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Sample records for population-based follow-up study

  1. Mortality in mothers after perinatal loss: a population-based follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hvidtjørn, D; Wu, C; Schendel, D; Thorlund Parner, E; Brink Henriksen, T

    2016-02-01

    To assess whether mothers who lost a child from stillbirth or in the first week of life have an increased overall mortality and cause-specific mortality. A population based follow-up study. Data from Danish national registers. All mothers in Denmark were included in the cohort at time of their first delivery from 1 January 1980 to 31 December 2008 and followed until 31 December 2009 or death, whichever came first. The association between perinatal loss and total and cause-specific mortality in mothers was estimated with hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Overall mortality and cause-specific mortality. During the follow-up period, 838,331 mothers in the cohort gave birth to one or more children and 7690 mothers (0.92%) experienced a perinatal loss. During follow-up, 8883 mothers (1.06%) died. There was an increased overall mortality for mothers who experienced a perinatal loss adjusted for maternal age and educational level, hazard ratio (HR) 1.83 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.55-2.17]. The strongest association was seen in mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) with an HR of 2.29 (95% CI 1.48-3.52) adjusted for CVD at time of delivery. We found no association between a perinatal loss and mortality from traumatic causes. Mothers who experience a perinatal loss have an increased mortality, especially from CVD. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  2. Mortality in myasthenia gravis: A nationwide population-based follow-up study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Julie S; Danielsen, Ditte H; Somnier, Finn E; Frøslev, Trine; Jakobsen, Johannes; Johnsen, Søren P; Andersen, Henning

    2016-01-01

    In previous studies of myasthenia gravis (MG), increased mortality has been reported. The aim of this study was to estimate mortality in patients with acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive (AChR-Ab-seropositive) MG in a nationwide population-based, long-term follow-up study. All AChR-Ab-seropositive MG patients, diagnosed between 1985 and 2005, were identified. Defined by age at diagnosis (≤ 50 or >50 years), patients were classified as having early- or late-onset MG. For comparison, 10 non-MG individuals from the general population were matched with each patient. All patients and controls were followed until January 1, 2009. Mortality rates and estimated mortality rate ratios (MRRs) were calculated. Of 702 AChR-Ab-seropositive MG patients, 302 died during follow-up. Overall mortality was higher for patients with MG (MRR = 1.41, range 1.24-1.60). In late-onset women and men, the MRRs were 1.64 (1.36-1.99) and 1.22 (1.02-1.46), respectively. Total MRR was highest during the first 5 years after diagnosis. MG diagnosis is still associated with increased mortality. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Explaining educational differences in sickness absence: a population-based follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Kaikkonen, Risto; Härkänen, Tommi; Rahkonen, Ossi; Gould, Raija; Koskinen, Seppo

    2015-07-01

    There is a marked socioeconomic gradient in sickness absences, but the causes of this gradient are poorly understood. This study examined the role of health and work-related factors as determinants of educational differences in long-term sickness absence in an 8-year follow-up. The study comprised a population-based sample of 5835 Finns aged 30-64 years (participation 89%, N=3946) in a register-based 8-year follow-up. This is a novel method to predict the population average of sickness absence days per working year (DWY) based on the expected outcome values using Poisson and gamma regression models. The difference in the DWY between the lowest and highest educational level was clear among both men (3.2 days/year versus 8.0 days/year) and women (women 4.4 days/year versus 10.1 days/year). Adjusting for physical working conditions, health status and health behavior, and obesity attenuated the differences. Psychosocial working conditions had only a minor effect on the association. After adjusting for health and work-related factors, the difference attenuated by 1.8 days and 2.6 days among men and women, respectively. Our results suggest that improvements in physical working conditions and reducing smoking, particularly among employees with a low level of education, may markedly reduce educational differences in sickness absence.

  4. Tooth loss, periodontitis, and statins in a population-based follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Peter; Kroemer, Heyo K; Nauck, Matthias; Holtfreter, Birte; Kocher, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Statins, frequently prescribed in lipid-lowering therapies, seem to have additional beneficial effects on periodontitis and tooth loss. If this is true, then chronic treatment with statins should also result in diminished tooth loss as a long-term response. A 5-year population-based follow-up study of tooth loss was performed comparing participants treated with statins (n = 134) with those not on the drugs (Study of Health in Pomerania). Negative binomial regression models were used to analyze the count variable of the outcome, including risk factors for tooth loss and measures of cholesterol metabolism. When adjusted for age and sex, statins were associated with reduced tooth loss during the follow-up period (incidence risk ratio [IRR] = 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.50 to 0.99, P = 0.04). When additionally adjusted for risk factors of periodontal breakdown, IRR was 0.72 (95% CI = 0.52 to 1.01). There was significant interaction with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) at baseline. After stratification by LDL-c, statins were associated with reduced tooth loss, resulting in IRR = 0.89 (95% CI = 0.44 to 1.83) and 0.64 (95% CI = 0.43 to 0.95), P = 0.03, at LDL-c concentrations ≤100 mg/dL and >100 mg/dL (2.58 mmol/L), respectively. The data also showed reduced tooth loss associated with the 5-year reduction in LDL-c levels on a mmol/L basis and independently of statins (IRR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.80 to 0.96, P = 0.004). Long-term treatment with systemically administered statins may have the beneficial effect of protecting against tooth loss.

  5. Determinants of mortality in elderly patients with tuberculosis: a population-based follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Yen, Y-F; Feng, J-Y; Pan, S-W; Chuang, P-H; Su, V Y-F; Su, W-J

    2017-05-01

    Elderly individuals with tuberculosis (TB) are more likely to have a non-specific clinical presentation of TB and high mortality. However, factors associated with mortality in elderly TB patients have not been extensively studied. This retrospective cohort study aimed to identify factors associated with death among elderly Taiwanese with TB. All elderly patients with TB from 2006 to 2014 in Taipei, Taiwan, were included in a study. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with death in elderly TB patients. The mean age of the 5011 patients was 79·7 years; 74·1% were men; 32·7% had mortality during the study follow-up period. After controlling for potential confounders, age ⩾75 years (reference: 65-74 years), male sex, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), malignancy, acid-fast bacilli-smear positivity, TB-culture positivity, pleural effusion on chest radiograph and notification by an ordinary ward or intensive care unit were associated with a higher risk of all-cause death; while high school, and university or higher education, cavity on chest radiograph and directly observed therapy were associated with a lower risk of all-cause death. This study found that the proportion of death among elderly patients with TB in Taipei, Taiwan, was high. To improve TB treatment outcomes, future control programmes should particularly target individuals with comorbidities (e.g. ESRD and malignancy) and those with a lower socio-economic status (e.g. not educated).

  6. Increased risk for stroke in burn patients: a population-based one-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Chen, Chin-Shyan; Lin, Herng-Ching; Kang, Jiunn-Horng

    2014-02-01

    The study aimed to explore the frequency and risk of stroke following hospitalization for burn through the analysis of a population-based dataset in Taiwan. We identified 692 hospitalized subjects who had received a diagnosis of burn. We randomly selected 2768 comparison subjects to match the study subjects by sex and age group. We individually tracked each subject for one year identifying all those who received a diagnosis of stroke during that period. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to calculate the longitudinal hazard of stroke between the two cohorts. We found that the incidence rate of stroke during the one-year follow-up period was 6.65 (95% CI: 4.92-8.79) per 100 person-years and 2.75 (95% CI: 2.18-3.42) per 100 person-years for study cohort and comparison cohort, respectively. After adjusting for urbanization level, monthly income, geographic region, hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, hyperlipidemia, and chronic kidney disease, and censoring the cases that died from non-stroke causes, the hazard ratio (HR) for stroke during the one-year follow-up period for study cohort was 2.52 (95% CI=1.73-3.68, P<0.001) that of comparison subjects. We further analyzed the HR of stroke according to the extent of burned body surface area (<10%, 10-29%, and >29%). We found that there was no significant difference in the risk of stroke during the one-year follow-up period among these three groups of subjects. We found that burn victims were at higher risk for subsequent stroke that matched comparison subjects during one-year follow-up. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  7. Survival times in people with dementia: analysis from population based cohort study with 14 year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To provide estimates of survival after onset of dementia by age, sex, self reported health, disability, and severity of cognitive impairment. Design Analysis of participants from prospective population based cohort study in 1991-2003, with follow-up of dementia status in all individuals after two and six years (in one centre) and 10 years and in subsamples additionally at six and eight years and mortality until 2005. Setting Multicentre population based study in England and Wales: two rural and three urban centres. Participants 438 participants who developed dementia from a population based study of 13 004 individuals aged 65 years and over drawn from primary care population registers. Main outcome measures Sociodemographic factors, cognitive function, specific health conditions, and self reported health collected at each interview. Cox’s proportional hazards regression models were used to identify predictors of mortality from the selected variables in people who received diagnosis of dementia according the study’s criteria. Results By December 2005, 356 of the 438 (81%) participants who developed dementia during the study had died. Estimated median survival time from onset of dementia to death was 4.1 years (interquartile range 2.5-7.6) for men and 4.6 years (2.9-7.0) for women. There was a difference of nearly seven years in survival between the younger old and the oldest people with dementia: 10.7 (25th centile 5.6) for ages 65-69; 5.4 (interquartile range 3.4-8.3) for ages 70-79; 4.3 (2.8-7.0) for ages 80-89, and 3.8 (2.3-5.2) years for ages ≥90. Significant factors that predicted mortality in the presence of dementia during the follow-up included sex, age of onset, and disability. Conclusion These analyses give a population based estimated median survival for incident dementia of 4.5 years. Such estimates can be used for prognosis and planning for patients, carers, service providers, and policy makers. PMID:18187696

  8. Long-term Change in Cardiorespiratory Fitness and All-Cause Mortality: A Population-Based Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Laukkanen, Jari A; Zaccardi, Francesco; Khan, Hassan; Kurl, Sudhir; Jae, Sae Young; Rauramaa, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Few studies have investigated long-term changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), defined by indirect measures of CRF, and all-cause mortality. We aimed to investigate whether long-term change in CRF, as assessed by the gold standard method of respiratory gas exchange during exercise, is associated with all-cause mortality. A population-based sample of 579 men aged 42 to 60 years with no missing data at baseline examination (V1) and at reexamination at 11 years (V2) were included. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was measured at both visits using respiratory gas exchange during maximal exercise testing, and the difference (ΔVO2max) was calculated as VO2max (V2) - VO2max (V1). Deaths were ascertained annually using national death certificates during 15 years of follow-up after V2. The mean ΔVO2max was -5.2 mL/min*kg. During median follow-up of 13.3 years (interquartile range, 12.5-14.0 years), 123 deaths (21.2%) were recorded. In a multivariate analysis adjusted for baseline age, VO2max, systolic blood pressure, smoking status, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels, C-reactive protein level, body mass index, alcohol consumption, physical activity, socioeconomic status, and history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease, a 1 mL/min*kg higher ΔVO2max was associated with a 9% relative risk reduction of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.87-0.95). This study suggested that in this population, long-term CRF reduction was associated with an increased risk of mortality, emphasizing the importance of maintaining good CRF over the decades. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Adrenocortical carcinoma in children: first population-based clinicopathological study with long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kerkhofs, T M A; Ettaieb, M H T; Verhoeven, R H A; Kaspers, G J L; Tissing, W J E; Loeffen, J; Van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M M; De Krijger, R R; Haak, H R

    2014-12-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is rare in both adult and pediatric populations. Literature suggests significant differences between children and adults in presentation, histological properties and outcome. The aim of this first nationwide study on pediatric ACC was to describe the incidence, presentation, pathological characteristics, treatment and survival in The Netherlands. All ACC patients aged <20 years at diagnosis and registered in the population-based Netherlands Cancer Registry between 1993 and 2010 were included. Clinical data were extracted from medical records. Archival histological slides were collected via the Dutch Pathology Registry (PALGA). We compared our findings to all clinical studies on pediatric ACC that were found on PubMed. Based on the results, 12 patients were identified: 8 females and 4 males. The median age was 4.1 years (range 1.1-18.6). The population-based age-standardized incidence rate for patients <20 years was 0.18 per million person-years. Autonomous hormonal secretion was present in 10 patients. Seven patients were aged ≤4 years at diagnosis, 5 presented with localized disease and 2 with locally advanced disease. Five patients were aged ≥5 years, 3 presented with distant metastases and 1 with locally advanced disease. For all patients, histological examination displayed malignant characteristics. All patients aged ≤4 years at diagnosis survived; the median follow-up was 97 months (57-179 months). All patients aged ≥5 years died; the median survival was 6 months (0-38 months). Pediatric ACC is extremely rare in the Western world. The clinical outcome was remarkably better in patients aged ≤4 years. This is in accordance with less advanced stage of disease at presentation, yet contrasts with the presence of adverse histological characteristics. Clinical management in advanced disease is adapted from adult practice in the absence of evidence regarding pediatric ACC.

  10. Childhood Predictors of Male Criminality: A Prospective Population-Based Follow-up Study from Age 8 to Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sourander, Andre; Elonheimo, Henrik; Niemela, Solja; Nuutila, Ari-Matti; Helenius, Hans; Sillanmaki, Lauri; Piha, Jorma; Tamminen, Tuula; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Moilanen, Irma; Almqvist, Frederik

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study childhood predictors for late adolescence criminality. Method: The follow-up sample included 2,713 Finnish boys born in 1981. Information about the 8-year-old boys' problem behavior was obtained from parents, teachers, and the children themselves. The follow-up information about criminal offenses was based on the national…

  11. Childhood Predictors of Male Criminality: A Prospective Population-Based Follow-up Study from Age 8 to Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sourander, Andre; Elonheimo, Henrik; Niemela, Solja; Nuutila, Ari-Matti; Helenius, Hans; Sillanmaki, Lauri; Piha, Jorma; Tamminen, Tuula; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Moilanen, Irma; Almqvist, Frederik

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study childhood predictors for late adolescence criminality. Method: The follow-up sample included 2,713 Finnish boys born in 1981. Information about the 8-year-old boys' problem behavior was obtained from parents, teachers, and the children themselves. The follow-up information about criminal offenses was based on the national…

  12. Dental caries in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a population-based follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Blomqvist, M; Ahadi, S; Fernell, E; Ek, U; Dahllöf, G

    2011-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit a higher prevalence of caries than adolescents in a control group. Thirty-two adolescents with ADHD and a control group of 55 adolescents from a population-based sample, all 17 yr of age, underwent a clinical and radiographic dental examination. The mean ± SD number of decayed surfaces (DS) was 2.0 ± 2.2 in adolescents with ADHD and 0.9 ± 1.4 in adolescents of the control group. Thirty-one per cent of the adolescents in the ADHD group had no new caries lesions (DS = 0) compared with 62% in the control group. Six per cent of the adolescents in the ADHD group were caries free [decayed, missing or filled surfaces (DMFS) = 0] compared with 29% in the control group. Adolescents with ADHD also had a higher percentage of gingival sites that exhibited bleeding on probing compared with the control group: 35 ± 39% vs. 16 ± 24% (mean ± SD), respectively. At 17 yr of age, adolescents with ADHD exhibited a statistically significantly higher prevalence of caries compared with an age-matched control group. Adolescents with ADHD need more support regarding oral hygiene and dietary habits. They should be followed up with shorter intervals between dental examinations to prevent caries progression during adulthood. © 2011 Eur J Oral Sci.

  13. Autism after Adolescence: Population-Based 13- to 22-Year Follow-Up Study of 120 Individuals with Autism Diagnosed in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, Carina; Gillberg, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Background: Prospective population-based follow-up study of 120 individuals with autism followed from childhood to adulthood. Methods: Individuals with autism, diagnosed in childhood, were followed prospectively for a period of 13-22 years and re-evaluated at ages 17-40 years. The instruments used at follow-up were the DISCO, WAIS-R, WISC-III,…

  14. Obstructive sleep apnea and the subsequent risk of depressive disorder: a population-based follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Hua; Keller, Joseph K; Kang, Jiunn-Horng; Hsieh, Heng-Ju; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2013-05-15

    Empirical findings on the prospective link between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and subsequent depression are mixed. This nationwide, population-based study thus aimed at assessing the risk of depressive disorder within the first year following a diagnosis with OSA. Gender effects were further examined. Cohort study. Taiwan. This study used data from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. A total of 2,818 patients diagnosed with OSA between 2002 and 2008 were evaluated, and 14,090 matched non-OSA enrollees used as a comparison cohort. Each patient was followed for one year to identify subsequent depressive disorder. We found that during the one-year follow-up, the incidence of depressive disorder per thousand person-years was about twice as high among patients with OSA (18.10, 95% CI = 13.62-23.61) as those without OSA (8.23, 95% CI = 6.83-9.84). The Cox proportional hazards model revealed that patients with OSA were independently associated with a 2.18 times (95% CI = 1.55-3.08) increased risk of subsequent depressive disorder within a year, compared to those without OSA. As epidemiological studies have consistently documented an increased risk for depression in women, we hypothesized and confirmed higher risks of depressive disorder among female patients with OSA (2.72, 95% CI = 1.68-4.40) than their male counterparts (1.81, 95% CI = 1.09-3.01). A prospective link between OSA and subsequent depressive disorder within one year was confirmed by the current study. The risk was particularly evident among women. Regular psychiatric screening among patients with OSA is suggested to prompt the timely detection of depression. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 425.

  15. Survival after colorectal cancer in patients with Crohn's disease: A nationwide population-based Danish follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Mette; Mose, Hanne; Gislum, Mette; Skriver, Mette V; Jepsen, Peter; Nørgård, Bente; Sørensen, Henrik T

    2007-01-01

    Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) are at increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but little is known about the impact of CD on CRC prognosis. Based on nationwide population-based registries, we compared survival among CRC patients with CD and CRC patients without CD. We used the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Hospital Discharge Registry to identify all patients diagnosed with CRC, with and without CD, in Denmark between 1977 and 1999. We ascertained the stage distribution at the time of CRC diagnosis and 1- and 5-yr survival both for patients with Crohn-associated CRC and patients with non-Crohn CRC. Cox regression was used to compute hazard ratios (HRs), adjusting for gender, age, calendar year, and stage. We identified 100 CRC patients with CD and 71,438 CRC patients without CD. At the time of diagnosis, patients with CD were younger, but stage distributions were similar in the two groups. The overall HR for CRC with CD compared to CRC without CD was 1.82 (95% CI 1.36-2.43) after 1 yr of follow-up, and 1.57 (95% CI 1.24-1.99) after 5 yr of follow-up. Subanalyses showed that the effect of CD on CRC survival was more pronounced in the youngest patients (0-59 yr), in men, and in patients whose tumors had regional spread. We found that CD worsens the prognosis of CRC, particularly CRC with regional spread.

  16. Intimate relationships and childbearing after adolescent depression: a population-based 15 year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, U; Bohman, H; Hjern, A; von Knorring, L; Paaren, A; Olsson, G; von Knorring, A-L

    2011-08-01

    Adolescent depression is associated with a range of interpersonal adversities. We hypothesized that depressed adolescents are at subsequent increased risk of problems related to intimate relationships and childbearing in adulthood, and used longitudinal data to examine this. A population-based investigation of depression in 16 to 17 year olds was followed up after 15 years, at around the age of 30 years. Comparisons were made between adolescents with depression (n = 361, 78% females) and non-depressed peers (n = 248, 77% females). Data from both national registers and personal interviews were used. At follow-up, the former depressed and non-depressed adolescents had become parents to a similar extent. The former depressed females were more likely than the non-depressed females to report abortion, miscarriage, intimate partner violence and sexually transmitted disease. They also reported a higher number of intimate relationships and were more likely to have divorced and to be registered as single mothers. Depressed females with a comorbid disruptive disorder had a particularly poor outcome. In the depressed females without a disruptive disorder, only those who subsequently had recurrent depressions in adulthood were at increased risk of poor outcome. There was no indication that the formerly depressed males were at increased risk of subsequent problems related to intimate relationships. Females with adolescent depression subsequently have problems related to intimate relationships and childbearing. Disruptive disorders and recurrence of depression appear to be instrumental in this association. Attention should be given to intimate relationship problems and sexual and reproductive health issues in young women with depression.

  17. Childhood predictors of male criminality: a prospective population-based follow-up study from age 8 to late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Sourander, Andre; Elonheimo, Hendrik; Niemela, Solja; Nuutila, Ari-Matti; Helenius, Hans; Sillanmaki, Louri; Piha, Jorma; Tamminen, Tuula; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Moilenen, Irma; Almqvist, Frederik

    2006-05-01

    To study childhood predictors for late adolescence criminality. The follow-up sample included 2,713 Finnish boys born in 1981. Information about the 8-year-old boy' problem behavior was obtained from parents, teachers, and the children themselves. The follow-up information about criminal offenses was based on the national police register between the years 1998 and 2001 when the subjects were 16 to 20 years old. According to the national police register, 22.2% of boys had at least one criminal offense other than a minor traffic violation during the 4-year study period. Living in nonintact family, low parental education level, parent reports of conduct problems, and teacher reports of hyperkinetic problems when the child was 8 independently predicted a high level (more than five) of offenses. Living in nonintact family at age 8 predicted all types of criminal offenses. Low parental education level and parent or teacher reports of conduct problems independently predicted violence, property, traffic, and drunk driving offenses. Teacher reports of hyperkinetic problems independently predicted all types of criminal offenses except drunk driving. Self-reports of bullying others independently predicted violent offenses. Living in a broken home, low parental education level, conduct problems, and hyperactivity in middle childhood predict criminal offenses in late adolescence. Efforts to prevent later criminality already in childhood are emphasized.

  18. Ginkgo Biloba Extract and Long-Term Cognitive Decline: A 20-Year Follow-Up Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Amieva, Hélène; Meillon, Céline; Helmer, Catherine; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Dartigues, Jean François

    2013-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have looked at the potential benefits of various nootropic drugs such as Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761®; Tanakan®) and piracetam (Nootropyl®) on age-related cognitive decline often leading to inconclusive results due to small sample sizes or insufficient follow-up duration. The present study assesses the association between intake of EGb761® and cognitive function of elderly adults over a 20-year period. Methods and Findings The data were gathered from the prospective community-based cohort study ‘Paquid’. Within the study sample of 3612 non-demented participants aged 65 and over at baseline, three groups were compared: 589 subjects reporting use of EGb761® at at least one of the ten assessment visits, 149 subjects reporting use of piracetam at one of the assessment visits and 2874 subjects not reporting use of either EGb761® or piracetam. Decline on MMSE, verbal fluency and visual memory over the 20-year follow-up was analysed with a multivariate mixed linear effects model. A significant difference in MMSE decline over the 20-year follow-up was observed in the EGb761® and piracetam treatment groups compared to the ‘neither treatment’ group. These effects were in opposite directions: the EGb761® group declined less rapidly than the ‘neither treatment’ group, whereas the piracetam group declined more rapidly (β = −0.6). Regarding verbal fluency and visual memory, no difference was observed between the EGb761® group and the ‘neither treatment’ group (respectively, β = 0.21 and β = −0.03), whereas the piracetam group declined more rapidly (respectively, β = −1.40 and β = −0.44). When comparing the EGb761® and piracetam groups directly, a different decline was observed for the three tests (respectively β = −1.07, β = −1.61 and β = −0.41). Conclusion Cognitive decline in a non-demented elderly population was lower in subjects who reported using EGb761® than in

  19. Economic Recession Affects Gambling Participation But Not Problematic Gambling: Results from a Population-Based Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Olason, Daniel T.; Hayer, Tobias; Meyer, Gerhard; Brosowski, Tim

    2017-01-01

    In October 2008, Iceland experienced the fastest and deepest financial crisis recorded in modern times when all three major banks went bankrupt in less than 2 weeks. The purpose of this follow-up study is to examine potential changes in participation in 12 different gambling types and in problem gambling before (time 1; year 2007) and after (time 2; year 2011) the economic collapse in 2008. The time between the first and second wave of data collection was 3.5 years. In total, 1,531 participants took part in the study, 688 males and 843 females. There was a considerable increase in past year gambling behavior from 2007 to 2011, mostly due to increased participation in lotto (National lotto and Viking lotto) but also in bingo, monthly lotteries (class lotteries with at least monthly draw) and scratch tickets. Only EGMs (electronic gaming machines) participation declined significantly between the two timepoints. Examining past year problematic gambling figures revealed that there were no changes in the prevalence figures between the year 2007 (1.2%) and 2011 (1.1%). Further examination revealed that those who reported financial difficulties due to the recession were more likely to buy lotto- or scratch tickets during the recession than those who were not financially affected by the crisis. These findings remained after controlling for background variables and baseline gambling activity (gambling in 2007). Overall, the findings of the follow-up study suggest that when people are experiencing financial difficulties during economic recessions, the possibility to improve their financial situation by winning large jackpots with low initial stakes becomes more enticing. PMID:28790946

  20. Increased Risk of Ischemic Stroke after Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State: A Population-Based Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yung-Sung; Chen, Pin-Fan; Huang, Kuang-Yung; Chou, Pesus; Lian, Wei-Cheng; Lee, Ching-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Background Although much attention has been focused on the association between chronic hyperglycemia and cerebrovascular diseases in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients, there is no data regarding the risk of ischemic stroke after a hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) attack. The objective of this study was to investigate the risk of ischemic stroke in type 2 DM patients after an HHS attack. Methods From 2004 to 2008, this retrospective observational study was conducted on a large cohort of Taiwanese using Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). We identified 19,031 type 2 DM patients who were discharged with a diagnosis of HHS and 521,229 type 2 DM patients without an HHS diagnosis. Using the propensity score generated from logistic regression models, conditional on baseline covariates, we matched 19,031 type 2 DM patients with an HHS diagnosis with the same number from the comparison cohort. The one-year cumulative rate for ischemic stroke was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. After adjusting covariates, Cox proportional hazard regression was used to compute the adjusted one-year rate of ischemic stroke. Results Of the patients sampled, 1,810 (9.5%) of the type 2 DM patients with HHS and 996 (5.2%) of the comparison cohort developed ischemic stroke during the one-year follow-up period. After adjusting for covariates, the adjusted HR for developing ischemic stroke during the one-year follow-up period was 1.8 (95% C.I., 1.67 to 1.95, P<0.001) for type 2 DM patients with HHS compared with those without HHS. Conclusion Although DM is a well-recognized risk factor for atherosclerosis, type 2 DM patients that have suffered a HHS attacks are at an increased risk of developing ischemic stroke compared with those without HHS. PMID:24714221

  1. A nationwide, population-based, long-term follow-up study of repeated self-harm in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous follow-up studies of repeated self-harm show that the cumulative risk of repeated self-harm within one year is 5.7%–15%, with females at greatest risk. However, relatively few studies have focused on the Far East. The objective of this study was to calculate the cumulative risk of repeated self-harm over different lengths of follow-up time (3 months, 6 months, and 1–8 years), to determine factors influencing repeated self-harm and to explore the interaction between gender and self-harm methods. Methods We used self-harm patient who hospitalized due to first-time self-harm between 2000 and 2007 from 1,230 hospitals in Taiwan. Hospitalization for repeated self-harm among members of this cohort was tracked after 3 months, 6 months, and 1–8 years. Tracking continued until December 31, 2008. We analyzed the cumulative risk and risk factors of repeated self-harm by using negative binomial regression. Results Of the 39,875 individual study samples, 3,388 individuals (8.50%) were found to have repeatedly self-harmed. The cumulative risk of repeated self-harm within three months was 7.19% and within one year was 8%. Within 8 years, it was 8.70%. Females were more likely to repeatedly self-harm than males (RR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.15–1.76). The main method of self-harm was solid or liquid substances (RR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.23–2.04) or cutting or piercing (RR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.02–1.82), and in patients with psychiatric disorders were more likely to self-harm (RR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.48–1.75). Conclusions The key time for intervention for repeated self-harm is within three months. Appropriate prevention programs should be developed based on gender differences. PMID:22950416

  2. Osteoporosis and the risk of symptomatic nephrolithiasis: a population-based 5-year follow-up study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ping-Song; Kuo, Chun-Nan; Hung, Kuo-Sheng; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Liao, Yu-Chien; Chi, Ying-Chen; Chou, Wei-Po; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Liu, Mu-En; Lai, Chiou-Lian; Chou, Yii-Her; Chang, Wei-Pin

    2014-10-01

    This study estimates the risk of symptomatic nephrolithiasis within 5 years of newly diagnosed osteoporosis in a Taiwan population. This cohort study consisted of patients with a diagnosis of osteoporosis between Jan. 2003 and Dec. 2005 (N = 1634). Four age- and gender- matched patients for every patient in the study cohort were selected using random sampling as the comparison cohort (N = 6536). All patients were tracked for 5 years from the date of cohort entry to identify whether they developed symptomatic nephrolithiasis. Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed to evaluate the 5-year nephrolithiasis-free survival rates. During the 5-year follow-up period, 60 osteoporosis patients (3.7%) and 165 non- osteoporosis patients (2.5%) developed symptomatic nephrolithiasis. The adjusted HR of symptomatic nephrolithiasis was 1.38 times greater risk for patients with osteoporosis than for the comparison cohort (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.86; P < .05). Osteoporosis is very likely to be an independent risk factor for subsequent diagnosis of symptomatic nephrolithiasis.

  3. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and risk of hydrocephalus: A 5 year population-based follow-up study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chien-Hsu; Chen, Yen-Yu

    2016-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) involves many organ systems and is associated with a wide range of neurologic complications. However, it is not known whether T2DM is a risk factor of hydrocephalus. Research data were retrieved from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. A total of 25,903 individuals with T2DM aged 40-80 years diagnosed during 2000-2003 and two times-number (n=51,806) age- and sex-matched comparisons during the same period were included. We tracked all individuals from their defined index visits for up to 5 years to detect a new diagnosis of hydrocephalus. Among the 25,903 patients, 9227 cases were newly diagnosed T2DM and 16,676 were pre-existing T2DM patients. During the follow-up period, 27 (0.3%) of the newly diagnosed T2DM patients, 97 (0.6%) of the pre-existing T2DM patients and 149 (0.3%) of the comparison group developed hydrocephalus. The risk of hydrocephalus was significantly increased in patients with pre-existing diabetes but not in patients with newly diagnosed diabetes. Longer duration of type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased risk of the development of hydrocephalus. Further studies to confirm such association and to investigate the causality and mechanism are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk factors for depressive disorders in very old age: a population-based cohort study with a 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Petersson, Sofia; Mathillas, Johan; Wallin, Karin; Olofsson, Birgitta; Allard, Per; Gustafson, Yngve

    2014-05-01

    Depressive disorders are common among the very old, but insufficiently studied. The present study aims to identify risk factors for depressive disorders in very old age. The present study is based on the GERDA project, a population-based cohort study of people aged ≥85 years (n = 567), with 5 years between baseline and follow-up. Factors associated with the development of depressive disorders according to DSM-IV criteria at follow-up were analysed by means of a multivariate logistic regression. At baseline, depressive disorders were present in 32.3 % of the participants. At follow-up, 69 % of those with baseline depressive disorders had died. Of the 49 survivors, 38 still had depressive disorders. Of the participants without depressive disorders at baseline, 25.5 % had developed depressive disorders at follow-up. Baseline factors independently associated with new cases of depressive disorders after 5 years were hypertension, a history of stroke and 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale score at baseline. The present study supports the earlier findings that depressive disorders among the very old are common, chronic and malignant. Mild depressive symptoms as indicated by GDS-15 score and history of stroke or hypertension seem to be important risk factors for incident depressive disorders in very old age.

  5. Long-term follow-up after epilepsy surgery in infancy and early childhood--a prospective population based observational study.

    PubMed

    Reinholdson, Jesper; Olsson, Ingrid; Edelvik, Anna; Hallböök, Tove; Lundgren, Johan; Rydenhag, Bertil; Malmgren, Kristina

    2015-08-01

    To describe 2-year and long-term outcomes (five or ten years) after resective epilepsy surgery in children operated before the age of four years. This prospective, population based, longitudinal study is based on data from the Swedish National Epilepsy Surgery Register 1995-2010. The following variables were analysed: seizure frequency, antiepileptic drug treatment (AED), neurological deficits, type of operation, histopathological diagnosis and perioperative complications. During the study period 47 children under four years had resective surgery. A majority had seizure onset within the first year of life, and the median age at surgery was two years and one month. Two thirds had neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Temporal lobe resection, frontal lobe resection and hemispherotomy predominated. A majority had malformations of cortical development. There was one major perioperative complication. At the 2-year follow-up, 21/47 children (45%) were seizure free, eight of whom were off medication. At the long-term follow-up, 16/32 (50%) were seizure-free and 11 of them off medication. Another ten (31%) had ≥75% reduction in seizure frequency. Fourteen children (44%) had sustained seizure freedom from surgery to the long-term follow-up. This is the first prospective, population based, longitudinal study to show that a favourable seizure outcome is achievable in a majority of infants and young children undergoing resective epilepsy surgery and that the improvements are consistent over time. Many can also stop taking AEDs. The findings emphasise the importance of early referral to epilepsy surgery evaluation in cases of medically intractable epilepsy in infants and young children. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Does adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder increase the risk of stroke? A population-based propensity score-matched follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chueh-Hung; Wang, Yen-Ho; Huang, Ya-Ping; Pan, Shin-Liang

    2012-01-01

    A previous population-based study reported an increased risk of stroke after the occurrence of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder (ACS), but there were substantial imbalances in the distribution of age and pre-existing vascular risk factors between subjects with ACS and without ACS, which might lead to a confounded association between ACS and stroke. The purpose of the present large-scale propensity score-matched population-based follow-up study was to clarify whether there is an increased stroke risk after ACS. We used a logistic regression model that includes age, sex, pre-existing comorbidities and socioeconomic status as covariates to compute the propensity score. A total of 22025 subjects with at least two ambulatory visits with the principal diagnosis of ACS in 2001 was enrolled in the ACS group. The non-ACS group consisted of 22025, propensity score-matched subjects without ACS. The stroke-free survival curves for these 2 groups were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method. Stratified Cox proportional hazard regression with patients matched on propensity score was used to estimate the effect of ACS on the occurrence of stroke. During the two-year follow-up period, 657 subjects in the ACS group (2.98%) and 687 in the non-ACS group (3.12%) developed stroke. The hazard ratio (HR) of stroke for the ACS group was 0.93 compared to the non-ACS group (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-1.04, P = 0.1778). There was no statistically significant difference in stroke subtype distribution between the two groups (P = 0.2114). These findings indicate that ACS itself is not associated with an increased risk of subsequent stroke.

  7. Does Non-Central Nervous System Tuberculosis Increase the Risk of Ischemic Stroke? A Population-Based Propensity Score-Matched Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chueh-Hung; Chen, Li-Sheng; Yen, Ming-Fang; Chiu, Yueh-Hsia; Fann, Ching-Yuan; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Pan, Shin-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies on the association between tuberculosis and the risk of developing ischemic stroke have generated inconsistent results. We therefore performed a population-based, propensity score-matched longitudinal follow-up study to investigate whether contracting non-central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis leads to an increased risk of ischemic stroke. Methods We used a logistic regression model that includes age, sex, pre-existing comorbidities and socioeconomic status as covariates to compute the propensity score. A total of 5804 persons with at least three ambulatory visits in 2001 with the principal diagnosis of non-CNS tuberculosis were enrolled in the tuberculosis group. The non-tuberculosis group consisted of 5804, propensity score-matched subjects without tuberculosis. The three-year ischemic stroke-free survival rates for these 2 groups were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The stratified Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the effect of tuberculosis on the occurrence of ischemic stroke. Results During three-year follow-up, 176 subjects in the tuberculosis group (3.0%) and 207 in the non-tuberculosis group (3.6%) had ischemic stroke. The hazard ratio for developing ischemic stroke in the tuberculosis group was 0.92 compared to the non-tuberculosis group (95% confidence interval: 0.73–1.14, P = 0.4299). Conclusions Non-CNS tuberculosis does not increase the risk of subsequent ischemic stroke. PMID:25048551

  8. Population-based cohort follow-up study of all patients operated for borderline ovarian tumor in western Sweden during an 11-year period.

    PubMed

    Akeson, M; Zetterqvist, B-M; Dahllöf, K; Jakobsen, A-M; Brännström, M; Horvath, G

    2008-01-01

    Borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs) make up around 10-20% of all epithelial ovarian tumors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the outcome of a complete large population-based cohort of patients treated for BOT. All patients (n= 399) treated for BOT in the western part of Sweden (population around 1.6 million) between 1993 and 2004 were followed. The treatment consisted of primary staging surgery with addition of platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy for the majority of aneuploid tumors. Data relating to the surgical procedure, FIGO stage, histopathology, ploidy status, adjuvant chemotherapy, and disease state (recurrence or death) at follow-up visits were continuously entered into a cancer quality registry. Data concerning cases and deaths were also controlled against the Swedish National Cancer Registry. The median age of the BOT patients was 55 years (range 16-90). The relative 5- and 10-year survivals were 99.9% (95% CI 96.3-102.4) and 103.5% (95% CI 97.2-108.2), respectively. Aneuploidy was found in 63 (17%) patients, with significantly more aneuploid tumors found among patients of older (>60 years) age. Out of the 399 patients, 8 had recurrence of the disease. Three of the eight patients died from the disease. Five patients with recurrence are alive, three of these patients with no signs of disease after additional treatment. This complete long-term follow-up of a large population-based cohort of BOT patients shows that there is a good overall survival in this patient group.

  9. The long-term outcome of childhood supracondylar humeral fractures: A population-based follow up study with a minimum follow up of ten years and normal matched comparisons.

    PubMed

    Sinikumpu, J-J; Victorzon, S; Pokka, T; Lindholm, E-L; Peljo, T; Serlo, W

    2016-10-01

    We present the clinical and radiographic outcome of 81 children with Gartland type I to III supracondylar humeral fractures at a minimum follow-up of ten years (mean 12.1 years; 10.3 to 16.1) following injury. The clinical and functional outcomes are compared with normal age- and gender-matched individuals. The population-based study setting was first identified from the institutional registries; the rate of participation was 76%. Controls were randomly selected from Finnish National Population Registry. According to Flynn's criteria, most fractures (75.3%) resulted in a satisfactory ("good or excellent") outcome. Satisfactory recovery was achieved in 75.0% of type I fractures treated by closed splinting (p = 0.013). Type II fractures were associated with both satisfactory (57.7%) and unsatisfactory (42.3%) results, regardless of the type of treatment, although the numbers were small in the sub groups. Most type III fractures were treated operatively, and most (76%) had a satisfactory outcome according to Flynn's criteria (p = 0.015). Compared with none among the normal subjects, flexion of the elbow was reduced by > 10° at long-term follow-up in 20 cases (24.7%, p < 0.001) and 9 (11.1%) had a reduced flexion of > 15° (p = 0.004). In patients who had sustained a type III fracture, the carrying angle was decreased by 35.7% (from 9.8° to 6.3°; p = 0.048). All patients achieved an excellent Mayo Elbow Performance Score (mean 96.4 points). The long-term outcome of extension-type supracondylar humeral fractures is generally good, but not exclusively benign, with the potential for long-term pain and ulnar nerve sensitivity, and a decrease in grip strength and range of movement in type II and type III fractures. Bony remodelling cannot be relied upon to correct any residual deformity. In particular, type II fractures have impaired long-term recovery and justify individual consideration in their treatment. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1410-17. ©2016 The

  10. Characteristics associated with antihypertensive treatment and blood pressure control: A 15-month population-based follow-up study in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Zavala-Loayza, J. Alfredo; Benziger, Catherine Pastorius; Cárdenas, María Kathia; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M.; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Miranda, J. Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Background Over a quarter of the world’s adult population has hypertension, yet achieving adequate treatment or control targets remain a challenge. Objective To identify, longitudinally, characteristics associated with antihypertensive treatment and blood pressure (BP) control among individuals with hypertension. Methods Data from individuals enrolled in the population-based CRONICAS Cohort Study (adults ≥35 years, living in four different rural/urban and coastal/high-altitude Peruvian settings) with hypertension at baseline was used. Antihypertensive treatment and BP control were assessed at baseline and at 15 months. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to estimate relative-risk ratios (RRR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of factors associated with antihypertensive treatment and BP control at follow-up. Results At baseline, among 717 individuals with hypertension (53% female, mean age 61.5±12.4 years), 28% were unaware of their hypertension status, 30% were aware but untreated, 16% were treated but uncontrolled, and 26% were treated and controlled. At follow-up, 89% of unaware and 82% of untreated individuals persisted untreated, and only 58% of controlled individuals remained controlled. Positive predictors of receiving treatment at follow-up included age (RRR 0.81, 95% CI: 0.73–0.91 for every 5 years) and family history of a chronic disease (RRR 0.53, 95% CI: 0.31–0.92, vs. no history); whereas Puno rural site (RRR 16.51, 95% CI: 1.90–143.56, vs. Lima) and male sex (RRR 2.59, 95% CI: 1.54–4.36) were risk factors. Systolic BP at baseline (RRR 1.27, 95% CI: 1.16–1.39 for every 5 mmHg) and male sex (RRR 1.75, 95% CI: 1.02–2.98) were risk factors for being uncontrolled at follow-up. Conclusion Large gaps in treatment of hypertension were observed. Targeting specific populations such as men, younger individuals or those without family history of disease may increase coverage of antihypertensive treatment. Also, targeting male

  11. Blood Cadmium Levels and Incident Cardiovascular Events during Follow-up in a Population-Based Cohort of Swedish Adults: The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study

    PubMed Central

    Barregard, Lars; Sallsten, Gerd; Fagerberg, Björn; Borné, Yan; Persson, Margaretha; Hedblad, Bo; Engström, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    é Y, Persson M, Hedblad B, Engström G. 2016. Blood cadmium levels and incident cardiovascular events during follow-up in a population-based cohort of Swedish adults: the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Environ Health Perspect 124:594–600; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509735 PMID:26517380

  12. Spinal cord injury is related to an increased risk of multiple sclerosis: a population-based, propensity score-matched, longitudinal follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Huang, Ya-Ping; Pan, Shin-Liang

    2015-05-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Trauma to the CNS has been postulated to play a role in triggering CNS autoimmune disease. Although the association between traumatic brain injury and MS has been suggested in previous studies, epidemiological data on the association between spinal cord injury (SCI) and MS is still lacking. The aim of the present population-based, propensity score-matched, longitudinal follow-up study was therefore to investigate whether patients with SCI were at a higher risk of developing MS. A total of 11,913 subjects ages between 20 and 90 years with at least two ambulatory visits with the principal diagnosis of SCI in 2001 were enrolled in the SCI group. We used a logistic regression model that included age, sex, pre-existing comorbidities, and socioeconomic status as covariates to compute the propensity score. The non-SCI group consisted of 59,565 propensity score-matched, randomly sampled subjects without SCI. Stratified Cox proportional hazard regression with patients matched by propensity score was used to estimate the effect of SCI on the risk of developing subsequent MS. During follow-up, five subjects in the SCI group and four in the non-SCI group developed MS. The incidence rates of MS were 17.60 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.71-41.0) per 100,000 person-years in the SCI group and 2.82 (95% CI, 0.77-7.22) per 100,000 person-years in the non-SCI group. Compared with the non-SCI group, the hazard ratio of MS for the SCI group was 8.33 (95% CI, 1.99-34.87, p=0.0037). Our study therefore shows that patients with SCI have an increased risk of developing MS.

  13. Parkinson’s Disease Is Related to an Increased Risk of Ischemic Stroke—A Population-Based Propensity Score-Matched Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ya-Ping; Chen, Li-Sheng; Yen, Ming-Fang; Fann, Ching-Yuan; Chiu, Yueh-Hsia; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Pan, Shin-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Objective The risk of stroke in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) remains controversial. The purpose of this population-based propensity score-matched longitudinal follow-up study was to determine whether there is an increased risk of ischemic stroke after PD. Methods We used a logistic regression model that includes age, sex, pre-existing comorbidities and socioeconomic status as covariates to compute the propensity score. A total of 2204 patients with at least two ambulatory visits with the principal diagnosis of PD in 2001 was enrolled in the PD group. The non- PD group consisted of 2204, propensity score-matched subjects without PD. The ischemic stroke-free survival rates of the two groups were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Stratified Cox proportional hazard regression with patients matched on propensity score was used to estimate the effect of PD on the occurrence of ischemic stroke. Results During the three-year follow-up period, 328 subjects in the PD group and 156 subjects in the non-PD group developed ischemic stroke. The ischemic stroke-free survival rate of the PD group was significantly lower than that of the non-PD group (P<0.0001). The hazard ratio (HR) of stroke for the PD group was 2.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.92 to 2.93, P<0.0001) compared to the non- PD group. Conclusions This study shows a significantly increased risk of ischemic stroke in PD patients. Further studies are required to investigate the underlying mechanism. PMID:24023710

  14. Dietary intake of fish, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and survival after breast cancer: A population-based follow-up study on Long Island, New York.

    PubMed

    Khankari, Nikhil K; Bradshaw, Patrick T; Steck, Susan E; He, Ka; Olshan, Andrew F; Shen, Jing; Ahn, Jiyoung; Chen, Yu; Ahsan, Habibul; Terry, Mary Beth; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Neugut, Alfred I; Santella, Regina M; Gammon, Marilie D

    2015-07-01

    In laboratory experiments, ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been found to reduce inflammatory eicosanoids resulting from ω-6 PUFA metabolism via competitive inhibition, and the ω-3-induced cytotoxic environment increases apoptosis and reduces cell growth in breast cancer cells. To the authors' knowledge, epidemiologic investigations regarding whether dietary ω-3 PUFA intake benefits survival after breast cancer are limited and inconsistent. The authors used resources from a population-based follow-up study conducted on Long Island, New York, among 1463 women newly diagnosed with first primary breast cancer who were interviewed an average of approximately 3 months after diagnosis to assess risk and prognostic factors, including dietary intake (using a food frequency questionnaire). Vital status was determined through 2011, yielding a median follow-up of 14.7 years and 485 deaths. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. All-cause mortality was reduced among women with breast cancer reporting the highest quartile of intake (compared with never) for tuna (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.55-0.92), other baked/broiled fish (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.58-0.97), and the dietary long-chain ω-3 PUFAs docosahexaenoic acid (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.55-0.92) and eicosapentaenoic acid (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.58-0.97). All-cause mortality was reduced by 16% to 34% among women with breast cancer who reported a high intake of fish and long-chain ω-3 PUFAs. Long-chain ω-3 PUFA intake from fish and other dietary sources may provide a potential strategy to improve survival after breast cancer. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  15. Effect of recovery from obesity on cardiovascular risk factors among Japanese schoolchildren: the Iwata population-based follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Kouda, Katsuyasu; Fujita, Yuki; Nakamura, Harunobu; Takeuchi, Hiroichi; Iki, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    The effect of recovery from obesity on cardiovascular risk factors is not well understood in Japanese children. We analyzed follow-up data from the Iwata city population-based study of schoolchildren in Japan. The Iwata Board of Education conducted health screenings of children aged 10 and 14 years. A total of 914 children aged 10 years (451 boys and 463 girls, 87.1% of all children in the city in 1997) were followed until 14 years of age and classified by pattern of obesity as Normal, Recovered, Worsened, or Persistent. Of the 914 children, 111 (12%) were obese at 10 years of age. Of those children, 44 (40%) were no longer obese at 14 years (ie, Recovered). At follow-up, Recovered boys had the greatest decrease in non-HDL cholesterol (mean ± SE, -21.3 ± 3.6 mg/dL) among the 4 groups, and Recovered girls had a significantly lower level of non-HDL cholesterol (Recovered, 107.1 ± 5.4 mg/dL vs. Persistent, 126.1 ± 4.5 mg/dL). The Recovered boys also had a significantly higher level of HDL cholesterol at age 14 (Recovered, 67.2 ± 2.7 mg/dL vs. Persistent, 53.3 ± 2.1 mg/dL). In the Recovered group, 68% of children who were dyslipidemic at baseline had normal cholesterol levels at age 14. The recovery rate from dyslipidemia was significantly higher in the Recovered group (cumulative incidence rate ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-4.7) as compared with the Persistent group. Dyslipidemia was reversed in children who recovered from obesity. Our findings suggest that reducing obesity is beneficial to the health of Japanese schoolchildren.

  16. Urinary tract abnormalities in Chinese rural children who consumed melamine-contaminated dairy products: a population-based screening and follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian-meng; Ren, Aiguo; Yang, Lei; Gao, Jinji; Pei, Lijun; Ye, Rongwei; Qu, Quangang; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2010-01-01

    Background Kidney damage related to consumption of melamine-contaminated dairy products by young children in China has been described. However, no studies have reported on the population-based prevalence of kidney damage among exposed children or on the condition of affected children after follow-up. Methods We conducted an ultrasound-based screening in September 2008 of 7933 children younger than 36 months of age who lived in a rural area in China where the dairy products most highly contaminated with melamine were sold. We monitored children who had evidence of nephrolithiasis or hydronephrosis at screening using renal ultrasonography after one, three and six months. We also collected information from the mothers of affected children about consumption of melamine-contaminated products between June and August 2008. Results The overall prevalence of urinary tract abnormalities among screened children was 0.61% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45%–0.80%). The mean exposure dose of melamine was estimated to be 116 (range 36–220) mg per day. Of the 48 affected children, 43 (89.6%) were asymptomatic, 2 had symptoms and were hospitalized, and 3 had symptoms but treatment had been not sought for them. Of the 46 children for whom six-month follow-up information was available, renal abnormalities persisted in 5 children and resolved in the remaining 41. Interpretation Among children who underwent screening, 0.61% showed ultrasonographic evidence of nephrolithiasis or hydronephrosis. Most of the affected children were asymptomatic. The majority of the affected children recovered from the toxic effects of melamine over time without specific treatment. Renal abnormalities remained in 12% of the affected children. PMID:20176755

  17. Obesity during pregnancy and long-term risk for ophthalmic morbidity - a population-based study with a follow-up of more than a decade.

    PubMed

    Sasson, Inbal; Beharier, Ofer; Sergienko, Ruslan; Szaingurten-Solodkin, Irit; Kessous, Roy; Belfair, Nadav J; Sheiner, Eyal

    2016-09-01

    To investigate whether patients with a history of obesity during pregnancy have an increased risk for subsequent long-term ophthalmic complications, after controlling for diabetes and preeclampsia. A population-based study compared the incidence of long-term maternal ophthalmic complications in a cohort of women with and without a history of obesity during pregnancy. Deliveries occurred between the years 1988 and 2013, with a mean follow-up duration of 12 years. During the study period 106 220 deliveries met the inclusion criteria; 2.2% (n = 2353) occurred in patients with a diagnosis of obesity during at least one of their pregnancies. These patients had a significantly higher incidence of ophthalmic complications in total and specifically of diabetic retinopathy. Using a Kaplan-Meier survival curve, we found that patients with a history of obesity during pregnancy had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of ophthalmic complications. Using a Cox proportional hazards model, adjusted for confounders such as maternal age, preeclampsia and diabetes mellitus, we found obesity during pregnancy remained independently associated with ophthalmic complications (adjusted HR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.4-4.2; p = 0.003). Obesity during pregnancy is an independent risk factor for long-term ophthalmic complications, and specifically diabetic retinopathy.

  18. Processes of in-hospital psychiatric care and subsequent criminal behaviour among patients with schizophrenia: a national population-based, follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Charlotte Gjørup; Olrik Wallenstein Jensen, Signe; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Nordentoft, Merete; Mainz, Jan

    2013-09-01

    It is unknown whether evidence-based, in-hospital processes of care may influence the risk of criminal behaviour among patients with schizophrenia. Our study aimed to examine the association between guideline recommended in-hospital psychiatric care and criminal behaviour among patients with schizophrenia. Danish patients with schizophrenia (18 years or older) discharged from a psychiatric ward between January 2004 and March 2009 were identified using a national population-based schizophrenia registry (n = 10 757). Data for in-hospital care and patient characteristics were linked with data on criminal charges obtained from the Danish Crime Registry until November 2010. Twenty per cent (n = 2175) of patients were charged with a crime during follow-up (median = 428 days). Violent crimes accounted for 59% (n = 1282) of the criminal offences. The lowest risk of crime was found among patients receiving the most processes of in-hospital care (top quartile of received recommended care, compared with bottom quartiles, adjusted hazard ratio = 0.86, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.99). The individual processes of care associated with the lowest risk of criminal behaviour were antipsychotic treatment and staff contact with relatives. High-quality, in-hospital psychiatric care was associated with a lower risk of criminal behaviour after discharge among patients with schizophrenia.

  19. Incidence of active tuberculosis in individuals with latent tuberculosis infection in rural China: follow-up results of a population-based, multicentre, prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Li, Xiangwei; Liu, Jianmin; Wang, Xinhua; Lu, Wei; Bai, Liqiong; Xin, Henan; Zhang, Haoran; Li, Hengjing; Zhang, Zongde; Ma, Yu; Li, Mufei; Feng, Boxuan; Du, Jiang; Sui, Hongtao; Zhao, Rong; Su, Haoxiang; Pan, Shouguo; Guan, Ling; Shen, Fei; He, Jian; Yang, Shumin; Si, Hongyan; Cheng, Xu; Xu, Zuhui; Tan, Yunhong; Chen, Tianzhu; Xu, Weiguo; Peng, Hong; Wang, Zhijian; Zhu, Tao; Chen, Xiaoyou; Zhou, Xinhua; Guan, Xueling; Jin, Qi

    2017-10-01

    The management of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is a new priority action for the WHO End Tuberculosis (TB) Strategy. However, national guidelines on latent tuberculosis infection testing and treatment have not yet been developed in China. Here, we present the results from the 2-year follow-up of a study that aimed to track the development of active disease in individuals with latent tuberculosis infection, identify priority populations for latent infection management, and explore the most suitable latent infection diagnostic approach. A population-based multicentre prospective study was done in four sites in rural China, between 2013 and 2015. The baseline survey in 2013 measured the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection using QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) and tuberculin skin test (TST) in eligible participants. During the follow-up phase between 2014-15, we assessed individuals who had tuberculosis infection at baseline (QFT-positivity or TST tuberculin reaction size [induration] of ≥10 mm) for the development of active disease through active case finding. Eligible participants included in follow-up survey had a birth date before June 1, 2008 (5 years or older in 2013), and continuous residence at the study site for 6 months or longer in the past year. Participants with current active tuberculosis at baseline survey were excluded. Between Sept 1, 2013, and Aug 31, 2015, 7505 eligible participants (aged 5 years or older) were included in tuberculosis infection test positive cohorts (4455 were QFT positive, 6404 had TST induration ≥10 mm, and 3354 were positive for both tests) after baseline examination. During the 2-year follow-up period, 84 incident cases of active tuberculosis were diagnosed. Of participants who developed active tuberculosis, 75 were diagnosed with latent infection by QFT, 62 were diagnosed by TST, and 53 were diagnosed by both tests. An incidence rate of 0·87 (95% CI 0·68-1·07) per 100 person-years was observed for

  20. Risk of Psychiatric Disorders in Patients with Chronic Insomnia and Sedative-Hypnotic Prescription: A Nationwide Population-Based Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kuo-Hsuan; Li, Chung-Yi; Kuo, Shu-Yu; Sithole, Trevor; Liu, Wen-Wei; Chung, Min-Huey

    2015-01-01

    can serve as a reference for care providers when managing sleep disturbances. Citation: Chung KH, Li CY, Kuo SY, Sithole T, Liu WW, Chung MH. Risk of psychiatric disorders in patients with chronic insomnia and sedative-hypnotic prescription: a nationwide population-based follow-up study. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(5):543–551. PMID:25766696

  1. Predictive role of the Mediterranean diet on mortality in individuals at low cardiovascular risk: a 12-year follow-up population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bo, Simona; Ponzo, Valentina; Goitre, Ilaria; Fadda, Maurizio; Pezzana, Andrea; Beccuti, Guglielmo; Gambino, Roberto; Cassader, Maurizio; Soldati, Laura; Broglio, Fabio

    2016-04-12

    Adherence to the Mediterranean diet reduces the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality and the incidence of CV events. However, most previous studies were performed in high-risk individuals. Our objective was to assess whether the adherence to the Mediterranean diet, evaluated by the MED score, was associated with all-cause and CV mortality and incidence of CV events in individuals at low CV risk from a population-based cohort, after a 12-year mean follow-up. A cohort of 1658 individuals completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire in 2001-2003. The MED score was calculated by a 0-9 scale. Anthropometric, laboratory measurements, and the vital status were collected at baseline and during 2014. The baseline CV risk was estimated by the Framingham risk score. Participants were divided into two groups: individuals at low risk (CV < 10) and individuals with CV risk ≥ 10. During a 12-year mean follow-up, 220 deaths, 84 due to CV diseases, and 125 incident CV events occurred. The adherence to the Mediterranean diet was low in 768 (score 0-2), medium in 685 (score 4-5) and high in 205 (score > 6) individuals. Values of BMI, waist circumference, fasting glucose and insulin significantly decreased from low to high diet adherence only in participants with CV risk ≥ 10. In a Cox-regression model, the hazard ratios (HRs) in low-risk individuals per unit of MED score were: HR = 0.83 (95 % CI 0.72-0.96) for all-cause mortality, HR = 0.75 (95 % CI 0.58-0.96) for CV mortality, and HR = 0.79 (95 % CI 0.65-0.97) for CV events, after multiple adjustments. In individuals with CV risk ≥ 10, the MED score predicted incident CV events (HR = 0.85; 95 % CI 0.72-0.99), while the associations with all-cause (HR = 1.02; 95 % CI 0.90-1.15) and CV mortality (0.94; 95 % CI 0.76-1.15) were not significant. Greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with reduced fatal and non fatal CV events, especially in individuals at low CV risk, thus suggesting the

  2. The effect of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and statins on the development of rotator cuff disease: a nationwide, 11-year, longitudinal, population-based follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tony Tung-Liang; Lin, Ching-Heng; Chang, Chia-Li; Chi, Chun-Han; Chang, Shin-Tsu; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng

    2015-09-01

    with statin use: HR, 1.16 [95% CI, 1.10-1.23]; P < .0001) (hyperlipidemia without statin use: HR, 2.01 [95% CI, 1.89-2.13]; P < .0001). In the subgroup of patients with hyperlipidemia, statin use was associated with a lower risk of developing RCD when compared with no statin use (rosuvastatin: HR, 0.41 [95% CI, 0.35-0.49]; P < .0001) (simvastatin: HR, 0.62 [95% CI, 0.54-0.71]; P < .0001) (other statins: HR, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.60-0.72]; P < .0001). The present longitudinal, population-based follow-up study showed that either diabetes or hyperlipidemia alone was an independent risk factor for RCD development. Statin use might provide protection against RCD in patients with hyperlipidemia. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. Relationship between distal radius fracture malunion and arm-related disability: A prospective population-based cohort study with 1-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Distal radius fracture is a common injury and may result in substantial dysfunction and pain. The purpose was to investigate the relationship between distal radius fracture malunion and arm-related disability. Methods The prospective population-based cohort study included 143 consecutive patients above 18 years with an acute distal radius fracture treated with closed reduction and either cast (55 patients) or external and/or percutaneous pin fixation (88 patients). The patients were evaluated with the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) questionnaire at baseline (concerning disabilities before fracture) and one year after fracture. The 1-year follow-up included the SF-12 health status questionnaire and clinical and radiographic examinations. Patients were classified into three hypothesized severity categories based on fracture malunion; no malunion, malunion involving either dorsal tilt (>10 degrees) or ulnar variance (≥1 mm), and combined malunion involving both dorsal tilt and ulnar variance. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to determine the relationship between the 1-year DASH score and malunion and the relative risk (RR) of obtaining DASH score ≥15 and the number needed to harm (NNH) were calculated. Results The mean DASH score at one year after fracture was significantly higher by a minimum of 10 points with each malunion severity category. The RR for persistent disability was 2.5 if the fracture healed with malunion involving either dorsal tilt or ulnar variance and 3.7 if the fracture healed with combined malunion. The NNH was 2.5 (95% CI 1.8-5.4). Malunion had a statistically significant relationship with worse SF-12 score (physical health) and grip strength. Conclusion Malunion after distal radius fracture was associated with higher arm-related disability regardless of age. PMID:21232088

  4. Team-based innovations in primary care delivery in Quebec and timely physician follow-up after hospital discharge: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Riverin, Bruno D.; Li, Patricia; Naimi, Ashley I.; Diop, Mamadou; Provost, Sylvie; Strumpf, Erin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Outpatient follow-up has been a key intervention point in addressing gaps in care after hospital discharge. We sought to estimate the association between enrolment in new team-based primary care practices and 30-day postdischarge physician follow-up among older patients and patients with chronic illnesses who were admitted to hospital in Quebec, Canada. Methods: Patients were selected into this cohort if a primary care physician enrolled them as a "vulnerable patient" between November 2002 and January 2005. Data for this analysis included province-wide health insurance claims for inpatient and outpatient services delivered between November 2002 and January 2009 in Quebec. The primary analysis examined time to the first outpatient postdischarge follow-up service provided by either a primary care physician or a medical specialist. We used marginal structural models to estimate adjusted rates of follow-up with a primary care physician or with a medical specialist by primary care delivery models. Results: We extracted billing data for 312 377 patients that represented 620 656 index admissions for any cause from 2002 to 2009. Rates of 30-day follow-up were 374 visits to primary care physicians and 422 visits to medical specialists per 1000 discharges. Rates of primary care physician follow-up were similar across primary care delivery models, except for patients with very high morbidity; these patients had significantly higher rates of follow-up with a primary care physician if they were enrolled in team-based primary care practices (30-d rate difference [RD] 13.3 more follow-up visits per 1000 discharges, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.8 to 19.8). Rates of follow-up with a medical specialist were lower among patients enrolled in team-based practices, particularly within 15 days of hospital discharge (15-d RD 25.1 fewer follow-up visits per 1000 discharges, 95% CI 21.1 to 29.1). Interpretation: Our study found lower rates of postdischarge follow-up with a

  5. Incident atrial fibrillation in the emergency department in Ontario: a population-based retrospective cohort study of follow-up care

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bing; Ivers, Noah; Rochon, Paula; Lee, Douglas S.; Schull, Michael J.; Austin, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Continuity of care has been shown to be poor following in-hospital discharge, and there are substantially fewer resources to facilitate follow-up care arrangements after discharge from an emergency department. Our objective was to assess the frequency, timeliness and predictors for obtaining follow-up care following discharge from an emergency department in Ontario with a new diagnosis of atrial fibrillation. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study involving all patients discharged from the 157 nonpediatric emergency departments in Ontario, who received a new diagnosis of atrial fibrillation between 2007 and 2012. We determined the frequency of follow-up care with a family physician, cardiologist or internist within 7 (timely) and 30 days of the emergency department visit, and assessed the association of emergency and family physician characteristics, including primary care model type, with obtaining timely follow-up care. Results Among 14 907 patients discharged from Ontario emergency departments with a new, primary diagnosis of atrial fibrillation, half (n = 7473) had timely follow-up care. At 30 days, 2678 patients (18.0%) still had not obtained follow-up care. Among emergency and family physician factors, lack of a family physician had the largest independent association with acquiring timely follow-up care (odds ratio [OR] 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50–0.69). Using patients with a family physician belonging to a primarily fee-for-service remuneration model as the comparison group, patients with a family physician belonging to a capitation-based Family Health Network, as part of a Family Health Team, were less likely to receive timely follow-up care (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.62–0.86), as were those whose family physician belonged to the same model type that was not part of a Family Health Team (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.60–0.97). Interpretation Only half of the patients who were discharged from an emergency department in Ontario with a new

  6. Association of Family Structure to Later Criminality: A Population-Based Follow-Up Study of Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients in Northern Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikaheimo, Olli; Laukkanen, Matti; Hakko, Helina; Rasanen, Pirkko

    2013-01-01

    The influence of family structure on criminality in adolescents is well acknowledged in population based studies of delinquents, but not regarding adolescent psychiatric inpatients. The association of family structure to criminality was examined among 508 adolescents receiving psychiatric inpatient treatment between 2001 and 2006. Family structure…

  7. Association of Family Structure to Later Criminality: A Population-Based Follow-Up Study of Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients in Northern Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikaheimo, Olli; Laukkanen, Matti; Hakko, Helina; Rasanen, Pirkko

    2013-01-01

    The influence of family structure on criminality in adolescents is well acknowledged in population based studies of delinquents, but not regarding adolescent psychiatric inpatients. The association of family structure to criminality was examined among 508 adolescents receiving psychiatric inpatient treatment between 2001 and 2006. Family structure…

  8. Optimal systolic blood pressure target, time to intensification, and time to follow-up in treatment of hypertension: population based retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenxin; Goldberg, Saveli I; Shubina, Maria; Turchin, Alexander

    2015-02-05

    To investigate the optimal systolic blood pressure goal above which new antihypertensive medications should be added or doses of existing medications increased ("systolic intensification threshold") and to determine the relation between delays in medication intensification and follow-up and the risk of cardiovascular events or death. Retrospective cohort study. Primary care practices in the United Kingdom, 1986-2010. 88 756 adults with hypertension from The Health Improvement Network nationwide primary care research database. Rates of acute cardiovascular events or death from any cause for patients with different hypertension treatment strategies (defined by systolic intensification threshold, time to intensification, and time to follow-up over the course of a 10 year treatment strategy assessment period) after adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, socioeconomic deprivation, history of diabetes, cardiovascular disease or chronic kidney disease, Charlson comorbidity index, body mass index, medication possession ratio, and baseline blood pressure. During a median follow-up of 37.4 months after the treatment strategy assessment period, 9985 (11.3%) participants had an acute cardiovascular event or died. No difference in risk of the outcome was seen between systolic intensification thresholds of 130-150 mm Hg, whereas systolic intensification thresholds greater than 150 mm Hg were associated with progressively greater risk (hazard ratio 1.21, 95% confidence interval 1.13 to 1.30; P<0.001 for intensification threshold of 160 mm Hg). Outcome risk increased progressively from the lowest (0-1.4 months) to the highest fifth of time to medication intensification (hazard ratio 1.12, 1.05 to 1.20; P=0.009 for intensification between 1.4 and 4.7 months after detection of elevated blood pressure). The highest fifth of time to follow-up (>2.7 months) was also associated with increased outcome risk (hazard ratio 1.18, 1.11 to 1.25; P<0.001). Systolic intensification

  9. Optimal systolic blood pressure target, time to intensification, and time to follow-up in treatment of hypertension: population based retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenxin; Goldberg, Saveli I; Shubina, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the optimal systolic blood pressure goal above which new antihypertensive medications should be added or doses of existing medications increased (“systolic intensification threshold”) and to determine the relation between delays in medication intensification and follow-up and the risk of cardiovascular events or death. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Primary care practices in the United Kingdom, 1986-2010. Participants 88 756 adults with hypertension from The Health Improvement Network nationwide primary care research database. Main outcome measures Rates of acute cardiovascular events or death from any cause for patients with different hypertension treatment strategies (defined by systolic intensification threshold, time to intensification, and time to follow-up over the course of a 10 year treatment strategy assessment period) after adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, socioeconomic deprivation, history of diabetes, cardiovascular disease or chronic kidney disease, Charlson comorbidity index, body mass index, medication possession ratio, and baseline blood pressure. Results During a median follow-up of 37.4 months after the treatment strategy assessment period, 9985 (11.3%) participants had an acute cardiovascular event or died. No difference in risk of the outcome was seen between systolic intensification thresholds of 130-150 mm Hg, whereas systolic intensification thresholds greater than 150 mm Hg were associated with progressively greater risk (hazard ratio 1.21, 95% confidence interval 1.13 to 1.30; P<0.001 for intensification threshold of 160 mm Hg). Outcome risk increased progressively from the lowest (0-1.4 months) to the highest fifth of time to medication intensification (hazard ratio 1.12, 1.05 to 1.20; P=0.009 for intensification between 1.4 and 4.7 months after detection of elevated blood pressure). The highest fifth of time to follow-up (>2.7 months) was also associated with increased outcome risk

  10. Adult height after long term treatment with recombinant growth hormone for idiopathic isolated growth hormone deficiency: observational follow up study of the French population based registry

    PubMed Central

    Carel, Jean-Claude; Ecosse, Emmanuel; Nicolino, Marc; Tauber, Maïté; Leger, Juliane; Cabrol, Sylvie; Bastié-Sigeac, Irène; Chaussain, Jean-Louis; Coste, Joël

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of recombinant growth hormone for increasing adult height in children treated for idiopathic isolated growth hormone deficiency. Design Observational follow up study. Setting Population based registry. Participants All 2852 French children diagnosed as having isolated idiopathic growth hormone deficiency whose treatment started between 1987 and 1992 and ended before 1996. Main outcome measures Change in height between the start of treatment and adulthood; classification of patients according to whether treatment was completed as scheduled or stopped early. Results Adult height was obtained for 2165 (76%) patients. The mean dose of growth hormone at start of treatment was 0.42 IU/kg/week. Height gain was 1.1 (SD 0.9) standard deviation (SD) scores, resulting in an adult height of –1.6 (0.9) SD score (girls, 154 (5) cm; boys, 167 (6) cm). Patients who completed the treatment gained 1.0 (0.7) SD score of height in 3.6 (1.4) years. Patients with treatments stopped early gained 0.6 (0.6) SD score in 2.7 (1.4) years while receiving treatment and a further 0.4 (0.9) SD score after the end of treatment. Most of the variation in height gain was explained by regression towards the mean, patients' characteristics, and delay in starting puberty. Severe growth hormone deficiency was associated with better outcome. Each year of treatment was associated with a gain of 0.2 SD score(1.3 cm). Conclusion The effect of growth hormone is unclear in many patients treated for so called idiopathic isolated growth hormone deficiency. Most of the patients have pubertal delay and a spontaneous growth potential, which must be taken into account when measuring the effect and cost effectiveness of treatments. Growth hormone deficiency should be clearly distinguished from pubertal delay, and criteria should restrict the definition to patients with severely and permanently altered growth hormone secretion as our results support the use of growth hormone in

  11. Rates and Risk Factors for Recurrent Pneumonia in Patients Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study With 5 Years of Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Dang, T. T.; Eurich, D. T.; Weir, D. L.; Marrie, T. J.; Majumdar, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The rates and risk factors for developing recurrent pneumonia following hospitalization with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are poorly understood. Methods. We examined a population-based cohort of patients with CAP who survived hospital admission and who were free of pneumonia for at least 3 months. We collected clinical, functional, and medication-related information and pneumonia severity index (PSI). Using linked databases we followed patients for 5 years and captured any clinical episode of pneumonia 90 days or more post-discharge. We used Cox proportional hazards models (adjusted for age, sex, PSI, functional status, medications) to determine rates and independent correlates of recurrent pneumonia. Results. The final cohort included 2709 inpatients; 43% were 75 years or older, 34% were not fully independent, and 56% had severe pneumonia. Over 5 years of follow–up, 245 (9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8%–10%) patients developed recurrent pneumonia, and 156 (64%) of these episodes required hospitalization. Rate of recurrence was 3.0/100 person–years and median time to recurrence was 317 days (interquartile range, 177–569); 32 (13%) patients had 2 or more recurrences. In multivariable analyses only age >75 years (adjusted P = .047) and less than fully independent functional status (12% recurrence rate with impaired functional status vs 7% for fully independent; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3–2.2; P < .001) were significantly associated with recurrent pneumonia. Conclusions. One of 11 patients who survived CAP hospitalization had recurrent pneumonia over 5 years and those with impaired functional status were at particularly high risk. Recurrent pneumonia is common and more attention to preventive strategies at discharge and closer follow-up over the long-term seem warranted. PMID:24729503

  12. Predictive factors of self-reported hand eczema in adult Danes: a population-based cohort study with 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Heede, N G; Thyssen, J P; Thuesen, B H; Linneberg, A; Johansen, J D

    2016-08-01

    Information about predictive factors of hand eczema is crucial for primary prevention. To investigate predictive factors of hand eczema in adult Danes from the general population. Participants from a cross-sectional 5-year follow-up study in the general population, aged 18-72 years (n = 2270), completed questionnaires about skin health and were grouped into four hand eczema groups: 'never', 'incident', 'nonpersistent' and 'persistent'. Multiple logistic regression models adjusted for age group and sex were used to evaluate associations with baseline variables. The participation rate for the follow-up study was 66·5% (29·7% of the participants originally invited to the baseline study). A history of atopic dermatitis (AD) was associated with both persistent and incident hand eczema [odds ratio (OR) 9·0, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5·6-14·4 and OR 3·0, 95% CI 1·7-5·2, respectively]. Thus, even in adulthood, a history of AD should be considered as a predictor of incident hand eczema. While filaggrin gene (FLG) null mutations were not associated with incident hand eczema, a statistically significant association was observed with persistent hand eczema (OR 3·1, 95% CI 1·8-5·2). Finally, contact sensitization (23 allergens without nickel) was also associated with persistent hand eczema (OR 2·5, 95% CI 1·2-5·0), independently of a history of AD. This study confirms a history of AD as the strongest predictor of persistent hand eczema. We additionally found that a history of AD was associated with incident hand eczema in adults, in contrast to FLG mutations, which were associated only with persistent hand eczema in individuals with a history of AD, and not with incident hand eczema. Our study adds new knowledge to the interplay between AD, FLG mutations and hand eczema in the adult general population. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  13. Food Choices and Coronary Heart Disease: A Population Based Cohort Study of Rural Swedish Men with 12 Years of Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, Sara; Thelin, Anders; Stiernström, Eva-Lena

    2009-01-01

    Coronary heart disease is associated with diet. Nutritional recommendations are frequently provided, but few long term studies on the effect of food choices on heart disease are available. We followed coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality in a cohort of rural men (N = 1,752) participating in a prospective observational study. Dietary choices were assessed at baseline with a 15-item food questionnaire. 138 men were hospitalized or deceased owing to coronary heart disease during the 12 year follow-up. Daily intake of fruit and vegetables was associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease when combined with a high dairy fat consumption (odds ratio 0.39, 95% CI 0.21–0.73), but not when combined with a low dairy fat consumption (odds ratio 1.70, 95% CI 0.97–2.98). Choosing wholemeal bread or eating fish at least twice a week showed no association with the outcome. PMID:20054459

  14. Patients with Urinary Incontinence Appear More Likely to Develop Upper Urinary Tract Stones: A Nationwide, Population-Based Study with 8-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hsiao-Jen; Lin, Alex Tong-Long; Lin, Chih-Chieh; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Kuang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate associations between primary urinary incontinence and development of upper urinary tract stones in a nationwide population in Taiwan. Data of 1,777 adults with primary urinary incontinence and 26,655 controls (groups A, B, and C) without urinary incontinence at study inception were retrieved from the National Health Insurance System database in Taiwan and were analyzed retrospectively. No enrolled subjects had previous diagnosis of upper urinary tract stones or spinal cord injury. All subjects were followed through end of 2009, with a minimum follow-up of 8 years. A greater percentage of study subjects (334/1777, 18.8%) developed upper urinary tract stones than that of control groups A (865/8885, 9.7%) and B (888/8885, 10%), and C (930/8885, 10.5%) (all p-values < 0.0001). Urinary incontinence was associated with significantly increased risk of developing urinary tract stones (HR 1.99, 95% CI, 1.70–2.34, p < 0.001). Age and metabolic syndrome status were both associated with developing upper urinary tract stones (both p-values < 0.0001). After adjusting for metabolic syndrome, regression analysis showed that urinary incontinence was still associated with a significantly increased risk of developing upper urinary tract stones (HR 1.99, 95% CI = 1.76–2.26, p < 0.0001). Long-term follow-up of Taiwanese patients with primary urinary incontinence suggests that urinary incontinence is associated with a significantly increased risk of developing upper urinary tract stones. Study findings suggest that physicians treating patients with urinary incontinence should give attention to early detection of upper urinary tract stones. PMID:27536881

  15. The prevalence of food allergy and other allergic diseases in early childhood in a population-based study: HealthNuts age 4-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Peters, Rachel L; Koplin, Jennifer J; Gurrin, Lyle C; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Wake, Melissa; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Tang, Mimi L K; Lowe, Adrian J; Matheson, Melanie; Dwyer, Terence; Allen, Katrina J

    2017-07-01

    The HealthNuts study previously reported interim prevalence data showing the highest prevalence of challenge-confirmed food allergy in infants internationally. However, population-derived prevalence data on challenge-confirmed food allergy and other allergic diseases in preschool-aged children remain sparse. This study aimed to report the updated prevalence of food allergy at age 1 year from the whole cohort, and to report the prevalence of food allergy, asthma, eczema, and allergic rhinitis at age 4 years. HealthNuts is a population-based cohort study with baseline recruitment of 5276 one-year-old children who underwent skin prick test (SPT) to 4 food allergens and those with detectable SPT results had formal food challenges. At age 4 years, parents completed a questionnaire (81.3% completed) and those who previously attended the HealthNuts clinic at age 1 year or reported symptoms of a new food allergy were invited for an assessment that included SPT and oral food challenges. Data on asthma, eczema, and allergic rhinitis were captured by validated International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaires. The prevalence of challenge-confirmed food allergy at age 1 and 4 years was 11.0% and 3.8%, respectively. At age 4 years, peanut allergy prevalence was 1.9% (95% CI, 1.6% to 2.3%), egg allergy was 1.2% (95% CI, 0.9% to 1.6%), and sesame allergy was 0.4% (95% CI, 0.3% to 0.6%). Late-onset peanut allergy at age 4 years was rare (0.2%). The prevalence of current asthma was 10.8% (95% CI, 9.7% to 12.1%), current eczema was 16.0% (95% CI, 14.7% to 17.4%), and current allergic rhinitis was 8.3% (95% CI, 7.2% to 9.4%). Forty percent to 50% of this population-based cohort experienced symptoms of an allergic disease in the first 4 years of their life. Although the prevalence of food allergy decreased between age 1 year and age 4 years in this population-based cohort, the prevalence of any allergic disease among 4-year-old children in Melbourne

  16. Suicide and Other-Cause Mortality after Early Exposure to Smoking and Second Hand Smoking: A 12-Year Population-Based Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung; Kuo, Chian-Jue; Wang, Tsu-Nai; Lee, Wen-Chung; Chen, Wei J; Ferri, Cleusa P; Tsai, Duujian; Lai, Te-Jen; Huang, Meng-Chuan; Stewart, Robert; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2015-01-01

    The association between smoking and suicide is still controversial, particular for early life cigarette smoking exposure. Few studies have investigated this association in adolescents using population-based cohorts, and the relationship with second hand smoking (SHS) exposure has not been addressed. In this study, we followed a large population-based sample of younger people to investigate the association between smoking, SHS exposure and suicide mortality. Between October 1995 and June 1996, 162,682 junior high school students ages 11 to 16 years old living in a geographic catchment area in Taiwan were enrolled and then followed till December 2007 (1,948,432 person-years) through linkage to the National Death Certification System. Participants who were currently smoking at baseline had a greater than six-fold higher suicide mortality than those who did not smoke (29.5 vs. 4.8 per 100,000 person-years, p<0.001) as well as higher natural mortality (33.7 vs. 10.3 per 100,000 person-years, p<0.001). After controlling for gender, age, parental education, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and alcohol consumption, the adjusted hazard ratios for suicide were 3.69 (95% CI 1.85-7.39) in current smokers, and 1.47 (95% CI 0.94-2.30) and 2.83 (95% CI 1.54-5.20) respectively in adolescents exposed to SHS of 1-20 cigarettes and >20 cigarettes/per day. The estimated depression-adjusted odds ratio did not change substantially. The population attributable fractions for suicide associated with smoking and heavy SHS exposure (>20 cigarettes/per day) were 9.6% and 10.6%, respectively. This study showed evidence of excess suicide mortality among young adults exposed to active or passive early life cigarette smoking.

  17. Suicide and Other-Cause Mortality after Early Exposure to Smoking and Second Hand Smoking: A 12-Year Population-Based Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung; Kuo, Chian-Jue; Lee, Wen-Chung; Chen, Wei J.; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Tsai, Duujian; Lai, Te-Jen; Huang, Meng-Chuan; Stewart, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background The association between smoking and suicide is still controversial, particular for early life cigarette smoking exposure. Few studies have investigated this association in adolescents using population-based cohorts, and the relationship with second hand smoking (SHS) exposure has not been addressed. Methods and Findings In this study, we followed a large population-based sample of younger people to investigate the association between smoking, SHS exposure and suicide mortality. Between October 1995 and June 1996, 162,682 junior high school students ages 11 to 16 years old living in a geographic catchment area in Taiwan were enrolled and then followed till December 2007 (1,948,432 person-years) through linkage to the National Death Certification System. Participants who were currently smoking at baseline had a greater than six-fold higher suicide mortality than those who did not smoke (29.5 vs. 4.8 per 100,000 person-years, p<0.001) as well as higher natural mortality (33.7 vs. 10.3 per 100,000 person-years, p<0.001). After controlling for gender, age, parental education, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and alcohol consumption, the adjusted hazard ratios for suicide were 3.69 (95% CI 1.85-7.39) in current smokers, and 1.47 (95% CI 0.94-2.30) and 2.83 (95% CI 1.54-5.20) respectively in adolescents exposed to SHS of 1-20 cigarettes and >20 cigarettes/per day. The estimated depression-adjusted odds ratio did not change substantially. The population attributable fractions for suicide associated with smoking and heavy SHS exposure (>20 cigarettes/per day) were 9.6% and 10.6%, respectively. Conclusions This study showed evidence of excess suicide mortality among young adults exposed to active or passive early life cigarette smoking. PMID:26222448

  18. Increased risk of major depression in the three years following a femoral neck fracture--a national population-based follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Yu; Chen, Wen-Liang; Liou, Yi-Fan; Ke, Chih-Chi; Lee, Hua-Chin; Huang, Hui-Ling; Ciou, Li-Ping; Chou, Chu-Chung; Yang, Mei-Chueh; Ho, Shinn-Ying; Lin, Yan-Ren

    2014-01-01

    Femoral neck fracture is common in the elderly, and its impact has increased in aging societies. Comorbidities, poor levels of activity and pain may contribute to the development of depression, but these factors have not been well addressed. This study aims to investigate the frequency and risk of major depression after a femoral neck fracture using a nationwide population-based study. The Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database was used in this study. A total of 4,547 patients who were hospitalized for femoral neck fracture within 2003 to 2007 were recruited as a study group; 13,641 matched non-fracture participants were enrolled as a comparison group. Each patient was prospectively followed for 3 years to monitor the occurrence of major depression. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to compute the risk of major depression between members of the study and comparison group after adjusting for residence and socio-demographic characteristics. The most common physical comorbidities that were present after the fracture were also analyzed. The incidences of major depression were 1.2% (n = 55) and 0.7% (n = 95) in the study and comparison groups, respectively. The stratified Cox proportional analysis showed a covariate-adjusted hazard ratio of major depression among patients with femoral neck fracture that was 1.82 times greater (95% CI, 1.30-2.53) than that of the comparison group. Most major depressive episodes (34.5%) presented within the first 200 days following the fracture. In conclusion, patients with a femoral neck fracture are at an increased risk of subsequent major depression. Most importantly, major depressive episodes mainly occurred within the first 200 days following the fracture.

  19. Risk of psychiatric disorders in patients with chronic insomnia and sedative-hypnotic prescription: a nationwide population-based follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kuo-Hsuan; Li, Chung-Yi; Kuo, Shu-Yu; Sithole, Trevor; Liu, Wen-Wei; Chung, Min-Huey

    2015-04-15

    Previous epidemiological studies have established insomnia as a major risk factor for mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders. However, the associations between insomnia with sedative-hypnotic prescriptions and various psychiatric disorders have not been thoroughly examined. The current study involved evaluating the risk of psychiatric disorders, namely schizophrenia, mood, anxiety, somatoform, and substance-related disorders, over a 6-y follow-up period in three groups: patients with insomnia and sedative-hypnotic prescriptions (Inso-Hyp), those with insomnia and without sedative-hypnotic prescriptions (Inso-NonHyp), and those with neither insomnia nor sedative-hypnotic prescriptions (NonInso-NonHyp). We used a historical cohort study design to compare the risk of psychiatric disorders among the three groups. Data regarding these patients were derived from reimbursement claims recorded in Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compare the 6-y risk of subsequent psychiatric disorders among the Inso-Hyp, Inso-NonHyp, and NonInso-NonHyp groups. Compared with the Inso-NonHyp and NonInso-NonHyp group patients, the Inso-Hyp group patients exhibited a higher risk of psychiatric disorders, particularly bipolar disorders (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]: 7.60; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.31-10.89 and AHR: 14.69; 95% CI: 11.11-19.43, respectively). Moreover, among the Inso-Hyp patient group, insomnia prescribed with benzodiazepine, a longer duration of sedative-hypnotic action, and higher doses of sedativehypnotics were significantly associated with a higher risk of depressive and anxiety disorders. The Inso-Hyp group exhibited a higher risk of developing psychiatric disorders than did the Inso-NonHyp and NonInso-NonHyp groups. The results regarding patients with insomnia and sedative-hypnotic prescriptions associated with the risk of psychiatric disorders can serve as a reference for care providers when

  20. Borderline personality disorder associates with violent criminality in women: A population based follow-up study of adolescent psychiatric inpatients in Northern Finland.

    PubMed

    Arola, Riikka; Antila, Henna; Riipinen, Pirkko; Hakko, Helinä; Riala, Kaisa; Kantojärvi, Liisa

    2016-09-01

    Various psychiatric problems in adolescence and early adulthood have been shown to associate with criminal behaviour. In this study the association of personality disorders (PDs) with criminal behaviour was examined in adolescents treated in psychiatric hospitals. The study sample consisted of 508 adolescents (age 13-17) admitted to acute psychiatric impatient care between April 2001 and March 2006. Crime data was obtained from the Finnish Legal Register Centre on September 2013. The Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL) was used to assess psychiatric diagnoses in adolescence. The information on PDs in early adulthood was based on follow-up information on psychiatric treatments in either out- or inpatient settings until the end of 2012, and was extracted from the National Care Register for Health Care provided by the Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare. A total of 22 (39%) of the 57 subjects with PD had committed a crime. In women, the likelihood for violent criminality was significantly increased in those with Borderline PD (OR 6.09, CI 1.24-29.84, p=0.009) and was also associated with conduct disorder (OR 4.26, CI 1.38-13.19, p=0.012), child welfare placement (OR 11.82, CI 3.61-38.76, p<0.001) and parent's substance use disorder (OR 7.74, CI 2.30-26.10, p=0.001). In men, no association was observed between PD and any kind of criminal behaviour. Significant predictors for violent criminality in males were conduct disorder (OR 4.05, CI 1.75-9.38, p=0.001), substance use disorder (OR 2.51, CI 1.22-5.17, p=0.012) and special services at school (OR 2.58, CI 1.16-5.76, p=0.021). Females with Borderline PD showed an increased risk for violent offending. This suggests Borderline PD as a potential explanatory factor for violent assaults by females and highlights the importance of recognizing the risk for violence in young women with a Borderline PD.

  1. Sick leave and disability pension in Hodgkin lymphoma survivors by stage, treatment, and follow-up time--a population-based comparative study.

    PubMed

    Glimelius, I; Ekberg, S; Linderoth, J; Jerkeman, M; Chang, E T; Neovius, M; Smedby, K E

    2015-12-01

    This study seeks to investigate the long-term public health burden of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) in terms of work loss following contemporary treatment protocols and associations with established treatment complications and lymphoma relapse. We identified 1,989 Swedish HL patients (1,082 with clinical information) aged 18-60 (median 33) years at diagnosis 1992-2009, and matched 1:4 to population comparators. Sick leave, disability pension (work loss), and comorbidity were retrieved through September 2013. Relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Poisson regression, and mean lost work days were estimated yearly during follow-up. The risk of annual work loss was elevated in HL survivors versus comparators up to the 15th year post-diagnosis (RR(5th year) 1.64, 95% CI 1.46-1.84; RR(10th year) 1.33, 95% CI 1.15-1.34; and RR(15th year) 1.30, 95% CI 1.04-1.62). The risk remained elevated up to the 10th year after adjustment for secondary malignancies and cardiovascular disease (RR(10th year) 1.31, 95% CI 1.13-1.52). Advanced-stage patients had more lost days than comparators (mean number(5th year) 66 versus 33, mean difference 34, 95% CI 20-48) as did patients receiving 6-8 chemotherapy courses (62 versus 33, mean difference(5th year) 30, 95 % CI 17-43). Among patients in the first complete remission, a difference was still observed for advanced-stage (51 versus 33, mean difference(5th year) 19, 95% CI 5-34) but not early-stage disease. Advanced-stage HL survivors treated with full-dose chemotherapy were at increased risk of work loss, not only explained by relapse, secondary malignancies, or cardiovascular disease. The results call for increased awareness and evaluation of reasons for long-term work disability following intensive chemotherapy among young HL survivors.

  2. Increased occurrence of native septic arthritis in adult cirrhotic patients: a population-based three-year follow-up study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hung, Tsung-Hsing; Hsieh, Min-Hong; Lay, Chorng-Jang; Tsai, Chih-Chun; Tsai, Chen-Chi

    2014-01-01

    Due to impairment of immunity and metabolism, cirrhotic patients are prone to infection, osteoporosis, and osteonecrosis. However, it is unknown if cirrhotic patients are prone to native septic arthritis (NSA). To assess the occurrence of NSA between cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients. We used the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database to enrol 35,106 cirrhotic patients and 33,457 non-cirrhotic patients from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2004. The medical record of each patient was individually followed for a 3-year period. There were 341 (0.5%) patients having NSA in a follow-up period of 3 years: 214 cirrhotic and 127 non-cirrhotic patients. The incidence density of hospitalisation for NSA was 2.03 episodes/1000 person-years in cirrhotic patients, and 1.27 episodes/1000 person-years in non-cirrhotic patients. After adjustment for age, gender, and other comorbid disorders, Cox's regression analysis showed that cirrhotic patients had a higher occurrence of NSA than non-cirrhotic patients(hazard ratio (HR) = 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.19-1.90; p = 0.001). The patients with complicated cirrhosis were more prone to have NSA than those with non-complicated cirrhosis (HR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.09-1.96, p = 0.011). This analysis demonstrates that cirrhotic patients have a higher risk of NSA, particularly those with complicated cirrhosis.

  3. Internet-based data inclusion in a population-based European collaborative follow-up study of inflammatory bowel disease patients: Description of methods used and analysis of factors influencing response rates

    PubMed Central

    Wolters, Frank L; van Zeijl, Gilbert; Sijbrandij, Jildou; Wessels, Frederik; O’Morain, Colm; Limonard, Charles; Russel, Maurice G; Stockbrügger, Reinhold W

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To describe an Internet-based data acquisition facility for a European 10-year clinical follow-up study project of a population-based cohort of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients and to investigate the influence of demographic and disease related patient characteristics on response rates. METHODS: Thirteen years ago, the European Collaborative study group of IBD (EC-IBD) initiated a population-based prospective inception cohort of 2 201 uniformly diagnosed IBD patients within 20 well-described geographical areas in 11 European countries and Israel. For the 10-year follow-up of this cohort, an electronic patient questionnaire (ePQ) and electronic physician per patient follow-up form (ePpPFU) were designed as two separate data collecting instruments and made available through an Internet-based website. Independent demographic and clinical determinants of ePQ participation were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: In 958 (316 CD and 642 UC) out of a total number of 1 505 (64%) available IBD patients, originating from 13 participating centers from nine different countries, both ePQ and ePpPFU were completed. Patients older than 40 years at ePQ completion (OR: 1.53 (95%CI: 1.14-2.05)) and those with active disease during the 3 mo previous to ePQ completion (OR: 3.32 (95%CI: 1.57-7.03)) were significantly more likely to respond. CONCLUSION: An Internet-based data acquisition tool appeared successful in sustaining a unique Western-European and Israelian multi-center 10-year clinical follow-up study project in patients afflicted with IBD. PMID:16437663

  4. Increased Risk of Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Patients With Osteoporosis: A Population-based, Propensity Score-matched, Longitudinal Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Mei-Chen; Weng, Shih-Feng; Shen, Yuan-Chi; Chou, Chien-Wen; Yang, Chwen-Yi; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Tien, Kai-Jen

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have reported an increased prevalence of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) in osteoporotic patients. However, the risk of SSNHL in this population remains unclear. This study investigated the risk of SSNHL in osteoporotic patients. Taiwan launched a single-payer National Health Insurance (NHI) program on March 1, 1995. NHI covers nearly all of Taiwan's residents. Using randomized representative sample of one million individuals from Taiwan's National Health Insurance claims database, we compared the data of 10,660 patients with newly diagnosed osteoporosis from 1998-2008 and with 31,980 patients without osteoporosis. All patients were tracked until SSNHL was diagnosed, death, or the end of 2011. Osteoporosis was identified based on a primary diagnosis of osteoporosis (ICD-9-CM code 7330) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Identified the diagnosis of osteoporosis and SSNHL by ICD-9CM code. The identification of patients with newly diagnosed SSNHL by ICD-9CM code. The incidence rates of SSNHL in the osteoporosis cohort and comparison group were 10.43 and 5.93 per 10,000 person years. Patients with osteoporosis were at 1.76 times the risk of developing SSNHL than patients without osteoporosis. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) for SSNHL was significantly greater in older (50-64 y and ≥ 65 y), and female patients, and borderline greater in hypertensive patients with osteoporosis than the controls, IRRs being 1.50, 2.33, 1.87, and 1.59. Patients with osteoporosis are at significantly greater risk of developing SSNHL.

  5. Incidence of Major Depressive Disorder: Variation by Age and Sex in Low-Income Individuals: A Population-Based 10-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Te; Chiang, Yi-Cheng; Huang, Jing-Yang; Tantoh, Disline M; Nfor, Oswald N; Lee, Jia-Fu; Chang, Cheng-Chen; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2016-04-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD), the most prevalent mental disorder is a global public health issue. The aim of this study was to assess the association between low income and major depressive disorder (MDD) by age and sex. The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan was used to retrieve data. A total of 1,743,948 participants were eligible for the study. Low-income individuals were identified from 2001 and 2003 (specifically, Group Insurance Applicants, ie, category"51" or "52") and followed from 2004 to 2010. MDD was identified using the ICD-9-CM 296.2 and 296.3 codes. Among non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates increased with age in both males and females, that is, 0.35, 0.93, 0.97, 1.40 per 10,000 person-months for males and 0.41, 1.60, 1.89, 1.95 per 10,000 person-months for females aged 0 to 17, 18 to 44, 45 to 64, and ≥65 years, respectively. Low-income females (18-44 years) and males (45-64 years) had the highest incidence of MDD, which was 3.90 and 3.04, respectively, per 10,000 person-months. Among low and non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates were higher in the females than males in all age groups. Males aged 45 to 64 and 0 to 17 years had highest hazard ratios (HR) of 2.789 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.937-4.014) and 2.446 (95% CI, 1.603-3.732), respectively. The highest HRs for females were 2.663 (95% CI, 1.878-3.775) and 2.219 (CI, 1.821-2.705) in the 0 to 17 and 18- to 44-year age groups. Low income was not found to serve as a risk factor for the development of MDD in males and females aged ≥65 years. Among the non-low-income males and females, the incidence rates of MDD were found to increase with age. Low income was found to serve as a significant risk factor for MDD only in individuals under age 65.

  6. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and risk for drug use disorder: a population-based follow-up and co-relative study

    PubMed Central

    Sundquist, J.; Ohlsson, H.; Sundquist, K.; Kendler, K. S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and drug use disorder (DUD) is well documented, it is unclear whether it is causal or results from familial confounding. Method In this study we included all 551164 individuals born in Sweden between 1991 and 1995 and used linked data from multiple nationwide registries to identify those with ADHD prior to age 15 years (1.71%). We used Cox proportional hazards models to investigate the future risk for DUD as a function of an ADHD registration and then compared the results from the entire population with the results from a co-relative design. Using the Swedish MultiGeneration Register, we identified all full-sibling, half-sibling and first-cousin pairs discordant for ADHD. Results In the population sample, ADHD had a substantially increased risk for future DUD with a hazard ratio (HR) of 3.34 after accounting for gender and parental education. Examining discordant cousin pairs, discordant half-siblings and discordant siblings, those with ADHD had HRs for DUD of 3.09, 2.10 and 2.38 respectively. Controlling for the number of ADHD registrations, ADHD patients with and without stimulant treatment were similarly associated with later DUD risk. Conclusions ADHD diagnosed before 15 years of age was strongly related to future risk for DUD. The magnitude of this association was modestly reduced in relative pairs discordant for ADHD, suggesting that the ADHD–DUD association is partly causal and partly a result of familial confounding. We found no evidence to suggest that this association resulted from stimulant treatment. PMID:25119068

  7. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and risk for drug use disorder: a population-based follow-up and co-relative study.

    PubMed

    Sundquist, J; Ohlsson, H; Sundquist, K; Kendler, K S

    2015-04-01

    Although the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and drug use disorder (DUD) is well documented, it is unclear whether it is causal or results from familial confounding. In this study we included all 551 164 individuals born in Sweden between 1991 and 1995 and used linked data from multiple nationwide registries to identify those with ADHD prior to age 15 years (1.71%). We used Cox proportional hazards models to investigate the future risk for DUD as a function of an ADHD registration and then compared the results from the entire population with the results from a co-relative design. Using the Swedish Multi-Generation Register, we identified all full-sibling, half-sibling and first-cousin pairs discordant for ADHD. In the population sample, ADHD had a substantially increased risk for future DUD with a hazard ratio (HR) of 3.34 after accounting for gender and parental education. Examining discordant cousin pairs, discordant half-siblings and discordant siblings, those with ADHD had HRs for DUD of 3.09, 2.10 and 2.38 respectively. Controlling for the number of ADHD registrations, ADHD patients with and without stimulant treatment were similarly associated with later DUD risk. ADHD diagnosed before 15 years of age was strongly related to future risk for DUD. The magnitude of this association was modestly reduced in relative pairs discordant for ADHD, suggesting that the ADHD-DUD association is partly causal and partly a result of familial confounding. We found no evidence to suggest that this association resulted from stimulant treatment.

  8. Risk of cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases: a nationwide population-based cohort study with 30 years of follow-up evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kappelman, Michael D; Farkas, Dora K; Long, Millie D; Erichsen, Rune; Sandler, Robert S; Sørensen, Henrik T; Baron, John A

    2014-02-01

    Data regarding the risk of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal cancers in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are needed to understand the clinical course of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) and their treatments. We performed a nationwide historical cohort study using Danish health care databases. We identified patients with a diagnosis of CD or UC, recorded from 1978 through 2010, and followed them up until the first occurrence of cancer, death, or emigration. We used standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) to compare cancer incidence in CD and UC patients with that expected in the general population. Excluding cancers diagnosed within 1 year of IBD diagnosis, 772 cases of invasive cancer occurred among 13,756 patients with CD (SIR, 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-1.4) and 2331 occurred among 35,152 patients with UC (SIR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.1). CD was associated weakly with gastrointestinal cancers (SIR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.4) and extraintestinal cancers (SIR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2-1.4), with the strongest associations for hematologic malignancies (SIR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.3), smoking-related cancers (SIR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3-1.8), and melanoma (SIR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-1.9). Associations between UC and gastrointestinal and extraintestinal cancers were weaker (SIR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.2; and SIR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.1, respectively). The relative risk of extraintestinal cancers among patients with IBD was relatively stable over time, although the risk of gastrointestinal cancers decreased. Patients with IBD, particularly CD, are at increased risk for gastrointestinal and extraintestinal malignancies. The relative risk of gastrointestinal malignancy has decreased since 1978, without a concomitant increase in the risk of nongastrointestinal malignancy. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Urinary arsenic profiles and the risks of cancer mortality: A population-based 20-year follow-up study in arseniasis-endemic areas in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Chi-Jung; Huang, Ya-Li; Huang, Yung-Kai; Wu, Meei-Maan; Chen, Shu-Yuan; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2013-04-15

    Few studies investigated the association between chronic arsenic exposure and the mortality of cancers by estimating individual urinary arsenic methylation profiles. Therefore, we compared with the general population in Taiwan to calculate the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in arseniasis-endemic area of Taiwan from 1996 to 2010 and evaluated the dose-response relationships between environmental arsenic exposure indices or urinary arsenic profiles and the mortality of cause-specific cancer. A cohort of 1563 residents was conducted and collected their urine sample and information regarding arsenic exposure from a questionnaire. All-cause death was identified using the National Death Registry of Taiwan. Urinary arsenic profiles were measured using high performance liquid chromatography–hydride generator–atomic absorption spectrometry. We used Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate the mortality risks. In results, 193 all-site cancer deaths, and 29, 71, 43 deaths respectively for liver, lung and bladder cancers were ascertained. The SMRs were significantly high in arseniasis-endemic areas for liver, lung, and bladder cancers. People with high urinary InAs% or low DMA% or low secondary methylation index (SMI) were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer after adjusting other risk factors. Even stopping exposure to arsenic from the artesian well water, the mortality rates of the residents were higher than general population. Finally, urinary InAs%, DMA% and SMI could be the potential biomarkers to predict the mortality risk of bladder cancer. -- Highlights: ► The SMRs were significantly high in arseniasis-endemic areas for liver, lung, and bladder cancers. ► People with high urinary InAs% were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer. ► People with low DMA% or low SMI were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer.

  10. The Effect of Renal Function Impairment on the Mortality of Cirrhotic Patients: A Nationwide Population-Based 3-Year Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Tsung-Hsing; Lay, Chorng-Jang; Tseng, Chih-Wei; Tsai, Chih-Chun; Tsai, Chen-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Renal function impairment (RFI) contributes to poor prognosis in cirrhotic patients. However, there have been no studies that seek to identify the effect of different types of RFI on the mortality of cirrhotic patients. We used the National Health Insurance Database, derived from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program, to identify 44365 cirrhotic patients between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2007. RFI was identified in 2832 cirrhotic patients, including 1075 with acute renal failure (ARF) (169 with hepatorenal syndrome, HRS; 906 with non-hepatorenal syndrome, NHRS), 705 with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and 1052 with end stage renal disease (ESRD). After Cox proportional hazard regression analysis adjusted by gender, age, and comorbid disorders, the 30-day, 30 to 90-day, 90-day to 1-year, and 1 to 3-year mortality hazard ratios (HR) compared to the non-RFI group were: (ARF) 5.19 (4.70–5.74), 3.23 (2.76–3.77), 1.51 (1.26–1.81), and 1.35 (1.13–1.61), respectively; (CKD) 2.70 (2.30–3.18), 2.03 (1.66–2.49), 1.60 (1.34–1.90), and 1.26 (1.06–1.49), respectively; and (ESRD) 1.42 (1.17–1.72), 1.62 (1.35–1.94), 1.90 (1.68–2.15), and 1.67 (1.48–1.89), respectively. Compared to NHRS, the 30-day, 30 to 90-day, 90-day to 1-year, and 1 to 3-year mortality HRs of HRS were 1.03 (0.80–1.32), 2.13 (1.46–3.11), 1.58 (0.90–2.75), and 2.51 (1.41–4.48), respectively, in cirrhotic patients with ARF. These results indicate the effects of CKD and ESRD on the mortality of cirrhotic patients are distributed equally in every survival stage, whereas the effect of ARF appears only in the early stage. Compared to NHRS, HRS contributes to a higher mortality risk at the late survival stage. PMID:27631098

  11. Association of physical job demands, smoking and alcohol abuse with subsequent premature mortality: a 9-year follow-up population-based study.

    PubMed

    Bourgkard, Eve; Wild, Pascal; Massin, Nicole; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Otero Sierra, Carmen; Fontana, Jean-Marc; Benamghar, Lahoucine; Mur, Jean-Marie; Ravaud, Jean-François; Guillemin, Francis; Chau, Nearkasen

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the relationships of physical job demands (PJD), smoking, and alcohol abuse, with premature mortality before age 70 (PM-70) among the working or inactive population. The sample included 4,268 subjects aged 15 or more randomly selected in north-eastern France. They completed a mailed questionnaire (birth date, sex, weight, height, job, PJD, smoking habit, alcohol abuse (Deta questionnaire)) in 1996 and were followed for mortality until 2004 (9 yr). PJD score was defined by the cumulative number of the following high job demands at work: hammer, vibrating platform, pneumatic tools, other vibrating hand tools, screwdriver, handling objects, awkward posture, tasks at heights, machine tools, pace, working on a production line, standing about and walking. The data were analyzed using the Poisson regression model. Those with PM-70 were 126 (3.81 per 1,000 person-years). The leading causes of death were cancers (46.4% in men, 57.1% in women), cardiovascular diseases (20.2% and 11.9%), suicide (9.5% and 7.1%), respiratory diseases (6.0% and 4.8%), and digestive diseases (2.4% and 4.8%). PJD3, smoker, and alcohol abuse had adjusted risk ratios of 1.71 (95% CI 1.02-2.88), 1.76 (1.08-2.88), and 2.07 (1.31-3.26) respectively for all-cause mortality. Manual workers had a risk ratio of 1.84 (1.00-3.37) compared to the higher socio-economic classes. The men had a two-fold higher mortality rate than the women; this difference became non-significant when controlling for job, PJD, smoker and alcohol abuse. For cancer mortality the factors PJD3, smoker, and alcohol abuse had adjusted risk ratios of 2.00 (1.00-3.99), 2.34 (1.19-4.63), and 2.22 (1.17-4.20), respectively. Health promotion efforts should be directed at structural measures of task redesign and they should also concern lifestyle.

  12. Triage of HR-HPV positive women with minor cytological abnormalities: a comparison of mRNA testing, HPV DNA testing, and repeat cytology using a 4-year follow-up of a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Persson, Maria; Elfström, K Miriam; Brismar Wendel, Sophia; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Andersson, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Expression of the viral E6/E7 oncogenes of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) is necessary for malignant conversion and maintenance in cervical tissue. In order to determine whether HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing more effectively predicts precancerous lesions and invasive cervical cancer than HR-HPV DNA testing, we aimed to compare triage using HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing by APTIMA HPV Assay (APTIMA) to HPV16 DNA testing, HPV16/18 DNA testing, and repeat cytology. Liquid-based (PreservCyt) cell samples were obtained from HR-HPV-positive women diagnosed with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) within the framework of the population-based cervical cancer screening program in Stockholm, Sweden. Samples were tested for HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA by APTIMA (Gene-Probe Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). Women were followed up for 4 years after the index cytology via medical and laboratory records, and the Stockholm Oncology Center. Nine of 25 (36%) women in the ASCUS group, and 64 of 180 (36%) women in the LSIL group developed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or worse during 4 years of follow-up. 162 (74%) women were APTIMA-positive, and APTIMA had the highest sensitivity to predict CIN2 or worse and CIN3 or worse in the ASCUS (77.8% and 100%) and LSIL (78.1 and 75.8%) groups, although specificity was insufficient (<50%). HPV16 DNA testing and repeat cytology were more specific than APTIMA. The results of this population-based study with comprehensive follow-up support the use of APTIMA as a triage test for women with ASCUS. More focused investigation is required for women with LSIL.

  13. Triage of HR-HPV Positive Women with Minor Cytological Abnormalities: A Comparison of mRNA Testing, HPV DNA Testing, and Repeat Cytology Using a 4-Year Follow-Up of a Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Maria; Elfström, K. Miriam; Brismar Wendel, Sophia; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Andersson, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Objective Expression of the viral E6/E7 oncogenes of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) is necessary for malignant conversion and maintenance in cervical tissue. In order to determine whether HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing more effectively predicts precancerous lesions and invasive cervical cancer than HR-HPV DNA testing, we aimed to compare triage using HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing by APTIMA HPV Assay (APTIMA) to HPV16 DNA testing, HPV16/18 DNA testing, and repeat cytology. Methods Liquid-based (PreservCyt) cell samples were obtained from HR-HPV-positive women diagnosed with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) within the framework of the population-based cervical cancer screening program in Stockholm, Sweden. Samples were tested for HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA by APTIMA (Gene-Probe Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). Women were followed up for 4 years after the index cytology via medical and laboratory records, and the Stockholm Oncology Center. Results Nine of 25 (36%) women in the ASCUS group, and 64 of 180 (36%) women in the LSIL group developed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or worse during 4 years of follow-up. 162 (74%) women were APTIMA-positive, and APTIMA had the highest sensitivity to predict CIN2 or worse and CIN3 or worse in the ASCUS (77.8% and 100%) and LSIL (78.1 and 75.8%) groups, although specificity was insufficient (<50%). HPV16 DNA testing and repeat cytology were more specific than APTIMA. Conclusion The results of this population-based study with comprehensive follow-up support the use of APTIMA as a triage test for women with ASCUS. More focused investigation is required for women with LSIL. PMID:24587193

  14. Personality, lifestyle, and risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer: follow-up of population based cohort

    PubMed Central

    Stürmer, Til; Hasselbach, Petra; Amelang, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    Objective To study the relation between measures of personality and risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer in a large cohort. Design Follow-up of population based cohort. Setting Heidelberg, Germany. Participants 5114 women and men aged 40-65 in 1992-5. Main outcome measures Psychological traits assessed by several standardised personality questionnaires in 1992-5, related to cause of death (to 2002-3) or reported incidence of cardiovascular diseases and cancer (validated by treating doctors). Relative risks (and 95% confidence intervals) for combined morbidity and mortality according to five important personality traits were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. Results During median follow-up of 8.5 years, 257 participants died and 72 were diagnosed with a heart attack, 62 with stroke, and 240 with cancer (morbidity and mortality combined). A high internal locus of control over disease was associated with a decreased risk of myocardial infarction (adjusted relative risk for an increase of 1 SD = 0.75; 95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.96). An increase of 1 SD in time urgency was associated with a decreased risk of cancer (adjusted relative risk 0.83; 0.73 to 0.95). Other major personality traits—anger control, psychoticism, and symptoms of depression—were not consistently associated with myocardial infarction, stroke, or cancer. Conclusion Internal locus of control over disease and time urgency seem to be associated with reduced risk for common chronic diseases, probably by affecting unmeasured health related behaviour. The other personality traits assessed had no major impact on cardiovascular disease and cancer. PMID:16687457

  15. Personality, lifestyle, and risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer: follow-up of population based cohort.

    PubMed

    Stürmer, Til; Hasselbach, Petra; Amelang, Manfred

    2006-06-10

    To study the relation between measures of personality and risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer in a large cohort. Follow-up of population based cohort. Heidelberg, Germany. 5114 women and men aged 40-65 in 1992-5. Psychological traits assessed by several standardised personality questionnaires in 1992-5, related to cause of death (to 2002-3) or reported incidence of cardiovascular diseases and cancer (validated by treating doctors). Relative risks (and 95% confidence intervals) for combined morbidity and mortality according to five important personality traits were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. During median follow-up of 8.5 years, 257 participants died and 72 were diagnosed with a heart attack, 62 with stroke, and 240 with cancer (morbidity and mortality combined). A high internal locus of control over disease was associated with a decreased risk of myocardial infarction (adjusted relative risk for an increase of 1 SD = 0.75; 95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.96). An increase of 1 SD in time urgency was associated with a decreased risk of cancer (adjusted relative risk 0.83; 0.73 to 0.95). Other major personality traits--anger control, psychoticism, and symptoms of depression--were not consistently associated with myocardial infarction, stroke, or cancer. Internal locus of control over disease and time urgency seem to be associated with reduced risk for common chronic diseases, probably by affecting unmeasured health related behaviour. The other personality traits assessed had no major impact on cardiovascular disease and cancer.

  16. A 10-year follow-up of a population-based study of people with multiple sclerosis in Stockholm, Sweden: changes in disability and the value of different factors in predicting disability and mortality.

    PubMed

    Chruzander, Charlotte; Johansson, Sverker; Gottberg, Kristina; Einarsson, Ulrika; Fredrikson, Sten; Holmqvist, Lotta Widén; Ytterberg, Charlotte

    2013-09-15

    Most people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) experience progressively worsening disability over a period of decades, thus further knowledge about the long-term changes in different areas of disability is essential. The aims of this study were to evaluate changes in disability over ten years in PwMS, and to explore the value of personal and disease-specific factors and depressive symptoms in predicting disability. A further aim was to explore the value of these factors as predictors of mortality. This study was based on a 10-year follow-up of a population-based study in Stockholm (n=166). Home visits were used to collect data on personal and disease-specific factors, walking ability, manual dexterity, cognitive function, mood, activities of daily living (ADL) and social/lifestyle activities. The proportion of the study population who had disability in cognition, mood and social/lifestyle activities remained stable, while the proportion with disability in walking, manual dexterity and ADL increased. Disease severity predicted an increase in all studied variables of disability except in depressive symptoms. Older age and depressive symptoms were associated with mortality. This study illustrates the importance of tailored interventions for PwMS and highlights the need for health-care professionals to consider the psychological aspects of the disease. Furthermore, our results indicate that the Expanded Disability Status Scale was a useful tool for predicting future disability. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Follow-up Cost Study. TEX-SIS FOLLOW-UP SC5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baugh, Ronald C.

    This report presents data on the costs of follow-up studies, based on 29 separate follow-up studies conducted by eight public community/junior colleges in Texas. The purpose of this study, conducted by Navarro College as a subcontractor of Project FOLLOW-UP, was to provide data and information regarding the cost of follow-up studies that would be…

  18. Who defaults from colposcopy? A multi-centre, population-based, prospective cohort study of predictors of non-attendance for follow-up among women with low-grade abnormal cervical cytology.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Linda; Cotton, Seonaidh; Thornton, Alison; Gray, Nicola; Cruickshank, Margaret; Whynes, David; Duncan, Ian; Hammond, Robert; Smart, Louise; Little, Julian

    2012-12-01

    The success of cervical screening relies on women with abnormal cervical cytology attending for follow-up by colposcopy and related procedures. Failure to attend for colposcopy, however, is a common problem in many countries. The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with non-attendance at an initial colposcopy examination among women with low-grade abnormal cervical cytology. A cohort study was conducted within one arm of a multi-centre population-based randomised controlled trial nested within the UK NHS Cervical Screening Programmes. The trial recruited women aged 20-59 years with recent low-grade cervical cytology; women randomised to immediate referral for colposcopy were included in the current analysis (n=2213). At trial recruitment, women completed a socio-demographic and lifestyle questionnaire; 1693 women in the colposcopy arm were also invited to complete a psychosocial questionnaire, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Women were sent up to two colposcopy appointments. A telephone number was provided to reschedule if necessary. Defaulters were defined as those who failed to attend after two appointments. Logistic regression methods were used to compute multivariate odds ratios (OR) to identify variables significantly associated with default. 148 women defaulted (6.7%, 95%CI 5.7-7.8%). In multivariate analysis, risk of default was significantly raised in those not in paid employment (OR=2.70, 95%CI 1.64-4.43) and current smokers (OR=1.62, 95%CI 1.12-2.34). Default risk deceased with increasing age and level of post-school education/training and was lower in women with children (OR=0.59, 95%CI 0.35-0.98). Among the sub-group invited to complete psychosocial questionnaires, women who were not worried about having cervical cancer were significantly more likely to default (multivariate OR=1.56, 95%CI 1.04-2.35). Anxiety and depression were not significantly associated with default. Women at highest risk of default from

  19. Iodinated Contrast Medium Exposure During Computed Tomography Increase the Risk of Subsequent Development of Thyroid Disorders in Patients Without Known Thyroid Disease: A Nationwide Population-Based, Propensity Score-Matched, Longitudinal Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ming-Shun; Chiu, Chien-Shan; Chen, Wen-Chi; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lin, Meng-Yu; Chang, Shih-Liang; Sheu, Meei-Ling; Hu, Sung-Yuan

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the association between iodinated contrast medium (ICM) exposure during computed tomography (CT) and the subsequent development of thyroid disorders in patients without known thyroid disease in Taiwan, an iodine-sufficient area. We conducted a population-based cohort study by using data from 1996 to 2012 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A total of 33,426 patients who underwent ICM-enhanced CT were included as the study cohort. To avoid selection bias, we used propensity score and matched for the index year (defined as the year of first ICM exposure) to retrieve 33,426 patients as the comparison cohort. No patients in the 2 cohorts had any known thyroid disease before the index year. Patients with a history of amiodarone treatment or coronary angiography and those with <1 year follow-up were excluded. Participants were followed until a new diagnosis of thyroid disorder or December 31, 2011. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards regression. An association was identified between ICM exposure and the subsequent development of thyroid disorders after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted HR = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.07-1.29; P = 0.001). Male patients and patients' ages ≥40 years in the ICM-exposure cohort had a higher adjusted HR for developing thyroid disorders than did those in the non-ICM-exposure cohort. Hypothyroidism had the highest adjusted HR (HR = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.06-1.78; P < 0.05) among all thyroid disorders and had a higher risk of development or detection during >0.5-year post-ICM exposure compared with that during ≤0.5-year post-ICM exposure (HR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.01-1.58; P < 0.05). Repeated ICM exposure increased the risk of thyroid disorders in patients who accepted >1 time of ICM per year on average compared with those who accepted ≤1 time per year on average (adjusted HR = 3.04; 95% CI: 2.47-3.73; P < 0

  20. Poor versus rich children with epilepsy have the same clinical course and remission rates but a less favorable social outcome: A population-based study with 25 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Camfield, Carol; Camfield, Peter; Smith, Bruce

    2016-11-01

    To explore the influence of several estimates of family socioeconomic status on the long-term clinical course and social outcomes of children with epilepsy. The Nova Scotia childhood epilepsy cohort is population based and includes all children in this Canadian province who developed epilepsy between 1977 and 1985. Eligible patients had ≥10 years of follow-up. Children with childhood absence epilepsy were excluded. Total family income at seizure onset was assessed at seizure onset and classified as "poor" (first quintile), "adequate" (second to third quintiles), and "well-off" (fourth to fifth quintiles). We also assessed parental education and home ownership. Social outcome was assessed in those with normal intelligence who were ≥18 years of age at the end of follow-up using a semistructured interview that explored eight adverse effects. Of 584 patients, 421 (72%) were included. Average follow-up was 26 ± 5.6 years. Overall 137 families (33%) had "poor" income, 159 (38%) had "adequate income," and 125 (30%) were "well-off." Terminal remission of epilepsy occurred in 65% of the poor, 61% of the adequate, and 61% of the well-off (p = ns). Intractable epilepsy, status epilepticus, number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) used, and the number of generalized tonic-clonic or focal with secondary generalization seizures through the clinical course was the same in all groups. Home ownership did not predict remission. Neither paternal nor maternal education was associated with remission. Poor children had significantly more adverse social outcomes including failure to graduate from high school, unemployment, personal poverty, inadvertent pregnancy, and psychiatric diagnoses. In Nova Scotia with universal health care, coming from a poor or more affluent family does not seem to affect the clinical course or long-term seizure outcome of childhood epilepsy. Unfortunately children from poor families are less likely to have a good social outcome. Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  1. Effectiveness of the population-based Check your health preventive programme conducted in primary care with 4 years follow-up [the CORE trial]: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Støvring, Henrik; Sandbaek, Annelli

    2014-08-29

    The periodic health check-up has been a fundamental part of routine medical practice for decades, despite a lack of consensus regarding its value in health promotion and disease prevention. A large-scale Danish population-based preventive programme 'Check your health' was developed based on available evidence of screening and successive accepted treatment, prevention for diseases and health promotion, and is closely aligned with the current health care system.The objective of the 'Check your health' [CORE] trial is to investigate effectiveness on health outcomes of a preventive health check offered at a population-level to all individuals aged 30-49 years, and to establish the cost-effectiveness. The trial will be conducted as a pragmatic household-cluster randomised controlled trial involving 10,505 individuals. All individuals within a well-defined geographical area in the Central Denmark Region, Denmark (DK) were randomised to be offered a preventive health check (Intervention group, n = 5250) or to maintain routine access to healthcare until a delayed intervention (Comparison group, n = 5255). The programme consists of a health examination which yields an individual risk profile, and according to this participants are assigned to one of the following interventions: (a) referral to a health promoting consultation in general practice, (b) behavioural programmes at the local Health Centre, or (c) no need for follow-up.The primary outcomes at 4 years follow-up are: ten-year-risk of fatal cardiovascular event (Heart-SCORE model), physical activity level (self-report and cardiorespiratory fitness), quality of life (SF12), sick leave and labour market attachment. Cost-effectiveness will be evaluated according to life years gained, direct costs and total health costs. Intention to treat analysis will be performed. Results from the largest Danish health check programme conducted within the current healthcare system, spanning the sectors which share responsibility for

  2. The surgical trends and time-frame comparison of primary surgery for stress urinary incontinence, 2006-2010 vs 1997-2005: a population-based nation-wide follow-up descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Jen; Tong, Yat-Ching; Hsiao, Sheng-Mou; Liang, Ching-Chung; Liang, So-Jung; Weng, Shih-Feng; Wu, Ming-Ping

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of our study was to describe the surgical trends for female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) during 2006-2010, and a time-frame comparison with 1997-2005, based upon the National Health Insurance (NHI) claims data in Taiwan. Women who underwent various primary surgeries for SUI during 2006-2010 were identified, with a total of 15,099 inpatients. The variables included surgical types, patient age, surgeon age and gender, specialty, and hospital accreditation levels. Chi-squared tests and SAS version 9.3.1 were used for statistical analysis. During the follow-up study, midurethral sling (MUS) application increased significantly from 53.09 % in 2006 to 78.74 % in 2010. It was associated concomitantly with a decrease in retropubic urethropexy (RPU) from 29.68 % to 12.99 %, and pubovaginal sling treatment (PVS) from 9.33 % to 3.46 %. MUS was most commonly used among all patients' and surgeons' age groups, and different accreditation hospital levels. MUS was more commonly used by gynecologists (71.38 %) than urologists (57.91 %); while PVS and periurethral injection were more commonly performed by urologists than gynecologists. Similar surgical trends were found during time-frame comparison, 2006-2010 vs 1997-2005. SUI surgeries increased in patients aged ≥60, surgeons aged ≥ 50, and in regional hospitals. This follow-up study depicts the increase in popularity of MUS and offers evidence of surgical trends and a paradigm shift for female SUI surgery. More older women were willing to seek healthcare and undergo surgery. The surgical skills and knowledge spread from medical centers into regional hospitals. The time-frame shift may have a profound impact on patients, as well as the healthcare providers.

  3. Neonatal follow-up programs and follow-up studies: Historical and current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Sauve, Reg; Lee, Shoo K

    2006-01-01

    The present report reviews some highlights in the history of neonatal intensive care and neonatal follow-up programs, particularly developments and reports that were based on experiences in Canada. Early outcomes reported from ‘preemie baby units’ were distressing, but attention has consistently been paid to preterm infant outcomes, even from the early days of neonatal intensive care units. Most current follow-up programs have goals related to ‘audit’ functions, education and clinical roles, but existing literature related to these functions is limited. Several reports have provided guidance in terms of neonatal follow-up research issues, and these strengthen the place of follow-up studies in outcomes research. PMID:19030284

  4. Obesity, physically demanding work and traumatic knee injury are major risk factors for knee osteoarthritis--a population-based study with a follow-up of 22 years.

    PubMed

    Toivanen, Arto T; Heliövaara, Markku; Impivaara, Olli; Arokoski, Jari P A; Knekt, Paul; Lauren, Hanna; Kröger, Heikki

    2010-02-01

    Several studies have shown that knee OA is associated with obesity, physical stress at work, traumatic knee injuries, heredity and female gender. However, the body of such evidence comes from cross-sectional or case-control studies, and from only a few follow-up studies, mostly of short duration. Based on the nationwide Mini-Finland Health Survey, we analysed the potential risk factors for prediction of incident knee OA in the long term. Focused on major health problems, the survey was carried out in 1978-80 in a sample of 8000 subjects, representative of the Finnish population aged > or =30 years. Altogether 823 subjects free from knee OA at the baseline were re-examined in 2000-01, and after the intervening 22 years 94 new cases of knee OA were found. Knee OA was diagnosed on both occasions by physicians using information on disease histories, symptoms and standardized clinical examinations. The risk of developing knee OA was strongly associated with BMI (kg/m(2)); adjusted for age and gender and other covariates, and compared with the reference category (BMI < 25.0); the relative odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs were 1.7 (95% CI 1.0, 2.8) and 7.0 (95% CI 3.5, 14.10) for subjects with BMIs 25.0-29.9 and > or =30.0, respectively. Similarly, the adjusted OR for the heaviest category of physical stress at work was 18.3 (95% CI 4.2, 79.4) compared with the lightest category, and 5.1 (95% CI 1.4, 19.0) for permanent complaints due to past knee injury. This prospective study confirms the roles of obesity, heavy work load and knee injury in the aetiology of knee OA.

  5. HPV DNA testing improves CIN2+ risk stratification and detection of CIN2+ in delayed triage of ASCUS and LSIL. A population-based follow-up study from Western Norway.

    PubMed

    Budal, Elisabeth B; Haugland, Hans K; Skar, Robert; Maehle, Bjørn O; Bjørge, Tone; Vintermyr, Olav K

    2014-02-01

    In Norway, Pap smears with atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) are triaged after 6 months. The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of implementing human papillomavirus (HPV) test (2005) in delayed triage of ASCUS and LSIL in a cohort of women from Western Norway. After a survey of 119,469 cervical Pap smears during 2005-2007, a total of 1055 women with an index ASCUS or LSIL were included in the study and followed up for 3-6 years with respect to progression into cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+). Overall sensitivity for detection of CIN2+ with HPV testing and cytology was 96% and 72%, respectively. The sensitivity for detection of CIN2+ was not affected by age, but the specificity of the HPV test increased with age. Thus, for the age groups <34 years, 34-50 years, and >50 years, the specificity of a positive HPV test to detect CIN2+ was 47%, 71%, and 82%, respectively. Positive predictive values for CIN2+ in women with positive cytology, positive HPV test, negative cytology, negative HPV test, or negative HPV and cytology tests were 52%, 41%, 8%, 1.5%, and 0.4%, respectively. HPV testing resulted in a net 22% increased detection of CIN2+. Fifty-six percent of CIN2+ was detected at an earlier time point with HPV testing in triage. Implementation of HPV testing in delayed triage of ASCUS and LSIL improved the stratification of CIN2+ risk and increased CIN2+ detection and at an earlier time point than with triage by cytology alone. © 2013 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. HPV DNA testing improves CIN2+ risk stratification and detection of CIN2+ in delayed triage of ASCUS and LSIL. A population-based follow-up study from Western Norway

    PubMed Central

    Budal, Elisabeth B; Haugland, Hans K; Skar, Robert; Mæhle, Bjørn O; Bjørge, Tone; Vintermyr, Olav K

    2014-01-01

    In Norway, Pap smears with atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) are triaged after 6 months. The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of implementing human papillomavirus (HPV) test (2005) in delayed triage of ASCUS and LSIL in a cohort of women from Western Norway. After a survey of 119,469 cervical Pap smears during 2005–2007, a total of 1055 women with an index ASCUS or LSIL were included in the study and followed up for 3–6 years with respect to progression into cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+). Overall sensitivity for detection of CIN2+ with HPV testing and cytology was 96% and 72%, respectively. The sensitivity for detection of CIN2+ was not affected by age, but the specificity of the HPV test increased with age. Thus, for the age groups <34 years, 34–50 years, and >50 years, the specificity of a positive HPV test to detect CIN2+ was 47%, 71%, and 82%, respectively. Positive predictive values for CIN2+ in women with positive cytology, positive HPV test, negative cytology, negative HPV test, or negative HPV and cytology tests were 52%, 41%, 8%, 1.5%, and 0.4%, respectively. HPV testing resulted in a net 22% increased detection of CIN2+. Fifty-six percent of CIN2+ was detected at an earlier time point with HPV testing in triage. Implementation of HPV testing in delayed triage of ASCUS and LSIL improved the stratification of CIN2+ risk and increased CIN2+ detection and at an earlier time point than with triage by cytology alone. PMID:24403090

  7. Lipid measures for prediction of incident cardiovascular disease in diabetic and non-diabetic adults: results of the 8.6 years follow-up of a population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Diabetes is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD).The relative role of various lipid measures in determining CVD risk in diabetic patients is still a subject of debate. We aimed to compare performance of different lipid measures as predictors of CVD using discrimination and fitting characteristics in individuals with and without diabetes mellitus from a Middle East Caucasian population. Methods The study population consisted of 1021 diabetic (men = 413, women = 608) and 5310 non-diabetic (men = 2317, women = 2993) subjects, aged ≥ 30 years, free of CVD at baseline. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for CVD were calculated for a 1 standard deviation (SD) change in total cholesterol (TC), log-transformed triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), non-HDL-C, TC/HDL-C and log-transformed TG/HDL-C using Cox proportional regression analysis. Incident CVD was ascertained over a median of 8.6 years of follow-up. Results A total of 189 (men = 91, women = 98) and 263(men = 169, women = 94) CVD events occurred, in diabetic and non-diabetic population, respectively. The risk factor adjusted HRs to predict CVD, except for HDL-C, TG and TG/HDL-C, were significant for all lipid measures in diabetic males and were 1.39, 1.45, 1.36 and 1.16 for TC, LDL-C, non- HDL-C and TC/HDL-C respectively. In diabetic women, using multivariate analysis, only TC/HDL-C had significant risk [adjusted HR1.31(1.10-1.57)].Among non-diabetic men, all lipid measures, except for TG, were independent predictors for CVD however; a 1 SD increase in HDL-C significantly decreased the risk of CVD [adjusted HR 0.83(0.70-0.97)].In non-diabetic women, TC, LDL-C, non-HDL-C and TG were independent predictors. There was no difference in the discriminatory power of different lipid measures to predict incident CVD in the risk factor adjusted models, in either sex of diabetic and non-diabetic population. Conclusion Our data

  8. Breast Cancer and the Environment on Long Island Follow-up Study

    Cancer.gov

    A follow-up study on women with breast cancer who participated in the parent population-based case-control study of Long Island women to determine whether environmental and other lifestyle factors influence breast cancer survival.

  9. Years of life lost due to lower extremity injury in association with dementia, and care need: a 6-year follow-up population-based study using a multi-state approach among German elderly.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Putter, Hein; Doblhammer, Gabriele

    2016-01-12

    Dementia and care need are challenging aging populations worldwide. Lower extremity injury (LEI) in the elderly makes matters worse. Using a multi-state approach, we express the effect of LEI on dementia, care need, and mortality in terms of remaining life expectancy at age 75 (rLE) and years of life lost (YLL). A population-based random sample of beneficiaries aged 75-95 years was drawn from the largest public health insurer in Germany in 2004 and followed until 2010 (N 62,103; Mean Age ± SD 81.5 ± 4.8 years; Female 71.2%). We defined a five-state model (Healthy, Dementia, Care, Dementia & Care, Dead), and calculated transition-specific hazard ratios of LEI using Cox regression. The transition probabilities as well as the YLL due to LEI were estimated. LEI significantly increased the risk for each transition, with a maximum risk for the transition from Healthy to Care (HR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.63-1.77) and a minimum risk for the transition from Care to Dead (HR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.10-1.22). If the elderly had LEI-history, their age-specific mortality was generally higher and their probabilities of transient states peaked at younger ages. At age 75, initially dementia-free and care-independent elderly experiencing LEI lost about 2 years of life, of which more than 90% were life years free of dementia or care need. Dementia patients lost about one and a half year, more than 60% were free of long-term care need. LEI not only casts a large health burden on care need, but is also associated with cognitive decline and shortened rLE. LEI plus dementia extend the relative life time in need of care, despite generally shortening rLE. Using the composite measure YLL may help to better convey these results to the elderly, families, and health professionals. This may strengthen preventive measures as well as improve timely and rehabilitative treatment of LEI, not only in cognitive and physically intact elderly.

  10. Graduate Follow-Up Studies: How Useful Are They?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smedley, Rande H.; Olson, George H.

    Follow-up surveys may fall prey to several sources of bias and error, among them lack of control over independent variables, lack of item validity and reliability, sampling biases, and observation bias. Two follow-up studies have been dissected to expose inherent limitations: the Texas Education Product Study (TEPS) and Project TALENT. The…

  11. Poor sleep in relation to natural menopause: a population-based 14-year follow-up of midlife women.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Ellen W; Sammel, Mary D; Gross, Stephanie A; Pien, Grace W

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to estimate the prevalence and predictors of moderate/severe poor sleep in relation to the final menstrual period (FMP) in midlife women. Annual assessments were conducted in a population-based cohort of 255 women. All were premenopausal at cohort enrollment and reached natural menopause during the 16-year follow-up. The outcome measure was severity of poor sleep, as reported by participants in annual interviews for 16 years and as evaluated in relation to the FMP. The annual prevalence of moderate/severe poor sleep largely ranged from about 28% to 35%, with no significant differences in any year relative to the FMP for the sample overall. When sleep status was stratified at premenopausal baseline, premenopausal sleep status strongly predicted poor sleep around the FMP. Women with moderate/severe poor sleep in premenopause were approximately 3.5 times more likely to have moderate/severe poor sleep around menopause than those with no poor sleep at baseline in adjusted analysis (odds ratio, 3.58; 95% CI, 2.50-5.11; P < 0.0001), whereas mild poor sleepers in premenopause were approximately 1.5 times more likely to have moderate/severe poor sleep around menopause (odds ratio, 1.57; 95% CI, 0.99-2.47; P = 0.053). There was no significant association between poor sleep and time relative to the FMP among women who had no poor sleep at premenopausal baseline. Hot flashes were significantly associated with poor sleep (odds ratio, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.44-2.21; P < 0.0001 in adjusted analysis) but had no interaction with baseline sleep severity (interaction P = 0.25), indicating that hot flashes contributed to poor sleep regardless of baseline sleep status. Findings show a high prevalence of moderate/severe poor sleep in midlife women, with only a small "at-risk" subgroup having a significant increase in poor sleep in relation to the FMP. Sleep status at premenopausal baseline and concurrent hot flashes strongly and consistently predict poor sleep in the menopausal

  12. The transitioning from trials to extended follow-up studies

    PubMed Central

    Drye, Lea T.; Casper, Anne S.; Sternberg, Alice L.; Holbrook, Janet T.; Jenkins, Gabrielle; Meinert, Curtis L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Investigators may elect to extend follow-up of participants enrolled in a randomized clinical trial after the trial comes to its planned end. The additional follow-up may be initiated to learn about longer term effects of treatments including adverse events, costs related to treatment, or for reasons unrelated to treatment such as to observe the natural course of the disease using the established cohort from the trial. Purpose We examine transitioning from trials to extended follow-up studies when the goal of additional follow-up is to observe longer term treatment effects. Methods We conducted a literature search in selected journals from 2000–2012 to identify trials that extended follow-up for the purpose of studying longer term treatment effects and extracted information on the operational and logistical issues in the transition. We also draw experience from three trials coordinated by the Johns Hopkins Coordinating Centers that made transitions to extended followup: the Alzheimer’s Disease Anti-inflammatory Prevention Trial (ADAPT); Multicenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment (MUST) trial; and Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP). Results Transitions are not uncommon in multicenter clinical trials, even in trials that continued to the planned end of the trial. Transitioning usually necessitates new participant consents. If study infrastructure is not maintained during the transition, participants will be lost and re-establishing the staff and facilities will be costly. Merging data from the trial and follow-up study can be complicated by changes in data collection measures and schedules. Limitations Our discussion and recommendations are limited to issues that we have experienced in transitions from trials to follow-up studies. Discussion We discuss issues such as maintaining funding, IRB and consent requirements, contacting participants, and combining data from the trial and follow-up phases. We conclude with a list of recommendations to

  13. A Follow-up Study of Secretarial Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gell, Robert L.; Bleil, David F.

    To determine how effectively the Secretarial Studies Department's program was meeting the needs of its students, a follow-up study was conducted of former Montgomery Community College Secretarial Studies students. The survey sought to determine, in particular, if the students had secured employment that was related to their course work at the…

  14. Acromegalic patients lost to follow-up: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kasuki, Leandro; Marques, Nelma Verônica; Nuez, Maria José Braga La; Leal, Vera Lucia Gomes; Chinen, Renata N; Gadelha, Mônica R

    2013-06-01

    Approximately 50 % of all acromegalic patients will require lifelong medical treatment to normalize mortality rates and reduce morbidity. Thus, adherence to therapy is essential to achieve treatment goals. To date, no study has evaluated the frequency and reasons for loss to follow-up in the acromegalic population. The current study aimed at evaluating the frequency of acromegalic patient loss to follow-up in three reference centers and the reasons responsible for their low compliance with treatment. All of the files for the acromegalic patients in the three centers were reviewed. Those patients, who had not followed up with the hospital for more than a year, were contacted via phone and/or mail and invited to participate. Patients who agreed to participate were interviewed, and blood samples were collected. A total of 239 files were reviewed; from these 42 patients (17.6 %) were identified who were lost to follow-up. It was possible to contact 27 of these patients, 10 of whom did not attend the appointments for more than one time and 17 of whom agreed to participate in the study. Fifteen of these 17 patients had active disease (88.2 %), and all of the patients restarted treatment in the original centers. The main reason for loss to follow-up was an absence of symptoms. High-quality follow-up is important in acromegaly to successfully achieve the aims of the treatment. An active search for patients may allow the resumption of treatment in a significant proportion of these cases, contributing to reduced morbidity and mortality in this patient population.

  15. Follow-Up Study of 1994 Dental Hygiene Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Marianne; Lucas, John A.

    In an effort to evaluate the effectiveness of its dental hygiene program, William Rainey Harper College (WRHC), in Illinois, conducted a follow-up study of program graduates from 1994. Surveys were mailed to all 30 1994 dental hygiene associate degree graduates, receiving responses from 77% (n=23). Study findings included the following: (1) all…

  16. Follow-up Studies at Regional State Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohut, Sylvester, Jr.

    At regional state universities, teacher education is usually a university-wide endeavor. The majority of American public school teachers are prepared at regional state universities. This paper describes a successful, low-cost follow-up study model at a regional state university, Kutztown University (Pennsylvania) Since 1952, the university has…

  17. Internet of things and bariatric surgery follow-up: Comparative study of standard and IoT follow-up.

    PubMed

    Vilallonga, Ramon; Lecube, Albert; Fort, José Manuel; Boleko, Maria Angeles; Hidalgo, Marta; Armengol, Manel

    2013-09-01

    Follow-up of obese patient is difficult. There is no literature related to patient follow-up that incorporates the concept of Internet of Things (IoT), use of WiFi, Internet, or portable devices for this purpose. This prospective observational study commenced in June 2011. Patients were prospectively offered to participate in the IoT study group, in which they received a WiFi scale (Withing®, Paris) that provides instant WiFi data to the patient and surgeon. Other patients were admitted to the standard follow-up group at the outpatient clinic. A total of 33 patients were included in our study (ten in the IoT group). Twelve patients did not have WiFi at home, ten lacked of computer knowledge, and seven preferred standard for follow-up. All patients underwent different surgical procedures. There were no complications. Excess weight loss (EWL) was similar in both groups. More than 90% of patients were satisfied. In the IoT group, patients considered it valuable in saving time, and considered seeing their evolution graphics extremely motivating. IoT technology can monitor medical parameters remotely and collect data. A WiFi scale can facilitate preoperative and follow-up. Standard follow-up in a classical outpatient clinic setting with the surgeon was preferred globally.

  18. Ute Unit: Study Guide and Follow Up Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Conejos School District, Capulin, CO.

    The study guide and follow-up activities were designed primarily to give students a feeling of Ute life in the San Luis Valley in Colorado. The unit begins with six Southern Ute stories about the wolf and coyote, the race between the skunk and the coyote, the frog and the eagle, why the frog croaks, the bear (Que Ye Qat), and the two Indian…

  19. Elaboration of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis–Results from a Population-Based 6-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Matthias; Jekauc, Darko; Worth, Annette; Woll, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to contribute to the elaboration of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis framework by testing eight hypotheses addressing the direct impact of gross motor coordination problems in elementary-school on selected physical, behavioral and psychosocial outcomes in adolescence. Results are based on a longitudinal sample of 940 participants who were (i) recruited as part of a population-based representative survey on health, physical fitness and physical activity in childhood and adolescence, (ii) assessed twice within 6 years, between the ages of 6 and 10 years old as well as between the ages of 12 and 16 years old (Response Rate: 55.9%) and (iii) classified as having gross motor coordination problems (N = 115) or having no gross motor coordination problems (N = 825) at baseline. Motor tests from the Körperkoordinationstest, measures of weight and height, a validated physical activity questionnaire as well as the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire were conducted. Data were analyzed by use of binary logistic regressions. Results indicated that elementary-school children with gross motor coordination problems show a higher risk of persistent gross motor coordination problems (OR = 7.99, p < 0.001), avoiding organized physical activities (OR = 1.53, p < 0.05), an elevated body mass (OR = 1.78, p < 0.05), bonding with sedentary peers (OR = 1.84, p < 0.01) as well as emotional (OR = 1.73, p < 0.05) and conduct (OR = 1.79, p < 0.05) problems in adolescence in comparison to elementary-school children without gross motor coordination problems. However, elementary-school children with gross motor coordination problems did not show a significantly higher risk of peer problems (OR = 1.35, p = 0.164) or diminished prosocial behavior (OR = 1.90, p = 0.168) in adolescence, respectively in comparison to elementary-school children without gross motor coordination problems. This study is the first to provide population-based longitudinal data ranging from

  20. A follow-up study of attempted railway suicides.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, I; Arthur, A J; Farmer, R D

    1994-02-01

    This paper reports the subsequent mortality of 94 persons who attempted suicide by jumping in front of London Underground trains between 1977 and 1979. The follow-up period was 10 yr. Despite the apparent seriousness of the method, completion of suicide was not found to be higher than in previous studies of attempted suicide by other methods. By the end of the follow-up period 18 persons had died, nine of natural causes. Coroners' inquests were held for the unnatural deaths. Seven verdicts of suicide and two of accidental death were recorded. Of the nine unnatural deaths four were from multiple injuries, three from drowning, one from asphyxia and one from acute narcotic poisoning. All four multiple injury deaths were women, three of these were from repeated incidents involving London Underground trains. The time interval between the index attempt and eventual death for the suicide/accident group ranged from 1 day to 43 months. For ethical reasons it was not possible to follow-up attempted suicides who were presumed to have remained alive.

  1. Results and implications of the INCAP follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Martorell, R

    1995-04-01

    This article is a critical synthesis of 12 papers included in this supplement. The set deals with the short- and long-term effects of improving nutrition in Guatemalan villages characterized by deficient diets, high rates of infection and pronounced growth retardation in the first 3 y of life. The data reviewed come from two studies carried out over two decades: the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP) longitudinal study (1966-1977) and its follow-up (1988-1989). The longitudinal study included a nutrition intervention that improved the energy and nutrient intakes of women and preschool children. Its effects included improved birthweights, reduced infant mortality rates and improved growth rates in children < 3 y of age. Growth rates from 3 to 7 y of age, similar to those of well-nourished children, were not affected by the intervention. The follow-up study was conducted when the subjects were 11-27 y old. Among the long-term effects found were greater stature and fat-free mass, particularly in females, improved work capacity in males and enhanced intellectual performance in both genders. The nutrition intervention did not, on the other hand, accelerate maturation during adolescence, as measured by skeletal age or age at menarche. It is concluded that improved nutrition in early childhood has important long-term effects in the adolescent and adult.

  2. Wartenberg's migrant sensory neuritis: a prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Stork, Abraham C J; van der Meulen, Marjon F G; van der Pol, W-Ludo; Vrancken, Alexander F J E; Franssen, Hessel; Notermans, Nicolette C

    2010-08-01

    Migrant sensory neuropathy (Wartenberg's migrant sensory neuritis) is characterized by sudden numbness in the distribution of one or multiple cutaneous nerves. To study disease course and outcome, we prospectively followed 12 patients who presented to our tertiary referral neuromuscular outpatient clinic between January 2003 and January 2004. Medical history, neurological, laboratory and electrophysiological examinations were obtained from all patients. All patients were reviewed a second time in 2007, and five had a follow-up electrophysiological examination. At the first visit, 50% described an episode of stretching preceding the sensory complaints. All but three described pain in the affected area before or concomitant with sensory loss. At clinical examination a median of six skin areas were affected, and in 75% this could be confirmed by nerve conduction studies in at least one nerve. Forty-two percent had involvement of the trigeminal nerve. After a mean disease duration of 7.5 years, three patients reported a complete disappearance of sensory complaints and five that the pain had disappeared, but numbness remained. Three patients still had both painful and numb sensory deficits. One patient developed a distal symmetric sensory polyneuropathy. In conclusion, Wartenberg's sensory neuritis is a distinct, exclusively sensory, neuropathy, marked by pain preceding numbness in affected nerves. An episode of stretching preceding pain is not necessary for the diagnosis. Wartenberg's sensory neuritis often retains its spotty, exclusively sensory characteristics after long term follow-up.

  3. Long thoracic nerve palsy: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Goodman, C E; Kenrick, M M; Blum, M V

    1975-08-01

    Twelve patients who had previously been treated for palsy of the long thoracic nerve of Bell and resultant serratus anterior paralysis were examined in a follow-up study designed to determine their extent of recovery and/or residual disability. The patients' histories were reviewed, following which they were recalled for updating of the history and reexamination. It was found that those patients whose lesions were due to acute trauma had only partial or no recovery of serratus function, while those with infectious, toxic, allergic or idiopathic etiologies had partial or complete recovery. The occurrence of a prolonged interval between onset of symptoms and institution of therapy was found to adversely affect prognosis. Among those patients with no recovery of serratus anterior function, some were able to maintain relatively good active motion in the affected shoulder by substituting with the trapezius.

  4. Hydrotherapy after total knee arthroplasty. A follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Giaquinto, S; Ciotola, E; Dall'Armi, V; Margutti, F

    2010-01-01

    The study evaluated the subjective functional outcome following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in participants who underwent hydrotherapy (HT) six months after discharge from a rehabilitation unit. A total of 70 subjects, 12 of which were lost at follow-up, were randomly assigned to either a conventional gym treatment (N=30) or HT (N=28). A prospective design was performed. Participants were interviewed with Western-Ontario McMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) at admission, at discharge and six months later. Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests were applied for statistical analysis. Both groups improved. The WOMAC subscales, namely pain, stiffness and function, were all positively affected. Statistical analysis indicates that scores on all subscales were significantly lower for the HT group. The benefits gained by the time of discharge were still found after six months. HT is recommended after TKA in a geriatric population. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hallucinations in Parkinson's disease: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    de Maindreville, Anne Doé; Fénelon, Gilles; Mahieux, Florence

    2005-02-01

    To study prevalence of hallucinations in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) during a 1-year period, and identify factors predictive of the onset of hallucinations in patients who were hallucination-free at baseline, 141 unselected outpatients with PD were evaluated prospectively for a set of demographic, clinical, and therapeutic variables and the presence of hallucinations during the previous 3 months. Patient groups were compared with nonparametric tests, and logistic regression was applied to significant data. Follow-up data were available for 127 patients. The hallucination prevalence rates (%) at the first and second evaluation were, respectively, 41.7 and 49.6 for hallucinations of all types (NS), 29.1 and 40.2 for minor hallucinations (i.e., presence or passage hallucinations, and illusions) (P = 0.02), 22.8 and 21.2 for formed visual hallucinations (NS), and 8.7 and 8.7 for auditory hallucinations (NS). Hallucinations rarely started or ceased during the study. The most labile forms were minor hallucinations, which developed in 20% of patients and ceased in 9%. During follow-up, 15% of patients started to hallucinate. Three factors, all present at the first evaluation, independently predicted the onset of hallucinations in patients previously free of hallucinations at baseline (odds ratio; 95% confidence interval): severe sleep disturbances (14.3; 2.5-80.9), ocular disorders (9.1; 1.6-52.0), and a high axial motor score (5.7; 1.2-27.4). Hallucinations have a chronic course in most parkinsonian patients. Factors predicting the onset of hallucinations point to a role of extranigral brainstem involvement and a nonspecific, facilitating role of ocular disorders. Copyright 2004 Movement Disorder Society.

  6. Trajectories of Nutritional Risk: The Manitoba Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Lengyel, C O; Jiang, D; Tate, R B

    2017-01-01

    To identify patterns of nutritional risk among older men over a four-year period and to project their survival rates over the next two and a half years. A prospective longitudinal study. Canada. Three hundred and thirty-six male survivors of the Manitoba Follow-up Study (MFUS) cohort with an average age of 90 years in 2011. Four years of nutritional risk SCREEN II scores (five waves) from the male survivors of the MFUS cohort. The semi-parametric group-based trajectory approach and survival analysis were used to investigate the trajectories of nutritional risk. Of the participants, 30% lived alone. Five distinct developmental trajectory groups for nutritional risk score were identified. Significant statistical differences were found among the five trajectory groups for SF-36 mental health (p=.02), SF-36 physical health (p=<.001), perception of aging successfully (p=.04) and living alone (p=<.001). Among the five groups, the most pairwise differences were found in appetite, intake of meat and alternatives, and vegetables and fruit, weight change, skipping meals and eating with others. Men in the poorest nutritional risk trajectory group were two times more likely to die within a 2 1/2 year period compared to men in the best nutritional risk trajectory group (hazard rate = 2.33, p=.07). Distinct nutritional risk trajectories were found for older men over a four year period. Poor nutritional risk trajectories are associated with higher risk of mortality for very old men over a short period of time. Timely nutritional assessments by health professionals are needed to identify older men at nutritional risk. Subsequent nutrition education and follow-up may be important in preventing further decline.

  7. Detailed Follow-up Study of Pediatric Orofacial Granulomatosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Haaramo, Anu; Alapulli, Heikki; Aine, Liisa; Saarnisto, Ulla; Tuokkola, Jetta; Ruuska, Tarja; Sipponen, Taina; Pitkäranta, Anne; Kolho, Kaija-Leena

    2017-10-01

    Orofacial granulomatosis (OFG) is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the orofacial area. Its connection to Crohn disease (CD) is debated. Our aim was to describe a cohort of pediatric patients with OFG in detail, study the long-term behavior of OFG, and evaluate factors predicting CD in patients with OFG. We invited patients diagnosed with OFG at 2 university hospitals, Finland for a follow-up appointment. Patients (n = 29) were examined by a dentist and an otorhinolaryngologist using a structural schema. Orofacial findings were also recorded using digital photographing. Patients filled in questionnaires about general health and special diets. Patients' nutrition was evaluated from food records. The findings were compared between patients with OFG only and OFG with CD. Patients with CD had more findings in the orofacial area (total score for orofacial findings median 11) compared to patients with OFG only (total score median 7.5). There was no statistically significant difference in the type of lesions between these groups, except the upper lip was more often affected in patients with CD (n = 11) than in patients with OFG only (n = 0). Most of the patients had normal otorhinolaryngological findings. All patients with elevated anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody A levels had CD (n = 6) and they presented with more orofacial findings (total score) than patients with normal levels of anti-S cerevisiae antibody A (P = 0.0311). Long-term follow-up of pediatric-onset patients with OFG shows good prognosis. Patients with OFG do not seem to have otorhinolaryngological comorbidity. Anti-S cerevisiae antibody A may serve as a factor to indicate the possible presence of underlying CD in patients with OFG, but further studies are requested.

  8. Benzene-induced chromosome aberrations: A follow-up study

    SciTech Connect

    Forni, A.

    1996-12-01

    To study the evolution of cytogenetic damage from past exposure to high concentrations of benzene and its health significance, chromosome aberrations (CA) in lymphocytes were reinvestigated after approximately 20 years in four subjects with past severe hemopathy and in seven controls studied in the late 1960s. Increased chromosome-type aberrations were still present up to 30 years after benzene toxicity, but blood counts were normal. The vital status at the end of 1993 was ascertained for 32 subjects with a history of benzene toxicity and for 31 controls studied for CA from 1965 to 1970, who differed significantly for CA rates. Of the 32 benzene-exposed subjects, 1 was lost to follow-up, 20 were still alive, and 11 had died at ages 36 to 83, between 1 and 20 years after the last CA study. Five deaths were from neoplasia (acute erythroleukemia, brain tumor, cancer of lung, paranasal cavity, esophagus). The deceased subjects had significantly higher rates of chromosome-type aberrations than those alive, and those who died of neoplasia had the highest rates of these aberrations in the last study before death or diagnosis of cancer. Out of the 31 controls, 12 had died from 4 to 23 years after the CA study. Three deaths were from neoplasia (two lung cancer, one brain tumor). Even if this is a small sample, the results suggest a higher risk of cancer for the benzene-exposed cohort, who had persistently high CA rates in lymphocytes. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  9. Cohort Profile: The Manitoba Follow-up Study (MFUS).

    PubMed

    Tate, Robert B; Cuddy, T Edward; Mathewson, Francis A L

    2015-10-01

    The Manitoba Follow-up Study (MFUS) is Canada's longest running study of cardiovascular disease and ageing. The MFUS cohort consists of 3983 men recruited from the Royal Canadian Air Force at the end of World War II. At entry to the study, 1 July 1948, their mean age was 31 years, with 90% between ages 20 and 39 years. All study members were free of clinical evidence of ischaemic heart disease. The protocol of MFUS was to obtain routine medical examinations from these men at regular intervals over time. The research goal of the study was to examine the role that any abnormalities detected on routine electrocardiograms from apparently healthy men might play in the prediction of subsequent diagnoses of cardiovascular disease. Over the course of 65 years, about 35% of the cohort has documented evidence of ischaemic heart disease. The research focus was expanded in 1996 to explore the roles of physical, mental and social functioning in support of healthy and successful ageing. On 1 July 2013, 429 original cohort members were alive with a mean age of 92 years. Collaborative research with others outside the in-house team is welcomed.

  10. Follow up study of workers manufacturing chrysotile asbestos cement products.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, M J; Winter, P D; Pannett, B; Powell, C A

    1986-01-01

    A cohort study has been carried out of 2167 subjects employed between 1941 and 1983 at an asbestos cement factory in England. The production process incorporated the use of chrysotile asbestos fibre only, except for a small amount of amosite during four months in 1976. Measured airborne fibre concentrations available since 1970 from personal samplers showed mean levels below 1 fibre/ml, although higher levels had probably occurred previously in certain areas of the factory. No excess of lung cancer was observed in the mortality follow up by comparison with either national or local death rates, and analyses of subgroups of the workforce by job, exposure level, duration of employment, duration since entry, or calendar years of employment gave no real suggestion of an asbestos related excess for this cause of death. There was one death from pleural mesothelioma and one with asbestosis mentioned as an associated cause on the death certificate, but neither is thought to be linked to asbestos exposure at this factory. Other suggested asbestos related cancers, such as laryngeal and gastrointestinal, did not show raised risks. Although the durations of exposure were short in this study, the findings are consistent with two other studies of workers exposed to low concentrations of chrysotile fibre in the manufacture of asbestos cement products which reported no excess mortality. PMID:3024695

  11. COPD and microalbuminuria: a 12-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Romundstad, Solfrid; Naustdal, Thor; Romundstad, Pål Richard; Sorger, Hanne; Langhammer, Arnulf

    2014-04-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), low lung function independent of diagnosis and markers of inflammation are all associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Microalbuminuria, reflecting endothelial dysfunction, could be a relevant inflammatory marker of potential systemic effects of COPD. We hypothesised that there was a positive association between microalbuminuria and mortality in individuals with COPD. We conducted a 12-year follow-up study of 3129 participants in the second survey of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT), Norway. At baseline, albuminuria was analysed in three urine samples and spirometry was performed. Among the participants, 136 had COPD and microalbuminuria, defined as a urinary albumin/creatinine ratio between 2.5 and 30.0 mg·mmol(-1). The main outcome measures were hazard ratio of all-cause mortality according to microalbuminuria. Compared to those with COPD without microalbuminuria, the adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality in those with COPD and microalbuminuria was 1.54, 95% CI 1.16-2.04. This result was similar after excluding cardiovascular disease at baseline. Classifying COPD severity by Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, there was a positive association trend with increasing severity stages. Microalbuminuria is associated with all-cause mortality in individuals with COPD and could be a relevant tool in identification of patients with poor prognosis.

  12. A follow-up study on three caries activity tests.

    PubMed

    Shi, Sizhen; Deng, Qing; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Yakushiji, Masashi; Machida, Yukio; Liang, Qin

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the efficacy of three CAT's (Dentocult SM, Dentocult LB and Dentobuff Strip) in revealing caries condition and predicting caries progress, and provide a reference for application by comparing the three tests. Oral condition and results of the three CAT's of 82 children aged 3 to 4 were recorded and followed up. The examination was checked again two years later. The caries incidence, dft and CSI data from the two examinations were analyzed statistically. The results were that each Dentocult SM degree showed significant variances in incidence rate, as did the dft and CSI results in the second examination. The dft and CSI of both examinations exhibited a high degree of statistical significance. The same may be said of the Dentocult LB findings for the two years. No noticeable variances in caries incidence rate, dft and CSI from the Dentobuff Strip test were observed in both years' study, nor was there any statistical significance drawn from the findings, except for those of the second exam. No gender differences were observed in the distribution by degree with the three CATs The conclusion is that Dentocult SM is the best of the three tests for the diagnosis of the presence of caries and prognosis of its progress, Dentocult LB is second best whereas the Dentobuff Strip shows no detection capability. The findings serve as an application reference.

  13. A Follow-Up Study of the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, P. A.; Reich, C. M.

    Followed up through interviews and questionnaires were 278 former students, average age 28 years, of two residential schools and one day school for the deaf in Ontario. Data was collected on the degree of hearing loss, use of a hearing aid, educational and occupational history, social integration, methods of communication, and attitudes toward…

  14. Clozapine and anemia: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jimmy; Bies, Robert; Bhaloo, Amaal; Powell, Valerie; Remington, Gary

    2015-12-01

    Clozapine's association with agranulocytosis led to the implementation of stringent and mandatory hematologic monitoring guidelines in most countries. Although other hematologic aberrations such as eosinophilia and neutropenia have been previously described, clozapine's impact on the erythroid lineage has not been studied. There is a suspicion that a higher rate of anemia is observed in patients receiving clozapine; therefore, we hypothesized that there would be a higher rate of anemia in patients receiving clozapine therapy. All individuals initiated on clozapine at our center from 2009 to 2010 were recruited. Information on age, gender, medical comorbidities, and smoking status was extracted from the medical records. Data from complete blood counts over a 2-year follow-up period were extracted, with anemia defined as a hemoglobin value below 120 g/L for women and 130 g/L for men. Time to anemia event was calculated and Cox regression was employed to identify predictors of anemia. We found a high incidence of anemia in the first 2 years following clozapine initiation; of the 94 individuals (68 men, 26 women) recruited, 23 (24.5%) developed anemia. Higher baseline hemoglobin level (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.86, P = .002) and smoking status (HR = 0.21, P = .021) were identified as significant protective factors against anemia in men but not in women (HR = 0.92, P = .184, and HR = 0.52, P = .467 for baseline hemoglobin and smoking, respectively). Although smoking appears to lower the risk of anemia, we believe this is due to smoking's up-regulation of hemoglobin levels. Further studies are warranted in light of the present findings; for example, we cannot exclude the possibility that anemia was an epiphenomenon, characterizing instead a population with severe mental illness. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  15. Latex allergy: a follow up study of 1040 healthcare workers

    PubMed Central

    Filon, F Larese; Radman, G

    2006-01-01

    Background Natural rubber latex allergy can cause skin and respiratory symptoms The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and incidence of latex related symptoms and sensitisation among a large group of healthcare workers in Trieste hospitals, followed for three years before and after the introduction of powder‐free gloves with low latex release. Methods In the years 1997–99 the authors evaluated 1040 healthcare workers exposed to latex allergen for latex related symptoms and sensitisation by means of a questionnaire, a medical examination, skin prick tests, and IgE specific antibody assay. The second evaluation was carried out in the years 2000–02, subsequent to the changeover to a powder‐free environment. Results Glove related symptoms were seen in 21.8% of the nurses (227), mostly consisting of mild dermatitis: 38 (3.6%) complaining of contact urticaria and 24 (2.3%) of asthma and/or rhinitis. These symptoms were significantly related to skin prick tests positive to latex (OR = 9.70; 95% CI 5.5 to 17) and to personal atopy (OR = 2.29; 95% CI 1.6 to 3.2). Follow up was completed in 960 subjects (92.3%): 19 new subjects (2.4%) complained of itching erythema when using gloves, but none was prick positive to latex. Symptoms significantly improved and in most cases disappeared (p<0.0001). Conclusions Simple measures such as the avoidance of unnecessary glove use, the use of non‐powdered latex gloves by all workers, and use of non‐latex gloves by sensitised subjects can stop the progression of latex symptoms and can avoid new cases of sensitisation. PMID:16421390

  16. A Follow-up Study: The Registered Nurses Program, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondwros, Jerry M.

    Twenty-seven (77.1%) of the thirty-five 1977 graduates of the South Georgia Colleges' Division of Nursing responded to a follow-up survey, producing the following information: (1) 17 were employed full-time, two were employed part-time, and eight were unemployed; (2) 88.9% agreed they were prepared adequately for the state board examination; (3)…

  17. A Follow-up Study: The Registered Nurses Program, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondwros, Jerry M.

    Twenty-seven (77.1%) of the thirty-five 1977 graduates of the South Georgia Colleges' Division of Nursing responded to a follow-up survey, producing the following information: (1) 17 were employed full-time, two were employed part-time, and eight were unemployed; (2) 88.9% agreed they were prepared adequately for the state board examination; (3)…

  18. A health dialogue intervention reduces cardiovascular risk factor levels: a population based randomised controlled trial in Swedish primary care setting with 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hellstrand, Mats; Simonsson, Bo; Engström, Sevek; Nilsson, Kent W; Molarius, Anu

    2017-08-22

    The total number of cardiovascular (CVD) deaths accounted for almost a third of all deaths globally in 2013. Population based randomised controlled trials, managed within primary care, on CVD risk factor interventions are scarce. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a health dialogue intervention in a primary care setting offered to a population at the age of 55 years, focusing on CVD risk factors. The study was performed in five primary health care centres in the county of Västmanland, Sweden between April 2011 and December 2012. Men and women were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 440) and control groups (n = 440). At baseline, both groups filled in a health questionnaire and serum cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), weight, height, waist (WC) and hip circumference, waist hip ratio (WHR) and systolic/diastolic blood pressure were measured. Intervention group attended a health dialogue, supported by a visualised health profile, with a possibility for further activities. Participation rates at baseline were 53% and 52% respectively. A 1-year follow-up was carried out. The intervention group (n = 165) showed reductions compared to the control group (n = 177) concerning body mass index (BMI) (0.3 kg/m(2), p = .031), WC (2.1 cm, p ≤ .001) and WHR (.002, p ≤ .001) at the 1-year follow-up. No differences between the intervention and control groups were found in other variables. Intervention group, compared to baseline, had reduced weight, BMI, WC, WHR, HbA1c, and diet, while the men in the control group had reduced their alcohol consumption. A health dialogue intervention at the age of 55 years, conducted in ordinary primary care, showed a moderate effect on CVD risk factor levels, in terms of BMI, WC and WHR. BioMed Central, ISRCTN22586871 , date assigned; 10/12/2015.

  19. Follow-up study of small-for-dates babies.

    PubMed

    Fancourt, R; Campbell, S; Harvey, D; Norman, A P

    1976-06-12

    A group of small-for-dates full-term babies whose intra-uterine growth was followed by serial ultrasonic cephalometry were examined at a mean age of 4 years. Those children whose skull growth had begun to slow in utero before 34 weeks' menstrual age were more likely to have a height and weight less than the 10th centile. When the onset of growth failure had occurred before 26 weeks there was a lower developmental quotient at follow-up using the Griffiths extended scales. Prolonged slow growth in utero therefore seems to be followed by slow growth and development after birth.

  20. Scabies increased the risk of chronic kidney disease: a 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Chung, S-D; Wang, K-H; Huang, C-C; Lin, H-C

    2014-03-01

    The most documented complication of scabies has been reported to be infection by group A streptococci, which has in turn been suggested to contribute to the development of glomerulonephritis. This study aimed to investigate the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) subsequent to scabies utilizing a population-based dataset in Taiwan. This retrospective matched-cohort study included 5071 subjects with scabies and 25 355 randomly selected comparison subjects. We individually tracked each subject for a 5-year period to identify those who subsequently received a diagnosis of CKD during the follow-up period. Stratified Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to compute the hazard ratio (HR) of CKD during the 5-year follow-up period. The incidence rate of CKD during the 5-year follow-up period was 9.66 (8.51-10.93) per 1,000 person-years and 6.24 (5.82-6.69) per 1000 person-years for subjects with and without scabies respectively. The HR for CKD during the 5-year follow-up period for subjects with scabies was 1.34 (95% CI = 1.15-1.56) that of comparison subjects after adjusting for monthly income, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, stroke, coronary heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, tobacco use disorder, hyperlipidemia and alcohol abuse during the 5-year follow-up period. Male subjects with scabies were 1.40 (95% CI = 1.14-1.71) times more likely than comparison subjects to suffer from subsequent CKD, and female study subjects were 1.27 (95% CI = 1.05-1.61) times more likely. We concluded that there was an increased risk for CKD among patients suffering from scabies. © 2013 The Authors Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  1. Ablative radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism: long term follow up study.

    PubMed Central

    Kendall-Taylor, P; Keir, M J; Ross, W M

    1984-01-01

    A total of 225 patients were treated for hyperthyroidism with 555 MBq (15 mCi) radioiodine to ablate the thyroid and induce early hypothyroidism. The efficacy of this treatment in eradicating hyperthyroidism and problems of follow up were assessed one to six years later from case records and questionnaires. Information was received from 197 out of 219 live patients (90%) and from 160 doctors concerning 207 patients (92%). Only three patients were not traced and six had died since treatment. The modal time to hypothyroidism was three months, and 64% of patients were hypothyroid at one year; 5.6% had failed to become euthyroid within one year. Ninety five per cent of patients had been seen by the doctor and 82% had had a thyroid test done within the past two years. Most doctors preferred patients to be returned to their care once thyroxine treatment was stabilised. An ablative dose of 131I is recommended as an effective means of treatment which has clear advantages over conventional methods. Good communications and effective follow up should ensure success. PMID:6432100

  2. Proliferative retinopathy predicts nephropathy: a 25-year follow-up study of type 1 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Karlberg, Charlotte; Falk, Christine; Green, Anders; Sjølie, Anne Katrin; Grauslund, Jakob

    2012-08-01

    We wanted to examine proliferative retinopathy as a marker of incident nephropathy in a 25-year follow-up study of a population-based cohort of Danish type 1 diabetic patients and to examine cross-sectional associations between nephropathy and retinopathy in long-term surviving patients of the same cohort. All type 1 diabetic patients from Fyn County, Denmark, were identified as of 1 July 1973. One hundred and eighty four patients were examined in 1981-1982 (baseline) and in 2007-2008 (follow-up). The level of retinopathy was graded by ophthalmoscopy at baseline and nine-field digital colour fundus photographs at follow-up. Single spot urine was used to evaluate nephropathy at both examinations. Proliferative retinopathy was present in 29 patients (15.8%) at baseline. At follow-up, these patients were more likely to macroalbuminuria (20.7% vs. 6.5%) than patients without proliferative retinopathy at baseline. In a multivariate logistic regression adjusted for baseline age, sex, duration of diabetes, smoking, HbA(1,) systolic and diastolic blood pressure, odds ratio of nephropathy (micro- and macroalbuminuria combined) was 2.98 (95% confidence interval 1.18-7.51, p = 0.02) for patients with proliferative retinopathy at baseline as compared to those without. At follow-up, there was a close relation between retinopathy and nephropathy. The level of macroalbuminuria was 4.3, 4.6 and 13.0% for patients with no or mild non-proliferative retinopathy, moderate non-proliferative retinopathy and proliferative retinopathy, respectively. In conclusion, proliferative retinopathy is an independent marker of long-term nephropathy in type 1 diabetes. Upcoming studies should examine whether these microvascular complications are also causally linked in type 1 diabetes.

  3. Cold urticaria: a 20-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Jain, S V; Mullins, R J

    2016-12-01

    Chronic cold urticaria results in significant morbidity, yet information on its natural history is limited. We examined the natural history of chronic cold urticaria and its impact on quality of life. We analysed the characteristics of patients diagnosed with cold urticaria at a community-based specialist allergy practice in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) between 1995 and 2015. Follow-up data were obtained using a mailed questionnaire. Possible predictive factors of disease severity and symptom duration were evaluated. A total of 99 patients were assessed with a median age of 42 (range 5-81 years); 63% were female and the median age of onset of symptoms was 22 years. Of 41 questionnaire responders (14 ± 10.9 years follow-up; median 12 years), 5- and 10-year resolution rates were 17.9% ± 6.2% and 24.5% ± 7.2%, respectively. Whereas 22% reported resolution and 23% described improvement, the remaining 55% reported stable or worsening disease. Most individuals relied on lifestyle modification to ameliorate symptoms rather than medication. Risk factors for persistent disease were intercurrent atopic disease (P = 0.025) and those with longer duration of symptoms at the time of initial assessment (P < 0.001). Secondary causes of cold urticaria were identified in only two patients, both with B-cell malignancy. In a subset of patients, cold urticaria has low rates of spontaneous resolution and results in lifestyle changes and impaired quality of life. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  4. [Intracranial stenosis. Study and follow-up of 38 patients].

    PubMed

    Palomeras Soler, E; Fossas Felip, P; Cano Orgaz, A; Sanz Cartagena, P

    2004-06-01

    To describe vascular risk factors of patients harboring intracranial arterial stenosis (IAS) as well their final outcome. We reviewed clinical reports of all patients admitted to our Institution from April 1, 1999 to November 30, 2001 with the diagnosis of IAS. Diagnosis was made by means of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) or four-vessels digital subtraction angiography. Thirty-eight patients harboring 56 IAS were identified. Mean follow-up was 18 months. Two control groups were selected: one was a group of 44 patients with stroke and embolic cardiopathy (EC) and the other was a group of 67 patients with stroke and extracranial stenosis without IAS. Mean age was 69.7 years, with male preponderance (76.3 %). Seventeen cases (44.7 %) had associated extracranial carotid stenosis greater than 50 %. Multiple IAS were found in 12 patients. Diabetes mellitus was significantly more frequent in the IAS group than in both control groups. On the other hand, cigarette smoking was more common in the IAS group with respect to the EC group. IAS was symptomatic in 25 cases, whereas in 13 patients IAS was found in the work-up for cerebral ischemia in another territory. From the group of symptomatic patients, 22 (88 %) had a Rankin scale 2 or lower on discharge and, in the long term follow-up, their incidence rate of recurrent ischemic stroke was 15 per 100 patients/year. Diabetes mellitus was the most specific risk factor for IAS. IAS was multiple in 32% of patients and in extracranial stenosis from moderate to severe degree was found in 44.7% of the cases. Stroke secondary to IAS caused a low dependency level at discharge. Incidence rate of recurrent ischemic stroke was 15 % patients/ year.

  5. Occupational Physical Activity, Overweight, and Mortality: A Follow-Up Study of 47,405 Norwegian Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Selmer, Randi; Sorensen, Marit; Skurtveit, Svetlana

    2007-01-01

    This population-based 24-year follow-up study evaluated the association of occupational physical activity (OPA) with overweight and mortality in 47,405 men and women, healthy at baseline, and reporting OPA as sedentary (reference), light, moderately heavy, or heavy. The adjusted odds ratio for overweight was slightly less than 1 for all categories…

  6. Occupational Physical Activity, Overweight, and Mortality: A Follow-Up Study of 47,405 Norwegian Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Selmer, Randi; Sorensen, Marit; Skurtveit, Svetlana

    2007-01-01

    This population-based 24-year follow-up study evaluated the association of occupational physical activity (OPA) with overweight and mortality in 47,405 men and women, healthy at baseline, and reporting OPA as sedentary (reference), light, moderately heavy, or heavy. The adjusted odds ratio for overweight was slightly less than 1 for all categories…

  7. [Surgery for phimosis with Plastibell. A follow-up study].

    PubMed

    Jensen, M K

    1998-06-22

    Fifty-three boys were interviewed 11 years (9-14 years) after an operation for phimosis using the Plastibell technique. The interview concentrated on the cosmetic result, sexual function and late complications. Seventeen patients (31%) experienced cosmetic complications, and 11 patients (21%) claimed to have experienced psycho-social problems due to the appearance of the penis after the operation. Nonetheless an overall of 44 patients (83%) were fully satisfied/satisfied with the cosmetic result. Four patients (8%) claimed to have pain or discomfort on erection or intercourse. One patient (2%) was re-operated three years after the primary operation because of a recurrence of the symptoms. Overall 48 patients (91%) were fully satisfied or satisfied with the result after the operation. In conclusion we find the Plastibell procedure to be a safe and reliable method in treating phimosis. There are some minor technical pitfalls that have to be addressed in learning the technique, but performed in trained hands, the technique offers a very high satisfaction rate at long term follow-up.

  8. Increased risk of cancer after Bell's palsy: a 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Jau-Jiuan; Keller, Joseph J; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2012-11-01

    Reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus (HSV) type I or varicella-zoster virus (VZV) has been recognized as the most common pathomechanism underlying Bell's palsy. There is also increased reactivation of HSV or VZV in patients with immunosuppressed states and in cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk for cancer during a 5-year follow-up period after diagnosis of Bell's palsy by using a population-based dataset in Taiwan. We used data from the "Longitudinal Health Insurance Database". We identified 2,618 patients with Bell's palsy as the study cohort and randomly selected 13,090 patients to be used as a comparison cohort. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to compare the 5-year risk of subsequent cancer between the study and comparison cohorts. We found that the incidence of cancer was 1.55 (95 % CI 1.35-1.78) per 100 person-years for patients with Bell's palsy and 1.09 (95 % CI 1.02-1.18) per 100 person-years for comparison patients. After censoring cases that died from non-cancer causes during the follow-up period and adjusting for urbanization, monthly income, geographic region, and diabetes, the hazard ratio (HR) for cancer during the 5-year follow-up period for patients with Bell's palsy was 1.43 times that for comparison patients (95 % CI 1.22-1.73). There was a particularly increased risk of oral cancer (HR = 2.49; 95 % CI 1.54-4.03) for patients with Bell's palsy compared with the other patients. We conclude that patients with Bell's palsy were at significant risk of cancer during a 5-year follow-up period after diagnosis.

  9. Nurse-led follow-up at home vs. conventional medical outpatient clinic follow-up in patients with incurable upper gastrointestinal cancer: a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Uitdehaag, Madeleen J; van Putten, Paul G; van Eijck, Casper H J; Verschuur, Els M L; van der Gaast, Ate; Pek, Chulja J; van der Rijt, Carin C D; de Man, Rob A; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Laheij, Robert J F; Siersema, Peter D; Spaander, Manon C W; Kuipers, Ernst J

    2014-03-01

    Upper gastrointestinal cancer is associated with a poor prognosis. The multidimensional problems of incurable patients require close monitoring and frequent support, which cannot sufficiently be provided during conventional one to two month follow-up visits to the outpatient clinic. To compare nurse-led follow-up at home with conventional medical follow-up in the outpatient clinic for patients with incurable primary or recurrent esophageal, pancreatic, or hepatobiliary cancer. Patients were randomized to nurse-led follow-up at home or conventional medical follow-up in the outpatient clinic. Outcome parameters were quality of life (QoL), patient satisfaction, and health care consumption, measured by different questionnaires at one and a half and four months after randomization. As well, cost analyses were done for both follow-up strategies in the first four months. In total, 138 patients were randomized, of which 66 (48%) were evaluable. At baseline, both groups were similar with respect to clinical and sociodemographic characteristics and health-related QoL. Patients in the nurse-led follow-up group were significantly more satisfied with the visits, whereas QoL and health care consumption within the first four months were comparable between the two groups. Nurse-led follow-up was less expensive than conventional medical follow-up. However, the total costs for the first four months of follow-up in this study were higher in the nurse-led follow-up group because of a higher frequency of visits. The results suggest that conventional medical follow-up is interchangeable with nurse-led follow-up. A cost utility study is necessary to determine the preferred frequency and duration of the home visits. Copyright © 2014 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Suicide and suicide attempts in people with severe mental disorders in Butajira, Ethiopia: 10 year follow-up of a population-based cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background People with severe mental disorders (SMD) are at higher risk of suicide. However, research into suicide attempts and completed suicide in people with SMD in low- and middle-income countries is mostly limited to patients attending psychiatric facilities where selection bias is likely to be high. Methods A population-based cohort of 919 people with SMD from rural Ethiopia (who received standardized clinician diagnoses of schizophrenia (n = 358) major depressive disorder (n = 216) and bipolar I disorder (n = 345)) were followed up annually for an average of 10 years. The Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation chart was administered by psychiatrists and used to evaluate systematically suicidal behavior and risk factors, which may be amenable to intervention. Results Over the follow-up period, the cumulative risk of suicide attempt was 26.3% for major depression, 23.8% for bipolar I disorder and 13.1% for schizophrenia, (p < 0.001). The overall incidence of completed suicide was 200.2/100,000 person-years (CI = 120.6, 312.5). Hanging was the most frequent method used (71.5%) for both attempters and completers. Most people who completed suicide were successful on the first attempt (84.2%), but the case-fatality rate for suicide attempt was 9.7%. In the adjusted logistic regression model, being currently married (Adjusted OR) =2.17, 95% CI = 1.21, 3.91), and having a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder (Adjusted OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.57, 4.26) or major depression (Adjusted OR = 2.71, 95% CI = 1.60, 4.58) were associated significantly with increased risk of suicide attempts. Conclusion In this sample of people with SMD from a rural setting, the rate of suicide was high. Initiatives to integrate mental health service into primary care need to focus on limiting access to suicide methods in people with SMD in addition to expanding access to mental health care. PMID:24886518

  11. GuLF Study: The Gulf Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... Investigator for the GuLF STUDY The Gulf Long-term Follow-up Study ( GuLF STUDY ) is the largest ... in Spain and South Korea – included any long-term follow-up. Early data from these studies suggested ...

  12. FINAL REPORT: NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY FOCUS GROUPS - FOLLOW-UP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this work assignment was to add to our knowledge of the issues that will affect

    recruitment and retention of pregnant women into the National Children's Study by conducting 14 focus

    groups comprised of pregnant women, couples, and parents of young chi...

  13. 3-Year Follow-up of the NIMH MTA Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Peter S.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Swanson, James M.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Abikoff, Howard B.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Hechtman, Lily; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Pelham, William E.; Wells, Karen C.; Conners, C. Keith; Elliott, Glen R.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Hoza, Betsy; March, John S.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Severe, Joanne B.; Wigal, Timothy; Gibbons, Robert D.; Hur, Kwan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: In the intent-to-treat analysis of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD (MTA), the effects of medication management (MedMgt), behavior therapy (Beh), their combination (Comb), and usual community care (CC) differed at 14 and 24 months due to superiority of treatments that used the MTA medication algorithm (Comb+MedMgt)…

  14. FINAL REPORT: NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY FOCUS GROUPS - FOLLOW-UP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this work assignment was to add to our knowledge of the issues that will affect

    recruitment and retention of pregnant women into the National Children's Study by conducting 14 focus

    groups comprised of pregnant women, couples, and parents of young chi...

  15. Nine-Year Follow-Up Study of Montessori Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciarra, Dorothy June; Dorsey, Anne

    Results of an earlier six-year followup study demonstrated that a group of children with four years of Montessori education, including preschool and primary . school, score best on all seven variables of the third grade level Metropolitan Achievement Test (MAT). The group with no preschool experience scored lowest on five of seven variables of the…

  16. Post-Secondary Vocational Education: Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vos, Jo

    A study examined whether the Minnesota State Board of Vocational Education has adequately implemented recommendations made in a 1983 evaluation of postsecondary vocational education programs. It focused particularly on how the board and its management have responded to problems of low job placement rates and low student-teacher ratios in some…

  17. Oregon High School Follow-up Study. Statewide Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Thomas R.

    A followup study collected data from and concerning 1981 high school graduates and early leavers from 19 schools throughout Oregon in order to determine the effects of vocational training on employment and further education beyond high school. Data from 1,296 former students, 672 of whom had taken at least one year of vocational cluster courses,…

  18. MCC Instruction in Sustainable Technologies. Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pezzoli, Jean A.; Ainsworth, Donald

    The purposes of this study were to collect feedback from Sustainable Technologies interns regarding the usefulness and effectiveness of their education and training from the Maui Community College Instruction in Sustainable Technologies (MIST) program, and to further assess community need for a new Associate Degree program in Sustainable…

  19. Morning Star Students: A Follow-up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Leroy V.

    Findings of two followup studies of Morning Star (a 2-year Native teacher education program established in 1975 at the Blue Quills Native Education Centre, leading to a Bachelor of Education degree from the University of Alberta) are examined in relation to the program's assumptions, organization, and delivery systems. The teacher certification of…

  20. PROJECT TALENT, 1-YEAR FOLLOW-UP STUDIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COOLEY, WILLIAM W.; FLANAGAN, JOHN C.

    THE "PROJECT TALENT" FOLLOWUP STUDIES WERE CONCERNED WITH VARIOUS ASPECTS OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICAN YOUTH, CONSISTING PRIMARILY OF THE EDUCATIONAL AND VOCATIONAL PLANS AND DECISIONS WHICH ONE MAKES DURING HIGH SCHOOL AND IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWING HIGH SCHOOL. RELATIONSHIPS WERE SOUGHT BETWEEN TRAITS EXHIBITED BY STUDENTS IN HIGH…

  1. Hydrotherapy after total hip arthroplasty: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Giaquinto, S; Ciotola, E; Dall'armi, V; Margutti, F

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the subjective functional outcome of total hip arthroplasty (THA) in patients who underwent hydrotherapy (HT) 6 months after discharge. A prospective randomized study was performed on 70 elderly inpatients with recent THA, who completed a rehabilitation program. After randomization, 33 of them were treated in conventional gyms (no-hydrotherapy group=NHTG) and 31 received HT (hydrotherapy group=HTG). Interviews with the Western-Ontario MacMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) were performed at admission, at discharge and 6 months later. Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests were applied for statistical analysis. Both groups improved. Pain, stiffness and function were all positively affected. Statistical analysis indicated that WOMAC sub-scales were significantly lower for all patients treated with HT. The benefits at discharge still remained after 6 months. We conclude that HT is recommended after THA in a geriatric population.

  2. Workers exposed to ethylene oxide: a follow up study.

    PubMed

    Gardner, M J; Coggon, D; Pannett, B; Harris, E C

    1989-12-01

    A cohort study has been carried out of 2876 men and women with potential exposure to ethylene oxide. Subjects were identified from employment records at four companies that have produced or used ethylene oxide since the 1950s and at eight hospitals which have had ethylene oxide sterilising units since the 1960s. The cohort represents a substantial proportion of the British workforce with a history of occupational exposure to ethylene oxide. Industrial hygiene data were not available before 1977, but since then time weighted average exposures have been less than 5 ppm in almost all jobs and less than 1 ppm in many. Past exposures were probably somewhat higher. In contrast to some previous studies, no clear excess of leukaemia (three deaths observed, 2.09 expected) and no increase in stomach cancer (five deaths observed, 5.95 expected) were found. This discrepancy with earlier reports may be due in part to differences in levels of exposure. Total cancer mortality was similar to that expected from national and local death rates. Some specific cancers showed small excesses but their relevance to ethylene oxide exposure is doubtful. Again, contrary to some earlier reports, no excess of cardiovascular disease was found. This study does not exclude the possibility that ethylene oxide is a human carcinogen but suggests that any risk of cancer from currently permitted occupational exposures is small.

  3. Workers exposed to ethylene oxide: a follow up study.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, M J; Coggon, D; Pannett, B; Harris, E C

    1989-01-01

    A cohort study has been carried out of 2876 men and women with potential exposure to ethylene oxide. Subjects were identified from employment records at four companies that have produced or used ethylene oxide since the 1950s and at eight hospitals which have had ethylene oxide sterilising units since the 1960s. The cohort represents a substantial proportion of the British workforce with a history of occupational exposure to ethylene oxide. Industrial hygiene data were not available before 1977, but since then time weighted average exposures have been less than 5 ppm in almost all jobs and less than 1 ppm in many. Past exposures were probably somewhat higher. In contrast to some previous studies, no clear excess of leukaemia (three deaths observed, 2.09 expected) and no increase in stomach cancer (five deaths observed, 5.95 expected) were found. This discrepancy with earlier reports may be due in part to differences in levels of exposure. Total cancer mortality was similar to that expected from national and local death rates. Some specific cancers showed small excesses but their relevance to ethylene oxide exposure is doubtful. Again, contrary to some earlier reports, no excess of cardiovascular disease was found. This study does not exclude the possibility that ethylene oxide is a human carcinogen but suggests that any risk of cancer from currently permitted occupational exposures is small. PMID:2611160

  4. Scala tympani cochleostomy survey: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Iseli, Claire; Adunka, Oliver F; Buchman, Craig A

    2014-08-01

    To reassess cochleostomy techniques among North American cochlear implant surgeons after a 6-year period of widespread education and research on the topic. Prospective cohort study. A multiple-choice survey of cochlear implant techniques was distributed to surgeons attending the William House Cochlear Implant Study Group in 2006 and 2012. This survey contained questions regarding routine surgical access and cochleostomy techniques. Responses were anonymous, and >50% were repeat respondents. Statistical analysis sought changes in technique in the past 6 years. Comparisons between 2006 and 2012 responses revealed no significant changes in the proportion of surgeons identifying the facial nerve or chorda tympani. By contrast, respondents in 2012 were more likely to drill off the round window niche overhang (P < .001), use a round window insertion (P < .001), or make a smaller cochleostomy (P = .003). In two images of a transfacial recess approach, there was a significant increase in the proportion choosing an inferior or anterior cochleostomy site over a superior location (image 1, 76% in 2006 to 92% in 2012, P = .003; image 3, 78% to 90%, respectively, P = .044). This repeat survey documents a change in practice among cochlear implant surgeons. Specifically, scala tympani access techniques now appear to be more consistent with known anatomical relationships in the round window region. These findings may have resulted from the concerted education and research efforts over the past 6 years. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Gamma-ray follow-up studies on η Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitberger, K.; Reimer, O.; Reimer, A.; Werner, M.; Egberts, K.; Takahashi, H.

    2012-12-01

    The increased exposure in conjunction with the improved instrumental response functions of the Fermi-LAT now allows a more detailed investigation of location, spectral shape and flux time history of the observed γ-ray emission at the position of η Carinae. We detect a weak but regular flux decrease over time. This can be understood and interpreted in a colliding-wind binary scenario for orbital modulation of the γ-ray emission. We find that the spectral shape of the γ-ray signal agrees with a single emitting particle population in combination with significant absorption by γ-γ pair production. Concluding, we are able to report on the first unambiguous detection of GeV γ-ray emission from a colliding-wind massive star binary. Studying the correlation of the flux decrease with the orbital separation of the binary components allows us to predict the behaviour up to the next periastron passage in 2014.

  6. Crossed aphasia: a PET follow up study of two cases.

    PubMed

    Cappa, S F; Perani, D; Bressi, S; Paulesu, E; Franceschi, M; Fazio, F

    1993-06-01

    Two cases of aphasia after right hemispheric stroke in right handed patients are described. The first patient had a severe mixed transcortical aphasia, apraxia and neglect after a lesion involving the right lenticular nucleus and periventricular white matter; aphasia was still present after three months. The second patient had a mild, transient fluent aphasia after a small right hemispheric periventricular lesion. Studies with [18F]FDG and positron emission tomography (PET) showed functional depression extending to the structurally unaffected left hemisphere in both patients in the acute stage. After three months, in the patient with persistent aphasia, metabolism was still reduced in the right hemisphere, with some recovery of hypometabolism on the left, while metabolic values had returned to normal in the patient with full language recovery. A close parallelism between glucose metabolism and clinical course in crossed aphasia is shown, as well as the presence of a functional involvement of the structurally unaffected left hemisphere in the acute stage.

  7. Periapical endodontic surgery: a 3-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Maddalone, M; Gagliani, M

    2003-03-01

    To monitor the outcome of periradicular surgery in a group of teeth treated with microsurgical technology and ultrasonic root-end preparation. One hundred and twenty-eight teeth with failed conventional root canal treatment were included. The surgical procedure was completed using ultrasonic retrotips and a zinc oxide-EBA (Super Seal, Ogna Pharmaceuticals. Milan, Italy)-reinforced material was used to seal the root end cavities. Lesions were examined radiologically at 1. 3. 6. 12, 24 and 36-month intervals. Radiographs were independently analysed according to a previously published classification. Eight teeth were extracted due to fracture or perforations undetected radiologically: these cases were excluded from the study. Of the 120 teeth examined. the overall success rate was 92.5%; 94 healed with complete bone filling of the surgical cavity, 17 were considered to have healed by apical scar formation, four demonstrated uncertain healing and five were considered failures. Eighty of 120 teeth examined had successfully healed from a radiological point of view within 12 months. No differences in outcome occurred between anterior, premolar and molar teeth. Although all failures occurred in teeth with posts, no statistically significant difference was noted (Mann-Whitney U-test, P = 0.37). Modern surgical endodontic procedures associated and ERA (Super Seal, Ogna Pharmaceuticals, Milan, Italy) root end fillings were successful over 3 years in 92.5% of cases.

  8. Crossed aphasia: a PET follow up study of two cases.

    PubMed Central

    Cappa, S F; Perani, D; Bressi, S; Paulesu, E; Franceschi, M; Fazio, F

    1993-01-01

    Two cases of aphasia after right hemispheric stroke in right handed patients are described. The first patient had a severe mixed transcortical aphasia, apraxia and neglect after a lesion involving the right lenticular nucleus and periventricular white matter; aphasia was still present after three months. The second patient had a mild, transient fluent aphasia after a small right hemispheric periventricular lesion. Studies with [18F]FDG and positron emission tomography (PET) showed functional depression extending to the structurally unaffected left hemisphere in both patients in the acute stage. After three months, in the patient with persistent aphasia, metabolism was still reduced in the right hemisphere, with some recovery of hypometabolism on the left, while metabolic values had returned to normal in the patient with full language recovery. A close parallelism between glucose metabolism and clinical course in crossed aphasia is shown, as well as the presence of a functional involvement of the structurally unaffected left hemisphere in the acute stage. Images PMID:8509781

  9. Follow-up Study of Patients With Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Peter; Kohn, Jean G.

    1979-01-01

    Of 319 patients with cerebral palsy recalled for reevaluation 15 years after the initial visit, 10 percent had died. Of the living, 55 percent had spasticity, 32 percent had athetosis, 4 percent had ataxia and 9 percent had mixed spasticity and athetosis; 38 percent had an intelligence quotient (IQ) less than 50, 24 percent between 50 and 79, and 38 percent had IQ above 80. There was a high correlation between overall functional outcome and intellectual level. Severity of physical disability, as measured by hand use, mobility and speech, also correlated with dependence, in part because increased severity of the disability was associated with decreased intellectual capacity generally. Twenty-five years after the initial visit, parental attitudes and personality intactness were evaluated (using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory [MMPI]) and were correlated with satisfaction with status in life in 28 persons predicted to be independent on the 15-year study. Twenty (72 percent) of the 28 were satisfied with their status in life and of these, 16 were evaluated (with the MMPI) with 70 percent scoring in the normal range; 13 (65 percent) had parents with a positive attitude. Positive attitude was defined as parental feelings that the handicapped child was a worthy, valuable person, to be encouraged and assisted but not isolated from the world of nonhandicapped people. Careful serial assessment by professional teams combined with repeated long-term counseling of families can result in optimal outcome for the disability level involved, due to the primary role parents play in the development of a child's character and behavior. PMID:154207

  10. Gamma-ray follow-up studies on η Carinae

    DOE PAGES

    Reitberger, K.; Reimer, O.; Reimer, A.; ...

    2012-08-01

    Observations of high-energy γ-rays recently revealed a persistent source in spatial coincidence with the binary system η Carinae. Since modulation of the observed γ-ray flux on orbital time scales has not been reported so far, an unambiguous identification was hitherto not possible. In particular, the observations made by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) posed additional questions regarding the actual emission scenario. Analyses show two energetically distinct components in the γ-ray spectrum, which are best described by an exponentially cutoff power-law function (CPL) at energies below 10 GeV and a power-law (PL) component dominant at higher energies. The increased exposuremore » in conjunction with the improved instrumental response functions of the LAT now allow us to perform a more detailed investigation of location, spectral shape, and flux time history of the observed γ-ray emission. Furthermore, we detect a weak but regular flux decrease over time. This can be understood and interpreted in a colliding-wind binary scenario for orbital modulation of the γ-ray emission. We find that the spectral shape of the γ-ray signal agrees with a single emitting particle population in combination with significant absorption by γ-γ pair production. We are able to report on the first unambiguous detection of GeV γ-ray emission from a colliding-wind massive star binary. By studying the correlation of the flux decrease with the orbital separation of the binary components allows us to predict the behaviour up to the next periastron passage in 2014.« less

  11. Stroke in parents who lost a child: a nationwide follow-up study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiong; Johnsen, Søren P; Olsen, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    The association between psychological stress and stroke remains uncertain. We therefore examined whether or not one of the most extreme psychological stressors, the death of a child, was associated with the risk of stroke in a nationwide population-based follow-up study. All 21,062 parents who lost a child in Denmark during 1980-1996 were compared with 293,745 parents who had not lost a child. The overall adjusted relative risk (RR) of stroke was 1.00 (95% CI = 0.83-1.20) among the exposed after up to 18 years of follow-up. The RRs for fatal stroke and nonfatal stroke were 0.69 (95% CI = 0.37-1.26) and 1.03 (95% CI = 0.85-1.24), respectively. The RRs for hemorrhagic and nonhemorrhagic stroke were 1.02 (95% CI = 0.77-1.36) and 0.94 (95% CI = 0.74-1.20), respectively. The risk of stroke did not differ irrespective of whether the death of the child was unexpected or not. The death of a child was not associated with any substantially increased risk of stroke in the bereaved parents.

  12. Delivery by caesarean section and childhood cancer: a nationwide follow-up study in three countries.

    PubMed

    Momen, N C; Olsen, J; Gissler, M; Cnattingius, S; Li, J

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the association between delivery by caesarean section and risk of childhood cancer. A population-based, follow-up study using register data from three countries. Denmark, Sweden and Finland. Children born in Denmark (1973-2007), Sweden (1973-2006) and Finland (randomly selected sample of 90%, 1987-2007; n = 7,029,843). Exposure was delivery by caesarean section and the outcome was childhood cancer diagnosis. Follow-up started from birth and ended at the first of the following dates: cancer diagnosis, death, emigration, day before 15th birthday or end of follow-up. Cox regression was used to obtain hazard ratios. Childhood cancer diagnosis. A total of 882,907 (12.6%) children were delivered by caesarean section. Of these, 30.3% were elective (n = 267,603), 35.9% unplanned (n = 316,536) and 33.8% had no information on planning (n = 298,768). Altogether, 11,181 children received a cancer diagnosis. No evidence of an increased risk of childhood cancer was found for children born by caesarean section (hazard ratio, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 0.99, 1.11). No association was found for any major type of childhood cancer, or when split by the type of caesarean section (elective/unplanned). The evidence does not suggest that caesarean section is a risk factor for the overall risk of childhood cancer and possibly not for subtypes of childhood cancer either. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  13. Singapore Malay Eye Study: rationale and methodology of 6-year follow-up study (SiMES-2).

    PubMed

    Rosman, Mohamad; Zheng, Yingfeng; Wong, Wanling; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Saw, Seang-Mei; Tay, Wan-Ting; Wang, Jie Jin; Mitchell, Paul; Tai, E-Shyong; Wong, Tien Y

    2012-08-01

      To describe the rationale and study design of a follow-up epidemiological eye study among Singaporean Malay adults.   Follow-up prospective population-based study.   Participants of the Singapore Malay Eye Study (SiMES-1), which was conducted from August 2004 to June 2006.   This is a follow-up study of the 3280 participants who participated in the SiMES-1 and are residing in Singapore. All participants of this follow-up study will undergo various standardized validated questionnaires on socio-demographics, quality of life and impact of visual impairment. Participants will undergo assessment of blood pressure, anthropometry, presenting and best corrected visual acuity, subjective refraction, ocular biometry, slit lamp and dilated eye examination, Goldmann tonometry, optic disc imaging, digital lens and retinal photography. Retinal tomography, retinal optical coherence topography and fundus autofluorescence will also be performed. Gonioscopy and visual fields examination will be performed on selected individuals.   Incidence, risk factors and impact of visual impairment and major eye diseases.   A total of 3280 people who participated in the SiMES-1 will be contacted and invited to participate in this follow-up study. It is estimated that 12.8% of the participants will be deceased and there will be an 80% participation rate for the survivors of SiMES-1 (approximately 2288 participants).   SiMES-2 will be one of the few follow-up epidemiological eye studies among Asians and will determine the cumulative 6-year incidence, progression, risk factors and impact of major eye diseases in Singaporean Malay adults. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2012 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  14. Patients lost to follow-up in acromegaly: results of the ACROSPECT study.

    PubMed

    Delemer, B; Chanson, Ph; Foubert, L; Borson-Chazot, F; Chabre, O; Tabarin, A; Weryha, G; Cortet-Rudelli, C; Raingeard, I; Reznik, Y; Reines, C; Bisot-Locard, S; Castinetti, F

    2014-05-01

    The complex management of acromegaly has transformed this disease into a chronic condition, with the risk of patients being lost to follow-up. The objective of this study was to estimate the proportion of acromegalic patients lost to follow-up in France and to determine the impact that abandoning follow-up has on the disease and its management. ACROSPECT was a French national, multicentre, cross-sectional, observational study. Acromegalic patients were considered lost to follow-up if no new information had been entered in their hospital records during the previous 2 years. They were traced where possible, and data were collected by means of a recall visit or questionnaire. In the study population, 21% of the 2392 acromegalic patients initially followed in 25 tertiary endocrinology centres were lost to follow-up. At their last follow-up visit, 30% were uncontrolled, 33% were receiving medical therapy and 53% had residual tumour. Of the 362 traced, 62 had died and 77% were receiving follow-up elsewhere; the leading reason for abandoning follow-up was that they had not been informed that it was necessary. Our analysis of the questionnaires suggests that they were not receiving optimal follow-up. This study underlines the need to better inform acromegalic patients of the need for long-term follow-up, the absence of which could be detrimental to patients' health, and to develop shared care for what must now be regarded as a chronic disease.

  15. Incidence of glaucomatous visual field loss after two decades of follow-up: the Rotterdam Study.

    PubMed

    Springelkamp, Henriët; Wolfs, Roger C; Ramdas, Wishal D; Hofman, Albert; Vingerling, Johannes R; Klaver, Caroline C; Jansonius, Nomdo M

    2017-06-12

    To determine the incidence of glaucomatous visual field loss (GVFL) two decades after the start of the Rotterdam Study, and to compare known risk factors for open-angle glaucoma (OAG) between different clinical manifestations of OAG. Of 6806 participants aged 55 years and older from the population-based Rotterdam Study, 3939 underwent visual field testing at baseline and at least one follow-up round. The ophthalmic examinations included optic disc assessment and measurements of intraocular pressure (IOP), refractive error, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and height and weight. The incidence rate of GVFL was calculated. Associations with the risk factors age, gender, baseline IOP, family history, myopia, DBP, and body-mass index [BMI] were assessed using Cox regression, with different clinical manifestations of OAG as outcome measure (glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON), GVFL, GVFL and GON, GVFL without GON, and GON without GVFL). Median follow-up was 11.1 (IQR 6.8-17.2; range 5.0-20.3) years. The incidence rate of GVFL was 2.9 (95% confidence interval 2.4-3.4) per 1000 person years (140 cases with incident GVFL in one (n = 113) or both (n = 27) eyes). Baseline IOP and age were significantly associated with all OAG outcomes (all p < 0.001); BMI showed a non-significant protective effect in all outcomes (p = 0.01 to p = 0.09). Gender, myopia, and DBP were not associated with any outcome. Our study provides an estimate of the long-term incidence of GVFL in a predominantly white population. The development of GVFL was strongly associated with baseline IOP and age. Risk factor profiles were similar for the different outcomes.

  16. Prevalence of celiac disease in Germany: A prospective follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Kratzer, Wolfgang; Kibele, Monika; Akinli, Atilla; Porzner, Marc; Boehm, Bernhard O; Koenig, Wolfgang; Oeztuerk, Suemeyra; Mason, Richard A; Mao, Ren; Haenle, Mark H

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of celiac disease in a randomly selected population sample. METHODS: A total of 2157 subjects (1036 males; 1121 females) participating in a population-based cross-sectional study underwent laboratory testing for tissue transglutaminase and antibodies to immunoglobulin A, endomysium and antigliadin. In a second step, all subjects who had been examined serologically were surveyed using a questionnaire that included questions specific to celiac disease. Subjects with positive antibody titers and those with histories positive for celiac disease then underwent biopsy. At the first follow up, antibody titers were again determined in these subjects and subjects were questioned regarding symptoms specific for celiac disease and disorders associated with celiac disease. The second follow up consisted of a telephone interview with subjects positive for celiac disease. RESULTS: Antibody tests consistent with celiac disease were reported in eight subjects, corresponding to an overall prevalence of 1:270 (8/2157). The prevalence among women was 1:224 and 1:518 in men. Classical symptoms were observed in 62.5% of subjects. Atypical celiac disease was present in 25.0%, and transient celiac disease in 12.5%. False-negative test results were returned in three subjects. This yields a sensitivity and specificity of 62.5% and 50.0%, respectively, for tissue transglutaminase immunoglobulin-A antibody; of 62.5% and 71.4% respectively, for endomysium antibody; and of 62.5% and 71.4%, respectively, for antigliadin antibody. CONCLUSION: The prevalence rate in our collective lies within the middle tertile of comparable studies in Europe. The use of a single antibody test for screening purposes must be called into question. PMID:23674868

  17. Poor Sleep in Relation to Natural Menopause: A Population-Based 14-Year Follow-up of Mid-Life Women

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Ellen W.; Sammel, Mary D.; Gross, Stephanie A.; Pien, Grace W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence and predictors of moderate/severe poor sleep in relation to the final menstrual period (FMP) of mid-life women. Methods Annual assessments were conducted in a population-based cohort of 255 women. All were premenopausal at cohort enrollment and reached natural menopause during the 16-year follow-up. The outcome measure was the severity of poor sleep, as reported by the participants in annual interviews for 16 years and evaluated in relation to the FMP. Results The annual prevalence of moderate/severe poor sleep largely ranged from about 28% to 35%, with no significant differences in any year relative to the FMP for the sample overall. When sleep status was stratified at the premenopausal baseline, the premenopausal sleep status strongly predicted poor sleep around the FMP. Women with moderate/severe poor sleep when premenopausal were approximately 3 ½ times more likely to have moderate/severe poor sleep around menopause compared to those with no poor sleep at baseline in adjusted analysis (OR 3.58, 95% CI: 2.50-5.11, P<0.0001), while mild poor sleepers premenopause were approximately 1 ½ times more likely to have moderate/severe poor sleep around menopause (OR 1.57, 95% CI: 0.99-2.47, P=0.053). There was no significant association between poor sleep and time relative to the FMP among women who had no poor sleep at the premenopausal baseline. Hot flashes were significantly associated with poor sleep (OR 1.79, 95% CI: 1.44-2.21, P<0.0001 in adjusted analysis), but had no interaction with baseline sleep severity (interaction P=0.25), indicating that hot flashes contributed to poor sleep regardless of baseline sleep status. Conclusion The findings showed a high prevalence of moderate/severe poor sleep in mid-life women, with only a small “at risk” subgroup having a significant increase in poor sleep in relation to the FMP. Sleep status at the premenopausal baseline and concurrent hot flashes strongly and consistently predicted

  18. Incident hypertension associated with depression in the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment area follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Christina M; Armenian, Haroutune K; Eaton, William W; Ford, Daniel E

    2004-12-01

    This study evaluates the role of depression as a specific risk factor for hypertension. This study analyzed the prospective data in the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) Follow-up Study (n=1920), a longitudinal population-based study of mental illness in East Baltimore. Incident cases of hypertension as assessed by self-report (n=148) in 1993 were compared to the remaining cohort without hypertension (n=901) across three waves of ECA interviews (1981, 1982, 1993). Depression and related symptoms were measured at baseline (1981) by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) and categorized as dysphoria, dysthymia, or major depressive episode (MDE) according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) III criteria. Individuals with a major depressive episode compared to those who reported never having dysphoria had a marginally significant increased risk for hypertension (Odds Ratio (OR)=2.16; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) (0.94,4.98)) after adjustment for age, gender, race, body mass index, Nam-Powers socioeconomic score, alcohol usage, smoking, exercise, diabetes status, and number of general medical visits. MDE reported to have begun more than a year before the baseline measurement was associated with an increased risk for incident hypertension (Adjusted OR=3.67, 95% CI (1.25,10.79). Potential misclassification of self-reported hypertension outcome. Even though the data are based on self-report of hypertension, these findings suggest that depression may be an independent risk factor for hypertension particularly for those with recurrent episodes or a long term history of the disease.

  19. Five-year Nationwide Follow-up Study of Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Stacy; Folkvaljon, Yasin; Makarov, Danil V.; Bratt, Ola; Bill-Axelson, Anna; Stattin, Pár

    2014-01-01

    Background Active surveillance (AS) is an important yet underutilized strategy to reduce prostate cancer (PCa) overtreatment. Objective To examine the 5-yr outcomes of AS in a population-based setting. Design, setting, and participants From the National Prostate Cancer Register of Sweden, we identified 11 726 men ≤70 yr diagnosed with very low-risk to intermediate-risk PCa from 2003 to 2007 who completed 5 yr of follow-up. Of these men, 1729 (15%) chose AS the primary management strategy. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis We calculated the probability of discontinuation of AS over time, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine factors associated with discontinuation. Reasons for discontinuation were assessed by data extraction from medical charts. Results and limitations By 5 yr, 64% of the men remained on AS. Predictors of discontinuation were younger age, fewer comorbidities, more education, higher prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and clinical stage T2 disease; marital status did not predict discontinuation. In a subset with data on the reason for discontinuation (86%), 20% of men discontinued because of patient preference, 52% because of PSA progression, 24% because of biopsy progression, and 3% for other reasons. Conclusions In a population-based setting, the majority of men remained on AS at 5 yr. However, one-fifth of the men who discontinued AS did so for nonbiologic reasons. Thus, there is a need for support and counseling for men to continue AS in the absence of signs of progression to improve adherence to AS and decrease overtreatment. Patient summary Active surveillance (AS) is an important option to delay or avoid treatment for men with favorable prostate cancer features. This study shows that at 5 yr, 64% of men across an entire population remained on AS. We concluded that AS is a durable option and that counseling may be useful to promote adherence for men without progression. PMID:24993868

  20. Risk factors for pancreatic cancer mortality: extended follow-up of the original Whitehall study

    PubMed Central

    Batty, G. David; Kivimaki, Mika; Morrison, David; Huxley, Rachel; Smith, George Davey; Clarke, Robert; Marmot, Michael G.; Shipley, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Given the well-established links between diabetes and elevated rates of pancreatic cancer, there are reasons to anticipate that other markers of metabolic abnormality (raised body mass index, plasma cholesterol, and blood pressure) and their correlates (physical activity and socio-economic status) may also confer increased risk of pancreatic cancer. However, to date, the results of a series of population-based cohort studies are inconclusive. We examined these associations in the original Whitehall cohort study of 17,898 men. A maximum of thirty-eight years of follow-up gave rise to 163 deaths due to carcinoma of the pancreas. While Poisson regression analyses confirmed established risk factor disease associations for increasing age, smoking and type II diabetes, there was essentially no evidence that body mass index (rate ratio; 95% confidence interval per one SD increase: 1.01; 0.86, 1.18), plasma cholesterol (per one SD increase: 0.91; 0.78, 1.07), diastolic blood pressure (per one SD increase: 0.93; 0.78, 1.09), systolic blood pressure (per one SD increase: 0.98; 0.83, 1.15), physical activity (sedentary vs. high: 1.37; 0.89, 2.12), or socio-economic status (clerical[low] vs. professional/executive: 0.95; 0.59, 1.51) offered any predictive value for pancreatic cancer mortality. These results were unchanged following control for a range of covariates. PMID:19190162

  1. Cause-specific mortality by income adequacy in Canada: A 16-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Tjepkema, Michael; Wilkins, Russell; Long, Andrea

    2013-07-01

    People with lower incomes tend to have less favourable health outcomes than do people with higher incomes. Because death registrations in Canada do not contain information about the income of the deceased, vital statistics cannot be used to examine mortality by income at the individual level. However, through record linkage, information on the individual or family income of people followed for mortality can be obtained. Recently, a large, population-based sample of Canadian adults was linked to almost 16 years of mortality data. This study examines cause-specific mortality rates by income adequacy among Canadian adults. It is based on data from the 1991 to 2006 Canadian census mortality and cancer follow-up study, which followed 2.7 million people aged 25 or older at baseline, 426,979 of whom died during the 16-year period. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs), rate ratios, rate differences and excess mortality were calculated by income adequacy quintile for various causes of death. For most causes examined, ASMRs were clearly graded by income: highest among people in the in the lowest income quintile, and lowest among people in the highest income quintile. Inter-quintile rate ratios (quintile 1/quintile 5) were greater than 2.00 for HIV/AIDS, diabetes mellitus, suicide, cancer of the cervix, and causes of death closely associated with smoking and alcohol. These individually based results provide cause-specific information by income adequacy quintile that was not previously available for Canada.

  2. Socializing Intellectual Talk: A Case Study of Instructor Follow-Up Statements in Classroom Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Caroline S.

    2017-01-01

    By analyzing the audio recording and transcription of classroom discourse, this case study focused on the ways in which the instructor used follow-up statements to socialize students into intellectual talk. Four relevant categories of follow-up statements emerged: (a) revoicing, (b) contextualization, (c) parallel elaboration, and (d) assistive…

  3. Follow Up Study of Non College Bound Somerset County High School Graduates June 1990, New Jersey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doty, Charles R.

    A follow-up study sought to determine what happened to the 1990 noncollege-bound graduates of all the high schools in Somerset County, New Jersey. Data were gathered through a mailed survey and telephone follow-up (approximately 45 percent response) of the 408 graduates of the 12 of 13 high schools providing names. Some of the findings from…

  4. Career Program Completers. 1989-90 Long-Term Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson County Community Coll., Overland Park, KS. Office of Institutional Research.

    In summer 1994, a long-term follow-up study was conducted of 1989-90 graduates of career programs at Johnson County Community College (JCCC) in Kansas. A survey was mailed to 536 graduates, certificate holders, and students who left JCCC with marketable skills to assess their satisfaction with JCCC and their jobs. With telephone follow-up, a…

  5. Helicobacter pylori antibody responses in association with eradication outcome and recurrence: a population-based intervention trial with 7.3-year follow-up in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tianyi; Zhang, Yang; Su, Huijuan; Li, Zhexuan; Zhang, Lian; Ma, Junling; Liu, Weidong; Zhou, Tong; You, Weicheng; Pan, Kaifeng

    2017-01-01

    Objective To identify serum biomarkers that may predict the short or long term outcomes of anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) treatment, a follow-up study was performed based on an intervention trial in Linqu County, China. Methods A total of 529 subjects were selected randomly from 1,803 participants to evaluate total anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) and 10 specific antibody levels before and after treatment at 1-, 2- and 7.3-year. The outcomes of anti-H. pylori treatment were also parallelly assessed by13C-urea breath test at 45-d after treatment and 7.3-year at the end of follow-up. Results We found the medians of anti-H. pylori IgG titers were consistently below cut-off value through 7.3 years in eradicated group, however, the medians declined in recurrence group to 1.2 at 1-year after treatment and slightly increased to 2.0 at 7.3-year. While the medians were significantly higher (>3.0 at 2- and 7.3-year) among subjects who failed the eradication or received placebo. For specific antibody responses, baseline seropositivities of FliD and HpaA were reversely associated with eradication failure [for FliD, odds ratio (OR)=0.44, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.27–0.73; for HpaA, OR=0.32, 95% CI: 0.17–0.60]. The subjects with multiple positive specific antibodies at baseline were more likely to be successfully eradicated in a linear fashion (Ptrend=0.006). Conclusions Our study suggested that total anti-H. pylori IgG level may serve as a potential monitor of long-term impact on anti-H. pylori treatment, and priority forH. pylori treatment may be endowed to the subjects with multiple seropositive antibodies at baseline, especially for FliD and HapA. PMID:28536491

  6. A 5-Year Follow-up Study on the Relationship between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Jau-Jiuan; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Lin, Herng-Ching; Kao, Li-Ting; Chung, Shiu-Dong

    2015-12-15

    Sleep disturbances are among the most common nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson disease. However, no large epidemiological data regarding the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Parkinson disease have been reported. The goal of this study was to investigate the risk for Parkinson disease during a 5-y follow-up period after a diagnosis of OSA using a population-based dataset. The data for this retrospective longitudinal cohort study were retrieved from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. We identified 1,532 patients with OSA as the study cohort and randomly selected 7,660 patients as the comparison cohort. Each subject was individually followed up for a 5-y period to identify those in whom Parkinson disease subsequently developed. Stratified Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed as a means of comparing the 5-y risk of subsequent Parkinson disease between the study cohort and comparison cohort. Of the 9,192 total patients, Parkinson disease developed in 0.73% during the 5-y follow-up period: 1.24% and 0.63% in the OSA and control cohorts, respectively. After censoring patients who died during the follow-up period and adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, the hazard ratio (HR) of Parkinson disease during the 5-y follow-up period for patients with OSA was 2.26 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32-3.88) compared with comparison patients. In addition, among females, the adjusted HR of Parkinson disease was 3.54 (95% CI = 1.50-8.34) for patients with OSA compared to patients without OSA. However, among males, there was no significantly increased hazard of Parkinson disease for patients with OSA compared to those without OSA. Female patients with OSA were found to be at a significant risk of subsequent Parkinson disease during a 5-y follow-up period. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  7. Incidence of chronic atrophic gastritis: systematic review and meta-analysis of follow-up studies.

    PubMed

    Adamu, Mariam Abdullahi; Weck, Melanie Nicole; Gao, Lei; Brenner, Hermann

    2010-07-01

    Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is an important precursor lesion of intestinal gastric cancer. As it is typically asymptomatic, epidemiological data on the incidence of CAG are sparse. We aimed to provide an overview of published data on CAG incidence (overall and according to risk factors) from follow-up studies. Articles with information on incidence of CAG published in English until 26th of July 2009 were identified through a systematic MEDLINE and EMBASE search. Data extracted include study characteristics and key findings regarding the incidence of CAG. A meta-analysis was performed on the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and CAG incidence. Overall, data on CAG incidence were available from 14 studies, in 7 studies incidence could be estimated according to H. pylori infection. Most studies were conducted in symptomatic or high risk populations and the maximum number of incident cases was 284. Incidence estimates ranged from 0 to 11% per year and were consistently below 1% in patients not infected with H. pylori. The highest incidence was observed in a special study conducted on ulcer patients treated by proximal gastric vagotomy. Rate ratios for the association between H. pylori infection and CAG incidence ranged from 2.4 to 7.6 with a summary estimate of 5.0 (95% confidence interval: 3.1-8.3). Incidence of CAG is very low in the absence of H. pylori infection. There is a need for more population-based studies to provide comparable estimates of incidence and the impact of risk factors in the development of CAG.

  8. Association of Sasang Constitutional Types with Incident Hypertension: A 12-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Ku; Yoon, Dae Wui; Lee, Si Woo; Kim, Jong Yeol; Kim, Jin Kwan; Cho, Nam Han; Shin, Chol

    2016-09-01

    Sasang constitutional types (SCTs) are four distinct classifications of people based on physiologic and physical characteristics. The different types have been reported to have different disease susceptibility, but there are no studies reporting the association of SCT and hypertension (HTN) over a long-term follow-up period. This study prospectively investigated the association between SCT and incidence of HTN. This was a prospective study in a population-based cohort study in Korea. Data from two independent population-based cohorts that are embedded within the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study were used. A total of 2083 subjects who were free of HTN at baseline were selected for the analysis. HTN was diagnosed as systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥140 mmHg and diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg, use of antihypertensive medication, or diagnosis by doctor. The SCTs were classified using an integrated diagnostic method that included facial features, body shape, voice, and questionnaire responses. The association between the SCT and the incidence of HTN was investigated by Cox proportional hazard regression analysis and calculation of estimated survival functions. The Tae-eum (TE) type showed a significantly increased risk for HTN (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15-2.10; p = 0.005), even after adjusting for all possible confounders. In a stratified analysis by body mass index (BMI) conducted only in the TE type, even those in the TE type with normal BMI had a significantly higher risk for HTN (HR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.07-2.03; p = 0.016). Furthermore, survival analysis showed that the TE type had a higher rate of developing HTN than the So-eum and So-yang types had, regardless of obesity status. These results show that the TE type is an independent risk factor for HTN. Thus, early prevention and treatment for HTN in this type are needed.

  9. Cohort profile of the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study at final follow-up.

    PubMed

    Tamakoshi, Akiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Koji; Sakata, Kiyomi; Mori, Mitsuru; Kikuchi, Shogo; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sakauchi, Fumio; Motohashi, Yutaka; Tsuji, Ichiro; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Mikami, Haruo; Kurosawa, Michiko; Hoshiyama, Yoshiharu; Tanabe, Naohito; Tamakoshi, Koji; Wakai, Kenji; Tokudome, Shinkan; Hashimoto, Shuji; Wada, Yasuhiko; Kawamura, Takashi; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Miki, Tsuneharu; Date, Chigusa; Kurozawa, Yoichi; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Shibata, Akira; Okamoto, Naoyuki; Shio, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk (JACC Study) was established in the late 1980s to evaluate the risk impact of lifestyle factors and levels of serum components on human health. During the 20-year follow-up period, the results of the study have been published in almost 200 original articles in peer-reviewed English-language journals. However, continued follow-up of the study subjects became difficult because of the retirements of principal researchers, city mergers throughout Japan in the year 2000, and reduced funding. Thus, we decided to terminate the JACC Study follow-up at the end of 2009. As a final point of interest, we reviewed the population registry information of survivors. A total of 207 (0.19%) subjects were ineligible, leaving 110 585 eligible participants (46 395 men and 64 190 women). Moreover, errors in coding date of birth and sex were found in 356 (0.32%) and 59 (0.05%) cases, respectively, during routine follow-up and final review. Although such errors were unexpected, their impact is believed to be negligible because of the small numbers relative to the large total study population. Here, we describe the final cohort profile at the end of the JACC Study along with selected characteristics of the participants and their status at the final follow-up. Although follow-up of the JACC Study participants is finished, we will continue to analyze and publish study results.

  10. How is low parental socioeconomic status associated with future smoking and nicotine dependence in offspring? A population-based longitudinal 13-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Willy; Soest, Tilmann Von

    2017-02-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) characterizes smoking and nicotine dependence in adult samples. However, less is known about how parental SES is linked to smoking in offspring and the potential mechanisms at work. A population-based longitudinal study ( n=1380) from Norway was used. Participants were followed from their mid-teens until their late 20s using survey and register data. Data were collected on parental education, parental smoking, educational aspirations and expectations, school grades and school-related conduct problems. Register data monitored education, unemployment and social welfare assistance. Risk factors for smoking and nicotine dependence were identified by means of multinomial logistic regression analyses. Mediation analyses were used to investigate the pathways between parental SES and future smoking. Future smokers were recruited from families with low educational levels. Poor school grades, school dropout and low educational aspirations were also predictors. Unemployment and social welfare assistance additionally increased the risk. Parental smoking, no high school exam and welfare assistance were mediators between low parental education and high levels of nicotine dependence in young adulthood. Socialization to smoking reflects a multifaceted process fuelled by low parental SES. However, parental influences may be masked behind influences from schools or peers. Future research should try to capture the multiple sources of SES-related influence at work. Prevention strategies should target adolescents from low SES backgrounds, who orient towards the manual working class and who have problems entering the labour force.

  11. Health factors and longevity in men and women: a 26-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Axel C; Theobald, Holger; Wändell, Per E

    2010-08-01

    Health factors have the power to prevent and postpone diseases and death; however, studies using the same methodology in both men and women are sparse. We aimed to study the ability of health factors to prevent mortality in a population-based, 26-year follow-up of Swedish men and women. During 1969-70, a health-screening programme was offered to a stratified sample of 3,064 individuals aged 18-64 years to estimate health-care needs. Missing data (largely according to protocol) for physical fitness, BMI, and smoking habits left 935 subjects, 463 men and 472 women. Alcohol consumption in grams per week and BMI was calculated. Tobacco smoking was recorded as yes/no. Multivariate analysis was performed by Cox regression with age adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Moderate alcohol consumption did not lead to any decrease in mortality. Having two health factors halved the mortality risk in men and women (hazard ratio (HR) 0.52, confidence interval (CI) 0.39-0.70). A further risk reduction was seen in men with three health factors (HR 0.17, CI 0.074-0.41). Men had about 70 per cent higher risk of mortality compared with women after adjustments for all health factors (HR 1.67, CI 1.26-2.23). Men compared to women had greater benefit of all three health factors. This in combination with the overall higher mortality risk in men makes a healthy lifestyle more important for them. The benefit of moderate alcohol consumption could not be detected in this study, and may be explained by an unhealthy drinking pattern in Sweden.

  12. Personality and cognitive decline in the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hock, Rebecca S; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Nestadt, Gerald; Samuels, Jack F; Parisi, Jeanine M; Costa, Paul T; Spira, Adam P

    2014-09-01

    To determine the association between personality domains and 11-year cognitive decline in a sample from a population-based study. Data from Waves 3 (1993-1996) and 4 (2003-2004) of the Baltimore cohort of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study were used for analyses. The sample included 561 adults (mean age ± SD: 45.2 ± 10.78 years) who completed the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised prior to Wave 4. Participants also completed the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and immediate and delayed word recall tests at Wave 3, and at Wave 4, 10.9 ± 0.6 years later. In models adjusted for baseline cognitive performance, demographic characteristics, medical conditions, depressive symptoms, and psychotropic medication use, each 10-point increase in Neuroticism T-scores was associated with a 0.15-point decrease in MMSE scores (B = -0.15, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.30, -0.01), whereas each 10-point increase in Conscientiousness T-scores was associated with a 0.18-point increase on the MMSE (B = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.32) and a 0.21-point increase in immediate recall (B = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.003, 0.41) between baseline and follow-up. Findings suggest that greater Neuroticism is associated with decline, and greater Conscientiousness is associated with improvement in performance on measures of general cognitive function and memory in adults. Further studies are needed to determine the extent to which personality traits in midlife are associated with clinically significant cognitive outcomes in older adults, such as mild cognitive impairment and dementia, and to identify potential mediators of the association between personality and cognitive trajectories. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. RETRACTED: Long-term follow-up after abdominal cerclage: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sneider, Kirstine; Christiansen, Ole Bjarne; Sundtoft, Iben Blaabjerg; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2017-03-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief and the Authors as the Authors failed to request and receive permission to use the data from Aarhus Hospital. Copyright © 2017.

  14. Activity Limitations among Young Adults with Developmental Disabilities: A Population-Based Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Kim Van Naarden; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Lollar, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Developmental disabilities are a heterogeneous group of chronic conditions that may result in substantial activity limitations. The type and number of limitations may vary by impairment characteristics. Economic and social constraints may impact activity limitations beyond those attributable to their impairment. Using the International…

  15. Activity Limitations among Young Adults with Developmental Disabilities: A Population-Based Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Kim Van Naarden; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Lollar, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Developmental disabilities are a heterogeneous group of chronic conditions that may result in substantial activity limitations. The type and number of limitations may vary by impairment characteristics. Economic and social constraints may impact activity limitations beyond those attributable to their impairment. Using the International…

  16. Antecedents of teenage pregnancy from a 14-year follow-up study using data linkage.

    PubMed

    Gaudie, Jennifer; Mitrou, Francis; Lawrence, David; Stanley, Fiona J; Silburn, Sven R; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2010-02-11

    Many western nations continue to have high rates of teenage pregnancies and births, which can result in adverse outcomes for both mother and child. This study identified possible antecedents of teenage pregnancy using linked data from administrative sources to create a 14-year follow-up from a cross-sectional survey. Data were drawn from two sources - the 1993 Western Australian Child Health Survey (WACHS), a population-based representative sample of 2,736 children aged 4 to 16 years (1,374 girls); and administrative data relating to all their subsequent births and hospital admissions. We used weighted population estimates to examine differences between rates for teenage pregnancy, motherhood and abortion. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to model risk for teenage pregnancy. There were 155 girls aged less than 20 years at the time of their first recorded pregnancy. Teenage pregnancy was significantly associated with: family type; highest school year completed by primary carer; combined carer income; whether the primary carer was a smoker; and whether the girl herself displayed aggressive and delinquent behaviours. An age-interaction analysis on the association with aggressive and delinquent behaviours found that while girls with aggressive and delinquent behaviours who were older at the time of the survey were at highest risk of teenage pregnancy, there was elevated risk for future teenage pregnancy across all ages. Our findings suggest that interventions to reduce teenage pregnancy rates could be introduced during primary school years, including those that are focused on the prevention and management of aggressive and delinquent behaviour.

  17. Antecedents of teenage pregnancy from a 14-year follow-up study using data linkage

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many western nations continue to have high rates of teenage pregnancies and births, which can result in adverse outcomes for both mother and child. This study identified possible antecedents of teenage pregnancy using linked data from administrative sources to create a 14-year follow-up from a cross-sectional survey. Methods Data were drawn from two sources - the 1993 Western Australian Child Health Survey (WACHS), a population-based representative sample of 2,736 children aged 4 to 16 years (1,374 girls); and administrative data relating to all their subsequent births and hospital admissions. We used weighted population estimates to examine differences between rates for teenage pregnancy, motherhood and abortion. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to model risk for teenage pregnancy. Results There were 155 girls aged less than 20 years at the time of their first recorded pregnancy. Teenage pregnancy was significantly associated with: family type; highest school year completed by primary carer; combined carer income; whether the primary carer was a smoker; and whether the girl herself displayed aggressive and delinquent behaviours. An age-interaction analysis on the association with aggressive and delinquent behaviours found that while girls with aggressive and delinquent behaviours who were older at the time of the survey were at highest risk of teenage pregnancy, there was elevated risk for future teenage pregnancy across all ages. Conclusions Our findings suggest that interventions to reduce teenage pregnancy rates could be introduced during primary school years, including those that are focused on the prevention and management of aggressive and delinquent behaviour. PMID:20149221

  18. Socioeconomic position and participation in baseline and follow-up visits: the Inter99 study.

    PubMed

    Bender, Anne M; Jørgensen, Torben; Helbech, Bodil; Linneberg, Allan; Pisinger, Charlotta

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to identify the extent of socioeconomic inequality in participation at baseline and follow-up visits. The Inter99 study is a randomized intervention with the aim of investigating the effects of an individualized lifestyle consultation on ischaemic heart disease (IHD). The study comprised 61,301 persons of which 13,016 were assigned to the intervention group. The rest formed the control group. All those in the intervention group were invited to participate in health examinations, risk assessments, and lifestyle consultations. Participants at high risk of IHD were invited to follow-up visits after 1, 3, and 5 years. Data on five socioeconomic factors were retrieved from nationwide registers. For each socioeconomic factor we estimated the relative risks and relative index of inequality of participation at the baseline visit and among high-risk participants at follow-up visits. In addition, we conducted analyses of trends in socioeconomic inequality in participation across follow-up visits. Participation rates were 53% at baseline and 61-65% at the three follow-up visits. There was strong socioeconomic inequality in participation at baseline, with increasing probability of participation found with increasing level of socioeconomic position. This was smaller at follow-up visits. Except for education and housing tenure, there was an increase in socioeconomic inequality in participation across follow-up visits. We found strong socioeconomic inequality in participation at baseline and follow-up visits. Effort should be made to increase participation in individualized lifestyle interventions among persons of low socioeconomic position. Otherwise, the consequence may be increased socioeconomic inequality in IHD. © The European Society of Cardiology 2012 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. Behavior Problems and Psychiatric Diagnoses in Girls with Gender Identity Disorder: A Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Kelley D; Bradley, Susan J; Peterson-Badali, Michele; VanderLaan, Doug P; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2017-06-08

    This study evaluated the presence of clinical range behavior problems and psychiatric diagnoses in 25 girls referred for gender identity disorder (GID) in childhood (mean age: 8.88 years) at the time of follow-up in adolescence or adulthood (mean age: 23.2 years). At follow-up, three (12%) of the girls were judged to have persistent GID based on DSM-IV criteria. With regard to behavior problems at follow-up, 39.1% of the girls had a clinical range score on either the Child Behavior Checklist or Adult Behavior Checklist as rated by their mothers, and 33.3% had a clinical range score on either the Youth Self-Report or the Adult Self-Report. On either the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents or the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, the girls had, on average, 2.67 diagnoses (range: 0-10); 46% met criteria for three or more diagnoses. From the childhood assessment, five variables were significantly associated with a composite Psychopathology Index (PI) at follow-up: a lower IQ, living in a non-two-parent or reconstituted family, a composite behavior problem index, and poor peer relations. At follow-up, degree of concurrent homoeroticism and a composite index of gender dysphoria were both associated with the composite PI. Girls with GID show a psychiatric vulnerability at the time of follow-up in late adolescence or adulthood, although there was considerable variation in their general well-being.

  20. Automated telecommunication to obtain longitudinal follow-up in a multicenter cross-sectional COPD study.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jeffrey I; Moyle, Sarah; Criner, Gerard J; Wilson, Carla; Tanner, Ron; Bowler, Russell P; Crapo, James D; Zeldin, Robert K; Make, Barry J; Regan, Elizabeth A; For The Copdgene Investigators

    2012-08-01

    It can be challenging to maintain longitudinal follow-up of subjects in clinical studies. COPDGene is a multicenter, observational study designed to identify genetic factors associated with COPD and to characterize COPD-related phenotypes. To obtain follow-up data on patient's vital status and outcomes, the COPDGene Longitudinal Follow-up (LFU) Program was developed to supplement its parent study. We used a telecommunication system that employed automated telephone contact or web-based questions to obtain longitudinal follow-up data in our subjects. A branching questionnaire asked about exacerbations, new therapies, smoking status, development of co-morbid conditions, and general health status. Study coordinators contacted subjects who did not respond to one of the automated methods. We enrolled 10,383 subjects in the COPDGene study. As of August 29, 2011, 7,959 subjects completed 19,955 surveys. On the first survey, 68.8% of subjects who completed their survey did so by electronic means, while 31.3% required coordinator phone follow-up. On each subsequent survey the number of subjects who completed their survey by electronic means increased, while the number of subjects who required coordinator follow-up decreased. Despite many of the patients in the cohort being chronically ill and elderly, there was broad acceptance of the system with over half the cohort using electronic response methods. The COPDGene LFU Study demonstrated that telecommunications was an effective way to obtain longitudinal follow-up of subjects in a large multicenter study. Web-based and automated phone contacts are accepted by research subjects and could serve as a model for LFU in future studies.

  1. Automated Telecommunication to Obtain Longitudinal Follow-up in a Multicenter Cross-sectional COPD Study

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jeffrey I.; Moyle, Sarah; Criner, Gerard J.; Wilson, Carla; Tanner, Ron; Bowler, Russell P.; Crapo, James D.; Zeldin, Robert K.; Make, Barry J.; Regan, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Background It can be challenging to maintain longitudinal follow-up of subjects in clinical studies. COPDGene is a multicenter, observational study designed to identify genetic factors associated with COPD and to characterize COPD-related phenotypes. To obtain follow-up data on patient's vital status and outcomes, the COPDGene Longitudinal Follow-up (LFU) Program was developed to supplement its parent study. Methods/Results We used a telecommunication system that employed automated telephone contact or web-based questions to obtain longitudinal follow-up data in our subjects. A branching questionnaire asked about exacerbations, new therapies, smoking status, development of co-morbid conditions, and general health status. Study coordinators contacted subjects who did not respond to one of the automated methods. We enrolled 10,383 subjects in the COPDGene study. As of August 29, 2011, 7,959 subjects completed 19,955 surveys. On the first survey, 68.8% of subjects who completed their survey did so by electronic means, while 31.3% required coordinator phone follow-up. On each subsequent survey the number of subjects who completed their survey by electronic means increased, while the number of subjects who required coordinator follow-up decreased. Despite many of the patients in the cohort being chronically ill and elderly, there was broad acceptance of the system with over half the cohort using electronic response methods. Conclusions The COPDGene LFU Study demonstrated that telecommunications was an effective way to obtain longitudinal follow-up of subjects in a large multicenter study. Web-based and automated phone contacts are accepted by research subjects and could serve as a model for LFU in future studies. PMID:22676387

  2. Medication overuse headache: a critical review of end points in recent follow-up studies.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Knut; Jensen, Rigmor; Bøe, Magne Geir; Stovner, Lars Jacob

    2010-10-01

    No guidelines for performing and presenting the results of studies on patients with medication overuse headache (MOH) exist. The aim of this study was to review long-term outcome measures in follow-up studies published in 2006 or later. We included MOH studies with >6 months duration presenting a minimum of one predefined end point. In total, nine studies were identified. The 1,589 MOH patients (22% men) had an overall mean frequency of 25.3 headache days/month at baseline. Headache days/month at the end of follow-up was reported in six studies (mean 13.8 days/month). The decrease was more pronounced for studies including patients with migraine only (-14.6 days/month) compared to studies with the original diagnoses of migraine and tension-type headache (-9.2 days/month). Six studies reported relapse rate (mean of 26%) and/or responder rate (mean of 28%). Medication days/month and change in headache index at the end of follow-up were reported in only one and two of nine studies, respectively. The present review demonstrated a lack of uniform end points used in recently published follow-up studies. Guidelines for presenting follow-up data on MOH are needed and we propose end points such as headache days/month, medication days/month, relapse rate and responder rate defined as ≥50% reduction of headache frequency and/or headache index from baseline.

  3. Albuminuria and its associated biomedical factors among indigenous adults in Far North Queensland: a 7-year follow up study.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; McDermott, Robyn

    2015-12-10

    To document albuminuria prevalence and its associated factors in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (TSI) adults with high renal and metabolic risks from 19 rural and remote north Queensland communities. One thousand nine hundred seventy-one indigenous adults were enrolled in 1998 and 566 completed follow up in 2007 in this population-based study. Measurements included weight, waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), fasting glucose, lipids, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), urinary albumin creatinine ratio (UACR), smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity (PA). Albuminuria was defined as an UACR > =2.5 g/mol in males and > =3.5 g/mol in females. The association between albuminuria and biomedical factors was assessed with generalised linear modelling. Baseline albuminuria prevalence was 19.7 % (95 % CI: 18.0-21.6 %). Follow up prevalence was 42.4 % (95 % CI: 38.4-46.5 %) among the 566 adults having the 2(nd) UACR measurements. Follow-up albuminuria was associated with fasting glucose of 5.4 mmol/L (OR 2.5, 95 % CI 1.5-4.2), GGT tertiles in a dose-response manner (OR 2.0 for 2(nd) and 3.7 for 3(rd) tertile, p for trend <0.001), and abdominal overweight and obesity (OR 2.1, 95 % CI 1.1-3.9 and 5.4, 95 % CI: 2.2-13.5 respectively). Aboriginal people with diabetes were three times more likely of having albuminuria compared to TSI counterparts, while TSI smokers had twice the likelihood (95 % CI 1.2-3.2). At both baseline and follow up, albuminuria was more prevalent among older participants. Indigenous Australians in north Queensland are at high risk of albuminuria. Overweight and obesity, glycaemia, increased GGT, and smoking were associated with albuminuria at baseline and/or follow up.

  4. WHI and WHIMS follow-up and human studies of soy isoflavones on cognition.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liqin; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2007-11-01

    Recent follow-up analyses of the previous findings from the Women's Health Initiative and the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study confirmed some health benefits of estrogen-containing hormone therapy (HT) in women within 10 years from the onset of menopause. However, the potential risks associated with long-term administration of HT, such as breast cancer and stroke, remain a concern for therapy recipients, underlying the need for an alternative treatment that is functionally equivalent but with a greater safety profile. Owing to their structural and functional resemblance to mammalian estrogens and lack of evident adverse effects, research interest in plant-derived phytoestrogens has increased in the past decade. While multiple health-promoting benefits of phytoestrogens have been proposed from basic science, the clinical data remain inconclusive. This review provides a comparative analysis of human studies on the effects of soy-based isoflavones on cognition. Of the eight studies published in 2000-2007, seven were conducted in postmenopausal women, four of which revealed a positive impact of isoflavones on cognitive function. Multiple factors could have contributed to the discrepant outcomes across studies, such as variation in the composition of phytoestrogen interventions and the heterogeneous characteristics of the study population. Thus, a well-designed clinical study based on a standardized stable formulation in a well-characterized study population is required in order to reach a clinical consensus. A formulation composed of select estrogen receptor beta-selective phytoestrogens with a rationally designed composition would avoid the potential antagonism present in a mixture and thus enhance therapeutic efficacy. In addition, inclusion of equol in a study formulation offers a potential synergistic effect from equol in both equol-producing and nonproducing individuals, as well as added benefits for men. With respect to the design of study population, a

  5. What patients think about ICU follow-up services: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Prinjha, Suman; Field, Kate; Rowan, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Introduction UK policy recommendations advocate the use of intensive care unit (ICU) follow-up services to help detect and treat patients' physical and emotional problems after hospital discharge and as a means of service evaluation. This study explores patients' perceptions and experiences of these services. Methods Thirty-four former ICU patients were recruited throughout the UK, using maximum variation sampling to achieve as broad a range of experiences of the ICU as possible. Participants were interviewed at home by a qualitative researcher unconnected to their hospital care. Interviews were recorded and transcribed for analysis. We report a qualitative thematic analysis of patients' experiences of ICU follow up. Results Former patients said they valued ICU follow-up services, which had made an important contribution to their physical, emotional and psychological recovery in terms of continuity of care, receiving information, gaining expert reassurance and giving feedback to ICU staff. Continuity of care included having tests and being monitored, referrals to other specialists and ICU follow-up appointments soon after hospital discharge. Information about physical, emotional and psychological recovery was particularly important to patients, as was information that helped them make sense of their ICU experience. Those without access to ICU follow-up care often felt abandoned or disappointed because they had no opportunity to be monitored, referred or get more information. Conclusions Former patients value having ICU follow-up services but many found that their healthcare needs were unmet because hospitals were unable to provide the aftercare they required. Most participants were aware of the financial constraints on the health system. Although they valued ICU follow-up care, they did not want it to continue indefinitely, with many of them declining appointment invitations when they themselves felt they no longer needed them. PMID:19338653

  6. What patients think about ICU follow-up services: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Prinjha, Suman; Field, Kate; Rowan, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    UK policy recommendations advocate the use of intensive care unit (ICU) follow-up services to help detect and treat patients' physical and emotional problems after hospital discharge and as a means of service evaluation. This study explores patients' perceptions and experiences of these services. Thirty-four former ICU patients were recruited throughout the UK, using maximum variation sampling to achieve as broad a range of experiences of the ICU as possible. Participants were interviewed at home by a qualitative researcher unconnected to their hospital care. Interviews were recorded and transcribed for analysis. We report a qualitative thematic analysis of patients' experiences of ICU follow up. Former patients said they valued ICU follow-up services, which had made an important contribution to their physical, emotional and psychological recovery in terms of continuity of care, receiving information, gaining expert reassurance and giving feedback to ICU staff. Continuity of care included having tests and being monitored, referrals to other specialists and ICU follow-up appointments soon after hospital discharge. Information about physical, emotional and psychological recovery was particularly important to patients, as was information that helped them make sense of their ICU experience. Those without access to ICU follow-up care often felt abandoned or disappointed because they had no opportunity to be monitored, referred or get more information. Former patients value having ICU follow-up services but many found that their healthcare needs were unmet because hospitals were unable to provide the aftercare they required. Most participants were aware of the financial constraints on the health system. Although they valued ICU follow-up care, they did not want it to continue indefinitely, with many of them declining appointment invitations when they themselves felt they no longer needed them.

  7. Oral health follow-up studies in the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study: methodology and principal results

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Marco A.; Barros, Aluísio Jardim; Peres, Karen Glazer; Araújo, Cora Luiza; Menezes, Ana M. B.; Hallal, Pedro C.; Victora, Cesar G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe oral health follow-up studies nested in a birth cohort. A population-based birth cohort was launched in 1993 in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Two oral health follow-up studies were conducted at six (n = 359) and 12 (n = 339) years of age. A high response rate was observed at 12 years of age; 94.4% of the children examined at six years of age were restudied in 2005. The mean DMF-T index at age 12 was 1.2 (SD = 1.6) for the entire sample, ranging from 0.6 (SD = 1.1) for children that were caries-free at age six, 1.3 (SD = 1.5) for those with 1-3 carious teeth at six years, and 1.8 (SD = 1.8) for those with 4-19 carious teeth at six years (p < 0.01). The number of individuals with severe malocclusions at 12 years was proportional to the number of malocclusions at six years. Oral health problems in early adolescence were more prevalent in individuals with dental problems at six years of age. PMID:20963297

  8. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Follow-up Study of Psychosocial Adjustment and Community Reintegration

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Borisova, Ivelina Ivanova; Williams, Timothy Philip; Brennan, Robert T.; Whitfield, T. Hatch; de la Soudiere, Marie; Williamson, John; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    This is the first prospective study to investigate psychosocial adjustment in male and female former child soldiers (n=156, 12% female). The study began in Sierra Leone in 2002 and was designed to examine both risk and protective factors in psychosocial adjustment. Over the two-year period of follow up, youth who had wounded or killed others during the war demonstrated increases in hostility. Youth who survived rape had higher levels of anxiety and hostility, but also demonstrated greater confidence and prosocial attitudes at follow up. Of the potential protective resources examined, improved community acceptance was associated with reduced depression at follow up and improved confidence and prosocial attitudes regardless of levels of violence exposure. Retention in school was also associated with greater prosocial attitudes. PMID:20636683

  9. Sierra Leone's former child soldiers: a follow-up study of psychosocial adjustment and community reintegration.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Borisova, Ivelina Ivanova; Williams, Timothy Philip; Brennan, Robert T; Whitfield, Theodore H; de la Soudiere, Marie; Williamson, John; Gilman, Stephen E

    2010-01-01

    This is the first prospective study to investigate psychosocial adjustment in male and female former child soldiers (ages 10-18; n = 156, 12% female). The study began in Sierra Leone in 2002 and was designed to examine both risk and protective factors in psychosocial adjustment. Over the 2-year period of follow-up, youth who had wounded or killed others during the war demonstrated increases in hostility. Youth who survived rape not only had higher levels of anxiety and hostility but also demonstrated greater confidence and prosocial attitudes at follow-up. Of the potential protective resources examined, improved community acceptance was associated with reduced depression at follow-up and improved confidence and prosocial attitudes regardless of levels of violence exposure. Retention in school was also associated with greater prosocial attitudes.

  10. Timing of discharge follow-up for acute pulmonary embolism: retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Vinson, David R; Ballard, Dustin W; Huang, Jie; Rauchwerger, Adina S; Reed, Mary E; Mark, Dustin G

    2015-01-01

    Historically, emergency department (ED) patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) have been admitted for several days of inpatient care. Growing evidence suggests that selected ED patients with PE can be safely discharged home after a short length of stay. However, the optimal timing of follow up is unknown. We hypothesized that higher-risk patients with short length of stay (<24 hours from ED registration) would more commonly receive expedited follow up (≤3 days). This retrospective cohort study included adults treated for acute PE in six community EDs. We ascertained the PE Severity Index risk class (for 30-day mortality), facility length of stay, the first follow-up clinician encounter, unscheduled return ED visits ≤3 days, 5-day PE-related readmissions, and 30-day all-cause mortality. Stratifying by risk class, we used multivariable analysis to examine age- and sex-adjusted associations between length of stay and expedited follow up. The mean age of our 175 patients was 63.2 (±16.8) years. Overall, 93.1% (n=163) of our cohort received follow up within one week of discharge. Fifty-six patients (32.0%) were sent home within 24 hours and 100 (57.1%) received expedited follow up, often by telephone (67/100). The short and longer length-of-stay groups were comparable in age and sex, but differed in rates of low-risk status (63% vs 37%; p<0.01) and expedited follow up (70% vs 51%; p=0.03). After adjustment, we found that short length of stay was independently associated with expedited follow up in higher-risk patients (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.5; 95% CI [1.0-11.8]; p=0.04), but not in low-risk patients (aOR 2.2; 95% CI [0.8-5.7]; p=0.11). Adverse outcomes were uncommon (<2%) and were not significantly different between the two length-of-stay groups. Higher-risk patients with acute PE and short length of stay more commonly received expedited follow up in our community setting than other groups of patients. These practice patterns are associated with low rates of

  11. Adolescents' Declining Motivation to Learn Science: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedder-Weiss, Dana; Fortus, David

    2012-01-01

    This is a mix methods follow-up study in which we reconfirm the findings from an earlier study [Vedder-Weiss & Fortus [2011] "Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 48(2)", 199-216]. The findings indicate that adolescents' declining motivation to learn science, which was found in many previous studies [Galton [2009] "Moving to…

  12. Nursing Education Follow-Up Study--1982 R.N.'s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David C.

    In 1982, a follow-up study of nursing graduates of the Bakersfield College Registered Nursing (RN) program was conducted to obtain information that would lead to improvement in program quality and to a better match between supply and demand in the local nursing labor market. In addition, the study compared results with similar studies conducted…

  13. Nursing Education Follow-Up Study--1982 R.N.'s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David C.

    In 1982, a follow-up study of nursing graduates of the Bakersfield College Registered Nursing (RN) program was conducted to obtain information that would lead to improvement in program quality and to a better match between supply and demand in the local nursing labor market. In addition, the study compared results with similar studies conducted…

  14. Diagnosis delay and follow-up strategies in colorectal cancer. Prognosis implications: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Controversy exists with regard to the impact that the different components of diagnosis delay may have on the degree of invasion and prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer. The follow-up strategies after treatment also vary considerably. The aims of this study are: a) to determine if the symptoms-to-diagnosis interval and the treatment delay modify the survival of patients with colorectal cancer, and b) to determine if different follow-up strategies are associated with a higher survival rate. Methods/Design Multi-centre study with prospective follow-up in five regions in Spain (Galicia, Balearic Islands, Catalonia, Aragón and Valencia) during the period 2010-2012. Incident cases are included with anatomopathological confirmation of colorectal cancer (International Classification of Diseases 9th revision codes 153-154) that formed a part of a previous study (n = 953). At the time of diagnosis, each patient was given a structured interview. Their clinical records will be reviewed during the follow-up period in order to obtain information on the explorations and tests carried out after treatment, and the progress of these patients. Symptoms-to-diagnosis interval is defined as the time calculated from the diagnosis of cancer and the first symptoms attributed to cancer. Treatment delay is defined as the time elapsed between diagnosis and treatment. In non-metastatic patients treated with curative intention, information will be obtained during the follow-up period on consultations performed in the digestive, surgery and oncology departments, as well as the endoscopies, tumour markers and imaging procedures carried out. Local recurrence, development of metastases in the follow-up, appearance of a new tumour and mortality will be included as outcome variables. Actuarial survival analysis with Kaplan-Meier curves, Cox regression and competitive risk survival analysis will be performed. Discussion This study will make it possible to verify if the different

  15. A four-year follow-up study in fibromyalgia. Relationship to chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nørregaard, J; Bülow, P M; Prescott, E; Jacobsen, S; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    1993-01-01

    The primary objectives of this study were to examine to what extent fibromyalgia patients later on developed presumpted causative somatic diseases and to examine symptoms and muscle strength some years after the diagnosis of fibromyalgia was established. A secondary objective was to describe the overlap between fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. Only in two of 91 the muscle pain was found to be caused by another somatic disease during the median 4 year follow-up period. In one of the 83 attending subjects a somatic disease associated with muscle symptoms was established at the follow-up visit. 60 out of 83 reported increased pain, 8 reported improvement of pain. The 83 subjects showed no significant fall in muscle strength during the follow-up period. The majority reported severe fatigue but only one fifth fulfilled the proposed chronic fatigue syndrome criteria.

  16. Consistent detection of mid-sagittal planes for follow-up MR brain studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiwen; Zhang, Li

    2008-03-01

    The mid-sagittal plane (MSP) is a commonly used anatomic landmark for standardized MR brain acquisition. In addition to the requirement of accurate detection of the MSP geometry, it is also imperative from clinical point of view to consistently prescribe scan planning for evaluation of pathology process in follow-up studies. In this work, an adaptive technique of scan planning has been developed to enforce the consistency among scans acquired at different time points from the same patient by maximizing image similarity in the proximity of MSP. The geometry parameters of the MSP of current study are optimized by simplex algorithm to achieve better similarity to the reference study. Meanwhile different similarity measures are studied and evaluated within the region of the interest of each MSP. The method is successfully tested on self-reference consistency study by manually setting the reference sagittal image. It is also tested with clinical follow-up studies of MR images acquired from 30 patients. By visual inspection, the adaptive consistency method improves the similarity to the reference images in 22 follow-up studies evidently, while the similarity to the reference images in 7 studies improves slightly. This result demonstrates the efficacy of our method on consistent detection of mid-sagittal planes for follow-up MR brain study.

  17. Follow-up study using iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging in a patient with neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ikekubo, K.; Habuchi, Y.; Jeong, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Saiki, Y.; Ito, H.; Hino, M.; Higa, T.

    1986-11-01

    A new radiopharmaceutical, I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG) was used to determine the location and to follow-up tumors in a 13-month-old girl with neuroblastoma. I-131 MIBG imaging revealed both a primary abdominal tumor and a distant metastatic orbital tumor. Follow-up study with I-131 MIBG imaging demonstrated significant resolution of tumors after external radiotherapy and chemotherapy. I-131 MIBG imaging is a simple, safe, and specific method of determining the location of tumors and also is clinically useful in the evaluation and management of patients with neuroblastoma.

  18. [Peculiarities of social adaptation in adolescents with schizoid personality disorder: a follow-up study].

    PubMed

    Borisova, D Iu

    2007-01-01

    A sample of 63 adolescents with schizoid personality disorder, aged 15-17 years, 58 males and 5 females, was followed up for a period of 3-8 years and re-examined at the age of 20-25. The patients were examined in a psychoneurologic out-patient center due to social maladaptation. The follow-up study revealed the improvement of social adaptation with an extremely low percent (5%) of schizophrenia manifestations. A number of clinical factors significant for the future social functioning of schizoid adolescents was found. A strategy of psychocorrection and sociotherapeutic care for the patients is worked out.

  19. A follow up study of vascular disorders in vibration-exposed forestry workers.

    PubMed

    Bovenzi, Massimo

    2008-02-01

    To investigate the occurrence of vibration-induced white finger (VWF) and the cold response of digital arteries in a group of forestry workers, most of whom had used anti-vibration (AV) chain saws solely. One hundred and twenty-eight forestry workers underwent initially a medical examination and a standardized cold test with measurement of the change in finger systolic blood pressure after finger cooling from 30 to 10 degrees C (FSBP%(10 degrees )). They were re-examined two or three times over the calendar period 1990-1999. Seventy-one forestry workers were active over the entire follow up period, while 57 retired after 1-8 years from the initial investigation. The initial prevalence and the cumulative incidence of VWF over the follow up period were 26.6 and 11.7%, respectively. In the retired workers, the new cases of VWF occurred before their retirement, that is when they were still active. There were no significant changes in FSBP%(10 degrees ) in the active forestry workers over the follow up period. A significant increased in FSBP%(10 degrees ) (i.e. improvement) was observed in the retired workers at the end of the follow up. FSBP%(10 degrees ) at the cross-sectional investigation was significantly lower in the forestry workers who developed VWF during the follow up than in those who never experienced finger blanching over the study period. The findings of this follow up study suggest that forestry workers with work experience limited to AV chain saws are still at risk of developing VWF. Cessation of vibration exposure in the retired workers was associated with a beneficial effect on the cold response of digital arteries. Cold-induced digital arterial hyperresponsiveness at the initial investigation was a predictive factor for the onset of VWF over time.

  20. A Qualitative Follow-Up Study of a Training Program in Curriculum-Based Vocational Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safarik, Lynn

    A qualitative follow-up study was conducted to determine the impacts of a program to train teachers in the use of curriculum-based vocational assessment (CBVA) for students with handicaps. The study examined the extent to which CBVA training content was used in the organization and delivery of assessment services to students with handicaps at the…

  1. Ten Years Later: A Follow-Up Study of Professors Still Working after Age 70

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorfman, Lorraine T.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of the end of mandatory retirement on professors over the long term. This follow-up study investigated the ten-year experience of professors who chose not to retire from a major research university after the elimination of the age 70 mandatory retirement in 1994. The initial interview study was conducted in 1998…

  2. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Follow-Up Study of Psychosocial Adjustment and Community Reintegration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Borisova, Ivelina Ivanova; Williams, Timothy Philip; Brennan, Robert T.; Whitfield, Theodore H.; de la Soudiere, Marie; Williamson, John; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first prospective study to investigate psychosocial adjustment in male and female former child soldiers (ages 10-18; n = 156, 12% female). The study began in Sierra Leone in 2002 and was designed to examine both risk and protective factors in psychosocial adjustment. Over the 2-year period of follow-up, youth who had wounded or killed…

  3. Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study Second Follow-up (BPS:90/94) Final Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Daniel J.; And Others

    This document provides a summary and evaluation of the methodological procedures and results of the full-scale implementation of the Beginning Postsecondary Student Longitudinal Study Second Follow-up, 1990-94 (BPS:90/94). The study was conducted for the National Center for Education Statistics by Research Triangle Institute with the assistance of…

  4. Sources of Validity Evidence for Educational and Psychological Tests: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cizek, Gregory J.; Bowen, Daniel; Church, Keri

    2010-01-01

    This study followed up on previous work that examined the incidence of reporting evidence based on test consequences in "Mental Measurements Yearbook". In the present study, additional possible outlets for what has been called "consequential validity" evidence were investigated, including all articles published in the past 10 years in several…

  5. Pre-Placement Anxiety among Foundation-Year MSW Students: A Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal Gelman, Caroline; Lloyd, Chrishana M.

    2008-01-01

    This Field Note presents a follow-up to a pilot study that explored pre-field placement anxiety for 1st-year MSW students. Previous studies report that students experience significant anxiety as they anticipate their field placement, and research indicates that anxiety has the potential to affect learning. A sample of 204 students reported…

  6. Personnel Needs in School Psychology: A 10-Year Follow-Up Study on Predicted Personnel Shortages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Jose M.; Curtis, Michael J.; Tan, Sim Yin

    2014-01-01

    Concerns regarding whether a sufficient supply of school psychologists exists have been evident for decades. Studies have predicted that school psychology would face a critical personnel shortage that would peak in 2010, but continue into the foreseeable future. The current study is a 10-year follow-up investigation based on previously published…

  7. Ten Years Later: A Follow-Up Study of Professors Still Working after Age 70

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorfman, Lorraine T.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of the end of mandatory retirement on professors over the long term. This follow-up study investigated the ten-year experience of professors who chose not to retire from a major research university after the elimination of the age 70 mandatory retirement in 1994. The initial interview study was conducted in 1998…

  8. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Follow-Up Study of Psychosocial Adjustment and Community Reintegration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Borisova, Ivelina Ivanova; Williams, Timothy Philip; Brennan, Robert T.; Whitfield, Theodore H.; de la Soudiere, Marie; Williamson, John; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first prospective study to investigate psychosocial adjustment in male and female former child soldiers (ages 10-18; n = 156, 12% female). The study began in Sierra Leone in 2002 and was designed to examine both risk and protective factors in psychosocial adjustment. Over the 2-year period of follow-up, youth who had wounded or killed…

  9. A Follow-up Study of Returning Students--A Concentration on Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotsky, Frances; Ohm, Susan

    The office of Services for Returning Students (SRS) at the University of Texas (U.T.) at Austin conducted a follow-up study of men and women students who had visited the office from February 1969 to the end of 1971. The study ascertained the average interval between periods of formal education, the fulfillment of educational goals, and the use of…

  10. Sources of Validity Evidence for Educational and Psychological Tests: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cizek, Gregory J.; Bowen, Daniel; Church, Keri

    2010-01-01

    This study followed up on previous work that examined the incidence of reporting evidence based on test consequences in "Mental Measurements Yearbook". In the present study, additional possible outlets for what has been called "consequential validity" evidence were investigated, including all articles published in the past 10 years in several…

  11. Perceived Levels of Cultural Competence for School Social Workers: A Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teasley, Martell L.; Archuleta, Adrian; Miller, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to report on findings from a follow-up study that examined the relationship among social work education programs, postgraduate professional development, and school social workers' perceived levels of cultural competence in practice with urban minority youth. The initial study demonstrated that African Americans…

  12. Dr. Leary's Concord Prison Experiment: a 34-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Doblin, R

    1998-01-01

    This study is a long-term follow-up to the Concord Prison Experiment, one of the best-known studies in the psychedelic psychotherapy literature. The Concord Prison Experiment was conducted from 1961 to 1963 by a team of researchers at Harvard University under the direction of Timothy Leary. The original study involved the administration of psilocybin-assisted group psychotherapy to 32 prisoners in an effort to reduce recidivism rates. This follow-up study involved a search through the state and federal criminal justice system records of 21 of the original 32 subjects, as well as personal interviews with two of the subjects and three of the researchers: Timothy Leary, Ralph Metzner and Gunther Weil. The results of the follow-up study indicate that published claims of a treatment effect were erroneous. This follow-up study supports the emphasis in the original reports on the necessity of embedding psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy with inmates within a comprehensive treatment plan that includes post-release, nondrug group support programs. Despite substantial efforts by the experimental team to provide post-release support, these services were not made sufficiently available to the subjects in this study. Whether a new program of psilocybin-assisted group psychotherapy and post-release programs would significantly reduce recidivism rates is an empirical question that deserves to be addressed within the context of a new experiment.

  13. A five-year follow-up study of Swedish adults with gender identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Annika; Sundbom, Elisabet; Höjerback, Torvald; Bodlund, Owe

    2010-12-01

    This follow-up study evaluated the outcome of sex reassignment as viewed by both clinicians and patients, with an additional focus on the outcome based on sex and subgroups. Of a total of 60 patients approved for sex reassignment, 42 (25 male-to-female [MF] and 17 female-to-male [FM]) transsexuals completed a follow-up assessment after 5 or more years in the process or 2 or more years after completed sex reassignment surgery. Twenty-six (62%) patients had an early onset and 16 (38%) patients had a late onset; 29 (69%) patients had a homosexual sexual orientation and 13 (31%) patients had a non-homosexual sexual orientation (relative to biological sex). At index and follow-up, a semi-structured interview was conducted. At follow-up, 32 patients had completed sex reassignment surgery, five were still in process, and five-following their own decision-had abstained from genital surgery. No one regretted their reassignment. The clinicians rated the global outcome as favorable in 62% of the cases, compared to 95% according to the patients themselves, with no differences between the subgroups. Based on the follow-up interview, more than 90% were stable or improved as regards work situation, partner relations, and sex life, but 5-15% were dissatisfied with the hormonal treatment, results of surgery, total sex reassignment procedure, or their present general health. Most outcome measures were rated positive and substantially equal for MF and FM. Late-onset transsexuals differed from those with early onset in some respects: these were mainly MF (88 vs. 42%), older when applying for sex reassignment (42 vs. 28 years), and non-homosexually oriented (56 vs. 15%). In conclusion, almost all patients were satisfied with the sex reassignment; 86% were assessed by clinicians at follow-up as stable or improved in global functioning.

  14. Depressive symptoms in first-episode psychosis: a 10-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Nasrettin; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Evensen, Julie; Barder, Helene Eidsmo; Haahr, Ulrik; Ten Velden Hegelstad, Wenche; Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Langeveld, Hans; Larsen, Tor Ketil; Melle, Ingrid; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Simonsen, Erik; Vaglum, Per; McGlashan, Thomas; Friis, Svein

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined if any patient characteristics at baseline predicted depressive symptoms at 10 years and whether patients prone to depressive symptoms in the first year of treatment had a different prognosis in the following years. A total of 299 first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were assessed for depressive symptoms with PANSS depression item (g6) at baseline, and 1, 2, 5 and 10 years of follow up. At 10 years, depressive symptoms were also assessed with Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). A PANSS g6 ≥ 4 and CDSS score ≥ 6 were used as a cut-off score for depression. A total of 122 (41%) patients were scored as depressed at baseline, 75 (28%) at 1 year, 50 (20%) at 2 years, 33 (16%) at 5 years, and 35 (19%) at 10 years of follow up. Poor childhood social functioning and alcohol use at baseline predicted depression at 10 years of follow up. Thirty-eight patients were depressed at both baseline and 1 year follow up. This group had poorer symptomatic and functional outcome in the follow-up period compared to a group of patients with no depression in the first year of treatment. Depressive symptoms are frequent among FEP patients at baseline but decrease after treatment because their general symptoms have been initiated. Patients with poor social functioning in childhood and alcohol use at baseline are more prone to have depressive symptoms at 10 years of follow up. Patients struggling with depressive symptoms in the first year of treatment should be identified as having poorer long-term prognosis. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. A follow-up study of heroin addicts (VEdeTTE2): study design and protocol

    PubMed Central

    Vigna-Taglianti, Federica D; Mathis, Federica; Diecidue, Roberto; Burroni, Paola; Iannaccone, Antonio; Lampis, Fabio; Zuccaro, Piergiorgio; Pacifici, Roberta; Versino, Elisabetta; Davoli, Marina; Faggiano, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    Background In Italy, a large cohort study (VEdeTTE1) was conducted between 1998–2001 to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments in reducing mortality and increasing treatment retention among heroin addicts. The follow-up of this cohort (VEdeTTE2) was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments on long-term outcomes, such as rehabilitation and social re-integration. The purpose of this paper is to describe the protocol of the VEdeTTE2 study, and to present the results of the pilot study carried out to assess the feasibility of the study and to improve study procedures. Methods The source population for the VEdeTTE2 study was the VEdeTTE1 cohort, from which a sample of 2,200 patients, traced two or more years after enrolment in the cohort, were asked to participate. An interview investigates drug use; overdose; family and social re-integration. Illegal activity are investigated separately in a questionnaire completed by the patient. Patients are also asked to provide a hair sample to test for heroin and cocaine use. Information on treatments and HIV, HBV and HCV morbidity are obtained from clinical records. A pilot phase was planned and carried out on 60 patients. Results The results of the pilot phase pointed out the validity of the procedures designed to limit attrition: the number of traced subjects was satisfactory (88%). Moreover, the pilot phase was very useful in identifying possible causes of delays and attrition, and flaws in the instruments. Improvements to the procedures and the instruments were subsequently implemented. Sensitivity of the biological test was quite good for heroin (78%) but lower for cocaine (42.3%), highlighting the need to obtain a hair sample from all patients. Conclusion In drug addiction research, studies investigating health status and social re-integration of subjects at long-term follow-up are lacking. The VEdeTTE2 study aims to investigate these outcomes at long-term follow-up. Results of the pilot phase underline the

  16. Follow-Up Study of 1990 Dental Hygiene Graduates. Volume XX, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Marianne; Lucas, John A.

    In a continuing effort to measure the quality of their Dental Hygiene program, explore the need for changes, and substantiate the program's goals for accreditation standards, a follow-up study was conducted of the 1990 Dental Hygiene program graduates from William Rainey Harper (WRHC) College in Palatine, Illinois. A survey was mailed to all 30…

  17. Follow-Up Study of 1989 Dental Hygiene Graduates. Volume XIX, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Marianne; Lucas, John A.

    In a continuing effort to measure the quality of their Dental Hygiene program, explore the need for changes, and substantiate the program's goals for accreditation standards, a follow-up study was conducted of the 1989 Dental Hygiene program graduates from William Rainey Harper College (WRHC). A survey was mailed to all 29 associate degree…

  18. Follow-Up Study of 1988 Dental Hygiene Graduates. Volume XVII, No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Marianne; Flaherty, Toni

    In 1989, a follow-up study was conducted of the 1988 graduates of William Rainey Harper College's (WRHC's) Dental Hygiene program in order to measure the quality of the program, explore the need for changes, and substantiate the program's goals for accreditation standards. A survey was mailed to all 27 associate degree graduates, requesting…

  19. Follow-Up Study of 1991 Dental Hygiene Graduates. Volume XXI, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Marianne; Lucas, John A.

    In a continuing effort to measure the quality of their Dental Hygiene program, explore the need for changes, and substantiate the program's goals for accreditation standards, a follow-up study was conducted of the 1991 Dental Hygiene program graduates from William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) in Palatine, Illinois. Surveys were mailed to all 28…

  20. Follow-Up Study of 1992 Dental Hygiene Graduates. Volume XXII, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Marianne; Lucas, John A.

    In a continuing effort to measure the quality of their Dental Hygiene program, explore the need for changes, and substantiate the program's goals for accreditation standards, a follow-up study was conducted of the 1992 Dental Hygiene program graduates from William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) in Palatine, Illinois. Surveys were mailed to all 29…

  1. Follow-Up Study of 1987 Dental Hygiene Graduates. Volume XVII, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Marianne; Flaherty, Toni

    In 1988, a follow-up study was performed of the 1987 graduates of the Dental Hygiene program of William Rainey Harper College (WRHC), in Illinois, in order to determine the quality of the program and the need for changes, and to substantiate the program's goals for accreditation standards. A survey was mailed to all of the 1987 dental hygiene…

  2. Follow-Up Study of 1993 Dental Hygiene Graduates. Volume XXII, Number 17, June 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Marianne; Lucas, John A.

    In an effort to evaluate the effectiveness of its dental hygiene program, William Rainey Harper College (WRHC), in Palatine, Illinois, conducted a follow-up study of its dental hygiene students. The survey instrument was mailed to all 31 1993 dental hygiene associate degree graduates, and a response rate of 97% (n=30) was attained. Results of the…

  3. A Follow-Up Study of Veterans Two Years After Vietnam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nace, Edgar P.; And Others

    This follow-up study of 202 Vietnam veterans from the Philadelphia Metropolitan area focuses on: (1) the current level of alcohol use; (2) depressive symptomatology as measured by a standardized and validated instrument; and (3) the relationship between preservice variables and addiction status in Vietnam to postservice adjustment. Data pertaining…

  4. Curiosity and Exploratory Behavior in Disadvantaged Children: A Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minuchin, Patricia P.

    In a follow-up study of curiosity and exploratory behavior, subjects were 18 disadvantaged inner-city black children who had been observed at age four in their first year of a Head Start program, and who were now finishing first grade. Data were obtained from teachers, observations in the classrooms, and an individual session with each child. Each…

  5. The Preschool Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Study (PATS) 6-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Mark A.; Yershova, Kseniya; Lazzaretto, Deborah; Paykina, Natalya; Yenokyan, Gayane; Greenhill, Laurence; Abikoff, Howard; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Tim; McCracken, James T.; Kollins, Scott H.; Murray, Desiree W.; Wigal, Sharon; Kastelic, Elizabeth; McGough, James J.; dosReis, Susan; Bauzo-Rosario, Audrey; Stehli, Annamarie; Posner, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinical course of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom severity and diagnosis from ages 3 to 5 up to 9 to 12 years during a 6-year follow-up after the original Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS). Method: A total of 207 participants (75% male) from the original PATS, assessed at baseline (mean age,…

  6. Self-Assessment for Career Change: Does It Really Work? A Follow-up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiant, Allen A.; Hutchinson, Ronald C.

    To examine the impact of evaluating one's transferable skills on subsequent employment experiences, a follow-up study compared past participants in Columbia University's Deep Investigation of Growth (DIG) program with a group of non-participants and a pre-program group. The program guides participants through a self-analysis process to identify…

  7. Follow-Up Study of Dietetic Technician Graduates 1980-1982. Volume 12, No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebert, Henriette D.; Lucas, John A.

    A follow-up study was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) to evaluate and obtain externally required information about the dietetic technician program. Surveys were mailed to all 47 of the students who graduated from the program between 1980 and 1982 to obtain information on their employment status, job title, length of service,…

  8. Exploring "Successful" Outcomes of Entrepreneurship Education: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Laura; Kapasi, Isla; Whittam, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    During 2005-2006 entrepreneurship students in several UK universities completed a survey about their background and career intentions. This paper reports, eight years on, on a follow-up study with ten of these participants, with the aim of exploring the students' intentions and subsequent actions since graduating. Using a qualitative methodology,…

  9. A Follow-Up Study of the Oregon Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahti, Janet; And Others

    In 1973 the Children's Services Division (Oregon State) initiated a project to reduce the backlog of children in indeterminate status by developing more Permanent alternative placements. This follow-up study evaluates the placements of foster children who returned to their parents, were adopted, or remained in foster care. A literature review…

  10. The Preschool Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Study (PATS) 6-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Mark A.; Yershova, Kseniya; Lazzaretto, Deborah; Paykina, Natalya; Yenokyan, Gayane; Greenhill, Laurence; Abikoff, Howard; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Tim; McCracken, James T.; Kollins, Scott H.; Murray, Desiree W.; Wigal, Sharon; Kastelic, Elizabeth; McGough, James J.; dosReis, Susan; Bauzo-Rosario, Audrey; Stehli, Annamarie; Posner, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinical course of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom severity and diagnosis from ages 3 to 5 up to 9 to 12 years during a 6-year follow-up after the original Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS). Method: A total of 207 participants (75% male) from the original PATS, assessed at baseline (mean age,…

  11. Follow-Up Study of the Fall 1984 Sierra College Dropouts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Donald A.

    A follow-up study was conducted at Sierra College (California) to determine why students who dropped out of all of their classes during fall 1984 left the college. The dropout population included 1,549 students, of whom only 374 (27%) returned to college in spring 1985. A survey instrument was sent to all withdrawing students, requesting…

  12. Long-Term Follow-up Study of Children Developmentally Retarded by Early Environmental Deprivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujinaga, Tamotsu; And Others

    This paper reports on a 14-year follow-up study of two developmentally retarded Japanese children, a brother and sister, who had been kept shut up in a small shack before being rescued (at ages 5 and 6 respectively). Following birth they consistently suffered malnutrition, maternal deprivation, social isolation from adults, language deprivation,…

  13. Follow-Up Study of Children Referred to Developmental Evaluation Services for Children (DESC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Judith A.; Hebbeler, Kathleen M.

    Developmental Evaluation Services for Children (DESC) provides in-depth medical and educational diagnostic services for children in Montgomery County, Maryland, who are under 6 years of age and who are suspected of having handicapping conditions in two or more areas of development. This follow-up study was designed to determine the progress of…

  14. Handbook of Instructions for Conducting Follow-Up Studies of High School Graduates. Book I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Evelyn T. Comp.; And Others

    This handbook is designed to enable high schools to conduct follow-up studies on their graduates for 5 years after graduation. The information gathered should give schools pertinent data about: (1) post high school activities of graduates; (2) reactions of graduates to counseling and guidance opportunities; (3) reactions of graduates to…

  15. A Follow-Up Study of the ABRACADABRA Web-Based Literacy Intervention in Grade 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Stasio, Maria Rosaria; Savage, Robert; Abrami, Philip C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the follow-up of a randomised control trial study of the ABRACADABRA web-based literacy intervention that contrasted synthetic versus analytic phonics (Comaskey, Savage & Abrami, 2009) in kindergarten children from urban low-SES backgrounds. Participants who received a "synthetic" phonics+phoneme awareness training (n = 26) or…

  16. A Follow-Up Study of Girls with Gender Identity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Kelley D.; Bradley, Susan J.; Peterson-Badali, Michele; Zucker, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    This study provided information on the natural histories of 25 girls with gender identity disorder (GID). Standardized assessment data in childhood (mean age, 8.88 years; range, 3-12 years) and at follow-up (mean age, 23.24 years; range, 15-36 years) were used to evaluate gender identity and sexual orientation. At the assessment in childhood, 60%…

  17. Five Year Follow-up Evaluation of a Faculty Development Program: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennill, Marcia Marie

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative follow-up evaluation explored the long-term impact of a faculty development program on participants who were five years post program. This study focused on 12 faculty members who participated in the University of Missouri's New Faculty Teaching Scholars program. The nine month program focused on creating a culture of teaching…

  18. JCCC Career Program Completers 1986-87: A Three-Year Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson County Community Coll., Overland Park, KS. Office of Institutional Research.

    In 1990, a follow-up study was conducted of 1986-87 Johnson County Community College (JCCC) career program completers to assess their career and educational experiences over an extended period of time. Data from 128 returned mail surveys and 166 completed telephone interviews represented responses from 86.2% of the 462 students who left JCCC with…

  19. JCCC Career Program Completers 1986-87: A Three-Year Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson County Community Coll., Overland Park, KS. Office of Institutional Research.

    In 1990, a follow-up study was conducted of 1986-87 Johnson County Community College (JCCC) career program completers to assess their career and educational experiences over an extended period of time. Data from 128 returned mail surveys and 166 completed telephone interviews represented responses from 86.2% of the 462 students who left JCCC with…

  20. A Follow-Up Study of the ABRACADABRA Web-Based Literacy Intervention in Grade 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Stasio, Maria Rosaria; Savage, Robert; Abrami, Philip C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the follow-up of a randomised control trial study of the ABRACADABRA web-based literacy intervention that contrasted synthetic versus analytic phonics (Comaskey, Savage & Abrami, 2009) in kindergarten children from urban low-SES backgrounds. Participants who received a "synthetic" phonics+phoneme awareness training (n = 26) or…

  1. Family Literacy Lasts. The NFER Follow-up Study of the Basic Skills Agency's Demonstration Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Greg; Gorman, Tom; Harman, John; Hutchison, Dougal; Kinder, Kay; Moor, Helen; Wilkin, Anne

    The benefits of family literacy programs for children were examined in a 1997 follow-up study in which 154 parents and 237 children who had participated in a family literacy demonstration program in 1994-1995 were interviewed along with the teachers of a subsample of the children and the demonstration program coordinators. The demonstration…

  2. Colorado Even Start Follow-Up Study: Trinidad State Junior College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Beckie

    Even Start family literacy programs are integrated adult education, early childhood education, and parent support components intended to break the intergenerational cycle of poverty and low literacy. In Spring of 2002, a follow-up study of one Even Start project was conducted to assess the long-term effects of Even Start programming for families.…

  3. Leadership Challenges Converting a Large High School to Small Schools: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehring, James H.; Lohmeier, Jill H.

    2010-01-01

    This follow-up study presents findings from 11 structured interviews that were conducted with principals engaged in a conversion from a large comprehensive high school to six small schools. Key findings are (a) the greatest barrier to improvement was entrenched instructional patterns and (b) goals of college readiness and social/emotional…

  4. Secondary Preventive Interventions with Preschool Children: A Follow-up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickel, Annette U.; Dyhdalo, Louise L.

    The long term effects of a preschool intervention program for an experimental group of high-risk, black, low income children were assessed and compared to a high-risk placebo control group and low-risk "normal" controls. Seventy first grade children were involved in this 2-year follow-up study. Of these children, 42 were involved in the…

  5. Reversible Autism among Congenitally Blind Children? A Controlled Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, R. Peter; Lee, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Background: Atypical forms of autism may yield insights into the development and nature of the syndrome. Methods: We conducted a follow-up study of nine congenitally blind and seven sighted children who, eight years earlier, had satisfied formal diagnostic criteria for autism and had been included in groups matched for chronological age and verbal…

  6. A Follow-Up Study of Girls with Gender Identity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Kelley D.; Bradley, Susan J.; Peterson-Badali, Michele; Zucker, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    This study provided information on the natural histories of 25 girls with gender identity disorder (GID). Standardized assessment data in childhood (mean age, 8.88 years; range, 3-12 years) and at follow-up (mean age, 23.24 years; range, 15-36 years) were used to evaluate gender identity and sexual orientation. At the assessment in childhood, 60%…

  7. Follow-Up Study of 1983 Legal Technology Graduates. Volume 12, No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrandt, Sharrie; Lucas, John A.

    A follow-up study was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) to determine the employment and educational status of graduates of the Legal Technology (LTE) program 6 months after receiving their degree. Attempts were made to contact all 59 1983 LTE graduates for telephone interviews and compare their responses to findings from previous…

  8. Follow-Up Study of 1986 Nursing Graduates. Volume XVI, No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dincher, J.; Flaherty, A.

    In spring 1987, a follow-up study of nursing program graduates was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) to examine employment patterns, further education plans, and graduates' evaluation of particular aspects of their WRHC experience. Questionnaires were mailed to 112 nursing students who graduated with an associate degree in 1986.…

  9. Follow-Up Study of 1990 Nursing Graduates. Volume XX, No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, J.; Meltesen, C.

    In 1990, a follow-up study of nursing program graduates was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) in Palatine, Illinois, to examine their employment patterns, further education plans, and evaluate particular aspects of their WRHC experience. All 98 nursing students who earned 48 credit hours in 1990 were mailed questionnaires 1 year…

  10. Follow-Up Study of 1988 Nursing Graduates. Volume XVIII, No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dincher, J.; Meltesen, Cal

    In 1989, a follow-up study of nursing program graduates was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) to examine their employment patterns, further education plans, and evaluate particular aspects of their WRHC experience. Questionnaires were mailed to 105 nursing students who graduated in 1988. Results were compared with previous surveys…

  11. Follow-up Study of Special Education Graduates: Class of 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Joseph A., Jr.

    The Montgomery County Public Schools, (MCPS), Maryland, annually surveys its graduating classes to help determine whether MCPS adequately prepares its graduates. This is the first follow-up study of MCPS's 10 special education schools' graduates (class of 1983). It investigates: (1) postsecondary education and employment activities; (2) students'…

  12. Exploring "Successful" Outcomes of Entrepreneurship Education: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Laura; Kapasi, Isla; Whittam, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    During 2005-2006 entrepreneurship students in several UK universities completed a survey about their background and career intentions. This paper reports, eight years on, on a follow-up study with ten of these participants, with the aim of exploring the students' intentions and subsequent actions since graduating. Using a qualitative methodology,…

  13. Reversible Autism among Congenitally Blind Children? A Controlled Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, R. Peter; Lee, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Background: Atypical forms of autism may yield insights into the development and nature of the syndrome. Methods: We conducted a follow-up study of nine congenitally blind and seven sighted children who, eight years earlier, had satisfied formal diagnostic criteria for autism and had been included in groups matched for chronological age and verbal…

  14. Follow-Up Study of 1990 Nursing Graduates. Volume XX, No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, J.; Meltesen, C.

    In 1990, a follow-up study of nursing program graduates was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) in Palatine, Illinois, to examine their employment patterns, further education plans, and evaluate particular aspects of their WRHC experience. All 98 nursing students who earned 48 credit hours in 1990 were mailed questionnaires 1 year…

  15. Genetic determinants of long-term changes in blood lipid concentrations: 10-year follow-up of the GLACIER study.

    PubMed

    Varga, Tibor V; Sonestedt, Emily; Shungin, Dmitry; Koivula, Robert W; Hallmans, Göran; Escher, Stefan A; Barroso, Inês; Nilsson, Peter; Melander, Olle; Orho-Melander, Marju; Renström, Frida; Franks, Paul W

    2014-06-01

    Recent genome-wide meta-analyses identified 157 loci associated with cross-sectional lipid traits. Here we tested whether these loci associate (singly and in trait-specific genetic risk scores [GRS]) with longitudinal changes in total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels in a population-based prospective cohort from Northern Sweden (the GLACIER Study). We sought replication in a southern Swedish cohort (the MDC Study; N = 2,943). GLACIER Study participants (N = 6,064) were genotyped with the MetaboChip array. Up to 3,495 participants had 10-yr follow-up data available in the GLACIER Study. The TC- and TG-specific GRSs were strongly associated with change in lipid levels (β = 0.02 mmol/l per effect allele per decade follow-up, P = 2.0 × 10(-11) for TC; β = 0.02 mmol/l per effect allele per decade follow-up, P = 5.0 × 10(-5) for TG). In individual SNP analysis, one TC locus, apolipoprotein E (APOE) rs4420638 (β = 0.12 mmol/l per effect allele per decade follow-up, P = 2.0 × 10(-5)), and two TG loci, tribbles pseudokinase 1 (TRIB1) rs2954029 (β = 0.09 mmol/l per effect allele per decade follow-up, P = 5.1 × 10(-4)) and apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1) rs6589564 (β = 0.31 mmol/l per effect allele per decade follow-up, P = 1.4 × 10(-8)), remained significantly associated with longitudinal changes for the respective traits after correction for multiple testing. An additional 12 loci were nominally associated with TC or TG changes. In replication analyses, the APOE rs4420638, TRIB1 rs2954029, and APOA1 rs6589564 associations were confirmed (P ≤ 0.001). In summary, trait-specific GRSs are robustly associated with 10-yr changes in lipid levels and three individual SNPs were strongly associated with 10-yr changes in lipid levels.

  16. Genetic Determinants of Long-Term Changes in Blood Lipid Concentrations: 10-Year Follow-Up of the GLACIER Study

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Tibor V.; Sonestedt, Emily; Shungin, Dmitry; Koivula, Robert W.; Hallmans, Göran; Escher, Stefan A.; Barroso, Inês; Nilsson, Peter; Melander, Olle; Orho-Melander, Marju; Renström, Frida; Franks, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent genome-wide meta-analyses identified 157 loci associated with cross-sectional lipid traits. Here we tested whether these loci associate (singly and in trait-specific genetic risk scores [GRS]) with longitudinal changes in total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels in a population-based prospective cohort from Northern Sweden (the GLACIER Study). We sought replication in a southern Swedish cohort (the MDC Study; N = 2,943). GLACIER Study participants (N = 6,064) were genotyped with the MetaboChip array. Up to 3,495 participants had 10-yr follow-up data available in the GLACIER Study. The TC- and TG-specific GRSs were strongly associated with change in lipid levels (β = 0.02 mmol/l per effect allele per decade follow-up, P = 2.0×10−11 for TC; β = 0.02 mmol/l per effect allele per decade follow-up, P = 5.0×10−5 for TG). In individual SNP analysis, one TC locus, apolipoprotein E (APOE) rs4420638 (β = 0.12 mmol/l per effect allele per decade follow-up, P = 2.0×10−5), and two TG loci, tribbles pseudokinase 1 (TRIB1) rs2954029 (β = 0.09 mmol/l per effect allele per decade follow-up, P = 5.1×10−4) and apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1) rs6589564 (β = 0.31 mmol/l per effect allele per decade follow-up, P = 1.4×10−8), remained significantly associated with longitudinal changes for the respective traits after correction for multiple testing. An additional 12 loci were nominally associated with TC or TG changes. In replication analyses, the APOE rs4420638, TRIB1 rs2954029, and APOA1 rs6589564 associations were confirmed (P≤0.001). In summary, trait-specific GRSs are robustly associated with 10-yr changes in lipid levels and three individual SNPs were strongly associated with 10-yr changes in lipid levels. PMID:24922540

  17. The effect of population-based mammography screening in Dutch municipalities on breast cancer mortality: 20 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Sankatsing, Valérie D V; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A M; Looman, Caspar W N; van Luijt, Paula A; Fracheboud, Jacques; den Heeten, Gerard J; Broeders, Mireille J M; de Koning, Harry J

    2017-08-15

    Long-term follow-up data on the effects of screening are scarce, and debate exists on the relative contribution of screening versus treatment to breast cancer mortality reduction. Our aim was therefore to assess the long-term effect of screening by age and time of implementation. We obtained data on 69,630 breast cancer deaths between 1980 and 2010 by municipality (N = 431) and age of death (40-79) in the Netherlands. Breast cancer mortality trends were analyzed by defining the municipality-specific calendar year of introduction of screening as Year 0. Additionally, log-linear Poisson regression was used to estimate the turning point in the trend after Year 0, per municipality, and the annual percentage change (APC) before and after this point. Twenty years after introduction of screening breast cancer mortality was reduced by 30% in women aged 55-74 and by 34% in women aged 75-79, compared to Year 0. A similar and significant decrease was present in municipalities that started early (1987-1992) and late (1995-1997) with screening, despite the difference in availability of effective adjuvant treatment. In the age groups 55-74 and 75-79, the turning point in the trend in breast cancer mortality was estimated in Years 2 and 6 after the introduction of screening, respectively, after which mortality decreased significantly by 1.9% and 2.6% annually. These findings show that the implementation of mammography screening in Dutch municipalities is associated with a significant decline in breast cancer mortality in women aged 55-79, irrespective of time of implementation. © 2017 UICC.

  18. Evolution of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: results of a multicenter study at 20 years' follow-up.

    PubMed

    Pesenti, S; Jouve, J-L; Morin, C; Wolff, S; Sales de Gauzy, J; Chalopin, A; Ibnoulkhatib, A; Polirsztok, E; Walter, A; Schuller, S; Abelin-Genevois, K; Leroux, J; Lechevallier, J; Kabaj, R; Mary, P; Fuentes, S; Parent, H; Garin, C; Bin, K; Peltier, E; Blondel, B; Chopin, D

    2015-09-01

    To date there is no consensus on therapeutic indications in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) with curvature between 30° and 60° at the end of growth. The objective of this study was to assess outcome in patients with moderate AIS. A multicenter retrospective study was conducted. Inclusion criteria were: Cobb angle, 30-60° at end of growth; and follow-up > 20 years. The data collected were angular values in adolescence and at last follow-up, and quality of life scores at follow-up. A total of 258 patients were enrolled: 100 operated on in adolescence, 116 never operated on, and 42 operated on in adulthood. Mean follow-up was 27.8 years. Cobb angle progression significantly differed between the 3 groups: 3.2° versus 8.8° versus 23.6°, respectively; P < 0.001. In lumbar scoliosis, the risk of progression to ≥ 20° was significantly higher for initial Cobb angle > 35° (OR=4.278, P=0.002). There were no significant differences in quality of life scores. Patients operated on in adolescence showed little radiological progression, demonstrating the efficacy of surgical treatment for curvature greater than 50°. Curvature greater than 40° was progressive and may require surgery in adulthood. Lumbar scoliosis showed greater potential progression than thoracic scoliosis in adulthood, requiring fusion as of 35° angulation. IV, retrospective study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Exercise capacity, muscle strength, and fatigue in sarcoidosis: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Marcellis, Rik G J; Lenssen, Antoine F; Kleynen, Stephan; De Vries, Jolanda; Drent, Marjolein

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes in the prevalence of exercise intolerance, reduced muscle strength, and fatigue and the changes in these parameters in individual patients during a 2-year follow-up study. Ninety sarcoidosis patients (62 males and 28 females; mean age: 46.0 ± 10.2 years) participated in a 2-year follow-up study. At the baseline and follow-up measurements, patients performed a 6-min walk test and elbow flexor muscle strength, quadriceps peak torque, and hamstrings peak torque tests. Maximal inspiratory pressure was recorded. All patients completed the Fatigue Assessment Scale. Both at baseline and follow-up, a substantial proportion of the patients showed a reduced 6-minute walk test (41.6 and 34.8 %, respectively), elbow flexor muscle strength (6.7 and 14.6 %), quadriceps peak torque (21.3 and 18 %), hamstrings peak torque (13.5 and 12.4 %), and maximal inspiratory pressure (45.9 and 48.6 %). The majority of the patients reported fatigue (86 and 77 %). These physical impairments remained stable during the follow-up period. The prevalence of these physical impairments in patients diagnosed with sarcoidosis <2 years before inclusion in this study was similar to that in patients with a longer history of the disease. Exercise intolerance, muscle weakness, and fatigue are frequent problems in symptomatic sarcoidosis patients with a stable and persistent character. This study highlights that beyond medical treatment a rehabilitation program should be considered as adjunct therapy in the multidisciplinary management of sarcoidosis patients even though the achieved benefit needs future studies.

  20. Augmented Cross-Sectional Studies with Abbreviated Follow-up for Estimating HIV Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Claggett, B.; Lagakos, S.W.; Wang, R.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Cross-sectional HIV incidence estimation based on a sensitive and less-sensitive test offers great advantages over the traditional cohort study. However, its use has been limited due to concerns about the false negative rate of the less-sensitive test, reflecting the phenomenon that some subjects may remain negative permanently on the less-sensitive test. Wang and Lagakos (2010) propose an augmented cross-sectional design which provides one way to estimate the size of the infected population who remain negative permanently and subsequently incorporate this information in the cross-sectional incidence estimator. In an augmented cross-sectional study, subjects who test negative on the less-sensitive test in the cross-sectional survey are followed forward for transition into the nonrecent state, at which time they would test positive on the less-sensitive test. However, considerable uncertainty exists regarding the appropriate length of follow-up and the size of the infected population who remain nonreactive permanently to the less-sensitive test. In this paper, we assess the impact of varying follow-up time on the resulting incidence estimators from an augmented cross-sectional study, evaluate the robustness of cross-sectional estimators to assumptions about the existence and the size of the subpopulation who will remain negative permanently, and propose a new estimator based on abbreviated follow-up time (AF). Compared to the original estimator from an augmented cross-sectional study, the AF Estimator allows shorter follow-up time and does not require estimation of the mean window period, defined as the average time between detectability of HIV infection with the sensitive and less-sensitive tests. It is shown to perform well in a wide range of settings. We discuss when the AF Estimator would be expected to perform well and offer design considerations for an augmented cross-sectional study with abbreviated follow-up. PMID:21668904

  1. Methods used for successful follow-up in a large scale national cohort study in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ensuring successful follow-up is essential when conducting a prospective cohort study. Most existing literature reviewing methods to ensure a high response rate is based on experience in developed nations. Findings We report our 4-year follow-up success for a national cohort study examining the health transition underway in Thailand. We began the cohort study in 2005 with a baseline postal questionnaire sent to all 200,000 Thais enrolled as distance learning students at Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University and residing all over Thailand; 87,134 or 44% of the students responded. Subsequently we used University and national media to inform cohort members of study progress. Also, we prepared a health book with study results and health advice which was distributed to all cohort members. After 4 years we repeated the survey and achieved a 71% response rate. In this paper we report the methods used to achieve this response The initial follow-up mail-out generated a response rate of about 48% reflecting the extensive preparatory work between baseline and follow-up. After 4 rounds of telephone contact (more than 100,000 phone calls) and 4 related mail-out rounds progressively over 16 months an overall response rate was achieved of just over 71% (n = 60,774). The total cost was US$4.06/respondent - 19% for printing, 21% for postage, 14% for tape measures (included in mail-out), 18% for data processing 22% for prizes and 6% for telephone. Conclusions Many of the methods reported as effective for mail questionnaire and cohort response rates held true for Thailand. These included being associated with a university, incentivating cooperation, follow-up contact, providing a second copy of questionnaire where necessary, and assurance of confidentiality. Telephone contact with the cohort and the small prizes given to responders were particularly important in the Thai context as was Thai leadership of the research team. PMID:21615963

  2. Endocrine dysfunction following traumatic brain injury: a 5-year follow-up nationwide-based study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei-Hsun; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Ting-Chung; Kuo, Ting-Yu; Cheng, Chun-Yu; Yang, Yao-Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic endocrine dysfunction is a complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there is lack of long-term follow-up and large sample size studies. This study included patients suffering from TBI registered in the Health Insurance Database. Endocrine disorders were identified using the ICD codes: 244 (acquired hypothyroidism), 253 (pituitary dysfunction), 255 (disorders of the adrenal glands), 258 (polyglandular dysfunction), and 259 (other endocrine disorders) with at least three outpatient visits within 1 year or one admission diagnosis. Overall, 156,945 insured subjects were included in the final analysis. The 1- and 5-year incidence rates of post-traumatic endocrinopathies were 0.4% and 2%, respectively. The risks of developing a common endocrinopathy (p < 0.001) or pituitary dysfunction (P < 0.001) were significantly higher in patients with a TBI history. Patients with a skull bone fracture had a higher risk of developing pituitary dysfunction at the 1-year follow up (p value < 0.001). At the 5-year follow up, the association between intracranial hemorrhage and pituitary dysfunction (p value: 0.002) was significant. The risk of developing endocrine dysfunction after TBI increased during the entire 5-year follow-up period. Skull bone fracture and intracranial hemorrhage may be associated with short and long-term post-traumatic pituitary dysfunction, respectively. PMID:27608606

  3. [Follow-up study of HIV-infected patients with prior cerebral toxoplasmosis].

    PubMed

    Ermak, T N; Peregudova, A B

    2015-01-01

    To assess follow-up study results in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with prior cerebral toxoplasmosis (CT). Follow-up study results were assessed in HIV-infected patients with prior CT. The fate of only 97 out of 137 (66% of the hospitalized) patients discharged from hospital is known, as 40 convalescents have been lost to follow up. Thereafter, relapses developed in 19 patients, of whom 6 died. Eleven more patients with HIV infection died due to its progression and development of other secondary lesions. Five more patients died from narcotic overdose, staphylococcal sepsis, and acute pancreatic necrosis. The main peak of fatal outcomes was within the first 2 years after discharge. 3.5-year survival rates after TC were 75%. The causes of recurrent and progressive HIV infection were non-compliance with secondary prevention of CT and low adherence to an antiretroviral therapy regimen, the blame of which fell not only on the patients, but also their attending physicians and specialists who had advised how to enhance treatment motivation. Further follow-up of convalescent CT patients calls for closer attention to the possible development of recurrences within the first three years after discharge in particular, regardless of CD4 cell counts.

  4. Long-term follow-up study of radial forearm free flap reconstruction after hemiglossectomy.

    PubMed

    Akashi, Masaya; Hashikawa, Kazunobu; Sakakibara, Akiko; Komori, Takahide; Terashi, Hiroto

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on postoperative long-term results in patients who underwent reconstructive free flap transfer following hemiglossectomy had some issues, including the heterogeneity of the patient population and the observation period. The present study aimed to evaluate changes of reconstructed tongues in patients who underwent radial forearm free flap (RFFF) after hemiglossectomy with long-term follow-up. We enrolled 23 patients who underwent RFFF after hemiglossectomy with a postoperative follow-up of 5 years or more. Postoperative status (eating, speech, sensation function) was assessed by concise medical inquiries. Morphological changes of flaps were evaluated by reviewing clinical photographs. Hemiglossectomy involving the base of the tongue was performed in 4 cases (17.4%) and was limited to the mobile tongue in 19 cases (82.6%). The mean follow-up was 85.4 months (range, 60-122 months). All patients experienced gradually improved postoperative status. The most significant improvement was found between 1 and 5 years after surgery (P = 0.007), but not between 1 and 3 years (P = 0.075) or between 3 and 5 years (P = 0.530). In almost all of the flaps, there were few morphological changes throughout the follow-up period. Postoperative status in patients who underwent reconstructive RFFF following hemiglossectomy improved sequentially.

  5. Increased Risk of Clinically Significant Gallstones following an Appendectomy: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ming-Chieh; Chen, Chao-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Although the vermiform appendix is commonly considered a vestigial organ, adverse health consequences after an appendectomy have garnered increasing attention. In this study, we investigated the risks of gallstone occurrence during a 5-year follow-up period after an appendectomy, using a population-based dataset. We used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. The exposed cohort included 4916 patients who underwent an appendectomy. The unexposed cohort was retrieved by randomly selecting 4916 patients matched with the exposed cohort in terms of sex, age, and year. We individually tracked each patient for a 5-year period to identify those who received a diagnosis of gallstones during the follow-up period. Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed for the analysis. During the 5-year follow-up period, the incidence rate per 1000 person-years was 4.71 for patients who had undergone an appendectomy, compared to a rate of 2.59 for patients in the unexposed cohort (p<0.001). Patients who had undergone an appendectomy were independently associated with a 1.79 (95% CI = 1.29~2.48)-fold increased risk of being diagnosed with gallstones during the 5-year follow-up period. We found that among female patients, the adjusted hazard ratio of gallstones was 2.25 (95% CI = 1.41~3.59) for patients who underwent an appendectomy compared to unexposed patients. However, for male patients, we failed to observe an increased hazard for gallstones among patients who underwent an appendectomy compared to unexposed patients. We found an increased risk of a subsequent gallstone diagnosis within 5 years after an appendectomy. PMID:27788255

  6. A follow-up study of women in the synthetic rubber industry: study methods.

    PubMed

    Sathiakumar, Nalini; Delzell, Elizabeth

    2007-03-20

    Concerns about the possible toxic effects of workplace exposures in the synthetic rubber industry have centered on 1,3-butadiene (BD), styrene and dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDTC). Our previous mortality studies of over 17,000 male synthetic rubber workers found an excess of leukemia that may be due to BD or BD plus other chemicals. Experimental studies have shown that BD produces mammary tumors in female mice and rats and ovarian tumors in female mice. This paper presents the methods of a follow-up study that evaluates the mortality experience of women employed in the North American synthetic rubber industry. Women employed for at least 1 day at any of eight North American styrene-butadiene rubber plants were followed up from 1943 to 2002. Identifying and work history information were obtained from personnel records. Estimated quantitative exposure to BD, styrene and DMDTC, developed for our previous study of men, were used in this study. External analyses use the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) to compare the cohort's cause-specific mortality rates to the rates of the female general population of the states or the province where the plants are located. Internal analyses use the Poisson regression and Cox proportional hazards models to examine specific cancer mortality rates in relation to BD, styrene and DMDTC exposure, by comparing an exposed cohort subgroup with the rate of unexposed cohort members.

  7. Loss to follow-up in a randomized controlled trial study for pediatric weight management (EPOC).

    PubMed

    Warschburger, Petra; Kröller, Katja

    2016-11-14

    Attrition is a serious problem in intervention studies. The current study analyzed the attrition rate during follow-up in a randomized controlled pediatric weight management program (EPOC study) within a tertiary care setting. Five hundred twenty-three parents and their 7-13-year-old children with obesity participated in the randomized controlled intervention trial. Follow-up data were assessed 6 and 12 months after the end of treatment. Attrition was defined as providing no objective weight data. Demographic and psychological baseline characteristics were used to predict attrition at 6- and 12-month follow-up using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Objective weight data were available for 49.6 (67.0) % of the children 6 (12) months after the end of treatment. Completers and non-completers at the 6- and 12-month follow-up differed in the amount of weight loss during their inpatient stay, their initial BMI-SDS, educational level of the parents, and child's quality of life and well-being. Additionally, completers supported their child more than non-completers, and at the 12-month follow-up, families with a more structured eating environment were less likely to drop out. On a multivariate level, only educational background and structure of the eating environment remained significant. The minor differences between the completers and the non-completers suggest that our retention strategies were successful. Further research should focus on prevention of attrition in families with a lower educational background. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN24655766 . Registered 06 September 2008, updated 16 May 2012.

  8. Metabolically healthy obesity and depressive symptoms: 16-year follow-up of the Gazel cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hinnouho, Guy-Marino; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Gueguen, Alice; Matta, Joane; Lemogne, Cedric; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Czernichow, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    The health correlates of the metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype, particularly in relation to depressive symptoms remains unclear. Accordingly, we examined the risk of depressive symptoms in this phenotype using a 16-year follow-up prospective study. A sample of 14 475 participants (75% men), aged 44-59 years in 1996, was drawn from the Gazel cohort. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2 and metabolic health as having none of the self-reported following cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale in 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008 and 2012. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to estimate the risk of depressive symptoms during a follow-up of 16 years. In multivariate analyses, metabolically unhealthy normal weight [Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.37; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.25-1.51], overweight [1.44 (1.31-1.59)] and obese [1.30 (1.10-1.54)] but not MHO participants [1.04 (0.81-1.32)] had higher risk of depressive symptoms at the start of follow-up compared to metabolically healthy normal weight individuals. Depressive symptoms decreased over time in metabolically healthy normal weight individuals [0.52 (0.50-0.55)], this decrease was less marked only in metabolically unhealthy obese participants [1.22 (1.07-1.40)]. Compared to MHO participants, metabolically unhealthy obese individuals were at increased risk of depression at the start of follow-up, but with a similar reduction of this risk over time. Poor metabolic health, irrespective of BMI was associated with greater depressive symptoms at the start of follow-up, whereas a poorer course of depressive symptoms over time was observed only in those with both obesity and poor metabolic health.

  9. Hand eczema—prognosis and consequences: a 7-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Petersen, A H; Johansen, J D; Hald, M

    2014-12-01

    Hand eczema is recognized as a long-lasting disease with personal and societal repercussions. Long-term studies are required to generate information on factors contributing to a poor outcome. The aims of this 7-year follow-up study were to evaluate the clinical course of patients with hand eczema, the occupational consequences and to identify risk factors associated with a poor prognosis. In all, 536 patients with hand eczema participated and were examined by a dermatologist. The clinical severity was assessed at baseline and 7 years later using a self-administrated photographic guide. Additional information was obtained from a questionnaire. Based on the photographic guide, 73% experienced a clinical improvement. Notably, 20% had moderate to very severe hand eczema at follow-up. Severe hand eczema or frequent eruptions at baseline and eczema in other body locations during the follow-up period were risk factors of a poor prognosis. The same factors, as well as being a woman, were associated with occupational consequences and low health-related quality of life. Of those with persistent hand eczema only 40% had visited a dermatologist during the follow-up period and 7% had oral treatment. The disease had improved 7 years later; nevertheless, many patients continued to have considerable symptoms. Patients with a greater risk of a poor outcome are characterized by frequent eruptions, severe hand eczema and more widespread eczema. It should be questioned if more aggressive therapy and closer medical follow-up would be beneficial. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  10. Follow-up after acute poisoning by substances of abuse: a prospective observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Vallersnes, Odd Martin; Jacobsen, Dag; Ekeberg, Øivind; Brekke, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Objective To chart follow-up of patients after acute poisoning by substances of abuse, register whether patients referred to specialist health services attended, and whether patients contacted a general practitioner (GP) after the poisoning episode. Design Observational cohort study. Setting A primary care emergency outpatient clinic in Oslo, Norway. Subjects Patients ≥12 years treated for acute poisoning by substances of abuse were included consecutively from October 2011 to September 2012. Main outcome measures Follow-up initiated at discharge, proportion of cases in which referred patients attended within three months, and proportion of cases in which the patient consulted a GP the first month following discharge. Results There were 2343 episodes of acute poisoning by substances of abuse. In 391 (17%) cases the patient was hospitalised, including 49 (2%) in psychiatric wards. In 235 (10%) cases the patient was referred to specialist health services, in 91 (4%) advised to see their GP, in 82 (3%) to contact social services, in 74 (3%) allotted place in a homeless shelter, and in 93 (4%) other follow-up was initiated. In 1096 (47%) cases, the patient was discharged without follow-up, and in a further 324 (14%), the patient self-discharged. When referred to specialist health services, in 200/235 (85%) cases the patient attended within three months. Among all discharges, in 527/1952 (27%) cases the patient consulted a GP within one month. When advised to see their GP, in 45/91 (49%) cases the patient did. Conclusion Attendance was high for follow-up initiated after acute poisoning by substances of abuse. Key Points Despite poor long-term prognosis, patients treated for acute poisoning by substances of abuse are frequently not referred to follow-up.Nearly all patients referred to specialist health services attended, indicating the acute poisoning as an opportune moment for intervention.Advising patients to contact their GP was significantly associated with

  11. Longterm follow-up in European respiratory health studies - patterns and implications.

    PubMed

    Johannessen, Ane; Verlato, Giuseppe; Benediktsdottir, Bryndis; Forsberg, Bertil; Franklin, Karl; Gislason, Thorarinn; Holm, Mathias; Janson, Christer; Jögi, Rain; Lindberg, Eva; Macsali, Ferenc; Omenaas, Ernst; Real, Francisco Gomez; Saure, Eirunn Waatevik; Schlünssen, Vivi; Sigsgaard, Torben; Skorge, Trude Duelien; Svanes, Cecilie; Torén, Kjell; Waatevik, Marie; Nilsen, Roy Miodini; de Marco, Roberto

    2014-04-16

    Selection bias is a systematic error in epidemiologic studies that may seriously distort true measures of associations between exposure and disease. Observational studies are highly susceptible to selection bias, and researchers should therefore always examine to what extent selection bias may be present in their material and what characterizes the bias in their material. In the present study we examined long-term participation and consequences of loss to follow-up in the studies Respiratory Health in Northern Europe (RHINE), Italian centers of European Community Respiratory Health Survey (I-ECRHS), and the Italian Study on Asthma in Young Adults (ISAYA). Logistic regression identified predictors for follow-up participation. Baseline prevalence of 9 respiratory symptoms (asthma attack, asthma medication, combined variable with asthma attack and/or asthma medication, wheeze, rhinitis, wheeze with dyspnea, wheeze without cold, waking with chest tightness, waking with dyspnea) and 9 exposure-outcome associations (predictors sex, age and smoking; outcomes wheeze, asthma and rhinitis) were compared between all baseline participants and long-term participants. Bias was measured as ratios of relative frequencies and ratios of odds ratios (ROR). Follow-up response rates after 10 years were 75% in RHINE, 64% in I-ECRHS and 53% in ISAYA. After 20 years of follow-up, response was 53% in RHINE and 49% in I-ECRHS. Female sex predicted long-term participation (in RHINE OR (95% CI) 1.30(1.22, 1.38); in I-ECRHS 1.29 (1.11, 1.50); and in ISAYA 1.42 (1.25, 1.61)), as did increasing age. Baseline prevalence of respiratory symptoms were lower among long-term participants (relative deviations compared to total baseline population 0-15% (RHINE), 0-48% (I-ECRHS), 3-20% (ISAYA)), except rhinitis which had a slightly higher prevalence. Most exposure-outcome associations did not differ between long-term participants and all baseline participants, except lower OR for rhinitis among ISAYA

  12. A practical approach to remote longitudinal follow-up of Parkinson's disease: the FOUND study.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Caroline M; Meng, Cheryl C; Ravina, Bernard; Lang, Anthony; Kurlan, Roger; Marek, Kenneth; Oakes, David; Seibyl, John; Flagg, Emily; Gauger, Lisa; Guest, Dolores D; Goetz, Christopher G; Kieburtz, Karl; DiEuliis, Diane; Fahn, Stanley; Elliott, Robin A; Shoulson, Ira

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine a remote method for maintaining long-term contact with Parkinson's disease (PD) patients participating in clinical studies. Long-term follow-up of PD patients is needed to fill critical information gaps on progression, biomarkers, and treatment. Prospective in-person assessment can be costly and may be impossible for some patients. Remote assessment using mail and telephone contact may be a practical follow-up method. Patients enrolled in the multi-center Longitudinal and Biomarker Study in Parkinson's Disease (LABS-PD) in-person follow-up study in 2006 were invited to enroll in Follow-up of Persons With Neurologic Diseases (FOUND), which is overseen by a single center under a separate, central institutional review board protocol. FOUND uses mailed questionnaires and telephone interviews to assess PD status. FOUND follow-up continued when LABS-PD in-person visits ended in 2011. Retention and agreement between remote and in-person assessments were determined. In total, 422 of 499 (84.5%) of eligible patients volunteered, AND 96% of participants were retained. Of 60 patients who withdrew consent from LABS-PD, 51 were retained in FOUND. Of 341 patients who were active in LABS-PD, 340 were retained in FOUND (99.7%) when the in-person visits ceased. Exact agreement between remote and in-person assessments was ≥ 80% for diagnosis, disease features (eg, dyskinesias), and PD medication. Correlation between expert-rated and self-reported Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, which were examined at times separated by several months, was moderate or substantial for most items. Retention was excellent using remote follow-up of research participants with PD, providing a safety net when combined with in-person visits, and also is effective as a stand-alone assessment method, providing a useful alternative when in-person evaluation is not feasible. © 2014

  13. Replication of genetic linkage by follow-up of previously studied pedigrees

    SciTech Connect

    Gershon, E.S.; Goldin, L.R. )

    1994-04-01

    Independent replication of linkage in previously studied pedigrees is desirable when genetic heterogeneity is suspected or when the illness is very rare. When the likelihood of the new data in this type of replication study is computed as conditional on the previously reported linkage results, it can be considered independent. The authors describe a simulation method using the SLINK program in which the initial data are fixed and newly genotyped individuals are simulated under [theta] = .01 and [theta] = .50. These give appropriate lod score criteria for rejection and acceptance of linkage in the follow-up study, which take into account the original marker genotypes in the data. An estimate of the power to detect linkage in the follow-up data is also generated. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. [Application of spline-based Cox regression on analyzing data from follow-up studies].

    PubMed

    Dong, Ying; Yu, Jin-ming; Hu, Da-yi

    2012-09-01

    With R, this study involved the application of the spline-based Cox regression to analyze data related to follow-up studies when the two basic assumptions of Cox proportional hazards regression were not satisfactory. Results showed that most of the continuous covariates contributed nonlinearly to mortality risk while the effects of three covariates were time-dependent. After considering multiple covariates in spline-based Cox regression, when the ankle brachial index (ABI) decreased by 0.1, the hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause death was 1.071. The spline-based Cox regression method could be applied to analyze the data related to follow-up studies when the assumptions of Cox proportional hazards regression were violated.

  15. Inadequate Riboflavin Intake and Anemia Risk in a Chinese Population: Five-Year Follow Up of the Jiangsu Nutrition Study

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zumin; Zhen, Shiqi; Wittert, Gary A.; Yuan, Baojun; Zuo, Hui; Taylor, Anne W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Riboflavin (vitamin B2) has been shown in animal studies to affect the absorption and metabolism of iron. Cross-sectional population studies show a relationship between riboflavin intake and anemia but prospective population studies are limited. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between riboflavin intake and the risk of anemia in a Chinese cohort. Method The study used data from 1253 Chinese men and women who participated in two waves of the Jiangsu Nutrition Study (JIN), five years apart, in 2002 and 2007. Riboflavin intake and hemoglobin (Hb) were quantitatively assessed together with dietary patterns, lifestyle, socio-demographic and health-related factors. Results At baseline, 97.2% of participants had inadequate riboflavin intake (below the estimate average requirement). Riboflavin intake was positively associated with anemia at baseline, but low riboflavin intake was associated with an increased risk of anemia at follow-up among those anemic at baseline. In the multivariate model, adjusting for demographic and lifestyle factors and dietary patterns, the relative risk and 95% confidence interval for anemia at follow-up, across quartiles of riboflavin intake were: 1, 0.82(0.54–1.23), 0.56(0.34–0.93), 0.52(0.28–0.98) (p for trend 0.021). There was a significant interaction between riboflavin and iron intake; when riboflavin intake was low, a high iron intake was associated with a lower probability of anemia at follow-up. This association disappeared when riboflavin intake was high. Conclusion Inadequate riboflavin intake is common and increases the risk of anemia in Chinese adults. Given the interaction with iron intake correcting inadequate riboflavin intake may be a priority in the prevention of anemia, and population based measurement and intervention trials are required. PMID:24533156

  16. Compilation of Case Studies: Exemplary Placement and Follow-Up Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Jack

    Examples of placement and follow-up conceptual models developed for a program of vocational education (kindergarten through university) are presented. Section 1 contains a historical overview of placement and follow-up activities in Florida and describes a comprehensive model. Section 2, describing a model for utilizing community resources for the…

  17. Compilation of Case Studies: Exemplary Placement and Follow-Up Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Jack

    Examples of placement and follow-up conceptual models developed for a program of vocational education (kindergarten through university) are presented. Section 1 contains a historical overview of placement and follow-up activities in Florida and describes a comprehensive model. Section 2, describing a model for utilizing community resources for the…

  18. Regional sympathetic denervation after myocardial infarction: a follow-up study using [123I]MIBG.

    PubMed

    Podio, V; Spinnler, M T; Spandonari, T; Moretti, C; Castellano, G; Bessone, M; Brusca, A

    1995-12-01

    Previous studies in dogs have shown that experimental infarction produces myocardial sympathetic denervation not only in the infarcted area, but also in a region apical to the infarction. In these dogs MIBG myocardial scintigraphy detected denervation but returned to normal in a few months at which time reinnervation was shown to have occurred. Myocardial sympathetic denervation was studied with MIBG scintigraphy in ten patients after their first acute transmural myocardial infarction; scans were repeated at 4 months, one year and 30 months to follow the time course of possible reinnervation. Except during the first 48 hours following the infarction, no therapy except for antiaggregants was administered to the patients; during this follow-up period no cardiac events were seen. One week after infarction, comparison of MIBG images with perfusion scans revealed that the denervated area was larger than the infarcted area; no difference in MIBG uptake by the infarcted myocardium was found during the 30 months follow-up.

  19. The US Department of Defense Millennium Cohort Study: career span and beyond longitudinal follow-up.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tyler C

    2009-10-01

    To describe current and future career-span health research in the US Department of Defense Millennium Cohort Study. Collaborating with all military service branches and the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Millennium Cohort Study launched in 2001, before September 11 and the start of deployments in Afghanistan and Iraq, to conduct coordinated strategic research to determine any effects of military occupational and deployment-related exposures, on long-term health. More than 150,000 consenting members represent demographic, occupational, military, and health characteristics of the US military. More than 70% of the first two panels have submitted follow-up questionnaires and >50% have deployed since 2001. Prospective cohort data have identified subgroups of military populations at higher risk or more resilient to decrements in mental and physical health. Continued career span and beyond follow-up will answer long-term health questions related to military service.

  20. ADOLECSENT MANIA, EEG ABNORMALITY AND RESPONSE TO ANTICONVULSANTS: A THREE - YEAR FOLLOW-UP STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Aich, Tapas K.; Sinha, Vinod Kumar; Nizami, Hauque S.

    2001-01-01

    We had reported earlier (1998) a high percentage of moderate to severe EEG abnormalities (43.75% of cases) amongst adolescent manic population. Sixteen adolescent manics, with a mean age of 14 9 years, diagnosed according to ICD-10 were taken up for the initial study. Present study is the three-year follow-up report of 67.75% (11 out of 16) of the original patient population. All these patients were subjected fc 21-channel EEG and anticonvulsant drugs were started to all. Follow-up data showed that 3 out of 6 patients, who discontinued medications, were relapsed during this 3 years period. But none of the 5 patients, who regularly took prescribed medicines, relapsed during the same period. Significance of these findings in relapse prevention and the role of anticonvulsants, particularly in relation to adolescent mania, have been emphasized. PMID:21407863

  1. Rationale for a follow-up study focusing on economic productivity.

    PubMed

    Martorell, Reynaldo; Behrman, Jere R; Flores, Rafael; Stein, Aryeh D

    2005-06-01

    Past studies of nutrition, human capital formation, and economic productivity have been limited by the fact that biomedical researchers and economists work largely in isolation, with loss of complementarity. Biomedical researchers are faulted for not adequately addressing bias and measurement issues and for naive analyses and interpretation of results, whereas economists are criticized for using simplistic nutrition and physiological measures and for relying on statistical methods rather than experimental designs. To avoid these problems, a multidisciplinary team of biomedical investigators and economists undertook a follow-up study in 2002-04 of a cohort of young men and women, who participated as young children in a randomized community trial of nutrition supplementation carried out from 1969-77 Previous studies, particularly the original trial and a 1988-89 follow- up, are described to provide an overview of the data available for linkage with the 2002-04 follow-up. Key results from these earlier studies are reviewed but judged inconclusive because the data used were collected when many subjects were still growing and developing physically, in school, unmarried, and/or not yet settled into occupations. The subjects were 26 to 41 years of age in 2003, permitting a more complete assessment of human capital and economic productivity. The experimental design of the 1969-77 original study, 35 years of follow-up, use of robust methods of data collection, and the participation of a multidisciplinary team will likely lead to the most comprehensive assessment to date of the importance of nutrition for economic productivity.

  2. A web-based image viewer for multiple PET-CT follow-up studies.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Daiki; Kim, Jinman; Kumar, Ashnil; Constantinescu, Liviu; Wen, Lingfeng; Feng, David Dagan

    2011-01-01

    There exist many viewers for single-modal medical images that are efficient and are equipped with powerful analysis tools. However, there is a distinct lack of efficient image viewers for multi-modality images, particularly for displaying multiple follow-up studies that depict a patient's response to treatment over time. Such viewers would be required to display large amounts of image data. In this study, we present the TAGIGEN viewer--a web-based image viewer designed specifically for the visualisation of multi-modality follow-up studies. We innovate by defining a series of dynamically generated image grid layouts that display sets of related images together in order to improve the ability to compare and assimilate the myriad images. We adopted a web-based client-server image streaming technology, thus enabling interactive navigation of the images in a computationally efficient manner. Furthermore, our web-based approach is interoperable and requires no software installation. We evaluated the ability of our viewer in displaying and understanding a patient's follow-up images in a case study with combined positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET-CT) follow-up scans. We conducted a usability survey on 10 participants to measure the usefulness of our viewer, used as an outpatient viewer e.g. viewer designed for use by the patients, in tracking a patient's disease state across four PET-CT studies. Our initial results suggest that our viewer was able to efficiently visualise the patient data over time, and that the web-based implementation was fast (loading on average within 5.6 seconds with real-time navigation) and easy to use (overall survey score higher than 4 / 5).

  3. A Longitudinal Follow-Up Study of 284 Adults Classified as Learning Disabled When They Were Second Graders. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tingey, Carol; Mortensen, Lance

    A follow-up study was undertaken of 284 adults who were diagnosed as learning disabled during second grade in 1968. At the time of follow up, the sample was 26 to 27 years old; 91 of these individuals were located by telephone and 4 were contacted by mail. The follow-up study used a questionnaire to determine participants' current status in five…

  4. Depression after stroke at 12-month follow-up: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Limampai, Patchara; Wongsrithep, Wanpen; Kuptniratsaikul, Vilai

    2017-10-01

    To study the prevalence of depression at 12 months after stroke and to analyze factors associated with depression. This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted among nine tertiary hospitals in Thailand. Stroke patients from the Thai Stroke Rehabilitation Registry who were admitted in inpatient rehabilitation wards were recruited for evaluation at the 12-month follow-up time point. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to evaluate depression in stroke. A score of ≥11 was considered as having depression. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to investigate factors related with depression in stroke. Two hundred stroke patients with a mean age of 62.1±12.5 years were recruited. Approximately 60% were male. The number of stroke patients with depression at the 12-month follow-up was 42 (21.0%, 95%CI 15.9%-27.2%). Mean HADS score at 12-month follow-up was not significantly different from those at discharge. However, 28 (16.5%) stroke patients who did not have depression at discharge developed depression during the 12-month period. From multivariate analysis, complications and urinary incontinence were found to be significantly associated with depression after stroke with adjusted odds ratio of 3.65 (95%CI 1.11-12.06) and 4.82 (95%CI 1.74-13.38), respectively. Depression is a common complication after stroke. This study found one-fifth of stroke survivors developed depression at the 12-month follow-up. Complications at discharge and urinary incontinence were significantly correlated with depression in multivariate analysis. Further study concerning interventions in decreasing depression should be performed in order to improve the quality of life of those stroke patients.

  5. Psoriasis and associated variables in classification and outcome of juvenile idiopathic arthritis - an eight-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Ekelund, Maria; Aalto, Kristiina; Fasth, Anders; Herlin, Troels; Nielsen, Susan; Nordal, Ellen; Peltoniemi, Suvi; Rygg, Marite; Zak, Marek; Berntson, Lillemor

    2017-02-22

    To study the impact of psoriasis and features associated with psoriasis on classification and outcome in a population-based follow-up cohort of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). In all, 440 children with JIA were followed for a median of 8 years in a prospective Nordic population-based cohort study. Data for remission was available for 427 of these children. The presence of psoriasis, psoriasis-like rash, dactylitis, nail pitting, enthesitis, tenosynovitis and heredity was assessed in relation to ILAR classification and remission. Clinical findings associated with psoriasis developed consecutively during the 8-year period. Six of 14 children with psoriasis were not classified as juvenile psoriatic arthritis according to the ILAR criteria at 8 year follow-up. Dactylitis was more common in children with early onset of JIA. After 8 years we found a cumulative median number of eleven arthritic joints in children with psoriasis or psoriasis-like rash compared with six in the rest of the cohort (p = 0.02). Also, the chance for not being in remission after 8 years increased significantly in patients with psoriasis, psoriasis-like rash or at least two of: 1) first-degree heredity for psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis, 2) dactylitis or 3) nail pitting, compared with the rest of the group (OR 3.32, p = 0.010). Our results indicate a more severe disease over time in psoriasis-associated JIA, as features of psoriasis develop during the disease course. This group is a major challenge to encompass in a future JIA classification in order to facilitate early tailored treatment.

  6. Panic disorder and subthreshold panic in the light of comorbidity: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Oral, Elif; Aydin, Nazan; Gulec, Mustafa; Oral, Meltem

    2012-10-01

    Especially in the presence of agoraphobia and comorbid conditions, panic disorder causes significant impairment in life quality. Although there are several studies about epidemiology and clinical features, subthreshold symptoms and courses of comorbidity have not been studied sufficiently in panic disorder. The current study assessed the courses of panic disorder and subthreshold panic symptoms in consideration of the major and subthreshold comorbid conditions. Patients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-diagnosed panic disorder were assessed using the panic disorder follow-up questionnaire, Panic and Agoraphobia Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders was used to determine comorbidity, and all participants were received to 1-year follow-up. Comorbidity assessment showed that the threshold comorbidity decreased, while the subthreshold comorbidity increased at 1-year follow-up. Panic disorder symptom severity was decreased, but subthreshold panic symptoms continued to be present within the course of the illness. Presence of agoraphobia and duration of disease were significantly related with higher Panic and Agoraphobia Scale scores in the second assessment, and these relationships were independent from the treatment process. Even if the comorbidity and the severity of panic decrease with treatment, subthreshold panic and comorbid symptoms may still resist in panic disorder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Five-year follow-up by transesophageal echocardiographic studies in primary antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Turiel, Maurizio; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Peretti, Rossana; Bonizzato, Sara; Muzzupappa, Sabrina; Atzeni, Fabiola; Rossi, Edoardo; Doria, Andrea

    2005-08-15

    This prospective study describes valvular abnormalities assessed by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in patients with primary antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS) over a 5-year follow-up. Of the 56 patients with APLS evaluated at baseline, 47 (84%) had repeat TEE examinations, including 3 patients who died before the end of the follow-up. The first TEE study showed cardiac involvement (thickening or vegetations and embolic sources) in 34 subjects (61%), with mitral valve thickening, the most common abnormality, present in 30 patients (54%). Embolic sources were found in 14 patients (25%; 9 severe spontaneous echocardiographic contrast, 5 Libman-Sacks endocarditis), associated with mitral valve thickening or stenosis in 10 patients. Over the 5-year follow-up, cardiac involvement was unchanged in 30 subjects (64%). New cardiac abnormalities were observed in 17 patients (36%), 15 (88%) with high immunoglobulin-G (IgG) anticardiolipin antibody (aCL) titers and 2 (12%) with low IgG aCL titers. In conclusion, this study showed that mitral valve thickening and embolic sources are frequently observed in patients with APLS. Anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet treatment was ineffective in terms of valvular lesion regression. New appearances of cardiac involvement are significantly related to high IgG aCL titers.

  8. Additional follow-up telephone counselling and initial smoking relapse: a longitudinal, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lei; He, Yao; Jiang, Bin; Zuo, Fang; Liu, Qinghui; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Changxi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Smoking cessation services can help smokers to quit; however, many smoking relapse cases occur over time. Initial relapse prevention should play an important role in achieving the goal of long-term smoking cessation. Several studies have focused on the effect of extended telephone support in relapse prevention, but the conclusions remain conflicting. Design and setting From October 2008 to August 2013, a longitudinal, controlled study was performed in a large general hospital of Beijing. Participants The smokers who sought treatment at our smoking cessation clinic were non-randomised and divided into 2 groups: face-to-face individual counselling group (FC group), and face-to-face individual counselling plus telephone follow-up counselling group (FCF group). No pharmacotherapy was offered. Outcomes The timing of initial smoking relapse was compared between FC and FCF groups. Predictors of initial relapse were investigated during the first 180 days, using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results Of 547 eligible male smokers who volunteered to participate, 457 participants (117 in FC group and 340 in FCF group) achieved at least 24 h abstinence. The majority of the lapse episodes occurred during the first 2 weeks after the quit date. Smokers who did not receive the follow-up telephone counselling (FC group) tended to relapse to smoking earlier than those smokers who received the additional follow-up telephone counselling (FCF group), and the log-rank test was statistically significant (p=0.003). A Cox regression model showed that, in the FCF group, being married, and having a lower Fagerström test score, normal body mass index and doctor-diagnosed tobacco-related chronic diseases, were significantly independent protective predictors of smoking relapse. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that additional follow-up telephone counselling might be an effective strategy in preventing relapse. Further research is still

  9. Discovering physical abuse: insights from a follow-up study of delinquents.

    PubMed

    Stein, A; Lewis, D O

    1992-01-01

    In a follow-up study of incarcerated Connecticut youth, 66 subjects participated in extensive personal interviews. This paper documents discrepancies between early data regarding abuse and retrospective self-reports of abuse given at the time of follow-up. It describes the development of an interview protocol in which inquiries regarding medical history, the general temperament of caretakers and their behaviors when intoxicated, and instruments and methods of punishment used in the home enabled subjects to describe abusive experiences not disclosed in response to direct questions about maltreatment. The paper also discusses the use of explicitly worded probes to flesh out a clear picture of subjects' experiences. The conflicts that underlie denial or minimization of abuse are discussed, along with interviewing strategies for overcoming them.

  10. Depressive disorder, dysthymia, and risk of stroke: thirteen-year follow-up from the Baltimore epidemiologic catchment area study.

    PubMed

    Larson, S L; Owens, P L; Ford, D; Eaton, W

    2001-09-01

    This study examined depressive disorder as a risk factor for incident stroke in a prospective, population-based design. The Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study is a prospective 13-year follow-up of a probability sample of household residents from Baltimore, Md. Depressive disorder was measured with the diagnostic interview schedule, and stroke was assessed by questions from the health interview survey or by documentation on a death certificate. During the 13-year follow-up of 1703 individuals, 66 strokes were reported and 29 strokes were identified by death certificate search. Individuals with a history of depressive disorder were 2.6 times more likely to report stroke than those without this disorder after controlling for heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and current and previous use of tobacco. Medications used in the treatment of depressive disorder at baseline did not alter this finding. A history of dysthymia demonstrated a similar relationship to stroke, although the estimate was not statistically significant. Depressive disorder is a risk factor for stroke that appears to be independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Further research on mechanisms for the association and the impact of treatment for depressive disorder on subsequent stroke is needed.

  11. The Bologna-Oxford total ankle replacement: a mid-term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, A; Martinelli, N; Sartorelli, E; Malerba, F

    2012-06-01

    The Bologna-Oxford (BOX) total ankle replacement (TAR) was developed with the aim of achieving satisfactory pain-free movement of the ankle. To date, only one single multicentre study has reported its clinical results. The aim of this study was to conduct an independent review of its mid-term results. We retrospectively reviewed a total of 60 prospectively followed patients in whom 62 BOX TARs had been implanted between 2004 and 2008. We used the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score to assess the clinical results. Standardised radiographs taken at the time of final follow-up were analysed by two observers. The overall survival was 91.9% at a mean follow-up of 42.5 months (24 to 71). The mean AOFAS score had improved from 35.1 points (sd 16.6; 4 to 73) pre-operatively to 78.0 (sd 10.7; 57 to 100) at final follow-up (p < 0.01). Tibial radiolucencies < 2 mm in width were seen around 16 TARs. Talar radiolucencies < 2 mm were seen around four TARs. A total of 47 patients (78.3%) were very satisfied or satisfied with the outcome. Five patients required revision for functional limitation or continuing pain.

  12. [Mortality of chromium plating workers in Japan--a 16-year follow-up study].

    PubMed

    Itoh, T; Takahashi, K; Okubo, T

    1996-03-01

    Health hazards due to exposure to chromium in the chromium plating industry has been documented in only a few epidemiological studies. A prospective cohort study was conducted to examine the health hazards of chromium plating with a follow-up period of over sixteen years. Subjects were 1193 male metal platers in the small-scale chromium plating plants in Tokyo. They were divided into a chromium plater subgroup (n = 623) and non-chromium plater subgroup (n = 567) and were followed up from October 1976 through December 1992. The 95% confidence interval (95%CI) of the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was used to evaluate statistical significance. In the chromium plating subgroup, the risk of chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis was significantly elevated (SMR 2.34; 95%CI 1.17-4.19) and a trend toward statistical significance was seen for the risk of lung cancer (SMR 1.18; 95%CI 0.99-3.04). No significantly elevated risk was seen in the non-chromium plating subgroup. We concluded that, as the number of disease-specific deaths was small, further follow-up is necessary.

  13. A follow-up study of girls with gender identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Kelley D; Bradley, Susan J; Peterson-Badali, Michele; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2008-01-01

    This study provided information on the natural histories of 25 girls with gender identity disorder (GID). Standardized assessment data in childhood (mean age, 8.88 years; range, 3-12 years) and at follow-up (mean age, 23.24 years; range, 15-36 years) were used to evaluate gender identity and sexual orientation. At the assessment in childhood, 60% of the girls met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for GID, and 40% were subthreshold for the diagnosis. At follow-up, 3 participants (12%) were judged to have GID or gender dysphoria. Regarding sexual orientation, 8 participants (32%) were classified as bisexual/homosexual in fantasy, and 6 (24%) were classified as bisexual/homosexual in behavior. The remaining participants were classified as either heterosexual or asexual. The rates of GID persistence and bisexual/homosexual sexual orientation were substantially higher than base rates in the general female population derived from epidemiological or survey studies. There was some evidence of a "dosage" effect, with girls who were more cross-sex typed in their childhood behavior more likely to be gender dysphoric at follow-up and more likely to have been classified as bisexual/homosexual in behavior (but not in fantasy). Copyright (c) 2008 APA.

  14. The prognosis of pediatric headaches--a 30-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Joseph M; Augustine, Haley F; Brna, Paula M; Digby, Alyson M

    2014-07-01

    Although headaches in childhood are common, there are few data available on their long-term prognosis. We have monitored a group of patients since diagnosis in 1983. Patients who were part of the 20-year follow-up study in 2003 were contacted, and data were collected using a standardized telephone interview. Details of headache characteristics and identified precipitants and alleviating factors were gathered. The most effective means of controlling the headaches were also recorded. Follow-up was achieved for 28 of 60 patients (47%). Over the 30 years since diagnosis, eight patients (29%) reported a complete resolution of headaches, including three whose headaches resolved between the 20- and 30-year follow-up studies. The type of headache varied over the 30-year time interval with only three patients maintaining the same headache type at all four time periods of 1983, 1993, 2003, and 2013. Only one patient used prescription medication as the primary method for controlling headaches. The most commonly used intervention was nonprescription analgesia, self-relaxation and/or hypnosis, and precipitant avoidance. Headaches persist in approximately 70% of children 30 years after diagnosis. Encouraging children to manage their headaches with simple analgesia and precipitant avoidance appears to have long-term benefits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Therapeutic community drug treatment success in Peru: a follow-up outcome study

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Knowlton; Pan, Zhenfeng; Young, Linda; Vanderhoff, Jude; Shamblen, Steve; Browne, Thom; Linfield, Ken; Suresh, Geetha

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of drug abuse treatment in Peru that used the therapeutic community (TC) model. Program directors and several staff members from all study treatment facilities received two to eight weeks of in-country training on how to implement the TC treatment model prior to the follow-up study. Methods This outcome study involved 33 TC treatment facilities and 509 former clients in Lima and other cities in five providences across Peru. A retrospective pre-test (RPT) follow-up design was employed in which 30-day use of illegal drugs and alcohol to intoxication was measured at baseline retrospectively, at the same time of the six-month follow-up. In-person interview data were collected from directors of 73 percent of the eligible TC organizations in January and February 2003 and from former 58 percent of the eligible TC former clients between October 2003 and October 2004. Drug testing was conducted on a small sample of former clients to increase the accuracy of the self-reported drug use data. Results Medium to large positive treatment effects were found when comparing 30-day illegal drug and alcohol use to intoxication before and six months after receiving treatment. As a supplemental analysis, we assumed the 42 percent of the former clients who were not interviewed at the six month assessment had returned to drugs. These results showed medium treatment effects as well. Hierarchical Generalized Linear Modeling (HGLM) results showed higher implementation fidelity, less stigma after leaving treatment, and older clients, singly or in combination are key predictors of treatment success. Conclusion This study found that former clients of drug and alcohol treatment in facilities using the TC model reported substantial positive change in use of illegal drugs and alcohol to intoxication at a six-month follow-up. The unique contribution of this study is that the results also suggest attention should be placed on the

  16. Characteristics and follow-up of postmarketing studies of conditionally authorized medicines in the EU.

    PubMed

    Hoekman, Jarno; Klamer, Thea T; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Leufkens, Hubert G M; De Bruin, Marie L

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide an insight into the characteristics and follow-up of postmarketing studies of medicines that were conditionally authorized in the European Union (EU). We compiled a list of all postmarketing studies attached as specific obligations to the licence of medicines that were granted conditional marketing authorization from January 2006 to April 2014. Studies were characterized based on their objective, design, status upon marketing authorization (MA) and due data set by authorities. They were linked to online study registrations (Clinicaltrials.gov, ENCePP) to determine completion date. We described and associated characteristics of studies and medicines, and determined whether studies were completed on time. A total of 59 postmarketing studies were requested for 21 conditionally authorized medicines. Most studies had an interventional study design (73%), were ongoing upon MA (61%) and aimed to provide additional data on efficacy (45%). Interventional studies were more often ongoing and providing efficacy data, while observational and other studies were more often new and providing safety data. Frequent grounds for requesting postmarketing studies were 'long-term follow-up' and 'increase data on subpopulations'. Of the 34 studies eligible for follow-up analysis, 26 (76%) were completed and 17 (50%) completed on time. Actual completion time took a median (interquartile range) of 274 (-121 to 556) days longer than expected. Our results indicated that most postmarketing studies attached to a conditional marketing authorization were eventually completed but that half were completed with a substantial delay. The observations suggest caution when broadening the use of postmarketing studies for resolving uncertainties about benefits and risks after MA. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Frequent Respiratory Viral Infections in Children with Febrile Neutropenia - A Prospective Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Söderman, Martina; Rhedin, Samuel; Tolfvenstam, Thomas; Rotzén-Östlund, Maria; Albert, Jan; Broliden, Kristina; Lindblom, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Febrile neutropenia is common in children undergoing chemotherapy for the treatment of malignancies. In the majority of cases, the cause of the fever is unknown. Although respiratory viruses are commonly associated with this condition, the etiologic significance of this finding remains unclear and is therefore the subject of this study. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected during 87 episodes of febrile neutropenia in children age 0-18 years, being treated at a children's oncology unit between January 2013 and June 2014. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the presence of 16 respiratory viruses. Follow-up samples were collected from children who tested positive for one or more respiratory viruses. Rhinoviruses were genotyped by VP4/VP2 sequencing. Fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for group comparisons. At least one respiratory virus was detected in samples from 39 of 87 episodes of febrile neutropenia (45%), with rhinoviruses the most frequently detected. Follow-up samples were collected after a median of 28 days (range, 9-74 days) in 32 of the 39 virus-positive episodes. The respiratory viral infection had resolved in 25 episodes (78%). The same virus was detected at follow-up in one coronavirus and six rhinovirus episodes. Genotyping revealed a different rhinovirus species in two of the six rhinovirus infections. The frequency of respiratory viral infections in this group of patients suggests an etiologic role in febrile neutropenia. However, these findings must be confirmed in larger patient cohorts.

  18. Data linkage reduces loss to follow-up in an observational HIV cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hill, Teresa; Bansi, Loveleen; Sabin, Caroline; Phillips, Andrew; Dunn, David; Anderson, Jane; Easterbrook, Philippa; Fisher, Martin; Gazzard, Brian; Gilson, Richard; Johnson, Margaret; Leen, Clifford; Orkin, Chloe; Schwenk, Achim; Walsh, John; Winston, Alan; Babiker, Abdel; Delpech, Valerie

    2010-10-01

    To ascertain the degree of loss to follow-up in a cohort and to identify its predictors. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals without CD4 cell counts for a year or more were defined as potentially lost to follow-up (LFU). Multivariable Poisson regression models identified the risk factors for potential LFU. Multivariable logistic regression models compared demographic and clinical characteristics of those who returned for care and those permanently LFU. Of 16,595 patients under follow-up, 43.6% were potentially LFU at least once. Of these, 39.8% were considered permanently LFU and 60.2% were seen again after 1 year. Of 9,766 episodes when patients were potentially LFU, 59% resulted in the patient returning for care at the same clinic or at a different clinic. Compared with those permanently LFU, patients returning were more likely to have started highly active antiretroviral therapy, to have higher CD4 counts and viral loads, to be younger, and to have had more CD4 tests before LFU. They were less likely to have had a previous episode of potential LFU. A substantial proportion of patients in the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort study are potentially LFU. Data linkage identifies patients returning for care at different centers. Recognition of factors associated with LFU may help reduce this important source of bias in observational databases. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. What happens to opiate addicts immediately after treatment: a prospective follow up study.

    PubMed Central

    Gossop, M; Green, L; Phillips, G; Bradley, B

    1987-01-01

    In the first British study to investigate systematically what happens to opiate addicts after treatment 50 opiate addicts admitted for inpatient treatment of their drug dependence were followed up for six months after discharge. All had been withdrawn from opiates before follow up. Six months later 26 were not using opiates: 12 had not used opiates at any time since discharge. When subjects in hospital or in prison were excluded from the analysis 21 (47%) of the subjects living in the community were not taking opiates. Many subjects used opiates within days of leaving the inpatient unit, but this first lapse did not necessarily lead to a full relapse into addictive use. During the six months after discharge several subjects used opiates on a less than daily basis. During each two month period throughout the six months of follow up the proportion of subjects who were occasional users fell, the proportion of abstinent subjects grew, and the proportion of daily users (assumed to be readdicted) remained constant. Although many of the addicts relapsed soon after treatment, it was encouraging that almost half were opiate free after six months. These results have important implications for the treatment of drug addicts. PMID:3109662

  20. Post-bronchiolitis Use of Asthma Medication: A Prospective 1-year Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Bergroth, Eija; Aakula, Matilda; Korppi, Matti; Remes, Sami; Kivistö, Juho E; Piedra, Pedro A; Camargo, Carlos A; Jartti, Tuomas

    2016-04-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the association between viral findings during bronchiolitis and the use of asthma controller medication (primary outcome) and systemic corticosteroids (secondary outcome) during the first post-bronchiolitis year. We enrolled 408 children hospitalized for bronchiolitis at <24 months of age in a prospective, 3-center, 1-year follow-up study in Finland. Viruses were detected with polymerase chain reaction in nasopharyngeal aspirates. The parents underwent a structured interview during hospitalization. Twelve months later, the use of asthma medication was asked in a structured questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression was used for statistical analysis. In total, 365 (89%) children completed the 1-year follow-up. The use of long-term asthma controller medication was highest in the rhinovirus-positive group (61% vs. 15% in respiratory syncytial virus-positive group; adjusted odd ratios, 7.5; 95% confidence interval: 3.7-15.3), followed by children negative for both respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus (36%; adjusted odd ratios, 2.6; 95% confidence interval: 1.3-5.3). Likewise, rhinovirus etiology was associated with more courses of systemic corticosteroids during the follow-up. The main findings were similar in a subset of infants aged <12 months with first wheezing. Children hospitalized for rhinovirus-positive bronchiolitis used long-term asthma controller medication more often than those hospitalized for rhinovirus-negative bronchiolitis during first year after hospitalization.

  1. Patient relationship management: an overview and study of a follow-up system.

    PubMed

    Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Räisänen, Teppo; Hummastenniemi, Niko

    2008-01-01

    Customer relationship management research is utilized to explain the need for a more patient-oriented support in patient care. This article presents a European study on how various hospital units of a single healthcare organization have utilized a patient relationship management system--in particular a patient treatment follow-up system--and how it affects patient care and the knowledge work performed by the medical staff. Eight physicians were interviewed at a university hospital on whether patient treatment was improved through a follow-up system that had been in use in the case organization for three years. The interviewees represented various hospital units, and all of them had used the system at their own unit. The results indicate that it is possible to improve patient care through more personalized treatment. The follow-up treatment system seems to be a tool to create and maintain better communication with the patients rather than just a technological solution. It may help better understand and analyze both individual patients and patient groups. For individual physicians it provides a way to reflect professional skills. The system was lacking in its support for one-to-one communication with patients. Nevertheless, the system is an example of patient relationship management which may help healthcare units to move towards a more patient-oriented care.

  2. Stability of alexithymia in late adolescence: results of a 4-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Karukivi, Max; Pölönen, Tuukka; Vahlberg, Tero; Saikkonen, Suvi; Saarijärvi, Simo

    2014-10-30

    The aim of the present study was to assess the stability of alexithymia in adolescents and the effects of parental factors and social support thereon. The sample comprised 315 late adolescents, of whom 259 were female and 56 male. At baseline, the mean age of the subjects was 19 years (range 17-21 years). The follow-up period was 4 years (2008-2012). The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) was used for the assessment of alexithymia both at baseline and follow-up. The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) were used as measures at baseline. Regarding absolute stability, the changes in the TAS-20 total scores and two subscales (DIF and EOT) were statistically significant but the effect sizes for the changes were small (Cohen׳s d 0.21-0.24). The test-retest correlations for the TAS-20 total and subscale scores were high (ρ=0.50-0.64, P<0.001), indicating relative stability. While several parental and social support variables were associated with alexithymia at baseline, low social support from friends was the only to predict higher alexithymia at follow-up. Alexithymia is a stable personality trait also in late adolescence. Low social support from friends is related to alexithymia in young adulthood.

  3. High dairy fat intake related to less central obesity: a male cohort study with 12 years' follow-up.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Sara; Thelin, Anders

    2013-06-01

    To study associations between dairy fat intake and development of central obesity. A prospective population-based cohort study with two surveys 12 years apart. Nine municipalities selected from different parts of Sweden representing the rural areas in the country. 1782 men (farmers and non-farmers) aged 40-60 years at baseline participated in a baseline survey (participation rate 76%) and 1589 men participated at the follow-up. 116 men with central obesity at baseline were excluded from the analyses. Central obesity at follow-up defined as waist hip ratio ≥ 1. 197 men (15%) developed central obesity during follow-up. A low intake of dairy fat at baseline (no butter and low fat milk and seldom/never whipping cream) was associated with a higher risk of developing central obesity (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.05-2.24) and a high intake of dairy fat (butter as spread and high fat milk and whipping cream) was associated with a lower risk of central obesity (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.33-0.83) as compared with medium intake (all other combinations of spread, milk, and cream) after adjustment for intake of fruit and vegetables, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, age, education, and profession. The associations between dairy fat intake and central obesity were consistent across body mass index categories at baseline. A high intake of dairy fat was associated with a lower risk of central obesity and a low dairy fat intake was associated with a higher risk of central obesity.

  4. High dairy fat intake related to less central obesity: A male cohort study with 12 years’ follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To study associations between dairy fat intake and development of central obesity. Design A prospective population-based cohort study with two surveys 12 years apart. Setting Nine municipalities selected from different parts of Sweden representing the rural areas in the country. Subjects 1782 men (farmers and non-farmers) aged 40–60 years at baseline participated in a baseline survey (participation rate 76%) and 1589 men participated at the follow-up. 116 men with central obesity at baseline were excluded from the analyses. Main outcome measures Central obesity at follow-up defined as waist hip ratio ≥ 1. Results 197 men (15%) developed central obesity during follow-up. A low intake of dairy fat at baseline (no butter and low fat milk and seldom/never whipping cream) was associated with a higher risk of developing central obesity (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.05–2.24) and a high intake of dairy fat (butter as spread and high fat milk and whipping cream) was associated with a lower risk of central obesity (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.33–0.83) as compared with medium intake (all other combinations of spread, milk, and cream) after adjustment for intake of fruit and vegetables, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, age, education, and profession. The associations between dairy fat intake and central obesity were consistent across body mass index categories at baseline. Conclusion A high intake of dairy fat was associated with a lower risk of central obesity and a low dairy fat intake was associated with a higher risk of central obesity. PMID:23320900

  5. Changes in serum levels of perfluoroalkyl substances during a 10-year follow-up period in a large population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Stubleski, Jordan; Salihovic, Samira; Lind, Lars; Lind, P Monica; van Bavel, Bert; Kärrman, Anna

    2016-10-01

    Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of man-made fluorinated chemicals which have, at background levels, been associated with negative health effects in humans. Thus far, most human biomonitoring studies have evaluated the general change in PFAS concentration over time by continuously testing various individuals. This is one of the few studies to report the longitudinal trend of a range of PFAS concentrations in humans. In addition, this is the first known longitudinal study to include a large background level exposed cohort of both men and women with the same age and location who were repeatedly sampled from 2001 to 2014. The longitudinal change in concentration of eight PFASs detected in serum collected from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort were determined and compared to results from general population studies. The sex-dependent changes in PFAS concentrations over time were also assessed. Serum was sampled from the same individuals at ages 70 (collection period 2001-2004), 75 (2006-2009) and 80 (2011-2014,). Eight (C6-11) of fourteen (C4-13) analyzed PFASs were usually detected in over 75% of individuals and assessed using a random effects (mixed) model. In the 579 individuals attending all three examinations, PFOSA and PFOS concentrations significantly decreased, while the remaining six PFASs significantly increased between ages 70 and 75. However, between ages 75 and 80 all PFAS concentrations significantly decreased. Overall from age 70 to 80, concentrations of PFHxS, PFUnDA, PFNA, and PFDA showed a significant increase (7% to 34%), whereas concentrations of PFOSA, PFHpA, PFOS, and PFOA (-75% to -27%) significantly decreased. Over time PFHxS concentrations increased more among women, while PFHpA concentrations showed a greater decrease among men. From age 70 to age 80, spanning from 2001-2004 to 2011-2014, the PIVUS cohort showed decreases in circulating levels of some PFASs phased out of

  6. Participant characteristics that influence consent for genetic research in a population-based survey: the Baltimore epidemiologic catchment area follow-up.

    PubMed

    Mezuk, Briana; Eaton, William W; Zandi, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the sociodemographic and health characteristics associated with the willingness to donate a DNA sample, and consent to testing and long-term storage of that sample, among participants in a longitudinal community-based survey. Eighty-three percent of the 1,071 participants interviewed in 2004/5 agreed to donate a biological specimen (blood or buccal). Age was consistently inversely associated with the willingness to allow genetic testing (OR 0.97; p < 0.05), but was unrelated to the willingness to donate or allow storage. There was no association between race and the consent to donate a specimen, but Blacks were less likely to consent to DNA storage for future research as compared with members of other racial groups (OR 0.50; p < 0.01). Four conditions were listed on the consent form as relevant to the genes targeted for assay. Participants with a family history of 1 or more of these conditions were more likely to donate than those without (OR 1.68; p < 0.01). Participants with a personal history of 1 of the 4 conditions listed were not more or less likely to donate, allow testing or allow storage than respondents without such a history. Sociodemographic characteristics were unrelated to the willingness to donate a biological sample. Age, but not race, sex or education, was related to consent to genetic testing. Race, but not age, sex or education, was related to consent to storage. A family history of health conditions listed as relevant to the assays being requested was related to the willingness to donate. Factors that affect the willingness to donate a biological sample in an epidemiologic study are not the same as those associated with the willingness to allow genetic testing or storage of that sample for unspecified future research. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Alumina-on-alumina total hip arthroplasty. A five-year minimum follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jeong Joon; Kim, Young-Min; Yoon, Kang Sup; Koo, Kyung-Hoi; Song, Won Seok; Kim, Hee Joong

    2005-03-01

    Ceramic-on-ceramic couplings are attractive alternative bearing surfaces that have been reported to eliminate or reduce problems related to polyethylene wear debris. Disappointing experiences with alumina ceramic bearings in the past have led to many improvements in the manufacture and design of ceramic implants. The purpose of the present study was to report the results of contemporary alumina-on-alumina total hip arthroplasties with regard to wear, osteolysis, and fracture of the ceramic after a minimum duration of follow-up of five years. We evaluated the results of a consecutive series of 100 primary alumina-on-alumina total hip arthroplasties that had been performed with use of a metal-backed socket and a cementless stem in eighty-four patients. All of the patients were sixty-five years of age or younger (mean age, forty-one years), and a single surgeon performed all of the procedures. After a minimum duration of follow-up of sixty months, one patient (one hip) had died and four patients (six hips) had been lost to follow-up, leaving a total of seventy-nine patients (ninety-three hips) available for study. All of these patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically with special attention to wear, periprosthetic osteolysis, and ceramic failure. The mean Harris hip score was 97 points at the time of the latest follow-up evaluation. All prostheses demonstrated radiographic evidence of bone ingrowth. No implant was loose radiographically, and no implant was revised. Ceramic wear was not detectable in the thirty-seven hips in which the femoral head could be differentiated from the cup on radiographs. Periprosthetic osteolysis was not observed in any hip. A fracture of the alumina femoral head and a peripheral chip fracture of the alumina insert occurred in one hip following a motor-vehicle accident. The results of contemporary alumina-on-alumina total hip arthroplasty with a metal-backed socket and a cementless stem were encouraging after a minimum

  8. Metabolically healthy obesity and depressive symptoms: 16-year follow-up of the Gazel cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gueguen, Alice; Matta, Joane; Lemogne, Cedric; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Aims The health correlates of the metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype, particularly in relation to depressive symptoms remains unclear. Accordingly, we examined the risk of depressive symptoms in this phenotype using a 16-year follow-up prospective study. Methods A sample of 14 475 participants (75% men), aged 44–59 years in 1996, was drawn from the Gazel cohort. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2 and metabolic health as having none of the self-reported following cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale in 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008 and 2012. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to estimate the risk of depressive symptoms during a follow-up of 16 years. Results In multivariate analyses, metabolically unhealthy normal weight [Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.37; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.25–1.51], overweight [1.44 (1.31–1.59)] and obese [1.30 (1.10–1.54)] but not MHO participants [1.04 (0.81–1.32)] had higher risk of depressive symptoms at the start of follow-up compared to metabolically healthy normal weight individuals. Depressive symptoms decreased over time in metabolically healthy normal weight individuals [0.52 (0.50–0.55)], this decrease was less marked only in metabolically unhealthy obese participants [1.22 (1.07–1.40)]. Compared to MHO participants, metabolically unhealthy obese individuals were at increased risk of depression at the start of follow-up, but with a similar reduction of this risk over time. Conclusion Poor metabolic health, irrespective of BMI was associated with greater depressive symptoms at the start of follow-up, whereas a poorer course of depressive symptoms over time was observed only in those with both obesity and poor metabolic health. PMID:28384219

  9. Breast cancer survivorship--intersecting gendered discourses in a 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Norberg, Monika; Magnusson, Eva; Egberg Thyme, Karin; Åström, Sture; Lindh, Jack; Öster, Inger

    2015-01-01

    In this article the authors present a follow-up study of women's interview narratives about life 5 to 7 years after a breast cancer operation. The women had taken part in a study during the 6-month postoperation period. Art therapy contributed to well-being, including strengthening personal boundaries. In the new study, interview analysis informed by critical discursive psychology indicated three problematic discourses that the women still struggled with several years after the operation: the female survivor, the "good woman," and individual responsibility. We concluded that many women with a history of breast cancer need support several years after their medical treatment is finished.

  10. Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort study: follow-up processes at 20 years

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In 1987, a prospective study of an Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort was established focusing on the relationships of fetal and childhood growth with the risk of chronic adult disease. However as the study is being conducted in a highly marginalized population it is also an important resource for cross-sectional descriptive and analytical studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the processes of the third follow up which was conducted 20 years after recruitment at birth. Methods Progressive steps in a multiphase protocol were used for tracing, with modifications for the expected rural or urban location of the participants. Results Of the original 686 cohort participants recruited 68 were untraced and 27 were known to have died. Of the 591 available for examination 122 were not examined; 11 of these were refusals and the remainder were not seen for logistical reasons relating to inclement weather, mobility of participants and single participants living in very remote locations. Conclusion The high retention rate of this follow-up 20 years after birth recruitment is a testament to the development of successful multiphase protocols aimed at overcoming the challenges of tracing a cohort over a widespread remote area and also to the perseverance of the study personnel. We also interpret the high retention rate as a reflection of the good will of the wider Aboriginal community towards this study and that researchers interactions with the community were positive. The continued follow-up of this life course study now seems feasible and there are plans to trace and reexamine the cohort at age 25 years. PMID:19775475

  11. Yoga for Adult Women with Chronic PTSD: A Long-Term Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Alison; Spinazzola, Joseph; van der Kolk, Bessel

    2016-03-01

    Yoga-the integrative practice of physical postures and movement, breath exercises, and mindfulness-may serve as a useful adjunctive component of trauma-focused treatment to build skills in tolerating and modulating physiologic and affective states that have become dysregulated by trauma exposure. A previous randomized controlled study was carried out among 60 women with chronic, treatment-resistant post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and associated mental health problems stemming from prolonged or multiple trauma exposures. After 10 sessions of yoga, participants exhibited statistically significant decreases in PTSD symptom severity and greater likelihood of loss of PTSD diagnosis, significant decreases in engagement in negative tension reduction activities (e.g., self-injury), and greater reductions in dissociative and depressive symptoms when compared with the control (a seminar in women's health). The current study is a long-term follow-up assessment of participants who completed this randomized controlled trial. Participants from the randomized controlled trial were invited to participate in long-term follow-up assessments approximately 1.5 years after study completion to assess whether the initial intervention and/or yoga practice after treatment was associated with additional changes. Forty-nine women completed the long-term follow-up interviews. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine whether treatment group status in the original study and frequency of yoga practice after the study predicted greater changes in symptoms and PTSD diagnosis. Group assignment in the original randomized study was not a significant predictor of longer-term outcomes. However, frequency of continuing yoga practice significantly predicted greater decreases in PTSD symptom severity and depression symptom severity, as well as a greater likelihood of a loss of PTSD diagnosis. Yoga appears to be a useful treatment modality; the greatest long-term benefits are derived from

  12. CORONIS - International study of caesarean section surgical techniques: the follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The CORONIS Trial was a 2×2×2×2×2 non-regular, fractional, factorial trial of five pairs of alternative caesarean section surgical techniques on a range of short-term outcomes, the primary outcome being a composite of maternal death or infectious morbidity. The consequences of different surgical techniques on longer term outcomes have not been well assessed in previous studies. Such outcomes include those related to subsequent pregnancy: mode of delivery; abnormal placentation (e.g. accreta); postpartum hysterectomy, as well as longer term pelvic problems: pain, urinary problems, infertility. The Coronis Follow-up Study aims to measure and compare the incidence of these outcomes between the randomised groups at around three years after women participated in the CORONIS Trial. Methods/Design This study will assess the following null hypotheses: In women who underwent delivery by caesarean section, no differences will be detected with respect to a range of long-term outcomes when comparing the following five pairs of alternative surgical techniques evaluated in the CORONIS Trial: 1. Blunt versus sharp abdominal entry 2. Exteriorisation of the uterus for repair versus intra-abdominal repair 3. Single versus double layer closure of the uterus 4. Closure versus non-closure of the peritoneum (pelvic and parietal) 5. Chromic catgut versus Polyglactin-910 for uterine repair The outcomes will include (1) women’s health: pelvic pain; dysmenorrhoea; deep dyspareunia; urinary symptoms; laparoscopy; hysterectomy; tubal/ovarian surgery; abdominal hernias; bowel obstruction; infertility; death. (2) Outcomes of subsequent pregnancies: inter-pregnancy interval; pregnancy outcome; gestation at delivery; mode of delivery; pregnancy complications; surgery during or following delivery. Discussion The results of this follow-up study will have importance for all pregnant women and for health professionals who provide care for pregnant women. Although the results will

  13. Cancer and bone fractures in observational follow-up of the RECORD study.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nigel P; Curtis, Paula S; Home, Philip D

    2015-06-01

    The RECORD study evaluated the effects of rosiglitazone on cardiovascular outcomes. A 4-year observational follow-up was added to the study to monitor the occurrence of cancer and bone fractures. We present the cancer and bone fracture data aggregated across the main study and its observational follow-up. RECORD was a multicentre, open-label trial in people with type 2 diabetes on metformin or sulfonylurea monotherapy randomly assigned to addition of rosiglitazone (n = 2,220) or to a combination of metformin and sulfonylurea (n = 2,227). At the end of the main study, patients stopped study drug and were invited to enter the observational follow-up during which glucose-lowering treatment was selected by the patient's physician. Serious adverse events of cancer and serious and non-serious events of bone fracture were recorded. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00379769. Of the 4,447 patients comprising the intent-to-treat population, 2,546 entered the observational follow-up (1,288 rosiglitazone, 1,258 metformin/sulfonylurea) and added 9,336 patient-years experience to the main RECORD study, making an aggregate of 33,744 patient-years. Based on the totality of follow-up, malignancies were reported in 179 of 2,220 patients (8.1 %) in the group originally randomised to rosiglitazone and in 195 of 2,227 patients (8.8 %) in the group allocated metformin/sulfonylurea [relative risk, RR, 0.92 (95 % CI 0.76-1.12)]. More patients reported bone fractures in the rosiglitazone group (238, 10.7 %) than in the metformin/sulfonylurea control [151, 6.8 %; RR 1.58 (1.30-1.92)]. For women, the corresponding figures were rosiglitazone 156 (14.5 %), metformin/sulfonylurea 91 (8.5 %), RR 1.71 (1.34-2.18), and for men, the corresponding figures were rosiglitazone 82 (7.2 %), metformin/sulfonylurea 60 (5.2 %), RR 1.37 (0.99-1.90). Potentially high-morbidity fractures (hip, pelvis, femur, and spine) occurred in the same number of patients (31, 1.4

  14. Psychosocial impact of repeat HIV-negative testing: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Ryder, Karen; Haubrich, Dennis J; Callà, Domenico; Myers, Ted; Burchell, Ann N; Calzavara, Liviana

    2005-12-01

    Continued sexual risk behavior following repeatedly testing HIV-negative in the Polaris HIV Seroconversion Study (Ontario, Canada) led to this follow-up study which identifies the impact of repeat negative testing among 64 men and women. Repeat HIV-negative testing frequently results in confusion as to what constitutes risk and occasionally to thoughts of HIV immunity. Narrative accounts include beliefs that monogamy constitutes safety from HIV, that psychosocial factors other than repeatedly testing negative leads to risk, and that sexual risk reduction is unsustainable. In conclusion, the repeat negative test experience for some neither clarifies risk behavior nor reinforces sustained risk reduction.

  15. Physical activity and change in quality of life during menopause -an 8-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives The aim of this study was to study the role of menopausal status and physical activity on quality of life. Methods A total of 1,165 Finnish women aged 45-64 years from a national representative population-based study were followed up for 8 years. Study participants completed the Health 2000 study questionnaire and follow-up questionnaire in 2008. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to measure the effect of menopausal status on global quality of life (QoL). Other variables included in the analyses were age, education, change of physical activity as assessed with metabolic equivalents, change of weight and hormone therapy (HRT) use. Results Peri- and postmenopausal women increased their physical activity (28% and 27%) during the eight-year follow up period slightly more often than premenopausal (18%) women (p = 0.070). Menopausal status was not significantly correlated with change of QoL. QoL of the most highly educated women was more likely to improve than among the less educated (eb = 1.28, 95%CI 1.08 to 1.51 p = 0.002). Women whose physical activity increased or remained stable had greater chances for improved QoL than women whose physical activity decreased (eb = 1.49, 95%CI 1.23 p < 0.001 to 1.80, eb = 1.46, 95%CI 1.24 to 1.73 p < 0.001 respectively). Women whose weight remained stable during follow-up also improved their QoL compared to women who gained weight (eb = 1.26, 95%CI 1.07 to 1.50 p > 0.01). Women who had never used HRT had 1.26 greater odds for improved QoL (95%CI 1.02 to 1.56 p = < 0.05). Conclusion Improvement of global QoL is correlated with stable or increased physical activity, stable weight and high education, but not with change in menopausal status. PMID:22269072

  16. Workplace bullying and common mental disorders: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Lahelma, Eero; Lallukka, Tea; Laaksonen, Mikko; Saastamoinen, Peppiina; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2012-06-01

    Workplace bullying has been associated with mental health, but longitudinal studies confirming the association are lacking. This study examined the associations of workplace bullying with subsequent common mental disorders 5-7 years later, taking account of baseline common mental disorders and several covariates. Baseline questionnaire survey data were collected in 2000-2002 among municipal employees, aged 40-60 years (n=8960; 80% women; response rate 67%). Follow-up data were collected in 2007 (response rate 83%). The final data amounted to 6830 respondents. Workplace bullying was measured at baseline using an instructed question about being bullied currently, previously or never. Common mental disorders were measured at baseline and at follow-up using the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire. Those scoring 3-12 were classified as having common mental disorders. Covariates included bullying in childhood, occupational and employment position, work stress, obesity and limiting longstanding illness. Logistic regression analysis was used. After adjusting for age, being currently bullied at baseline was associated with common mental disorders at follow-up among women (OR 2.34, CI 1.81 to 3.02) and men (OR 3.64, CI 2.13 to 6.24). The association for the previously bullied was weaker. Adjusting for baseline common mental disorders, the association attenuated but remained. Adjusting for further covariates did not substantially alter the studied association. CONCLUSION The study confirms that workplace bullying is likely to contribute to subsequent common mental disorders. Measures against bullying are needed at workplaces to prevent mental disorders.

  17. Longitudinal follow-up of SWEDD subjects in the PRECEPT Study.

    PubMed

    Marek, Kenneth; Seibyl, John; Eberly, Shirley; Oakes, David; Shoulson, Ira; Lang, Anthony E; Hyson, Chris; Jennings, Danna

    2014-05-20

    To compare the clinical and imaging characteristics of those PRECEPT (Parkinson Research Examination of CEP-1347 Trial) subjects with a scan without evidence of dopaminergic deficit (SWEDD) to those with dopamine transporter (DAT) deficit scans at study baseline and during a 22-month follow-up. Baseline (n = 799) and 22-month follow-up (n = 701) [(123)I] β-CIT SPECT scans were acquired. The percent change in [(123)I] β-CIT striatal binding ratio, the percentage of subjects requiring dopaminergic therapy, the change in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) score, and the PRECEPT Study investigators' diagnosis at study termination were compared between SWEDD and DAT deficit subjects. SWEDD subjects (n = 91) compared with DAT deficit subjects (n = 708) showed reduced UPDRS score at baseline (18.7 [SD 8.5] vs 25.5 [SD 10.5], p < 0.05) and minimal change in both [(123)I] β-CIT striatal binding ratio (-0.2% [SD 12.2] vs -8.5% [SD 11.9], p < 0.0001) and UPDRS score (0.5 [SD 6.9] vs 10.5 [SD 8.9], p < 0.0001) at follow-up assessments. At PRECEPT termination, the diagnosis by study investigators was changed from Parkinson disease (PD) to other disorders not associated with DAT deficit in 44% (95% confidence interval 34.2, 54.7) of SWEDD subjects compared with 3.6% (95% confidence interval 2.3, 5.1) of DAT deficit subjects. These results indicate that subjects identified as having a SWEDD, with DAT imaging within the normal range, have minimal evidence of clinical or imaging PD progression. These data strongly suggest that SWEDD subjects are unlikely to have idiopathic PD. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  18. Longitudinal follow-up of SWEDD subjects in the PRECEPT Study

    PubMed Central

    Seibyl, John; Eberly, Shirley; Oakes, David; Shoulson, Ira; Lang, Anthony E.; Hyson, Chris; Jennings, Danna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the clinical and imaging characteristics of those PRECEPT (Parkinson Research Examination of CEP-1347 Trial) subjects with a scan without evidence of dopaminergic deficit (SWEDD) to those with dopamine transporter (DAT) deficit scans at study baseline and during a 22-month follow-up. Methods: Baseline (n = 799) and 22-month follow-up (n = 701) [123I] β-CIT SPECT scans were acquired. The percent change in [123I] β-CIT striatal binding ratio, the percentage of subjects requiring dopaminergic therapy, the change in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) score, and the PRECEPT Study investigators’ diagnosis at study termination were compared between SWEDD and DAT deficit subjects. Results: SWEDD subjects (n = 91) compared with DAT deficit subjects (n = 708) showed reduced UPDRS score at baseline (18.7 [SD 8.5] vs 25.5 [SD 10.5], p < 0.05) and minimal change in both [123I] β-CIT striatal binding ratio (−0.2% [SD 12.2] vs −8.5% [SD 11.9], p < 0.0001) and UPDRS score (0.5 [SD 6.9] vs 10.5 [SD 8.9], p < 0.0001) at follow-up assessments. At PRECEPT termination, the diagnosis by study investigators was changed from Parkinson disease (PD) to other disorders not associated with DAT deficit in 44% (95% confidence interval 34.2, 54.7) of SWEDD subjects compared with 3.6% (95% confidence interval 2.3, 5.1) of DAT deficit subjects. Conclusion: These results indicate that subjects identified as having a SWEDD, with DAT imaging within the normal range, have minimal evidence of clinical or imaging PD progression. These data strongly suggest that SWEDD subjects are unlikely to have idiopathic PD. PMID:24759846

  19. Substance use among Dutch homeless people, a follow-up study: prevalence, pattern and housing status.

    PubMed

    Van Straaten, Barbara; Rodenburg, Gerda; Van der Laan, Jorien; Boersma, Sandra N; Wolf, Judith R L M; Van de Mheen, Dike

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that substance use among homeless people is a prevalent problem that is associated with longer durations of homelessness. Most studies of substance use among the homeless were carried out outside Europe and have limited generalizability to European countries. This study therefore aimed to address the prevalence of substance use among homeless people in the Netherlands, the pattern of their use and the relationship with housing status at follow-up. This study included 344 participants (67.1% of the initial cohort) who were followed from baseline to 18 months after the baseline interview. Multinomial logistic regression analyses examined the relationship between substance use and housing status. The most reported substances which were used among these homeless people were cannabis (43.9%) and alcohol (≥5 units on one occasion) (30.7%). Other substances were used by around 5% or less of the participants. Twenty-seven percent were classified as substance misuser and 20.9% as substance dependent. The odds to be marginally housed (4.14) or institutionalized (2.12) at follow-up compared to being housed of participants who were substance users were significantly higher than those of participants who did not use substances. The odds to be homeless were more than twice as high (2.80) for participants who were substance dependent compared with those who were not. Homeless people who use substances have a more disadvantageous housing situation at follow-up than homeless people who do not use substances. Attention is needed to prevent and reduce long-term homelessness among substance-using homeless people. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  20. Saliva in perimenopausal and early postmenopausal women. A 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Tarkkila, Laura; Furuholm, Jussi; Tiitinen, Aila; Meurman, Jukka H

    2012-06-01

    This study aims to investigate salivary flow and biochemical constituents of menopausal-age women with the hypothesis that women using hormone therapy (HT) might present better saliva values than non-users. Two hundred HT users and 200 non-users were selected at random from a cohort study of 3,173 peri- and postmenopausal women and invited to a 2-year clinical follow-up study. Clinical examination with saliva sampling was made at baseline and 2 years later. Salivary total protein, albumin, and immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations were analyzed. Final material included 106 consistent HT users and 55 non-users. Backward logistic regression analysis was made to determine the risk factors for higher or lower than medium salivary protein values. No difference was seen in salivary flow rate, total protein, and IgA values between baseline and follow-up measurements or between the groups. Albumin, IgG, and IgM concentrations were significantly lower in the 2-year samples of the HT group when compared with baseline. IgA and IgM values were higher in the non-HT 2-year samples when compared with the corresponding HT samples. The only significant explanatory factor for higher than median salivary albumin concentration was the number of teeth both at baseline and 2 years later. HT possibly improved epithelial integrity since the concentrations of serum components albumin, IgG, and IgM decreased during the follow-up. HT as such does not seem to affect saliva, although it may modify it. The clinical relevance of these results needs to be assessed in future studies.

  1. A Prospective, 1-Year Follow-up Study of Postural Tachycardia Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kimpinski, Kurt; Figueroa, Juan J.; Singer, Wolfgang; Sletten, David M.; Iodice, Valeria; Sandroni, Paola; Fischer, Philip R.; Opfer-Gehrking, Tonette L.; Gehrking, Jade A.; Low, Phillip A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To prospectively evaluate patients who met standard criteria for postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS), at baseline and 1-year follow-up, using standard clinical and laboratory methods to assess autonomic function. Methods Fifty-eight patients met the study criteria (orthostatic symptoms and a heart rate increment of ≥30 beats/min on head-up tilt) and completed 12 months of follow-up. All patients were enrolled and completed the study from January 16, 2006, through April 15, 2009. Patients underwent standardized autonomic testing, including head-up tilt, clinical assessment, and validated questionnaires designed to determine the severity of autonomic symptoms. Results Patients were predominantly young females (n=49, 84%), with 20 patients (34%) reporting an antecedent viral infection before onset of symptoms. More than one-third (37%) no longer fulfilled tilt criteria for POTS on follow-up, although heart rate increment on head-up tilt did not differ significantly at 1 year (33.8±15.1 beats/min) compared with baseline (37.8±14.6 beats/min) for the entire cohort. Orthostatic symptoms improved in most patients. Autonomic dysfunction was mild as defined by a Composite Autonomic Severity Score of 3 or less in 55 patients (95%) at baseline and 48 patients (92%) at 1 year. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first prospective study of the clinical outcomes of patients with POTS. Orthostatic symptoms improved in our patients, with more than one-third of patients no longer fulfilling tilt criteria for POTS, although the overall group change in heart rate increment was modest. Our data are in keeping with a relatively favorable prognosis in most patients with POTS. PMID:22795533

  2. Electrophysiological detection of scalar changing perimodiolar cochlear electrode arrays: a long term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Mittmann, Philipp; Todt, I; Ernst, A; Rademacher, G; Mutze, S; Göricke, S; Schlamann, M; Ramalingam, R; Lang, S; Christov, F; Arweiler-Harbeck, D

    2016-12-01

    The position of the cochlear electrode array within the scala tympani is essential for an optimal hearing benefit. An intraoperative NRT-ratio was established, which can provide information about the intraoperative intracochlear electrode array position for perimodiolar electrodes. The aims of this study were to verify the longterm reliability for the NRT-ratio in perimodiolar electrodes. In a retrospective controlled study in a Tertiary Referral Center the electrophysiological data sets of 123 patients with implanted Nucleus Contour Advance electrodes were enclosed. Intraoperative and up to 1 year follow-up Auto-NRTs were evaluated. A NRT-ratio was calculated by dividing the average Auto-NRT data from electrode 16 to 18 with the average from electrode 5 to 7. Using a flat panel tomography system, the position of the electrode array was certified radiological. 31 patients with perimodiolar electrodes with 1 year follow-up data were included in the study. Eleven patients showed regular follow-up NRT-ratio with a correlated and radiologically confirmed electrode position. 20 patients showed mismatches between the NRT-ratio and the radiological position. These patients were highly variable in terms of duration of deafness and neural spectrum disorders. The NRT-ratio can be used to determine the intracochlear position of the electrode array for perimodiolar electrodes. Intraoperatively the NRT-ratio predicts the array position within the cochlea highly reliable for perimodiolar electrodes. We showed that after 6 months and a year, the NRT-ratio remains unchanged in most of the cases and shows a good correlation to the radiological determined position of the array. Nevertheless, the condition of the neural structures is highly important for reproducible responses. Limited validity is given in patients with degenerative and structural neural disorders.

  3. The role of alexithymia: An 8-year follow-up study of chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Saariaho, Anita S; Saariaho, Tom H; Mattila, Aino K; Joukamaa, Matti I; Karukivi, Max

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this 8-year follow-up study was to ascertain changes in alexithymia, depressiveness and pain situation in a sample of chronic pain patients and to explore the impact of alexithymia and depression on the outcome. Participants (n=83) were chronic non-malignant pain patients who completed self-report study questionnaires before their first visit to the pain clinic and again 8years later. Study variables consisted of pain intensity measured by the Visual Analogous Scale, the Pain Disability Scale, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory. The moderate improvement in the pain situation was estimated as a decrease of 30% or more in pain intensity or pain disability. In the whole sample there was a significant decrease in pain intensity, pain disability and depressiveness, but only some of the patients achieved moderate improvement in their pain situation. Alexithymia remained stable during the 8-year period. The alexithymic patients had poorer pain situation and more depressiveness both at baseline and at follow-up. Unfavorable outcome in the pain situation was connected with male gender and alexithymia at baseline but not with depressiveness. Alexithymia and depressiveness were closely related to each other and the connection strengthened during the follow-up period. Alexithymic depressive chronic pain patients represent a special, more disabled subgroup among chronic pain patients. The authors recommend screening for and identifying alexithymia and depression in chronic pain patients. Structural treatment protocols such as cognitive-behavioral therapy may benefit these patients. More research is needed to develop treatment interventions for alexithymic patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Learning, Memory, and Executive Function in New MDMA Users: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Daniel; Tkotz, Simon; Koester, Philip; Becker, Benjamin; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Euphrosyne; Daumann, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is associated with changes in neurocognitive performance. Recent studies in laboratory animals have provided additional support for the neurodegeneration hypothesis. However, results from animal research need to be applied to humans with caution. Moreover, several of the studies that examine MDMA users suffer from methodological shortcomings. Therefore, a prospective cohort study was designed in order to overcome these previous methodological shortcomings and to assess the relationship between the continuing use of MDMA and cognitive performance in incipient MDMA users. It was hypothesized that, depending on the amount of MDMA taken, the continued use of MDMA over a 2-year period would lead to further decreases in cognitive performance, especially in visual paired association learning tasks. Ninety-six subjects were assessed, at the second follow-up assessment: 31 of these were non-users, 55 moderate-users, and 10 heavy-users. Separate repeated measures analyses of variance were conducted for each cognitive domain, including attention and information processing speed, episodic memory, and executive functioning. Furthermore, possible confounders including age, general intelligence, cannabis use, alcohol use, use of other concomitant substances, recent medical treatment, participation in sports, level of nutrition, sleep patterns, and subjective well-being were assessed. The Repeated measures analysis of variance (rANOVA) revealed that a marginally significant change in immediate and delayed recall test performances of visual paired associates learning had taken place within the follow-up period of 2 years. No further deterioration in continuing MDMA-users was observed in the second follow-up period. No significant differences with the other neuropsychological tests were noted. It seems that MDMA use can impair visual paired associates learning in new users. However, the groups differed in their use of concomitant use of

  5. Optical Studies of Space Debris at GEO: Survey and Follow-up with Two Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seitzer, P.; Abercomby, K. J.; Rodriquez, H. M.; Barker, E. S.

    2007-01-01

    For 14 nights in March 2007, we used two telescopes at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile to study the nature of space debris at Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). In this project one telescope was dedicated to survey operations, while a second telescope was used for follow-up observations for orbits and colors. The goal was to obtain orbital and photometric information on every faint object found with the survey telescope. Thus we concentrate on objects fainter than R = 15th magnitude.

  6. Self-inflicted injury: a follow-up study of 43 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Sneddon, I; Sneddon, J

    1975-01-01

    Forty-three patients, 38 women and 5 men, with self-inflicted skin lesions were studied. Thirty-three were followed up for up to 22 years. In most cases dermatitis artefacta was only one incident in a long history of psychogenic illness. Of the 43 patients, 13 (30%), 12 women and one man, continued to produce lesions or were disabled with other psychiatric disorders more than 12 years after the onset of symptoms. Prognosis was difficult but recovery seemed to occur when the patient's life circumstances changed rather than as a result of treatment. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:1164617

  7. Long-term follow-up of heel spur surgery. A 10-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Vohra, P K; Giorgini, R J; Sobel, E; Japour, C J; Villalba, M A; Rostkowski, T

    1999-02-01

    A comparative retrospective study of 48 open heel spur surgeries and 20 endoscopic plantar fasciotomies was conducted involving 59 patients over a 10-year period. There was a significant reduction in heel pain at the time of follow-up (average, 3 years) for both groups. Overall, 85% of procedures were associated with patient satisfaction with the results, and patients said that they would recommend heel spur surgery for relief of severe heel pain in 94% of cases. Factors influencing the postoperative outcome, such as duration of preoperative symptoms, extent of conservative care, and obesity, are discussed.

  8. The outcome of children with selective mutism following cognitive behavioral intervention: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Lang, Claudia; Nir, Ziv; Gothelf, Ayelet; Domachevsky, Shoshi; Ginton, Lee; Kushnir, Jonathan; Gothelf, Doron

    2016-04-01

    Selective mutism (SM) is a relatively rare childhood disorder and is underdiagnosed and undertreated. The purpose of the retrospective naturalistic study was to examine the long-term outcome of children with SM who were treated with specifically designed modular cognitive behavioral therapy (MCBT). Parents of 36 children who met diagnostic criteria of SM that received MCBT treatment were invited for a follow-up evaluation. Parents were interviewed using structured scales and completed questionnaires regarding the child, including the Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ). Twenty-four subjects were identified and evaluated. Their mean age ± SD of onset of SM symptoms, beginning of treatment, and age at follow-up were 3.4 ± 1.4, 6.4 ± 3.1, and 9.3 ± 3.4 years, respectively. There was robust improvement from beginning of treatment to follow-up evaluation in SM, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia symptoms. The recovery rate from SM was 84.2 %. SM-focused MCBT is feasible in children and possibly effective in inducing long-term reduction of SM and comorbid anxiety symptoms. • There are limited empirical data on selective mutism (SM) treatment outcome and specifically on cognitive-behavioral therapy, with the majority of studies being uncontrolled case reports of 1 to 2 cases each. • There is also limited data on the long-term outcome of children with SM following treatment. What is New: • Modular cognitive behavioral treatment is a feasible and possibly effective treatment for SM. Intervention at a younger age is more effective comparing to an older age. • Treatment for SM also decreases the rate of psychiatric comorbidities, including separation anxiety disorder and specific phobia.

  9. Study of 2 years follow-up of referral patients with abnormal Pap smear

    PubMed Central

    Behnamfar, Fariba; Zafarbakhsh, Azam; Allameh, Taj-Alsadat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abnormal Pap smear consists of premalignant or malignant cervical lesions. Many of premalignant cervical lesions will never progress to invasive malignancy, or even may regress over the time. Thus, there is always a risk of overtreatment of patients with an abnormal Pap smear. A long-term follow-up of these patients can reveal final events associated with each subtype of abnormal Pap smear, and, therefore, help us to prevent unnecessary interventions. The aim of our study was to present 2 years follow-up of referral patients with abnormal Pap smear. Materials and Methods: A total of 334 consecutive women aged more than 16 who were referred with an abnormal Pap smear were entered into the study. Patients were followed with biannual Pap smear and annual colposcopy and biopsy for 2 years. Results: At baseline, the majority of patients with abnormal Pap smear were normal on colposcopy and biopsy (68% and 86%, respectively). Six months after first abnormal Pap smear majority of patients in each group showed a significant regress to normal or less invasive lesion (P < 0.001). Twelve patients (4%) had no change in Pap smear, whereas 313 (94%) had at least one stage improvement. Only nine (3%) patients had deteriorated Pap smear after 6 months. All 308 patients who underwent colposcopy and biopsy had normal Pap smear 24 months after the first abnormal Pap smear. Conclusion: Pap smear is associated with a high rate of false-positive results. In addition, the majority of low-grade cervical lesions can spontaneously regress. A long-term follow-up of a patient with abnormal Pap smear can help us to avoid needless interventions. PMID:26958048

  10. [Professional outcomes and psychological health after workplace bullying: an exploratory follow-up study].

    PubMed

    Fiabane, Elena; Flachi, Daniela; Giorgi, Ines; Crepaldi, Ilaria; Candura, Stefano M; Mazzacane, Fulvio; Argentero, Piergiorgio

    2015-07-08

    The literature shows that workplace bullying can lead to negative consequences for both individuals' health and professional outcomes. Most of these studies used cross-sectional designs and self-report questionnaires and further research is needed in order to explore long-term effects of workplace bullying. This follow-up study aimed to explore professional and psychological outcomes in a sample of subjects who required a specialized and multidisciplinary assessment for psychological problems related, in their opinion, to workplace bullying. The sample includes 71 patients with a baseline diagnosis of work-related psychological disorder who were assessed at follow-up by means of a structured telephone interview. The interview included structured questions about professional career developments and psycho-somatic health, and administration of the General Health Questionnaire-12. 62.0% of the participants were currently working and, of these, 59.1% had changed workplace after experiencing mobbing. Patients who changed workplace scored significantly higher on job satisfaction levels (p<0.01) and showed lower levels of social dysfunction (p<0.01) compared to those who did not change their job. Patients with a baseline diagnosis of Adjustment disorder/Post-Traumatic Stress disorder had higher levels of general dysphoria (p<0.04) and social dysfunction (p<0.01) at follow-up than other patients. These findings  stress the importance of an accurate diagnostic assessment of mobbing-related psychopathological disorder. Victims of workplace bullying require early and continuous psychological support in order to promote their psychological well-being and work reinstatement.

  11. Alterations in visual and auditory processing in hemispatial neglect: an evoked potential follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Tarkka, Ina M; Luukkainen-Markkula, Riitta; Pitkänen, Kauko; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2011-02-01

    Hemispatial neglect is common after cerebrovascular stroke in the right hemisphere. Cortical electrophysiological studies, especially investigations of both visual and auditory processing in subjects with neglect are sparse. Our purpose was to assess whether and to which extent subjects with neglect may show impairments in both visual and auditory processing. Thereby, we assessed the evolution of changes in sensory processing and neglect symptoms over a 6 month follow-up period. Twenty-one stroke subjects with hemispatial neglect were studied at baseline, 3 weeks later and at 6 months follow-up. At enrollment, 12 patients were in Acute/subacute and 9 were in the chronic stage of stroke. Visual and auditory evoked potentials (EP) were elicited with unilateral stimulations and electrophysiologic data were registered with high-density EEG. Primary visual and auditory cortex activations seen in EP components were analyzed at three time points in order to detect alterations. Both sensory modalities revealed differences between hemispheres in processing stimuli coming from a unilateral source. Amplitudes of visual and auditory EP components elicited by left-sided stimuli were smaller compared to those elicited by right-sided stimuli in the Acute/subacute group. The behavioral neglect was more severe in those who had smaller EP amplitudes (e.g. EP amplitude after the right auditory stimulus was significantly associated with total behavioral neglect score, r=0.57). The main hemispheric differences diminished by the follow-up 6 months later along with the decreasing severity of neglect in the Acute/subacute group.

  12. Frequent Respiratory Viral Infections in Children with Febrile Neutropenia - A Prospective Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Söderman, Martina; Rhedin, Samuel; Tolfvenstam, Thomas; Rotzén-Östlund, Maria; Albert, Jan; Broliden, Kristina; Lindblom, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Objective Febrile neutropenia is common in children undergoing chemotherapy for the treatment of malignancies. In the majority of cases, the cause of the fever is unknown. Although respiratory viruses are commonly associated with this condition, the etiologic significance of this finding remains unclear and is therefore the subject of this study. Study design Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected during 87 episodes of febrile neutropenia in children age 0–18 years, being treated at a children’s oncology unit between January 2013 and June 2014. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the presence of 16 respiratory viruses. Follow-up samples were collected from children who tested positive for one or more respiratory viruses. Rhinoviruses were genotyped by VP4/VP2 sequencing. Fisher’s exact test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for group comparisons. Results At least one respiratory virus was detected in samples from 39 of 87 episodes of febrile neutropenia (45%), with rhinoviruses the most frequently detected. Follow-up samples were collected after a median of 28 days (range, 9–74 days) in 32 of the 39 virus-positive episodes. The respiratory viral infection had resolved in 25 episodes (78%). The same virus was detected at follow-up in one coronavirus and six rhinovirus episodes. Genotyping revealed a different rhinovirus species in two of the six rhinovirus infections. Conclusion The frequency of respiratory viral infections in this group of patients suggests an etiologic role in febrile neutropenia. However, these findings must be confirmed in larger patient cohorts. PMID:27309354

  13. Back posture education in elementary schoolchildren: a 2-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Geldhof, Elisabeth; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; De Clercq, Dirk

    2006-01-01

    Within the scope of primary prevention regarding back functioning in children, research on the stability of intervention effects is indispensable. Along this line, the transition from childhood to adolescence is an important phase to evaluate the potential stability of intervention effects because of the typically mechanical and psychological demands related to adolescence. The main aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of a back education program at 2-year follow-up, in youngsters aged 13–14 years, on back posture knowledge, fear-avoidance beliefs and self-reported pain. An additional purpose was to evaluate which aspects of postural behavior were integrated in youngsters’ lifestyles. At 2-year follow-up, the study sample included 94 secondary schoolchildren in the intervention group (mean age 13.3 ± 0.8 years) and 101 controls (mean age 13.2 ± 0.7 years). The back posture program that had been implemented for two school years consisted of back education and the stimulation of postural dynamism in the class through support and environmental changes. A questionnaire was completed comparable to the pretest, posttest and follow-up evaluations. The current study demonstrated at 2-year follow-up stability of the improved general (F = 1.590, ns) and specific (F = 0.049, ns) back posture knowledge in children who had received early back posture education. Back posture education did not result in increased fear-avoidance beliefs (F = 1.163, ns) or mounting back and/or neck pain reports (F = 0.001, ns). Based on self-reports for postural behavior, youngsters who had received the back posture program in the elementary school curriculum integrated crucial sitting and lifting principles conform to biomechanical favorable postural behavior. The steady intervention effects 2-year post-intervention demonstrated that intensive back posture education through the elementary school curriculum is effective till adolescence. Future research on

  14. Back posture education in elementary schoolchildren: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Geldhof, Elisabeth; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; De Clercq, Dirk

    2007-06-01

    Within the scope of primary prevention regarding back functioning in children, research on the stability of intervention effects is indispensable. Along this line, the transition from childhood to adolescence is an important phase to evaluate the potential stability of intervention effects because of the typically mechanical and psychological demands related to adolescence. The main aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of a back education program at 2-year follow-up, in youngsters aged 13-14 years, on back posture knowledge, fear-avoidance beliefs and self-reported pain. An additional purpose was to evaluate which aspects of postural behavior were integrated in youngsters' lifestyles. At 2-year follow-up, the study sample included 94 secondary schoolchildren in the intervention group (mean age 13.3 +/- 0.8 years) and 101 controls (mean age 13.2 +/- 0.7 years). The back posture program that had been implemented for two school years consisted of back education and the stimulation of postural dynamism in the class through support and environmental changes. A questionnaire was completed comparable to the pretest, posttest and follow-up evaluations. The current study demonstrated at 2-year follow-up stability of the improved general (F = 1.590, ns) and specific (F = 0.049, ns) back posture knowledge in children who had received early back posture education. Back posture education did not result in increased fear-avoidance beliefs (F = 1.163, ns) or mounting back and/or neck pain reports (F = 0.001, ns). Based on self-reports for postural behavior, youngsters who had received the back posture program in the elementary school curriculum integrated crucial sitting and lifting principles conform to biomechanical favorable postural behavior. The steady intervention effects 2-year post-intervention demonstrated that intensive back posture education through the elementary school curriculum is effective till adolescence. Future research on the impact of early

  15. Additional follow-up telephone counselling and initial smoking relapse: a longitudinal, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; He, Yao; Jiang, Bin; Zuo, Fang; Liu, Qinghui; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Changxi

    2016-04-20

    Smoking cessation services can help smokers to quit; however, many smoking relapse cases occur over time. Initial relapse prevention should play an important role in achieving the goal of long-term smoking cessation. Several studies have focused on the effect of extended telephone support in relapse prevention, but the conclusions remain conflicting. From October 2008 to August 2013, a longitudinal, controlled study was performed in a large general hospital of Beijing. The smokers who sought treatment at our smoking cessation clinic were non-randomised and divided into 2 groups: face-to-face individual counselling group (FC group), and face-to-face individual counselling plus telephone follow-up counselling group (FCF group). No pharmacotherapy was offered. The timing of initial smoking relapse was compared between FC and FCF groups. Predictors of initial relapse were investigated during the first 180 days, using the Cox proportional hazards model. Of 547 eligible male smokers who volunteered to participate, 457 participants (117 in FC group and 340 in FCF group) achieved at least 24 h abstinence. The majority of the lapse episodes occurred during the first 2 weeks after the quit date. Smokers who did not receive the follow-up telephone counselling (FC group) tended to relapse to smoking earlier than those smokers who received the additional follow-up telephone counselling (FCF group), and the log-rank test was statistically significant (p=0.003). A Cox regression model showed that, in the FCF group, being married, and having a lower Fagerström test score, normal body mass index and doctor-diagnosed tobacco-related chronic diseases, were significantly independent protective predictors of smoking relapse. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that additional follow-up telephone counselling might be an effective strategy in preventing relapse. Further research is still needed to confirm our findings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  16. A 4-year follow-up study of a rural community with endemic Chagas' disease*

    PubMed Central

    Puigbó, J. J.; Rhode, J. R. Nava; Barrios, H. García; Yépez, C. Gil

    1968-01-01

    The paper reports on a 4-year follow-up study that represents the continuation of a previous cross-sectional study on Chagas' disease carried out in a rural community (Belén) in Venezuela. The earlier study included 1210 persons all over 5 years of age out of a total of 1656 inhabitants and demonstrated a high prevalence of Chagas' infection (47.3%) and a high rate of Chagas' disease seropositivity among those with chronic myocardial heart disease (84.8%); heart disease was found in 17.3% of persons studied. The follow-up study was based on 812 persons and established that in the sample the frequency of Chagas' infection was 16.3% and that of heart disease 2.2%. Clinical, electrocardiographic and radiological analyses were made on patients with previous heart disease as well as on new patients. Different evolutive electrocardiographic patterns have been found, including variations ranging from normal to definitively abnormal. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2 PMID:4974002

  17. Neonatal and prospective follow-up study of infants delivered by vacuum extraction (VE).

    PubMed

    Blennow, G; Svenningsen, N W; Gustafson, B; Sundén, B; Cronquist, S

    1977-01-01

    Forty infants delivered by vacuum extraction have been studied in the neonatal period--neurological examination, neonatal CSF-examinations, skull X-ray examination, transillumination and sonoencephalography --and at 14 months of age--developmental and behavioural evaluation, neurological examination, skull X-ray examination, sonoencephalography and electroencephalography. Two infants died in the neonatal period but in both cases a life-threatening situation of the fetus required immediate delivery. CSF cytological signs of haemorrhage were observed in 42% of the 26 infants who had a successful lumbar tap, compared to 10% found in normal deliveries. The result of the neonatal neurological study did not differ from that in a control group. The result of the skull X-ray examination and sonoencephalography were also within normal limits. In the follow-up study behavioural problems were found in 25%, but otherwise very few abnormalities were found. The deviatiosn found do not for the present indicate any later signs of brain lesions. It is concluded that this prospective study has shown that VE-delivery in fullterm babies seem to imply no risk fo serious cerebral sequelae. Further follow-up studies at a later age in order to evaluate the incidence of so-called minimal brain damage in VE-delivered children are required.

  18. Predictors of Attendance and Dropout at the Lung Health Study 11-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Wanda M.; Connett, John E.; Sharma, Shweta; Murray, Robert P.

    2006-01-01

    Participant attrition and attendance at follow-up were examined in a multicenter, randomized, clinical trial. The Lung Health Study (LHS) enrolled a total of 5, 887 adults to examine the impact of smoking cessation coupled with the use of an inhaled bronchodilator on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Of the initial LHS 1 volunteers still living at the time of enrolment in LHS 3 (5,332), 4,457 (84%) attended the LHS 3 clinic visit, a follow-up session to determine current smoking status and lung function. The average period between the beginning of LHS 1 and baseline interview for LHS 3 was 11 years. In univariate analyses, attenders were older, more likely female, more likely to be married, smoked fewer cigarettes per day, and were more likely to have children who smoked at the start of LHS 1 than non-attenders. Attenders were also less likely to experience respiratory symptoms, such as cough, but had decreased baseline lung function compared with non-attenders. Volunteers recruited via mass mailing were more likely to attend the long-term follow-up visit. Those recruited by public site, worksite, or referral methods were less likely to attend. In multivariate models, age, gender, cigarettes smoked per day, married status, and whether participants’ children smoked were identified as significant predictors of attendance versus non-attendance at LHS 3 using stepwise logistic regression. Treatment condition (smoking intervention or usual care) was not a significant predictor of attendance at LHS 3. Older females who smoked less heavily were most likely to participate. These findings may be applied to improve participant recruitment and retention in future clinical trials. PMID:17015043

  19. Asthma and Risk of Lethal Prostate Cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Platz, Elizabeth A.; Drake, Charles G.; Wilson, Kathryn M.; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Kenfield, Stacey A.; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Willett, Walter C.; Camargo, Carlos A.; Giovannucci, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation, and more generally, the immune response are thought to influence the development of prostate cancer. To determine components of the immune response that are potentially contributory, we prospectively evaluated the association of immune-mediated conditions, asthma and hayfever, with lethal prostate cancer risk in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. We included 47,880 men ages 40-75 years with no prior cancer diagnosis. On the baseline questionnaire in 1986 the men reported diagnoses of asthma and hayfever and year of onset. On follow-up questionnaires, they reported new asthma and prostate cancer diagnoses. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate relative risks (RR). 9.2% reported ever having been diagnosed with asthma. 25.3% reported a hayfever diagnosis at baseline. During 995,176 person-years of follow-up by 2012, we confirmed 798 lethal prostate cancer cases (diagnosed with distant metastases, progressed to distant metastasis, or died of prostate cancer [N=625]). Ever having a diagnosis of asthma was inversely associated with risk of lethal (RR=0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-1.00) and fatal (RR=0.64, 95% CI 0.42-0.96) disease. Hayfever with onset in the distant past was possibly weakly positively associated with risk of lethal (RR=1.10, 95% CI 0.92-1.33) and fatal (RR=1.12, 95% CI 0.91-1.37) disease. Men who were ever diagnosed with asthma were less likely to develop lethal and fatal prostate cancer. Our findings may lead to testable hypotheses about specific immune profiles in the etiology of lethal prostate cancer. PMID:25648070

  20. Asthma and risk of lethal prostate cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Platz, Elizabeth A; Drake, Charles G; Wilson, Kathryn M; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Kenfield, Stacey A; Mucci, Lorelei A; Stampfer, Meir J; Willett, Walter C; Camargo, Carlos A; Giovannucci, Edward

    2015-08-15

    Inflammation, and more generally, the immune response are thought to influence the development of prostate cancer. To determine the components of the immune response that are potentially contributory, we prospectively evaluated the association of immune-mediated conditions, asthma and hayfever, with lethal prostate cancer risk in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We included 47,880 men aged 40-75 years with no prior cancer diagnosis. On the baseline questionnaire in 1986, the men reported diagnoses of asthma and hayfever and year of onset. On the follow-up questionnaires, they reported new asthma and prostate cancer diagnoses. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate relative risks (RRs). In total, 9.2% reported ever having been diagnosed with asthma. In all, 25.3% reported a hayfever diagnosis at baseline. During 995,176 person-years of follow-up by 2012, we confirmed 798 lethal prostate cancer cases (diagnosed with distant metastases, progressed to distant metastasis or died of prostate cancer [N = 625]). Ever having a diagnosis of asthma was inversely associated with risk of lethal (RR = 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.51-1.00) and fatal (RR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.42-0.96) disease. Hayfever with onset in the distant past was possibly weakly positively associated with risk of lethal (RR = 1.10, 95% CI = 0.92-1.33) and fatal (RR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.91-1.37) disease. Men who were ever diagnosed with asthma were less likely to develop lethal and fatal prostate cancer. Our findings may lead to testable hypotheses about specific immune profiles in the etiology of lethal prostate cancer. © 2015 UICC.

  1. Corneal Astigmatism in Patients After Cataract Surgery: A 10-Year Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyojin; Whang, Woong-Joo; Joo, Choun-Ki

    2016-06-01

    To report the long-term outcomes of corneal astigmatism after cataract surgery. The study included 55 eyes of 46 patients who underwent cataract surgery with temporal 3-mm clear corneal incisions from January 2001 to December 2003. All patients underwent complete ophthalmological examination including keratometry at the preoperative visit and at 2 months and 10 years after surgery. Only those eyes that underwent a follow-up of 10 years or longer from the time of cataract surgery were enrolled. Arithmetic and vector analyses were performed to obtain the change in corneal astigmatism with advancing age. The mean age of the patients was 59.11 ± 12.33 years (range: 18 to 75 years), and 58.7% of the patients were women. The mean follow-up period was 131.28 ± 14.36 months. The average magnitudes of surgically induced astigmatism and long-term astigmatism change were 0.66 ± 0.42 and 0.57 ± 0.47 diopters (D), respectively. The vector difference was 0.56 ± 0.55 D at 90° ± 0° between the preoperative and 2-month visits. However, there was no difference in vector values between postoperative 2 months and 10 years (0.00 ± 0.74 D at 0° ± 0°). Patients with corneal astigmatism who underwent cataract surgery did not show a long-term against-the-rule change in corneal astigmatism during a 10-year follow-up. These results provide useful information when planning toric intraocular lens implantation in patients with corneal astigmatism. [J Refract Surg. 2016;32(6):404-409.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. A follow-up study of pulpotomies and root canal treatments performed under general anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Cousson, Pierre-Yves; Nicolas, Emmanuel; Hennequin, Martine

    2014-05-01

    A previous study considered whether the proportions of clinically satisfactory root canal treatments (RCT) done under general anaesthesia (GA) or under local anaesthesia were equivalent, but the proportion of treatment with long-term satisfactory endodontic outcomes remains unknown. Moreover, no evaluation of pulpotomies performed under GA has been reported. From 614 endodontic treatments (ETs) performed on permanent teeth under GA, 225 [193 RCT and 32 pulpotomies (P)] were examined after follow-up periods of 1-6 months (71 cases), 6-24 months (77 cases) and over 2 years (77 cases). Changes in the periapical index between the treatment date (T0) and the control time (T1) allowed the treatment to be classified as "success," "uncertain outcome" or "failure." Explicative variables for success of ET were the duration of follow-up and tooth-related criteria expected to affect the outcomes of endodontic treatment. Overall, 87 % of ETs were scored as "success," while 9 % were uncertain and 4 % were failures. There was no difference in the distribution of success in relation with the type of tooth, the pulpal status, the level of endodontic difficulty, the periapical status or the technical quality of RCT. The proportion of endodontic cases with high level of difficulties was higher in the P group than in the RCT group. Longer follow-ups and higher numbers of cases are needed to analyse the factors affecting success and failure in endodontic treatments performed under GA. The relatively high rates of success of pulpotomies and RCT support undertaking endodontic treatment under GA.

  3. Long-term trajectories of back pain: cohort study with 7-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Kate M; Campbell, Paul; Jordan, Kelvin P

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe long-term trajectories of back pain. Design Monthly data collection for 6 months at 7-year follow-up of participants in a prospective cohort study. Setting Primary care practices in Staffordshire, UK. Participants 228 people consulting their general practitioners with back pain, on whom information on 6-month back pain trajectories had been collected during 2001–2003, and who had valid consent and contact details in 2009–2010, were contacted. 155 participants (68% of those contacted) responded and provided sufficient data for primary analyses. Outcome measures Trajectories based on patients’ self-reports of back pain were identified using longitudinal latent class analysis. Trajectories were characterised using information on disability, psychological status and presence of other symptoms. Results Four clusters with different back pain trajectories at follow-up were identified: (1) no or occasional pain, (2) persistent mild pain, (3) fluctuating pain and (4) persistent severe pain. Trajectory clusters differed significantly from each other in terms of disability, psychological status and other symptoms. Most participants remained in a similar trajectory as 7 years previously (weighted κ 0.54; 95% CI 0.42 to 0.65). Conclusions Most people with back pain appear to follow a particular pain trajectory over long time periods, and do not have frequently recurring or widely fluctuating patterns. The results are limited by lack of information about the time between data collection periods and by loss to follow-up. However, findings do raise questions about standard divisions into acute and chronic back pain. A new framework for understanding the course of back pain is proposed. PMID:24334157

  4. Patient location strategies for pediatric long-term follow-up studies.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Matthew E; Morcuende, Jose A

    2006-01-01

    Poor follow-up rates greatly diminish the validity of prospective and long-term studies. Therefore, locating patients is of critical importance. This is especially true in populations treated during childhood because addresses will change several times in intervening years. Recent publications have reported new strategies for patient location. The purpose of this study is to test an algorithm proposed by King et al., as well as other search methods, using a cohort of patients treated for clubfoot in childhood The study population included 126 patients with clubfeet treated between 1950 and 1967. We followed the search algorithm proposed by King et al. In addition, we used state driver's license records, Reunitetonight.com, and Intelius.com. Patients were considered to be found when they returned a postage-paid reply letter or were contacted by phone. Using web pages recommended by King et al. we located 26 of 126 (21 percent) patients. Operator directory assistance failed to locate any patients not located by free internet sources. Additional websites had varied results. State driver's license records found 25 patients. Reunitetonight.com found none with thirty attempted. The best search engine was Intelius.com which located 68 out of 126 (54 percent) patients. The algorithm proposed by King et al. is not effective for long-term follow-up studies of pediatric populations. Intelius.com is worth the small fee charged (dollar 22.45) as it was the most effective method of locating patients.

  5. Reconstructive surgery after burns: a 10-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hop, M J; Langenberg, L C; Hiddingh, J; Stekelenburg, C M; van der Wal, M B A; Hoogewerf, C J; van Koppen, M L J; Polinder, S; van Zuijlen, P P M; van Baar, M E; Middelkoop, E

    2014-12-01

    There is minimal insight into the prevalence of reconstructive surgery after burns. The objective of this study was to analyse the prevalence, predictors, indications, techniques and medical costs of reconstructive surgery after burns. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in the three Dutch burn centres. Patients with acute burns, admitted from January 1998 until December 2001, were included. Data on patient and injury characteristics and reconstructive surgery details were collected in a 10-year follow-up period. In 13.0% (n=229/1768) of the patients with burns, reconstructive surgery was performed during the 10-year follow-up period. Mean number of reconstructive procedure per patient were 3.6 (range 1-25). Frequently reconstructed locations were hands and head/neck. The most important indication was scar contracture and the most applied technique was release plus random flaps/skin grafting. Mean medical costs of reconstructive surgery per patient over 10-years were €8342. With this study we elucidated the reconstructive needs of patients after burns. The data presented can be used as reference in future studies that aim to improve scar quality of burns and decrease the need for reconstructive surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. The depression in women in pregnancy and postpartum period: A follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Kirkan, Tulay Sati; Aydin, Nazan; Yazici, Esra; Aslan, Puren Akcali; Acemoglu, Hamit; Daloglu, Ali Gokhan

    2015-06-01

    This was a follow-up study to determine postpartum depression (PPD) and its causes in a population previously evaluated in the first trimester of pregnancy. The study sample consisted of pregnant women who were evaluated in the first trimester and 360 women who were re-evaluated in the postpartum period. Detailed sociodemographic data were obtained from the women, and depression was assessed with the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression scale (EPDS) and Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) Axis I Disorders (SCID-I). In this follow-up study, the prevalence of PPD was 35% (n = 126). A depressive disorder in the first trimester of pregnancy, previous mental disorder, somatic disorder, exposure to domestic violence during pregnancy, baby's staying in the incubator and not breastfeeding were predictors of PPD. Exposure to violence and a history of previous depression predicted depression both in pregnancy and in the postpartum period. Depression rates are high in Eastern Turkey. Exposure to violence during pregnancy and the existence of a previous mental disorder were risk factors for perinatal depression in this study. Performing screening tests can identify women at risk of pregnancy-related depression. Prevention programs should be established in areas where the prevalence of depression is high. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Musculoskeletal disorders among construction workers: a one-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are an important cause of functional impairments and disability among construction workers. An improved understanding of MSDs in different construction occupations is likely to be of value for selecting preventive measures. This study aimed to survey the prevalence of symptoms of MSDs, the work-relatedness of the symptoms and the problems experienced during work among two construction occupations: bricklayers and supervisors. Methods We randomly selected 750 bricklayers and 750 supervisors resident in the Netherlands in December 2009. This sample was surveyed by means of a baseline questionnaire and a follow-up questionnaire one year later. The participants were asked about complaints of the musculoskeletal system during the last six months, the perceived work-relatedness of the symptoms, the problems that occurred during work and the occupational tasks that were perceived as causes or aggravating factors of the MSD. Results Baseline response rate was 37%, follow-up response was 80%. The prevalence of MSDs among 267 bricklayers and 232 supervisors was 67% and 57%, respectively. Complaints of the back, knee and shoulder/upper arm were the most prevalent among both occupations. Irrespective of the body region, most of the bricklayers and supervisors reported that their complaints were work-related. Complaints of the back and elbow were the most often reported among the bricklayers during work, whereas lower arm/wrist and upper leg complaints were the most often reported among the supervisors. In both occupations, a majority of the participants perceived several occupational physical tasks and activities as causes or aggravating factors for their MSD. Recurrent complaints at follow-up were reported by both bricklayers (47% of the complaints) and supervisors (31% of the complaints). Participants in both occupations report that mainly back and knee complaints result in additional problems during work, at the time

  8. Periodontal parameters of osseointegrated dental implants. A 4-year controlled follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, K; Itoh, T; Takaki, K; Hosokawa, R; Naito, T; Yokota, M

    1997-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the periodontal parameters of osseointegrated dental implants. The condition of the peri-implant mucosa was assessed using periodontal parameters, i.e., of plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth, probing attachment level and Periotest scores as well as a radiographic parameter, over a 4-year follow-up period. 32 non-submerged ITI dental implants, all placed in the mandible, were studied in 12 patients who had good oral hygiene. All patients were regularly recalled at 6-month intervals. The overall implant success rate was 100%. None of the implants showed any signs of inflammation, radiographic bone loss or any detectable mobility during the follow-up period. Methods similar to those used to evaluate the natural dentition were effectively employed to assess the clinical status of the dental implants. The diagnostic value of these parameters could not, however, be determined from this study due to the absence of any peri-implant tissue complications. The results indicated that some periodontal parameters of healthy peri-implant mucosa might be slightly different from healthy periodontal tissue.

  9. [The Octabaix study. Baseline assessment and 5 years of follow-up].

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Assumpta; Formiga, Francesc; Padrós, Gloria; Badia, Teresa; Almeda, Jesús; Octabaix, Grupo Estudio

    This is a review of a prospective, community-based study with a follow-up period of 5years. It is a study of 328 participants aged 85 at baseline, of which 62% were female, 53% widows, and a third of them living alone. High blood pressure was observed in 75.9%, dyslipidaemia in 51.2%, and diabetes in 17.7%. At baseline the median Barthel Index was 95, the Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination was 28, the Charlson index 1, the Mini Nutritional Assessment 25, the Gijón test 10, the visual analogue scale of the Quality of Life Test was 60, and with a mean of 6.1 prescription drugs. A lower quality of life was also associated with female gender, a phenotype of frailty, heart failure, and a high level of social risk. At 5years of follow-up, the mortality rate was high, with 138 (42.1%) of the population sample dying at the end of the period. It represents an annual mortality rate of 8.4%. Thus, a common denominator of this review has been the high importance of functionality and overall comorbidity factors associated with mortality in this very old age group, compared to other more traditional factors in younger populations. Several studies of frailty have also been assessed in this group, as well as falls, nutritional risk, diabetes and successful aging, including important aspects to better understand this population group.

  10. Transcranial sonography in the evaluation of pineal lesions: two-year follow up study.

    PubMed

    Budisić, Mislav; Bosnjak, Jelena; Lovrencić-Huzjan, Arijana; Strineka, Maja; Bene, Raphael; Azman, Drazen; Bedek, Darko; Trkanjec, Zlatko; Demarin, Vida

    2008-12-01

    We have recently reported that transcranial sonography (TCS) is a method competitive to magnetic resonance neuroimaging (MRI) in the evaluation of pineal gland lesions. The aim of the present is study was to assess the usefulness of TCS in a larger patient sample during a two-year follow up. Twenty patients with incidental pineal gland cyst (PGC) detected by MRI scan of the brain and 40 healthy controls without any previous documented data on a disease related to pineal gland were evaluated by TCS and compared with MRI scans. There were no statistically significant differences in PGC size measured by TCS by two observers (p = 0.475), PGC size measured by TCS and MRI (first observer, p = 0.453; and second observer, p = 0.425), size of the pineal gland measured by TCS and MRI in control group (first observer, p = 0.497; and second observer, p = 0.370), and pineal gland size measured by TCS by two observers in control group (p = 0.473). Study results suggested TCS to be a suitable method in the evaluation of pineal gland lesions. Although its resolution cannot match the MRI resolution, its repeatability and accuracy might add to its practical value. We suggest that the repeat MRI scan of such lesions might be replaced by clinical and TCS follow up.

  11. Silicosis Appears Inevitable Among Former Denim Sandblasters: A 4-Year Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Akgun, Metin; Araz, Omer; Ucar, Elif Yilmazel; Karaman, Adem; Alper, Fatih; Gorguner, Metin; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2015-09-01

    The course of denim sandblasting silicosis is unknown. We aimed to reevaluate former sandblasters studied in 2007 for incident silicosis, radiographic progression, pulmonary function loss, and mortality and to examine any associations between these outcomes and previously demonstrated risk factors for silicosis. We defined silicosis on chest radiograph as category 1/0 small opacity profusion using the International Labor Organization classification. We defined radiographic progression as a profusion increase of two or more subcategories, development of a new large opacity, or an increase in large opacity category. We defined pulmonary function loss as a ≥ 12% decrease in FVC. Among the 145 former sandblasters studied in 2007, 83 were reassessed in 2011. In the 4-year follow-up period, nine (6.2%) had died at a mean age of 24 years. Of the 74 living sandblasters available for reexamination, the prevalence of silicosis increased from 55.4% to 95.9%. Radiographic progression, observed in 82%, was associated with younger age, never smoking, foreman work, and sleeping at the workplace. Pulmonary function loss, seen in 66%, was positively associated with never smoking and higher initial FVC % predicted. Death was associated with never smoking, foreman work, number of different denim-sandblasting places of work, sleeping at the workplace, and lower pulmonary function, of which only the number of different places worked remained in multivariate analyses. This 4-year follow-up suggests that almost all former denim sandblasters may develop silicosis, despite short exposures and latency.

  12. Reversible autism among congenitally blind children? A controlled follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hobson, R Peter; Lee, Anthony

    2010-11-01

    Atypical forms of autism may yield insights into the development and nature of the syndrome. We conducted a follow-up study of nine congenitally blind and seven sighted children who, eight years earlier, had satisfied formal diagnostic criteria for autism and had been included in groups matched for chronological age and verbal ability. In keeping with the original study, we met with teachers to discuss a DSM-based checklist of clinical features of autism, and conducted direct observations of the children to complete assessments on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS; Schopler, Reichler, and Renner, 1986) and the Behavior Checklist for Disordered Preschoolers (BCDP; Sherman, Shapiro, & Glassman, 1983). As predicted, a substantially higher proportion of blind (eight out of nine) than sighted (none out of seven) children now failed to meet formal DSM criteria for autism, and in keeping with BCDP ratings, they had significantly lower CARS scores. Follow-up of nine congenitally blind children with autism revealed that, in adolescence, only one still satisfied diagnostic criteria for the syndrome. We consider the implications for theoretical perspectives on the development of autism. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2010 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  13. Reduced prepulse inhibition in adolescents at risk for psychosis: a 2-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Ziermans, Tim; Schothorst, Patricia; Magnée, Maurice; van Engeland, Herman; Kemner, Chantal

    2011-01-01

    Background Reduced prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the auditory startle reflex is a hallmark feature of attention-processing deficits in patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Recent evidence suggests that these deficits may also be present before the onset of psychosis in individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) and become progressively worse as psychosis develops. We conducted a longitudinal follow-up study to observe the development of PPI over time in UHR adolescents and healthy controls. Methods Two-year follow-up data of PPI measures were compared between UHR adolescents and a matched control group of typically developing individuals. Results We included 42 UHR adolescents and 32 matched controls in our study. Compared with controls, UHR individuals showed reduced PPI at both assessments. Clinical improvement in UHR individuals was associated with an increase in PPI parameters. Limitations A developmental increase in startle magnitude partially confined the interpretation of the association between clinical status and PPI. Furthermore, post hoc analyses for UHR individuals who became psychotic between assessments had limited power owing to a low transition rate (14%). Conclusion Deficits in PPI are present before the onset of psychosis and represent a stable vulnerability marker over time in UHR individuals. The magnitude of this marker may partially depend on the severity of clinical symptoms. PMID:21266126

  14. Fish intake and venous thromboembolism: a Danish follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Severinsen, Marianne Tang; Overvad, Kim; Andersen, Vibeke Ladefoged; Tjønneland, Anne; Schmidt, Erik Berg; Kristensen, Søren Risom

    2014-03-01

    Data on the association between fish intake and venous thromboembolism (VTE) is sparse and inconsistent. To investigate whether intake of total, lean or fatty fish is associated with development of incident VTE. This study is based on the Danish follow-up study Diet, Cancer and Health including 27,178 men and 29,876 women aged 50-64 with no history of cancer. Participants were included between 1993 and 1997 and followed through 2006. Information on fish intake and potential confounders was obtained from baseline questionnaires. The outcome was incident VTE (all) and idiopathic VTE. We used Cox proportional hazard models with age as time axis. Separate analyses were performed for men and women. Adjustment was made for BMI, smoking, physical activity, energy intake and women's use of hormone replacement therapy. During follow-up, 641 incident VTE events were verified. We found no association between total fish intake and VTE, but moderate intake of fatty fish was associated with a statistically non-significant 20-40% lower risk of idiopathic VTE compared with consumption of a low intake (less than 8g) of fatty fish per day. Intake of neither total nor fatty fish was statistically significantly associated with the incidence rate of VTE. However, intake of fatty fish may be associated with a reduction of the risk of idiopathic VTE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Prenatal Nicotine Exposure on Infant Language Development: A Cohort Follow Up Study.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Voltas Moreso, Núria; Ribot Serra, Blanca; Arija Val, Victoria; Escribano Macías, Joaquín; Canals Sans, Josefa

    2017-04-01

    Objectives To study the longitudinal effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on cognitive development, taking into consideration prenatal and postnatal second-hand smoke exposure. Methods A cohort follow up study was carried out. One hundred and fifty-eight pregnant women and their infants were followed during pregnancy and infant development (at 6, 12, 30 months). In each trimester of pregnancy and during postnatal follow-up, a survey was administered to obtain sociodemographic data and the details of maternal and close familial toxic habits. Obstetric and neonatal data were obtained from hospital medical records. To assess cognitive development, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development were applied at 6, 12 and 30 months; to assess language development, the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories were applied at 12 months and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test at 30 months. Results After adjustment for confounding variables, the results showed that infants prenatally exposed to cigarette smoke recorded poor cognitive development scores. Language development was most consistently affected, specifically those aspects related to auditory function (vocalizations, sound discrimination, word imitation, prelinguistic vocalizations, and word and sentence comprehension). Conclusions for Practice Irrespective of prenatal, perinatal and sociodemographic data (including infant postnatal nicotine exposure), prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke and second-hand smoke affect infant cognitive development, especially language abilities.

  16. Controlled trial of antituberculous chemotherapy in Crohn's disease: a five year follow up study

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, G; Swift, G; Green, J; Newcombe, R; Braniff-Mathews, C; Rhodes, J; Wilkinson, S; Strohmeyer, G; Kreuzpainter, G

    1998-01-01

    Background—It has been suggested that Mycobacterium paratuberculosis is the cause of Crohn's disease. In a previous report the immediate effect of two years treatment with antituberculous chemotherapy showed no clinical benefit. 
Aims—To assess both the immediate and longer term effect of treatment on the disease. 
Methods—Patients were followed for five years from their date of entry to the study. One hundred and thirty patients entered the initial study, and of these 111 (81%) were followed regularly. 
Results—Overall, there was no evidence of consistent benefit or disadvantage from antituberculous chemotherapy in any of the assessments made, including the number of acute relapses, surgical episodes, hospital admissions, disease activity, blood tests, or medication required for Crohn's disease during the follow up period. 
Conclusion—The absence of any benefit at the end of the initial two year trial period, and during the three year subsequent follow up, fails to support the hypothesis that mycobacteria play an important part in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease, or that antituberculous chemotherapy may be of benefit. 

 Keywords: Crohn's disease; mycobacteria; antituberculus chemotherapy PMID:9616310

  17. Recovery of aphasia after stroke: a 1-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    El Hachioui, Hanane; Lingsma, Hester F; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke E; Dippel, Diederik W J; Koudstaal, Peter J; Visch-Brink, Evy G

    2013-01-01

    Semantics, phonology, and syntax are essential elements of aphasia diagnosis and treatment. Until now, these linguistic components have not been specifically addressed in follow-up studies of aphasia recovery after stroke. The aim of this observational prospective follow-up study was to investigate semantic, phonological, and syntactic recovery in aphasic stroke patients. In addition, we investigated the recovery of verbal communication and of aphasia severity. We assessed 147 aphasic patients at 1, 2, and 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months, and 1 year after stroke with the ScreeLing, a screening test for detecting deficits on the three main linguistic components, the aphasia severity rating scale (ASRS), a measure of verbal communication, and the Token test, a measure of aphasia severity. We investigated the differences in scores between the six time points with mixed models. Semantics and syntax improved up to 6 weeks (p < 0.001) after stroke, and phonology up to 3 months (p ≤ 0.001). ASRS improved up to 6 months (p < 0.05) and the Token test up to 3 months (p < 0.001). We conclude that in aphasia after stroke, various linguistic components have a different recovery pattern, with phonology showing the longest period of recovery that paralleled aphasia severity, as measured with the Token test. The improvement of verbal communication continues after the stabilization of the recovery of the linguistic components.

  18. Follow-up study of four cases of pervasive refusal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guirguis, Suzy; Reid, Corrine; Rao, Sushma; Grahame, Victoria; Kaplan, Carole

    2011-05-01

    The term pervasive refusal syndrome was first mentioned in a paper detailing a sample study of four children by Bryan Lask and colleagues in 1991. This article presents a sample of four children diagnosed with Pervasive Refusal Syndrome, three girls and a boy, seen within a specialist NHS inpatient unit in the North East of England, and describes the main features presented. The main focus of the article will be on long-term prognosis and outcome in relation to day to day functioning and activities. Each of the cases has been followed up once at an interval of between 3 and 16 years after discharge, and the outcomes are presented here. Results suggest that two of the young people with PRS made a complete recovery in the long term, that one was impaired by anorexia nervosa at follow-up, and the remaining young person was reluctant to be interviewed, so it is unclear how well she has maintained her initial discharge recovery.

  19. Motor development in children at risk of autism: a follow-up study of infant siblings.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Hayley C; Bedford, Rachael; Charman, Tony; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Johnson, Mark H; Hill, Elisabeth L

    2014-04-01

    Recently, evidence of poor or atypical motor skills in autism spectrum disorder has led some to argue that motor impairment is a core feature of the condition. The current study uses a longitudinal prospective design to assess the development of motor skills of 20 children at increased risk of developing autism spectrum disorder, who were recruited and tested at 9 and 40 months of age, on the basis of having an older sibling diagnosed with the condition. All children completed a range of motor, face processing, IQ and diagnostic assessments at a follow-up visit (aged 5-7 years), providing a detailed profile of development in this group from a number of standardised, parental report and experimental measures. A higher proportion of children than expected demonstrated motor difficulties at the follow-up visit and those highlighted by parental report as having poor motor skills as infants and toddlers were also more likely to have lower face processing scores and elevated autism-related social symptoms at 5-7 years, despite having similar IQ levels. These data lend support to the argument that early motor difficulties may be a risk factor for later motor impairment as well as differences in social communication and cognition, traits that are related to autism spectrum disorder.

  20. Workplace bullying and sleep difficulties: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Ase Marie; Hogh, Annie; Garde, Anne Helene; Persson, Roger

    2014-04-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate whether being subjected to bullying and witnessing bullying at the workplace was associated with concurrent sleep difficulties, whether frequently bullied/witnesses have more sleep difficulties than occasionally bullied/witnesses, and whether there were associations between being subjected to bullying or witnessing bullying at the workplace and subsequent sleep difficulties. A total of 3,382 respondents (67 % women and 33 % men) completed a baseline questionnaire about their psychosocial work environment and health. The overall response rate was 46 %. At follow-up 2 years later, 1671 of those responded to a second questionnaire (49 % of the 3,382 respondents at baseline). Sleep difficulties were measured in terms of disturbed sleep, awakening problems, and poor quality of sleep. Bullied persons and witnesses reported more sleep difficulties than those who were neither bullied nor witnesses to bullying at baseline. Frequently bullied/witnesses reported more sleep difficulties than respondents who were occasionally bullied or witnessing bullying at baseline. Further, odds ratios for subsequent sleep difficulties were increased among the occasionally bullied, but not among witnesses. However, the associations weakened when adjusting for sleep difficulties at baseline. Being subjected to occasional bullying at baseline was predictive of subsequent sleep difficulties. Witnessing bullying at baseline did not predict sleep difficulties at follow-up.

  1. Neuropsychological functioning in adolescents with first episode psychosis: a two-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Mayoral, M; Zabala, A; Robles, O; Bombín, I; Andrés, P; Parellada, M; Moreno, D; Graell, M; Medina, O; Arango, C

    2008-08-01

    Cognitive deficits are a core feature of psychotic disorders. Both in adult and adolescent populations, studies have shown that patients with psychosis have poorer cognitive functioning than controls. The cognitive domains that seem to be affected are mainly attention, working memory, learning and memory, and executive function. However, with regard to the trajectory of cognitive function throughout the illness, there is still a dearth of prospective data in patients who develop psychosis during adolescence. In this article, neuropsychological functioning was assessed in a sample of 24 first episodes of early onset psychosis (EOP) and 29 healthy adolescents at baseline and after a two-year follow-up. Patients with EOP showed lower scores than controls in overall cognitive functioning and in all specific domains assessed (attention, working memory, executive function, and learning and memory) both at baseline and the two-year follow-up. When changes in cognitive functioning over two years were assessed, patients and controls showed significant improvement in almost all cognitive domains. However, this improvement disappeared in the patient group after controlling for improvement in symptomatology. Our findings support a neurodevelopmental pathological process in this sample of adolescents with psychosis.

  2. Pectus excavatum. A clinical study with long-term postoperative follow-up.

    PubMed

    Morshuis, W J; Mulder, H; Wapperom, G; Folgering, H T; Assman, M; Cox, A L; van Lier, H J; Vincent, J G; Lacquet, L K

    1992-01-01

    Between 1972 and 1987, 192 patients have been operated upon for pectus excavatum of which 152 patients were included in the study (79%). Mean age at operation was 15.3 +/- 5.5 years; 117 were male. Mean follow-up was 8.1 +/- 3.6 years. The deformity was noted before the age of 5 in 90%. Type I symmetrical and localized deformity was seen in 33.2%, type II symmetrical but diffuse depression in 23.7% and type III localized or diffuse asymmetrical deformity in 43.1%. It was considered severe in 68.9%, fair in 16.9% and mild in 14.2%. There were significantly more asymmetrical defects in the older age groups. The operation consisted of subperichondral chondrectomy, transverse sternotomy and division of the intercostal bundles at the outer limit of the chondrectomy and suturing the edge of this broad sheet of muscle and perichondrium to the anterior surface of the chest wall more laterally and under tension, elevating and stabilizing the sternum. Results were satisfactory in 83.6% (excellent 44.1%, good 39.5%). Results were not significantly influenced by age, sex, severity, type, symmetry, the extent of cartilage resection or follow-up. Results were inversely influenced by the occurrence of wound problems. The optimal age for operation is considered to be between 5 and 10 years. Both physical as well as psychological cosmetic factors may serve as an indication for operation.

  3. Recidivism Patterns Among Two Types of Juvenile Homicide Offenders: A 30-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Khachatryan, Norair; Heide, Kathleen M; Hummel, Erich V

    2016-07-01

    Although juvenile homicide has been a matter of concern in the United States since the 1980s, prior research has not addressed long-term recidivism patterns for convicted juvenile murderers. Furthermore, a prominent juvenile homicide typology had not previously been tested with U.S. offenders. The present study examined whether juvenile offenders who killed or attempted to kill during the commission of a crime differed from those who killed due to some type of conflict on pre-incarceration, incarceration, and post-incarceration variables. These offenders were sentenced to adult prison in the early 1980s. Follow-up data spanned 30 years. The results indicated that approximately 88% of released offenders have been rearrested. Analyses of pre-incarceration variables revealed that crime-oriented offenders were significantly more likely to commit the homicide offense using accomplices than conflict-oriented offenders, and the latter were significantly more likely to use a firearm during the homicide incident. The circumstances of the homicide, however, were not significantly related to any other pre-incarceration variables, release from prison, number of post-release arrests, and number of post-release violent offenses. The implications of the findings, their comparability to previous follow-up research on this typology, and avenues for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Feasibility of epilepsy follow-up care through telemedicine: a pilot study on the patient's perspective.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Syed Nizamuddin; Mann, Carly; Sinclair, D Barry; Heino, Angela; Iskiw, Blayne; Quigley, Daphne; Ohinmaa, Arto

    2008-04-01

    Cost analysis and patient satisfaction with telemedicine in epilepsy care. This controlled study included out-of-town epilepsy patients coming to follow-up at the University of Alberta hospital epilepsy clinic. After an informed consent, patients were randomized to either conventional (n = 18) or telemedicine (n = 23) clinics. Patients or caregivers filled patient satisfaction and travel cost questionnaires in both alternatives. Cost per visit analysis included costs of traveling, lodging, and lost productivity. Average age of the population was 41 years (range 19-73; 45% women). Eighty-three percent of patients preferred their next visit through telemedicine. About 90% of patients indicated a need for companion travel (mainly by car) to conventional clinic. For the conventional group patients the value of lost productivity was CAD $201, hotel cost CAD $8.50, and the value of car mileage CAD $256.50, totaling about CAD $466.00. Patient costs for telemedicine were CAD $35.85. Telemedicine production costs are similar to the patients' savings in traveling and lost productivity. About 90% of patients in both groups were satisfied with the quality of the service. Telemedicine can play a role in follow-up care of epilepsy patients, reduce patient costs, and improve patient satisfaction. This is the first full-time epilepsy telemedicine clinic in Western Canada.

  5. Anterior tibia spine fracture in children: follow-up evaluation by biomechanical studies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y H; Chin, L S; Wang, N H; Hou, C H; Lo, W H

    1996-09-01

    The treatment of anterior tibial spine (ATS) fracture in children is in controversy. Previous studies have shown that most of the children who sustained ATS fractures have objective evidence of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) laxity at follow-up, but detailed biomechanical analysis of the knee joint has seldom been performed. Eight ATS fractures in children at a mean age of 12 years were treated from 1989 to 1994. Two were of Meyer's classification type I, 3 were of type II, and 3 were of type III. The treatment varied from casting to open reduction & internal fixation (ORIF) by pulling through suture or biofix absorbable screw. Patients were followed with radiological, clinical and biomechanical analysis. KT 1000 knee arthrometer was used to evaluate the laxity of ACL. Cybex isokinetic machine was used to evaluate knee extensor and flexor strength. During an average follow-up period of 47 months, all fractures showed to unite well on X-ray except 1 untreated type I fracture who had malunion. Only one had subjective complaint of instability, but 3 had clinical signs of instability. Objective evidence of laxity, determined by KT-1000 arthrometer, was noted in 4 patients. Decreased muscle strength, determined by Cybex isokinetic machine, was more prominent in hamstrings than in quadriceps. Patients with milder ATS fracture (type I & II), if treated inappropriately, may still result in ACL laxity and knee muscle strength deficiency. Type III ATS fractures, if treated well by ORIF, tend to recover nearly normal ACL function and muscle strength.

  6. Efficacy of transconjunctival excision of orbital fat prolapse: a long-term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Siban, Michael; Weijtens, Olga; van den Bosch, Willem; Paridaens, Dion

    2014-05-01

    To describe the long-term efficacy of transconjunctival excision of subconjunctival orbital fat prolapse. Retrospective study of consecutive cases of orbital fat prolapse treated with transconjunctival resection between December 2002 and December 2011. Thirty-two eyes of 23 patients (19 males and four females) were included. The lesion was unilateral in 14 and bilateral in nine cases. It was located superotemporally in a majority of cases. Excision was performed by opening the conjunctiva and excising the prolapsing orbital fat. The conjunctival wound was closed with 1-2 interrupted sutures. With an average follow-up of 29 months (range 4-108), a recurrence was seen in three cases. The average time to recurrence was 46 months (range 40-52 months). Transconjunctival excision is a simple, safe and effective primary surgical procedure to treat subconjunctival fat prolapse. In our series, the recurrence rate was 9%, but no additional surgery was required. As the average time to recurrence was longer than our average follow-up, more patients may develop a recurrence in future. © 2013 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  7. Follow-up study of young stress-affected and stress-resilient urban children.

    PubMed

    Cowen, E L; Wyman, P A; Work, W C; Kim, J Y; Fagen, D B; Magnus, K B

    1997-01-01

    Reports follow-up study of 181 young highly stressed urban children, classified as stress-resilient (SR) and stress-affected (SA) 1 1/2-2 years earlier. At follow-up (T2), children were retested on five initial (T1) test measures: self-rated adjustment, perceived competence, social problem solving, realistic control attributions, and empathy; parents and teachers did new child adjustment ratings, and parents participated in a phone interview focusing on the T1-T2 interval. Child test and adjustment measures and parent interview responses at T2 sensitively differentiated children classified as SR and SA at T1. Test and interview variables used at T1 and T2 correlated moderately across time periods. At T2, four child test indicators (i.e., rule conformity, global self-worth, social problem solving, and realistic control attributions) and four parent interview variables (positive future expectations for the child, absence of predelinquency indicators, good parent mental health in the past year, and adaptive parent coping strategies) sensitively differentiated children classified as SR and SA at T1. No relationship was found between family stress experienced in the T1-T2 interval and changes in children's adjustment during that period.

  8. Risk Factors for Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients: Two-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    do Sameiro-Faria, Maria; Costa, Elísio; Mendonça, Denisa; Teixeira, Laetitia; Rocha-Pereira, Petronila; Fernandes, João; Kohlova, Michaela; Reis, Flávio; Amado, Leonilde; Bronze-da-Rocha, Elsa; Miranda, Vasco; Quintanilha, Alexandre; Belo, Luís; Santos-Silva, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Background. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients under hemodialysis (HD) have high mortality rate. Inflammation, dyslipidemia, disturbances in erythropoiesis, iron metabolism, endothelial function, and nutritional status have been reported in these patients. Our aim was to identify any significant association of death with these disturbances, by performing a two-year follow-up study. Methods and Results. A large set of data was obtained from 189 HD patients (55.0% male; 66.4 ± 13.9 years old), including hematological data, lipid profile, iron metabolism, nutritional, inflammatory, and endothelial (dys)function markers, and dialysis adequacy. Results. 35 patients (18.5%) died along the follow-up period. Our data showed that the type of vascular access, C-reactive protein (CRP), and triglycerides (TG) are significant predictors of death. The risk of death was higher in patients using central venous catheter (CVC) (Hazard ratio [HR] =3.03, 95% CI = 1.49–6.13), with higher CRP levels (fourth quartile), compared with those with lower levels (first quartile) (HR = 17.3, 95% CI = 2.40–124.9). Patients with higher TG levels (fourth quartile) presented a lower risk of death, compared with those with the lower TG levels (first quartile) (HR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.05–0.58). Conclusions. The use of CVC, high CRP, and low TG values seem to be independent risk factors for mortality in HD patients. PMID:24347799

  9. Depression and Cognitive Function in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A 1-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seoyoung; Shin, Cheolmin; Han, Changsu

    2017-09-01

    The coexistence of depression with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) seems to increase the risk of dementia. However, the explanations of that relationship have been inconsistent. We investigated cognitive profiles in patients with MCI with and without depression and whether changes in depression symptoms affect cognition longitudinally. For the study, 161 patients with MCI were divided into a depressed group (D+) and a nondepressed group (D-). After 1 year, we redivided the original D- group into D- and newly developed depression (Dd) groups and the D+ group into improved depression (Di) and nonimproved depression (Dn) groups. Neuropsychological tests assessing depression and cognitive domains were performed at baseline and follow-up. When age-adjusted, the D+ group showed significantly poorer performance in general cognition and some subtests regarding memory, executive function, and attention. At the 1-year follow-up, changes in the calculation test ( P = .005) and Controlled Oral Word Test (COWAT; P = .048) were significantly different between groups. Only the Di group showed significant improvement in calculation. The Dn group showed significant decrement in COWAT that was significantly different from that of the Di group, which showed no significant change. Patients with depression having MCI showed poorer cognitive function than nondepressed patients with MCI in some cognitive domains. Improvement in depression was related to improvement or prevention of decline in cognitive measures.

  10. Neuropsychological predictors of powered wheelchair use: a prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Breda; O'Neill, Brian; Evans, Jonathan J

    2008-09-01

    To investigate (1) rates of powered wheelchair use and level of user-rated functional performance at one-month follow-up, and (2) whether psychological variables were prospectively predictive of outcome. Prospective follow-up study. UK hospital-based regional rehabilitation and mobility centre. Volunteer adults with impaired mobility. Of 155 approached, 103 had baseline assessments. Of these, 81 (79%) provided outcome data. Mean age was 65.6 years (SD = 13.5); 55% were male. Rate of day-to-day powerchair use, and users' perceptions of how well the powerchair allowed them to perform functional tasks. Among those with indoor-only chairs, 48% were 'less frequent' users; this rose to 72% among those with indoor/outdoor chairs. Excluding environmental reasons, rate of indoor use was predicted by baseline measures of verbal recall (P<0.001), figure copying (P=0.003) and global cognition (P=0.021). Among those with indoor/outdoor chairs, total rate of use was predicted by verbal recall (P= 0.001). Participants reported that the powerchair was effective in meeting their functional needs. Powered wheelchair use was predicted by cognitive measures. Rates of use were relatively low, despite users' reports that the powerchair facilitated their everyday functioning well.

  11. [A clinical follow-up study of premature thelarche in infants under two years of age].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-Min; Liang, Li; Fang, Yan-Lan; Fu, Jun-Fen; Dong, Guan-Ping; Wang, Chun-Lin

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the clinical status and natural course of premature thelarche (PT) in infants under 2 years of age and to analyze the predictive factors for regression of thelarche. The clinical and laboratory data of 863 infants under 2 years of age, who visited the department of endocrinology in our hospital due to PT between October 2009 and September 2010, were analyzed. A a longitudinal follow-up study was performed. Of the infants under 2 years of age with isolated PT, 89.3% showed a regression before the age of 3 years (mean 17±5.6 months), 10.7% had recurrent or persistent thelarche, with no regression after the age of 3 years, and some even developed into central precocious puberty. The independent predictive factors for regression of thelarche were Tanner stage at the first visit and whether baseline estradiol level had increased. PT in infants under 2 years of age is not rare in the clinical setting, and it usually runs a self-limited course, subsiding before the age of 3 years. However, regular follow-ups should be performed for infants aged over 2 years with persistent thelarche.

  12. A follow-up study of the community near the McColl waste disposal site.

    PubMed Central

    Lipscomb, J A; Goldman, L R; Satin, K P; Smith, D F; Vance, W A; Neutra, R R

    1991-01-01

    To assess the effect of interim clean-up measures on the current health of a community, we conducted a follow-up survey of 193 residents living near the McColl waste disposal site and a comparison area located approximately 5 miles from the site. Results from this survey were compared with results from a similar survey conducted 7 years earlier. Odors were detected at least once per week by 32.7% of "high-exposed" respondents in 1988 compared with 68.5% in 1981, but prevalence odds ratios (PORs) comparing symptom reporting between "high-exposed" and comparison-area respondents were greater than that of the 1981 survey for 89% of symptoms. PORs comparing symptom reporting between these two areas were greater than 2.0 for 64% of symptoms assessed in the current survey. Symptoms reported in excess did not represent a single organ system or suggest a mechanism of response. PORs comparing respondents who were very worried about the environment and those reporting no worry were greater than 2.0 for 86% of symptoms. These finding, along with environmental data from the area, suggest that living near the waste disposal site and being very worried about the environment, rather than a toxicologic effect of chemical from the site, explain excess symptom reporting found in this follow-up study. PMID:1954927

  13. One-year follow-up study of psychotic patients treated with blonanserin: a case series.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Sakae; Suzuki, Masahiro; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2013-09-01

    Blonanserin is a relatively new atypical antipsychotic drug, and has been used in Korea and Japan for 1 and 3 years, respectively. Therefore, the clinical characteristics of blonanserin remain unclear. In this study, to clarify the features of blonanserin, we performed prospective and long-term comparative investigations of patients treated with blonanserin. We followed 10 psychiatric patients who were switched to blonanserin from other antipsychotics for 1 year (schizophrenia: 8; mental retardation: 2). In the light of quality of life, we focused on adverse effects of patients during the follow-up. In the long-term follow-up, (i) hyperprolactinemia is more frequently in risperidone than in blonanserin; however, it is more often in blonanserin than in olanzapine; and (ii) weight gain is more common in olanzapine than in blonanserin. We switched to blonanserin from other antipsychotic drugs within the same case, and then followed the case for 1 year. We consider that long-term observations within the same case lead to obvious comparisons among drugs. On the basis of our findings, we conclude that blonanserin may be useful for the maintenance treatment of schizophrenia without inducing hyperprolactinemia and weight gain. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Assessing Implicit Cognition Among Patients Lost to Follow-up for HIV Care: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Eric; Lyons, Thomas; Wolfe, Brenda; Rolfsen, Norma; Williams, Maryanne; Rucker, Monique; Glick, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Objective: While a growing body of research indicates that implicit cognitive processes play an important role in a range of health behaviors, the assessment of these impulsive, associative mental processes among patients living with HIV has received little attention. This preliminary study explored how multidimensional scaling (MDS) could be used to assess implicit cognitive processes among patients lost to follow-up for HIV care and develop interventions to improve their engagement. Method: The sample consisted of 33 patients who were identified as lost to follow up for HIV care at two urban hospitals. Participants were randomly assigned to either the MDS assessment program or control group. All participants underwent measures designed to gauge behavioral change intentions and treatment motivation. Assessment group participants were interviewed to determine their reactions to the assessment program. Results: The MDS assessment program identified cognitive processes and their relationship to treatment-related behaviors among assessment group participants. Assessment group participants reported significantly greater behavior change intentions than those in the control group (p =.02; Cohen’s d = 0.84). Conclusion: MDS shows promise as a tool to identify implicit cognitive processes related to treatment-related behaviors. Assessments based on MDS could serve as the basis for patient-centered clinical interventions designed to improve treatment adherence and HIV care engagement in general. PMID:27347274

  15. Evaluation of smartphone sound measurement applications (apps) using external microphones – A follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Kardous, Chucri A.; Shaw, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    This follow-up study examines the accuracy of selected smartphone sound measurement applications (apps) using external calibrated microphones. The initial study examined 192 apps on the iOS and Android platforms and found four iOS apps with mean differences of ±2 dB of a reference sound level measurement system. This study evaluated the same four apps using external microphones. The results showed measurements within ±1 dB of the reference. This study suggests that using external calibrated microphones greatly improves the overall accuracy and precision of smartphone sound measurements, and removes much of the variability and limitations associated with the built-in smartphone microphones. PMID:27794313

  16. Evaluation of smartphone sound measurement applications (apps) using external microphones-A follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Kardous, Chucri A; Shaw, Peter B

    2016-10-01

    This follow-up study examines the accuracy of selected smartphone sound measurement applications (apps) using external calibrated microphones. The initial study examined 192 apps on the iOS and Android platforms and found four iOS apps with mean differences of ±2 dB of a reference sound level measurement system. This study evaluated the same four apps using external microphones. The results showed measurements within ±1 dB of the reference. This study suggests that using external calibrated microphones greatly improves the overall accuracy and precision of smartphone sound measurements, and removes much of the variability and limitations associated with the built-in smartphone microphones.

  17. Optimal selection of individuals for repeated covariate measurements in follow-up studies.

    PubMed

    Reinikainen, Jaakko; Karvanen, Juha; Tolonen, Hanna

    2016-12-01

    Repeated covariate measurements bring important information on the time-varying risk factors in long epidemiological follow-up studies. However, due to budget limitations, it may be possible to carry out the repeated measurements only for a subset of the cohort. We study cost-efficient alternatives for the simple random sampling in the selection of the individuals to be remeasured. The proposed selection criteria are based on forms of the D-optimality. The selection methods are compared with the simulation studies and illustrated with the data from the East-West study carried out in Finland from 1959 to 1999. The results indicate that cost savings can be achieved if the selection is focused on the individuals with high expected risk of the event and, on the other hand, on those with extreme covariate values in the previous measurements. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Increased risk of depressive disorder following the diagnosis of benign prostatic enlargement: one-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao-Yuan; Chiu, Kuan-Ming; Chung, Shiu-Dong; Keller, Joseph J; Huang, Chung-Chien; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2011-12-01

    In previous studies, benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) and urinary tract symptoms were demonstrated to be associated with depressive symptoms. However, no longitudinal follow-up study to date has evaluated the relationship between BPE and the subsequent risk of developing depressive disorder. This nationwide, population-based study aimed to prospectively examine the relationship between a history of BPE and the risk of developing depressive disorder. A total of 16,130 adult patients diagnosed with BPE for the first time between 2005 and 2007 were recruited along with a comparison cohort of 48,390 matched enrollees without a history of BPE. All the subjects were tracked for a one-year period following their index date to identify those who subsequently developed a depressive disorder. The Cox proportional hazards model was utilized to compute the risk difference for depressive disorder between cohorts. Of 64,520 sampled patients, 325 (2.01%) from the BPE cohort, and 531 (1.10%) from the comparison cohort were subsequently diagnosed with depressive disorder during the follow-up period. The risk of developing depressive disorder within one-year following diagnosis with BPE was found to be 1.87 (95% CI=1.63-2.16, p<0.001) times the risk in absence of BPE after adjusting for the patients' monthly income, and the geographical location and urbanization level of their place of residence. Our results suggest that patients with BPE are at an increased risk for contracting depressive disorder. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Safe Water on Arsenicosis: A Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Kunal K; Ghose, Aloke; Ghose, Nilima; Biswas, Anirban; Mazumder, D N Guha

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic pollution in groundwater, used for drinking purposes, has been envisaged as a problem of global concern. Treatment options for the management symptoms of chronic arsenicosis are limited. Mitigation option available for dealing with the health problem of ground water arsenic contamination rests mainly on supply of arsenic safe water in arsenic-endemic region of Indo-Bangladesh subcontinent. Limited information is available regarding the long-term effect of chronic arsenic toxicity after stoppage of consumption of arsenic-containing water. The current study was, therefore, done to assess, objectively, the effect of drinking arsenic safe water (<50 μg/L) on disease manifestation of arsenicosis. Manifestations of various skin lesions and systemic diseases associated with chronic arsenic exposure were ascertained initially by carrying on baseline study on 208 participants in Nadia (Cohort-I, with skin lesion and Cohort-II, without skin lesion) using a scoring system, as developed by us, and compared objectively at the end of each year for 3 year follow-up period. All the participants who had arsenic contaminated drinking water source in their houses were supplied with arsenic removal filters for getting arsenic-free water during the follow-up period. In participants belonging to Cohort-I, the skin score was found to improve significantly at the end of each year, and it was found to be reduced significantly from 2.17 ± 1.09 to 1.23 ± 1.17; P < 0.001 at the end of 3 year's intervention study indicating beneficial effect of safe water on skin lesions. The systemic disease symptom score was also found to improve, but less significantly, at the end of 3 years in both the cohorts. Most important observation during the follow-up study was persistence of severe symptoms of chronic lung disease and severe skin lesion including Bowen's disease in spite of taking arsenic-safe water. Further, death could not be prevented to occur because of lung cancer and severe lung

  20. A prospective follow-up study of first-episode acute transient psychotic disorder in Latvia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute and transient psychotic disorder (ATPD) has been described as an acute psychosis with brief onset and polymorphous symptomatology (WHO, 1993). The study of ATPD is growing increasingly relevant as scientists start an active discussion of the possibility of changing the ATPD classification in the next International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The aims of this study were to describe the clinical features of the index episode of ATPD in patients in Latvia, to analyse the stability and longitudinal changes of the diagnosis, to explore potential correlations between the sociodemographic and disease characteristics and to describe stressful life events before the first ATPD episode. Methods A prospective follow-up study of all first-time admitted patients from the Riga Centre of Psychiatry and Addiction Disorders who fulfilled the ICD-10 criteria for ATPD (WHO, 1993) during the 15-month period from 9 January 2010 to 30 March 2011 and followed up until 31 October 2012. Stressful life events, demographics and clinical features during the index episode were assessed. Results One hundred two patients were admitted with first-episode ATPD. The majority were females (60.7%). Over an average 26.5-month follow-up period, 59.8% of the patients were not readmitted. The overall stability rate of ATPD diagnosis in our sample was 67.4% (p = 0.0001). In the subgroup of patients who were readmitted, 70.7% had their diagnosis converted to schizophrenia in subsequent visits. Stressful life events before the first episode were found in 49.0% of first-episode ATPD patients. Thought disorder was found to be the strongest statistically significant predictor of ATPD diagnosis conversation to schizophrenia (odds ratio 4.3), with high Wald's criterion (9.435) in binary logistic regression. Conclusions ATPD is prevalent in Latvia, with rather high overall stability rate. Combining these data from first-episode ATPD patients in Latvia with data from other countries

  1. Micropulse diode laser trabeculoplasty (MDLT): A phase II clinical study with 12 months follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Fea, Antonio Maria; Bosone, Alex; Rolle, Teresa; Brogliatti, Beatrice; Grignolo, Federico Maria

    2008-01-01

    Objective This pilot study evaluates the pressure lowering potential of subthreshold micropulse diode laser trabeculoplasty (MDLT) for a clinically meaningful duration in patients with medically uncontrolled open angle glaucoma (OAG). Design prospective interventional case series. Participants Thirty-two eyes of 20 consecutive patients with uncontrolled OAG (12 bilateral and 8 unilateral). Methods Confluent subthreshold laser applications over the inferior 180° of the anterior TM using an 810 nm diode laser in a micropulse operating mode. The intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured at baseline and at 1 hour, 1 day, 1 week, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post-treatment. Flare was measured with a Kowa FM 500 flare-meter at baseline and at 3 hours, 1 day, 1 week, and 12 months post-treatment. After treatment, the patients were maintained on their pre-treatment drug regimen. Main outcome measures Criteria for treatment response were IOP reduction ≥3 mm Hg and IOP ≤21 mm Hg within the first week after MDLT. Eyes not complying to the above criteria during the follow-up were considered treatment failure. Mean IOP change and percentage of IOP reduction during the follow-up were calculated. Results One eye was analyzed for bilateral patients. A total of 20 eyes were thus included. Four eyes (20%) did not respond to treatment during the first week. One additional eye failed at the 6 month visit. The treatment was successful in 15 eyes (75%) at 12 months. The IOP was significantly lower throughout follow-up (p < 0.01). At 12 months, the mean percentage of IOP reduction in the 15 respondent eyes was 22.1% and 12 eyes (60%) had IOP reduction higher than 20%. During the first two postoperative days, one eye with pigmentary glaucoma experienced a significant increase of flare associated with an IOP spike (34 mm Hg) that was controlled with systemic drugs; afterwards it qualified as a respondent and completed the study. No increase of flare was found in any other patient. No

  2. Lexical access changes in patients with multiple sclerosis: a two-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Sepulcre, Jorge; Peraita, Herminia; Goni, Joaquin; Arrondo, Gonzalo; Martincorena, Inigo; Duque, Beatriz; Velez de Mendizabal, Nieves; Masdeu, Joseph C; Villoslada, Pablo

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze lexical access strategies in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and their changes over time. We studied lexical access strategies during semantic and phonemic verbal fluency tests and also confrontation naming in a 2-year prospective cohort of 45 MS patients and 20 healthy controls. At baseline, switching lexical access strategy (both in semantic and in phonemic verbal fluency tests) and confrontation naming were significantly impaired in MS patients compared with controls. After 2 years follow-up, switching score decreased, and cluster size increased over time in semantic verbal fluency tasks, suggesting a failure in the retrieval of lexical information rather than an impairment of the lexical pool. In conclusion, these findings underline the significant presence of lexical access problems in patients with MS and could point out their key role in the alterations of high-level communications abilities in MS.

  3. Enhancing the validity of foster care follow-up studies through multiple alumni location strategies.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jason; McWilliams, Alisa; Mainieri, Tina; Pecora, Peter J; La Belle, Karin

    2006-01-01

    While family-based placement prevention services, family reunification programs, subsidized guardianship, and aggressive adoption programs are reducing the numbers of children spending long periods of time in substitute care, a significant number of America's children will come of age in foster care. Agencies and policymakers should use research and evaluation to assess the effectiveness of foster care in nurturing healthy adults and to explore ways to improve services. Outcome studies that have focused on locating and interviewing young or middle-aged adults emancipated from foster care have been hampered by modest response rates, limiting the field's ability to evaluate the efficacy of foster care programs. This article describes a set of strategies that were used to achieve higher response rates in two recent follow-up studies.

  4. A follow-up study of children with phonologic disorders of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Shriberg, L D; Kwiatkowski, J

    1988-05-01

    Recent emphasis on early intervention programming for children with speech delays of unknown origin has yielded considerable literature on alternative forms of assessment and management. Less is known about the long-term special educational needs of such children. This study reviews the exceptional educational needs histories of 36 children who had received preschool speech services at a phonology clinic. Findings indicate that a high percentage of children continued to have speech and language and other special educational needs as they neared middle school and beyond. Many children eventually required special class placements. Discussion focuses on issues in classification, prediction, and management. On the bases of both original and follow-up data in this and other studies, the term phonological disorder appears to be appropriate for approximately 75%-80% of children referred early for speech disorders of unknown origin.

  5. The effectiveness of dementia care mapping in intellectual disability residential services: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Jaycock, Sue; Persaud, Michelle; Johnson, Robert

    2006-12-01

    This article is presented as a follow-up to exploratory work published in this journal in 2001. It describes a study that aimed to assess the effectiveness of dementia care mapping in supporting practice improvement in intellectual disability residential services. An average of 9 hours of observational data was collected using dementia care mapping in relation to 14 adults with severe or profound intellectual disabilities. Sixteen interviews were also undertaken with staff over a 4 month period.The findings provided a detailed picture of the activities and interactions between the participants involved in the study and raised some issues about 'organizational culture' when developing person-centred approaches. They have helped strengthen the case that care mapping has the potential to be a useful addition to the existing repertoire of tools to support effective practice improvement and person-centred planning.

  6. Aspects of body image after mastectomy due to breast cancer - a two-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Fallbjörk, Ulrika; Rasmussen, Birgit H; Karlsson, Stig; Salander, Pär

    2013-06-01

    This 2-year follow-up study explores aspects of body image after mastectomy due to breast cancer. This population-based study included 76 women living in northern Sweden who, during November 2006 to October 2007, underwent mastectomy due to breast cancer. The women completed a questionnaire entitled "Life After Mastectomy (LAM)" 10 months after the mastectomy and again 2 years later. We used SPSS version 18.0 for data processing and analysis. The findings indicate that few significant changes in body image had taken place during the 2-year interval between the first and second completion of the questionnaire. An exception was a significant decrease in feelings of sexual attractiveness and comfort during sexual intimacy. At follow-up, 21% of the women had undergone breast reconstruction (BR). They were significantly younger than the women who had not had BR (53 vs. 63 years). Besides being younger, no other significant differences could be found between those women who had undergone BR and those who had not. The fact that the decrease in sexual attractiveness and feelings of comfort during sexual intimacy also applied to the subgroup of women who had had BR may therefore be surprising. A better understanding of issues related to breast cancer treatment and sexual function is vital. It is important for health care professionals to be aware of problems related to sexual intimacy and to be prepared not just to provide information about these, but also to reflect on expectations vs. reality together with the women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A follow-up study of family burden in patients with bipolar affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Maji, K R; Sood, Mamta; Sagar, Rajesh; Khandelwal, Sudhir K

    2012-03-01

    Research in the last two decades has documented a high level of burden in caregivers of bipolar disorder. The present study is aimed at studying family burden among relatives of patients with bipolar affective disorder. Thirty four consecutive hospitalized patients with bipolar affective disorder currently in mania and their relatives were assessed twice: at the time of admission and during follow-up four weeks after discharge. A semi-structured performa designed for the study was completed. Patients were assessed on Young's Mania Rating Scale and relatives were assessed on Family Burden Assessment Scale. More than 90% of family members reported severe subjective (rated by relative) and objective burden (rated by interviewer) at admission; none of them was free of burden. At the time of follow-up, about one quarter (23.5%) and two thirds (64.7%) of family members did not experience any objective and subjective burden respectively; subjective and objective family burden was moderate in about one third (35.3%) and a half (52.9%), respectively. None of the family members reported severe burden subjectively, while the objective burden was rated to be severe in a quarter (23.5%) of family members. The study was limited by the lack of a control group from an outpatient setting as hospitalization increases family burden. Also, the rater at the second assessment was not blind to ratings at the first assessment. Almost all the family members experienced severe burden initially. Even when symptoms subsided, family members continued to experience burden specifically related to finances. burden was significantly higher than subjective burden.

  8. Continued cannabis use and risk of incidence and persistence of psychotic symptoms: 10 year follow-up cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kuepper, Rebecca; Lieb, Roselind; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Höfler, Michael; Henquet, Cécile

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether use of cannabis in adolescence increases the risk for psychotic outcomes by affecting the incidence and persistence of subclinical expression of psychosis in the general population (that is, expression of psychosis below the level required for a clinical diagnosis). Design Analysis of data from a prospective population based cohort study in Germany (early developmental stages of psychopathology study). Setting Population based cohort study in Germany. Participants 1923 individuals from the general population, aged 14-24 at baseline. Main outcome measure Incidence and persistence of subthreshold psychotic symptoms after use of cannabis in adolescence. Cannabis use and psychotic symptoms were assessed at three time points (baseline, T2 (3.5 years), T3 (8.4 years)) over a 10 year follow-up period with the Munich version of the composite international diagnostic interview (M-CIDI). Results In individuals who had no reported lifetime psychotic symptoms and no reported lifetime cannabis use at baseline, incident cannabis use over the period from baseline to T2 increased the risk of later incident psychotic symptoms over the period from T2 to T3 (adjusted odds ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 3.1; P=0.021). Furthermore, continued use of cannabis increased the risk of persistent psychotic symptoms over the period from T2 to T3 (2.2, 1.2 to 4.2; P=0.016). The incidence rate of psychotic symptoms over the period from baseline to T2 was 31% (152) in exposed individuals versus 20% (284) in non-exposed individuals; over the period from T2 to T3 these rates were 14% (108) and 8% (49), respectively. Conclusion Cannabis use is a risk factor for the development of incident psychotic symptoms. Continued cannabis use might increase the risk for psychotic disorder by impacting on the persistence of symptoms. PMID:21363868

  9. Progression of motor subtypes in Huntington's disease: a 6-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, M; Hart, E P; van Zwet, E W; Bentivoglio, A R; Burgunder, J M; Craufurd, D; Reilmann, R; Saft, C; Roos, R A C

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the progression of predominantly choreatic and hypokinetic-rigid signs in Huntington's disease (HD) and their relationship with cognitive and general functioning over time. The motor signs in HD can be divided into predominantly choreatic and hypokinetic-rigid subtypes. It has been reported in cross-sectional studies that predominantly choreatic HD patients perform better on functional and cognitive assessments compared to predominantly hypokinetic-rigid HD patients. The course of these motor subtypes and their clinical profiles has not been investigated longitudinally. A total of 4135 subjects who participated in the European HD Network REGISTRY study were included and classified at baseline as either predominantly choreatic (n = 891), hypokinetic-rigid (n = 916), or mixed-motor (n = 2328), based on a previously used method. The maximum follow-up period was 6 years. The mixed-motor group was not included in the analyses. Linear mixed models were constructed to investigate changes in motor subtypes over time and their relationship with cognitive and functional decline. Over the 6-year follow-up period, the predominantly choreatic group showed a significant decrease in chorea, while hypokinetic-rigid symptoms slightly increased in the hypokinetic-rigid group. On the Total Functional Capacity, Stroop test, and Verbal fluency task the rate of change over time was significantly faster in the predominantly choreatic group, while on all other clinical assessments the decline was comparable for both groups. Our results suggest that choreatic symptoms decrease over time, whereas hypokinetic-rigid symptoms slightly increase in a large cohort of HD patients. Moreover, different motor subtypes can be related to different clinical profiles.

  10. Four-year follow-up study of pharmacological treatment in pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Oded; Dinur, Limor Klein; Dannon, Pinhas N

    2013-01-01

    In the past decade, we have witnessed the emergence of pharmacological treatments for pathological gambling with some success but many question marks. We aimed to explore pharmacological treatments that have been previously explored with some success, with the intent of comparing their efficacy and pave the way to larger placebo-controlled trials. In this study, we allocated 78 patients to 4 different types of psychotropic medications: naltrexone, topiramate, bupropion, and escitalopram. We treated patients for more than 2 years, with additional 2-year follow-ups without medication. The sample was evaluated using the 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, the Global Assessment of Functioning, and the Visual Analog Scale to measure general well-being before enrollment as well as at 1 month, 6 months, 24 months, and 48 months after beginning medication treatment. During the first 2 years of treatment, 34 patients dropped out, with one more dropping out during the additional 2 years of follow-up. Significant improvement on all rating scales was seen in all groups after 2 years, except HAMD in the group that received topiramate. We found the naltrexone-treated group of patients to have a statistically significant lower dropout rate compared with other groups, statistically significant lower HAMD scores in comparison to the group treated with bupropion, statistically significant lower Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale score compared to the groups treated with escitalopram and topiramate, and significantly higher Visual Analog Scale scores compared to the groups treated with bupropion and topiramate. Pathological gambling is essentially a biopsychological disorder that may be attenuated provided that patients adhere to medication. In our study, among 4 medications with different mechanisms of action, naltrexone was found to be the most effective. Placebo-controlled studies involving large numbers of subjects are required before

  11. Nutritional status and eating habits of the institutionalised elderly in Turkey: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Rakıcıoğlu, N; Aksoy, B; Tamer, F; Yıldız, E Akal; Samur, G; Pekcan, G; Besler, H T

    2016-04-01

    As the elderly population increases in Turkey, so do the associated health and nutritional problems. The main purpose of the present study was to determine the nutritional status of elderly individuals who live in institutions. A total of 102 elderly volunteers was recruited from seven residential homes of the Ministry of Family and Social Policies in Ankara. In the consecutive years of 2007, 2008 and 2009, dietary intake was assessed using a 24-h food recall. Nutritional status was screened using a questionnaire from the Mini-Nutritional Assessment, basic characteristics were determined and anthropometric measurements were assessed. The percentage of elderly participants who were malnourished or at risk for malnutrition increased by the completion of the follow-up (P < 0.05). It was found that energy, total protein, animal proteins, carbohydrates, niacin, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc intake of men decreased significantly over the years studied (P < 0.05). A significant decrease occurred among women in animal protein, vitamin B1 , niacin and the percentage of energy from proteins (P < 0.05); however, an increase in energy from fat (P < 0.05) was determined. Within the years studied, the percentage of nutrients meeting the Turkish recommended daily allowances decreased from 2007 to 2009 both in men and women. During the years 2007 to 2009, the percentage of waist circumferences >102 cm for men was 46.4%, 45.6% and 48.1%, respectively, and the percentage of waist circumferences for women >88 cm was 75.6%, 75.6% and 81.8%, respectively. During the follow-up, significant nutritional changes were determined. To prevent malnutrition, periodical screening of nutritional status should be a priority and a standard policy for elderly people, especially for those institutionalised. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  12. Follicular mucinosis presenting as an acneiform eruption: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Brau-Javier, Cristina N; Santos-Arroyo, Aileen E; De Sanctis-González, Ivette M; Sánchez, Jorge L

    2013-12-01

    It has been proposed by many authors that follicular mucinosis is directly associated with mycosis fungoides (MF). Follicular mucinosis may be classified into 3 main clinical variants: a benign idiopathic form in children and young adults, which includes an acneiform presentation; an idiopathic form in older patients with a benign course; and a third variant that occurs in adults and is associated with MF. Our goal was to study the relationship between the acneiform variant of follicular mucinosis and MF. Eight patients previously diagnosed with the acneiform variant of follicular mucinosis were identified. Biopsy specimens were reviewed to evaluate the histopathologic attributes that characterize the disease and the infiltrate's immunohistochemistry. Also, patient follow-up was assessed to evaluate the clinical course of the disease. Median age of onset of disease was 29.5 years; 95% of lesions were located in the head and neck region. Biopsy specimens showed a moderate to dense perivascular, perifollicular, and interstitial infiltrate of lymphocytes with mucinous deposits within the follicular epithelium. On immunohistochemistry, the infiltrate showed prominent leukocyte common antigen (LCA) positivity and a CD3-positive and CD4-positive infiltrate with rare CD20-positive cells. None of the study patients showed evidence of MF after a mean follow-up of 3 years. The benign course of disease demonstrated in the study patients suggests that the acneiform variant of follicular mucinosis probably represents a subpopulation of the benign idiopathic form of the disease. However, given that histopathologically this variant cannot be distinguished from the lymphoma-associated variant of follicular mucinosis, longitudinal evaluation is still warranted in these patients.

  13. Sleep and Sickness Absence: A Nationally Representative Register-Based Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Lallukka, Tea; Kaikkonen, Risto; Härkänen, Tommi; Kronholm, Erkki; Partonen, Timo; Rahkonen, Ossi; Koskinen, Seppo

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: We aimed to examine various sleep measures as determinants of sickness absence while considering confounders. Design: Nationally representative Health 2000 Survey linked with sickness absence data from the Finnish Social Insurance Institution. Setting: Finland. Participants: Working-aged women (n = 1,875) and men (n = 1,885). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Insomnia-related symptoms, early morning awakenings, being more tired during daytime than other people of same age, use of sleeping pills, excessive daytime sleepiness, probable sleep apnea (4 items about snoring/apnea), and reporting that sleep duration varies between different seasons were examined as determinants of sickness absence over a 7.2 year follow-up. Poisson and gamma regression models were fitted. After adjusting age, all examined sleep disturbances except excessive daytime sleepiness were associated with sickness absence among men (RRs 1.3-2.5). Among women, after adjusting for age, insomnia-related symptoms, early morning awakenings, being more tired than others, and use of sleeping pills were associated with sickness absence (RRs 1.4-1.8). After further adjustments for education, working conditions, health behaviors, and objectively measured mental and somatic health, the associations somewhat attenuated but mainly remained. The optimal sleep duration with the lowest risk of sickness absence was 7.6 hours for women and 7.8 hours for men. Although persistence of other health problems could affect the estimates, direct costs due to sickness absence could decrease by up to 28% if sleep disturbances could be fully addressed. Conclusions: This study highlights the need for prevention of sleep disturbances and promotion of optimal sleep length to prevent sickness absence. Citation: Lallukka T, Kaikkonen R, Härkänen T, Kronholm E, Partonen T, Rahkonen O, Koskinen S. Sleep and sickness absence: a nationally representative register-based follow-up study. SLEEP 2014

  14. Hand-arm vibration syndrome among travertine workers: a follow up study.

    PubMed

    Bovenzi, M; Franzinelli, A; Scattoni, L; Vannuccini, L

    1994-06-01

    In a six year follow up study of the handarm vibration syndrome, 62 stoneworkers operating hand held vibrating tools in 10 travertine quarries and mills were first investigated in 1985 and then in 1991. The frequency weighted acceleration of vibration from the rock drills and stone hammers used by the travertine workers exceeded 20 m/s2, indicating a hazardous work activity according to the proposal of the EC directive for physical agents. A clinical examination and a cold provocation test were repeated with the same procedures as those adopted at the time of the first survey. The stoneworkers were divided into groups according to current work state: active stoneworkers who continued to use powered tools during the follow up (n = 21, median exposure time 22 years), and ex-stoneworkers with retirement vibration free intervals of three years (n = 22, median exposure time 27.5 years) and of six years (n = 19, median exposure time 20 years). In the group of active stoneworkers, a 38% onset a new cases of vibration-induced white finger (VWF) was found during the follow up (p < 0.01). Among the retired stoneworkers affected with VWF (n = 24), one recovered from VWF, one showed improvement, 20 remained stationary, and two deteriorated. The ex-stoneworkers experienced no significant change in sensorineural disturbances and a decrease in musculoskeletal symptoms of the upper limbs. At the cold provocation test, the currently active stoneworkers with VWF showed, on a group basis, a delayed finger rewarming time between the two examinations (p = 0.002). An abnormal response to cold provocation persisted in the fingers of the ex-stoneworkers with VWF, even in those reporting subjective improvement. These findings indicate a tendency towards the irreversibility of sensorineural and VWF symptoms in a group of ex-stoneworkers with prolonged exposure to high vibration levels in the past. The increased occurrence of VWF in the active stone workers after a few extra years of

  15. Nursing home staff's views on quality improvement interventions: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Grando, Victoria T; Rantz, Marilyn J; Maas, Meridean

    2007-01-01

    Ongoing problems with nursing home care mandates understanding nursing home staff's perspectives on innovative quality improvement programs. This follow-up study used focus groups to examine the experiences of staff who participated in a clinical trial that involved Quality Indicator (QI) feedback reports, quality improvement training, and APN consultation. The authors found that QI reports provided staff with a benchmark to judge their care and a means to track problems; APN consultation was essential for staff to learn best practices; and staff questioned the validity of the QI reports, which hindered them from seeking new solutions to problems identified in the QI reports. Findings indicate that innovative QI programs and APN consultation can positively influence nursing home quality improvement efforts and improve care.

  16. Mononucleosis and chronic daytime sleepiness. A long-term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Guilleminault, C; Mondini, S

    1986-07-01

    Twelve patients between 14 and 26 years of age, ten with infectious mononucleosis and two with Guillain-Barré syndrome, all of whom were suspected of having had Epstein-Barr viral infection, developed daytime sleepiness. The daytime somnolence was confirmed objectively by polygraphic monitoring seven weeks to 4 1/2 months after the onset of clinical symptoms. The patients have been followed up for three to 12 years. None has had any other neurologic sequelae, but all have disabling daytime sleepiness. Treatment brings only mild relief. A retrospective chart study of 35 patients with infectious mononucleosis did not identify, on the basis of initial clinical symptoms, those patients who developed chronic impairment.

  17. Suicide intent among parasuicide patients in Nicaragua: a surveillance and follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Caldera, Trinidad; Herrera, Andrés; Kullgren, Gunnar; Renberg, Ellinor Salander

    2007-01-01

    This study examines suicide intent among parasuicide patients in a low-income country, Nicaragua, with special reference to gender patterns and future suicidal behavior. Using the Suicide Intent Scale (SIS), suicide intent was assessed in 204 persons presenting to hospital after parasuicide. Repetition was checked after a mean follow-up period of three years. The total SIS scores did not differ between women and men. However, a higher SIS score among women was significantly associated with older age, having children and use of pesticide as the parasuicide method. The overall method of suicide intent was low in Nicaragua compared to other countries, as was the nonfatal repetition rate (4.8% after three years). Subsequent suicides were found only in three men. Factor structures within the SIS disclosed supported the cross-cultural validity of the instrument. The level of suicide intent at the index attempt did not show any association with future suicidal behavior.

  18. Relationships in couples treated with sperm donation - a national prospective follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Long-term follow-up on relationship quality in couples who use sperm donation is scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to analyse changes over time in satisfaction with relationship in heterosexual couples who were scheduled for treatment with sperm donation and IVF couples treated with their own gametes and to compare the two groups undergoing different treatment for infertility. Method A prospective follow-up study in which data were collected twice on two groups; couples receiving sperm donation and IVF couples using their own gametes. The ENRICH instrument was used to gain information about the individuals’ subjective experience of their relationship at the time of acceptance for treatment and again 2–5 years later. Results At the time of acceptance for treatment the men and women in the two groups assessed their relationships as being very solid on all dimensions and that there were no differences between the two groups. At the second assessment there was a decline in the satisfaction scores on the dimensions “Children and parenting” and “Egalitarian”, while an increase in scores was observed on “Conception of life” and “Conflict resolution” both for men and woman and also for the two groups. For the couples that had a successful treatment and gave birth to a child/children there was a decrease in satisfaction of the relation in the sperm donation group as well as in the group of couples having IVF with own gametes. Conclusion In conclusion, the overall quality of relationship is stable in couples receiving donated sperm and does not differ from couples undergoing IVF-treatment with own gametes. PMID:25100133

  19. Hong Kong Chinese school children with elevated urine melamine levels: a prospective follow up study.

    PubMed

    Kong, Alice P S; Choi, Kai-Chow; Ho, Chung Shun; Chan, Michael H M; Wong, Chun Kwok; Liu, Eric K H; Chu, Winnie C W; Chow, Viola C Y; Lau, Joseph T F; Chan, Juliana C N

    2011-05-20

    In 2008, the outbreak of kidney stones in children fed by melamine-tainted milk products in Mainland China has caused major public concern of food safety. We identified Hong Kong school children with elevated urine melamine level from a community-based school survey in 2007-08 and reviewed their clinical status in 2009. In 2007-08, 2119 school children participated in a primary and secondary school survey in Hong Kong using a cluster sampling method. Urine aliquots from 502 subjects were assayed for melamine level. High urine melamine level was defined as urine melamine/creatinine ratio >7.1 μg/mmol. Subjects with high urine melamine level were invited for clinical evaluation in 2009 including urinalysis and ultrasound imaging of the urinary system. The age range of this subcohort was 6 - 20 years with 67% girls (335 female and 167 male subjects). The spot urine melamine/creatinine ratio of the 502 urine aliquots ranged from undetectable to 1467 μg/mmol (median 0.8 μg/mmol). Of these, 213 subjects had undetectable level (42%). We invited 47 (9%) subjects with high urine melamine level for re-evaluation and one subject declined. The median duration of follow-up was 23.5 months (interquartile range: 19.8 - 30.6 months). None of the 46 subjects (28% boys, mean age 13.9 ± 2.9 years) had any abnormality detected on ultrasound study of the urinary system. All subjects had stable renal function with a median urine albumin-creatinine ratio of 0.70 mg/mmol (interquartile range: 0.00 - 2.55 mg/mmol). Hong Kong Chinese school children with high urine melamine levels appeared to have benign clinical course in the short term although a long term follow-up study is advisable in those with persistently high urine melamine level.

  20. A prospective follow-up study of younger and older subjects with pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Black, Donald W; Coryell, William; McCormick, Brett; Shaw, Martha; Allen, Jeff

    2017-10-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is a common and costly public health problem associated with impaired quality of life and high suicide rates. Despite its frequency in the general population, PG course is poorly understood in older adults who are especially vulnerable to its devastating consequences. We enrolled 175 subjects in a longitudinal study of gambling behavior: our case group of 53 older adults with PG (≥ 60 years), and two comparison groups including 72 younger adults with PG (< 40 years) and 50 older adults without PG (≥ 60 years). Subjects with PG met lifetime criteria for DSM-IV PG and had a South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) and National Opinion Research Center DSM Screen for Gambling Problems (NODS) scores ≥ 5. Subjects were evaluated at intake and reassessed every 6 months and drop outs were replaced. Follow-up lasted a mean (SD) of 2.6 (1.4) years. At intake older PGs were more likely to be female, Caucasian, divorced, and to have a lower level of education. Older and younger PGs were similar in gambling severity, but older PGs were more likely to have sought PG treatment. Older PGs had lower rates of lifetime drug use disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. They preferred slots, were more likely to receive PG treatment, and were less likely to discontinue participation in the study. Week by week gambling activity levels showed a significant general downward movement for older and younger PGs, although there were no differences between the groups. Elders without PG had no change in their level of gambling activity. We conclude that younger and older PGs moved toward a reduced level of gambling activity during follow-up. Our data challenge the notion that PG is chronic and progressive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Surgical management of neuroma pain: a prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Stokvis, Annemieke; van der Avoort, Dirk-Jan J C; van Neck, Johan W; Hovius, Steven E R; Coert, J Henk

    2010-12-01

    Painful neuromas can cause severe loss of function and have great impact on the daily life of patients. Surgical management remains challenging; despite improving techniques, success rates are low. To accurately study the success of surgical neuroma treatment and factors predictive of outcome, a prospective follow-up study was performed. Between 2006 and 2009, pre- and post-operative questionnaires regarding pain (VAS, McGill), function (DASH), quality of life (SF-36), symptoms of psychopathology (SCL-90), epidemiologic determinants and other outcome factors were sent to patients surgically treated for upper extremity neuroma pain. Pain scores after diagnostic nerve blocks were documented at the outpatient clinic before surgery. Thirty-four patients were included, with an average follow up time of 22 months. The mean VAS score decreased from 6.8 to 4.9 after surgery (p<0.01), 19 (56%) of patients were satisfied with surgical results. Upper extremity function improved significantly (p=0.001). Neuroma patients had significantly lower quality of life compared to a normal population. Employment status, duration of pain and CRPS symptoms were found to be prognostic factors. VAS scores after diagnostic nerve block were predictive of post-operative VAS scores (p=0.001). Furthermore, smoking was significantly related to worse outcome (relative risk: 2.10). The results could lead to improved patient selection and treatment strategies. If a diagnostic nerve block is ineffective in relieving pain, patients will most likely not benefit from surgical treatment. Patients should be encouraged to focus on activity and employment instead of their symptoms. Smoking should be discouraged in patients who will undergo surgical neuroma treatment.

  2. Incidence of skeletal fractures after traumatic spinal cord injury: a 10-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Gifre, Laia; Vidal, Joan; Carrasco, Josep; Portell, Enric; Puig, Josep; Monegal, Ana; Guañabens, Núria; Peris, Pilar

    2014-04-01

    To analyse the incidence and factors related to the development and clinical evolution of fractures in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury. A retrospective 10-year follow-up study. Neurorehabilitation centre. Sixty-three patients (50M/13F) with a mean age of 36 ± 20 years with recent traumatic spinal cord injury attended over a one-year period (January to December 2000). Medical reports were reviewed, evaluating risk factors for osteoporosis, fracture incidence during the 10 years following spinal cord injury, severity (ASIA score) and level of spinal cord injury (paraplegia/tetraplegia), type of lesion (spastic/flaccid), weight-bearing standing activity, and the cause, location and evolution of the fracture. Of the 129 patients attending during the study period, 75 had traumatic spinal cord injury (7 died and 5 had no follow-up). Finally, 63 patients were included. Fifty-four per cent had complete motor injury (ASIA A). Twenty-five per cent of these patients developed fractures, with 2.9 fractures per 100 patient-years. The femur was the most frequent location of the fractures. Fractures were observed 6.4 ± 2.4 years after spinal cord injury (range 2-10 years), all in males. Most fractures (70%) were related to low-impact injuries. Fifty per cent presented with associated clinical complications and only 20% of the patients had received anti-osteoporotic treatment. Spinal cord injury severity was the only risk factor for the development of fractures (complete spinal cord injury (ASIA A)) (RR 4.043; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.081-23.846, P = 0.037). The incidence of fractures after spinal cord injury is high, with severity and time since spinal cord injury being the main determinants for their development. Fractures were frequently associated with clinical complications. However, the use of anti-osteoporotic treatment was uncommon.

  3. Adamantinoma of long bones: a long-term follow-up study of 11 cases.

    PubMed

    Szendroi, Miklós; Antal, Imre; Arató, Gabriella

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological features and prognostic significances of 11 histologically proven adamantinoma cases based on an average 12,7 year long follow-up. The male: female ratio was 8:3, aged between 4 and 80 years (mean 29,3 years). The initial diagnosis at referral was other than adamantinoma in six patients (fibrous dysplasia, carcinoma metastasis, osteofibrous dysplasia, bone cyst, non-ossifying fibroma), referring to the differential diagnostic problems. All tumors were localized to the mid part of tibia. By histological evaluation, basaloid pattern on a background of fibrotic stroma dominated in six patients, while spindle and squamous features were less frequently seen. All adamantinoma were positive for cytokeratins often in coexpression with vimentin. No correlation was experienced between histology and clinical outcome. Intralesional curettage (2 pts) was followed by recurrence of the tumor. Wide resection was performed in eight patients with reconstruction using intercalary fibula autografts in seven patients. Reconstruction-related complications occurred in two third of the cases, all of them could however be controlled by repeated surgery. Six recurrences occurred in four patients, two of these recurrences occurred 20 and 16 years after initial surgery. One patient died 9 years after recognition of the tumor of pulmonary metastases. Adamantinoma of the long bones is a low grade malignant tumor, which clinical outcome is difficult to predict based on histology or surgical stage of the tumor. Wide surgical margin, e.g. resection the tumor reduces the rate of recurrence. This study underlines that recurrences do occur even decades after recognition the tumor, therefore a life-long follow-up of the patient is necessary.

  4. Wilson's disease in southern Brazil: a 40-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Bem, Ricardo Schmitt de; Muzzillo, Dominique Araujo; Deguti, Marta Mitiko; Barbosa, Egberto Reis; Werneck, Lineu César; Teive, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni

    2011-01-01

    Long-term data on the clinical follow-up and the treatment effectiveness of Wilson's disease are limited because of the low disease frequency. This study evaluated a retrospective cohort of Wilson's disease patients from southern Brazil during a 40-year follow-up period. Thirty-six Wilson's disease patients, diagnosed from 1971 to 2010, were retrospectively evaluated according to their clinical presentation, epidemiological and social features, response to therapy and outcome. Examining the patients' continental origins showed that 74.5% had a European ancestor. The mean age at the initial symptom presentation was 23.3 ± 9.3 years, with a delay of 27.5 ± 41.9 months until definitive diagnosis. At presentation, hepatic symptoms were predominant (38.9%), followed by mixed symptoms (hepatic and neuropsychiatric) (30.6%) and neuropsychiatric symptoms (25%). Kayser-Fleischer rings were identified in 55.6% of patients, with a higher frequency among those patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms (77.8%). Eighteen patients developed neuropsychiatric features, most commonly cerebellar syndrome. Neuroradiological imaging abnormalities were observed in 72.2% of these patients. Chronic liver disease was detected in 68% of the patients with hepatic symptoms. 94.2% of all the patients were treated with D-penicillamine for a mean time of 129.9 ± 108.3 months. Other treatments included zinc salts, combined therapy and liver transplantation. After initiating therapy, 78.8% of the patients had a stable or improved outcome, and the overall survival rate was 90.1%. This study is the first retrospective description of a population of Wilson's disease patients of mainly European continental origin who live in southern Brazil. Wilson's disease is treatable if correctly diagnosed, and an adequate quality of life can be achieved, resulting in a long overall survival.

  5. Usefulness of adrenal scintigraphy in the follow-up of adrenocortical incidentalomas: a prospective multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Fagour, Cédric; Bardet, Stéphane; Rohmer, Vincent; Arimone, Yannick; Lecomte, Pierre; Valli, Nathalie; Tabarin, Antoine

    2009-02-01

    Prognostic factors for progression of benign adrenocortical adenomas (AI) remain poorly known. We assessed the usefulness of (131)I-6-beta-iodomethylnorcholesterol scintigraphy (IMS) to predict the occurrence of adrenal hyperfunction or mass enlargement. Fifty-one consecutive inpatients with unilateral AI and normal 24-h urinary free cortisol (UFC) were enrolled in a multicenter observational prospective study to investigate the relationship between the scintigraphic pattern and the progression of biological abnormalities of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis or tumor size. Biochemically defined 'subclinical' Cushing's syndrome (SCS) was found at baseline in 47% of patients. Unilateral uptake (UU) was significantly associated with SCS (P<0.05). During the follow-up (4.3+/-1.6-year): 53% of patients showed unchanged hormonal evaluation, 29% displayed intermittent SCS and 18% showed definitive hormonal progression of SCS but without overt biochemical hypercortisolism. UU was associated with persistence of SCS and hormonal progression (P<0.01). In multivariate analysis, UU and impaired 1 mg dexamethasone suppression were independently associated with hormonal progression. Three patients with UU developed clinical CS despite persistently normal UFC. Tumor size increased in 10% patients and was not associated with any scintigraphic pattern. Evolution of SCS toward overt biochemical CS in patients with AI is a rare event during a 4-year follow-up. UU is predictive for the occurrence of SCS, its persistence and progression within the spectrum of SCS. Further studies aiming to establish the clinical consequences of SCS are needed to recommend IMS as a complementary evaluation in patients with AI and biochemical SCS.

  6. Hong Kong Chinese school children with elevated urine melamine levels: A prospective follow up study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2008, the outbreak of kidney stones in children fed by melamine-tainted milk products in Mainland China has caused major public concern of food safety. We identified Hong Kong school children with elevated urine melamine level from a community-based school survey in 2007-08 and reviewed their clinical status in 2009. Methods In 2007-08, 2119 school children participated in a primary and secondary school survey in Hong Kong using a cluster sampling method. Urine aliquots from 502 subjects were assayed for melamine level. High urine melamine level was defined as urine melamine/creatinine ratio >7.1 μg/mmol. Subjects with high urine melamine level were invited for clinical evaluation in 2009 including urinalysis and ultrasound imaging of the urinary system. Results The age range of this subcohort was 6 - 20 years with 67% girls (335 female and 167 male subjects). The spot urine melamine/creatinine ratio of the 502 urine aliquots ranged from undetectable to 1467 μg/mmol (median 0.8 μg/mmol). Of these, 213 subjects had undetectable level (42%). We invited 47 (9%) subjects with high urine melamine level for re-evaluation and one subject declined. The median duration of follow-up was 23.5 months (interquartile range: 19.8 - 30.6 months). None of the 46 subjects (28% boys, mean age 13.9 ± 2.9 years) had any abnormality detected on ultrasound study of the urinary system. All subjects had stable renal function with a median urine albumin-creatinine ratio of 0.70 mg/mmol (interquartile range: 0.00 - 2.55 mg/mmol). Conclusions Hong Kong Chinese school children with high urine melamine levels appeared to have benign clinical course in the short term although a long term follow-up study is advisable in those with persistently high urine melamine level. PMID:21599964

  7. Postoperative Complications in the Ahmed Baerveldt Comparison Study during Five Years of Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Budenz, Donald L.; Feuer, William J.; Barton, Keith; Schiffman, Joyce; Costa, Vital P.; Godfrey, David G.; Buys, Yvonne M.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To compare the late complications in the Ahmed Baerveldt Comparison Study during 5 years of follow-up. DESIGN Multicenter, prospective, randomized clinical trial. METHODS SETTINGS Sixteen international clinical centers. STUDY POPULATION Two hundred seventy six subjects aged 18 to 85 years with previous intraocular surgery or refractory glaucoma with intraocular pressure of > 18 mmHg. INTERVENTIONS Ahmed Glaucoma Valve FP7 or Baerveldt Glaucoma Implant BG 101-350. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Late postoperative complications (beyond 3 months), reoperations for complications, and decreased vision from complications. RESULTS Late complications developed in 56 subjects (46.8 ± 4.8 5 year cumulative % ± SE) in the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve group and 67 (56.3 ± 4.7 5 year cumulative % ± SE) in the Baerveldt Glaucoma Implant group (P = 0.082). The cumulative rates of serious complications were 15.9% and 24.7% in the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve and Baerveldt Glaucoma Implant groups respectively (P = 0.034) although this was largely driven by subjects who had tube occlusions in the two groups (0.8% in the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve group and 5.7% in the Baerveldt Glaucoma Implant group, P = 0.037). Both groups had a relatively high incidence of persistent diplopia (12%) and corneal edema (20%), although half of the corneal edema cases were likely due to pre-existing causes other than the aqueous shunt. The incidence of tube erosion was 1% and 3% in the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve and Baerveldt Glaucoma Implant groups, respectively (P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS Long term rates of vision threatening complications and complications resulting in reoperation were higher in the Baerveldt Glaucoma Implant than the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve group over 5 years of follow-up. PMID:26596400

  8. Independent and joint effect of type 2 diabetes and gastric and hepatobiliary diseases on risk of pancreatic cancer risk: 10-year follow-up of population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Lin, C-C; Chiang, J-H; Li, C-I; Hsieh, T-F; Liu, C-S; Lin, W-Y; Lee, Y-D; Li, T-C

    2014-11-25

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus, gastric and hepatobiliary comorbidities, and cancer share common risk factors: for example, tobacco, obesity, physical inactivity, high calorie intake, and metabolic disorders. Prior studies find type 2 diabetes and gastric and hepatobiliary comorbidities heightening risk of pancreatic cancer. Yet joint association of type 2 diabetes mellitus and gastric and hepatobiliary comorbidities on pancreatic cancer risk has not been assessed. This study rates independent/joint effects of type 2 diabetes as well as gastric and hepatobiliary comorbidity on pancreatic cancer risk for a retrospective population-based cohort of 166,850 type 2 diabetics identified in 1997-1998 and followed for 10-11 years, comparing their cancer incidence with that of 166,850 non-diabetics matched for age, gender, and locale. Time-dependent Cox's proportional hazards model evaluted joint association of type 2 diabetes and chronic conditions on pancreatic cancer risk. A total of 1178 subjects were newly diagnosed with pancreatic cancer during follow-up, with incidence rates of 0.49 per 1000 person-years in type 2 diabetes and 0.26 per 1000 person-years in the non-diabetics. We observed greater magnitude of hazard ratios (HRs) of pancreatic cancer for patients with type 2 diabetes along with acute alcoholic hepatitis, acute pancreatitis, cholecystitis, and gastric ulcer compared with patients without type 2 diabetes or counterpart comorbidity (HR: 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19-1.56; 1.74, 1.23-2.45; 9.18, 7.44-11.33; and 2.31, 1.98-2.70, respectively). Main effects of type 2 diabetes were all statistically with narrow 95% CI and remained similar across risk stratification with various comorbidities: range 1.59-1.80. Our study demonstrates that pre-existing type 2 diabetes, acute alcoholic hepatitis, acute pancreatitis, cholecystitis, and gastric ulcer independently or jointly predict subsequent pancreatic cancer risk. Clinicians must recognise burden of these

  9. Obesity, ethnicity, and quality of life among breast cancer survivors and women without breast cancer: the long-term quality of life follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Connor, Avonne E; Baumgartner, Richard N; Pinkston, Christina M; Boone, Stephanie D; Baumgartner, Kathy B

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between obesity and quality of life (QOL) among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white breast cancer survivors and population-based controls from the 'Long-Term Quality of Life Study'--a 12- to 15-year follow-up study of breast cancer cases/survivors and controls from New Mexico (n = 451). Using multiple linear regressions, obesity measures [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2)] at baseline and follow-up interview were modeled with composite scores for physical and mental health from the SF-36 Quality of Life Survey. Interaction between ethnicity and BMI and change in BMI were evaluated. All models were adjusted for age, ethnicity, Charlson Index, depression, fatigue, and physical activity. Baseline obesity (β = -6.58, p = 0.04) was significantly associated with decreased mental health among survivors, but not among controls. Obesity at baseline and follow-up were significantly associated with decreased physical health among survivors (baseline β = -10.51, p = 0.004; follow-up β = -7.16, p = 0.02) and controls (baseline β = -11.07, p < 0.001; follow-up β = -5.18, p = 0.04). No significant interactions between ethnicity and BMI were observed. Our findings provide unique information about a diverse population of breast cancer survivors and controls and the impact of obesity on the mental and physical aspects of QOL.

  10. The posterior iris-claw lens outcome study: 6-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Jare, Nana Madhukar; Kesari, Ashwini Ganesh; Gadkari, Salil S; Deshpande, Madan D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate functional and anatomical outcomes of posterior iris-claw intraocular lens (IOL) implant for correction of aphakia in eyes with inadequate capsular support. Materials and Methods: Prospective case series of 108 aphakic eyes with inadequate capsular support which underwent posterior iris-claw IOL with a 6-month follow-up period was conducted. The cases belonged to two clinical settings: elective secondary implantation and those with intraoperative posterior dislocation of cataractous lens or IOL. Main outcome measures were visual acuity, anterior chamber reaction, stability of IOL, endothelial cell count, intraocular pressure (IOP), and cystoid macular edema (CME). Results: The mean best-corrected visual acuity was LogMAR 0.25. None had chronic anterior chamber inflammation. The mean difference in central endothelial counts before surgery and 1 month after surgery was 104.21 cell/mm2 (4.92%). There was no statistically significant difference in central endothelial cell count at 1 and 6 months (P = 0.91) and also in the central macular thickness at preoperative and after 6 months suggestive of CME (P = 0.078). Three eyes had raised IOP which were managed with neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser peripheral iridotomy. There were no IOL dislocations or other adverse events in our series. Conclusion: Posterior chamber iris-claw lenses are a good option in eyes with inadequate posterior capsular support. Chronic inflammation, poor lens stability, or significant central endothelial cell loss was not observed during the 6-month follow-up period. PMID:28112126

  11. Hb level, iron intake and mortality in Chinese adults: a 10-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zumin; Zhen, Shiqi; Zhou, Yonglin; Taylor, Anne W

    2017-02-01

    Anaemia is prevalent in developing countries and is commonly Fe deficiency related. We aimed to assess the association between Fe status, Fe intake and mortality among Chinese adults. We prospectively studied 8291 adults aged 20-98 years with a mean follow-up of 9·9 years. All participants were measured for Hb at baseline in 2002. Food intake, measured by 3-d weighed food record (n 2832), and fasting serum ferritin were measured. We documented 491 deaths (including 192 CVD and 165 cancer deaths) during 81 527 person-years of follow-up. There was a U-shaped association between Hb levels and all-cause mortality. Compared with the second quartile of Hb (121 g/l), the first (105) and fourth quartile (144) had hazard ratios (HR) of 2·29 (95 % CI 1·51, 3·48) and 2·31 (95 % CI 1·46, 3·64) for all-cause mortality in women. In men, compared with third quartile of Hb (143 g/l), first (122) and fourth quartiles (154) had 61 and 65 % increased risk of all-cause mortality. Anaemia was associated with an increased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality in men but not in women after adjusting for potential confounders. Low and high Fe intake as percentage of Chinese recommended nutrient intake (RNI) were positively associated with all-cause mortality in women but not in men. In women, across quartiles of relative Fe intake, HR for all-cause mortality were 2·55 (95 % CI 0·99, 6·57), 1·00, 3·12 (95 % CI 1·35, 7·18) and 2·78 (95 % CI 1·02, 7·58). Both low and high Hb levels are related to increased risk of all-cause mortality. Both low and high intake of Fe as percentage of RNI was positively associated with mortality in women.

  12. MR Imaging of nonalcoholic Wernicke encephalopathy: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chunjiu; Jin, Lirong; Fei, Guoqiang

    2005-10-01

    We investigated the correlation of MR imaging features with the pathological evolution and prognosis of nonalcoholic Wernicke encephalopathy. A retrospective review and analysis was conducted of 6 cases of nonalcoholic Wernicke encephalopathy, consisting of MR imaging features, clinical characteristics, and outcomes after thiamine administration. One patient died, 1 patient entered a persistent vegetative state, and the others recovered fully from Wernicke encephalopathy within 2 weeks to 1 year after thiamine administration. Typical MR imaging showed areas of increased T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signals symmetrically surrounding the aqueduct and the third ventricle, at the floor of fourth ventricle, in the medial thalami, and in the capita of caudate nuclei. Two patients presenting without coma showed increased T2-weighted and FLAIR signals of the periaqueductal area only. All 4 patients presenting with coma showed increased T2-weighted and FLAIR signals symmetrically in the medial thalami and in the capita of caudate nuclei. Of the 4 patients with coma, 2 patients with deep coma showed increased T2-weighted and FLAIR signals in the medial thalami and caudate nuclei as well as in the frontal and parietal cortices. According to the follow-up results, increased T2-weighted and FLAIR signals in the 4 patients without cortical damage decreased in intensity, consistent with clinical recovery within 2 weeks to 1 year. The patient in a persistent vegetative state exhibited progressive atrophy of the whole brain during the 2 years of the follow-up study. MR imaging is helpful not only to diagnose acute nonalcoholic Wernicke encephalopathy but also to evaluate the pathologic evolution and prognosis of the disorder.

  13. Pune low birth weight study--a six year follow up.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, S; Bhalerao, M R; Chitale, A; Pandit, A N; Nene, U

    1999-07-01

    To evaluate the intelligence, visuo-motor perception, emotional problems and preschool skills in low birth weight (LBW) infants and the impact of social and environmental factors on their development. A prospective cohort study. Infants discharged from a Neonatal Special Care Unit of a referral hospital with birth weight less than 2000 g followed up in the High Risk Clinic. Low birth weight infants were assessed by Stanford Binet Scales of intelligence, Bender Gestalt Test for visuo-motor perception, Human Figure Drawing for emotional indicators and occupational therapy assessment. A detailed evaluation of their environment and socio-economic status was done. Hearing and ophthalmic assessment was also done and the school progress report was scrutinized. Two hundred and one LBW and seventy one control children were assessed. The mean IQ of LBW children was within normal limits (94.3), though significantly lower than controls (101.3). Preterm SGA children had the lowest mean IQ. Visuo-motor perception and preschool skills and language development was poorer in LBW children. There was no difference in the emotional indicators. Thirteen per cent of LBW children had borderline IQ, as compared to 5.6% in controls (p<0.05). Mother's education and spaciousness of the house had a positive impact and chronic medical problems had a negative impact on the IQ. The mean IQ of LBW children was within normal limits. The incidence of children with borderline intelligence (IQ 70-85) was significantly higher than controls. Mother's education had a positive impact on the intelligence of the children. A longer follow up is necessary to identify "slow learners".

  14. Subjective quality of life in first-episode psychosis. A ten year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Gardsjord, Erlend Strand; Romm, Kristin Lie; Friis, Svein; Barder, Helene Eidsmo; Evensen, Julie; Haahr, Ulrik; ten Velden Hegelstad, Wenche; Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Langeveld, Johannes; Larsen, Tor Ketil; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Simonsen, Erik; Vaglum, Per; McGlashan, Thomas; Melle, Ingrid; Røssberg, Jan Ivar

    2016-04-01

    Subjective quality of life (S-QoL) is an important outcome measure in first episode psychosis (FEP). The aims of this study were to describe S-QoL-development the first 10-years in FEP patients and to identify predictors of this development. A representative sample of 272 patients with a first episode psychotic disorder was included from 1997 through 2000. At 10 year follow-up 186 patients participated. QoL was measured by the Lehman's Quality of Life Interview. Linear mixed model analyses were performed to investigate longitudinal effects of baseline psychiatric symptoms and socio-economic variables and the effects of changes in the same variables on S-QoL-development. S-QoL improved significantly over the follow-up period. More contact with family and a better financial situation at baseline had a positive and longstanding effect on S-QoL-development, but changes in these variables were not associated with S-QoL-development. Higher depressive symptoms and less daily activities at baseline both had a negative independent effect, but a positive interaction effect with time on S-QoL-development indicating that the independent negative effect diminished over time. In the change analysis, increased daily activities and a decrease in depressive symptoms were associated with a positive S-QoL-development. Treatment of depressive symptoms and measures aimed at increasing daily activities seem important to improve S-QoL in patients with psychosis. More contact with family and a better financial situation at baseline have a long-standing effect on S-QoL-development in FEP patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Apathy in first episode psychosis patients: a ten year longitudinal follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Evensen, Julie; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Barder, Helene; Haahr, Ulrik; Hegelstad, Wenche ten Velden; Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Larsen, T K; Melle, Ingrid; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Simonsen, Erik; Sundet, Kjetil; Vaglum, Per; Friis, Svein; McGlashan, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    Apathy is a common symptom in first episode psychosis (FEP), and is associated with poor functioning. Prevalence and correlates of apathy 10 years after the first psychotic episode remain unexplored. The aims of the study were twofold: 1) to examine prevalence and predictors of apathy at 10 years, and 2) to examine the relationship between apathy at 10 years and concurrent symptoms, functioning and outcome, including subjective quality of life. Three-hundred-and-one patients with FEP were included at baseline, 186 participated in the 10 year follow-up. Of these, 178 patients completed the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES-S-Apathy). Patients were classified as having apathy (AES-S-Apathy≥27) or not. The relationship between apathy and baseline variables (Demographics, Diagnosis, Duration of Untreated Psychosis), measures of symptomatology (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia), functioning (Global Assessment of Functioning Scale, Strauss Carpenter Level of Functioning Scale) and subjective quality of life (Lehman's Quality of Life Interview) were estimated through correlation analyses and blockwise multiple hierarchical regression analysis. Nearly 30% of patients met the threshold for being apathetic at follow-up. No baseline variables predicted apathy significantly at 10 years. Apathy was found to contribute independently to functioning and subjective quality of life, even when controlling for other significant correlates. Apathy is a common symptom in a FEP cohort 10 years after illness debut, and its presence relates to impaired functioning and poorer subjective quality of life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Pyridoxine-dependent convulsions among children with refractory seizures: A 3-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Issac, Thomas Gregor; Deepak, Sai; Teja, Ravi; Kuruthukulangara, Seby

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Epilepsy accounts for 1% of the global disease burden and about 8–10 million epilepsy patients live in India. About 30–40% of these patients become drug-resistant and land up with palliative or disease-modifying surgeries. This is a situation causing great concern in view of the psychosocial and economic burden on the patient and the family apart from severe cognitive and motor consequences, especially in children. Therefore, it is mandatory to have an insight into the wide spectrum of causes with reference to refractoriness to antiepileptic medications in children with epilepsy. Patients and Methods: Children admitted under our team with refractory epilepsy as per the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) criteria in the last 3 years were included in the study. Results: Refractory epilepsy constituted 13.3% of inpatients in the pediatric group. Males dominated with 68.9% of these patients. Nearly 34.4% of these patients were found to suffer from various neurometabolic diseases. Almost 3.5% were due to pyridoxine-dependent convulsions. This group of patients showed an excellent response to dietary manipulation, disease-modifying treatment for the metabolic disorder, and supportive small-dose anticonvulsants. During follow-up, they showed very good response with reference to global development and seizure control. Conclusion: Pyridoxine-dependent convulsions are relatively rare forming about 3.5% of refractory epilepsies in this series. With initiation of appropriate therapy, results with reference to seizure control as well as neurodevelopment became evident within 2 weeks, and at 1-year follow-up, complete independence for majority of the needed activities is achieved with minimum cost, almost zero side effects, and absolute elimination of the need for palliative surgery. PMID:27857784

  17. Recurrence of Helicobacter pylori infection and the affecting factors: A follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li Ya; Song, Zhi Qiang; Xue, Yan; Li, Xiao; Li, Yan Qing; Qian, Jia Ming

    2017-01-01

    Recurrence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection weakens the protective effect and long-term prognosis of eradication. With the widespread therapies, decreasing prevalence of H. pylori infection and improvement in living conditions, the recurrence of H. pylori infection may present with new features. We conducted this prospective, large-scale, multicenter follow-up study to determine the recurrence rate of H. pylori infection and its affecting factors. A total of 827 patients receiving successful H. pylori eradication in our previous randomized controlled trial were enrolled. (13) C-urea breath test (UBT) was repeated one year after the eradication therapy to determine its recurrence. Moreover, a questionnaire survey was performed to explore the potential factors affecting the recurrence. A total of 743 patients completed (13) C-UBT (follow-up rate 89.8%), and the result was positive in 13 patients one year after eradication therapy, with an annual recurrence rate of 1.75% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81-2.69%). Six hundred and ninety-two patients (13 with recurrence and 679 without recurrence) returned their questionnaires, with a response rate of >80%. Multivariate analysis revealed that peptic ulcer (odds ratio [OR] 3.385, 95% CI 1.016-11.274), close contact with individuals having H. pylori infection (OR 4.231, 95% CI 1.201-14.911), and hospitalization (OR 9.302, 95% CI 2.441-35.440) were independent risk factors of H. pylori infection recurrence. The recurrence of H. pylori infection one year after eradication therapy is low in urban population of China. Peptic ulcer, contact history with individuals having H. pylori infection and hospitalization are risk factors. © 2016 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Risk factors for miscarriage from a prevention perspective: a nationwide follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Feodor Nilsson, S; Andersen, P K; Strandberg-Larsen, K; Nybo Andersen, A-M

    2014-10-01

    To identify modifiable risk factors for miscarriage and to estimate the preventable proportion of miscarriages that could be attributed to these. Nationwide observational follow-up study. Denmark. Ninety-one thousand four hundred and twenty seven pregnancies included in the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2002. Information on potentially modifiable risk factors before and during pregnancy was collected by means of computer-assisted telephone interviews and linkage with Danish registers, ensuring almost complete follow-up of pregnancy outcome. Modifiable risk factors for miscarriage were identified by multiple Cox regression analysis, which provided the background for our estimations of population attributable fractions. In all, 88,373 pregnancies had full information on all covariates and were included in this analysis. Miscarriage before 22 completed weeks of gestation. The potentially modifiable pre-pregnant risk factors associated with increased miscarriage risk were: age of 30 years or more at conception, underweight, and obesity. During pregnancy the modifiable risk factors were: alcohol consumption, lifting of >20 kg daily, and night work. We estimated that 25.2% of the miscarriages might be prevented by reduction of all these risk factors to low risk levels. Modification of risk factors acting before and during pregnancy could lead to prevention of 14.7 and 12.5%, respectively, of the miscarriages. Maternal age at conception and alcohol consumption were the most important risk factors. Miscarriage risk is increased by multiple potentially modifiable risk factors and a considerable proportion of miscarriages may be preventable. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  19. Ferric sulphate and formocresol in pulpotomy of primary molars: long term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Ibricevic, H; Al-Jame, Q

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of ferric sulphate (FS) to that of the full strength of formocresol (Buckley's formula) (FC) as pulpotomy agents in primary human molar teeth 42-48 months after treatment. This was to assess the succeeding premolar teeth for decalcification, abnormal morphology or any other defect. Seventy children, ranging in age from 3 to 6 years, mean 4.3 years, were treated for pulpotomy of primary molars. Ferric sulphate 15.5% solution (applied for 15 seconds for 84 teeth) and formocresol solution (5 minutes procedure for next the 80 teeth) were used as pulpotomy agents. In both groups, pulp stumps were covered with zinc oxide eugenol paste. Permanent restorations were, in most cases, stainless steel crowns and in some of them amalgams. Follow-up clinical assessments were every 3 months and the radiographic follow-up time was 6, 20 and 42-48 months after treatment. The differences were statistically analyzed using the Chi square test. These revealed 96.4% clinical success rate in the FS and 97.5% in the FC groups. Radiographic success rate in the FS group was 92.0%, while 94.6% in the FC group. No statistical significant differences were found between the radiographic assessment of the two pulpotomy agents. Ferric sulphate showed similar clinical and radiographic success rate as a pulpotomy agent for primary molar teeth after long term evaluation period, compared with formocresol. Ferric sulphate, because of its lower toxicity, may become a replacement for formocresol in primary molar teeth.

  20. Cancer-related follow-up care among Hispanic and non-Hispanic childhood cancer survivors: The Project Forward study.

    PubMed

    Milam, Joel E; Meeske, Kathleen; Slaughter, Rhona I; Sherman-Bien, Sandra; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Kuperberg, Aura; Freyer, David R; Hamilton, Ann S

    2015-02-15

    Follow-up care is critical for childhood cancer survivors (CCS), who are at high risk for comorbidities and late effects of cancer treatments. Understanding the factors associated with maintaining follow-up care is needed, especially for Hispanic CCS, who have been under-represented in previous studies. Risk factors and protective factors for receiving cancer-related follow-up care were examined among 193 Los Angeles County CCS diagnosed between 2000 and 2007 (54% Hispanic; mean ± standard deviation age, 19.9 ± 2.8 years; age at diagnosis, 12.1 ± 3.0 years; time since diagnosis, 7.8 ± 2.0 years). Self-report surveys were used to assess follow-up care, insurance status, demographics, clinical factors, and psychosocial risk (eg, depression) and protective (eg, self-efficacy [SE]) factors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with the previous receipt of cancer-related follow-up care (in prior 2 years) and the intent to seek future cancer-related follow-up care. Seventy-three percent of CCS reported a cancer follow-up visit in the previous 2 years, which was positively associated (P < .05) with having health insurance, white ethnicity (vs Hispanic), younger age, and greater treatment intensity. Sixty-nine percent reported an intent to receive follow-up care in the next 2 years, which was positively associated (P < .05) with having health insurance and greater SE. Hispanics and older CCS were more likely to lack previous follow-up care. Because health insurance was strongly associated with both previous follow-up care and the intent to seek care, the current results indicate that recent changes in health coverage may improve follow-up among CCS. Interventions targeting improved SE may help increase intent to receive follow-up care for this population. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  1. What Affects Reintegration of Female Drug Users after Prison Release? Results of a European Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurhold, Heike; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Sanclemente, Cristina; Schmied, Gabriele; Shewan, David; Verthein, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this follow-up study is to explore factors influencing the success or failure of women in reintegrating after their release from prison. Female drug users in five European cities were tracked after being released from prison. Out of 234 female prisoners contacted in prisons, 59 were included in the follow-up study. Structured…

  2. What Affects Reintegration of Female Drug Users after Prison Release? Results of a European Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurhold, Heike; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Sanclemente, Cristina; Schmied, Gabriele; Shewan, David; Verthein, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this follow-up study is to explore factors influencing the success or failure of women in reintegrating after their release from prison. Female drug users in five European cities were tracked after being released from prison. Out of 234 female prisoners contacted in prisons, 59 were included in the follow-up study. Structured…

  3. 75 FR 54965 - Proposed Information Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era... problems of Gulf War Veterans. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the proposed collection of...: Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era Veterans, VA Form 10-0488, and Consent...

  4. 75 FR 54445 - Proposed Information Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era... problems of Gulf War Veterans. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the proposed collection of...: Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era Veterans, VA Form 10-0488, and Consent...

  5. Leisure-time physical activity and disability pension: 9 years follow-up of the HUNT Study, Norway.

    PubMed

    Fimland, M S; Vie, G; Johnsen, R; Nilsen, T I L; Krokstad, S; Bjørngaard, J H

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to prospectively examine the association between leisure-time physical activity and risk of disability pension, as well as risk of disability pension because of musculoskeletal or mental disorders in a large population-based cohort. Data on participants aged 20-65 years in the Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 1995-1997 (HUNT2) were linked to the National Insurance Database. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for disability pension across physical activity categories. During a follow-up of 9.3 years and 235,657 person-years, 1266 of 13,823 men (9%) and 1734 of 14,531 women (12%) received disability pension. Compared with individuals in the inactive group, those in the highly active group had a 50% lower risk of receiving disability pension (HR for men: 0.50, 0.40-0.64; women: 0.50, 0.39-0.63). After comprehensive adjustment for potential confounders, the risk remained 32-35% lower (HR for men: 0.68, 0.53-0.86; women: 0.65, 0.51-0.83). The associations were stronger for disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorders than mental disorders. In summary, we observed strong inverse associations between leisure-time physical activity and disability pension. Our findings strengthen the hypothesis that leisure-time physical activity may be important for occupational health in reducing disability pension.

  6. Periodontal health status in the elderly with different levels of education: a 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Siukosaari, Päivi; Ajwani, Shilpi; Ainamo, Anja; Wolf, Juhani; Närhi, Timo

    2012-06-01

    To assess the association between the periodontal health status and level of education over a 5-year period among the elderly aged 75 years and older. Oral health among the higher educated is known to be better than among the less-well educated. On the other hand, the prevalence and severity of periodontal disease has been found to grow with increasing age. The participants were derived from a population-based Helsinki Aging Study, a random sample of 76-, 81- and 86-year-old elderly. The 170 dentate elderly who underwent clinical oral examinations at baseline and 71 who participated in the follow-up were included in this study. The data was collected from intraoral and radiological examinations and from a structured questionnaire. Subjects with a higher level of education had more retained teeth than subjects with a lower level of education. According to CPITN index, better-educated participants had more healthy sextants, but they also had more sextants with periodontal pockets. Radiographic examination showed similar results. Level of education has a clear effect on the periodontal health status in the elderly. More treatment need seems to polarise into those elderly who are better educated as they retain more teeth into old age. © 2011 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Regular aquatic exercise for chronic kidney disease patients: a 10-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Pechter, Ülle; Raag, Mait; Ots-Rosenberg, Mai

    2014-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients not yet in dialysis can benefit from increased physical activity; however, the safety and outcomes of aquatic exercise have not been investigated in observational studies. The aim of this study was to analyze association of 10 years of regularly performed aquatic exercise with the study endpoint--that is, all-cause death or start of dialysis. Consecutive CKD patients were included in the study in January 2002. The exercise group (n=7) exercised regularly under the supervision of physiotherapist for 10 years; the control group (n=9), matched in terms of age and clinical parameters, remained sedentary. Low-intensity aerobic aquatic exercise was performed regularly twice a week; 32 weeks or more of exercise therapy sessions were conducted annually. None of the members of the aquatic exercise group reached dialysis or died in 10 years. In the sedentary control group, 55% reached the study endpoint--renal replacement therapy (n=2) or all-cause death (n=3). Occurrence of the study endpoint, compared using the exact multinomial test with unconditional margins, was statistically significantly different (P-value: 0.037) between the study groups. Regular supervised aquatic exercise arrested CKD progression. There was a statistically significant difference between the sedentary group and the exercise group in reaching renal replacement therapy or all-cause death in a follow-up time of 10 years.

  8. Popularity of less frequent follow up for breast cancer in randomised study: initial findings from the hotline study.

    PubMed Central

    Gulliford, T.; Opomu, M.; Wilson, E.; Hanham, I.; Epstein, R.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the experiences of patients with breast cancer who were conventionally monitored with those in whom routine follow up was restricted to the time of mammography. DESIGN: Randomisation to conventional schedule of clinic visits or to visits only after mammography. Both cohorts received identical mammography and were invited to telephone for immediate appointments if they detected symptoms. SETTING: Combined breast clinic, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital. SUBJECTS: 211 eligible outpatients with a history of breast cancer. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Acceptability of randomisation, interim use of telephone and general practitioner, satisfaction with allocation to follow up. RESULTS: Of 211 eligible patients, 196 (93%) opted for randomisation in the study. Of these, 55 were under 50 years, 78 were diagnosed fewer than five years before, 90 had stage T2-4 tumours, and 71 had involved axillary nodes. Patients who did not participate were more likely to be under 50 years, to be two to five years after diagnosis, and to have had aggressive primary disease. Twice as many patients in both groups expressed a preference for reducing rather than increasing follow up. No increased use of local practitioner services or telephone triage was apparent in the cohort randomised to less frequent follow up by specialists. CONCLUSIONS: Reducing the frequency of routine follow up has so far proved popular among patients with breast cancer at standard risk in this cohort. A multicentre study is needed to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of routine follow up with respect to disease outcomes. PMID:9022429

  9. Reducing pharmacy wait time to promote customer service: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Slowiak, Julie M; Huitema, Bradley E

    2015-01-01

    The present study had 3 objectives: (1) to evaluate the effects of 2 different interventions (feedback regarding customer satisfaction with wait time and combined feedback and goal setting) on wait time in a hospital outpatient pharmacy; (2) to assess the extent to which the previously applied interventions maintained their effects; and (3) to evaluate the differences between the effects of the original study and those of the present follow-up study. Participants were 10 employees (4 pharmacists and 6 technicians) of an outpatient pharmacy. Wait times and customer satisfaction ratings were collected for "waiting customers." An ABCB within-subjects design was used to assess the effects of the interventions on both wait time and customer satisfaction, where A was the baseline (no feedback and no goal setting); B was the customer satisfaction feedback; and C was the customer satisfaction feedback, the wait time feedback, and the goal setting for wait time reduction. Wait time decreased after baseline when the combined intervention was introduced, and wait time increased with the reintroduction of satisfaction feedback (alone). The results of the replication study confirm the pattern of the results of the original study and demonstrate high sensitivity of levels of customer satisfaction with wait time. The most impressive result of the replication is the nearly 2-year maintenance of lower wait time between the end of the original study and the beginning (baseline) of the replication.

  10. Curve progression in idiopathic scoliosis: follow-up study to skeletal maturity.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ken-Jin; Moe, Maung Maung; Vaithinathan, Rose; Wong, Hee-Kit

    2009-04-01

    This is a follow-up study to skeletal maturity on a cohort of students screened for a 1-year prospective epidemiological prevalence study for scoliosis. This study aims to identify the prognostic factors for curve progression to a magnitude of 30 degrees at skeletal maturity in skeletally immature patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The natural history of idiopathic scoliosis is not well understood. Previous reports have focused on the characteristics of curve progression where progression has been predefined at specific angles of 5 degrees to 6 degrees. However, the absolute curve magnitude at skeletal maturity is more predictive of long-term curve behavior rather than curve progression of a defined magnitude over shorter periods of skeletal growth. It is generally agreed that curves less than 30 degrees are highly unlikely to progress after skeletal maturity. Hence, defining the factors that influence curve progression to an absolute magnitude of more than 30 degrees at skeletal maturity would more significantly aid clinical practice. One hundred eighty-six patients who fulfilled the study criteria were selected from an initial 279 patients with idiopathic scoliosis detected by school screening, and who were followed-up till skeletal maturity. The initial age, gender, pubertal status, and initial curve magnitude were used as risk factors to predict the probability of curve progression to more than 30 degrees at skeletal maturity. Curve magnitude at first presentation was the most important predictive factor for curve progression to a magnitude of more than 30 degrees at skeletal maturity. An initial Cobb angle of 25 degrees had the best receiver-operating characteristic of 0.80 with a positive predictive value of 68.4% and a negative predictive value of 91.9% for curve progression to 30 degrees or more at skeletal maturity. Initial Cobb angle magnitude is the most important predictor of long-term curve progression and behavior past skeletal maturity

  11. Asperger Syndrome and Autism: A Comparative Longitudinal Follow-Up Study More than 5 Years after Original Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cederlund, Mats; Hagberg, Bibbi; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, I. Carina; Gillberg, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Prospective follow-up study of 70 males with Asperger syndrome (AS), and 70 males with autism more than 5 years after original diagnosis. Instruments used at follow-up included overall clinical assessment, the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders, Wechsler Intelligence Scales, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, and Global…

  12. Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002) Third Follow-up Data File Documentation. NCES 2014-364

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven J.; Pratt, Daniel J.; Alexander, Christopher P.; Jewell, Donna M.; Lauff, Erich; Mattox, Tiffany L.; Wilson, David

    2014-01-01

    This report provides guidance and documentation for users of the combined base-year to third follow-up data of the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002). ELS:2002 is sponsored by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) of the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. The base-year and follow-up studies…

  13. Asperger Syndrome and Autism: A Comparative Longitudinal Follow-Up Study More than 5 Years after Original Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cederlund, Mats; Hagberg, Bibbi; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, I. Carina; Gillberg, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Prospective follow-up study of 70 males with Asperger syndrome (AS), and 70 males with autism more than 5 years after original diagnosis. Instruments used at follow-up included overall clinical assessment, the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders, Wechsler Intelligence Scales, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, and Global…

  14. Removable dental prostheses and cardiovascular survival: a 15-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Janket, S J; Surakka, M; Jones, J A; Lam, A; Schnell, R A; Rose, L M; Walls, A W G; Meurman, J H

    2013-08-01

    In previous studies, increasing number of teeth predicted better survival and the acute needs for dental treatment predicted mortality. We sought to investigate whether restored dentitions by various removable dental prostheses impact cardiovascular (CVD) longevity. Kuopio Oral Health and Heart study was initiated as a cross-sectional investigation with 256 subjects with diagnosed coronary artery disease [CAD] and 250 age- and sex-matched controls without CAD in 1995-1996. The mean age of both groups was 61, 30% were females. We appended mortality follow-up records to the baseline data and formulated this 15-year follow-up study. We examined the relationship between various types of dental prostheses and cardiovascular mortality by proportional hazard regression analyses. We also explored their correlation to oral and systemic inflammatory markers such as asymptotic dental score and C-reactive protein. In a model adjusted for age, sex and smoking, groups having only natural teeth (NT), removable partial denture(s) [PD] and NT, a PD and a full denture [FD], and FD/FD or FD/NT demonstrated the following hazard ratios for mortality (95% confidence interval). NT both arches: 1.00 [reference]; PD and NT: 0.75 [0.22-2.56]; PD and FD: 1.99 [1.05-3.81]; and FD opposed by FD or NT: 1.71 [0.93-3.13], respectively [p for trend=0.05]. Although statistically not significant, those with PD and NT with mean a number of teeth [Nteeth] of 15.4 had better survival compared with those who had all NT [Nteeth=22.5]; while those who had FD and PD [Nteeth=6.5] had shorter longevity than those with FD/FD or FD/NT [Nteeth=3.5]. Although not all subgroups of dental prostheses reached significant relationship with CVD mortality, our study suggests that not only the number [quantity] of remaining teeth but their maintenance [quality] removing potential inflammatory foci, such as pericoronitis or retained root tips, may positively impact on cardiovascular survival. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  15. Cancer Related Follow-up Care among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Childhood Cancer Survivors: The Project Forward Study

    PubMed Central

    Milam, Joel; Meeske, Kathleen; Slaughter, Rhona; Sherman-Bien, Sandra; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Kuperberg, Aura; Freyer, David R.; Hamilton, Ann S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Follow-up care is critical for childhood cancer survivors (CCS) who are at high risk for co-morbidities and late effects of cancer treatments. Understanding factors associated with maintaining follow-up care is needed, especially for Hispanic CCS who are underrepresented in previous studies. Methods Risk and protective factors for receiving cancer-related follow-up care were examined among 193 Los Angeles County CCS diagnosed between 2000–2007 (54% Hispanic; mean age=19.9, SD=2.8; mean age at diagnosis=12.1, SD=3.0; mean years since diagnosis=7.8, SD=2.0). Self-report surveys assessed follow-up care, insurance status, demographics, clinical factors, and psychosocial risk (e.g., depression) and protective [e.g., self-efficacy (SE)] factors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with previous (in prior 2 years) and intent for future cancer-related follow-up care. Results Seventy-three percent of CCS reported a cancer follow-up visit in the prior 2 years, which was positively associated (p’s<.05) with having health insurance, White ethnicity (vs. Hispanic), younger age and greater treatment intensity. Sixty-nine percent reported intent for follow-up care in the next two years, which was positively associated (p’s<.05) with having health insurance and greater SE. Conclusions Hispanics and older CCS are more likely to lack previous follow-up care. Because health insurance was strongly associated with both previous follow-up care and intent to seek care, recent changes in health coverage may improve follow-up among CCS. Interventions targeting improved SE may help increase intent to receive follow-up care for this population. PMID:25345867

  16. What Does Depression Mean for Korean American Elderly?: A Qualitative Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee-Kwan, Seung Hee; Han, Haera; Lee, Hochang B.; Gallo, Joseph J.; Joo, Jin Hui

    2016-01-01

    Objective Korean American Elderly (KAE) have high rates of depression but underuse mental health services. The purpose of this study was to assess the meaning of depression and help seeking among KAE residing in the United States who have clinically significant depressive symptoms. Methods As a follow up to the Memory and Aging Study of Koreans (MASK; n=1,118), a descriptive epidemiological study which showed that only one in four of KAE with clinically significant depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9≥10) used mental health services, we conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with participants with clinically significant depressive symptoms regarding the meaning of depression and beliefs about help seeking. Ten participants with clinically significant depressive symptoms were approached and 8 were recruited for semi-structured interviews. Results KAE did not identify themselves as depressed though experiencing clinically significant depressive symptoms. They associated depression with social discrimination, social isolation, and suicide in the extreme circumstance. They attributed depression to not achieving social and material success in America and strained relationships with their children. Participants attempted to self-manage distress without telling others in their social network. However, KAE were willing to consult with mental health professionals if the services were bilingual, affordable, and confidential. Conclusion KAE with clinically significant depressive symptoms are a vulnerable group with need and desire for linguistically and culturally relevant mental health services who are isolated due to a complex array of psychological and social factors. PMID:27757135

  17. A follow up study of patients with paraneoplastic neurological disease in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Candler, P; Hart, P; Barnett, M; Weil, R; Rees, J

    2004-01-01

    associated with a stable or improved neurological outcome at last follow up (Fisher‘s exact test = 4.7, p<0.03). Median survival time was 43 months (95% CI 28 to 57) from onset of neurological disease as calculated using the Kaplan–Meier survival analysis. Conclusions: PND has a striking female preponderance usually affecting patients in their sixth decade and above. The median survival in our study was 43 months. The majority of patients with PND are not known to have cancer at the time of diagnosis. Our study confirms the importance of diagnosing and treating the underlying tumour. PMID:15377687

  18. Relationships in oocyte recipient couples – a Swedish national prospective follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The long-term effect of treatment with donated oocytes on women’s and men’s perception of their relationship has been little studied. Thus the aim of this study was to analyse satisfaction with relationships in couples at the time of acceptance for treatment and 2–5 years after treatment with donated gametes and to compare them with IVF couples treated with their own gametes. Method A prospective follow-up study in which data were collected twice on two groups; cohabitating couples receiving oocyte donation and cohabitating IVF couples using their own gametes. A standardised instrument, the ENRICH inventory, was used to gain information about the couples’ subjective experience of their relationships. Results At acceptance for treatment the couples in the two groups assessed their relationships as being very solid on all dimensions and that the women receiving treatment with oocyte showed a higher satisfaction compared to women treated with own gametes. For couples that did have a child, the group of women who had been through the oocyte donating program reported a better quality of their relationship than women in the control group. There were no significant differences in perceived relationship quality between men in the different groups, whether they had a child or not. Conclusions From a long-term perspective couples using oocyte donation treatment have a balanced and solid view of their relationship and treatment, having children or not after treatment did not affect the nature of the relationships. PMID:24885541

  19. Radioactive iodine therapy and breast cancer. A follow-up study of hyperthyroid women

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, M.B.; Maloof, F.; Monson, R.R.; Aschengrau, A.; Cooper, D.S.; Ridgway, E.C.

    1988-05-01

    A follow-up study of 1762 hyperthyroid women who were treated at the Massachusetts General Hospital Thyroid Unit between 1946 and 1964 was conducted. The average length of follow-up was 17.2 years. A 1978 mailing address or a death certificate was located for 92% of the women, and 88% of 1058 living patients responded to a mail questionnaire. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for all causes of death was 1.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-1.4). The standardized mortality ratios for all malignant neoplasms and for breast cancer were 0.9 (95% CI 0.7-1.1) and 1.3 (95% CI 0.8-1.9), respectively. More deaths than expected were observed from endocrine and metabolic diseases (SMR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.7), circulatory system diseases (SMR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.3-1.6), and respiratory system diseases (SMR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.3-2.6). The standardized incidence ratios (SIR) for all malignant neoplasms and for breast cancer were 0.9 (95% CI 0.8-1.1) and 1.2 (95% CI 0.9-1.5), respectively. A nonsignificant excess breast cancer risk was observed 10 years after the onset of thyroid symptoms and was present at the end of 30 years of observation. A statistically significant excess number of pancreatic cancer cases (SIR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.0-3.7) and a nonsignificant excess of brain cancer cases (SIR = 2.3, 95% CI 0.7-5.3) were observed. Eighty per cent of the women were treated with radioactive iodine. When age at treatment and year of treatment were controlled, women who were ever treated with radioactive iodine had a standardized rate ratio for breast cancer of 1.9 (95% CI 0.9-4.1), compared with those who were never treated with radioactive iodine. Women who developed hypothyroidism as a result of their treatment for hyperthyroidism did not have an increased risk of developing breast cancer (SIR = 1.1, 95% CI 0.8-1.6).

  20. Changes of systemic microinflammation after weight loss and regain - a five-year follow up study.

    PubMed

    Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena; Chudek, Jerzy; Szromek, Adam; Zahorska-Markiewicz, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of body mass changes on plasma concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines in obese women after the initially obtained weight reduction in a five-year follow-up period. Thirty out of 42 women with simple obesity (age 41.8 ± 11.9 years; BMI 36.5 ± 4.6 kg/m2) who achieved a greater than 5% weight loss at the end of a three-month weight loss programme were re-examined after five years. In addition to anthropometric and body composition measurements, plasma concentrations of TNF-alpha, sTNFRs and IL-6 were determined. The mean weight loss after the three-month weight loss programme was 7.9 ± 4.4 kg. After five years, body mass was still lower than initially in 14 women, while in 16 it was higher (the so-called 'yo-yo effect'). A significant decrease of plasma TNF-alpha and IL-6 and increase of sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 levels obtained after weight loss therapy were maintained after five years, including in the subgroup with the yo-yo effect. During the follow-up period, the increase of body fat mass was similar in the subgroup that maintained reduced weight (+4.4 ± 10.7 kg) and in the subgroup with the yo-yo effect (+4.1 ± 7.1 kg), while a significant difference was found in changes of body free fat mass (-7.1 ± 7.1 v. -0.7 ± 4.5 kg, respectively). The yo-yo effect has a modest influence on systemic microinflammation and seems not to abolish the benefit achieved via a weight loss programme. This may suggest that the persistence of changes in lifestyle implemented during the programme such as regular physical activity and diet composition may have a significant impact on the level of systemic microinflammation in the obese. (Endokrynol Pol 2012; 63 (6): 432-438).

  1. Glucocorticoid insensitive asthma: a one year clinical follow up pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Demoly, P.; Jaffuel, D.; Mathieu, M.; Sahla, H.; Godard, P.; Michel, F.; Bousquet, J.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Glucocorticoid resistant or insensitive asthmatic subjects are usually defined as patients whose baseline pre-bronchodilation forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of less than 70-80% predicted improves significantly in response to β2 agonists but by less than 15% following 1-2 weeks of 40 mg prednisolone daily. Since there is little long term clinical information on these patients, a one year prospective study was performed to assess whether glucocorticoid sensitivity may vary over time.
METHODS—Nineteen severe asthmatic subjects were studied and received 40 mg prednisolone daily for seven days. Prednisolone was given for a further seven days in glucocorticoid insensitive asthmatics and then stopped. Patients were followed up for one year and the glucocorticoid test was repeated on five patients in each group six months later.
RESULTS—Eleven patients were classified as glucocorticoid insensitive and eight as glucocorticoid sensitive on day 7. The demographic characteristics of the patients were similar in both groups. Four glucocorticoid insensitive patients became responsive after one further week of prednisolone treatment. Six months later, four of five glucocorticoid sensitive patients and three of five previously glucocorticoid insensitive patients were glucocorticoid sensitive.
CONCLUSIONS—Glucocorticoid sensitivity varies over time.

 PMID:10195080

  2. Course and moderators of emotional eating in anorectic and bulimic patients: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Fioravanti, Giulia; Castellini, Giovanni; Lo Sauro, Carolina; Ianni, Sirio; Montanelli, Luca; Rotella, Francesco; Faravelli, Carlo; Ricca, Valdo

    2014-04-01

    Emotion dysregulation has been found to be associated with specific eating attitudes and behavior in Eating Disorder (ED) patients. The present study evaluated whether emotional eating profile of ED patients changes over time and the possible effects of a psychotherapeutic intervention on the emotional eating dimension. One hundred and two ED patients (28 with Anorexia Nervosa restricting type [AN-R], 35 with Anorexia Nervosa binge/purging subtype [AN-B/P] and 39 with Bulimia Nervosa [BN]) were evaluated at baseline, at the end of a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, at 3 and 6 year follow-up. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Axis I Disorders, the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) and several self-reported questionnaires for eating specific and general psychopathology were applied. A control group of 86 healthy subjects was also studied, in order to compare psychopathological variables at baseline. A significant EES total score reduction was observed among AN-B/P and BN patients, whereas no significant change was found in the AN-R group. Mixed Models analyses showed that a significant effect on EES total score variation was found for cocaine or amphetamine abuse (b = .25; p < .01). Patients who assumed these substances reported no significant EES reduction across time, unlike other patients. The present results suggest that ED patients with a history of cocaine or amphetamine abuse represent a sub-population of patients with lasting dysfunctional mood modulatory mechanisms.

  3. Involvement in bullying and suicidal ideation in middle adolescence: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Hanna-Kaisa; Väänänen, Juha; Helminen, Mika; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2013-02-01

    The objective of the study was to ascertain whether involvement in bullying increases the risk for subsequent suicidal ideation. A total of 2,070 Finnish girls and boys aged 15 were surveyed in the ninth grade (age 15) in schools, and followed up 2 years later in the Adolescent Mental Health Cohort Study. Involvement in bullying was elicited at age 15 by two questions focusing on being a bully and being a victim of bullying. Suicidal ideation was elicited by one item of the short Beck Depression Inventory at age 17. Baseline depressive symptoms and externalizing symptoms, age and sex were controlled for. Statistical analyses were carried out using cross-tabulations with Chi-square/Fisher's exact test and logistic regression. Suicidal ideation at age 17 was 3-4 times more prevalent among those who had been involved in bullying at age 15 than among those not involved. Suicidal ideation at age 17 was most prevalent among former victims of bullying. Being a victim of bullying at age 15 continued to predict subsequent suicidal ideation when depressive and externalizing symptoms were controlled for. Being a bully at age 15 also persisted as borderline significantly predictive of suicidal ideation when baseline symptoms were controlled for. Findings indicate adolescent victims and perpetrators of bullying alike are at long-term risk for suicidal ideation.

  4. Motor complications in Parkinson's disease: ten year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    López, Iria Cabo; Ruiz, Pedro J García; Del Pozo, Silvia Vázquez Fernández; Bernardos, Vicenta Sánchez

    2010-12-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) can be symptomatically controlled with standard treatments; however, after a few years, this response typically declines and most patients develop motor complications. We carried out a prospective practice-based study to evaluate the evolution appearance and evolution of motor complications in 64 de novo PD patients over 5 years and in 38 PD patients over 10 years. We studied untreated patients from initial assessment at basal conditions and evaluated every 6 months thereafter with treatment (levodopa versus other drugs). The follow-up assessments were performed with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). At each assessment, patients were monitored regarding the development of dyskinesias, motor fluctuations, freezing, loss of postural reflexes, and cognitive impairment. We observed a significant improvement in UPDRS scores during the first year, then a progressive decline, more evident after the third year. Motor complications increased after the third year, and at the end of the survey (tenth year); drug-induced dyskinesias and motor fluctuations were experienced (71.1 and 94.7%, respectively). After the first decade, many complications arose from the non-levodopa-responsive features of the disease (cognitive impairment was present in 52.6% and gait freezing in 71.1%). Initial medication may influence medium-term complications but not long-term problems. Most long-term disabling problems of PD were related to non-levodopa-responsive features.

  5. Client experiences in work rehabilitation in Sweden: a one-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Wallstedt-Paulsson, Eva; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin; Eklund, Mona

    2007-01-01

    This study, carried out in a work rehabilitation unit in Sweden, investigated how clients perceived their work experiences after a one-year follow up. A semi-structured interview was administered to 14 former clients and a content analysis was applied. Seven categories were derived from the results: 'Expectations of the rehabilitation process'; 'Social relationships'; 'Client influences on the rehabilitation process'; 'Occupations engaged in during the rehabilitation programme'; 'Perceived outcome'; 'Current occupations'; and 'Future aspirations'. The dominating expectations were to find a job, with an overall desire for change. The social relationships with the staff and other clients were of great importance. The positive outcome of the rehabilitation was described as feeling better or having new skills. The perceived negative outcome was that the rehabilitation programme had not turned out as the client expected. The clients reported varying daily occupations after the rehabilitation experience and a majority were contented and optimistic about their future. The main conclusions of the study are that when planning a work rehabilitation programme, efforts have to be made to examine clients' interests and skills, and to develop a dialogue between clients and staff. Further research is needed to evaluate the work rehabilitation experience from the clients' perspective.

  6. Dietary Acid-Base Balance in Adolescent Sprint Athletes: A Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Aerenhouts, Dirk; Deriemaeker, Peter; Hebbelinck, Marcel; Clarys, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sprinters are advised to include additional protein sources in their diet. Basal metabolism and vigorous physical activities generate hydrogen ions that need to be buffered. The present follow-up study estimates the dietary potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP) in adolescent sprint athletes. Seven-day food diaries and anthropometrics of 60 adolescent sprint athletes (mean age at start 14.7 ± 1.9 years) were collected every six months over a three year period. Comparisons were made between athletes with a negative (PRAL(−)) versus positive PRAL (PRAL(+)). For the entire sample, mean PRAL values of up to 6 mEq/day were slightly positive despite a relatively high protein intake of around 1.5 g/kg. The NEAP ranging between 42 and 46 mEq/day remained stable during the study period. Athletes with a PRAL(−) (−8 to −10 mEq/day) consumed significantly more fruit and fruit juice than athletes with a PRAL(+) (+9 to 14 mEq/day). Athletes with a PRAL(+) did not consume more meat, fish and poultry than athletes with a PRAL(−). Grains and dairy products were only discriminative between the two groups on one measurement occasion. Lowering the PRAL can be obtained by increasing the consumption of potatoes, fruits, vegetables and vegetable soup. PMID:22254092

  7. Inpatient rehabilitation for hip or knee osteoarthritis: 2 year follow up study

    PubMed Central

    Weigl, M; Angst, F; Stucki, G; Lehmann, S; Aeschlimann, A

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the course of pain, physical function, and other health dimensions after a comprehensive inpatient rehabilitation intervention in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip or knee. Methods: An observational, prospective cohort study with assessments at baseline (entry into clinic), 1 (discharge from inpatient rehabilitation), 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 months after baseline. Consecutively referred patients to an inpatient rehabilitation centre fulfilling the inclusion criteria were studied. 3–4 week comprehensive rehabilitation intervention, including strengthening exercise, flexibility training, endurance training, relaxation strategies, and consultations for preventive measures, was carried out. Individual home rehabilitation programmes were taught. Generic health status was measured using the SF-36, condition specific health was measured with the WOMAC questionnaire. Effects were analysed with sensitivity statistics (effect size, ES) and non-parametric tests. Results: Data from 128 patients with complete follow up data were analysed. Both pain and physical function improved moderately (WOMAC pain: ES = 0.56, WOMAC function ES = 0.44) until discharge. Although the effect in pain reduction remained significant by month 24 (WOMAC: ES = 0.26), physical function deteriorated close to baseline values after 12 months. Conclusions: Comprehensive inpatient rehabilitation of patients with OA of the hip or knee may improve pain and physical function in the mid-term, and pain in the long term. PMID:15020328

  8. Intracorneal ring segment depth in keratoconus patients: a long-term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Shahhoseini, Saied; Hashemi, Hassan; Asgari, Soheila

    2017-06-12

    To compare the actual depth of the tunnel created with femtosecond laser for intracorneal ring segment (ICRS) implantation with the target depth in keratoconus patients. In this mix design study, eligible keratoconus patients were identified through chart review. The inclusion criterion was a history of ICRS implantation with femtosecond laser more than 6 months prior to enrollment. Participants underwent anterior segment optical coherence tomography using Spectralis (Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany) for depth measurement defined as the distance from the anterior corneal surface to anterior rim of the ring. The mean age of the 30 participants was 31.4 ± 7.9 years, and 58.6% were male. Mean follow-up time after ring implantation was 25.8 ± 10.0 (range 7-41) months. Mean actual depth was 59.9% (42.4-86.8%), and the target depth was 85.0% (74.8-90.0%) (P < 0.001). The ring was at a depth of less than 70% in 25 eyes of the 30 (83.3%) studied eyes. The mean 26 months after implantation, ring segments are placed at a shallower depth than originally intended. Therefore, although femtosecond laser technology is an acceptable method for the surgeon, it is necessary to revisit the depth calculator of the device.

  9. Fiber technology in space maintainer: a clinical follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Saravanakumar, M S; Siddaramayya, Jayaraman; Sajjanar, Arunkumar B; Godhi, Brinda Suhas; Reddy, N Simhachalam; Krishnam, Raju P

    2013-11-01

    Various space maintainers are used in pediatric dentistry. However, their construction requires time consuming laboratory procedures. Recently fiber-reinforced composite resin (FRCR) has been introduced for various application in dentistry. Polyethylene fibers appear to have the best properties in elasticity, translucency, adaptability, tenaciousness, resistance to traction and to impact. The purpose of this study was to clinically evaluate the long-term effect of FRCR space maintainer made with Ribbond(®) bondable reinforcement ribbon in children over a period of 18 months. A total of thirty FRCR space maintainers were applied to 30 children between the age group of 6 to 9 years old, follow-up visits were done at 1, 6, 12 and 18 months. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis. Maxillary appliances survived more than mandibular appliances. Mean survival time of space maintainer were found to be 12 months (minimum 1 and maximum 18 months). The present study suggested that FRCR space maintainers (Ribbond(®)), which was observed for up to 18 months, can be accepted as a successful alternative to conventional band-loop space maintainer only for short periods.

  10. Dietary acid-base balance in adolescent sprint athletes: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Aerenhouts, Dirk; Deriemaeker, Peter; Hebbelinck, Marcel; Clarys, Peter

    2011-02-01

    Sprinters are advised to include additional protein sources in their diet. Basal metabolism and vigorous physical activities generate hydrogen ions that need to be buffered. The present follow-up study estimates the dietary potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP) in adolescent sprint athletes. Seven-day food diaries and anthropometrics of 60 adolescent sprint athletes (mean age at start 14.7 ± 1.9 years) were collected every six months over a three year period. Comparisons were made between athletes with a negative (PRAL(-)) versus positive PRAL (PRAL(+)). For the entire sample, mean PRAL values of up to 6 mEq/day were slightly positive despite a relatively high protein intake of around 1.5 g/kg. The NEAP ranging between 42 and 46 mEq/day remained stable during the study period. Athletes with a PRAL(-) (-8 to -10 mEq/day) consumed significantly more fruit and fruit juice than athletes with a PRAL(+) (+9 to 14 mEq/day). Athletes with a PRAL(+) did not consume more meat, fish and poultry than athletes with a PRAL(-). Grains and dairy products were only discriminative between the two groups on one measurement occasion. Lowering the PRAL can be obtained by increasing the consumption of potatoes, fruits, vegetables and vegetable soup.

  11. GLUT1 deficiency syndrome into adulthood: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Leen, W G; Taher, M; Verbeek, M M; Kamsteeg, E J; van de Warrenburg, B P; Willemsen, M A

    2014-03-01

    GLUT1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1DS) is a treatable neurometabolic disorder in which glucose transport into the brain is disturbed. Besides the classic phenotype of intellectual disability, epilepsy, and movement disorders, other phenotypes are increasingly recognized. These include, for example, idiopathic generalized epilepsy and paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesia. Since the disorder has only been recognized for two decades and is mostly diagnosed in children, little is known about the disease course. Our purpose was to investigate the disease course of GLUT1DS patients with the classic, complex phenotype from infancy into adulthood. We performed a systematic literature review as well as a cohort study, including GLUT1DS patients aged 18 years and older. The literature search yielded a total of 91 adult GLUT1DS patients, of which 33 patients (one-third) had a complex phenotype. The cohort study included seven GLUT1DS patients with a complex phenotype who were prospectively followed up in our clinic from childhood into adulthood. Our results show that epilepsy is a prominent feature during childhood in classic GLUT1DS patients. During adolescence, however, epilepsy diminishes or even disappears, but new paroxysmal movement disorders, especially paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesia, either appear or worsen if already present in childhood. Intellectual disability was not systematically assessed, but cognitive functions appeared to be stabile throughout life. Like children, adolescents may benefit from a ketogenic diet or variants thereof.

  12. Adherence to vaccination guidelines post splenectomy: A five year follow up study.

    PubMed

    Boam, Tristan; Sellars, Peter; Isherwood, John; Hollobone, Chloe; Pollard, Cristina; Lloyd, David M; Dennison, Ashley R; Garcea, Giuseppe

    2017-02-08

    Following a splenectomy patients are at increased risk of significant infections. In its most severe form, overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI) has a mortality rate of up to 80%. In this study we aim to establish the adherence to vaccination and antibiotic national guidelines in splenectomised patients. A retrospective study of 100 patients who underwent splenectomy (21 emergency, 79 elective), in two teaching hospitals was undertaken over a five-year period. Patients were followed up for five years. Hospital and GP records were reviewed for adherence to pre, intra and postoperative vaccination, thromboprophylaxis and antibiotic guidance. Eighty-six eligible patients (91.5%) received their Haemophilus influenzae B, meningococcal C and pneumococcus vaccinations peri-operatively. Eighty-one (86%) received post-operative antibiotics. Ninety-nine percent of patients received thromboprophylaxis treatment. Eighty-nine (95%) were treated with long-term antibiotic prophylaxis. Only 20 patients (23%) had an emergency supply of antibiotics. Ninety-five percent of patients were administered an annual influenza vaccination and 84% of eligible patients received a five-year pneumococcal booster vaccination. Improvement in the management of this patient cohort can be achieved by a multidisciplinary approach involving adherence to national guidelines, standardised trust protocols, patient information leaflets and advice detailing risk of infection, standardised GP letters and a splenectomy register to monitor and manage this vulnerable group of patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Studies on the high-energy follow-up of gravitational wave transient events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razzano, Massimiliano; Patricelli, Barbara; Cella, Giancarlo; Fidecaro, Francesco; Pian, Elena; Stamerra, Antonio; Branchesi, Marica

    2016-05-01

    Second-generation gravitational wave interferometers, such as Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo, will soon reach sensitivities sufficient to first detect gravitational waves and open a new era in the multi-messenger investigations of the cosmos. The most violent and energetic astrophysical phenomena, including the mergers of compact objects or the core collapse of massive stars, are promising sources of gravitational waves, and are thought to be connected with transient phenomena such as Gamma Ray Bursts and supernovae. Combined observations of gravitational and electromagnetic signals from these events will thus provide a unique opportunity to unveil their progenitors and study the physics of compact objects. In particular, gamma-ray ground-based and space observatories such as Fermi or the Air Cherenkov Telescopes will be crucial to observe the high-energy electromagnetic counterparts of transient gravitational wave signals and provide a robust identification based on a precise sky localization. We will report on our studies of possible joint observation strategies carried on by gravitational interferometers and gamma-ray telescopes, with particular attention to the high-energy follow-up of Gamma Ray Bursts.

  14. Long-term importance of fundamental motor skills: a 20-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Meghann; Saunders, Travis J; Bremer, Emily; Tremblay, Mark S

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential long-term association of motor skill proficiency at 6 years of age and self-reported physical activity (PA) at age 26. Direct motor performance data were collected in 1991 with a follow-up study occurring in 1996, and then indirect questionnaires (self-report) administered in 2001 and 2011. In 2011, 17 participants who were identified as either having high motor proficiency (HMP) or low motor proficiency (LMP) in 1991 completed a series of 4 questionnaires. Analyses were conducted to determine whether there were differences between groups for motor skill proficiency, PA, or sedentary behavior, and whether these outcomes were related across ages. Motor skill proficiency at age 6 was related to self-reported proficiency at age 16 (r = .77, p = .006), and self-reported proficiency between 16 and 26 years (r = .85, p = .001). Motor skill proficiency at age 6 was positively associated with leisure time PA at age 26 in females and participants in the HMP group. The results may provide preliminary evidence about the importance of how early motor skill proficiency relates to long-term PA. More research with larger sample sizes is needed to investigate the importance of motor skills over time.

  15. Prosthetic rehabilitation of geriatric amputee patients: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, F U; Sunwoo, I; Roettger, R F

    1985-11-01

    During a four-year period, 116 lower extremity amputee patients older than 65 years were evaluated and treated by our department. Fifty-nine patients with below-knee (BK) amputations, 22 with above-knee (AK) amputations, and 15 with bilateral amputations were fitted with prostheses and trained in their use. A follow-up study on all patients was done at an average of 22 months after they had completed their training program but not earlier than after 6 months. Of all BK amputees who had been fitted with a prosthesis, 73% were using it fulltime and as their main mode of locomotion; 25% were using it part of the time. The results were less favorable for AK and for bilateral amputee patients: 50% of AK amputees and 33% of the bilateral amputees had become fulltime users of their prostheses. Age alone was not a major determining factor in success or failure of prosthetic rehabilitation. Failures usually were due to concurrent medical disease or mental deterioration. The study indicates that the effort and expense of fitting and training geriatric patients with prostheses may be well worthwhile.

  16. Follow-up study of heroin-addicted persons admitted for treatment in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Guardia Serecigni, J; Masip Vidal, J; Viladrich Segues, M C

    1988-01-01

    A follow-up study of 73 heroin-addicted persons three years after their first visit for treatment in 1981 to the Department of the Prevention of Drug Dependence and Guidance and Treatment of Drug Dependent Persons at Barcelona, Spain, was compared to a study of the same persons carried out after one year. The comparison showed that after one year 37 per cent of the cases had a favourable and 36 per cent an unfavourable outcome; for 27 per cent of the cases, information was lacking. After three years, 56 per cent showed a favourable and 30.3 per cent an unfavourable outcome; for 13.7 per cent information was lacking. Certain factors, such as a longer duration of treatment, a change in residence from an urban to a rural environment and treatment in a therapeutic community, were found to have enhanced the likelihood of achieving favourable results. Detoxification when not supplemented with supportive measures aimed at rehabilitation had a poor outcome.

  17. A Prospective Follow-Up Study on Transmission of Campylobacter from Poultry to Abattoir Workers

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, Ingrid; Söderström, Claes; Engvall, Eva Olsson; Rautelin, Hilpi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Contact with poultry or poultry meat is a well-known risk factor for campylobacteriosis, but prospective studies on transmission of Campylobacter from chickens to humans during slaughter are scarce. In this study, we monitored transmission of Campylobacter from slaughtered chicken to originally culture-negative abattoir workers during the peak season of colonized chicken and human Campylobacter infection. Stool samples were obtained from 28 abattoir workers together with data on health status once a month between June and September 2010, with a follow-up sample collected in February 2011. Campylobacter-positive individuals and chicken flocks were identified by culture, and isolates were further characterized using molecular techniques. Campylobacter was isolated from seven asymptomatic individuals. Four of them had been newly employed and had not reported any previous Campylobacter infection. Four human isolates had matching genetic fingerprints with isolates from recently slaughtered chickens. Our results further support the role of chicken as the source of human Campylobacter infection but suggest that asymptomatic Campylobacter infection may occur even in individuals with only limited earlier exposure to Campylobacter. PMID:24885791

  18. Work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses: A follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Khamisa, Natasha; Peltzer, Karl; Ilic, Dragan; Oldenburg, Brian

    2016-12-01

    Nurses experience high levels of work related stress and burnout as well as low job satisfaction and poor general health owing to the nature of their work. This paper seeks to provide a better understanding of the nature of relationships between work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses over one year. This study involved a longitudinal design. Two hundred and seventy seven nurses from four hospitals completed a follow up survey consisting of five questionnaires. Data were collected between 2013 and 2014. The data were analysed using generalized estimation equation analysis. Lack of support was associated with burnout, patient care was associated with job satisfaction and staff issues were associated with general health of nurses. Burnout is more strongly related to job satisfaction than general health. The findings of this study could inform evidence based policy and practice through interventions aimed at improving job satisfaction and reducing the impact of burnout on general health of nurses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Cause-specific mortality by education in Canada: a 16-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Tjepkema, Michael; Wilkins, Russell; Long, Andrea

    2012-09-01

    People with lower levels of education tend to have higher rates of disease and death, compared with people who have higher levels of education. However, because death registrations in Canada do not contain information on the education of the deceased, unlinked vital statistics cannot be used to examine mortality differentials by education. This study examines cause-specific mortality rates by education in a broadly representative sample of Canadians aged 25 or older. The data are from the 1991 to 2006 Canadian census mortality follow-up study, which included about 2.7 million people and 426,979 deaths. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) were calculated by education for different causes of death. Rate ratios, rate differences and excess mortality were also calculated. All-cause ASMRs were highest among people with less than secondary graduation and lowest for university degree-holders. If all cohort members had the mortality rates of those with a university degree, the overall ASMRs would have been 27% lower for men and 22% lower for women. The causes contributing most to that "excess" mortality were ischemic heart disease, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, stroke, diabetes, injuries (men), and respiratory infections (women). Causes associated with smoking and alcohol abuse had the steepest gradients. A mortality gradient by education was evident for many causes of death.

  20. Sibling effects, environmental influences, and university attendance: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Marjoribanks, Kevin

    2004-12-01

    In 2002 Marjoribanks examined relations among sibling variables, environmental influences, and school dropout. In this follow-up study, relations were examined between sibling variables (number of children in the family, birth order position) and university attendance. Data were collected from 8,005 (4,116 women, 3,889 men) Australian young adults (M age=20.1 yr., SD=0.5). Logistic regression analyses in the two studies indicated that (a) young adults from Asian, Middle Eastern, and middle-class families were less likely to drop out of school and more likely to attend a university than were young Australians from Anglo-Australian, English, European, and working-class backgrounds, and (b) after taking into account differences in family background and learning environment measures, there continued to be small but significant relations between the number of children in families, birth-order position, and the likelihood that young people would drop out of school or attend a university.

  1. [Gender dysphoria in children and adolescents - treatment guidelines and follow-up study].

    PubMed

    Meyenburg, Bernd; Kröger, Anne; Neugebauer, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Treatment guidelines for transidentity in children and adolescents are presently under discussion. We present an overview of the various treatment modalities. Further, follow-up data on children and adolescents referred for gender-identity problems are presented. Of the 84 patients seen for the first time more than 3 years before follow-up, 37 mailed in the completed questionnaires. In addition, 33 patients agreed to answer some short follow-up questions. We assessed steps of treatment, gender role, psychopathology, and psychotherapy. We compared differences in psychopathology in patients with vs. without gender role change and in patients with intense vs. less intense psychotherapy. A total of 22 patients had completely changed gender role, and some had started hormonal treatment und sex reassignment surgery. Most patients were satisfied with the treatment results. All patients showed less psychopathology on follow-up, independent of role change or intensity of psychotherapy. In general, the patients reported little psychopathology. Our follow-up results support the present treatment approach. In patients with little psychopathology, low-frequency supportive treatment appears sufficient to obtain safe judgement on hormonal of surgical treatment.

  2. Demographic factors associated with loss to follow up in the management of chronic otitis media: case-control study.

    PubMed

    Nash, R; Fox, R; Srinivasan, R; Majithia, A; Singh, A

    2016-02-01

    The likelihood of a patient attending regular follow up can affect decision making when planning and performing tympanomastoid surgery. This study investigated whether demographic factors were associated with loss to follow up. A database of patients who had been investigated and treated for chronic otitis media was searched. Patients lost to follow up and a matching sample of patients who were formally discharged were identified. The demographic factors of age, sex and postcode were compared between the two groups. The information collected was also used to provide measures of deprivation. Fifty patients in each group were identified. Patients lost to follow up were significantly younger than patients formally discharged (p < 0.02), and were more likely to live in an area of education and training deprivation (p < 0.05). Younger patient age, and living in an area of education and training deprivation, are associated with a higher incidence of loss to follow up.

  3. Venous coronary artery bypass surgery: a more than 20-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    van Brussel, B L; Voors, A A; Ernst, J M P G; Knaepen, P J; Plokker, H W M

    2003-05-01

    Atherosclerosis in venous coronary artery bypass grafts begins early and accelerates from the fifth post-operative year. We studied the influence of 18 variables existing at the time of operation, and of 'classical' risk factors present at 1 and 5 years after operation on the long-term outcome of this type of surgery. Four hundred twenty-eight consecutive patients who underwent isolated venous coronary bypass surgery between April 1, 1976 and April 1, 1977 were followed prospectively. Follow-up was 99.3% complete with a mean duration of 22.8 years for the survivors. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox regression model. Actuarial survival after 5, 10, 15 and 20 years is 95, 83, 63 and 47%, respectively. The cumulative probability of event-free survival for cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction and re-intervention at 5, 10, 15 and 20 years, respectively, are 98, 90, 74, 60%; 99, 91, 83, 77%; and 97, 86, 67, 57%. Age and left ventricular functions are continuous incremental risk factors for mortality. Left ventricular function and completeness of revascularization, and age and vessel disease are independent predictors of cardiac death and re-intervention, respectively. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypertriglyceridemia, obesity and smoking, present after operation have an independent influence on the occurrence of cardiac events. Risk factors (still) existing 1 and 5 years after operation have a negative influence on the long-term results. This emphasizes the need of treatment of these 'classical' risk factors still present after operation.

  4. Personality as a predictor of depression symptoms in burn patients: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Giannoni-Pastor, A; Gomà-i-Freixanet, M; Valero, S; Fidel Kinori, S G; Tasqué-Cebrián, R; Arguello, J M; Casas, M

    2015-02-01

    There is empirical evidence that having some pe