supported in our cohort. Participants were 636 mother-child dyads (mean (SD) child age = 36.7 (1.6) months), from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) birth cohort in which the mothers were characterized in pregnancy and children were followed up to age 3 years. The CFA showed a poor model fit; RMSEA = 0.072 (PCLOSE<0.001), SRMR = 0.094, CFI = 0.826, and TLI = 0.805. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 35 item, 7-factor structure (factor loadings ≥ 0.35): enjoyment of food, food fussiness, emotional overeating, desire to drink, emotional under eating, satiety responsiveness and slowness in eating. Cronbach's alpha estimates ranged from 0.70 to 0.88 for the 7 subscales. Convergent validity tests via correlation analysis revealed that emotional under eating (r = -0.14), slowness in eating (r = -0.16) and satiety responsiveness (r = -0.11) were negatively correlated with BMI z-score at 3 years, while enjoyment of food (r = 0.12) was positively correlated, p < 0.05. In conclusion, we found a revised 7-factor structure of the CEBQ more appropriate for examining eating behavior in 3 year old children in the Singapore setting. Further replication studies in a separate cohort study are warranted before further use of these factor structures generated.

  1. Considering the Needs of English Language Learner Populations: An Examination of the Population Validity of Reading Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Brooke A.; Klingner, Janette K.

    2014-01-01

    This article synthesizes reading intervention research studies intended for use with struggling or at-risk students to determine which studies adequately address population validity, particularly in regard to the diverse reading needs of English language learners. An extensive search of the professional literature between 2001 and 2010 yielded a…

  2. Considering the Needs of English Language Learner Populations: An Examination of the Population Validity of Reading Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Brooke A.; Klingner, Janette K.

    2014-01-01

    This article synthesizes reading intervention research studies intended for use with struggling or at-risk students to determine which studies adequately address population validity, particularly in regard to the diverse reading needs of English language learners. An extensive search of the professional literature between 2001 and 2010 yielded a…

  3. Validation of the cross-linguistic naming test: a naming test for different cultures? A preliminary study in the Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Gálvez-Lara, Mario; Moriana, Juan Antonio; Vilar-López, Raquel; Fasfous, Ahmed Fayez; Hidalgo-Ruzzante, Natalia; Pérez-García, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Despite the consensus pointing out the importance of cultural variables in neuropsychological assessments, empirical studies within cross-cultural neuropsychology continue to be limited. The Cross-Linguistic Naming Test (CLNT) is a naming test that is supposed to have no influence from cultural variables. The aim of this paper is to determine the psychometric properties of the CLNT and its discriminatory validity (Experiment 1) and to determine the performance of the CLNT in different cultures (Experiment 2). Three groups followed the CLNT in Experiment 1: dementia patients, individuals with subjective memory complaints, and neurologically healthy volunteers. Three groups followed the CLNT in Experiment 2: Colombians, Moroccans, and Spaniards. The results showed that the psychometric properties of the CLNT are appropriate and that this test obtains a high specificity but a low sensitivity. Furthermore, no differences were found in the CLNT among the three cultural groups. The CLNT may be appropriate for the screening of naming impairment in Colombian, Moroccan, and Spanish cultures.

  4. Development and validity of a 3-day smartphone assisted 24-hour recall to assess beverage consumption in a Chinese population: a randomized cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lindsey P; Hua, Jenna; Seto, Edmund; Du, Shufa; Zang, Jiajie; Zou, Shurong; Popkin, Barry M; Mendez, Michelle A

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for diet assessment methods that capture the rapidly changing beverage consumption patterns in China. The objective of this study was to develop a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to improve the quantification of beverage intake amongst young Chinese adults (n=110) and validate, in a small subset (n=34), the extent to which the written record and smartphone-assisted recalls adequately estimated total fluid intake, using 24-hour urine samples. The smartphone-assisted method showed improved validity compared with the written record-assisted method, when comparing reported total fluid intake to total urine volume. However, participants reported consuming fewer beverages on the smartphone-assisted method compared with the written record-assisted method, primarily due to decreased consumption of traditional zero-energy beverages (i.e. water, tea) in the smartphone-assisted method. It is unclear why participants reported fewer beverages in the smartphone-assisted method than the written record -assisted method. One possibility is that participants found the smartphone method too cumbersome, and responded by decreasing beverage intake. These results suggest that smartphone-assisted 24-hour recalls perform comparably but do not appear to substantially improve beverage quantification compared with the current written record-based approach. In addition, we piloted a beverage screener to identify consumers of episodically consumed SSBs. As expected, a substantially higher proportion of consumers reported consuming SSBs on the beverage screener compared with either recall type, suggesting that a beverage screener may be useful in characterizing consumption of episodically consumed beverages in China's dynamic food and beverage landscape.

  5. Development and validity of a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to assess beverage consumption in a Chinese population: a randomized cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lindsey P.; Hua, Jenna; Seto, Edmund; Du, Shufa; Zang, Jiajie; Zou, Shurong; Popkin, Barry M.; Mendez, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for diet assessment methods that capture the rapidly changing beverage consumption patterns in China. The objective of this study was to develop a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to improve the quantification of beverage intake amongst young Chinese adults (n=110) and validate, in a small subset (n=34), the extent to which the written record and smartphone-assisted recalls adequately estimated total fluid intake, using 24-hour urine samples. The smartphone-assisted method showed improved validity compared to the written-assisted method, when comparing reported total fluid intake to total urine volume. However, participants reported consuming fewer beverages on the smartphone-assisted method compared to the written-assisted method, primarily due to decreased consumption of traditional zero-energy beverages (i.e. water, tea) in the smartphone-assisted method. It is unclear why participants reported fewer beverages in the smartphone-assisted method than the written-assisted method. One possibility is that participants found the smartphone method too cumbersome, and responded by decreasing beverage intake. These results suggest that smartphone-assisted 24-hour recalls perform comparably but do not appear to substantially improve beverage quantification compared to the current written record based approach. In addition, we piloted a beverage screener to identify consumers of episodically consumed SSBs. As expected, a substantially higher proportion of consumers reported consuming SSBs on the beverage screener compared to either recall type, suggesting that a beverage screener may be useful in characterizing consumption of episodically consumed beverages in China’s dynamic food and beverage landscape. PMID:25516327

  6. Illness Among Persian Gulf War Veterans: Case Validation Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    case-validation and case - control studies nested within our population-based study, should provide an estimate of the true magnitude of the problem...and occupational and environmental exposures for validated illness in a series of nested case - control studies . Year 2 of 4 the grant has just been

  7. CTF Void Drift Validation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Salko, Robert K.; Gosdin, Chris; Avramova, Maria N.; Gergar, Marcus

    2015-10-26

    This milestone report is a summary of work performed in support of expansion of the validation and verification (V&V) matrix for the thermal-hydraulic subchannel code, CTF. The focus of this study is on validating the void drift modeling capabilities of CTF and verifying the supporting models that impact the void drift phenomenon. CTF uses a simple turbulent-diffusion approximation to model lateral cross-flow due to turbulent mixing and void drift. The void drift component of the model is based on the Lahey and Moody model. The models are a function of two-phase mass, momentum, and energy distribution in the system; therefore, it is necessary to correctly model the ow distribution in rod bundle geometry as a first step to correctly calculating the void distribution due to void drift.

  8. FDDS: A Cross Validation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Judy Parsons

    The Family Drawing Depression Scale (FDDS) was created by Wright and McIntyre to provide a clear and reliable scoring method for the Kinetic Family Drawing as a procedure for detecting depression. A study was conducted to confirm the value of the FDDS as a systematic tool for interpreting family drawings with populations of depressed individuals.…

  9. FDDS: A Cross Validation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Judy Parsons

    The Family Drawing Depression Scale (FDDS) was created by Wright and McIntyre to provide a clear and reliable scoring method for the Kinetic Family Drawing as a procedure for detecting depression. A study was conducted to confirm the value of the FDDS as a systematic tool for interpreting family drawings with populations of depressed individuals.…

  10. Performance of the Framingham and SCORE cardiovascular risk prediction functions in a non-diabetic population of a Spanish health care centre: a validation study

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Lourdes Cañón; Muro, Eloísa Cruces; Herrera, Natalio Díaz; Ochoa, Gerardo Fernández; Hueros, Juan Ignacio Calvo; Buitrago, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Objective To analyse the 10-year performance of the original Framingham coronary risk function and of the SCORE cardiovascular death risk function in a non-diabetic population of 40–65 years of age served by a Spanish healthcare centre. Also, to estimate the percentage of patients who are candidates for antihypertensive and lipid-lowering therapy. Design Longitudinal, observational study of a retrospective cohort followed up for 10 years. Setting Primary care health centre. Patients A total of 608 non-diabetic patients of 40–65 years of age (mean 52.8 years, 56.7% women), without evidence of cardiovascular disease were studied. Main outcome measures Coronary risk at 10 years from the time of their recruitment, using the tables based on the original Framingham function, and of their 10-year risk of fatal cardiovascular disease using the SCORE tables. Results The actual incidence rates of coronary and fatal cardiovascular events were 7.9% and 1.5%, respectively. The original Framingham equation over-predicted risk by 64%, while SCORE function over-predicted risk by 40%, but the SCORE model performed better than the Framingham one for discrimination and calibration statistics. The original Framingham function classified 18.3% of the population as high risk and SCORE 9.2%. The proportions of patients who would be candidates for lipid-lowering therapy were 31.0% and 23.8% according to the original Framingham and SCORE functions, respectively, and 36.8% and 31.2% for antihypertensive therapy. Conclusion The SCORE function showed better values than the original Framingham function for each of the discrimination and calibration statistics. The original Framingham function selected a greater percentage of candidates for antihypertensive and lipid-lowering therapy. PMID:20873973

  11. A Validation Study of Adiponectin rs266729 Gene Variant with Type 2 Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolic Phenotypes in a Taiwanese Population.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Tun-Jen; Lin, Eugene

    2016-12-01

    Previous data suggesting that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs266729, in the adiponectin C1Q and collagen domain containing (ADIPOQ) gene was associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have been inconsistent, especially in Asian populations. In this replication study, we aimed to reassess whether the ADIPOQ rs266729 SNP is associated with T2D, obesity, and T2D/obesity-related metabolic traits in a Taiwanese population. A total of 1047 Taiwanese subjects were analyzed. The ADIPOQ rs266729 SNP was genotyped by the Taqman assay. T2D/obesity-related metabolic traits such as triglyceride, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, and fasting glucose were measured. Our data revealed that the ADIPOQ rs266729 SNP exhibited no association with T2D among the subjects. In addition, no evidence for an association with obesity (BMI ≧27 kg/m(2)) was found for the ADIPOQ rs266729 SNP. Moreover, the ADIPOQ rs266729 SNP did not show any association with T2D/obesity-related metabolic traits among the complete subjects. However, we found an effect modification of obesity on the association between the ADIPOQ rs266729 SNP and total cholesterol (P = 0.00068) only in obese participants after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, and T2D status. Our study indicates that the ADIPOQ rs266729 SNP may influence T2D/obesity-related metabolic traits such as total cholesterol in obese Taiwanese subjects (but not in non-obese subjects).

  12. Identification of Physician-Diagnosed Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementias in Population-Based Administrative Data: A Validation Study Using Family Physicians' Electronic Medical Records.

    PubMed

    Jaakkimainen, R Liisa; Bronskill, Susan E; Tierney, Mary C; Herrmann, Nathan; Green, Diane; Young, Jacqueline; Ivers, Noah; Butt, Debra; Widdifield, Jessica; Tu, Karen

    2016-08-10

    Population-based surveillance of Alzheimer's and related dementias (AD-RD) incidence and prevalence is important for chronic disease management and health system capacity planning. Algorithms based on health administrative data have been successfully developed for many chronic conditions. The increasing use of electronic medical records (EMRs) by family physicians (FPs) provides a novel reference standard by which to evaluate these algorithms as FPs are the first point of contact and providers of ongoing medical care for persons with AD-RD. We used FP EMR data as the reference standard to evaluate the accuracy of population-based health administrative data in identifying older adults with AD-RD over time. This retrospective chart abstraction study used a random sample of EMRs for 3,404 adults over 65 years of age from 83 community-based FPs in Ontario, Canada. AD-RD patients identified in the EMR were used as the reference standard against which algorithms identifying cases of AD-RD in administrative databases were compared. The highest performing algorithm was "one hospitalization code OR (three physician claims codes at least 30 days apart in a two year period) OR a prescription filled for an AD-RD specific medication" with sensitivity 79.3% (confidence interval (CI) 72.9-85.8%), specificity 99.1% (CI 98.8-99.4%), positive predictive value 80.4% (CI 74.0-86.8%), and negative predictive value 99.0% (CI 98.7-99.4%). This resulted in an age- and sex-adjusted incidence of 18.1 per 1,000 persons and adjusted prevalence of 72.0 per 1,000 persons in 2010/11. Algorithms developed from health administrative data are sensitive and specific for identifying older adults with AD-RD.

  13. Validity of Carrea's index in stature estimation among two racial populations in India

    PubMed Central

    Anita, P.; Madankumar, P. D.; Sivasamy, Shyam; Balan, I. Nanda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stature is considered to be one of the “big fours” in forensic anthropology. Though Carrea's Index was published as early as 1920 it has not been validated in any other population apart from the Brazilians. Aim: The present study was conducted to validate Carrea's index in stature estimation in two different racial populations in India. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in a sample of 100 persons comprising of 25 Aryan males, 25 Aryan females, 25 Dravidian males, and 25 Dravidian females in the age group of 18–30 years. The maximum and minimum stature of all individuals was estimated by Carrea's Index. The actual stature was measured by an anthropometer. The estimated stature was compared with the actual stature and percentage of success was calculated. Results: The Carrea's Index was found to be valid in predicting the stature of 80% Dravidian and 84% Aryan males, the difference being statistically insignificant (Fisher Exact test–0.16; P = 0.99). The stature of 76% of females in both Aryan and Dravidian races was successfully predicted by Carrea's index. Regression analysis showed that the minimum estimated height was more valid in estimating the stature of Aryan and Dravidian population. Conclusion: The validity to use Carrea's index in Aryan and Dravidian population was evaluated and found to be valid. PMID:27555731

  14. The reliability and validity of revised Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale (version 3) in a Nigerian population.

    PubMed

    Kolawole, Mosaku S; Olusegun, Ajenifuja Ko

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale in a Nigerian population. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among medical students using the Collett-Lester fear of death questionnaire, demographic variables were also obtained. A total of 175 students completed the questionnaire. Reliability score was good and convergent validity was also good. We concluded that the scale has good validity and reliability score among this population.

  15. Validity and Reliability of the Maslach Burnout Inventory for a Coaching Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemke, Mark A.

    The factorial validity and reliability of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) (C. Maslach and S. Jackson, 1982) for use with coaching populations at educational institutions was investigated. A sample of 199 college basketball coaches served as subjects for the study. The coaches completed a demographic data sheet and a modified version of the…

  16. The Ecological and Population Validity of Reading Interventions for Adolescents: Can Effectiveness Be Generalized?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Deborah K.; McCray Sorrells, Audrey; Cole, Heather A.; Takakawa, Nara N.

    2013-01-01

    This article examined the ecological and population validity of research on reading interventions for adolescents in Grades 6 through 12. The 26 studies meeting selection criteria were analyzed to determine the characteristics of the students, interventionists, classroom structures, and school environments used, as well as whether there were…

  17. The Reliability and Validity of the Social Responsiveness Scale in a UK General Child Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigham, Sarah; McConachie, Helen; Tandos, Jonathan; Le Couteur, Ann S.

    2012-01-01

    This is the first UK study to report the reliability, validity, and factor structure of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in a general population sample. Parents of 500 children (aged 5-8 years) in North East England completed the SRS. Profiles of scores were similar to USA norms, and a single factor structure was identified. Good construct…

  18. Validity of Personal Growth Initiative Scale Scores with a Mexican American College Student Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robitschek, Christine

    2003-01-01

    This study tested the validity of scores on the Personal Growth Initiative Scale (PGIS; C. Robitschek, 1998, 1999) with a Mexican American college student sample. Results indicated that the PGIS scores appear to be culturally relevant for this population, with scores on the PGIS having many similar relations with other variables that have been…

  19. The Reliability and Validity of the Social Responsiveness Scale in a UK General Child Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigham, Sarah; McConachie, Helen; Tandos, Jonathan; Le Couteur, Ann S.

    2012-01-01

    This is the first UK study to report the reliability, validity, and factor structure of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in a general population sample. Parents of 500 children (aged 5-8 years) in North East England completed the SRS. Profiles of scores were similar to USA norms, and a single factor structure was identified. Good construct…

  20. Further Validation of a U.S. Adult Social Self-Efficacy Inventory in Chinese Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Jinyan; Meng, Hui; Zhao, Bihua; Patel, Trishna

    2012-01-01

    The authors report further validity evidence for the Chinese version of a U.S. adult social self-efficacy inventory, the "Perceived Social Self-Efficacy" (PSSE) scale in Chinese populations. Study 1 participants were 323 new graduate students enrolled at a large university in an east coast city of the People's Republic of China. Differential item…

  1. The validity of the distress thermometer in prostate cancer populations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Suzanne K; Zajdlewicz, Leah; Youlden, Danny R; Holland, Jimmie C; Dunn, Jeff

    2014-02-01

    The Distress Thermometer (DT) is widely recommended for screening for distress after cancer. However, the validity of the DT in men with prostate cancer and over differing time points from diagnosis has not been well examined. Receiver operating characteristics analyses were used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the DT compared with three commonly used standardised scales in two prospective and one cross-sectional survey of men with prostate cancer (n = 740, 189 and 463, respectively). Comparison scales included the Impact of Event Scale - Revised (IES-R, Study 1), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, Study 2) and the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18, Study 3). Study 1: the DT showed good accuracy against the IES-R at all time points (area under curves (AUCs) ranging from 0.84 to 0.88) and sensitivity was high (>85%). Study 2: the DT performed well against both the anxiety and depression subscales for HADS at baseline (AUC = 0.84 and 0.82, respectively), but sensitivity decreased substantially after 12 months. Study 3: validity was high for the anxiety (AUC = 0.90, sensitivity = 90%) and depression (AUC = 0.85, sensitivity = 74%) subscales of the BSI-18 but was poorer for somatization (AUC = 0.67, sensitivity = 52%). A DT cut-off between ≥3 and ≥6 maximised sensitivity and specificity across analyses. The DT is a valid tool to detect cancer-specific distress, anxiety and depression among prostate cancer patients, particularly close to diagnosis. A cut-off of ≥4 may be optimal soon after diagnosis, and for longer-term assessments, ≥3 was supported. © 2013 The Authors. Psycho-Oncology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2013 The Authors. Psycho-Oncology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. The validity of the distress thermometer in prostate cancer populations

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Suzanne K; Zajdlewicz, Leah; Youlden, Danny R; Holland, Jimmie C; Dunn, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Background The Distress Thermometer (DT) is widely recommended for screening for distress after cancer. However, the validity of the DT in men with prostate cancer and over differing time points from diagnosis has not been well examined. Method Receiver operating characteristics analyses were used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the DT compared with three commonly used standardised scales in two prospective and one cross-sectional survey of men with prostate cancer (n = 740, 189 and 463, respectively). Comparison scales included the Impact of Event Scale – Revised (IES-R, Study 1), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, Study 2) and the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18, Study 3). Results Study 1: the DT showed good accuracy against the IES-R at all time points (area under curves (AUCs) ranging from 0.84 to 0.88) and sensitivity was high (>85%). Study 2: the DT performed well against both the anxiety and depression subscales for HADS at baseline (AUC = 0.84 and 0.82, respectively), but sensitivity decreased substantially after 12 months. Study 3: validity was high for the anxiety (AUC = 0.90, sensitivity = 90%) and depression (AUC = 0.85, sensitivity = 74%) subscales of the BSI-18 but was poorer for somatization (AUC = 0.67, sensitivity = 52%). A DT cut-off between ≥3 and ≥6 maximised sensitivity and specificity across analyses. Conclusions The DT is a valid tool to detect cancer-specific distress, anxiety and depression among prostate cancer patients, particularly close to diagnosis. A cut-off of ≥4 may be optimal soon after diagnosis, and for longer-term assessments, ≥3 was supported. PMID:24027194

  3. Validity Studies of the Filial Anxiety Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Paul D.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Factor analytic and construct validity studies were conducted to explore the validity of Cicirelli's 13-item Filial Anxiety Scale (FAS). The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale were a part of the investigation. Results offer support for the validity of the FAS subscales and the FAS' usefulness as an…

  4. The 10/66 Dementia Research Group's fully operationalised DSM-IV dementia computerized diagnostic algorithm, compared with the 10/66 dementia algorithm and a clinician diagnosis: a population validation study

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Martin J; de Rodriguez, Juan Llibre; Noriega, L; Lopez, A; Acosta, Daisy; Albanese, Emiliano; Arizaga, Raul; Copeland, John RM; Dewey, Michael; Ferri, Cleusa P; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, KS; Krishnamoorthy, ES; McKeigue, Paul; Sousa, Renata; Stewart, Robert J; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Uwakwa, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Background The criterion for dementia implicit in DSM-IV is widely used in research but not fully operationalised. The 10/66 Dementia Research Group sought to do this using assessments from their one phase dementia diagnostic research interview, and to validate the resulting algorithm in a population-based study in Cuba. Methods The criterion was operationalised as a computerised algorithm, applying clinical principles, based upon the 10/66 cognitive tests, clinical interview and informant reports; the Community Screening Instrument for Dementia, the CERAD 10 word list learning and animal naming tests, the Geriatric Mental State, and the History and Aetiology Schedule – Dementia Diagnosis and Subtype. This was validated in Cuba against a local clinician DSM-IV diagnosis and the 10/66 dementia diagnosis (originally calibrated probabilistically against clinician DSM-IV diagnoses in the 10/66 pilot study). Results The DSM-IV sub-criteria were plausibly distributed among clinically diagnosed dementia cases and controls. The clinician diagnoses agreed better with 10/66 dementia diagnosis than with the more conservative computerized DSM-IV algorithm. The DSM-IV algorithm was particularly likely to miss less severe dementia cases. Those with a 10/66 dementia diagnosis who did not meet the DSM-IV criterion were less cognitively and functionally impaired compared with the DSMIV confirmed cases, but still grossly impaired compared with those free of dementia. Conclusion The DSM-IV criterion, strictly applied, defines a narrow category of unambiguous dementia characterized by marked impairment. It may be specific but incompletely sensitive to clinically relevant cases. The 10/66 dementia diagnosis defines a broader category that may be more sensitive, identifying genuine cases beyond those defined by our DSM-IV algorithm, with relevance to the estimation of the population burden of this disorder. PMID:18577205

  5. Clinical Validity of the ADI-R in a US-Based Latino Population.

    PubMed

    Vanegas, Sandra B; Magaña, Sandra; Morales, Miguel; McNamara, Ellyn

    2016-05-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) has been validated as a tool to aid in the diagnosis of Autism; however, given the growing diversity in the United States, the ADI-R must be validated for different languages and cultures. This study evaluates the validity of the ADI-R in a US-based Latino, Spanish-speaking population of 50 children and adolescents with ASD and developmental disability. Sensitivity and specificity of the ADI-R as a diagnostic tool were moderate, but lower than previously reported values. Validity of the social reciprocity and restrictive and repetitive behaviors domains was high, but low in the communication domain. Findings suggest that language discordance between caregiver and child may influence reporting of communication symptoms and contribute to lower sensitivity and specificity.

  6. Clinical Validity of the ADI-R in a US-Based Latino Population

    PubMed Central

    Vanegas, Sandra B.; Magaña, Sandra; Morales, Miguel; McNamara, Ellyn

    2016-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised has been validated as a tool to aid in the diagnosis of Autism; however, given the growing diversity in the United States, the ADI-R must be validated for different languages and cultures. This study evaluates the validity of the ADI-R in a U.S.-based Latino, Spanish-speaking population of 50 children and adolescents with ASD and developmental disability. Sensitivity and specificity of the ADI-R as a diagnostic tool were moderate, but lower than previously reported values. Validity of the social reciprocity and restrictive and repetitive behaviors domains was high, but low in the communication domain. Findings suggest that language discordance between caregiver and child may influence reporting of communication symptoms and contribute to lower sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26742934

  7. Validation of TICS for detection of dementia and mild cognitive impairment among individuals characterized by low levels of education or illiteracy: a population-based study in rural Greece.

    PubMed

    Georgakis, Marios K; Papadopoulos, Fotios C; Beratis, Ion; Michelakos, Theodoros; Kanavidis, Prodromos; Dafermos, Vasilios; Tousoulis, Dimitrios; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G; Petridou, Eleni Th

    2017-06-01

    The efficacy of the most widely used tests for dementia screening is limited in populations characterized by low levels of education. This study aimed to validate the face-to-face administered Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS) for detection of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in a population-based sample of community dwelling individuals characterized by low levels of education or illiteracy in rural Greece. The translated Greek version of TICS was administered through face-to-face interview in 133 elderly residents of Velestino of low educational level (<12 years). We assessed its internal consistency and test-retest reliability, its correlation with sociodemographic parameters, and its discriminant ability for cognitive impairment and dementia, as defined by a brief neurological evaluation, including assessment of cognitive status and level of independence. TICS was characterized by adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's α: .72) and very high test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient: .93); it was positively correlated with age and educational years. MCI and dementia were diagnosed in 18 and 10.5% of the population, respectively. Its discriminant ability for detection of dementia was high (Area under the curve, AUC: .85), with a sensitivity and specificity of 86 and 82%, respectively, at a cut-off point of 24/25. TICS did not perform well in differentiating MCI from cognitively normal individuals though (AUC: .67). The directly administered TICS questionnaire provides an easily applicable and brief option for detection of dementia in populations of low educational level and might be useful in the context of both clinical and research purposes.

  8. A Translation and Validation Study of the Life Orientation Test Revised in the Greek Speaking Population of Nurses among Three Hospitals in Athens and Ioannina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyrakos, George N.; Damigos, Dimitrios; Mavreas, Venetsanos; Georgia, Kostopanagiotou; Dimoliatis, Ioannis D. K.

    2010-01-01

    The life orientation test-revised (LOT-R) (Scheier et al. in "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology" 67:1063-1078, 1994) is a brief measure for assessing dispositional optimism. The aim of this study was to develop a Greek language version of the LOT-R and to assess the instrument's psychometric properties. The LOT-R was…

  9. A Translation and Validation Study of the Life Orientation Test Revised in the Greek Speaking Population of Nurses among Three Hospitals in Athens and Ioannina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyrakos, George N.; Damigos, Dimitrios; Mavreas, Venetsanos; Georgia, Kostopanagiotou; Dimoliatis, Ioannis D. K.

    2010-01-01

    The life orientation test-revised (LOT-R) (Scheier et al. in "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology" 67:1063-1078, 1994) is a brief measure for assessing dispositional optimism. The aim of this study was to develop a Greek language version of the LOT-R and to assess the instrument's psychometric properties. The LOT-R was…

  10. Colonic transit study by radio-opaque markers to investigate constipation: validation of a new protocol for a population with rapid gut transit.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Uday C; Gupta, Dinesh; Kumar, Ashok; Misra, Asha

    2007-01-01

    Constipation is a common problem, which may be due to slow transit or faecal evacuation disorders. Though the screening test of colonic transit study using radio-opaque markers given at 0, 24 and 48 hours followed by abdominal X-ray at 72 hours is a good protocol in the West, it is not suitable for Indians who have a rapid gut transit. Nine patients with adult Hirschsprung disease, 11 with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction diagnosed using standard investigations and 11 healthy subjects were evaluated by colonic transit study using radio-opaque markers (SGmark), 20 each at O, 12 and 24 hours followed by an abdominal X-ray at 36 and 60 hours. The cut-off was determined by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, and sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and diagnostic accuracy were determined. The total number of markers retained in the abdomen and those in the right segment at 36 hours in patients with Hirschsprung disease and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction was higher than that in healthy subjects though the number in the left and rectosigmoid segments were comparable. The abdominal X-ray at 60 hours, total number of markers and number in all segments were higher in patients with Hirschsprung disease and chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction than in healthy subjects. The best cut-off by ROC curves at 36 and 60 hours was 30 and 14 markers, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, diagnostic accuracy and area under the ROC curve at 36 hours were 90%, 82%, 90%, 82%, 87% and 0.9, respectively; the corresponding values at 60 hours were 95%, 100%, 100%, 92%, 97% and 0.99, respectively. Using the proposed protocol, the colonic transit study is able to distinguish patients with specific motility disorders causing constipation such as Hirschsprung disease and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction from healthy subjects with reasonable sensitivity and specificity, and shows that an

  11. Validation of a physical anthropology methodology using mandibles for gender estimation in a Brazilian population

    PubMed Central

    CARVALHO, Suzana Papile Maciel; BRITO, Liz Magalhães; de PAIVA, Luiz Airton Saavedra; BICUDO, Lucilene Arilho Ribeiro; CROSATO, Edgard Michel; de OLIVEIRA, Rogério Nogueira

    2013-01-01

    Validation studies of physical anthropology methods in the different population groups are extremely important, especially in cases in which the population variations may cause problems in the identification of a native individual by the application of norms developed for different communities. Objective This study aimed to estimate the gender of skeletons by application of the method of Oliveira, et al. (1995), previously used in a population sample from Northeast Brazil. Material and Methods The accuracy of this method was assessed for a population from Southeast Brazil and validated by statistical tests. The method used two mandibular measurements, namely the bigonial distance and the mandibular ramus height. The sample was composed of 66 skulls and the method was applied by two examiners. The results were statistically analyzed by the paired t test, logistic discriminant analysis and logistic regression. Results The results demonstrated that the application of the method of Oliveira, et al. (1995) in this population achieved very different outcomes between genders, with 100% for females and only 11% for males, which may be explained by ethnic differences. However, statistical adjustment of measurement data for the population analyzed allowed accuracy of 76.47% for males and 78.13% for females, with the creation of a new discriminant formula. Conclusion It was concluded that methods involving physical anthropology present high rate of accuracy for human identification, easy application, low cost and simplicity; however, the methodologies must be validated for the different populations due to differences in ethnic patterns, which are directly related to the phenotypic aspects. In this specific case, the method of Oliveira, et al. (1995) presented good accuracy and may be used for gender estimation in Brazil in two geographic regions, namely Northeast and Southeast; however, for other regions of the country (North, Central West and South), previous methodological

  12. Validation of a physical anthropology methodology using mandibles for gender estimation in a Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Suzana Papile Maciel; Brito, Liz Magalhães; Paiva, Luiz Airton Saavedra de; Bicudo, Lucilene Arilho Ribeiro; Crosato, Edgard Michel; Oliveira, Rogério Nogueira de

    2013-01-01

    Validation studies of physical anthropology methods in the different population groups are extremely important, especially in cases in which the population variations may cause problems in the identification of a native individual by the application of norms developed for different communities. This study aimed to estimate the gender of skeletons by application of the method of Oliveira, et al. (1995), previously used in a population sample from Northeast Brazil. The accuracy of this method was assessed for a population from Southeast Brazil and validated by statistical tests. The method used two mandibular measurements, namely the bigonial distance and the mandibular ramus height. The sample was composed of 66 skulls and the method was applied by two examiners. The results were statistically analyzed by the paired t test, logistic discriminant analysis and logistic regression. The results demonstrated that the application of the method of Oliveira, et al. (1995) in this population achieved very different outcomes between genders, with 100% for females and only 11% for males, which may be explained by ethnic differences. However, statistical adjustment of measurement data for the population analyzed allowed accuracy of 76.47% for males and 78.13% for females, with the creation of a new discriminant formula. It was concluded that methods involving physical anthropology present high rate of accuracy for human identification, easy application, low cost and simplicity; however, the methodologies must be validated for the different populations due to differences in ethnic patterns, which are directly related to the phenotypic aspects. In this specific case, the method of Oliveira, et al. (1995) presented good accuracy and may be used for gender estimation in Brazil in two geographic regions, namely Northeast and Southeast; however, for other regions of the country (North, Central West and South), previous methodological adjustment is recommended as demonstrated in this

  13. Illness Among Persian Gulf War Veterans: Case Validation Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    series of case-validation and case - control studies nested within our population-based study, should provide an estimate of the true magnitude of the...series of nested case - control studies . Year 4 has just been completed. Through September 2001, 578 subjects have been assessed, with a participation

  14. Illness Among Persian Gulf War Veterans: Case Validation Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    series of case-validation and case - control studies nested within our population-based study, should provide an estimate of the true magnitude of the...series of nested case - control studies . Year 3 of 4 has just been completed. Through September 2000, 456 subjects have been assessed, with a participation

  15. Prostate cancer gene 3 urine assay cutoff in diagnosis of prostate cancer: a validation study on an Italian patient population undergoing first and repeat biopsy.

    PubMed

    Bollito, Enrico; De Luca, Stefano; Cicilano, Matteo; Passera, Roberto; Grande, Susanna; Maccagnano, Carmen; Cappia, Susanna; Milillo, Angela; Montorsi, Francesco; Scarpa, Roberto Mario; Papotti, Mauro; Randone, Donato Franco

    2012-04-01

    To determine an optimal prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) cutoff in predicting prostate cancer in Italian patients undergoing first or repeat biopsy. In this observational multicenter study 1246 men with elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA) and negative digital rectal examination, with prostate biopsy after PCA3 assessment, were divided into two groups submitted to PCA3 testing before or after previous negative biopsies. Ideal PCA3 cutoff was identified using area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic analysis. Various cutoff values were used to determine the best predictive score. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models compared age, PSA, free-PSA, and PCA3 score to predict prostate cancer. PCA3 cutoff 39-50 had the highest accuracy in the repeat biopsy group in which cutoff of 39 could have avoided 51.9% negative repeat biopsies, eventually missing 7.8% of cancers (all low risk); cutoff of 50 would have prevented 56.5% of negative repeat biopsies, missing 29 tumors (10.3%), 5 potentially aggressive. The PCA3 test performed poorly in the first biopsy group. We confirm the usefulness of PCA3 in Italian men with a previous negative biopsy. We achieved the best performance at a cutoff of 39. PCA3 did not perform better than PSA in non-biopsy-selected men.

  16. The International Study of Wheezing in Infants: questionnaire validation.

    PubMed

    Mallol, Javier; García-Marcos, Luis; Aguirre, Viviana; Martinez-Torres, Antonela; Perez-Fernández, Virginia; Gallardo, Alejandro; Calvo, Mario; Rosario Filho, Nelson; Rocha, Wilson; Fischer, Gilberto; Baeza-Bacab, Manuel; Chiarella, Pascual; Pinto, Rosario; Barria, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    There are no internationally validated questionnaires to investigate the prevalence of infant wheezing. This study was undertaken to validate a questionnaire for the International Study on the Prevalence of Wheezing in Infants (Estudio Internacional de Sibilancias en Lactantes, EISL). Construct and criterion validity were tested for the question 'Has your baby had wheezing or whistling in the chest during his/her first 12 months of life?'. Construct validity (i.e. the ability of parents and doctors to refer to the same symptoms with the same words) was tested in a sample of 50 wheezing and 50 non-wheezy infants 12-15 months of age in each of 10 centres from 6 different Spanish- or Portuguese-speaking countries. Criterion validity (i.e. the ability of parents to correctly detect the symptom in the general population) was evaluated in 2 samples (Santiago, Chile and Cartagena, Spain) of 50 wheezing and 50 non-wheezing infants (according to parents) of the same age, randomly selected from the general population, who were later blindly diagnosed by a paediatric pulmonologist. Construct validity was very high (kappa test: 0.98-1) in all centres. According to Youden's index, criterion validity was good both in Cartagena (75.5%) and in Santiago (67.0%). Adding questions about asthma medication did not improve diagnosis accuracy. The EISL questionnaire significantly distinguished wheezy infants from healthy ones. This questionnaire has a strong validity and can be employed in large international multicentre studies on wheezing during infancy.

  17. Thinking and Creative Styles: A Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Solange Muglia; Vendramini, Claudette Maria Medeiros; Oakland, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The validity evidences of thinking and creative styles were analyzed. Two studies are reported, one analyzing the dimensionality of creative styles and the other verifying their external validity. Participants were Brazilians, 1,752 in the first study (55% women) and 128 in the second study (53% women), among whom 45% had demonstrated creative…

  18. Thinking and Creative Styles: A Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Solange Muglia; Vendramini, Claudette Maria Medeiros; Oakland, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The validity evidences of thinking and creative styles were analyzed. Two studies are reported, one analyzing the dimensionality of creative styles and the other verifying their external validity. Participants were Brazilians, 1,752 in the first study (55% women) and 128 in the second study (53% women), among whom 45% had demonstrated creative…

  19. External validity of post-stroke interventional gait rehabilitation studies.

    PubMed

    Kafri, Michal; Dickstein, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    Gait rehabilitation is a major component of stroke rehabilitation, and is supported by extensive research. The objective of this review was to examine the external validity of intervention studies aimed at improving gait in individuals post-stroke. To that end, two aspects of these studies were assessed: subjects' exclusion criteria and the ecological validity of the intervention, as manifested by the intervention's technological complexity and delivery setting. Additionally, we examined whether the target population as inferred from the titles/abstracts is broader than the population actually represented by the reported samples.

  20. Validation of the King's Sarcoidosis Questionnaire (KSQ) in a Dutch sarcoidosis population.

    PubMed

    Van Manen, Mirjam J G; Wapenaar, Monique; Strookappe, Bert; Drent, Marjolein; Elfferich, Marjon; de Vries, Jolanda; Gosker, Harry R; Birring, Surinder S; Patel, Amit S; van den Toorn, Leon; van den Blink, Bernt; Boomars, Karin; Hoitsma, Elske; Wijsenbeek, Marlies S

    2016-03-29

    The King's Sarcoidosis Questionnaire (KSQ) is a brief questionnaire assessing health status using five modules (General Health Status, Lung, Eyes, Skin, Medication) in patients with sarcoidosis. The KSQ was only validated in one English sarcoidosis cohort. The aim of this study was to validate the KSQ in a Dutch sarcoidosis population. The KSQ was translated according to international guidelines and tested in interviews with patients. Consecutive outpatients completed multiple questionnaires twice, two weeks apart. Construct validity, internal consistency and repeatability were determined. Of the 98 patients included 85 had lung, 22 skin and 24 eye disease. There was good construct validity of the KSQ General Health Status module against the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF questionnaire. The Medication module correlated weak to moderate with most questionnaires. The correlations with organ-specific questionnaires varied from strong for Eyes (r=0.75), Skin (r=-0.62) to moderate for Lung (r=-0.45 with MRC breathlessness scale). Internal consistency was good for all KSQ modules (Cronbach's α 0.72-0.93). Intraclass correlation coefficients (0.70-0.90) and Bland-Altman plots showed good repeatability of the KSQ. The Dutch KSQ is the first translation of the English KSQ, validated in a Dutch sarcoidosis population.

  1. Validation of fibromyalgia survey questionnaire and polysymptomatic distress scale in a Persian population.

    PubMed

    Bidari, Ali; Ghavidel-Parsa, Banafsheh; Amir Maafi, Alireza; Montazeri, Ali; Ghalehbaghi, Babak; Hassankhani, Amir; Aarabi, Yasaman; Haghdoost, Afrooz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess validity of the fibromyalgia survey questionnaire (FSQ) and polysymptomatic distress scale (PSD) in an Iranian population. We also sought to classify the severity levels of fibromyalgia (FM) symptoms according to the PSD scale. Participants were divided into FM and non-FM chronic pain disorder groups according to expert physician diagnosis. Patients in both groups answered to Persian-translated version of FSQ, fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ) and Short-Form-12 (SF-12). Both 1990 ACR criteria and FSDC were assessed in participates of two groups. Internal consistency and construct validity were evaluated. There was good internal consistency measured by Cronbach's alpha (0.814 for FSQ). FSQ and its subscales correlated significantly with FIQ scores and SF-12 subscales, indicating acceptable construct validity. The concordance rates of FSQ with 1990 ACR criteria and expert diagnosis were 61.2 and 75.7, respectively (convergence validity). The mean score of PSD and its components in FM group were significantly more than in control groups (discriminative validity). Using lower PSD score cutoff (≥8.5) for the diagnosis of fibromyalgia appeared to be the most effective approach in our population. ROC analysis of the PSD scores revealed 8.5-11.5, 11.5-15 and more than 15, respectively, as a mild, moderate and severe FM. Persian version of FSQ was a valid instrument for application in survey research among Iranian patients with chronic pain disorders. The current study revealed that PSD could be used as a valid tool for assessment of symptoms intensity regardless of fibromyalgia diagnosis.

  2. Archaeological evidence of validity of fish populations on unexploited reefs as proxy targets for modern populations.

    PubMed

    Longenecker, Ken; Chan, Yvonne L; Toonen, Robert J; Carlon, David B; Hunt, Terry L; Friedlander, Alan M; Demartini, Edward E

    2014-10-01

    Reef-fish management and conservation is hindered by a lack of information on fish populations prior to large-scale contemporary human impacts. As a result, relatively pristine sites are often used as conservation baselines for populations near sites affected by humans. This space-for-time approach can only be validated by sampling assemblages through time. We used archaeological remains to evaluate whether the remote, uninhabited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) might provide a reasonable proxy for a lightly exploited baseline in the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI). We used molecular and morphological techniques to describe the taxonomic and size composition of the scarine parrotfish catches present in 2 archaeological assemblages from the MHI, compared metrics of these catches with modern estimates of reproductive parameters to evaluate whether catches represented by the archaeological material were consistent with sustainable fishing, and evaluated overlap between size structures represented by the archaeological material and modern survey data from the MHI and the NWHI to assess whether a space-for-time substitution is reasonable. The parrotfish catches represented by archaeological remains were consistent with sustainable fishing because they were dominated by large, mature individuals whose average size remained stable from prehistoric (AD approximately 1400-1700) through historic (AD 1700-1960) periods. The ancient catches were unlike populations in the MHI today. Overlap between the size structure of ancient MHI catches and modern survey data from the NWHI or the MHI was an order of magnitude greater for the NWHI comparison, a result that supports the validity of using the NWHI parrotfish data as a proxy for the MHI before accelerated, heavy human impacts in modern times. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Validation and standardization of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Screener (GAD-7) in the general population.

    PubMed

    Löwe, Bernd; Decker, Oliver; Müller, Stefanie; Brähler, Elmar; Schellberg, Dieter; Herzog, Wolfgang; Herzberg, Philipp Yorck

    2008-03-01

    The 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) is a practical self-report anxiety questionnaire that proved valid in primary care. However, the GAD-7 was not yet validated in the general population and thus far, normative data are not available. To investigate reliability, construct validity, and factorial validity of the GAD-7 in the general population and to generate normative data. Nationally representative face-to-face household survey conducted in Germany between May 5 and June 8, 2006. Five thousand thirty subjects (53.6% female) with a mean age (SD) of 48.4 (18.0) years. The survey questionnaire included the GAD-7, the 2-item depression module from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and demographic characteristics. Confirmatory factor analyses substantiated the 1-dimensional structure of the GAD-7 and its factorial invariance for gender and age. Internal consistency was identical across all subgroups (alpha = 0.89). Intercorrelations with the PHQ-2 and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were r = 0.64 (P < 0.001) and r = -0.43 (P < 0.001), respectively. As expected, women had significantly higher mean (SD) GAD-7 anxiety scores compared with men [3.2 (3.5) vs. 2.7 (3.2); P < 0.001]. Normative data for the GAD-7 were generated for both genders and different age levels. Approximately 5% of subjects had GAD-7 scores of 10 or greater, and 1% had GAD-7 scores of 15 or greater. Evidence supports reliability and validity of the GAD-7 as a measure of anxiety in the general population. The normative data provided in this study can be used to compare a subject's GAD-7 score with those determined from a general population reference group.

  4. SNPs in stress-responsive rice genes: validation, genotyping, functional relevance and population structure

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) validation and large-scale genotyping are required to maximize the use of DNA sequence variation and determine the functional relevance of candidate genes for complex stress tolerance traits through genetic association in rice. We used the bead array platform-based Illumina GoldenGate assay to validate and genotype SNPs in a select set of stress-responsive genes to understand their functional relevance and study the population structure in rice. Results Of the 384 putative SNPs assayed, we successfully validated and genotyped 362 (94.3%). Of these 325 (84.6%) showed polymorphism among the 91 rice genotypes examined. Physical distribution, degree of allele sharing, admixtures and introgression, and amino acid replacement of SNPs in 263 abiotic and 62 biotic stress-responsive genes provided clues for identification and targeted mapping of trait-associated genomic regions. We assessed the functional and adaptive significance of validated SNPs in a set of contrasting drought tolerant upland and sensitive lowland rice genotypes by correlating their allelic variation with amino acid sequence alterations in catalytic domains and three-dimensional secondary protein structure encoded by stress-responsive genes. We found a strong genetic association among SNPs in the nine stress-responsive genes with upland and lowland ecological adaptation. Higher nucleotide diversity was observed in indica accessions compared with other rice sub-populations based on different population genetic parameters. The inferred ancestry of 16% among rice genotypes was derived from admixed populations with the maximum between upland aus and wild Oryza species. Conclusions SNPs validated in biotic and abiotic stress-responsive rice genes can be used in association analyses to identify candidate genes and develop functional markers for stress tolerance in rice. PMID:22921105

  5. Cable SGEMP Code Validation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, William Parker

    2013-05-01

    This report compared data taken on the Modular Bremsstrahlung Simulator using copper jacketed (cujac) cables with calculations using the RHSD-RA Cable SGEMP analysis tool. The tool relies on CEPXS/ONBFP to perform radiation transport in a series of 1D slices through the cable, and then uses a Green function technique to evaluate the expected current drive on the center conductor. The data were obtained in 2003 as part of a Cabana verification and validation experiment using 1-D geometries, but were not evaluated until now. The agreement between data and model is not adequate unless gaps between the dielectric and outer conductor (ground) are assumed, and these gaps are large compared with what is believed to be in the actual cable.

  6. Relative validation of a food frequency questionnaire to estimate food intake in an adult population

    PubMed Central

    Steinemann, Nina; Grize, Leticia; Ziesemer, Katrin; Kauf, Peter; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Brombach, Christine

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Scientifically valid descriptions of dietary intake at population level are crucial for investigating diet effects on health and disease. Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are the most common dietary tools used in large epidemiological studies. Objective: To examine the relative validity of a newly developed FFQ to be used as dietary assessment tool in epidemiological studies. Design: Validity was evaluated by comparing the FFQ and a 4-day weighed food record (4-d FR) at nutrient and food group levels, Spearman’s correlations, Bland–Altman analysis and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used. Fifty-six participants completed a paper format FFQ and a 4-d FR within 4 weeks. Results: Corrected correlations between the two instruments ranged from 0.27 (carbohydrates) to 0.55 (protein), and at food group level from 0.09 (soup) to 0.92 (alcohol). Nine out of 25 food groups showed correlations > 0.5, indicating moderate validity. More than half the food groups were overestimated in the FFQ, especially vegetables (82.8%) and fruits (56.3%). Water, tea and coffee were underestimated (–14.0%). Conclusions: The FFQ showed moderate relative validity for protein and the food groups fruits, egg, meat, sausage, nuts, salty snacks and beverages. This study supports the use of the FFQ as an acceptable tool for assessing nutrition as a health determinant in large epidemiological studies. PMID:28469546

  7. A Validation Study of Cognitively Experienced Communication Apprehension Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Michael Joseph

    This study develops a self-report inventory of public speaking apprehension that establishes measures of content, construct, and predictive validity. An item pool was generated by students that were anxious about giving speeches, and the resulting instrument was then administered to the general student population and factor analyzed. Each factor…

  8. Validation of the Regicor Short Physical Activity Questionnaire for the Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Luis; Sarmiento, Manuel; Peñafiel, Judith; Donaire, David; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Gomez, Miquel; Ble, Mireia; Ruiz, Sonia; Frances, Albert; Schröder, Helmut; Marrugat, Jaume; Elosua, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate a short questionnaire to estimate physical activity (PA) practice and sedentary behavior for the adult population. Methods The short questionnaire was developed using data from a cross-sectional population-based survey (n = 6352) that included the Minnesota leisure-time PA questionnaire. Activities that explained a significant proportion of the variability of population PA practice were identified. Validation of the short questionnaire included a cross-sectional component to assess validity with respect to the data collected by accelerometers and a longitudinal component to assess reliability and sensitivity to detect changes (n = 114, aged 35 to 74 years). Results Six types of activities that accounted for 87% of population variability in PA estimated with the Minnesota questionnaire were selected. The short questionnaire estimates energy expenditure in total PA and by intensity (light, moderate, vigorous), and includes 2 questions about sedentary behavior and a question about occupational PA. The short questionnaire showed high reliability, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging between 0.79 to 0.95. The Spearman correlation coefficients between estimated energy expenditure obtained with the questionnaire and the number of steps detected by the accelerometer were as follows: 0.36 for total PA, 0.40 for moderate intensity, and 0.26 for vigorous intensity. The questionnaire was sensitive to detect changes in moderate and vigorous PA (correlation coefficients ranging from 0.26 to 0.34). Conclusion The REGICOR short questionnaire is reliable, valid, and sensitive to detect changes in moderate and vigorous PA. This questionnaire could be used in daily clinical practice and epidemiological studies. PMID:28085886

  9. Reliability and validity of data obtained from alcohol, cannabis, and gambling populations on Amazon's Mechanical Turk.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoun S; Hodgins, David C

    2017-02-01

    Researchers recently have begun using Mechanical Turk (MTurk), an online crowdsourcing platform, to recruit addiction populations. However, whether the data obtained from substance users and gamblers on MTurk are reliable and valid is unknown. Herein, we assessed the internal and retest reliability of and concurrent and convergent validity of data obtained from addiction populations on MTurk. Current drinkers (N = 208), cannabis users (N = 200), and gamblers (N = 200) residing in the United States completed measures of alcohol, cannabis, and gambling severity, psychological constructs (e.g., impulsivity) related to addictions, overt and subtle measures of valid responding, and motivations for completing MTurk studies. Of the original sample, 88-92% of participants who provided informed consent for recontact completed a reassessment 1 week later. The internal consistency of the addiction severity measures ranged from α = .75 to .93. The stability over 1 week ranged from κ = .57 to .70 for categorical classification, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = .71 to .86 for continuous measures. The addiction measures were significantly correlated with each other and with other constructs related to addictive behaviors. Overall, 80-85% of participants provided valid responses. They reported attending and answering questions honestly, with financial motives being the most frequently endorsed motivation. After invalid responses were excluded, results remained the same for alcohol and gambling, but significant differences emerged for the cannabis sample. The results suggest that the self-report data obtained from alcohol and gambling populations are of high quality, however, caution is warranted with cannabis populations. MTurk shows promise as a recruitment tool for some addictive behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Validation of the Regicor Short Physical Activity Questionnaire for the Adult Population.

    PubMed

    Molina, Luis; Sarmiento, Manuel; Peñafiel, Judith; Donaire, David; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Gomez, Miquel; Ble, Mireia; Ruiz, Sonia; Frances, Albert; Schröder, Helmut; Marrugat, Jaume; Elosua, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    To develop and validate a short questionnaire to estimate physical activity (PA) practice and sedentary behavior for the adult population. The short questionnaire was developed using data from a cross-sectional population-based survey (n = 6352) that included the Minnesota leisure-time PA questionnaire. Activities that explained a significant proportion of the variability of population PA practice were identified. Validation of the short questionnaire included a cross-sectional component to assess validity with respect to the data collected by accelerometers and a longitudinal component to assess reliability and sensitivity to detect changes (n = 114, aged 35 to 74 years). Six types of activities that accounted for 87% of population variability in PA estimated with the Minnesota questionnaire were selected. The short questionnaire estimates energy expenditure in total PA and by intensity (light, moderate, vigorous), and includes 2 questions about sedentary behavior and a question about occupational PA. The short questionnaire showed high reliability, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging between 0.79 to 0.95. The Spearman correlation coefficients between estimated energy expenditure obtained with the questionnaire and the number of steps detected by the accelerometer were as follows: 0.36 for total PA, 0.40 for moderate intensity, and 0.26 for vigorous intensity. The questionnaire was sensitive to detect changes in moderate and vigorous PA (correlation coefficients ranging from 0.26 to 0.34). The REGICOR short questionnaire is reliable, valid, and sensitive to detect changes in moderate and vigorous PA. This questionnaire could be used in daily clinical practice and epidemiological studies.

  11. Venous Thrombosis Risk after Cast Immobilization of the Lower Extremity: Derivation and Validation of a Clinical Prediction Score, L-TRiP(cast), in Three Population-Based Case-Control Studies.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Banne; van Adrichem, Raymond A; van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid; Bucciarelli, Paolo; Martinelli, Ida; Baglin, Trevor; Rosendaal, Frits R; le Cessie, Saskia; Cannegieter, Suzanne C

    2015-11-01

    Guidelines and clinical practice vary considerably with respect to thrombosis prophylaxis during plaster cast immobilization of the lower extremity. Identifying patients at high risk for the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE) would provide a basis for considering individual thromboprophylaxis use and planning treatment studies. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the predictive value of genetic and environmental risk factors, levels of coagulation factors, and other biomarkers for the occurrence of VTE after cast immobilization of the lower extremity and (2) to develop a clinical prediction tool for the prediction of VTE in plaster cast patients. We used data from a large population-based case-control study (MEGA study, 4,446 cases with VTE, 6,118 controls without) designed to identify risk factors for a first VTE. Cases were recruited from six anticoagulation clinics in the Netherlands between 1999 and 2004; controls were their partners or individuals identified via random digit dialing. Identification of predictor variables to be included in the model was based on reported associations in the literature or on a relative risk (odds ratio) > 1.2 and p ≤ 0.25 in the univariate analysis of all participants. Using multivariate logistic regression, a full prediction model was created. In addition to the full model (all variables), a restricted model (minimum number of predictors with a maximum predictive value) and a clinical model (environmental risk factors only, no blood draw or assays required) were created. To determine the discriminatory power in patients with cast immobilization (n = 230), the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated by means of a receiver operating characteristic. Validation was performed in two other case-control studies of the etiology of VTE: (1) the THE-VTE study, a two-center, population-based case-control study (conducted in Leiden, the Netherlands, and Cambridge, United Kingdom) with 784 cases and 523 controls

  12. Venous Thrombosis Risk after Cast Immobilization of the Lower Extremity: Derivation and Validation of a Clinical Prediction Score, L-TRiP(cast), in Three Population-Based Case–Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, Banne; van Adrichem, Raymond A.; van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid; Bucciarelli, Paolo; Martinelli, Ida; Baglin, Trevor; Rosendaal, Frits R.; le Cessie, Saskia; Cannegieter, Suzanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Guidelines and clinical practice vary considerably with respect to thrombosis prophylaxis during plaster cast immobilization of the lower extremity. Identifying patients at high risk for the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE) would provide a basis for considering individual thromboprophylaxis use and planning treatment studies. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the predictive value of genetic and environmental risk factors, levels of coagulation factors, and other biomarkers for the occurrence of VTE after cast immobilization of the lower extremity and (2) to develop a clinical prediction tool for the prediction of VTE in plaster cast patients. Methods and Findings We used data from a large population-based case–control study (MEGA study, 4,446 cases with VTE, 6,118 controls without) designed to identify risk factors for a first VTE. Cases were recruited from six anticoagulation clinics in the Netherlands between 1999 and 2004; controls were their partners or individuals identified via random digit dialing. Identification of predictor variables to be included in the model was based on reported associations in the literature or on a relative risk (odds ratio) > 1.2 and p ≤ 0.25 in the univariate analysis of all participants. Using multivariate logistic regression, a full prediction model was created. In addition to the full model (all variables), a restricted model (minimum number of predictors with a maximum predictive value) and a clinical model (environmental risk factors only, no blood draw or assays required) were created. To determine the discriminatory power in patients with cast immobilization (n = 230), the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated by means of a receiver operating characteristic. Validation was performed in two other case–control studies of the etiology of VTE: (1) the THE-VTE study, a two-center, population-based case–control study (conducted in Leiden, the Netherlands, and Cambridge, United Kingdom

  13. Validation of the autism spectrum screening questionnaire in a total population sample.

    PubMed

    Posserud, Maj-Britt; Lundervold, Astri J; Gillberg, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    There is a lack of instruments validated for screening of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in general populations and primary care settings. The Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) has previously been shown to have good screening properties in clinical settings. We used the ASSQ to screen a total population of 7-9 year-olds (N = 9430) for ASD in the Bergen Child Study. Parents and teachers filled in the ASSQ, and high-scorers were invited for clinical assessment, along with a large group of screen negative children. We found that the ASSQ was well suited as a general population screen. Combining parent and teacher ASSQ and using cut-off score of > or =17 provided the most efficient screen with sensitivity of 0.91 and specificity of 0.86.

  14. Simulators' validation study: Problem solution logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoultz, M. B.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to validate the ground based simulators used for aircraft environment in ride-quality research. The logic to the approach for solving this problem is developed. The overall problem solution flow chart is presented. The factors which could influence the human response to the environment on board the aircraft are analyzed. The mathematical models used in the study are explained. The steps which were followed in conducting the validation tests are outlined.

  15. Development and Validation of the Body Size Scale for Assessing Body Weight Perception in African Populations

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Emmanuel; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Ponty, Amandine; Ndao, Amadou; Amougou, Norbert; Saïd-Mohamed, Rihlat; Pasquet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background The social valorisation of overweight in African populations could promote high-risk eating behaviours and therefore become a risk factor of obesity. However, existing scales to assess body image are usually not accurate enough to allow comparative studies of body weight perception in different African populations. This study aimed to develop and validate the Body Size Scale (BSS) to estimate African body weight perception. Methods Anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 Senegalese were used to evaluate three criteria of adiposity: body mass index (BMI), overall percentage of fat, and endomorphy (fat component of the somatotype). To develop the BSS, the participants were photographed in full face and profile positions. Models were selected for their representativeness of the wide variability in adiposity with a progressive increase along the scale. Then, for the validation protocol, participants self-administered the BSS to assess self-perceived current body size (CBS), desired body size (DBS) and provide a “body self-satisfaction index.” This protocol included construct validity, test-retest reliability and convergent validity and was carried out with three independent samples of respectively 201, 103 and 1115 Cameroonians. Results The BSS comprises two sex-specific scales of photos of 9 models each, and ordered by increasing adiposity. Most participants were able to correctly order the BSS by increasing adiposity, using three different words to define body size. Test-retest reliability was consistent in estimating CBS, DBS and the “body self-satisfaction index.” The CBS was highly correlated to the objective BMI, and two different indexes assessed with the BSS were consistent with declarations obtained in interviews. Conclusion The BSS is the first scale with photos of real African models taken in both full face and profile and representing a wide and representative variability in adiposity. The validation protocol proved its

  16. Validation of Computerized Cognitive Assessment in Cross-Cultural Populations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    equation modeling . Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 22S, S63-S77. Vincent A.S., Roebuck-Spencer T, Gilliland K, Schlegel R. (2012). Automated...Short, P., Cernich, A., Wilken, J.A., & Kane, R.L. (2007). Initial construct validation of frequently employed ANAM measures through structural

  17. Validation of dental impact on daily living questionnaire among tribal population of India

    PubMed Central

    Deepan Kumar, C. V.; Mohamed, Shamaz; Janakiram, Chandrashekar; Joseph, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral conditions are known to affect various aspects of quality of life. Similarly, the social consequence of the quality of life in the day to day living is also equally important. Several studies have quantified the social consequences of diseases through activity limitations in people's daily living. The instruments which cover a broad spectrum of life are proposed to be compared with the clinical oral hygiene status of people from different social classes. Aim: To assess the validity of dental impact on daily living (DIDL) questionnaire measuring subjective dental problems and their impact in the day to day life among tribes of Wayanad. Study Design: Cross-sectional. Materials and Methods: DIDL questionnaire developed by Leao and Sheiham was used. We recorded the clinical oral health status using decayed, missing, filled, simplified oral hygiene index, and community periodontal index indices, to correlate the subjective findings of dental impact tribe to obtain construct validity of the questionnaire. Analysis: Descriptive statistics and Spearman's correlation using IBM SPSS software version 20. Results: In the study population of 250 participants, the majority of the participants were from the age group between 36 and 50 years (40%) and females were in the majority (64%). The clinical status of the participants was poor in the majority while their perceived impact in their day to day living was found to be relatively satisfied. The study results show the DIDL tool had weak validity in relation to the clinical status with relevance to the social status of Indian tribal population. Conclusion: The study result shows that there was insignificant and weak validity between the DIDL tool and the oral health status among these tribes who were from a low social class. This might be because their priority in life which is different from what a person from high social class. So the dental problem is ignored at the level of individual depending on his

  18. Validation of an instrument to evaluate quality of life in the aging population: WHOQOL-AGE

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a need for short, specific instruments that assess quality of life (QOL) adequately in the older adult population. The aims of the present study were to obtain evidence on the validity of the inferences that could be drawn from an instrument to measure QOL in the aging population (people 50+ years old), and to test its psychometric properties. Methods The instrument, WHOQOL-AGE, comprised 13 positive items, assessed on a five-point rating scale, and was administered to nationally representative samples (n = 9987) from Finland, Poland, and Spain. Cronbach’s alpha was employed to assess internal consistency reliability, whereas the validity of the questionnaire was assessed by means of factor analysis, graded response model, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and unpaired t-test. Normative values were calculated across countries and for different age groups. Results The satisfactory goodness-of-fit indices confirmed that the factorial structure of WHOQOL-AGE comprises two first-order factors. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.88 for factor 1, and 0.84 for factor 2. Evidence supporting a global score was found with a second-order factor model, according to the goodness-of-fit indices: CFI = 0.93, TLI = 0.91, RMSEA = 0.073. Convergent validity was estimated at r = 0.75 and adequate discriminant validity was also found. Significant differences were found between healthy individuals (74.19 ± 13.21) and individuals with at least one chronic condition (64.29 ± 16.29), supporting adequate known-groups validity. Conclusions WHOQOL-AGE has shown good psychometric properties in Finland, Poland, and Spain. Therefore, considerable support is provided to using the WHOQOL-AGE to measure QOL in older adults in these countries, and to compare the QOL of older and younger adults. PMID:24152691

  19. Code Validation Study for Base Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ascoli, Edward P.; Heiba, Adel H.; Lagnado, Ronald R.; Ungewitter, Ronald J.; Williams, Morgan

    1993-01-01

    New and old rocket launch concepts recommend the clustering of motors for improved lift capability. The flowfield of the base region of the rocket is very complex and can contain high temperature plume gases. These hot gases can cause catastrophic problems if not adequately designed for. To assess the base region characteristics, advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is being used. As a precursor to these calculations the CFD code requires validation on base flows. The primary objective of this code validation study was to establish a high level of confidence in predicting base flows with the USA CFD code. USA has been extensively validated for fundamental flows and other applications. However, base heating flows have a number of unique characteristics so it was necessary to extend the existing validation for this class of problems. In preparation for the planned NLS 1.5 Stage base heating analysis, six case sets were studied to extend the USA code validation data base. This presentation gives a cursive review of three of these cases. The cases presented include a 2D axi-symmetric study, a 3D real nozzle study, and a 3D multi-species study. The results of all the studies show good general agreement with data with no adjustments to the base numerical algorithms or physical models in the code. The study proved the capability of the USA code for modeling base flows within the accuracy of available data.

  20. Code validation study for base flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascoli, Edward P.; Heiba, Adel H.; Lagnado, Ronald R.; Ungewitter, Ronald J.; Williams, Morgan

    1993-07-01

    New and old rocket launch concepts recommend the clustering of motors for improved lift capability. The flowfield of the base region of the rocket is very complex and can contain high temperature plume gases. These hot gases can cause catastrophic problems if not adequately designed for. To assess the base region characteristics, advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is being used. As a precursor to these calculations the CFD code requires validation on base flows. The primary objective of this code validation study was to establish a high level of confidence in predicting base flows with the USA CFD code. USA has been extensively validated for fundamental flows and other applications. However, base heating flows have a number of unique characteristics so it was necessary to extend the existing validation for this class of problems. In preparation for the planned NLS 1.5 Stage base heating analysis, six case sets were studied to extend the USA code validation data base. This presentation gives a cursive review of three of these cases. The cases presented include a 2D axi-symmetric study, a 3D real nozzle study, and a 3D multi-species study. The results of all the studies show good general agreement with data with no adjustments to the base numerical algorithms or physical models in the code. The study proved the capability of the USA code for modeling base flows within the accuracy of available data.

  1. Validating a screening tool for mental health and substance use risk in an Indigenous prison population.

    PubMed

    Ober, Coralie; Dingle, Kaeleen; Clavarino, Alexandra; Najman, Jake M; Alati, Rosa; Heffernan, Edward B

    2013-11-01

    The Indigenous Risk Impact Screen (IRIS) is a validated culturally appropriate and widely used tool in the community for assessing substance use and mental disorder. This research aimed to assess the utility of this tool in an Indigenous prison population. The study used data collected from a cross-sectional study of mental health among Indigenous inmates in Queensland custodial centres (n = 395, 84% male). Participants were administered a modified version of the IRIS and International Classification of Diseases-10 diagnoses of substance use, depressive and anxiety disorders obtained using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The concurrent validity of the modified IRIS was assessed against those of the CIDI. Three hundred and twelve people screened as high risk for a substance use disorder and 179 were high risk for mental problems. There were 73% of males and 88% of females diagnosed with a mental disorder. The IRIS was an effective screener for substance use disorders, with high sensitivity of 94% and low specificity of 33%. The screener was less effective in identifying depression (sensitivity 82%, specificity 59%) and anxiety (sensitivity 68%, specificity 60%). The IRIS is the first culturally appropriate screening instrument to be validated for the risk of drug and alcohol and mental disorder among Indigenous adults in custody. This study demonstrated that the IRIS is a valid tool for screening of alcohol and drug use risk among an incarcerated Indigenous population. The IRIS could offer an opportunity to improve the identification, treatment and health outcomes for incarcerated Indigenous adults. © 2013 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  2. Validation of a modified Hindi version of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale among a North Indian population.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Geetika; Shukla, Garima; Pandey, Ravindra M; Gupta, Anupama; Afsar, Mohammed; Goyal, Vinay; Srivastava, Achal; Behari, Madhuri

    2016-01-01

    Since a majority of population in India does not drive automobiles, one item on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) requires modification and validation. In addition, data collected by us indicated that a majority of rural and urban Indians regularly spend time in prayer/spiritual activity. The main purpose of this study was to develop a cross-cultural adaptation of the ESS for a North Indian population, in Hindi language (ESS-I). The study also provides evidence of reliability and validity of the modified version. The subjects included were normal volunteers aged 18-75 years (Group 1) (n = 70), compared with patients with complaints of excessive daytime sleepiness, who had undergone polysomnography (Group 2) (n = 22) and patients who had undergone multiple sleep latency test (Group 3) (n = 10). The study was carried out in four phases: Translation and retranslation of the original scale with modification of item 8 (mainly addition of option of question on "while offering prayers or in spiritual activity"); reliability (test-retest) (n = 30); internal consistency (using Cronbach's alpha index) (n = 102); and sensitivity to change (n = 8). Group 1 showed spiritual activity as a significantly more commonly practiced activity than driving. The Cronbach's alpha for the modified version was 0.892 (excellent), and this was not improved by removing the modified item. The alpha value for Group 1 versus Groups 2 and 3 was 0.667 and 0.892, respectively. The scale was reliable over time (test-retest), and it was sensitive to sleepiness change in patients with obstructive sleep apnea during treatment. The ESS-I, is comparable to the original scale. It is reliable, valid, and change-sensitive. It is proposed that the modified version can be very useful for detecting sleepiness among Indian population, especially those who do not drive their own vehicles.

  3. Validation of a modified Hindi version of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale among a North Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Geetika; Shukla, Garima; Pandey, Ravindra M.; Gupta, Anupama; Afsar, Mohammed; Goyal, Vinay; Srivastava, Achal; Behari, Madhuri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Since a majority of population in India does not drive automobiles, one item on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) requires modification and validation. In addition, data collected by us indicated that a majority of rural and urban Indians regularly spend time in prayer/spiritual activity. The main purpose of this study was to develop a cross-cultural adaptation of the ESS for a North Indian population, in Hindi language (ESS-I). The study also provides evidence of reliability and validity of the modified version. Methodology: The subjects included were normal volunteers aged 18–75 years (Group 1) (n = 70), compared with patients with complaints of excessive daytime sleepiness, who had undergone polysomnography (Group 2) (n = 22) and patients who had undergone multiple sleep latency test (Group 3) (n = 10). The study was carried out in four phases: Translation and retranslation of the original scale with modification of item 8 (mainly addition of option of question on “while offering prayers or in spiritual activity”); reliability (test–retest) (n = 30); internal consistency (using Cronbach's alpha index) (n = 102); and sensitivity to change (n = 8). Results: Group 1 showed spiritual activity as a significantly more commonly practiced activity than driving. The Cronbach's alpha for the modified version was 0.892 (excellent), and this was not improved by removing the modified item. The alpha value for Group 1 versus Groups 2 and 3 was 0.667 and 0.892, respectively. The scale was reliable over time (test–retest), and it was sensitive to sleepiness change in patients with obstructive sleep apnea during treatment. Conclusion: The ESS-I, is comparable to the original scale. It is reliable, valid, and change-sensitive. It is proposed that the modified version can be very useful for detecting sleepiness among Indian population, especially those who do not drive their own vehicles. PMID:27994361

  4. Non response, incomplete and inconsistent responses to self-administered health-related quality of life measures in the general population: patterns, determinants and impact on the validity of estimates — a population-based study in France using the MOS SF-36

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures are increasingly used in the general population. However, little is known about patterns and determinants of unanswered or unusable questionnaires and their consequences on estimates of HRQoL. Methods The 2003 Decennial Health Survey collected socio-demographic and health information, including HRQoL, for 30,782 adults representative of the French population. The pattern, determinants and impact on estimate validity of non, incomplete and inconsistent responses to the SF-36 questionnaire were determined. For this, phi coefficients, polytomous logistic regression models and multiple imputation methods were used. Results Only 48% of the subjects eligible for the HRQoL measurement provided a complete and consistent SF-36 questionnaire. Three patterns of non-response and five of partial (incomplete or inconsistent) response were identified, sharing largely similar socio-demographic profiles (higher age, lower educational level and economic status, foreign background, and isolated). The consequences of non and partial responses on HRQoL estimates were large in several groups of subjects although these biases ran in opposite directions and partially neutralized each other. Conclusions When measuring HRQoL in the general population, missing and inconsistent data are frequent, especially in elderly, educationally and socio-economically deprived, foreign and isolated groups. Methods for handling missing data are required to correct for potentially the associated and serious selection and non-differential information biases in studies targeting or investigating these groups. PMID:23497315

  5. Non response, incomplete and inconsistent responses to self-administered health-related quality of life measures in the general population: patterns, determinants and impact on the validity of estimates - a population-based study in France using the MOS SF-36.

    PubMed

    Coste, Joel; Quinquis, Laurent; Audureau, Etienne; Pouchot, Jacques

    2013-03-13

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures are increasingly used in the general population. However, little is known about patterns and determinants of unanswered or unusable questionnaires and their consequences on estimates of HRQoL. The 2003 Decennial Health Survey collected socio-demographic and health information, including HRQoL, for 30,782 adults representative of the French population. The pattern, determinants and impact on estimate validity of non, incomplete and inconsistent responses to the SF-36 questionnaire were determined. For this, phi coefficients, polytomous logistic regression models and multiple imputation methods were used. Only 48% of the subjects eligible for the HRQoL measurement provided a complete and consistent SF-36 questionnaire. Three patterns of non-response and five of partial (incomplete or inconsistent) response were identified, sharing largely similar socio-demographic profiles (higher age, lower educational level and economic status, foreign background, and isolated). The consequences of non and partial responses on HRQoL estimates were large in several groups of subjects although these biases ran in opposite directions and partially neutralized each other. When measuring HRQoL in the general population, missing and inconsistent data are frequent, especially in elderly, educationally and socio-economically deprived, foreign and isolated groups. Methods for handling missing data are required to correct for potentially the associated and serious selection and non-differential information biases in studies targeting or investigating these groups.

  6. [Validation of the Eating Attitudes Test as a screening instrument for eating disorders in general population].

    PubMed

    Peláez-Fernández, María Angeles; Ruiz-Lázaro, Pedro Manuel; Labrador, Francisco Javier; Raich, Rosa María

    2014-02-20

    To validate the best cut-off point of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40), Spanish version, for the screening of eating disorders (ED) in the general population. This was a transversal cross-sectional study. The EAT-40 Spanish version was administered to a representative sample of 1.543 students, age range 12 to 21 years, in the Region of Madrid. Six hundred and two participants (probable cases and a random sample of controls) were interviewed. The best diagnostic prediction was obtained with a cut-off point of 21, with sensitivity: 88.2%; specificity: 62.1%; positive predictive value: 17.7%; negative predictive value: 62.1%. Use of a cut-off point of 21 is recommended in epidemiological studies of eating disorders in the Spanish general population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Validation of ASHA FACS-functional assessment of communication skills for Alzheimer disease population.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Isabel Albuquerque M; Mansur, Letícia Lessa

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed to validate the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Functional Assessment of Communication Skills (ASHA FACS) for a Brazilian population. The scale was translated and adapted into Portuguese. Thirty-two patients with mild Alzheimer disease (AD), 25 patients with moderate AD, and 51 elderly without dementia were examined with Mini Mental State Examination, Geriatric Depression Scale, and Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog). The ASHA FACS was answered by their relative/caregiver. The scale's internal consistency, its inter-examiner and intra-examiner's reproducibility, and scale's criterion validity were researched by correlation with ADAS-cog. The sensitivity and specificity were also researched. Statistical analyses indicated that the ASHA FACS has excellent internal consistency (Cronbach [alpha]=0.955), test-retest reliability (interclass correlation coefficient=0.995; P<0.001), and inter-examiners (interclass correlation coefficient=0.998; P<0.001). It showed excellent criterion validity when correlated with ADAS-cog. The ASHA FACS scale showed good sensitivity (75.0%) and specificity (82.4%) values once it is an ecologic and broad evaluation. The ASHA FACS Portuguese version is a valid and reliable instrument to verify communication alterations in AD patients and fills an important gap of efficiency indicators for speech language therapy in our country.

  8. Neighborhood-Level Cohesion and Disorder: Measurement and Validation in Two Older Adult Urban Populations

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Thomas A.; Skarupski, Kimberly A.; Barnes, Lisa L.; Schwartz, Brian S.; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Drawing from collective efficacy and social disorganization theories, we developed and validated measures of neighborhood-level social processes. Methods Data came from 2 large, population-based cohort studies of urban-dwelling older adults, the Chicago Neighborhood and Disability Study (CNDS, n = 3,882) and the Baltimore Memory Study (BMS, n = 1,140). Data on neighborhood social processes were collected from residents using a standardized instrument identical in the 2 studies. We used confirmatory factor analysis and descriptive statistics to explore reliability and validity of the neighborhood-level measures. Results Confirmatory factor analysis indicated 2 latent factors: social cohesion and exchange (i.e., observations of and interactions with neighbors) and social and physical disorder (i.e., neighborhood problems and unsafe conditions). Neighborhood-level measures of cohesion and disorder showed moderate to high levels of internal consistency (alphas = .78 and .85 in CNDS and .60 and .88 in BMS). Inter-resident agreements were low (intra-neighborhood correlation coefficients = .08 and .11 in CNDS and .05 and .33 in BMS). Cohesion showed a modest, positive association with a composite measure of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES). Disorder showed a strong, negative association with neighborhood SES. Conclusions Findings provide initial evidence of the reliability and construct validity of these neighborhood-level social process measures. PMID:19255089

  9. Validation of Perceived Wellness Survey (PWS) in a Sample of Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Kaveh, Mohammad Hossein; Ostovarfar, Jeyran; Keshavarzi, Sareh; Ghahremani, Leila

    2016-01-01

    The individual’s perception of health, when health is understood to include many dimensions of life, is considered the basis for any improvement in health status. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the Persian version of the Perceived Wellness Scale (PWS) by applying it to employees of the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 180 staff members of the university selected by convenience sampling. The study instrument was a Persian version of the PWS prepared through a translation and back-translation process. The reliability and validity of the instrument were assessed by using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. A total of 180 employees participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 32.29 years (SD = 7.39) and 78.1% of the participants were women. The results showed that the Persian version of the PWS is acceptable. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.87 for the whole scale, ranging from 0.68 to 0.85 on different dimensions of the scale. The results of split-half reliability and CFA indicated that the reliability and validity of the PWS are acceptable. The PWS is therefore an effective tool for evaluating the different dimensions of perceived wellness in the Iranian population. PMID:27660544

  10. Instruments for the assessment of social anxiety disorder: Validation studies.

    PubMed

    Osório, Flávia de Lima; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Loureiro, Sonia Regina

    2012-10-22

    Great progress has been observed in the literature over the last decade regarding the validation of instruments for the assessment of Social Anxiety Disorder in the Brazilian context. Particularly outstanding in this respect is the production of a group of Brazilian investigators regarding the psychometric study of the following instruments: Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Social Phobia Inventory, Brief Social Phobia Scale, Disability Profile, Liebowitz Self-Rated Disability Scale, Social Phobia Safety Behaviors Scale and Self-Statements During Public Speaking Scale, which have proved to be appropriate and valid for use in the adult Brazilian population, representing resources for the assessment of social anxiety in clinical and experimental situations.

  11. Instruments for the assessment of social anxiety disorder: Validation studies

    PubMed Central

    Osório, Flávia de Lima; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Loureiro, Sonia Regina

    2012-01-01

    Great progress has been observed in the literature over the last decade regarding the validation of instruments for the assessment of Social Anxiety Disorder in the Brazilian context. Particularly outstanding in this respect is the production of a group of Brazilian investigators regarding the psychometric study of the following instruments: Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Social Phobia Inventory, Brief Social Phobia Scale, Disability Profile, Liebowitz Self-Rated Disability Scale, Social Phobia Safety Behaviors Scale and Self-Statements During Public Speaking Scale, which have proved to be appropriate and valid for use in the adult Brazilian population, representing resources for the assessment of social anxiety in clinical and experimental situations. PMID:24175172

  12. The establishment of tocopherol reference intervals for Hungarian adult population using a validated HPLC method.

    PubMed

    Veres, Gábor; Szpisjak, László; Bajtai, Attila; Siska, Andrea; Klivényi, Péter; Ilisz, István; Földesi, Imre; Vécsei, László; Zádori, Dénes

    2017-02-09

    Evidence suggests that decreased α-tocopherol (the most biologically active substance in the vitamin E group) level can cause neurological symptoms, most likely ataxia. The aim of the current study was to first provide reference intervals for serum tocopherols in the adult Hungarian population with appropriate sample size, recruiting healthy control subjects and neurological patients suffering from conditions without symptoms of ataxia, myopathy or cognitive deficiency. A validated HPLC method applying a diode array detector and rac-tocol as internal standard was utilized for that purpose. Furthermore, serum cholesterol levels were determined as well for data normalization. The calculated 2.5-97.5% reference intervals for α-, β/γ- and δ-tocopherols were 24.62-54.67, 0.81-3.69 and 0.29-1.07 μm, respectively, whereas the tocopherol/cholesterol ratios were 5.11-11.27, 0.14-0.72 and 0.06-0.22 μmol/mmol, respectively. The establishment of these reference intervals may improve the diagnostic accuracy of tocopherol measurements in certain neurological conditions with decreased tocopherol levels. Moreover, the current study draws special attention to the possible pitfalls in the complex process of the determination of reference intervals as well, including the selection of study population, the application of internal standard and method validation and the calculation of tocopherol/cholesterol ratios.

  13. A Repeat Validated Population Questionnaire of a Defined Swedish Population Verifies Reduction in Leg Ulcer Prevalence Over Time.

    PubMed

    Forssgren, Alexandra; Nelzén, Olle

    2015-07-01

    This study was performed to measure if the introduced interventions in leg ulcer care in a selected Swedish county yield a detectable reduction in leg ulcer prevalence in the population. A validated postal questionnaire sent to 10,000 (9,868) randomly selected 30-89 year olds in the Skaraborg county (255,042 inhabitants). All positive responders were telephone interviewed and verified ulcer patients were clinically examined including assessment of arterial/venous circulation with hand-held Doppler and, where indicated, duplex ultrasound scanning. All results were compared with numbers from 1990 (initial study). The response rate was 82% (8,070/9,868), 200 active ulcers and 290 previous ulcers. The calculated prevalence was 0.75% for 30-89 years and 1.05% for 50-89 years (2.1% in 1990). The leg ulcer prevalence was reduced by 32% (0.52% compared to 0.77% in 1990), and the relative risk was reduced by 50% (95%, CI 0.36-0.69). The study shows a true reduction in leg ulcer prevalence detectable in the population supporting a successful care of leg ulcer patients.

  14. Transcultural validation of the Oxford Shoulder Score for the French-speaking population.

    PubMed

    Tuton, D; Barbe, C; Salmon, J-H; Dramé, M; Nérot, C; Ohl, X

    2016-09-01

    Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) have been gaining in popularity over the last decade. The Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS) is a well-established self-administered questionnaire for shoulder evaluation adapted for the English-speaking population. The aim of the present study was to develop a translation and a transcultural adaptation of the OSS and to assess its validity in native French-speaker patients with shoulder pain. The translation process was carried out following a translation/back-translation methodology by two translators. All patients completed the French OSS, the Subjective Shoulder Value (SSV), and the Constant score. Internal consistency was tested using Cronbach's α coefficient. Validity was assessed by calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient between the OSS and the Constant score and the SSV. One hundred forty-four patients suffering from degenerative or inflammatory diseases of the shoulder were included in this study. The average time required to complete the French OSS was 2min and 45s. Seventy patients were asked to complete the questionnaire twice (test/retest reliability). Internal consistency was high with Cronbach's α coefficient=0.93. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.88-0.94) for test/retest reliability. The French OSS score was significantly correlated with the Constant-Murley score (r=0.73 and P<0.0001) and with the SSV (r=0.68 and P<0.0001). The present study shows that the French version of the OSS is reliable, valid, and reproducible. The sensitivity to change now needs to be evaluated. This score was adapted to the French-speaking population for the self-assessment of patients with degenerative or inflammatory disorders of the shoulder. Level 1, Test of previously developed criteria, diagnostic test study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Reliability and validity of World Health Organization Quality of Life-100 in homeless substance-dependent veteran population.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Rea, Elizabeth; LePage, James P

    2008-01-01

    The number of homeless individuals and specifically homeless veterans is increasing. Accurate assessment of quality of life is an important need in working with this population because of the myriad problems encountered. However, the reliability and validity of quality-of-life instruments have not been assessed in this population. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the U.S. version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-100 in a homeless veteran population. Results found adequate internal consistency for all domain and most facet scores, while test-retest stability varied for the facet scores. We confirmed validity by using subsamples with physical, emotional, and social problems and by comparing scores from populations that returned to the community with employment and housing. Limitations and directions for future study are discussed.

  16. Assessing validity of observational intervention studies - the Benchmarking Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Malmivaara, Antti

    2016-09-01

    Benchmarking Controlled Trial (BCT) is a concept which covers all observational studies aiming to assess impact of interventions or health care system features to patients and populations. To create and pilot test a checklist for appraising methodological validity of a BCT. The checklist was created by extracting the most essential elements from the comprehensive set of criteria in the previous paper on BCTs. Also checklists and scientific papers on observational studies and respective systematic reviews were utilized. Ten BCTs published in the Lancet and in the New England Journal of Medicine were used to assess feasibility of the created checklist. The appraised studies seem to have several methodological limitations, some of which could be avoided in planning, conducting and reporting phases of the studies. The checklist can be used for planning, conducting, reporting, reviewing, and critical reading of observational intervention studies. However, the piloted checklist should be validated in further studies. Key messages Benchmarking Controlled Trial (BCT) is a concept which covers all observational studies aiming to assess impact of interventions or health care system features to patients and populations. This paper presents a checklist for appraising methodological validity of BCTs and pilot-tests the checklist with ten BCTs published in leading medical journals. The appraised studies seem to have several methodological limitations, some of which could be avoided in planning, conducting and reporting phases of the studies. The checklist can be used for planning, conducting, reporting, reviewing, and critical reading of observational intervention studies.

  17. Validation of the 8-item Attitudes Towards Gambling Scale (ATGS-8) in a British population survey.

    PubMed

    Canale, Natale; Vieno, Alessio; Pastore, Massimiliano; Ghisi, Marta; Griffiths, Mark D

    2016-03-01

    Public opinions concerning gambling are an important factor in shaping public policy. Little empirical attention has been given to assessing gambling attitudes within the general population. The aim of the present study is to validate the 8-item Attitudes Towards Gambling Scale (ATGS-8) in British individuals and to investigate associations of these attitudes with frequency of gambling and gambling problems. Data were derived from 7746 individuals participating in the British Gambling Prevalence Survey 2010, a comprehensive interview-based survey conducted in Great Britain between November 2009 and May 2010. Confirmatory factor analysis and separate regression analyses were applied. The one-dimensional structure of the ATGS-8 was confirmed in the community sample and by gender. Furthermore, more positive attitudes towards gambling were positively related to frequency of gambling and gambling problems. The present study extends the previous evaluations of the scale by providing detailed evidence for the utility and usefulness of the ATGS-8 in a community sample and across gender. The ATGS-8 is a valid instrument to assess public opinion on gambling among the general population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Validation of the Asthma Control Test questionnaire in a North African population.

    PubMed

    El Hasnaoui, Abdelkader; Martin, Jennifer; Salhi, Hocine; Doble, Adam

    2009-12-01

    Patient-reported outcome measures are required to measure asthma control. The Asthma Control Test (ACT) is one such measure which was used in the AIRMAG study, a general population study of asthma in the Maghreb. Three dialectal Arabic versions of the ACT (Algerian, Moroccan and Tunisian) were developed. To perform a psychometric evaluation of the properties of dialectal Arabic versions of the ACT used in the AIRMAG study. The test data came from 624 adult subjects in a random general population sample in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. The internal consistency of the ACT was analysed using Cronbach's a coefficient. The factorial structure was explored by primary component analysis with varimax rotation. Test-retest reproducibility was assessed in a subgroup of 61 subjects. Face and discriminant validity were assessed. Cronbach's a coefficient ranged from 0.58 for the Algerian version to 0.67 for the Moroccan version. The 'use-of-rescue-treatment' item was identified as discordant, since its removal resulted in an increase in Cronbach's a coefficient. The discordance of this item was confirmed by primary component analysis, where the four remaining items were aligned along a single dimension, and the 'use-of-rescue-treatment' item offset along a second dimension. Test and retest scores were well correlated (r =0.704). The ACT showed good face and discriminant validity. The ACT is a valid measure of asthma control in a North African context, although its internal consistency is compromised by the 'use-of-rescue-treatment' item, probably due to limited access to care and use of short-acting beta-agonists. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Validation study of the Depressive Experience Questionnaire].

    PubMed

    Atger, F; Frasson, G; Loas, G; Guibourgé, S; Corcos, M; Perez Diaz, F; Speranza, M; Venisse, J-L; Lang, F; Stephan, Ph; Bizouard, P; Flament, M; Jeammet, Ph

    2003-01-01

    -reliant and as sociotropic and autonomous . Our work presents the results of a validation study of both forms of Blatt's questionnaire (for adults--DEQ--and for adolescents--DEQA) translated in French in a large population of normal subjects, aged 15 to 45 years. DEQ and DEQ-A were compared by inspection of items loading strongly on each factor and by correlation of the three factors of adults and adolescents. The exploratory factor analysis of DEQ and DEQA revealed three orthogonal factors, corresponding with Blatt's original dimensions. Consistency and external validity were adequate for all 3 factors of DEQ and DEQ-A. Anaclitism and self-criticism dimensions of DEQ and DEQ-A correlate positively with measures of depression (DSM-IV, Beck Depression Inventory), consistently with the results obtained by Blatt. Differently from this author, anaclitism appears to be less differentiated in males than in females, suggesting that the concept of dependence could assume different relevance for men and women.

  20. 29 CFR 1607.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... validity studies. Users choosing to validate a selection procedure by a content validity strategy should... by this strategy should therefore take particular care to assure that the validity study meets the... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Technical standards for validity studies. 1607.14 Section...

  1. 29 CFR 1607.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... validity studies. Users choosing to validate a selection procedure by a content validity strategy should... by this strategy should therefore take particular care to assure that the validity study meets the... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Technical standards for validity studies. 1607.14 Section...

  2. 29 CFR 1607.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... validity studies. Users choosing to validate a selection procedure by a content validity strategy should... by this strategy should therefore take particular care to assure that the validity study meets the... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Technical standards for validity studies. 1607.14 Section...

  3. 29 CFR 1607.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... validity studies. Users choosing to validate a selection procedure by a content validity strategy should... by this strategy should therefore take particular care to assure that the validity study meets the... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Technical standards for validity studies. 1607.14 Section...

  4. Genomic selection in beef cattle: Training and validation in multibreed populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A challenge for applying genomic selection to beef cattle is accurate across-breed prediction. One approach is to train and validate prediction equations in multibreed populations, but the scarcity of large populations with known pedigrees, phenotypes, and dense genotypes has hindered the developmen...

  5. Validation of the Glover-Nilsson Smoking Behavioral Questionnaire for the Portuguese population: a psychometric process.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Vânia; Guerra, Marina P; Lemos, Marina S; Glover, Elbert D

    2014-11-01

    To validate the Portuguese version of the Glover-Nilsson Smoking Behavioral Questionnaire (GNSBQ). This manuscript represents 2 studies. In the first, the free-translated Portuguese version of GNSBQ, currently in use, was administered to 124 healthy smokers for Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). In the second, a forward-backward translation was developed to achieve a proper cultural and linguistic adaptation, which allowed creating a new Portuguese version of the GNSBQ. An Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was then performed, including 120 healthy smokers who completed this new version. In the first study, the results from performing a CFA were not acceptable, although the scale was internally consistent. The second study showed that the new Portuguese version of GNSBQ presented reliability and 2 cor-related factors retrieved from the EFA. The new Portuguese version of the second study will contribute to an improved assessment of behavioral dependence in that population.

  6. AB 86. Validation of a questionnaire for the assessment of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in a Greek population

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidis, Dimitrios; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Domvri, Kalliopi; Tsiligianni, Ioanna; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Papakosta, Despoina

    2012-01-01

    Background The assessment of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) is considered essential for determining asthma diagnosis and asthma control. Recently a specific-condition questionnaire was developed on this purpose for asthma patients in primary care practice (Riemersa et al., 2009). The aim of the present study is to validate the BHR questionnaire in a Greek population. Patients and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Asthma Outpatient clinic of the Pulmonary Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece. Inclusion criteria were males and females, age 14 to 75, with recent history of asthma symptoms and without any other known respiratory/systemic disease that might affect BHR. During patient assessment, translated copies of the BHR questionnaire (BHRQ) were delivered to eligible subjects who had given informed consent. The gold standard method selected to validate the BHRQ was the mannitol challenge test. Results Sixty-two patients in total (21 males and 41 females) were recruited: mean age 34±14.9 years, mean total score of the questionnaire 54.39±40.88 years and mean subscores for symptoms and stimuli 28.29±19.97 and 26.10±24.07 years respectively. During mannitol challenge subjects showed a mean fall of FEV1 of 13.41±6.97% from baseline and a mean provocative dose of mannitol, PD15 of 373.11±240.92 mg. Spearman’s rank correlations among variables have shown significant positive correlations among all score variables and negative correlations among the scores and the mannitol test variables. Construct validity was assessed with principal component analysis and managed to identify one underlying factor that explains 42.4% of the variance. The reliability of the questionnaire, as estimated with Cronbach’s alpha, was 0.957, which is considered to be a very good reliability regarding the internal consistency of the questionnaire items. Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis has determined a cut off value of 26 of the total

  7. Validation of the Sense of Coherence Scale in an American Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Albino, Judith; Shapiro, Allison L.B.; Henderson, William G.; Tiwari, Tamanna; Brega, Angela G.; Thomas, Jacob F.; Bryant, Lucinda L.; Braun, Patricia A.; Quissell, David O.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Sense of Coherence (SOC) Scale in the context of an oral health-related clinical trial conducted in an American Indian population – specifically, people of the Navajo Nation. Data were derived from baseline evaluations of parents (or caregivers) of Navajo children aged 3–5 from 52 Head Start classes enrolled in a trial of an intervention to prevent early childhood caries (ECC). A 190-item Basic Research Factors Questionnaire, which included the SOC, was administered to 1016 parents/caregivers. Assessment of internal reliability and convergent validity, and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine associations between parents’ SOC and other potentially convergent measures. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine one- and three-factor solutions of the SOC scale. Higher SOC was significantly related to higher parental education and income, employment status, and higher scores for social support, internal oral health locus of control (OHLOC), self-efficacy, importance of oral health, oral health knowledge and behavior, and children’s oral health quality of life. Higher SOC also was related to lower reported distress and lower external OHLOC. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.84 for all SOC items, but lower for each of the three SOC subscales. Confirmatory factor analyses suggested a three-factor solution was superior to a one-factor solution. The SOC scale had good internal reliability and convergent validity in this American Indian population. PMID:26191608

  8. Use of the Rey 15-Item Test as a performance validity test in an elderly population.

    PubMed

    Fazio, Rachel L; Faris, Allison N; Yamout, Karim Z

    2017-08-29

    The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the Rey 15-Item Test in elderly individuals with and without cognitive impairment and to develop new indices to function with this population, if needed. The sample consisted of 185 individuals referred for outpatient neuropsychological evaluation. All were clinically evaluated and administered the Rey 15-Item Test (RFIT) with recognition as part of this procedure. Significant differences were present between those passing and failing the RFIT on referral question; working status; age; and diagnosis of cognitive impairment. Individuals age 60+ failed the test at rates in excess of 35%. Diagnosis also played a role with those with more severe cognitive diagnosis failing at higher rates; even in those with no diagnosis, however, 19% of elderly individuals did not produce a passing score. The extant cutoff scores commonly used with the RFIT produce unacceptably high false positive error rates to be a useful freestanding Performance Validity Test (PVT) with individuals above age 59. The introduction of a new combination score and use of rare scores and patterns of scores improves the psychometric properties of the RFIT when used with elderly adults. Cautious use of PVTs is warranted until they have been validated with aged populations.

  9. Determination of normative criteria and validation of the SKT for use in Spanish-speaking populations.

    PubMed

    Ostrosky-Solís, F; Dávila, G; Ortiz, X; Vega, F; García Ramos, G; de Celis, M; Dávila, L; Gómez, C; Jiménez, S; Juárez, S; Corte, G; Molina, B

    1999-06-01

    Most of the tests, questionnaires, and neuropsychological batteries for the assessment of dementia have been translated and adapted for use in the Hispanic population without having normative data, which results in a high number of false positives when age and educational level are not considered. The Short Cognitive Performance Test (SKT) is a psychometric instrument evaluating memory and attention deficits that has been developed and standardized in Germany (Erzigkeit, 1989a, 1989b). The objective of this study was to adapt the SKT, to establish normative criteria that take into consideration age and educational level, and to establish its concurrent validity in comparison to other neuropsychological tests: Brief Neuropsychological Evaluation for Spanish-Speaking Subjects (Ostrosky-Solis et al., 1994), the Mini-Mental State Examination (Folstein et al., 1975), and the Blessed Functional Scale (Blessed et al., 1968) in 238 neurologically intact subjects and 97 subjects with mild to moderate dementia. The SKT showed adequate sensitivity (80.5%) and specificity (80.3%) in subjects with medium and high educational level; however, the sensitivity and specificity diminished (75% and 56.7%) in subjects with no education or low educational level. The adapted and validated version of the SKT in the Mexican population has been shown to be a psychometric instrument that in subjects with medium educational level can detect cognitive alterations and is able to determine the severity of deterioration; however, in subjects with low educational level and severe dementia, the SKT cannot be usefully administered.

  10. Validating DNA Polymorphisms Using KASP Assay in Prairie Cordgrass (Spartina pectinata Link) Populations in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Hannah; Rayburn, A. L.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Jose L.; Nah, Gyoungju; Kim, Do-Soon; Lee, D. K.

    2016-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are one of the most abundant DNA variants found in plant genomes and are highly efficient when comparing genome and transcriptome sequences. SNP marker analysis can be used to analyze genetic diversity, create genetic maps, and utilize marker-assisted selection breeding in many crop species. In order to utilize these technologies, one must first identify and validate putative SNPs. In this study, 121 putative SNPs, developed from a nuclear transcriptome of prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata Link), were analyzed using KASP technology in order to validate the SNPs. Fifty-nine SNPs were validated using a core collection of 38 natural populations and a phylogenetic tree was created with one main clade. Samples from the same population tended to cluster in the same location on the tree. Polymorphisms were identified within 52.6% of the populations, split evenly between the tetraploid and octoploid cytotypes. Twelve selected SNP markers were used to assess the fidelity of tetraploid crosses of prairie cordgrass and their resulting F2population. These markers were able to distinguish true crosses and selfs. This study provides insight into the genomic structure of prairie cordgrass, but further analysis must be done on other cytotypes to fully understand the structure of this species. This study validates putative SNPs and confirms the potential usefulness of SNP marker technology in future breeding programs of this species. PMID:26834772

  11. State of the science of health literacy measures: Validity implications for minority populations

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tam H.; Park, Hyunjeong; Han, Hae-Ra; Chan, Kitty S.; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K.; Haun, Jolie; Kim, Miyong T.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To review the evidence supporting the validity of health literacy (HL) measures for ethnic minority populations. Methods PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases were searched for HL measures between 1965 and 2013. Results A total of 109HL measures were identified; 37 were non-English HL measures and 72 were English language measures. Of the 72 English language measures, 17 did not specify the racial/ethnic characteristic of their sample. Of the remaining 55 measures, 10 (18%) did not include blacks, 30 (55%) did not include Hispanics, and 35 (64%) did not include Asians in their validation sample. When Hispanic and Asian Americans were included, they accounted for small percentages in the overall sample. Between 2005–2013, a growing number of REALM and TOFHLA translations were identified, and new HL measures for specific cultural/linguistic groups within and outside the United States were developed. Conclusions While there are a growing number of new and translated HL measures for minority populations, many existing HL measures have not been properly validated for minority groups. Practice Implications HL measures that have not been properly validated for a given population should be piloted before wider use. In addition, improving HL instrument development/validation methods are imperative to increase the validity of these measures for minority populations. PMID:26275841

  12. Unresolved versus resolved: testing the validity of young simple stellar population models with VLT/MUSE observations of NGC 3603

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuncarayakti, H.; Galbany, L.; Anderson, J. P.; Krühler, T.; Hamuy, M.

    2016-09-01

    Context. Stellar populations are the building blocks of galaxies, including the Milky Way. The majority, if not all, extragalactic studies are entangled with the use of stellar population models given the unresolved nature of their observation. Extragalactic systems contain multiple stellar populations with complex star formation histories. However, studies of these systems are mainly based upon the principles of simple stellar populations (SSP). Hence, it is critical to examine the validity of SSP models. Aims: This work aims to empirically test the validity of SSP models. This is done by comparing SSP models against observations of spatially resolved young stellar population in the determination of its physical properties, that is, age and metallicity. Methods: Integral field spectroscopy of a young stellar cluster in the Milky Way, NGC 3603, was used to study the properties of the cluster as both a resolved and unresolved stellar population. The unresolved stellar population was analysed using the Hα equivalent width as an age indicator and the ratio of strong emission lines to infer metallicity. In addition, spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting using STARLIGHT was used to infer these properties from the integrated spectrum. Independently, the resolved stellar population was analysed using the colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) to determine age and metallicity. As the SSP model represents the unresolved stellar population, the derived age and metallicity were tested to determine whether they agree with those derived from resolved stars. Results: The age and metallicity estimate of NGC 3603 derived from integrated spectroscopy are confirmed to be within the range of those derived from the CMD of the resolved stellar population, including other estimates found in the literature. The result from this pilot study supports the reliability of SSP models for studying unresolved young stellar populations. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation

  13. Validation of population-based disease simulation models: a review of concepts and methods

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Computer simulation models are used increasingly to support public health research and policy, but questions about their quality persist. The purpose of this article is to review the principles and methods for validation of population-based disease simulation models. Methods We developed a comprehensive framework for validating population-based chronic disease simulation models and used this framework in a review of published model validation guidelines. Based on the review, we formulated a set of recommendations for gathering evidence of model credibility. Results Evidence of model credibility derives from examining: 1) the process of model development, 2) the performance of a model, and 3) the quality of decisions based on the model. Many important issues in model validation are insufficiently addressed by current guidelines. These issues include a detailed evaluation of different data sources, graphical representation of models, computer programming, model calibration, between-model comparisons, sensitivity analysis, and predictive validity. The role of external data in model validation depends on the purpose of the model (e.g., decision analysis versus prediction). More research is needed on the methods of comparing the quality of decisions based on different models. Conclusion As the role of simulation modeling in population health is increasing and models are becoming more complex, there is a need for further improvements in model validation methodology and common standards for evaluating model credibility. PMID:21087466

  14. Association studies in consanguineous populations

    SciTech Connect

    Genin, E.; Clerget-Darpous, F.

    1996-04-01

    To study the genetic determinism of multifactorial diseases in large panmictic populations, a strategy consists in looking for an association with markers closely linked to candidate genes. A distribution of marker genotypes different in patients and controls may indicate that the candidate gene is involved in the disease. In panmictic populations, the power to detect the role of a candidate gene depends on the gametic disequilibrium with the marker locus. In consanguineous populations, we show that it depends on the inbreeding coefficient F as well. Inbreeding increases the power to detect the role of a recessive or quasi-recessive disease-susceptibility factor. The gain in power turns out to be greater for small values of the gametic disequilibrium. Moreover, even in the absence of gametic disequilibrium, the presence of inbreeding may allow to detect the role of a recessive factor. Ignoring inbreeding when it exists may lead to reject falsely a recessive model if the mode of inheritance is inferred on the distribution of genotypes among patients. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Validity and reliability of the FIM instrument in the inpatient burn rehabilitation population.

    PubMed

    Gerrard, Paul; Goldstein, Richard; Divita, Margaret A; Ryan, Colleen M; Mix, Jacqueline; Niewczyk, Paulette; Kazis, Lewis; Kowalske, Karen; Zafonte, Ross; Schneider, Jeffrey C

    2013-08-01

    To provide evidence of construct validity for the FIM instrument in the inpatient rehabilitation burn population. Confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory were used to assess construct validity. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed on a 2-factor model of the FIM instrument and on a 6-subfactor model. Mokken scale analysis, a nonparametric item response theory, was performed on each of the FIM instrument's 2 major factors, motor and cognitive domains. Internal consistency using Cronbach alpha and Molenaar and Sijtsma's statistic was also examined. Inpatient rehabilitation facilities. Data from the Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation for patients with an impairment code of burn injury from the years 2002 to 2011 were used for this analysis. A total of 7569 subjects were included in the study. Not applicable. Comparative fit index results for the confirmatory factor analyses and adherence to assumptions of the Mokken scale model. Confirmatory factor analysis provided a comparative fit index of .862 for the 2-factor model and .941 for the 6-subfactor model. Mokken scale analysis showed scalability coefficients of .681 and .891 for the motor and cognitive domains, respectively. Measures of internal consistency statistic gave values of >.95 for each major domain of the FIM instrument. The FIM instrument has evidence of validity and reliability as an outcome measure for patients with burn injuries in the inpatient rehabilitation setting. The 6-subfactor model provides a better fit than the 2-factor model by confirmatory factor analysis. There is evidence that the motor and cognitive domains each form valid unidimensional metrics based on nonparametric item response theory. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Empirical validation of patient versus population preferences in calculating QALYs.

    PubMed

    Weyler, Eva-Julia; Gandjour, Afschin

    2011-10-01

    A fundamental assumption of the quality-adjusted life year model is mutual utility independence between life years and health status. However, this assumption may not hold for severe health states: living in a severe health state may cause disutility beyond a so-called maximal endurable time (MET). It is unknown, however, whether persons without experience of a disease, who are often used in health state valuation exercises, account for MET. Using data from 159 respondents from two convenience samples in Germany who were presented a health state description of depression, this study shows that persons without experience of depression had a lower rate of MET than persons with a history of depression. Furthermore, they had more preference reversals in case of MET, thus violating a fundamental principle of rational choice theory. While these findings suggest that severe health states should be assessed by patients rather than the community, confirmation in additional studies outside Germany and based on other health-state valuation techniques and diseases is recommended. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  17. Empirical Validation of Patient versus Population Preferences in Calculating QALYs

    PubMed Central

    Weyler, Eva-Julia; Gandjour, Afschin

    2011-01-01

    A fundamental assumption of the quality-adjusted life year model is mutual utility independence between life years and health status. However, this assumption may not hold for severe health states: living in a severe health state may cause disutility beyond a so-called maximal endurable time (MET). It is unknown, however, whether persons without experience of a disease, who are often used in health state valuation exercises, account for MET. Using data from 159 respondents from two convenience samples in Germany who were presented a health state description of depression, this study shows that persons without experience of depression had a lower rate of MET than persons with a history of depression. Furthermore, they had more preference reversals in case of MET, thus violating a fundamental principle of rational choice theory. While these findings suggest that severe health states should be assessed by patients rather than the community, confirmation in additional studies outside Germany and based on other health-state valuation techniques and diseases is recommended. PMID:21517837

  18. A statistical framework for the validation of a population exposure model based on personal exposure data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Delphy; Valari, Myrto; Markakis, Konstantinos; Payan, Sébastien

    2016-04-01

    Currently, ambient pollutant concentrations at monitoring sites are routinely measured by local networks, such as AIRPARIF in Paris, France. Pollutant concentration fields are also simulated with regional-scale chemistry transport models such as CHIMERE (http://www.lmd.polytechnique.fr/chimere) under air-quality forecasting platforms (e.g. Prev'Air http://www.prevair.org) or research projects. These data may be combined with more or less sophisticated techniques to provide a fairly good representation of pollutant concentration spatial gradients over urban areas. Here we focus on human exposure to atmospheric contaminants. Based on census data on population dynamics and demographics, modeled outdoor concentrations and infiltration of outdoor air-pollution indoors we have developed a population exposure model for ozone and PM2.5. A critical challenge in the field of population exposure modeling is model validation since personal exposure data are expensive and therefore, rare. However, recent research has made low cost mobile sensors fairly common and therefore personal exposure data should become more and more accessible. In view of planned cohort field-campaigns where such data will be available over the Paris region, we propose in the present study a statistical framework that makes the comparison between modeled and measured exposures meaningful. Our ultimate goal is to evaluate the exposure model by comparing modeled exposures to monitor data. The scientific question we address here is how to downscale modeled data that are estimated on the county population scale at the individual scale which is appropriate to the available measurements. To assess this question we developed a Bayesian hierarchical framework that assimilates actual individual data into population statistics and updates the probability estimate.

  19. The Etruscans: A Population-Genetic Study

    PubMed Central

    Vernesi, Cristiano; Caramelli, David; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Bertorelle, Giorgio; Lari, Martina; Cappellini, Enrico; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Chiarelli, Brunetto; Castrì, Loredana; Casoli, Antonella; Mallegni, Francesco; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Barbujani, Guido

    2004-01-01

    The origins of the Etruscans, a non-Indo-European population of preclassical Italy, are unclear. There is broad agreement that their culture developed locally, but the Etruscans’ evolutionary and migrational relationships are largely unknown. In this study, we determined mitochondrial DNA sequences in multiple clones derived from bone samples of 80 Etruscans who lived between the 7th and the 3rd centuries b.c. In the first phase of the study, we eliminated all specimens for which any of nine tests for validation of ancient DNA data raised the suspicion that either degradation or contamination by modern DNA might have occurred. On the basis of data from the remaining 30 individuals, the Etruscans appeared as genetically variable as modern populations. No significant heterogeneity emerged among archaeological sites or time periods, suggesting that different Etruscan communities shared not only a culture but also a mitochondrial gene pool. Genetic distances and sequence comparisons show closer evolutionary relationships with the eastern Mediterranean shores for the Etruscans than for modern Italian populations. All mitochondrial lineages observed among the Etruscans appear typically European or West Asian, but only a few haplotypes were found to have an exact match in a modern mitochondrial database, raising new questions about the Etruscans’ fate after their assimilation into the Roman state. PMID:15015132

  20. Concurrent validation of two key health literacy instruments in a South Eastern European population.

    PubMed

    Toçi, Ervin; Burazeri, Genc; Sørensen, Kristine; Kamberi, Haxhi; Brand, Helmut

    2015-06-01

    Public health practice has come to increasing recognition of health promotion and the central role of knowledge, attitude, beliefs and practices in achieving health promotion. Health literacy (HL) is an under-explored topic in South Eastern European countries. There are no HL reports from Albania to date. The aim of this study was to assess the concurrent validity of the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q) and the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) in a population-based sample of adults in Albania. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 in Tirana, Albania, including 239 individuals aged ≥ 18 years (61% women; 87% response). A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was applied twice (test and retest procedure after 2 weeks) including HLS-EU-Q and TOFHLA instruments. The internal consistency was high for both instruments (Cronbach's alpha for the test procedure was 0.92 for TOFHLA and 0.98 for HLS-EU-Q). Both tools exhibited a high stability over time (Spearman's rho: 0.88 for TOFHLA and 0.87 for HLS-EU). Mean values of both instruments were similar in men and women (mean score for TOFHLA: 76.0 vs. 76.5, P = 0.83; mean score for HLS-EU-Q: 32.2 vs. 32.6, P = 0.63). For both instruments, higher HL scores were significantly associated with younger age, higher educational and economic level and lower body mass index. Our study provides valuable novel evidence on concurrent validation of two major HL instruments in a South Eastern European population-based sample. Future studies should be conducted in order to confirm and expand our findings. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  1. [Multidimensional assessment of coping: validation of the Brief COPE among French population].

    PubMed

    Muller, L; Spitz, E

    2003-01-01

    This Article aims to introduce the translation and the validation of a multidimensional measure of coping strategies: the Brief COPE, in a French population. The coping concept comes from psychological studies that were conducted on stress. In the conceptual analysis of stress by Lazarus and Folkman, coping works with two cognitive appraisals performed by the person concerning the perception of a threatening situation and his or her available resources to deal with it. Coping is defined as "cognitive and behavioural efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate the internal and/or external demands that are created by the stressful transaction". The Brief COPE is the abridged version of the COPE inventory and presents fourteen scales all assessing different coping dimensions: 1) active coping, 2) planning, 3) using instrumental support, 4) using emotional support, 5) venting, 6) behavioural disengagement, 7) self-distraction, 8) self-blame, 9) positive reframing, 10) humor, 11) denial, 12) acceptance, 13) religion, and 14) substance use. Each scale contains two items (28 altogether). This inventory has the advantage of being built from acknowledged theoretical models (Lazarus' transactional model of stress, 1984; behavioral self-regulation model, Carver and Scheier, 1981, 1998). It can be used to assess trait coping (the usual way people cope with stress in everyday life) and state coping (the particular way people cope with a specific stressful situation). As is the COPE inventory, the Brief COPE is a measure used for many health-relevant studies: drugs addiction, ageing, breast cancer, depression, AIDS. Both measures are widely used in Anglophone countries and translated in many Languages. Today, the COPE inventory has been validated among Estonian, Croatian, Chinese, and Italian populations and the Brief COPE is also validated among Spanish people. Thus, the worldwide use of this coping inventory should allow a broad comparison of medical and psychological research for

  2. Transcultural validation of the ALS-CBS Cognitive Section for the Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Branco, Lucas M T; Zanao, Tamires; De Rezende, Thiago J; Casseb, Raphael F; Balthazar, Marcio F; Woolley, Susan C; França, Marcondes C

    2017-02-01

    Cognitive decline (CD) is common but often under-recognized in ALS due to the scarcity of adequate cognitive screening methods. In this scenario, the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Cognitive Behavioural Screen (ALS-CBS) is the most investigated instrument and presents high sensitivity to identify CD. Currently, there are no validated cognitive screening tools for ALS patients in the Brazilian population and little is known about the frequency of ALS related CD in the country. We assessed the accuracy of the Brazilian Portuguese version of ALS-CBS Cognitive Section (ALS-CBS-Br) for classifying the cognitive status of Brazilian patients compared to a standard neuropsychological battery, and estimated the prevalence of CD in the Brazilian ALS population. Among 73 initially recruited ALS patients, 49 were included. Twenty-four patients were excluded due to severe motor disability, FTD diagnosis or non-acceptance. Ten healthy controls were also included. Ten ALS patients (20%) were diagnosed with executive dysfunction (ALSci) based on the battery results. ALS-CBS-Br scores were significantly lower in the ALSci group (p < 0.001). The scale accuracy in detecting executive dysfunction was 0.906. Optimal cut-off score was 10/20 (specificity 0.872 and sensitivity 0.900). In conclusion, the ALS-CBS-Br may facilitate the recognition of CD in routine clinical care and complement future studies in our population.

  3. Reliability, Validity and Factor Structure of the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire among General Population

    PubMed Central

    Petkovska, Miodraga Stefanovska; Bojadziev, Marjan I.; Stefanovska, Vesna Velikj

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the study is to analyze the internal consistency; validity and factor structure of the twelve item General Health Questionnaire for the Macedonian general population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data came from nationally representative sample of 1603 randomly selected Macedonians all aged 18 years or older. RESULTS: The mean GHQ score in the general sample was found to be 7.9 (SD = 4.3). The results revealed a higher GHQ score among women (M = 8.91, SD = 4.5) compared to men (M = 6.89; SD = 4.2). The participants from the rural areas obtained a lower GHQ score (M = 7.55, SD = 3.8) compared to participants coming from the urban areas (M = 9.37, SD = 4.1). The principal component analysis with oblique rotation (direct oblimin) with maximum likelihood procedure solution was performed and the results yielded a three factor solution which jointly accounted for 57.17% of the total variance: Factor I named social management (items 1, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8); Factor II stress (items 2, 5 and 9) and Factor III named self-confidence (items 10, 11 and 12). Its factor structure is in line with representative research from other population groups. CONCLUSION: The GHQ-12 can be used effectively for assessment of the overall psychological well-being and detection of non-psychotic psychiatric problems among the Macedonian population. PMID:27275274

  4. Validation of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Carcass Traits in a Commercial Hanwoo Population

    PubMed Central

    Sudrajad, Pita; Sharma, Aditi; Dang, Chang Gwon; Kim, Jong Joo; Kim, Kwan Suk; Lee, Jun Heon; Kim, Sidong; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Four carcass traits, namely carcass weight (CW), eye muscle area (EMA), back fat thickness (BF), and marbling score (MS), are the main price decision parameters used for purchasing Hanwoo beef. The development of DNA markers for these carcass traits for use in a beef management system could result in substantial profit for beef producers in Korea. The objective of this study was to validate the association of highly significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in a previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) with the four carcass traits in a commercial Hanwoo population. We genotyped 83 SNPs distributed across all 29 autosomes in 867 steers from a Korean Hanwoo feedlot. Six SNPs, namely ARS-BFGL-NGS-22774 (Chr4, Pos:4889229), ARS-BFGL-NGS-100046 (Chr6, Pos:61917424), ARS-BFGL-NGS-39006 (Chr27, Pos:38059196), ARS-BFGL-NGS-18790 (Chr10, Pos:26489109), ARS-BFGL-NGS-43879 (Chr9, Pos:39964297), and BTB-00775794 (Chr20, Pos:20476265), were found to be associated with CW, EMA, BF, and MS. The ARS-BFGL-NGS-22774, BTB-00775794, and ARS-BFGL-NGS-39006 markers accounted for 1.80%, 1.72%, and 1.35% (p<0.01), respectively, of the phenotypic variance in the commercial Hanwoo population. Many genes located in close proximity to the significant SNPs identified in this study were previously reported to have roles in carcass traits. The results of this study could be useful for marker-assisted selection programs. PMID:26954199

  5. Sampling theory methodology applicable to data validation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Chernick, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    In data validation studies, surveys are conducted to obtain information about the data collection process and the uses of the data. In many cases standard sampling techniques can be used. Two methods, stratified random sampling and cluster sampling, were used for surveys in the Form 4 data validation study. Form 4 is a data collection system on monthly generation and consumption of fuels by electric power plants. A description of those applications is given. Sometimes time and cost constraints make more sophisticated controlled sampling approaches necessary. One such approach using balanced incomplete block designs is described; an appendix surveys the existence results for these designs. Sequential methods which may prove to be more cost effective are discussed, as are sequential approaches to the problem of determining the size of a population. Problems requiring further research are also discussed. Some preliminary results on the problem of stratification with respect to more than one variable are included. The results were obtained for the Form 4 respondent population. The Form 4 study indicated that standard statistical sampling methods could be useful in data validation surveys. For example, at least 30 percent of the respondents do not report net generation as the instructions define it, and only 25 percent of the state regulatory agencies use the Form 4 data. Such inferences were possible only because statistical sampling procedures were used. 3 tables.

  6. Validity of type 2 diabetes diagnosis in a population-based electronic health record database.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Iribas, Conchi; Sayon-Orea, Carmen; Delfrade, Josu; Ardanaz, Eva; Gorricho, Javier; Burgui, Rosana; Nuin, Marian; Guevara, Marcela

    2017-04-08

    The increasing burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus makes the continuous surveillance of its prevalence and incidence advisable. Electronic health records (EHRs) have great potential for research and surveillance purposes; however the quality of their data must first be evaluated for fitness for use. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of type 2 diabetes diagnosis in a primary care EHR database covering more than half a million inhabitants, 97% of the population in Navarra, Spain. In the Navarra EPIC-InterAct study, the validity of the T90 code from the International Classification of Primary Care, Second Edition was studied in a primary care EHR database to identify incident cases of type 2 diabetes, using a multi-source approach as the gold standard. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and the kappa index were calculated. Additionally, type 2 diabetes prevalence from the EHR database was compared with estimations from a health survey. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of incident type 2 diabetes recorded in the EHRs were 98.2, 99.3, 92.2 and 99.8%, respectively, and the kappa index was 0.946. Overall prevalence of type 2 diabetes diagnosed in the EHRs among adults (35-84 years of age) was 7.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.2-7.3) in men and 5.9% (95% CI 5.8-5.9) in women, which was similar to the prevalence estimated from the health survey: 8.5% (95% CI 7.1-9.8) and 5.5% (95% CI 4.4-6.6) in men and women, respectively. The high sensitivity and specificity of type 2 diabetes diagnosis found in the primary care EHRs make this database a good source for population-based surveillance of incident and prevalent type 2 diabetes, as well as for monitoring quality of care and health outcomes in diabetic patients.

  7. Validation of the SCOFF Questionnaire for Eating Disorders in a Multiethnic General Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Solmi, Francesca; Hatch, Stephani L; Hotopf, Matthew; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed to validate the SCOFF, an eating disorders (ED) screening questionnaire, in a multiethnic general population sample of adults. Method A two-stage design was employed using the South East London Community Health Study phases I and II data. A total of 1,669 participants were screened using the SCOFF in SELCoHI, and 145 were administrated an ED clinical interview in SELCoHII. We explored the diagnostic validity of the questionnaire restricting to the 145 individuals with the clinical questionnaire. Results Sensitivity and specificity of the SCOFF were 53.7 and 93.5%, respectively. Conclusion The SCOFF showed good levels of specificity but low sensitivity, resulting in a high percentage of false negatives. Given the low sensitivity found in our sample the SCOFF is likely to be a suboptimal measure for the identification of ED in the community. © 2014 The Authors International Journal of Eating Disorders Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2015; 48:312–316) PMID:25504212

  8. Further validation of a measure of proactive and reactive aggression within a clinical child population.

    PubMed

    Fite, Paula J; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani; Gaertner, Alden E

    2009-09-01

    The current study provided further validity for the use of a measure of proactive and reactive aggression that was first developed by Little and his colleagues. Confirmatory factor analyses performed with a high-risk clinical population (N = 107) revealed that the model was a good fit to the data. Structural equation models revealed significant associations in the expected direction between the Little et al. measure and another measure of proactive and reactive aggression developed by Dodge and Coie. Further analyses revealed that the proactive aggression subscales of the Little et al. and Dodge and Coie measures were significantly related to conduct problems. However, the reactive aggression subscale of the Little et al. measure was not related to social problems while both the proactive and reactive aggression subscales of the Dodge and Coie measure were.

  9. 40 CFR 761.392 - Preparing validation study samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Preparing validation study samples..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Comparison Study for Validating a New Performance-Based Decontamination Solvent Under § 761.79(d)(4) § 761.392 Preparing validation study samples. (a)(1) To validate a procedure...

  10. 40 CFR 761.392 - Preparing validation study samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Preparing validation study samples..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Comparison Study for Validating a New Performance-Based Decontamination Solvent Under § 761.79(d)(4) § 761.392 Preparing validation study samples. (a)(1) To validate a procedure...

  11. 40 CFR 761.392 - Preparing validation study samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preparing validation study samples..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Comparison Study for Validating a New Performance-Based Decontamination Solvent Under § 761.79(d)(4) § 761.392 Preparing validation study samples. (a)(1) To validate a procedure...

  12. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equations validation against hydrodensitometry in a Colombian population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; Gonzalez-Correa, C. A.; Gonzalez-Correa, C. H.

    2013-04-01

    Several studies have shown that the accuracy of BIA results depends of ethnicity, age, gender, hormonal and genetic variations and, so far, there are not specific equations for Colombian population. The purpose was to evaluate reported BIA equations to determine their usefulness in body composition assessment in young females from Colombia using hydrodensitometry as the reference method. A sample of 30 young females was evaluated. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined to minimize the variability of BIA. Height, weight, multi-frequency BIA, residual lung volume (RV) and underwater weight (UWW) were measured. Five BIA equations met the inclusion criteria of this study. Three equations overestimated and two equations underestimated body fat (BF). Paired Student t-test and Bland and Altman analysis (p<0.05) showed significant differences in four BIA equations. However, all standard error of estimate (SEE) to BF was greater than 2.7 kg. This study showed that the five selected BIA equations are not valid for estimation of body composition in young females from Colombia. It is recommended to develop BIA equations to improve BF fat assessment in our population.

  13. Validation of the scandinavian stroke scale in a multicultural population in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Luvizutto, Gustavo José; Monteiro, Tamiris Aparecida; Braga, Gabriel; Pontes-Neto, Octavio Marques; de Lima Resende, Luiz Antônio; Bazan, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the consistency, coherence, and interobserver reliability of the Portuguese version of the Scandinavian Stroke Scale (SSS) in a multicultural population of stroke. The SSS was translated, culturally adapted, and applied by two independent investigators. This was a randomized transverse study involving two groups: group 1 included 20 patients in the acute phase and group 2 included 20 patients in the subacute phase after stroke was confirmed by computed tomography with a pre-stroke modified Rankin Scale score of 0. Each patient also underwent National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) evaluation at hospital entry and at the time of the SSS evaluation for correlation with our current standard hospital practice. Consistency and coherence were analyzed by Cronbach's α and interobserver reliability by κ. Forty patients were evaluated with 0.88 consistency and coherence in both stroke phases. Mean interobserver κ was 0.76, with reliability considered excellent and good for most scale items, and moderate for only the facial palsy item. The SSS is adequate and validated to study post-stroke patients in a multicultural Brazilian population and in the Portuguese language.

  14. Validity of self reported utilisation of primary health care services in an urban population in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Bellon, J. A.; Lardelli, P.; Luna, J. d.; Delgado, A.

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To assess the validity and factors related with the validity of self reported numbers of visits to a primary health care centre, in comparison with the recorded number.
DESIGN—Cross sectional study.
SETTING—The urban area served by the Zaidín-Sur Primary Health Care Centre (Granada, Spain).
PARTICIPANTS—Two population samples (236 high users and 420 normal users) who were seen at the centre from 1985 to 1991 were interviewed in 1993.
MAIN RESULTS—A net tendency to overreport the actual number of visits was observed. Absolute concordance between self reported and recorded utilisation decreased as time interval lengthened, although this mainly reflected the increase in maximum variability both with time interval length and with the number of recorded visits. Corrected Spearman ρ coefficients obtained between the number of self reported and recorded visits ranged from 0.602 for the two weeks before the interview to 0.678 for the year before. Regression slopes of self reported utilisation upon recorded utilisation did not change between periods. In multiple regression analyses the actual number of visits was the main factor associated with both underreporting and overreporting. Older age was also significantly associated with underreporting. Poor health status and high satisfaction with health care were significantly associated with overreporting.
CONCLUSIONS—There was a substantial degree of inaccuracy in self reported utilisation, with a net tendency to overreport the number of visits. In relative terms, however, accuracy of self reports did not seem to decrease appreciably as the recall time lengthened. To compare the accuracy of different measures, it is important to take into account the maximum variability of each one. Otherwise, contradictory results may be obtained.


Keywords: self reported utilisation; primary health care; validity PMID:10846198

  15. Development and Validation of a Sudden Cardiac Death Prediction Model for the General Population.

    PubMed

    Deo, Rajat; Norby, Faye L; Katz, Ronit; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Adabag, Selcuk; DeFilippi, Christopher R; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Chen, Lin Y; Heckbert, Susan R; Folsom, Aaron R; Kronmal, Richard A; Konety, Suma; Patton, Kristen K; Siscovick, David; Shlipak, Michael G; Alonso, Alvaro

    2016-09-13

    Most sudden cardiac death (SCD) events occur in the general population among persons who do not have any prior history of clinical heart disease. We sought to develop a predictive model of SCD among US adults. We evaluated a series of demographic, clinical, laboratory, electrocardiographic, and echocardiographic measures in participants in the ARIC study (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) (n=13 677) and the CHS (Cardiovascular Health Study) (n=4207) who were free of baseline cardiovascular disease. Our initial objective was to derive a SCD prediction model using the ARIC cohort and validate it in CHS. Independent risk factors for SCD were first identified in the ARIC cohort to derive a 10-year risk model of SCD. We compared the prediction of SCD with non-SCD and all-cause mortality in both the derivation and validation cohorts. Furthermore, we evaluated whether the SCD prediction equation was better at predicting SCD than the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Cardiovascular Disease Pooled Cohort risk equation. There were a total of 345 adjudicated SCD events in our analyses, and the 12 independent risk factors in the ARIC study included age, male sex, black race, current smoking, systolic blood pressure, use of antihypertensive medication, diabetes mellitus, serum potassium, serum albumin, high-density lipoprotein, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and QTc interval. During a 10-year follow-up period, a model combining these risk factors showed good to excellent discrimination for SCD risk (c-statistic 0.820 in ARIC and 0.745 in CHS). The SCD prediction model was slightly better in predicting SCD than the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Pooled Cohort risk equations (c-statistic 0.808 in ARIC and 0.743 in CHS). Only the SCD prediction model, however, demonstrated similar and accurate prediction for SCD using both the original, uncalibrated score and the recalibrated equation. Finally, in the

  16. Validation of the PROMIS Physical Function Measures in a Diverse U.S. Population-Based Cohort of Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Roxanne E.; Potosky, Arnold L.; Reeve, Bryce B.; Hahn, Elizabeth; Cella, David; Fries, James; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Paddock, Lisa; Moinpour, Carol M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the validity of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function measures in a diverse, population-based cancer sample. Methods Cancer patients 6–13 months post diagnosis (n=4,840) were recruited for the Measuring Your Health (MY-Health) study. Participants were diagnosed between 2010–2013 with non-Hodgkin lymphoma or cancers of the colorectum, lung, breast, uterus, cervix, or prostate. Four PROMIS Physical Function short forms (4a, 6b, 10a, and 16) were evaluated for validity and reliability across age and race-ethnicity groups. Covariates included gender, marital status, education level, cancer site and stage, comorbidities, and functional status. Results PROMIS Physical Function short forms showed high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α =0.92 – 0.96), convergent validity (Fatigue, Pain Interference, FACT Physical Well-Being all r≥0.68) and discriminant validity (unrelated domains all r≤0.3) across survey short forms, age, and race-ethnicity. Known group differences by demographic, clinical, and functional characteristics performed as hypothesized. Ceiling effects for higher-functioning individuals were identified on most forms. Conclusions This study provides strong evidence that PROMIS Physical Function measures are valid and reliable in multiple race-ethnicity and age groups. Researchers selecting specific PROMIS short forms should consider the degree of functional disability in their patient population to ensure that length and content are tailored to limit response burden. PMID:25935353

  17. Validation of the Finnish Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) for Clinical Settings and Total Population Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattila, Marja-Leena; Jussila, Katja; Linna, Sirkka-Liisa; Kielinen, Marko; Bloigu, Risto; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Joskitt, Leena; Ebeling, Hanna; Hurtig, Tuula; Moilanen, Irma

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the validity and determined cut-off scores for the Finnish Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ). A population sample of 8-year-old children (n = 4,408) was rated via the ASSQ by parents and/or teachers, and a subgroup of 104 children was examined via structured interview, semi-structured observation, IQ measurement, school…

  18. Development of Japonica mapping populations to validate GWAS in the rice diversity panel 1

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In order to validate associations identified in the Rice Diversity Panel 1 (RDP1) between SNP markers and 34 phenotypic traits, four bi-parental recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations were developed from Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica accessions that were phenotypically and genotypically diverse. ...

  19. Discriminant validity study of Achilles enthesis ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Expósito Molinero, María Rosa; de Miguel Mendieta, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    We want to know if the ultrasound examination of the Achilles tendon in spondyloarthritis is different compared to other rheumatic diseases. We studied 97 patients divided into five groups: rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis, gout, chondrocalcinosis and osteoarthritis, exploring six elementary lesions in 194 Achilles entheses examined. In our study the total index ultrasonographic Achilles is higher in spondyloarthritis with significant differences. The worst elementary spondyloarthritis lesions for discriminations against other pathologies were calcification. This study aims to demonstrate the discriminant validity of Achilles enthesitis observed by ultrasound in spondyloarthritis compared with other rheumatic diseases that may also have ultrasound abnormalities such enthesis level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  20. Experiences of discrimination: validity and reliability of a self-report measure for population health research on racism and health.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy; Smith, Kevin; Naishadham, Deepa; Hartman, Cathy; Barbeau, Elizabeth M

    2005-10-01

    Population health research on racial discrimination is hampered by a paucity of psychometrically validated instruments that can be feasibly used in large-scale studies. We therefore sought to investigate the validity and reliability of a short self-report instrument, the "Experiences of Discrimination" (EOD) measure, based on a prior instrument used in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Study participants were drawn from a cohort of working class adults, age 25-64, based in the Greater Boston area, Massachusetts (USA). The main study analytic sample included 159 black, 249 Latino, and 208 white participants; the validation study included 98 African American and 110 Latino participants who completed a re-test survey two to four weeks after the initial survey. The main and validation survey instruments included the EOD and several single-item discrimination questions; the validation survey also included the Williams Major and Everyday discrimination measures. Key findings indicated the EOD can be validly and reliably employed. Scale reliability was high, as demonstrated by confirmatory factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha (0.74 or greater), and test-re-test reliability coefficients (0.70). Structural equation modeling demonstrated the EOD had the highest correlation (r=0.79) with an underlying discrimination construct compared to other self-report discrimination measures employed. It was significantly associated with psychological distress and tended to be associated with cigarette smoking among blacks and Latinos, and it was not associated with social desirability in either group. By contrast, single-item measures were notably less reliable and had low correlations with the multi-item measures. These results underscore the need for using validated, multi-item measures of experiences of racial discrimination and suggest the EOD may be one such measure that can be validly employed with working class African Americans and Latino Americans.

  1. Prediction of prostate cancer recurrence using quantitative phase imaging: Validation on a general population

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Shamira; Macias, Virgilia; Tangella, Krishnarao; Melamed, Jonathan; Dube, Emily; Kong, Max Xiangtian; Kajdacsy-Balla, André; Popescu, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Prediction of biochemical recurrence risk of prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy is critical for determining whether the patient would benefit from adjuvant treatments. Various nomograms exist today for identifying individuals at higher risk for recurrence; however, an optimistic under-estimation of recurrence risk is a common problem associated with these methods. We previously showed that anisotropy of light scattering measured using quantitative phase imaging, in the stromal layer adjacent to cancerous glands, is predictive of recurrence. That nested-case controlled study consisted of specimens specifically chosen such that the current prognostic methods fail. Here we report on validating the utility of optical anisotropy for prediction of prostate cancer recurrence in a general population of 192 patients, with 17% probability of recurrence. Our results show that our method can identify recurrent cases with 73% sensitivity and 72% specificity, which is comparable to that of CAPRA-S, a current state of the art method, in the same population. However, our results show that optical anisotropy outperforms CAPRA-S for patients with Gleason grades 7–10. In essence, we demonstrate that anisotropy is a better biomarker for identifying high-risk cases, while Gleason grade is better suited for selecting non-recurrence. Therefore, we propose that anisotropy and current techniques be used together to maximize prediction accuracy. PMID:27658807

  2. Prediction of prostate cancer recurrence using quantitative phase imaging: Validation on a general population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, Shamira; Macias, Virgilia; Tangella, Krishnarao; Melamed, Jonathan; Dube, Emily; Kong, Max Xiangtian; Kajdacsy-Balla, André; Popescu, Gabriel

    2016-09-01

    Prediction of biochemical recurrence risk of prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy is critical for determining whether the patient would benefit from adjuvant treatments. Various nomograms exist today for identifying individuals at higher risk for recurrence; however, an optimistic under-estimation of recurrence risk is a common problem associated with these methods. We previously showed that anisotropy of light scattering measured using quantitative phase imaging, in the stromal layer adjacent to cancerous glands, is predictive of recurrence. That nested-case controlled study consisted of specimens specifically chosen such that the current prognostic methods fail. Here we report on validating the utility of optical anisotropy for prediction of prostate cancer recurrence in a general population of 192 patients, with 17% probability of recurrence. Our results show that our method can identify recurrent cases with 73% sensitivity and 72% specificity, which is comparable to that of CAPRA-S, a current state of the art method, in the same population. However, our results show that optical anisotropy outperforms CAPRA-S for patients with Gleason grades 7–10. In essence, we demonstrate that anisotropy is a better biomarker for identifying high-risk cases, while Gleason grade is better suited for selecting non-recurrence. Therefore, we propose that anisotropy and current techniques be used together to maximize prediction accuracy.

  3. Validation of the Socially Acceptable Behaviour (SAB) test in a Central‑Italy pet dog population.

    PubMed

    Dalla Villa, Paolo; Barnard, Shanis; Di Nardo, Antonio; Iannetti, Luigi; Podaliri Vulpiani, Michele; Trentini, Roberto; Serpell, James A; Siracusa, Carlo

    2017-03-31

    Aggressiveness is reported to be the most important public health issue related to both owned and free‑roaming dogs. Common approaches to assess canine aggressiveness are temperament tests. The main aim of this study was to evaluate whether one such test, the Socially Acceptable Behaviour (SAB) test, created to evaluate aggressive and fearful behaviour in dogs in the Netherlands, could be used reliably to assess dog aggression and fear in a population of owned dogs in Central Italy. Reactions to the test were recorded and compared to the owners' perception of their dog's aggressiveness using a validated questionnaire (C‑BARQ). Dogs showing aggressive reactions during the test obtained significantly higher (more aggressive) scores on the C‑BARQ subscales 'stranger‑directed aggression' (SDA p<0.001), 'owner‑directed aggression' (ODA p = 0.03), and 'familiar dog aggression' (FDA p = 0.006), than dogs who did not react aggressively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that 7 of the SAB‑subtests were predictive of the SDA score. The findings indicated that aggression directed toward unfamiliar people can be reliably assessed using the SAB test for a population of Italian pet dogs.

  4. Normative data and discriminant validity of Rey's Verbal Learning Test for the Greek adult population.

    PubMed

    Messinis, Lambros; Tsakona, Ioanna; Malefaki, Sonia; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2007-08-01

    The present study sought to establish normative and discriminant validity data for Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test [Rey, A. (1964). L 'examen clinique en psychologie [Clinical tests in psychology]. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France; Schmidt, M. (1996). Rey auditory verbal learning test: A handbook. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services] using newly adapted learning lists for the Greek adult population. Applying the procedure suggested by Geffen et al. [Geffen, G., Moar, K. J., O'Hanlon, A. P., Clark, C. R., & Geffen, L. N. (1990). Performance measures of 16-86-year-old males and females on the auditory verbal learning test. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 4, 45-63] we administered the test to 205 healthy participants, aged 18-78 years and two adult patient groups (long-term cannabis users and HIV symptomatic patients). Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that the variables age, education and gender contributed significantly to most trials of the RAVLT. Performance decreased in an age-dependent manner from young adulthood. Women, young adults and higher educated participants outperformed men, older adults and less educated individuals. The test appears to discriminate adequately between the performance of long-term heavy cannabis users and HIV seropositive symptomatic patients and matched healthy controls, as both patient groups performed more poorly than their respective control group. Normative data stratified by age, gender and education for the Greek adult population is presented for use in research and clinical settings.

  5. Utilizing Existing Clinical and Population Biospecimen Resources for Discovery or Validation of Markers for Early Cancer Detection

    Cancer.gov

    Utilizing Existing Clinical and Population Biospecimen Resources for Discovery or Validation of Markers for Early Cancer Detection, a 2013 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  6. An Overlooked Population in Community College: International Students' (In)Validation Experiences With Academic Advising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Guided by validation theory, this study aims to better understand the role that academic advising plays in international community college students' adjustment. More specifically, this study investigated how academic advising validates or invalidates their academic and social experiences in a community college context. Method: This…

  7. An Overlooked Population in Community College: International Students' (In)Validation Experiences With Academic Advising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Guided by validation theory, this study aims to better understand the role that academic advising plays in international community college students' adjustment. More specifically, this study investigated how academic advising validates or invalidates their academic and social experiences in a community college context. Method: This…

  8. Development and Validation of Chinese Health Literacy Scale for Low Salt Consumption - Hong Kong Population (CHLSalt-HK)

    PubMed Central

    Chau, PH; Leung, Angela Y. M.; Li, Holly L. H.; Sea, Mandy; Chan, Ruth; Woo, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Globally, sodium intake far exceeds the level recommended by the World Health Organization. Assessing health literacy related to salt consumption among older adults could guide the development of interventions that target their knowledge gaps, misconceptions, or poor dietary practices. This study aimed to develop and validate the Chinese Health Literacy Scale for Low Salt Consumption - Hong Kong population (CHLSalt-HK). Based on previous studies on salt intake and nutrition label reading in other countries, we developed similar questions that were appropriate for the Chinese population in Hong Kong. The questions covered the following eight broad areas: functional literacy (term recognition and nutrition label reading), knowledge of the salt content of foods, knowledge of the diseases related to high salt intake, knowledge of international standards, myths about salt intake, attitudes toward salt intake, salty food consumption practices, and nutrition label reading practices. Eight professionals, including doctors, nurses, and dietitians, provided feedback on the scale. The psychometric properties of the scale were assessed based on data collected from a convenience sample of 603 Chinese elderly adults recruited from Elderly Health Centres in Hong Kong. The 49-item CHLSalt-HK had a possible score range of 0 to 98, with a higher score indicating higher health literacy related to salt intake. The CHLSalt-HK had acceptable content validity; the item-level Content Validity Index ranged from 0.857 to 1.000, and the scale-level Content Validity Index was 0.994. Additionally, it had good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of 0.799) and good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.846). The mean CHLSalt-HK score among those who were aware of the public education slogan about nutrition labels and sodium intake was higher by 3.928 points (95% confidence interval: 1.742 to 6.115) than that among those who were not aware of the slogan, which

  9. Development and Validation of Chinese Health Literacy Scale for Low Salt Consumption-Hong Kong Population (CHLSalt-HK).

    PubMed

    Chau, P H; Leung, Angela Y M; Li, Holly L H; Sea, Mandy; Chan, Ruth; Woo, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Globally, sodium intake far exceeds the level recommended by the World Health Organization. Assessing health literacy related to salt consumption among older adults could guide the development of interventions that target their knowledge gaps, misconceptions, or poor dietary practices. This study aimed to develop and validate the Chinese Health Literacy Scale for Low Salt Consumption-Hong Kong population (CHLSalt-HK). Based on previous studies on salt intake and nutrition label reading in other countries, we developed similar questions that were appropriate for the Chinese population in Hong Kong. The questions covered the following eight broad areas: functional literacy (term recognition and nutrition label reading), knowledge of the salt content of foods, knowledge of the diseases related to high salt intake, knowledge of international standards, myths about salt intake, attitudes toward salt intake, salty food consumption practices, and nutrition label reading practices. Eight professionals, including doctors, nurses, and dietitians, provided feedback on the scale. The psychometric properties of the scale were assessed based on data collected from a convenience sample of 603 Chinese elderly adults recruited from Elderly Health Centres in Hong Kong. The 49-item CHLSalt-HK had a possible score range of 0 to 98, with a higher score indicating higher health literacy related to salt intake. The CHLSalt-HK had acceptable content validity; the item-level Content Validity Index ranged from 0.857 to 1.000, and the scale-level Content Validity Index was 0.994. Additionally, it had good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of 0.799) and good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.846). The mean CHLSalt-HK score among those who were aware of the public education slogan about nutrition labels and sodium intake was higher by 3.928 points (95% confidence interval: 1.742 to 6.115) than that among those who were not aware of the slogan, which supports

  10. A Study of the Criterion Validity of the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Alberto Luis; Scheffel, Debora L.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluated the criterion validity of the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (S. Mattis, 1988) with a concurrent study to obtain a cut-off score for an Argentinean population by administering a battery of tests to 60 memory disorder patients. Findings demonstrate high convergent validity with another measure and show an appropriate cut score for use with…

  11. The validity and reliability of the four square step test in different adult populations: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Moore, Martha; Barker, Karen

    2017-09-11

    The four square step test (FSST) was first validated in healthy older adults to provide a measure of dynamic standing balance and mobility. The FSST has since been used in a variety of patient populations. The purpose of this systematic review is to determine the validity and reliability of the FSST in these different adult patient populations. The literature search was conducted to highlight all the studies that measured validity and reliability of the FSST. Six electronic databases were searched including AMED, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PEDro, Web of Science and Google Scholar. Grey literature was also searched for any documents relevant to the review. Two independent reviewers carried out study selection and quality assessment. The methodological quality was assessed using the QUADAS-2 tool, which is a validated tool for the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies, and the COSMIN four-point checklist, which contains standards for evaluating reliability studies on the measurement properties of health instruments. Fifteen studies were reviewed studying community-dwelling older adults, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, vestibular disorders, post stroke, post unilateral transtibial amputation, knee pain and hip osteoarthritis. Three of the studies were of moderate methodological quality scoring low in risk of bias and applicability for all domains in the QUADAS-2 tool. Three studies scored "fair" on the COSMIN four-point checklist for the reliability components. The concurrent validity of the FSST was measured in nine of the studies with moderate to strong correlations being found. Excellent Intraclass Correlation Coefficients were found between physiotherapists carrying out the tests (ICC = .99) with good to excellent test-retest reliability shown in nine of the studies (ICC = .73-.98). The FSST may be an effective and valid tool for measuring dynamic balance and a participants' falls risk. It has been shown to have strong

  12. Long-term monitoring of endangered Laysan ducks: Index validation and population estimates 1998–2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Courtot, Karen; Brinck, Kevin W.; Rehkemper, Cynthia; Hatfield, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring endangered wildlife is essential to assessing management or recovery objectives and learning about population status. We tested assumptions of a population index for endangered Laysan duck (or teal; Anas laysanensis) monitored using mark–resight methods on Laysan Island, Hawai’i. We marked 723 Laysan ducks between 1998 and 2009 and identified seasonal surveys through 2012 that met accuracy and precision criteria for estimating population abundance. Our results provide a 15-y time series of seasonal population estimates at Laysan Island. We found differences in detection among seasons and how observed counts related to population estimates. The highest counts and the strongest relationship between count and population estimates occurred in autumn (September–November). The best autumn surveys yielded population abundance estimates that ranged from 674 (95% CI = 619–730) in 2003 to 339 (95% CI = 265–413) in 2012. A population decline of 42% was observed between 2010 and 2012 after consecutive storms and Japan’s To¯hoku earthquake-generated tsunami in 2011. Our results show positive correlations between the seasonal maximum counts and population estimates from the same date, and support the use of standardized bimonthly counts of unmarked birds as a valid index to monitor trends among years within a season at Laysan Island.

  13. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... circumstances concerning the study, including the validation strategy used, and changes in the relevant labor... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General standards for validity studies. 1607.5 Section 1607... studies. A. Acceptable types of validity studies. For the purposes of satisfying these guidelines, users...

  14. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... circumstances concerning the study, including the validation strategy used, and changes in the relevant labor... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General standards for validity studies. 1607.5 Section 1607... studies. A. Acceptable types of validity studies. For the purposes of satisfying these guidelines, users...

  15. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... circumstances concerning the study, including the validation strategy used, and changes in the relevant labor... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General standards for validity studies. 1607.5 Section 1607... studies. A. Acceptable types of validity studies. For the purposes of satisfying these guidelines, users...

  16. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... circumstances concerning the study, including the validation strategy used, and changes in the relevant labor... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General standards for validity studies. 1607.5 Section 1607... studies. A. Acceptable types of validity studies. For the purposes of satisfying these guidelines, users...

  17. Validation study of Polar V800 accelerometer

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Vicente, Adrián; De Cocker, Katrien; Garatachea, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    Background The correct quantification of physical activity (PA) and energy expenditure (EE) in daily life is an important target for researchers and professionals. The objective of this paper is to study the validity of the Polar V800 for the quantification of PA and the estimation of EE against the ActiGraph (ActiTrainer) in healthy young adults. Methods Eighteen Caucasian active people (50% women) aged between 19–23 years wore an ActiTrainer on the right hip and a Polar V800 on the preferred wrist during 7 days. Paired samples t-tests were used to analyze differences in outcomes between devices, and Pearson’s correlation coefficients to examine the correlation between outcomes. The agreement was studied using the Bland-Altman method. Also, the association between the difference and the magnitude of the measurement (heteroscedasticity) was examined. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC value) were calculated to evaluate the ability of the devices to accurately define a person who fulfills the recommendation of 10,000 daily steps. Results The devices significantly differed from each other on all outcomes (P<0.05), except for Polar V800’s alerts vs. ActiTrainer’s 1 hour sedentary bouts (P=0.595) and Polar V800’s walking time vs. ActiTrainer’s lifestyle time (P=0.484). Heteroscedasticity analyses were significant for all outcomes, except for Kcal and sitting time. The ROC-AUC value was fair (0.781±0.048) and the sensitivity and specificity was 98% and 58%, respectively. Conclusions The Polar V800 accelerometer has a comparable validity to the accelerometer in free-living conditions, regarding “1 hour sedentary bouts” and “V800’s walking time vs. ActiTrainer’s lifestyle time” in young adults. PMID:27570772

  18. Validation study of Polar V800 accelerometer.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Vicente, Adrián; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; De Cocker, Katrien; Garatachea, Nuria

    2016-08-01

    The correct quantification of physical activity (PA) and energy expenditure (EE) in daily life is an important target for researchers and professionals. The objective of this paper is to study the validity of the Polar V800 for the quantification of PA and the estimation of EE against the ActiGraph (ActiTrainer) in healthy young adults. Eighteen Caucasian active people (50% women) aged between 19-23 years wore an ActiTrainer on the right hip and a Polar V800 on the preferred wrist during 7 days. Paired samples t-tests were used to analyze differences in outcomes between devices, and Pearson's correlation coefficients to examine the correlation between outcomes. The agreement was studied using the Bland-Altman method. Also, the association between the difference and the magnitude of the measurement (heteroscedasticity) was examined. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC value) were calculated to evaluate the ability of the devices to accurately define a person who fulfills the recommendation of 10,000 daily steps. The devices significantly differed from each other on all outcomes (P<0.05), except for Polar V800's alerts vs. ActiTrainer's 1 hour sedentary bouts (P=0.595) and Polar V800's walking time vs. ActiTrainer's lifestyle time (P=0.484). Heteroscedasticity analyses were significant for all outcomes, except for Kcal and sitting time. The ROC-AUC value was fair (0.781±0.048) and the sensitivity and specificity was 98% and 58%, respectively. The Polar V800 accelerometer has a comparable validity to the accelerometer in free-living conditions, regarding "1 hour sedentary bouts" and "V800's walking time vs. ActiTrainer's lifestyle time" in young adults.

  19. Validation Studies for the Diet History Questionnaire II

    Cancer.gov

    Data show that the DHQ I instrument provides reasonable nutrient estimates, and three studies were conducted to assess its validity/calibration. There have been no such validation studies with the DHQ II.

  20. The validity of blood pressure kiosk validation studies: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Al Hamarneh, Yazid N; Houle, Sherilyn K D; Chatterley, Patricia; Tsuyuki, Ross T

    2013-06-01

    Public-use blood pressure (BP) kiosks are commonly used, and yet their accuracy has been questioned on the basis of the results of the published validation studies. However, the adherence of these studies to established validation standards has not been studied. We carried out a systematic review of the published peer-reviewed literature on the validity of public-use BP kiosks to assess their adherence to validation standards. With medical librarian assistance, the literature was searched systematically for studies claiming to validate kiosks up to June 2012. Studies were limited to English articles that studied adult patients and were excluded if they were carried out solely on pregnant women. Two authors independently compared the study methods with those recommended in the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, British Hypertension Society and the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol validation standards. Nine studies were identified, of which only one came close to adhering to selected validation standard criteria, and found the device to be accurate. One study found device accuracy with poor adherence to standards, whereas the remaining seven found device inaccuracy with poor adherence to standards, therefore potentially reporting false conclusions. The majority of the reviewed studies validating public-use BP kiosks did not adhere to existing validation standards and therefore may have reported false conclusions. The one study that came close to following the validation standards found the device tested to be accurate. Readers must critically appraise the quality of validation studies published on these devices before interpreting their accuracy, and future studies should better adhere to existing validation standards to reduce the risk of reporting potentially false conclusions.

  1. Validation of the 12-Item Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Scale in a Bi-ethnic Stroke Population

    PubMed Central

    Kerber, Kevin A.; Brown, Devin L.; Skolarus, Lesli E.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Smith, Melinda A.; Garcia, Nelda M.; Lisabeth, Lynda D.

    2012-01-01

    Background The 12-item Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Scale (SSQOL), a shortened version of the original SSQOL, was developed to be an efficient and valid outcome in stroke research. We aimed to assess the validity of this scale in a bi-ethnic ischemic stroke population. Methods From a population-based study, the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi Project, validated ischemic stroke patients who completed the 49-item SSQOL at 90 days post-stroke were identified. Cronbach’s alpha was used to assess internal consistency of the scales. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and linear regression were used to assess agreement between the two scales. Results Of the 45 ischemic stroke patients, mean age was 66.0 years (SD, 11.3). Fifty-six percent were female and 51% were Mexican American. The mean score of the 49-item scale was 3.33 (SD, 0.84) compared with 3.31 (SD, 0.95) from the 12-item scale. Internal consistency was 0.96 for the 49-item scale and 0.88 for the 12-item scale. The two scales were highly correlated (ICC= 0.98, R2 =0.97). Conclusions This study in ischemic stroke patients from diverse race-ethnic backgrounds found that the more efficient 12-item SSQOL is a valid alternative to the full scale for the assessment of health-related quality of life. PMID:22995379

  2. Methodological problems with population cancer studies: The forgotten confounding factors.

    PubMed

    Blaylock, Russell L

    2015-01-01

    Among clinical physicians it is the population study that is considered to be the "gold standard" of medical evidence concerning acceptable treatments. As new information comes to light concerning the many variables and confounding factors that can affect such studies, many older studies lose much of their original impact. While newer population studies take into consideration a far greater number of confounding factors many are still omitted and a number of these omitted factors can have profound effects on interpretation and validity of the study. In this editorial, I will discuss some of the omitted confounding factors and demonstrate how they can alter the interpretation of these papers and their clinical application.

  3. 29 CFR 1607.7 - Use of other validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of other validity studies. 1607.7 Section 1607.7 Labor... EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 1607.7 Use of other validity studies. A. Validity studies not conducted by the user. Users may, under certain circumstances, support the use of selection...

  4. 40 CFR 761.395 - A validation study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false A validation study. 761.395 Section... PROHIBITIONS Comparison Study for Validating a New Performance-Based Decontamination Solvent Under § 761.79(d)(4) § 761.395 A validation study. (a) Decontaminate the following prepared sample surfaces using...

  5. 40 CFR 761.395 - A validation study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false A validation study. 761.395 Section... PROHIBITIONS Comparison Study for Validating a New Performance-Based Decontamination Solvent Under § 761.79(d)(4) § 761.395 A validation study. (a) Decontaminate the following prepared sample surfaces using...

  6. 40 CFR 761.395 - A validation study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false A validation study. 761.395 Section... PROHIBITIONS Comparison Study for Validating a New Performance-Based Decontamination Solvent Under § 761.79(d)(4) § 761.395 A validation study. (a) Decontaminate the following prepared sample surfaces using...

  7. Adaptation and validation of the Michigan Incontinence Severity Index in a Turkish population

    PubMed Central

    Sargın, Mehmet Akif; Yassa, Murat; Taymur, Bilge Dogan; Ergun, Emrah; Akca, Gizem; Tug, Niyazi

    2016-01-01

    The translated and cross-culturally adapted M-ISI showed good validity, reproducibility, and reliability that allow its use in Turkish-speaking populations with urinary incontinence. Its comprehensive structure means that it has become a practical instrument that is available for utilization in the primary health care setting, clinical research, and epidemiological trials in Turkey. PMID:27307713

  8. Preliminary validation of the Defense and Veterans Pain Rating Scale (DVPRS) in a military population.

    PubMed

    Buckenmaier, Chester C; Galloway, Kevin T; Polomano, Rosemary C; McDuffie, Mary; Kwon, Nancy; Gallagher, Rollin M

    2013-01-01

    The Army Surgeon General released the Pain Management Task Force final report in May 2010. Among military providers, concerns were raised that the standard numeric rating scale (NRS) for pain was inconsistently administered and of questionable clinical value. In response, the Defense and Veterans Pain Rating Scale (DVPRS) was developed. The instrument design integrates pain rating scale features to improve interpretability of incremental pain intensity levels, and to improve communication and documentation across all transitions of care. A convenience sample of 350 inpatient and outpatient active duty or retired military service members participated in the study at Walter Reed Army Medical Center. Participants completed the five-item DVPRS-one pain intensity NRS with and without word descriptors presented in random order and four supplemental items measuring general activity, sleep, mood, and level of stress and the Brief Pain Inventory seven interference items. Using systematic sampling, a random sample was selected for a word descriptor validation procedure matching word phases to corresponding pain intensity on the NRS. Parallel forms reliability and concurrent validity testing demonstrated a robust correlation. When the DVPRS was presented with the word descriptors first, the correlation between the two ratings was slightly higher, r = 0.929 (N = 171; P < 0.001), than ordering first without the descriptors, r = 0.882 (N = 177; P < 0.001). Intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.943 showing excellent alignment of word descriptors by respondents (N = 42), matching them correctly with pain level. The DVPRS tool demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties in a military population. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. [Validation of an HIV and other sexually transmitted infections knowledge scale in an adolescent population].

    PubMed

    Espada, José Pedro; Guillén-Riquelme, Alejandro; Morales, Alexandra; Orgilés, Mireia; Sierra, Juan Carlos

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this research is to determine the validity and reliability of a questionnaire designed to specifically assess the knowledge of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in a Spanish adolescent population. Cross-sectional study for the validation of a questionnaire. A total of 17 schools in five Spanish provinces. A total of 1,570 adolescent schoolchildren between 13 and 17 years old. A pool of 40 items relating to knowledge about HIV and other sexually transmitted infections was established. This pool was analyzed by an expert panel. It was then administered to a pilot group with the same demographic characteristics of the sample, to ensure comprehension. Item analysis, internal consistency, test/retest and exploratory factorial analysis. A factor analysis was performed, in which five factors that explained 46% of the total variance were retained: general knowledge about HIV, condom as a protective method, routes of HIV transmission, the prevention of HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections. Reliability measures ranged from 0.66 to 0.88. The test-retest correlation was 0.59. There were gender differences in the knowledge of infections. These factors have adequate internal consistency and acceptable test-retest correlation. Theoretically, these factors fit properly with the content of the items. The factors have a moderate relationship, indicating that a high degree of knowledge about an aspect, but not a guarantee of general knowledge. The availability of a questionnaire to assess knowledge of sexually transmitted infections is helpful to evaluate prevention programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Predicting high-cost pediatric patients: derivation and validation of a population-based model.

    PubMed

    Leininger, Lindsey J; Saloner, Brendan; Wherry, Laura R

    2015-08-01

    Health care administrators often lack feasible methods to prospectively identify new pediatric patients with high health care needs, precluding the ability to proactively target appropriate population health management programs to these children. To develop and validate a predictive model identifying high-cost pediatric patients using parent-reported health (PRH) measures that can be easily collected in clinical and administrative settings. Retrospective cohort study using 2-year panel data from the 2001 to 2011 rounds of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. A total of 24,163 children aged 5-17 with family incomes below 400% of the federal poverty line were included in this study. Predictive performance, including the c-statistic, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values, of multivariate logistic regression models predicting top-decile health care expenditures over a 1-year period. Seven independent domains of PRH measures were tested for predictive capacity relative to basic sociodemographic information: the Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN) Screener; subjectively rated health status; prior year health care utilization; behavioral problems; asthma diagnosis; access to health care; and parental health status and access to care. The CSHCN screener and prior year utilization domains exhibited the highest incremental predictive gains over the baseline model. A model including sociodemographic characteristics, the CSHCN screener, and prior year utilization had a c-statistic of 0.73 (95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.74), surpassing the commonly used threshold to establish sufficient predictive capacity (c-statistic>0.70). The proposed prediction tool, comprising a simple series of PRH measures, accurately stratifies pediatric populations by their risk of incurring high health care costs.

  11. The Lyon Clinical Olfactory Test: Validation and Measurement of Hyposmia and Anosmia in Healthy and Diseased Populations

    PubMed Central

    Rouby, Catherine; Thomas-Danguin, Thierry; Vigouroux, Michel; Ciuperca, Gabriela; Jiang, Tao; Alexanian, Jérôme; Barges, Mathieu; Gallice, Isabelle; Degraix, Jean-Louis; Sicard, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    The LCOT is a self-administered test designed to assess olfactory deficits. Altogether, 525 subjects contributed to the validation. Elderly participants were well represented in this sample. In a validation study (study 1), 407 healthy and 17 anosmic volunteers between 15 and 91 years of age underwent threshold, supraliminal detection, and identification testing. Cutoff values for normosmia and hyposmia were calculated and applied in a second study in a group of patients with smell complaints and in a group of Alzheimer patients with age-matched controls. Incidence of smell deficit was estimated at 5.6% in the healthy population of study 1, and at 16% in the elderly control group of study 2. Assessment of the ability of each subtest to discriminate between groups showed that LCOT is relevant to differentiating between perception and identification deficits and between Alzheimer's and hyposmic patients. PMID:22046188

  12. Validity of the Addiction Severity Index (adapted version) in a Costa Rican population group.

    PubMed

    Sandí Esquivel, L E; Avila Corrales, K

    1990-01-01

    Until recently, no adapted and validated instrument was available for assessing the alcohol and drug problems of individuals in Costa Rica. This article reports the results of a study performed by Costa Rica's Institute on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence in order to test an adapted version of one such instrument, the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), in a Costa Rican setting. The instrument was used to interview 100 male subjects 18 to 64 years old (51 with diagnosed alcohol or drug problems and 49 controls). In general, the subjects with previously diagnosed alcohol or drug problems were assigned substantially higher scores. More specifically, statistical analysis indicated highly significant correlations (p less than 0.001) between the type of subject (test subject or control) and the likelihood that noteworthy problems would be found in the areas of alcohol use, family/social relations, work/finances, and psychological status. Overall, the study demonstrated that the instrument was capable of distinguishing between the affected and unaffected populations, and also of gauging the severity of the problems involved and the patients' treatment needs.

  13. FETAX interlaboratory validation study: Phase 2 testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bantle, J.A. . Dept. of Zoology); Burton, D.T. ); Dawson, D.A. . Dept. of Biology and Toxicology)

    1994-10-01

    The Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX) is a 96-h whole embryo developmental toxicity screening assay that can be used in ecotoxicology and in detecting mammalian developmental toxicants when an in vitro metabolic activation system is employed. A standardized American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) guide for the conduct of FETAX has been published along with a companion atlas that helps in embryo staging and identifying malformations. As part of the ASTM process, an interlaboratory validation study was undertaken to evaluate the repeatability and reliability of FETAX. Six different laboratories participated in the study. Each laboratory utilized one technician with the exception of one laboratory, which utilized two independent technicians. In Phase 1, FETAX proved to be more repeatable and reliable than many other bioassays. However, some excessive variation was observed in a few laboratories. Some of this variation may have been due to an initial lack of experience with the assay by some technicians. Phase 2, which is reported here, showed far less intralaboratory and interlaboratory variability than did Phase 1. Nonteratogens such as saccharin and sodium cyclamate showed the most consistent results, whereas more variability was observed for the teratogens caffeine and 5-fluorouracil. Interlaboratory coefficient of variation values for all FETAX end points ranged from 7.3 to 54.7%. The minimum concentration to inhibit growth proved to be the most variable end point for three of the four test chemicals, whereas the LC50 and EC50 (malformation) proved to be less variable.

  14. Validation of self-reported health literacy questions among diverse English and Spanish-speaking populations.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Urmimala; Schillinger, Dean; López, Andrea; Sudore, Rebecca

    2011-03-01

    Limited health literacy (HL) contributes to poor health outcomes and disparities, and direct measurement is often time-intensive. Self-reported HL questions have not been validated among Spanish-speaking and diverse English-speaking populations. To evaluate three self-reported questions: 1 "How confident are you filling out medical forms?"; 2 "How often do you have problems learning about your medical condition because of difficulty understanding written information?"; and 3 "How often do you have someone help you read hospital materials?" Answers were based on a 5-point Likert scale. This was a validation study nested within a trial of diabetes self-management support in the San Francisco Department of Public Health. English and Spanish-speaking adults with type 2 diabetes receiving primary care. Using the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (s-TOFHLA) in English and Spanish as the reference, we classified HL as inadequate, marginal, or adequate. We calculated the C-index and test characteristics of the three questions and summative scale compared to the s-TOFHLA and assessed variations in performance by language, race/ethnicity, age, and education. Of 296 participants, 48% were Spanish-speaking; 9% were White, non-Hispanic; 47% had inadequate HL and 12% had marginal HL. Overall, 57% reported being confident with forms "somewhat" or less. The "confident with forms" question performed best for detecting inadequate (C-index = 0.82, (0.77-0.87)) and inadequate plus marginal HL (C index = 0.81, (0.76-0.86); p<0.01 for differences from other questions), and performed comparably to the summative scale. The "confident with forms" question and scale also performed best across language, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and age. A single self-reported HL question about confidence with forms and a summative scale of three questions discriminated between Spanish and English speakers with adequate HL and those with inadequate and/or inadequate plus marginal HL

  15. Validity of Self-Reported Physical Fitness and Body Mass Index in a Military Population.

    PubMed

    Martin, Robyn C; Grier, Tyson; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Anderson, Morgan K; Bushman, Timothy T; DeGroot, David W; Jones, Bruce H

    2016-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies rely on valid physical fitness data. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the validity of self-reported Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) data and determine whether men and women recall APFT performance differently. U.S. Army soldiers (N = 1,047) completed a survey, including questions on height, weight, and most recent APFT performance. Height, weight, and APFT performance were also obtained from unit records. The mean ± SDs for unit and self-reported push-up repetitions were 63.5 ± 13.1 and 66.3 ± 14.0 for men and 37.7 ± 12.8 and 40.2 ± 12.8 for women, respectively. The mean ± SD for unit- and self-reported sit-up repetitions were 66.3 ± 11.4 and 68.1 ± 12.1 for men and 64.2 ± 13.6 and 66.5 ± 12.9 for women, respectively. The mean ± SD unit- and self-reported 2-mile run times were 15.2 ± 1.8 and 14.9 ± 1.6 minutes for men, and 18.0 ± 2.9 and 17.4 ± 1.9 minutes for women, respectively. Unit- and self-reported body mass indices (BMIs) (calculated by height and weight) were 26.4 ± 3.4 and 26.3 ± 3.6 for men and 24.6 ± 2.8 and 24.2 ± 3.3 for women. Correlations between unit- and self-reported scores for push-ups, sit-ups, 2-mile run, height, weight, and BMI were 0.82, 0.78, 0.85, 0.87, 0.97, and 0.88 for men and 0.86, 0.84, 0.87, 0.78, 0.98, and 0.78 for women, respectively. On average, men and women slightly overreported performance on the APFT and overestimated height, resulting in underestimated BMI. There was no difference in recall ability between men and women (p > 0.05). The very good to excellent correlations (r = 0.78-0.98) between unit- and self-reported scores indicate that self-reported data are valid for capturing physical fitness performance in this population.

  16. Rapid estimation of Aedes aegypti population size using simulation modeling, with a novel approach to calibration and field validation.

    PubMed

    Williams, Craig R; Johnson, Petrina H; Long, Sharron A; Rapley, Luke P; Ritchie, Scott A

    2008-11-01

    New approaches for control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (L.) are being developed, including the potential introduction of life-shortening symbiont bacteria into field populations and the release of transgenic strains with reduced vector competency. With these new approaches comes the need for rapid estimations of existing field population size. Here, we describe the use of simulation modeling with container-inhabiting mosquito simulation (CIMSiM) for estimation of Ae. aegypti pupal crop size in north Queensland, Australia. CIMSiM was calibrated for local conditions by deploying "sentinel key containers" (tire, 2-liter plastic bucket, 0.6-liter pot plant base, and tarpaulin indentation) in which water flux and pupal productivity were studied for 72 d. Iterative adjustment of CIMSiM parameters was used to fit model outputs to match that of sentinel key containers. This calibrated model was then used in a blind field validation, in which breeding container and local meteorological data were used to populate CIMSiM, and model outputs were compared with a field pupal survey. Actual pupae per ha during two 10-d periods in 2007 fell within 95% confidence intervals of simulated pupal crop estimates made by 10 replicate simulations in CIMSiM, thus providing a successful field validation. Although the stochasticity of the field environment can never be wholly simulated, CIMSiM can provide field-validated estimates of pupal crop in a timely manner by using simple container surveys.

  17. The global status of freshwater fish age validation studies and a prioritization framework for future research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Kevin L.; Hamel, Martin J.; Pegg, Mark A.; Spurgeon, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Age information derived from calcified structures is commonly used to estimate recruitment, growth, and mortality for fish populations. Validation of daily or annual marks on age structures is often assumed, presumably due to a lack of general knowledge concerning the status of age validation studies. Therefore, the current status of freshwater fish age validation studies was summarized to show where additional effort is needed, and increase the accessibility of validation studies to researchers. In total, 1351 original peer-reviewed articles were reviewed from freshwater systems that studied age in fish. Periodicity and age validation studies were found for 88 freshwater species comprising 21 fish families. The number of age validation studies has increased over the last 30 years following previous calls for more research; however, few species have validated structures spanning all life stages. In addition, few fishes of conservation concern have validated ageing structures. A prioritization framework, using a combination of eight characteristics, is offered to direct future age validation studies and close the validation information gap. Additional study, using the offered prioritization framework, and increased availability of published studies that incorporate uncertainty when presenting research results dealing with age information are needed.

  18. Validation of Screening Questions for Limited Health Literacy in a Large VA Outpatient Population

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Joan M.; Partin, Melissa R.; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Grill, Joseph P.; Snyder, Annamay; Bradley, Katharine A.; Nugent, Sean M.; Baines, Alisha D.; VanRyn, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies have shown that a single question may identify individuals with inadequate health literacy. We evaluated and compared the performance of 3 health literacy screening questions for detecting patients with inadequate or marginal health literacy in a large VA population. Methods We conducted in-person interviews among a random sample of patients from 4 VA medical centers that included 3 health literacy screening questions and 2 validated health literacy measures. Patients were classified as having inadequate, marginal, or adequate health literacy based on the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA) and the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM). We evaluated the ability of each of 3 questions to detect: 1) inadequate and the combination of “inadequate or marginal” health literacy based on the S-TOFHLA and 2) inadequate and the combination of “inadequate or marginal” health literacy based on the REALM. Measurements and Main Results Of 4,384 patients, 1,796 (41%) completed interviews. The prevalences of inadequate health literacy were 6.8% and 4.2%, based on the S-TOHFLA and REALM, respectively. Comparable prevalences for marginal health literacy were 7.4% and 17%, respectively. For detecting inadequate health literacy, “How confident are you filling out medical forms by yourself?” had the largest area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (AUROC) of 0.74 (95% CI: 0.69–0.79) and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.79–0.89) based on the S-TOFHLA and REALM, respectively. AUROCs were lower for detecting “inadequate or marginal” health literacy than for detecting inadequate health literacy for each of the 3 questions. Conclusion A single question may be useful for detecting patients with inadequate health literacy in a VA population. PMID:18335281

  19. Validation of trauma scales: ISS, NISS, RTS and TRISS for predicting mortality in a Colombian population.

    PubMed

    Valderrama-Molina, Carlos Oliver; Giraldo, Nelson; Constain, Alfredo; Puerta, Andres; Restrepo, Camilo; León, Alba; Jaimes, Fabián

    2017-02-01

    Our purpose was to validate the performance of the ISS, NISS, RTS and TRISS scales as predictors of mortality in a population of trauma patients in a Latin American setting. Subjects older than 15 years with diagnosis of trauma, lesions in two or more body areas according to the AIS and whose initial attention was at the hospital in the first 24 h were included. The main outcome was inpatient mortality. Secondary outcomes were admission to the intensive care unit, requirement of mechanical ventilation and length of stay. A logistic regression model for hospital mortality was fitted with each of the scales as an independent variable, and its predictive accuracy was evaluated through discrimination and calibration statistics. Between January 2007 and July 2015, 4085 subjects were enrolled in the study. 84.2% (n = 3442) were male, the mean age was 36 years (SD = 16), and the most common trauma mechanism was blunt type (80.1%; n = 3273). The medians of ISS, NISS, TRISS and RTS were: 14 (IQR = 10-21), 17 (IQR = 11-27), 4.21 (IQR = 2.95-5.05) and 7.84 (IQR = 6.90-7.84), respectively. Mortality was 9.3%, and the discrimination for ISS, NISS, TRISS and RTS was: AUC 0.85, 0.89, 0.86 and 0.92, respectively. No one scale had appropriate calibration. Determining the severity of trauma is an essential tool to guide treatment and establish the necessary resources for attention. In a Colombian population from a capital city, trauma scales have adequate performance for the prediction of mortality in patients with trauma.

  20. Clinical validity of a population database definition of remission in patients with major depression

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Major depression (MD) is one of the most frequent diagnoses in Primary Care. It is a disabling illness that increases the use of health resources. Aim: To describe the concordance between remission according to clinical assessment and remission obtained from the computerized prescription databases of patients with MD in a Spanish population. Methods Design: multicenter cross-sectional. The population under study was comprised of people from six primary care facilities, who had a MD episode between January 2003 and March 2007. A specialist in psychiatry assessed a random sample of patient histories and determined whether a certain patient was in remission according to clinical criteria (ICPC-2). Regarding the databases, patients were considered in remission when they did not need further prescriptions of AD for at least 6 months after completing treatment for a new episode. Validity indicators (sensitivity [S], specificity [Sp]) and clinical utility (positive and negative probability ratio [PPR] and [NPR]) were calculated. The concordance index was established using Cohen's kappa coefficient. Significance level was p < 0.05. Results 133 patient histories were reviewed. The kappa coefficient was 82.8% (confidence intervals [CI] were 95%: 73.1 - 92.6), PPR 9.8% and NPR 0.1%. Allocation discrepancies between both criteria were found in 11 patients. S was 92.5% (CI was 95%: 88.0 - 96.9%) and Sp was 90.6% (CI was 95%: 85.6 - 95.6%), p < 0.001. Reliability analysis: Cronbach's alpha: 90.6% (CI was 95%: 85.6 - 95.6%). Conclusions Results show an acceptable level of concordance between remission obtained from the computerized databases and clinical criteria. The major discrepancies were found in diagnostic accuracy. PMID:20149222

  1. MEPROCS framework for Craniofacial Superimposition: Validation study.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, O; Vicente, R; Navega, D; Campomanes-Álvarez, C; Cattaneo, C; Jankauskas, R; Huete, M I; Navarro, F; Hardiman, R; Ruiz, E; Imaizumi, K; Cavalli, F; Veselovskaya, E; Humpire, D; Cardoso, J; Collini, F; Mazzarelli, D; Gibelli, D; Damas, S

    2016-11-01

    Craniofacial Superimposition (CFS) involves the process of overlaying a skull with a number of ante-mortem images of an individual and the analysis of their morphological correspondence. The lack of unified working protocols and the absence of commonly accepted standards, led to contradictory consensus regarding its reliability. One of the more important aims of 'New Methodologies and Protocols of Forensic Identification by Craniofacial Superimposition (MEPROCS)' project was to propose a common framework for CFS, what can be considered the first international standard in the field. The framework aimed to serve as a roadmap for avoiding particular assumptions that could bias the process. At the same time, it provides some empirical support to certain practices, technological means, and morphological criteria expected to facilitate the application of the CFS task and to improve its reliability. In order to confirm the utility and potential benefits of the framework use, there is a need to empirically evaluate it in CFS identification scenarios as close as possible to the reality. Thus, the purpose of this study is to validate the CFS framework developed. For that aim 12 participants were asked to report about a variable number of CFS following all the recommendations of the framework. The results are analysed and discussed according to the framework understanding and fulfilment, the participants' performance, and the correlation between expected decisions and those given by the participants. In view of the quantitative results and qualitative examination criteria we can conclude that those who follow the MEPROCS recommendations improve their performance.

  2. Validation of a simple Yq deletion screening programme in an ICSI candidate population.

    PubMed

    Van Landuyt, L; Lissens, W; Stouffs, K; Tournaye, H; Liebaers, I; Van Steirteghem, A

    2000-04-01

    This study reports on the validation of a diagnostic screening programme for Yq deletions in a population of infertile men. First, an unselected group of 402 intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) candidate patients was screened prospectively by means of three polymerase chain reactions (PCR) each with one marker in the region AZFa, AZFb or AZFc. With this screening strategy, eight males (2.2%) were found to carry a deletion in Yq11. Secondly, a subgroup of males were further analysed by multiplex PCR with 27 sequence-tagged sites. In this group of 229 cytogenetically normal males with azoospermia, cryptozoospermia or extreme oligozoospermia, including some patients with varicocele or a history of cryptorchidism, only one additional microdeleted patient was found with the multiplex PCR. Hence we obtained a frequency of 2.2% (9/402) or 4% (9/229) in the unselected and selected patient groups respectively. We conclude that in a diagnostic programme for Yq deletions in ICSI candidates it might be sufficient to use only four markers representing the three AZF regions and a more distal region in AZFc. In this way, it is possible to detect most, if not all, Yq deletions which might be the causal factor in the patient's infertility.

  3. A food frequency questionnaire validated for estimating dietary flavonoid intake in an Australian population.

    PubMed

    Somerset, Shawn; Papier, Keren

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids, a broad category of nonnutrient food components, are potential protective dietary factors in the etiology of some cancers. However, previous epidemiological studies showing associations between flavonoid intake and cancer risk have used unvalidated intake assessment methods. A 62-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) based on usual intake of a representative Australian adult population sample was validated against a 3-day diet diary method in 60 young adults. Spearman's rank correlations showed 17 of 25 individual flavonoids, 3 of 5 flavonoid subgroups, and total flavonoids having strong/moderate correlation coefficients (0.40-0.70), and 8 of 25 individual flavonoids and 2 of 5 flavonoid subgroups having weak/insignificant correlations (0.01-0.39) between the 2 methods. Bland-Altman plots showed most subjects within ±1.96 SD for intakes of flavonoid subgroups and total flavonoids. The FFQ classified 73-90% of participants for all flavonoids except isorhamnetin, cyanidin, delphinidin, peonidin, and pelargonidin; 73.3-85.0% for all flavonoid subgroups except Anthocyanidins; and 86.7% for total flavonoid intake in the same/adjacent quartile determined by the 3-day diary. Weighted kappa values ranged from 0.00 (Isorhamnetin, Pelargonidin) to 0.60 (Myricetin) and were statistically significant for 18 of 25 individual flavonoids, 3 of 5 subgroups, and total flavonoids. This FFQ provides a simple and inexpensive means to estimate total flavonoid and flavonoid subgroup intake.

  4. Yfiler(®) Plus amplification kit validation and calculation of forensic parameters for two Austrian populations.

    PubMed

    Pickrahn, Ines; Müller, Eva; Zahrer, Waltraud; Dunkelmann, Bettina; Cemper-Kiesslich, Jan; Kreindl, Gabriele; Neuhuber, Franz

    2016-03-01

    With the new 6-dye AmpFISTR(®) Yfiler(®) Plus amplification kit (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) a set of 25 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat loci (Y-STRs), including seven rapidly mutating Y-STRs (RM Y-STRs), is now available for forensic DNA typing. In this study we present our validation data for the AmpFISTR(®) Yfiler(®) Plus amplification kit and show the results of Y-chromosomal typing of 425 unrelated male individuals from two Austrian populations (Salzburg and Upper Austria) with the AmpFISTR(®) Yfiler(®) Plus amplification kit. Forensic parameters were calculated and compared for four Y-STR marker sets. We also typed five brother pairs to evaluate the power of discrimination for related individuals. The AmpFISTR(®) Yfiler(®) Plus (Yfiler Plus) kit appeared to be unimpaired by typical inhibitors such as hematin and humic acid or by large amounts of female components. An upgrade of analyzed markers resulted in increased discrimination capacity that is crucial for forensic trace analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Testing and validation of the 26-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale in a representative population sample

    PubMed

    Kupfer, Jörg; Brosig, Burkhard; Brähler, Elmar

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the authorized German version of the 26-item Toronto alexithymia scale (TAS-26). Due to the fact, that the revised version of this questionnaire (TAS-20) displays low reliability concerning the scale "external oriented thinking" in the German version, we decided to reinvestigate all TAS-26 items. In a representative sample of the German population (N=2047), the four factor structure of the original version could be reproduced and reliabilities for the four scales as well as for a pooled 5th scale (scales 1 to 3) varied satisfyingly between r=.67 to r=.84. TAS-scale no. 4 "reduced daydreaming" correlated negatively with other TAS scales in this German version also, so we can not recommend to use this construct for the study of alexithymia. Scale values proved to be independent from age and sex, whereas a clear relation with education could be detected: persons with low education scored high on alexithymia scales. To validate the German version of the TAS-26, a mood questionnaire and a body experience questionnaire were used. It could be shown that high alexithymia scores were associated with negative body image and undesirable emotions. It is discussed whether the latter correlation is due to a methodological artefact, since persons with high alexithymia scores tend to prefer middle categories of the mood questionnaire.

  6. Validation of an Eulerian population model for the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus in the Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alver, Morten Omholt; Broch, Ole Jacob; Melle, Webjørn; Bagøien, Espen; Slagstad, Dag

    2016-08-01

    Calanus finmarchicus is an important zooplankton species in the Norwegian Sea, as a dominant food organism for pelagic fish larvae, and a potentially large source of marine lipids and proteins. Its position in the marine food web also makes it an important model species in assessing the risk posed by oil spills in the Norwegian and Arctic Seas. In this study, an Eulerian population model for C.finmarchicus, coupled to the physical and ecological model SINMOD, is presented. The model includes the full life cycle of C. finmarchicus with a representation of all developmental stages. The model has been validated against field measurements made in different areas of the Norwegian Sea in 1997 and 1998. The model displays geographical and temporal distributions of development stages that is in line with observed patterns. When comparing time series for selected regions, we see a high degree of variability both in the field samples and model output. On average, the model deviations are near half of the summed variability of the field data and model estimates. The model has applications within assessment of ecological production, and the potential for harvesting in the Norwegian and Arctic Seas, but in combination with other models, also for the assessment of ecological effects of oil spills and other types of pollution.

  7. Can Electronic Health Records Be Used for Population Health Surveillance? Validating Population Health Metrics Against Established Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    McVeigh, Katharine H.; Newton-Dame, Remle; Chan, Pui Ying; Thorpe, Lorna E.; Schreibstein, Lauren; Tatem, Kathleen S.; Chernov, Claudia; Lurie-Moroni, Elizabeth; Perlman, Sharon E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic health records (EHRs) offer potential for population health surveillance but EHR-based surveillance measures require validation prior to use. We assessed the validity of obesity, smoking, depression, and influenza vaccination indicators from a new EHR surveillance system, the New York City (NYC) Macroscope. This report is the second in a 3-part series describing the development and validation of the NYC Macroscope. The first report describes in detail the infrastructure underlying the NYC Macroscope; design decisions that were made to maximize data quality; characteristics of the population sampled; completeness of data collected; and lessons learned from doing this work. This second report, which addresses concerns related to sampling bias and data quality, describes the methods used to evaluate the validity and robustness of NYC Macroscope prevalence estimates; presents validation results for estimates of obesity, smoking, depression and influenza vaccination; and discusses the implications of our findings for NYC and for other jurisdictions embarking on similar work. The third report applies the same validation methods described in this report to metabolic outcomes, including the prevalence, treatment and control of diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Methods: NYC Macroscope prevalence estimates, overall and stratified by sex and age group, were compared to reference survey estimates for adult New Yorkers who reported visiting a doctor in the past year. Agreement was evaluated against 5 a priori criteria. Sensitivity and specificity were assessed by examining individual EHR records in a subsample of 48 survey participants. Results: Among adult New Yorkers in care, the NYC Macroscope prevalence estimate for smoking (15.2%) fell between estimates from NYC HANES (17.7 %) and CHS (14.9%) and met all 5 a priori criteria. The NYC Macroscope obesity prevalence estimate (27.8%) also fell between the NYC HANES (31.3%) and CHS (24

  8. Validation of a school-based amblyopia screening protocol in a kindergarten population.

    PubMed

    Casas-Llera, Pilar; Ortega, Paula; Rubio, Inmaculada; Santos, Verónica; Prieto, María J; Alio, Jorge L

    2016-08-04

    To validate a school-based amblyopia screening program model by comparing its outcomes to those of a state-of-the-art conventional ophthalmic clinic examination in a kindergarten population of children between the ages of 4 and 5 years. An amblyopia screening protocol, which consisted of visual acuity measurement using Lea charts, ocular alignment test, ocular motility assessment, and stereoacuity with TNO random-dot test, was performed at school in a pediatric 4- to 5-year-old population by qualified healthcare professionals. The outcomes were validated in a selected group by a conventional ophthalmologic examination performed in a fully equipped ophthalmologic center. The ophthalmologic evaluation was used to confirm whether or not children were correctly classified by the screening protocol. The sensitivity and specificity of the test model to detect amblyopia were established. A total of 18,587 4- to 5-year-old children were subjected to the amblyopia screening program during the 2010-2011 school year. A population of 100 children were selected for the ophthalmologic validation screening. A sensitivity of 89.3%, specificity of 93.1%, positive predictive value of 83.3%, negative predictive value of 95.7%, positive likelihood ratio of 12.86, and negative likelihood ratio of 0.12 was obtained for the amblyopia screening validation model. The amblyopia screening protocol model tested in this investigation shows high sensitivity and specificity in detecting high-risk cases of amblyopia compared to the standard ophthalmologic examination. This screening program may be highly relevant for amblyopia screening at schools.

  9. Development, Validation, and Field-Testing of an Instrument for Clinical Assessment of HIV-Associated Neuropathy and Neuropathic Pain in Resource-Restricted and Large Population Study Settings.

    PubMed

    Woldeamanuel, Yohannes W; Kamerman, Peter R; Veliotes, Demetri G A; Phillips, Tudor J; Asboe, David; Boffito, Marta; Rice, Andrew S C

    2016-01-01

    HIV-associated sensory peripheral neuropathy (HIV-SN) afflicts approximately 50% of patients on antiretroviral therapy, and is associated with significant neuropathic pain. Simple accurate diagnostic instruments are required for clinical research and daily practice in both high- and low-resource setting. A 4-item clinical tool (CHANT: Clinical HIV-associated Neuropathy Tool) assessing symptoms (pain and numbness) and signs (ankle reflexes and vibration sense) was developed by selecting and combining the most accurate measurands from a deep phenotyping study of HIV positive people (Pain In Neuropathy Study-HIV-PINS). CHANT was alpha-tested in silico against the HIV-PINS dataset and then clinically validated and field-tested in HIV-positive cohorts in London, UK and Johannesburg, South Africa. The Utah Early Neuropathy Score (UENS) was used as the reference standard in both settings. In a second step, neuropathic pain in the presence of HIV-SN was assessed using the Douleur Neuropathique en 4 Questions (DN4)-interview and a body map. CHANT achieved high accuracy on alpha-testing with sensitivity and specificity of 82% and 90%, respectively. In 30 patients in London, CHANT diagnosed 43.3% (13/30) HIV-SN (66.7% with neuropathic pain); sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 85%, and likelihood ratio = 6.7 versus UENS, internal consistency = 0.88 (Cronbach alpha), average item-total correlation = 0.73 (Spearman's Rho), and inter-tester concordance > 0.93 (Spearman's Rho). In 50 patients in Johannesburg, CHANT diagnosed 66% (33/50) HIV-SN (78.8% neuropathic pain); sensitivity = 74.4%, specificity = 85.7%, and likelihood ratio = 5.29 versus UENS. A positive CHANT score markedly increased of pre- to post-test clinical certainty of HIV-SN from 43% to 83% in London, and from 66% to 92% in Johannesburg. In conclusion, a combination of four easily and quickly assessed clinical items can be used to accurately diagnose HIV-SN. DN4-interview used in the context of bilateral feet pain

  10. Validation and population studies of the loci LDLR, GYPA, HBGG, D7S8, and Gc (PM loci), and HLA-DQ alpha using a multiplex amplification and typing procedure.

    PubMed

    Budowle, B; Lindsey, J A; DeCou, J A; Koons, B W; Giusti, A M; Comey, C T

    1995-01-01

    Studies were performed to evaluate the forensic applicability of multiplex amplification of the loci low density lipoprotein receptor, glycophorin A, hemoglobin G gammaglobin, D7S8, and group-specific component (PM loci) and simultaneous typing of these loci using a reverse dot blot approach where allele specific oligonucleotide probes are immobilized on a nylon membrane strip. These results were obtained by using the AmpliType PM PCR Amplification and Typing Kit. The experiments included: mixed body fluid studies; chemical contaminant effects on the DNA in body fluid samples; the effect of typing DNA from body fluid samples deposited on various substrates; the effect of microorganism contamination on typing DNA derived from blood and semen; the effect of sunlight and storage conditions on DNA typing; determination of the sensitivity of detection of the PM test kit; determination of cross-reactivity of DNA from species other than human; typing DNA derived from various tissues from an individual; and an evaluation of the hybridization temperature of the assay. The data demonstrate that DNA exposed to a variety of environmental insults yields reliable PM typing results. Allele and genotype frequencies for six loci (PM loci and HLA-DQ alpha) were determined in African Americans. Caucasians, southeastern Hispanics, and southwestern Hispanics. All loci meet Hardy-Weinberg expectations and there is little evidence for association of alleles between the loci. The frequency data can be used in forensic analyses and paternity tests to estimate the frequency of a multiple locus DNA profile in various general United States populations.

  11. Identification of Learning Disabilities in Ontario: A Validity Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIntyre, Robert B.; And Others

    The study examined the process by which diagnostic data on children thought to have learning disabilities (LD) are generated and used. Emphasis was placed on the validity of test instruments in common use in the field. Since part of the practical validity of any instrument used to identify an LD child rests on the validity of the LD construct…

  12. Identification of Learning Disabilities in Ontario: A Validity Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIntyre, Robert B.; And Others

    The study examined the process by which diagnostic data on children thought to have learning disabilities (LD) are generated and used. Emphasis was placed on the validity of test instruments in common use in the field. Since part of the practical validity of any instrument used to identify an LD child rests on the validity of the LD construct…

  13. Improving medical record retrieval for validation studies in Medicare data.

    PubMed

    Wright, Nicole C; Delzell, Elizabeth S; Smith, Wilson K; Xue, Fei; Auroa, Tarun; Curtis, Jeffrey R

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the study is to describe medical record retrieval for a study validating claims-based algorithms used to identify seven adverse events of special interest (AESI) in a Medicare population. We analyzed 2010-2011 Medicare claims of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis and men ≥65 years of age in the Medicare 5% national sample. The final cohorts included beneficiaries covered continuously for 12+ months by Medicare parts A, B, and D and not enrolled in Medicare Advantage before starting follow-up. We identified beneficiaries using each AESI algorithm and randomly selected 400 women and 100 men with each AESI for medical record retrieval. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services provided beneficiary contact information, and we requested medical records directly from providers, without patient contact. We selected 3331 beneficiaries (women: 2272; men: 559) for whom we requested 3625 medical records. Overall, we received 1738 [47.9% (95%CI 46.3%, 49.6%)] of the requested medical records. We observed small differences in the characteristics of the total population with AESIs compared with those randomly selected for retrieval; however, no differences were seen between those selected and those retrieved. We retrieved 54.7% of records requested from hospitals compared with 26.3% of records requested from physician offices (p < 0.001). Retrieval did not differ by sex or vital status of the beneficiaries. Our national medical record validation study of claims-based algorithms produced a modest retrieval rate. The medical record procedures outlined in this paper could have led to the improved retrieval from our previous medical record retrieval study. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Expert system verification and validation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, Scott W.; Hamilton, David

    1992-01-01

    Five workshops on verification and validation (V&V) of expert systems (ES) where taught during this recent period of performance. Two key activities, previously performed under this contract, supported these recent workshops (1) Survey of state-of-the-practice of V&V of ES and (2) Development of workshop material and first class. The first activity involved performing an extensive survey of ES developers in order to answer several questions regarding the state-of-the-practice in V&V of ES. These questions related to the amount and type of V&V done and the successfulness of this V&V. The next key activity involved developing an intensive hands-on workshop in V&V of ES. This activity involved surveying a large number of V&V techniques, conventional as well as ES specific ones. In addition to explaining the techniques, we showed how each technique could be applied on a sample problem. References were included in the workshop material, and cross referenced to techniques, so that students would know where to go to find additional information about each technique. In addition to teaching specific techniques, we included an extensive amount of material on V&V concepts and how to develop a V&V plan for an ES project. We felt this material was necessary so that developers would be prepared to develop an orderly and structured approach to V&V. That is, they would have a process that supported the use of the specific techniques. Finally, to provide hands-on experience, we developed a set of case study exercises. These exercises were to provide an opportunity for the students to apply all the material (concepts, techniques, and planning material) to a realistic problem.

  15. Development, Validation, and Field-Testing of an Instrument for Clinical Assessment of HIV-Associated Neuropathy and Neuropathic Pain in Resource-Restricted and Large Population Study Settings

    PubMed Central

    Kamerman, Peter R.; Veliotes, Demetri G. A.; Phillips, Tudor J.; Asboe, David; Boffito, Marta; Rice, Andrew S. C.

    2016-01-01

    HIV-associated sensory peripheral neuropathy (HIV-SN) afflicts approximately 50% of patients on antiretroviral therapy, and is associated with significant neuropathic pain. Simple accurate diagnostic instruments are required for clinical research and daily practice in both high- and low-resource setting. A 4-item clinical tool (CHANT: Clinical HIV-associated Neuropathy Tool) assessing symptoms (pain and numbness) and signs (ankle reflexes and vibration sense) was developed by selecting and combining the most accurate measurands from a deep phenotyping study of HIV positive people (Pain In Neuropathy Study–HIV-PINS). CHANT was alpha-tested in silico against the HIV-PINS dataset and then clinically validated and field-tested in HIV-positive cohorts in London, UK and Johannesburg, South Africa. The Utah Early Neuropathy Score (UENS) was used as the reference standard in both settings. In a second step, neuropathic pain in the presence of HIV-SN was assessed using the Douleur Neuropathique en 4 Questions (DN4)-interview and a body map. CHANT achieved high accuracy on alpha-testing with sensitivity and specificity of 82% and 90%, respectively. In 30 patients in London, CHANT diagnosed 43.3% (13/30) HIV-SN (66.7% with neuropathic pain); sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 85%, and likelihood ratio = 6.7 versus UENS, internal consistency = 0.88 (Cronbach alpha), average item-total correlation = 0.73 (Spearman’s Rho), and inter-tester concordance > 0.93 (Spearman’s Rho). In 50 patients in Johannesburg, CHANT diagnosed 66% (33/50) HIV-SN (78.8% neuropathic pain); sensitivity = 74.4%, specificity = 85.7%, and likelihood ratio = 5.29 versus UENS. A positive CHANT score markedly increased of pre- to post-test clinical certainty of HIV-SN from 43% to 83% in London, and from 66% to 92% in Johannesburg. In conclusion, a combination of four easily and quickly assessed clinical items can be used to accurately diagnose HIV-SN. DN4-interview used in the context of bilateral feet

  16. Validation of the English version of the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire in a multi-ethnic Asian population.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wan C; Tan, Justina W L; Wee, Eric W L; Niti, Matthew; Ng, Tze P

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of study was to assess the validity, reliability and acceptability of the English version of the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire in a multi-ethnic Asian population. The English version of the Standardized Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ-S) and the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) were self-completed by 119 English-speaking Chinese, Malay and Indian asthmatic subjects, aged 17-78. Spirometric measurements, peak expiratory flow rate, current clinical symptoms and treatment requirements were documented. Reliability and responsiveness were analyzed in a subgroup of 57 patients who were reassessed 6 weeks later. The Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient for internal consistency of the AQLQ-S was 0.97 (0.96-0.98) for the overall score. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) overall score was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.94-0.99) while the responsiveness index was 1.29 with strong longitudinal validity for clinical and spirometric measures of asthma severity and asthma control score (p < 0.001). The results of this study showed that the English version of the AQLQ-S is a sensitive and valid instrument for measuring health-related quality of life in asthmatic subjects from a multi-ethnic Asian population.

  17. Validity Studies of the Kindergarten Screening Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alston, Herbert L.; Doughtie, Eugene B.

    Research is reviewed on the validity of the Kindergarten Screening Inventory (KSI), an instrument developed by the Houston, Texas Independent School District to screen kindergarten students for possible difficulties that could lead to learning problems. The KSI includes eye-hand coordination, language learning, gross-motor subtests, as well as…

  18. College of the Canyons Predictive Validity Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of the Canyons, Valencia, CA. Office of Institutional Development.

    Matriculation regulations in California require that community colleges which adopt standardized placement tests demonstrate that the tests are valid predictors of future course success. A positive correlation of at least .35 between test score and subsequent student performance in a particular course is needed to demonstrate the predictive…

  19. Validity of using multiple imputation for "unknown" stage at diagnosis in population-based cancer registry data.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qingwei; Egger, Sam; Yu, Xue Qin; Smith, David P; O'Connell, Dianne L

    2017-01-01

    The multiple imputation approach to missing data has been validated by a number of simulation studies by artificially inducing missingness on fully observed stage data under a pre-specified missing data mechanism. However, the validity of multiple imputation has not yet been assessed using real data. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of using multiple imputation for "unknown" prostate cancer stage recorded in the New South Wales Cancer Registry (NSWCR) in real-world conditions. Data from the population-based cohort study NSW Prostate Cancer Care and Outcomes Study (PCOS) were linked to 2000-2002 NSWCR data. For cases with "unknown" NSWCR stage, PCOS-stage was extracted from clinical notes. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the missing at random assumption adjusted for variables from two imputation models: a basic model including NSWCR variables only and an enhanced model including the same NSWCR variables together with PCOS primary treatment. Cox regression was used to evaluate the performance of MI. Of the 1864 prostate cancer cases 32.7% were recorded as having "unknown" NSWCR stage. The missing at random assumption was satisfied when the logistic regression included the variables included in the enhanced model, but not those in the basic model only. The Cox models using data with imputed stage from either imputation model provided generally similar estimated hazard ratios but with wider confidence intervals compared with those derived from analysis of the data with PCOS-stage. However, the complete-case analysis of the data provided a considerably higher estimated hazard ratio for the low socio-economic status group and rural areas in comparison with those obtained from all other datasets. Using MI to deal with "unknown" stage data recorded in a population-based cancer registry appears to provide valid estimates. We would recommend a cautious approach to the use of this method elsewhere.

  20. Reliability and Construct Validity of the Iranian Version of Health-promoting Lifestyle Profile in a Female Adolescent Population.

    PubMed

    Mohamadian, Hashem; Ghannaee, Mohamad; Kortdzanganeh, Jaafar; Meihan, Lo

    2013-01-01

    Health-promoting lifestyle is receiving increasing attention concerning its prominent role in healthcare. This study examined to adapt the health-promoting lifestyle profile II culturally and to assess its psychometric properties. In this cross-sectional study, content validity was established using translation and back-translation procedures, pilot testing of the instrument, and getting views of the expert panel. Concurrent validity was estimated with Pearson's correlation between the HPLP II, the quality of life (SF-12), self-efficacy variables, and demographic variables. Construct validity was evaluated by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Sample size for CFA included 500 people. HPLP II reliability was estimated with Cronbach's alpha coefficients. The content validity Index (CVI) surpassed 0.80 for the HPLP II and for four subscales. The CFA four-factor model represented an acceptable fit. Their factor loadings was more than 0.40. Correlations between the HPLP II and the subscales were acceptable. The relationships between the HPLP II, self-efficacy, SF-12 domain scores, and demographic variables were also significantly positive. Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.86 for the HPLP II and for the subscales ranged from 0.70 to 0.77. The shortened HPLP II had satisfactory psychometric properties. The revised 34-item four-factor model had perfect fit. It can be used to measure health-promoting lifestyle in the Iranian female adolescents' population.

  1. Cross-cultural adaptation, validation, and reliability of the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire among Persian population.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Birjandinejad, Ali; Kachooei, Amir Reza

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to validate a cross-culturally adapted version of the Persian Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHOQ). We followed the Beaton's guideline to translate the questionnaire to Persian. We administered the final version to 223 patients among which 79 patients returned 3 days later to respond to the Persian MHOQ for the second time. In the first visit, respondents also filled the Disabilities of the Arm Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and rated the pain based on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Cronbach's alpha for the total MHOQ was 0.79 which showed good internal consistency. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the total MHOQ was 0.84 which demonstrated good reliability between test and retest. The absolute correlation coefficient between total MHOQ and the DASH was as high as 0.74. Persian version of the MHOQ proved to be a reliable and valid instrument to be implemented among Persian population with the hand and wrist disorders.

  2. Identification and validation of asthma phenotypes in Chinese population using cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Liang, Rui; Zhou, Ting; Zheng, Jing; Liang, Bing Miao; Zhang, Hong Ping; Luo, Feng Ming; Gibson, Peter G; Wang, Gang

    2017-08-30

    Asthma is a heterogeneous airway disease, so it is crucial to clearly identify clinical phenotypes to achieve better asthma management. To identify and prospectively validate asthma clusters in a Chinese population. Two hundred eighty-four patients were consecutively recruited and 18 sociodemographic and clinical variables were collected. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed by the Ward method followed by k-means cluster analysis. Then, a prospective 12-month cohort study was used to validate the identified clusters. Five clusters were successfully identified. Clusters 1 (n = 71) and 3 (n = 81) were mild asthma phenotypes with slight airway obstruction and low exacerbation risk, but with a sex differential. Cluster 2 (n = 65) described an "allergic" phenotype, cluster 4 (n = 33) featured a "fixed airflow limitation" phenotype with smoking, and cluster 5 (n = 34) was a "low socioeconomic status" phenotype. Patients in clusters 2, 4, and 5 had distinctly lower socioeconomic status and more psychological symptoms. Cluster 2 had a significantly increased risk of exacerbations (risk ratio [RR] 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.25), unplanned visits for asthma (RR 1.98, 95% CI 1.07-3.66), and emergency visits for asthma (RR 7.17, 95% CI 1.26-40.80). Cluster 4 had an increased risk of unplanned visits (RR 2.22, 95% CI 1.02-4.81), and cluster 5 had increased emergency visits (RR 12.72, 95% CI 1.95-69.78). Kaplan-Meier analysis confirmed that cluster grouping was predictive of time to the first asthma exacerbation, unplanned visit, emergency visit, and hospital admission (P < .0001 for all comparisons). We identified 3 clinical clusters as "allergic asthma," "fixed airflow limitation," and "low socioeconomic status" phenotypes that are at high risk of severe asthma exacerbations and that have management implications for clinical practice in developing countries. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc

  3. Psychometric properties and construct validity of the Weight-Related Eating Questionnaire in a diverse population.

    PubMed

    Schembre, Susan M; Geller, Karly S

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluates the 16-item, four-factor Weight-Related Eating Questionnaire (WREQ), which assesses theory-based aspects of eating behavior, across diverse, nonclinical subgroups. A total of 621 men and women aged 18-81 years (34.3 ± 16.4) with a mean BMI of 25.7 ± 6.1 kg/m(2) (range 15.5-74.1 kg/m(2)) were recruited from general education classes at the University of Hawai'i, Manoa and an online survey panel of Hawai'i residents to complete a web-based survey. Participants were predominantly white (23%), Asian/Asian-mix (42%), or Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (18%). The WREQ's factor structure was successfully replicated by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for the entire sample and by weight status, gender, age, and race with strong internal consistency. Four-week test-retest reliability (n = 31) for the subscales was excellent with interclass correlations of 0.849-0.932. Tests of population invariance confirmed the generalizability of the WREQ across all subgroups having provided no evidence that the factor structure, factor loadings, or indicator intercepts varied significantly between the groups. Multivariate regression analyses showed that emotional eating was independently associated with BMI (β = 0.272, P < 0.001) as well as moderate- and long-term weight change rates (weight gain) in young adults (β = 0.152, P = 0.042) and adults (β = 0.217, P = 0.001). Compensatory restraint was negatively associated with weight gain in adults (β = -0.133, P = 0.039). Routine restraint and emotional eating were highest among dieters. All associations remained significant after accounting for gender, age, and race. The hypothesized WREQ measurement model demonstrated very good construct validity, confirming the unbiased generalizability of the WREQ measure across sex, age, race, and BMI subgroups, and excellent criterion-related validity with respect to current BMI, weight change, and weight control status.

  4. Is a single question of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) valid for measuring sedentary behaviour in the Chilean population?

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Farias, Nicolas; Leppe Zamora, Jaime

    2016-09-08

    A study was conducted to assess the validity of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) for measuring sedentary behaviour (SB) in the Chilean adult population. About 217 adults (93/124 male/female, 43.8 ± 15.75 years) who were randomly selected during National Health Survey 2009-2010 completed the protocol. The participants wore an ActiGraph GT3X (AG) for 7 consecutive days and then completed the GPAQ (single-item question for measuring time spent sitting in a usual day). Validity was examined using Spearman's correlation, mean bias and limits of agreement (LoA), with AG (vertical axis <100 counts · min(-1)) as the reference standard for estimates of SB in bouts of 1 (AG1), 5 (AG5) and 10 (AG10) min. Agreement between the GPAQ and AG for classifying data into quartiles and tertiles was assessed with kappa method. The GPAQ showed fair correlation with AG1, AG5 and AG10 (range = 0.23-0.26), with large mean biases (range = -293.9, -76.12 min · day(-1)). Agreement between the GPAQ and AG1, AG5 and AG10 was poor for categorising time spent in SB into tertiles and quartiles. The single question from the GPAQ has shown fair validity for measuring SB and poor ability for correctly classifying individuals into tertiles or quartiles of SB in a Chilean population.

  5. Manual unloading of the lumbar spine: can it identify immediate responders to mechanical traction in a low back pain population? A study of reliability and criterion referenced predictive validity

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Brian T.; Riley, Sean P.; Cote, Mark P.; Leger, Robin R.; Moss, Isaac L.; Carlos,, John

    2016-01-01

    Background To date, no research has examined the reliability or predictive validity of manual unloading tests of the lumbar spine to identify potential responders to lumbar mechanical traction. Purpose To determine: (1) the intra and inter-rater reliability of a manual unloading test of the lumbar spine and (2) the criterion referenced predictive validity for the manual unloading test. Methods Ten volunteers with low back pain (LBP) underwent a manual unloading test to establish reliability. In a separate procedure, 30 consecutive patients with LBP (age 50·86±11·51) were assessed for pain in their most provocative standing position (visual analog scale (VAS) 49·53±25·52 mm). Patients were assessed with a manual unloading test in their most provocative position followed by a single application of intermittent mechanical traction. Post traction, pain in the provocative position was reassessed and utilized as the outcome criterion. Results The test of unloading demonstrated substantial intra and inter-rater reliability K = 1·00, P = 0·002, K = 0·737, P = 0·001, respectively. There were statistically significant within group differences for pain response following traction for patients with a positive manual unloading test (P<0·001), while patients with a negative manual unloading test did not demonstrate a statistically significant change (P>0·05). There were significant between group differences for proportion of responders to traction based on manual unloading response (P = 0·031), and manual unloading response demonstrated a moderate to strong relationship with traction response Phi = 0·443, P = 0·015. Discussion and conclusion The manual unloading test appears to be a reliable test and has a moderate to strong correlation with pain relief that exceeds minimal clinically important difference (MCID) following traction supporting the validity of this test. PMID:27559274

  6. Clinical validation of the PCR-reverse dot blot human papillomavirus genotyping test in cervical lesions from Chinese women in the Fujian province: a hospital-based population study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pengming; Song, Yiyi; Ruan, Guanyu; Mao, Xiaodan; Kang, Yafang; Dong, Binhua; Lin, Fen

    2017-09-01

    To determine the clinical significance of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-reverse dot blot (RDB) human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping assay in cervical cancer screening. A total of 10,442 women attending the Fujian Provincial Maternity and Children's Health Hospital were evaluated using the liquid-based cytology (thinprep cytologic test [TCT]) and the PCR-RDB HPV test. Women with HPV infection and/or abnormal cytology were referred for colposcopy and biopsy. For HPV DNA sequencing, 120 specimens were randomly selected. Pathological diagnosis was used as the gold standard. Using the PCR-RDB HPV test, overall HPV prevalence was 20.57% (2,148/10,442) and that of high-risk (HR)-HPV infection was 18.68% (1,951/10,442). There was 99.2% concordance between HPV PCR-RDB testing and sequencing. In this studied population, the most common HR-HPV types were HPV-16, -52, -58, -18, -53, -33, and -51, rank from high to low. HPV-16, -18, -58, -59, and -33 were the top 5 prevalent genotypes in cervical cancer but HPV-16, -18, -59, -45, and -33 were the top 5 highest risk factors for cancer (odds ratio [OR]=34.964, 7.278, 6.728, 6.101, and 3.658; all p<0.05, respectively). Among 10,442 cases, 1,278 had abnormal cytology results, of which, the HR-HPV positivity rate was 83.02% (1,061/1,278). To screen for cervical cancer by PCR-RDB HPV testing, when using CIN2+, CIN3+, and cancer as observed endpoints, the sensitivity was 90.43%, 92.61%, and 94.78% and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 99.06%, 99.42%, and 99.78%, respectively. PCR-RDB HPV and TCT co-testing achieved the highest sensitivity and NPV. For cervical cancer screening, the PCR-RDB HPV test can provide a reliable and sensitive clinical reference.

  7. SAMICS Validation. SAMICS Support Study, Phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    SAMICS provides a consistent basis for estimating array costs and compares production technology costs. A review and a validation of the SAMICS model are reported. The review had the following purposes: (1) to test the computational validity of the computer model by comparison with preliminary hand calculations based on conventional cost estimating techniques; (2) to review and improve the accuracy of the cost relationships being used by the model: and (3) to provide an independent verification to users of the model's value in decision making for allocation of research and developement funds and for investment in manufacturing capacity. It is concluded that the SAMICS model is a flexible, accurate, and useful tool for managerial decision making.

  8. Validation of new psychosocial factors questionnaires: a Colombian national study.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Gloria H; Vargas, Angélica M; Rondón, Martin A; Felknor, Sarah A

    2013-01-01

    The study of workers' health problems possibly associated with stressful conditions requires valid and reliable tools for monitoring risk factors. The present study validates two questionnaires to assess psychosocial risk factors for stress-related illnesses within a sample of Colombian workers. The validation process was based on a representative sample survey of 2,360 Colombian employees, aged 18-70 years. Worker response rate was 90%; 46% of the responders were women. Internal consistency was calculated, construct validity was tested with factor analysis and concurrent validity was tested with Spearman correlations. The questionnaires demonstrated adequate reliability (0.88-0.95). Factor analysis confirmed the dimensions proposed in the measurement model. Concurrent validity resulted in significant correlations with stress and health symptoms. "Work and Non-work Psychosocial Factors Questionnaires" were found to be valid and reliable for the assessment of workers' psychosocial factors, and they provide information for research and intervention. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Construct Validation Theory Applied to the Study of Personality Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Guller, Leila; Smith, Gregory T.

    2013-01-01

    The authors review theory validation and construct validation principles as related to the study of personality dysfunction. Historically, personality disorders have been understood to be syndromes of heterogeneous symptoms. The authors argue that the syndrome approach to description results in diagnoses of unclear meaning and constrained validity. The alternative approach of describing personality dysfunction in terms of homogeneous dimensions of functioning avoids the problems of the syndromal approach and has been shown to provide more valid description and diagnosis. The authors further argue that description based on homogeneous dimensions of personality function/dysfunction is more useful, because it provides direct connections to validated treatments. PMID:22321263

  10. One School Many Differences: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tadlock-Marlo, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the ever growing diversity of school populations in the United States, it becomes increasingly more vital that school counselors are efficient in multicultural counseling. As the significance of effective multicultural competencies increases, so too does the importance of accurately assessing these proficiencies. The central focus of this…

  11. Assessing positive and negative experiences: validation of a new measure of well-being in an Italian population.

    PubMed

    Corno, Giulia; Molinari, Guadalupe; Baños, Rosa Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the psychometric properties of an affect scale, the Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (SPANE), in an Italian-speaking population. The results of this study demonstrate that the Italian version of the SPANE has psychometric properties similar to those shown by the original and previous versions, and it presents satisfactory reliability and factorial validity. The results of the Confirmatory Factor Analysis support the expected two-factor structure, positive and negative feeling, which characterized the previous versions. As expected, measures of negative affect, anxiety, negative future expectances, and depression correlated positively with the negative experiences SPANE subscale, and negatively with the positive experiences SPANE subscale. Results of this study demonstrate that the Italian version of the SPANE has psychometric properties similar to those shown by the original and previous versions, and it presents satisfactory reliability and factorial validity. The use of this instrument provides clinically useful information about a person’s overall emotional experience and it is an indicator of well-being. Although further studies are required to confirm the psychometric characteristics of the scale, the SPANE Italian version is expected to improve theoretical and empirical research on the well-being of the Italian population.

  12. First attempts at validation of radiation exposure of the population along the Techa River, southern Urals.

    PubMed

    König, K; Mundigl, S; Winkelmann, I; Hornung, L; Burkart, W

    1996-01-01

    A research programme sponsored by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Protection and Nuclear Safety (BMU) was conducted during 1992 and 1993 in the Southern Urals, to provide an initial validation and comparison of results of population exposure arising from the release of radioactive waste from the MAYAK nuclear facility between the years 1948 and 1967. This programme included investigations of the contamination of the soil, of food (milk, drinking-water, potatoes) and whole-body-counter measurements of inhabitants of settlements at the Techa River. The nuclides of interest were plutonium isotopes and the long-lived fission products 137Cs and 90Sr. Results of these investigations, particularly in and around the village of Muslyumovo (78 km downstream from the point of release of the radioactive waste into the Techa River), are shown. These investigations are a first step towards an independent validation of the enormous data base collected by the Russian institutes and of derived values of the doses to the population of the Techa River.

  13. Development and validation of a lifetime exposure questionnaire for use among Chinese populations

    PubMed Central

    Wu, ShengHui; Ho, Suzanne C.; Lam, Tsz-ping; Woo, Jean; Yuen, P. Y.; Qin, Ling; Ku, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    The sunlight exposure questionnaire for use in the Chinese population was constructed based on extensive literature review and item suitability for measuring life-time exposure. The content validity index (CVI) was derived from ratings by, an expert panel to assess the item content and relevance. 650 population-based Chinese women completed the sunlight exposure questionnaire through telephone interview. To assess the questionnaire reliability, 94 women were re-interviewed after 2 weeks. 98.4% of the sunlight exposure questionnaire items were found to have valid CVI (>0.83). The Scree plot and the Principal Components Factor Analysis showed a two-factor construct was appropriate and no questionnaire item needed to be excluded. The questionnaire also had a good test-retest reliability (ICC: 0.59–0.93; k: 0.51–100). This sunlight exposure questionnaire was found to be adequate for measurement of life-time sunlight exposure among Hong Kong Chinese women. PMID:24077356

  14. Study on the validity region of Energy Finite Element Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangjie; Chen, Hualing; Zhu, Danhui; Zhang, Wenbo

    2014-04-01

    The validity domain of Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) is studied in this paper. The validity region and criterion of EFEA are studied theoretically from the formation of reverberant plane wave field, one of the main assumptions of EFEA. The studies are acquired by virtue of the equation of radiative energy transfer method, a similar wave method that can express the direct field and its conversion relationship with reverberant field exactly. The result shows that the SEA criterion of diffuse field derived by Le Bot can be used as a good indicator for the EFEA validity. Numerical simulations on a rectangular plate with different physical parameters are applied to validate the criterion. The validity region and the diagrams of validity of EFEA are assessed and discussed. Some noteworthy conclusions about EFEA are drawn.

  15. Initial feasibility and validity of a prospective memory training program in a substance use treatment population.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Mary M; Rass, Olga; Johnson, Patrick S; Strain, Eric C; Berry, Meredith S; Vo, Hoa T; Fishman, Marc J; Munro, Cynthia A; Rebok, George W; Mintzer, Miriam Z; Johnson, Matthew W

    2016-10-01

    Individuals with substance use disorders have shown deficits in the ability to implement future intentions, called prospective memory. Deficits in prospective memory and working memory, a critical underlying component of prospective memory, likely contribute to substance use treatment failures. Thus, improvement of prospective memory and working memory in substance use patients is an innovative target for intervention. We sought to develop a feasible and valid prospective memory training program that incorporates working memory training and may serve as a useful adjunct to substance use disorder treatment. We administered a single session of the novel prospective memory and working memory training program to participants (n = 22; 13 men, 9 women) enrolled in outpatient substance use disorder treatment and correlated performance to existing measures of prospective memory and working memory. Generally accurate prospective memory performance in a single session suggests feasibility in a substance use treatment population. However, training difficulty should be increased to avoid ceiling effects across repeated sessions. Consistent with existing literature, we observed superior performance on event-based relative to time-based prospective memory tasks. Performance on the prospective memory and working memory training components correlated with validated assessments of prospective memory and working memory, respectively. Correlations between novel memory training program performance and established measures suggest that our training engages appropriate cognitive processes. Further, differential event- and time-based prospective memory task performance suggests internal validity of our training. These data support the development of this intervention as an adjunctive therapy for substance use disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. CFD Validation Studies for Hypersonic Flow Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    A series of experiments to measure pressure and heating for code validation involving hypersonic, laminar, separated flows was conducted at the Calspan-University at Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC) in the Large Energy National Shock (LENS) tunnel. The experimental data serves as a focus for a code validation session but are not available to the authors until the conclusion of this session. The first set of experiments considered here involve Mach 9.5 and Mach 11.3 N2 flow over a hollow cylinder-flare with 30 degree flare angle at several Reynolds numbers sustaining laminar, separated flow. Truncated and extended flare configurations are considered. The second set of experiments, at similar conditions, involves flow over a sharp, double cone with fore-cone angle of 25 degrees and aft-cone angle of 55 degrees. Both sets of experiments involve 30 degree compressions. Location of the separation point in the numerical simulation is extremely sensitive to the level of grid refinement in the numerical predictions. The numerical simulations also show a significant influence of Reynolds number on extent of separation. Flow unsteadiness was easily introduced into the double cone simulations using aggressive relaxation parameters that normally promote convergence.

  17. Population study of triazolam pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, H; Greenblatt, D J; Burstein, E S; Harmatz, J S; Shader, R I

    1986-01-01

    The kinetics of a single 0.5 mg oral dose of the triazolobenzodiazepine hypnotic triazolam, were studied in 54 healthy young men aged 20-44 years, with a mean body weight of 77 kg. Triazolam kinetics were determined from multiple plasma concentrations measured during 14 h post-dose. The overall mean +/- s.e. mean (with range) kinetic variables were: peak plasma concentration, 4.4 +/- 0.3 (1.7-9.4) ng ml-1; time of peak, 1.3 +/- 0.1 (0.5-4.0) h after dose; elimination half-life, 2.6 +/- 0.1 (1.1-4.4) h; total AUC: 19.1 +/- 1.1 (4.4-47.7) ng ml-1 h; oral clearance, 526 +/- 38 (175-1892) ml min-1. All kinetic variables were consistent with Poisson distributions, based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov Goodness of Fit test. None of the variables fit normal distributions. Four of five were consistent with a log normal distribution. Peak plasma level was highly correlated with clearance (r = -0.85, P less than 0.0001), and AUC (r = 0.85, P less than 0.0001) but not with body weight (r = 0.21, NS). Clearance and body weight were not correlated (r = -0.01). Triazolam clearance may vary widely even within a homogeneous group of healthy young men. PMID:3567010

  18. Testing the Validity and Reliability of the Perceived Employability Scale (PES) among a Culturally Diverse Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Judy; D'Andrea, Michael; Gaughen, Kiaka J. S.

    1998-01-01

    Reports on a study designed to test the validity and reliability of a newly developed career self-efficacy test called the Perceived Employability Scale. A group (N=2,600) of low-income women with diverse cultural, ethnic, and racial backgrounds living in Hawaii participated in this investigation. Recommendations for researchers and practitioners…

  19. Validation of a Mental Health Assessment in an African Conflict Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertl, Verena; Pfeiffer, Anett; Saile, Regina; Schauer, Elisabeth; Elbert, Thomas; Neuner, Frank

    2010-01-01

    We studied the validity of the assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression within the context of an epidemiological mental health survey among war-affected adolescents and young adults in northern Uganda. Local language versions of the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) and the Depression section of the Hopkins Symptom…

  20. A Cross-Validation Study of the School Attitude Assessment Survey (SAAS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoach, D. Betsy

    Factors commonly associated with underachievement in the research literature include low self-concept, low self-motivation/self-regulation, negative attitude toward school, and negative peer influence. This study attempts to isolate these four factors within a secondary school population. The purpose of the study was to design a valid and reliable…

  1. Validity and reliability of the Brief Insomnia Questionnaire in the general population in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ka-Fai; Yeung, Wing-Fai; Ho, Fiona Yan-Yee; Ho, Lai-Ming; Yung, Kam-Ping; Yu, Yee-Man; Kwok, Chi-Wa

    2014-05-01

    The Brief Insomnia Questionnaire (BIQ) was first validated in the U.S. for insomnia disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Edition (ICD-10) and research diagnostic criteria/International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Second Edition (RDC/ICSD-2). We aimed to determine the validity and reliability of a Hong Kong Chinese version of the BIQ to derive the DSM-5 in addition to other insomnia diagnoses in a general population sample. Probability subsamples of population-based epidemiological survey respondents (n=2011) completed test-retest (n=120) and clinical reappraisal (n=176) interviews. Short-term test-retest reliability was moderate for most BIQ items (Pearson r>0.40), except for the number of nights with problems staying asleep, amount of time awake, duration of sleep problems and sleep onset latency. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the DSM-IV-TR, DSM-5, ICD-10 and RDC/ICSD-2 insomnia disorder ranged from 0.76 to 0.86, indicating high individual-level concordance between BIQ and clinical-interview diagnoses. The use of super-normal control and BIQ symptom-level data further improves the diagnostic concordance. Prevalence estimates based on the BIQ dichotomous classification were comparable with estimates based on clinical interviews for the DSM-5, RDC/ICSD-2 and any of the DSM-IV-TR, ICD-10 and RDC/ICSD-2 insomnia disorders. The Hong Kong Chinese version of the BIQ generates accurate prevalence estimates for insomnia disorders in the general population. Modification of the BIQ scoring algorithms and use of trained interviewers may further improve its diagnostic performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. PLCO Ovarian Phase III Validation Study — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Our preliminary data indicate that the performance of CA 125 as a screening test for ovarian cancer can be improved upon by additional biomarkers. With completion of one additional validation step, we will be ready to test the performance of a consensus marker panel in a phase III validation study. Given the original aims of the PLCO trial, we believe that the PLCO represents an ideal longitudinal cohort offering specimens for phase III validation of ovarian cancer biomarkers.

  3. Validation of birth outcomes from the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System (SART CORS): population-based analysis from the Massachusetts Outcome Study of Assisted Reproductive Technology (MOSART).

    PubMed

    Stern, Judy E; Gopal, Daksha; Liberman, Rebecca F; Anderka, Marlene; Kotelchuck, Milton; Luke, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    To assess the validity of outcome data reported to the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System (SART CORS) compared with data from vital records and the birth defects registry in Massachusetts. Longitudinal cohort. Not applicable. A total of 342,035 live births and fetal deaths from Massachusetts mothers giving birth in the state from July 1, 2004, to December 31, 2008; 9,092 births and fetal deaths were from mothers who had conceived with the use of assisted reproductive technology (ART) and whose cycle data had been reported to the SART CORS. Not applicable. Percentage agreement between maternal race and ethnicity, delivery outcome (live birth or fetal death), plurality (singleton, twin, or triplet+), delivery date, and singleton birth weight reported in the SART CORS versus vital records; sensitivity and specificity for birth defects among singletons as reported in the SART CORS versus the Massachusetts Birth Defects Monitoring Program (BDMP). There was >95% agreement between the SART CORS and vital records for fields of maternal race/ethnicity, live birth/fetal death, and plurality; birth outcome date was within 1 day with 94.9% agreement and birth weight was within 100 g with 89.6% agreement. In contrast, sensitivity for report of any birth defect was 38.6%, with a range of 18.4%-50.0%, for specific birth defect categories. Although most SART CORS outcome fields are accurately reported, birth defect variables showed poor sensitivity compared with the gold standard data from the BDMP. We suggest that reporting of birth defects be discontinued. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Severity prediction rules in community acquired pneumonia: a validation study

    PubMed Central

    Lim, W; Lewis, S; Macfarlane, J

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The British Thoracic Society (BTS) developed a rule (BTSr) based on severity criteria to predict short term mortality in adults admitted to hospital with community acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, neither the BTSr nor a recent modification of it (mBTSr) have been validated in the UK. A case-control study was conducted in a typical UK population to determine the clinical factors predictive of mortality and to assess the performance of these rules.
METHODS—Cases were drawn from all patients with CAP who died in 1997 in five large hospitals in the Mid Trent area. Controls were randomly selected from survivors. Factors associated with mortality were identified following review of medical case notes and performance of the severity prediction rules assessed.
RESULTS—Age >65 years, temperature <37°C, respiratory rate >24 breaths/min, mental confusion, urea concentration of >7 mmol/l, sodium concentration of <135 mmol/l, and the presence of a pleural effusion, all determined on admission, were independently associated with in-hospital mortality on multivariate analysis. The BTSr was 52% sensitive and 79% specific in predicting death while the mBTSr displayed 66% sensitivity and 73% specificity.
CONCLUSIONS—The value of three of the four factors (presence of mental confusion, raised respiratory rate, raised urea) used in the mBTSr as predictors of mortality is confirmed. However, the BTSr and mBTSr did not perform as well in this validation study which included a high proportion (48%) of elderly patients (⩾75 years) compared with the derivation studies.

 PMID:10679541

  5. Validation of a 2D multispectral camera: application to dermatology/cosmetology on a population covering five skin phototypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolivot, Romuald; Nugroho, Hermawan; Vabres, Pierre; Ahmad Fadzil, M. H.; Marzani, Franck

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the validation of a new multispectral camera specifically developed for dermatological application based on healthy participants from five different Skin PhotoTypes (SPT). The multispectral system provides images of the skin reflectance at different spectral bands, coupled with a neural network-based algorithm that reconstructs a hyperspectral cube of cutaneous data from a multispectral image. The flexibility of neural network based algorithm allows reconstruction at different wave ranges. The hyperspectral cube provides both high spectral and spatial information. The study population involves 150 healthy participants. The participants are classified based on their skin phototype according to the Fitzpatrick Scale and population covers five of the six types. The acquisition of a participant is performed at three body locations: two skin areas exposed to the sun (hand, face) and one area non exposed to the sun (lower back) and each is reconstructed at 3 different wave ranges. The validation is performed by comparing data acquired from a commercial spectrophotometer with the reconstructed spectrum obtained from averaging the hyperspectral cube. The comparison is calculated between 430 to 740 nm due to the limit of the spectrophotometer used. The results reveal that the multispectral camera is able to reconstruct hyperspectral cube with a goodness of fit coefficient superior to 0,997 for the average of all SPT for each location. The study reveals that the multispectral camera provides accurate reconstruction of hyperspectral cube which can be used for analysis of skin reflectance spectrum.

  6. Genomewide single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): validation in wild and farmed American and European populations.

    PubMed

    Yáñez, J M; Naswa, S; López, M E; Bassini, L; Correa, K; Gilbey, J; Bernatchez, L; Norris, A; Neira, R; Lhorente, J P; Schnable, P S; Newman, S; Mileham, A; Deeb, N; Di Genova, A; Maass, A

    2016-07-01

    A considerable number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are required to elucidate genotype-phenotype associations and determine the molecular basis of important traits. In this work, we carried out de novo SNP discovery accounting for both genome duplication and genetic variation from American and European salmon populations. A total of 9 736 473 nonredundant SNPs were identified across a set of 20 fish by whole-genome sequencing. After applying six bioinformatic filtering steps, 200 K SNPs were selected to develop an Affymetrix Axiom(®) myDesign Custom Array. This array was used to genotype 480 fish representing wild and farmed salmon from Europe, North America and Chile. A total of 159 099 (79.6%) SNPs were validated as high quality based on clustering properties. A total of 151 509 validated SNPs showed a unique position in the genome. When comparing these SNPs against 238 572 markers currently available in two other Atlantic salmon arrays, only 4.6% of the SNP overlapped with the panel developed in this study. This novel high-density SNP panel will be very useful for the dissection of economically and ecologically relevant traits, enhancing breeding programmes through genomic selection as well as supporting genetic studies in both wild and farmed populations of Atlantic salmon using high-resolution genomewide information.

  7. Internalized HIV Stigma and Disclosure Concerns: Development and Validation of Two Scales in Spanish-Speaking Populations.

    PubMed

    Hernansaiz-Garrido, Helena; Alonso-Tapia, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Internalized stigma and disclosure concerns are key elements for the study of mental health in people living with HIV. Since no measures of these constructs were available for Spanish population, this study sought to develop such instruments, to analyze their reliability and validity and to provide a short version. A heterogeneous sample of 458 adults from different Spanish-speaking countries completed the HIV-Internalized Stigma Scale and the HIV-Disclosure Concerns Scale, along with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale and other socio-demographic variables. Reliability and correlation analyses, exploratory factor analyses, path analyses with latent variables, and ANOVAs were conducted to test the scales' psychometric properties. The scales showed good reliability in terms of internal consistency and temporal stability, as well as good sensitivity and factorial and criterion validity. The HIV-Internalized Stigma Scale and the HIV-Disclosure Concerns Scale are reliable and valid means to assess these variables in several contexts.

  8. The necessity of external validation in exhaled breath research: a case study of sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Fijten, Rianne; Smolinska, Agnieszka; Drent, Marjolein; Dallinga, Jan; Mostard, Remy; Pachen, Daniëlle; van Schooten, Frederik Jan; Boots, Agnes

    2017-08-04

    As in other disciplines of 'omics' research, reproducibility is a major problem in exhaled breath research. Many studies report discriminatory volatiles in the same disease, yet the similarity between lists of identified compounds is low. This can occur due to many factors including the lack of internal and in particular external validation. In an ideal situation, an external validation - sampled at for example a different location - is always included to ensure generalization of the observed findings to a general population. In this study, we hypothesized that sarcoidosis patients and healthy controls could be discriminated based on a group of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath and that these discriminating VOCs could be validated in an external population. The first dataset consisted of 87 sarcoidosis patients and 27 healthy controls, whereas the validation dataset consisted of 25 patients and 29 controls. Using the first dataset, 9 VOCs were found that could predict sarcoidosis with 79.4% accuracy. Different types of internal and external validation were tested to assess the validity of the 9 VOCs. Of the internal validations, randomly setting aside part of the data achieved the most accurate predictions while external validation was only possible by building a new prediction model that yielded a promising yet not entirely convincing accuracy of 74% due to the indirect approach. In conclusion, the initial results of this study are very promising but, as the results of our validation set already indicated, may not be reproducible in other studies. In order to achieve a reliable diagnostic breath fingerprint for sarcoidosis we encourage other scientists to validate the presented findings. ClinicalTrials Identifiers: NCT00741572 & NCT02361281 . © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  9. Relative validity of a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire in an elderly Mediterranean population of Spain.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ballart, Joan D; Piñol, Josep Lluís; Zazpe, Itziar; Corella, Dolores; Carrasco, Paula; Toledo, Estefanía; Perez-Bauer, Manuel; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; Salas-Salvadó, Jorge; Martín-Moreno, José M

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess reproducibility and relative validity of a self-administered FFQ used in the PREDIMED Study, a clinical trial for primary prevention of CVD by Mediterranean diet in a population at high cardiovascular risk. The FFQ was administered twice (FFQ1 and FFQ2) to explore reproducibility at 1 year. Four 3 d dietary records (DR) were used as reference to explore validity; participants therefore recorded their food intake over 12 d in the course of 1 year. The degree of misclassification in the FFQ was also evaluated by a contingency table of quintiles comparing the information from the FFQ2 and the DR. A total of 158 men and women (aged 55-80 years) were asked not to modify their dietary habits during the study period. Reproducibility for food groups, energy and nutrient intake, explored by the Pearson correlation coefficient (r) ranged 0.50-0.82, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) ranged from 0.63 to 0.90. The FFQ2 tended to report higher energy and nutrient intake than the DR. The validity indices of the FFQ in relation to the DR for food groups and energy and nutrient intake ranged (r) from 0.24 to 0.72, while the range of the ICC was between 0.40 and 0.84. With regard to food groups, 68-83 % of individuals were in the same or adjacent quintile in both methods, a figure which decreased to 55-75 % for energy and nutrient intake. We concluded that FFQ measurements had good reproducibility and a relative validity similar to those of FFQ used in other prospective studies.

  10. Validity study of the Moral Judgment Test in Physical Education: development and preliminary validation.

    PubMed

    Chatzopoulos, Dimitrios; Mouratidou, Katerina; Karamavrou, Sofia

    2008-02-01

    Teaching ethical behavior is an aspect of physical education. The purpose of the study was to present the construction and to estimate validity of a test which assesses physical education students' moral judgment, the Moral Judgment Test in Physical Education. The sample comprised 281 male and female participants (95 in Grades 7 to 9, 92 in Grades 10 to 12, and 94 university students), who completed Lind's Moral Judgment Test and the Moral Judgment Test-PE version. The validity of the latter was assessed using four criteria of Lind's moral theory. Analysis indicated that the Moral Judgment Test-PE had adequate construct validity and correlated positively, although relatively weakly, with the original test, so the new version has sufficient construct validity to be used in physical education.

  11. The accuracy of the Alvarado score in predicting acute appendicitis in the black South African population needs to be validated

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Victor Y.; Van Der Linde, Stefan; Aldous, Colleen; Handley, Jonathan J.; Clarke, Damian L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Alvarado score is the most widely used clinical prediction tool to facilitate decision-making in patients with acute appendicitis, but it has not been validated in the black South African population, which has much wider differential diagnosis than developed world populations. We investigated the applicability of this score to our local population and sought to introduce a checklist for rural doctors to facilitate early referral. Methods We analyzed patients with proven appendicitis for the period January 2008 to December 2012. Alvarado scores were retrospectively assigned based on patients’ admission charts. We generated a clinical probability score (1–4 = low, 5–6 = intermediate, 7–10 = high). Results We studied 1000 patients (54% male, median age 21 yr). Forty percent had inflamed, nonperforated appendices and 60% had perforated appendices. Alvarado scores were 1–4 in 20.9%, 5–6 in 35.7% and 7–10 in 43.4%, indicating low, intermediate and high clincial probability, respectively. In our subgroup analysis of 510 patients without generalized peritonitis, Alvarado scores were 1–4 in 5.5%, 5–6 in 18.1% and 7–10 in 76.4%, indicating low, intermediate and high clinical probability, respectively. Conclusion The widespread use of the Alvarado score has its merits, but its applicability in the black South African population is unclear, with a significant proportion of patients with the disease being potentially missed. Further prospective validation of the Alvarado score and possible modification is needed to increase its relevance in our setting. PMID:25078937

  12. Validation of 58 autosomal individual identification SNPs in three Chinese populations

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yi-Liang; Qin, Cui-Jiao; Liu, Hai-Bo; Jia, Jing; Hu, Lan; Li, Cai-Xia

    2014-01-01

    Aim To genotype and evaluate a panel of single-nucleotide polymorphisms for individual identification (IISNPs) in three Chinese populations: Chinese Han, Uyghur, and Tibetan. Methods Two previously identified panels of IISNPs, 86 unlinked IISNPs and SNPforID 52-plex markers, were pooled and analyzed. Four SNPs were included in both panels. In total, 132 SNPs were typed on Sequenom MassARRAY® platform in 330 individuals from Han Chinese, Uyghur, and Tibetan populations. Population genetic indices and forensic parameters were determined for all studied markers. Results No significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed for any of the SNPs in 3 populations. Expected heterozygosity (He) ranged from 0.144 to 0.500 in Han Chinese, from 0.197 to 0.500 in Uyghur, and from 0.018 to 0.500 in Tibetan population. Wright's Fst values ranged from 0.0001 to 0.1613. Pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD) calculations for all 132 SNPs showed no significant LD across the populations (r2<0.147). A subset of 58 unlinked IISNPs (r2<0.094) with He>0.450 and Fst values from 0.0002 to 0.0536 gave match probabilities of 10−25 and a cumulative probability of exclusion of 0.999992. Conclusion The 58 unlinked IISNPs with high heterozygosity have low allele frequency variation among 3 Chinese populations, which makes them excellent candidates for the development of multiplex assays for individual identification and paternity testing. PMID:24577821

  13. Validation of the self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ 20) in British Pakistani and White European population in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Husain, Nusrat; Chaudhry, Nasim; Rhouma, Abdulhakim; Sumra, Altaf; Tomenson, Barbara; Waheed, Waquas

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of depression is difficult to determine because of low clinical depression detection rates in the primary care setting. This low level of detection is a significantly greater problem in people from ethnic minority communities. The availability of culturally validated screening questionnaires might help to improve the detection and treatment of depression. The aim of the study was to assess the validity of the self-reporting questionnaire SRQ 20, (English and Urdu versions) in white Europeans and British Pakistanis and to determine the optimum cut-off scores for detecting depression. Validation of the English and Urdu versions of the SRQ was conducted with a sample of white Europeans and British Pakistani participants. The semi-structured Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) was used as the gold standard diagnostic interview, and receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to evaluate SRQ test performance. The SRQ was completed by 1856 participants out of whom 651 completed the SCAN interview. The SRQ sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values versus SCAN indicated a cut-off score of 7 as optimum for white Europeans and a cut-off score of 6 for British Pakistanis. This study focused on depression alone and did not take into consideration comorbid conditions such as anxiety which might have affected the way respondents answered the questions and contributed to comparatively lower optimum cut-off scores in British Pakistanis. The findings of this validation study provide evidence for high sensitivity and specificity of SRQ amongst both white Europeans and British Pakistanis. The SRQ can be used as a routine screening questionnaire for depression in English and Urdu speaking populations in the UK. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Validity and Reliability of the Hearing Handicap Inventory for Elderly: Version Adapted for Use on the Portuguese Population.

    PubMed

    de Paiva, Sofia Margarida Marques; Simões, João; Paiva, António; Newman, Craig; Castro E Sousa, Francisco; Bébéar, Jean-Pierre

    2016-09-01

    The use of the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE) questionnaire enables us to measure self-perceived psychosocial handicaps of hearing impairment in the elderly as a supplement to pure-tone audiometry. This screening instrument is widely used and it has been going through adaptations and validations for many languages; all of these versions have kept the validity and reliability of the original version. To validate the HHIE questionnaire, translated into Portuguese of Portugal, on the Portuguese population. This study is a descriptive correlational qualitative study. The authors performed the translation from English into Portuguese, the linguistic adaptation, and the counter translation. Two hundred and sixty patients from the Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) Department of Coimbra University Hospitals were divided into a case group (83 individuals) and a control group (177 individuals). All of the 260 patients completed the 25 items in the questionnaire and the answers were reviewed for completeness. The patients volunteered to answer the 25-item HHIE during an ENT appointment. Correlations between each individual item and the total score of the HHIE were tested, and demographic and clinical variables were correlated with the total score, as well. The instrument's reproducibility was assessed using the internal consistency model (Cronbach's alpha). The questions were successfully understood by the participants. There was a significant difference in the HHIE-10 and HHIE-25 total scores between the two groups (p < 0.001). Positive correlations can be seen between the global question and HHIE-10 and HHIE-25. In the regression study, a relationship was observed between the pure-tone average and the HHIE-10 (p < 0.001). Reliability of the instrument was proven by a Cronbach alpha index of 0,79. The HHIE translation into Portuguese of Portugal maintained the validity of the original version and it is useful to assess the psychosocial handicap of hearing

  15. Methodological problems with population cancer studies: The forgotten confounding factors

    PubMed Central

    Blaylock, Russell L.

    2015-01-01

    Among clinical physicians it is the population study that is considered to be the “gold standard” of medical evidence concerning acceptable treatments. As new information comes to light concerning the many variables and confounding factors that can affect such studies, many older studies lose much of their original impact. While newer population studies take into consideration a far greater number of confounding factors many are still omitted and a number of these omitted factors can have profound effects on interpretation and validity of the study. In this editorial, I will discuss some of the omitted confounding factors and demonstrate how they can alter the interpretation of these papers and their clinical application. PMID:26097772

  16. Measuring Long-Distance Romantic Relationships: A Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistole, M. Carole; Roberts, Amber

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated aspects of construct validity for the scores of a new long-distance romantic relationship measure. A single-factor structure of the long-distance romantic relationship index emerged, with convergent and discriminant evidence of external validity, high internal consistency reliability, and applied utility of the scores.…

  17. 29 CFR 1607.7 - Use of other validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... selection procedure is valid; (2) Job similarity. The incumbents in the user's job and the incumbents in the job or group of jobs on which the validity study was conducted perform substantially the same major work behaviors, as shown by appropriate job analyses both on the job or group of jobs on which...

  18. 29 CFR 1607.7 - Use of other validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... selection procedure is valid; (2) Job similarity. The incumbents in the user's job and the incumbents in the job or group of jobs on which the validity study was conducted perform substantially the same major work behaviors, as shown by appropriate job analyses both on the job or group of jobs on which...

  19. Measuring Long-Distance Romantic Relationships: A Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistole, M. Carole; Roberts, Amber

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated aspects of construct validity for the scores of a new long-distance romantic relationship measure. A single-factor structure of the long-distance romantic relationship index emerged, with convergent and discriminant evidence of external validity, high internal consistency reliability, and applied utility of the scores.…

  20. 29 CFR 1607.7 - Use of other validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... necessary information to support validity has been determined and will be made available to the user. B. Use... from the available studies meeting the standards of section 14B below clearly demonstrates that the selection procedure is valid; (2) Job similarity. The incumbents in the user's job and the incumbents in the...

  1. An Empirical Study of Reporting Practices Concerning Measurement Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Thomas P.; Agnello, Jessica

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the current research practice concerning reporting measurement validity evidence based on a sample of 696 research reports listed in the American Psychological Association's Directory of Unpublished Experimental Mental Measures. Only 55% of the reports included any type of validity evidence. This was a substantially lower…

  2. Assessing the Validity of a Stage Measure on Physical Activity in a Population-Based Sample of Individuals with Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Lippke, Sonia; Reinbold-Matthews, Melissa; Courneya, Kerry S.; Karunamuni, Nandini; Sigal, Ronald J.; Birkett, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to test the validity of a transtheoretical model's physical activity (PA) stage measure with intention and different intensities of behavior in a large population-based sample of adults living with diabetes (Type 1 diabetes, n = 697; Type 2 diabetes, n = 1,614) and examine different age groups. The overall…

  3. A Comparative Analysis of the Validity of US State- and County-Level Social Capital Measures and Their Associations with Population Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chul-Joo; Kim, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this study were to validate a number of available collective social capital measures at the US state and county levels, and to examine the relative extent to which these social capital measures are associated with population health outcomes. Measures of social capital at the US state level included aggregate indices based on the…

  4. A Comparative Analysis of the Validity of US State- and County-Level Social Capital Measures and Their Associations with Population Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chul-Joo; Kim, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this study were to validate a number of available collective social capital measures at the US state and county levels, and to examine the relative extent to which these social capital measures are associated with population health outcomes. Measures of social capital at the US state level included aggregate indices based on the…

  5. Assessing the Validity of a Stage Measure on Physical Activity in a Population-Based Sample of Individuals with Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Lippke, Sonia; Reinbold-Matthews, Melissa; Courneya, Kerry S.; Karunamuni, Nandini; Sigal, Ronald J.; Birkett, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to test the validity of a transtheoretical model's physical activity (PA) stage measure with intention and different intensities of behavior in a large population-based sample of adults living with diabetes (Type 1 diabetes, n = 697; Type 2 diabetes, n = 1,614) and examine different age groups. The overall…

  6. Evolutionary game theory for physical and biological scientists. I. Training and validating population dynamics equations.

    PubMed

    Liao, David; Tlsty, Thea D

    2014-08-06

    Failure to understand evolutionary dynamics has been hypothesized as limiting our ability to control biological systems. An increasing awareness of similarities between macroscopic ecosystems and cellular tissues has inspired optimism that game theory will provide insights into the progression and control of cancer. To realize this potential, the ability to compare game theoretic models and experimental measurements of population dynamics should be broadly disseminated. In this tutorial, we present an analysis method that can be used to train parameters in game theoretic dynamics equations, used to validate the resulting equations, and used to make predictions to challenge these equations and to design treatment strategies. The data analysis techniques in this tutorial are adapted from the analysis of reaction kinetics using the method of initial rates taught in undergraduate general chemistry courses. Reliance on computer programming is avoided to encourage the adoption of these methods as routine bench activities.

  7. Evolutionary game theory for physical and biological scientists. I. Training and validating population dynamics equations

    PubMed Central

    Liao, David; Tlsty, Thea D.

    2014-01-01

    Failure to understand evolutionary dynamics has been hypothesized as limiting our ability to control biological systems. An increasing awareness of similarities between macroscopic ecosystems and cellular tissues has inspired optimism that game theory will provide insights into the progression and control of cancer. To realize this potential, the ability to compare game theoretic models and experimental measurements of population dynamics should be broadly disseminated. In this tutorial, we present an analysis method that can be used to train parameters in game theoretic dynamics equations, used to validate the resulting equations, and used to make predictions to challenge these equations and to design treatment strategies. The data analysis techniques in this tutorial are adapted from the analysis of reaction kinetics using the method of initial rates taught in undergraduate general chemistry courses. Reliance on computer programming is avoided to encourage the adoption of these methods as routine bench activities. PMID:25097751

  8. Accuracies of genomic prediction of feed efficiency traits using different prediction and validation methods in an experimental Nelore cattle population.

    PubMed

    Silva, R M O; Fragomeni, B O; Lourenco, D A L; Magalhães, A F B; Irano, N; Carvalheiro, R; Canesin, R C; Mercadante, M E Z; Boligon, A A; Baldi, F S; Misztal, I; Albuquerque, L G

    2016-09-01

    Animal feeding is the most important economic component of beef production systems. Selection for feed efficiency has not been effective mainly due to difficult and high costs to obtain the phenotypes. The application of genomic selection using SNP can decrease the cost of animal evaluation as well as the generation interval. The objective of this study was to compare methods for genomic evaluation of feed efficiency traits using different cross-validation layouts in an experimental beef cattle population genotyped for a high-density SNP panel (BovineHD BeadChip assay 700k, Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). After quality control, a total of 437,197 SNP genotypes were available for 761 Nelore animals from the Institute of Animal Science, Sertãozinho, São Paulo, Brazil. The studied traits were residual feed intake, feed conversion ratio, ADG, and DMI. Methods of analysis were traditional BLUP, single-step genomic BLUP (ssGBLUP), genomic BLUP (GBLUP), and a Bayesian regression method (BayesCπ). Direct genomic values (DGV) from the last 2 methods were compared directly or in an index that combines DGV with parent average. Three cross-validation approaches were used to validate the models: 1) YOUNG, in which the partition into training and testing sets was based on year of birth and testing animals were born after 2010; 2) UNREL, in which the data set was split into 3 less related subsets and the validation was done in each subset a time; and 3) RANDOM, in which the data set was randomly divided into 4 subsets (considering the contemporary groups) and the validation was done in each subset at a time. On average, the RANDOM design provided the most accurate predictions. Average accuracies ranged from 0.10 to 0.58 using BLUP, from 0.09 to 0.48 using GBLUP, from 0.06 to 0.49 using BayesCπ, and from 0.22 to 0.49 using ssGBLUP. The most accurate and consistent predictions were obtained using ssGBLUP for all analyzed traits. The ssGBLUP seems to be more suitable to obtain

  9. Validation of a subjective counting method for a horn flies (Haematobia irritans irritans) (Diptera: Muscidae) population in a cattle herd.

    PubMed

    Castro, Eleonor; Gil, Andrés; Solari, María Angélica; Farias, Nara Amélia

    2005-11-05

    A trained observer direct count method to measure horn fly population was evaluated to determine the reliability (inter-observer agreement) and its validity when compared with a "gold standard" method (video film). All the counts were performed with the animals restrained in a chute in a single herd. A direct count of horn flies by each of two observers on opposite sides of the animal was made. In addition a videotape recording of the counting surface on each animal was made. Horn flies were counted on 80 cows in the morning twice monthly from 22 October 1999 to 24 March 2000. The correlation between observer counts was high as was the correlation between observer counts and counts made from a videotape recording. Direct counts by trained observers were highly reliable and had good validity. However, videotape recording can be useful when the horn fly population is high, because it is faster in the field than the direct count method. The results of this study suggest that the direct count method can be used with confidence under field conditions.

  10. The Victorian Gambling Screen: reliability and validation in a clinical population.

    PubMed

    Tolchard, B; Battersby, M W

    2010-12-01

    There is a need to establish reliability and the various forms of validity in all measures in order to feel confident in the use of such tools across a wide diversity of settings. The aim of this study is to describe the reliability and validity of the Victorian Gambling Screen (VGS) and in particular one of the sub-scales (Harm to Self-HS) in a specialist problem gambling treatment service in Adelaide, Australia. Sixty-seven consecutive gamblers were assessed using a previously validated clinical interview and the VGS (Ben-Tovim et al., The Victorian Gambling Screen: project report. Victorian Research Panel, Melbourne, 2001). The internal consistency of the combined VGS scales had a Cronbach's alpha of .85 with the HS scale .89. There was satisfactory evidence of convergent validity which included moderate correlations with another measure of gambling-the South Oaks Gambling Screen. There were also moderate correlations with other measures of psychopathology. Finally, how the VGS may best be used in clinical settings is discussed.

  11. The Validity of the WHO-5 as an Early Screening for Apathy in an Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Lucas-Carrasco, Ramona; Allerup, Peter; Bech, Per

    2012-01-01

    Aim. The objective of our study has been to evaluate the WHO-5 as a new early screening instrument for apathy in a group of elderly persons. Methods. The WHO-5 was compared to the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). The GDS contains five items measuring well-being and ten items measuring depression. The internal validity of the WHO-5 (total score being a sufficient statistic) was evaluated with both parametric and nonparametric item response theory models. The external validity of the WHO-5 and the GDS was evaluated by ROC using depression as index of validity. Results. The item response theory analyses confirmed that the total score of the WHO-5 is a sufficient statistic. The ROC analysis shows an adequate sensitivity (61%) and specificity (84%). The GDS15 and its two subscales obtained low sensitivity (25–42%), but high specificity (90–98%). Conclusion. The WHO-5 was found both internally and externally valid when considering decreased positive well-being to be an early indication of apathy reflecting that the wind has begun to be taken out of the “motivation sail.” PMID:22991511

  12. Validation of the World Health Organization Assessment Schedule II Chinese Traditional Version (WHODAS II CT) in persons with disabilities and chronic illnesses for Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Mike K T; Hung, Anchor T F; Poon, Peter K K; Fong, Daniel Y T; Li, Leonard S W; Chow, Eddie S L; Qiu, Zhuo-Ying; Liou, Tsan-Hon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the psychometric properties and validity of the World Health Organization Assessment Schedule II Chinese Traditional Version (WHODAS II CT) in Traditional Chinese-speaking persons with disabilities and chronic illnesses. The WHODAS II CT has been administrated to a sample of 1020 persons with disabilities and chronic illnesses. The construct validity, internal consistency, concurrent validity and convergent validity were evaluated. WHODAS II CT showed a satisfactory model fit for the second-order confirmatory factor analysis model (χ(2)/df = 3.05, root means square error of approximation = 0.053, comparative fit index = 0.912, standardized root mean square residual = 0.076), high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.98), high correlation with all domains of Dartmouth Primary Care Cooperative Research Network/World Organization of National Colleges, Academies, and Academic Associations of General Practices/Family Physicians (COOP/WONCA) charts (partial correlation coefficient ranged from 0.26 to 0.74) and significance between persons with and without co-morbidity (all regression coefficients >0). WHODAS II CT is a reliable and valid instrument to measure the disability in persons with disabilities and chronic illnesses among Traditional Chinese-speaking population. A further study is required to validate the short version of WHODAS II in order to enhance its applicability in usual and clinical practices. Implications for Rehabilitation This is the first study to evaluate the reliability and validity of WHODAS II in persons with disability and chronic illnesses among Traditional Chinese-speaking population. The WHODAS II CT is a valid instrument in Chinese adults with disabilities and chronic illnesses. The WHODAS II CT is recommended to be used in population-based survey to investigate the health needs of persons with disabilities and chronic illnesses as well as in the rehabilitation programs as an outcome

  13. Assessing the Validity and Reliability of a Questionnaire on Dietary Fibre-related Knowledge in a Turkish Student Population

    PubMed Central

    Deniz, Melike S.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to validate a questionnaire on dietary fibre (DF)-related knowledge in a Turkish student population. Participants (n=360) were either undergraduate students who have taken a nutrition course for 14 weeks (n=174) or those in another group who have not taken such a nutrition course (n=186). Test-retest reliability, internal reliability, and construct validity of the questionnaire were determined. Overall internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha=0.90) and test-retest reliability (0.90) were high. Significant differences (p<0.001) between the scores of the two groups of students indicated that the questionnaire had satisfactory construct validity. It was found that one-fifth of the students were unsure of the correct answer for any item, and 52.5% of them were not aware that DF had to be consumed on a daily basis. Only 36.4 to 44.2% of the students were able to correctly identify the food sources of DF. PMID:24592591

  14. Assessing the validity and reliability of a questionnaire on dietary fibre-related knowledge in a Turkish student population.

    PubMed

    Deniz, Melike S; Alsaffar, Ayten A

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to validate a questionnaire on dietary fibre (DF)-related knowledge in a Turkish student population. Participants (n=360) were either undergraduate students who have taken a nutrition course for 14 weeks (n=174) or those in another group who have not taken such a nutrition course (n=186). Test-retest reliability, internal reliability, and construct validity of the questionnaire were determined. Overall internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha=0.90) and test-retest reliability (0.90) were high. Significant differences (p<0.001) between the scores of the two groups of students indicated that the questionnaire had satisfactory construct validity. It was found that one-fifth of the students were unsure of the correct answer for any item, and 52.5% of them were not aware that DF had to be consumed on a daily basis. Only 36.4 to 44.2% of the students were able to correctly identify the food sources of DF.

  15. The validity of the 12-item Bem Sex Role Inventory in older Spanish population: an examination of the androgyny model.

    PubMed

    Vafaei, Afshin; Alvarado, Beatriz; Tomás, Concepcion; Muro, Carmen; Martinez, Beatriz; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2014-01-01

    The Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) is the most commonly used and validated gender role measurement tool across countries and age groups. However, it has been rarely validated in older adults and sporadically used in aging and health studies. Perceived gender role is a crucial part of a person's identity and an established determinant of health. Androgyny model suggests that those with high levels of both masculinity and femininity (androgynous) are more adaptive and hence have better health. Our objectives were to explore the validity of BSRI in an older Spanish population, to compare different standard methods of measuring gender roles, and to examine their impact on health indicators. The BSRI and health indicator questions were completed by 120 community-dwelling adults aged 65+ living in Aragon, Spain. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to examine psychometric properties of the BSRI. Androgyny was measured by three approaches: geometric mean, t-ratio, and traditional four-gender groups classification. Relationships between health indicators and gender roles were explored. Factor analysis resulted in two-factor solution consistent with the original masculine and feminine items with high loadings and good reliability. There were no associations between biological sex and gender roles. Different gender role measurement approaches classified participants differently into gender role groups. Overall, androgyny was associated with better mobility and physical and mental health. The traditional four groups approach showed higher compatibility with the androgyny model and was better able to disentangle the differential impact of gender roles on health.

  16. Measurement of Adults’ Sedentary Time in Population-Based Studies

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Genevieve N.; Clark, Bronwyn K.; Winkler, Elisabeth A.H.; Gardiner, Paul A.; Brown, Wendy J.; Matthews, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    Sedentary time (too much sitting) is increasingly being recognized as a distinct health risk behavior. This paper reviews the reliability and validity of self-reported and device-based sedentary time measures and provides recommendations for their use in population-based studies. The focus is on instruments that have been used in free-living, population-based research in adults. Data from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey are utilized to compare the descriptive epidemiology of sedentary time that arises from the use of different sedentary time measures. A key recommendation from this review is that, wherever possible, population-based monitoring of sedentary time should incorporate both self-reported measures (to capture important domain- and behavior-specific sedentary time information) and device-based measures (to measure both total sedentary time and patterns of sedentary time accumulation). PMID:21767730

  17. The Validity of Self-Initiated, Event-Driven Infectious Disease Reporting in General Population Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Merk, Hanna; Kühlmann-Berenzon, Sharon; Bexelius, Christin; Sandin, Sven; Litton, Jan-Eric; Linde, Annika; Nyrén, Olof

    2013-01-01

    Background The 2009/2010 pandemic influenza highlighted the need for valid and timely incidence data. In 2007 we started the development of a passive surveillance scheme based on passive follow-up of representative general population cohorts. Cohort members are asked to spontaneously report all instances of colds and fevers as soon as they occur for up to 9 months. Suspecting that compliance might be poor, we aimed to assess the validity of self-initiated, event-driven outcome reporting over long periods. Methods During two 8 week periods in 2008 and 2009, 2376 and 2514 cohort members in Stockholm County were sent one-week recall questionnaires, which served as reference method. Results The questionnaires were completed by 88% and 86% of the cohort members. Whilst the false positive proportion (1–specificity) in the reporting was low (upper bound of the 95% confidence interval [CI] ≤2% in each season), the false negative proportion (failure to report, 1–sensitivity) was considerable (60% [95% CI 52%–67%] in each season). Still, the resulting epidemic curves for influenza-like illness compared well with those from existing General Practitioner-based sentinel surveillance in terms of shape, timing of peak, and year-to-year variation. This suggested that the error was fairly constant. Conclusions Passive long-term surveillance through self-initiated, event-driven outcome reporting underestimates incidence rates of common upper respiratory tract infections. However, because underreporting appears predictable, simple corrections could potentially restore validity. PMID:23613891

  18. Psychometric validation of a simplified form of the PICTS for low-reading level populations

    PubMed Central

    Disabato, David J.; Folk, Johanna B.; Wilson, John; Barboza, Sharen; Daylor, Jordan; Tangney, June

    2017-01-01

    The Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) is one of the most widely used measures of criminal thinking. Although the PICTS has adequate psychometric qualities with many general population inmates, the measurement confound of reading ability may decrease its construct validity in low-literacy inmates. To help resolve this confound, we present psychometric evaluation of a simplified version of the PICTS (PICTS-SV) in which item language was simplified but item content was preserved. We first conducted Lexile analyses to confirm the reading level of the PICTS-SV is significantly lower than the original PICTS (i.e., sixth grade versus ninth grade). We then tested a bifactor model to confirm the PICTS-SV contains the same two factors as the original PICTS: proactive and reactive criminal thinking. These PICTS-SV results are commensurate with the factor structure of the original PICTS. Results suggest the PICTS-SV is a valid alternative for assessing criminal thinking in inmates with low reading ability. PMID:28190916

  19. Rediscovery rate estimation for assessing the validation of significant findings in high-throughput studies.

    PubMed

    Ganna, Andrea; Lee, Donghwan; Ingelsson, Erik; Pawitan, Yudi

    2015-07-01

    It is common and advised practice in biomedical research to validate experimental or observational findings in a population different from the one where the findings were initially assessed. This practice increases the generalizability of the results and decreases the likelihood of reporting false-positive findings. Validation becomes critical when dealing with high-throughput experiments, where the large number of tests increases the chance to observe false-positive results. In this article, we review common approaches to determine statistical thresholds for validation and describe the factors influencing the proportion of significant findings from a 'training' sample that are replicated in a 'validation' sample. We refer to this proportion as rediscovery rate (RDR). In high-throughput studies, the RDR is a function of false-positive rate and power in both the training and validation samples. We illustrate the application of the RDR using simulated data and real data examples from metabolomics experiments. We further describe an online tool to calculate the RDR using t-statistics. We foresee two main applications. First, if the validation study has not yet been collected, the RDR can be used to decide the optimal combination between the proportion of findings taken to validation and the size of the validation study. Secondly, if a validation study has already been done, the RDR estimated using the training data can be compared with the observed RDR from the validation data; hence, the success of the validation study can be assessed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Description and validation of a method for simultaneous estimation of effective population size and mutation rate from human population data.

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, R; Neel, J V

    1989-01-01

    A method is presented for utilizing population data on electrophoretic variants of proteins to estimate simultaneously the effective sizes (Ne values) of the populations in question and the rate of mutation resulting in electromorphs at the loci whose products were surveyed. The method is applied to data from 12 relatively unacculturated Amerindian tribes for whom census data and independent estimates of the number of different electrophoretic variants at 27 loci are available. Because of tribal demographic structure, Ne should be less than the current number of reproductive-aged adults. In fact, it is substantially greater for 7 tribes, most likely due to intertribal migration and a recent decrease in tribal size. Estimates of locus mutation rates for the 27 loci vary by more than a factor of 20, with an average of 1.1 x 10(-5) per locus per generation. This latter estimate is in satisfactory agreement with the results of other indirect approaches to the estimation of mutation rates in these tribes but about two times higher than the results of direct estimates based on these same loci in studies on civilized populations. This discrepancy could be due to the above-hypothesized migration and to decreases in tribal size. PMID:2594777

  1. What population studies can do for business.

    PubMed

    Hugo, G

    1991-05-01

    This paper examines how specific skills essential to demography, the scientific study of human populations, can be useful in private and public sector planning. Over the past 2 decades, Australia's population has undergone profound transformations -- a shift to below replacement level fertility and a change in ethnic composition, to name a few. And these changes have reshaped the markets for goods, services, and labor. Because demography seeks to analyze and explain changes in the size, composition, and spatial distribution of people, this discipline requires certain skills that can be particularly valuable to both private and public sector planning. These skills include: 1) a sound knowledge of why and how populations change over time; 2) a wide range of concepts (the "cohort," for example) which allow demographers to analyze the dynamics of change in a population; 3) statistical techniques; and 4) life tables techniques. Having named the specific skills of demographers, the author identifies the areas of business and public administration where these skills can be most useful, areas that include the following: strategic long-term planning, marketing, market segmentation, small area analysis, household and family level analysis, projections and estimates, human resources analysis, and international population trends. Finally, the author discusses the implications of applied population analysis on the training of demographers in Australia, emphasizing the role of the Australian Population Association in improving the status of demography as an important planning tool.

  2. Investigating the Knowledge Needed for Teaching Mathematics: An Exploratory Validation Study Focusing on Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charalambous, Charalambos Y.

    2016-01-01

    Central in the frameworks proposed to capture the knowledge needed for teaching mathematics is the assumption that teachers need more than pure subject-matter knowledge. Validation studies exploring this assumption by recruiting contrasting populations are relatively scarce. Drawing on a sample of 644 Greek-Cypriots preservice and inservice…

  3. Investigating the Knowledge Needed for Teaching Mathematics: An Exploratory Validation Study Focusing on Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charalambous, Charalambos Y.

    2016-01-01

    Central in the frameworks proposed to capture the knowledge needed for teaching mathematics is the assumption that teachers need more than pure subject-matter knowledge. Validation studies exploring this assumption by recruiting contrasting populations are relatively scarce. Drawing on a sample of 644 Greek-Cypriots preservice and inservice…

  4. Isolation of a circulating CD45−, CD34dim cell population and validation of their endothelial phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Tropea, Margaret M.; Harper, Bonnie J. A.; Graninger, Grace M.; Phillips, Terry M.; Ferreyra, Gabriela; Mostowski, Howard S.; Danner, Robert L.; Suffredini, Anthony F.; Solomon, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Accurately detecting circulating endothelial cells (CECs) is important since their enumeration has been proposed as a biomarker to measure injury to the vascular endothelium. However, there is no single methodology for determining CECs in blood, making comparison across studies difficult. Many methods for detecting CECs rely on characteristic cell surface markers and cell viability indicators, but lack secondary validation. Here, a CEC population in healthy adult human subjects was identified by flow cytometry as CD45−, CD34dim that is comparable to a previously described CD45−, CD31bright population. In addition, nuclear staining with 7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD) was employed as a standard technique to exclude dead cells. Unexpectedly, the CD45−, CD34dim, 7-AAD− CECs lacked surface detectable CD146, a commonly used marker of CECs. Furthermore, light microscopy revealed this cell population to be composed primarily of large cells without a clearly defined nucleus. Nevertheless, immunostains still demonstrated the presence of the lectin Ulex europaeus and van Willebrand factor. Ultramicro analytical immunochemistry assays for the endothelial cell proteins CD31, CD34, CD62E, CD105, CD141, CD144 and vWF indicated these cells possess an endothelial phenotype. However, only a small amount of RNA, which was mostly degraded, could be isolated from these cells. Thus the majority of CECs in healthy individuals as defined by CD45−, CD34dim, and 7-AAD− have shed their CD146 surface marker and are senescent cells without an identifiable nucleus and lacking RNA of sufficient quantity and quality for transcriptomal analysis. This study highlights the importance of secondary validation of CEC identification. PMID:25057108

  5. [Validation of the French version of the Binge Eating Scale: Examination of its factor structure, internal consistency and construct validity in a non-clinical and a clinical population].

    PubMed

    Brunault, P; Gaillard, P; Ballon, N; Couet, C; Isnard, P; Cook, S; Delbachian, I; Réveillère, C; Courtois, R

    2016-10-01

    The Binge Eating Scale is a widely used scale to assess binge eating disorder in obese patients. Until now, this scale has not been validated on a French population, and no psychometrically sound tool assesses binge eating disorder in the French. This study aimed to test the psychometric properties of a French version of the Binge Eating Scale by establishing its factor structure, internal consistency, and construct validity in both a non-clinical population and a clinical population (obese patients who are candidates for bariatric surgery). A total of 553 non-clinical subjects and 63 morbidly obese patients who were candidates for bariatric surgery were assessed with the BES and the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh or BITE (which assesses both binge eating behaviours and use of inappropriate compensatory behaviours). We tested the factor structure of the instrument, its internal consistency, its construct validity with measures of binge eating, and its construct validity with measures of inappropriate compensatory behaviours to avoid weight gain. In 47 out of the 63 obese patients, we assessed binge eating disorder (SCID). In the non-clinical population, the BES had a one-factor structure (which accounted for 61% of the variance), excellent internal consistency (α=0.93), and high construct validity with measures of binge eating. In this population, construct validity with measures of inappropriate compensatory behaviours was confirmed in overweight and obese subjects (P=0.42), but not in underweight and optimal weight subjects (P<0.001). In obese patients candidates for bariatric surgery, we demonstrated that the BES had a one-factor structure (which accounted for 46% of the variance), had high internal consistency (α=0.88) and high construct validity with measures of binge eating and good construct validity with measures of inappropriate compensatory behaviours to avoid weight gain. In the subpopulation of 47 obese patients, sensitivity, specificity

  6. [Validation of the QFS measuring the frequency and satisfaction in social behaviours in psychiatric adult population].

    PubMed

    Zanello, A; Weber Rouget, B; Gex-Fabry, M; Maercker, A; Guimon, J

    2006-01-01

    Although everyone working in routine mental health services recognizes the scientific and ethical importance to ensure that treatments being provided are of highest quality, there is a clear lack of consensus regarding what outcome domains to include, what measure of assessment to use and, moreover, who to question when assessing. Since the fifties, social functioning is considered as an important dimension to take into account for treatment planning and outcome measuring. But for many years, symptoms scales have been considered as sufficient outcome measures and social functioning improvement expected on the basis of symptoms alleviation. As symptoms and social adjustment sometimes appear relatively independent, no accurate conclusion concerning the patient's social functioning can so be driven on the basis of his clinical symptoms. More attention has then been directed toward the development of instruments specifically intended to measure the extent and nature of social functioning impairments observed in most psychiatric syndromes. Many of these instruments are designed to be completed by caregivers or remain time consuming and difficult to use routinely. Presently, in clinical practice, there is a need to rely on simple and brief instruments considering patients'perspective about their social adjustment as a function of time. The aim of this study is to present a new instrument, the QFS, initially developed in order to assess social functioning in patients involved in group psychotherapy programs conducted in a specialist mental health setting, as well as its psychometric characteristics. It was designed to be completed in less than 10 minutes and the questions are phrased in a simple and redundant way, in order to limit problems inherent to illiteracy or language comprehension. The QFS is a 16 items self-report instrument that assesses both the frequency of (8 items) and the satisfaction with (8 items) various social behaviours adopted during the 2 weeks

  7. Physical activity assessment in the general population; validated self-report methods.

    PubMed

    Ara, Ignacio; Aparicio-Ugarriza, Raquel; Morales-Barco, David; Nascimento de Souza, Wysllenny; Mata, Esmeralda; González-Gross, Marcela

    2015-02-26

    Self-reported questionnaires have been commonly used to assess physical activity levels in large cohort studies. As a result, strong and convincing evidences that physical activity can protect health are widely recognized. However, validation studies using objective measures of physical activity or energy expenditure (double labelled water, accelerometers, pedometers, etc.) indicate that the accuracy and precision of survey techniques are limited. Physical activity questionnaires could fail in estimating particularly non-vigorous physical activity. They have a disproportionate focus on volitional type exercise (i.e. biking, jogging, and walking), while not capturing the activities of daily living and low to moderate intensity movements. Energy expenditure estimates from these data are not recommended. On the other hand, despite objective tools should be the measurement of choice to assess PA level, self-reported questionnaires remain valid, and have many advantages. i.e. low costs. These kind of recalls are designed and validated for different age groups and provide value and important information, mainly about physical activity pattern. Future studies will require more precision and accuracy in physical activity measurement than those provided by traditional survey methods. We can conclude that probably a mixed approach that combines both the objective and subjective techniques involving novel devices and electronic capture of physical activity questionnaires will be more effective.

  8. Validating self reported home safety practices in a culturally diverse non-inner city population.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, P M; Staresinic, A G; Sorkness, C A; Peterson, N M; Schirmer, J; Katcher, M L

    2006-02-01

    To determine the validity of face to face, self reported responses to questions about the presence of safety devices and use of safety practices in the home aimed at preventing unintended injuries to preschool aged children. The authors invited families with children enrolling in a medium sized Midwestern US community Head Start program to participate in a randomized study of home safety practices. Participation involved consenting parents (n = 452) completing an initial questionnaire during Head Start enrollment or in their home. Project staff conducted home inspections to confirm parental responses to 16 questions. Only inspections conducted within 34 days of questionnaire completion (n = 259) were included in the validation study. Parents were told that the home visit would assess the need for safety devices, but were not informed of the validation aspect of the study. Sensitivities were generally high for all 16 safety practices, whereas negative predictive value and specificity varied considerably. Positive predictive value was also high for most practices, and did not vary by ethnicity. Answers provided by parents in their home were different and more reliable than those provided by parents interviewed at school (p = 0.001). Use of safety devices and practices by parents of preschool aged children reported in a face to face interview are generally reliable. Reliability increases if the interview is conducted in the home. Parents may also be more willing to report potential problems if they perceive they may receive corrective assistance.

  9. Validity of self-reported mammography in a multicultural population in Israel.

    PubMed

    Baron-Epel, Orna; Friedman, Nurit; Lernau, Omri

    2008-06-01

    To validate self-reported mammography against claims records in women aged 52-74 living in Israel and belonging to the Jewish (non-orthodox pre-1989 native or former Soviet Union immigrant or ultra-orthodox) or Arab populations. In a spring 2007 random telephone survey, 1550 women receiving healthcare at Maccabi Health Services were asked whether they had had a mammography during the previous 2 years. The same information was obtained from claims records and treated as the gold standard. Self-reported mammography and claims records disagreed for 17.4%. Compared to the other populations, Arab women tended to report more often that they had obtained a mammogram when it was not registered in the claims data (specificity=47.3%, 95% CI%=38.4, 56.3). Ultra-orthodox women more often failed to report having had the mammogram while the claims records indicated they had had (sensitivity=90.3%, 95% CI%=86.1, 93.6). Agreement between self-reported mammography and claims records depends on cultural and socioeconomic factors.

  10. Validation of the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS) in French psychiatric and general populations.

    PubMed

    Trousselard, Marion; Steiler, Dominique; Dutheil, Frédéric; Claverie, Damien; Canini, Frédéric; Fenouillet, Fabien; Naughton, Geraldine; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Franck, Nicolas

    2016-11-30

    The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS) has been validated in general population samples in many countries. Interest in using this measure in clinical populations is growing, particularly for tertiary prevention and mental health promotion. This paper reports validation of the French WEMWBS in healthy and chronic remitted schizophrenia populations. The French WEMWBS was administered to 319 workers, 75 students and 121 patients. For non-patients, self-reported Trait- and State-Anxiety, Mindfulness, Positive and Negative Affect and the General Health Questionnaire were completed. For patients, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impression Severity Scale, Birchwood Insight Scale, Social Adjustment Scale, and Global Assessment of Functioning scale were completed. Test-retest reliability and responsiveness to intervention was assessed at 6 months. Whatever the sample, response frequencies showed normal distributions, and internal consistency was good (Cronbach's α). Scree plots of eigenvalues suggested a single factor in the samples. The one-dimensional solution yielded suboptimal fit indices. Construct validity was confirmed. Significant improvement in scores was observed before and after intervention. Test-retest variation was non-significant. Impairment of insight and cognition in the assessed patients implies that attention must be paid before applying WEMWBS to all patients. Nevertheless, WEMWBS proved valid and reliable in a further European population, suggesting transcultural validity for both monitoring and evaluation of interventions in healthy as well as chronic remitted schizophrenia populations.

  11. Psychometric Properties of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children in Italy: Testing the Validity among a General and Clinical Pediatric Population.

    PubMed

    Gobbi, Erica; Elliot, Catherine; Varnier, Maurizio; Carraro, Attilio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to assess an Italian version of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C-It). Three separate studies were conducted, whereby testing general psychometric properties, construct validity, concurrent validity and the factor structure of the PAQ-C-It among general and clinical pediatric population. Study 1 (n = 1170) examined the psychometric properties, internal consistency, factor structure (exploratory factor analysis, EFA) and construct validity with enjoyment perception during physical activity. Study 2 (n = 59) reported on reliability, construct validity with enjoyment and BMI, and on cross-sectional concurrent validity with objectively measured MVPA (tri-axial accelerometry) over the span of seven consecutive days. Study 3 (n = 58) examined the PAQ-C-It reliability, construct validity with BMI and VO2max as the objective measurement among a population of children with congenital heart defects (CHD). In study 2 and 3, the factor structure of the PAQ-C-It was then re-examined with an EFA. The PAQ-C-It showed acceptable to good reliability (alpha .70 to .83). Results on construct validity showed moderate but significant association with enjoyment perception (r = .30 and .36), with BMI (r = -.30 and -.79 for CHD simple form), and with the VO2max (r = .55 for CHD simple form). Significant concurrent validity with the objectively measured MVPA was reported (rho = .30, p < .05). Findings of the EFA suggested a two-factor structure for the PAQ-C-It, with items 2, 3, and 4 contributing little to the total score. This study supports the PAQ-C-It as an appropriate instrument to assess the MVPA levels of Italian children, including children with simple forms of CHD. Support is given to the possible instrument effectiveness on a large international perspective in order to level out data gathering across the globe.

  12. Psychometric Properties of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children in Italy: Testing the Validity among a General and Clinical Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Gobbi, Erica; Elliot, Catherine; Varnier, Maurizio; Carraro, Attilio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to assess an Italian version of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C-It). Three separate studies were conducted, whereby testing general psychometric properties, construct validity, concurrent validity and the factor structure of the PAQ-C-It among general and clinical pediatric population. Study 1 (n = 1170) examined the psychometric properties, internal consistency, factor structure (exploratory factor analysis, EFA) and construct validity with enjoyment perception during physical activity. Study 2 (n = 59) reported on reliability, construct validity with enjoyment and BMI, and on cross-sectional concurrent validity with objectively measured MVPA (tri-axial accelerometry) over the span of seven consecutive days. Study 3 (n = 58) examined the PAQ-C-It reliability, construct validity with BMI and VO2max as the objective measurement among a population of children with congenital heart defects (CHD). In study 2 and 3, the factor structure of the PAQ-C-It was then re-examined with an EFA. The PAQ-C-It showed acceptable to good reliability (alpha .70 to .83). Results on construct validity showed moderate but significant association with enjoyment perception (r = .30 and .36), with BMI (r = -.30 and -.79 for CHD simple form), and with the VO2max (r = .55 for CHD simple form). Significant concurrent validity with the objectively measured MVPA was reported (rho = .30, p < .05). Findings of the EFA suggested a two-factor structure for the PAQ-C-It, with items 2, 3, and 4 contributing little to the total score. This study supports the PAQ-C-It as an appropriate instrument to assess the MVPA levels of Italian children, including children with simple forms of CHD. Support is given to the possible instrument effectiveness on a large international perspective in order to level out data gathering across the globe. PMID:27228050

  13. Convergent and discriminant validity of quality of life measures used in burn populations.

    PubMed

    Meirte, Jill; Van Daele, Ulrike; Maertens, Koen; Moortgat, Peter; Deleus, Rudi; Van Loey, Nancy E

    2017-02-01

    The primary goal of this study was to investigate convergent validity, i.e. overlapping constructs, of the Burn Specific Health Scale-Brief (BSHS-B), the Short Form-36 items Health Survey (SF-36) and the European Quality Of Life Five Dimensions (EQ-5D) within the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) framework. A secondary goal was to examine the discriminant validity of the questionnaires according to burn severity (no surgery versus 1 or more surgeries). A prospective multi-centre study in adult patients with burns was conducted. At the 9 months assessment, two generic questionnaires, i.e. the SF-36 and EQ-5D, and the BSHS-B were completed. Pearson correlations were used to evaluate convergent validity. Linear discriminant analysis was used to evaluate discriminant validity. At 9 months post-burn data from 184 persons were available of which 131 (71%) were male, mean TBSA burned was 11.8% (SD=10.2). Sixty five (34%) patients did not need surgery, 128 (66%) patients required one or more surgeries. Higher convergence was shown between the generic SF-36 and the condition specific BSHS-B whereas the EQ-5D showed lower convergence with the BSHS-B especially in the domain Activity. The generic scales discriminated across all scales whereas not all BSHS-B scales were able to differentiate problem levels across burn severity groups. This study demonstrates that the ICF is useful to classify scales in order to identify overlapping areas as well as to uncover gaps in relation to patient reported outcomes. Both the SF-36 and EQ-5D showed the ability to distinguish levels of functioning across burn severity groups. As the BSHS-B performed less well and relevant domains of functioning were not addressed, there is room for improvement and modification of this condition specific questionnaire to better capture burn patients' functioning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. Population Validity and Cross-Validity: Applications of Distribution Theory for Testing Hypotheses, Setting Confidence Intervals, and Determining Sample Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algina, James; Keselman, H. J.

    2008-01-01

    Applications of distribution theory for the squared multiple correlation coefficient and the squared cross-validation coefficient are reviewed, and computer programs for these applications are made available. The applications include confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, and sample size selection. (Contains 2 tables.)

  15. Population Validity and Cross-Validity: Applications of Distribution Theory for Testing Hypotheses, Setting Confidence Intervals, and Determining Sample Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algina, James; Keselman, H. J.

    2008-01-01

    Applications of distribution theory for the squared multiple correlation coefficient and the squared cross-validation coefficient are reviewed, and computer programs for these applications are made available. The applications include confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, and sample size selection. (Contains 2 tables.)

  16. Validity of heart rate based nomogram fors estimation of maximum oxygen uptake in Indian population.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S Krishna; Khare, P; Jaryal, A K; Talwar, A

    2012-01-01

    Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) during a graded maximal exercise test is the objective method to assess cardiorespiratory fitness. Maximal oxygen uptake testing is limited to only a few laboratories as it requires trained personnel and strenuous effort by the subject. At the population level, submaximal tests have been developed to derive VO2max indirectly based on heart rate based nomograms or it can be calculated using anthropometric measures. These heart rate based predicted standards have been developed for western population and are used routinely to predict VO2max in Indian population. In the present study VO2max was directly measured by maximal exercise test using a bicycle ergometer and was compared with VO2max derived by recovery heart rate in Queen's College step test (QCST) (PVO2max I) and with VO2max derived from Wasserman equation based on anthropometric parameters and age (PVO2max II) in a well defined age group of healthy male adults from New Delhi. The values of directly measured VO2max showed no significant correlation either with the estimated VO2max with QCST or with VO2max predicted by Wasserman equation. Bland and Altman method of approach for limit of agreement between VO2max and PVO2max I or PVO2max II revealed that the limits of agreement between directly measured VO2max and PVO2max I or PVO2max II was large indicating inapplicability of prediction equations of western population in the population under study. Thus it is evident that there is an urgent need to develop nomogram for Indian population, may be even for different ethnic sub-population in the country.

  17. CIHR Candrive Cohort Comparison with Canadian Household Population Holding Valid Driver's Licenses.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Sylvain; Marshall, Shawn; Kadulina, Yara; Stinchcombe, Arne; Bédard, Michel; Gélinas, Isabelle; Man-Son-Hing, Malcolm; Mazer, Barbara; Naglie, Gary; Porter, Michelle M; Rapoport, Mark; Tuokko, Holly; Vrkljan, Brenda

    2016-06-01

    We investigated whether convenience sampling is a suitable method to generate a sample of older drivers representative of the older-Canadian driver population. Using equivalence testing, we compared a large convenience sample of older drivers (Candrive II prospective cohort study) to a similarly aged population of older Canadian drivers. The Candrive sample consists of 928 community-dwelling older drivers from seven metropolitan areas of Canada. The population data was obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey - Healthy Aging (CCHS-HA), which is a representative sample of older Canadians. The data for drivers aged 70 and older were extracted from the CCHS-HA database, for a total of 3,899 older Canadian drivers. Two samples were demonstrated as equivalent on socio-demographic, health, and driving variables that we compared, but not on driving frequency. We conclude that convenience sampling used in the Candrive study created a fairly representative sample of Canadian older drivers, with a few exceptions.

  18. Matrix population models from 20 studies of perennial plant populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, Martha M.; Williams, Jennifer L.; Lesica, Peter; Bell, Timothy J.; Bierzychudek, Paulette; Bowles, Marlin; Crone, Elizabeth E.; Doak, Daniel F.; Ehrlen, Johan; Ellis-Adam, Albertine; McEachern, Kathryn; Ganesan, Rengaian; Latham, Penelope; Luijten, Sheila; Kaye, Thomas N.; Knight, Tiffany M.; Menges, Eric S.; Morris, William F.; den Nijs, Hans; Oostermeijer, Gerard; Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F.; Shelly, J. Stephen; Stanley, Amanda; Thorpe, Andrea; Tamara, Ticktin; Valverde, Teresa; Weekley, Carl W.

    2012-01-01

    Demographic transition matrices are one of the most commonly applied population models for both basic and applied ecological research. The relatively simple framework of these models and simple, easily interpretable summary statistics they produce have prompted the wide use of these models across an exceptionally broad range of taxa. Here, we provide annual transition matrices and observed stage structures/population sizes for 20 perennial plant species which have been the focal species for long-term demographic monitoring. These data were assembled as part of the "Testing Matrix Models" working group through the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS). In sum, these data represent 82 populations with >460 total population-years of data. It is our hope that making these data available will help promote and improve our ability to monitor and understand plant population dynamics.

  19. Matrix population models from 20 studies of perennial plant populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, Martha M.; Williams, Jennifer L.; Lesica, Peter; Bell, Timothy J.; Bierzychudek, Paulette; Bowles, Marlin; Crone, Elizabeth E.; Doak, Daniel F.; Ehrlen, Johan; Ellis-Adam, Albertine; McEachern, Kathryn; Ganesan, Rengaian; Latham, Penelope; Luijten, Sheila; Kaye, Thomas N.; Knight, Tiffany M.; Menges, Eric S.; Morris, William F.; den Nijs, Hans; Oostermeijer, Gerard; Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F.; Shelly, J. Stephen; Stanley, Amanda; Thorpe, Andrea; Tamara, Ticktin; Valverde, Teresa; Weekley, Carl W.

    2012-01-01

    Demographic transition matrices are one of the most commonly applied population models for both basic and applied ecological research. The relatively simple framework of these models and simple, easily interpretable summary statistics they produce have prompted the wide use of these models across an exceptionally broad range of taxa. Here, we provide annual transition matrices and observed stage structures/population sizes for 20 perennial plant species which have been the focal species for long-term demographic monitoring. These data were assembled as part of the 'Testing Matrix Models' working group through the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS). In sum, these data represent 82 populations with >460 total population-years of data. It is our hope that making these data available will help promote and improve our ability to monitor and understand plant population dynamics.

  20. Sensor data validation and reconstruction. Phase 1: System architecture study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The sensor validation and data reconstruction task reviewed relevant literature and selected applicable validation and reconstruction techniques for further study; analyzed the selected techniques and emphasized those which could be used for both validation and reconstruction; analyzed Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) hot fire test data to determine statistical and physical relationships between various parameters; developed statistical and empirical correlations between parameters to perform validation and reconstruction tasks, using a computer aided engineering (CAE) package; and conceptually designed an expert system based knowledge fusion tool, which allows the user to relate diverse types of information when validating sensor data. The host hardware for the system is intended to be a Sun SPARCstation, but could be any RISC workstation with a UNIX operating system and a windowing/graphics system such as Motif or Dataviews. The information fusion tool is intended to be developed using the NEXPERT Object expert system shell, and the C programming language.

  1. Validation studies of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale for the antenatal period.

    PubMed

    Kozinszky, Zoltan; Dudas, Robert B

    2015-05-01

    Relatively few studies have focused on the validation of psychometric scales measuring depression during pregnancy. The aim of this review was to critically appraise and review antenatal validation studies of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). A systematic search was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI, CINAHL, SCIELO and PsyCINFO for the period 1987-2013. Eleven validation studies met the inclusion criteria. The study design varied between studies. Sensitivity and specificity estimates also varied between 64-100% and 73-100%, respectively. The confidence interval estimates also showed a high degree of variability. Our estimates suggest lower positive predictive values in the general population than those reported in the validation study samples. The sensitivity values in validation studies of the EPDS show fairly large variability, ranging from good to acceptable. Future studies should have larger sample sizes and include both representative and clinical samples and look at the psychometric performance of the EPDS in each trimester. Due to differences in study design and variation in the cultural/linguistic adaptation, uncertainty remains regarding the comparability of the sensitivity and specificity estimates of different EPDS versions. Future studies should have larger sample sizes, include both representative and clinical samples, and look at the psychometric performance of the EPDS in each trimester. Reporting quality, especially as regards checks to ensure content validity, should be improved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12, translation, adaptation and validation for the Persian language population.

    PubMed

    Nakhostin Ansari, Noureddin; Naghdi, Soofia; Mohammadi, Roghaye; Hasson, Scott

    2015-02-01

    The Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12) is a multi-item rating scale used to assess the perspectives of patients about the impact of MS on their walking ability. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the MSWS-12 in Persian speaking patients with MS. The MSWS-12 questionnaire was translated into Persian language according to internationally adopted standards involving forward-backward translation, reviewed by an expert committee and tested on the pre-final version. In this cross-sectional study, 100 participants (50 patients with MS and 50 healthy subjects) were included. The MSWS-12 was administered twice 7 days apart to 30 patients with MS for test and retest reliability. Internal consistency reliability was Cronbach's α 0.96 for test and 0.97 for retest. There were no significant floor or ceiling effects. Test-retest reliability was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] agreement of 0.98, 95% CI, 0.95-0.99) confirming the reproducibility of the Persian MSWS-12. Construct validity using known group methods was demonstrated through a significant difference in the Persian MSWS-12 total score between the patients with MS and healthy subjects. Factor analysis extracted 2 latent factors (79.24% of the total variance). A second factor analysis suggested the 9-item Persian MSWS as a unidimensional scale for patients with MS. The Persian MSWS-12 was found to be valid and reliable for assessing walking ability in Persian speaking patients with MS.

  3. Reliability and validity of 12-item Short-Form health survey (SF-12) for the health status of Chinese community elderly population in Xujiahui district of Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Shou, Juan; Ren, Limin; Wang, Haitang; Yan, Fei; Cao, Xiaoyun; Wang, Hui; Wang, Zhiliang; Zhu, Shanzhu; Liu, Yao

    2016-04-01

    The 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) is the abridged practical version of SF-36. This cross-sectional study was aimed to assess the reliability and validity of SF-12 for the health status of Chinese community elderly population. The Chinese community elderly people in Xujiahui district of Shanghai were investigated. The internal consistency reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha and split-half reliability coefficients. Construct validity was analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Spearman's correlation coefficient (ρ) was used for the evaluation of criterion, convergent, and discriminant validity with Spearman's ρ ≥ 0.4 as satisfactory. Comparisons of the SF-12 summary scores among populations that differed in demographics were performed for discriminant validity. Total 1343 individuals aged ≥60 and <85 years old (response rate: 91.3 %) were analyzed. The Cronbach's α value (0.910) and the split-half reliability coefficient (0.812) reflected satisfactory internal consistency reliability of SF-12. EFA extracted a two-factor model (physical and mental health). About 60.7 % of the total variance was explained by the two factors. CFA showed that the two-factor solution provided a good fit to the data. Good convergent validity and discriminant validity of SF-12 were proved by the correction analyses (Spearman's ρ > 0.4) and the comparisons of the SF-12 summary scores among populations (P < 0.05). SF-12 summary scores were significantly correlated with the SF-36 summary scores (Spearman's ρ > 0.4, P < 0.05). In conclusion, SF-12 had satisfactory reliability and validity in measuring health status of Chinese community elderly population in Xujiahui district of Shanghai.

  4. Accuracy of Population Validity and Cross-Validity Estimation: An Empirical Comparison of Formula-Based, Traditional Empirical, and Equal Weights Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raju, Nambury S.; Bilgic, Reyhan; Edwards, Jack E.; Fleer, Paul F.

    1999-01-01

    Performed an empirical Monte Carlo study using predictor and criterion data from 84,808 U.S. Air Force enlistees. Compared formula-based, traditional empirical, and equal-weights procedures. Discusses issues for basic research on validation and cross-validation. (SLD)

  5. Validity Assessment of Low-risk SCORE Function and SCORE Function Calibrated to the Spanish Population in the FRESCO Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Baena-Díez, José Miguel; Subirana, Isaac; Ramos, Rafael; Gómez de la Cámara, Agustín; Elosua, Roberto; Vila, Joan; Marín-Ibáñez, Alejandro; Guembe, María Jesús; Rigo, Fernando; Tormo-Díaz, María José; Moreno-Iribas, Conchi; Cabré, Joan Josep; Segura, Antonio; Lapetra, José; Quesada, Miquel; Medrano, María José; González-Diego, Paulino; Frontera, Guillem; Gavrila, Diana; Ardanaz, Eva; Basora, Josep; García, José María; García-Lareo, Manel; Gutiérrez-Fuentes, José Antonio; Mayoral, Eduardo; Sala, Joan; R Degano, Irene; Francès, Albert; Castell, Conxa; Grau, María; Marrugat, Jaume

    2017-05-26

    To assess the validity of the original low-risk SCORE function without and with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and SCORE calibrated to the Spanish population. Pooled analysis with individual data from 12 Spanish population-based cohort studies. We included 30 919 individuals aged 40 to 64 years with no history of cardiovascular disease at baseline, who were followed up for 10 years for the causes of death included in the SCORE project. The validity of the risk functions was analyzed with the area under the ROC curve (discrimination) and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test (calibration), respectively. Follow-up comprised 286 105 persons/y. Ten-year cardiovascular mortality was 0.6%. The ratio between estimated/observed cases ranged from 9.1, 6.5, and 9.1 in men and 3.3, 1.3, and 1.9 in women with original low-risk SCORE risk function without and with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and calibrated SCORE, respectively; differences were statistically significant with the Hosmer-Lemeshow test between predicted and observed mortality with SCORE (P < .001 in both sexes and with all functions). The area under the ROC curve with the original SCORE was 0.68 in men and 0.69 in women. All versions of the SCORE functions available in Spain significantly overestimate the cardiovascular mortality observed in the Spanish population. Despite the acceptable discrimination capacity, prediction of the number of fatal cardiovascular events (calibration) was significantly inaccurate. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Designing SoTL Studies--Part I: Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartsch, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter discusses how to improve validity in SoTL studies through generating appropriate measures and using designs that examine causality between an activity and students' performance. [Part II available at EJ1029365.

  7. Validity and feasibility of a satellite imagery-based method for rapid estimation of displaced populations.

    PubMed

    Checchi, Francesco; Stewart, Barclay T; Palmer, Jennifer J; Grundy, Chris

    2013-01-23

    Estimating the size of forcibly displaced populations is key to documenting their plight and allocating sufficient resources to their assistance, but is often not done, particularly during the acute phase of displacement, due to methodological challenges and inaccessibility. In this study, we explored the potential use of very high resolution satellite imagery to remotely estimate forcibly displaced populations. Our method consisted of multiplying (i) manual counts of assumed residential structures on a satellite image and (ii) estimates of the mean number of people per structure (structure occupancy) obtained from publicly available reports. We computed population estimates for 11 sites in Bangladesh, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Haiti, Kenya and Mozambique (six refugee camps, three internally displaced persons' camps and two urban neighbourhoods with a mixture of residents and displaced) ranging in population from 1,969 to 90,547, and compared these to "gold standard" reference population figures from census or other robust methods. Structure counts by independent analysts were reasonably consistent. Between one and 11 occupancy reports were available per site and most of these reported people per household rather than per structure. The imagery-based method had a precision relative to reference population figures of <10% in four sites and 10-30% in three sites, but severely over-estimated the population in an Ethiopian camp with implausible occupancy data and two post-earthquake Haiti sites featuring dense and complex residential layout. For each site, estimates were produced in 2-5 working person-days. In settings with clearly distinguishable individual structures, the remote, imagery-based method had reasonable accuracy for the purposes of rapid estimation, was simple and quick to implement, and would likely perform better in more current application. However, it may have insurmountable limitations in settings featuring connected buildings or

  8. Evaluating the Invariance and Validity of the Structure of Dysfunctional Attitudes in an Adolescent Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prenoveau, Jason M.; Zinbarg, Richard E.; Craske, Michelle G.; Mineka, Susan; Griffith, James W.; Rose, Raphael D.

    2009-01-01

    Form A of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS-A), a self-report measure of depressive beliefs, is widely used to test Beck's cognitive model of depression. The present study is the first to evaluate the DAS-A factor structure in an adolescent population of 542 high school juniors and the first to examine a hierarchical model. Findings support…

  9. Development and validation of sunlight exposure measurement questionnaire (SEM-Q) for use in adult population residing in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Vitamin D deficiency has been identified as a major public health problem worldwide. Sunlight is the main source of vitamin D and its measurement using dosimeters is expensive and difficult for use in population-based studies. Hence, the aim of this study was to develop and validate questionnaires to assess sunlight exposure in healthy individuals residing in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods Two questionnaires with seven important items for sunlight exposure assessment were developed. Fifty four healthy adults were enrolled based on their reported sunlight exposure (high = 17, moderate = 18, low = 19) from Aga Khan University, Karachi. Over four days, study participants were asked to wear a dosimeter between sunrise and sunset and report time spent and activities undertaken in the sun for questionnaire validation. Algorithm for item weightage was created as an average score based on ultraviolet B percentage received. Blood samples were obtained for serum vitamin D. Results The mean time (minutes) spent in sun over 4 days (±SD) was 69.5 (±32) for low, 83.5 (±29.7) for moderate and 329 (±115) for high exposure group. The correlation between average time (minutes) spent in sun over 4 days and mean change in absorbance of UV dosimeters for 4 days was 0.60 (p < 0.01). Correlation between average score and vitamin D levels was found to be 0.36 (p = 0.01) for short term questionnaire score, 0.43 (p = 0.01) for long term questionnaire score in summers and 0.48 (p = 0.01) in winters. Conclusions The sunlight exposure measurement questionnaires were valid tools for use in large epidemiological studies to quantify sunlight exposure. PMID:22682277

  10. Development and validation of sunlight exposure measurement questionnaire (SEM-Q) for use in adult population residing in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Humayun, Quratulain; Iqbal, Romaina; Azam, Iqbal; Khan, Aysha Habib; Siddiqui, Amna Rehana; Baig-Ansari, Naila

    2012-06-08

    Vitamin D deficiency has been identified as a major public health problem worldwide. Sunlight is the main source of vitamin D and its measurement using dosimeters is expensive and difficult for use in population-based studies. Hence, the aim of this study was to develop and validate questionnaires to assess sunlight exposure in healthy individuals residing in Karachi, Pakistan. Two questionnaires with seven important items for sunlight exposure assessment were developed. Fifty four healthy adults were enrolled based on their reported sunlight exposure (high = 17, moderate = 18, low = 19) from Aga Khan University, Karachi. Over four days, study participants were asked to wear a dosimeter between sunrise and sunset and report time spent and activities undertaken in the sun for questionnaire validation. Algorithm for item weightage was created as an average score based on ultraviolet B percentage received. Blood samples were obtained for serum vitamin D. The mean time (minutes) spent in sun over 4 days (±SD) was 69.5 (±32) for low, 83.5 (±29.7) for moderate and 329 (±115) for high exposure group. The correlation between average time (minutes) spent in sun over 4 days and mean change in absorbance of UV dosimeters for 4 days was 0.60 (p < 0.01). Correlation between average score and vitamin D levels was found to be 0.36 (p = 0.01) for short term questionnaire score, 0.43 (p = 0.01) for long term questionnaire score in summers and 0.48 (p = 0.01) in winters. The sunlight exposure measurement questionnaires were valid tools for use in large epidemiological studies to quantify sunlight exposure.

  11. A Validation of an Examination Protocol for Cerebral Visual Impairment Among Children in a Clinical Population in India

    PubMed Central

    Tsherlinga, Sherab; Thomas, Maya Mary; Dutton, Gordon N; Bowman, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) is a leading cause of vision impairment in developed and developing countries due to and increased survival of preterm and low birth weight infants. There are few data concerning the validity of protocols available to diagnose CVI. Aim This study aimed to document the face, content and construct validity of an assessment protocol namely, a 15-domain, Structured Clinical Question Inventory (SCQI), which is based on structured history taking and clinical examination, for the diagnosis of CVI in a clinical population of India. Materials and Methods This study was a retro-spective chart analysis of all children below the age of 18years, referred to the CVI clinic of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Southern India from March 2011-Feb 2012. Clinical case-notes including the SCQI findings of all children referred to the clinic were reviewed. The data were extracted after Institutional Review Board approval. Statistical Analysis Pearson correlation coefficient, Cronbach’s alpha and exploratory factor analysis were used to document the content and construct validity of the examination protocol. Results A total of 342 children (35.7% male, 64.3% female), with a mean age of 3.8 years (range 0-17 years, the median was 3 years) were included in the study and their data were examined. The internal consistency of the SCQI was 0.93 suggesting it as an excellent tool to characterise and profile CVI and a 2-factor model (Dorsal Stream Dysfunction and Ventral Stream Dysfunction) based on a biologically plausible model explained 63% of the variance. Conclusion The results of using the SCQI affirm published data and endorse a theoretical construct similar across cultures. The potential diagnostic accuracy, reliability and utility of this measure for CVI needs to be studied further. The clinical use of a short version of the SCQI may be helpful to contribute to the identification of CVI, especially for middle and low-income countries

  12. A validation study on CO2 chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelman, Peter; Heijkers, Stijn; Tadayon Musavi, Samaneh; Graef, Wouter; Bogaerts, Annemie; Dijk, Van, Jan; Elementary Processes in Gas Discharges Team; Plasmant Team

    2016-09-01

    The demand for renewable energy has increased the popularity of various energy sources, such as solar and wind energy. These sources are intermittent by nature, which typically does not match the demand of energy. Therefore, storage of energy is needed. Current tools for this are, however, costly, slow, and inefficient. Storing energy by the formation of valuable fuels from CO2 is potentially an improvement. By plasma assisted CO2 dissociation CO is produced. In subsequent steps the CO is transformed in valuable fuels. An extensive CO2 microwave plasma chemistry is studied, with special attention to the vibrational modes, which provide a pathway for the dissociation. To that end we developed a global model, which is only time resolved and needs less computational time than spatially resolved models. We present the results from a verification study of the CO2 chemistry. This is done by verification of input data, and by comparison of results obtained by two independent models: ZDPlaskin and PLASIMO's Global Model. We also present results from a sensitivity study of the input data.

  13. Reader studies for validation of CAD systems.

    PubMed

    Gallas, Brandon D; Brown, David G

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of computational intelligence (CI) systems designed to improve the performance of a human operator is complicated by the need to include the effect of human variability. In this paper we consider human (reader) variability in the context of medical imaging computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) systems, and we outline how to compare the detection performance of readers with and without the CAD. An effective and statistically powerful comparison can be accomplished with a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) experiment, summarized by the reader-averaged area under the ROC curve (AUC). The comparison requires sophisticated yet well-developed methods for multi-reader multi-case (MRMC) variance analysis. MRMC variance analysis accounts for random readers, random cases, and correlations in the experiment. In this paper, we extend the methods available for estimating this variability. Specifically, we present a method that can treat arbitrary study designs. Most methods treat only the fully-crossed study design, where every reader reads every case in two experimental conditions. We demonstrate our method with a computer simulation, and we assess the statistical power of a variety of study designs.

  14. Characteristics of the population studies in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, C

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a brief historical sketch of the origins of Chinese population studies and provides 8 characteristics of the post-1978 advances made in population science. Chinese scholars were among the 1st to research population issues but ceased their work in the 18th century. In the late 19th century scholars used the theories of Thomas Malthus to explain population growth. This research peaked in the 1st half of the 20th century and continued in the Malthusian tradition and sociological point of view. Soviet theories on population were popular in the 1930's and 40's, and adopted by the administration with the founding of New China in 1949. Sociologically oriented scholars were criticized, even for Marxist views. The 1978 3rd plenary session of the 11th Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party adopted a policy which emphasized the quest for truth from facts, future planning, and unification. Between 1978-88 huge advances were made in population studies which attracted world attention and contributed to solving China's population problems. Demographic societies were founded at the national, provincial, and municipal levels. Institutions of higher education formed professional departments. Training centers were formed for government family planning officers, and exchanges of students and scholars were made with other countries. An extensive network of party schools and FP departments contributed to population studies. The 8 characteristics which contributed to the originality of the effort were as follows: 1) A blend of Western and Marxist theory was developed. 2) Qualitative and quantitative research was conducted, which surpassed the boring and abstract Soviet research and the Western research short on sociological analyses. 3) Theoretical research was combined with practical research, which lead to the publication of a 30 volume series. 4) Population studies have utilized the theories and methodologies of other related sciences such as economics

  15. [Validation and reliability study of the parent concerns about surgery questionnaire: What worries parents?

    PubMed

    Gironés Muriel, Alberto; Campos Segovia, Ana; Ríos Gómez, Patricia

    2017-03-01

    The study of mediating variables and psychological responses to child surgery involves the evaluation of both the patient and the parents as regards different stressors. To have a reliable and reproducible valid evaluation tool that assesses the level of paternal involvement in relation to different stressors in the setting of surgery. A self-report questionnaire study was completed by 123 subjects of both sexes, subdivided into 2populations, due to their relationship with the hospital setting. The items were determined by a group of experts and analysed using the Lawshe validity index to determine a first validity of content. Subsequently, the reliability of the tool was determined by an item-re-item analysis of the 2sub-populations. A factorial analysis was performed to analyse the construct validity with the maximum likelihood and rotation of varimax type factors. A questionnaire of paternal concern was offered, consisting of 21 items with a Cronbach coefficient of 0.97, giving good precision and stability. The posterior factor analysis gives an adequate validity to the questionnaire, with the determination of 10 common stressors that cover 74.08% of the common and non-common variance of the questionnaire. The proposed questionnaire is reliable, valid and easy-to-apply and is developed to assess the level of paternal concern about the surgery of a child and to be able to apply measures and programs through the prior assessment of these elements. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  16. Validation of diagnostic procedures on stratified populations: application on the quantification of thallium myocardial perfusion scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Goris, M.L.; Bretille, J.; Askienazy, S.; Purcell, G.P.; Savelli, V.

    1989-01-01

    In this report we present a method for the quantitative description of the degree of deviation from the norm of 201-thallium single photon emission tomographic (SPECT) data. Validation is obtained from the frequency of ''positive'' outcomes in subgroup of patients in whom the prevalence of coronary artery disease, for the group as a whole, is known, even if individual patient outcomes are not verified. This approach overcomes the bias associated with nonrandomized clinical studies, in which the likelihood that a more invasive but definitive procedure (coronary arteriogram) will be performed is influenced by the result of the outcome of the procedure under study.

  17. Physical activity promotion in Latin American populations: a systematic review on issues of internal and external validity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to determine the degree to which physical activity interventions for Latin American populations reported on internal and external validity factors using the RE-AIM framework (reach & representativeness, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance). We systematically identified English (PubMed; EbscoHost) and Spanish (SCIELO; Biblioteca Virtual en Salud) language studies published between 2001 and 2012 that tested physical activity, exercise, or fitness promotion interventions in Latin American populations. Cross-sectional/descriptive studies, conducted in Brazil or Spain, published in Portuguese, not including a physical activity/fitness/exercise outcome, and with one time point assessment were excluded. We reviewed 192 abstracts and identified 46 studies that met the eligibility criteria (34 in English, 12 in Spanish). A validated 21-item RE-AIM abstraction tool was used to determine the quality of reporting across studies (0-7 = low, 8-14 = moderate, and 15-21 = high). The number of indicators reported ranged from 3–14 (mean = 8.1 ± 2.6), with the majority of studies falling in the moderate quality reporting category. English and Spanish language articles did not differ on the number of indicators reported (8.1 vs. 8.3, respectively). However, Spanish articles reported more across reach indicators (62% vs. 43% of indicators), while English articles reported more across effectiveness indicators (69% vs 62%). Across RE-AIM dimensions, indicators for reach (48%), efficacy/effectiveness (67%), and implementation (41%) were reported more often than indicators of adoption (25%) and maintenance (10%). Few studies reported on the representativeness of participants, staff that delivered interventions, or the settings where interventions were adopted. Only 13% of the studies reported on quality of life and/or potential negative outcomes, 20% reported on intervention fidelity, and 11% on cost of implementation

  18. Physical activity promotion in Latin American populations: a systematic review on issues of internal and external validity.

    PubMed

    Galaviz, Karla I; Harden, Samantha M; Smith, Erin; Blackman, Kacie Ca; Berrey, Leanna M; Mama, Scherezade K; Almeida, Fabio A; Lee, Rebecca E; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2014-06-17

    The purpose of this review was to determine the degree to which physical activity interventions for Latin American populations reported on internal and external validity factors using the RE-AIM framework (reach & representativeness, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance). We systematically identified English (PubMed; EbscoHost) and Spanish (SCIELO; Biblioteca Virtual en Salud) language studies published between 2001 and 2012 that tested physical activity, exercise, or fitness promotion interventions in Latin American populations. Cross-sectional/descriptive studies, conducted in Brazil or Spain, published in Portuguese, not including a physical activity/fitness/exercise outcome, and with one time point assessment were excluded. We reviewed 192 abstracts and identified 46 studies that met the eligibility criteria (34 in English, 12 in Spanish). A validated 21-item RE-AIM abstraction tool was used to determine the quality of reporting across studies (0-7 = low, 8-14 = moderate, and 15-21 = high). The number of indicators reported ranged from 3-14 (mean = 8.1 ± 2.6), with the majority of studies falling in the moderate quality reporting category. English and Spanish language articles did not differ on the number of indicators reported (8.1 vs. 8.3, respectively). However, Spanish articles reported more across reach indicators (62% vs. 43% of indicators), while English articles reported more across effectiveness indicators (69% vs 62%). Across RE-AIM dimensions, indicators for reach (48%), efficacy/effectiveness (67%), and implementation (41%) were reported more often than indicators of adoption (25%) and maintenance (10%). Few studies reported on the representativeness of participants, staff that delivered interventions, or the settings where interventions were adopted. Only 13% of the studies reported on quality of life and/or potential negative outcomes, 20% reported on intervention fidelity, and 11% on cost of implementation

  19. Validation of the postnatal perceived stress inventory in a French speaking population of primiparous women.

    PubMed

    Razurel, Chantal; Kaiser, Barbara; Dupuis, Marc; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Sellenet, Catherine; Epiney, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    To develop a Postnatal Perceived Stress Inventory (PNPSI) and assess its psychometric properties. Cross-sectional quantitative study. One nurse-managed labor and delivery unit in a university hospital in a major metropolitan area. One hundred seventy-nine (179) primiparous French speaking women who gave birth at term. The PNPSI was validated at 6 weeks postpartum. Its predictive validity for depression and anxiety was assessed at the same time. The exploratory analysis revealed a 19-item structure divided into six factors. This inventory has good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = .815). The predictive validity shows that the PNPSI significantly predicts depression and anxiety at 6 weeks postpartum, and that certain factors are particularly prominent. The PNPSI's psychometric properties make it a useful tool for future research to evaluate interventions for perceived stress during the postnatal period. Its predictive power for depression indicates that it is also a promising tool for clinical settings. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  20. Validation of the VERITAS-Pro treatment adherence scale in a Spanish sample population with hemophilia.

    PubMed

    Cuesta-Barriuso, Rubén; Torres-Ortuño, Ana; Galindo-Piñana, Pilar; Nieto-Munuera, Joaquín; Duncan, Natalie; López-Pina, José Antonio

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to conduct a validation in Spanish of the Validated Hemophilia Regimen Treatment Adherence Scale - Prophylaxis (VERITAS-Pro) questionnaire for use in patients with hemophilia under prophylactic treatment. The VERITAS-Pro scale was adapted through a process of back translation from English to Spanish. A bilingual native Spanish translator translated the scale from English to Spanish. Subsequently, a bilingual native English translator translated the scale from Spanish to English. The disagreements were resolved by agreement between the research team and translators. Seventy-three patients with hemophilia, aged 13-62 years, were enrolled in the study. The scale was applied twice (2 months apart) to evaluate the test-retest reliability. Internal consistency reliability was lower on the Spanish VERITAS-Pro than on the English version. Test-retest reliability was high, ranging from 0.83 to 0.92. No significant differences (P>0.05) were found between test and retest scores in subscales of VERITAS-Pro. In general, Spanish patients showed higher rates of nonadherence than American patients in all subscales. The Spanish version of the VERITAS-Pro has high levels of consistency and empirical validity. This scale can be administered to assess the degree of adherence of prophylactic treatment in patients with hemophilia.

  1. Validation of the VERITAS-Pro treatment adherence scale in a Spanish sample population with hemophilia

    PubMed Central

    Cuesta-Barriuso, Rubén; Torres-Ortuño, Ana; Galindo-Piñana, Pilar; Nieto-Munuera, Joaquín; Duncan, Natalie; López-Pina, José Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to conduct a validation in Spanish of the Validated Hemophilia Regimen Treatment Adherence Scale – Prophylaxis (VERITAS-Pro) questionnaire for use in patients with hemophilia under prophylactic treatment. Patients and methods The VERITAS-Pro scale was adapted through a process of back translation from English to Spanish. A bilingual native Spanish translator translated the scale from English to Spanish. Subsequently, a bilingual native English translator translated the scale from Spanish to English. The disagreements were resolved by agreement between the research team and translators. Seventy-three patients with hemophilia, aged 13–62 years, were enrolled in the study. The scale was applied twice (2 months apart) to evaluate the test–retest reliability. Results Internal consistency reliability was lower on the Spanish VERITAS-Pro than on the English version. Test–retest reliability was high, ranging from 0.83 to 0.92. No significant differences (P>0.05) were found between test and retest scores in subscales of VERITAS-Pro. In general, Spanish patients showed higher rates of nonadherence than American patients in all subscales. Conclusion The Spanish version of the VERITAS-Pro has high levels of consistency and empirical validity. This scale can be administered to assess the degree of adherence of prophylactic treatment in patients with hemophilia. PMID:28392680

  2. Reliability and validity of a new post-stroke depression scale in Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yingying; Liu, Rui; Lu, Jian; Wang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Shining; Wu, Aiqin; Wang, Qiao; Yuan, Yonggui

    2015-03-15

    Nowadays there is still a lack of effective method to evaluate post-stroke depression. To distinguish patients with and without depression after stroke reliably, this study proposes a new Post-Stroke Depression Scale (PSDS). PSDS was developed based on various depression scales and clinician experiences. 158 stroke patients who were able to finish PSDS and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) were recruited. Cronbach α, Spearman rank coefficient and Kruskal-Wallis test were respectively used to examine reliability, internal consistency and discriminate validity. Then the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the ability of scale and categorized scales to the range of depression. Finally, the factors of the PSDS were classified by average clustering analysis. The Cronbach α of PSDS was 0.797 (95% CI) indicted a good reliability. The Spearman correlation coefficient between PSDS and HDRS was 0.822 (P<0.001) showed an excellent congruent validity. The discriminate validity displayed significant difference between patients with and without depression (P<0.001). 6/24 was set to be the cut-off value by ROC analysis. Moreover, the different severity was distinguished by the value 6/24, 15/24 and 17/24. The small sample size maybe the main limitation, the larger sample used in different fields according sex, age and side-lesion was needed to verity the results. The cut off value calculated by ROC curve maybe react the severity of the disease to some extent, but it is not absolute. PSDS is a valid, reliable and specific tool for evaluating post-stroke depression patients and can be conveniently utilized. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Validating Population Estimates for Harmonized Census Tract Data, 2000-2010

    PubMed Central

    Logan, John R.; Stults, Brian D.; Xu, Zengwang

    2016-01-01

    Social scientists regularly rely on population estimates when studying change in small areas over time. Census tract data in the United States are a prime example, since there are substantial shifts in tract boundaries from decade to decade. This study compares alternative estimates of the 2000 population living within 2010 tract boundaries to the Census Bureau's own re-tabulation. All methods of estimation are subject to error; this is the first study to directly quantify the error in alternative interpolation methods for U.S. census tracts. A simple areal weighting method closely approximates the estimates provided by one standard source (the Neighborhood Change Data Base or NCDB), with some improvement provided by considering only area not covered by water. More information is used by the Longitudinal Tract Data Base (LTDB), which relies on a combination of areal and population interpolation as well as ancillary data about water-covered areas. Another set of estimates provided by NHGIS uses data about land cover in 2001 and the current road network and distribution of population and housing units at the block level. Areal weighting alone results in a large error in a substantial share of tracts that were divided in complex ways. The LTDB and NHGIS perform much better in all situations, but are subject to some error when boundaries of both tracts and their component blocks are redrawn. Users of harmonized tract data should be watchful for potential problems in either of these data sources. PMID:28626831

  4. Validating Population Estimates for Harmonized Census Tract Data, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Logan, John R; Stults, Brian D; Xu, Zengwang

    2016-01-01

    Social scientists regularly rely on population estimates when studying change in small areas over time. Census tract data in the United States are a prime example, since there are substantial shifts in tract boundaries from decade to decade. This study compares alternative estimates of the 2000 population living within 2010 tract boundaries to the Census Bureau's own re-tabulation. All methods of estimation are subject to error; this is the first study to directly quantify the error in alternative interpolation methods for U.S. census tracts. A simple areal weighting method closely approximates the estimates provided by one standard source (the Neighborhood Change Data Base or NCDB), with some improvement provided by considering only area not covered by water. More information is used by the Longitudinal Tract Data Base (LTDB), which relies on a combination of areal and population interpolation as well as ancillary data about water-covered areas. Another set of estimates provided by NHGIS uses data about land cover in 2001 and the current road network and distribution of population and housing units at the block level. Areal weighting alone results in a large error in a substantial share of tracts that were divided in complex ways. The LTDB and NHGIS perform much better in all situations, but are subject to some error when boundaries of both tracts and their component blocks are redrawn. Users of harmonized tract data should be watchful for potential problems in either of these data sources.

  5. Hypersonic code efficiency and validation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Bradford C.

    1992-01-01

    Renewed interest in hypersonic and supersonic flows spurred the development of the Compressible Navier-Stokes (CNS) code. Originally developed for external flows, CNS was modified to enable it to also be applied to internal high speed flows. In the initial phase of this study CNS was applied to both internal flow applications and fellow researchers were taught to run CNS. The second phase of this research was the development of surface grids over various aircraft configurations for the High Speed Research Program (HSRP). The complex nature of these configurations required the development of improved surface grid generation techniques. A significant portion of the grid generation effort was devoted to testing and recommending modifications to early versions of the S3D surface grid generation code.

  6. Studies on the Ozyorsk population: dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Khokhryakov, Victor V.; Drozhko, Evgeniy G.; Glagolenko, Y V.; Rovny, Sergey I.; Vasilenko, E K.; Suslov, A; Anspaugh, L R.; Napier, Bruce A. ); Bouville, A; Khokhryakov, V F.; Suslova, K G.; Romanov, S A.

    2001-12-01

    The Mayak Production Association (MPA) is located in the northern part of Chelyabinsk Oblast. Operating areas are about 10 km from the town of Ozyorsk, the largest populated area nearby, but other nearby populated areas include Novogorny Village, New Metlino Village, and Kyshtym Town. The long-term objective of this (unfunded) project is reconstruction of the time-dependent individual radiation doses to residents of Ozyorsk and the surrounding area from atmospheric releases of radionuclides from the facilities of the Mayak Production Association (MPA). The time period is from 1948 to the present. This information could be used in several epidemiologic studies of the regional population. Two pilotscale studies of thyroid disease among residents of Ozyorsk have found an increase in thyroid nodules among exposed persons compared to unexposed persons and an increase in thyroid carcinoma in Ozyorsk. The success of follow-on studies would depend upon the availability of thyroid doses proposed to be provided. The availability of credible thyroid doses would allow the quantification of risk of thyroid disease and the evaluation of factors such as host susceptibility, age and time effects, and gender differences. Perhaps more importantly, studies of the Ozyorsk residents would not be encumbered with the complications associated with previous early detection screening, as in the Chernobyl studies, or previous medical conditions, as in the I-131 medical studies. The releases to the atmosphere from MPA stacks are a source of exposure to other populations that are the subject of epidemiologic investigation; these populations include the Extended Techa River Cohort (JCCRER Direction 1), the MPA workers (JCCRER Direction 2), and proposed studies of the East Urals Radioactive Trace (EURT) cohort. The doses received by these cohorts from atmospheric releases at the MPA represent a confounding variable that cannot be considered without the information proposed to be provided.

  7. AB021. Validation of the Greek translation of the STOP-Bang questionnaire in a sleep clinic population

    PubMed Central

    Tsara, Iro; Steiropoulos, Paschalis; Perantoni, Eleni; Chasioti, Anastasia; Tsara, Venetia

    2016-01-01

    Background The STOP-Bang (SB) questionnaire is considered internationally as a valid screening tool for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The objective of this study was to validate this questionnaire in Greek language in a sleep clinic population. Methods Consecutive patients referred to the sleep clinics of the General Hospital “G. Papanikolaou” (Thessaloniki) and the General Hospital of Alexandroupolis for clinical evaluation of OSA completed the official Greek translation of SB questionnaire and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). The medical history of the patients, anthropometric measurements and sleep study parameters were also recorded. Results Included were 344 people (74.1% male) of mean age 51.6±12.9 years, mean BMI 33.1±7.2 kg/m2 and mean respiratory disturbance index (RDI) 30.6±29.5/h. They had ESS 9.4±5.0 and SB total score 5.1±1.6. The Cronbach’s alpha internal consistency was 0.634. A significant correlation was found between ESS and SB score (r=0.306, P<0.001). In 24% of the study population the RDI was lower than 5/h. There was a significant difference in the SB score between them and patients with RDI ≥5/h (P=0.000) while a significant correlation was found between SB score >4 and RDI (r=0.385, P=0.000). Conclusions SB score is high in OSA patients and it is correlated with daytime sleepiness and RDI value. SB score >4 seems to associate with severe OSA.

  8. Validation of two complementary oral-health related quality of life indicators (OIDP and OSS 0-10 ) in two qualitatively distinct samples of the Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Montero, J; Bravo, M; Albaladejo, A

    2008-11-18

    Oral health-related quality of life can be assessed positively, by measuring satisfaction with mouth, or negatively, by measuring oral impact on the performance of daily activities. The study objective was to validate two complementary indicators, i.e., the OIDP (Oral Impacts on Daily Performances) and Oral Satisfaction 0-10 Scale (OSS), in two qualitatively different socio-demographic samples of the Spanish adult population, and to analyse the factors affecting both perspectives of well-being. A cross-sectional study was performed, recruiting a Validation Sample from randomly selected Health Centres in Granada (Spain), representing the general population (n = 253), and a Working Sample (n = 561) randomly selected from active Regional Government staff, i.e., representing the more privileged end of the socio-demographic spectrum of this reference population. All participants were examined according to WHO methodology and completed an in-person interview on their oral impacts and oral satisfaction using the OIDP and OSS 0-10 respectively. The reliability and validity of the two indicators were assessed. An alternative method of describing the causes of oral impacts is presented. The reliability coefficient (Cronbach's alpha) of the OIDP was above the recommended 0.7 threshold in both Validation and Occupational samples (0.79 and 0.71 respectively). Test-retest analysis confirmed the external reliability of the OSS (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, 0.89; p < 0.001) Some subjective factors (perceived need for dental treatment, complaints about mouth and intermediate impacts) were strongly associated with both indicators, supporting their construct and criterion validity. The main cause of oral impact was dental pain. Several socio-demographic, behavioural and clinical variables were identified as modulating factors. OIDP and OSS are valid and reliable subjective measures of oral impacts and oral satisfaction, respectively, in an adult Spanish population. Exploring

  9. Animal model validation studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Frazer, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    The project objectives were the development of a system to be used for exposing small laboratory animals to the respirable fraction of cotton dust found in a cotton mill, and testing an animal model of byssinosis which could be used to study the development of the disease in humans. This final report contains 10 published papers of the research at various stages of completion. A description of the cotton dust exposure system optimization techniques and measurements of the resulting improvements are noted in these articles. The final system developed used a large, modified, Pitt-3 cotton generator to expose up to 10 animals simultaneously to cotton dust in a Wahman stainless steel chamber. The acoustical powered generator, which was developed for the project to resuspend cotton dust has been very useful in resuspending other agricultural dusts. The development of an animal model for byssinosis involved verifying results of other investigators, developing and testing several new methods to evaluate pulmonary function in guinea pigs following acute cotton dust exposures, and modification of the cotton dust response using drug mediators.

  10. The work role functioning questionnaire 2.0 (Dutch version): examination of its reliability, validity and responsiveness in the general working population.

    PubMed

    Abma, Femke I; van der Klink, Jac J L; Bültmann, Ute

    2013-03-01

    The promotion of a sustainable, healthy and productive working life attracts more and more attention. Recently the Work Role Functioning Questionnaire (WRFQ) has been cross-culturally translated and adapted to Dutch. This questionnaire aims to measure the health-related work functioning of workers with health problems. The aim of this study is to evaluate the reliability, validity (including five new items) and responsiveness of the WRFQ 2.0 in the working population. A longitudinal study was conducted among workers. The reliability (internal consistency, test-retest reliability, measurement error), validity (structural validity-factor analysis, construct validity by means of hypotheses testing) and responsiveness of the WRFQ 2.0 were evaluated. A total of N = 553 workers completed the survey. The final WRFQ 2.0 has four subscales and showed very good internal consistency, moderate test-retest reliability, good construct validity and moderate responsiveness in the working population. The WRFQ was able to distinguish between groups with different levels of mental health, physical health, fatigue and need for recovery. A moderate correlation was found between WRFQ and related constructs respectively work ability and work productivity. A weak relationship was found with general self-rated health, work engagement and work involvement. The WRFQ 2.0 is a reliable and valid instrument to measure health-related work functioning in the working population. Further validation in larger samples is recommended, especially for test-retest reliability, responsiveness and the questionnaire's ability to predict the future course of health-related work functioning.

  11. [The research protocol III. Study population].

    PubMed

    Arias-Gómez, Jesús; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    The study population is defined as a set of cases, determined, limited, and accessible, that will constitute the subjects for the selection of the sample, and must fulfill several characteristics and distinct criteria. The objectives of this manuscript are focused on specifying each one of the elements required to make the selection of the participants of a research project, during the elaboration of the protocol, including the concepts of study population, sample, selection criteria and sampling methods. After delineating the study population, the researcher must specify the criteria that each participant has to comply. The criteria that include the specific characteristics are denominated selection or eligibility criteria. These criteria are inclusion, exclusion and elimination, and will delineate the eligible population. The sampling methods are divided in two large groups: 1) probabilistic or random sampling and 2) non-probabilistic sampling. The difference lies in the employment of statistical methods to select the subjects. In every research, it is necessary to establish at the beginning the specific number of participants to be included to achieve the objectives of the study. This number is the sample size, and can be calculated or estimated with mathematical formulas and statistic software.

  12. Reliability and validity of Milliken Activities of Daily Living Scale (MAS) in measuring activity limitations of a Turkish population.

    PubMed

    Akel, Burcu Semin; Öksüz, Çiğdem; Karahan, Sevilay; Düger, Tülin; Kayihan, Hülya

    2012-07-01

    The Milliken Activities of Daily Living Scale (MAS) is a self-report scale to address limitation of ability to perform daily tasks in upper extremity injuries. It can address the necessity of each task, which makes MAS useful while planning individual treatment. The objective of this study was to perform cross-cultural adaptation of the MAS TURKISH and to evaluate its reliability and validity for Turkish-speaking patients with upper extremity conditions. A total of 99 patients were asked to complete the adapted MAS and DASH at baseline and one week after the initial assessment. Also grip strength was evaluated with an interval of one week. The reliability of the adapted version was good, with high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.964) and test-retest reliability (interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.772) for the total score. A statistically significant correlation between MAS and DASH scores and grip strength scores of the injured side was obtained. The results of the study have shown that the Turkish version of MAS has excellent test-retest reliability and validity. It is a suitable assessment for evaluating function and giving an overview of activity limitations in many performance areas in a Turkish population.

  13. Health Literacy in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Duong, Van Tuyen; Lin, I-Feng; Sorensen, Kristine; Pelikan, Jürgen M; Van Den Broucke, Stephan; Lin, Ying-Chin; Chang, Peter Wushou

    2015-11-01

    Data on health literacy (HL) in the population is limited for Asian countries. This study aimed to test the validity of the Mandarin version of the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q) for use in the general public in Taiwan. Multistage stratification random sampling resulted in a sample of 2989 people aged 15 years and above. The HLS-EU-Q was validated by confirmatory factor analysis with excellent model data fit indices. The general HL of the Taiwanese population was 34.4 ± 6.6 on a scale of 50. Multivariate regression analysis showed that higher general HL is significantly associated with the higher ability to pay for medication, higher self-perceived social status, higher frequency of watching health-related TV, and community involvement but associated with younger age. HL is also associated with health status, health behaviors, and health care accessibility and use. The HLS-EU-Q was found to be a useful tool to assess HL and its associated factors in the general population.

  14. Adaptation, Validation, Reliability and Factorial Equivalence of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale in Colombian and Spanish Population.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Lugo, Mayra; Espada, José P; Morales, Alexandra; Marchal-Bertrand, Laurent; Soler, Franklin; Vallejo-Medina, Pablo

    2016-10-14

    The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale is the most widely used instrument to assess self-esteem. In light of the absence of adaptations in Colombia, this study seeks to validate and adapt this scale in the Colombian population, and perform factorial equivalence with the Spanish version. A total of 1,139 seniors (633 Colombians and 506 Spaniards) were evaluated; the individuals answered the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and sexual self-esteem scale. The average score of the items was similar to the questionnaire's theoretical average, and standard deviations were close to one. The psychometric properties of the items are generally adequate with alphas of .83 and .86 and significant (CI = .95) and correlations with the sexual self-esteem scale ranging from .31 and .41. Factorial equivalence was confirmed by means of a structural equation model (CFI = .912 and RMSEA = .079), thus showing a strong level of invariance.

  15. Test of Creative Imagination: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundogan, Aysun; Ari, Meziyet; Gonen, Mubeccel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate validity and reliability of the test of creative imagination. This study was conducted with the participation of 1000 children, aged between 9-14 and were studying in six primary schools in the city center of Denizli Province, chosen by cluster ratio sampling. In the study, it was revealed that the…

  16. Human Rights Attitude Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercan, Recep; Yaman, Tugba; Demir, Selcuk Besir

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a valid and reliable attitude scale having quality psychometric features that can measure secondary school students' attitudes towards human rights. The study group of the research is comprised by 710 6th, 7th and 8th grade students who study at 4 secondary schools in the centre of Sivas. The study group…

  17. The development and validation of diabetes knowledge questionnaire for the Indigenous population in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, B; Ramadas, A; Quek, K F

    2010-12-01

    The study's aim was to construct and validate a diabetes mellitus knowledge questionnaire in Bahasa Malaysia for Orang Asli (OA-DKQ). The questionnaire was administered to; case (Orang Asli) and control (administrative staff) groups at baseline and retested two weeks later. The Cronbach's Alpha was used to determine internal consistency and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to determine test-retest reliability. The OA-DKQ has an internal consistency of 0.806. These findings suggest the OA-DKQ is an acceptable instrument to assess knowledge and preventive behaviour in Orang Asli (86 words).

  18. An empirical test of the validity of the Oral Health Status Index (OHSI) on a minority population.

    PubMed

    Spolsky, V W; Marcus, M; Coulter, I D; Der-Martirosian, C; Atchison, K A

    2000-12-01

    Disease varies in different populations based on sociodemographic variables, and there is limited understanding of this interaction. The purpose of this methodological study was to determine the validity of the Oral Health Status Index, a disease-based index, on a Hispanic population by comparing it with the NIDCR epidemiological measures of disease, with the addition of demographic and behavioral variables. The epidemiologic data were collected according to the criteria defined by the NIDCR, including: a modified Decayed Missing Filled Surfaces Index, gingival inflammation, calculus, and destructive periodontal disease measures. The demographic and behavioral variables were gathered from 240 interviews with Hispanic adults in two community clinics. Bivariate analysis was used to determine relationships between the descriptive epidemiologic, demographic, and behavioral variables and the Oral Health Status Index (OHSI). There were statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) in mean OHSI scores among the demographic variables age, education, income, and place of birth; and the behavioral variables alcohol consumption, flossing, and acculturation. Multiple regression analysis with the OHSI as the dependent variable showed that the statistically significant (p < 0.001) epidemiologic predictors were: percentage of Decayed Teeth/Decayed, Filled Teeth; Number of Replaced Teeth/Missing Teeth; and millimeters of mesial attachment loss. These collectively explained 47.49% of the variance in the regression. The addition of demographic variables to the epidemiologic regression identified age (p < 0.05), gender (p < 0.01), and place of birth (p < 0.01) as significant predictors that explained an additional 4.12% of the variance, collectively bringing the total explained variance to 51.61%. The behavioral variables did not contribute significantly to predicting the OHSI regression score. The Oral Health Status Index in this study is validated by its correlation with both

  19. Preliminary validation of the Malay Yale Food Addiction Scale: Factor structure and item analysis in an obese population.

    PubMed

    Swarna Nantha, Yogarabindranath; Abd Patah, Norafidza Ashiquin; Ponnusamy Pillai, Mahalakshmi

    2016-12-01

    Researchers suggest that the rise in obesity rates may be explained by the addictive properties of certain types of food. In view of the growing obesity epidemic in South-East Asia, there is a need for a psychometric tool to assess the concept of food addiction amongst high-risk populations. The objective of this study is to translate the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) into the Malay language and subsequently validate its use in an obese population. Between the year 2014 and 2015, a total of 250 obese adults were assessed for food addiction utilizing the Malay version of the YFAS at a primary care clinic. An assessment of the psychometric properties of the scale was performed to determine the factor structure, item statistics and internal consistency of the scale. A one factorial structure of YFAS was confirmed in this study through factor analysis. All items except 4 (items 19, 22, 24 and 25) had factor loadings >0.42. The internal reliability (KR-20) coefficient of the one-factor solution was α = 0.76. The mean YFAS symptom count was M = 2.74 (SD = 1.57) with 10.4% (N = 26) of the participants received the diagnosis of food addiction. The determination of construct validity and the identification of other latent variables in the Malay food addiction model is necessary prior to the formal utilization of the scale as a tool to detect addictive eating patterns in the community. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Population pharmacometrics in support of analgesics studies.

    PubMed

    Välitalo, P; Ranta, V-P; Hooker, A C; Kokki, M; Kokki, H

    2014-02-01

    Population pharmacometric modeling is used to explain both population trends as well as the sources and magnitude of variability in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics data; the later, in part, by taking into account patient characteristics such as weight, age, renal function and genetics. The approach is best known for its ability to analyze sparse data, i.e. when only a few measurements have been collected from each subject, but other benefits include its flexibility and the potential to construct more detailed models than those used in the traditional individual curve fitting approach. This review presents the basic concepts of population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling and includes several analgesic drug examples. In addition, the use of these models to design and optimize future studies is discussed. In this context, finding the best design factors, such as the sampling times or the dose, for future studies within pre-defined criteria using a previously constructed population pharmacokinetic model can help researchers acquire clinically meaningful data without wasting resources and unnecessarily exposing vulnerable patient groups to study drugs and additional blood sampling. © 2014 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Studies on populations exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Kreiss, K

    1985-01-01

    Mean serum levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in U.S. population groups without occupational exposure to PCBs are usually between 4 and 8 ng/mL, with 95% of individuals having serum PCB measurements of less than 20. Subpopulations consuming fish taken from contaminated waters, such as Lake Michigan and near Triana, AL, have mean serum PCB levels several times those found in other general population groups and ranges that extend into concentrations found in industrial populations involved in capacitor manufacture. Two studies of general populations and several studies of industrial workers have demonstrated associations of PCBs with various serum lipids and liver enzyme levels. Six groups of investigators have found associations between PCB or chlorinated pesticide levels and blood pressure. Research efforts are needed in clarifying determinants of serum-adipose partition ratios; the utility of urinary porphyrins as a measure of subclinical hepatic effects; human metabolites and excretion of chlorinated hydrocarbons; and the relation, if any, between blood pressure and organochlorine compounds when controlled for confounding variables. Established cohorts, such as those in Triana, Lake Michigan sportsfishers, the Michigan PBB cohort, residents of farms with PCB-lined silos, and occupational groups, could all be studied further with attention to these research questions. PMID:3928345

  2. Need for population specific validation of a portable metabolic testing system: a case of sedentary pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Yeo, SeonAe; Ronis, David L; Antonakos, Cathy L; Roberts, Katherine; Hayashi, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Commercially available portable metabolic systems have been validated with samples of young, healthy, and well-fit subjects, but use of these systems with a special population, such as healthy but sedentary pregnant women, requires a unique set of considerations. These include a woman's limited testing time necessary for fetal safety, relatively low oxygen consumption, and the unique physiology of pregnancy (woman, the placenta, and the fetus). The purpose of this study was to validate a portable metabolic testing system (VO2000) with healthy sedentary pregnant women. A total of 9 sedentary pregnant women who averaged 30 years of age (SD=3), 93 kg (SD=19) weight, 163 cm (SD=7) height, and at 19 weeks' gestation (SD=5) volunteered to participate. Submaximum fitness tests using the Cornell protocol were conducted once with two systems (VO2000 and CPX/D, a reference) simultaneously, and then subsequently twice with one system (VO2000). The VO2000 consistently overestimated VO2 measurement, compared to the same manufacturer's reference system, by 4.4 +/- 3.6 (SD) ml/kg/min, and when VO2000 was used twice, the mean difference was statistically significant (1.0 +/- 1.8 [SD] ml/kg/min; t(45) = 3.9, p < .001). The results of the study show that although VO2000 is an established and validated portable metabolic system for measurement on adult males and females who are relatively well fit, this portable system consistently overestimates VO2 readings for pregnant women compared to standard full-size system. Measurements, when repeated, were not consistent.

  3. Experiments to populate and validate a processing model for polyurethane foam. BKC 44306 PMDI-10

    SciTech Connect

    Mondy, Lisa Ann; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Shelden, Bion; Soehnel, Melissa Marie; O'Hern, Timothy J.; Grillet, Anne; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Wyatt, Nicholas B.; Russick, Edward Mark; Bauer, Stephen J.; Hileman, Michael Bryan; Urquhart, Alexander; Thompson, Kyle Richard; Smith, David Michael

    2014-03-01

    We are developing computational models to elucidate the expansion and dynamic filling process of a polyurethane foam, PMDI. The polyurethane of interest is chemically blown, where carbon dioxide is produced via the reaction of water, the blowing agent, and isocyanate. The isocyanate also reacts with polyol in a competing reaction, which produces the polymer. Here we detail the experiments needed to populate a processing model and provide parameters for the model based on these experiments. The model entails solving the conservation equations, including the equations of motion, an energy balance, and two rate equations for the polymerization and foaming reactions, following a simplified mathematical formalism that decouples these two reactions. Parameters for the polymerization kinetics model are reported based on infrared spectrophotometry. Parameters describing the gas generating reaction are reported based on measurements of volume, temperature and pressure evolution with time. A foam rheology model is proposed and parameters determined through steady-shear and oscillatory tests. Heat of reaction and heat capacity are determined through differential scanning calorimetry. Thermal conductivity of the foam as a function of density is measured using a transient method based on the theory of the transient plane source technique. Finally, density variations of the resulting solid foam in several simple geometries are directly measured by sectioning and sampling mass, as well as through x-ray computed tomography. These density measurements will be useful for model validation once the complete model is implemented in an engineering code.

  4. Validation of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults in a Danish population.

    PubMed

    Emtekaer Haesum, Lisa Korsbakke; Ehlers, Lars; Hejlesen, Ole K

    2015-09-01

    To describe how the original American full-length version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) was translated and adapted for use in the Danish setting and culture. A reliable Danish version of the TOFHLA was created and pretested using patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as case group. Forty-two patients with COPD completed the Danish TOFHLA and participated in a face-to-face interview concerning their basic demographics. Statistical analyses were conducted to explore the demographic data provided by the participants and to determine the internal consistency and reliability of the Danish TOFHLA. The mean age of sample was 68.7 years (range 34-86). The face validity, internal consistency and item to scale correlations of the Danish TOFHLA were determined and found to fulfil well-established criteria; on this basis, we found the reliability and consistency of the Danish TOFHLA to be satisfying. The Danish TOFHLA is now ready for application in future research projects, which test levels of functional health literacy in an elderly Danish population at risk of chronic diseases. The evolvement in the measurement of health literacy is still ongoing, as there is a need to refine existing methods. Until recently, there has been a total lack of instruments for assessing health literacy in Scandinavia; it is hoped that this development of the Danish TOFHLA will promote further research within the field of health literacy in Scandinavia and other European countries. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  5. Development and validation of a web-based questionnaire for surveying the health and working conditions of high-performance marine craft populations

    PubMed Central

    de Alwis, Manudul Pahansen; Lo Martire, Riccardo; Äng, Björn O; Garme, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Background High-performance marine craft crews are susceptible to various adverse health conditions caused by multiple interactive factors. However, there are limited epidemiological data available for assessment of working conditions at sea. Although questionnaire surveys are widely used for identifying exposures, outcomes and associated risks with high accuracy levels, until now, no validated epidemiological tool exists for surveying occupational health and performance in these populations. Aim To develop and validate a web-based questionnaire for epidemiological assessment of occupational and individual risk exposure pertinent to the musculoskeletal health conditions and performance in high-performance marine craft populations. Method A questionnaire for investigating the association between work-related exposure, performance and health was initially developed by a consensus panel under four subdomains, viz. demography, lifestyle, work exposure and health and systematically validated by expert raters for content relevance and simplicity in three consecutive stages, each iteratively followed by a consensus panel revision. The item content validity index (I-CVI) was determined as the proportion of experts giving a rating of 3 or 4. The scale content validity index (S-CVI/Ave) was computed by averaging the I-CVIs for the assessment of the questionnaire as a tool. Finally, the questionnaire was pilot tested. Results The S-CVI/Ave increased from 0.89 to 0.96 for relevance and from 0.76 to 0.94 for simplicity, resulting in 36 items in the final questionnaire. The pilot test confirmed the feasibility of the questionnaire. Conclusions The present study shows that the web-based questionnaire fulfils previously published validity acceptance criteria and is therefore considered valid and feasible for the empirical surveying of epidemiological aspects among high-performance marine craft crews and similar populations. PMID:27324717

  6. [Adaptation and validation of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) for a river population in the Brazilian Amazon].

    PubMed

    Moretti-Pires, Rodrigo Otávio; Corradi-Webster, Clarissa Mendonça

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to validate the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) for a river population in the Brazilian Amazon. The original English version of AUDIT was translated into Portuguese, using the procedure recommended by the World Health Organization. The text was then back-translated and submitted to a native English translator, who approved the translation. AUDIT was administered to 361 inhabitants for a total of three times in two weeks. Data were analyzed for test/retest reliability and internal consistency. Cronbach's alpha was 0.87 at the first interview, 0.87 at the second, and 0.86 at the third. Test/retest reliability assessed via the intra-class correlation coefficient for the total AUDIT scale was 0.93. Area under ROC was 0.805 for a cutoff of seven (sensitivity 76.4%; specificity 75%). The validated AUDIT proved to be internally consistent and stable over time, but requires further investigation of its psychometric properties.

  7. Emphatic Tendency Scale for Student Teachers: Validity and Reliability Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocak, Canan; Onen, Aysem Seda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the validity and reliability of the Empathic Tendency Scale, which was developed in order to identify student teachers' empathic tendencies. The sampling of the study consisted of 730 student teachers studying at Hacettepe University Faculty of Education. To determine the factor pattern of Empathic Tendency…

  8. Conducting Internet Research With the Transgender Population: Reaching Broad Samples and Collecting Valid Data

    PubMed Central

    Miner, Michael H.; Bockting, Walter O.; Romine, Rebecca Swinburne; Raman, Sivakumaran

    2013-01-01

    Health research on transgender people has been hampered by the challenges inherent in studying a hard-to-reach, relatively small, and geographically dispersed population. The Internet has the potential to facilitate access to transgender samples large enough to permit examination of the diversity and syndemic health disparities found among this population. In this article, we describe the experiences of a team of investigators using the Internet to study HIV risk behaviors of transgender people in the United States. We developed an online instrument, recruited participants exclusively via websites frequented by members of the target population, and collected data using online quantitative survey and qualitative synchronous and asynchronous interview methods. Our experiences indicate that the Internet environment presents the investigator with some unique challenges and that commonly expressed criticisms about Internet research (e.g., lack of generalizable samples, invalid study participants, and multiple participation by the same subject) can be overcome with careful method design, usability testing, and pilot testing. The importance of both usability and pilot testing are described with respect to participant engagement and retention and the quality of data obtained online. PMID:24031157

  9. Genotoxicity Studies Performed in the Ecuadorian Population

    PubMed Central

    Paz-y-Miño, César; Cumbal, Nadia; Sánchez, María Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    Genotoxicity studies in Ecuador have been carried out during the past two decades. The focuses of the research were mainly the area of environmental issues, where the populations have been accidentally exposed to contaminants and the area of occupational exposure of individuals at the workplace. This paper includes studies carried out in the population of the Amazon region, a zone known for its rich biodiversity as well as for the ecological damage caused by oil spills and chemical sprayings whose consequences continue to be controversial. Additionally, we show the results of studies comprised of individuals occupationally exposed to toxic agents in two very different settings: flower plantation workers exposed to pesticide mixtures and X-ray exposure of hospital workers. The results from these studies confirm that genotoxicity studies can help evaluate current conditions and prevent further damage in the populations exposed to contaminants. As such, they are evidence of the need for biomonitoring employers at risk, stricter law enforcement regarding the use of pesticides, and increasingly conscientious oil extraction activities. PMID:22496977

  10. Validity and feasibility of a satellite imagery-based method for rapid estimation of displaced populations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Estimating the size of forcibly displaced populations is key to documenting their plight and allocating sufficient resources to their assistance, but is often not done, particularly during the acute phase of displacement, due to methodological challenges and inaccessibility. In this study, we explored the potential use of very high resolution satellite imagery to remotely estimate forcibly displaced populations. Methods Our method consisted of multiplying (i) manual counts of assumed residential structures on a satellite image and (ii) estimates of the mean number of people per structure (structure occupancy) obtained from publicly available reports. We computed population estimates for 11 sites in Bangladesh, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Haiti, Kenya and Mozambique (six refugee camps, three internally displaced persons’ camps and two urban neighbourhoods with a mixture of residents and displaced) ranging in population from 1,969 to 90,547, and compared these to “gold standard” reference population figures from census or other robust methods. Results Structure counts by independent analysts were reasonably consistent. Between one and 11 occupancy reports were available per site and most of these reported people per household rather than per structure. The imagery-based method had a precision relative to reference population figures of <10% in four sites and 10–30% in three sites, but severely over-estimated the population in an Ethiopian camp with implausible occupancy data and two post-earthquake Haiti sites featuring dense and complex residential layout. For each site, estimates were produced in 2–5 working person-days. Conclusions In settings with clearly distinguishable individual structures, the remote, imagery-based method had reasonable accuracy for the purposes of rapid estimation, was simple and quick to implement, and would likely perform better in more current application. However, it may have insurmountable

  11. Aggregation and disaggregation kinetics of human blood platelets: Part I. Development and validation of a population balance method.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, P Y; Hellums, J D

    1993-01-01

    Hydrodynamic shear stress of sufficient intensity is known to cause platelet activation and aggregation and to alter the effects of biochemical platelet agonists and antagonists. In this work, a population balance equation (PBE) model is developed for analysis of platelet aggregation and disaggregation kinetics under the influence of a shear field. The model incorporates both aggregation and disaggregation by splitting and/or erosion mechanisms. This paper, the first of a series of three, deals with the formulation, simplification, and validation of the PBE and with the estimation of parameters involved in the PBE. These population parameters include collision efficiency, void fraction (related to the particle collision diameter), and the breakage rate coefficient. The platelet particle size distribution is determined experimentally, both initially and at some later times. The PBE can then be used to match satisfactorily the observed particle histograms, by appropriate choice of parameters of the model as functions of time, platelet size, and magnitude of physical or chemical stimuli. Besides providing information on adhesive forces and on the rates of aggregation and disaggregation, these parameters infer the physical properties of platelets and platelet aggregates. These properties are of potential value in increasing our understanding of the processes involved in thrombotic disease and/or therapy. A numerical procedure for solving the PBE is validated by application to simple cases for which analytical solutions are available. The model is applied to analysis of experiments, and parameter sensitivity studies are used to order the importance of the parameters and to reduce the complexity of the model. The simplified model is shown to give good agreement with experimental observations. PMID:8369441

  12. Development and initial validation of a self-scored COPD Population Screener Questionnaire (COPD-PS).

    PubMed

    Martinez, Fernando J; Raczek, Anastasia E; Seifer, Frederic D; Conoscenti, Craig S; Curtice, Tammy G; D'Eletto, Thomas; Cote, Claudia; Hawkins, Clare; Phillips, Amy L

    2008-04-01

    COPD has a profound impact on daily life, yet remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. We set out to develop a brief, reliable, self-scored questionnaire to identify individuals likely to have COPD. COPD-PS development began with a list of concepts identified for inclusion using expert opinion from a clinician working group comprised of pulmonologists (n = 5) and primary care clinicians (n = 5). A national survey of 697 patients was conducted at 12 practitioner sites. Logistic regression identified items discriminating between patients with and without fixed airflow obstruction (AO, postbronchodilator FEV(1)/FVC < 70%). ROC analyses evaluated screening accuracy, compared scoring options, and assessed concurrent validity. Convergent and discriminant validity were assessed via COPD-PS and SF-12v2 score correlations. For known-groups validation, COPD-PS differences between clinical groups were tested. Test-retest reliability was evaluated in a 20% sample. Of 697 patients surveyed, 295 patients met expert review criteria for spirometry performance; 38% of these (n = 113) had results indicating AO. Five items positively predicted AO (p < 0.0001): breathlessness, productive cough, activity limitation, smoking history, and age. COPD-PS scores accurately classified AO status (area under ROC curve = 0.81) and reliable (r = 0.91). Patients with spirometry indicative of AO scored significantly higher (6.8, SD = 1.9; p< 0.0001) than patients without AO (4.0, SD = 2.3). Higher scores were associated with more severe AO, bronchodilator use, and overnight hospitalization for breathing problems. With the prevalence of COPD in the studied cohort, a score on the COPD-PS of greater than five was associated with a positive predictive value of 56.8% and negative predictive value of 86.4%. The COPD-PS accurately classified physician-reported COPD (AUC = 0.89). The COPD-PS is a brief, accurate questionnaire that can identify individuals likely to have COPD.

  13. Developing a reliable and valid patient measure of safety in hospitals (PMOS): a validation study.

    PubMed

    McEachan, Rosemary R C; Lawton, Rebecca J; O'Hara, Jane K; Armitage, Gerry; Giles, Sally; Parveen, Sahdia; Watt, Ian S; Wright, John

    2014-07-01

    Patients represent an important and as yet untapped source of information about the factors that contribute to the safety of their care. The aim of the current study is to test the reliability and validity of the Patient Measure of Safety (PMOS), a brief patient-completed questionnaire that allows hospitals to proactively identify areas of safety concern and vulnerability, and to intervene before incidents occur. 297 patients from 11 hospital wards completed the PMOS questionnaire during their stay; 25 completed a second 1 week later. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) safety culture survey was completed by 190 staff on 10 of these wards. Factor structure, internal reliability, test-retest reliability, discriminant validity and convergent validity were assessed. Factor analyses revealed 8 key domains of safety (eg, communication and team work, access to resources, staff roles and responsibilities) explaining 58% variance of the original questionnaire. Cronbach's α (range 0.66-0.89) and test-retest reliability (r=0.75) were good. The PMOS positive index significantly correlated with staff reported 'perceptions of patient safety' (r=0.79) and 'patient safety grade' (r=-0.81) outcomes from the AHRQ (demonstrating convergent validity). A multivariate analysis of variance (MAMOVA) revealed that three PMOS factors and one retained single item discriminated significantly across the 11 wards. The PMOS is the first patient questionnaire used to assess factors contributing to safety in hospital settings from a patient perspective. It has demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity. Such information is useful to help hospitals/units proactively improve the safety of their care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Validation Theory and Research for a Population-Level Measure of Children's Development, Wellbeing, and School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guhn, Martin; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Janus, Magdalena; Hertzman, Clyde

    2011-01-01

    This paper delineates general validity and research questions that are underlying an ongoing program of research pertaining to the Early Development Instrument (EDI, Janus and Offord 2007), a population-level measure, on which teachers rate kindergarten children's developmental outcomes in the social, emotional, physical, cognitive, and…

  15. Validation Theory and Research for a Population-Level Measure of Children's Development, Wellbeing, and School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guhn, Martin; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Janus, Magdalena; Hertzman, Clyde

    2011-01-01

    This paper delineates general validity and research questions that are underlying an ongoing program of research pertaining to the Early Development Instrument (EDI, Janus and Offord 2007), a population-level measure, on which teachers rate kindergarten children's developmental outcomes in the social, emotional, physical, cognitive, and…

  16. Comparison of Eleven Major Learning Styles Models: Variables; Appropriate Populations; Validity of Instrumentation; and the Research Behind Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBello, Thomas C.

    Eleven major models of learning styles are compared in terms of variables, appropriate populations, validity of instrumentation, and supporting research. Discussion considers: (1) Dunn and Dunn's Learning Style Inventory for grades 3 through 12 and Productivity Environmental Preference Survey for adults; (2) National Association of Secondary…

  17. The Well-Being 5: Development and Validation of a Diagnostic Instrument to Improve Population Well-being

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Lindsay E.; Agrawal, Sangeeta; Sidney, James A.; Castle, Patricia H.; Coberley, Carter R.; Witters, Dan; Pope, James E.; Harter, James K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Building upon extensive research from 2 validated well-being instruments, the objective of this research was to develop and validate a comprehensive and actionable well-being instrument that informs and facilitates improvement of well-being for individuals, communities, and nations. The goals of the measure were comprehensiveness, validity and reliability, significant relationships with health and performance outcomes, and diagnostic capability for intervention. For measure development and validation, questions from the Well-being Assessment and Wellbeing Finder were simultaneously administered as a test item pool to over 13,000 individuals across 3 independent samples. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on a random selection from the first sample and confirmed in the other samples. Further evidence of validity was established through correlations to the established well-being scores from the Well-Being Assessment and Wellbeing Finder, and individual outcomes capturing health care utilization and productivity. Results showed the Well-Being 5 score comprehensively captures the known constructs within well-being, demonstrates good reliability and validity, significantly relates to health and performance outcomes, is diagnostic and informative for intervention, and can track and compare well-being over time and across groups. With this tool, well-being deficiencies within a population can be effectively identified, prioritized, and addressed, yielding the potential for substantial improvements to the health status, performance, and quality of life for individuals and cost savings for stakeholders. (Population Health Management 2014;17:357–365) PMID:24892873

  18. Radionuclide migration laboratory studies for validation of batch sorption data

    SciTech Connect

    Triay, I.R.; Mitchell, A.J.; Ott, M.A.

    1991-12-31

    Advective and diffusive migration experiments (within the Dynamic Transport Column Experiments and Diffusion Studies of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project) involve utilizing crushed material, intact, and fractured tuff in order to test and improve (if necessary) transport models by experimentally observing the migration of sorbing and non-sorbing radionuclides on a laboratory scale. Performing a validation of the sorption data obtained with batch techniques (within the Batch Sorption Study) is an integral part of the mission of the Dynamic Transport Column Experiments and Diffusion Studies. In this paper the work scope of the radionuclide migration laboratory experiments (as they apply to validation of batch sorption data) is reviewed.

  19. Preparation, piloting and validation for a longitudinal birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Golding, Jean

    2009-07-01

    No longitudinal study should go into the field prior to detailed piloting and validation studies of the measures and techniques to be used. Preparation should also involve the training of staff, the acquisition of space and appropriate equipment, and liaison with the community and ethical committees as well as with scientific collaborators. Because different measures will continually be introduced as the participants age, the preparation, piloting and validation studies have to be ongoing. Here we describe some of the different strategies that should be used.

  20. Development and validation of a cardiovascular risk prediction model for Japanese: the Hisayama study.

    PubMed

    Arima, Hisatomi; Yonemoto, Koji; Doi, Yasufumi; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Hata, Jun; Tanizaki, Yumihiro; Fukuhara, Masayo; Matsumura, Kiyoshi; Iida, Mitsuo; Kiyohara, Yutaka

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a new risk prediction model of cardiovascular disease and to validate its performance in a general population of Japanese. The Hisayama study is a population-based prospective cohort study. A total of 2634 participants aged 40 years or older were followed up for 14 years for incident cardiovascular disease (stroke and coronary heart disease (myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization and sudden cardiac death)). We used data among a random two-thirds (the derivation cohort, n=1756) to develop a new risk prediction model that was then tested to compare observed and predicted outcomes in the remaining one-third (the validation cohort, n=878). A multivariable cardiovascular risk prediction model was developed that incorporated age, sex, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and smoking. We assessed the performance of the model for predicting individual cardiovascular event among the validation cohort. The risk prediction model demonstrated good discrimination (c-statistic=0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.77 to 0.86) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow chi(2)-statistic=6.46; P=0.60). A simple risk score sheet based on the cardiovascular risk prediction model was also presented. We developed and validated a new cardiovascular risk prediction model in a general population of Japanese. The risk prediction model would provide a useful guide to estimate absolute risk of cardiovascular disease and to treat individual risk factors.

  1. A primer for Leishmania population genetic studies.

    PubMed

    Rougeron, V; De Meeûs, T; Bañuls, A-L

    2015-02-01

    Leishmaniases remain a major public health problem. Despite the development of elaborate experimental techniques and sophisticated statistical tools, how these parasites evolve, adapt themselves to new environmental compartments and hosts, and develop resistance to new drugs remains unclear. Leishmania parasites constitute a complex model from a biological, ecological, and epidemiological point of view but also with respect to their genetics and phylogenetics. With this in view, we seek to outline the criteria, caveats, and confounding factors to be considered for Leishmania population genetic studies. We examine how the taxonomic complexity, heterozygosity, intraspecific and interspecific recombination, aneuploidy, and ameiotic recombination of Leishmania intersect with population genetic studies of this parasite. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Tracking Biases: An Update to the Validity and Reliability of Alcohol Retail Sales Data for Estimating Population Consumption in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Audrey; Robinson, Mark; McAdams, Rachel; McCartney, Gerry; Beeston, Clare

    2016-05-01

    To highlight the importance of monitoring biases when using retail sales data to estimate population alcohol consumption. Previously, we identified and where possible quantified sources of bias that may lead to under- or overestimation of alcohol consumption in Scotland. Here, we update findings by using more recent data and by quantifying emergent biases. Underestimation resulting from the net effect of biases on population consumption in Scotland increased from -4% in 2010 to -7% in 2013. Biases that might impact on the validity and reliability of sales data when estimating population consumption should be routinely monitored and updated. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press.

  3. Tracking Biases: An Update to the Validity and Reliability of Alcohol Retail Sales Data for Estimating Population Consumption in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Audrey; Robinson, Mark; McAdams, Rachel; McCartney, Gerry; Beeston, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Aims To highlight the importance of monitoring biases when using retail sales data to estimate population alcohol consumption. Methods Previously, we identified and where possible quantified sources of bias that may lead to under- or overestimation of alcohol consumption in Scotland. Here, we update findings by using more recent data and by quantifying emergent biases. Results Underestimation resulting from the net effect of biases on population consumption in Scotland increased from −4% in 2010 to −7% in 2013. Conclusion Biases that might impact on the validity and reliability of sales data when estimating population consumption should be routinely monitored and updated. PMID:26419684

  4. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... validity study. All circumstances concerning the study, including the validation strategy used, and changes... validity studies. 60-3.5 Section 60-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating... General standards for validity studies. A. Acceptable types of validity studies. For the purposes of...

  5. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... validity study. All circumstances concerning the study, including the validation strategy used, and changes... validity studies. 60-3.5 Section 60-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating... General standards for validity studies. A. Acceptable types of validity studies. For the purposes of...

  6. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... validity study. All circumstances concerning the study, including the validation strategy used, and changes... validity studies. 60-3.5 Section 60-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating... General standards for validity studies. A. Acceptable types of validity studies. For the purposes of...

  7. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... validity study. All circumstances concerning the study, including the validation strategy used, and changes... validity studies. 60-3.5 Section 60-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating... General standards for validity studies. A. Acceptable types of validity studies. For the purposes of...

  8. Verification, Validation and Sensitivity Studies in Computational Biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Andrew E.; Ellis, Benjamin J.; Weiss, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Computational techniques and software for the analysis of problems in mechanics have naturally moved from their origins in the traditional engineering disciplines to the study of cell, tissue and organ biomechanics. Increasingly complex models have been developed to describe and predict the mechanical behavior of such biological systems. While the availability of advanced computational tools has led to exciting research advances in the field, the utility of these models is often the subject of criticism due to inadequate model verification and validation. The objective of this review is to present the concepts of verification, validation and sensitivity studies with regard to the construction, analysis and interpretation of models in computational biomechanics. Specific examples from the field are discussed. It is hoped that this review will serve as a guide to the use of verification and validation principles in the field of computational biomechanics, thereby improving the peer acceptance of studies that use computational modeling techniques. PMID:17558646

  9. Validation of a Prediction Model for Vaginal Birth after Cesarean Delivery Reveals Unexpected Success in a Diverse American Population

    PubMed Central

    Maykin, Melanie Mai; Mularz, Amanda J.; Lee, Lydia K.; Valderramos, Stephanie Gaw

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the validity of a prediction model for success of vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC) in an ethnically diverse population. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of women admitted at a single academic institution for a trial of labor after cesarean from May 2007 to January 2015. Individual predicted success rates were calculated using the Maternal–Fetal Medicine Units Network prediction model. Participants were stratified into three probability-of-success groups: low (<35%), moderate (35–65%), and high (>65%). The actual versus predicted success rates were compared. Results In total, 568 women met inclusion criteria. Successful VBAC occurred in 402 (71%), compared with a predicted success rate of 66% (p = 0.016). Actual VBAC success rates were higher than predicted by the model in the low (57 vs. 29%; p < 0.001) and moderate (61 vs. 52%; p = 0.003) groups. In the high probability group, the observed and predicted VBAC rates were the same (79%). Conclusion When the predicted success rate was above 65%, the model was highly accurate. In contrast, for women with predicted success rates <35%, actual VBAC rates were nearly twofold higher in our population, suggesting that they should not be discouraged by a low prediction score. PMID:28255520

  10. Reliability and construct validity of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II in an adult Turkish population.

    PubMed

    Pinar, Rukiye; Celik, Raziye; Bahcecik, Nefise

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about health-promoting lifestyle behaviors among Turkish people, who are experiencing a lifestyle transition from a developing country to one undergoing rapid modernization, although health promotion is receiving increasing attention regarding its prominent role in healthcare. Use of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLPII) has the advantage of allowing comparison of different international populations, although cultural adaptations are needed. The aims of this study were to adapt the HPLPII culturally and to assess its psychometric properties. Analyzed were internal reliability among 972 adults and test-retest stability among 160 adults. Construct validity was evaluated by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Samples sizes for EFA and CFA were 420 and 500, respectively. Cronbach's alpha coefficients surpassed .70 for HPLPII and six subscales. All items, except one, had acceptable item-total correlations of >.20. Test-retest results showed stability for HPLPII and for subscales. Varimax rotation yielded five factors with eigenvalues >1, explaining 41% of the variance. Two items were excluded because their factor loadings differed by <.30 or they had cross-factor loadings. The CFA five-factor model based on EFA represented an acceptable fit. Testing of latent construct measurement models reduced the number of items from 52 to 48. The revised 48-item six-factor model had perfect fit. The HPLPII had satisfactory psychometric properties. It can be used to measure health-promoting lifestyle in the Turkish population.

  11. Validation of a Prediction Model for Vaginal Birth after Cesarean Delivery Reveals Unexpected Success in a Diverse American Population.

    PubMed

    Maykin, Melanie Mai; Mularz, Amanda J; Lee, Lydia K; Valderramos, Stephanie Gaw

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the validity of a prediction model for success of vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC) in an ethnically diverse population. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of women admitted at a single academic institution for a trial of labor after cesarean from May 2007 to January 2015. Individual predicted success rates were calculated using the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network prediction model. Participants were stratified into three probability-of-success groups: low (<35%), moderate (35-65%), and high (>65%). The actual versus predicted success rates were compared. Results In total, 568 women met inclusion criteria. Successful VBAC occurred in 402 (71%), compared with a predicted success rate of 66% (p = 0.016). Actual VBAC success rates were higher than predicted by the model in the low (57 vs. 29%; p < 0.001) and moderate (61 vs. 52%; p = 0.003) groups. In the high probability group, the observed and predicted VBAC rates were the same (79%). Conclusion When the predicted success rate was above 65%, the model was highly accurate. In contrast, for women with predicted success rates <35%, actual VBAC rates were nearly twofold higher in our population, suggesting that they should not be discouraged by a low prediction score.

  12. A Validation Study of the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keck Seeley, Susan. M.; Perosa, Sandra, L.; Perosa, Linda, M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to further the validation process of the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale (A-DES). In this study, a 6-item Likert response format with descriptors was used when responding to the A-DES rather than the 11-item response format used in the original A-DES. Method: The internal reliability and construct…

  13. Imagery Measures of Ego, Id, Superego, and Identity: Validity Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, D.; DeBruin, J.

    1988-01-01

    Five validity studies of the id, ego, superego, and identity scales of the Study of Imagery are reported, using undergraduate students. Multistage Bonferroni procedures are used to evaluate the significance of results. The scales are related to each other and to toughmindedness, self-control, and behavioral conflict. (TJH)

  14. A Validation Study of the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keck Seeley, Susan. M.; Perosa, Sandra, L.; Perosa, Linda, M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to further the validation process of the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale (A-DES). In this study, a 6-item Likert response format with descriptors was used when responding to the A-DES rather than the 11-item response format used in the original A-DES. Method: The internal reliability and construct…

  15. Basic School Skills Inventory-3: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiz, F. Ülkü; Çagdas, Aysel; Kayili, Gökhan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to perform the validity-reliability analysis of the three subtests of Basic School Skills Inventory 3--Mathematics, Classroom Behavior and Daily Life skills--and do its adaptation for four to six year-old Turkish children. The sample of the study included 595 four to six year-old Turkish children attending public and…

  16. California Diploma Project Technical Report III: Validity Study--Validity Study of the Health Sciences and Medical Technology Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGaughy, Charis; Bryck, Rick; de Gonzalez, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    This study is a validity study of the recently revised version of the Health Science Standards. The purpose of this study is to understand how the Health Science Standards relate to college and career readiness, as represented by survey ratings submitted by entry-level college instructors of health science courses and industry representatives. For…

  17. Validating an electronic health literacy scale in an older hispanic population.

    PubMed

    Aponte, Judith; Nokes, Kathleen M

    2017-09-01

    To examine the validity of the Spanish version of an instrument used to measure electronic health literacy (eHEALS) with an older Hispanic population from a number of Spanish-language countries living in New York City in the United States (US). Although the Internet is available globally, complex skills are needed to use this source of valuable health-related information effectively. Electronic health literacy is a multifactorial concept that includes health literacy but also requires technology skills. Cross-sectional. Recruitment occurred at a Senior Organization located in a largely Hispanic neighbourhood in New York City (N = 100). Participants completed eHEALS and selected items from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) which assesses how adults use different communication channels, including the Internet, to obtain vital health information. Data from the US HINTS sample (N = 162) were matched to the Senior Organization sample on age range and Hispanic ethnicity. The average Senior Organization participant was 68 years old, female, born in one of six different Spanish-language countries, and completed high school while the average HINTS participant was 67 years old, female and had high school or less education. Although there was no relationship with the two HINTS subscales and electronic health literacy, there were significant relationships between electronic health literacy and health status and confidence in self-care. Inadequate electronic health literacy is a barrier to positive health outcomes. The Spanish version of eHEALS could be used as a screening instrument to identify gaps and tailored interventions could be developed to increase consumer confidence in using the Internet for reliable health-related information. Knowledge in self-management is related to positive health outcomes; all persons irrespective of their electronic health literacy should be able to use all sources of health information to enhance their self-care.

  18. Random fluctuations and validity in measuring disease management effectiveness for small populations.

    PubMed

    Farah, J Ramsay; Kamali, Kyahn; Harner, Jeffrey; Duncan, Ian G; Messer, Thomas C

    2008-12-01

    One objective of a disease management (DM) program is the reduction of members' claims costs. A considerable amount of effort has been dedicated to standardizing the outcomes of DM measurement. An area that has not received as much attention is that of random fluctuations in measured outcomes and the related issue of the validity of outcomes subject to random fluctuation. From year to year, large random fluctuations in claims costs can increase or reduce actual savings from a DM program. Sponsors of DM programs want to know how large a group or sample is necessary to prevent the effect of random fluctuations from overwhelming the effect of claims reductions. In this paper, we measure the fluctuations in calculated DM savings in a large commercial population using an adjusted historical control methodology--the methodology that has become the industry standard and which is codified by DMAA's Guidelines. We then determine the sample size necessary to demonstrate DM program savings at different levels of confidence and model the effect on fluctuations in observed outcomes under different methods of choosing trend, different levels of truncation, and for different estimates of program savings. Some groups, particularly employers, will be smaller than the minimum size required for credible outcomes measurement. For groups smaller than this minimum size, we suggest a utilization-based outcomes measure that can be used as a proxy. For both claims- and utilization-based calculations, we provide confidence intervals to be placed around savings estimates. We do this for group sizes ranging from 1000 to 100,000 members.

  19. Studying disability trends in aging populations.

    PubMed

    Gu, Danan; Gomez-Redondo, Rosa; Dupre, Matthew E

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the current literature on disability trends in aging populations and proposes a framework for studying disability trends built upon existing models of disablement. In addition to considering disablement and its associated factors, our framework also includes factors at population level and the interplays among personal resources and health behaviors, intervention programs, technological advances, and the consequences of disability trends in the context of life course and socio-ecological perspective. The framework is abbreviated FE-BRIT-SE to denote individual-level (F)ixed attributes, including genetic factors, personality, age, sex, and earlier life conditions, and the (E)nvironment; individual (B)ehaviors, (R)esources, (I)nterventions, (T)echnology; and (S)ocioeconomic and (E)cological consequences of disability trends. The overview offers an integrated framework for understanding the disablement process, trends and their complex milieu of causes and consequences.

  20. Reliability and validity of the Padua Inventory in an Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, Mohammad Ali; Firoozabadi, Ali

    2005-01-01

    In order to study the reliability and validity of the Padua Inventory (PI), its items were translated into Persian and then back-translated into English as suggested by Brislin, Lonner, Thorndike, Cross-cultural research methods, Wiley, New York, 1973. Using the translated version of the PI, two studies were carried out. The first study included 219 healthy participants selected from Shiraz city in Iran to examine the reliability and factorial structure of the PI via test-retest, internal consistency and principal component analysis methods. The results of this study showed good reliability for the PI and confirmed its factorial structure reported by previous studies. The second study included four groups of participants as follows: patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), patients with anxiety disorders, patients with depressive disorder and normal individuals. The PI scores were able to differentiate between OCD patients and normal individuals, but failed to differentiate between neurotic and OCD patients. Two subscales of PI-R version of the PI (precision and washing) differentiated depressive and OCD patients.

  1. Validation of EGCRISC for Chronic Hepatitis C Infection Screening and Risk Assessment in the Egyptian Population

    PubMed Central

    El-Ghitany, Engy Mohamed; Farghaly, Azza Galal; Farag, Shehata; Abd El-Wahab, Ekram Wassim

    2016-01-01

    Chronic HCV infection, a highly endemic disease in Egypt, is usually asymptomatic for decades after infection. Prediction questionnaire tool was proofed to be a valuable, feasible and efficient instrument for the screening of several diseases. We previously developed an Egyptian HCV risk screening tool (EGCRISC). This study aims to validate/modify EGCRISC. A cross-sectional study testing 4579 individuals by EGCRISC as well as ELISA/PCR was performed. The sample was a stratified cluster sampling from urban and rural areas in Upper and Lower Egypt using a proportional allocation technique. The degree of agreement and positive and negative posttest probabilities were calculated. ROC curve was done and the cutoff points were customized for best performance. The total score was further classified into three levels according to the risk load. The mean age of the participants was 41.1±12.2 in whom HCV prevalence was 8.6%. EGCRISC, particularly after modifying the cutoff points, has a good discriminating ability. The degree of agreement was at least 68.1% and the positive posttest probability ranged from 5% to 37.2% whereas the negative posttest probability was in the range 1% to 17%. We conclude that EGCRISC is a valid tool that can potentially screen for HCV infection risk in Egypt and could diminish the demand for mass serologic screening in those apparently at minimal risk. Extensive use of electronic and self- or interviewer-administered risk-based screening strategy may simplify and promote overall screening and detection of HCV dissimilar communities. PMID:28002458

  2. Development and validation of a cross-cultural knowledge, attitudes, and practices survey instrument for chronic kidney disease in a Swahili-speaking population.

    PubMed

    Stanifer, John W; Karia, Francis; Voils, Corrine I; Turner, Elizabeth L; Maro, Venance; Shimbi, Dionis; Kilawe, Humphrey; Lazaro, Matayo; Patel, Uptal D

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases are a growing global burden, and structured surveys can identify critical gaps to address this epidemic. In sub-Saharan Africa, there are very few well-tested survey instruments measuring population attributes related to non-communicable diseases. To meet this need, we have developed and validated the first instrument evaluating knowledge, attitudes and practices pertaining to chronic kidney disease in a Swahili-speaking population. Between December 2013 and June 2014, we conducted a four-stage, mixed-methods study among adults from the general population of northern Tanzania. In stage 1, the survey instrument was constructed in English by a group of cross-cultural experts from multiple disciplines and through content analysis of focus group discussions to ensure local significance. Following translation, in stage 2, we piloted the survey through cognitive and structured interviews, and in stage 3, in order to obtain initial evidence of reliability and construct validity, we recruited and then administered the instrument to a random sample of 606 adults. In stage 4, we conducted analyses to establish test-retest reliability and known-groups validity which was informed by thematic analysis of the qualitative data in stages 1 and 2. The final version consisted of 25 items divided into three conceptual domains: knowledge, attitudes and practices. Each item demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability with established content and construct validity. We have developed a reliable and valid cross-cultural survey instrument designed to measure knowledge, attitudes and practices of chronic kidney disease in a Swahili-speaking population of Northern Tanzania. This instrument may be valuable for addressing gaps in non-communicable diseases care by understanding preferences regarding healthcare, formulating educational initiatives, and directing development of chronic disease management programs that incorporate chronic kidney disease across sub

  3. Validation of the U.K. Working Party diagnostic criteria for atopic eczema in a Xhosa-speaking African population.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, D A; Todd, G; Saxe, N; Milne, J T; Tolosana, S; Ngcelwane, P N; Hlaba, B N; Mngomeni, L N; Nonxuba, T G; Williams, H C

    2007-01-01

    Reliable diagnostic criteria for eczema are important for epidemiological comparisons. Although the U.K. diagnostic criteria for atopic eczema have performed well in an English language setting, limited data are available from other countries where cultural and linguistic factors may affect their validity. We sought to determine the validity of the U.K. criteria for eczema in relation to clinical assessment by a dermatologist in a Xhosa-speaking South African population. A cross-sectional survey of 3067 children aged 3-11 years was conducted in rural, peri-urban and urban settings in South Africa. The prevalence of atopic eczema was determined using the U.K. diagnostic criteria and a clinical assessment by a dermatologist. Questions were translated into the local language (Xhosa). Trained researchers administered the questions to the children's parents or carers. The validity of the U.K. criteria was then determined by calculating the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and Youden's Index in relation to the dermatologist's examination. The point prevalence of atopic eczema according to a dermatologist was 1.0% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.6-1.4], while the prevalence of visible flexural eczema according to the U.K. protocol was 1.8% (95% CI 1.3-2.2). The sensitivity and specificity of the U.K. criteria in this setting was 43.7% (95% CI 26.3-62.3) and 97.9% (97.3-98.4), respectively. The positive and negative predictive values of the U.K. criteria were 18.4% (95% CI 10.4-28.9) and 99.4% (95% CI 99.0-99.6), respectively. The presence of visible flexural eczema according to the U.K. photographic protocol was the best predictor of atopic eczema, with a sensitivity and specificity of 81.2% (95% CI 63.5-92.7) and 99.0% (95% CI 98.6-99.3), respectively, and a positive and negative predictive value of 48.1% (95% CI 34.3-62.1) and 99.8% (95% CI 99.5-99.9), respectively. The validity of the full question-based version of the U.K. diagnostic

  4. Genetics of the Framingham Heart Study Population

    PubMed Central

    Govindaraju, Diddahally R.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Kannel, William B.; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Atwood, Larry D.; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Fox, Caroline S.; Larson, Marty; Levy, Daniel; Morabito, Joanne; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Splansky, Greta Lee; Wolf, Philip A.; Benjamin, Emelia J.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) and the genetic research related to cardiovascular diseases conducted in this unique population1. It briefly describes the origins of the study, the risk factors that contribute to heart disease and the approaches taken to discover the genetic basis of some of these risk factors. The genetic architecture of several biological risk factors has been explained using family studies, segregation analysis, heritability, phenotypic and genetic correlations. Many quantitative trait loci underlying cardiovascular diseases have been discovered using different molecular markers. Additionally, results from genome-wide association studies using 100,000 markers, and the prospects of using 550,000 markers for association studies are presented. Finally, the use of this unique sample in genotype and environment interaction is described. PMID:19010253

  5. The construct validity of the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 in assessing mental health in population health surveys.

    PubMed

    Feeny, David; Huguet, Nathalie; McFarland, Bentson H; Kaplan, Mark S

    2009-05-01

    To examine the construct validity of the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3) by exploring relationships among several well-recognized measures of mental health, the K6 and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), and the HUI3 in a large, nationally representative sample of community-dwelling subjects. Known-group comparisons were also included in the validation process. We specified a priori hypotheses about the expected degree of association between the measures. Correlation coefficients of <0.1 were defined as negligible, 0.1 to <0.3 as small, 0.3 to <0.5 as medium, and > or =0.5 as large. Data from the Statistics Canada National Population Health Survey (NPHS) Cycle 2 (1996/97) for respondents 20 years of age or older (n = 66,435) were used to test the a priori hypotheses. In 58.1% of cases, predictions of association were correct. Predictions were off by one category in 38.9% of cases and a priori predictions were off by two categories in 3.0% of cases. Our results provide evidence supporting the cross-sectional construct validity of the HUI3 emotion and HUI3 in a nationally representative sample of the community-dwelling population. The results also provide further evidence of the cross-sectional construct validity of the HUI3 in assessing population health.

  6. The construct validity of the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 in assessing mental health in population health surveys

    PubMed Central

    Huguet, Nathalie; McFarland, Bentson H.; Kaplan, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the construct validity of the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3) by exploring relationships among several well-recognized measures of mental health, the K6 and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), and the HUI3 in a large, nationally representative sample of community-dwelling subjects. Known-group comparisons were also included in the validation process. Methods We specified a priori hypotheses about the expected degree of association between the measures. Correlation coefficients of <0.1 were defined as negligible, 0.1 to <0.3 as small, 0.3 to <0.5 as medium, and ≥0.5 as large. Data from the Statistics Canada National Population Health Survey (NPHS) Cycle 2 (1996/97) for respondents 20 years of age or older (n = 66,435) were used to test the a priori hypotheses. Results In 58.1% of cases, predictions of association were correct. Predictions were off by one category in 38.9% of cases and a priori predictions were off by two categories in 3.0% of cases. Conclusions Our results provide evidence supporting the cross-sectional construct validity of the HUI3 emotion and HUI3 in a nationally representative sample of the community-dwelling population. The results also provide further evidence of the cross-sectional construct validity of the HUI3 in assessing population health. PMID:19277898

  7. Identifying Malnutrition in an Elderly Ambulatory Rehabilitation Population: Agreement between Mini Nutritional Assessment and Validated Screening Tools

    PubMed Central

    Yaxley, Alison; Crotty, Maria; Miller, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is common in older adults and often goes unrecognised and untreated. Australian evidence-based guidelines for the management of malnutrition indicate that only the Mini Nutritional Assessment short form (MNA-sf) and Rapid Screen are recommended for use as malnutrition screening tools in the rehabilitation setting. The aim of this secondary analysis was to assess the validity and reliability of two malnutrition screening tools, validated in other adult sub-groups, in a rehabilitation population aged ≥60 years. The Council on Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire (CNAQ) and the Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ), were completed by 185 ambulatory rehabilitation patients (48% male; median age 78 years) and results compared to the full MNA as a reference technique. Prevalence of risk of malnutrition was 63% according to the MNA. For identification of risk of malnutrition the CNAQ had sensitivity of 54%, specificity 81%, positive predictive value 83% and negative predictive value 51%, compared to 28%, 94%, 89% and 44%, respectively, using SNAQ. Assessment of reliability indicated significant slight to fair agreement between MNA with CNAQ (κ = 0.309, p < 0.001) and SNAQ (κ = 0.176, p < 0.001). Neither the CNAQ nor the SNAQ have a high level of validity or reliability in this elderly population and are therefore not recommended for use in the ambulatory rehabilitation setting. Further work is necessary to assess the validity and reliability of other malnutrition screening tools to establish their usefulness in this population. PMID:27417799

  8. Identifying Malnutrition in an Elderly Ambulatory Rehabilitation Population: Agreement between Mini Nutritional Assessment and Validated Screening Tools.

    PubMed

    Yaxley, Alison; Crotty, Maria; Miller, Michelle

    2015-09-11

    Malnutrition is common in older adults and often goes unrecognised and untreated. Australian evidence-based guidelines for the management of malnutrition indicate that only the Mini Nutritional Assessment short form (MNA-sf) and Rapid Screen are recommended for use as malnutrition screening tools in the rehabilitation setting. The aim of this secondary analysis was to assess the validity and reliability of two malnutrition screening tools, validated in other adult sub-groups, in a rehabilitation population aged ≥60 years. The Council on Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire (CNAQ) and the Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ), were completed by 185 ambulatory rehabilitation patients (48% male; median age 78 years) and results compared to the full MNA as a reference technique. Prevalence of risk of malnutrition was 63% according to the MNA. For identification of risk of malnutrition the CNAQ had sensitivity of 54%, specificity 81%, positive predictive value 83% and negative predictive value 51%, compared to 28%, 94%, 89% and 44%, respectively, using SNAQ. Assessment of reliability indicated significant slight to fair agreement between MNA with CNAQ (κ = 0.309, p < 0.001) and SNAQ (κ = 0.176, p < 0.001). Neither the CNAQ nor the SNAQ have a high level of validity or reliability in this elderly population and are therefore not recommended for use in the ambulatory rehabilitation setting. Further work is necessary to assess the validity and reliability of other malnutrition screening tools to establish their usefulness in this population.

  9. Physical and cognitive domains of the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living: validation in a multiethnic population of Asian older adults.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tze-Pin; Niti, Mathew; Chiam, Peak-Chiang; Kua, Ee-Heok

    2006-07-01

    We sought to assess the validity of the physical and cognitive domains of Lawton and Brody's Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scale and its cross-cultural applicability across ethnic groups in an Asian population of community-living older adults. Using data from a random population sample of noninstitutionalized Chinese, Malay, and Indian older adults 60 years old and older in Singapore (N = 1072), we modeled the dimensional structure of the 8-item IADL Scale using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, and assessed its convergent and divergent validity using known group differences and strengths of association. Factor analyses yielded two strong and reliable factors representing underlying physical and cognitive dimensions of IADL. The validity of the model was supported by the pattern of associations of the IADL with age, gender, education, self-reported health status, hospitalization, physical comorbidities, dementia and depression, and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores. Notably, cognitive IADL showed a greater total effect on MMSE cognitive performance score than did physical IADL, with the effect of physical IADL on MMSE score mostly explained by cognitive IADL. Reasonably good cross-cultural validity was demonstrated among Chinese, Malays, and Indians, with strongest validity for Indians. The eight-item IADL Scale has physical and cognitive domains and is cross-culturally applicable. The cognitive IADL domain taps a set of activities directly related to cognitive functioning.

  10. Validation of a Contemporary Five-tiered Gleason Grade Grouping Using Population-based Data.

    PubMed

    He, Jianming; Albertsen, Peter C; Moore, Dirk; Rotter, David; Demissie, Kitaw; Lu-Yao, Grace

    2017-05-01

    This population-based study assesses whether a proposed five-tiered Gleason grade grouping (GGG) system predicts prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, we identified 331320 prostate cancer patients who had primary and secondary Gleason patterns diagnosed between January 2006 and December 2012. We used the Fine and Gray proportional hazards model for subdistributions and the corresponding cumulative incidence to quantify the risk of PCSM. We found that the risk of PCSM approximately doubled with each GGG increase. Among men who underwent radical prostatectomy and using GGG1 (Gleason score ≤6) as the reference group, the adjusted hazard ratio for PCSM was 1.13 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83-1.54) for GGG2, 1.87 (95% CI 1.33-2.65) for GGG3, 5.03 (95% CI 3.59-7.06) for GGG4, and 10.92 (CI 8.03-14.84) for GGG5. Similar patterns were observed regardless of the type of primary cancer treatment received or clinical stage. In summary, our study, with large, racially diverse populations that reflect real world experiences, demonstrates that the new five-tiered GGG system predicts PCSM well regardless of treatment received or clinical stage at diagnosis. In this report we examined prostate cancer mortality using the new five-tiered cancer grading system using data for a large US population. We found that the new five-tiered cancer grading system can predict prostate cancer-specific mortality well, regardless of the type of primary cancer treatment and clinical stage. We conclude that this new five-tiered cancer grading system is useful in guiding treatment decisions. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Global Mental Health Assessment Tool-validation in Hindi: A validity and feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vimal K.; Jagawat, Savita; Midha, Aarti; Jain, Anil; Tambi, Anil; Mangwani, Leena Kumari; Sharma, Bhawna; Dubey, Parul; Satija, Vipin; Copeland, John R. M.; Lepping, Peter; Lane, Steven; Krishna, Murali; Pangaria, Ashok

    2010-01-01

    Background: A computer-assisted interview, the Global Mental Health Assessment Tool-validation (GMHAT/PC) has been developed to assist general practitioners and other health professionals to make a quick, convenient, yet reasonably comprehensive standardized mental health assessment. GMHAT/PC has been translated into various languages including Hindi. This is the first study conducted in India, using the Hindi version GMHAT/PC of the series of studies assessing its validity in different cultures. Aim: The study aims to assess the feasibility of using a computer assisted diagnostic interview by health professionals and to examine the level of agreement between the Hindi version GMHAT/PC diagnosis and psychiatrists’ ICD-10 based clinical diagnosis. Design: Cross-sectional validation study. Setting: Psychiatric clinic of a General Hospital and an out patient (Neurology) clinic in the Teaching General Hospital in Jaipur, India. Materials and Methods: All consecutive patients attending the psychiatric out patient clinic were interviewed using GMHAT/PC and psychiatrists made a diagnosis applying ICD-10 criteria for a period of six weeks. A small sample of subjects was interviewed in a similar way in a Neurology clinic for four weeks. Results: The mean duration of interview was under 17 minutes. Most patients were pleased that they were asked about every aspect of their mental health. The agreement between psychologists’ GMHAT/PC interview diagnoses and psychiatrists’ clinical diagnoses was excellent (Kappa 0.96, sensitivity 1.00, and specificity 0.94). Conclusion: GMHAT/PC Hindi version detected mental disorders accurately and it was feasible to use GMHAT/PC in Indian settings. PMID:21267364

  12. The Global Mental Health Assessment Tool-validation in Hindi: A validity and feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vimal K; Jagawat, Savita; Midha, Aarti; Jain, Anil; Tambi, Anil; Mangwani, Leena Kumari; Sharma, Bhawna; Dubey, Parul; Satija, Vipin; Copeland, John R M; Lepping, Peter; Lane, Steven; Krishna, Murali; Pangaria, Ashok

    2010-10-01

    A computer-assisted interview, the Global Mental Health Assessment Tool-validation (GMHAT/PC) has been developed to assist general practitioners and other health professionals to make a quick, convenient, yet reasonably comprehensive standardized mental health assessment. GMHAT/PC has been translated into various languages including Hindi. This is the first study conducted in India, using the Hindi version GMHAT/PC of the series of studies assessing its validity in different cultures. The study aims to assess the feasibility of using a computer assisted diagnostic interview by health professionals and to examine the level of agreement between the Hindi version GMHAT/PC diagnosis and psychiatrists' ICD-10 based clinical diagnosis. Cross-sectional validation study. Psychiatric clinic of a General Hospital and an out patient (Neurology) clinic in the Teaching General Hospital in Jaipur, India. All consecutive patients attending the psychiatric out patient clinic were interviewed using GMHAT/PC and psychiatrists made a diagnosis applying ICD-10 criteria for a period of six weeks. A small sample of subjects was interviewed in a similar way in a Neurology clinic for four weeks. The mean duration of interview was under 17 minutes. Most patients were pleased that they were asked about every aspect of their mental health. The agreement between psychologists' GMHAT/PC interview diagnoses and psychiatrists' clinical diagnoses was excellent (Kappa 0.96, sensitivity 1.00, and specificity 0.94). GMHAT/PC Hindi version detected mental disorders accurately and it was feasible to use GMHAT/PC in Indian settings.

  13. An Eight-Parent Multiparent Advanced Generation Inter-Cross Population for Winter-Sown Wheat: Creation, Properties, and Validation

    PubMed Central

    Mackay, Ian J.; Bansept-Basler, Pauline; Barber, Toby; Bentley, Alison R.; Cockram, James; Gosman, Nick; Greenland, Andy J.; Horsnell, Richard; Howells, Rhian; O’Sullivan, Donal M.; Rose, Gemma A.; Howell, Phil J.

    2014-01-01

    MAGIC populations represent one of a new generation of crop genetic mapping resources combining high genetic recombination and diversity. We describe the creation and validation of an eight-parent MAGIC population consisting of 1091 F7 lines of winter-sown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Analyses based on genotypes from a 90,000-single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array find the population to be well-suited as a platform for fine-mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) and gene isolation. Patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) show the population to be highly recombined; genetic marker diversity among the founders was 74% of that captured in a larger set of 64 wheat varieties, and 54% of SNPs segregating among the 64 lines also segregated among the eight founder lines. In contrast, a commonly used reference bi-parental population had only 54% of the diversity of the 64 varieties with 27% of SNPs segregating. We demonstrate the potential of this MAGIC resource by identifying a highly diagnostic marker for the morphological character "awn presence/absence" and independently validate it in an association-mapping panel. These analyses show this large, diverse, and highly recombined MAGIC population to be a powerful resource for the genetic dissection of target traits in wheat, and it is well-placed to efficiently exploit ongoing advances in phenomics and genomics. Genetic marker and trait data, together with instructions for access to seed, are available at http://www.niab.com/MAGIC/. PMID:25237112

  14. Scoring of nonmetric cranial traits: a population study

    PubMed Central

    BRASILI, P.; ZACCAGNI, L.; GUALDI-RUSSO, E.

    1999-01-01

    The aims of the present study were: (1) to supply further knowledge about variations in nonmetric cranial traits in relation to sex, age and laterality and (2) to evaluate biological distance between samples from a recent population. The incidence of 18 nonmetric variants of the cranium were determined in 3 adult samples of 394 skulls of known sex from North Sardinia (Sassari, Alghero and Ozieri); for the Sassari sample (n = 200) age at death was also known. Some significant sex differences were observed. Age did not appear to influence the frequency of the discontinuous traits but did for legibility. Side differences may provide important information about environmental influences. The interpopulation analysis indicates a stronger relationship between samples that are geographically closer (Sassari and Alghero), in accordance with other studies, strengthening the hypothesis of the validity of the use of nonmetric traits in the study of the peopling of a territory. PMID:10634694

  15. Greek version of the Internet Addiction Test: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Tsimtsiou, Zoi; Haidich, Anna-Bettina; Kokkali, Stamatia; Dardavesis, Theodoros; Young, Kimberly S; Arvanitidou, Malamatenia

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this project was to translate, culturally adapt and validate the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) in Greek adults. Twenty-one post-graduate medical students participated in the cultural adaptation procedure and 151 both post- and under-graduate medical students in the validation process. The internal consistency shown by a Cronbach's alpha was 0.91. Two-week test-retest reliability was rtt = 0.84, p < 0.001. Face validity was affirmed by 83.6 % of the students. In terms of convergent validity, the hours of daily internet use were positively correlated with IAT score (rho = 0.48, p < 0.001). Moreover, IAT scores were higher in students that reported use of online gambling (40.5 vs 29.2, p = 0.004), pornographic sites (36.5 vs 28.0, p = 0.003) and online games (35.6 vs 28.2, p = 0.009). Exploratory factor analysis revealed three interpretable factors for the IAT, "Psychological/Emotional Conflict", "Time Management" and "Neglect Work", that showed good internal consistency and concurrent validity, explaining 55.3 % of the variance. The Greek version of IAT has shown good psychometric properties, comparable with the original IAT and the previously published translated versions, and can be a useful tool in future studies on internet addiction.

  16. Rap-Music Attitude and Perception Scale: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Edgar H.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study tests the validity of the Rap-music Attitude and Perception (RAP) Scale, a 1-page, 24-item measure of a person's thoughts and feelings surrounding the effects and content of rap music. The RAP was designed as a rapid assessment instrument for youth programs and practitioners using rap music and hip hop culture in their work…

  17. Dimensions of Intuition: First-Round Validation Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrugtman, Rosanne

    2009-01-01

    This study utilized confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), canonical correlation analysis (CCA), regression analysis (RA), and correlation analysis (CA) for first-round validation of the researcher's Dimensions of Intuition (DOI) instrument. The DOI examined 25 personal characteristics and situations purportedly predictive of intuition. Data was…

  18. A Cross-Validation Study of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheikh, Alia I.; Marotta, Sylvia A.

    2005-01-01

    This article is a cross-validation of R. G. Tedeschi and L. G. Calhoun's (1996) original study of the development of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI). It describes several psychometric properties of scores on the PTGI in a sample of middle- to old-aged adults with a history of cardiovascular disease. The results did not support the…

  19. Understanding Foreign Language Learning Strategies: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tragant, Elsa; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Victori, Mia

    2013-01-01

    The present work aims to contribute to our understanding of the underlying dimensions of language learning strategies in foreign language contexts. The study analyzes alternative factor structures underlying a recently developed instrument (Tragant and Victori, 2012) and it includes the age factor in the examination of its construct validity. The…