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Sample records for population-based nationwide cohort

  1. Asthma and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested an association between asthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the temporal relationship was not determined. Using a nationwide population-based prospective case-control cohort study (1:4, age-/gender-matched), we hypothesized that asthma in infanthood or early…

  2. Asthma and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested an association between asthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the temporal relationship was not determined. Using a nationwide population-based prospective case-control cohort study (1:4, age-/gender-matched), we hypothesized that asthma in infanthood or early…

  3. Increased risk of herpes zoster in children with cancer: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiao-Chuan; Chao, Yu-Hua; Wu, Kang-Hsi; Yen, Ting-Yu; Hsu, Yu-Lung; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsueh; Wei, Hsiu-Mei; Wu, Jhong-Lin; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Hwang, Kao-Pin; Peng, Ching-Tien; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Li, Tsai-Chung

    2016-07-01

    Herpes zoster is rare in healthy children, but immunocompromised persons have an increased risk of herpes zoster and severe diseases. Considering the very limited information on herpes zoster in children with cancer, we performed a nationwide population-based cohort study to estimate the incidence of herpes zoster in children with cancer and to explore the association between the 2 diseases.Data were obtained from the National Health Research Institutes Database in Taiwan. A total of 4432 children with newly diagnosed cancer between 2000 and 2007 were identified as the cancer cohort, and 17,653 children without cancer frequency-matched by sex and age at entry were considered the noncancer cohort. The association between herpes zoster and childhood cancer was determined.Children with cancer had a higher risk of herpes zoster. The incidence rate of herpes zoster was higher in the cancer cohort than in the noncancer cohort (20.7 vs 2.4 per 10,000 person-years; IRR = 8.6; 95% CI = 4.8-15.6). The cumulative incidence was significantly higher in the cancer cohort (P < 0.0001). Leukemia, lymphoma, and solid tumor were all associated with the increased risk, and leukemia had the highest magnitude of strength of association.This nationwide population-based cohort study demonstrated that children with cancer were associated with an increased risk of herpes zoster. In addition to early antiviral treatment, vaccination with heat-treated zoster vaccine or adjuvanted subunit vaccine could be an appropriate policy to decrease the incidence in children with cancer.

  4. A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study of Migraine and Organic-Psychogenic Erectile Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Szu-Hsien; Chuang, Eric; Chuang, Tien-Yow; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Ming-Chia; Yen, Der-Jen; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As chronic illnesses and chronic pain are related to erectile dysfunction (ED), migraine as a prevalent chronic disorder affecting lots of people all over the world may negatively affect quality of life as well as sexual function. However, a large-scale population-based study of erectile dysfunction and other different comorbidities in patients with migraine is quite limited. This cohort longitudinal study aimed to estimate the association between migraine and ED using a nationwide population-based database in Taiwan. The data used for this cohort study were retrieved from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 in Taiwan. We identified 5015 patients with migraine and frequency matched 20,060 controls without migraine from 2000 to 2011. The occurrence of ED was followed up until the end of 2011. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to analyze the risks of ED. The overall incidence of ED was 1.78-fold greater in the migraine cohort than in the comparison cohort (23.3 vs 10.5 per 10,000 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.31–2.41). Furthermore, patients with migraine were 1.75-fold more likely to develop organic ED (95% CI = 1.27–2.41) than were the comparison cohort. The migraine patients with anxiety had a 3.6-fold higher HR of having been diagnosed with ED than the comparison cohort without anxiety (95% CI, 2.10–6.18). The results support that patients with migraine have a higher incidence of being diagnosed with ED, particularly in the patient with the comorbidity of anxiety. PMID:26962838

  5. Incidence and risk of seizures in Alzheimer's disease: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Liu, Chia-Jen; Ou, Shuo-Ming; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Lin, Yung-Yang; Wang, Shuu-Jiun

    2015-09-01

    The reported incidence and risk factors mediating seizures in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been extremely inconsistent and relevant data is lacking in Asia. We investigated the incidence rate and risk of seizures in AD and in a large, nationwide cohort from Han Chinese. A retrospective population-based study was conducted on the data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database from 2000 to 2010. To reduce selection bias, we applied propensity scores, wherein 981 patients with AD were matched to 3835 non-AD controls from a pool of 1000,000 randomly sampled cohort dataset. This approach was based on age, sex, comorbidities and previous brain conditions. Incidence rate, cumulative incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated. During the 10-year follow-up period (mean follow-up time, 4.02 years), 44 out of 937 AD patients (4.7%) developed seizures. The incidence rate in the AD cohort (11.9 per 1000 person-years) was higher than that in the matched cohort (5.7 per 1000 person-years), with an adjusted HR of 1.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-2.83, p=0.005). The mean duration from the diagnosis of AD to the occurrence of seizure is 3.6 years. The Cox regression analysis revealed that AD itself is a significant predictor after adjustment for confounders (HR=2.01, 95% CI, 1.40-2.90, p<0.001). Moreover, age is an independent predictor, with an adjusted HR of 1.03 (95% CI, 1.00-1.05, p=0.019). In conclusion, seizure occurrence in AD is more common than in the matched cohort. Notably, advanced age carries a higher risk for development of seizures in patients with AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk of psychiatric disorders following pelvic inflammatory disease: a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Cheng-Che; Yang, Albert C; Hung, Jeng-Hsiu; Hu, Li-Yu; Chiang, Yung-Yen; Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) a common infection in women that is associated with significant morbidity and is a major cause of infertility. A clear temporal causal relationship between PID and psychiatric disorders has not been well established. We used a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study to explore the relationship between PID and the subsequent development of psychiatric disorders. We identified subjects who were newly diagnosed with PID between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2002 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort was constructed for patients without PID. A total of 21 930 PID and 21 930 matched control patients were observed until diagnosed with psychiatric disorders, or until death, withdrawal from the NHI system, or until 31 December 2009. Adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of bipolar disorder, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder and sleep disorder in subjects with PID were significantly higher (HR: 2.671, 2.173, 2.006 and 2.251, respectively) than that of the controls during the follow-up. PID may increase the risk of subsequent newly diagnosed bipolar disorder, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder and sleep disorder, which will impair life quality. Our findings highlight that clinicians should pay particular attention to psychiatric comorbidities in PID patients.

  7. Gout increases risk of fracture: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Huey-En; Lin, Che-Chen; Wang, I-Kuan; Huang, Po-Hao; Tsai, Chun-Hao

    2016-08-01

    There is still debate on whether high uric acid increases bone mineral density (BMD) against osteoporotic fracture or bone resorption caused by gout inflammation. This study aimed to evaluate whether gout offers a protective effect on bone health or not. We conducted a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study to evaluate the association between gout history and risk factors of fracture.A retrospective cohort study was designed using the claim data from Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID). A total of 43,647 subjects with gout and a cohort of 87,294 comparison subjects without gout were matched in terms of age and sex between 2001 and 2009, and the data were followed until December 31, 2011. The primary outcome of the study was the fracture incidence, and the impacts of gout on fracture risks were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model.After an 11-year follow-up period, 6992 and 11,412 incidents of fracture were reported in gout and comparison cohorts, respectively. The overall incidence rate of fracture in individuals with gout was nearly 23%, which was higher than that in individuals without gout (252 vs 205 per 10,000 person-years) at an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.17 (95% confidence interval = 1.14-1.21). Age, sex, and fracture-associated comorbidities were adjusted accordingly. As for fracture locations, patients with gout were found at significant higher fracture risks for upper/lower limbs and spine fractures. In gout patient, the user of allopurinol or benzbromarone has significantly lower risk of facture than nonusers.Gout history is considered as a risk factor for fractures, particularly in female individuals and fracture sites located at the spine or upper/lower limbs.

  8. Women treated for epilepsy during pregnancy: outcomes from a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Artama, Miia; Braumann, Jemina; Raitanen, Jani; Uotila, Jukka; Gissler, Mika; Isojärvi, Jouko; Auvinen, Anssi

    2017-07-01

    Women with epilepsy (WWE) are generally treated as a risk group during pregnancy, but over 90% of pregnant WWE have favorable pregnancies. However, the risk of some pregnancy and delivery complications may be increased among WWE, especially those on antiepileptic drugs. This nationwide, retrospective population-based cohort study includes WWE who gave birth in Finland during 1987-2008 (n = 1737) and the reference cohort of a random sample of women without epilepsy (n = 4357). Identification of the cohorts, and information on hospitalizations and deliveries were obtained from the Finnish Health Registers and population statistics. Multivariate analyses were conducted by binomial regression. WWE were more often hospitalized during pregnancy for accidents or other external causes [adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 1.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98-3.09], premature rupture of membranes (aRR 1.75, 95% CI 1.14-2.69) and premature contractions (aRR 1.75, 95% CI 1.36-2.23). Hospitalizations for infections were more frequent in WWE (1.4% vs. 0.4%, aRR 3.15, 95% CI 1.72-5.76). The risk for induction of delivery or a cesarean section was increased in WWE. There was no difference in premature deliveries between the groups, but the risk of being small for gestational age (aRR 1.57, 95% CI 1.23-2.01), admission to neonatal intensive care unit (aRR 1.66, 95% CI 1.39-1.97), and need for respiratory care (aRR 2.37, 95% CI 1.57-3.60) was clearly increased in the offspring of WWE. WWE are at an increased risk of complications and hospitalizations during pregnancy and delivery. However, the majority of WWE have a normal pregnancy and delivery. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. Subsequent vitiligo after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A nationwide population-based cohort study from Korea.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jung Min; Choi, Kwang Hyun; Jung, Han Mi; Kim, Sook Young; Kim, Miri; Kim, Gyung Moon; Yu, Dong Soo; Lee, Young Bok

    2017-03-01

    Subsequent vitiligo after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been described sporadically in case series. To investigate the incidence and risk factors of subsequent vitiligo after HSCT. A nationwide, population-based cohort study was performed using the Korean National Health Insurance Claims Database from 2009 to 2013. All HSCT recipients who had undergone HSCT between 2010 and 2011 and not treatment for vitiligo in 2009 (to exclude preexisting active vitiligo) were included in the HSCT recipient group, and an age- and sex-matched control group without HSCT was also established. A total of 2747 HSCT recipients and 8241 controls were enrolled. Newly acquired vitiligo occurred in 1.06% of HSCT recipients between 2010 and 2013, and there was a significant increase (OR 3.130, 95% CI 1.859-5.271) in cases of vitiligo in HSCT recipients compared with controls (0.34%). Allogeneic HSCT (OR 5.593, 95% CI 1.628-19.213) and bone marrow-sourced stem cells (as compared with peripheral blood-sourced stem cells; OR 2.492, 95% CI 1.114-5.576) were independently associated with the development of vitiligo after HSCT. Medical record review was not available. Vitiligo developed at a significantly increased rate after HSCT compared with controls. Allogeneic HSCT and bone marrow-sourced stem cells were independent risk factors. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Risk of uterine, ovarian and breast cancer following pelvic inflammatory disease: a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Cheng-Che; Hu, Li-Yu; Yang, Albert C; Chiang, Yung-Yen; Hung, Jeng-Hsiu; Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2016-11-03

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is characterized by infection and inflammation of the upper genital tract in women and is associated with health sequelae. We used a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study to explore the relationship between PID and the subsequent development of gynecological cancers including ovarian, breast or uterine cancer. We identified subjects diagnosed with PID between January 1(st), 2000 and December 31(st), 2002 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort constructed for patients without PID were matched according to age and sex. All PID patients and control groups were observed until diagnosed with ovarian, breast or uterine cancer, or until death, withdrawal from the NHI system, or until December 31(st), 2009. The PID cohort consisted of 32,268 patients, and an equal number of matched controls without PID. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of ovarian, breast or uterine cancer in subjects with PID were: HR 1.326 (95 % confidence interval: 0.775-2.269), HR: 1.039 (95 % confidence interval: 0.862-1.252), and HR: 1.439 (95 % confidence interval: 0.853-2.426) respectively in comparison with controls during follow-up. This large nationwide population-based cohort study suggests that there is no increased risk for ovarian, breast or uterine cancer among women who have PID compared to a matching population.

  11. High Risk of Depressive Disorders in Patients With Gout: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Changchien, Te-Chang; Yen, Yung-Chieh; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Ming-Chia; Liang, Ji-An; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-12-01

    Metabolic abnormalities are common in patients with depressive disorders. However, the relationship between gout and depression is unclear. We explored the causal relationship among gout, antigout medication, and the associated risk of incidental depressive disorders.In this nationwide cohort study, we sampled data from the National Health Insurance Research Database to recruit 34,050 patients with gout as the gout cohort and 68,100 controls (without gout) as the nongout cohort. Our primary endpoint was the diagnosis of depressive disorders during follow-up. The overall study population was followed up until depression diagnosis, withdrawal from the NHI program, or the end of the study. The differences in demographic and clinical characteristics between both cohorts were determined using the Chi-square test for categorical variables and the t-test for continuous variables. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to examine the effect of gout on the risk of depression, represented using the hazard ratio with the 95% confidence interval.Patients with gout exhibited a higher risk of depressive disorders than controls did. The risk of depressive disorders increased with age and was higher in female patients and those with hypertension, stroke, and coronary artery disease. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug and prednisolone use was associated with a reduced risk of depression. Patients with gout who had received antigout medication exhibited a reduced risk of depressive disorders compared with nongout patients.Our findings support that gout increases the risk of depressive disorders, and that antigout medication use reduces the risk.

  12. Statin Use Reduces Prostate Cancer All-Cause Mortality: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Min; Lin, Ming-Chia; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chang, Shih-Ni; Liang, Ji-An; Lin, I-Ching; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-09-01

    Studies have suggested that statin use is related to cancer risk and prostate cancer mortality. We conducted a population-based cohort study to determine whether using statins in prostate cancer patients is associated with reduced all-cause mortality rates. Data were obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The study cohort comprised 5179 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer who used statins for at least 6 months between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2010. To form a comparison group, each patient was randomly frequency-matched (according to age and index date) with a prostate cancer patient who did not use any type of statin-based drugs during the study period. The study endpoint was mortality. The hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using Cox regression models. Among prostate cancer patients, statin use was associated with significantly decreased all-cause mortality (adjusted HR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.60-0.71). This phenomenon was observed among various types of statin, age groups, and treatment methods. Analyzing the defined daily dose of statins indicated that both low- and high-dose groups exhibited significantly decreased death rates compared with nonusers, suggesting a dose-response relationship. The results of this population-based cohort study suggest that using statins reduces all-cause mortality among prostate cancer patients, and a dose-response relationship may exist.

  13. Incidence of trigger digits following carpal tunnel release: A nationwide, population-based retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fu-Yu; Manrique, Oscar J; Lin, Cheng-Li; Cheng, Hsu-Tang

    2017-07-01

    The onset of trigger digits after carpal tunnel release (CTR) have been reported inconsistently across different studies. The aim of this study is to assess the incidence of trigger digits after CTR using nationwide population cohort data.We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 (LHID2000) from the National Health Insurance Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan. The LHID2000 contained 1 million beneficiaries randomly selected from the year 2000 Registry for Beneficiaries in NHIRD. We identified 2605 carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients received CTR from 2000 to 2010 (CTR cohort, n = 2605). For each CTR patient, 4 CTS patients without CTR were randomly selected in the control cohort from the general population frequency matched by age, sex, and diagnosed year (non-CTR cohort, n = 10,420). Both cohorts were followed up until the end of 2011 to investigate the occurrence of trigger digits. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) of trigger digits were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model after controlling for age, sex, and comorbidities.The CTR cohort had a mean follow-up period of 5.58 ± 3.18 years and the non-CTR cohort had a mean follow-up period of 5.90 ± 3.10 years. The overall risk of trigger digits was 3.63-fold greater in the CTR cohort than in the non-CTR cohort (incidence rate: 12.6 vs 3.38/1000 person-years, aHR: 3.63, 95% CI, 2.97-4.44). The incidence of postoperative trigger digits was highest in the 1st 6 months (incidence rate: 27.9/1000 person-years, aHR: 9.65, 95% CI, 5.27-17.7) and then significantly decreased over time.CTR was significantly associated with the subsequent development of trigger digits, especially in the postoperative 6 months.

  14. Hip Fracture in People with Erectile Dysfunction: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chieh-Hsin; Tung, Yi-Ching; Lin, Tzu-Kang; Chai, Chee-Yin; Su, Yu-Feng; Tsai, Tai-Hsin; Tsai, Cheng-Yu; Lu, Ying-Yi; Lin, Chih-Lung

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the risk of hip fracture and contributing factors in patients with erectile dysfunction(ED). This population-based study was performed using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The analysis included4636 patients aged ≥ 40 years who had been diagnosed with ED (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes 302.72, 607.84) during 1996–2010. The control group included 18,544 randomly selected age-matched patients without ED (1:4 ratio). The association between ED and hip fracture risk was estimated using a Cox proportional hazard regression model. During the follow-up period, 59 (1.27%) patients in the ED group and 140 (0.75%) patients in the non-ED group developed hip fracture. After adjusting for covariates, the overall incidence of hip fracture was 3.74-times higher in the ED group than in the non-ED group (2.03 vs. 0.50 per 1000 person-years, respectively). The difference in the overall incidence of hip fracture was largest during the 3-year follow-up period (hazard ratio = 7.85; 95% confidence interval = 2.94–20.96; P <0.0001). To the best of our knowledge, this nationwide population-based study is the first to investigate the relationship between ED and subsequent hip fracture in an Asian population. The results showed that ED patients had a higher risk of developing hip fracture. Patients with ED, particularly those aged 40–59 years, should undergo bone mineral density examinations as early as possible and should take measures to reduce the risk of falls. PMID:27078254

  15. Scoliosis and the Subsequent Risk of Depression: A Nationwide Population-based Cohort Study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-Pin; Lin, Yaleng; Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Lu, Hsing-Fang; Wang, Shih-Tien; Chi, Ying-Chen; Hung, Kuo-Sheng; Chen, Hsiang-Yin

    2016-02-01

    A retrospective cohort study by using the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). The purpose of this study is to conduct a large-scale cohort study to investigate the relationship between scoliosis and depression. The association between scoliosis and depression has rarely been studied in Asian populations. The study cohort consisted of patients with diagnosis of scoliosis between 2003 and 2005 (N = 1409). A comparison cohort was constructed from five age- and gender-matched control subjects selected via random sampling (N = 7045). Data on adjusted hazard ratios (AHRs) of depression, 5-year freedom from depression rates, and risk factors for depression for the two cohorts were compared. All subjects were tracked for 5 years from the date of cohort entry to identify the development of depression. Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed to evaluate the 5-year freedom from depression rates. This study is supported by the University research grant without any study-specific conflicts. During the 5-year follow-up period, 116 and 307 depression patients belonged to the scoliosis cohort and the comparison cohort, respectively. The AHRs of depression in patients with scoliosis was higher [AHR 1.95; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.58-2.42; P < 0.001] than that of the controls during the 5-year follow-up. The risk of depression also demonstrated to be age-dependent for scoliosis patients. The middle-age (41-65 years old) and young adults (18-40 years old) scoliosis patients had higher AHRs (middle-age: AHR 2.45; 95% CI 1.67-3.59; P < 0.05; young adult: AHR 1.99; 95% CI 1.41-2.82; P < 0.05). The population-based study indicated that patients with scoliosis may have an increased risk of depression. Health care professionals should consider designing and planning effective psychological prevention and treatment for scoliosis patients. 4.

  16. Risk of malignant melanoma in men with prostate cancer: Nationwide, population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Frederik B; Folkvaljon, Yasin; Garmo, Hans; Robinson, David; Loeb, Stacy; Ingvar, Christian; Lambe, Mats; Stattin, Pär

    2016-05-01

    An increased risk of malignant melanoma has been observed in men with prostate cancer. To assess potential shared risk factors and confounding factors, we analysed risk of melanoma in men with prostate cancer including information on tumor characteristics and demographics including socioeconomic status. In The Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden, risk of melanoma was assessed in a cohort of men with prostate cancer and in a comparison cohort of prostate-cancer free men. Data on prostate cancer risk category, melanoma stage, basal cell carcinoma, location of residency, and socioeconomic status were obtained from nationwide registers. Melanoma was diagnosed in 830/108,145 (0.78%) men with prostate cancer and in 3,699/556,792 (0.66%) prostate cancer-free men. In multivariable Cox regression models, men with prostate cancer had a significantly increased risk of melanoma (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.09-1.27), and so had married men, men with high education and income, and men residing in southern Sweden. The strongest associations were observed for stage 0 melanoma in men with low-risk prostate cancer (HR 1.45, 1.14-1.86), high education (HR 1.87, 1.60-2.18) and top income (HR 1.61, 1.34-1.93), respectively, whereas there was no association between these factors and late-stage melanoma. Men with prostate cancer also had an increased risk of basal cell carcinoma (HR 1.18, 1.15-1.22). In conclusion, men with low-risk prostate cancer, high education, high income and residency in southern Sweden had an increased risk of early-stage melanoma.

  17. Higher risk of developing a subsequent migraine in adults with nonapnea sleep disorders: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Harnod, Tomor; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-05-01

    This nationwide population-based cohort study evaluated the effect of nonapnea sleep disorders (NSDs) on the subsequent development of a migraine. We identified 46,777 patients aged 20 years and older who were diagnosed with an NSD (ICD-9-CM: 307.4 or 780.5) and without coding for apnea-sleep disorders (ICD-9-CM: 780.51, 780.53, or 780.57) between 2000 and 2002 as the sleep disorder (SD) cohort. A comparison cohort of 93,552 people was enrolled. We calculated the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for developing a migraine (ICD-9-CM: 346) after adjusting for age, sex, comorbidity, and drug use. A Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to measure the cumulative incidence of a migraine between 2 curves until the end of 2011. The cumulative incidence of a migraine was significantly higher in the SD cohort. The aHR for developing a migraine in the SD cohort was 3.52 (95% CI=3.28-3.79). The risk of developing a migraine with an NSD was higher in men (aHR=4.31) than in women (aHR=3.35). The age-stratified effect of an NSD on developing a migraine was highest among patients aged 55 years and younger. Higher risks of developing a migraine were observed among the participants without any comorbidity and without any drug treatment for their insomnia. The findings of this population-based cohort study indicate a higher risk of developing a subsequent migraine in patients with an NSD, which could be considered an independent, predisposing factor for developing subsequent a migraine in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Persistence of topical glaucoma medication: a nationwide population-based cohort study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hwang, De-Kuang; Liu, Catherine Jui-Ling; Pu, Cheng-Yun; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Chou, Pesus

    2014-12-01

    Medication persistence is an important factor for treatment effect in patients with glaucoma. Evaluating risk factors for refill discontinuation might be helpful for improving persistence and preventing blindness in patients with glaucoma. To estimate the persistence rate with topical glaucoma medication 2 years after diagnosis and evaluate risk factors for nonpersistence among patients in Taiwan with open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. A retrospective population-based study using claims data from the National Health Insurance Research Database. One million patients were randomly selected from the registered beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance Research Database in 2000. All patients with newly diagnosed open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension were included and followed up until December 31, 2008. Patients were included in the analysis only if they had follow-up data for more than 2 years after diagnosis. Nonpersistence was defined as the patient not refilling any topical glaucoma medication for more than 90 days. Patient characteristics, prescription-related clinical factors, and physician and hospital characteristics were identified and considered in the analysis. The rate of persistence was estimated and risk factors for nonpersistence were investigated using Cox proportional regression models. A total of 3134 patients were identified and observed in the study. After a 2-year follow-up, 759 patients (24.2%) persisted with their glaucoma medications. Multivariate analysis showed that patients' living or working areas (P < .001), number of glaucoma medications (P < .001), prescription of pilocarpine hydrochloride (adjusted ratio of persistence = 0.72; 95% CI, 0.59-0.88) or prostaglandin analogs (adjusted ratio of persistence = 2.04; 95% CI, 1.82-2.33), the year in which glaucoma diagnosis was made (adjusted ratios of persistence for patients whose condition was diagnosed after 2004 = 1.18; 95% CI, 1.09-1.27), sex of the main physicians

  19. Risk of erectile dysfunction in transfusion-naive thalassemia men: a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Guang; Lin, Te-Yu; Lin, Cheng-Li; Dai, Ming-Shen; Ho, Ching-Liang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-04-01

    Based on the mechanism of pathophysiology, thalassemia major or transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients may have an increased risk of developing organic erectile dysfunction resulting from hypogonadism. However, there have been few studies investigating the association between erectile dysfunction and transfusion-naive thalassemia populations. We constructed a population-based cohort study to elucidate the association between transfusion-naive thalassemia populations and organic erectile dysfunction. This nationwide population-based cohort study involved analyzing data from 1998 to 2010 obtained from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database, with a follow-up period extending to the end of 2011. We identified men with transfusion-naive thalassemia and selected a comparison cohort that was frequency-matched with these according to age, and year of diagnosis thalassemia at a ratio of 1 thalassemia man to 4 control men. We analyzed the risks for transfusion-naive thalassemia men and organic erectile dysfunction by using Cox proportional hazards regression models. In this study, 588 transfusion-naive thalassemia men and 2337 controls were included. Total 12 patients were identified within the thalassaemia group and 10 within the control group. The overall risks for developing organic erectile dysfunction were 4.56-fold in patients with transfusion-naive thalassemia men compared with the comparison cohort after we adjusted for age and comorbidities. Our long-term cohort study results showed that in transfusion-naive thalassemia men, there was a higher risk for the development of organic erectile dysfunction, particularly in those patients with comorbidities.

  20. Increased Risk of Dementia in Patients With Acute Organophosphate and Carbamate Poisoning: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiun-Nong; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Ming-Chia; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Yang, Chih-Hui; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-07-01

    Organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (CM) are the most commonly used pesticides against insects. Little is known regarding the relationship between dementia and acute OP and CM poisoning. A nationwide population-based cohort study was conducted from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. The incidence and relative risk of dementia were assessed in patients hospitalized for acute OP and CM poisoning from 2000 to 2011. The comparison cohort was matched with the poisoned cohort at a 4:1 ratio based on age, sex, and the year of hospitalization. During the follow-up period, the incidence of dementia was 29.4 per 10,000 person-years in the poisoned group, and represented a 1.98-fold increased risk of dementia compared with the control cohort (95% confidence interval, 1.59-2.47). This study provides evidence on the association between dementia and acute OP and CM poisoning. Regular follow-up of poisoned patients for dementia is suggested.

  1. Bipolar disorder and the risk of fracture: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Su, Jian-An; Cheng, Bi-Hua; Huang, Yin-Cheng; Lee, Chuan-Pin; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Lu, Mong-Liang; Hsu, Chung-Yao; Lee, Yena; McIntyre, Roger S; Chin Lin, Tzu; Chin-Hung Chen, Vincent

    2017-08-15

    The co-primary aims are: 1) to compare the risk of fracture between adults with bipolar disorder and those without bipolar disorder; and 2) to assess whether lithium, anticonvulsants and antipsychotics reduce risk of fracture among individuals with bipolar disorder. The analysis herein is a population-based retrospective cohort study, utilizing the National Health Insurance (NHI) medical claims data collected between 1997 and 2013 in Taiwan. We identified 3705 cases with incident diagnoses of bipolar disorder during study period and 37,050 matched controls without bipolar diagnoses. Incident diagnosis of fracture was operationalized as any bone fracture after the diagnosis of bipolar disorder or after the matched index date for controls. Bipolar patients had significantly higher risk of facture when compared to matched controls (17.6% versus 11.7%, respectively p<0.001). The hazard ratio (HR) was 1.33 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.23-1.48, p<0.001) after adjusting for covariates. Persons with bipolar disorder and a prior history of psychiatric hospitalization were had higher risk for bone fracture than those without prior history of psychiatric hospitalization when compared to match controls. Higher cumulative dose of antipsychotics or mood stabilizers did not increase the risk of fracture. The diagnoses of bipolar disorder were not confirmed with structured clinical interview. Drug adherence, exact exposure dosage, smoking, lifestyle, nutrition and exercise habits were unable to be assessed in our dataset. Bipolar disorder is associated with increased risk of fracture, and higher cumulative dose of mood stabilizers and antipsychotics did not further increase the risk of fracture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk of musculoskeletal disorder among Taiwanese nurses cohort: a nationwide population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) represent the leading causes of occupational injuries among nursing staff. This population-based study was designed to assess the incidence and age-specific incidence of MSDs among a Taiwanese nurse cohort compared with non-nurses. Description Data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database were used to identify MSDs in the study population. A total of 3914 nurses with a diagnosis of MSD were included, together with 11,744 non-nurses as a comparison group. The comparison subjects were randomly selected at a ratio of 3:1 relative to the nurse population and were matched by gender and age. The incidence of MSDs was calculated for the study group, with nurse-to-reference risk ratios presented as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During the period 2004–2010, 3004 MSDs occurred among the nurses (76.24%) and 7779 (65.79%) in the non-nurses. The annual incidence of MSDs for the nurses increased from 28.35% in 2006 to 33.65% in 2010. The nurse-to-reference risk ratio was 1.27 (95% CI 1.19–1.35) in 2004 and 1.46 (1.37–1.55) in 2010. Herniation of intervertebral disc, lumbago, rotator cuff syndrome, medial epicondylitis, trigger finger and carpal tunnel syndrome were the most common problems. Conclusions Nurses are at higher risk of MSDs and the trend is increasing. Incorrect work-related posture/movement, psychological issues and the rolling shift system may be the major causes of MSDs among nurses in Taiwan. PMID:23617330

  3. Risk of musculoskeletal disorder among Taiwanese nurses cohort: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yueh-Chin; Hung, Chin-Tun; Li, Shu-Fen; Lee, Horng-Mo; Wang, Shyang-Guang; Chang, Shu-Chuan; Pai, Lee-Wen; Huang, Chien-Ning; Yang, Jen-Hung

    2013-04-23

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) represent the leading causes of occupational injuries among nursing staff. This population-based study was designed to assess the incidence and age-specific incidence of MSDs among a Taiwanese nurse cohort compared with non-nurses. Data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database were used to identify MSDs in the study population. A total of 3914 nurses with a diagnosis of MSD were included, together with 11,744 non-nurses as a comparison group. The comparison subjects were randomly selected at a ratio of 3:1 relative to the nurse population and were matched by gender and age. The incidence of MSDs was calculated for the study group, with nurse-to-reference risk ratios presented as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During the period 2004-2010, 3004 MSDs occurred among the nurses (76.24%) and 7779 (65.79%) in the non-nurses. The annual incidence of MSDs for the nurses increased from 28.35% in 2006 to 33.65% in 2010. The nurse-to-reference risk ratio was 1.27 (95% CI 1.19-1.35) in 2004 and 1.46 (1.37-1.55) in 2010. Herniation of intervertebral disc, lumbago, rotator cuff syndrome, medial epicondylitis, trigger finger and carpal tunnel syndrome were the most common problems. Nurses are at higher risk of MSDs and the trend is increasing. Incorrect work-related posture/movement, psychological issues and the rolling shift system may be the major causes of MSDs among nurses in Taiwan.

  4. Anaesthesia care for emergency endoscopy for peptic ulcer bleeding. A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Duch, Patricia; Haahr, Camilla; Møller, Morten Hylander; Rosenstock, Steffen J; Foss, Nicolai B; Lundstrøm, Lars Hyldborg; Lohse, Nicolai

    2016-08-01

    Currently, no standard approach exists to the level of monitoring or presence of staff with anaesthetic expertise required during emergency esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (EGD) for peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). We assess the association between anaesthesia care and mortality. We further describe the prevalence and inter-hospital variation of anaesthesia care in Denmark and identify clinical predictors for choosing anaesthesia care. This population-based cohort study included all emergency EGDs for PUB in adults during 2012-2013. About 90-day all-cause mortality after EGD was estimated by crude and adjusted logistic regression. Clinical predictors of anaesthesia care were identified in another logistic regression model. Some 3.056 EGDs performed at 21 hospitals were included; 2074 (68%) received anaesthesia care and 982 (32%) were managed under supervison of the endoscopist. Some 16.7% of the patients undergoing EGD with anaesthesia care died within 90 days after the procedure, compared to 9.8% of the patients who had no anaesthesia care, adjusted OR = 1.51 (95% CI = 1.25-1.83). Comparing the two hospitals with the most frequent (98.6% of al EGDs) and least frequent (6.9%) use of anaesthesia care, mortality was 13.7% and 11.7%, respectively, adjusted OR = 1.22 (95% CI = 0.55-2.71). The prevalence of anaesthesia care varied between the hospitals, median = 78.9% (range 6.9-98.6%). Predictors of choosing anaesthesia care were shock at admission, high ASA score, and no pre-existing comorbidity. Use of anaesthesia care for emergency EGD was associated with increased mortality, most likely because of confounding by indication. The use of anaesthesia care varied greatly between hospitals, but was unrelated to mortality at hospital level.

  5. Lower Urinary Tract Infection and Subsequent Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Chao-Yueh; Huang, Wen-Yen; Lin, Kuen-Tze; Lin, Chun-Shu; Chao, Hsing-Lung; Yang, Jen-Fu; Lin, Cheng-Li

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We investigated whether lower urinary tract infection (LUTI), including cystitis or urethritis, is associated with an increased risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa), in a nationwide population-based cohort study. Methods We identified 14,273 men newly diagnosed with LUTI (9347 with cystitis, and 4926 with urethritis) between 1998 and 2011, from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. Each patient was randomly frequency-matched with 4 men without LUTI, based on age and index year of diagnosis. Cox’s proportional hazard regression analysis was performed to estimate the effect of LUTI on the PCa risk. Results The risk of developing PCa was significantly higher in the cystitis cohort (adjusted HR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.20–1.78) and in the urethritis cohort (adjusted HR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.26–2.34) than in the group without LUTI. Further analyses indicated that patients with more than 5 medical visits for LUTI per year had a significantly greater risk of developing PCa. Conclusion We found that cystitis or urethritis may play an etiological role in the development of PCa in Taiwanese men, particularly in those with repeated medical visits for cystitis or urethritis. Further studies are warranted on the association between LUTI and PCa in other countries, particularly where the prevalence of PCa is high. PMID:28046120

  6. Rheumatoid Arthritis Risk Associated with Periodontitis Exposure: A Nationwide, Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Yin-Yi; Lai, Kuo-Lung; Chen, Der-Yuan; Lin, Ching-Heng; Chen, Hsin-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Background The risk of periodontitis (PD) is increased in the patient group of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA and PD also shared some pathological mechanism. The aim of this study is to investigate the risk of RA associated with PD exposure. Methods and Findings This study identified 3 mutually exclusive cohorts using the 1999–2010 Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) to investigate the association between PD and the risk of incident RA. All patients with PD in 2000 were identified from the database of all enrollees as the PD cohort. From the representative database of 1,000,000 enrollees randomly selected in 2010 (LHID2010), individuals without any periodontal disease (PO) during 1999–2010 were selected as the non-PO cohort. Individuals who were not included in the non-PO cohort and received dental scaling (DS) no more than two times per year during 1999–2010 were selected as the DS cohort from LHID2010. Using cox proportional regression analysis, hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (Cis) were calculated to quantify the association between PD exposure and RA development. In the three-group comparison using the non-PO cohort as reference, we found that the risk of RA was higher in the PD and DS cohorts (HRs, 1.89 and 1.43; 95% CIs, 1.56–2.29 and 1.09–1.87, respectively). For comparisons between two cohorts, the PD cohort had a higher risk of RA than the non-PO and DS cohorts (HRs, 1.91 and 1.35; 95% CIs, 1.57–2.30 and 1.09–1.67, respectively). Conclusion PD was associated with an increased risk of RA development. PMID:26426533

  7. Increased risk of stroke in contact dermatitis patients: A nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-Lun; Hsu, Min-Hsien; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chan, Po-Chi; Chang, Ko-Shih; Lee, Ching-Hsiao; Hsu, Chung-Yi; Tsai, Min-Tein; Yeh, Chung-Hsin; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2017-03-01

    Dermatologic diseases are not traditional risk factors of stroke, but recent studies show atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and bullous skin disease may increase the risk of stroke and other cardiovascular diseases. No previous studies have focused on the association between contact dermatitis and stroke.We established a cohort comprised of 48,169 contact dermatitis patients newly diagnosed in 2000-2003 and 96,338 randomly selected subjects without the disorder, frequency matched by sex, age, and diagnosis year, as the comparison cohort. None of them had a history of stroke. Stroke incidence was assessed by the end of 2011 for both cohorts.The incidence stroke was 1.1-fold higher in the contact dermatitis cohort than in the comparison cohort (5.93 vs 5.37 per 1000 person-years, P < 0.01). The multivariable Cox method analyzed adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) were 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.19) for all stroke types and 1.12 (95% CI, 1.05-1.20) for ischemic stroke and 1.11 (95% CI, 0.94-1.30) for hemorrhagic stroke. The age-specific aHR of stroke for contact dermatitis cohort increased with age, from 1.14 (95% CI, 1.03-1.27) for 65 to 74 years; to 1.27 (95% CI, 1.15-1.42) for 75 years and older. The aHR of stroke were 1.16 (95% CI, 1.07-1.27) and 1.09 (95% CI, 1.00-1.18) for men and women, respectively.This study suggests that patients with contact dermatitis were at a modestly increased risk of stroke, significant for ischemic stroke but not for hemorrhagic stroke. Comorbidity, particularly hypertension, increased the hazard of stroke further.

  8. Risk of Psychiatric Disorders following Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Shih-Jen; Yang, Albert C.; Huang, Min-Wei; Chen, Pan-Ming; Wang, Shu-Li; Lu, Ti; Shen, Cheng-Che

    2014-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders among women of reproductive age. A higher prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities, including depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, and bipolar disorder has been proved in patients with PCOS. However, a clear temporal causal relationship between PCOS and psychiatric disorders has not been well established. Objective We explored the relationship between PCOS and the subsequent development of psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, and sleep disorder. Methods We identified patients who were diagnosed with PCOS by an obstetrician-gynecologist in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort was constructed of patients without PCOS who were matched according to age and sex. The occurrence of subsequent new-onset psychiatric disorders was evaluated in both cohorts based on diagnoses made by psychiatrists. Results The PCOS cohort consisted of 5431 patients, and the comparison cohort consisted of 21,724 matched control patients without PCOS. The incidence of depressive disorder (hazard ratio [HR] 1.296, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.084–.550), anxiety disorder (HR 1.392, 95% CI 1.121–1.729), and sleep disorder (HR 1.495, 95% CI 1.176–1.899) were higher among the PCOS patients than among the patients in the comparison cohort. In addition, a higher incidence of newly diagnosed depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, and sleep disorder remained significantly increased in all of the stratified follow-up durations (0–1, 1–5, ≥5 y). Conclusions PCOS might increase the risk of subsequent newly diagnosed depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, and sleep disorder. The risk of newly diagnosed bipolar disorder, which has often been reported in the literature to be comorbid with PCOS, was not significantly elevated. PMID:24816764

  9. Type 1 Diabetes and Increased Risk of Subsequent Asthma: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Yung-Tsung; Cheng, Wen-Chien; Liao, Wei-Chih; Lin, Cheng-Li; Shen, Te-Chun; Chen, Wei-Chun; Chen, Chia-Hung; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-09-01

    The association between type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and asthma remains controversial and has led to new interest in these 2 disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations among young people with T1DM and asthma and offer a clinical demonstration of the balance between Th1 and Th2 responses.We conducted a retrospective cohort study by using data from the National Health Insurance (NHI) system of Taiwan. The cohort consisted of 3545 T1DM cases and 14,180 controls established during the 1998 to 2011 period. Of the 3545 T1DM patients, 55.1% were girls and 26.5% were in the age group <8 years.The overall incidence of asthma was 47% higher in the T1DM cohort than in the control cohort (6.49 vs 4.42 per 1000 person-y), with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-1.62). Moreover, T1DM patients who visited the emergency room (ER) more than twice for diabetes had a higher adjusted HR of 17.4 (95% CI = 12.9-23.6) of developing asthma. The adjusted HR of asthma was 38.6 (95% CI = 28.5-52.2) in T1DM patients who had been hospitalized more than twice for diabetes.We observed a significantly higher incidence of asthma in young patients with T1DM than in the general population. Among young people of T1DM with more ER visits or frequent hospitalization because of diabetes mellitus were associated with risk of asthma, may indicate that poor glycemic control significantly contributes to asthma risk.

  10. Risk of anxiety and depressive disorders in patients with myocardial infarction: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hsin-Pei; Chien, Wu-Chien; Cheng, Wei-Tung; Chung, Chi-Hsiang; Cheng, Shu-Meng; Tzeng, Wen-Chii

    2016-08-01

    Anxiety and depressive symptoms are associated with adverse cardiovascular events after an acute myocardial infarction (MI). However, most studies focusing on anxiety or depression have used rating scales or self-report methods rather than clinical diagnosis. This study aimed to investigate the association between psychiatrist-diagnosed psychiatric disorders and cardiovascular prognosis.We sampled data from the National Health Insurance Research Database; 1396 patients with MI were recruited as the study cohort and 13,960 patients without MI were recruited as the comparison cohort. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to examine the effect of MI on the risk of anxiety and depressive disorders.During the first 2 years of follow-up, patients with MI exhibited a significantly higher risk of anxiety disorders (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 5.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.61-5.54) and depressive disorders (adjusted HR = 7.23, 95% CI: 4.88-10.88) than those without MI did. Greater risk for anxiety and depressive disorders was observed among women and patients aged 45 to 64 years following an acute MI. Patients with post-MI anxiety had a 9.37-fold (95% CI: 4.45-19.70) higher risk of recurrent MI than those without MI did after adjustment for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and comorbidities.This nationwide population-based cohort study provides evidence that MI increases the risk of anxiety and depressive disorders during the first 2 years post-MI, and post-MI anxiety disorders are associated with a higher risk of recurrent MI.

  11. Risk of Periodontal Disease in Patients With Asthma: A Nationwide Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Te-Chun; Chang, Pei-Ying; Lin, Cheng-Li; Wei, Chang-Ching; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2017-08-01

    Studies have reported an association between asthma and oral diseases, including periodontal diseases. The aim of this retrospective study is to investigate risk of periodontal diseases for patients with asthma. Using the claims data of National Health Insurance of Taiwan and patients without a history of periodontal diseases, 19,206 asthmatic patients, who were newly diagnosed from 2000 through 2010, were identified. For each case, four comparison individuals without history of asthma and periodontal disease were randomly selected from the general population and frequency matched (categorical matched) by sex, age, and year of diagnosis (n = 76,824). Both cohorts were followed to the end of 2011 to monitor occurrence of periodontal diseases. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) of periodontal disease were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Overall incidence of periodontal diseases was 1.18-fold greater in the asthma cohort than in the comparison cohort (P <0.001). Patients with at least three emergency visits annually had an aHR of 55.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 50.6 to 61.7) for periodontal diseases compared with those with a mean of less than one visit. Patients with at least three admissions annually also had a similar aHR (51.8) for periodontal disease. In addition, asthmatic patients on inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy had greater aHRs than non-users (aHR = 1.12; 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.23). In the studied population, asthmatic patients are at an elevated risk of developing periodontal diseases. The risk is much greater for those with emergency medical demands or hospital admissions and those on ICS treatment.

  12. Increased risk of dementia in patients hospitalized with acute kidney injury: A nationwide population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cheng-Li

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether acute kidney injury (AKI) is a risk factor for dementia. Methods This nationwide population-based cohort study was based on data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for 2000–2011. The incidence and relative risk of dementia were assessed in 207788 patients hospitalized for AKI. The comparison control was selected using the propensity score based on age, sex, index year and comorbidities. Results During the 12-year follow-up, patients with AKI had a significantly higher incidence for developing dementia than did the controls (8.84 vs 5.75 per 1000 person-y). A 1.88-fold increased risk of dementia (95% confidence interval, 1.76–2.01) was observed after adjustment for age, sex, and several comorbidities (diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, head injury, depression, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation, cancer, liver disease, chronic infection/inflammation, autoimmune disease, malnutrition). Conclusions We found that patients with AKI exhibited a significantly increased risk of developing dementia. This study provides evidence on the association between AKI and long-term adverse outcomes. Additional clinical studies investigating the related pathways are warranted. PMID:28192452

  13. Ten-year incidence and prevalence of clinically diagnosed blepharitis in South Korea: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rim, Tyler Hyungtaek; Kang, Min Jae; Choi, Moonjung; Seo, Kyoung Yul; Kim, Sung Soo

    2017-07-01

    Blepharitis is one of the most common conditions. However, no study has yet evaluated the epidemiology by evaluating a large population-based sample. To evaluate the incidence and prevalence of clinically diagnosed blepharitis in South Korea. Nationwide population-based study. We investigated the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort, a representative one million-sample of the Korean population, for patients diagnosed with blepharitis according to the Korean Classification of Diseases. Annual and overall incidence and prevalence of blepharitis during the study period (2004-2013) were estimated after excluding chronic blepharitis patients, diagnosed during 2002-2003. Sociodemographic factors and comorbidities associated with blepharitis were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard regression. The first occurrence of blepharitis. A total of 1 116 363 individuals over 9 698 118 person-years were evaluated (mean follow up: 8.7 years) from 2004 to 2013. The overall incidence was 1.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.1) per 100 person-years. The incidence increased with time (0.9 vs. 1.3 per 100 person-years, in 2004 and 2013, respectively) and was higher in female patients (1.3 vs. 0.9 per 100 person-years, respectively). The overall prevalence was 8.1% (95% confidence interval: 8.0-8.1) among subjects aged 40 years or older. Chalazion, gastritis, Sjögren's syndrome, pterygium, rosacea, prostatic hypertrophy, atopy, irritable bowel disease and peptic ulcer were associated with an increased incidence of blepharitis in the multivariable Cox model. We found that blepharitis was a relatively common disease and is associated with various ocular and systemic conditions. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  14. Marital status and survival after oesophageal cancer surgery: a population-based nationwide cohort study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Brusselaers, Nele; Mattsson, Fredrik; Johar, Asif; Wikman, Anna; Lagergren, Pernilla; Lagergren, Jesper; Ljung, Rickard

    2014-01-01

    Objectives A beneficial effect of being married on survival has been shown for several cancer types, but is unclear for oesophageal cancer. The objective of this study was to clarify the potential influence of the marital status on the overall and disease-specific survival after curatively intended treatment of oesophageal cancer using a nationwide population-based design, taking into account the known major prognostic variables. Design Prospective, population-based cohort. Setting All Swedish hospitals performing surgery for oesophageal cancer during 2001–2005. Participants This study included 90% of all patients with oesophageal or junctional cancer who underwent surgical resection in Sweden in 2001–2005, with follow-up until death or the end of the study period (2012). Primary and secondary outcome measures Cox regression was used to estimate associations between the marital status and the 5-year overall and disease-specific mortality, expressed as HRs with 95% CIs, with adjustment for sex, age, tumour stage, histological type, complications, comorbidities and annual surgeon volume. Results Of all 606 included patients (80.4% men), 55.1% were married, 9.2% were remarried, 22.6% were previously married and 13% were never married. Compared with the married patients, the never married (HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.35), previously married (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.15) and remarried patients (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.13) had no increased overall 5-year mortality. The corresponding HRs for disease-specific survival, and after excluding the initial 90 days of surgery, were similar to the HRs for the overall survival. Conclusions This study showed no evidence of a better 5-year survival in married patients compared with non-married patients undergoing surgery for oesophageal cancer. PMID:24907248

  15. Organophosphate Poisoning and Subsequent Acute Kidney Injury Risk: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Feng-You; Chen, Wei-Kung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lai, Ching-Yuan; Wu, Yung-Shun; Lin, I-Ching; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-11-01

    Small numbers of the papers have studied the association between organophosphate (OP) poisoning and the subsequent acute kidney injury (AKI). Therefore, we used the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) to study whether patients with OP poisoning are associated with a higher risk to have subsequent AKI.The retrospective cohort study comprised patients aged ≥20 years with OP poisoning and hospitalized diagnosis during 2000-2011 (N = 8924). Each OP poisoning patient was frequency-matched to 4 control patients based on age, sex, index year, and comorbidities of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease, and stroke (N = 35,696). We conducted Cox proportional hazard regression analysis to estimate the effects of OP poisoning on AKI risk.The overall incidence of AKI was higher in the patients with OP poisoning than in the controls (4.85 vs 3.47/1000 person-years). After adjustment for age, sex, comorbidity, and interaction terms, patients with OP poisoning were associated with a 6.17-fold higher risk of AKI compared with the comparison cohort. Patients with highly severe OP poisoning were associated with a substantially increased risk of AKI.The study found OP poisoning is associated with increased risk of subsequent AKI. Future studies are encouraged to evaluate whether long-term effects exist and the best guideline to prevent the continuously impaired renal function.

  16. Subsequent fracture rates in a nationwide population-based cohort study with a 10-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Hansen, L; Petersen, K D; Eriksen, S A; Langdahl, B L; Eiken, P A; Brixen, K; Abrahamsen, B; Jensen, J-E B; Harsløf, T; Vestergaard, P

    2015-02-01

    Fractures after the age of 50 are frequently observed in Denmark, and many of these may be osteoporotic. This study examined the incidence of all and subsequent fractures in a 10-year period from 2001 to 2011. The incidence of subsequent fractures was high, especially following hip fracture. The purpose of this study is to examine patterns of subsequent fractures and mortality rates over a 10-year period in patients already suffering from fracture. The study was designed as a nationwide, register-based follow-up study. Patients were included if diagnosed with an index fracture (ICD-10 codes: S22.x, S32.x, S42.x, S52.x, S62.x, S72.x, S82.x, S92.x, T02.x, T08.x, T10.x and T12.x) between January 1st, 2001 and December 31st, 2001 and if older than 50 years at time of fracture. The patients were investigated for future subsequent fractures from January 1st, 2002 to December 31st, 2011. In this study, we demonstrated that patients with fractures (especially hip fractures) have a high risk of subsequent fractures, especially hip fracture. Other fractures, which are not commonly considered as osteoporotic fractures, such as lower leg, were frequently observed in the 10 years following index fracture. The cumulative incidence proportion (CIP) of subsequent fractures during the 10-year follow-up period was high for all recurrent fractures (9-46 %). Subsequent hip fracture, regardless of index fracture, had the highest CIP across the study period, ranging from 9 to 40 %. Appendicular fractures were often followed by a recurrent fracture, or subsequent fractures at a more proximal location in the same limb, i.e. forearm fractures were followed by humerus fractures. These results have not been previously demonstrated to this extent, and according to our knowledge, no previous studies have estimated cumulative 10-year subsequent fracture incidences for any non-hip fractures. Patients suffering a fracture (and especially a hip fracture) have a high incidence of subsequent

  17. Peptic Ulcer Disease in Healthcare Workers: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong-Yue; Weng, Shih-Feng; Lin, Hung-Jung; Hsu, Chien-Chin; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Su, Shih-Bin; Guo, How-Ran; Huang, Chien-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Health care workers (HCWs) in Taiwan have heavy, stressful workloads, are on-call, and have rotating nightshifts, all of which might contribute to peptic ulcer disease (PUD). We wanted to evaluate the PUD risk in HCWs, which is not clear. Using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified 50,226 physicians, 122,357 nurses, 20,677 pharmacists, and 25,059 other HCWs (dieticians, technicians, rehabilitation therapists, and social workers) as the study cohort, and randomly selected an identical number of non-HCW patients (i.e., general population) as the comparison cohort. Conditional logistical regression analysis was used to compare the PUD risk between them. Subgroup analysis for physician specialties was also done. Nurses and other HCWs had a significantly higher PUD risk than did the general population (odds ratio [OR]: 1.477; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.433-1.521 and OR: 1.328; 95% CI: 1.245-1.418, respectively); pharmacists had a lower risk (OR: 0.884; 95% CI: 0.828-0.945); physicians had a nonsignificantly different risk (OR: 1.029; 95% CI: 0.987-1.072). In the physician specialty subgroup analysis, internal medicine, surgery, Ob/Gyn, and family medicine specialists had a higher PUD risk than other physicians (OR: 1.579; 95% CI: 1.441-1.731, OR: 1.734; 95% CI: 1.565-1.922, OR: 1.336; 95% CI: 1.151-1.550, and OR: 1.615; 95% CI: 1.425-1.831, respectively). In contrast, emergency physicians had a lower risk (OR: 0.544; 95% CI: 0.359-0.822). Heavy workloads, long working hours, workplace stress, rotating nightshifts, and coping skills may explain our epidemiological findings of higher risks for PUD in some HCWs, which might help us improve our health policies for HCWs.

  18. Periodontitis as a Modifiable Risk Factor for Dementia: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yao-Tung; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Hu, Chaur-Jongh; Huang, Li-Kai; Chao, Shu-Ping; Lin, Chia-Pei; Su, Emily Chia-Yu; Lee, Yi-Chen; Chen, Chu-Chieh

    2017-02-01

    To determine whether periodontitis is a modifiable risk factor for dementia. Prospective cohort study. National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Individuals aged 65 and older with periodontitis (n = 3,028) and an age- and sex-matched control group (n = 3,028). Individuals with periodontitis were compared age- and sex-matched controls with for incidence density and hazard ratio (HR) of new-onset dementia. Periodontitis was defined according to International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes 523.3-5 diagnosed by dentists. To ensure diagnostic validity, only those who had concurrently received antibiotic therapies, periodontal treatment other than scaling, or scaling more than twice per year performed by certified dentists were included. Dementia was defined according to ICD-9-CM codes 290.0-290.4, 294.1, 331.0-331.2. After adjustment for confounding factors, the risk of developing dementia was calculated to be higher for participants with periodontitis (HR = 1.16, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.32, P = .03) than for those without. Periodontitis is associated with greater risk of developing dementia. Periodontal infection is treatable, so it might be a modifiable risk factor for dementia. Clinicians must devote greater attention to this potential association in an effort to develop new preventive and therapeutic strategies for dementia. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  19. Long-term renal outcomes in patients with traumatic brain injury: A nationwide population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kor, Chew-Teng; Chiu, Ping-Fang; Tsai, Chun-Chieh; Lian, Ie-Bin; Yang, Tao-Hsiang; Tarng, Der-Cherng; Chang, Chia-Chu

    2017-01-01

    Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important cause of death and disability worldwide. The relationship between TBI and kidney diseases is largely unknown. Methods We aimed to determine whether TBI is associated with long-term adverse renal outcomes. We performed a nationwide, population-based, propensity score-matched cohort study of 32,152 TBI patients and 128,608 propensity score-matched controls. Data were collected by the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan from 2000 to 2012. Our clinical outcomes were chronic kidney disease (CKD), end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the composite endpoint of ESRD or all-cause mortality. Results The incidence rate of CKD was higher in the TBI than in the control cohort (8.99 vs. 7.4 per 1000 person-years). The TBI patients also showed higher risks of CKD (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08–1.20; P < 0.001) and composite endpoints (aHR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01–1.15; P = 0.022) than the control groups, but the ESRD was not significantly different between the groups. In subgroup analyses, the risks of incident CKD and composite endpoints were significantly raised in TBI patients aged < 65 years and/or without comorbidities. However, the risks of both CKD and composite outcome were little affected by the severity of TBI. Conclusions TBI has a modest but significant effect on incident CKD and composite endpoint, but not on ESRD alone. TBI patients under 65 are at greater risk of CKD and composite outcome than their older counterparts. PMID:28196132

  20. Bidirectional association between Bell's palsy and anxiety disorders: A nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chih-Chieh; Hu, Li-Yu; Liu, Mu-En; Yang, Albert C; Shen, Cheng-Che; Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2017-06-01

    Bell's palsy and anxiety disorders share numerous risk factors (e.g., immune response, ischemia, and psychological stress). However, there have been no studies on the bidirectional temporal association between the two illnesses. In this study, we used the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) to test the bidirectional association between Bell's palsy and anxiety disorders. We hypothesized that patients with Bell's palsy would have an increased risk of subsequent anxiety disorders later in life and that, conversely, those with anxiety disorders would have an increased likelihood of developing Bell's palsy later in life. We conducted two retrospective cohort studies using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Study 1 included 8070 patients diagnosed with anxiety disorders and 32,280 controls without anxiety disorders who were matched with sex, age, and enrollment date to analyze the following risk of Bell's palsy among both groups. Study 2 included 4980 patients with Bell's palsy and 19,920 controls without Bell's palsy who were matched with sex, age, and enrollment date to analyze the following risk of anxiety disorders among both groups. The patient records selected for the studies were dated between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2004. All subjects were observed until their outcomes of interest, death or December 31, 2009. After adjustment for age, sex, comorbidities, urbanization, and income, the hazard ratio (HR) for patients with anxiety disorders to contract Bell's palsy was 1.53 (95% CI, 1.21-1.94, P<.001), and the HR for patients with Bell's palsy to develop an anxiety disorder was 1.59 (95% CI, 1.23-2.06, P<.001). This study found a bidirectional temporal association between Bell's palsy and anxiety disorders. After one of these conditions develops, the morbidity rate for the other significantly increases. Additional studies are required to determine whether these two conditions share the same pathogenic

  1. Risk of Periodontal Diseases in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Nationwide Population-based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Te-Chun; Chang, Pei-Ying; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Chia-Hung; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-11-01

    Several studies have reported an association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and periodontal diseases. However, a large-scale population-based cohort study was previously absent from the literature. Therefore, we evaluated the risk of periodontal diseases in patients with COPD in a nationwide population.From the National Health Insurance claims data of Taiwan, we identified 22,332 patients with COPD who were newly diagnosed during 2000 to 2010. For each case, two individuals without COPD were randomly selected and frequency matched by age, sex, and diagnosis year. Both groups were followed up till the end of 2011.The overall incidence of periodontal diseases was 1.19-fold greater in the COPD group than in the comparison group (32.2 vs 26.4 per 1000 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15-1.24). Compared with non-COPD patients, the adjusted hazard ratios of patients with COPD increased with the number of emergency room visits (from 1.14 [95% CI 1.10-1.19] to 5.09 [95% CI 4.53-5.72]) and admissions (from 1.15 [95% CI 1.10-1.20] to 3.17 [95% CI 2.81-3.57]). In addition, the adjusted hazard ratios of patients with COPD treated with inhaled corticosteroids (1.22, 95% CI 1.11-1.34) and systemic corticosteroids (1.15, 95% CI 1.07-1.23) were significantly higher than those of patients not treated with corticosteroids.Patient with COPD are at a higher risk of developing periodontal diseases than the general population. Our results also support that the risk of periodontal diseases is proportional to COPD control. In addition, patients who receive corticosteroid treatment are at a higher risk of developing periodontal diseases.

  2. Gonorrhea infection increases the risk of prostate cancer in Asian population: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y-C; Chung, C-H; Chen, J-H; Chiang, M-H; Ti-Yin; Tsao, C-H; Lin, F-H; Chien, W-C; Shang, S-T; Chang, F-Y

    2017-05-01

    This nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study evaluated the risk of developing prostate cancer among patients with gonorrhea. We identified cases of newly diagnosed gonorrhea in men between 2000 and 2010 from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Each patient with gonorrhea was matched to four controls, based on age and index year. All subjects were followed up from the index date to December 31, 2010. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to assess the risk of prostate cancer. A total of 355 men were included in the study group, and 1,420 age-matched subjects without gonorrhea were included in the control group. After adjusting for age, comorbidities, urbanization level, hospital level, and monthly income, gonorrhea was significantly associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer (adjusted hazard ratio = 5.66, 95% confidence interval = 1.36-23.52). Men aged 45-70 years and those with lower monthly income were more strongly associated with prostate cancer in the study group than the control group. The higher risk for developing prostate cancer were also found in those without syphilis, without genital warts, without diabetes mellitus, without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, without benign prostatic hypertrophy, without chronic prostatitis, and without alcoholism. The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed the risk of prostate cancer was significantly higher in the study group than in the control group. Gonorrhea may be involved in the development of prostate cancer. More intensive screening and prevention interventions for prostate cancer should be recommended in men with gonorrhea.

  3. Positive Association Between Hepatitis C Infection and Oral Cavity Cancer: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Su, Fu-Hsiung; Chang, Shih-Ni; Chen, Pei-Chun; Sung, Fung-Chang; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Su, Chien-Tien; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Yeh, Chih-Ching

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The association between viral hepatitis (B and C) and oral cavity cancer has been widely debated. This nationwide, population-based cohort study assessed the subsequent risk of oral cavity cancer among patients with chronic viral hepatitis infection. Materials and Methods Data were retrieved from insurance claims data of 1,000,000 randomly sampled individuals covered under the Taiwan National Health Insurance system. We identified a total of 21,199 adults with chronic viral hepatitis infection (12,369 with HBV alone, 5,311 with HCV alone, and 3,519 with HBV/HCV dual infections) from 2000–2005. Comparison group comprised 84,796 sex- and age-matched subjects without viral hepatitis during the same study period. Incidence and risk of subsequent oral cavity cancer were measured until 2008. Results The incidence of oral cavity cancers was 2.28-fold higher among patients with HCV alone than non-viral hepatitis group (6.15 versus 2.69 per 10,000 person-years). After adjusting for sociodemographic covariates, HCV alone was significantly associated with an increased risk for oral cavity cancer (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.20–3.02). This positive association was highest among individuals in the 40–49-year age group (HR = 2.57, 95% CI = 1.21–5.46). However, there were no significant associations between HBV alone or HBV/HCV dual infections and risk for oral cavity cancer. Conclusion Our data suggest that HCV but not HBV infection is a risk factor for oral cavity cancer. In addition, subjects with HCV infection tend to be at early onset risk for oral cavity cancer. This finding needs to be replicated in further studies. PMID:23133554

  4. Increase the risk of intellectual disability in children with scabies: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jui-Ming; Hsu, Ren-Jun; Chang, Fung-Wei; Yeh, Chia-Lun; Huang, Chun-Fa; Chang, Shu-Ting; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Chang, Hung-Yang; Chi, Hsin; Lin, Chien-Yu

    2017-06-01

    Scabies is a common and distressing disease caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. Psychiatric disorder in childhood is an important disease and easily neglected. There are several similarities in scabies and psychiatric disorders in childhood (PDC). Both of them may present with pruritus. They are relatively common in patients with lower socioeconomic status and crowded environment. Furthermore, immune-mediated inflammatory processes play a role in the pathophysiology in both diseases. An association between scabies and psychiatric disorders may exist. This nationwide population-based cohort study utilized data from the National Health Insurance Research Database to investigate the relationship between scabies and PDC. A total of 2137 children with scabies were identified as the study group and 8548 age- and sex-matched children were selected as the control group. A total of 607 (5.68%) children developed PDC during the 7-year follow-up period. The overall incidences of PDC are similar but patients with scabies had a higher risk of developing intellectual disability (ID) (scabies group vs control group: 1.3% vs 0.6%, adjusted hazard ratio: 2.04 and 95% confidence interval: 1.25-3.32). The immune-mediated inflammatory processes of both diseases were reviewed and may contribute to the 104% increased risk of interleukin in patients with scabies. We suggest a more comprehensive management in treating patients with scabies or ID. Early and comprehensive treatment of scabies and other risk factors may decrease the risk of subsequent ID. When we approach patients with ID, concurrent evaluation of scabies and other risk factors may contribute to successful management.

  5. Heritability of Health-Related Quality of Life: SF-12 Summary Scores in a Population-Based Nationwide Twin Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Steenstrup, Troels; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2014-01-01

    Aim The present study aims to estimate the relative importance of genetic and environmental factors for health-related quality of life (HRQL) measured by the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Methods The study was based on two Danish twin cohorts (46,417 twin individuals) originating from the nationwide, population-based Danish Twin Registry. The twins were approached by a mailed-out questionnaire in 2002. The questionnaire included the SF-12, information on demographic factors, and questions on a variety of specific diseases. Heritability of the SF-12 includes the physical component summary (PCS) and the mental component summary (MCS); and etiologically important variance components were estimated using multivariate biometric models. The respondents were stratified into six groups, based on age and sex. Results A total of 33,794 (73%) individual twins responded to the survey. The SF-12 was completed by 29,619 individuals, which included 9,120 complete twin pairs. Overall, the best-fitting model explaining the variance of HRQL was the ACE model. The estimated heritability of the SF-12 was between 11% and 35%, whereas between 65% and 89% could be explained by unique environmental or stochastic factors in the different sex and age groups. The highest heritability was seen among older twins. In addition, the genetic correlation between MCS and PCS scores was low (0.07 and 0.23 for males and females, respectively) among younger and high (0.26 and 0.45 for males and females, respectively) in the oldest age group. Both the largest genetic influence on HRQL and the largest genetic overlap between the scores were seen in the oldest age group, which consisted of twins older than 55. The unique environmental correlation between MCS and PCS were generally negative. Conclusion The heritability of HRQL differs between different age groups. In general, most of the variance in the SF-12 summary components was determined by unique environmental factors. PMID:23561268

  6. Nationwide population-based cohort study of uterine rupture in Belgium: results from the Belgian Obstetric Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Vandenberghe, G; De Blaere, M; Van Leeuw, V; Roelens, K; Englert, Y; Hanssens, M; Verstraelen, H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to assess the prevalence of uterine rupture in Belgium and to evaluate risk factors, management and outcomes for mother and child. Design Nationwide population-based prospective cohort study. Setting Emergency obstetric care. Participation of 97% of maternity units covering 98.6% of the deliveries in Belgium. Participants All women with uterine rupture in Belgium between January 2012 and December 2013. 8 women were excluded because data collection forms were not returned. Results Data on 90 cases of confirmed uterine rupture were obtained, of which 73 had a previous Caesarean section (CS), representing an estimated prevalence of 3.6 (95% CI 2.9 to 4.4) per 10 000 deliveries overall and of 27 (95% CI 21 to 33) and 0.7 (95% CI 0.4 to 1.2) per 10 000 deliveries in women with and without previous CS, respectively. Rupture occurred during trial of labour after caesarean section (TOLAC) in 57 women (81.4%, 95% CI 68% to 88%), with a high rate of augmented (38.5%) and induced (29.8%) labour. All patients who underwent induction of labour had an unfavourable cervix at start of induction (Bishop Score ≤7 in 100%). Other uterine surgery was reported in the history of 22 cases (24%, 95% CI 17% to 34%), including 1 case of myomectomy, 3 cases of salpingectomy and 2 cases of hysteroscopic resection of a uterine septum. 14 cases ruptured in the absence of labour (15.6%, 95% CI 9.5% to 24.7%). No mothers died; 8 required hysterectomy (8.9%, 95% CI 4.6% to 16.6%). There were 10 perinatal deaths (perinatal mortality rate 117/1000 births, 95% CI 60 to 203) and perinatal asphyxia was observed in 29 infants (34.5%, 95% CI 25.2% to 45.1%). Conclusions The prevalence of uterine rupture in Belgium is similar to that in other Western countries. There is scope for improvement through the implementation of nationally adopted guidelines on TOLAC, to prevent use of unsafe procedures, and thereby reduce avoidable morbidity and mortality. PMID:27188805

  7. Risk of obstructive sleep apnoea in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Te-Chun; Hang, Liang-Wen; Liang, Shinn-Jye; Huang, Chien-Chung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Objective Sleep disorders are prevalent medical disorders in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, whether patients with RA are at an increased risk of developing obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is unclear. Design Using population-based retrospective cohort study to examine the risk of OSA in patients with RA. Setting We used claims data of the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. Participants We identified a RA cohort with 33 418 patients newly diagnosed in 2000–2010 and a randomly selected non-RA comparison cohort with 33 418 individuals frequency matched by sex, age and diagnosis year. Primary and secondary outcome measures Incident OSA was estimated by the end of 2011. The HRs of OSA were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Results The overall incidence rate of OSA was 75% greater in the RA cohort than in the non-RA cohort (3.04 vs 1.73/10 000 person-years, p<0.001), with an adjusted HR (aHR) of 1.75 (95% CI 1.18 to 2.60). Stratified analyses by sex, age group and comorbidity revealed that the incidence rates of OSA associated with RA were higher in all subgroups. Conclusions This population-based retrospective cohort study suggested that patients with RA should be monitored for the risk of developing OSA. PMID:27895064

  8. Adverse Outcomes after Major Surgery in Patients with Pressure Ulcer: A Nationwide Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chia-Lun; Lee, Woan-Ruoh; Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Shih, Chun-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Postoperative adverse outcomes in patients with pressure ulcer are not completely understood. This study evaluated the association between preoperative pressure ulcer and adverse events after major surgeries. Methods Using reimbursement claims from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database, we conducted a nationwide retrospective cohort study of 17391 patients with preoperative pressure ulcer receiving major surgery in 2008-2010. With a propensity score matching procedure, 17391 surgical patients without pressure ulcer were selected for comparison. Eight major surgical postoperative complications and 30-day postoperative mortality were evaluated among patients with pressure ulcer of varying severity. Results Patients with preoperative pressure ulcer had significantly higher risk than controls for postoperative adverse outcomes, including septicemia, pneumonia, stroke, urinary tract infection, and acute renal failure. Surgical patients with pressure ulcer had approximately 1.83-fold risk (95% confidence interval 1.54-2.18) of 30-day postoperative mortality compared with control group. The most significant postoperative mortality was found in those with serious pressure ulcer, such as pressure ulcer with local infection, cellulitis, wound or treatment by change dressing, hospitalized care, debridement or antibiotics. Prolonged hospital or intensive care unit stay and increased medical expenditures were also associated with preoperative pressure ulcer. Conclusion This nationwide propensity score-matched retrospective cohort study showed increased postoperative complications and mortality in patients with preoperative pressure ulcer. Our findings suggest the urgency of preventing and managing preoperative pressure ulcer by a multidisciplinary medical team for this specific population. PMID:26000606

  9. Higher Risk of Thyroid Disorders in Young Patients with Type 1 Diabetes: A 12-Year Nationwide, Population-Based, Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Kuang-Yung; Koo, Malcolm; Lai, Ning-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background The association between type 1 diabetes and thyroid autoimmunity has been studied in various populations, but seldom on Taiwanese children and adolescents. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the incidence of autoimmune thyroid disorders in Taiwanese children and adolescent patients with type 1 diabetes, based on data from a nationwide, population-based, health claims database. Methods Using Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified 3,652 patients with type 1 diabetes between 2000 and 2012. A comparison cohort was assembled, which consisted of five patients without type 1 diabetes, based on frequency matching for sex and 3-year age interval, for each patient with type 1 diabetes. Both groups were followed until diagnosis of thyroid disorders or the end of the follow-up period. Poisson regression models were used to calculate incidence rate ratios for the thyroid disorders between the type 1 diabetes cohort and the comparison cohort. Results Simple and unspecified goiter (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] code 240), thyrotoxicosis (ICD-9-CM code 242), unspecified hypothyroidism (ICD-9-CM code 244.9), and thyroiditis (ICD-9-CM code 245) showed significantly higher incidences in the type 1 diabetes cohort compared with the control cohort, with incidence rate ratios of 2.74, 6.95, 6.54, 16.07, respectively. Conclusions Findings from this nationwide, population-based cohort study showed that the incidences of autoimmune thyroid disorders were significantly higher in Taiwanese children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes compared with those without the disease. PMID:27007574

  10. The Risk of Cancer in Patients With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Cheng-Che; Hu, Li-Yu; Hu, Yu-Wen; Chang, Wen-Han; Tang, Pei-Ling; Chen, Pan-Ming; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Su, Tung-Ping

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies suggest a link between anxiety disorders and cancer. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of cancer among patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using a nationwide population-based dataset. We recruited newly diagnosed OCD patients without antecedent cancer from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database between 2002 and 2011. The standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were estimated for 22 specific cancer types among OCD patients and we determined the SIRs for subgroups according to age and sex group. In addition, because of a potential detection bias, a subgroup analysis stratified with the duration of the OCD diagnosis was carried out. Among the 52,656 OCD patients, who were followed up for 259,945 person-years (median follow-up = 4.9 years), there were 718 cases of cancer. Patients with OCD did not exhibit an increased overall cancer risk relative to the general population (SIR 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.98-1.13). An increased SIR was observed among OCD patients only within the first year of OCD diagnosis (SIR 1.21, 95% CI 1.01-1.43).This study indicated that the overall cancer risk was not elevated among OCD patients. An increased SIR observed among OCD patients within the first year of OCD diagnosis may be caused by a surveillance bias, and because paraneoplastic manifestations presented with obsessive-compulsive behaviors. Prospective study is necessary to confirm these findings.

  11. Lymphadenectomy and health-related quality of life after oesophageal cancer surgery: a nationwide, population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Schandl, Anna; Johar, Asif; Lagergren, Jesper; Lagergren, Pernilla

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to clarify whether more extensive surgical lymph node resection during oesophageal cancer surgery influences patients' health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Setting This was a nationwide Swedish population-based study. Participants A total of 616 patients who underwent curatively intended oesophageal cancer surgery in 2001–2005 were followed up at 6 months and 5 years after surgery. Outcome measures HRQOL was assessed with the validated European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the oesophageal cancer-specific module (EORTC QLQ-OES18). The number of removed lymph nodes in relation to HRQOL was analysed using multivariable linear regression, providing mean score differences in HRQOL scores with 95% CIs. The results were adjusted for age, comorbidity, body mass index, tumour stage, tumour histology, postoperative complications and surgeon volume. Results The study included 382 and 136 patients who completed the EORTC questionnaires at 6 months and 5 years following surgery, respectively. In general, HRQOL remained stable over time, with only improvements in role function and appetite loss. A larger number of removed lymph nodes did not decrease the HRQOL measure at 6 months or 5 years after surgery. Conclusions More extensive lymphadenectomy during oesophageal cancer surgery might not decrease patients' short-term or long-term HRQOL, but larger studies are needed to establish this potential lack of association. PMID:27566643

  12. Association between previous history of gout attack and risk of deep vein thrombosis - a nationwide population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chun-Chih; Chen, Yung-Tai; Hsu, Chien-Yi; Chang, Chun-Chin; Huang, Chin-Chou; Leu, Hsin-Bang; Li, Szu-Yuan; Kuo, Shu-Chen; Huang, Po-Hsun; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Lin, Shing-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Although the association of hyperuricemia and cardiovascular diseases is well established by previous research studies, the relationship between gout and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) remains unclear. We conducted a nationwide longitudinal cohort study to investigate the relationship between gout and DVT. We used the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database to identify patients with gout diagnosed in Taiwan during 2000–2011, and we followed up these patients to determine the incidence of DVT among them. The association between gout and DVT was analyzed by cox proportional hazard model. The study cohort included 35,959 patients with history of gout attack and 35,959 matched controls without gout attack. During the median follow-up of 7.5 ± 3.6 years, the incidence rate of DVT was significantly higher in patients with gout than that in control group (13.48 versus 9.77 per 104 person-years, p < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a tendency toward DVT development in gout patients (log rank test, p < 0.001). In a Cox model, patients with gout were found to have a 1.38-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18 to 1.62, p < 0.001) higher risk of developing DVT. Hyperuricemia with gout attack could be a possible risk predictor for DVT, but these findings need to be confirmed in future clinical and experimental studies. PMID:27231197

  13. Risk of Shingles in Adults with Primary Sjogren’s Syndrome and Treatments: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jen-Yin; Wang, Li-Kai; Feng, Ping-Hsun; Chu, Chin-Chen; Cheng, Tain-Junn; Weng, Shih-Feng; Wu, Su-Zhen; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Chang, Chia-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Background Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is associated with immunological dysfunctions—a well-known risk factor of shingles. This study aimed to examine the incidence and risk of shingles in adults with pSS and pharmacological treatments. Methods This retrospective population-based cohort study was conducted using National Health Insurance claims data. Using propensity scores, 4,287 pSS adult patients and 25,722-matched cohorts by age, gender, selected comorbidities and Charlson comorbidity index scores were identified. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression were conducted to compare the differences in developing shingles. In pSS, oral and eye dryness are treated with substitute agents. Extraglandular features are often treated with pharmacological drugs including steroids and immunosuppressants. pSS patients were grouped as follows: no pharmacological drugs, steroids alone; immunosuppressants alone; combined therapies. Results During the follow-up, 463 adults with pSS (10.80%) and 1,345 control cohorts (5.23%) developed shingles. The cumulative incidence of shingles in pSS patients (18.74/1,000 patient-years) was significantly higher than controls (8.55/1,000 patient-years). The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of shingles was 1.69 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.50–1.90). In age-subgroup analyses, incidences of shingles in pSS increased with age and peaked in pSS patients aged ≧60; however, adjusted HRs decreased with age. Compared to control cohorts with no drugs, adjusted HRs for shingles in pSS patients were ranked from high to low as: combined therapies (4.14; 95% CI 3.14–5.45) > immunosuppressants alone (3.24; 95% CI 2.36–4.45) > steroids alone (2.54; 95% CI 2.16–2.97) > no pharmacological drugs (2.06; 95% CI 1.76–2.41). Rates of shingles-associated hospitalization and postherpetic neuralgia were 5.62% and 24.41%, both of which were significantly higher than those (2.60%; 13.01%) in the control cohorts. Conclusions Adults with pSS were at

  14. Parental age and the risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a nationwide, population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chudal, Roshan; Joelsson, Petteri; Gyllenberg, David; Lehti, Venla; Leivonen, Susanna; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Gissler, Mika; Sourander, Andre

    2015-06-01

    An increasing number of studies has shown an association between parental age and psychiatric disorders. However, there are inconsistent results regarding whether age at parenthood is associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim of this study is to examine whether low or advanced parental age is associated with ADHD. In this nested case-control study, we identified 10,409 individuals with ADHD born in Finland during 1991 to 2005 and diagnosed with ADHD between 1995 and 2011, along with 39,125 controls matched on sex, date, and place of birth, from nationwide population-based registers. Conditional logistic regression was used to examine the association between parental age and ADHD in offspring, adjusting for potential confounding due to parental psychiatric history, maternal socioeconomic status, marital status, maternal smoking during pregnancy, number of previous births, and birth weight for gestational age. Fathers younger than 20 years had a 1.5-fold (odds ratio [OR] = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.11-2.18, p = .01) increased risk of having offspring with ADHD as compared to fathers aged 25 to 29 years. Mothers of the same age group had a 1.4-fold (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.15-1.72, p =.0009) increased risk. Advanced maternal age was inversely associated with ADHD (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.64-0.97, p = .02). ADHD was associated with young fathers or mothers at the time of birth. Health professionals working with young parents should be aware of the increased risk of ADHD in offspring. This will improve early detection; however, for the development of preventive measures and appropriate interventions, more information on the developmental pathways is needed. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk of leukaemia in children infected with enterovirus: a nationwide, retrospective, population-based, Taiwanese-registry, cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiun-Nong; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Ming-Chia; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Yang, Chih-Hui; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-10-01

    The association between enterovirus infections in children and risk of leukaemia is unclear. We aimed to assess the risk of leukaemia after enterovirus infection in children. We did a nationwide retrospective cohort study by analysing data from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan. Children with enterovirus infections aged younger than 18 years were identified. With use of computer-generated random numbers, children not infected with enterovirus were randomly selected and frequency matched (1:1) with children infected with enterovirus by sex, age, urbanisation level, parental occupation, and index year of enterovirus infection. We only included children with complete baseline data for age and sex and who had at least three clinic visits with the diagnosis of enterovirus infection. The diagnosis date of the first clinic visit for the enterovirus infection was defined as the index date for initiation of follow-up person-year measurement and participants. All study patients were followed up until they developed leukaemia, were lost to follow-up, withdrew from the NHI programme, or until the end of the study without leukaemia (censored). Our primary endpoint was a diagnosis of leukaemia during follow-up. Insurance claims data for 3 054 336 children younger than 18 years were randomly selected from all insured children in the NHIRD. We identified 282 360 children infected with enterovirus and 282 355 children not infected with enterovirus between Jan 1, 2000, and Dec 31, 2007. The incidence density rates of leukaemia were 3·26 per 100 000 person-years for the enterovirus-infected and 5·84 per 100 000 person-years for the non-enterovirus-infected cohorts. The risk of leukaemia was significantly lower in the enterovirus-infected cohort than in the non-enterovirus-infected cohort (adjusted subhazard ratio [SHR] 0·44, 95% CI 0·31-0·60; p<0·0001). Children infected with enterovirus have a reduced risk of both lymphocytic

  16. Increased subsequent risk of acute coronary syndrome for patients with depressive disorder: a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Nien; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chang, Yen-Jung; Peng, Chiao-Ling; Sung, Fung-Chang; Chang, Kuan-Cheng; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the possible association between subsequent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) risk and depressive disorder. We used data from the National Health Insurance system of Taiwan to address the research topic. The exposure cohort contained 10 871 patients with new diagnoses of depressive disorders. Each patient was randomly frequency-matched for sex and age with four participants from the general population who did not have any ACS history before the index date (control group). Cox's proportion hazard regression analyses were conducted to estimate the relation between depressive disorders and subsequent ACS risk. Among patients with depressive disorders, the overall risk for developing subsequent ACS was significantly higher than that of the control group (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.88, 95% confidence interval: 1.63-2.17). Further analysis revealed that the higher risk was observed in patients who were male, were of older age, or whose diagnosis was combined with other comorbidities. The findings from this population-based retrospective cohort study suggest that depressive disorder is associated with an increased subsequent ACS risk. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  17. Statins and the risk of dementia in patients with atrial fibrillation: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chao, Tze-Fan; Liu, Chia-Jen; Chen, Su-Jung; Wang, Kang-Ling; Lin, Yenn-Jiang; Chang, Shih-Lin; Lo, Li-Wei; Hu, Yu-Feng; Tuan, Ta-Chuan; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Lip, Gregory Y H; Chiang, Chern-En; Chen, Shih-Ann

    2015-10-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with cognitive decline and may contribute to an increased risk of dementia. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether statin use prevented non-vascular dementia in subjects with AF. Data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan were used in this study. The study group comprised 51,253 AF subjects aged ≥ 60 years who had received statin treatment. For each study patient, four age- and sex-matched AF subjects without statin exposure were selected as the control group (n=205,012). The risk of non-vascular dementia was compared between the statin and control groups. During the follow-up period, 17,201 patients experienced non-vascular dementia. The annual incidence of non-vascular dementia was lower in the statin group than in the control group (1.89% vs. 2.20%; p<0.001). Statin use exhibited a protective effect on the occurrence of non-vascular dementia, with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 0.832 (95% confidence interval=0.801-0.864). Among statin types, the use of rosuvastatin was associated with the largest risk reduction (adjusted HR=0.661). Statin exposure duration was related inversely to the risk of non-vascular dementia. In this large-scale nationwide cohort study, statin use was associated with a lower risk of non-vascular dementia in AF. Use of more potent statin and longer exposure time may be associated with greater benefits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Maternal stress before and during pregnancy and subsequent infertility in daughters: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Plana-Ripoll, O; Li, J; Kesmodel, U S; Olsen, J; Parner, E; Basso, O

    2016-02-01

    Is maternal stress following the death of a close relative before or during pregnancy associated with the risk of infertility in daughters? Compared with unexposed women, women whose mothers had experienced bereavement stress during, or in the year before, pregnancy had a similar risk of infertility overall, but those exposed to maternal bereavement during the first trimester had a higher risk of infertility. Animal studies have shown that prenatal maternal stress results in reduced offspring fertility. In humans, there is evidence that girls who have been prenatally exposed to stress have a more masculine behaviour and a slight delay in having their first child. This population-based cohort study, included 660 099 females born in Denmark between 1 January 1973 and 31 December 1993 to mothers of Danish origin and with at least one living relative in the exposure window, and followed the women through 31 December 2011. Overall, 13 334 women (2.0%) were considered prenatally exposed to stress because their mother had lost a spouse/partner, a child, a parent, or a sibling during pregnancy or in the year before conception. Infertility was defined as any record of infertility treatment or diagnosis of female infertility. We considered the date of onset as the date of the first appearance of any such record. The association between exposure and outcome was examined using hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Based on our definition, 40 052 (6.5%) women were infertile in the follow-up period (median age at the end of follow-up: 26.7 years, maximum age: 39 years). Overall, prenatal exposure to maternal stress was not associated with risk of infertility (adjusted HR = 1.04 [CI: 0.95-1.14]). However, women prenatally exposed during the first trimester had a higher estimated risk (adjusted HR = 1.40 [CI: 1.05-1.86]). These findings were consistent in subgroups defined by the relationship of the mother to the deceased and in several sensitivity analyses

  19. Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sher-Wei; Shiue, Yow-Ling; Ho, Chung-Han; Yu, Shou-Chun; Kao, Pei-Hsin; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Kuo, Jinn-Rung

    2017-01-01

    Background Traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI) may involve new-onset anxiety and depression post-discharge. However, long-term population-based studies have lacked access to follow-up conditions in terms of new-onset anxiety and depression. The objective of this study was to estimate the long-term risk of new-onset anxiety and depression post-discharge. Methods The Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 (LHID2000) from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database was used in this study. Individuals with tSCI were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnostic codes of 806 and 952 from 1999–2008. The comparison cohort (other health conditions group) was randomly selected from the LHID2000 and was 1:1 matched by age, sex, index year, and comorbidities to reduce the selection bias. All study participants were retrospectively followed for a maximum of 3 years until the end of follow-up, death, or new-onset anxiety (ICD-9-CM: 309.2–309.4) or depression (ICD-9-CM: 296.2, 296.5, 296.82, 300.4, 309.0–309.1, and 311). Persons who were issued a catastrophic illness card for tSCI were categorized as having a severe level of SCI (Injury Severity Score [ISS] ≥16). Poisson regression was used to estimate the incidence rate ratios of anxiety or depression between patients with tSCI and other health conditions. The relative risk of anxiety or depression was estimated using a Cox regression analysis, which was adjusted for potential confounding factors. Results Univariate analyses showed that the tSCI patients (n = 3556) had a 1.33 times greater incidence of new-onset anxiety or depression (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12–1.57) compared to the other health conditions group (n = 3556). After adjusting for potential risk factors, the tSCI patients had a significant 1.29-fold increased risk of anxiety or depression compared to the group with other health conditions (95% CI: 1.09–1

  20. Risk of age-related macular degeneration in patients with prostate cancer: a nationwide, population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lin, S-Y; Lin, C-L; Chang, C-H; Wu, H-C; Lin, C-H; Kao, C-H

    2017-10-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) can be related to increased systemic oxidative stress and dihydrotestosterone level, which are also reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We conducted a cohort study to determine whether patients with PC have an increased risk of AMD. Data were collected from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database for the 1999-2010 period. The study PC cohort comprised 22 084 patients aged ≥18 years with a first diagnosis of PC. The comparison cohort consisted of age-, occupation-, and urbanization level-matched patients at a ratio of 1 : 1. The primary outcome was the incidence of AMD, which was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and proportional hazards modeling. The mean follow-up periods (standard deviation) for the patients with AMD in the age-, occupation-, and urbanization level-matched PC cohort and non-PC cohorts were 4.69 (2.90) and 5.51 (2.82) years. The mean age of the PC cohort was 73.9 years and that of the non-PC cohort was 73.2 years, with approximately 85.9% of the patients aged >65 years. The PC cohort had a higher risk of AMD than did the propensity score-matched non-PC cohort with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.25 (95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.39). Compared with PC cohort receiving no injection hormone therapy, the PC cohort receiving injection hormone therapy had a lower risk of AMD (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.76). PC is associated with an increased risk of AMD. Patients with PC receiving injected form of androgen deprivation therapy had a lower risk of AMD than patients with PC not receiving injected form of androgen-deprivation therapy.

  1. Acute coronary syndrome in new-onset rheumatoid arthritis: a population-based nationwide cohort study of time trends in risks and excess risks.

    PubMed

    Holmqvist, Marie; Ljung, Lotta; Askling, Johan

    2017-10-01

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and other cardiovascular diseases are the main drivers of the increased morbidity and preterm mortality in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). ACS in RA has been linked to inflammation and RA severity. During recent years and with new therapeutic options and treat-to-target strategies, increasing efforts have been made to reach RA remission as soon as possible after diagnosis, and the average level of RA disease activity has declined. Whether this has resulted in declining excess risks for RA comorbidities remains unclear. We performed a nationwide population-based cohort study of patients with new-onset RA from 1997 to 2014, and matched general population comparators. In the Swedish healthcare system, all residents have equal access to healthcare services. Healthcare is monitored using high-quality population-based registers that can be linked together. 15 744 patients with new-onset RA, identified from the Swedish Rheumatology Quality Register, and 70 899 general population comparator subjects were included. Seven hundred and seventy two patients with RA developed an ACS during 103 835 person-years of follow-up (crude incidence, 7.4 per 1000), corresponding to an overall HR versus the general population of 1.41 (95% CI 1.29 to 1.54). Whereas the ACS incidence declined over calendar time in both the RA and the general population cohort, the excess and the relative risks of ACS remained the same. Despite improved disease control in new-onset RA, the elevated risk of ACS in RA remains a concern. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Risk of coronary artery disease in transfusion-naïve thalassemia populations: A nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Guang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Ho, Ching Liang; Chen, Yeu-Chin; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-05-01

    Few studies have focused on the association between coronary artery disease (CAD) and transfusion naïve thalassemia populations (this term means silent carrier, thalassemia minor or intermedia), who usually had less clinical manifestations and didn't require frequently blood transfusion. This nationwide population-based cohort study involved analyzing data obtained between 1998 and 2010 from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database, with a follow-up period extending to the end of 2011. We identified patients with thalassemia and selected a comparison cohort that was frequency matched with the patients with thalassemia according to age, sex, and diagnosis year at a ratio of 1 patient with thalassemia to 4 control patients. We analyzed the risks of thalassemia and CAD by using Cox proportional hazard regression models. In this study, 1537 patients with thalassemia and 6418 controls were included. The overall risks of developing CAD were 1.5-fold in patients with thalassemia compared with those in the comparison cohort after adjustment for age, sex, and comorbidities. Patients with thalassemia and with comorbidities, including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, were 3.73-fold more likely to develop CAD than those without thalassemia and comorbidity (95% confidence interval=2.41-5.79). This is the first large long-term cohort study of which the results showed that that transfusion-naïve thalassemia populations should be considered a crucial risk factor for CAD, even in patients with relatively mild clinical manifestations of thalassemia. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Nationwide Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study of the Risk of Uterine, Ovarian and Breast Cancer in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Cheng-Che; Yang, Albert C.; Hung, Jeng-Hsiu; Hu, Li-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Background. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders among women of reproductive age. We used a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study to explore the relationship between PCOS and the subsequent development of gynecological cancers including uterine, breast, or ovarian cancer. Methods. We identified subjects who were diagnosed with PCOS between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2004, in the Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) Research Database. A comparison cohort was constructed for patients without known PCOS who were also matched according to age. All PCOS and control patients were observed until diagnosed with breast cancer, ovarian cancer, or uterine cancer or until death, withdrawal from the NHI system, or December 31, 2009. Results. The PCOS cohort consisted of 3,566 patients, and the comparison cohort consisted of 14,264 matched control patients without PCOS. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of uterine cancer and breast cancer in subjects with PCOS were higher (HR: 8.42 [95% confidence interval: 1.62–43.89] and HR: 1.99 [95% confidence interval: 1.05–3.77], respectively) than that of the controls during the follow-up. With the Monte Carlo method, only the mean adjusted HR of 1,000 comparisons for developing uterine cancer during the follow-up period was greater for the PCOS group than for the control groups (HR: 4.71, 95% confidence interval: 1.57–14.11). Conclusion. PCOS might increase the risk of subsequent newly diagnosed uterine cancer. It is critical that further large-scale, well-designed studies be conducted to confirm the association between PCOS and gynecological cancer risk. PMID:25410097

  4. Long-Term Outcomes of Systemic Lupus Erythematous Patients after Pregnancy: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Ting-Fang; Chuang, Ya-Wen; Lin, Cheng-Li; Yu, Tung-Min; Chung, Mu-Chi; Li, Chi-Yuan; Chung, Chi-Jung; Ho, Wen-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Background Data on long-term maternal outcomes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are lacking. The study aimed to explore the relationships among SLE, pregnancy, outcomes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and overall mortality. Methods We established a retrospective cohort study consisting of four cohorts: pregnant (case cohort) and nonpregnant SLE patients, as well as pregnant and nonpregnant non-SLE patients. One case cohort and three comparison cohorts were matched by age at first pregnancy and index date of pregnancy by using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Dataset. All study subjects were selected based on the index date to the occurrence of ESRD or overall death. Cox proportional hazard regression models and Kaplan–Meier curves were used in the analysis. Results SLE pregnant patients exhibited significantly increased risk of ESRD after adjusting for other important confounders, including immunosuppressant and parity (HR = 3.19, 95% CI: 1.35–7.52 for pregnant non-SLE; and HR = 2.77, 95% CI: 1.24–6.15 for nonpregnant non-SLE patients). No significant differences in ESRD incidence were observed in pregnant and nonpregnant SLE patients. Pregnant SLE patients exhibited better clinical condition at the baseline and a significantly lower risk of overall mortality than nonpregnant SLE patients. Conclusions Our data support current recommendations for SLE patients to avoid pregnancy until disease activity is quiescent. Multicenter recruitment and clinical information can be used to further examine the association of SLE and ESRD (or mortality) after pregnancy. PMID:27992461

  5. Utilization of psychotropic drugs prescribed to persons with and without HIV infection: a Danish nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, L D; Obel, D; Kronborg, G; Larsen, C S; Pedersen, C; Gerstoft, J; Obel, N

    2014-09-01

    The objective was to estimate the utilization of psychotropic drugs in HIV-infected individuals compared with that in the background population. Using data obtained from the Danish HIV Cohort Study and the Danish National Prescription Registry, we analysed aggregated data on redeemed prescription of psychotropic drugs during 1995-2009. We primarily focused our analyses on HIV-infected individuals with no history of injecting drug use (IDU) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Drug utilization was expressed as defined daily doses per 1000 person-days (DDD/1000PD). The utilization rate ratio (URR) was calculated as utilization in the HIV-infected cohort compared with that in the comparison cohort. We estimated longitudinal trends in utilization and potential associations with HIV and exposure to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), especially efavirenz. During 1995-2009, 54.5% of the HIV-infected cohort (3615 non-IDU/non-HCV-infected HIV-infected individuals) and 29.2% of the comparison cohort (32 535 individuals) had at least one prescription of a psychotropic drug. HIV infection was associated with a URR of 1.13 for antipsychotics, 1.76 for anxiolytics, 4.42 for hypnotics and sedatives, and 2.28 for antidepressants. Antidepressants were confined primarily to men who have sex with men (MSM). Older age, more recent calendar time, and increased time after HIV diagnosis were associated with increased drug utilization. However, no association with exposure to HAART or efavirenz was found. HIV-infected individuals had a higher utilization of psychotropic drugs than the background population, which was not confined to individuals with a history of IDU or HCV infection. This emphasizes the need to focus on diagnosis of, and appropriate psychopharmacological interventions for, mental disorders in this population. © 2014 British HIV Association.

  6. Increased risk of organic erectile dysfunction in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chao, C-H; Chen, H-J; Wang, H-Y; Li, T-C; Kao, C-H

    2015-07-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a complex disorder characterized by profound and persistent fatigue and several comorbidities. CFS was previously reported to be associated with female sexual dysfunction. We propose that CFS might also be associated with organic erectile dysfunction (organic ED). We conducted a retrospective cohort study by using data from the National Health Insurance (NHI) Research Database. We identified 2156 male patients who were newly diagnosed with CFS between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2006. After excluding those younger than 20 years and prevalent cases, 1976 patients were subjected to analysis, and 7904 people served as healthy controls. All study subjects were followed up from the index date to the date of organic ED diagnosis, withdrawal from the NHI program, or the end of 2011. Compared with the non-CFS cohort, the incidence density rate of organic ED was 1.88-fold higher than that in the CFS cohort (3.23 vs. 1.73 per 1000 person-years) with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.88 (95% CI = 1.26-2.81) when adjusting for sex and comorbidities. The combined impacts of patients with CFS and cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic kidney disease (CKD), depression, and anxiety showed a significant by joint association with organic ED risk compared with patients with no CFS and no counterpart comorbidity. The greatest magnitude of adjusted HR of ED for CFS was observed in individuals without any comorbidity (3.87, 1.95-7.66). The incidence of organic ED is higher among males aged 40 years and over for both CFS and non-CFS cohorts. As the number of comorbidity increases, the incidence of organic ED increases in males without CFS. Higher incidence of organic ED was observed in males with CVD, DM, CKD, depression, or anxiety for both CFS and non-CFS cohorts.

  7. Risk of Vertebral Fracture in Patients Diagnosed with a Depressive Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shyh-Chyang; Hu, Li-Yu; Huang, Min-Wei; Shen, Cheng-Che; Huang, Wei-Lun; Lu, Ti; Hsu, Chiao-Lin; Pan, Chih-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that depression may play a crucial role in the occurrence of vertebral fractures. However, a clear correlation between depressive disorders and osteoporotic fractures has not been established. We explored the association between depressive disorders and subsequent new-onset vertebral fractures. Additionally, we aimed to identify the potential risk factors for vertebral fracture in patients with a depressive disorder. We studied patients listed in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database who were diagnosed with a depressive disorder by a psychiatrist. The comparison cohort consisted of age- and sex-matched patients without a depressive disorder. The incidence rate and hazard ratios of subsequent vertebral fracture were evaluated. We used Cox regression analysis to evaluate the risk of vertebral fracture among patients with a depressive disorder. The total number of patients with and without a depressive disorder was 44,812. The incidence risk ratio (IRR) between these 2 cohorts indicated that depressive disorder patients had a higher risk of developing a subsequent vertebral fracture (IRR=1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.26-1.57, p<0.001). In the multivariate analysis, the depressive disorder cohort showed a higher risk of vertebral fracture than the comparison cohort (adjusted hazard ratio=1.24, 95% CI=1.11-1.38, p<0.001). Being older than 50 years, having a lower monthly income, and having hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, autoimmune disease, or osteoporosis were considered predictive factors for vertebral fracture in patients with depressive disorders. Depressive disorders may increase the risk of a subsequent new-onset vertebral fracture.

  8. Risk of Vertebral Fracture in Patients Diagnosed with a Depressive Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shyh-Chyang; Hu, Li-Yu; Huang, Min-Wei; Shen, Cheng-Che; Huang, Wei-Lun; Lu, Ti; Hsu, Chiao-Lin; Pan, Chih-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have reported that depression may play a crucial role in the occurrence of vertebral fractures. However, a clear correlation between depressive disorders and osteoporotic fractures has not been established. We explored the association between depressive disorders and subsequent new-onset vertebral fractures. Additionally, we aimed to identify the potential risk factors for vertebral fracture in patients with a depressive disorder. METHODS: We studied patients listed in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database who were diagnosed with a depressive disorder by a psychiatrist. The comparison cohort consisted of age- and sex-matched patients without a depressive disorder. The incidence rate and hazard ratios of subsequent vertebral fracture were evaluated. We used Cox regression analysis to evaluate the risk of vertebral fracture among patients with a depressive disorder. RESULTS: The total number of patients with and without a depressive disorder was 44,812. The incidence risk ratio (IRR) between these 2 cohorts indicated that depressive disorder patients had a higher risk of developing a subsequent vertebral fracture (IRR=1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.26–1.57, p<0.001). In the multivariate analysis, the depressive disorder cohort showed a higher risk of vertebral fracture than the comparison cohort (adjusted hazard ratio=1.24, 95% CI=1.11–1.38, p<0.001). Being older than 50 years, having a lower monthly income, and having hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, autoimmune disease, or osteoporosis were considered predictive factors for vertebral fracture in patients with depressive disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive disorders may increase the risk of a subsequent new-onset vertebral fracture. PMID:28226032

  9. Predictable biomarkers of developing lymphoma in patients with Sjögren syndrome: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yu-Hsiang; Chung, Chi-Hsiang; Lin, Kuen-Tze; Lin, Chin-Sheng; Chen, Jia-Hong; Chen, Hsiang-Cheng; Huang, Ren-Yeong; Wu, Chi-Tsung; Liu, Feng-Cheng; Chien, Wu-Chien

    2017-07-25

    Sjögren syndrome (SS) is commonly known to be correlated with lymphoma. This study included 16,396 individuals in the SS cohort and 65,584 individuals in the non-SS cohort, all of whom were enrolled in the Taiwan National Health Insurance database between 2000 and 2010. We evaluated the risk factors of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in the primary SS cohort by applying a Cox multivariable proportional-hazards model. We increased the correlation of patients with SS and NHL, with an adjusted HR of 4.314 (95% CI 2.784 - 6.685). Of the 16,396 SS patients, 66 individuals had salivary gland slices without NHL development, while the other 16,330 individuals that did not have salivary gland slices revealed 30 individuals that developed NHL. Of the 16,396 SS patients, 128 individuals underwent immunomodulator agent therapy (including hydroxychloroquine, azathioprine, cyclosporine, methotrexate, and rituximab) without NHL development. None of the 30 individuals that developed NHL from SS received immunomodulator agents. We found that patients with SS were at an increased risk of developing NHL, with the most common NHL subgroup being diffused large B-cell lymphoma. SS patients who were candidates for salivary gland slices or immunomodulator agents were associated with a lower risk of developing lymphoma over time. We recommend that patients at a higher risk upon diagnosis of SS receive close follow-up and aggressive treatment.

  10. Mortality and cardiovascular diseases risk in patients with Barrett's oesophagus: a population-based nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Erichsen, R; Horvath-Puho, E; Lund, J L; Dellon, E S; Shaheen, N J; Pedersen, L; Davey Smith, G; Sørensen, H T

    2017-04-01

    Patients with Barrett's oesophagus may be at increased risk of mortality overall, and cardiovascular disease has been suggested as the main underlying cause of death. To examine cause-specific mortality and risk of cardiovascular events among patients with Barrett's oesophagus. Utilising existing Danish data sources (1997-2011), we identified all patients with histologically verified Barrett's oesophagus (n = 13 435) and 123 526 members of the general population matched by age, sex and individual comorbidities. We calculated cause-specific mortality rates and incidence rates of cardiovascular diseases. We then compared rates between patients with Barrett's oesophagus and the general population comparison cohort, using stratified Cox proportional hazard regression. Patients with Barrett's oesophagus had a 71% increased risk of overall mortality. The cause-specific mortality rate per 1000 person-years for patients with Barrett's oesophagus was 8.5 for cardiovascular diseases, 14.7 for non-oesophageal cancers, and 5.4 for oesophageal cancer. Compared to the general population cohort, corresponding hazard ratios were 1.26 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15-1.38), 1.77 (95% CI: 1.65-1.90), and 19.4 (95% CI: 16.1-23.4), respectively. The incidence rates of cardiovascular diseases per 1000 person-years for Barrett's oesophagus patients and for persons from the general population cohort, respectively, varied from 0.4 and 0.2 for subarachnoid bleeding (hazard ratio 1.10, 95% CI: 0.87-1.39) to 8.1 and 5.9 for congestive heart failure (hazard ratio 1.33, 95% CI: 1.21-1.46). Prophylactic measures targeted at cardiovascular diseases and non-oesophageal cancers potentially could be more important than measures against oesophageal cancer, for improving prognosis among patients with Barrett's oesophagus. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Radiotherapy did not increase thyroid cancer risk among women with breast cancer: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Min; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liang, Ji-An; Huang, Wen-Sheng; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether an increased risk of thyroid cancer exists among women with breast cancer in Taiwan, particularly among those receiving RT. We used data from the National Health Insurance system of Taiwan for the investigation. The breast cancer cohort contained 55,318 women (including 28,187 who received RT and 27,131 who received no RT), each of whom was randomly frequency matched according to age and index year with three women without breast cancer from the general population. Cox's proportion hazards regression analysis was conducted to estimate the effects of breast cancer with or without RT treatment on subsequent thyroid cancer risk. We found that women with breast cancer exhibited a significantly higher risk of subsequent thyroid cancer (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.60-2.44). The two groups (with or without RT) in the breast cancer cohort exhibited significantly increased risks. However, in the breast cancer cohort, the risk of thyroid cancer among women who received RT was not significantly higher than that of women who received no RT (aHR = 1.28, 95% CI = 0.90-1.83). Stratified analysis according to age revealed that only younger women with breast cancer (20-54 y) had a significantly higher risk of developing thyroid cancer. This study determined that Taiwanese women with breast cancer had a higher risk of developing thyroid cancer; however, RT seems to not play a crucial role in this possible relationship. © 2015 UICC.

  12. Increased risk of systemic lupus erythematosus in pregnancy-induced hypertension: A nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Te; Wang, Peng-Hui; Tsui, Kuan-Hao; Cheng, Jiin-Tsuey; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Huang, Wei-Chun; Tang, Pei-Ling; Hu, Li-Yu

    2016-07-01

    Dysregulation of the immune system plays a role in the pathogenesis of both, pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It is well known that SLE predisposes to be complicated with PIH. However, few studies have attempted to investigate whether PIH increased subsequent SLE risk.The objectives of this study were to assess the association between PIH and subsequent SLE risk and identify predictive risk factors.Patients with newly diagnosed PIH were selected from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) and compared with a matched cohort without PIH based on age and the year of delivery. The incidence of new-onset SLE was evaluated in both cohorts. The overall observational period was from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2013.Among the 23.3 million individuals registered in the NHIRD, 29,091 patients with PIH and 116,364 matched controls were identified. The incidence of SLE was higher among patients with PIH than in the matched controls (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 4.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.98-4.05, P < 0.0001). The IRR for subsequent SLE development remained significantly higher in all stratifications during the follow-up years. The multivariate Cox regression model was performed and the results showed that PIH may be an independent risk factors for the development of subsequent SLE (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.87, 95% CI 2.07-3.98, P < 0.0001). Moreover, multivariate Cox regression model was used again among the PIH cohort only in order to identify the possible risk factors for subsequent SLE in the population with PIH.Patients with PIH may have higher risk of developing newly diagnosed SLE than those without PIH. In addition, among individuals who have experienced PIH, those younger than 30 years, having experienced preeclampsia/eclampsia, single parity, preterm birth, or chronic kidney disease, may display an increased subsequent risk of SLE.

  13. Preloss grief in family caregivers during end-of-life cancer care: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Mette Kjaergaard; Neergaard, Mette Asbjoern; Jensen, Anders Bonde; Vedsted, Peter; Bro, Flemming; Guldin, Mai-Britt

    2017-03-07

    Severe grief symptoms in family caregivers during end-of-life cancer trajectories are associated with complicated grief and depression after the loss. Nevertheless, severe grief symptoms during end-of-life caregiving in caregivers to cancer patients have been scarcely studied. We aimed to explore associations between severe preloss grief symptoms in caregivers and modifiable factors such as depressive symptoms, caregiver burden, preparedness for death, and end-of-life communication. We conducted a population-based prospective study of caregivers to 9512 patients registered with drug reimbursement due to terminal illness, and 3635 caregivers responded. Of these, 2865 caregivers to cancer patients completed a preloss grief scale (Prolonged Grief 13, preloss version). Associations with factors measured during end-of-life caregiving were analyzed using logistic regression. Severe preloss grief symptoms were reported by 432 caregivers (15.2%). These symptoms were associated with depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 12.4; 95% CI, 9.5-16.3), high caregiver burden (adjusted OR = 8.3; 95% CI, 6.3-11.1), low preparedness for death (adjusted OR = 3.3; 95% CI, 2.5-4.4), low level of communication about dying (adjusted OR = 3.2; 95% CI, 2.2-4.4), and "too much" prognostic information (adjusted OR = 2.8; 95%, 1.7-4.6). Severe preloss grief symptoms were significantly associated with distress, low preparedness, and little communication during caregiving. Thus, severe preloss grief symptoms may be a key indicator for complications in caregivers of cancer patients in an end-of-life trajectory. Targeted interventions are needed to support family caregivers with severe preloss grief symptoms. Development of preloss grief assessment tools and interventions should be a priority target in future research. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Crime and mortality in a population-based nationwide 1981 birth cohort: Results from the FinnCrime study.

    PubMed

    Elonheimo, Henrik; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Sourander, André

    2017-02-01

    Offending is known to be associated with various health problems and premature death, but previous studies on associations between offending and mortality have often been only with men, convicted offenders or highly selected samples. A more sensitive measure of offending may be preferable when trying to understand the extent of health disadvantages among people who offend. The aim of this paper was to study the associations between investigated offending, death and causes of death in a nationally representative birth cohort. A broad concept of offending was used such that people who had had any contact with the police because they had been suspected of crime were included. Offending data were obtained from the National Police Register for 5405 men and women born in Finland in 1981, spanning their ages 15-30 years; mortality data were received from Statistics Finland. Offending was classified into four categories by frequency: none, 1-4 different offence contacts, 5-27 and 28 or more. Causes of death were categorised into natural, accidents, suicide or homicide. Of the cohort, 2304 (43%) had offended and 57 (1.1%) had died. Associations between offending, mortality and causes of death were analysed, controlling for parental education level and family structure in childhood. The mortality rate was higher among offenders than non-offenders, increasing with rising frequency of offending. The most frequent offenders were nearly 30 times more likely to have died by age 30 than non-offenders (odds ratio 28.6, confidence interval 12.1-67.5); risk was higher for female than male offenders. Death among offenders was less likely to be from natural causes. A heightened risk of premature death is the ultimate form of adverse outcome for offenders. Offenders' health is likely to need more attention as part of their overall management, for recidivists in particular. In our study, offenders' only certain criminal justice contact was with the police, so it may be that the police

  15. Risk of subsequent asthma in children with febrile seizures: a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Ya; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Ku, Yi-Chia; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2014-12-01

    No study has reported a relationship between febrile seizures and asthma; thus, we examined the association between these two disorders. We identified 991 cases of children with febrile seizures as the case cohort, and the control group was matched according to age, sex, urbanization level, and their parents' occupation at a 1:4 ratio. We applied the Cox proportional hazards regression model to estimate the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for asthma among the children with febrile seizures. After 11 years of follow-up, the asthma incidence in the febrile seizure group was approximately 5% higher than that in the control group (log-rank test, P < 0.0001). The risk of asthma in the febrile seizure group was 1.41 times higher than that in the control group (95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.65; P < 0.001). Furthermore, the risk of asthma development increased (0.96 vs 3.62) in conjunction with the frequency of febrile seizure-related medical visits (one to two visits vs more than four visits; P < 0.0001). Febrile seizures may be associated with an increase in the risk of future asthma occurrence in children. We observed a significantly higher cumulative incidence of asthma occurrence in children with more febrile seizure-related medical visits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Change in household income and risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during childhood: A nationwide population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young; Cho, Kyoung Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is reported to be more prevalent among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups in various countries. The effect of poverty on child development appears to depend on how long poverty lasts. The timing of poverty also seems to be important for childhood outcomes. Lifetime socioeconomic status may shape current health. Thus, we investigated the effects of household income changes from birth to 4 years on the occurrence of ADHD. Methods Data were obtained from 18,029 participants in the Korean National Health Insurance cohort who were born in 2002 and 2003. All individuals were followed until December 2013 or the occurrence of ADHD, whichever came first. Household income trajectories were estimated using the national health insurance premium and the group-based model. Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare incidence rates between different income trajectory groups after adjustment for possible confounding risk factors. Results Of 18,029 participants, 554 subjects (3.1%) were identified as having ADHD by age 10 or 11. Seven household income trajectories within three categories were found. Children living in decreasing, consistently low, and consistently mid-low income households had an increased risk of ADHD compared to children who consistently lived in the mid-high household income group. Conclusions Children who live in decreasing-income or consistently low-income households have a higher risk for ADHD. Promotion of targeted policies and priority support may help reduce ADHD in this vulnerable group. PMID:28142012

  17. Increased Risk of Chronic Sinusitis in Adults With Gastroesophgeal Reflux Disease: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Ting-Shou; Yao, Yi-Chien; Li, Ying-Chun

    2015-09-01

    Although gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has been reported to coexist with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), it remains controversial whether it increases risk of CRS in adults. This study accesses risk of CRS in adults with newly diagnosed GERD. We identified 15,807 adult patients with newly diagnosed GERD from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database for January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2009. We also randomly selected 47,421 subjects without this disease and matched them with patients by age, sex, index year, and comorbidity to create a control cohort. A Cox proportional hazards model was conducted to estimate the development of CRS, including CRS without nasal polyps and CRS with nasal polyps. Subjects were followed for a median of 2.12 years. In total, CRS developed in 964 (1.52%) of the subjects: 406 patients with GERD (2.57%) and 558 without it (1.18%). After adjustment, those with GERD were found to have a 2.36 times greater risk of CRS (95% confidence interval = 2.08-2.68; P < .001). Risk of this CRS without nasal polyps was higher than the disease with polyps (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.48 vs 1.85). The individuals with GERD in this study were at significantly greater risk of CRS, most often without nasal polyps.

  18. Risk of head-and-neck cancer following a diagnosis of severe cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: a nationwide population-based cohort study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Svahn, M F; Munk, C; Jensen, S M; von Buchwald, C; Frederiksen, K; Kjaer, S K

    2016-07-01

    Women with a history of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 including adenocarcinoma in situ (CIN3/AIS) may be more prone to develop cancers of the ano-genital region and head-and-neck cancers. The current literature is, however, limited. We established a nationwide cohort of approximately 2,500,000 Danish women born in 1918-1990. By linking the cohort to population-based health registries, we obtained information on CIN3/AIS, cancer, migration, death, education, and smoking. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between CIN3/AIS and risk of head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). HRs were presented for any HNSCC and for four subgroups categorized by their anticipated degree of association with human papillomavirus (HPV). A history of CIN3/AIS was significantly associated with an increased overall relative risk of HNSCC after adjustment for year of birth, attained age, and length of education. The risk was especially high for sites anticipated to be strongly associated with HPV (e.g. base of tongue, tonsils) (HR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.84-3.36). Lower risks were found for sites anticipated to be not or weakly associated with HPV (e.g. nasal cavity, middle ear, sinuses) (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.61-2.76). Women with a history of CIN3/AIS have a significantly higher risk of HNSCC than women without such a history. The increased relative risk persisted for at least 20years after the CIN3/AIS diagnosis. Women with CIN3/AIS may be more susceptible to the consequences of HPV and/or may have higher risk behavior, such as smoking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Initiation and persistence with dual antiplatelet therapy after acute myocardial infarction: a Danish nationwide population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Green, Anders; Pottegård, Anton; Broe, Anne; Diness, Thomas Goldin; Emneus, Martha; Hasvold, Pål; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The study investigated dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) patterns over time and patient characteristics associated with the various treatments in a myocardial infarction (MI) population. Design A registry-based observational cohort study was performed using antecedent data. Setting This study linked morbidity, mortality and medication data from Danish national registries. Participants All 28 449 patients admitted to a Danish hospital with a first-time MI and alive at discharge from 2009 through 2012 were included. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcome was initiation of DAPT and secondary outcomes comprised persistence in DAPT treatment and switches between DAPT treatments. Results The overall proportion of patients prescribed DAPT increased from 68% (CL 95% 67–69%) to 73% (CL 95% 72–74%) from 2009 to 2012. For treatment of patients with and without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), the corresponding numbers were from 87% (CL 95% 86–88%) to 91% (CL 95% 90–92%) and from 49% (CL 95% 47–50%) to 52% (CL 95% 51–54%), respectively. Non-PCI patients had a higher cardiovascular risk compared with PCI patients. Among PCI patients, age>75 years, atrial fibrillation, diabetes and peripheral arterial disease were associated with a higher risk of treatment breaks for DAPT. Among patients without PCI, ticagrelor treatment was associated with an increased risk of treatment breaks during the first 12 months compared with clopidogrel treatment. Conclusions From 2009 to 2012, there was an increase in the proportion of patients with MI receiving DAPT, and a longer duration of DAPT. Still, a large proportion of patients without PCI are discharged either without DAPT or with a short DAPT duration. These findings may indicate the need for more careful attention to DAPT for patients with MI not undergoing PCI in Denmark. PMID:27173812

  20. Risk Factors for Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Patients Taking Selective COX-2 Inhibitors: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xi-Hsuan; Young, Shih-Hao; Luo, Jiing-Chyuan; Peng, Yen-Ling; Chen, Ping-Hsien; Lin, Chung-Chi; Chen, Wei-Ming; Hou, Ming-Chih; Lee, Fa-Yauh

    2017-04-28

     Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors (coxibs) are associated with less upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) than traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (tNSAIDs). However, they also increase the risk of UGIB in high-risk patients. We aimed to identify the risk factors of UGIB in coxibs users. Retrospective cohort study. 2000-2010 National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. Patients taking coxibs as the study group and patients not taking any coxibs as controls. After age, gender, and comorbidity matching by propensity score, 12,145 coxibs users and 12,145 matched controls were extracted for analysis. The primary end point was the occurrence of UGIB. Cox multivariate proportional hazard regression models were used to determine the risk factors for UGIB among all the enrollees and coxibs users. During a mean follow-up of three years, coxibs users had significantly higher incidence of UGIB than matched controls ( P  <   0.001, log-rank test). Cox regression analysis showed that coxibs increased risk of UGIB in all participants (hazard ratio = 1.37, 95% confidence interval = 1.19-1.55, P  < 0.001). Independent risk factors for UGIB among coxibs users were age, male gender, diabetes, chronic renal disease, cirrhosis, history of peptic ulcer disease, PU bleeding (PUB), Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) infection, and concomitant use of tNSAIDs, acetylsalicylic acid, or thienopyridines. Among coxibs users, H. pylori infection and history of PUB were especially important risk factors for UGIB. Further studies are needed to determine whether proton pump inhibitors might play a protective role in these at-risk patients.

  1. Comparison of hospital variation in acute myocardial infarction care and outcome between Sweden and United Kingdom: population based cohort study using nationwide clinical registries.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sheng-Chia; Sundström, Johan; Gale, Chris P; James, Stefan; Deanfield, John; Wallentin, Lars; Timmis, Adam; Jernberg, Tomas; Hemingway, Harry

    2015-08-07

    To assess the between hospital variation in use of guideline recommended treatments and clinical outcomes for acute myocardial infarction in Sweden and the United Kingdom. Population based longitudinal cohort study using nationwide clinical registries. Nationwide registry data comprising all hospitals providing acute myocardial infarction care in Sweden (SWEDEHEART/RIKS-HIA, n=87; 119,786 patients) and the UK (NICOR/MINAP, n=242; 391,077 patients), 2004-10. Between hospital variation in 30 day mortality of patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction. Case mix standardised 30 day mortality from acute myocardial infarction was lower in Swedish hospitals (8.4%) than in UK hospitals (9.7%), with less variation between hospitals (interquartile range 2.6% v 3.5%). In both countries, hospital level variation and 30 day mortality were inversely associated with provision of guideline recommended care. Compared with the highest quarter, hospitals in the lowest quarter for use of primary percutaneous coronary intervention had higher volume weighted 30 day mortality for ST elevation myocardial infarction (10.7% v 6.6% in Sweden; 12.7% v 5.8% in the UK). The adjusted odds ratio comparing the highest with the lowest quarters for hospitals' use of primary percutaneous coronary intervention was 0.70 (95% confidence interval 0.62 to 0.79) in Sweden and 0.68 (0.60 to 0.76) in the UK. Differences in risk between hospital quarters of treatment for non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and secondary prevention drugs for all discharged acute myocardial infarction patients were smaller than for reperfusion treatment in both countries. Between hospital variation in 30 day mortality for acute myocardial infarction was greater in the UK than in Sweden. This was associated with, and may be partly accounted for by, the higher practice variation in acute myocardial infarction guideline recommended treatment in the UK hospitals. High quality healthcare across all hospitals, especially

  2. Dental procedures, antibiotic prophylaxis, and endocarditis among people with prosthetic heart valves: nationwide population based cohort and a case crossover study.

    PubMed

    Tubiana, Sarah; Blotière, Pierre-Olivier; Hoen, Bruno; Lesclous, Philippe; Millot, Sarah; Rudant, Jérémie; Weill, Alain; Coste, Joel; Alla, François; Duval, Xavier

    2017-09-07

    Objective To assess the relation between invasive dental procedures and infective endocarditis associated with oral streptococci among people with prosthetic heart valves.Design Nationwide population based cohort and a case crossover study.Setting French national health insurance administrative data linked with the national hospital discharge database.Participants All adults aged more than 18 years, living in France, with medical procedure codes for positioning or replacement of prosthetic heart valves between July 2008 and July 2014.Main outcome measures Oral streptococcal infective endocarditis was identified using primary discharge diagnosis codes. In the cohort study, Poisson regression models were performed to estimate the rate of oral streptococcal infective endocarditis during the three month period after invasive dental procedures compared with non-exposure periods. In the case crossover study, conditional logistic regression models calculated the odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals comparing exposure to invasive dental procedures during the three month period preceding oral streptococcal infective endocarditis (case period) with three earlier control periods.Results The cohort included 138 876 adults with prosthetic heart valves (285 034 person years); 69 303 (49.9%) underwent at least one dental procedure. Among the 396 615 dental procedures performed, 103 463 (26.0%) were invasive and therefore presented an indication for antibiotic prophylaxis, which was performed in 52 280 (50.1%). With a median follow-up of 1.7 years, 267 people developed infective endocarditis associated with oral streptococci (incidence rate 93.7 per 100 000 person years, 95% confidence interval 82.4 to 104.9). Compared with non-exposure periods, no statistically significant increased rate of oral streptococcal infective endocarditis was observed during the three months after an invasive dental procedure (relative rate 1.25, 95% confidence interval 0.82 to 1

  3. Improved Survival With Integration of Chinese Herbal Medicine Therapy in Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Tom; Chang, Tung-Ti; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Sun, Mao-Feng; Yen, Hung-Rong

    2016-08-16

    Purpose Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most deadly subtype of leukemia, and many patients with this disease seek other complementary therapies, one of which is Chinese medicine. We set out to provide reliable data regarding the benefit of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for AML patients, using mortality as the main outcome measure. We also characterized the herbal prescriptions of patients. Methods Using the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database, we performed a nationwide population-based cohort study among AML patients from 1997 to 2010. The Cox regression model was used to adjust for comorbidities and other variables, and the hazard ratios (HRs) of CHM users and non-CHM users were compared. Results After 1:1 matching, 498 patients were included into the study. The HR of the CHM group was 0.41 (95% CI = 0.26-0.65; P = .0001) compared with the non-CHM group. This decrease in HR was also shown to be dose dependent (P < .001). The 3 single-herbs most commonly prescribed were Salvia miltiorrhiza (Dan Shen), Astragalus membranaceus (Huang Qi), and Spatholobus suberectus (Ji Xue Teng). The 3 mutli-herb products most commonly prescribed were Jia Wei Xiao Yao San, Gui Pi Tang, and Qi Ju Di Huang Wan. Conclusion Prospective controlled clinical data is still needed, however, this study provides real-world data regarding the benefit AML patients may have from CHM. This study suggests that all AML patients, regardless of age or other prognostic factors, may achieve longer survival times when receiving CHM in addition to standard therapy.

  4. Increased risk of borderline ovarian tumors in women with a history of pelvic inflammatory disease: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Christina B; Jensen, Allan; Albieri, Vanna; Andersen, Klaus K; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2016-11-01

    Some studies suggest that pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a potential risk factor for ovarian cancer. However, only few studies have investigated the association between PID and risk of borderline ovarian tumors. We conducted a population-based cohort study to investigate the association between PID and risk of borderline ovarian tumors. Using various nationwide Danish registries we identified all women in Denmark during 1978-2012, who were born during 1940-1970 (n=1,318,925). Of these, 81,263 women were diagnosed with PID in the study period, and 2736 women had a borderline ovarian tumor (1290 serous and 1344 mucinous). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between PID and risk of borderline tumors were estimated using Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders. A history of PID was associated with an increased risk of borderline ovarian tumors (HR=1.39; 95% CI: 1.19-1.61). However, histotype-specific analyses revealed significant variation in risk as PID was only associated with an increased risk of serous borderline tumors (HR=1.85; 95% CI: 1.52-2.24), but not with mucinous borderline tumors (HR=1.06; 95% CI: 0.83-1.35). PID is associated with an increased risk of serous borderline tumors. Further research on the potential underlying biological mechanisms and on the identification of the subset of women with PID who are at increased risk of serous borderline tumors is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Integration of Chinese Herbal Medicine Therapy Improves Survival of Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Tom; Chang, Tung-Ti; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Hsieh, Ching-Yun; Sun, Mao-Feng; Yen, Hung-Rong

    2016-05-01

    Utilization of Chinese Medicine (CM) is not uncommon in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, the current knowledge of the usage and efficacy of CM among CLL patients is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of integrative Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM) on the disease course of CLL and ascertain the herbal products most commonly prescribed to patients with CLL.A Taiwanese nationwide population-based study involving the use of Western medicine and CM services provided by the National Health Insurance (NHI) was conducted.An NHI Research Database-based cohort study was performed; the timeframe of the study was January 2000 to December 2010. The end of the follow-up period was defined as December 31, 2011.A total of 808 patients were diagnosed with CLL in Taiwan within the defined study period. After randomly matching for age and sex and excluding patients younger than 18 years of age, data from 616 patients were analyzed.The 2 study groups both received standard of care treatment. In addition, 1 group also received CHM. Patients who were registered as receiving other forms of CM, such as acupuncture, were excluded.Hazard ratios of mortality were used to determine the influence of CHM and the therapeutic potential of herbal products.In total, 616 CLL patients were included in the analyses. We found that the HR associated with the adjunctive use of CHM was less than half when compared to the non-CHM group (0.43, 95% CI 0.33-0.55, P < 0.0001) and that treatment-naive patients who used CHM had the lowest HR. We also established that this association between reduction in HR and CHM was dose-dependent, and the longer CHM users received prescriptions, the lower the HR (P < 0.001).We supplied data from a relatively large population that spanned a significant amount of time. Our data suggests that the treatment of CLL with adjunctive CHM may have a substantial positive impact on mortality, especially for treatment-naive patients

  6. Long-Term Therapy With Wu-Ling-San, a Popular Antilithic Chinese Herbal Formula, Did Not Prevent Subsequent Stone Surgery: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wu, San-Yuan; Chen, Huey-Yi; Tsai, Kao-Sung; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Sung, Fung-Chang; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Chen, Wen-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), which is widely used to treat pain and urolithiasis, is a promising therapy for urinary stone prevention. This study investigated the clinical efficacy of a popular CHM, Wu-Ling-San (WLS), in Taiwan for the prophylaxis of recurrent nephrolithiasis as assessed by surgical stone treatment via a nationwide population-based cohort study. The National Health Insurance Research Database, 2000-2010, which included one million patient records. All patients diagnosed with stone disease at the beginning of the study. The matched controls (4-fold the number of WLS patients) were stone patients who did not take WLS. Data analysis included the stone surgeries following the first treatment. We enrolled 11 900 patients with stone disease, and the incidence of stone patients in this database was 1.19%. The prevalence of comorbidities such as benign prostate hyperplasia, chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, and urinary tract infection, but not hypertension, was significantly higher in WLS users. Several patients in both groups were prescribed potassium citrate. The stone treatment rate was significantly higher in WLS users (17.85%) than in the non-WLS users (14.47%). WLS users with an associated comorbidity had a higher treatment rate than the non-WLS users: 21.05% versus 16.70%, respectively. The surgery rate for upper urinary tract stones was higher in WLS users than in the non-WLS users (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.52; P < .05). The stone treatment rate (52.79%) was significantly higher in patients who used a very high amount of WLS (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.02; 95% confidence interval, 2.30-3.98). Stone patients using a high amount of WLS use had a high stone surgical rate. Long-term therapy with WLS did not have a preventive effect on stone surgical treatment. Long-term potassium citrate therapy as a preventive measure appeared to be underutilized in this study. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Prolong Exposure of NSAID in Patients With RA Will Decrease the Risk of Dementia: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kuang-Hsi; Hsu, Yi-Chao; Hsu, Chih-Chao; Lin, Cheng-Li; Hsu, Chung Y; Lee, Chang-Yin; Chong, Lee-Won; Liu, Hui-Chuan; Lin, Ming-Chia; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder, primarily affects joints. Several studies have indicated that early inflammation, cardiovascular disease, and depression in patients were associated with a considerably increased risk of dementia. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used for treating RA. NSAIDs facilitate alleviating RA-associated chronic pain, inflammation, and swelling. Therefore, we conducted this nationwide study for evaluating the association between the dementia risk and NSAID treatment in patients with RA.The RA cohort comprised patients aged 20 years and older who were newly diagnosed with RA between 2000 and 2011, with data obtained from the Registry of Catastrophic Illnesses Patient Database (RCIPD). Patients without RA were frequency matched with the RA cohort at a 1:4 ratio according to age, sex, and year of RA diagnosis. The relative risks of dementia were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models.The risk of dementia in the RA cohort was not significantly higher than that in the non-RA cohort (adjusted HR [hazard ratio] = 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.87-1.02). Regarding the duration of NSAID treatment, the risk of dementia was significantly lower when the RA cohort used NSAIDs for >2191 days (HR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.45-0.68).A longer duration of NSAID treatment possibly reduces the risk of dementia. Additional studies are warranted for verifying the association of dementia risk with NSAID treatment in patients with RA.

  8. Atopic dermatitis and association of risk for primary immune thrombocytopenia and autoimmune diseases among children: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chang-Ching; Lin, Cheng-Li; Shen, Te-Chun; Tsai, Jeng-Dau

    2016-07-01

    Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is currently defined as an acquired autoimmune disorder with persistent thrombocytopenia. However, the temporal interaction between T helper type 2 cell (Th2)-mediated allergic diseases and T helper type 1 cell (Th1)-mediated ITP remains unknown. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is considered one of the first steps in the atopic march. Herein, we conducted a population-based cohort analysis to investigate the risk of ITP in children with AD in comparison with non-AD controls. We subsequently compared the occurrence of other autoimmune diseases in ITP children in both AD and non-AD cohorts. From 2000 to 2007, 120,704 children with newly diagnosed AD and 241,408 randomly selected non-AD controls were included in the study. By the end of 2008, incidences of ITP in both cohorts and the AD cohort to non-AD cohort hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were measured. Comparison of the occurrence of other autoimmune diseases in ITP between children with and without AD was analyzed. The incidence of ITP during the study period was 1.72-fold greater (95% CI: 1.13-2.62) in the AD cohort than in the non-AD cohort (6.96 vs 4.00 per 100,000 person-years). The risk was greatest among male children, children >2 years, those in densely populated areas, and those with white-collar parents. The HR of ITP in AD children increased significantly with the number of AD-related clinical visits (P < 0.001). The risk of developing ITP in the AD cohort was highest within the first 3 years after the diagnosis of AD (HR: 1.78; CI: 1.14-2.78). The AD cohort with ITP had a higher occurrence rate of other autoimmune diseases than the non-AD cohort with ITP. AD children had a greater risk of developing ITP and other autoimmune diseases. Further research is needed to clarify the role of allergy in the pathogenesis of ITP and autoimmune diseases.

  9. Association between hyperglycaemic crisis and long-term major adverse cardiovascular events: a nationwide population-based, propensity score-matched, cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Li-Hsin; Lin, Liang-Yu; Tsai, Ming-Tsun; How, Chorng-Kuang; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Hsieh, Vivian Chia-Rong; Hu, Sung-Yuan; Hsieh, Ming-Shun

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hyperglycaemic crisis was associated with significant intrahospital morbidity and mortality. However, the association between hyperglycaemic crisis and long-term cardiovascular outcomes remained unknown. This study aimed to investigate the association between hyperglycaemic crisis and subsequent long-term major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). Participants and methods This population-based cohort study was conducted using data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database for the period of 1996–2012. A total of 2171 diabetic patients with hyperglycaemic crisis fit the inclusion criteria. Propensity score matching was used to match the baseline characteristics of the study cohort to construct a comparison cohort which comprised 8684 diabetic patients without hyperglycaemic crisis. The risk of long-term MACEs was compared between the two cohorts. Results Six hundred and seventy-six MACEs occurred in the study cohort and the event rate was higher than that in the comparison cohort (31.1% vs 24.1%, p<0.001). Patients with hyperglycaemic crisis were associated with a higher risk of long-term MACEs even after adjusting for all baseline characteristics and medications (adjusted HR=1.76, 95% CI 1.62 to 1.92, p<0.001). Acute myocardial infarction had the highest adjusted HR (adjusted HR=2.19, 95% CI 1.75 to 2.75, p<0.001) in the four types of MACEs, followed by congestive heart failure (adjusted HR=1.97, 95% CI 1.70 to 2.28, p<0.001). Younger patients with hyperglycaemic crisis had a higher risk of MACEs than older patients (adjusted HR=2.69 for patients aged 20–39 years vs adjusted HR=1.58 for patients aged >65 years). Conclusions Hyperglycaemic crisis was significantly associated with long-term MACEs, especially in the young population. Further prospective longitudinal study should be conducted for validation. PMID:27554106

  10. Association between hyperglycaemic crisis and long-term major adverse cardiovascular events: a nationwide population-based, propensity score-matched, cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Li-Hsin; Lin, Liang-Yu; Tsai, Ming-Tsun; How, Chorng-Kuang; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Hsieh, Vivian Chia-Rong; Hu, Sung-Yuan; Hsieh, Ming-Shun

    2016-08-23

    Hyperglycaemic crisis was associated with significant intrahospital morbidity and mortality. However, the association between hyperglycaemic crisis and long-term cardiovascular outcomes remained unknown. This study aimed to investigate the association between hyperglycaemic crisis and subsequent long-term major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). This population-based cohort study was conducted using data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database for the period of 1996-2012. A total of 2171 diabetic patients with hyperglycaemic crisis fit the inclusion criteria. Propensity score matching was used to match the baseline characteristics of the study cohort to construct a comparison cohort which comprised 8684 diabetic patients without hyperglycaemic crisis. The risk of long-term MACEs was compared between the two cohorts. Six hundred and seventy-six MACEs occurred in the study cohort and the event rate was higher than that in the comparison cohort (31.1% vs 24.1%, p<0.001). Patients with hyperglycaemic crisis were associated with a higher risk of long-term MACEs even after adjusting for all baseline characteristics and medications (adjusted HR=1.76, 95% CI 1.62 to 1.92, p<0.001). Acute myocardial infarction had the highest adjusted HR (adjusted HR=2.19, 95% CI 1.75 to 2.75, p<0.001) in the four types of MACEs, followed by congestive heart failure (adjusted HR=1.97, 95% CI 1.70 to 2.28, p<0.001). Younger patients with hyperglycaemic crisis had a higher risk of MACEs than older patients (adjusted HR=2.69 for patients aged 20-39 years vs adjusted HR=1.58 for patients aged >65 years). Hyperglycaemic crisis was significantly associated with long-term MACEs, especially in the young population. Further prospective longitudinal study should be conducted for validation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Analysis of Patients with Helicobacter pylori Infection and the Subsequent Risk of Developing Osteoporosis after Eradication Therapy: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Hong-Mo; Hsu, Tai-Yi; Chen, Chih-Yu; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung; Chen, Chao-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies have reported conflicting results on the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and osteoporosis. A few studies have discussed the influence of H. pylori eradication therapy on bone mineral density. Methods We assessed the prevalence of osteoporosis among the H. pylori-infected population in Taiwan and the influence of early and late H. pylori eradication therapy on bone mineral density. Results Using data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified 5,447 patients who received H. pylori eradication therapy from 2000 to 2010 and 21,788 controls, frequency-matched according to age, sex, and year of receiving H. pylori eradication therapy. Those who received H. pylori eradication therapy were divided into two groups based on the time interval between the diagnosis of a peptic ulcer and commencement of eradication therapy. The risk of developing osteoporosis was higher in the early H. pylori treatment cohort (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.23–1.89) and late H. pylori treatment cohort (HR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.39–2.05), compared with the risk in the control cohort. When followed for less than 5 years, both the early and late cohorts had a higher risk of developing osteoporosis (HR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.32–2.16 and HR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.38–2.14). However, when the follow-up period was over 5 years, only the late eradication group exhibited a higher incidence of osteoporosis (HR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.06–2.47). Conclusion The development of osteoporosis is complex and multi-factorial. Via this population-based cohort study and adjustment of possible confounding variables, we found H. pylori infection may be associated with an increased risk of developing osteoporosis in Taiwan. Early eradication could reduce the influence of H. pylori infection on osteoporosis when the follow-up period is greater than 5 years. Further prospective studies are necessary to discover the connection of

  12. Stroke and Risks of Development and Progression of Kidney Diseases and End-Stage Renal Disease: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chia-Lin; Tsai, Chun-Chieh; Kor, Chew-Teng; Tarng, Der-Cherng; Lian, Ie-Bin; Yang, Tao-Hsiang; Chiu, Ping-Fang; Chang, Chia-Chu

    2016-01-01

    Background There is little information about the association between stroke and kidney diseases. We aimed to investigate the impact of stroke on long-term renal outcomes. Methods In this large population-based retrospective cohort study, we identified 100,353 subjects registered in the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2012, including 33,451 stroke patients and 66,902 age-, sex- and Charlson’s comorbidity index score-matched controls. Results The incidence rate of chronic kidney disease (CKD) was higher in the stroke than in the control cohort (17.5 vs. 9.06 per 1000 person-years). After multivariate adjustment, the risk of developing CKD was significantly higher in patients with stroke (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36–1.50, P<0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that stroke patients <50 years (aHR 1.61, P<0.001) and those with concomitant diabetes mellitus (aHR 2.12, P<0.001), hyperlipidemia (aHR 1.53, P<0.001) or gout (aHR 1.84, P<0.001) were at higher risk of incident CKD. Additionally, the risks of progression to advanced CKD and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were significantly higher for stroke patients (aHRs, 1.22 and 1.30; P = 0.04 and P = 0.008, respectively), independent of age, sex, comorbidities and long-term medications. Conclusions Stroke is associated with higher risks for incident CKD, decline in renal function and ESRD. Younger stroke patients, as well as those with concomitant diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia or gout are at greater risk for kidney diseases. PMID:27355475

  13. Maternal use of fertility drugs and risk of cancer in children--a nationwide population-based cohort study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Hargreave, Marie; Jensen, Allan; Nielsen, Thor Schütt Svane; Colov, Emilie Palmgren; Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Pinborg, Anja; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger

    2015-04-15

    Large population-based studies are needed to examine the effect of maternal use of fertility drugs on the risk of cancer in children, while taking into account the effect of the underlying infertility. A cohort of 123,322 children born in Denmark between 1964 and 2006 to 68,255 women who had been evaluated for infertility was established. We used a case-cohort design and calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for cancer in childhood (0-19 years) and in young adulthood (20-29 years) associated with maternal use of six groups of fertility drugs (clomiphene, gonadotropins [i.e., human menopausal gonadotropins and follicle-stimulating hormone], gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs, human chorionic gonadotropins, progesterone and other fertility drugs). We found no statistically significant association between maternal use of fertility drugs and risk for overall cancer in childhood or young adulthood. However, with regard to specific cancers in childhood, our results showed that maternal use of progesterone before childbirth markedly increased the risks of their offspring for acute lymphocytic leukemia (any use: HR, 4.95; 95% CI, 1.69-14.54; ≥ three cycles of use: HR, 9.96; 95% CI, 2.63-37.77) and for sympathetic nervous system tumors (any use: HR, 5.79; 95% CI, 1.23-27.24; ≥ three cycles of use: HR, 8.51; 95% CI, 1.72-42.19). These findings show that maternal use of progesterone may increase the risk for specific cancers in the offspring. Additional large epidemiological studies are urgently needed to confirm our finding. © 2014 UICC.

  14. Risk of cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases: a nationwide population-based cohort study with 30 years of follow-up evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kappelman, Michael D; Farkas, Dora K; Long, Millie D; Erichsen, Rune; Sandler, Robert S; Sørensen, Henrik T; Baron, John A

    2014-02-01

    Data regarding the risk of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal cancers in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are needed to understand the clinical course of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) and their treatments. We performed a nationwide historical cohort study using Danish health care databases. We identified patients with a diagnosis of CD or UC, recorded from 1978 through 2010, and followed them up until the first occurrence of cancer, death, or emigration. We used standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) to compare cancer incidence in CD and UC patients with that expected in the general population. Excluding cancers diagnosed within 1 year of IBD diagnosis, 772 cases of invasive cancer occurred among 13,756 patients with CD (SIR, 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-1.4) and 2331 occurred among 35,152 patients with UC (SIR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.1). CD was associated weakly with gastrointestinal cancers (SIR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.4) and extraintestinal cancers (SIR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2-1.4), with the strongest associations for hematologic malignancies (SIR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.3), smoking-related cancers (SIR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3-1.8), and melanoma (SIR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-1.9). Associations between UC and gastrointestinal and extraintestinal cancers were weaker (SIR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.2; and SIR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.1, respectively). The relative risk of extraintestinal cancers among patients with IBD was relatively stable over time, although the risk of gastrointestinal cancers decreased. Patients with IBD, particularly CD, are at increased risk for gastrointestinal and extraintestinal malignancies. The relative risk of gastrointestinal malignancy has decreased since 1978, without a concomitant increase in the risk of nongastrointestinal malignancy. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of gender on response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1 infected patients: a nationwide population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Impact of gender on time to initiation, response to and risk of modification of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-1 infected individuals is still controversial. Methods From a nationwide cohort of Danish HIV infected individuals we identified all heterosexually infected women (N=587) and heterosexually infected men (N=583) with no record of Hepatitis C infection diagnosed with HIV after 1 January 1997. Among these subjects, 473 women (81%) and 435 men (75%) initiated HAART from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2009. We used Cox regression to calculate hazard ratio (HR) for time to initiation of HAART, Poisson regression to assess incidence rate ratios (IRR) of risk of treatment modification the first year, logistic regression to estimate differences in the proportion with an undetectable viral load, and linear regression to detect differences in CD4 count at year 1, 3 and 6 after start of HAART. Results At initiation of HAART, women were younger, predominantly of Black ethnicity and had a higher CD4 count (adjusted p=0.026) and lower viral load (adjusted p=0.0003). When repeating the analysis excluding pregnant women no difference was seen in CD4 counts (adjusted p=0.21). We observed no delay in time to initiation of HAART in women compared to men (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.79-1.06). There were no gender differences in risk of treatment modification of the original HAART regimen during the first year of therapy for either toxicity (IRR 0.97 95% CI 0.66-1.44) or other/unknown reasons (IRR 1.18 95% CI 0.76-1.82). Finally, CD4 counts and the risk of having a detectable viral load at 1, 3 and 6 years did not differ between genders. Conclusions In a setting with free access to healthcare and HAART, gender does neither affect time from eligibility to HAART, modification of therapy nor virological and immunological response to HAART. Differences observed between genders are mainly attributable to initiation of HAART in pregnant women. PMID:23140254

  16. Permanent work disability before and after ischaemic heart disease or stroke event: a nationwide population-based cohort study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ervasti, Jenni; Virtanen, Marianna; Lallukka, Tea; Friberg, Emilie; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Lundström, Erik; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2017-09-29

    We examined the risk of disability pension before and after ischaemic heart disease (IHD) or stroke event, the burden of stroke compared with IHD and which factors predicted disability pension after either event. A population-based cohort study with follow-up 5 years before and after the event. Register data were analysed with general linear modelling with binary and Poisson distributions including interaction tests for event type (IHD/stroke). All people living in Sweden, aged 25‒60 years at the first event year, who had been living in Sweden for 5 years before the event and had no indication of IHD or stroke prior to the index event in 2006‒2008 were included, except for cases in which death occurred within 30 days of the event. People with both IHD and stroke were excluded, resulting in 18 480 cases of IHD (65%) and 9750 stroke cases (35%). Disability pension. Of those going to suffer IHD or stroke event, 25% were already on disability pension a year before the event. The adjusted OR for disability pension at first postevent year was 2.64-fold (95% CI 2.25 to 3.11) for people with stroke compared with IHD. Economic inactivity predicted disability pension regardless of event type (OR=3.40; 95% CI 2.85 to 4.04). Comorbid mental disorder was associated with the greatest risk (OR=3.60; 95% CI 2.69 to 4.83) after an IHD event. Regarding stroke, medical procedure, a proxy for event severity, was the largest contributor (OR=2.27, 95% CI 1.43 to 3.60). While IHD event was more common, stroke involved more permanent work disability. Demographic, socioeconomic and comorbidity-related factors were associated with disability pension both before and after the event. The results help occupational and other healthcare professionals to identify vulnerable groups at risk for permanent labour market exclusion after such an event. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial

  17. Effect of Ulcerative Colitis on Incidence of Colorectal Cancer: Results from the Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study (2003-2013)

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung-kyu; Kim, Dong-Wook; Shin, Sang-Yun; Park, Eun-Cheol; Kang, Jung-Gu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of death in Korea. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is regarded as a risk factor of CRC. The aim of study is to confirm the incidence of CRC among subjects with and without a diagnosis of UC based on a sample of the Korean population. This study identified the effect of UC on incidence of CRC in Korea. Method: The data were from the population-based cohort containing National Health Insurance (NHI) claims from 2002 to 2013. We washed out first year (2002) for newly detected cases. Subjects who were under 20 years of age, diagnosed UC and CRC in 2002 development of CRC before diagnosis of UC since 2003, were excluded from analyses. Among 745,641 subjects during 11 years of follow-up (2003-2013), 7,448 patients with CRC were newly detected. Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of UC for CRC incidence. Confounding variables including gender, baseline age, type of social security, income level, residence, Charlson Comorbidity Index, hypertension and diabetes mellitus were incorporated into the model. Results: Overall annual incidence of UC and CRC were 6.7 and 95.4 per 100,000 during 11 years (2003~2013), respectively. Among 522 of newly detected UC cases, CRC incident cases were 12 cases during 11 years. The effects were stronger for male. Advancing age and Charlson Comorbidity Index, hypertension and diabetes mellitus increased the risk of CRC. This study showed that the adjusted hazard ratio of UC in incidence of CRC is 1.92 (95% confidence interval: 1.09-3.38). Also, male patients with UC have more HR than female patients with UC. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that patients with UC are the high risk group in incidence of CRC. Furthermore, the effects of UC in male patients are higher than those in female. The future study is needed to identify the effect of UC on mortality of CRC. PMID:27076849

  18. Association of traditional Chinese medicine therapy and the risk of dementia in patients with hypertension: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuen-Hau; Yeh, Ming-Hsien; Livneh, Hanoch; Chen, Bor-Chyuan; Lin, I-Hsin; Lu, Ming-Chi; Tsai, Tzung-Yi; Yeh, Chia-Chou

    2017-03-29

    Patients with hypertension (HTN) reportedly have a higher risk of developing dementia. However, it remains unclear if use of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), the most common form of complementary and alternative medicine, can help lower the risk of dementia for these patients. So the aim of the study was to investigate the effects of TCM on dementia risk among patients with hypertension. This longitudinal cohort study used the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) to identify 143,382 newly diagnosed hypertension patients aged 20-90 years who received treatment between 1998 and 2007. Among them, 52,365 (36.52%) had received TCM after the onset of hypertension (TCM users), and the remaining 91,017 patients (63.48%) were designated as a control group (non-TCM users). All enrollees were followed until the end of 2012 to record the incidence of dementia. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to compute the hazard ratio (HR) of dementia in patients who received TCM. During the 15-year follow-up, 3933 TCM users and 10,316 non-TCM users developed dementia, representing an incidence rate of 8.41 and 11.55%, respectively, per 1000 person-years. TCM users had a significantly reduced risk of dementia compared to non-TCM users (adjusted HR = 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.74-0.81). The predominant effect was observed among those treated with TCM longer than 180 days (adjusted HR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.62-0.69). Among the commonly used TCM products, Tian-Ma-Gou-Teng-Yin, Dan-Shen (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae), Chuan-Niu-Xi (Radix Cyathulae), Ge-Gen (Radix Puerariae), Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San, and Jue-Ming-Zi (Semen Cassiae) were significantly associated with a lower risk of dementia. Results from this population-based study support the effects of TCM on reducing dementia risk, which may provide a reference for dementia prevention strategies.

  19. Surgical treatment for patients with periodontal disease reduces risk of end-stage renal disease: a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Feng; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Ming-Chia; Lin, Shih-Yi; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2014-01-01

    The association between periodontal disease treatment and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) remains unclear. This study aims to determine whether surgical periodontal treatment reduces ESRD risk. From the insurance claims data of patients with periodontal disease who were free of ESRD from 1997 to 2009, 35,496 patients were identified who underwent surgery for subgingival curettage and/or periodontal flap and are considered the treatment cohort. For comparison, 141,824 patients who did not undergo these treatments were considered the no-treatment cohort. Follow-ups were performed until the end of 2009 to estimate the incidence and risk of ESRD in these two cohorts. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate the related hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of ESRD. The incidence of ESRD was lower in the treatment cohort than in the no-treatment cohort (4.66 versus 7.38 per 10,000 person-years), with an adjusted HR of 0.59 (95% CI = 0.46 to 0.75). Sex- and age-specific analysis showed that the incidence rate ratio of the treatment cohort to the no-treatment cohort was higher for women than for men and declined with age. The risks of ESRD were consistently lower in the treatment cohort even when compared by comorbidity. Patients with periodontal disease who undergo procedures for subgingival curettage and/or periodontal flap have a remarkably decreased risk of ESRD.

  20. Relationship Between the Duration of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Favorable Neurological Outcomes After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Prospective, Nationwide, Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Goto, Yoshikazu; Funada, Akira; Goto, Yumiko

    2016-03-18

    The determination of appropriate duration of in-the-field cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients is one of the biggest challenges for emergency medical service providers and clinicians. The appropriate CPR duration before termination of resuscitation remains unclear and may differ based on initial rhythm. We aimed to determine the relationship between CPR duration and post-OHCA outcomes. We analyzed the records of 17 238 OHCA patients (age ≥18 years) who achieved prehospital return of spontaneous circulation. Data were prospectively recorded in a nationwide, Japanese database between 2011 and 2012. The time from CPR initiation to prehospital return of spontaneous circulation (CPR duration) was calculated. The primary end point was 1-month survival with favorable neurological outcomes (Cerebral Performance Category [CPC] scale; CPC 1-2). The 1-month CPC 1-2 rate was 21.8% (n=3771). CPR duration was inversely associated with 1-month CPC 1-2 (adjusted unit odds ratio: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.94-0.95). Among all patients, a cumulative proportion of >99% of 1-month CPC 1-2 was achieved with a CPR duration of 35 minutes. When sorted by the initial rhythm, the CPR duration producing more than 99% of survivors with CPC 1-2 was 35 minutes for shockable rhythms and pulseless electrical activity, and 42 minutes for asystole. CPR duration was independently and inversely associated with favorable 1-month neurological outcomes. The critical prehospital CPR duration for OHCA was 35 minutes in patients with initial shockable rhythms and pulseless electrical activity, and 42 minutes in those with initial asystole. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  1. Impact of dispatcher-assisted bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation on neurological outcomes in children with out-of-hospital cardiac arrests: a prospective, nationwide, population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Goto, Yoshikazu; Maeda, Tetsuo; Goto, Yumiko

    2014-04-30

    The impact of dispatcher-assisted bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on neurological outcomes in children is unclear. We investigated whether dispatcher-assisted bystander CPR shows favorable neurological outcomes (Cerebral Performance Category scale 1 or 2) in children with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Children (n=5009, age<18 years) with OHCA were selected from a nationwide Utstein-style Japanese database (2008-2010) and divided into 3 groups: no bystander CPR (n=2287); bystander CPR with dispatcher instruction (n=2019); and bystander CPR without dispatcher instruction (n=703) groups. The primary endpoint was favorable neurological outcome at 1 month post-OHCA. Dispatcher CPR instruction was offered to 53.9% of patients, significantly increasing bystander CPR provision rate (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 7.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.60 to 8.57). Bystander CPR with and without dispatcher instruction were significantly associated with improved 1-month favorable neurological outcomes (aOR, 1.81 and 1.68; 95% CI, 1.24 to 2.67 and 1.07 to 2.62, respectively), compared to no bystander CPR. Conventional CPR was associated with increased odds of 1-month favorable neurological outcomes irrespective of etiology of cardiac arrest (aOR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.56 to 3.41). However, chest-compression-only CPR was not associated with 1-month meaningful outcomes (aOR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.67 to 1.64). In children with OHCA, dispatcher-assisted bystander CPR increased bystander CPR provision rate and was associated with improved 1-month favorable neurological outcomes, compared to no bystander CPR. Conventional bystander CPR was associated with greater likelihood of neurologically intact survival, compared to chest-compression-only CPR, irrespective of cardiac arrest etiology.

  2. Criminal offending among males and females between ages 15 and 30 in a population-based nationwide 1981 birth cohort: results from the FinnCrime Study.

    PubMed

    Elonheimo, Henrik; Gyllenberg, David; Huttunen, Jukka; Ristkari, Terja; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Sourander, André

    2014-12-01

    We describe the epidemiology of crime between ages 15 and 30 in a population-based sample. We received police register data for 5405 males and females, representing the children born in Finland in 1981. We classified crimes into drug, violent, property, traffic, drunk driving, and sexual crimes, excluding minor traffic offenses. Of males, 60% and of females, 25% were registered for offending. For males, prevalence peaked in late adolescence, while for females, there was no peak age. Offending frequency remained stable for male offenders but was lower among adolescent female offenders. All crime types overlapped each other. Crime accumulated: 1% committed 34% of male and 56% of female offenses. In conclusion, the adolescent peak in offending reflects peaking prevalence among males, not females, nor frequency of offending among offenders. The crime problem is focused on two key groups: late adolescent males and the few males and females in whom crime concentrates. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Duration of Prehospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Favorable Neurological Outcomes for Pediatric Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrests: A Nationwide, Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Goto, Yoshikazu; Funada, Akira; Goto, Yumiko

    2016-12-20

    The appropriate duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) remains unclear and may differ based on initial rhythm. We aimed to determine the relationship between the duration of prehospital CPR by emergency medical services (EMS) personnel and post-OHCA outcomes. We analyzed the records of 12 877 pediatric patients who experienced OHCAs (<18 years of age). Data were recorded in a nationwide Japanese database between 2005 and 2012. Study end points were 30-day survival and 30-day survival with favorable neurological outcomes (Cerebral Performance Category [CPC] scale 1-2). Prehospital EMS-initiated CPR duration was defined as the time from CPR initiation by EMS personnel to prehospital return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) or to hospital arrival when prehospital ROSC was not achieved during prehospital CPR efforts. The rates of 30-day survival and 30-day CPC 1 to 2 were 9.1% (n=1167) and 2.5% (n=325), respectively. Prehospital EMS-initiated CPR duration was significantly and inversely associated with 30-day outcomes (adjusted odds ratio for 1-minute increments: 0.94, 95% confidence interval: 0.93-0.95 for survival; adjusted odds ratio: 0.90, 95% confidence interval: 0.88-0.92 for CPC 1-2). The duration of prehospital EMS-initiated CPR, beyond which the chance for favorable outcomes diminished to <1%, was 42 minutes for each key outcome, 30-day survival, and 30-day survival with CPC 1 to 2. When categorized by initial rhythm, the prehospital EMS-initiated CPR durations beyond which the chance for 30-day survival with CPC 1 to 2 diminished to <1% were 39 minutes for shockable rhythms, 42 minutes for pulseless electric activity, and 46 minutes for asystole, respectively. In patients with bystander-initiated CPR, the prehospital CPR duration, beyond which the chance for favorable outcome diminished to <1%, was 46 minutes from call receipt. Prehospital EMS-initiated CPR duration for pediatric OHCAs was

  4. An Independent Risk of Gout on the Development of Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism: A Nationwide, Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Chung; Huang, Po-Hao; Chen, Jiunn-Horng; Lan, Joung-Liang; Tsay, Gregory J; Lin, Hsiao-Yi; Tseng, Chun-Hung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Hsu, Chung-Yi

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies indicated that gout is a risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to determine if patients with gout have an increased risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE).We used the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database, a subset of the national insurance claim dataset, which enrolled 1 million Taiwanese to identify 57,981 patients with gout and 115,961 reference subjects matched by sex, age, and entry date of diagnosis. The risk of DVT and PE was analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model.In this Taiwanese dataset observed from 2000 to 2010, we found the incidence of DVT was 5.26 per 10 person-years in the gout cohort, which was twofold higher than the incidence of 2.63 per 10 person-years in the reference cohort. After adjusting for age, sex, and 9 comorbidities, the hazard ratio (HR) of developing DVT was 1.66 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.37-2.01). Among patients with gout, the youngest age group had the highest increase in the risk of developing DVT (HR [95% CI] = 2.04 [1.24-3.37] for ages 20 to 49 years, 1.80 [1.28-2.51] for ages 50 to 64 years, and 1.45 [1.11-1.91] for ages ≥65 years). The incidence of PE was about one-fifth that of DVT in gout patients, but the effect of gout on the risk was similar (HR [95% CI] = 1.53 [1.01-2.29]).Our analysis confirmed that gout increased the risk of DVT and PE. Further exploration is needed in the future.

  5. Different Risk of Common Gastrointestinal Disease Between Groups Undergoing Hemodialysis or Peritoneal Dialysis or With Non-End Stage Renal Disease: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Che; Hung, Shih-Yuan; Wang, Hsi-Hao; Wang, Hao-Kuang; Lin, Chi-Wei; Chang, Min-Yu; Ho, Li-Chun; Chen, Yi-Ting; Wu, Ching-Fang; Chen, Ho-Ching; Wang, Wei-Ming; Sung, Junne-Ming; Chiou, Yuan-Yow; Lin, Sheng-Hsiang

    2015-09-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is one type of renal replacement therapy, but potential peritoneal damage and gastrointestinal (GI) tract adverse effects during long-term exposure to bio-incompatible dialysate remain a concern. Although GI disease frequently occurs in dialysis patients, whether the risk of GI diseases differs among PD and hemodialysis (HD) or non-uremic groups is still uncertain.In this retrospective cohort study, data were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database, which includes almost all dialysis patients in Taiwan. Between 2000 and 2009, a total of 1791 PD and 8955 HD incident patients were enrolled and matched for age and sex or for propensity score. In addition, a comparison cohort of 8955 non-uremic patients was also selected. Individuals were monitored for the occurrence of common GI diseases until 2010, and data were analyzed using several different models.Generally speaking, the results showed that the risk of gastroesophageal reflux, intestinal obstruction or adhesions, and abdominal hernia was significantly higher in the PD group, whereas the risk of peptic ulcer disease and lower GI diverticula and bleeding was significantly greater in the HD group. Meanwhile, the risk of mesenteric ischemia, liver cirrhosis, and acute pancreatitis was higher in dialysis patients, but was not significantly different between the PD and HD groups; moreover, the risk of appendicitis in the PD group appeared to be lower than that in the HD group.In conclusion, dialysis patients have a higher risk of most common GI diseases, and PD and HD modalities are associated with different GI diseases.

  6. Risk of Esophageal Cancer Following Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy in Head and Neck Cancer Patients: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kuen-Tze; Lin, Chun-Shu; Lee, Shih-Yu; Huang, Wen-Yen; Chang, Wei-Kuo

    2016-03-01

    Esophageal cancers account for majority of synchronous or metachronous head and neck cancers. This study examined the risk of esophageal cancer following percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in head and neck cancer patients using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. From 1997 to 2010, we identified and analyzed 1851 PEG patients and 3702 sex-, age-, and index date-matched controls. After adjusting for esophagitis, esophagus stricture, esophageal reflux, and primary sites, the PEG cohort had a higher adjusted hazard ratio (2.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09-4.09) of developing esophageal cancer than the controls. Primary tumors in the oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx were associated with higher incidence of esophageal cancer. The adjusted hazard ratios were 1.49 (95% CI = 1.01-1.88), 3.99 (95% CI = 2.76-4.98), and 1.98 (95% CI = 1.11-2.76), respectively. Head and neck cancer patients treated with PEG were associated with a higher risk of developing esophageal cancer, which could be fixed by surgically placed tubes.

  7. Comparison of treatment effectiveness and medical costs for different long-acting injectable antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia in Taiwan: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chi-Shin; Cheng, I-Chih; Feng, Jung; Chen, Chun-Lin

    2016-05-01

    To assess the comparative effectiveness and medical costs of five long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics, flupentixol, fluphenazine, haloperidol, risperidone, and clopentixol/zuclopentixol, in patients with schizophrenia. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with schizophrenia using data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients aged 15years or older who began treatment with LAI antipsychotics between June 1, 2004 and December 31, 2008 were enrolled and followed for 1year. We evaluated the medical costs and treatment effectiveness, which was assessed using the rates of treatment discontinuation, psychiatric hospitalization, and emergency department visits. Risperidone was used as a reference group. Compared to risperidone, flupentixol was associated with higher hazard ratios of treatment discontinuation and psychiatric hospitalization, fluphenazine was associated with higher hazard ratios of treatment discontinuation, and haloperidol was associated with higher rates of psychiatric hospitalization and emergence department visits. However, fluphenazine, flupentixol, and haloperidol were associated with lower medical costs compared to risperidone. Clopentixol/zuclopentixol was inferior to risperidone in treatment effectiveness and medical cost. Our findings suggest that patients taking the LAI risperidone may be more effective in some but not all outcome measures; however, risperidone was also associated with higher medical costs in the Taiwanese healthcare setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk of asthma exacerbation associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in childhood asthma: A nationwide population-based cohort study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lo, Pei-Chia; Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Lin, Shun-Ku; Lai, Jung-Nien

    2016-10-01

    Patients allergic to aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) who develop respiratory reactions such as bronchospasm or asthma exacerbation have aspirin-induced asthma or NSAIDs-exacerbated respiratory disease. However, large-scale studies have not been conducted to investigate the risk of aspirin/NSAIDs exposure in children with asthma. Therefore, this study evaluated the relationship between aspirin/NSAIDs and the risk of asthma exacerbation in children with asthma.This retrospective cohort study was conducted using the data of 1 million random beneficiaries of the Taiwan National Health Insurance program between 1997 and 2012. Children aged ≦18 years diagnosed with asthma by physicians were enrolled. The study population was divided into the index group (concurrently using antiasthmatic agents and NSAIDs patients) and reference group (using antiasthmatic drugs alone), and the relative risks (RRs) of hospitalizations resulting from asthma exacerbation in both groups were estimated.The rate of asthma exacerbation was higher in the index group than the reference group, resulting in asthma-related hospitalizations (RR: 1.49, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.37-1.61; adjusted RR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.30-1.53). Short-term aspirin, ibuprofen, and diclofenac use probably correlated with asthma exacerbation in children with asthma. No association between long-term aspirin, ibuprofen, and diclofenac consumption and the risk of asthma exacerbation was identified in this study.

  9. Associations between prescribed Chinese herbal medicine and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic hepatitis B: a nationwide population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tzung-Yi; Livneh, Hanoch; Hung, Tsung-Hsing; Lin, I -Hsin; Lu, Ming-Chi; Yeh, Chia-Chou

    2017-01-01

    Objective Patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) are reported to exhibit higher risk of subsequent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, it remains unclear if Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), an important category of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), may lower HCC risk in this population. So this study aimed to investigate the effects of CHM on HCC risk among patients with CHB. Methods This cohort study used the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database to identify 21 020 newly diagnosed patients with CHB from 1998 to 2007. Among them, 8640 received CHM products after CHB onset (CHM users), and the remaining 12 380 patients were designated as a control group (non-CHM users). All enrolees were followed until the end of 2012 to measure the incidence rate and HR of HCC. Results During 15 years of follow-up, 371 CHM users and 958 non-CHM users developed HCC, representing an incidence rate of 5.28% and 10.18% per 1000 person-years, respectively. CHM users had significantly lower HCC risk compared with non-CHM users (adjusted HR=0.63, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.72). The predominant effect was observed in those receiving CHM products for more than 180 days (adjusted HR=0.52). Some CHM products, such as Hedyotis diffusa, Scutellaria barbata, Rehmannia glutinosa, Isatis tinctoria, Yi Guan Jian, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Wu Ling San and Gan Lu Yin, were significantly associated with lower risk of HCC. Conclusions The use of CHM was associated with a significantly reduced HCC risk in patients with CHB, which supports the integration of TCM with CHM into clinical practice to influence a favourable prognosis. PMID:28122837

  10. Comparative Outcome Analysis of Penicillin-Based Versus Fluoroquinolone-Based Antibiotic Therapy for Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chi-Chuan; Lin, Chia-Hui; Lin, Kuan-Yin; Chuang, Yu-Chung; Sheng, Wang-Huei

    2016-02-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common but potentially life-threatening condition, but limited information exists on the effectiveness of fluoroquinolones compared to β-lactams in outpatient settings. We aimed to compare the effectiveness and outcomes of penicillins versus respiratory fluoroquinolones for CAP at outpatient clinics.This was a claim-based retrospective cohort study. Patients aged 20 years or older with at least 1 new pneumonia treatment episode were included, and the index penicillin or respiratory fluoroquinolone therapies for a pneumonia episode were at least 5 days in duration. The 2 groups were matched by propensity scores. Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare the rates of hospitalizations/emergence service visits and 30-day mortality. A logistic model was used to compare the likelihood of treatment failure between the 2 groups.After propensity score matching, 2622 matched pairs were included in the final model. The likelihood of treatment failure of fluoroquinolone-based therapy was lower than that of penicillin-based therapy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.88; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 0.77-0.99), but no differences were found in hospitalization/emergence service (ES) visits (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.27; 95% CI, 0.92-1.74) and 30-day mortality (adjusted HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.30-1.62) between the 2 groups.The likelihood of treatment failure of fluoroquinolone-based therapy was lower than that of penicillin-based therapy for CAP on an outpatient clinic basis. However, this effect may be marginal. Further investigation into the comparative effectiveness of these 2 treatment options is warranted.

  11. Nationwide and population-based prescription patterns in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe prescription patterns and changes in these patterns over the last decade for patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder in mental healthcare, using population-based and nationwide data, and to relate the findings to recommendations from international guidelines. A population-based, nationwide study was carried out. It included register-based longitudinal data on all patients with a first-ever contact with mental healthcare with a diagnosis of mania/bipolar disorder from the entire Danish population, and all prescription data for this population during the decade from 2000 to 2011, inclusive. A total of 3,205 patients were included in the study. Lithium was prescribed less, and antiepileptic and atypical antipsychotic agents were prescribed substantially more during the study period. Lithium went from being the first drug prescribed to being the last, and was replaced by atypical antipsychotic agents. Antiepileptic agents went from being the fourth to the second drug class prescribed, and the prescription of antidepressants was virtually unchanged, at a high level, during the decade (one-year value 40-60%). The prescription of lamotrigine and quetiapine increased substantially. Combination therapy increased for all drug combinations, except for lithium combined with antidepressants. Major changes took place in drug prescriptions during the study period. The decrease in the use of lithium and the constant high use of antidepressants do not align with recommendations from international guidelines. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Gastroesophageal reflux disease and atrial fibrillation: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chin-Chou; Chan, Wan-Leong; Luo, Jiing-Chyuan; Chen, Yu-Chun; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chung, Chia-Min; Huang, Po-Hsun; Lin, Shing-Jong; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Leu, Hsin-Bang

    2012-01-01

    Precise mechanisms of atrial fibrillation (AF) are uncertain, but their association with esophageal disorders has been recently proposed. The association between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), the most common gastroesophageal disorder, and AF remains undetermined. We therefore aimed to investigate the association between GERD and later development of AF. Patients with GERD were identified from the 1,000,000-person cohort dataset sampled from the Taiwan National Health Insurance database. The study cohort comprised 29,688 newly diagnosed adult GERD patients; 29,597 randomly selected age-, gender-, comobidity-matched subjects comprised the comparison cohort. Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed as a means of comparing the AF-free survival rate for the two cohorts. During a maximum three years of follow-up, a total of 351 patients experienced AF, including 184 (0.62%) patients in the GERD cohort and 167 (0.56%) in the control group. The log-rank test showed that patients with GERD had significantly higher incidence of AF than those without GERD (p = 0.024). After Cox proportional hazard regression model analysis, GERD was independently associated with the increased risk of AF (hazard ratio, 1.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.61, p = 0.013). GERD was independently associated with an increased risk of future AF in a nationwide population-based cohort.

  13. The Association Between Barium Examination and Subsequent Appendicitis: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao-Ming; Yeh, Lee-Ren; Huang, Ying-Kai; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2017-01-01

    The incidence and association between appendicitis and barium examination (BE) remain unclear. Such potential risk may be omitted. We conducted a longitudinal, nationwide, population-based cohort study to investigate the association between BE and appendicitis risk. From the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, a total of 24,885 patients who underwent BE between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010 were enrolled in a BE cohort; an additional 98,384 subjects without BE exposure were selected as a non-BE cohort, matched by age, sex, and index date. The cumulative incidences of subsequent appendicitis in the BE and non-BE cohorts were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were employed to calculate the appendicitis risk between the groups. The cumulative incidence of appendicitis was higher in the BE cohort than in the non-BE cohort (P = .001). The overall incidence rates of appendicitis for the BE and non-BE cohorts were 1.19 and 0.80 per 1000 person-years, respectively. After adjustment for sex, age, and comorbidities, the risk of appendicitis was higher in the BE cohort (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.46, 95% confidence interval = 1.23-1.73) compared with the non-BE cohort, especially in the first 2 months (adjusted hazard ratio = 9.72, 95% confidence interval = 4.65-20.3). BE was associated with an increased, time-dependent appendicitis risk. Clinicians should be aware of this potential risk to avoid delayed diagnoses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Risks of subsequent epilepsy among patients with hypertensive encephalopathy: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tzu-Tsao; Lin, Chi-Yu; Huang, Wen-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Li; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2013-11-01

    To determine whether the diagnosis of hypertensive encephalopathy (HE) is linked to an increased risk of subsequent epilepsy by using a nationwide population-based retrospective study. Our study featured a study cohort and a comparison cohort. The study cohort consisted of all patients with newly diagnosed HE between 1997 and 2010, compiled from universal insurance claims data on patients with hypertension taken from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The comparison cohort comprised the remaining hypertensive patients without encephalopathy. The follow-up period was terminated following the development of epilepsy, death, withdrawal from the National Health Insurance system, or the end of 2010. We determined the cumulative incidences and hazard ratios (HRs) of epilepsy development. The incidence of subsequent epilepsy was 2.25-fold higher in the patients with HE than in comparisons (4.17 vs. 1.85 per 1000 person-years), with an adjusted HR of 2.06 (95% CI=1.66-2.56) in the multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis. The incidence of epilepsy was higher in men, younger patients with HE, and those with brain disorders. We found that, in Taiwan, patients with HE are at an increased risk of subsequent epilepsy. Physicians should be aware of HE's link to epilepsy when assessing patients with HE. © 2013.

  15. Inverse Association of Parkinson Disease With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Nationwide Population-based Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng-Cheng; Huang, Wen-Yen; Lin, Te-Yu; Shen, Chih-Hao; Chou, Yu-Ching; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Kuen-Tze; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-11-01

    The effects of the inflammatory mediators involved in systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) on subsequent Parkinson disease have been reported, but no relevant studies have focused on the association between the 2 diseases. This nationwide population-based study evaluated the risk of Parkinson disease in patients with SLE.We identified 12,817 patients in the Taiwan National Health Insurance database diagnosed with SLE between 2000 and 2010 and compared the incidence rate of Parkinson disease among these patients with that among 51,268 randomly selected age and sex-matched non-SLE patients. A Cox multivariable proportional-hazards model was used to evaluate the risk factors of Parkinson disease in the SLE cohort.We observed an inverse association between a diagnosis of SLE and the risk of subsequent Parkinson disease, with the crude hazard ratio (HR) being 0.60 (95% confidence interval 0.45-0.79) and adjusted HR being 0.68 (95% confidence interval 0.51-0.90). The cumulative incidence of Parkinson disease was 0.83% lower in the SLE cohort than in the non-SLE cohort. The adjusted HR of Parkinson disease decreased as the follow-up duration increased and was decreased among older lupus patients with comorbidity.We determined that patients with SLE had a decreased risk of subsequent Parkinson disease. Further research is required to elucidate the underlying mechanism.

  16. Patient characteristics and cancer prevalence in the Danish cancer patient pathway for patients with serious non-specific symptoms and signs of cancer-A nationwide, population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Moseholm, E; Lindhardt, B Ø

    2017-08-12

    A new cancer patient pathway for patients presenting with non-specific signs and symptoms (NSSC-CPP) was implemented nationally in Denmark in 2012. This study aims to describe, on a national level, the characteristics of patients referred to the Danish NSSC-CPP, and to estimate the prevalence and distribution of cancers and other diagnosis in this population. A population-based cohort study using the Danish national registries, including all patients who completed a diagnostic course through the NSSC-CPP between 2012 and 2015. Cancer prevalence is presented as the percentage of included patients who were diagnosed with cancer after completing a NSSC-CPP diagnostic course. Associations between patient characteristics and cancer diagnosis were estimated in a multivariate logistic regression model. The mean age of the 23,934 patients included in the analysis was 64.6 years and 47% where male. In total, 11% of all patients received a cancer diagnosis after completing a diagnostic course in the NSSC-CPP; the most common types were breast cancer (18%) hematopoietic and lymphoid tissue cancer (15%), and malignant melanoma (12%). The most common non-cancer diagnosis was non-specific symptoms/observation (54%). Fifty-five patients were diagnosed with cancer within six months following a non-cancer diagnosis in the NSSC-CPP. The prevalence of cancer in the NSSC-CPP was 11%. The most common cancer diagnosis was breast cancer, hematopoietic and lymphoid cancer and malignant melanoma. A small proportion of patients receiving a non-cancer diagnosis in the NSSC-CPP were diagnosed with cancer in the six months following their NSSC-CPP course. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Methods of Suicide among Cancer Patients: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Kuo-Hsuan; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2010-01-01

    A 3-year nationwide population-based data set was used to explore methods of suicide (violent vs. nonviolent) and possible contributing factors among cancer patients in Taiwan. A total of 1,065 cancer inpatients who committed suicide were included as our study sample. The regression shows that those who had genitourinary cancer were 0.55 times (p…

  18. Tuberculosis infection in primary Sjögren's syndrome: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Sheng; Liu, Chia-Jen; Ou, Shou-Ming; Hu, Yu-Wen; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Lee, Hui-Ting; Chang, Chi-Ching; Chou, Chung-Tei

    2014-03-01

    Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a systemic autoimmune disease and may complicate with interstitial lung disease. The risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) infection in patients with pSS has not been determined. This nationwide population-based study aimed to explore the incidence and risk factors of TB infection in patients with pSS. We identified 4,822 pSS patients from the Taiwan National Health Insurance database and compared the incidence rates of TB infection in these patients with 48,220 randomly selected age-, sex-, and comorbidity-matched subjects without pSS. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to identify risk factors for TB in patients with pSS. The risk of TB was higher in the pSS cohort than in the control cohort with an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 1.58 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.13-2.18, p = 0.006). The risk factors for TB in the pSS cohort were age ≥60 years (hazard ratio [HR] 3.22, 95% CI 1.78-5.84; p < 0.001), and corticosteroid usage, which had a dose-dependent effect in the pSS patients compared to the nonusers (daily prednisolone dose or equivalent less than 5 mg/day: HR 2.34; p = 0.020, 95% CI 1.14-4.78; 5 mg/day to less than 10 mg/day: HR 4.79, 95% CI 2.15-10.68; p < 0.001; 10 mg/day or more: HR 12.19, 95% CI 4.42-33.63; p < 0.001). Patients with pSS had a higher risk of pulmonary TB in Taiwan, which was related to age ≥60 years and corticosteroid usage.

  19. Association between chronic osteomyelitis and deep-vein thrombosis. Analysis of a nationwide population-based registry.

    PubMed

    Lin, T-Y; Chen, Y-G; Huang, W-Y; Lin, C-L; Peng, C-L; Sung, F-C; Kao, C-H

    2014-09-02

    Studies on the association between chronic osteomyelitis and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) are scarce. The aim of this study was to analyse a nationwide population-based database for association between DVT or PE after a diagnosis of chronic osteomyelitis. This nationwide population-based cohort study was based on data obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database from 1998 to 2008, with a follow-up period extending to the end of 2010. We identified patients with chronic osteomyelitis using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. The patients with chronic osteomyelitis and comparison controls were selected by 1:1 matching on a propensity score. The propensity score was calculated by a logistic regression to estimate the probability of the treatment assignment given the baseline variables including age, sex, and Charlson comorbidity index score. We analysed the risks of DVT and PE by using Cox proportional hazards regression models, including sex, age, and comorbidities. In total, 24,335 chronic osteomyelitis patients and 24,335 controls were enrolled in the study. The risk of developing DVT was 2.49-fold in patients with chronic osteomyelitis compared with the comparison cohort, after adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities. The multiplicative increased risks of DVT were also significant in patients with chronic osteomyelitis with any comorbidity. In conclusion, physicians should consider chronic osteomyelitis in their evaluation of risk factors for DVT.

  20. Socioeconomic inequality in clinical outcome among hip fracture patients: a nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, P K; Thillemann, T M; Pedersen, A B; Søballe, K; Johnsen, S P

    2017-04-01

    The evidence is limited regarding the association between socioeconomic status and the clinical outcome among patients with hip fracture. In this nationwide, population-based cohort study, higher education and higher family income were associated with a substantially lower 30-day mortality and risk of unplanned readmission after hip fracture.

  1. Obstetric risk factors for umbilical cord prolapse: a nationwide population-based study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Junichi; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Ishiwata, Isamu; Kinoshita, Katsuyuki

    2016-09-01

    To demonstrate the clinical course and the obstetric risk factors for umbilical cord prolapse. The clinical course of reported cases of umbilical cord prolapse that occurred in Japan between 2007 and 2011 was retrospectively analyzed. The obstetric risk factors for umbilical cord prolapse were investigated by a nationwide population-based case-cohort study. Three hundred and sixty-nine cases (0.018 %) of fore-lying/prolapsed umbilical cord in 2,037,460 deliveries were analyzed. Most cases of fore-lying umbilical cord were diagnosed by an ultrasound scan (78 %), whereas umbilical cord prolapse was most frequently diagnosed by an internal examination (63 %). Umbilical cord prolapse was found to be significantly associated with the following factors: multiple pregnancy [odds ratio (OR) 3.57; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 2.60, 4.90], non-vertex presentation (OR 4.67; 95 %CI 3.73, 5.86), preterm labor (OR 2.28; 95 %CI 1.83, 2.83), premature rupture of membranes (OR 3.84; 95 %CI 3.10, 4.77), prolapsed amniotic bag (OR 12.31; 95 %CI 9.00, 16.85), polyhydramnios (OR 2.89; 95 %CI 1.49, 5.61), and a birth weight of <2500 g (OR 2.26; 95 %CI 1.84, 2.79). The current study is the largest in Japan to demonstrate the obstetric clinical course and risk factors associated with umbilical cord prolapse. Prolapsed amniotic bag, labor and rupture of membrane during premature period, and fetal abnormal presentation induced by multiple pregnancy, and polyhydramnios were high risk situation for umbilical cord prolapse.

  2. Herpes zoster as a risk factor for osteoporosis: A 15-year nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chieh-Hsin; Chai, Chee-Yin; Tung, Yi-Ching; Lu, Ying-Yi; Su, Yu-Feng; Tsai, Tai-Hsin; Tzou, Rong-Dar; Lin, Chih-Lung

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the risk of osteoporosis in patients with herpes zoster (HZ) infection using a nationwide population-based dataset. The Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database was used to compare data between 11,088 patients aged 20 to 49 years diagnosed with HZ during 1996 to 2010 and a control group of 11,088 patients without HZ. Both cohorts were followed up until the end of 2010 to measure the incidence of osteoporosis. Cox proportional-hazards regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to calculate hazard ratio and cumulative incidences of osteoporosis, respectively. The overall risk of osteoporosis was 4.55 times greater in the HZ group than in the control group (2.48 vs. 0.30 per 1000 person-years, respectively) after adjusting for age, gender, Charlson Comorbidity Index, and related comorbidities. Compared with controls, patients with HZ and subsequent postherpetic neuralgia had a 4.76-fold higher likelihood of developing osteoporosis (95% confidence interval: 2.44-9.29), which was a statistically significant difference (P <0.001). Osteoporosis risk factors included female gender, age, advanced Charlson Comorbidity Index, depression, and postherpetic neuralgia. This study identified HZ is associated with an increased osteoporosis risk. Further evaluation of the value of bone mineral density test in detecting osteoporosis after HZ may be suggested. HZ vaccination could also be evaluated to lower the incidence of HZ and possibly subsequent osteoporosis. Physicians should be alerted to this association to improve early identification of osteoporosis in patients with HZ.

  3. The association between continuous positive airway pressure therapy and liver disease development in obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome patients: a nationwide population-based cohort study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hang, Liang-Wen; Chen, Chi-Fung; Wang, Chang-Bi; Wu, Trong-Neng; Liang, Wen-Miin; Chou, Tzu-Chieh

    2017-05-01

    Studies on the association between continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment and liver diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cirrhosis in patients with obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) are limited. To the best of our knowledge, none exists that makes use of a national database in an Asian population. This study aims to evaluate the effects of CPAP treatment on patients with these two disorders in a retrospective, population-based study in Taiwan. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims database, this study collected the data of OSAHS patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2008 and divided them into CPAP treatment and non-CPAP treatment groups. All subjects were followed up until 2010. Liver disease incidence and risk were calculated. The CPAP group had a lower cumulative incidence rate of developing liver disease than the non-CPAP group within the observation periods (p < 0.001). After adjusting for age, gender, urbanization level, and comorbidities, the CPAP treatment group showed a lower risk of developing liver disease compared with the non-CPAP treatment group (sub-aHR of 0.66 (95% CI 0.55-0.80), p < 0.001). Our observations suggest that CPAP treatment may play an important role to delay the progression of liver disease in OSAHS patients and decreases the incidence of liver disease among OSAHS patients. Thus, CPAP therapy may be a feasible way to decrease the risk of liver disease among patients with OSAHS.

  4. Are regional variations in activity of dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation associated with out-of-hospital cardiac arrests outcomes? A nation-wide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Taiki; Kamikura, Takahisa; Funada, Akira; Myojo, Yasuhiro; Ishida, Tetsuya; Inaba, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (DA-CPR) impacts the rates of bystander CPR (BCPR) and survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs). This study aimed to elucidate whether regional variations in indexes for BCPR and emergency medical service (EMS) may be associated with OHCA outcomes. We conducted a population-based observational study involving 157,093 bystander-witnessed, resuscitation-attempted OHCAs without physician involvement between 2007 and 2011. For each index of BCPR and EMS, we classified the 47 prefectures into the following three groups: advanced, intermediate, and developing regions. Nominal logit analysis followed by multivariable logistic regression including OHCA backgrounds was employed to examine the association between neurologically favourable 1-month survival, and regional classifications based on BCPR- and EMS-related indexes. Logit analysis including all regional classifications revealed that the number of BLS training course participants per population or bystander's own performance of BCPR without DA-CPR was not associated with the survival. Multivariable logistic regression including the OHCA backgrounds known to be associated with survival (BCPR provision, arrest aetiology, initial rhythm, patient age, time intervals of witness-to-call and call-to-arrival at patient), the following regional classifications based on DA-CPR but not on EMS were associated with survival: sensitivity of DA-CPR [adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for advanced region; those for intermediate region, with developing region as reference, 1.277 (1.131-1.441); 1.162 (1.058-1.277)]; the proportion of bystanders to follow DA-CPR [1.749 (1.554-1.967); 1.280 (1.188-1.380)]. Good outcomes of bystander-witnessed OHCAs correlate with regions having higher sensitivity of DA-CPR and larger proportion of bystanders to follow DA-CPR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Incidence of autoimmune diseases in patients with scabies: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jui-Ming; Chiu, Feng-Hsiang; Lin, Chien-Yu; Chang, Fung-Wei; Hsu, Ren-Jun

    2017-07-01

    Scabies is a commonly occurring infectious immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease. Immune-mediated inflammatory processes are also observed in autoimmune diseases. There have been very few previous studies; however, that have investigated the possible association between scabies and autoimmune diseases. To address this research gap, we conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study that included a total of 4481 scabies patients and 16,559 control subjects matched by gender, age, insured region, urbanization and income. We tracked both cohorts for a 7-year period to identify the incidence of autoimmune diseases in both groups during that follow-up period. Relatedly, a Cox regression analysis was performed to calculate and compare the hazard ratio (HR) for autoimmune diseases of both groups. An overall increased risk for 19 autoimmune diseases was observed in the scabies patients, with an adjusted HR (aHR) of 1.14 (95% CI 1.04-1.25). Compared with the control group, the scabies patients exhibited increased risks of hypersensitivity vasculitis (aHR 5.44, 95% CI 1.64-18.07), dermatomyositis (aHR 4.91, 95% CI 1.80-13.38), polyarteritis nodosa (aHR 2.89, 95% CI 1.46-5.73), systemic lupus erythematosus (aHR 2.73, 95% CI 1.33-5.64), psoriasis (aHR 2.31, 95% CI 1.85-2.88), myasthenia gravis (aHR 2.01, 95% CI 1.31-3.12), type 1 diabetes mellitus (aHR 1.93, 95% CI 1.53-2.44), pernicious anemia (aHR 1.92, 95% CI 1.42-2.61), and rheumatoid arthritis (aHR 1.43, 95% CI 1.12-1.83). In conclusion, the associations between scabies and a variety of autoimmune diseases may exist. Further studies are needed to clarify the shared etiologies and relationships between scabies and autoimmune diseases.

  6. Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease increases the risk of intensive care unit admittance and mechanical ventilation use among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chen-Liang; Lin, Yu-Huei; Wang, Meng-Ting; Chien, Li-Nien; Jeng, Chii; Chian, Chih-Feng; Perng, Wann-Cherng; Chiang, Chi-Huei; Chiou, Hung-Yi

    2015-03-24

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is common among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and may have a deleterious effect on COPD prognosis. However, few studies have investigated whether GORD increases the risk of severe outcomes such as intensive care unit (ICU) admittance or mechanical ventilator use among COPD patients. Propensity score matching by age, sex, comorbidities and COPD severity was used to match the 1,210 COPD patients with GORD sourced in this study to 2,420 COPD patients without GORD. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to explore the incidence of ICU admittance and machine ventilation with the log rank test being used to test for differences. Cox regression analysis was used to explore the risk of ICU admittance and mechanical ventilation use for patients with and without GORD. During the 12-month follow-up, GORD patients and non-GORD patients had 5.22 and 3.01 ICU admittances per 1000 person-months, and 4.34 and 2.41 mechanical ventilation uses per 1000 person-month, respectively. The log rank test revealed a difference in the incidence of ICU admittance and machine ventilation between the two cohorts. GORD was found to be an independent predicator of ICU admittance (adjusted hazard ratio (HRadj) 1.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-2.38) and mechanical ventilation (HRadj 1.92, 95% CI 1.35-2.72). This is the first investigation to detect a significantly higher incidence rate and independently increased risk of admission to an ICU and mechanical ventilation use among COPD patients who subsequently developed GORD during the first year following their GORD diagnosis than COPD patients who did not develop GORD.

  7. National dental policies and socio-demographic factors affecting changes in the incidence of periodontal treatments in Korean: A nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study from 2002-2013.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Hong; Lee, Jung-Seok; Choi, Jung-Kyu; Kweon, Hye-In; Kim, Young-Taek; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2016-11-05

    Dental insurance coverage has recently expanded in Korea. The number of patients diagnosed with periodontal disease (PD), and the actual number of periodontally compromised patients has increased. However, few studies have investigated the relationships between the prevalence of periodontal disease and the incidence of PD treatment, dental insurance policies, and socio-demographic factors. To determine the incidence of periodontal treatments required, the comprehensive longitudinal data of the National Health Insurance Service were used. This study evaluated changes in the incidence of periodontal treatments, using data from the Korean National Health Insurance Cohort Database. A random stratified sample of 1,025,340 Korean patients was selected from National Health Insurance database, using 1,476 multistage samplings (of sex, age, and income level) for 12 years from 2002 to 2013. Chi-square analysis, and univariate, and multivariate logistic regression were used to evaluate the association of socio-demographic factors with the prevalence of PD and the incidence of periodontal treatment. The incidence of periodontal treatment steadily and significantly increased, in both male and female participants, from 2002 to 2013. The increase was associated with socio-demographic factors and changes in national dental insurance policies. The incidence of periodontal treatment evaluated by age is influenced by the changes in national dental policies. These results suggest that the increase in patients diagnosed with PD reflects changes in dental policies and insurance benefits. This study confirms that national dental policies and socio-demographic factors are related to the incidence of periodontal treatments. The incidence of periodontal treatment is significantly related to the expansion of insurance coverage in South Korea.

  8. Beyond Volume: Hospital-Based Healthcare Technology for Better Outcomes in Cerebrovascular Surgical Patients Diagnosed With Ischemic Stroke: A Population-Based Nationwide Cohort Study From 2002 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Sang Gyu; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Jang, Sung-In

    2016-03-01

    We examined whether the level of hospital-based healthcare technology was related to the 30-day postoperative mortality rates, after adjusting for hospital volume, of ischemic stroke patients who underwent a cerebrovascular surgical procedure. Using the National Health Insurance Service-Cohort Sample Database, we reviewed records from 2002 to 2013 for data on patients with ischemic stroke who underwent cerebrovascular surgical procedures. Statistical analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazard models to test our hypothesis. A total of 798 subjects were included in our study. After adjusting for hospital volume of cerebrovascular surgical procedures as well as all for other potential confounders, the hazard ratio (HR) of 30-day mortality in low healthcare technology hospitals as compared to high healthcare technology hospitals was 2.583 (P < 0.001). We also found that, although the HR of 30-day mortality in low healthcare technology hospitals with high volume as compared to high healthcare technology hospitals with high volume was the highest (10.014, P < 0.0001), cerebrovascular surgical procedure patients treated in low healthcare technology hospitals had the highest 30-day mortality rate, irrespective of hospital volume. Although results of our study provide scientific evidence for a hospital volume/30-day mortality rate relationship in ischemic stroke patients who underwent cerebrovascular surgical procedures, our results also suggest that the level of hospital-based healthcare technology is associated with mortality rates independent of hospital volume. Given these results, further research into what components of hospital-based healthcare technology significantly impact mortality is warranted.

  9. Is diabetes mellitus associated with clinical outcomes in aging males treated with transurethral resection of prostate for bladder outlet obstruction: implications from Taiwan Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Hsiang; Hou, Chen-Pang; Chen, Tien-Hsing; Juang, Horng-Heng; Chang, Phei-Lang; Yang, Pei-Shan; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Chien-Lun; Tsui, Ke-Hung

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We assessed the lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) and clinical outcomes between diabetes mellitus (DM) patients and non-diabetic (non-DM) patients receiving transurethral resection of prostate (TUR-P). Methods This analysis was a retrospective cohort study using 13 years (2000–2012) of claims data from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). A total of 4,887 patients who had persistent LUTSs and underwent TUR-P for prostate enlargement (benign prostate enlargement [BPE]) were enrolled and divided into two groups: DM and non-DM groups. The patients’ characteristics, postoperative clinical outcomes, and the medication records after TUR-P were compared. Chi-square test was used for categorical variables and independent samples t-test for continuous variables. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to compare the risk of postoperative outcomes. Finally, we estimated the medication-free survival rate after TUR-P using Kaplan–Meier method and compared it between study groups using log-rank test. Results DM group patients had a higher prevalence of comorbidities. Postoperatively, the DM group had lower rates of urinary tract infection (UTI; odds ratio [OR], 0.78; P=0.009) and higher rates of urinary retention requiring catheterization (OR, 1.35; P=0.01) within 1 month after TUR-P. A higher proportion of patients with DM took anti-muscarinics (OR, 1.23; P=0.032) within the first 3 months and α-blockers (OR, 1.18; P=0.049) during 3–12 months after receiving TUR-P. Overall, the DM group patients had a worse postoperative medication-free survival compared to that of non-DM group patients (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.14; P=0.005). Conclusion DM patients require higher rates of continuing medication after TUR-P, especially anti-muscarinics in 3 months postoperatively and alpha-blocker after 3 months postoperatively. DM patients also had higher incidence of urine retention after surgery. DM patients had relatively

  10. Insomnia and the Risk of Atrial Fibrillation: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hsiu-Hao; Chen, Yueh-Chung; Chen, Jien-Jiun; Lo, Shih-Hsiang; Guo, Yue-Liang; Hu, Hsiao-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Background Although advancements in the treatment of atrial fibrillation have improved patient prognosis for this persistent condition, interest in atrial fibrillation development is growing. Of note is the fact that additional attention is being focused on the accompanying effect of insomnia. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of insomnia on the risk of atrial fibrillation development. Methods This was a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study using data from the Taiwan National health Insurance Research Database. We analyzed 64,421 insomnia cases and 128,842 matched controls without insomnia from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2010. A Cox regression model was used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for atrial fibrillation development. Results During the follow-up period, the incidence of atrial fibrillation development was significantly higher in the insomnia cases than in the comparison cohort (2.6% vs. 2.3%, p < 0.001). Insomnia was associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (HR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.01-1.14). Males, those > 65 years of age, and patients with peripheral artery disease who have insomnia had a higher rate of atrial fibrillation development. Conclusions The findings of this nationwide analysis support the hypothesis that insomnia is associated with a significant risk of atrial fibrillation development. PMID:28344420

  11. Sleep apnea and the subsequent risk of Parkinson’s disease: a 3-year nationwide population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Ping-Song; Lai, Chiou-Lian; Chou, Yii-Her; Chang, Wei-Pin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Sleep apnea (SA)-induced chronic intermittent hypoxia increases oxidative stress and inflammation, which may contribute to the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease (PD). This study evaluated the risk of PD following SA diagnosis. Patients and methods This was a 3-year nationwide population-based matched cohort study using claims data from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), Taiwan. We analyzed 1,944 patients diagnosed as having SA between 1997 and 2005 and a matched cohort of 9,720 non-SA patients from the NHIRD. Patients with a history of PD were excluded. Each patient was followed up for 3 years to evaluate subsequent PD development. Results Of the 11,664 patients, 17 (0.9%) and 38 (0.4%) from the SA and matched non-SA cohorts, respectively, were subsequently diagnosed as having PD during follow-up. After adjustments for potential confounders, the SA cohort had a 1.85-fold higher risk of PD than the non-SA cohort (95% confidence interval [CI] =1.02–3.35; P=0.042). After age and sex stratification, PD development was independently associated with SA only in men (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.26; 95% CI =1.11–4.63; P<0.05) and in patients aged ≥60 years (adjusted HR, 1.93; 95% CI =1.01–3.71; P<0.05). Conclusion Our study suggests that patients with SA are at an increased longitudinal risk of PD. Furthermore, age and male sex are independently associated with the risk of PD. PMID:28408829

  12. Smoldering multiple myeloma risk factors for progression: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sørrig, Rasmus; Klausen, Tobias W; Salomo, Morten; Vangsted, Annette J; Østergaard, Brian; Gregersen, Henrik; Frølund, Ulf Christian; Andersen, Niels F; Helleberg, Carsten; Andersen, Kristian T; Pedersen, Robert S; Pedersen, Per; Abildgaard, Niels; Gimsing, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Several risk scores for disease progression in patients with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) have been proposed; however, all have been developed using single-center registries. To examine risk factors for time to progression (TTP) to multiple myeloma (MM) for SMM, we analyzed a nationwide population-based cohort of 321 patients with newly diagnosed SMM registered within the Danish Multiple Myeloma Registry between 2005 and 2014. Significant univariable risk factors for TTP were selected for multivariable Cox regression analyses. We found that both an M-protein ≥30 g/L and immunoparesis significantly influenced TTP (HR 2.7, 95%CI (1.5;4.7), P = 0.001, and HR 3.3, 95%CI (1.4;7.8), P = 0.002, respectively). High free light chain (FLC) ratio did not significantly influence TTP in our cohort. Therefore, our data do not support recent IMWG proposal of identifying patients with FLC ratio above 100 as having ultra high-risk of transformation to MM. Using only immunoparesis and M-protein ≥30 g/L, we created a scoring system to identify low-, intermediate-, and high-risk SMM. This first population-based study of patients with SMM confirms that an M-protein ≥30 g/L and immunoparesis remain important risk factors for progression to MM. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Colorectal Cancer Prognosis Following Obesity Surgery in a Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Tao, Wenjing; Konings, Peter; Hull, Mark A; Adami, Hans-Olov; Mattsson, Fredrik; Lagergren, Jesper

    2017-05-01

    Obesity surgery involves mechanical and physiological changes of the gastrointestinal tract that might promote colorectal cancer progression. Thus, we hypothesised that obesity surgery is associated with poorer prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer. This nationwide population-based cohort study included all patients with an obesity diagnosis who subsequently developed colorectal cancer in Sweden from 1980 to 2012. The exposure was obesity surgery, and the main and secondary outcomes were disease-specific mortality and all-cause mortality, respectively. Cox proportional hazard survival models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for sex, age, calendar year and education level. The exposed and unexposed cohort included 131 obesity surgery and 1332 non-obesity surgery patients with colorectal cancer. There was a statistically significant increased rate of colorectal cancer deaths following obesity surgery (disease-specific HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.00-2.19). When analysed separately, the mortality rate was more than threefold increased in rectal cancer patients with prior obesity surgery (disease-specific HR 3.70, 95% CI 2.00-6.90), while no increased mortality rate was found in colon cancer patients (disease-specific HR 1.10, 85% CI 0.67-1.70). This population-based study among obese individuals found a poorer prognosis in colorectal cancer following obesity surgery, which was primarily driven by the higher mortality rate in rectal cancer.

  14. [Population-based cohorts. Example of the Gazel and Constances cohorts].

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie

    2013-02-01

    Population-based cohorts focus on the causes of diseases, especially multifactorial diseases. Some are very large, and prospectively collect personal, lifestyle, occupational and environmental data over several decades. All include biobanks. "Generalist" cohorts cover a large field of diseases and risk factors. Two examples are presented here The Gazel cohort was composed of 20,000 subjects aged 35-50 at enrolment andfollowed-up for 25 years, resulting in about 200 publications. The Constances cohort, created in 2012, aims to include a representative sample of 200,000 adults aged 18-69 at enrolment.

  15. Antibiotics in fetal and early life and subsequent childhood asthma: nationwide population based study with sibling analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lundholm, Cecilia; Kieler, Helle; Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Fall, Tove; Ye, Weimin; Almqvist, Catarina

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between exposure to antibiotics in fetal and early life and asthma in childhood, with adjustment for confounding factors. Design Nationwide prospective population based cohort study, including sibling control design. Setting Swedish population identified from national demographic and health registers. Participants 493 785 children born 2006-10; 180 894 of these were eligible for sibling analyses. Main outcome measure Asthma defined as having both an asthma diagnosis and dispensed asthma drugs. The association between antibiotic exposure and asthma was investigated in the whole cohort with Cox proportional hazard regression. A stratified proportional hazards model conditional on sibling group was used to adjust for shared factors within families. Confounding by respiratory infections was assessed by investigating whether specific groups of antibiotics were associated with asthma. Results Antibiotic exposure in fetal life was associated with an increased risk of asthma in cohort analyses (hazard ratio 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1.25 to 1.32), but not in sibling analyses (0.99, 0.92 to 1.07). In cohort analyses, antibiotics used to treat respiratory infections in childhood were associated with a more pronounced increased risk of asthma (4.12, 3.78 to 4.50) than antibiotics used for urinary tract and skin infections (1.54, 1.24 to 1.92). In sibling analyses, the excess risks after exposure to antibiotics for respiratory infections decreased (2.36, 1.78 to 3.13) and disappeared for antibiotics for urinary tract and skin (0.85, 0.47 to 1.55). Conclusions Previous positive associations between exposure to antibiotics in fetal and early life and subsequent childhood asthma could have been caused by confounding by shared familial factors, in addition to confounding by respiratory infections. PMID:25432937

  16. The burden of hypertension and its risk factors in Malawi: nationwide population-based STEPS survey.

    PubMed

    Msyamboza, Kelias P; Kathyola, Damson; Dzowela, Titha; Bowie, Cameron

    2012-12-01

    Hypertension is the most common cause of cardiovascular diseases, accounting for at least half of haemorrhagic and ischaemic strokes, heart failure and renal failure in sub-Saharan Africa. However, population-based data to inform policies are scarce. Using the WHO STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance, a population-based nationwide survey was conducted on participants aged 25-64 years in Malawi. Detailed findings on the burden of hypertension are presented in this paper. Blood pressure (BP) was measured in 3727 participants. The age-standardised prevalence of hypertension (BP ≥140/90 mmHg) was 33.2% (95% CI 30.9-35.6%). Hypertension was more frequent in males than females (36.9% vs 29.9%), alcohol drinkers than non-drinkers (40.9% vs 31.6%), overweight than non-overweight (41.5% vs 30.7%) and increased with increasing age (21.4% in 25-34 years old vs 59.2% in 55-64 years old). Three-quarters of the participants said they never had their BP measured before and 94.9% of those with hypertension said they were not aware that they had such a medical problem. High prevalence of hypertension and its risk factors calls for the implementation of primary healthcare approaches such as the WHO package for essential non-communicable diseases to promote healthy lifestyles, early detection, treatment and control.

  17. Mortality in ankylosing spondylitis: results from a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Exarchou, Sofia; Lie, Elisabeth; Lindström, Ulf; Askling, Johan; Forsblad-d'Elia, Helena; Turesson, Carl; Kristensen, Lars Erik; Jacobsson, Lennart Th

    2016-08-01

    Information on mortality in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is scarce. Our study therefore aimed to assess: (1) mortality in AS versus the general population, and (2) predictors of death in the AS population. Nationwide cohorts of patients with AS diagnosed at rheumatology or internal medicine outpatient clinics (n=8600) and age-matched, sex-matched and county-matched general population comparators (n=40 460) were identified from the National Patient Register and the census register, respectively. The follow-up period began on 1 January 2006 or at the first date of registered diagnosis thereafter and extended until death, emigration or 31 December 2012, whichever occurred first. Socioeconomic variables, AS-related clinical manifestations, joint surgery, comorbidities and medication were identified from other national registers. Cox regression models were used to determine mortality and predictors for death in the AS cohort. There were 496 deaths in the AS cohort and 1533 deaths in the control cohort resulting in an age-adjusted and sex-adjusted HR of 1.60 (95% CI 1.44 to 1.77), with increased mortality for men (age-adjusted HR=1.53, 95% CI 1.36 to 1.72) and women (age-adjusted HR=1.83, 95% CI 1.50 to 2.22). Within the AS cohort, statistically significant predictors for death were a lower level of education, general comorbidities (diabetes, infections, cardiovascular, pulmonary and malignant diseases) and previous hip replacement surgery. Mortality was increased for male and female patients with AS. Predictors of death within the AS cohort included socioeconomic status, general comorbidities and hip replacement surgery. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Delayed Onset Urticaria in Depressive Patients with Bupropion Prescription: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ti; Hu, Tsung-Ming; Tsai, Chia-Fen; Hu, Yu-Wen; Shen, Cheng-Che; Chang, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Mu-Hong; Teng, Chung-Jen; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Su, Vincent Yi-Fong; Wang, Wei-Shu; Chen, Pan-Ming; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Su, Tung-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Background Bupropion, which is widely used in patients with depressive disorder, may cause allergic reactions. However, the real prevalence of these side effects may be overlooked and underreported due to the delayed onset phenomenon. Objective This study aimed to estimate the real incidence of bupropion-induced urticaria and clarify the delayed onset phenomenon. Methods We conducted a nationwide cohort study between 2000 and 2009 using Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Dataset. Among 65,988 patients with depressive disorders, we identified new users of bupropion with depressive disorders (bupropion cohort, n = 2,839) and matched them at a ratio of 1:4 regarding age and sex (non-bupropion matched cohort, n = 11,356). The risk of urticaria was compared between the two cohorts. Results The risk of urticaria occurrence was higher in bupropion users than in matched controls within 4 weeks of starting the medication (risk ratio 1.81; 95% confidence interval 1.28–2.54; p = 0.001). The occurrence of urticaria in the bupropion cohort were more frequent on Days 15–28 than Day 1–14 (p = 0.002). Cox proportional hazards model showed that a history of urticaria was an independent risk factor for developing bupropion-induced urticaria. Conclusions Of the antidepressants, bupropion may pose a higher risk of drug-induced urticaria, and this condition might be ignored due to the delayed onset phenomenon. Depressive patients with a history of urticaria are at higher risk of the adverse drug reaction. This study emphasizes the need for increased clinical awareness of this adverse outcome to bupropion use. PMID:24244611

  19. Risk of infective endocarditis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in Taiwan: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Y S; Chang, C C; Chen, Y H; Chen, W S; Chen, J H

    2017-10-01

    Objectives Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus are considered vulnerable to infective endocarditis and prophylactic antibiotics are recommended before an invasive dental procedure. However, the evidence is insufficient. This nationwide population-based study evaluated the risk and related factors of infective endocarditis in systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods We identified 12,102 systemic lupus erythematosus patients from the National Health Insurance research-oriented database, and compared the incidence rate of infective endocarditis with that among 48,408 non-systemic lupus erythematosus controls. A Cox multivariable proportional hazards model was employed to evaluate the risk of infective endocarditis in the systemic lupus erythematosus cohort. Results After a mean follow-up of more than six years, the systemic lupus erythematosus cohort had a significantly higher incidence rate of infective endocarditis (42.58 vs 4.32 per 100,000 person-years, incidence rate ratio = 9.86, p < 0.001) than that of the control cohort. By contrast, the older systemic lupus erythematosus cohort had lower risk (adjusted hazard ratio 11.64) than that of the younger-than-60-years systemic lupus erythematosus cohort (adjusted hazard ratio 15.82). Cox multivariate proportional hazards analysis revealed heart disease (hazard ratio = 5.71, p < 0.001), chronic kidney disease (hazard ratio = 2.98, p = 0.034), receiving a dental procedure within 30 days (hazard ratio = 36.80, p < 0.001), and intravenous steroid therapy within 30 days (hazard ratio = 39.59, p < 0.001) were independent risk factors for infective endocarditis in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Conclusions A higher risk of infective endocarditis was observed in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Risk factors for infective endocarditis in the systemic lupus erythematosus cohort included heart disease, chronic kidney disease, steroid pulse therapy within 30 days, and a

  20. Statin improves survival in patients with EGFR-TKI lung cancer: A nationwide population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Ming-Szu; Chen, I-Chuan; Lee, Chuan-Pin; Huang, Ru-Jiun; Chen, Pau-Chung; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Yang, Yao-Hsu

    2017-01-01

    Long-term use of statins has been reported to reduce the risk of death in patients with lung cancer. This study investigated the effect of statin use among patients with lung cancer receiving epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKIs) therapy. A nationwide, population-based case-control study was conducted using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. From January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2012, a total of 1,707 statin and 6,828 non-statin matched lung cancer cohorts with EGFR-TKIs treatment were studied. Statin use was associated with a reduced risk of death (HR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.54–0.62, p < 0.001). In addition, statin use was associated with a significantly longer median progression-free survival (8.3 months, 95% CI: 7.6–8.9 vs. 6.1 months, 95% CI: 6.0–6.4, p < 0.001) and median overall survival (35.5 months, 95% CI: 33.8–38.1 vs. 23.9 months, 95% CI: 23.4–24.7, p < 0.001). In conclusion, statins might potentially enhance the therapeutic effect and increase survival in patients with lung cancer receiving EGFR-TKI therapy. PMID:28158206

  1. Epidemiology for primary brain tumors: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Darlix, Amélie; Zouaoui, Sonia; Rigau, Valérie; Bessaoud, Faiza; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Mathieu-Daudé, Hélène; Trétarre, Brigitte; Bauchet, Fabienne; Duffau, Hugues; Taillandier, Luc; Bauchet, Luc

    2017-02-01

    Primary central nervous system tumors (PCNST) are rare tumors responsible for high mortality and morbidity. Their epidemiology is poorly known, and clinical data are scarcely analyzed at a national level. In this study, we aimed at providing descriptive epidemiological data and incidence rates for all histological subtypes of PCNST according to the WHO classification. We conducted a nationwide population-based study of all newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed PCNST in France, between 2006 and 2011. A total of 57,816 patients were included: male 46.4%, median age at diagnosis 56 years old (range 0-99). For all newly diagnosed PCNST with histological confirmation the crude incidence rate was 15.5/10(5) per 100,000 person-years. To enable international comparisons, standardized rates were calculated: 14.1/10(5) (population of reference: USA), 14.5/10(5) (population of reference: Europe), and 12.0/10(5) (population of reference: world). 23.4% of samples were cryopreserved. Resection was performed in 79.1% of cases. Results are detailed (incidence rate, sex ratio, median age at diagnosis, number of cryopreserved samples, and type of surgery) for each of the 143 histological subtypes of PCNST, including all rare tumors. For example, incidence rates (population of reference: USA) were 0.018/10(5) for anaplastic gangliogliomas, 0.054/10(5) for malignant meningiomas, and 0.036/10(5) for hemangiopericytomas. Our study is the first to describe incidence rates and epidemiological data for all histological subtypes of PCNST, including rare tumors, at a national level. Its methodology ensures the exhaustiveness of the data collection for histologically-proven cases. Histological population-based studies have many perspectives in the field of clinical epidemiology and research.

  2. Recurrence of hyperemesis gravidarum across generations: population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Skjærven, Rolv; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Gunnes, Nina; Vangen, Siri; Magnus, Per

    2010-01-01

    Objective To estimate the risk of hyperemesis gravidarum (hyperemesis) according to whether the daughters and sons under study were born after pregnancies complicated by hyperemesis. Design Population based cohort study. Setting Registry data from Norway. Participants Linked generational data from the medical birth registry of Norway (1967-2006): 544 087 units of mother and childbearing daughter and 399 777 units of mother and child producing son. Main outcome measure Hyperemesis in daughters in mother and childbearing daughter units and hyperemesis in female partners of sons in mother and child producing son units. Results Daughters who were born after a pregnancy complicated by hyperemesis had a 3% risk of having hyperemesis in their own pregnancy, while women who were born after an unaffected pregnancy had a risk of 1.1% (unadjusted odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval 2.4 to 3.6). Female partners of sons who were born after pregnancies complicated by hyperemesis had a risk of 1.2% (1.0, 0.7 to 1.6). Daughters born after a pregnancy not complicated by hyperemesis had an increased risk of the condition if the mother had hyperemesis in a previous or subsequent pregnancy (3.2 (1.6 to 6.4) if hyperemesis had occurred in one of the mother’s previous pregnancies and 3.7 (1.5 to 9.1) if it had occurred in a later pregnancy). Adjustment for maternal age at childbirth, period of birth, and parity did not change the estimates. Restrictions to firstborns did not influence the results. Conclusions Hyperemesis gravidarum is more strongly influenced by the maternal genotype than the fetal genotype, though environmental influences along the maternal line cannot be excluded as contributing factors. PMID:21030362

  3. Cancer incidence among Danish seafarers: a population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kaerlev, L; Hansen, J; Hansen, H; Nielsen, P

    2005-01-01

    Aims: Seafarers aboard oil and chemical tankers may be exposed to many chemicals, including substances like benzene that are known to be carcinogenic. Other seafarers are exposed to engine exhaust, different oil products, and chemicals used aboard and some years ago asbestos was also used extensively in ships. The aim of this study was to study cancer morbidity among Danish seafarers in relation to type of ship and job title. Methods: A cohort of all Danish seafarers during 1986–1999 (33 340 men; 11 291 women) registered by the Danish Maritime Authority with an employment history was linked with the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry and followed up for cancer until the end of 2002. The number of person years at risk was 517 518. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) were estimated by use of the corresponding national rates. Results: The SIR of all cancers combined was higher than expected: 1.26 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.32) for men and 1.07 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.20) for women. This was mainly due to an excess of cancer of the larynx, lung, tongue, mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, pancreas, kidney, urinary bladder, colon, and bone as well as skin melanomas among men (the three latter borderline significantly increased), and an excess of cancer of the lung, rectum, and cervix uteri among women. The differences in risk pattern for lung cancer between the different job categories among men ranged in terms of SIR from 1.2 (95% CI 0.9 to 1.7) (engine officers) to 2.3 (1.6 to 3.3) (engine room crew), and 4.1 (2.1 to 7.4) among maintenance crew. Non-officers had a 1.5 times higher lung cancer risk than officers. No increased occurrence of all lymphatic and haematopoietic malignancies combined was found for employees on tankers, but the number of cases was limited to a total of 7. Conclusions: Danish seafarers, especially men, face an increased overall cancer risk, in particular a risk for lung cancer and other tobacco associated cancers. PMID:16234401

  4. Patients with Epididymo-Orchitis and Meteorological Impact in Taiwan: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jui-Ming; Chang, Ying-Hsu; Ho, Te-Wei; Chang, Fung-Wei; Pang, See-Tong; Hsu, Ren-Jun; Lin, Po-Hung

    2017-01-01

    Background. Epididymo-orchitis is a common infectious disease among men, especially men aged 20 to 39 years. The aim of this study was to analyze possible associations of various meteorological indicators on the incidence of epididymo-orchitis in Taiwan. Methods and Materials. This nationwide population-based study collected data on cases of epididymo-orchitis that were newly diagnosed from 2001 to 2013 in Taiwan. Monthly meteorological indicators, including average temperatures, humidity, rainfall, total rain days, and sunshine hours, were collected from the Central Weather Bureau of Taiwan. Data for a total of 7,233 patients with epididymo-orchitis were collected for this study. Results. The monthly incidence of epididymo-orchitis was positively correlated with temperature, rainfall, and sunshine hours. The average monthly temperature had a linear correlation with the incidence of epididymo-orchitis (ß = 0.11). The monthly average temperature is significantly related, with a positive linear correlation, to the incidence of epididymo-orchitis in Taiwan. Conclusion. This finding may constitute useful information in terms of helping physicians to distinguish between patients with epididymo-orchitis and testicular torsion in hot or cold weather.

  5. Outcomes of preterm children according to type of delivery onset: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Morken, Nils-Halvdan; Källen, Karin; Jacobsson, Bo

    2007-09-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm births are associated with different paediatric outcomes. A nationwide population-based study comprising 1 010 487 singletons used data from 1991 to 2001 from the Swedish Medical Birth Register and the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register. Intrauterine fetal deaths, unknown type of delivery onset and congenital malformations were excluded. Neonatal, perinatal and long-term neurological outcomes were studied. Spontaneous preterm births were compared with iatrogenic preterm births. Odds ratios (OR) and hazard ratios (HR) for outcome variables were obtained using the Mantel-Haenszel technique and Cox analyses respectively. Adjustments were made for gestational age at birth, maternal age, parity and smoking. The preterm population consisted of 34 215 (73.2%) spontaneous preterm infants and 12 511 (26.8%) iatrogenic preterm infants. Spontaneous preterm infants were at increased risk of cerebral palsy at gestational age 28-31 weeks (HR: 1.86 [95% CI: 1.12, 3.10]), and of sepsis at gestational age 32-33 weeks (HR: 1.58 [95% CI: 1.28, 1.96]). Other outcome variables were associated with iatrogenic preterm birth, especially respiratory and gastrointestinal diagnoses. In conclusion, spontaneous preterm birth and iatrogenic preterm birth are associated with different paediatric outcomes.

  6. Mortality in myasthenia gravis: A nationwide population-based follow-up study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Julie S; Danielsen, Ditte H; Somnier, Finn E; Frøslev, Trine; Jakobsen, Johannes; Johnsen, Søren P; Andersen, Henning

    2016-01-01

    In previous studies of myasthenia gravis (MG), increased mortality has been reported. The aim of this study was to estimate mortality in patients with acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive (AChR-Ab-seropositive) MG in a nationwide population-based, long-term follow-up study. All AChR-Ab-seropositive MG patients, diagnosed between 1985 and 2005, were identified. Defined by age at diagnosis (≤ 50 or >50 years), patients were classified as having early- or late-onset MG. For comparison, 10 non-MG individuals from the general population were matched with each patient. All patients and controls were followed until January 1, 2009. Mortality rates and estimated mortality rate ratios (MRRs) were calculated. Of 702 AChR-Ab-seropositive MG patients, 302 died during follow-up. Overall mortality was higher for patients with MG (MRR = 1.41, range 1.24-1.60). In late-onset women and men, the MRRs were 1.64 (1.36-1.99) and 1.22 (1.02-1.46), respectively. Total MRR was highest during the first 5 years after diagnosis. MG diagnosis is still associated with increased mortality. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Patients with Epididymo-Orchitis and Meteorological Impact in Taiwan: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jui-Ming; Chang, Ying-Hsu; Ho, Te-Wei; Chang, Fung-Wei; Pang, See-Tong

    2017-01-01

    Background. Epididymo-orchitis is a common infectious disease among men, especially men aged 20 to 39 years. The aim of this study was to analyze possible associations of various meteorological indicators on the incidence of epididymo-orchitis in Taiwan. Methods and Materials. This nationwide population-based study collected data on cases of epididymo-orchitis that were newly diagnosed from 2001 to 2013 in Taiwan. Monthly meteorological indicators, including average temperatures, humidity, rainfall, total rain days, and sunshine hours, were collected from the Central Weather Bureau of Taiwan. Data for a total of 7,233 patients with epididymo-orchitis were collected for this study. Results. The monthly incidence of epididymo-orchitis was positively correlated with temperature, rainfall, and sunshine hours. The average monthly temperature had a linear correlation with the incidence of epididymo-orchitis (ß = 0.11). The monthly average temperature is significantly related, with a positive linear correlation, to the incidence of epididymo-orchitis in Taiwan. Conclusion. This finding may constitute useful information in terms of helping physicians to distinguish between patients with epididymo-orchitis and testicular torsion in hot or cold weather. PMID:28316630

  8. Postoperative mortality 90 days after robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy and retropubic radical prostatectomy: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Johan; Folkvaljon, Yasin; Cole, Alexander; Carlsson, Stefan; Robinson, David; Loeb, Stacy; Stattin, Pär; Akre, Olof

    2016-08-01

    To assess 90-day postoperative mortality after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RARP) and retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) using nationwide population-based registry data. We conducted a cohort study using the National Prostate Cancer Register of Sweden, including 22 344 men with localized prostate cancer of clinical stage T1-T3, whose prostate-specific antigen levels were <50 μg/mL and who had undergone primary radical prostatectomy in the period 1998-2012. Vital status was ascertained through the Total Population Register. The rates for 90-day postoperative mortality were analysed using logistic regression analysis, and comparisons of 90-day mortality with the background population were made using standardized mortality ratios (SMRs). Of the 14 820 men who underwent RRP, 29 (0.20%) died, and of the 7 524 men who underwent RARP, 10 (0.13%) died. Mortality in the cohort during the 90-day postoperative period was lower than in an age-matched background population: SMR 0.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.39-0.75). There was no statistically significant difference in 90-day mortality according to surgical method: RARP vs RRP odds ratio (OR) 1.14; 95% CI 0.46-2.81. Postoperative 90-day mortality decreased over time: 2008-2012 vs 1998-2007 OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.21-0.95, mainly because of lower mortality after RARP. The 90-day postoperative mortality rates were low after RARP and RRP and there was no statistically significant difference between the methods. Given the long life expectancy among men with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer, very low postoperative mortality is a prerequisite for RP, which was fulfilled by both RRP and RARP. The selection of healthy men for RP is highlighted by the lower 90-day mortality after RP compared with the background population. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Predictors of Cerebral Palsy in Very Preterm Infants: The EPIPAGE Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaino, Ghada; Khoshnood, Babak; Kaminski, Monique; Pierrat, Veronique; Marret, Stephane; Matis, Jacqueline; Ledesert, Bernard; Thiriez, Gerard; Fresson, Jeanne; Roze, Jean-Christophe; Zupan-Simunek, Veronique; Arnaud, Catherine; Burguet, Antoine; Larroque, Beatrice; Breart, Gerard; Ancel, Pierre-Yves

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the independent role of cerebral lesions on ultrasound scan, and several other neonatal and obstetric factors, as potential predictors of cerebral palsy (CP) in a large population-based cohort of very preterm infants. Method: As part of EPIPAGE, a population-based prospective cohort study, perinatal data…

  10. Predictors of Cerebral Palsy in Very Preterm Infants: The EPIPAGE Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaino, Ghada; Khoshnood, Babak; Kaminski, Monique; Pierrat, Veronique; Marret, Stephane; Matis, Jacqueline; Ledesert, Bernard; Thiriez, Gerard; Fresson, Jeanne; Roze, Jean-Christophe; Zupan-Simunek, Veronique; Arnaud, Catherine; Burguet, Antoine; Larroque, Beatrice; Breart, Gerard; Ancel, Pierre-Yves

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the independent role of cerebral lesions on ultrasound scan, and several other neonatal and obstetric factors, as potential predictors of cerebral palsy (CP) in a large population-based cohort of very preterm infants. Method: As part of EPIPAGE, a population-based prospective cohort study, perinatal data…

  11. Increased Risk of Tics in Children Infected with Enterovirus: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiun-Nong; Lin, Cheng-Li; Yen, Hung-Rong; Yang, Chi-Hui; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2017-05-01

    Both tics and enterovirus (EV) infections are common in children. The association between EV infections and tics has been seldom evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of diagnosed tics after EV infections in children. A nationwide retrospective cohort study was conducted to determine the risk of tics after EV infections by analyzing data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Children aged < 18 years with EV infection during 2000 to 2007 were enrolled. For comparison, non-EV-infected children were randomly selected and matched with EV-infected children at a 1:1 ratio according to sex, age, urbanization level, parental occupation, and the year of EV infection. All patients were followed up until the diagnosis of tics, death, loss to follow-up, withdrawal from the insurance system, or December 31, 2008. A total of 282,321 EV-infected and 282,317 non-EV-infected children were included in this study. The mean age was 2.39 years in both cohorts. The overall incidences of tics were 9.12 and 6.21 per 10,000 person-years in the EV-infected and non-EV-infected cohorts, respectively. Children with EV infection were significantly associated with an increased risk of tics compared with those without EV infection (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-1.5). Multivariable analyses showed that boys, children living in urbanized areas, children whose parents had white-collar jobs, and children with allergic rhinitis or bronchial asthma exhibited a significantly increased risk of tics. This study revealed an increased risk of tics after EV infection in children.

  12. Increased risk of trigeminal neuralgia in patients with migraine: A nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kuan-Hsiang; Chen, Yung-Tai; Fuh, Jong-Ling; Wang, Shuu-Jiun

    2015-12-20

    The objectives of this article are to evaluate the association between migraine and trigeminal neuralgia and to investigate the effects of age, sex, migraine subtype, and comorbid risk factors on trigeminal neuralgia development. This population-based cohort study was conducted using data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Individuals aged ≥ 20 years with neurologist-diagnosed migraine between 2005 and 2009 were included. A non-headache age-, sex-, and propensity score-matched control cohort was selected for comparison. All participants were followed until the end of 2010, death, or the occurrence of trigeminal neuralgia. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for comparison of the risk of trigeminal neuralgia between groups. Both cohorts (n = 137,529 each) were followed for a mean of 3.1 years. During the follow-up period, 575 patients (421,581 person-years) in the migraine cohort and 88 matched controls (438,712 person-years) were newly diagnosed with trigeminal neuralgia (incidence rates, 136.39 and 20.06/100,000 person-years, respectively). The HR for trigeminal neuralgia was 6.72 (95% CI, 5.37-8.41; p < 0.001). The association between migraine and trigeminal neuralgia remained significant in sensitivity analyses. Among migraine subtypes, patients with migraine with aura were at greater risk of trigeminal neuralgia development. No other significant interaction was identified in subgroup analyses. Migraine is a previously unidentified risk factor for trigeminal neuralgia. The association between these conditions suggests a linked underlying mechanism, which is worthy of further exploration. © International Headache Society 2015.

  13. Doctor Shopping Behavior for Zolpidem Among Insomnia Patients in Taiwan: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Tzu-Hsuan; Lee, Yen-Ying; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Lin, You-Meei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Although zolpidem is listed as a controlled drug in Taiwan, patients' behavior has not been restricted and has led to the problem of doctor shopping behavior (DSB), leading to overutilization of medical resources and excess spending. The National Health Insurance Administration in Taiwan has instituted a new policy to regulate physicians' prescribing behavior and decrease DSB. This retrospective study aimed to analyze the DSB for zolpidem by insomnia patients and assess related factors. Design and Participants: Data were extracted from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database in Taiwan. Individuals with a diagnosis of insomnia who received more than one prescription of zolpidem in 2008 were followed for 24 mo. Doctor shopping was defined as ≥ 2 prescriptions by different doctors within ≥ 1 day overlapping in the duration of therapy. The percentage of zolpidem obtained through doctor shopping was used as an indicator of the DSB of each patient. Results: Among the 6,947 insomnia patients who were prescribed zolpidem, 1,652 exhibited DSB (23.78%). The average dose of zolpidem dispensed for each patient during 24 mo was 244.21 daily defined doses. The doctor shopping indicator (DSI) was 0.20 (standard deviation, 0.23) among patients with DSB. Younger age, chronic diseases, high number of diseases, higher premium status, high socioeconomic status, and fewer people served per practicing physicians were all factors significantly related to doctor shopping behavior. Conclusion: Doctor shopping for zolpidem appears to be an important issue in Taiwan. Implementing a proper referral system with efficient data exchange by physician or pharmacist-led medication reconciliation process might reduce DSB. Citation: Lu TH, Lee YY, Lee HC, Lin YM. Doctor shopping behavior for zolpidem among insomnia patients in Taiwan: a nationwide population-based study. SLEEP 2015;38(7):1039–1044. PMID:25761979

  14. Volume-Outcome Relation for Acute Appendicitis: Evidence from a Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Po-Li; Liu, Shih-Ping; Keller, Joseph J.; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2012-01-01

    Background Although procedures like appendectomy have been studied extensively, the relative importance of each surgeon's surgical volume-to-ruptured appendicitis has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the rate of ruptured appendicitis by surgeon-volume groups as a measure of quality of care for appendicitis by using a nationwide population-based dataset. Methods We identified 65,339 first-time hospitalizations with a discharge diagnosis of acute appendicitis (International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes 540, 540.0, 540.1 and 540.9) between January 2007 and December 2009. We used “whether or not a patient had a perforated appendicitis” as the outcome measure. A conditional (fixed-effect) logistic regression model was performed to explore the odds of perforated appendicitis among surgeon case volume groups. Results Patients treated by low-volume surgeons had significantly higher morbidity rates than those treated by high-volume (28.1% vs. 26.15, p<0.001) and very-high-volume surgeons (28.1% vs. 21.4%, p<0.001). After adjusting for surgeon practice location, and teaching status of practice hospital, and patient age, gender, and Charlson Comorbidity Index, and hospital acute appendicitis volume, patients treated by low-volume surgeons had significantly higher rates of perforated appendicitis than those treated by medium-volume surgeons (OR = 1.09, p<0.001), high-volume surgeons (OR = 1.16, p<0.001), or very-high-volume surgeons (OR = 1.54, p<0.001). Conclusion Our study suggested that surgeon volume is an important factor with regard to the rate of ruptured appendicitis. PMID:23300703

  15. Clozapine use in childhood and adolescent schizophrenia: A nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Carolina; Papachristou, Efstathios; Wimberley, Theresa; Gasse, Christiane; Dima, Danai; MacCabe, James H; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Frangou, Sophia

    2015-06-01

    Early onset schizophrenia (EOS) begins in childhood or adolescence. EOS is associated with poor treatment response and may benefit from timely use of clozapine. This study aimed to identify the predictors of clozapine use in EOS and characterize the clinical profile and outcome of clozapine-treated youths with schizophrenia. We conducted a nationwide population-based study using linked data from Danish medical registries. We examined all incident cases of EOS (i.e., cases diagnosed prior to their 18th birthday) between December 31st 1994 and December 31st 2006 and characterized their demographic, clinical and treatment profiles. We then used multivariable cox proportional hazard models to identify predictors of clozapine treatment in this patient population. We identified 662 EOS cases (1.9% of all schizophrenia cases), of whom 108 (17.6%) had commenced clozapine by December 31st 2008. Patients had on average 3 antipsychotic trials prior to clozapine initiation. The mean interval between first antipsychotic treatment and clozapine initiation was 3.2 (2.9) years. Older age at diagnosis of schizophrenia [HR=1.2, 95% CI (1.05-1.4), p=0.01], family history of schizophrenia [HR=2.1, 95% CI (1.1-3.04), p=0.02] and attempted suicide [HR=1.8, 95% CI (1.1-3.04), p=0.02] emerged as significant predictors of clozapine use. The majority of patients (n=96, 88.8%) prescribed clozapine appeared to have a favorable clinical response as indicated by continued prescription redemption and improved occupational outcomes. Our findings support current recommendations for the timely use of clozapine in EOS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk of Cancer in Patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yu-Wen; Hu, Li-Yu; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Teng, Chung-Jen; Kuan, Ai-Seon; Chen, San-Chi; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Liu, Chia-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the risk of cancer among patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) by using a nationwide population-based data set. Method Patients newly diagnosed with IDA and without antecedent cancer between 2000 and 2010 were recruited from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of cancer types among patients with IDA were calculated. Results Patients with IDA exhibited an increased overall cancer risk (SIR: 2.15). Subgroup analysis showed that patients of both sexes and in all age groups had an increased SIR. After we excluded patients diagnosed with cancer within the first and first 5 years of IDA diagnosis, the SIRs remained significantly elevated at 1.43 and 1.30, respectively. In addition, the risks of pancreatic (SIR: 2.31), kidney (SIR: 2.23), liver (SIR: 1.94), and bladder cancers (SIR: 1.74) remained significantly increased after exclusion of patients diagnosed with cancer within 5 years after IDA diagnosis. Conclusion The overall cancer risk was significantly elevated among patients with IDA. After we excluded patients diagnosed with IDA and cancer within 1 and 5 years, the SIRs remained significantly elevated compared with those of the general population. The increased risk of cancer was not confined to gastrointestinal cancer when the SIRs of pancreatic, kidney, liver, and bladder cancers significantly increased after exclusion of patients diagnosed with IDA and cancer within the first 5 years. This finding may be caused by immune activities altered by IDA. Further study is necessary to determine the association between IDA and cancer risk. PMID:25781632

  17. The relationship between economic conditions and postpartum depression in Taiwan: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fung-Wei; Lee, Wen-Ying; Liu, Yueh-Ping; Yang, Jing-Jung; Chen, Shu-Pin; Cheng, Kuan-Chen; Lin, Yan-Cen; Ho, Te-Wei; Chiu, Feng-Hsiang; Hsu, Ren-Jun; Liu, Jui-Ming

    2016-11-01

    Understanding mothers' economic conditions and postpartum depression (PPD) is important for determining how they will take care of themselves and their infants during the postnatal period, especially for low-income families. This study examined the relationship between economic conditions and PPD to elucidate the effect of economic contraction on PPD. Our population-based nationwide study used 2000-2013 the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. A total of 1240 newly diagnosed PPD patients were recruited. We used the database of the Directorate General of Budget, Accounting, and Statistics of Executive Yuan of Taiwan for national economic indicators. The correlation between economic indicators and PPD was examined. The PPD incidence was positively correlated with yearly unemployment rate, consumer price index, and gross domestic product. During the great recession of 2008-2009, PPD was positively correlated with inflation rate. Consumer price index had a positive correlation with PPD incidence per month when comparing PPD in 2010 with the economic indicators during the great recession. As this retrospective study evaluated macroeconomic indicators, it is unclear whether the macroeconomic indicators' effect on PPD totally reflects the effect of true personal economic status on PPD. There was a significant association between PPD and economic conditions. This study shows that mothers' familial environment plays an important role in the development of PPD. The impact of the worldwide economic downturn of the great recession on women is persistent. This useful finding may give health policy planners a hint of early discovering and dealing with PPD when worldwide economic downturn. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Association between gallbladder stone disease and prostate cancer: A nationwide population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Hua; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Chronic inflammation and abnormal cholesterol metabolism are involved in the pathogenesis of gallbladder stone disease (GSD) and that of prostate cancer in experimental studies. We assessed the association between GSD and prostate cancer in this population-based study. Results The cumulative incidence of prostate cancer (log-rank test: P <.001) and the risk of prostate cancer (1.64 vs 1.14 per 10 000 person-y, adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22-1.39) were greater in the patients with GSD than in those without GSD. Furthermore, the risk of prostate cancer increased with the time of follow-up after a diagnosis of GSD, particularly after 9 years of follow-up (aHR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.74-2.19). Materials and Methods We identified 9496 patients who were diagnosed with GSD between 1998 and 2011 from Taiwan's Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 as the study cohort. We randomly selected 37 983 controls from the non-GSD population and used frequency matching by age, sex, and index year for the control cohort. All patient cases were followed until the end of 2011 to measure the incidence of prostate cancer. Conclusion GSD is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer, and the risk increases with the time of follow-up after a diagnosis of GSD. PMID:27147576

  19. Association between psychiatric disorders and osteoarthritis: a nationwide longitudinal population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Wang, Wei-Te; Lin, Li-Fong; Liao, Chun-De; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Lin, Hui-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the association between depressive disorders and osteoarthritis (OA) has been studied, the association of other psychiatric disorders with OA remains unclear. Here, we investigated whether psychiatric disorders are risk factors for OA. The data were obtained from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 of Taiwan. We collected the ambulatory care claim records of patients who were diagnosed with psychiatric disorders according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2008. The prevalence and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of osteoarthritis among patients with psychiatric disorders and the control cohort were estimated. Of 74,393 patients with psychiatric disorders, 16,261 developed OA during the 7-year follow-up period. The crude HR for OA was 1.44 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39–1.49), which was higher than that of the control cohort. The adjusted HR for OA was 1.42 (95% CI, 1.39–1.42) among patients with psychiatric disorders during the 7-year follow-up period. Further analysis revealed that affective psychoses, neurotic illnesses or personality disorders, alcohol and drug dependence or abuse, and other mental disorders were risk factors for OA. This large-scale longitudinal population-based study revealed that affective psychoses, personality disorders, and alcohol and drug dependence or abuse are risk factors for OA. PMID:27368019

  20. Complications and operative spine fusion construct length in Parkinson's disease: A nationwide population-based analysis.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Shearwood; Baker, Joseph F; Smith, Justin S; Line, Breton G; Hart, Robert A; Ames, Christopher P; Bess, R Shay

    2017-09-01

    There remains a dearth of information regarding the surgical complications following multilevel spine surgery in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. This retrospective cohort study was performed to address this issue on a nationwide level using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2001 to 2012. More than 25 postoperative variables were analyzed to assess the impact of fusion construct length on each variable. Subsequently, the same analysis was performed on admissions without PD. 4301 PD patients with spine fusion were identified, of whom 934 (21.7%) underwent fusion of at least three levels; the remaining 3367 underwent fusion of 1-2 levels. Patients with 3+ level fusions were more likely to suffer paraplegia (P=.001; OR=3.0; 95%CI=1.5-6.1), hematoma/seroma (P=.009; OR=1.9; 95%CI=1.2-3.2), IVC filter placement (P=.018; OR=2.1; 95%CI=1.1-3.9), RBC transfusion (P<.001; OR=3.2; 95%CI=2.7-3.8), PE (P=.027; OR=4.5; 95%CI=1.2-16.9), postoperative shock (P=.023; OR=7.3; 95%CI=1.3-39.6), ARDS (P<.001; OR=4.1; 95%CI=2.7-6.3), VTE (P=.006; OR=2.6; 95%CI=1.3-5.4), acute posthemorrhagic anemia (P<.001; OR=2.0; 95%CI=1.7-2.4), device-related complications (P<.001; OR=3.1; 95%CI=2.3-4.2), and in-hospital mortality (P=.005; OR=3.4; 95%CI=1.5-7.4). 3+ level fusions were also more likely to have LOS>1week (P<.001; OR=2.1; 95%CI=1.8-2.5), and a nonroutine discharge (P=.005; OR=1.9; 95%CI=1.4-2.4). 692,173 non-PD patients with spine fusion were identified; 123,964 (17.9%) underwent 3+ level fusion. Differences between 3+ versus 1-2 level fusions were similar to those in PD patient, but unlike PD patients, postoperative infection was significant while in-hospital mortality, PE and VTE were not. Fusion of at least three levels increased morbidity, mortality, and adverse discharge disposition compared with 1-2 level fusions. Nearly 80% of all spine fusions performed in the United States are fewer than three levels. These findings are worth considering during operative decision-making in

  1. Prevalence of substance use disorders in psychiatric patients: a nationwide Danish population-based study.

    PubMed

    Toftdahl, Nanna Gilliam; Nordentoft, Merete; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    The present study established the national prevalence of substance use disorders (SUDs) among Danish psychiatric patients. Furthermore, patients with SUDs and those without SUDs were compared on a range of socio-demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics. Data were obtained from several Danish population-based registers. The study population was defined as all individuals with incidents of schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder, other psychoses, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and personality disorders since 1969. The prevalence of SUDs was examined for the following psychoactive substances: alcohol, opioids, cannabis, sedatives, cocaine, psycho-stimulants and hallucinogens. A total of 463,003 patients were included in the analysis. The prevalence of any lifetime SUD was: 37 % for schizophrenia, 35 % for schizotypal disorder, 28 % for other psychoses, 32 % for bipolar disorder, 25 % for depression, 25 % for anxiety, 11 % for OCD, 17% for PTSD, and 46 % for personality disorders. Alcohol use disorder was the most dominating SUD in every psychiatric category (25 % of all included patients). Patients with SUDs were more often men, had fewer years of formal education, more often received disability pension and died due to unnatural causes. The study was the most comprehensive of its kind so far to estimate the prevalence of SUDs in an unselected population-based cohort, and it revealed remarkably high prevalence among the psychiatric patients. The results should encourage continuous focus on possible comorbidity of psychiatric patients, as well as specialised and integrated treatment along with increased support of patients with comorbid disorders.

  2. Hepatitis C virus infection as a risk factor for Parkinson disease: A nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsin-Hsi; Liou, Horng-Huei; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Lee, Cha-Ze; Yen, Ruoh-Fang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-03-01

    To determine whether hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a risk factor for developing Parkinson disease (PD). This nationwide population-based cohort study was based on data obtained from a dataset of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for the period 2000 to 2010. A total of 49,967 patients with viral hepatitis were included for analysis. Furthermore, 199,868 people without viral hepatitis were included for comparisons. Patients with viral hepatitis were further grouped into 3 cohorts: hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, HCV infection, and HBV-HCV coinfection. In each cohort, we calculated the incidence of developing PD. A Cox proportional hazards model was applied to estimate the risk of developing PD in terms of hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The crude HRs for developing PD was 0.66 (95% CI = 0.55-0.80) for HBV infection, 2.50 (95% CI = 2.07-3.02) for HCV infection, and 1.28 (95% CI = 0.88-1.85) for HBV-HCV coinfection. The association between HCV and PD remained statistically significant after adjustments for age, sex, and comorbidities (adjusted HR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.06-1.56). We conducted a large nationwide population-based study and found that patients with HCV exhibit a significantly increased risk of developing PD. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  3. Use of Primary Care during the Year before Childhood Cancer Diagnosis: A Nationwide Population-Based Matched Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahrensberg, Jette Møller; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Vedsted, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective Childhood cancer is rare and symptoms tend to be unspecific and vague. Using the utilization of health care services as a proxy for symptoms, the present study seeks to determine when early symptoms of childhood cancer are seen in general practice. Methods A population-based matched comparative study was conducted using nationwide registry data. As cases, all children in Denmark below 16 years of age (N = 1,278) diagnosed with cancer (Jan 2002-Dec 2008) were included. As controls, 10 children per case matched on gender and date of birth (N = 12,780) were randomly selected. The utilization of primary health care services (daytime contacts, out-of-hours contacts and diagnostic procedures) during the year preceding diagnosis/index date was measured for cases and controls. Results During the six months before diagnosis, children with cancer used primary care more than the control cohort. This excess use grew consistently and steadily towards the time of diagnosis with an IRR = 3.19 (95%CI: 2.99–3.39) (p<0.0001) during the last three months before diagnosis. Children with Central Nervous System (CNS) tumours had more contacts than other children during the entire study period. The use of practice-based diagnostic tests and the number of out-of-hours contacts began to increase four to five months before cancer diagnosis. Conclusions The study shows that excess health care use, a proxy for symptoms of childhood cancer, occurs months before the diagnosis is established. Children with lymphoma, bone tumour or other solid tumours had higher consultation rates than the controls in the last five months before diagnosis, whereas children with CNS tumour had higher consultation rates in all twelve months before diagnosis. More knowledge about early symptoms and the diagnostic pathway for childhood cancer would be clinically relevant. PMID:23554980

  4. Coronary Angioplasty and Cancer Risk: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Lambe, M. Hall, P.; Granath, F.; Azodi, O. Sadr; Nilsson, T.

    2005-01-15

    Background. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) has become the reperfusion method of choice in patients with coronary artery disease. This sometimes complicated and lengthy procedure is performed using fluoroscopy and cineradiography or digital imaging, which may result in considerable exposure to ionizing radiation. Possible cancer risks in PTCA patients have been discussed, but never before examined in a population-based setting. Objective. To assess the cancer risks following PTCA. Methods. A cohort study was carried out based on nationwide registration of all coronary angioplasty procedures in Sweden between 1989 and 1998. The study encompassed a total of 23,097 PTCA patients followed up for cancer outcomes in the Swedish Cancer Register until December 31, 2000. The mean and median follow-up times were 4.8 and 4.5 years, respectively. The main outcome measures were standardized incidence ratios of cancer. Results. Except for a transient excess of lung cancers, observed number of cancers in patients who had undergone coronary angioplasty did not differ from those expected in the general population. If anything, the overall cancer risk was lower in the PTCA group (SIR 0.94; 95% CI 0.88-0.99). In particular, no increased risks were detected for leukemias or thyroid cancer. Conclusion. There was no indication of increased risks of leukemia or cancers overall in PTCA patients.

  5. Hepatitis C virus infection and risk of cancer: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Omland, Lars Haukali; Farkas, Dora Körmendiné; Jepsen, Peter; Obel, Niels; Pedersen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with an increased risk of primary liver cancer; however, 5- and 10-year risk estimates are needed. The association of HCV with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is uncertain and the association with other cancers is unknown. Method: We conducted a nationwide, population-based cohort study of 4,349 HCV-infected patients in Denmark, computing standardized incidence ratios (SIR) of cancer incidence in HCV infected patients compared with cancer incidence of the general population. We calculated 5- and 10-year risks of developing cancer, stratifying our analyses based on the presence of HIV coinfection and cirrhosis. Results: We recorded an increased risk of primary liver cancer (SIR: 76.63 [95% CI: 51.69–109.40]), NHL (SIR: 1.89 [95% CI: 0.39–5.52]), and several smoking- and alcohol-related cancers in HCV infected patients without HIV coinfection. HCV-infected patients without HIV coinfection had a 6.3% (95% CI: 4.6%–8.7%) risk of developing cancer and 2.0% (95% CI: 1.1%–3.8%) risk of developing primary liver cancer within 10 years. Conclusion: We confirmed the association of HCV infection with primary liver cancer and NHL. We also observed an association between HCV infection and alcohol- and smoking-related cancers. PMID:20865115

  6. Increased risk of antidepressant use in childhood cancer survivors: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lund, Lasse Wegener; Winther, J F; Cederkvist, L; Andersen, K K; Dalton, S O; Appel, C W; Rechnitzer, C; Schmiegelow, K; Johansen, C

    2015-03-01

    Childhood cancer survivors are at risk of both somatic and mental late effects, but large population-based studies of depression are lacking. Risk of antidepressant use was evaluated in a population-based cohort of 5452 Danish children treated for cancer in 1975-2009 by linkage to the National Prescription Drug Database, which worldwide is the oldest nationwide registry of prescription medication. Hazard ratios (HRs) for antidepressant use were estimated in a Cox proportional hazards model stratified on sex, with population comparisons as referents. Overall, childhood cancer survivors were at increased risk of having antidepressants prescribed (HR, 1.4; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3-1.5). The excess absolute risk of antidepressant use was 2.5 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 1.7-3.3), equivalent to an excess of 2.5 survivors for every 100 survivors followed for 10years. Increased HRs of 30-50% were seen for survivors of cancers of all main groups (haematological malignancies, central nervous system (CNS) and solid tumors); the highest risk was among children treated with haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-3.1). Our data suggested that the risk was most pronounced for children treated in the most recent calendar periods (test for interaction between cancer and calendar periods: P<0.001), especially for survivors of haematological cancers (P=0.007). Interaction analysis of the effect of parental socioeconomic position and psychiatric disease on the association between childhood cancer and antidepressant use indicated no modifying effect. Childhood cancer survivors should be followed-up for depression. Our results indicate an increasing need for follow-up especially in survivors treated by more recent, intensive anticancer treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Leptospirosis and Depression: A Nationwide Cohort Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chun-Hsiang; Wang, Ying-Chuan; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lee, Feng-You; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2017-04-01

    We conducted a retrospective cohort study to investigate whether leptospirosis is a risk factor for depression. From the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database between 2000 and 2010, patients with leptospirosis (ICD-9 code 100) who did not have a history of depression (ICD-9-CM codes 296.2, 296.3, 300.4, and 311) before the index date were enrolled (leptospirosis cohort). For each patient with leptospirosis, 1 control without a history of leptospirosis and depression was randomly selected (nonleptospirosis cohort). Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to analyze the risk of depression according to sex, age, and comorbidities. In the leptospirosis and nonleptospirosis cohorts, we observed 34 patients with depression, with the incidence rate of 2.87 per 1,000 person-years, and 25 patients with depression, with the incidence rate of 1.93 per 1,000 person-years, respectively, yielding a crude hazard ratio (HR) of 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-1.77) and an adjusted HR (aHR) of 1.58 (95% CI, 1.34-1.88). Compared with the nonleptospirosis cohort, the leptospirosis cohort had a risk of depression stratified by sex, age, and comorbidity that was higher in female patients (aHR = 2.08; 95% CI, 1.54-2.80), patients younger than 49 years old (aHR = 3.19; 95% CI, 2.39-4.27), and patients without comorbidity (aHR = 2.14; 95% CI, 1.68-2.71). The risk of depression was higher in women than in men (aHR = 1.90; 95% CI, 1.61-2.25) and in patients with comorbidities, namely hyperlipidemia (aHR = 1.80; 95% CI, 1.40-2.31), coronary artery disease (aHR = 2.47; 95% CI, 1.96-3.12), stroke (aHR = 1.77; 95% CI, 1.39-2.24), and septicemia (aHR = 2.06; 95% CI, 1.64-2.58). Patients with leptospirosis have a 1.58-fold higher risk of depression than that in the general population. Physicians should be alert to the emotional condition and depression symptoms of people who had been suffering from leptospirosis.

  8. Relationship between Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and Subsequent Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Pan, Mei-Lien; Chen, Li-Ru; Tsao, Hsiao-Mei; Chen, Kuo-Hu

    2015-01-01

    This nationwide population-based study aims to explore the relationship between polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and subsequent gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Data from 1998-2012 Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database were used for this study. ICD9-CM codes 256.4X and 648.X were used separately for the diagnoses of PCOS and GDM, which were further confirmed by records of blood tests or ultrasonography to ensure the accuracy of the diagnoses. Women diagnosed at < 15 or > 45 years of age, and those diagnosed with overt diabetes mellitus or GDM prior to PCOS were excluded. During pregnancy, each woman with a previous diagnosis of PCOS was age-matched to 10 women without PCOS. Odds ratios (ORs) for risk of GDM were calculated by logistic regression analysis with adjustment for economic status and co-morbidities. Among 7,629 eligible women with a valid PCOS diagnosis, 3,109 (42.87%) had subsequent pregnancies. GDM occurred frequently among women with a history of PCOS as compared to those without PCOS (20.46% vs. 10.54%, p<0.0001). Logistic regression analysis revealed that PCOS was associated with GDM (adjusted OR = 2.15; 95% CI:1.96-2.37). Among 3,109 affected patients, 1,160 (37.31%) had used medications for PCOS and 261 (8.39%) were treated with an oral hypoglycemic agent (OHA). There was no significant difference in development of GDM between the medication and no medication sub-groups (p>0.05). If not used after conception, OHAs did not reduce the risk of GDM (adjusted OR = 1.20; 95% CI:0.88-1.62). A history of PCOS is a significant and independent risk factor for development of GDM. Medication for PCOS or pre-pregnancy use of OHAs does not reduce the risk of GDM. When at-risk women become pregnant, they require closer surveillance for maternal and fetal well-being, and should follow a strict diet and adhere to weight gain control to avoid obstetric complications due to GDM.

  9. Association of Tic Disorders and Enterovirus Infection: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ching-Shu; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Huang, Kuo-You; Lee, Yena; McIntyre, Roger S; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung

    2016-04-01

    There has been growing interest in the association between infectious disease and mental disorders, but an association between enterovirus (EV) infection and tic disorders has not been sufficiently explored. Herein, we aim to investigate the association between EV infection and incidence of tic disorders in a nationwide population-based sample using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. We identified individuals aged ≤18 years prior to 2005 with an inpatient diagnosis of EV infection and/or history of EV infection. Tic disorder was operationalized using International Classification of Disease, Revision 9, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes 307.20-307.23. A total of 47,998 individuals with history of EV infection were compared to 47,998 sex-, age-, and urbanization-matched controls on incidence of tic disorders. The mean ± standard deviation follow-up period for all subjects was 9.7 ± 3.6 years; the mean latency period between initial EV infection and incident diagnosis of tic disorder diagnosis was 5.4 ± 2.8 years. EV infection was significantly associated with greater incidence of tic disorders (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.07-1.45). When subgrouped on the basis of central nervous system (CNS) involvement, EV infection with CNS involvement was not significantly associated with greater incidence of tic disorders when compared to controls (HR = 1.25, 95% CI: 0.64-2.43); EV infection without CNS involvement was significantly associated greater incidence of tic disorders when compared to controls (HR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.07-1.45). In addition, hospitalization for an EV infection did not increase the hazard for greater incidence of tic disorders (HR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.04-1.67 with hospitalization and 1.22, 95% CI: 1.04-1.44 without hospitalization). EV infection is temporally associated with incidence of tic disorders. Our observations add to the growing body of literature implicating immune-inflammatory system in

  10. Relationship between Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and Subsequent Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Mei-Lien; Chen, Li-Ru; Tsao, Hsiao-Mei; Chen, Kuo-Hu

    2015-01-01

    Objective This nationwide population-based study aims to explore the relationship between polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and subsequent gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods Data from 1998–2012 Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database were used for this study. ICD9-CM codes 256.4X and 648.X were used separately for the diagnoses of PCOS and GDM, which were further confirmed by records of blood tests or ultrasonography to ensure the accuracy of the diagnoses. Women diagnosed at < 15 or > 45 years of age, and those diagnosed with overt diabetes mellitus or GDM prior to PCOS were excluded. During pregnancy, each woman with a previous diagnosis of PCOS was age-matched to 10 women without PCOS. Odds ratios (ORs) for risk of GDM were calculated by logistic regression analysis with adjustment for economic status and co-morbidities. Results Among 7,629 eligible women with a valid PCOS diagnosis, 3,109 (42.87%) had subsequent pregnancies. GDM occurred frequently among women with a history of PCOS as compared to those without PCOS (20.46% vs. 10.54%, p<0.0001). Logistic regression analysis revealed that PCOS was associated with GDM (adjusted OR = 2.15; 95% CI:1.96–2.37). Among 3,109 affected patients, 1,160 (37.31%) had used medications for PCOS and 261 (8.39%) were treated with an oral hypoglycemic agent (OHA). There was no significant difference in development of GDM between the medication and no medication sub-groups (p>0.05). If not used after conception, OHAs did not reduce the risk of GDM (adjusted OR = 1.20; 95% CI:0.88–1.62). Conclusions A history of PCOS is a significant and independent risk factor for development of GDM. Medication for PCOS or pre-pregnancy use of OHAs does not reduce the risk of GDM. When at-risk women become pregnant, they require closer surveillance for maternal and fetal well-being, and should follow a strict diet and adhere to weight gain control to avoid obstetric complications due to GDM. PMID:26488176

  11. Scabies increased the risk and severity of COPD: a nationwide population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jung-Yueh; Liu, Jui-Ming; Chang, Fung-Wei; Chang, Hung; Cheng, Kuan-Chen; Yeh, Chia-Lun; Wei, Yu-Feng; Hsu, Ren-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background Scabies is a common parasitic infectious disease, and COPD is a major pulmonary disease. However, there have been no previous studies that have investigated the relationship between scabies and COPD. Materials and methods This nationwide population-based study included a total of 3,568 patients with scabies as the study group and 14,255 patients as a control group. We followed up patients in both groups for a 5-year period to identify any new diagnoses of COPD. We then followed them up for an additional 2-year period to determine the severity of any newly diagnosed cases of COPD as indicated by acute respiratory events. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were performed to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) of COPD during the 5-year follow-up period and COPD complication during the additional 2-year follow-up period. Results Of the 17,823 patients in the study, 2,765 (15.5%) were newly diagnosed with COPD during the 5-year follow-up period; 904 (32.7%) were from the scabies group; and 1,861 (67.3%) were from the control group. Compared to the patients without scabies, the adjusted HR (aHR) for COPD for the subjects with scabies was 1.72 (95% CI: 1.59–1.87) during the 5-year follow-up period. For those newly diagnosed with COPD, the aHR for COPD with acute exacerbation was 1.85 (95% CI: 1.67–2.06), the aHR for COPD with pneumonia was 3.29 (95% CI: 2.77–3.92), the aHR for COPD with acute respiratory failure was 4.00 (95% CI: 3.08–5.19), and the aHR for COPD with cardiopulmonary arrest was 3.95 (95% CI: 2.25–6.95) during the additional 2-year follow-up period. Conclusion The results of this study indicate a 72% increased risk for COPD among patients with scabies. The results also reveal an increased risk of severe COPD complications such as acute respiratory failure, cardiopulmonary arrest, pneumonia, and acute exacerbation among patients with scabies. This useful information may help physicians in treating scabies and remaining alert to the

  12. Work disability before and after diabetes diagnosis: a nationwide population-based register study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ervasti, Jenni; Virtanen, Marianna; Pentti, Jaana; Lallukka, Tea; Tinghög, Petter; Kjeldgard, Linnea; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the risk of work disability (sick leave and disability pension) before and after diabetes diagnosis relative to individuals without diabetes during the same time period, as well as the trajectory of work disability around the diagnosis. This Swedish population-based cohort study with register data included 14 428 individuals with incident diabetes in 2006 and 39 702 individuals without diabetes during 2003 to 2009. Work disability was substantially higher among people with diabetes (overall mean = 95 days per year over the 7 years, SD = 143) than among those without diabetes (mean = 35 days, SD = 95). The risk of work disability was slightly higher after diabetes diagnosis than before and compared with the risk of those without diabetes. The trajectory of work disability was already increasing before diagnosis, increased even more at the time of diagnosis, and leveled off after diagnosis. Individual sociodemographic characteristics and comorbid conditions contributed both to the risk and to the trajectory of work disability. Although diabetes has an independent effect on work disability, sex, age, education, and comorbid conditions play a significant role.

  13. Real-world cost-effectiveness of laparoscopy versus open colectomy for colon cancer: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chih-Hsien; Tan, Elise Chia-Hui; Chen, Chien-Chih; Yang, Ming-Chin

    2017-04-01

    Laparoscopic colectomy is increasingly being adopted for the treatment of colon cancer; however, the long-term effectiveness of this approach in a real-world clinical setting has yet to be verified. This study aims to compare the effectiveness and costs associated with laparoscopic and open colectomy from the perspective of the National Health Insurance (NHI) system in Taiwan. A nationwide population-based colon cancer cohort was observed by linking the Taiwan Cancer Registry, claims data from NHI system, and the National Death Registry. Adult patients with Stage I to Stage III colon cancer who underwent primary cancer resection using either laparoscopy or open colectomy between 2009 and 2011 were included. A propensity score-matched cohort (1745 pairs) was applied to examine three clinical endpoints: overall survival, recurrence-free survival, and disease-free survival within 2 years after the operation. To comply with the perspective as well as the analytic horizon of the study, we limited the research to NHI claims from the study population for the corresponding time period. The health outcomes and net monetary benefits were verified by multivariate mixed-effect models. This analysis revealed that laparoscopy resulted in longer overall survival (adjusted difference 16.8 days, 95 % CI 7.3-26.2), recurrence-free survival (16.8 days, 5.0-28.6) and disease-free survival (26.4 days, 7.4-45.4), compared to open colectomy at 2 years post-op. Laparoscopy also led to a significantly shorter length of stay (3.2 days, 2.4-3.9) and lower index hospitalization costs (US$ 455, 181-729) than open colectomy; however, no differences in costs were observed over the long term. Overall, laparoscopy was more cost-effective than open colectomy under various willingness-to-pay thresholds in the setting of the Taiwan NHI. The continued adoption of laparoscopy in primary curable colon cancer resection is expected to reduce health care costs over the short term while providing

  14. Erectile Dysfunction in Patients with Sleep Apnea – A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yu-Chung; Yang, Chih-Jen; Wu, Meng-Ni; Hsu, Chung-Yao; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Chong, Inn-Wen; Huang, Ming-Shyan

    2015-01-01

    Increased incidence of erectile dysfunction (ED) has been reported among patients with sleep apnea (SA). However, this association has not been confirmed in a large-scale study. We therefore performed a population-based cohort study using Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) database to investigate the association of SA and ED. From the database of one million representative subjects randomly sampled from individuals enrolled in the NHI system in 2010, we identified adult patients having SA and excluded those having a diagnosis of ED prior to SA. From these suspected SA patients, those having SA diagnosis after polysomnography were defined as probable SA patients. The dates of their first SA diagnosis were defined as their index dates. Each SA patient was matched to 30 randomly-selected, age-matched control subjects without any SA diagnosis. The control subjects were assigned index dates as their corresponding SA patients, and were ensured having no ED diagnosis prior to their index dates. Totally, 4,835 male patients with suspected SA (including 1,946 probable SA patients) were matched to 145,050 control subjects (including 58,380 subjects matched to probable SA patients). The incidence rate of ED was significantly higher in probable SA patients as compared with the corresponding control subjects (5.7 vs. 2.3 per 1000 patient-year; adjusted incidence rate ratio = 2.0 [95% CI: 1.8-2.2], p<0.0001). The cumulative incidence was also significantly higher in the probable SA patients (p<0.0001). In multivariable Cox regression analysis, probable SA remained a significant risk factor for the development of ED after adjusting for age, residency, income level and comorbidities (hazard ratio = 2.0 [95%CI: 1.5-2.7], p<0.0001). In line with previous studies, this population-based large-scale study confirmed an increased ED incidence in SA patients in Chinese population. Physicians need to pay attention to the possible underlying SA while treating ED patients. PMID:26177206

  15. Predictors of Childhood Anxiety: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have explored predictors of early childhood anxiety. Objective To determine the prenatal, postnatal, and early life predictors of childhood anxiety by age 5. Methods Population-based, provincial administrative data (N = 19,316) from Manitoba, Canada were used to determine the association between demographic, obstetrical, psychosocial, medical, behavioral, and infant factors on childhood anxiety. Results Risk factors for childhood anxiety by age 5 included maternal psychological distress from birth to 12 months and 13 months to 5 years post-delivery and an infant 5-minute Apgar score of ≤7. Factors associated with decreased risk included maternal age < 20 years, multiparity, and preterm birth. Conclusion Identifying predictors of childhood anxiety is a key step to early detection and prevention. Maternal psychological distress is an early, modifiable risk factor. Future research should aim to disentangle early life influences on childhood anxiety occurring in the prenatal, postnatal, and early childhood periods. PMID:26158268

  16. Propranolol Reduces Cancer Risk: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ping-Ying; Huang, Wen-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Li; Huang, Tzu-Chuan; Wu, Yi-Ying; Chen, Jia-Hong; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-07-01

    β-Blockers have been reported to exhibit potential anticancer effects in cancer cell lines and animal models. However, clinical studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding cancer outcomes and cancer risk when β-blockers were used. This study investigated the association between propranolol and cancer risk.Between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2011, a patient cohort was extracted from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000, a subset of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A propranolol cohort (propranolol usage >6 months) and nonpropranolol cohort were matched using a propensity score. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cancer associated with propranolol treatment.The study sample comprised 24,238 patients. After a 12-year follow-up period, the cumulative incidence for developing cancer was low in the propranolol cohort (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.67-0.85; P < 0.001). Patients with propranolol treatment exhibited significantly lower risks of cancers in head and neck (HR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.35-0.95), esophagus (HR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.13-0.96), stomach (HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30-0.98), colon (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.49-0.93), and prostate cancers (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.33-0.83). The protective effect of propranolol for head and neck, stomach, colon, and prostate cancers was most substantial when exposure duration exceeded 1000 days.This study supports the proposition that propranolol can reduce the risk of head and neck, esophagus, stomach, colon, and prostate cancers. Further prospective study is necessary to confirm these findings.

  17. Birth order and mortality: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Kieron; Kolk, Martin

    2015-04-01

    This study uses Swedish population register data to investigate the relationship between birth order and mortality at ages 30 to 69 for Swedish cohorts born between 1938 and 1960, using a within-family comparison. The main analyses are conducted with discrete-time survival analysis using a within-family comparison, and the estimates are adjusted for age, mother's age at the time of birth, and cohort. Focusing on sibships ranging in size from two to six, we find that mortality risk in adulthood increases with later birth order. The results show that the relative effect of birth order is greater among women than among men. This pattern is consistent for all the major causes of death but is particularly pronounced for mortality attributable to cancers of the respiratory system and to external causes. Further analyses in which we adjust for adult socioeconomic status and adult educational attainment suggest that social pathways only mediate the relationship between birth order and mortality risk in adulthood to a limited degree.

  18. Risk factors for pneumonia among patients with Parkinson’s disease: a Taiwan nationwide population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yang-Pei; Yang, Chih-Jen; Hu, Kai-Fang; Chao, A-Ching; Chang, Yu-Han; Hsieh, Kun-Pin; Tsai, Jui-Hsiu; Ho, Pei-Shan; Lim, Shen-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Objective Pneumonia is the leading cause of death in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, few studies have been performed to explore the risk factors for pneumonia development in patients with PD. Methods We conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study of patients with PD to identify the risk factors for these patients developing pneumonia. Participants with newly diagnosed PD between 2000 and 2009 were enrolled from the 2000–2010 National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We compared patients with PD with an incidence of hospitalization with pneumonia vs those without, and Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the risk of pneumonia. Results Of the 2,001 enrolled patients (mean follow-up duration 5.8 years, range: 2.7–14.7 years), 381 (19.0%) had an incidence of hospitalization with pneumonia during the study period. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis identified older age group (≥80 years of age, hazard ratio [HR] =3.15 [95% confidence interval 2.32–4.28]), male sex (HR =1.59 [1.29–1.96]), certain geographic regions (northern, HR =1.36 [1.04–1.78], southern and eastern, HR =1.40 [1.05–1.88]), rural areas (HR =1.34 [1.05–1.72]), chronic heart failure (HR =1.53 [1.02–2.29]), and chronic kidney disease (HR =1.39 [1.03–1.90]) as risk factors for hospitalization with pneumonia in patients with PD. However, treatment for dental caries was a protective factor (HR =0.80 [0.64–0.99]). Conclusion The results of this study highlight risk factors that are associated with hospitalization with pneumonia, and, for the first time, suggest a link between treated dental caries and a diminished risk of hospitalization with pneumonia in patients with PD. PMID:27175081

  19. Long-term cancer risk after hysterectomy on benign indications: Population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Altman, Daniel; Yin, Li; Falconer, Henrik

    2016-06-01

    Hysterectomy on benign indications is associated with an increased risk for adverse health effects. However, little is known about the association between hysterectomy and subsequent cancer occurrence later in life. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of hysterectomy on the incidence of cancer. In this population-based cohort study, we used data on 111,595 hysterectomized and 537,9843 nonhysterectomized women from nationwide Swedish Health Care registers including the Inpatient Register, the Cancer Register and the Cause of Death Register between 1973 and 2009. Hysterectomy with or without concomitant bilateral salpingo-ophorectomy (BSO) performed on benign indications was considered as exposure and incidence of primary cancers was used as outcome measure. Rare primary cancers (<100 cases for the two groups combined) were excluded from analysis. A marginal risk reduction for any cancer was observed for women with previous hysterectomy and for those with hysterectomy and concurrent BSO (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.91-0.95 and HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.87-0.96, respectively). Compared to nonhysterectomized women, significant risks were observed for thyroid cancer (HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.45-2.14). For both hysterectomy and hysterectomy with BSO, an association with brain cancer was observed (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.32-1.65 and HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.15-1.83, respectively). Hysterectomy, with or without BSO, was not associated with breast, lung or gastrointestinal cancer. We conclude that hysterectomy on benign indications is associated with an increased risk for thyroid and brain cancer later in life. Further research efforts are needed to identify patient groups at risk of malignancy following hysterectomy. © 2016 UICC.

  20. Hydatidiform mole and subsequent pregnancy outcome: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Joneborg, Ulrika; Eloranta, Sandra; Johansson, Anna L V; Marions, Lena; Weibull, Caroline E; Lambe, Mats

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether a history of hydatidiform mole (HM) is associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes in subsequent pregnancies. This was a nationwide cohort study with data from population-based registers. The study population consisted of all children registered in the Swedish Medical Birth Register 1973-2009 (n = 3,730,825). Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for adverse maternal and offspring pregnancy outcomes by maternal history of HM prior to the delivery, with children to women with no maternal history of HM as the reference. Risk estimates were adjusted for maternal age at delivery and maternal country of birth. A history of HM was not associated with an increased risk of adverse maternal outcomes in subsequent pregnancies (n = 5186). Women exposed to a molar pregnancy prior to the index birth were at an almost 25% increased risk of preterm birth (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.06-1.43), whereas women with at least 1 birth between the HM and the index birth were at an increased risk of a large-for-gestational-age birth and stillbirth (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.10-1.67 and OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.11-2.96, respectively). The risk of repeat mole was 0.4%. Women with a history of HM are at no increased risk of adverse maternal outcomes in subsequent pregnancies but have an increased risk of large-for-gestational-age birth, stillbirth, and preterm birth. However, in absolute terms, the risk of subsequent adverse offspring outcomes is very low. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Term perinatal mortality audit in the Netherlands 2010–2012: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Eskes, Martine; Waelput, Adja J M; Erwich, Jan Jaap H M; Brouwers, Hens A A; Ravelli, Anita C J; Achterberg, Peter W; Merkus, Hans (J) M W M; Bruinse, Hein W

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the implementation and first results of a term perinatal internal audit by a standardised method. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting All 90 Dutch hospitals with obstetric/paediatric departments linked to community practices of midwives, general practitioners in their attachment areas, organised in perinatal cooperation groups (PCG). Population The population consisted of 943 registered term perinatal deaths occurring in 2010–2012 with detailed information, including 707 cases with completed audit results. Main outcome measures Participation in the audit, perinatal death classification, identification of substandard factors (SSF), SSF in relation to death, conclusive recommendations for quality improvement in perinatal care and antepartum risk selection at the start of labour. Results After the introduction of the perinatal audit in 2010, all PCGs participated. They organised 645 audit sessions, with an average of 31 healthcare professionals per session. Of all 1102 term perinatal deaths (2.3/1000) data were registered for 86% (943) and standardised anonymised audit results for 64% (707). In 53% of the cases at least one SSF was identified. Non-compliance to guidelines (35%) and deviation from usual professional care (41%) were the most frequent SSF. There was a (very) probable relation between the SSF and perinatal death for 8% of all cases. This declined over the years: from 10% (n=23) in 2010 to 5% (n=10) in 2012 (p=0.060). Simultaneously term perinatal mortality decreased from 2.3 to 2.0/1000 births (p<0.00001). Possibilities for improvement were identified in the organisation of care (35%), guidelines or usual care (19%) and in documentation (15%). More pregnancies were antepartum selected as high risk, 70% in 2010 and 84% in 2012 (p=0.0001). Conclusions The perinatal audit is implemented nationwide in all obstetrical units in the Netherlands in a short time period. It is possible that the audit contributed to the decrease in

  2. Cancer-specific incidence rates of tuberculosis: A 5-year nationwide population-based study in a country with an intermediate tuberculosis burden.

    PubMed

    Seo, Gi Hyeon; Kim, Min Jae; Seo, Soyoung; Hwang, Boram; Lee, Eugene; Yun, Yujin; Choi, Minsun; Kim, Moonsuk; Kim, Jin Won; Kim, Eu Suk; Kim, Hong Bin; Song, Kyoung-Ho

    2016-09-01

    Population-based studies of the incidence of tuberculosis in cancer patients according to the type of cancer are limited. We investigated the cancer-specific incidence of tuberculosis in a nationwide population-based cohort in a country with an intermediate burden of tuberculosis.We used mandatory National Health Insurance claims data to construct a cancer cohort of adults (aged 20-99 years) with newly diagnosed malignancies other than lung cancer, from January 2008 to December 2012. Patients who developed tuberculosis in this period were identified in the cancer cohort and the general population. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of tuberculosis in the cancer cohort according to type of cancer and time after cancer diagnosis were calculated by comparing the observed incidence rates with those inferred from the age- and gender-specific incidence rates in the general population.A total of 855,382 cancer patients and 1589,876 person-years (py) were observed. A total of 5745 patients developed tuberculosis; the mean incidence rate was 361.3 per 100,000 py, and the SIR was 2.22 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.17-2.27). The incidence rate was highest for hematologic malignancy and lowest for thyroid cancer. It was also highest as 650.1 per 100,000 py, with SIR of 3.70 (CI, 3.57-3.83) for the first 6 months after diagnosis of malignancy and then declined. However, it still remained higher than that of the general population after 24 months (SIR = 1.43, CI, 1.36-1.51).The incidence of tuberculosis increases after diagnosis in patients with malignancies. The risk of tuberculosis differs according to the type of cancer and remains elevated even 24 months after cancer diagnosis. Tuberculosis should be considered an important comorbidity in patients with malignancies.

  3. Nationwide prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in Sweden: a population-based register study.

    PubMed

    Büsch, K; Ludvigsson, J F; Ekström-Smedby, K; Ekbom, A; Askling, J; Neovius, M

    2014-01-01

    Regional studies on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) suggest an increasing prevalence over time, but no nationwide estimate has been published so far. To estimate the IBD prevalence in 2010 in Sweden overall, by disease, and in specific patient segments. Patients were identified according to international classification codes for ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease in in-patient care (1987-2010), day surgery and nonprimary out-patient care (1997-2010) in the nationwide Swedish Patient Register. Requiring two or more diagnoses of IBD in nonprimary care, a total of 61 344 individuals with physician-diagnosed IBD were alive in Sweden in 2010 (mean age 50 years; 51% men), corresponding to a prevalence of 0.65% (95% CI, 0.65-0.66). The prevalence increased with age, and peaked in women at ages 50-59 years and in men at ages 60-69 years. Adding the requirement of IBD as main (vs. main or contributory) diagnosis code, or diagnosis from an internal medicine/gastroenterology/surgery department did not change the prevalence estimate. Prevalence of actively treated disease (defined as two or more IBD-related visits, of which one occurred in 2010, plus at least one dispensed prescription of IBD-related drugs in 2010) was 0.27% (95% CI, 0.27-0.28). The Swedish nationwide register-based IBD prevalence was higher compared with previous Swedish and international estimates. While prevalence estimates were robust across different case definitions, once two or more visits were required, only about one-third of prevalent patients were drawing resources from specialised care in 2010. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Cohort Profile: The Japanese Population-based Osteoporosis (JPOS) Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Iki, Masayuki; Tamaki, Junko; Sato, Yuho; Morita, Akemi; Ikeda, Yukihiro; Kajita, Etsuko; Nishino, Harumi; Akiba, Takashi; Matsumoto, Toshio; Kagamimori, Sadanobu; Kagawa, Yoshiko; Yoneshima, Hideo; Matsukura, Tomoharu; Yamagami, Takashi; Kitagawa, Jun

    2015-04-01

    The Japanese Population-based Osteoporosis (JPOS) Cohort Study was launched in 1996 to produce a reference database of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and bone turnover markers in the Japanese female population and to determine risk factors for osteoporotic fractures. At baseline, 3984 women aged 15 to 79 years were randomly selected to provide representative bone status data and aBMD values for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Follow-up surveys were conducted in 1999, 2002, 2006 and 2011/12 to determine changes in aBMD and identify incident morphometry-confirmed vertebral fractures and clinical fractures. These outcomes were obtained from 2174 women who participated in at least one follow-up survey. JPOS is a unique resource of individual-level bone health information with radiological and biological archives that include DXA images, and serum, plasma and DNA for future analyses with emerging radiological and biological techniques. The JPOS dataset is not freely available, but new collaborations are encouraged. Potential collaborators are invited to contact the Secretary General (M.I.) at the administrative office of the JPOS Study Group.

  5. Association of New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus in Older People and Mortality in Taiwan: A 10-Year Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Chi, M-J; Liang, C-K; Lee, W-J; Peng, L-N; Chou, M-Y; Chen, L-K

    2017-01-01

    Older patients with diabetes mellitus are at a higher risk of developing diabetic macro- and micro-vascular complications and cardiovascular diseases than younger diabetes mellitus patients. However, older diabetes mellitus patients are very heterogeneous in their clinical characteristics, diabetes mellitus-related complications and age at disease onset. This study aimed to evaluate the all-cause mortality rates and adverse health outcomes among older adults with new-onset diabetes mellitus through a nationwide population-based study. A retrospective cohort study. 2001-2011 data of the National Health Insurance database. Nationally representative sample of Taiwanese adults aged 65 years and older with propensity score-matched controls. All-cause mortality and adverse health outcomes. During the study period, 45.3% of patients in the diabetes mellitus cohort and 38.8% in the non-diabetes mellitus cohort died. The adjusted relative risk for mortality in the diabetes mellitus cohort compared to the non-diabetes mellitus cohort was 1.23 (95% Confidence Interval [CI]=1.16-1.30) for males and 1.27 (95%CI=1.19-1.35) for females. During the follow-up period, 8.9% of the diabetes mellitus cohort and 5.8% of the non-diabetes mellitus cohort developed cardiovascular diseases; the diabetes mellitus cohort had an adjusted relative risk of cardiovascular complications compared to the non-diabetes mellitus cohort of 1.54 (95%CI=1.36-1.75) for men and 1.70 (95%CI=1.43-2.02) for women. The adjusted relative risk of mortality in the patients with hypoglycemia compared to non-hypoglycemia patients in the diabetes mellitus cohort was 2.33 (95%CI=1.81-3.01) for men and 2.73 (95%CI=2.10-3.52) for women after adjustment for age, Charlson comorbidity index, acute coronary syndrome, respiratory disease, cancer, infectious disease and nervous system disease at baseline. New-onset diabetes in older adults is associated with an increased risk of mortality, and hypoglycemia is an important

  6. Increased risk of chronic osteomyelitis after hip replacement: a retrospective population-based cohort study in an Asian population.

    PubMed

    Hung, D-Z; Tien, N; Lin, C-L; Lee, Y-R; Wang, C C N; Chen, J-J; Lim, Y-P

    2017-04-01

    The correlation between hip replacement (Hip-Repl) and chronic osteomyelitis (COM) has not been studied in Asian populations. Thus, we assessed Hip-Repl-related risk of developing COM via a population-based, nationwide, retrospective cohort study. The Hip-Repl cohort was obtained from Taiwan's Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000, and included patients who underwent Hip-Repl between 2000 and 2010; the control cohort was also selected from this database. Patients with a history of COM were excluded in both cohorts. We used univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models to calculate the adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) by age, sex, and comorbidities for developing COM. A total of 5349 patients who received a Hip-Repl and 10,372 matched controls were enrolled. In the Hip-Repl group, the risk for COM was 4.18-fold [95 % confidence interval (CI) = 2.24-7.80] higher than that in the control group after adjustment. For patients aged ≤65 years, the risk was 10.0-fold higher (95 % CI = 2.89-34.6). Furthermore, the risk was higher in the Hip-Repl cohort than in the non-Hip-Repl cohort, for both patients without comorbidity (aHR = 16.5, 95 % CI = 2.07-132.3) and those with comorbidity (aHR = 3.49, 95 % CI = 1.78-6.83). The impact of Hip-Repl on the risk for COM was greater among patients not using immunosuppressive drugs, and occurred during the first postoperative year. Patients who received Hip-Repl have an increased risk of developing COM. This risk was higher among males and patients aged 65 years or younger, and during the first postoperative year.

  7. Use of Lithium and Anticonvulsants and the Rate of Chronic Kidney Disease: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo; Andersen, Per Kragh; Licht, Rasmus W

    2015-12-01

    Lithium is the main mood stabilizing drug for bipolar disorder. However, it is controversial whether long-term maintenance treatment with lithium or other drugs for bipolar disorder causes chronic kidney disease (CKD). To compare rates of CKD and in particular rates of end-stage CKD among individuals exposed to successive prescriptions of lithium, anticonvulsants, or other drugs used for bipolar disorder. This is a Danish nationwide population-based study of 2 cohorts. Cohort 1 comprised a randomly selected sample of 1.5 million individuals among all persons who were registered in Denmark on January 1, 1995, all patients with a diagnosis of a single manic episode or bipolar disorder between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2012 (n =10,591), and all patients exposed to either lithium (n = 26,731) or anticonvulsants (n=420,959). Cohort 2 included the subgroup of 10,591 patients diagnosed as having bipolar disorder. Possible CKD, definite CKD, and end-stage CKD (defined as long-term dialysis or renal transplantation). A total of 14,727 (0.8%), 18,762 (1.0%), and 3407 (0.2%) in cohort 1 and 278 (2.6%), 319 (3.0%), and 62 (0.6%) in cohort 2 were diagnosed as having possible, definite, or end-stage CKD, respectively. Based on the total sample and not considering diagnoses, use of lithium was associated with an increased rate of definite CKD (0 prescriptions: hazard ratio [HR] = 1.09, 95% CI, 0.81-1.45; ≥60 prescriptions: HR = 3.65, 95% CI, 2.64-5.05; P for trend < .001) and possible CKD (0 prescriptions: HR = 1.01, 95% CI, 0.79-1.30; ≥60 prescriptions: HR = 2.88, 95% CI, 2.17-3.81; P for trend < .001), whereas use of anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, or antidepressants was not. Neither use of lithium nor use of any other drug class was associated with increasing rates of end-stage CKD. In patients with bipolar disorder, use of lithium was associated with an increased rate of definite CKD (1-2 prescriptions: HR = 0.89, 95% CI, 0

  8. Aortic events in a nationwide Marfan syndrome cohort.

    PubMed

    Groth, Kristian A; Stochholm, Kirstine; Hove, Hanne; Kyhl, Kasper; Gregersen, Pernille A; Vejlstrup, Niels; Østergaard, John R; Gravholt, Claus H; Andersen, Niels H

    2017-02-01

    Marfan syndrome is associated with morbidity and mortality due to aortic dilatation and dissection. Preventive aortic root replacement has been the standard treatment in Marfan syndrome patients with aortic dilatation. In this study, we present aortic event data from a nationwide Marfan syndrome cohort. The nationwide cohort of Danish Marfan syndrome patients was established from the Danish National Patient Registry and the Cause of Death Register, where we retrieved information about aortic surgery and dissections. We associated aortic events with age, sex, and Marfan syndrome diagnosis prior or after the first aortic event. From the total cohort of 412 patients, 150 (36.4 %) had an aortic event. Fifty percent were event free at age 49.6. Eighty patients (53.3 %) had prophylactic surgery and seventy patients (46.7 %) a dissection. The yearly event rate was 0.02 events/year/patient in the period 1994-2014. Male patients had a significant higher risk of an aortic event at a younger age with a hazard ratio of 1.75 (CI 1.26-2.42, p = 0.001) compared with women. Fifty-three patients (12.9 %) were diagnosed with MFS after their first aortic event which primarily was aortic dissection [n = 44 (83.0 %)]. More than a third of MFS patients experienced an aortic event and male patients had significantly more aortic events than females. More than half of the total number of dissections was in patients undiagnosed with MFS at the time of their event. This emphasizes that diagnosing MFS is lifesaving and improves mortality risk by reducing the risk of aorta dissection.

  9. Impact of ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumonia in Finnish children in a nation-wide population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Palmu, Arto A.; Rinta-Kokko, Hanna; Nohynek, Hanna; Nuorti, J. Pekka; Kilpi, Terhi M.; Jokinen, Jukka

    2017-01-01

    Background The ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced into the Finnish National Vaccination Program (NVP) in September 2010 using a 2+1 schedule (3, 5, 12 months). We estimated the direct and indirect effects of PCV10 on pneumonia among children to evaluate the public health impact of the vaccine. Methods We conducted a nation-wide population-based, observational study comparing rates of pneumonia in children before and after the NVP introduction. For the total (direct and indirect) effect, the cohort of vaccine-eligible children (born June 1, 2010 or later) was followed until the end of 2013 (age range 3–42 months). For the indirect effect, a cohort of older children (age range 7–71 months) not eligible for the PCV vaccination was followed from 2011 to 2013. Both cohorts were compared with two season- and age-matched reference cohorts before NVP introduction. Hospitals’ in- and outpatient discharge notifications with ICD-10 diagnoses compatible with pneumonia (J10.0, J11.0, J12-J18, J85.1 or J86) as set by the hospital pediatricians were collected from the national Care Register. The main outcome was hospital-treated primary pneumonia (HTPP), defined as primary diagnosis of pneumonia after in-patient hospitalization. We compared rates of pneumonia in the NVP target and reference cohorts by using Poisson regression models. Results The rate of HTPP episodes was 5.3/1000 person-years in the combined reference cohorts and 4.1/1000 person-years in the target cohort vaccine-eligible children. Compared with the reference cohort, the relative rate reduction in target cohort was 23% (95%CI 18–28) and the absolute reduction 1.3/1000 person-years. In the indirect effect evaluation, we observed continued increase in HTPP incidence until 2011 with a subsequent reduction of 18% (95%CI 10–25) during years 2012 to 2013. Number of empyema diagnoses remained low. Conclusions A substantial decrease in pneumonia rates was observed both among

  10. Term perinatal mortality audit in the Netherlands 2010-2012: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Eskes, Martine; Waelput, Adja J M; Erwich, Jan Jaap H M; Brouwers, Hens A A; Ravelli, Anita C J; Achterberg, Peter W; Merkus, Hans J M W M; Bruinse, Hein W

    2014-10-14

    To assess the implementation and first results of a term perinatal internal audit by a standardised method. Population-based cohort study. All 90 Dutch hospitals with obstetric/paediatric departments linked to community practices of midwives, general practitioners in their attachment areas, organised in perinatal cooperation groups (PCG). The population consisted of 943 registered term perinatal deaths occurring in 2010-2012 with detailed information, including 707 cases with completed audit results. Participation in the audit, perinatal death classification, identification of substandard factors (SSF), SSF in relation to death, conclusive recommendations for quality improvement in perinatal care and antepartum risk selection at the start of labour. After the introduction of the perinatal audit in 2010, all PCGs participated. They organised 645 audit sessions, with an average of 31 healthcare professionals per session. Of all 1102 term perinatal deaths (2.3/1000) data were registered for 86% (943) and standardised anonymised audit results for 64% (707). In 53% of the cases at least one SSF was identified. Non-compliance to guidelines (35%) and deviation from usual professional care (41%) were the most frequent SSF. There was a (very) probable relation between the SSF and perinatal death for 8% of all cases. This declined over the years: from 10% (n=23) in 2010 to 5% (n=10) in 2012 (p=0.060). Simultaneously term perinatal mortality decreased from 2.3 to 2.0/1000 births (p<0.00001). Possibilities for improvement were identified in the organisation of care (35%), guidelines or usual care (19%) and in documentation (15%). More pregnancies were antepartum selected as high risk, 70% in 2010 and 84% in 2012 (p=0.0001). The perinatal audit is implemented nationwide in all obstetrical units in the Netherlands in a short time period. It is possible that the audit contributed to the decrease in term perinatal mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  11. Data Analytic Process of a Nationwide Population-Based Study Using National Health Information Database Established by National Health Insurance Service.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Ho; Han, Kyungdo; Ko, Seung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Lee, Ki Up

    2016-02-01

    In 2014, the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) signed a memorandum of understanding with the Korean Diabetes Association to provide limited open access to its databases for investigating the past and current status of diabetes and its management. NHIS databases include the entire Korean population; therefore, it can be used as a population-based nationwide study for various diseases, including diabetes and its complications. This report presents how we established the analytic system of nation-wide population-based studies using the NHIS database as follows: the selection of database study population and its distribution and operational definition of diabetes and patients of currently ongoing collaboration projects.

  12. Gastroesophageal reflux disease and risk for bipolar disorder: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wan-Shan; Hu, Li-Yu; Liu, Chia-Jen; Hsu, Chih-Chao; Shen, Cheng-Che; Wang, Yen-Po; Hu, Yu-Wen; Tsai, Chia-Fen; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Chen, Pan-Ming; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Lu, Ti

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that chronic inflammation may play a vital role in the pathophysiology of both gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and bipolar disorder. Among patients with GERD, the risk of bipolar disorder has not been well characterized. We explored the relationship between GERD and the subsequent development of bipolar disorder, and examined the risk factors for bipolar disorder in patients with GERD. We identified patients who were diagnosed with GERD in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort without GERD was matched according to age, sex, and comorbidities. The occurrence of bipolar disorder was evaluated in both cohorts based on diagnosis and the prescription of medications. The GERD cohort consisted of 21,674 patients, and the comparison cohort consisted of 21,674 matched control patients without GERD. The incidence of bipolar disorder (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 2.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.58-3.36, P<.001) was higher among GERD patients than among comparison cohort. Multivariate, matched regression models showed that the female sex (hazard ratio [HR] 1.78, 95% CI 1.76-2.74, P = .008), being younger than 60 years old (HR 2.35, 95% CI 1.33-4.16, P = .003), and alcohol use disorder (HR 4.89, 95% CI 3.06-7.84, P = .004) were independent risk factors for the development of bipolar disorder among GERD patients. GERD may increase the risk of developing bipolar disorder. Based on our data, we suggest that attention should be focused on female patients younger than 60 years, and patients with alcohol use disorder, following a GERD diagnosis.

  13. Increased risks of tic disorders in children with epilepsy: A nation-wide population-based case-control study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Weng, Wen-Chin; Huang, Hui-Ling; Wong, Lee Chin; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Yin, Yun-Ju; Chen, Hong-An; Lee, Wang-Tso; Ho, Shinn-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Both epilepsy and tic disorders may share common mechanisms with the involvement of abnormal cortical-basal ganglion circuit connection and dopaminergic dysfunction. However, the association between epilepsy and tic disorders has never been studied. This study investigated the risks of developing tic disorders among children with epilepsy using databases of a universal health insurance system in Taiwan. The data analyzed in this study were retrieved from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. The study cohort included children with epilepsy between 2001 and 2007 (n=2629) and a three-fold age- and gender-matched controls (n=7887). All subjects were followed up for 3 years from the date of cohort entry to identify their admissions due to tic disorders (ICD-9-CM codes 307.2, 307.20-307.23). Cox hazard regression analysis was performed to estimate the effect of epilepsy on the occurrence of tics. The epilepsy cohort had a higher prevalence of tics (1.7% vs. 0.2%), and a 8.70-fold increased risk of developing a tic disorder compared with the controls (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 8.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.26-16.37, p<0.001). Male patients were observed to have a higher risk of developing a tic disorder (AHR 1.90, 95% CI=1.04-3.46, p<0.001) compared to female individuals. Patients with multiple antiepileptic drugs treatment also exhibited higher crude OR for developing tic disorders. This nationwide population-based cohort study, for the first time, demonstrated that there is a significantly increased risk for tic disorders among children with epilepsy. We also found males, attention deficit disorder and the use of multiple AEDs to be independent risk factors of tic disorders. Closely evaluating possible tic disorders would be crucial for improving the outcome and life quality in children with epilepsy.

  14. Increased Risk of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Te-Chun; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Chia-Hung; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Chang, Yen-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence that autoimmune disease is associated with development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aim to assess the relationship between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and COPD risk in a nationwide population. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the catastrophic illness registry of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). We identified 10,623 patients with SLE newly diagnosed between 2000 and 2010. Each patient was randomly frequency-matched with four people without SLE on age, sex, and index year from the general population. Both cohorts were followed up until the end of 2010 to measure the incidence of COPD. The risk of COPD was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression models including age, sex, index year and comorbidities. Results The overall incidence rate of COPD was 1.73–fold higher in the SLE cohort than in the control cohort (17.4 vs. 10.1 per 10,000 person-years, 95% CI = 1.62–1.84). Age related analysis showed increased incidence of COPD with age in both SLE and control cohorts. However, adjusted HR maximum was observed in the youngest age group (adjusted HR: 4.33, 95% CI, 2.39–7.85) while adjusted HR minimum was witnessed in the oldest age group (adjusted HR: 1.19, 95% CI, 0.85–1.22). Conclusion Patients with SLE have a significant risk of developing COPD than the control population. Based on the findings from this study, it can be hypothesized that in addition to cigarette smoke SLE may be a determining factor for COPD incidence. However, further investigation is needed to corroborate this hypothesis. PMID:24622340

  15. A nationwide population-based study of low vision and blindness in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Shin Hae; Lee, Ji Sung; Heo, Hwan; Suh, Young-Woo; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Lim, Key Hwan; Moon, Nam Ju; Lee, Sung Jin; Park, Song Hee; Baek, Seung-Hee

    2014-12-18

    To investigate the prevalence and associated risk factors of low vision and blindness in the Korean population. This cross-sectional, population-based study examined the ophthalmologic data of 22,135 Koreans aged ≥5 years from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V, 2010-2012). According to the World Health Organization criteria, blindness was defined as visual acuity (VA) less than 20/400 in the better-seeing eye, and low vision as VA of 20/60 or worse but 20/400 or better in the better-seeing eye. The prevalence rates were calculated from either presenting VA (PVA) or best-corrected VA (BCVA). Multivariate regression analysis was conducted for adults aged ≥20 years. The overall prevalence rates of PVA-defined low vision and blindness were 4.98% and 0.26%, respectively, and those of BCVA-defined low vision and blindness were 0.46% and 0.05%, respectively. Prevalence increased rapidly above the age of 70 years. For subjects aged ≥70 years, the population-weighted prevalence rates of low vision, based on PVA and BCVA, were 12.85% and 3.87%, respectively, and the corresponding rates of blindness were 0.49% and 0.42%, respectively. The presenting vision problems were significantly associated with age (younger adults or elderly subjects), female sex, low educational level, and lowest household income, whereas the best-corrected vision problems were associated with age ≥ 70 years, a low educational level, and rural residence. This population-based study provides useful information for planning optimal public eye health care services in South Korea. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  16. Childhood cancer survival in Finland (1953-2010): a nation-wide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Madanat-Harjuoja, L M; Pokhrel, A; Kivivuori, S M; Saarinen-Pihkala, U M

    2014-11-01

    Population based survival studies are critical in monitoring changes in anticancer therapy, evaluating effectiveness of new treatments as well as identifying possibilities for further improvement. The previous report on cancer survival in Finland covered patients diagnosed in 1953-1995. Data on survival in the European and Nordic pediatric populations have been published with follow-up ending in 2002. We describe population-based survival of childhood cancer patients (n = 8270, age 0-14 years) in Finland overall and by disease category with follow-up extending from 1953 to 2010 and focusing on the modern treatment era. Data were collected from the Finnish Cancer Registry. Age-standardised observed survival proportions (rates) were calculated using the actuarial (or life-table) method. Trends in observed survival rates were studied over six diagnostic periods: 1953-1960, 1961-1970, 1971-1980, 1981-1990, 1991-2000 and 2001-2010. The overall 5-year survival reached 82.1% (95% CI 80.0-84.2) in the most recent period. In most diagnostic categories, the biggest leap in survival was seen between 1961-1970 and 1981-1990, after which slight improvements occurred between 1981-1990 and 1991-2000, with no significant increase thereafter. In analyses by diagnostic group, positive trends in survival over the last three decades were seen for leukemia (p = 0.000), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (p = 0.002) and CNS tumours (p = 0.02). Although survival of childhood cancer patients overall has significantly improved from 1953 to 2000, improvement thereafter has been marginal. Future treatment efforts should be directed at bone tumours, soft-tissue sarcoma, neuroblastoma and malignant brain tumours as well as high-risk leukemia.

  17. Hyperthyroidism and Risk for Bipolar Disorders: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yu-Wen; Chen, Mu-Hong; Tsai, Chia-Fen; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Wang, Wei-Shu; Chen, Pan-Ming; Hu, Tsung-Ming; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Su, Tung-Ping; Liu, Chia-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Background Thyroid disorders have long been associated with psychiatric illness, often with symptoms suggestive of mood disorders. The most common clinical features associated with hyperthyroidism are anxiety and depression. The risk of bipolar disorders, especially bipolar mania, among patients with thyroid disorders has not been well characterized. Objective We explored the relationship of hyperthyroidism and the subsequent development of bipolar disorders, and examined the risk factors for bipolar disorders in patients with hyperthyroidism. Methods We identified patients who were diagnosed with hyperthyroidism between 2000 and 2010 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort without hyperthyroidism was matched based on age, sex, and comorbidities. The occurrence of bipolar disorders was evaluated in both cohorts based on diagnosis and the use of mood stabilizer drugs. Results The hyperthyroidism cohort consisted of 21, 574 patients, and the comparison cohort consisted of 21, 574 matched control patients without hyperthyroidism. The incidence of bipolar disorders (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 2.31, 95% CI 1.80–2.99, P<.001) was higher for the hyperthyroidism patients than the control patients. Multivariate, matched regression models showed that women (HR 2.02, 95% CI 1.34–3.05, P = .001), patients with alcohol use disorders (HR 3.03, 95% CI 1.58–5.79, P = .001), and those with asthma (HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.18–2.43, P = .004) were independent risk factors for the development of bipolar disorders in hyperthyroidism patients. Conclusions Although a possibility that the diagnosis of bipolar disorders in this study actually includes "bipolar disorders due to hyperthyroidism" cannot be excluded, this study suggests that hyperthyroidism may increase the risk of developing bipolar disorders. PMID:24023669

  18. Hyperthyroidism and risk for bipolar disorders: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Li-Yu; Shen, Cheng-Che; Hu, Yu-Wen; Chen, Mu-Hong; Tsai, Chia-Fen; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Wang, Wei-Shu; Chen, Pan-Ming; Hu, Tsung-Ming; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Su, Tung-Ping; Liu, Chia-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid disorders have long been associated with psychiatric illness, often with symptoms suggestive of mood disorders. The most common clinical features associated with hyperthyroidism are anxiety and depression. The risk of bipolar disorders, especially bipolar mania, among patients with thyroid disorders has not been well characterized. We explored the relationship of hyperthyroidism and the subsequent development of bipolar disorders, and examined the risk factors for bipolar disorders in patients with hyperthyroidism. We identified patients who were diagnosed with hyperthyroidism between 2000 and 2010 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort without hyperthyroidism was matched based on age, sex, and comorbidities. The occurrence of bipolar disorders was evaluated in both cohorts based on diagnosis and the use of mood stabilizer drugs. The hyperthyroidism cohort consisted of 21, 574 patients, and the comparison cohort consisted of 21, 574 matched control patients without hyperthyroidism. The incidence of bipolar disorders (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 2.31, 95% CI 1.80-2.99, P<.001) was higher for the hyperthyroidism patients than the control patients. Multivariate, matched regression models showed that women (HR 2.02, 95% CI 1.34-3.05, P = .001), patients with alcohol use disorders (HR 3.03, 95% CI 1.58-5.79, P = .001), and those with asthma (HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.18-2.43, P = .004) were independent risk factors for the development of bipolar disorders in hyperthyroidism patients. Although a possibility that the diagnosis of bipolar disorders in this study actually includes "bipolar disorders due to hyperthyroidism" cannot be excluded, this study suggests that hyperthyroidism may increase the risk of developing bipolar disorders.

  19. Time Trend in Psychotropic Medication Use in Spain: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Jiménez-Trujillo, Isabel; Esteban-Hernández, Jesús; Álvaro-Meca, Alejandro; López-de Andrés, Ana; DelBarrio-Fernández, José Luis; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Background: We performed an epidemiologic study to analyze nationwide time trends in adult psychotropic drug use over a period from 2006 to 2012, and to identify those factors associated with the likelihood of consumption of these drugs during the study period; Methods: Cross-sectional study on psychotropic medication in the Spanish adult population. We used secondary individualized data drawn from the 2006 and 2012 Spanish National Health Surveys (SNHS). The dependent variable was the use of psychotropic drugs in the previous two weeks. Independent variables included socio-demographic characteristics, comorbidity, lifestyles and healthcare resource utilization. Using logistic multivariate regression models, we analyzed the temporal evolution of psychotropic medication consumption between 2006 and 2012 in both sexes; Results: The prevalence of psychotropic drug use was significantly greater in women (18.14% vs. 8.08% in 2012 (p < 0.05). In Spanish women, the variables associated with a greater probability of psychotropic use were, age, unemployment (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 1.60; 95% CI, 1.24–2.07), negative perception of health or taking non-psychotropic drugs. Among men, psychotropic use is associated with presence of chronic disease, negative perception of health (AOR, 3.27; 95% CI, 2.62–4.07 in 2012) or inactive status; Conclusions: Between 2006 and 2012, the probability of having taken psychotropic drugs increased by 16% among women. Unemployed women aged ≥45 years with a negative perception of their health constitute a clear risk profile in terms of psychotropic drug use. Inactive men who have a negative perception of their health are the group most likely to consume psychotropic drugs. PMID:27886138

  20. Association Between Zolpidem and Suicide: A Nationwide Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu; Lin, Che-Chen; Lu, Chien-Jung; Hsu, Chung-Y; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the association between zolpidem and the risk of suicide. In this nationwide case-control study, the case group comprised 2199 people who committed suicide or were hospitalized due to suicide attempt between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2011. To create a control group, we randomly selected 10 people matched to each case according to age, sex, urbanization, and occupation. We measured the risk of suicide/suicide attempt in association with zolpidem exposure by using adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and assessed the dose-response effect of zolpidem. After adjustment for potential confounders such as the comorbidities of schizophrenia, major depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety, insomnia, substance use, and other mental disorders, the Charlson comorbidity index, and use of benzodiazepine or antidepressants, zolpidem exposure was found to be significantly associated with the risk of suicide/suicide attempt with an OR of 2.08 (95% CIs, 1.83-2.36). The risk increased with the level of zolpidem use. The ORs (95% CIs) for cumulative defined daily doses of less than 90, 90 to 179, and 180 mg or more were 1.90 (1.65-2.18), 2.07 (1.59-2.67), and 2.81 (2.33-3.38), respectively (for trend, P<.001). Subgroup analyses showed that the exposure to zolpidem consistently increased the OR in different age groups, sex, urbanization level, occupation, mental disorders, and Charlson comorbidity index levels and in groups of people with or without the presence of insomnia. This study demonstrated a significant association between using zolpidem and suicide or suicide attempt in people with or without comorbid psychiatric illnesses (all P<.05). Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The heritability of blood donation: a population-based nationwide twin study.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Ole Birger; Axel, Skytthe; Rostgaard, Klaus; Erikstrup, Christian; Edgren, Gustaf; Nielsen, Kaspar René; Ullum, Henrik; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Hjalgrim, Henrik

    2015-09-01

    Voluntary blood donation is believed to be mostly motivated by altruism. Because studies have suggested that altruistic personality is determined by both genetic and environmental factors, we speculated that willingness to donate blood could also be governed by constitutional factors. This hypothesis was tested in a study among Danish twins. The nationwide Danish Twin Register, which is virtually complete for all twins born since 1968, was linked with Danish portion of the Scandinavian Donation and Transfusion (SCANDAT) Database, which includes information on all active Danish blood donors from 2002 to 2012, to establish blood donor status for Danish twins, who at age 17 years became eligible for donation in 2002 or later. Casewise concordance in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins were presented and heritability was estimated in Mx by variance component analysis in a liability threshold model. A total of 274 MZ and 484 same-sex DZ twins age 17 to 27 years were identified as donors in SCANDAT. There was no difference between MZ and DZ twins with regard to age at first donation or number of donations. Casewise concordance rates were 0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56-0.67) and 0.41 (95% CI, 0.36-0.47) in MZ and DZ twin pairs, respectively. Heritability analysis using the ACE model found that additive genetic and shared environmental effects accounted for 0.53 (95% CI, 0.33-0.73) and 0.28 (95% CI, 0.10-0.45) of the variance in the motivation to donate blood, respectively. Becoming a volunteer blood donor is determined by both genetic and environmental factors shared within families. © 2015 AABB.

  2. Thalassaemia and risk of cancer: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Wei-Sheng; Lin, Chun-Liang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-11-01

    Studies that have investigated the epidemiological relationship between thalassaemia and cancers are scarce. Therefore, we conducted a longitudinal nationwide cohort study to determine whether patients with thalassaemia are at an increased risk of cancer. We investigated the incidence and risk of cancer in 2655 patients diagnosed with thalassaemia between 1998 and 2010 by using data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. The comparison cohort comprised 10 620 people from the general population without thalassaemia. The follow-up period extended from the diagnostic date for thalassaemia to the date of a cancer diagnosis, censoring or 31 December 2011. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to analyse the risks of cancer. The incidences of cancer were 3.96 and 2.60/1000 person-years for the thalassaemia and comparison cohorts, respectively. The overall incidence of cancer was 52% higher in the thalassaemia cohort than in the comparison cohort, with an adjusted HR (aHR) of 1.54 (95% CI 1.15 to 2.07). Patients with thalassaemia had a considerably higher risk of haematological malignancy (aHR=5.32, 95% CI 2.18 to 13.0) and abdominal cancer (aHR=1.96, 95% CI 1.22 to 3.15) than did the comparison cohort. Furthermore, patients with thalassaemia with transfusion exhibited a 9.31-fold risk for developing haematological malignancy and a 9.12-fold risk for developing abdominal cancer compared with those who did not receive transfusion. This nationwide retrospective cohort study indicates that patients with thalassaemia carried substantial risks of haematological malignancy and abdominal cancer compared with those of the general population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Risk of cryptorchidism and hypospadias among boys of maternal hairdressers - a Danish population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard; Toft, Gunnar Vase; Larsen, Ann Dyreborg; Bonde, Jens Peter; Hougaard, Karin Sørig

    2013-05-01

    Pregnant hairdressers may be exposed to a mixture of chemicals in their working environment. The possible relationship between these chemical agents and male reproductive tract malformations has raised concern that the working environment of hairdressers might have adverse effects on fetal development. This study assessed the risk of cryptorchidism and hypospadias among boys of maternal hairdressers. National population-based registers were used to determine maternal occupation and identify cases of cryptorchidism and hypospadias. The cohort comprised all children born in Denmark from 1980-2007. Using Cox regression, we estimated hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for hospitalization for cryptorchidism and hypospadias from 1980-2009. Boys of hairdressers were not at increased risk of cryptorchidism (134 cases, HR 0.91; 95% CI 0.77-1.08) or hypospadias (33 cases, HR 1.27; 95% CI 0.90-1.79) compared to children of mothers in other occupations (14 988 and 2556 cases of cryptorchidism and hypospadias, respectively). Additional analyses using children of shop assistants and receptionists as controls and restricted to (i) firstborns, (ii) cryptorchidism cases with corrective surgery, (iii) specific birth years, and (iv) women without social benefit payments in gestational weeks 8-14 produced consistent results of no increased risk. Our nationwide cohort study shows that, despite exposure to a complex chemical milieu, hairdressers do not have an increased risk of having boys with cryptorchidism and hypospadias.

  4. Osteoporosis in adult patients with atopic dermatitis: A nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ching-Ying; Lu, Ying-Yi; Lu, Chun-Ching; Su, Yu-Feng; Tsai, Tai-Hsin; Wu, Chieh-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate osteoporosis risk in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients. This study included patients in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research dataset. The population-based study included all patients aged 20-49 years who had been diagnosed with AD during 1996-2010. In total, 35,229 age and gender-matched patients without AD in a 1:1 ratio were randomly selected as the non-AD group. Cox proportional-hazards regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to measure the hazard ratios and the cumulative incidences of osteoporosis, respectively. During the follow-up period, 360(1.02%) AD patients and 127(0.36%) non-AD patients developed osteoporosis. The overall incidence of osteoporosis was4.72-fold greater in the AD patients compared to the non-AD patients (1.82 vs. 0.24 per 1,000 person-years, respectively) after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Osteoporosis risk factors included female gender, age, advanced Charlson Comorbidity Index, depression and use of corticosteroids. The dataset analysis showed that AD was significantly associated with subsequent risk of osteoporosis.

  5. Osteoporosis in adult patients with atopic dermatitis: A nationwide population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chun-Ching; Su, Yu-Feng; Tsai, Tai-Hsin; Wu, Chieh-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate osteoporosis risk in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients. This study included patients in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research dataset. The population-based study included all patients aged 20–49 years who had been diagnosed with AD during 1996–2010. In total, 35,229 age and gender-matched patients without AD in a 1:1 ratio were randomly selected as the non-AD group. Cox proportional-hazards regression and Kaplan–Meier analyses were used to measure the hazard ratios and the cumulative incidences of osteoporosis, respectively. During the follow-up period, 360(1.02%) AD patients and 127(0.36%) non-AD patients developed osteoporosis. The overall incidence of osteoporosis was4.72-fold greater in the AD patients compared to the non-AD patients (1.82 vs. 0.24 per 1,000 person-years, respectively) after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Osteoporosis risk factors included female gender, age, advanced Charlson Comorbidity Index, depression and use of corticosteroids. The dataset analysis showed that AD was significantly associated with subsequent risk of osteoporosis. PMID:28207767

  6. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in octogenarians: A population-based study using the nationwide inpatient sample

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Clancy J.; Coe, Adam; Fino, Nora F.; Pawa, Rishi

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: In the elderly population, there is a growing demand for minimally invasive procedures as the incidence of pancreaticobiliary disease increases with age. Patients with advanced age offer unique challenges for any procedure because they also tend to have a higher rate of baseline comorbidities and malignancy. The aim of the current study was to characterize the mortality and length of stay of octogenarians undergoing inpatient endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Patients and methods: Using the 2007 – 2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), we performed a retrospective analysis of health-related outcomes among 80- to 89-year-old patients undergoing inpatient ERCP. Surgical patients were excluded. Results: An estimated 61,322 octogenarians underwent inpatient ERCP in the United States from 2007 to 2010. The mean age was 84.2 (SE 0.02) with 59.5 % (n = 36,460) of the patients being female. A large majority of the patients were white (79. %, n = 41,144) and 63.5 % (n = 38,940) had a comorbidity index of at least 2. The mean length of stay was 7.1 days (SE 0.08) with an in-hospital mortality of 3.1 % (n = 1,919). The primary discharge diagnosis was most often biliary stone disease (55.9 %, n = 34,263). A diagnosis of any infection was recorded in 45.0 % (n = 27,609) of patients. Infection was associated with a significantly higher risk of in-hospital mortality (OR 3.3, 95 % CI 2.6 – 4.2, P < 0.001). Conclusions: ERCP is now routinely being performed during inpatient admissions for octogenarians with diseases of the biliary tract. The mortality of octogenarians undergoing inpatient ERCP is higher than previous reports and is likely due to superimposed infection during the same admission. PMID:27556068

  7. Hospital Recorded Morbidity and Breast Cancer Incidence: A Nationwide Population-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ording, Anne Gulbech; Garne, Jens Peter; Nyström, Petra Mariann Witt; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre; Tarp, Maja; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Lash, Timothy L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Chronic diseases and their complications may increase breast cancer risk through known or still unknown mechanisms, or by shared causes. The association between morbidities and breast cancer risk has not been studied in depth. Methods Data on all Danish women aged 45 to 85 years, diagnosed with breast cancer between 1994 and 2008 and data on preceding morbidities were retrieved from nationwide medical registries. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using conditional logistic regression associating the Charlson comorbidity score (measured using both the original and an updated Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI)) with incident breast cancer. Furthermore, we estimated associations between 202 morbidity categories and incident breast cancer, adjusting for multiple comparisons using empirical Bayes (EB) methods. Results The study included 46,324 cases and 463,240 population controls. Increasing CCI score, up to a score of six, was associated with slightly increased breast cancer risk. Among the Charlson diseases, preceding moderate to severe renal disease (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.48), any tumor (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.25), moderate to severe liver disease (OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.32, 2.62), and metastatic solid tumors (OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.89), were most strongly associated with subsequent breast cancer. Preceding myocardial infarction (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.81, 0.99), connective tissue disease (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.80, 0.94), and ulcer disease (OR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.83, 0.99) were most strongly inversely associated with subsequent breast cancer. A history of breast disorders was associated with breast cancer after EB adjustment. Anemias were inversely associated with breast cancer, but the association was near null after EB adjustment. Conclusions There was no substantial association between morbidity measured with the CCI and breast cancer risk. PMID:23094045

  8. Causes and risk factors for mortality within 1 year after obesity surgery in a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tao, Wenjing; Plecka-Östlund, Magdalena; Lu, Yunxia; Mattsson, Fredrik; Lagergren, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    The use of obesity surgery has increased during the past decade. There is a need for population-based assessments of causes and risk factors for postoperative mortality. The objective of this study was to assess causes and risk factors for 1-year mortality after obesity surgery. This nationwide retrospective population-based cohort study included essentially all obesity surgery patients in Sweden from 1980-2010. Data were collected from Swedish national registries and medical records. Patient characteristics, co-morbidities, and surgical procedures were assessed in relation to 1-year mortality through multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression, providing hazard ratios (HR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for age, sex, surgical procedure, surgical access, and co-morbidity. Among 22,487 obesity surgery patients the 1-year cumulative mortality was .38% (n = 85). Follow-up of cohort was complete. Median time of postoperative death was 45 days. Main causes of death included cardiopulmonary complications (myocardial infarction [n = 14; 16%], pulmonary embolism [n = 12; 14%], sudden cardiac arrest [n = 11; 13%]), and anastomotic leak (n = 12; 14%). Male sex (HR = 2.31; 95% CI 1.48-3.60), diabetes (HR = 2.47; 95% CI 1.44-4.23), and congestive heart failure (HR = 4.82; 95% CI 2.25-10.35) were independently associated with increased 1-year mortality, while age, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, coronary heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and surgical procedure were not. Open surgery entailed an increased mortality compared to laparoscopic surgery from 2000-2010 (HR = 2.72; 95% CI 1.53-4.83), but not from 1990-1999 (HR = .39; 95% CI .11-1.32). Although the absolute risk of mortality is low, the increased relative risk of mortality associated with male sex, diabetes, congestive heart failure, and open surgical access could influence clinical decision making. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published

  9. Acute cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in patients with hyperthyroidism: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dekkers, Olaf M; Horváth-Puhó, Erzsébet; Cannegieter, Suzanne C; Vandenbroucke, Jan P; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Jørgensen, Jens Otto L

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have shown an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in hyperthyroidism, but most studies have been too small to address the effect of hyperthyroidism on individual cardiovascular endpoints. Our main aim was to assess the association among hyperthyroidism, acute cardiovascular events and mortality. It is a nationwide population-based cohort study. Data were obtained from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish National Patient Registry, which covers all Danish hospitals. We compared the rate of all-cause mortality as well as venous thromboembolism (VTE), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), ischemic and non-ischemic stroke, arterial embolism, atrial fibrillation (AF) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the two cohorts. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated. The study included 85 856 hyperthyroid patients and 847 057 matched population-based controls. Mean follow-up time was 9.2 years. The HR for mortality was highest in the first 3 months after diagnosis of hyperthyroidism: 4.62, 95% CI: 4.40-4.85, and remained elevated during long-term follow-up (>3 years) (HR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.33-1.37). The risk for all examined cardiovascular events was increased, with the highest risk in the first 3 months after hyperthyroidism diagnosis. The 3-month post-diagnosis risk was highest for atrial fibrillation (HR: 7.32, 95% CI: 6.58-8.14) and arterial embolism (HR: 6.08, 95% CI: 4.30-8.61), but the risks of VTE, AMI, ischemic and non-ischemic stroke and PCI were increased also 2- to 3-fold. We found an increased risk for all-cause mortality and acute cardiovascular events in patients with hyperthyroidism. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  10. Does perceived stress increase the risk of atrial fibrillation? A population-based cohort study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Graff, Simon; Prior, Anders; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Christensen, Bo; Glümer, Charlotte; Larsen, Finn Breinholt; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2017-06-01

    Psychological stress is associated with increased risk of acute cardiovascular diseases, as myocardial infarction. We recently found a higher risk of atrial fibrillation following an acute stressful life event, but it remains unknown whether this also applies to common and less acute stress exposures. We investigated the risk of incident atrial fibrillation in people with high levels of perceived stress by following a population-based cohort of 114,337 participants from the Danish National Health Survey from 2010 to 2014. The survey holds information on lifestyle factors and perceived stress measured by Cohen's 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). We obtained information on atrial fibrillation, comorbidities and socioeconomic status from Danish nationwide registers. We identified 2172 persons with a first episode of atrial fibrillation during 424,839 person-years of follow-up. The hazard ratio (HR) of atrial fibrillation with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated with Cox proportional hazard model. The risk of atrial fibrillation increased with increasing PSS score; persons in the highest perceived stress quintile had 28% (95% CI, 12%-46%) higher risk of atrial fibrillation compared with persons in the lowest perceived stress quintile. However, the association disappeared when adjusting for comorbidities, socioeconomic status and lifestyle factors; HR was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.88-1.16) when comparing persons in the highest and the lowest perceived stress quintile. This large population-based cohort study did not reveal a higher risk of atrial fibrillation among persons with a high degree of perceived stress after adjustment for participants' baseline characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Anaesthesia care with and without tracheal intubation during emergency endoscopy for peptic ulcer bleeding: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lohse, N; Lundstrøm, L H; Vestergaard, T R; Risom, M; Rosenstock, S J; Foss, N B; Møller, M H

    2015-06-01

    Emergency upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a common condition with high mortality. Most patients undergo oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD), but no universally agreed approach exists to the type of airway management required during the procedure. We aimed to compare anaesthesia care with tracheal intubation (TI group) and without airway instrumentation (monitored anaesthesia care, MAC group) during emergency OGD. This was a prospective, nationwide, population-based cohort study during 2006-13. Emergency OGDs performed under anaesthesia care were included. End points were 90 day mortality (primary) and length of stay in hospital (secondary). Associations between exposure and outcomes were assessed in logistic and linear regression models, adjusted for the following potential confounders: shock at admission, level of anaesthetic expertise present, ASA score, Charlson comorbidity index score, BMI, age, sex, alcohol use, referral origin (home or in-hospital), Forrest classification, ulcer localization, and postoperative care. The study group comprised 3580 patients under anaesthesia care: 2101 (59%) for the TI group and 1479 (41%) for the MAC group. During the first 90 days after OGD, 18.9% in the TI group and 18.4% in the MAC group died, crude odds ratio=1.03 [95% confidence interval (CI)=0.87-1.23, P=0.701], adjusted odds ratio=0.95 (95% CI=0.79-1.15, P=0.590). Patients in the TI group stayed slightly longer in hospital [mean 8.16 (95% CI=7.63-8.60) vs 7.63 days (95%=CI 6.92-8.33), P=0.108 in adjusted analysis]. In this large population-based cohort study, anaesthesia care with TI was not different from anaesthesia care without airway instrumentation in patients undergoing emergency OGD in terms of 90 day mortality and length of hospital stay. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Epidemiology of chronic spontaneous urticaria: results from a nationwide, population-based study in Italy.

    PubMed

    Lapi, F; Cassano, N; Pegoraro, V; Cataldo, N; Heiman, F; Cricelli, I; Levi, M; Colombo, D; Zagni, E; Cricelli, C; Vena, G A

    2016-05-01

    Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is a common skin disease, but there is a paucity of precise epidemiological data on this disease. To obtain information on the epidemiology of CSU in Italy. The data source was the Health Search IMS Health Longitudinal Patient Database. The study population was formed by patients aged ≥ 15 years, registered with a total of 700 general practitioners, homogeneously distributed across Italy. An algorithm based on the International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision, Clinical Modification was used for the identification of patients with CSU. The annual prevalence and incidence rates of CSU over a 12-year period (2002-2013) were estimated, along with demographic and clinical determinants. The annual prevalence of CSU ranged from 0·02% in 2002 to 0·38% in 2013. The incidence was 0·10-1·50 per 1000 person-years. For both prevalence and incidence rates, female patients outnumbered male. The risk of CSU was statistically significantly higher in the presence of the following variables: obesity; anxiety, dissociative and somatoform disorders; malignancies; use of immunosuppressive drugs; and chronic use of systemic corticosteroids. History of autoimmune thyroiditis showed a trend towards an increased risk of CSU, though it was not statistically significant. Smoking was associated with a significantly reduced risk of CSU. Our findings on CSU prevalence are consistent with those obtained in previous studies. Furthermore, this large population-based study provides important information regarding the association of CSU with demographic and clinical determinants, which have been examined in the primary-care setting. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  13. Higher prevalence of dementia in patients with schizophrenia: A nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ku, Hyemin; Lee, Eui-Kyung; Lee, Kyoung-Uk; Lee, Min-Young; Kwon, Jin-Won

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of dementia in patients with and without schizophrenia, with a particular focus on age-specific and sex-specific differences. We conducted a population-based study using the National Health Insurance claims database from 2010 to 2013. Using a 10:1 matching ratio, 248,919 patients without schizophrenia and 26,591 patients with schizophrenia were identified based on the ICD-10 code. Patients with dementia were extracted by diagnosis or use of anti-dementia drugs. Conditional logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association between schizophrenia and dementia. The prevalence of dementia was significantly higher in schizophrenia patients compared with that in matched non-schizophrenia patients (9.9% versus 2.2%, P < 0.0001). After adjusting for Charlson comorbidity index and underlying comorbidities, conditional logistic regression showed that schizophrenia was associated with dementia (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 4.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.4-5.1). When stratified by sex, the AOR was 5.6 (95% CI, 5.0-6.2) among women and 4.0 (95% CI, 3.6-4.5) among men. Moreover, the association between dementia and schizophrenia was strong in elderly patients. The AOR of dementia prevalence was 6.6 (95% CI, 6.1-7.2) in patients aged ≥65 years and 3.4 (95% CI, 3.0-3.8) in patients aged <65 years. Schizophrenia patients were more likely to have dementia compared with non-schizophrenia patients. This association seems greater in higher prevalence groups such as women and patients aged ≥65 years. Further investigation on the mechanism is required. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Therapeutic inertia and intensified treatment in diabetes mellitus prescription patterns: A nationwide population-based study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Ying; Yeh, Hseng-Long; Yang, Ming-Chin; Shau, Wen-Yi; Su, Syi; Lai, Mei-Shu

    2016-12-01

    Objective To measure therapeutic inertia by characterizing prescription patterns using secondary data obtained from the nationwide diabetes mellitus pay-for-performance (DM-P4P) programme in Taiwan. Methods Using reimbursement claims from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, a nationwide retrospective cohort study was undertaken of patients with diabetes mellitus who participated in the DM-P4P programme from 2006-2008. Glycosylated haemoglobin results were used to evaluate modifications in therapy in response to poor diabetes control. Prescription patterns were used to assign patients to either a therapeutic inertia group or an intensified treatment group. Therapeutic inertia was defined as the failure to act on a known problem. Results The research sample comprised of 168 876 patients with diabetes mellitus who had undergone 899 135 tests. Of these, 37.4% (336 615 visits) of prescriptions were for a combination of two types of drug and 27.7% (248 788 visits) were for a combination of three types of drug. The proportion of patients in the intensified therapy group who were prescribed more than two types of drug was considerably higher than that in the therapeutic inertia group. Conclusion In many cases in the therapeutic inertia group only a single type of hypoglycaemic drug was prescribed or the dosage remained unchanged.

  15. The Association of Ursodeoxycholic Acid Use With Colorectal Cancer Risk: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Kuan; Hsu, Hung-Chih; Liu, Jia-Rou; Yang, Tsai-Sheng; Chen, Jen-Shi; Chang, John Wen-Cheng; Lin, Yung-Chang; Yu, Kuang-Hui; Kuo, Chang-Fu; See, Lai-Chu

    2016-03-01

    Data from preclinical studies suggest that ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has a chemopreventive effect on colorectal cancer (CRC) development, but no large observational study has examined this possibility. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of UDCA use with CRC risk in a nationwide population-based cohort. This nationwide population-based cohort study used data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for the period from 2000 through 2010. This study included data from 7119 Taiwanese adults who received ≥28 cumulative defined daily doses (cDDDs) of UDCA and 14,238 patients who did not receive UDCA (<28 cDDDs). UDCA nonusers were matched 1:2 for age, sex, enrollment date, and presence of chronic liver disease, viral hepatitis, cholelithiasis, and alcoholic liver disease. The 2 cohorts were followed until December 31, 2010 or occurrence of CRC. Cox proportional hazards regression with robust Sandwich variance estimator, which can cooperate with matching design, was used to examine the association between UDCA use and CRC risk. During 109,312 person-years of follow-up (median, 5 years), 121 patients had newly diagnosed CRC: 28 UDCA users (76.7 per 100,000 person-years) and 93 nonusers (127.7 per 100,000 person-years) (log-rank test, P = 0.0169). After multivariate adjustment for age, UDCA use was associated with a reduced risk of CRC (hazard ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39-0.92). The adjusted hazard ratios were 0.55 (95% CI, 0.35-0.89), 0.89 (95% CI, 0.36-2.20), and 0.63 (95% CI, 0.16-2.53) for patients with 28 to 180, 181 to 365, and >365 cDDDs, respectively, relative to nonusers. UDCA use was associated with reduced risk of CRC in a cohort mainly comprising patients with chronic liver diseases. However, further studies are needed to determine the optimal dosage of UDCA.

  16. Management and Risk Reduction of Rheumatoid Arthritis in Individuals with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Chang, Yu-Sheng; Chang, Chi-Ching; Chang, Deh-Ming; Chen, Yi-Hsuan; Tsai, Chang-Youh; Chen, Jin-Hua

    2016-01-01

    in individuals with obstructive sleep apnea: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan. SLEEP 2016;39(10):1883–1890. PMID:27397567

  17. Traditional Chinese Medicine Use among Patients with Psoriasis in Taiwan: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Shu-Wen; Chen, Bor-Chyuan; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Liu, Chun-Kai; Chang, Ching-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has long been used for patients with psoriasis. This study aimed to investigate TCM usage in patients with psoriasis. We analyzed a cohort of one million individuals representing the 23 million enrollees randomly selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We identified 28,510 patients newly diagnosed with psoriasis between 2000 and 2010. Among them, 20,084 (70.4%) patients were TCM users. Patients who were female, younger, white-collar workers and lived in urbanized area tended to be TCM users. The median interval between the initial diagnosis of psoriasis to the first TCM consultation was 12 months. More than half (N = 11,609; 57.8%) of the TCM users received only Chinese herbal medicine. Win-qing-yin and Bai-xian-pi were the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula and single herb, respectively. The core prescription pattern comprised Mu-dan-pi, Wen-qing-yin, Zi-cao, Bai-xian-pi, and Di-fu-zi. Patients preferred TCM than Western medicine consultations when they had metabolic syndrome, hepatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, alopecia areata, Crohn's disease, cancer, depression, fatty liver, chronic airway obstruction, sleep disorder, and allergic rhinitis. In conclusion, TCM use is popular among patients with psoriasis in Taiwan. Future clinical trials to investigate its efficacy are warranted. PMID:27822287

  18. Traditional Chinese Medicine Use among Patients with Psoriasis in Taiwan: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Weng, Shu-Wen; Chen, Bor-Chyuan; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Liu, Chun-Kai; Sun, Mao-Feng; Chang, Ching-Mao; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Yen, Hung-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has long been used for patients with psoriasis. This study aimed to investigate TCM usage in patients with psoriasis. We analyzed a cohort of one million individuals representing the 23 million enrollees randomly selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We identified 28,510 patients newly diagnosed with psoriasis between 2000 and 2010. Among them, 20,084 (70.4%) patients were TCM users. Patients who were female, younger, white-collar workers and lived in urbanized area tended to be TCM users. The median interval between the initial diagnosis of psoriasis to the first TCM consultation was 12 months. More than half (N = 11,609; 57.8%) of the TCM users received only Chinese herbal medicine. Win-qing-yin and Bai-xian-pi were the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula and single herb, respectively. The core prescription pattern comprised Mu-dan-pi, Wen-qing-yin, Zi-cao, Bai-xian-pi, and Di-fu-zi. Patients preferred TCM than Western medicine consultations when they had metabolic syndrome, hepatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, alopecia areata, Crohn's disease, cancer, depression, fatty liver, chronic airway obstruction, sleep disorder, and allergic rhinitis. In conclusion, TCM use is popular among patients with psoriasis in Taiwan. Future clinical trials to investigate its efficacy are warranted.

  19. Relative Handgrip Strength Is a Simple Indicator of Cardiometabolic Risk among Middle-Aged and Older People: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wei-Ju; Peng, Li-Ning; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chen, Liang-Kung

    2016-01-01

    Background Muscle strength may play an important role in cardiovascular health. The study was intended to evaluate the association between cardiometabolic risk, risk of coronary artery disease and handgrip strength by using the relative handgrip strength. Materials and Methods Data of 927 Taiwanese aged 53 years and older (510 men and 417 women) were retrieved from a nationwide representative population-based cohort cross-sectional study in 2006. All participants were interviewed face-to-face and received measures of anthropometry, dominant handgrip strength, relative handgrip strength (summation of both handgrip strength divided by body mass index) and serum biomarkers. Results Multivariate linear regression analysis showed the significant association between relative handgrip strength and favorable cardiometabolic risk factors including blood pressure, triglyceride, total cholesterol to high density cholesterol(HDL-C) ratio, glycohemoglobin (HbA1c), uric acid, Framingham risk score in men, and HDL-C, fasting glucose, HbA1c, log hsCRP in women. Dominant hand grip strength was only associated with log hsCRP in women. (p<0.05 for all), but was not significant associated with all cardiovascular biomarkers and FRS in both sex. Conclusions Joint with handgrip strength and body size, as relative handgrip strength, may be a better tool to capture conceptual concomitant health, which may be a simple, inexpensive, and easy-to-use tool when targeting cardiovascular health in public health level. PMID:27559733

  20. Adequate prenatal care reduces the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with history of infertility: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Alibekova, Raushan; Huang, Jian-Pei; Chen, Yi-Hua

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of various measures of prenatal care on adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with a history of infertility. A retrospective cohort study. Data were derived by linking 2 large nationwide population-based datasets, the National Health Insurance Research Database and Taiwan Birth Certificate Registry. The study sample included 15,056 women with an infertility diagnosis and 60,224 randomly selected women without infertility matched to the study sample by maternal age. A conditional logistic regression analysis was performed for the analysis. Women diagnosed with infertility respectively had 1.39 (95% CI, 1.06~1.83), 1.15 (95% CI, 1.08~1.24), 1.13 (95% CI, 1.08~1.18), and 1.08 (95% CI, 1.05~1.12) higher odds of having very low birth weight (VLBW) babies, preterm births, labor complications, and cesarean sections (CSs) compared to women without infertility. Inadequate numbers of total and major prenatal visits and late initiation of prenatal care increased the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with infertility, especially the risk of a VLBW baby. However, no significant associations were found for the risks of adverse birth outcomes in infertile women with adequate prenatal care compared to fertile women with adequate care. Study findings suggest that adequate prenatal care can reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with infertility.

  1. Adequate Prenatal Care Reduces the Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Women with History of Infertility: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Alibekova, Raushan; Huang, Jian-Pei; Chen, Yi-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects of various measures of prenatal care on adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with a history of infertility. Study Design A retrospective cohort study. Methods Data were derived by linking 2 large nationwide population-based datasets, the National Health Insurance Research Database and Taiwan Birth Certificate Registry. The study sample included 15,056 women with an infertility diagnosis and 60,224 randomly selected women without infertility matched to the study sample by maternal age. A conditional logistic regression analysis was performed for the analysis. Results Women diagnosed with infertility respectively had 1.39 (95% CI, 1.06~1.83), 1.15 (95% CI, 1.08~1.24), 1.13 (95% CI, 1.08~1.18), and 1.08 (95% CI, 1.05~1.12) higher odds of having very low birth weight (VLBW) babies, preterm births, labor complications, and cesarean sections (CSs) compared to women without infertility. Inadequate numbers of total and major prenatal visits and late initiation of prenatal care increased the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with infertility, especially the risk of a VLBW baby. However, no significant associations were found for the risks of adverse birth outcomes in infertile women with adequate prenatal care compared to fertile women with adequate care. Conclusions Study findings suggest that adequate prenatal care can reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with infertility. PMID:24358347

  2. Epidemiology of Pediatric Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury in a Population-Based Cohort, 1998-2012.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Lee L; Selassie, Anbesaw; Cao, Yue; Zebracki, Kathy; Vogel, Lawrence C

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) that occurs in children and adolescents who are still developing represents a different challenge than SCI in adults. However, information on the epidemiology and incidence of SCI in a population-based cohort is lacking. To describe the epidemiology of pediatric SCI in a population-based cohort in the United States and to assess trend in incidence over a 15-year period (1998-2012). Children and adolescents (0-21 years) with SCI were identified through the South Carolina SCI Surveillance Registry using hospital discharge records from 1998 to 2012. Overall age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated for each year, and incidence rates were stratified by age, gender, and race. The overall age-adjusted incidence rate was 26.9 per million population, and there was a trend (P = .0583) toward decreasing incidence of pediatric SCI. When stratified by race, there was a significant decrease in incidence among Whites(P = .0052) but not among non-Whites. Younger participants were more likely to be female, to be injured through sports, and to be more likely to have concomitant traumatic brain injury. Since 1998, the proportion of older pediatric patients (16-22 years) with SCI has increased, as has the proportion of non-White patients. Although there was an overall trend toward decreasing incidence in this population-based cohort, when stratified by race, this trend only occurred in the White population.

  3. Asthma, corticosteroid use and schizophrenia: A nationwide population-based study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Mong-Liang; Ng, Mei-Hing; Huang, Kuo-You; Hsieh, Ming-Hong; Hsieh, Meng-Jer; McIntyre, Roger S.; Lee, Yena

    2017-01-01

    Objective Asthma and corticosteroid use have been implicated as possible risk factors for schizophrenia. The retrospective cohort study herein aimed to investigate the association between asthma, corticosteroid use, and schizophrenia. Method Longitudinal data (2000 to 2007) from adults with asthma (n = 50,046) and without asthma (n = 50,046) were compared on measures of schizophrenia incidence using Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Incidence of schizophrenia diagnosis (ICD-9 codes 295.XX) between 2000 and 2007 were compared between groups. Competing risk-adjusted Cox regression analyses were conducted, adjusting for sex, age, residence, socioeconomic status, corticosteroid use, outpatient and emergency room visit frequency, Charlson comorbidity index, and total length of hospital stays days for any disorder. Results Of the 75,069 subjects, 238 received a diagnosis of schizophrenia. The mean (SD) follow-up interval for all subjects was 5.8 (2.3) years. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, asthma was associated with significantly greater hazard ratio for incident schizophrenia 1.40 (95% CI = 1.05, 1.87). Additional factors associated with greater incidence of schizophrenia were rural residence, lower economic status, and poor general health. Older age (i.e. ≥65 years) was negatively associated with schizophrenia incidence. Corticosteroid use was not associated with increased risk for schizophrenia. Conclusions Asthma was associated with increased risk for schizophrenia. The results herein suggest that a convergent disturbance in the immune-inflammatory system may contribute to the pathoetiology of asthma and schizophrenia. PMID:28350822

  4. The impact of comorbidity on mortality in multiple myeloma: a Danish nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, Henrik; Vangsted, Annette Juul; Abildgaard, Niels; Andersen, Niels Frost; Pedersen, Robert Schou; Frølund, Ulf Christian; Helleberg, Carsten; Broch, Bettina; Pedersen, Per Trøllund; Gimsing, Peter; Klausen, Tobias Wirenfeldt

    2017-07-01

    To describe the prevalence of comorbidity and its impact on survival in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients compared with population controls. Cases of newly diagnosed symptomatic multiple myeloma during the 2005-2012 period were identified in the Danish National Multiple Myeloma Registry. For each myeloma patient, 10 members of the general population matched by age and sex were chosen from the national Civil Registration System. Data on comorbidity in the myeloma patients and the general population comparison cohort were collected by linkage to the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR). Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the prognostic significance of comorbidity. The study included 2190 cases of multiple myeloma and 21,900 population controls. The comorbidity was increased in multiple myeloma patients compared with population controls, odds ratio (OR) 1.4 (1.1-1.7). The registration of comorbidity was highly increased within the year preceding diagnosis of multiple myeloma (OR 3.0 [2.5-3.5]), which was attributable to an increased registration of various diseases, in particular, renal disease with OR 11.0 (8.1-14.9). The median follow-up time from diagnosis of multiple myeloma for patients alive was 4.3 years (interquartile range 2.4-6.3). Patients with registered comorbidity had increased mortality compared with patients without comorbidity, hazard ratio 1.6 (1.5-1.8). Multiple myeloma patients have increased comorbidity compared with the background population, in particular during the year preceding the diagnosis of myeloma. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Incidence and Clinical Outcomes of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in South Korea, 2011-2014: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yoon Suk; Han, Minkyung; Kim, Won Ho; Park, Sohee; Cheon, Jae Hee

    2017-08-01

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing in East Asia; however, population-based data from this region are lacking. We conducted a nationwide, population-based study to examine the incidence and disease course of IBD in South Korea. Using the National Health Insurance claims data, we collected data on patients diagnosed with IBD [10,049 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 5595 with Crohn's disease (CD)] from 2011 to 2014. During the study period, the average annual incidence of UC was 5.0 per 10(5), while that of CD was 2.8 per 10(5). Among patients with UC, the cumulative rates of surgery 1 and 4 years after diagnosis were 1.0 and 2.0%; those among patients with CD were 9.0 and 13.9%, respectively. The 1- and 4-year cumulative rates of moderate- to high-dose corticosteroid use were, respectively, 26.6 and 45.2% among patients with UC, and 29.9 and 50.8% among those with CD. Similarly, the 1- and 4-year cumulative rates of immunomodulator use were 14.1 and 26.4% among patients with UC, and 58.3 and 76.1% among those with CD, respectively. With regard to biologic use, the 1- and 4-year cumulative rates were 3.0 and 9.0% among patients with UC, and 11.1 and 31.7% among those with CD, respectively. The recent incidence of IBD in South Korea has been the highest in East Asia. Patients who had been diagnosed recently with IBD showed lower rates of surgery and higher rates of immunomodulator and biologic use compared to those reported ever in South Korea.

  6. Sleep Quality, Posttraumatic Stress, Depression, and Human Errors in Train Drivers: A Population-Based Nationwide Study in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Kim, Ji-Hae; Kim, Bin-Na; Park, Seung Jin; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Choi, Hong; Roh, Sungwon; Lee, Dongsoo

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Human error is defined as an unintended error that is attributable to humans rather than machines, and that is important to avoid to prevent accidents. We aimed to investigate the association between sleep quality and human errors among train drivers. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Population-based. Participants: A sample of 5,480 subjects who were actively working as train drivers were recruited in South Korea. The participants were 4,634 drivers who completed all questionnaires (response rate 84.6%). Interventions: None Measurements: The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS). Results: Of 4,634 train drivers, 349 (7.5%) showed more than one human error per 5 y. Human errors were associated with poor sleep quality, higher PSQI total scores, short sleep duration at night, and longer sleep latency. Among train drivers with poor sleep quality, those who experienced severe posttraumatic stress showed a significantly higher number of human errors than those without. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that human errors were significantly associated with poor sleep quality and posttraumatic stress, whereas there were no significant associations with depression, trait and state anxiety, and work stress after adjusting for age, sex, education years, marital status, and career duration. Conclusions: Poor sleep quality was found to be associated with more human errors in train drivers, especially in those who experienced severe posttraumatic stress. Citation: Jeon HJ, Kim JH, Kim BN, Park SJ, Fava M, Mischoulon D, Choi H, Roh S, Lee D. Sleep quality, posttraumatic stress, depression, and human errors in train drivers: a population-based nationwide study in South Korea. SLEEP 2014;37(12):1969-1975. PMID:25325495

  7. The economic impact of chronic pain: a nationwide population-based cost-of-illness study in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Luís Filipe; Costa-Pereira, Altamiro; Mendonça, Liliane; Dias, Cláudia Camila; Castro-Lopes, José M

    2016-01-01

    In addition to its high frequency and relevant individual and social impact, chronic pain (CP) has been shown to be a major contributor to increased healthcare utilisation, reduced labour productivity, and consequently large direct and indirect costs. In the context of a larger nationwide study, we aimed to assess the total annual direct and indirect costs associated with CP in Portugal. A population-based study was conducted in a representative sample of the Portuguese adult population. The 5,094 participants were selected using random digit dialling and contacted by computer-assisted telephone interviews. Questionnaires included the brief pain inventory and pain disability index. Estimates were adequately weighted for the population. From all CP subjects identified, a subsample (n = 562) accepted to participate in this economic study. Mean total annualised costs per CP subject of €1,883.30 were observed, amounting to €4,611.69 million nationally, with 42.7% direct and 57.3% indirect costs, and corresponding to 2.71% of the Portuguese annual GDP in 2010. Only socio-demographic variables were significantly and independently associated with CP costs, and not CP severity, raising the possibility of existing inequalities in the distribution of healthcare in Portugal. The high economic impact of CP in Portugal was comprehensively demonstrated. Given the high indirect costs observed, restricting healthcare services is not a rational response to these high societal costs; instead improving the quality of CP prevention and management is recommended.

  8. Survival after colorectal cancer in patients with Crohn's disease: A nationwide population-based Danish follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Mette; Mose, Hanne; Gislum, Mette; Skriver, Mette V; Jepsen, Peter; Nørgård, Bente; Sørensen, Henrik T

    2007-01-01

    Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) are at increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but little is known about the impact of CD on CRC prognosis. Based on nationwide population-based registries, we compared survival among CRC patients with CD and CRC patients without CD. We used the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Hospital Discharge Registry to identify all patients diagnosed with CRC, with and without CD, in Denmark between 1977 and 1999. We ascertained the stage distribution at the time of CRC diagnosis and 1- and 5-yr survival both for patients with Crohn-associated CRC and patients with non-Crohn CRC. Cox regression was used to compute hazard ratios (HRs), adjusting for gender, age, calendar year, and stage. We identified 100 CRC patients with CD and 71,438 CRC patients without CD. At the time of diagnosis, patients with CD were younger, but stage distributions were similar in the two groups. The overall HR for CRC with CD compared to CRC without CD was 1.82 (95% CI 1.36-2.43) after 1 yr of follow-up, and 1.57 (95% CI 1.24-1.99) after 5 yr of follow-up. Subanalyses showed that the effect of CD on CRC survival was more pronounced in the youngest patients (0-59 yr), in men, and in patients whose tumors had regional spread. We found that CD worsens the prognosis of CRC, particularly CRC with regional spread.

  9. Predictors of falls and mortality among elderly adults with traumatic brain injury: A nationwide, population-based study.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wayne W; Fu, Terence S; Jing, Rowan; McFaull, Steven R; Cusimano, Michael D

    2017-01-01

    Elderly adults are at particular risk of sustaining a traumatic brain injury (TBI), and tend to suffer worse outcomes compared to other age groups. Falls are the leading cause of TBI among the elderly. We examined nationwide trends in TBI hospitalizations among elderly adults (ages 65 and older) between April 2006 and March 2011 using a population-based database that is mandatory for all hospitals in Canada. Trends in admission rates were analyzed using linear regression. Predictors of falls and in-hospital mortality were identified using logistic regression. Between 2006 and 2011, there were 43,823 TBI hospitalizations resulting in 6,939 deaths among elderly adults in Canada. Over the five-year study period, the overall rate of TBI admissions increased by an average of 6% per year from 173.2 to 214.7 per 100,000, while the rate of fall-related TBI increased by 7% annually from 138.6 to 179.2 per 100,000. There were significant trends towards increasing age and comorbidity level (p<0.001 and p = 0.002). Advanced age, comorbidity, and injury severity were independent predictors of both TBI-related falls and mortality on multivariate analysis. Prevention efforts should be targeted towards vulnerable demographics including the "older old" (ages 85 and older) and those with multiple medical comorbidities. Additionally, hospitals and long-term care facilities should be prepared to manage the burgeoning population of older patients with more complex comorbidities.

  10. The Utilization of Rehabilitation in Patients with Hemophilia A in Taiwan: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yao-Hsu; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rehabilitation plays an important role in the physical health of patients with hemophilia. However, comprehensive information regarding the utilization of rehabilitation for such patients remains scarce. Aim This population-based study aimed to examine the characteristics, trends, and most important factors affecting rehabilitation usage in patients with hemophilia A using a nationwide database in Taiwan. Methods Data from 777 patients with hemophilia A who were registered in the National Health Insurance Research Database between 1998 and 2008 were analyzed using SAS 9.0. Results Musculoskeletal or nervous system-related surgical procedures and clotting factor VIII concentrate costs were identified as factors affecting rehabilitation usage; musculoskeletal or nervous system-related surgical procedures (odds ratio = 3.788; P < 0.001) were the most important predictor of whether a patient with hemophilia A would use rehabilitation services. Joint disorders, arthropathies, bone and cartilage disorders, intracranial hemorrhage, and brain trauma were common diagnoses during rehabilitation use. The costs of physical therapy (physiotherapy) comprised the majority (71.2%) of rehabilitation therapy categories. Increasingly, rehabilitation therapy was performed at physician clinics. The total rehabilitation costs were <0.1% of the total annual medical costs. Conclusion Musculoskeletal or nervous system-related surgical procedures and increased use of clotting factor VIII concentrate affect the rehabilitation utilization of patients with hemophilia A the most. The findings in this study could help clinicians comprehensively understand the rehabilitation utilization of patients with hemophilia A. PMID:27690229

  11. Correlation of symptomatic enterovirus infection and later risk of allergic diseases via a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Zon-Min; Huang, Ying-Hsien; Ho, Shu-Chen; Kuo, Ho-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Infants who are exposed to the rhinovirus or respiratory syncytial virus are at a higher risk of subsequently developing wheezing or asthma. This study aims to determine whether preschoolers with a history of symptomatic enterovirus infection are at an increased risk of developing allergic diseases or not. We used data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 1999 to 2006 for this nationwide population-based cohort study. The subsequent risks for allergic diseases, which included asthma (International Classification of Diseases [ICD]-9: 493.X), allergic rhinitis (AR; ICD-9 CM code 477.X), and atopic dermatitis (AD; ICD-9-CM code 691.X), were compared between herpangina (ICD-9: 074.0) and hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD; ICD-9: 074.3) throughout the follow-up period using the Cox proportional hazards model. In this database, 12,016 neonates were born between January 1999 and December 1999. Among them, we further evaluated 8337 subjects; 3267 children infected with either herpangina or HFMD served as the study cohort, and the other 5070 children made up the comparison cohort. Children in the herpangina group had a higher risk of developing AR and AD, with adjusted hazard ratios of 1.15 (1.02–1.30, 95% CI) and 1.38 (1.17–1.63. 95% CI), respectively, while children suffered from HFMD had decreased risks of asthma, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.76 (0.63–0.93, 95% CI). Children who previously suffered from herpangina experienced an increased risk of subsequently developing AD and AR. Meanwhile, children who had suffered from HFMD experienced a decrease in the subsequent occurrence of asthma compared to the general population. PMID:28121929

  12. A nationwide cohort study of stage I seminoma patients followed on a surveillance program.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Mette Saksø; Lauritsen, Jakob; Gundgaard, Maria Gry; Agerbæk, Mads; Holm, Niels Vilstrup; Christensen, Ib Jarle; von der Maase, Hans; Daugaard, Gedske

    2014-12-01

    Increasing concerns about late effects after adjuvant treatment for stage I seminoma have made surveillance an attractive alternative. To evaluate the surveillance strategy in a nationwide cohort study. A retrospective, population-based study of Danish patients diagnosed with stage I seminoma between 1984 and 2008 and followed for 5 yr (n=1954). Patient data were linked with national registries on November 30, 2012, to obtain information on late relapse, vital status, and cause of death. Disease-specific survival (DSS), overall survival, relapse rates, time to relapse, detection of relapse, and prognostic factors for relapse were described for the cohort. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine survival probabilities. A Cox proportional hazards model was used for multivariate analysis of prognostic factors. Median follow-up time was 15.1 yr. In total, 369 patients relapsed after a median 13.7 mo. DSS after 15 yr was 99.3%. Tumor size was a significant factor for relapse. Either vascular invasion or invasion of epididymis was significant if the other factor was excluded from analysis. Limitations include the retrospective nature of the study and the number of missing values in analysis. In the world's largest study of stage I seminoma patients, we found surveillance to be a safe alternative to adjuvant therapies. Tumor size was a significant factor for relapse, together with either invasion of epididymis or vascular invasion. In this nationwide study, we looked at the outcomes of patients with stage I seminoma followed for 5 yr. We found that surveillance is a safe alternative to adjuvant treatment. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Tourette Syndrome as an Independent Risk Factor for Subsequent Sleep Disorders in Children: A Nationwide Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wang-Tso; Huang, Hui-Ling; Wong, Lee Chin; Weng, Wen-Chin; Vasylenko, Tamara; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Lin, Wei-Sheng; Ho, Shinn-Ying

    2017-03-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric comorbidities. However, the relationship between TS and sleep disorders in children is less investigated. This nationwide population-based case-control study aimed to determine the correlation of TS and sleep disorders in children. Patients aged less than 18 years with newly diagnosed TS from 2001 to 2007 were collected (n = 1124) using data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database and were compared with a comparison cohort (n = 3372). The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for developing sleep disorders was calculated by multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. TS was more prevalent in boys, with a male to female ratio of 3.16:1. TS group also had significantly higher urbanization level of residence than controls (p < .001). The overall incidence rate of sleep disorders was 7.24‰ in children with TS, compared to 3.53‰ in controls. The TS group was associated with a significantly higher rate of sleep disorders, with a crude HR of 2.05 (95% confidence inerval [CI] = 1.43-2.95, p < .001). Among the comorbidities of TS, anxiety disorder was associated with the highest risk for sleep disorders (crude HR = 3.26, 95% CI = 1.52-7.00, p < .001). The aHR for TS cohort to develop sleep disorders was 1.72 (95% CI = 1.16-2.53, p = .007). The increased risk of sleep disorders in children with TS cannot be fully attributed to its comorbidities, and TS is an independent risk factor for sleep disorders in children.

  14. Adult asthma is associated with an increased risk of herpes zoster: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yi-Hao; Fang, Hsin-Yu; Wu, Biing-Ru; Kao, Chia-Hung; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Hsia, Te-Chun; Liao, Wei-Chih

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether a new diagnosis of asthma is associated with a later diagnosis of herpes zoster (HZ) in a nationwide, retrospective, non-age limited, population-based cohort. We used data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. The asthma group consisted of all 40 069 patients in the database with newly diagnosed asthma and using asthma medications from 2000 through 2005. The nonasthma group comprised 40 069 age- and sex-matched patients without any asthma diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was applied to calculate the hazard ratio of HZ in the patients with asthma relative to those without asthma. During a mean follow-up period of 8.77 years, the risk of HZ was 1.48-fold higher in the asthma group compared with that in the nonasthma group after adjustment for sex, age, comorbidities, inhaled and systemic corticosteroid use, and annual outpatient department visits to dermatologists. Additional stratified analyses revealed that the risk of HZ was significantly higher in patients of both sexes and those aged older than 21 years. Newly diagnosed adult patients with asthma have a significantly higher risk of developing HZ than do those without asthma.

  15. Mobile phone use and the risk of skin cancer: a nationwide cohort study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Friis, Søren; Johansen, Christoffer; Jensen, Allan; Frei, Patrizia; Kjaear, Susanne Krüger; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Schüz, Joachim

    2013-07-15

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified radiofrequency radiation as possibly carcinogenic. Previous studies have focused on intracranial tumors, although the skin receives much radiation. In a nationwide cohort study, 355,701 private mobile phone subscribers in Denmark from 1987 to 1995 were followed up through 2007. We calculated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma by using Poisson regression models adjusted for age, calendar period, educational level, and income. Separate IRRs for head/neck tumors and torso/leg tumors were compared (IRR ratios) to further address potential confounders. We observed no overall increased risk for basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, or melanoma of the head and neck. After a follow-up period of at least 13 years, the IRRs for basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma remained near unity. Among men, the IRR for melanoma of the head and neck was 1.20 (95% confidence interval: 0.65, 2.22) after a minimum 13-year follow-up, whereas the corresponding IRR for the torso and legs was 1.16 (95% confidence interval: 0.91, 1.47), yielding an IRR ratio of 1.04 (95% confidence interval: 0.54, 2.00). A similar risk pattern was seen among women, though it was based on smaller numbers. In this large, population-based cohort study, little evidence of an increased skin cancer risk was observed among mobile phone users.

  16. The LIFE Child study: a population-based perinatal and pediatric cohort in Germany.

    PubMed

    Poulain, Tanja; Baber, Ronny; Vogel, Mandy; Pietzner, Diana; Kirsten, Toralf; Jurkutat, Anne; Hiemisch, Andreas; Hilbert, Anja; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Thiery, Joachim; Fuchs, Michael; Hirsch, Christian; Rauscher, Franziska G; Loeffler, Markus; Körner, Antje; Nüchter, Matthias; Kiess, Wieland

    2017-01-31

    The LIFE Child study is a large population-based longitudinal childhood cohort study conducted in the city of Leipzig, Germany. As a part of LIFE, a research project conducted at the Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases, it aims to monitor healthy child development from birth to adulthood and to understand the development of lifestyle diseases such as obesity. The study consists of three interrelated cohorts; the birth cohort, the health cohort, and the obesity cohort. Depending on age and cohort, the comprehensive study program comprises different medical, psychological, and sociodemographic assessments as well as the collection of biological samples. Optimal data acquisition, process management, and data analysis are guaranteed by a professional team of physicians, certified study assistants, quality managers, scientists and statisticians. Due to the high popularity of the study, more than 3000 children have already participated until the end of 2015, and two-thirds of them participate continuously. The large quantity of acquired data allows LIFE Child to gain profound knowledge on the development of children growing up in the twenty-first century. This article reports the number of available and analyzable data and demonstrates the high relevance and potential of the study.

  17. Hyperthyroidism is a risk factor for developing adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder: a nationwide longitudinal population-based study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Lin, Jia-Wei; Wang, Wei-Te; Wu, Chin-Wen; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Lin, Hui-Wen

    2014-02-25

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk of adhesive capsulitis among hyperthyroidism patients. The data were obtained from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 (LHID 2005) in Taiwan, using 1 million participants and a prospective population-based 7-year cohort study of survival analysis. The ambulatory-care claim records of patients diagnosed according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes relating to hyperthyroidism between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2007, were obtained. The prevalence and the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of adhesive capsulitis among hyperthyroid patients and the control group were estimated. Of 4472 hyperthyroid patients, 162 (671/100,000 person-years) experienced adhesive capsulitis during the 24,122 person-year follow-up period. The crude HR of stroke was 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 1.49), which was larger than that of the control group. The adjusted HR of developing adhesive capsulitis was 1.22 (95% CI, 1.03 to 1.45) for hyperthyroid patients during the 7-year follow-up period, which achieved statistical significance. The results of our large-scale longitudinal population-based study indicated that hyperthyroidism is an independent risk factor of developing adhesive capsulitis.

  18. The Risk of Asthma in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Te-Chun; Lin, Cheng-Li; Wei, Chang-Ching; Chen, Chia-Hung; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between asthma and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is controversial. We examined the risk of asthma among AS patients in a nationwide population. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the National Health Insurance (NHI) system of Taiwan. The cohort included 5,974 patients newly diagnosed with AS from 2000 to 2010. The date of diagnosis was defined as the index date. A 4-fold of general population without AS was randomly selected frequency matched by age, gender and the index year. The occurrence and hazard ratio (HR) of asthma were estimated by the end of 2011. Results The overall incidence of asthma was 1.74 folds greater in the AS cohort than in the non-AS cohort (8.26 versus 4.74 per 1000 person-years) with a multivariable Cox method measured adjusted HR of 1.54 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.34–1.76). The adjusted HR of asthma associated with AS was higher in women (1.59; 95% CI, 1.33–1.90), those aged 50–64 years (1.66; 95% CI, 1.31–2.09), or those without comorbidities (1.82; 95% CI, 1.54–2.13). Conclusion Patients with AS are at a higher risk of developing asthma than the general population, regardless of gender and age. The pathophysiology needs further investigation. PMID:25658339

  19. Psoriasis and Sleep Apnea: A Danish Nationwide Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Egeberg, Alexander; Khalid, Usman; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Mallbris, Lotus; Skov, Lone; Hansen, Peter Riis

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Psoriasis and sleep apnea are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although both diseases have been linked with systemic inflammation, studies on their potential bidirectional association are lacking. We investigate the potential association between psoriasis and sleep apnea. Methods: All Danish citizens age 18 y or older between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2011 (n = 5,522,190) were linked at individual level in nationwide registries. Incidence rates (IRs) per 10,000 person-years were calculated and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, smoking history, alcohol abuse, medication, and comorbidity were estimated by Poisson regression. Results: There were 53,290, 6,885, 6,348, and 39,908 incident cases of mild psoriasis, severe psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and sleep apnea, respectively. IRRs (95% confidence interval) for sleep apnea were 1.30 (1.17–1.44), 1.65 (1.23–2.22), and 1.75 (1.35–2.26) in subjects with mild and severe psoriasis, and psoriatic arthritis, and IRRs for mild and severe psoriasis, and psoriatic arthritis in sleep apnea without continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy were 1.62 (1.41–1.86), 2.04 (1.47–2.82), and 1.94 (1.34–2.79), respectively. In patients with sleep apnea and CPAP therapy (i.e., severe sleep apnea) the IRRs were 1.82 (1.43–2.33), 3.27 (2.03–5.27), and 5.59 (3.74–8.37), respectively. Conclusions: Psoriasis was associated with increased risk of sleep apnea, and sleep apnea was associated with increased risk of psoriasis. The clinical significance of this bidirectional relationship warrants further study. Citation: Egeberg A, Khalid U, Gislason GH, Mallbris L, Skov L, Hansen PR. Psoriasis and sleep apnea: a Danish nationwide cohort study. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(5):663–671. PMID:26715401

  20. Newly Diagnosed Anemia Increases Risk of Parkinson's disease: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chien Tai; Huang, Yao Hsien; Liu, Hung Yi; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chan, Lung; Chien, Li-Nien

    2016-07-14

    Anemia and low hemoglobin have been identified to increase Parkinson's disease (PD) risk. This population-based cohort study investigated PD risk in newly diagnosed anemic patients by using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. All newly diagnosed anemic patients (n = 86,334) without a history of stroke, neurodegenerative diseases, traumatic brain injury, major operations, or blood loss diseases were enrolled. A cohort of nonanemic controls, 1:1 matched with anemic patients on the basis of the demographics and pre-existing medical conditions, was also included. Competing risk analysis was used to evaluate PD risk in anemic patients compared with that in their matched controls. The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of PD risk in the anemic patients was 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-1.52, p < 0.001). Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) patients tended to exhibit a higher PD risk (aHR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.24-1.79, p < 0.001). Furthermore, Iron supplement did not significantly affect the PD risk: the aHRs for PD risk were 1.32 (95% CI: 1.07-1.63, p < 0.01) and 1.86 (95% CI: 1.46-2.35, p < 0.001) in IDA patients with and without iron supplementation, respectively. The population-based cohort study indicated newly diagnosed anemia increases PD risk.

  1. Is Statin Use Associated With Tendon Rupture? A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Analysis.

    PubMed

    Contractor, Tahmeed; Beri, Abhimanyu; Gardiner, Joseph C; Tang, Xiaoqin; Dwamena, Francesca C

    2015-01-01

    Previous case reports and small studies have suggested that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors (HMG-CoA-Is) may increase the risk of tendon rupture. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort evaluation to better assess this relationship. From approximately 800,000 enrollees of a private insurance database, those who were aged ≤64 years with at least 1 year of continuous enrollment were selected. Exposure was defined as initiation of HMG-CoA-I after the beginning of the study period. Each exposed person was matched with 2 controls of similar age and gender. Baseline characteristics, including known risk factors for tendon rupture, were compared between exposed and control cohorts with fidelity to the study's matched design. After adjusting for differences in follow-up and baseline characteristics, incidence rate ratios for tendon rupture was assessed in HMG-CoA-I users and nonusers. A total of 34,749 exposed patients were matched with 69,498 controls. There was no difference in the occurrence of tendon ruptures in HMG-CoA-I users versus nonusers. The results remained unchanged after adjustment for age and gender. In conclusion, this population-based retrospective cohort evaluation suggests that use of HMG-CoA-Is as a group are not associated with tendon rupture.

  2. Bidirectional Association between Asthma and Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Two Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cheng-Li; Wei, Chang-Ching; Chen, Chia-Hung; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a demonstrated association between asthma and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In this study, we examined the bidirectional association between asthma and IBS using a nationwide database. Methods We conducted two retrospective cohort studies using data obtained from the National Health Insurance of Taiwan. Study 1 included 29,648 asthma patients newly diagnosed between 2000 and 2010. Study 2 included 29,875 IBS patient newly diagnosed between 2000 and 2010. For each study, four subjects without asthma and IBS were selected, respectively, frequency-matched by sex, age, and the diagnosis date. All four cohorts were followed up until the end of 2011 to estimate incident IBS for Study 1 and incident asthma for study 2. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model after controlling for sex, age and comorbidities. Results The incidence of IBS was 1.89 times higher in the asthma cohort than in the comparison cohort (8.26 vs. 4.36 per 1,000 person-years), with an aHR of 1.57 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.47–1.68]. The aHRs remained significant in all subgroups measured by sex, age and the presence of comorbidities. In contrast, the incidence of asthma was 1.76 times higher in the IBS cohort than the comparison cohort (7.09 vs. 4.03 per 1,000 person-years), with an aHR of 1.54 (95% CI = 1.44−1.64). Similarly, aHRs remained significant in all subgroups measured by sex, age and the presence of comorbidities. Conclusion The present study suggests a bidirectional association between asthma and IBS. Atopy could be a shared pathophysiology underlying this association, deserving a further investigation. PMID:27093172

  3. Effect of Maternal Age at Childbirth on Obesity in Postmenopausal Women: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Korea.

    PubMed

    We, Ji-Sun; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kil, Kicheol

    2016-05-01

    The object of this study was to assess the obesity in postmenopausal women, according to age at childbirth.We analyzed the association between age at first childbirth, age at last childbirth, parity, and subject obesity status (general obesity; BMI >25 kg/m, nongeneral obesity; BMI ≤25 kg/m, abdominal obesity; waist circumference >85 cm, nonabdominal obesity; waist circumference ≤85 cm), using data from a nationwide population-based survey, the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data from a total of 4382 postmenopausal women were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis with complex survey design sampling. And, the subjects were subdivided into groups according to obesity or not. Age, smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, education, income level, number of pregnancies, oral contraceptive uses, breast feeding experience were adjusted as the confounders.The prevalence of general obesity among Korean postmenopausal women was 37.08%. Women with general obesity and abdominal obesity were significantly younger at first childbirth compared with women with nongeneral obesity and no abdominal obesity (23.89 ± 0.1 vs. 23.22 ± 0.1, P <0.001). Age at first childbirth was inversely associated with obesity, while age at last childbirth was not associated with obesity or abdominal obesity. Women with a higher number of pregnancies were also more likely to have obesity and abdominal obesity. Age at first childbirth remained significantly associated with obesity, after adjusting for confounding factors.Obesity in postmenopausal women is associated with first childbirth at a young age, and higher parity. Further research is needed to clarify the association between obesity and reproductive characteristics.

  4. Characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine use for children with allergic rhinitis: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Yen, Hung-Rong; Liang, Kai-Li; Huang, Tzu-Ping; Fan, Ji-Yu; Chang, Tung-Ti; Sun, Mao-Feng

    2015-04-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common allergic disorder in children, some of whom seek complementary treatments, including acupuncture and Chinese herbs. Little, however, is known about the treatment of pediatric AR with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). To characterize TCM use in pediatric AR, we conducted a nationwide population-based study. We screened one million randomly sampled beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance Program in Taiwan from 2002 to 2010 to identify children <18 years of age with newly diagnosed allergic rhinitis (ICD-9 code 477.9). The subjects were categorized according to their use of TCM. We identified 97,401 children newly diagnosed with AR for inclusion in the study. Among these children, 63.11% (N=61,472) had used TCM. There were significantly more TCM users than non-users among school-age children and adolescents (P<0.001). Most (99.1%) pediatric TCM users received Chinese herbal remedies (99.1%); only 0.9% received acupuncture or manipulative therapies. Xin-Yi-Qing-Fei-Tang (Magnolia Flower Lung-Clearing Decoction) was the most frequently prescribed TCM formulation (23.44%), and the most commonly prescribed single herb was Chan-Tui (Periostracum cicadae; 13.78%). Regarding syndrome differentiation (ZHENG) according to TCM theory, prescriptions for the Cold Syndrome exceeded those for the Hot Syndrome throughout the year in Taiwan. We found that approximately two-thirds of pediatric AR patients were prescribed TCM treatments in Taiwan. Further research is warranted to examine the efficacy and safety of TCM for pediatric AR patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mucosal Healing in Patients with Celiac Disease and Outcomes of Pregnancy: a Nationwide Population-based Study

    PubMed Central

    Lebwohl, Benjamin; Stephansson, Olof; Green, Peter HR; Ludvigsson, Jonas F.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Studies have associated undiagnosed celiac disease with adverse outcomes of pregnancy. We investigated the association between persistent villous atrophy and outcomes of pregnancy in women with celiac disease. Methods We collected data on 337 women with celiac disease who gave birth (to 460 infants) within 5 years of a follow-up biopsy, from 28 pathology departments in Sweden. We compared birth outcomes from women whose follow-up biopsy showed persistent villous atrophy (Marsh score, 3; n=142; 31% of study population) to those of women with mucosal recovery (n=318, 69%). We used multivariable logistic regression (adjusted for maternal age, parity, country of birth, smoking, infant sex, and calendar year of birth) evaluate the association between persistent villous atrophy and pregnancy outcomes. Results Intrauterine growth restriction occurred during 3.5% of pregnancies in women with persistent villous atrophy vs 3.8% of those with mucosal healing (adjusted odds ratio, 1, 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.19-1.99). There was no significant association between persistent villous atrophy and low birth weight (aOR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.41-2.39), preterm birth (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 0.72-3.83), or Caesarian section (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.51-1.46). Conclusions Although undiagnosed celiac disease has been associated with adverse outcomes of pregnancy, we found no evidence from a nationwide population-based study that persistent villous atrophy, based on analysis of follow-up biopsies, increases risk, compared with mucosal healing. PMID:25460563

  6. Trends in anxiolytic-hypnotic use and polypharmacy in Taiwan, 2002-2009: a nationwide, population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang-Jen; Chen, Yi-Chih; Chen, Chih-Ken; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Chou, Miao-Chun

    2014-02-01

    Use of anxiolytics-hypnotics, including benzodiazepines and "z" hypnotics, is a public health concern. This study aimed to investigate the trends in prevalence of anxiolytic-hypnotic drug use and polypharmacy (simultaneous use of two or more anxiolytics-hypnotics) in Taiwan. A dynamic sample of one million individuals who were randomly selected from the National Health Insurance database was used to detect populationwide trends in the use of anxiolytics-hypnotics in Taiwan between 2002 and 2009. The analyses included drugs that are administered orally, intravenously, or intramuscularly as well as single or compound drugs. The authors identified the number of individuals who used the drugs, the sum of days of reported drug use for all individuals (person-days), and the distribution of anxiolytic-hypnotic polypharmacy for all claims for ambulatory, pharmacy, and hospital care. Annual prevalence of any anxiolytic-hypnotic use in Taiwan was higher than 20%. The number of person-days greatly increased from 2002 (4.0%) to 2009 (6.6%). The increases in use between 2002 and 2009 were greatest for clonazepam (prevalence, 7% versus 1.8%; person-days, .2% versus .6%) and zolpidem (prevalence, 2.4% versus 4.2%; person-days, .5% versus 1.5%). Polypharmacy accounted for almost 70% of all person-days of anxiolytic-hypnotic use. This nationwide, population-based survey presents real-world epidemiological evidence about anxiolytic-hypnotic use. The adverse effects of the long-term use of anxiolytics-hypnotics have been established, and unnecessary use of these drugs, particularly in polypharmacy regimens, should be avoided.

  7. Trends in the use of maintenance immunosuppressive drugs among liver transplant recipients in Taiwan: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying-Yu; Hsu, Chia-Chen; Chou, Chia-Lin; Loong, Che-Chuan; Wu, Min-Shan; Chou, Yueh-Ching

    2016-06-01

    During the past two decades, many novel immunosuppressive drugs have been approved for transplant recipients. Trends in the use of maintenance immunosuppressants after liver transplantation in Asia are unclear. Thus, we aimed to analyze the prescription trends in maintenance immunosuppressive drugs among liver transplant recipients in Taiwan and compare the results with the trends reported from western countries. We conducted a retrospective nationwide population-based study utilizing the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) to analyze the prescribing patterns of immunosuppressants used in Taiwanese liver transplant recipients from 2000 to 2009. A total of 1686 liver transplant patients and their prescriptions of immunosuppressants were analyzed. The 5-year survival rate of liver transplant recipients was 79.6%. In 2009, the major immunosuppressive therapy among liver transplant recipients was a dual-drug regimen with tacrolimus and mycophenolic acid (57.3%). Among the calcineurin inhibitors (CNI), the use of cyclosporine decreased from 58.9% to 12.5%, while the use of tacrolimus notably increased from 23.3% to 77.5%. The use of azathioprine decreased from 21.3% to 0.4%, while the use of mycophenolic acid increased from 56.1% to 76.5%. Among the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, sirolimus was approved in 2002, and its use increased to 8.7% in 2009. In the first 3 months after liver transplantation, a total of 17 different regimens were used in 2009, compared with seven regimens in 2000. Although the CNI-based combination obviously remains the major regimen, our results reveal a trend toward individualized immunosuppressive regimens among Taiwanese liver transplant recipients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Neurodevelopment in full-term small for gestational age infants: A nationwide Japanese population-based study.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Akihito; Yorifuji, Takashi; Takahashi, Kyohei; Nakamura, Makoto; Kageyama, Misao; Kubo, Toshihide; Ogino, Tatsuya; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    To investigate neurological development in small for gestational age (SGA) infants, with a focus on full-term SGA infants. We analyzed data from a large, Japanese, nationwide, population-based longitudinal survey started in 2001. We restricted the study to participants born before 42weeks of gestation (n=46,563). Parents were asked questions about motor and language development when the children were 2.5years old, and about behavioral development at 5.5years. We analyzed the relationships between SGA status and development by logistic regression. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for each outcome for full-term and preterm births, adjusting for potential infant- and parent-related confounding factors. We also calculated the population-attributable fractions to estimate the public impact of SGA births. SGA full-term children were more likely to demonstrate developmental delays at 2.5years, e.g., being unable to walk alone (OR 3.0, 95% CI: 1.7, 5.3), compose a two-phrase sentence (OR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2, 1.8), or use a spoon to eat (OR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9). SGA status also had some degree of negative impacts on behavioral problems at 5.5years among term children, e.g., being unable to listen without fidgeting (OR 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.3), or remain patient (OR 1.1, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.2). The public health impacts were comparable between full-term and preterm SGA children at 2.5years. SGA is a risk factor for developmental delay, even in full-term infants, with non-negligible public health impacts. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Lithium in drinking water and the incidence of bipolar disorder: A nation-wide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Kessing, Lars V; Gerds, Thomas A; Knudsen, Nikoline N; Jørgensen, Lisbeth F; Kristiansen, Søren M; Voutchkova, Denitza; Ernstsen, Vibeke; Schullehner, Jörg; Hansen, Birgitte; Andersen, Per K; Ersbøll, Annette K

    2017-07-17

    Animal data suggest that subtherapeutic doses, including micro doses, of lithium may influence mood, and lithium levels in drinking water have been found to correlate with the rate of suicide. It has never been investigated whether consumption of lithium may prevent the development of bipolar disorder (primary prophylaxis). In a nation-wide population-based study, we investigated whether long-term exposure to micro levels of lithium in drinking water correlates with the incidence of bipolar disorder in the general population, hypothesizing an inverse association in which higher long-term lithium exposure is associated with lower incidences of bipolar disorder. We included longitudinal individual geographical data on municipality of residence, data from drinking water lithium measurements and time-specific data from all cases with a hospital contact with a diagnosis of mania/bipolar disorder from 1995 to 2013 (N=14 820) and 10 age- and gender-matched controls from the Danish population (N= 140 311). Average drinking water lithium exposure was estimated for all study individuals. The median of the average lithium exposure did not differ between cases with a diagnosis of mania/bipolar disorder (12.7 μg/L; interquartile range [IQR]: 7.9-15.5 μg/L) and controls (12.5 μg/L; IQR: 7.6-15.7 μg/L; P=.2). Further, the incidence rate ratio of mania/bipolar disorder did not decrease with higher long-term lithium exposure, overall, or within age categories (0-40, 41-60 and 61-100 years of age). Higher long-term lithium exposure from drinking water was not associated with a lower incidence of bipolar disorder. The association should be investigated in areas with higher lithium levels than in Denmark. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Increased risk of essential tremor in migraine: A population-based retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Chi-Ieong; Lin, Che-Chen; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Wang, Han-Cheng; Chen, Wei-Hung

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To examine the long-term risk of essential tremor (ET) in migraine. Methods Using population-based administrative data from a subset of the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan, we identified 22,696 newly diagnosed migraineurs (mean age 44.5 years) and a matched migraine-free cohort of 90,784 individuals in the period 2000–2008. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was conducted for assessing the ET risk for the migraine cohort compared to the migraine-free cohort. Results After adjusting for covariates, the migraine cohort had a 1.83-fold increased risk (95% CI 1.50–2.23) of subsequent ET in comparison to the migraine-free cohort (8.97 vs. 4.81 per 10,000 person-years). In the subgroup analysis, patients with migraine were associated with higher risks of ET, regardless of gender, age or the existence of comorbidities. Conclusion Our findings demonstrated an association between migraine and ET, suggesting a possible shared pathophysiology underpinning both disorders. PMID:28288163

  11. Effectiveness of screening for neuroblastoma at 6 months of age: a retrospective population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hiyama, Eiso; Iehara, Tomoko; Sugimoto, Tohru; Fukuzawa, Masahiro; Hayashi, Yutaka; Sasaki, Fumiaki; Sugiyama, Masahiko; Kondo, Satoshi; Yoneda, Akihiro; Yamaoka, Hiroaki; Tajiri, Tatsuro; Akazawa, Kohei; Ohtaki, Megu

    2008-04-05

    In Japan, a nationwide programme between 1984 and 2003 screened all infants for urinary catecholamine metabolites as a marker for neuroblastoma. Before 1989, this was done by qualitative spot tests for vanillylmandelic acid in urine, and subsequently by quantitative assay with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). However, the Japanese government stopped the mass-screening programme in 2003, after reports that it did not reduce mortality due to neuroblastoma. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of the programme, by comparing the rates of incidence and mortality from neuroblastomas diagnosed before 6 years of age in three cohorts. We did a retrospective population-based cohort study on all children born between 1980 and 1998, except for a 2-year period from 1984. We divided these 22,289,695 children into three cohorts: children born before screening in 1980-83 (n=6,130,423); those born during qualitative screening in 1986-89 (n=5,290,412); and those born during quantitative screening 1990-98 (n=10,868,860). We used databases from hospitals, screening centres, and national cancer registries. Cases of neuroblastoma were followed up for a mean of 78.7 months. 21.56 cases of neuroblastoma per 100,000 births over 72 months were identified in the qualitatively screened group (relative risk [RR] 1.87, 95% CI 1.66-2.10), and 29.80 cases per 100,000 births over 72 months in the quantitatively screened group (RR 2.58, 2.33-2.86). The cumulative incidence of neuroblastoma in the prescreening cohort (11.56 cases per 100,000 births over 72 months) was lower than that in other cohorts (p<0.0001 for all comparisons), but more neuroblastomas were diagnosed after 24 months of age in this cohort (p=0.0002 for qualitative screening vs prescreening, p<0.0001 for quantitative screening vs prescreening). Cumulative mortality was lower in the qualitative screening (3.90 cases per 100,000 livebirths over 72 months) and quantitative screening cohorts (2.83 cases) than in the

  12. Risk of Stroke-Associated Pneumonia With Acid-Suppressive Drugs: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Ho, Sai-Wai; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Yang, Shun-Fa; Yeh, Ying-Tung; Wang, Yu-Hsun; Yeh, Chao-Bin

    2015-07-01

    Acid-suppressive drugs, including histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), are common medications used for treating upper gastrointestinal tract disorders. However, acid-suppressive drugs have been reported to increase the risk of pneumonia in numerous disease populations. However, the relationship between acid-suppressive drugs and stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP) remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between acid-suppressive drug usage and pneumonia among patients with stroke by using a nationwide data set. A population-based cohort study was conducted using a data set from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database. Data on patients with new-onset stroke from 2010 to 2011 were collected. Patients with and without acid-suppressive drug usage were followed up to identify the occurrence of any type of pneumonia. We estimated the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) by using the Cox proportional hazards model. The study cohort comprised 7965 patients with new-onset stroke. The incidence of pneumonia was 6.9% (552/7965) and more than 40% (225/552) of patients developed pneumonia within 3 months after an acute stroke. Acid-suppressive drug usage was an independent risk factor of pneumonia. The adjusted HR for the risk of pneumonia in patients with new-onset stroke using acid-suppressive drugs was 1.44 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18-1.75, P < 0.01). Only PPI usage increased risk of chronic SAP (adjusted HR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.04-2.05). Acid-suppressive drug usage was associated with a slightly increased risk of SAP. Physicians should exercise caution when prescribing acid-suppressive drugs to patients with stroke, particularly at the chronic stage.

  13. Association between fluid intake and kidney function, and survival outcomes analysis: a nationwide population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Wei; Chen, Wei-Liang; Liaw, Fang-Yih; Sun, Yu-Shan; Yang, Hui-Fang; Wang, Chung-Ching; Lin, Chien-Ming; Tsao, Yu-Tzu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Fluid intake, one of the most common daily activities, has not been well studied in chronic kidney disease (CKD) populations, and clinical outcomes are rarely addressed. The aim of this nationwide study is to explore the influence of daily fluid intake on cardiovascular and all-cause mortality and its association with renal function. Design Observational cohort study. Participants In all, 2182 participants aged more than 20 years participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994). Main outcome measures Survival outcomes in patients with or without CKD, using multiple variable adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. Results In a longitudinal survey with a median follow-up length of 15.4 years, 1080 participants died and 473 cardiovascular deaths were recorded. For all-cause mortality in the CKD group, individuals in the highest quartile of fluid intake (≧3.576 L/day) had better survival outcomes than those in the lowest quartile of fluid intake (≤2.147 L/day) (p=0.029) after adjustment of several pertinent variables. Conclusions Although the interpretation of this observational study was limited by the failure to identify the compositions of ingested fluids, adequate hydration may offer some advantages in patients with CKD. However, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of the responses of normal and injured kidneys to chronic changes in fluid consumption warrant further investigation. PMID:27173809

  14. CONSTANCES: a general prospective population-based cohort for occupational and environmental epidemiology: cohort profile

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Marcel; Carton, Matthieu; Descatha, Alexis; Leclerc, Annette; Roquelaure, Yves; Santin, Gaëlle; Zins, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Why the cohort was set up? CONSTANCES is a general-purpose cohort with a focus on occupational and environmental factors. Cohort participants CONSTANCES was designed as a randomly selected sample of French adults aged 18–69 years at inception; 200 000 participants will be included. Data collection phases At enrolment, the participants are invited to complete questionnaires and to attend a health screening centre (HSC) for a health examination. A biobank will be set up. The follow-up includes an yearly self-administered questionnaire, a periodic visit to an HSC and linkage to social and national health administrative databases. Main types of data collected Data collected for participants include social and demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, life events and behaviours. Regarding occupational and environmental factors, a wealth of data on organisational, chemical, biological, biomechanical and psychosocial lifelong exposure, as well as residential characteristics, are collected at enrolment and during follow-up. The health data cover a wide spectrum: self-reported health scales, reported prevalent and incident diseases, long-term chronic diseases and hospitalisations, sick-leaves, handicaps, limitations, disabilities and injuries, healthcare usage and services provided, and causes of death. Control of selection effects To take into account non-participation and attrition, a random cohort of non-participants was set up and will be followed through the same national databases as participants. Data access Inclusions begun at the end of 2012 and more than 110 000 participants were already included by September 2016. Several projects on occupational and environmental risks already applied to a public call for nested research projects. PMID:27884936

  15. Seroepidemiology of diphtheria and tetanus among children and young adults in Tajikistan: nationwide population-based survey, 2010.

    PubMed

    Khetsuriani, Nino; Zakikhany, Katherina; Jabirov, Shamsiddin; Saparova, Nargis; Ursu, Pavel; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Wassilak, Steve; Efstratiou, Androulla; Martin, Rebecca

    2013-10-01

    Tajikistan had a major diphtheria outbreak (≈ 10,000 cases) in the 1990 s, which was controlled after nationwide immunization campaigns with diphtheria-tetanus toxoid in 1995 and 1996. Since 2000, only 52 diphtheria cases have been reported. However, in coverage surveys conducted in 2000 and 2005, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine coverage was lower than administratively reported estimates raising concerns about potential immunity gaps. To further assess population immunity to diphtheria in Tajikistan, diphtheria antibody testing was included in a large-scale nationwide serosurvey for vaccine-preventable diseases conducted in connection with a poliomyelitis outbreak in 2010. In addition, the serosurvey provided an opportunity to assess population immunity to tetanus. Residents of all regions of Tajikistan aged 1-24 years were included in the serosurvey implemented during September-October 2010. Participants were selected through stratified cluster sampling. Specimens were tested for diphtheria antibodies using a Vero cell neutralization assay and for tetanus antibodies using an anti-tetanus IgG ELISA. Antibody concentrations ≥ 0.1 IU/mL were considered seropositive. Overall, 51.4% (95% CI, 47.1%-55.6%) of participants were seropositive for diphtheria and 78.9% (95% CI, 74.7%-82.5%) were seropositive for tetanus. The lowest percentages of seropositivity for both diseases were observed among persons aged 10-19 years: diphtheria seropositivity was 37.1% (95% CI, 31.0%-43.7%) among 10-14 year-olds, and 35.3% (95% CI, 29.9%-41.1%) among 15-19 year-olds; tetanus seropositivity in respective age groups was 65.3% (95% CI, 58.4%-71.6%) and 70.1% (95% CI, 64.5%-75.2%). Population immunity for diphtheria in Tajikistan is low, particularly among 10-19 year-olds. Population immunity to tetanus is generally higher than for diphtheria, but is suboptimal among 10-19 year-olds. These findings highlight the need to improve routine immunization service delivery, and support a

  16. CONSTANCES: a general prospective population-based cohort for occupational and environmental epidemiology: cohort profile.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Marcel; Carton, Matthieu; Descatha, Alexis; Leclerc, Annette; Roquelaure, Yves; Santin, Gaëlle; Zins, Marie

    2017-01-01

    WHY THE COHORT WAS SET UP?: CONSTANCES is a general-purpose cohort with a focus on occupational and environmental factors. CONSTANCES was designed as a randomly selected sample of French adults aged 18-69 years at inception; 200 000 participants will be included. At enrolment, the participants are invited to complete questionnaires and to attend a health screening centre (HSC) for a health examination. A biobank will be set up. The follow-up includes an yearly self-administered questionnaire, a periodic visit to an HSC and linkage to social and national health administrative databases. Data collected for participants include social and demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, life events and behaviours. Regarding occupational and environmental factors, a wealth of data on organisational, chemical, biological, biomechanical and psychosocial lifelong exposure, as well as residential characteristics, are collected at enrolment and during follow-up. The health data cover a wide spectrum: self-reported health scales, reported prevalent and incident diseases, long-term chronic diseases and hospitalisations, sick-leaves, handicaps, limitations, disabilities and injuries, healthcare usage and services provided, and causes of death. To take into account non-participation and attrition, a random cohort of non-participants was set up and will be followed through the same national databases as participants. Inclusions begun at the end of 2012 and more than 110 000 participants were already included by September 2016. Several projects on occupational and environmental risks already applied to a public call for nested research projects. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Testing the hypothesis that treatment can eliminate HIV: a nationwide, population-based study of the Danish HIV epidemic in men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Justin T.; Robbins, Danielle; Palk, Laurence; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels; Blower, Sally

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Worldwide, ~35 million individuals are infected with HIV; ~25 million in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The WHO proposes using “treatment as prevention” (TasP) to eliminate HIV. Treatment suppresses viral load, decreasing the probability an individual transmits HIV. The elimination threshold is one new HIV infection per 1,000 individuals. Here, we test the hypothesis that TasP can substantially reduce epidemics and eliminate HIV. We estimate the impact of TasP, between 1996–2013, on the Danish HIV epidemic in Men-who-have-Sex-with-Men (MSM), an epidemic UNAIDS has identified as a priority for elimination. Methods We use a CD4-staged Bayesian back-calculation approach to estimate incidence, and the “hidden epidemic” (the number of HIV-infected undiagnosed MSM). We use data from an ongoing nationwide population-based study: the Danish HIV Cohort Study. Findings Incidence, and the hidden epidemic, decreased substantially after treatment was introduced in 1996. By 2013, incidence was close to the elimination threshold: 1·4 (median, 95% Bayesian Credible Interval (BCI): 0·4–2·1) new HIV infections per 1,000 MSM. There were only 617 (median, 95% BCI: 264–858) undiagnosed MSM. Decreasing incidence and increasing treatment coverage are highly correlated; a threshold effect is apparent. Interpretation Our study is the first to show that TasP can substantially reduce a country’s HIV epidemic, and bring it close to elimination. However, we have shown the effectiveness of TasP under optimal conditions: very high treatment coverage, and exceptionally high (98%) viral suppression rate. Unless these extremely challenging conditions can be met in SSA, the WHO’s global elimination strategy is unlikely to succeed. Funding NIAID/NIH PMID:27174504

  18. Effect of rescue breathing by lay rescuers for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest caused by respiratory disease: a nationwide, population-based, propensity score-matched study.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Tatsuma; Ohashi-Fukuda, Naoko; Kondo, Yutaka; Sera, Toshiki; Yahagi, Naoki

    2016-05-30

    The importance of respiratory care in cardiopulmonary resuscitation may vary depending on the cause of cardiac arrest. No previous study has investigated the effects of rescue breathing performed by a lay rescuer on the outcomes of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) caused by intrinsic respiratory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether rescue breathing performed by a lay rescuer is associated with outcomes after respiratory disease-related OHCA. In a nationwide, population-based, propensity score-matched study in Japan, among adult patients with OHCA caused by respiratory disease who received bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2010, we compared patients with rescue breathing to those without rescue breathing. The primary outcome was neurologically favorable survival 1 month after OHCA. Of the eligible 14,781 patients, 4970 received rescue breathing from a lay rescuer and 9811 did not receive rescue breathing. In a propensity score-matched cohort (4897 vs. 4897 patients), the neurologically favorable survival rate was similar between patients with and without rescue breathing from a lay rescuer [0.9 vs. 0.7 %; OR 1.23 (95 % CI 0.79-1.93)]. Additionally, in subgroup analyses, rescue breathing was not associated with neurological outcome regardless of the type of rescuer [family member: adjusted OR 0.83 (95 % CI 0.39-1.70); or non-family member: adjusted OR 1.91 (95 % CI 0.79-5.35)]. Even among patients with OHCA caused by respiratory disease, rescue breathing performed by a lay rescuer was not associated with neurological outcomes, regardless of the type of lay rescuer.

  19. Prevalence, Age at Diagnosis, Mortality, and Cause of Death in Retinitis Pigmentosa in Korea-A Nationwide Population-based Study.

    PubMed

    Na, Kun-Hoo; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Han, Seungjin; Kim, Patrick; Hann, Hoo Jae; Ahn, Hyeong Sik

    2017-04-01

    To determine the prevalence and mortality of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients in Korea. Population-based retrospective cohort study. We used data covering the 2011-2014 period from the Rare Intractable Disease (RID) registry and Health Insurance Review and Assessment (HIRA) service, which include information on all patients diagnosed with RP based on predefined diagnostic criteria. Using the HIRA-RID database, we evaluated the prevalence and age at diagnosis of RP patients across the entire Korean population. We further linked the data from Statistics Korea to the HIRA-RID database to confirm mortality and causes of death. The prevalence in the total population across all ages was 11.09 per 10(5) people, and the prevalence in those over the age of 40 was 16.16 per 10(5) people. The age at diagnosis ranged from 0 to 95 and, on average, was 44.8. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 1.56 for all ages, peaking at 2.61 in men aged 40-59, which was attributed to 6.6-fold higher suicide rates than the same age group in the general male population. This is the first nationwide epidemiologic study of RP patients covering the entire population of all ages. The results suggest that the prevalence of RP in Korea is about 1 in 9000 for all ages and 1 in 6000 for those over 40 years of age. The higher mortality of RP patients than that of the general population is attributable to a high suicide rate in male RP patients of working ages, which necessitates a careful attention to their mental health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Methamphetamine use and schizophrenia: a population-based cohort study in California.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Russell C; Cunningham, James K; Allebeck, Peter; Arenovich, Tamara; Sajeev, Gautam; Remington, Gary; Boileau, Isabelle; Kish, Stephen J

    2012-04-01

    Clinical investigators in Japan have long suggested that exposure to methamphetamine might cause a persistent schizophrenia-like psychosis. This possibility is discounted in the Western literature. To investigate the relationship between drug use and later schizophrenia, the authors conducted a large-scale cohort study of drug users initially free of persistent psychosis. A population-based cohort study was conducted using data from California inpatient hospital discharge records from 1990 through 2000. Patients with methamphetamine-related conditions (N=42,412) and those with other drug use disorders (cannabis, cocaine, alcohol, and opioids) were propensity score-matched to individuals with primary appendicitis who served as a population proxy comparison group; the methamphetamine cohort was also matched to the other drug cohorts. Cox modeling was used to estimate differences between matched groups in the rates of subsequent admission with schizophrenia diagnoses. The methamphetamine cohort had a significantly higher risk of schizophrenia than the appendicitis group (hazard ratio=9.37) and the cocaine, opioid, and alcohol groups (hazard ratios ranging from 1.46 to 2.81), but not significantly different from that of the cannabis group. The risk of schizophrenia was higher in all drug cohorts than in the appendicitis group. Study limitations include difficulty in confirming schizophrenia diagnoses independent of drug intoxication and the possibility of undetected schizophrenia predating drug exposure. The study's findings suggest that individuals with methamphetamine-related disorders have a higher risk of schizophrenia than those with other drug use disorders, with the exception of cannabis use disorders. The elevated risk in methamphetamine users may be explained by shared etiological mechanisms involved in the development of schizophrenia.

  1. Risk of pneumonia in patients with isolated minor rib fractures: a nationwide cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Sai-Wai; Teng, Ying-Hock; Yang, Shun-Fa; Yeh, Han-Wei; Wang, Yu-Hsun; Chou, Ming-Chih; Yeh, Chao-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Isolated minor rib fractures (IMRFs) after blunt chest traumas are commonly observed in emergency departments. However, the relationship between IMRFs and subsequent pneumonia remains controversial. This nationwide cohort study investigated the association between IMRFs and the risk of pneumonia in patients with blunt chest traumas. Design Nationwide population-based cohort study. Setting Patients with IMRFs were identified between 2010 and 2011 from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Participants Non-traumatic patients were matched through 1:8 propensity-score matching according to age, sex, and comorbidities (namely diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)) with the comparison cohort. We estimated the adjusted HRs (aHRs) by using the Cox proportional hazard model. A total of 709 patients with IMRFs and 5672 non-traumatic patients were included. Main outcome measure The primary end point was the occurrence of pneumonia within 30 days. Results The incidence of pneumonia following IMRFs was 1.6% (11/709). The aHR for the risk of pneumonia after IMRFs was 8.94 (95% CI=3.79 to 21.09, p<0.001). Furthermore, old age (≥65 years; aHR=5.60, 95% CI 1.97 to 15.89, p<0.001) and COPD (aHR=5.41, 95% CI 1.02 to 3.59, p<0.001) were risk factors for pneumonia following IMRFs. In the IMRF group, presence of single or two isolated rib fractures was associated with an increased risk of pneumonia with aHRs of 3.97 (95% CI 1.09 to 14.44, p<0.001) and 17.13 (95% CI 6.66 to 44.04, p<0.001), respectively. Conclusions Although the incidence of pneumonia following IMRFs is low, patients with two isolated rib fractures were particularly susceptible to pneumonia. Physicians should focus on this complication, particularly in elderly patients and those with COPD. PMID:28087547

  2. Endoscopic sphincterotomy and risk of cholangiocarcinoma: a population-based cohort study in Finland and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Strömberg, Cecilia; Böckelman, Camilla; Song, Huan; Ye, Weimin; Pukkala, Eero; Haglund, Caj; Nilsson, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Elevated long-term risk of cholangiocarcinoma is reported after endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES), but in a previous study we found a trend towards a decreased risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association in a larger cohort with a longer follow-up. Patients and methods: Data concerning all patients having had an inpatient endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) were collected from the hospital discharge registries of Finland and Sweden. Incident cases of malignancy were identified through linkage to the nationwide Cancer Registries. Patients with a diagnosis of malignancy, before or within 2 years of the ERCP, were excluded. The cohorts were followed until a diagnosis of malignancy, death or emigration, or end of follow-up (end of 2010). The relative risk of malignancy was calculated as standardized incidence ratio (SIR) compared with the general population, inherently adjusting for age, gender, and calendar year of follow-up. Results: A total of 69 925 patients undergoing ERCP from 1976 through 2008 were included in the pooled cohort. ES was performed in 40 193 subjects. The risk of malignancy was elevated in the total cohort (SIR = 2.3; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 2.1 – 2.5) irrespective of whether ES was performed or not. The SIRs diminished with duration of follow-up. Conclusions: We found an elevated risk of malignancy both in the bile ducts alone and in the bile ducts, liver or pancreas together, after ERCP. The risk was the same, regardless of whether ES had been performed or not, so ES was unlikely to be the cause, and a common carcinogenic exposure previous to the ERCP procedure, possibly ductal gallstone disease, was more likely. PMID:27747285

  3. A systematic review of the effect of retention methods in population-based cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Longitudinal studies are of aetiological and public health relevance but can be undermined by attrition. The aim of this paper was to identify effective retention strategies to increase participation in population-based cohort studies. Methods Systematic review of the literature to identify prospective population-based cohort studies with health outcomes in which retention strategies had been evaluated. Results Twenty-eight studies published up to January 2011 were included. Eleven of which were randomized controlled trials of retention strategies (RCT). Fifty-seven percent of the studies were postal, 21% in-person, 14% telephone and 7% had mixed data collection methods. A total of 45 different retention strategies were used, categorised as 1) incentives, 2) reminder methods, repeat visits or repeat questionnaires, alternative modes of data collection or 3) other methods. Incentives were associated with an increase in retention rates, which improved with greater incentive value. Whether cash was the most effective incentive was not clear from studies that compared cash and gifts of similar value. The average increase in retention rate was 12% for reminder letters, 5% for reminder calls and 12% for repeat questionnaires. Ten studies used alternative data collection methods, mainly as a last resort. All postal studies offered telephone interviews to non-responders, which increased retention rates by 3%. Studies that used face-to-face interviews increased their retention rates by 24% by offering alternative locations and modes of data collection. Conclusions Incentives boosted retention rates in prospective cohort studies. Other methods appeared to have a beneficial effect but there was a general lack of a systematic approach to their evaluation. PMID:21504610

  4. Quality of life and psychological and gastrointestinal symptoms after cholecystectomy: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Talseth, Arne; Edna, Tom-Harald; Hveem, Kristian; Lydersen, Stian; Ness-Jensen, Eivind

    2017-01-01

    Objective The study aims to examine gastrointestinal symptoms, quality of life and the risk of psychological symptoms after cholecystectomy. Design This is a prospective population-based cohort study based on the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT) Norway. HUNT is a repeated health survey of the county population and includes a wide range of health-related items. In the present study, all 3 HUNT surveys were included, performed between 1984 and 2008. Selected items were scores on quality of life, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and selected gastrointestinal symptoms. Participants who underwent cholecystectomy for gallstone disease between 1 January 1990 and until 1 year before attending HUNT3 were compared with the remaining non-operated cohort. Associations between cholecystectomy and the postoperative scores and symptoms were assessed by multivariable regression models. Results Participants in HUNT1, HUNT2 and HUNT3 were 77 212 (89.4% of those invited), 65 237 (69.5%) and 50 807 (54.1%), respectively. In the study period, 931 participants were operated with cholecystectomy. Cholecystectomy was associated with an increased risk of diarrhoea and stomach pain postoperatively. In addition, cholecystectomy was associated with an increased risk of nausea postoperatively in men. We found no associations between cholecystectomy and quality of life, symptoms of anxiety and depression, constipation, heartburn, or acid regurgitation following surgery. Conclusions In this large population-based cohort study, cholecystectomy was associated with postoperative diarrhoea and stomach pain. Cholecystectomy for gallstone colic was associated with nausea in men. There were no associations between quality of life, symptoms of anxiety and depression, constipation, heartburn, or acid regurgitation. PMID:28761686

  5. Initial Presentation Sites as Predictors of Herpes Zoster Complications: A Nationwide Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Yi; Liu, Sing-Huh; Lin, Meng-Yin; Lin, Che-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is associated with complications such as postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) and HZ ophthalmicus (HZO). However, few studies have focused on identifying patients having a high risk of PHN and HZO according to the initial presentation sites. The current study investigated these factors in a nationwide population-based cohort derived from Taiwan’s Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. The results indicate that the initial presentation sites can predict the complication site of HZ. In this study, elderly patients were found to be more susceptible to HZ and were the first to present with neurological signs (HZN). Furthermore, compared with patients with HZO and other signs (HZT), those with HZN had a higher comorbidity risk. Patients with HZN showed a significantly higher visceral complication risk than did those with HZO (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.27–1.71). In addition, patients with HZT showed lower risks of ocular and neurological complications than did those with HZN after stratification by age and sex (adjusted HR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.31–0.68 and HR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.59–0.91, respectively). PMID:27711168

  6. Association between fluid intake and kidney function, and survival outcomes analysis: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Wei; Chen, Wei-Liang; Liaw, Fang-Yih; Sun, Yu-Shan; Yang, Hui-Fang; Wang, Chung-Ching; Lin, Chien-Ming; Tsao, Yu-Tzu

    2016-05-12

    Fluid intake, one of the most common daily activities, has not been well studied in chronic kidney disease (CKD) populations, and clinical outcomes are rarely addressed. The aim of this nationwide study is to explore the influence of daily fluid intake on cardiovascular and all-cause mortality and its association with renal function. Observational cohort study. In all, 2182 participants aged more than 20 years participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994). Survival outcomes in patients with or without CKD, using multiple variable adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. In a longitudinal survey with a median follow-up length of 15.4 years, 1080 participants died and 473 cardiovascular deaths were recorded. For all-cause mortality in the CKD group, individuals in the highest quartile of fluid intake (≧3.576 L/day) had better survival outcomes than those in the lowest quartile of fluid intake (≤2.147 L/day) (p=0.029) after adjustment of several pertinent variables. Although the interpretation of this observational study was limited by the failure to identify the compositions of ingested fluids, adequate hydration may offer some advantages in patients with CKD. However, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of the responses of normal and injured kidneys to chronic changes in fluid consumption warrant further investigation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Prevalence and incidence of non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy in South Korea: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Yeun; Park, Kyung-Ah; Oh, Sei Yeul

    2017-09-28

    To determine the age and sex-specific prevalence and incidence of non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION) in South Korea. This is a nationwide population-based study using data from the Korean national health claims database to identify patients with NAION using the registration programme database, which comprises ophthalmologist-confirmed NAION from 2011 through 2015. We evaluated prevalence and incidence rates using these data. Among 25 816 797 of entire population 40 years of age or older, 26 167 patients had NAION (47.8% men) during the 5-year study period. The prevalence in the general population 40 years of age or older was 102.87 (95% CI 95.22 to 110.53) per 100 000 people. In men, it was 111.10 (95% CI 101.19 to 121.02), and in women, it was 94.64 (95% CI 89.25 to 100.03) per 100 000 people. The prevalence increased with advancing age and peaked at 70-74 years in men and 65-69 years in women. The incidence in the general population 40 years of age or older was 11.35 (95% CI 10.37 to 12.33) per 100 000 person-years. In men, it was 14.89 (95% CI 12.26 to 16.91), and in women, it was 9.92 (95% CI 8.85 to 10.99) per 100 000 person-years. The incidence increased with advancing age and peaked at 80-84 years in men and 70-74 years in women. The prevalence and incidence estimates of NAION are comparable with those of Caucasians. These detailed estimates could promote understanding of the disease's pathophysiology and allow for appropriate planning within the healthcare system. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Tamoxifen use and acute pancreatitis: A population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Fan-Gen; Hsieh, Yow-Wen; Sheu, Ming-Jyh; Lin, Che-Chen; Lin, Cheng-Li; Hsu, Chung Y.; Lee, Chang-Yin; Chang, Mei-Yin

    2017-01-01

    Background Several case reports have indicated that tamoxifen induced acute pancreatitis (AP); but no pharmacoepidemiological data support the claim. Therefore, we investigated whether tamoxifen use is correlated with the risk of AP in patients with breast cancer. Methods This population-based cohort study used the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A cohort of 22 005 patients aged ≥20 years with breast cancer from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2009 was identified and the date of cancer diagnosis was set as the index date. The end point was developing AP during the follow-up. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were evaluated to determine the correlation between the risk of AP and tamoxifen use. Because the drug use varied over time, it was measured as a time-dependent covariate in the Cox proportional hazard model. The same approaches were applied in PS-matched cohorts. Results After adjustment for covariates and medication use including fluorouracil and doxorubicin, the risk of AP was not significant between tamoxifen users and tamoxifen nonusers (adjusted HR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.74–1.19) in the non-matching cohorts. The results revealed no dose–response trend between tamoxifen use and the risk of AP (adjusted HR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.96–1.00). The comorbidities DM and gallstones were associated with a significantly increased risk of AP. Similar trends were observed in PS-matched cohorts. Conclusions No significant correlation was observed between tamoxifen use and the risk of AP in patients with breast cancer. PMID:28291833

  9. Coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer in a population based prospective cohort of Swedish women

    PubMed Central

    Terry, P; Bergkvist, L; Holmberg, L; Wolk, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The presumed protective effect of coffee consumption on colorectal cancer, which is supported by case control studies, has not been confirmed in prospective cohort studies. Cohort studies are few in number however and often suffer from a small number of cases, limited attention to confounding variables, and a low percentage of heavy coffee drinkers.
METHODS—We examined data from a large population based cohort of Swedish women who were free from cancer at the start of follow up, with a wide range of coffee consumption, information on many potentially confounding variables, and a larger number of cases than any previous cohort study of coffee consumption and colorectal cancer.
RESULTS—During an average of 9.6 years of follow up of 61 463 women aged 40-74 years, we observed 460 incident cases of colorectal cancer (291 with colon cancer, 159 with rectal cancer, 10 with cancer at both sites). We found no association between coffee consumption and colorectal cancer risk. The risk ratio for drinking four or more cups per day compared with none was 1.04 (95% confidence interval 0.63—1.69; p for trend 0.84). The findings were similar for cancers of the distal and proximal colon and rectum.
CONCLUSIONS—The recently published affirmative conclusions regarding the protective effect of coffee consumption may be premature. For patients seeking advice about coffee consumption, the evidence suggests that moderate or even high consumption will probably not influence the risk of colorectal cancer.


Keywords: colorectal neoplasms; cohort studies; coffee drinking PMID:11413115

  10. Tamoxifen use and acute pancreatitis: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Fan-Gen; Hsieh, Yow-Wen; Sheu, Ming-Jyh; Lin, Che-Chen; Lin, Cheng-Li; Hsu, Chung Y; Lee, Chang-Yin; Chang, Mei-Yin; Chang, Kuang-Hsi

    2017-01-01

    Several case reports have indicated that tamoxifen induced acute pancreatitis (AP); but no pharmacoepidemiological data support the claim. Therefore, we investigated whether tamoxifen use is correlated with the risk of AP in patients with breast cancer. This population-based cohort study used the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A cohort of 22 005 patients aged ≥20 years with breast cancer from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2009 was identified and the date of cancer diagnosis was set as the index date. The end point was developing AP during the follow-up. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were evaluated to determine the correlation between the risk of AP and tamoxifen use. Because the drug use varied over time, it was measured as a time-dependent covariate in the Cox proportional hazard model. The same approaches were applied in PS-matched cohorts. After adjustment for covariates and medication use including fluorouracil and doxorubicin, the risk of AP was not significant between tamoxifen users and tamoxifen nonusers (adjusted HR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.74-1.19) in the non-matching cohorts. The results revealed no dose-response trend between tamoxifen use and the risk of AP (adjusted HR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.96-1.00). The comorbidities DM and gallstones were associated with a significantly increased risk of AP. Similar trends were observed in PS-matched cohorts. No significant correlation was observed between tamoxifen use and the risk of AP in patients with breast cancer.

  11. Gynecological malignancy risk in colorectal cancer survivors: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-Chun; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Liang, Ji-An; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-10-01

    This study was carried out to assess the risk of gynecological malignancy in colorectal cancer survivors using a population-based retrospective cohort study. Using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan, we identified 37,176 patients with colorectal cancer diagnosed in 1998-2009, aged 20 years and above, without other cancer history. We also randomly selected 148,700 women without any cancer in the comparison cohort, frequency matched by age and diagnosis date. Incidences and hazards of breast, cervix, endometrial and ovarian cancers were evaluated by 201l. The overall incidence of the 4 types of gynecological cancer was 39.0% higher in colorectal cancer patients than in comparisons (2.99 vs. 2.14 per 1000 person-years) with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.46 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.31-1.62). Breast cancer accounted for most subsequent cancer. The multivariable Cox method measured HR was the highest for endometrial cancer (3.40, 95% CI = 2.59-4.47) for the colorectal cohort relative to comparisons, followed by ovarian cancer and breast cancer, except cervix cancer. The risk of gynecological malignancies was apparently elevated for colorectal cancer survivors <50 years of age. Follow-up measures are suggested for women with colorectal cancer for early detection and prevention of the subsequent gynecological malignancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Long term alcohol intake and risk of rheumatoid arthritis in women: a population based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Di Giuseppe, Daniela; Alfredsson, Lars; Bottai, Matteo; Askling, Johan; Wolk, Alicja

    2012-07-10

    To analyse the association between alcohol intake and incidence of rheumatoid arthritis in women. Prospective cohort study with repeated measurements. The Swedish Mammography Cohort, a population based cohort from central Sweden. 34,141 women born between 1914 and 1948, followed up from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2009. Newly diagnosed cases of rheumatoid arthritis identified by linkage with two Swedish national registers. Data on alcohol consumption were collected in 1987 and 1997. During the follow-up period (226,032 person years), 197 incident cases of rheumatoid arthritis were identified. There was a statistically significant 37% decrease in risk of rheumatoid arthritis among women who drank >4 glasses of alcohol (1 glass = 15 g of ethanol) per week compared with women who drank <1 glass per week or who never drank alcohol (relative risk 0.63 (95% confidence interval 0.42 to 0.96), P = 0.04). Drinking of all types of alcohol (beer, wine, and liquor) was non-significantly inversely associated with the risk of rheumatoid arthritis. Analysis of long term alcohol consumption showed that women who reported drinking >3 glasses of alcohol per week in both 1987 and 1997 had a 52% decreased risk of rheumatoid arthritis compared with those who never drank (relative risk 0.48 (0.24 to 0.98)). Moderate consumption of alcohol is associated with reduced risk of rheumatoid arthritis.

  13. Prenatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs and use of primary healthcare during childhood: a population-based cohort study in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Würtz, Anne Mette; Vestergaard, Claus Høstrup; Vestergaard, Mogens; Bech, Bodil Hammer

    2017-01-01

    Objective Prenatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) has been associated with adverse outcomes in the offspring such as congenital malformations and neuropsychiatric disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate whether prenatal exposure to AEDs is also associated with more frequent use of primary healthcare during childhood. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting Nationwide national registers in Denmark. Participants All live-born singletons in Denmark during 1997–2012 identified in the Danish National Patient Register and followed until 31 December 2013 (n=963 010). Information on prenatal exposure to AEDs for maternal indication of epilepsy and other neurological conditions was obtained from the Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. Main outcome measures The primary outcome measure was the number and type of contacts with the general practitioner (GP), excluding routine well-child visits and vaccinations. The secondary outcome measure was specific services provided at the GP contact. The association between prenatal exposure to AEDs and contacts with the GP was estimated by using negative binomial regression adjusting for sex and date of birth of the child, maternal age, cohabitation status, income, education, substance abuse, depression, severe psychiatric disorders and use of antipsychotics, antidepressants and insulin. Results Children exposed prenatally to AEDs (n=4478) had 3% (95% CI 0 to 5%) more GP contacts during the study period than unexposed children. This was primarily accounted for by the number of phone contacts. Within each year of follow-up, exposed children tended to have more contacts than unexposed children, but the differences were small. We found no difference between exposed and unexposed children with regard to specific services provided at the GP contact. For the individual AEDs, we found that exposure to valproate or oxcarbazepine was associated with more GP contacts. Conclusions We found only minor

  14. Use of antirheumatic drugs in mothers and fathers before and during pregnancy-a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Viktil, Kirsten K; Engeland, Anders; Furu, Kari

    2009-08-01

    Exploring the use of antirheumatic drugs in pregnant women and expectant fathers. Population-based cohort study, based on linkage of two nationwide databases: the Norwegian Prescription Database was linked to data on 106 000 pregnancies during 2004-2006 from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Antirheumatic drugs dispensed to mothers 3 months prior to conception, during pregnancy, and up to 6 months after delivery, and prescriptions to fathers 3 months prior to conception were identified. During the 18-month observation period for each pregnancy, 1411 women (1.3% of the women) redeemed at least one antirheumatic drug. Of these, 45% received at least one drug during 3 months prior to conception and 28% in the first trimester. Four women redeemed prescriptions for methotrexate during the 3 months prior to conception, and two women did so during the pregnancy. One of the four women on leflunomide, received the drug 3 months before conception, and two of them during the first trimester. Among the women using etanercept, 19 women redeemed the prescription 3 months before pregnancy, 11 during the first trimester, one in both the second and third trimesters. Three months prior to conception, 837 expecting fathers (0.8%) redeemed at least one prescription: 40 had sulfasalazin, 36 methotrexate and 28 had biological drugs. Three women redeemed leflunomide or methotrexate, which have known teratogenic effects, during their first trimester. While there are high levels of awareness about maternal drug use in pregnancy, drug exposure in fathers shortly before conception should be further explored. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Higher incidence of rheumatoid arthritis in patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis or osteoarthritis-related surgery: a nationwide, population-based, case-control study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming-Chi; Liu, Keng-Chang; Lai, Ning-Sheng; Koo, Malcolm

    2015-12-18

    To investigate the risk of incident rheumatoid arthritis in patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis or osteoarthritis-related surgery using a nationwide health claims database. A nationwide, population-based, case-control study. Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. A total of 1147 patients (aged 20-100 years) with rheumatoid arthritis and 5735 controls who were frequency-matched for sex, 10-year age interval and year of catastrophic illness certificate application date (index year) were identified. All participants were retrospectively traced, up to 14 years prior to their index year, for diagnosis of osteoarthritis or osteoarthritis-related surgery. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to quantify the association between rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. The risks of rheumatoid arthritis were significantly higher in patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis (adjusted OR=5.24, p<0.001) and osteoarthritis-related surgery (adjusted OR=2.27, p<0.001). This large nationwide, population-based, case-control study showed a higher risk of rheumatoid arthritis in Taiwanese patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis. Our findings were consistent with the hypothesis that osteoarthritis might be a triggering factor of rheumatoid arthritis in environment-sensitised and genetically susceptible individuals. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Ambient Fine Particulate Matter and Mortality among Survivors of Myocardial Infarction: Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Burnett, Richard T.; Copes, Ray; Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Goldberg, Mark S.; Brook, Robert D.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Jerrett, Michael; Martin, Randall V.; Brook, Jeffrey R.; Kopp, Alexander; Tu, Jack V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Survivors of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are at increased risk of dying within several hours to days following exposure to elevated levels of ambient air pollution. Little is known, however, about the influence of long-term (months to years) air pollution exposure on survival after AMI. Objective: We conducted a population-based cohort study to determine the impact of long-term exposure to fine particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) on post-AMI survival. Methods: We assembled a cohort of 8,873 AMI patients who were admitted to 1 of 86 hospital corporations across Ontario, Canada in 1999–2001. Mortality follow-up for this cohort extended through 2011. Cumulative time-weighted exposures to PM2.5 were derived from satellite observations based on participants’ annual residences during follow-up. We used standard and multilevel spatial random-effects Cox proportional hazards models and adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Between 1999 and 2011, we identified 4,016 nonaccidental deaths, of which 2,147 were from any cardiovascular disease, 1,650 from ischemic heart disease, and 675 from AMI. For each 10-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR10) of nonaccidental mortality was 1.22 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.45]. The association with PM2.5 was robust to sensitivity analyses and appeared stronger for cardiovascular-related mortality: ischemic heart (HR10 = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.83) and AMI (HR10 = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.13, 2.40). We estimated that 12.4% of nonaccidental deaths (or 497 deaths) could have been averted if the lowest measured concentration in an urban area (4 μg/m3) had been achieved at all locations over the course of the study. Conclusions: Long-term air pollution exposure adversely affects the survival of AMI patients. Citation: Chen H, Burnett RT, Copes R, Kwong JC, Villeneuve PJ, Goldberg MS, Brook RD, van Donkelaar A, Jerrett M, Martin RV, Brook JR, Kopp A, Tu JV. 2016. Ambient fine

  17. Nationwide Assessment of Cause-Specific Mortality in Patients with Rosacea: A Cohort Study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Egeberg, Alexander; Fowler, Joseph F; Gislason, Gunnar H; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2016-12-01

    Emerging data suggest that rosacea is associated with several comorbidities; however, the causes of mortality in patients with rosacea have not yet been investigated. We evaluated all-cause and cause-specific death rates in patients with rosacea in a population-based Danish cohort study. All Danish individuals aged ≥18 years between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2012 with rosacea diagnosed by hospital dermatologists were linked in nationwide registers and compared with age- and sex-matched general-population subjects (1:5 ratio). Death rates were calculated per 1000 person-years, and hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox regression models. The total cohort (n = 35,958) included 5993 patients with rosacea and 29,965 age- and sex-matched individuals from the general population. During the maximum 15 years of follow-up, 664 (11.1 %) patients with rosacea and 3121 (10.4 %) patients in the reference population died. The risk of all-cause mortality was similar in patients with rosacea and the reference population [HR 1.06, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.98-1.15]. Analyses of cause-specific mortality revealed a significantly increased risk of death due to gastrointestinal diseases in patients with rosacea (HR 1.95, 95 % CI 1.31-2.89), primarily related to hepatic disease. No increased risk of death due to other major disease categories, e.g. cancer, cardiovascular, neurological, or infectious diseases was observed. We observed a significantly increased risk of death due to gastrointestinal diseases (primarily hepatic disease) in patients with rosacea; however, we found no increased risk of death due to other causes such as cardiovascular or neurological diseases. Although this does not necessarily imply a causal link, the findings underscore the association between rosacea and gastrointestinal disease, but also that rosacea may be associated with increased risk factors, including alcohol consumption.

  18. Acromegaly incidence, prevalence, complications and long-term prognosis: a nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dal, Jakob; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Andersen, Marianne; Kristensen, Lars Ø; Laurberg, Peter; Pedersen, Lars; Dekkers, Olaf M; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Jørgensen, Jens Otto L

    2016-09-01

    Valid data on acromegaly incidence, complications and mortality are scarce. The Danish Health Care System enables nationwide studies with complete follow-up and linkage among health-related databases to assess acromegaly incidence, prevalence, complications and mortality in a population-based cohort study. All incident cases of acromegaly in Denmark (1991-2010) were identified from health registries and validated by chart review. We estimated the annual incidence rate of acromegaly per 10(6) person-years (py) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). For every patient, 10 persons were sampled from the general population as a comparison cohort. Cox regression and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used. Mean age at diagnosis (48.7 years (CI: 95%: 47.2-50.1)) and annual incidence rate (3.8 cases/10(6) persons (95% CI: 3.6-4.1)) among the 405 cases remained stable. The prevalence in 2010 was 85 cases/10(6) persons. The patients were at increased risk of diabetes mellitus (HR: 4.0 (95% CI: 2.7-5.8)), heart failure (HR: 2.5 (95% CI: 1.4-4.5)), venous thromboembolism (HR: 2.3 (95% CI: 1.1-5.0)), sleep apnoea (HR: 11.7 (95% CI: 7.0-19.4)) and arthropathy (HR: 2.1 (95% CI: 1.6-2.6)). The complication risk was also increased before the diagnosis of acromegaly. Overall mortality risk was elevated (HR: 1.3 (95% CI: 1.0-1.7)) but uninfluenced by treatment modality. (i) The incidence rate and age at diagnosis of acromegaly have been stable over decades, and the prevalence is higher than previously reported. (ii) The risk of complications is very high even before the diagnosis. (iii) Mortality risk remains elevated but uninfluenced by mode of treatment. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  19. Distribution of antiphospholipid antibodies in a large population-based German cohort.

    PubMed

    Manukyan, Davit; Rossmann, Heidi; Schulz, Andreas; Zeller, Tanja; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Binder, Harald; Münzel, Thomas; Beutel, Manfred E; Müller-Calleja, Nadine; Wild, Philipp S; Lackner, Karl J

    2016-10-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is the most common acquired thrombophilia. Diagnosis is based on clinical criteria and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) above the 99th percentile of a reference group. Data on the distribution of aPL in the population are limited. The distribution of aPL including diagnostic cutoffs should be determined in a population-based cohort. The Gutenberg Health Study (GHS) is a population-based cohort aged 35-74 years. We determined the presence of antibodies against cardiolipin (aCL, IgG, and IgM), β2-glycoprotein I (anti-β2GPI, IgG, and IgM), and domain 1 of β2-glycoprotein I (anti-domain 1, IgG) in a sample of 4979 participants. aPL titers were similar in the whole sample and in an apparently healthy subgroup of 1049 individuals. There was a strong age-dependent increase of both aCL and anti-β2GPI IgM, while aPL IgG titers were stable or tended to decrease with age. A relevant decrease was observed for aCL IgG in women and anti-domain 1 IgG in both sexes. There was no association of aPL titers with a history of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Our data show that for IgM aPL, age-dependent reference ranges should be used. In fact, the controversy regarding the clinical utility of IgM aPL might be related to the use of inappropriate reference ranges among other causes. In our population, aPLs were not associated with a history of VTE.

  20. Treatment of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in a population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Legoff, Jorge A; Krause, Megan L; Crowson, Cynthia S; Muskardin, Theresa Wampler; Mason, Thomas; Matteson, Eric L

    2016-06-01

    A population-based cohort was utilized to evaluate medications and intra-articular injection utilization for patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) to inform clinical practice and further research. In a geographically defined population, all incident cases of JIA cases were identified between January 1, 1994 and December 31, 2013 based first on diagnosis code followed by medical chart confirmation. Medications and intra-articular glucocorticoid injections were abstracted. Predictors of the first disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD)/biologic and injections were reported as a hazard ratio (HR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for age and sex. Kaplan-Meier methods evaluated therapy at 6 months and 1 year. Injections were reported per 100 person-years (py) with 95 % CI using the Poisson methods. Seventy-one incident cases were identified. Forty-two (59 %) were female with mean age (standard deviation) at diagnosis of 8.2 (5.3) years. Twenty-six (37 %) utilized at least one DMARD or biologic, in which 77 % of these were prescribed in the first 6 months. Subtype of JIA was significantly associated with DMARDs/biologics (p < 0.001). Intra-articular injections were performed in 48 %. The rate of intra-articular injections was 20.7 per 100 py (95 % CI 16.5, 25.6). The rate of joint injections was higher in the first year after diagnosis (p < 0.001) and more common in recent years (p < 0.001). The majority of patients with JIA in a modern population-based cohort do not require DMARDs or biologics. In those who do, the majority receives these within the first 6 months. Intra-articular injections were utilized in almost half of patients with JIA and were increasingly used.

  1. Eligibility for the Surgical Trial in Intracerebral Hemorrhage II Study in a Population-Based Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Adeoye, Opeolu; Woo, Daniel; Haverbusch, Mary; Tao, Haiyang; Sekar, Padmini; Moomaw, Charles J.; Shutter, Lori; Kleindorfer, Dawn; Kissela, Brett; Broderick, Joseph; Flaherty, Matthew L

    2009-01-01

    Introduction No proven treatments exist for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Carefully selected patients may benefit from surgery, and an international multicenter trial is ongoing. We sought to determine how many patients in a population-based ICH cohort would have been eligible for surgery using the Surgical Trial in Intracerebral Hemorrhage II (STICH II) criteria. Methods We identified all patients aged ≥ 18 years residing in the five-county Greater Cincinnati region who were hospitalized with first-ever nontraumatic ICH in 2005. STICH II trial criteria were used to determine eligibility for treatment and reasons for exclusion. Results During 2005, 286 ICH patients were identified (103 lobar, 126 deep cerebral, 23 brainstem, 28 cerebellar, and 6 IVH). Non-lobar hemorrhages are not eligible for STICH II. Among patients with lobar hemorrhage, 22 had no exclusions. The most common (not mutually exclusive) reasons for exclusion were volume < 10cc or > 100cc (n=46) and presence of IVH (n=27). No significant age, gender, or racial differences existed between eligible and ineligible patients with lobar ICH. Only one (4.5%) of the 22 STICH II eligible patients in our population had surgery, compared with 8 of 81 (9.9%) ineligible lobar ICH patients (p=0.43). Mortality at 180 days in STICH II eligible patients was 36% versus 49% for ineligible lobar ICH patients (p=0.19). Conclusions In this population-based ICH cohort, 7.7% (22 of 286) of ICH patients would have qualified for STICH II enrollment. Other treatment options need to be explored for most ICH patients. PMID:18183500

  2. Infective Endocarditis and Cancer Risk: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Min; Wu, Jung-Nan; Lin, Cheng-Li; Day, Jen-Der; Liang, Ji-An; Liou, Li-Ren; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the possible relationship between endocarditis and overall and individual cancer risk among study participants in Taiwan.We used data from the National Health Insurance program of Taiwan to conduct a population-based, observational, and retrospective cohort study. The case group consisted of 14,534 patients who were diagnosed with endocarditis between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010. For the control group, 4 patients without endocarditis were frequency matched to each endocarditis patient according to age, sex, and index year. Competing risks regression analysis was conducted to determine the effect of endocarditis on cancer risk.A large difference was noted in Charlson comorbidity index between endocarditis and nonendocarditis patients. In patients with endocarditis, the risk for developing overall cancer was significant and 119% higher than in patients without endocarditis (adjusted subhazard ratio = 2.19, 95% confidence interval = 1.98-2.42). Regarding individual cancers, in addition to head and neck, uterus, female breast and hematological malignancies, the risks of developing colorectal cancer, and some digestive tract cancers were significantly higher. Additional analyses determined that the association of cancer with endocarditis is stronger within the 1st 5 years after endocarditis diagnosis.This population-based cohort study found that patients with endocarditis are at a higher risk for colorectal cancer and other cancers in Taiwan. The risk was even higher within the 1st 5 years after endocarditis diagnosis. It suggested that endocarditis is an early marker of colorectal cancer and other cancers. The underlying mechanisms must still be explored and may account for a shared risk factor of infection in both endocarditis and malignancy.

  3. Pathways to a rising caesarean section rate: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Christine L; Algert, Charles S; Ford, Jane B; Todd, Angela L; Morris, Jonathan M

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether the obstetric pathways leading to caesarean section changed from one decade to another. We also aimed to explore how much of the increase in caesarean rate could be attributed to maternal and pregnancy factors including a shift towards delivery in private hospitals. Design Population-based record linkage cohort study. Setting New South Wales, Australia. Participants For annual rates, all women giving birth in NSW during 1994 to 2009 were included. To examine changes in obstetric pathways two cohorts were compared: all women with a first-birth during either 1994–1997 (82 988 women) or 2001–2004 (85 859 women) and who had a second (sequential) birth within 5 years of their first-birth. Primary outcome measures Caesarean section rates, by parity and onset of labour. Results For first-births, prelabour and intrapartum caesarean rates increased from 1994 to 2009, with intrapartum rates rising from 6.5% to 11.7%. This fed into repeat caesarean rates; from 2003, over 18% of all multiparous births were prelabour repeat caesareans. In the 1994–1997 cohort, 17.7% of women had a caesarean delivery for their first-birth. For their second birth, the vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) rate was 28%. In the 2001–2004 cohort, 26.1% of women had a caesarean delivery for their first-birth and the VBAC rate was 16%. Among women with a first-birth, maternal and pregnancy factors and increasing deliveries in private hospitals, only explained 24% of the rise in caesarean rates from 1994 to 2009. Conclusions Rising first-birth caesarean rates drove the overall increase. Maternal factors and changes in public/private care could explain only a quarter of the increase. Changes in the perceived risks of vaginal birth versus caesarean delivery may be influencing the pregnancy management decisions of clinicians and/or mothers. PMID:22952166

  4. Incidence and time trends of Herpes zoster in rheumatoid arthritis: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Veetil, Bharath Manu Akkara; Myasoedova, Elena; Matteson, Eric L.; Gabriel, Sherine E.; Green, Abigail B.; Crowson, Cynthia S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence, time trends, risk factors and severity of herpes zoster (HZ) in a population-based incidence cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared to a group of individuals without RA from the same population. Methods All residents of Olmsted County, MN who first fulfilled 1987 American College of Rheumatology criteria for RA between 1/1/1980 and 12/31/2007 and a cohort of similar residents without RA were assembled and followed by retrospective chart review until death, migration, or 12/31/2008. Results There was no difference in the presence of HZ prior to RA incidence/index date between the cohorts (p=0.85). During follow-up 84 patients with RA (rate: 12.1 per 1000 person-years) and 44 subjects without RA (rate: 5.4 per 1000 person-years) developed HZ. Patients with RA were more likely to develop HZ than those without RA (hazard ratio: 2.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.7, 3.5). Patients diagnosed with RA in 1995–2007 had a higher likelihood of developing HZ than those diagnosed in 1980–1994. Erosive disease, previous joint surgery, use of hydroxychloroquine and corticosteroids were significantly associated with the development of HZ in RA, while the use of methotrexate or biologic agents was not. Complications of HZ occurred at a similar rate in both cohorts. Conclusion The incidence of HZ is increased in RA and has risen in recent years. The increasing incidence of HZ in more recent years is also noted in the general population. RA disease severity is associated with development of HZ. PMID:23281295

  5. Racial Differences in Gout Incidence in a Population-Based Cohort: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    PubMed Central

    Maynard, Janet W.; McAdams-DeMarco, Mara A.; Law, Andrew; Kao, Linda; Gelber, Allan C.; Coresh, Josef; Baer, Alan N.

    2014-01-01

    We examined racial differences in gout incidence among black and white participants in a longitudinal, population-based cohort and tested whether racial differences were explained by higher levels of serum urate. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study is a prospective, US population–based cohort study of middle-aged adults enrolled between 1987 and 1989 with ongoing annual follow-up through 2012. We estimated the adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of incident gout by race among 11,963 men and women using adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. The cohort was 23.6% black. The incidence rate of gout was 8.4 per 10,000 person-years (15.5/10,000 person-years for black men, 12.0/10,000 person-years for black women, 9.4/10,000 person-years for white men, and 5.0/10,000 person-years for white women; P < 0.001). Black participants had an increased risk of incident gout (for women, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.29, 2.22; for men, adjusted HR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.44, 2.56). Upon further adjustment for uric acid levels, there was modest attenuation of the association of race with incident gout (for women, adjusted HR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.24, 2.22; for men, adjusted HR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.00) compared with white participants. In this US population–based cohort, black women and black men were at increased risk of developing gout during middle and older ages compared with whites, which appears, particularly in men, to be partly related to higher urate levels in middle-aged blacks. PMID:24335384

  6. Risk of acute myocardial infarction in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease: A nationwide population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Wei-Yi; Wang, Jen-Hung; Wen, Shu-Hui; Yi, Chih-Hsun; Hung, Jui-Sheng; Liu, Tso-Tsai; Orr, William C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common disease which can cause troublesome symptoms and affect quality of life. In addition to esophageal complications, GERD may also be a risk factor for extra-esophageal complications. Both GERD and coronary artery disease (CAD) can cause chest pain and frequently co-exist. However, the association between GERD and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remain unclear. The purpose of the study was to compare the incidence of acute myocardial infarction in GERD patients with an age-, gender-, and comorbidity matched population free of GERD. We also examine the association of the risk of AMI and the use of acid suppressing agents in GERD patients. Methods We identified patients with GERD from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The study cohort comprised 54,422 newly diagnosed GERD patients; 269,572 randomly selected age-, gender-, comorbidity-matched subjects comprised the comparison cohort. Patients with any prior CAD, AMI or peripheral arterial disease were excluded. Incidence of new AMI was studied in both groups. Results A total 1,236 (0.5%) of the patients from the control group and 371 (0.7%) patients from the GERD group experienced AMI during a mean follow-up period of 3.3 years. Based on Cox proportional-hazard model analysis, GERD was independently associated with increased risk of developing AMI (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.48; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31–1.66, P < 0.001). Within the GERD group, patients who were prescribed proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) for more than one year had slightly decreased the risk of developing AMI, compared with those without taking PPIs (HR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.31–1.04, P = 0.066). Conclusions This large population-based study demonstrates an association between GERD and future development of AMI, however, PPIs use only achieved marginal significance in reducing the occurrence of AMI in GERD patients. Further prospective studies are needed to evaluate

  7. Cardiovascular Disease Risk in a Large, Population-Based Cohort of Breast Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Boekel, Naomi B; Schaapveld, Michael; Gietema, Jourik A; Russell, Nicola S; Poortmans, Philip; Theuws, Jacqueline C M; Schinagl, Dominic A X; Rietveld, Derek H F; Versteegh, Michel I M; Visser, Otto; Rutgers, Emiel J T; Aleman, Berthe M P; van Leeuwen, Flora E

    2016-04-01

    To conduct a large, population-based study on cardiovascular disease (CVD) in breast cancer (BC) survivors treated in 1989 or later. A large, population-based cohort comprising 70,230 surgically treated stage I to III BC patients diagnosed before age 75 years between 1989 and 2005 was linked with population-based registries for CVD. Cardiovascular disease risks were compared with the general population, and within the cohort using competing risk analyses. Compared with the general Dutch population, BC patients had a slightly lower CVD mortality risk (standardized mortality ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-0.97). Only death due to valvular heart disease was more frequent (standardized mortality ratio 1.28, 95% CI 1.08-1.52). Left-sided radiation therapy after mastectomy increased the risk of any cardiovascular event compared with both surgery alone (subdistribution hazard ratio (sHR) 1.23, 95% CI 1.11-1.36) and right-sided radiation therapy (sHR 1.19, 95% CI 1.04-1.36). Radiation-associated risks were found for not only ischemic heart disease, but also for valvular heart disease and congestive heart failure (CHF). Risks were more pronounced in patients aged <50 years at BC diagnosis (sHR 1.48, 95% CI 1.07-2.04 for left- vs right-sided radiation therapy after mastectomy). Left- versus right-sided radiation therapy after wide local excision did not increase the risk of all CVD combined, yet an increased ischemic heart disease risk was found (sHR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.28). Analyses including detailed radiation therapy information showed an increased CVD risk for left-sided chest wall irradiation alone, left-sided breast irradiation alone, and internal mammary chain field irradiation, all compared with right-sided breast irradiation alone. Compared with patients not treated with chemotherapy, chemotherapy used ≥1997 (ie, anthracyline-based chemotherapy) increased the risk of CHF (sHR 1.35, 95% CI 1.00-1.83). Radiation therapy regimens used in BC treatment

  8. Treatment outcome in a population-based 'real-world' cohort of chronic myeloid leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Geelen, Inge G P; Thielen, Noortje; Janssen, Jeroen J W M; Hoogendoorn, Mels; Roosma, Tanja J A; Willemsen, Sten P; Visser, Otto; Cornelissen, Jan J; Westerweel, Peter E

    2017-08-31

    Real-world evaluations of the efficacy and safety of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia are scarce. A nationwide population-based chronic myeloid leukemia registry was analyzed to evaluate (deep) response rates to first and subsequent treatment lines and eligibility for a treatment cessation attempt in adults diagnosed between January 2008 and April 2013 in the Netherlands. The registries covered 457 patients; 434 in chronic (95%) and 15 patients (3%) in advanced disease phase. 75% of the patients in chronic phase were treated with imatinib and 25% with a second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor. At 3 years 44% of patients had discontinued their first line treatment, mainly due to intolerance (21%) or treatment failure (19%). At 18 months 73% of patients had achieved a complete cytogenetic response and 63% a major molecular response. Deep molecular responses (MR4.0 and MR4.5) were achieved in 69% and 56% of patients at 48 months. All response milestones were achieved faster in patients treated upfront with a second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor, but ultimately also patients initially treated with imatinib reached similar levels of responses. The 6-year cumulative incidence of stop attempt eligibility according to EURO-SKI criteria was 31%. Our findings show that in a 'real-world' setting the long-term outcome of patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors is excellent and the conditions for an attempt to stop tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy are met by a third of the patients. Copyright © 2017, Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  9. Detection of Alzheimer's disease and dementia in the preclinical phase: population based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Katie; Bäckman, Lars; Winblad, Bengt; Fratiglioni, Laura

    2003-02-01

    To evaluate a simple three step procedure to identify people in the general population who are in the preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease and dementia. Three year population based cohort study. Kungsholmen cohort, Stockholm, Sweden. 1435 people aged 75-95 years without dementia. Single question asking about memory complaints, assessment by mini-mental state examination, and neuropsychological testing. Alzheimer's disease and dementia at three year follow up. None of the three instruments was sufficiently predictive of Alzheimer's disease and dementia when administered separately. After participants had been screened for memory complaints and global cognitive impairment, specific tests of word recall and verbal fluency had positive predictive values for dementia of 85-100% (95% confidence intervals range from 62% to 100%). However, only 18% of future dementia cases were identified in the preclinical phase by this three step procedure. Memory complaints were the most sensitive indicator of Alzheimer's disease and dementia in the whole population, but only half the future dementia cases reported memory problems three years before diagnosis. This three step procedure, which simulates what might occur in clinical practice, has a high positive predictive value for dementia, although only a small number of future cases can be identified.

  10. Playing board games, cognitive decline and dementia: a French population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dartigues, Jean François; Foubert-Samier, Alexandra; Le Goff, Mélanie; Viltard, Mélanie; Amieva, Hélène; Orgogozo, Jean Marc; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Helmer, Catherine

    2013-08-29

    To study the relationship between board game playing and risk of subsequent dementia in the Paquid cohort. A prospective population-based study. In the Bordeaux area in South Western France. 3675 non-demented participants at baseline. The risk of dementia during the 20 years of follow-up. Among 3675 non-demented participants at baseline, 32.2% reported regular board game playing. Eight-hundred and forty participants developed dementia during the 20 years of follow-up. The risk of dementia was 15% lower in board game players than in non-players (HR=0.85, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.99; p=0.04) after adjustment on age, gender, education and other confounders. The statistical significance disappeared after supplementary adjustment on baseline mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and depression (HR=0.96, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.12; p=0.61). However, board game players had less decline in their MMSE score during the follow-up of the cohort (β=0.011, p=0.03) and less incident depression than non-players (HR=0.84; 95% CI 0.72 to 0.98; p<0.03). A possible beneficial effect of board game playing on the risk of dementia could be mediated by less cognitive decline and less depression in elderly board game players.

  11. Mediterranean diet and telomere length in Nurses' Health Study: population based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Crous-Bou, Marta; Fung, Teresa T; Prescott, Jennifer; Julin, Bettina; Du, Mengmeng; Sun, Qi; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Hu, Frank B; De Vivo, Immaculata

    2014-12-02

    To examine whether adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with longer telomere length, a biomarker of aging. Population based cohort study. Nurses' Health Study, an ongoing prospective cohort study of 121,700 nurses enrolled in 1976; in 1989-90 a subset of 32,825 women provided blood samples. 4676 disease-free women from nested case-control studies within the Nurses' Health Study with telomere length measured who also completed food frequency questionnaires. Association between relative telomere lengths in peripheral blood leukocytes measured by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and Alternate Mediterranean Diet score calculated from self reported dietary data. Greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with longer telomeres after adjustment for potential confounders. Least squares mean telomere length z scores were -0.038 (SE 0.035) for the lowest Mediterranean diet score groups and 0.072 (0.030) for the highest group (P for trend = 0.004). In this large study, greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with longer telomeres. These results further support the benefits of adherence to the Mediterranean diet for promoting health and longevity. © Crous-Bou et al 2014.

  12. Math learning disorder: incidence in a population-based birth cohort, 1976-82, Rochester, Minn.

    PubMed

    Barbaresi, William J; Katusic, Slavica K; Colligan, Robert C; Weaver, Amy L; Jacobsen, Steven J

    2005-01-01

    To report the incidence of math learning disorder (Math LD) among school-aged children, overall and by gender. To compare incidence estimates obtained by using three different methods to identify Math LD cases. To assess the extent to which children manifest Math LD alone, versus Math LD with comorbid reading disorder. This is a population-based, retrospective, birth cohort study. Subjects included all children born 1976-82 who remained in Rochester, Minn after age 5 (N = 5718). Using records from all public and private schools, medical facilities, and private tutorial services, all individually administered intelligence quotient and achievement tests and extensive medical, educational, and socioeconomic information were abstracted. Math LD was established using research criteria based on 3 formulas (regression-based discrepancy, nonregression-based discrepancy, low achievement). Cumulative incidence rates of Math LD by age 19 years varied from 5.9% to 13.8% according to the formula used. Boys were more likely to be affected than girls, with relative risk ratios from 1.6 to 2.2 depending on the formula applied. Many children with Math LD (35% to 56.7%, depending on the formula used to define Math LD) did not have a comorbid reading disorder. These results, from a community-based birth cohort, suggest that Math LD is common among schoolchildren, and is significantly more frequent among boys than girls, regardless of definition. Many children with Math LD do not have an associated reading disorder.

  13. Atypical antipsychotic drugs and risk of ischaemic stroke: population based retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Sudeep S; Rochon, Paula A; Herrmann, Nathan; Lee, Philip E; Sykora, Kathy; Gunraj, Nadia; Normand, Sharon-Lise T; Gurwitz, Jerry H; Marras, Connie; Wodchis, Walter P; Mamdani, Muhammad

    2005-01-01

    Objective To compare the incidence of admissions to hospital for stroke among older adults with dementia receiving atypical or typical antipsychotics. Design Population based retrospective cohort study. Setting Ontario, Canada. Patients 32 710 older adults (≤ 65 years) with dementia (17 845 dispensed an atypical antipsychotic and 14 865 dispensed a typical antipsychotic). Main outcome measures Admission to hospital with the most responsible diagnosis (single most important condition responsible for the patient's admission) of ischaemic stroke. Observation of patients until they were either admitted to hospital with ischaemic stroke, stopped taking antipsychotics, died, or the study ended. Results After adjustment for potential confounders, participants receiving atypical antipsychotics showed no significant increase in risk of ischaemic stroke compared with those receiving typical antipsychotics (adjusted hazard ratio 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 1.26). This finding was consistent in a series of subgroup analyses, including ones of individual atypical antipsychotic drugs (risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine) and selected subpopulations of the main cohorts. Conclusion Older adults with dementia who take atypical antipsychotics have a similar risk of ischaemic stroke to those taking typical antipsychotics. PMID:15668211

  14. History of depression and risk of hyperemesis gravidarum: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kjeldgaard, Helena Kames; Eberhard-Gran, Malin; Benth, Jūratė Šaltytė; Nordeng, Hedvig; Vikanes, Åse Vigdis

    2017-01-07

    Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is a pregnancy condition characterised by debilitating nausea and vomiting. HG has been associated with depression during pregnancy but the direction of the association remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess whether previous depression is associated with HG. This is a population-based pregnancy cohort study using data from The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. The study reviewed 731 pregnancies with HG and 81,055 pregnancies without. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between a lifetime history of depression and hyperemesis gravidarum. Odds ratios were adjusted for symptoms of current depression, maternal age, parity, body mass index, smoking, sex of the child, education and pelvic girdle pain. A lifetime history of depression was associated with higher odds for hyperemesis gravidarum (aOR = 1.49, 95% CI (1.23; 1.79)). Two thirds of women with hyperemesis gravidarum had neither a history of depression nor symptoms of current depression, and 1.2% of women with a history of depression developed HG. A lifetime history of depression increased the risk of HG. However, given the fact that only 1.2% of women with a history of depression developed HG and that the majority of women with HG had no symptoms of depression, depression does not seem to be a main driver in the aetiology of HG.

  15. Appropriateness of early management of newly diagnosed Crohn's disease in a European population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Juillerat, Pascal; Pittet, Valérie; Mottet, Christian; Felley, Christian; Gonvers, Jean-Jacques; Vader, John-Paul; Burnand, Bernard; Froehlich, Florian; Wolters, Frank L; Stockbrügger, Reinhold W; Michetti, Pierre

    2010-12-01

    The European Panel on the Appropriateness of Crohn's disease Therapy (EPACT) has developed appropriateness criteria. We have applied these criteria retrospectively to the population-based inception cohort of Crohn's disease (CD) patients of the European Collaborative Study Group on Inflammatory Bowel Disease (EC-IBD). A total of 426 diagnosed CD patients from 13 European centers were enrolled at the time of diagnosis (first flare, naive patients). We used the EPACT definitions to identify 247 patients with active luminal CD. We then assessed the appropriateness of the initial drug prescription according to the EPACT criteria. Among the cohort patients 163 suffered from mild-to-moderate CD and 84 from severe CD. Among the mild-to-moderate disease group, 96 patients (59%) received an appropriate treatment, whereas for 66 patients (40%) the treatment was uncertain and in one case (1%) inappropriate. Among the severe disease group, 86% were treated medically and 14% required surgery. 59 (70%) were appropriately treated, whereas for one patient (1%) the procedure was considered uncertain and for 24 patients (29%) inappropriate. Initial treatment was appropriate in the majority of cases for non-complicated luminal CD. Inappropriate or uncertain treatment was given in a significant minority of patients, with an increased potential risk of adverse events.

  16. Associations of birth defects with adult intellectual performance, disability and mortality: population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Eide, Martha G; Skjaerven, Rolv; Irgens, Lorentz M; Bjerkedal, Tor; Oyen, Nina

    2006-06-01

    Infants born with birth defects have poorer outcomes in terms of mortality and disability, but the long-term intellectual outcome in children with birth defects is generally unknown. We assessed the long-term associations of various birth defects with mortality and disability, and evaluated whether high mortality and disability were reflected in impaired intellectual performance at age 18. In this nationwide cohort study, records of 9,186 males with and 384,384 without birth defects, registered in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (1967-1979) were linked to the National Conscript Service (1984-1999). Mortality and disability before military draft, and intelligence test score at conscription were the main outcome measures. Males with birth defects had a relative risk for disability of 6.0 compared with males without defects. Disability was low within categories of birth defects associated with low mortality, and high within defect categories associated with high mortality. The relative risk for not being drafted was highest if maternal educational level was low. Heart defects and cleft palate were the only subgroups in which intellectual performance was lower after adjustment for maternal education, maternal age, marital status and birth order. In particular, intellectual performance was not impaired among those with multiple compared with single defects. We conclude that for the majority of birth defect categories in the present birth cohort, our hypothesis that intellectual performance would be impaired was not confirmed. Thus, there seems to be little reason to fear an adverse intellectual outcome in non-disabled surviving infants with birth defects.

  17. Visual Manifestations in Giant Cell Arteritis: Trend over Five Decades in a Population-based Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Abha G.; Kermani, Tanaz A.; Crowson, Cynthia S.; Weyand, Cornelia M.; Matteson, Eric L.; Warrington, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate clinical characteristics, treatment and outcomes of patients with visual changes from giant cell arteritis (GCA) and, to examine trends over the last 5 decades. Methods We reviewed the medical records of a population-based cohort of GCA patients diagnosed between 1950 and 2004. The clinical, ophthalmological and laboratory features of patients with visual manifestations attributable to GCA were compared to patients without visual complications. Trends over time were examined using logistic regression modeling adjusted for age and sex. Results In a cohort of 204 cases of GCA (mean age 76.0 ± 8.2 years, 80% female), visual changes from GCA were observed in 47 patients (23%), 4.4% suffered complete vision loss. A higher proportion of patients with visual manifestations reported jaw claudication than patients without visual changes (55% versus 38%, p=0.04). Over a period of 55 years, we observed a significant decline in the incidence of visual symptoms due to GCA. There was a lower incidence of ischemic optic neuropathy in the 1980–2004 cohort vs 1950–1979 (6% vs 15%, p=0.03). Patients diagnosed in later decades were more likely to recover from visual symptoms (HR, 95% CI: 1.34 (1.06–1.71). Chances of recovery were poor in patients with anterior ischemic optic neuropathy or complete vision loss. Conclusions Incidence of visual symptoms has declined over the past 5 decades, and chances of recovery from visual symptoms have improved. However, complete loss of vision is essentially irreversible. Jaw claudication is associated with higher likelihood of development of visual symptoms. PMID:25512481

  18. Digoxin use after diagnosis of breast cancer and survival: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Karasneh, Reema A; Murray, Liam J; Mc Menamin, Úna C; Hughes, Carmel M; Cardwell, Chris R

    2015-06-01

    Digoxin has been shown to have an estrogenic effect and is associated with increased risk of gynecomastia and estrogen-sensitive cancers such as breast and uterus cancer. These findings, particularly recent observations of increased breast cancer risk, raise questions about the safety of digoxin use in breast cancer patients. Therefore, we investigated whether digoxin use after breast cancer diagnosis increased the risk of breast cancer-specific mortality in breast cancer patients. A cohort of 17,842 breast cancer patients newly diagnosed from 1998 to 2009 was identified from English cancer registries (from the National Cancer Data Repository). This cohort was linked to the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (to provide digoxin and other prescription records) and to the Office of National Statistics mortality data (to identify breast cancer-specific deaths). Using time-dependent Cox regression models, unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for the association between post-diagnostic exposure to digoxin and breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality. In 17,842 breast cancer patients, there were 2219 breast cancer-specific deaths. Digoxin users appeared to have increased breast cancer-specific mortality compared with non-users (HR 1.73; 95 % CI 1.39-2.15) but this association was entirely attenuated after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted HR 0.91; 95 % CI 0.72-1.14). In this large population-based breast cancer cohort study, there was little evidence of an increase in breast cancer-specific mortality with digoxin use after diagnosis. These results provide some reassurance that digoxin use is safe in breast cancer patients.

  19. The Moli-sani project: computerized ECG database in a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Iacoviello, Licia; Rago, Livia; Costanzo, Simona; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Zito, Francesco; Assanelli, Deodato; Badilini, Fabio; Donati, Maria Benedetta; de Gaetano, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Computerized electrocardiogram (ECG) acquisition and interpretation may be extremely useful in handling analysis of data from large cohort studies and exploit research on the use of ECG data as prognostic markers for cardiovascular disease. The Moli-sani project (http://www.moli-sani.org) is a population-based cohort study aiming at evaluating the risk factors linked to chronic-degenerative disease with particular regard to cardiovascular disease and cancer and intermediate metabolic phenotypes such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Between March 2005 and April 2010, 24 325 people aged 35 years or older, living in the Molise region (Italy), were randomly recruited. A follow-up based on linkage with hospital discharge records and mortality regional registry and reexamination of the cohort is ongoing and will be repeated at prefixed times. Each subject was administered questionnaires on personal and medical history, food consumption, quality of life (FS36), and psychometry. Plasma serum, cellular pellet, and urinary spots were stored in liquid nitrogen. Subjects were measured blood pressure, weight, height, and waist and hip circumferences, and underwent spirometry to evaluate pulmonary diffusion capacity, gas diffusion, and pulmonary volumes. Standard 12-lead resting ECG was performed by a Cardiette ar2100-view electrocardiograph and tracings stored in digital standard communication protocol format for subsequent analysis. The digital ECG database of the Moli-sani project is currently being used to assess the association between physiologic variables and pathophyiosiologic conditions and parameters derived from the ECG signal. This computerized ECG database represents a unique opportunity to identify and assess prognostic factors associated with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. OCCUPATION AND BREAST CANCER RISK AMONG SHANGHAI WOMEN IN A POPULATION-BASED COHORT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Bu-Tian; Blair, Aaron; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Chow, Wong-Ho; Hauptmann, Michael; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Yang, Gong; Lubin, Jay; Gao, Yu-Tang; Rothman, Nat; Zheng, W

    2010-01-01

    Introduction A total of 74,942 female subjects were recruited in a population-based cohort study in Shanghai, China between 1997 and 2000. We examined the relationship between occupation and breast cancer risk by using baseline data from the cohort study. Methods Cases were 586 women previously diagnosed with breast cancer at baseline and 438 women newly diagnosed with breast cancer by December 2004 during follow-up. Eight controls were randomly selected for each case from cancer-free cohort members and frequency-matched to the cases by year of birth and age at diagnosis, respectively. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of breast cancer risk associated with occupations adjusting for typical breast cancer risk factors. Results In the prevalent breast cancer data analysis, increased risks of breast cancer were associated with technicians in engineering/agriculture/forestry (OR= 1.6, 1.0-2.4), teaching personnel (OR=1.5, 1.1-2.0), tailoring/sewing workers (OR=1.6, 1.0-2.7), examiners/measurers/testers (OR=1.5, 1.1-2.1) among those who started the jobs at least 20 years ago. In the incident cases, the significantly increased risks were associated with medical/health care workers (OR=1.4, 1.0-2.0), administrative clerical workers (OR=1.5, 1.0-2.4), postal/telecommunication workers (OR=2.2, 1.0-5.5), and odd-job workers (OR=1.7, 1.1-2.8) among those who started the jobs at least 20 years ago. The excess risks were found in both prevalent and incident cases for postal/telecommunication workers and purchasing/marketing personnel, although ORs reached only marginal significance. Conclusions This study suggests that white-collar professionals and several production occupations may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. PMID:18067183

  1. Developmental Profiles of Eczema, Wheeze, and Rhinitis: Two Population-Based Birth Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The term “atopic march” has been used to imply a natural progression of a cascade of symptoms from eczema to asthma and rhinitis through childhood. We hypothesize that this expression does not adequately describe the natural history of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis during childhood. We propose that this paradigm arose from cross-sectional analyses of longitudinal studies, and may reflect a population pattern that may not predominate at the individual level. Methods and Findings Data from 9,801 children in two population-based birth cohorts were used to determine individual profiles of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis and whether the manifestations of these symptoms followed an atopic march pattern. Children were assessed at ages 1, 3, 5, 8, and 11 y. We used Bayesian machine learning methods to identify distinct latent classes based on individual profiles of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis. This approach allowed us to identify groups of children with similar patterns of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis over time. Using a latent disease profile model, the data were best described by eight latent classes: no disease (51.3%), atopic march (3.1%), persistent eczema and wheeze (2.7%), persistent eczema with later-onset rhinitis (4.7%), persistent wheeze with later-onset rhinitis (5.7%), transient wheeze (7.7%), eczema only (15.3%), and rhinitis only (9.6%). When latent variable modelling was carried out separately for the two cohorts, similar results were obtained. Highly concordant patterns of sensitisation were associated with different profiles of eczema, rhinitis, and wheeze. The main limitation of this study was the difference in wording of the questions used to ascertain the presence of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis in the two cohorts. Conclusions The developmental profiles of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis are heterogeneous; only a small proportion of children (∼7% of those with symptoms) follow trajectory profiles resembling the atopic march. Please see later

  2. Comparative persistence of the TNF antagonists in rheumatoid arthritis--a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Anat; Bassett, Ken; Wright, James M; Brookhart, M Alan; Freeman, Hugh; Dormuth, Colin R

    2014-01-01

    To compare persistence with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) antagonists among rheumatoid arthritis patients in British Columbia. Treatment persistence has been suggested as a proxy for real-world therapeutic benefit and harm of treatments for chronic non-curable diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis. We hypothesized that the different pharmacological characteristics of infliximab, adalimumab and etanercept cause statistically and clinically significant differences in persistence. We conducted a population-based cohort study using administrative health data from the Canadian province of British Columbia. The study cohort included rheumatoid arthritis patients who initiated the first course of a TNF antagonist between 2001 and 2008. Persistence was measured as the time between first dispensing to discontinuation. Drug discontinuation was defined as a drug-free interval of 180 days or switching to another TNF antagonist, anakinra, rituximab or abatacept. Persistence was estimated and compared using survival analysis. The study cohort included 2,923 patients, 63% treated with etanercept. Median persistence in years (95% confidence interval) with infliximab was 3.7 (2.9-4.9), with adalimumab 3.3 (2.6-4.1) and with etanercept 3.8 (3.3-4.3). Similar risk of discontinuation was observed for the three drugs: the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) was 0.98 (0.85-1.13) comparing infliximab with etanercept, 0.95 (0.78-1.15) comparing infliximab with adalimumab and 1.04 (0.88-1.22) comparing adalimumab with etanercept. Similar persistence was observed with infliximab, adalimumab and etanercept in rheumatoid arthritis patients during the first 9 years of use. If treatment persistence is a good proxy for the therapeutic benefit and harm of these drugs, then this finding suggests that the three drugs share an overall similar benefit-harm profile in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

  3. Disability pension due to common mental disorders and subsequent suicidal behaviour: a population-based prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Syed Ghulam; Alexanderson, Kristina; Jokinen, Jussi; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor

    2016-04-04

    Adverse health outcomes, including suicide, in individuals on disability pension (DP) due to mental diagnoses have been reported. However, scientific knowledge on possible risk factors for suicidal behaviour (suicide attempt and suicide) in this group, such as age, gender, underlying DP diagnoses, comorbidity and DP duration and grade, is surprisingly sparse. This study aimed to investigate associations of different measures (main and secondary diagnoses, duration and grade) of DP due to common mental disorders (CMD) with subsequent suicidal behaviour, considering gender and age differences. Population-based prospective cohort study based on Swedish nationwide registers. A cohort of 46,515 individuals aged 19-64 years on DP due to CMD throughout 2005 was followed-up for 5 years. In relation to different measures of DP, univariate and multivariate HRs and 95% CIs for suicidal behaviour were estimated by Cox regression. All analyses were stratified by gender and age. During 2006-2010, 1036 (2.2%) individuals attempted and 207 (0.5%) completed suicide. Multivariate analyses showed that a main DP diagnosis of 'stress-related mental disorders' was associated with a lower risk of subsequent suicidal behaviour than 'depressive disorders' (HR range 0.4-0.7). Substance abuse or personality disorders as a secondary DP diagnosis predicted suicide attempt in all subgroups (HR range 1.4-2.3) and suicide in women and younger individuals (HR range 2.6-3.3). Full-time DP was associated with a higher risk of suicide attempt compared with part-time DP in women and both age groups (HR range 1.4-1.7). Depressive disorders as the main DP diagnosis and substance abuse or personality disorders as the secondary DP diagnosis were risk markers for subsequent suicidal behaviour in individuals on DP due to CMD. Particular attention should be paid to younger individuals on DP due to anxiety disorders because of the higher suicide risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  4. Risk of Atrial Fibrillation or Flutter Associated with Periodontitis: A Nationwide, Population-Based, Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Der-Yuan; Lin, Ching-Heng; Chen, Yi-Ming; Chen, Hsin-Hua

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the risk of atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter in patients with periodontitis (PD) in comparison with individuals without PD. We used the 1999-2010 Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database to identify cases of PD in the year 2000 matching (1:1) with persons without PD during 1999-2000 according to sex and individual age as the control group. Using Cox proportional regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders, including age, sex, and comorbidities at baseline, and average annual number of ambulatory visits and dental scaling frequency during the follow-up period, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to examine the risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter in PD patients in comparison with the control group. Subgroup analyses according to age, gender, or comorbidities were conducted to study the robustness of the association and investigate possible interaction effects. We enrolled 393,745 patients with PD and 393,745 non-PD individuals. The incidence rates of atrial fibrillation or flutter were 200 per 105 years among the PD group and 181 per 105 years in the non-PD group (incidence rate ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.06-1.14). After adjusting for potential confounders, we found an increased risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter in the PD group compared with the non-PD group (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.25-1.36). The greater risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter in the PD group remained significant across all disease subgroups except hyperthyroidism and sleep apnea. The present study results indicate an increased risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter in patients with PD. Lack of individual information about alcohol consumption, obesity, and tobacco use was a major limitation.

  5. Risk of Atrial Fibrillation or Flutter Associated with Periodontitis: A Nationwide, Population-Based, Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk of atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter in patients with periodontitis (PD) in comparison with individuals without PD. Methods We used the 1999–2010 Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database to identify cases of PD in the year 2000 matching (1:1) with persons without PD during 1999–2000 according to sex and individual age as the control group. Using Cox proportional regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders, including age, sex, and comorbidities at baseline, and average annual number of ambulatory visits and dental scaling frequency during the follow-up period, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to examine the risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter in PD patients in comparison with the control group. Subgroup analyses according to age, gender, or comorbidities were conducted to study the robustness of the association and investigate possible interaction effects. Results We enrolled 393,745 patients with PD and 393,745 non-PD individuals. The incidence rates of atrial fibrillation or flutter were 200 per 105 years among the PD group and 181 per 105 years in the non-PD group (incidence rate ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.06–1.14). After adjusting for potential confounders, we found an increased risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter in the PD group compared with the non-PD group (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.25–1.36). The greater risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter in the PD group remained significant across all disease subgroups except hyperthyroidism and sleep apnea. Conclusion The present study results indicate an increased risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter in patients with PD. Lack of individual information about alcohol consumption, obesity, and tobacco use was a major limitation. PMID:27798703

  6. Suicide after release from prison - a population-based cohort study from Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Haglund, Axel; Tidemalm, Dag; Jokinen, Jussi; Långström, Niklas; Liechtenstein, Paul; Fazel, Seena; Runeson, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Objective Released prisoners have high suicide rates compared with the general population, but little is known about risk factors and possible causal pathways. We conducted a population-based cohort study to investigate rates and risk factors for suicide in people previously imprisoned. Methods We identified individuals released from prison in Sweden between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2009 through linkage of national population-based registers. Released prisoners were followed from the day of release until death, emigration, new incarceration, or December 31, 2009. Survival analyses were conducted to compare incidence rates and psychiatric morbidity with non-convicted population controls matched on gender and year of birth. Results We identified 38,995 releases among 26,953 prisoners (7.6% females) during 2005-2009. Overall, 127 suicides occurred, accounting for 14% of all deaths after release (n=920). The mean suicide rate was 204 per 100,000 person years yielding an incidence rate ratio of 18.2 (95% CI 13.9-23.8) compared with general population controls. Previous substance use disorder (Hazard Ratio [HR]=2.1, 1.4-3.2), suicide attempt (HR=2.5, 1.7-3.7), and being born in Sweden vs. abroad (HR=2.1, 1.2-3.6) were independent risk factors for suicide after release. Conclusions Released prisoners are at high suicide risk and with a slightly different pattern of psychiatric risk factors for suicide compared with the general population. Results suggest appropriate allocation of resources to facilitate transition to life outside prison and increased attention to prisoners with both a previous suicide attempt and substance use disorder. PMID:25373114

  7. Arsenic exposure and impaired lung function. Findings from a large population-based prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Parvez, Faruque; Chen, Yu; Yunus, Mahbub; Olopade, Christopher; Segers, Stephanie; Slavkovich, Vesna; Argos, Maria; Hasan, Rabiul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Akter, Mahmud M; Graziano, Joseph H; Ahsan, Habibul

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to arsenic through drinking water has been linked to respiratory symptoms, obstructive lung diseases, and mortality from respiratory diseases. Limited evidence for the deleterious effects on lung function exists among individuals exposed to a high dose of arsenic. To determine the deleterious effects on lung function that exist among individuals exposed to a high dose of arsenic. In 950 individuals who presented with any respiratory symptom among a population-based cohort of 20,033 adults, we evaluated the association between arsenic exposure, measured by well water and urinary arsenic concentrations measured at baseline, and post-bronchodilator-administered pulmonary function assessed during follow-up. For every one SD increase in baseline water arsenic exposure, we observed a lower level of FEV1 (-46.5 ml; P < 0.0005) and FVC (-53.1 ml; P < 0.01) in regression models adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, socioeconomic status, betel nut use, and arsenical skin lesions status. Similar inverse relationships were observed between baseline urinary arsenic and FEV1 (-48.3 ml; P < 0.005) and FVC (-55.2 ml; P < 0.01) in adjusted models. Our analyses also demonstrated a dose-related decrease in lung function with increasing levels of baseline water and urinary arsenic. This association remained significant in never-smokers and individuals without skin lesions, and was stronger in male smokers. Among male smokers and individuals with skin lesions, every one SD increase in water arsenic was related to a significant reduction of FEV1 (-74.4 ml, P < 0.01; and -116.1 ml, P < 0.05) and FVC (-72.8 ml, P = 0.02; and -146.9 ml, P = 0.004), respectively. This large population-based study confirms that arsenic exposure is associated with impaired lung function and the deleterious effect is evident at low- to moderate-dose range.

  8. Risk of Psychiatric Disorders in Patients with Chronic Insomnia and Sedative-Hypnotic Prescription: A Nationwide Population-Based Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kuo-Hsuan; Li, Chung-Yi; Kuo, Shu-Yu; Sithole, Trevor; Liu, Wen-Wei; Chung, Min-Huey

    2015-01-01

    can serve as a reference for care providers when managing sleep disturbances. Citation: Chung KH, Li CY, Kuo SY, Sithole T, Liu WW, Chung MH. Risk of psychiatric disorders in patients with chronic insomnia and sedative-hypnotic prescription: a nationwide population-based follow-up study. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(5):543–551. PMID:25766696

  9. Necrotizing Fasciitis Associated with Pregnancy: a Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Oud, Lavi; Watkins, Phillip

    2014-12-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a rare complication in pregnant women. There have been no population-level data reported to date on its epidemiology, clinical features, resource utilization, and outcomes. This was a retrospective, population-based cohort study, using the Texas Inpatient Public Use Data File to identify pregnancy-associated hospitalizations for the years 2001-2010. Hospitalizations with a diagnosis of NF were then identified using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code 728.86. Denominator data for incidence estimates were derived from the Texas Center for Health Statistics reports of live births, abortions and fetal deaths, and previously reported population-based, age-specific linkage data on miscarriage, and were used to estimate the annual total number of pregnancies (TEP). The incidence of pregnancy-associated NF (PANF), hospitalization type, clinical features, resource utilization and outcomes were examined. There were 4,060,201 pregnancy-associated hospitalizations and 148 PANF hospitalizations during study period. Postpartum hospitalizations accounted for 82.4% of all PANF events, and intensive care unit care was required in 61.5%. The key trends noted between 2001-2002 and 2009-2010 included rising incidence of PANF from 1.1 vs. 3.8 per 100,000 TEP-years (P = 0.0001), chronic comorbidities 0% vs. 31.7% (P = 0.0777), and development of organ failure in 9.1% vs. 31.7% (P = 0.0302). There was no significant change in total hospital charges or hospital length of stay. Three patients (2%) died in the hospital and 55% of survivors had routine home discharge. The present cohort of PANF is the largest reported to date. The incidence of PANF rose nearly 3.5-fold over the past decade, with most events developing following delivery hospitalization. Chronic illness has been increasingly present, along with rising severity of illness. The majority of patients required ICU care. Hospital mortality was

  10. Secondary depression in severe anxiety disorders: a population-based cohort study in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Sandra M; Petersen, Liselotte; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mors, Ole; Mortensen, Preben B; Laursen, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Depression and anxiety disorders are highly comorbid conditions and a worldwide disease burden; however, large-scale studies delineating their association are scarce. In this retrospective study, we aimed to assess the effect of severe anxiety disorders on the risk and course of depression. Methods We did a population-based cohort study with prospectively gathered data in Denmark using data from three Danish population registers: The Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and the Danish National Hospital Registry. We selected the cohort from people born in Denmark between Jan 1, 1955, and Dec 31, 2002, who we followed up from Jan 1, 1994, to Dec 31, 2012. The cohort was restricted to individuals with known parents. First, we investigated the effect of specific anxiety diagnoses on risk of single depressive episodes and recurrent depressive disorder. Second, we investigated the effect of comorbid anxiety on risk of readmission for depression, adjusting for sex, age, calendar year, parental age, place at residence at time of birth, and the interaction of age with sex. Findings We included 3 380 059 individuals in our study cohort. The adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) for single depressive episodes was 3·0 (95% CI 2·8–3·1, p<0·0001) and for recurrent depressive disorder was 5·0 (4·8–5·2) in patients with severe anxiety disorders compared with the general population. Compared with control individuals, the offspring of parents with anxiety disorders were more likely to be diagnosed with single depressive episodes (1·9, 1·8–2·0) or recurrent depressive disorder (2·1, 1·9–2·2). Comorbid anxiety increased the readmission rates in both patients with single depressive episodes and patients with recurrent depressive disorder. Interpretation Severe anxiety constitutes a significant risk factor for depression. Focusing on specific anxiety disorders might help to identify individuals at risk of

  11. Secondary depression in severe anxiety disorders: a population-based cohort study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Meier, Sandra M; Petersen, Liselotte; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mors, Ole; Mortensen, Preben B; Laursen, Thomas M

    2015-06-01

    Depression and anxiety disorders are highly comorbid conditions and a worldwide disease burden; however, large-scale studies delineating their association are scarce. In this retrospective study, we aimed to assess the effect of severe anxiety disorders on the risk and course of depression. We did a population-based cohort study with prospectively gathered data in Denmark using data from three Danish population registers: The Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and the Danish National Hospital Registry. We selected the cohort from people born in Denmark between Jan 1, 1955, and Dec 31, 2002, who we followed up from Jan 1, 1994, to Dec 31, 2012. The cohort was restricted to individuals with known parents. First, we investigated the effect of specific anxiety diagnoses on risk of single depressive episodes and recurrent depressive disorder. Second, we investigated the effect of comorbid anxiety on risk of readmission for depression, adjusting for sex, age, calendar year, parental age, place at residence at time of birth, and the interaction of age with sex. We included 3,380,059 individuals in our study cohort. The adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) for single depressive episodes was 3·0 (95% CI 2·8-3·1, p<0·0001) and for recurrent depressive disorder was 5·0 (4·8-5·2) in patients with severe anxiety disorders compared with the general population. Compared with control individuals, the offspring of parents with anxiety disorders were more likely to be diagnosed with single depressive episodes (1·9, 1·8-2·0) or recurrent depressive disorder (2·1, 1·9-2·2). Comorbid anxiety increased the readmission rates in both patients with single depressive episodes and patients with recurrent depressive disorder. Severe anxiety constitutes a significant risk factor for depression. Focusing on specific anxiety disorders might help to identify individuals at risk of depression, thereby providing new insights for prevention and

  12. Risk of cholecystitis in patients with cancer: a population-based cohort study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Reimar W; Thomsen, Henrik F; Nørgaard, Mette; Cetin, Karynsa; McLaughlin, Joseph K; Tarone, Robert E; Fryzek, Jon P; Sørensen, Henrik T

    2008-12-15

    To the authors' knowledge, little information is available regarding the incidence of cholecystitis among patients with cancer. The authors conducted a population-based historical cohort study of 51,228 patients with incident cancer, identified in medical databases of western Denmark between 1995 and 2003. A general population comparison cohort of 512,280 persons was assembled using the Danish Civil Registration System. The occurrence of cholecystitis in the 2 groups was determined by linkage to the regional Hospital Discharge Registry. In all, 230 incident diagnoses of cholecystitis were identified in the cancer cohort during 130,185 person-years (median follow-up time: 1.6 years), corresponding to an incidence rate of 1.8 of 1000 person-years. After adjustment for confounders, the relative risk (RR) for cholecystitis among cancer patients compared with the general population cohort was 1.38 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.20-1.58). Overall, the RR for cholecystitis was doubled during the first 6 months after cancer diagnosis (RR = 1.95; 95% CI, 1.50-2.54), after which the RR declined but remained greater than 1 throughout the rest of the follow-up period (RR = 1.23; 95% CI, 1.05-1.45). Cancer patients between the ages of 51 and 70 years had the highest risk increase for cholecystitis compared with other age groups. During the first 6 months after a cancer diagnosis, pancreatic cancers (12 cholecystitis events; RR = 9.44 [95% CI, 5.18-17.18]) and colorectal cancers (10 cholecystitis events; RR = 4.98 [95% CI, 2.65-9.34]) were found to be associated with the greatest cholecystitis risk increase compared with other tumor types. After 6 months, most cancers were associated with a relatively small increased risk, although there was an RR of 4.72 (95% CI, 1.99-11.21) based on 5 cholecystitis events among thyroid cancer patients. The results of the current study indicate that cholecystitis occurs more frequently among cancer patients than in the general population

  13. Second Malignant Neoplasms and Cause of Death in Patients With Germ Cell Cancer: A Danish Nationwide Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kier, Maria G; Hansen, Merete K; Lauritsen, Jakob; Mortensen, Mette S; Bandak, Mikkel; Agerbaek, Mads; Holm, Niels V; Dalton, Susanne O; Andersen, Klaus K; Johansen, Christoffer; Daugaard, Gedske

    2016-12-01

    Patients given systemic treatment for testicular germ cell cancer (GCC) are at increased risk for a second malignant neoplasm (SMN). Previous studies on SMN and causes of death lacked information on the exact treatment applied or were based on patients receiving former treatment options. To evaluate the treatment-specific risks for SMN and death in a nationwide population-based cohort of patients with GCC treated with current standard regimens. This study examined a Danish nationwide cohort of 5190 men with GCC who entered the Danish Testicular Cancer database between January 1, 1984, and December 31, 2007. Treatment results were compared with a randomly sampled, age-stratified, population-based control group. Cases of gonadal and extragonadal primary were included in the nationwide cohort. The treatments were surveillance only; retroperitoneal radiotherapy (RT); bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP); or more than 1 line of treatment (MTOL). Cumulative incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) for SMN and death calculated by the Cox proportional hazards model were compared with those of age-matched controls. The study population comprised 2804 patients with seminoma and 2386 with nonseminoma. The median follow-up was 14.4 years (interquartile range, 8.6-20.5 years). The 20-year cumulative incidence of SMN with death as a competing risk was 7.8% (surveillance), 7.6% (BEP), 13.5% (RT), 9.2% (MTOL), and 7.0% (controls). We found no increased risk for SMN after surveillance, while the HRs were 1.7 (95% CI, 1.4-2.0), 1.8 (95% CI, 1.5-2.3), and 3.7 (95% CI, 2.5-5.5), respectively, after BEP, RT, and MTOL. Mortality owing to non-GCC causes was decreased after surveillance, but increased by 1.3 times after BEP and RT and by 2.6 times after MTOL. Excess mortality due to SMN was found after BEP (HR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.2), RT (HR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.5-2.9), and MTOL (HR, 5.8; 95% CI, 3.6-9.6). We found no increased risk for SMN or death among patients undergoing surveillance only

  14. Long-term air pollution exposure and diabetes in a population-based Swiss cohort.

    PubMed

    Eze, Ikenna C; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Fischer, Evelyn; Schikowski, Tamara; Adam, Martin; Imboden, Medea; Tsai, Ming; Carballo, David; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Künzli, Nino; Schindler, Christian; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2014-09-01

    Air pollution is an important risk factor for global burden of disease. There has been recent interest in its possible role in the etiology of diabetes mellitus. Experimental evidence is suggestive, but epidemiological evidence is limited and mixed. We therefore explored the association between air pollution and prevalent diabetes, in a population-based Swiss cohort. We did cross-sectional analyses of 6392 participants of the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults [SAPALDIA], aged between 29 and 73 years. We used estimates of average individual home outdoor PM10 [particulate matter <10μm in diameter] and NO2 [nitrogen dioxide] exposure over the 10 years preceding the survey. Their association with diabetes was modeled using mixed logistic regression models, including participants' study area as random effect, with incremental adjustment for confounders. There were 315 cases of diabetes (prevalence: 5.5% [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.8, 7.2%]). Both PM10 and NO2 were associated with prevalent diabetes with respective odds ratios of 1.40 [95% CI: 1.17, 1.67] and 1.19 [95% CI: 1.03, 1.38] per 10μg/m(3) increase in the average home outdoor level. Associations with PM10 were generally stronger than with NO2, even in the two-pollutant model. There was some indication that beta blockers mitigated the effect of PM10. The associations remained stable across different sensitivity analyses. Our study adds to the evidence that long term air pollution exposure is associated with diabetes mellitus. PM10 appears to be a useful marker of aspects of air pollution relevant for diabetes. This association can be observed at concentrations below air quality guidelines. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Vasectomy and risk of prostate cancer: population based matched cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Robert J; Macdonald, Erin M; Li, Qing; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Earle, Craig C; Kulkarni, Girish S; Jarvi, Keith A; Juurlink, David N

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between vasectomy and prostate cancer, adjusting for measures of health seeking behaviour. Design Population based matched cohort study. Setting Multiple validated healthcare databases in Ontario, Canada, 1994-2012. Participants 326 607 men aged 20 to 65 who had undergone vasectomy were identified through physician billing codes and matched 1:1 on age (within two years), year of cohort entry, comorbidity score, and geographical region to men who did not undergo a vasectomy. Main outcomes measures The primary outcome was incident prostate cancer. Secondary outcomes were prostate cancer related grade, stage, and mortality. Results 3462 incident cases of prostate cancer were identified after a median follow-up of 10.9 years: 1843 (53.2%) in the vasectomy group and 1619 (46.8%) in the non-vasectomy group. In unadjusted analysis, vasectomy was associated with a slightly increased risk of incident prostate cancer (hazard ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.20). After adjustment for measures of health seeking behaviour, however, no association remained (adjusted hazard ratio 1.02, 95% confidence interval 0.95 to 1.09). Moreover, no association was found between vasectomy and high grade prostate cancer (adjusted odds ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval 0.67 to 1.66), advanced stage prostate cancer (adjusted odds ratio 1.04, 0.81 to 1.34), or mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.06, 0.60 to 1.85). Conclusion The findings do not support an independent association between vasectomy and prostate cancer. PMID:27811008

  16. Coffee drinking and risk of endometrial cancer – a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Friberg, Emilie; Orsini, Nicola; Mantzoros, Christos S.; Wolk, Alicja

    2009-01-01

    Coffee drinking has been reported to have beneficial effects on insulin resistance which has been directly associated with endometrial cancer. Although a relationship between coffee consumption and endometrial cancer risk is biologically plausible, this hypothesis has been previously explored in only two prospective studies, with a small number of cases. We used data from the Swedish Mammography Cohort, a population-based prospective cohort study of 60 634 women. During 17.6 years of follow-up, 677 participants were diagnosed with incident endometrial cancer (adenocarcinoma). We examined the association between self-reported coffee consumption (at baseline 1987–90 and in 1997) and endometrial cancer risk using Cox proportional hazards models. Each additional cup (200g) of coffee per day was associated with a RR of 0.90 (95% CI 0.83–0.97). In women drinking four or more cups of coffee a day the risk reduction of endometrial cancer was RR 0.75 (95% CI 0.58–0.97) as compared to those who drank one cup or less. The association seemed largely confined to overweight and obese women, who showed a respective risk reduction of 12% (95% CI 0–23%) and 20% (95% CI 7–31%) for every cup of coffee, but was not observed among normal weight women. There was a statistically significant interaction between coffee consumption and body mass index (pinteraction <0.001). These data indicate that coffee consumption may be associated with decreased risk of endometrial cancer, especially among women with excessive body weight. If confirmed by other prospective studies, these results are of major public health significance. PMID:19585497

  17. Risk of Malignancy Among Patients With Sarcoidosis: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Ungprasert, Patompong; Crowson, Cynthia S; Matteson, Eric L

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the risk of malignancy in patients with sarcoidosis in a population-based cohort. A cohort of Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents diagnosed with sarcoidosis between January 1, 1976 and December 31, 2013 was identified based on individual medical record review. For each sarcoidosis subject, 2 sex- and age-matched comparator subjects without sarcoidosis were randomly selected. Cases and comparators were then cross-indexed with the Mayo Clinic Cancer Registry, which collected data on every type of malignancy except for nonmelanoma skin cancer, for malignancy ascertainment. A total of 345 incident cases of sarcoidosis and 690 comparators were identified. There was no difference in the prevalence of malignancy at the index date between the 2 groups (4.3% among cases and 4.3% among comparators; P = 1.0). During followup, 36 patients with sarcoidosis and 91 subjects without sarcoidosis developed malignancy, with a cumulative incidence at 10 years of 3.8% and 7.1%, respectively. The difference corresponded to a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.72 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.49-1.06). The cumulative incidences at 10 years for individual types of malignancy were also similar between the 2 groups, with nonsignificant HRs. However, subgroup analysis found that cases with extrathoracic involvement were at higher risk of incident hematologic malignancy compared with cases without extrathoracic involvement (HR 1.87 [95% CI 1.09-3.22]). Risk of malignancy was similar among patients with sarcoidosis compared to nonsarcoidosis subjects. However, the risk of incident hematologic malignancy was significantly higher among patients with sarcoidosis with extrathoracic involvement compared to patients without extrathoracic disease. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  18. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and prostate cancer: population-based prospective cohort and experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Ali, Imran; Julin, Bettina; Glynn, Anders; Högberg, Johan; Berglund, Marika; Johansson, Jan-Erik; Andersson, Swen-Olof; Andrén, Ove; Giovannucci, Edward; Wolk, Alicja; Stenius, Ulla; Åkesson, Agneta

    2016-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are highly persistent environmental pollutants and are undesirable components of our daily food. PCBs are classified as human carcinogens, but the evidence for prostate cancer is limited and available data are inconsistent. We explored the link between non-dioxin-like PCB and grade of prostate cancer in a prospective cohort as well as in cell experiments. A population-based cohort of 32496 Swedish men aged 45-79 years was followed prospectively through 1998-2011, to assess the association between validated estimates of dietary PCB exposure and incidence of prostate cancer by grade (2789 cases, whereof 1276 low grade, 756 intermediate grade, 450 high grade) and prostate cancer mortality (357 fatal cases). In addition, we investigated a non-dioxin-like PCB153-induced cell invasion and related markers in normal prostate stem cells (WPE-stem) and in three different prostate cancer cell lines (PC3, DU145 and 22RV1) at exposure levels relevant to humans. After multivariable-adjustment, dietary PCB exposure was positively associated with high-grade prostate cancer, relative risk (RR) 1.35 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.76] and with fatal prostate cancer, RR 1.43 (95% CI: 1.05-1.95), comparing the highest tertile with the lowest. We observed no association with low or intermediate grade of prostate cancer. Cell invasion and related markers, including MMP9, MMP2, Slug and Snail, were significantly increased in human prostate cancer cells as well as in prostate stem cells after exposure to PCB153. Our findings both from the observational and experimental studies suggest a role of non-dioxin-like PCB153 in the development of high-grade and fatal prostate cancer. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Anesthesia for Cesarean Delivery and Learning Disabilities in a Population-Based Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Sprung, Juraj; Flick, Randall P.; Wilder, Robert T.; Katusic, Slavica K.; Pike, Tasha L.; Dingli, Mariella; Gleich, Stephen J.; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Barbaresi, William J.; Hanson, Andrew C.; Warner, David O.

    2011-01-01

    Background Anesthetics administered to immature brains may cause histopathological changes and long-term behavioral abnormalities. The association between perinatal exposure to anesthetics during Cesarean delivery (CD) and development of learning disabilities (LD) was determined in a population-based birth cohort. Methods The educational and medical records of all children born to mothers residing in five townships of Olmsted County, MN from 1976-1982 and remaining in the community at age 5 were reviewed to identify those with LDs. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compare rates of LD between children delivered vaginally and via CD (with general or regional anesthesia). Results Of the 5,320 children in this cohort, 497 were delivered via CD (under general anesthesia N=193, and regional anesthesia N=304). The incidence of LD depended on mode of delivery (P = 0.050, adjusted for sex, birth weight, gestational age, exposure to anesthesia prior to age 4, and maternal education). LD risk was similar in children delivered by vagina or CD with general anesthesia, but was reduced in children receiving CD with regional anesthesia (hazard ratio = 0.64, 95% confidence interval 0.44 to 0.92; P=0.017 for comparison of CD under regional anesthesia compared to vaginal delivery). Conclusion Children exposed to general or regional anesthesia during CD are not more likely to develop LD compared to children delivered vaginally, suggesting that brief perinatal exposure to anesthetic drugs does not adversely affect long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. The risk of LD may be lower in children delivered by CD whose mothers received regional anesthesia. PMID:19602960

  20. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in spontaneous brain abscess patients: a population-based comparative cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bartek, Jiri; Jakola, Asgeir S; Skyrman, Simon; Förander, Petter; Alpkvist, Peter; Schechtmann, Gaston; Glimåker, Martin; Larsson, Agneta; Lind, Folke; Mathiesen, Tiit

    2016-07-01

    There is a need to improve outcome in patients with brain abscesses and hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is a promising treatment modality. The objective of this study was to evaluate HBOT in the treatment of intracranial abscesses. This population-based, comparative cohort study included 40 consecutive adult patients with spontaneous brain abscess treated surgically between January 2003 and May 2014 at our institution. Twenty patients received standard therapy with surgery and antibiotics (non-HBOT group), while the remaining 20 patients also received adjuvant HBOT (HBOT group). Resolution of brain abscesses and infection was seen in all patients. Two patients had reoperations after HBOT initiation (10 %), while nine patients (45 %) in the non-HBOT group underwent reoperations (p = 0.03). Of the 26 patients who did not receive HBOT after the first surgery, 15 (58 %) had one or several recurrences that lead to a new treatment: surgery (n = 11), surgery + HBO (n = 5) or just HBO (n = 1). In contrast, recurrences occurred in only 2 of 14 (14 %) who did receive HBOT after the first surgery (p < 0.01). A good outcome (Glasgow Outcome Score [GOS] of 5) was achieved in 16 patients (80 %) in the HBOT cohort versus 9 patients (45 %) in the non-HBOT group (p = 0.04). HBOT was associated with less treatment failures and need for reoperation and seemingly with improved long-term outcome. Further, HBOT was well tolerated and safe. Prospective studies are warranted to establish the role of HBOT in the treatment of brain abscesses.

  1. Digoxin use after diagnosis of colorectal cancer and survival: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Karasneh, Reema A; Murray, Liam J; Hughes, Carmel M; Cardwell, Chris R

    2015-11-01

    Digoxin has been shown to affect a number of pathways that are of relevance to cancer, and its use has been associated with increased risks of breast and uterus cancer and, more recently, a 40% increase in colorectal cancer risk. These findings raise questions about the safety of digoxin use in colorectal cancer patients, and, therefore, we investigated whether digoxin use after colorectal cancer diagnosis increased the risk of colorectal cancer-specific mortality. A cohort of 10,357 colorectal cancer patients newly diagnosed from 1998 to 2009 was identified from English cancer registries and linked to the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (to provide digoxin and other prescription records) and to the Office of National Statistics mortality data (to identify 2,724 colorectal cancer-specific deaths). Using time-dependent Cox regression models, unadjusted and adjusted HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the association between postdiagnostic exposure to digoxin and colorectal cancer-specific mortality. Overall, 682 (6%) colorectal cancer patients used digoxin after diagnosis. Digoxin use was associated with a small increase in colorectal cancer-specific mortality before adjustment (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.07-1.46), but after adjustment for confounders, the association was attenuated (adjusted HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.91-1.34) and there was no evidence of a dose response. In this large population-based colorectal cancer cohort, there was little evidence of an increase in colorectal cancer-specific mortality with digoxin use after diagnosis. These results provide some reassurance that digoxin use is safe in colorectal cancer patients. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Personality, lifestyle, and risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer: follow-up of population based cohort

    PubMed Central

    Stürmer, Til; Hasselbach, Petra; Amelang, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    Objective To study the relation between measures of personality and risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer in a large cohort. Design Follow-up of population based cohort. Setting Heidelberg, Germany. Participants 5114 women and men aged 40-65 in 1992-5. Main outcome measures Psychological traits assessed by several standardised personality questionnaires in 1992-5, related to cause of death (to 2002-3) or reported incidence of cardiovascular diseases and cancer (validated by treating doctors). Relative risks (and 95% confidence intervals) for combined morbidity and mortality according to five important personality traits were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. Results During median follow-up of 8.5 years, 257 participants died and 72 were diagnosed with a heart attack, 62 with stroke, and 240 with cancer (morbidity and mortality combined). A high internal locus of control over disease was associated with a decreased risk of myocardial infarction (adjusted relative risk for an increase of 1 SD = 0.75; 95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.96). An increase of 1 SD in time urgency was associated with a decreased risk of cancer (adjusted relative risk 0.83; 0.73 to 0.95). Other major personality traits—anger control, psychoticism, and symptoms of depression—were not consistently associated with myocardial infarction, stroke, or cancer. Conclusion Internal locus of control over disease and time urgency seem to be associated with reduced risk for common chronic diseases, probably by affecting unmeasured health related behaviour. The other personality traits assessed had no major impact on cardiovascular disease and cancer. PMID:16687457

  3. Personality, lifestyle, and risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer: follow-up of population based cohort.

    PubMed

    Stürmer, Til; Hasselbach, Petra; Amelang, Manfred

    2006-06-10

    To study the relation between measures of personality and risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer in a large cohort. Follow-up of population based cohort. Heidelberg, Germany. 5114 women and men aged 40-65 in 1992-5. Psychological traits assessed by several standardised personality questionnaires in 1992-5, related to cause of death (to 2002-3) or reported incidence of cardiovascular diseases and cancer (validated by treating doctors). Relative risks (and 95% confidence intervals) for combined morbidity and mortality according to five important personality traits were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. During median follow-up of 8.5 years, 257 participants died and 72 were diagnosed with a heart attack, 62 with stroke, and 240 with cancer (morbidity and mortality combined). A high internal locus of control over disease was associated with a decreased risk of myocardial infarction (adjusted relative risk for an increase of 1 SD = 0.75; 95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.96). An increase of 1 SD in time urgency was associated with a decreased risk of cancer (adjusted relative risk 0.83; 0.73 to 0.95). Other major personality traits--anger control, psychoticism, and symptoms of depression--were not consistently associated with myocardial infarction, stroke, or cancer. Internal locus of control over disease and time urgency seem to be associated with reduced risk for common chronic diseases, probably by affecting unmeasured health related behaviour. The other personality traits assessed had no major impact on cardiovascular disease and cancer.

  4. HLA Associations and Risk of Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder in a Danish Population-Based Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Vase, Maja Ølholm; Maksten, Eva Futtrup; Strandhave, Charlotte; Søndergaard, Esben; Bendix, Knud; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen; Andersen, Claus; Møller, Michael Boe; Sørensen, Søren Schwartz; Kampmann, Jan; Eiskjær, Hans; Iversen, Martin; Weinreich, Ilse Duus; Møller, Bjarne; Jespersen, Bente; d'Amore, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Background Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a feared complication to organ transplantation, associated with substantial morbidity and inferior survival. Risk factors for PTLD include T cell–depleting induction therapy and primary infection or reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus. Possible associations between certain HLA types and the risk of developing PTLD have been reported by other investigators; however, results are conflicting. Methods We conducted a retrospective, population-based study on 4295 Danish solid organ transplant patients from the Scandiatransplant database. Having identified 93 PTLD patients in the cohort, we investigated the association of HLA types with PTLD, Epstein-Barr virus status and time to PTLD onset. The outcomes survival and PTLD were evaluated using Cox regression; mismatching, and the PTLD-specific mortality were evaluated in a competing risk analysis. Results Risk of PTLD was associated with male sex (odds ratio, 1.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-2.71), and, in women, HLA-DR13 conferred an increased risk (odds ratio, 3.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.41-7.31). In multivariate analysis, HLA-B45 and HLA-DR13 remained independent predictive factors of PTLD. Mismatching in the B locus was associated with a reduced risk of PTLD (P < 0.001). Overall survival was poor after a PTLD diagnosis and was significantly worse than that in the remaining transplant cohort (P < 0.001). Conclusions Our data indicate risk-modifying HLA associations, which can be clinically useful after transplantation in personalized monitoring schemes. Given the strong linkage disequilibrium in the HLA region, the associations must be interpreted carefully. The large size, virtually complete ascertainment of cases and no loss to follow-up remain important strengths of the study. PMID:27500227

  5. Quality of Life Among a Population-Based Cohort of Older Patients with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Neuner, Joan M.; Zokoe, Nathan; McGinley, Emily L.; Pezzin, Liliana E.; Yen, Tina W.F.; Schapira, Marilyn M.; Nattinger, Ann B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Growing numbers of older women receive adjuvant breast cancer therapies, but little is known about the long-term effects of current therapies upon health-related quality of life outside of clinical trials. Methods A population-based cohort of postmenopausal women with incident breast cancer aged sixty-five and older was identified from Medicare claims from four states and followed over five years. General health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study SF-12 Health Survey, and breast cancer-related HRQOL was assessed using the breast cancer subscale of the functional assessment of cancer therapy (FACT-B BCS). The association of HRQOL with sociodemographic variables, comorbidity, and breast cancer variables (stage, treatments, and treatment sequelae) was examined in longitudinal models. Results Among the 3,083 older breast cancer survivors, general HRQOL as measured by SF-12 mental and physical component scores was similar to norms for non-cancer populations, and remained stable throughout follow-up. Breast cancer treatments, including surgery and radiation, adjuvant hormonal therapy, and cytotoxic chemotherapy were not associated with worsened general health scores. A similar pattern was seen for breast cancer-related HRQOL scores, except that chemotherapy was associated with slightly worse scores. Lymphedema occurred in 17% of the cohort, and was strongly associated with all measures of HRQOL. Reductions in general HRQOL with lymphedema development were larger than those with an age increase of 10 years. Conclusions There is little association of breast cancer treatment with HRQOL in older breast cancer patients followed for up to five years, but the development of lymphedema is associated with substantial reductions in HRQOL. PMID:25034932

  6. Type 1 Diabetes, Celiac Disease, and Neuropathy-A Nationwide Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Thawani, Sujata; Brannagan, Thomas H; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Mollazadegan, Kaziwe; Green, Peter H R; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2017-09-01

    Both type 1 diabetes (T1D) and celiac disease (CD) have been linked to an increased risk of neuropathy. This study examined the risk of neuropathy in patients with T1D compared with patients with both T1D and CD. In a nationwide population-based cohort, T1D was defined as having a diagnosis of diabetes between 1964 and 2009 recorded in the Swedish National Patient Register in individuals ≤30 years of age. CD was defined as having villous atrophy (Marsh histopathology stage III) on small intestinal biopsy. CD cases were identified through biopsies examined between 1969 and 2008 at any of Sweden's 28 pathology departments. Nine hundred fifty-eight patients had both T1D and CD and were matched for sex, age, and calendar period with 4590 controls who only had T1D. Through Cox regression analysis, with CD as the time-dependent covariate, we estimated the risk of neuropathy in T1D patients with CD. Fifty-four individuals with T1D and CD had later neuropathy (expected: n = 42). This corresponded to an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.27 (95% confidence interval = 0.95-1.71) compared with those who had T1D alone. The hazard ratio was statistically significant in the first 5 years with CD (1.67; 95% confidence interval = 1.13-2.47) but decreased to neutrality thereafter. Risk estimates were similar in men and women, and did not differ by age at CD onset. CD does not seem to influence the risk of neuropathy in individuals with T1D, although a small excess risk cannot be ruled out.

  7. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism and breast cancer risk: a nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Søgaard, Mette; Farkas, Dóra Körmendiné; Ehrenstein, Vera; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Dekkers, Olaf M; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2016-04-01

    The association between thyroid disease and breast cancer risk remains unclear. We, therefore examined the association between hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism and breast cancer risk. This was a population-based cohort study. Using nationwide registries, we identified all women in Denmark with a first-time hospital diagnosis of hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, 1978-2013. We estimated the excess risk of breast cancer among patients with hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism compared with the expected risk in the general population, using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) as a measure of risk ratio. Breast cancer diagnoses in the first 12 months following diagnosis of thyroid disease were excluded from the calculations to avoid diagnostic work-up bias. We included 61, 873 women diagnosed with hypothyroidism and 80, 343 women diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. Median follow-up time was 4.9 years (interquartile range (IQR): 1.8-9.5 years) for hypothyroidism and 7.4 years (IQR: 3.1-13.5 years) for hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism was associated with a slightly increased breast cancer risk compared with the general population (SIR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.07-1.16), which persisted beyond 5 years of follow-up (SIR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.08-1.19). In comparison, hypothyroidism was associated with a slightly lower risk of breast cancer (SIR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.88-1.00). Stratification by cancer stage at diagnosis, estrogen receptor status, age, comorbidity, history of alcohol-related disease and clinical diagnoses of obesity produced little change in cancer risk. We found an increased risk of breast cancer in women with hyperthyroidism and a slightly decreased risk in women with hypothyroidism indicating an association between thyroid function level and breast cancer risk. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  8. Age, academic performance, and stimulant prescribing for ADHD: a nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zoëga, Helga; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur A; Hernández-Díaz, Sonia

    2012-12-01

    We evaluated whether younger age in class is associated with poorer academic performance and an increased risk of being prescribed stimulants for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This was a nationwide population-based cohort study, linking data from national registries of prescribed drugs and standardized scholastic examinations. The study population comprised all children born in 1994-1996 who took standardized tests in Iceland at ages 9 and 12 (n = 11 785). We estimated risks of receiving low test scores (0-10th percentile) and being prescribed stimulants for ADHD. Comparisons were made according to children's relative age in class. Mean test scores in mathematics and language arts were lowest among the youngest children in the fourth grade, although the gap attenuated in the seventh grade. Compared with the oldest third, those in the youngest third of class had an increased relative risk of receiving a low test score at age 9 for mathematics (1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-2.2) and language arts (1.8; 95% CI 1.6-2.1), whereas at age 12, the relative risk was 1.6 in both subjects. Children in the youngest third of class were 50% more likely (1.5; 95% CI 1.3-1.8) than those in the oldest third to be prescribed stimulants between ages 7 and 14. Relative age among classmates affects children's academic performance into puberty, as well as their risk of being prescribed stimulants for ADHD. This should be taken into account when evaluating children's performance and behavior in school to prevent unnecessary stimulant treatment.

  9. Nationwide cohort study of the leukotriene receptor antagonist montelukast and incident or recurrent cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Ingelsson, Erik; Yin, Li; Bäck, Magnus

    2012-03-01

    The leukotriene pathway has been associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. However, the effects of the antileukotriene treatment used in asthmatic patients on cardiovascular outcomes have remained largely unexplored. We sought to examine a potential protective role of the leukotriene receptor antagonist montelukast on future risk of incident and recurrent myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. A nationwide population-based cohort of approximately 7 million persons integrating data from the Prescribed Drug, Patient, Cause of Death, Income, Educational, and Emigration Registers was followed from July 1, 2005, to December 31, 2008. Analyses were performed in the whole population after exclusion of subjects with a prior cardiovascular diagnosis (incident events; sample size, n = 6,910,923 for myocardial infarction and n = 6,932,578 for stroke) and in subjects with a prior diagnosis (recurrent events; n = 153,937 and n = 132,291 for stroke and myocardial infarction, respectively). Cox proportional hazard ratios (HRs) did not reveal an association of montelukast use with incident events. In contrast to these findings, montelukast use was associated with a lower risk for recurrent stroke (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.38-0.99) accounting for age, sex, education level, and yearly income. Adjusting the latter finding also for respiratory and cardiovascular medications and diagnoses revealed similar point estimates (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.39-1.0). Post hoc analyses revealed a significant association of montelukast use with a lower risk for recurrent myocardial infarction in male subjects (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.43-0.99). These data provide a first indication for a potential role of the antiasthma drug montelukast for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. OBAYA (obesity and adverse health outcomes in young adults): feasibility of a population-based multiethnic cohort study using electronic medical records

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although obesity is a risk factor for many chronic diseases, we have only limited knowledge of the magnitude of these associations in young adults. A multiethnic cohort of young adults was established to close current knowledge gaps; cohort demographics, cohort retention, and the potential influence of migration bias were investigated. Methods For this population-based cross-sectional study, demographics, and measured weight and height were extracted from electronic medical records of 1,929,470 patients aged 20 to 39 years enrolled in two integrated health plans in California from 2007 to 2009. Results The cohort included about 84.4% of Kaiser Permanente California members in this age group who had a medical encounter during the study period and represented about 18.2% of the underlying population in the same age group in California. The age distribution of the cohort was relatively comparable to the underlying population in California Census 2010 population, but the proportion of women and ethnic/racial minorities was slightly higher. The three-year retention rate was 68.4%. Conclusion These data suggest the feasibility of our study for medium-term follow-up based on sufficient membership retention rates. While nationwide 6% of young adults are extremely obese, we know little to adequately quantify the health burden attributable to obesity, especially extreme obesity, in this age group. This cohort of young adults provides a unique opportunity to investigate associations of obesity-related factors and risk of cancer in a large multiethnic population. PMID:22909293

  11. Chinese Herbal Products for Female Infertility in Taiwan: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yu-Chiang; Kao, Chao-Wei; Lin, Che-Chen; Liao, Yen-Nung; Wu, Bei-Yu; Hung, I-Ling; Hu, Wen-Long

    2016-03-01

    Female infertility and low birth rate are significant public health issues with profound social, psychological, and economic consequences. Some infertile women resort to conventional, complementary, or alternative therapies to conceive. The aim of this study was to identify the Chinese herbal products (CHPs) most commonly used for female infertility in Taiwan. The usage of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the frequency of CHP prescriptions to infertile women were determined based on a nationwide 1-million randomly sampled cohort of National Health Insurance Research Database beneficiaries. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were employed to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for TCM usage and potential risk factors. In total, 8766 women with newly diagnosed infertility were included in this study. Of those, 8430 (96.17%) had sought TCM treatment in addition to visiting the gynecologist. We noted that female infertility patients with risk factors (e.g., endometriosis, uterine fibroids, or irregular menstrual cycle) were more likely to use TCM than those without TCM medication (aOR = 1.83, 1.87, and 1.79, respectively). The most commonly used formula and single CHP were Dang-Gui-Sha-Yao-San (17.25%) and Semen Cuscutae (27.40%), respectively. CHP formula combinations (e.g., Dang-Gui-Sha-Yao-San plus Wen-Jing-Tang 3.10%) or single Chinese herbal combinations (e.g., Semen Cuscutae plus Leonurus japonicus 6.31%) were also commonly used to treat female infertility. Further well-conducted, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies will be needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHP combinations for female infertility.

  12. Prevalence and risk of migraine in patients with rosacea: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Egeberg, Alexander; Ashina, Messoud; Gaist, David; Gislason, Gunnar H; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2017-03-01

    Rosacea features increased neurovascular reactivity; migraine is a complex neurologic disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of headache associated with nausea and increased sensitivity to light and sound. We evaluated the prevalence and risk of new-onset migraine in patients with rosacea. All Danish individuals 18 years of age or older were linked in nationwide registers. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by Cox regression. In the total cohort (n = 4,361,688), there were 49,475 patients with rosacea. Baseline prevalence of migraine was 7.3% and 12.1% in the reference population and in patients with rosacea, respectively. The fully adjusted HR of migraine was 1.31 (95% confidence interval 1.23-1.39) for patients with rosacea. Patients with phymatous rosacea (n = 594) had no increased risk of migraine (adjusted HR 0.45; 95% confidence interval 0.11-1.80), whereas patients with ocular rosacea (n = 6977) had a 69% increased risk (adjusted HR 1.69; 95% confidence interval 1.43-1.99). Notably, the risk was higher among patients age 50 years or older than in younger individuals, and the risk was only significant among women. We were unable to distinguish between migraine subtypes. We found a significantly higher prevalence and risk of incident migraine especially in female patients with rosacea. These data add to the accumulating evidence for a link between rosacea and the central nervous system. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of preoperative chronic renal failure on liver transplantation: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Peter Chi-Ho; Chen, Hsiu-Pin; Lin, Jr-Rung; Liu, Fu-Chao; Yu, Huang-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess whether preoperative chronic renal failure (CRF) affects the rates of postoperative complications and survival after liver transplantation. Methods This population-based retrospective cohort study included 2,931 recipients of liver transplantation performed between 1998 and 2012, enrolled from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients were divided into two groups, based on the presence or absence of preoperative CRF. Results The overall estimated survival rate of liver transplantation recipients (LTRs) with preoperative CRF was significantly lower than that of patients without preoperative CRF (P=0.0085). There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of duration of intensive care unit stay, total hospital stay, bacteremia, postoperative bleeding, and pneumonia during hospitalization. Long-term adverse effects, including cerebrovascular disease and coronary heart disease, were not different between patients with versus without CRF. Conclusion These findings suggest that LTRs with preoperative CRF have a higher rate of mortality. PMID:28008264

  14. The Effect of Age on Fracture Risk: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chikritzhs, Tanya

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To precisely estimate the effect of age on the risk of fracture hospitalisation among the Western Australia population over the life course. Methods. This population-based cohort study used hospital data on fractures for the period January 1991 to January 2013 among Western Australians born between 1915 and 1990. Results. The average incidence rates (per 10,000 person-years) of fracture hospitalisation (95% confidence interval) were 50.12 (49.90, 50.35), 55.14 (54.82, 55.48), and 45.02 (44.71, 45.32) for both males and females, males only, and females only, respectively. The age-specific rate of fracture hospitalisation (in natural logarithm form) in adults (>18 years) was well predicted by age at its 1st, 2nd, and 3rd power in males with an adjusted R-squared of 0.98 and p < 0.001. For females, the trend was also well predicted by its 1st and 2nd powers (the 3rd power term of age was removed due to its p value > 0.8) with an adjusted R-squared of 0.99 and p < 0.001. Conclusions. Overall trends in age and gender specific risk of fracture among the Western Australian population were similar to estimates reported from previous studies. The trend in fracture hospitalisation risk over the life course can be almost fully explained by age. PMID:27340566

  15. Overweight and Weight Gain Predict Psoriasis Development in a Population-based Cohort.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, Kjersti; Wilsgaard, Tom; Olsen, Anne Olaug; Furberg, Anne-Sofie

    2017-03-10

    Overweight is a proposed risk factor for psoriasis. How-ever, evidence from prospective studies is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the association be-tween overweight, weight gain and risk of psoriasis, and potential synergism with smoking, within a population-based cohort including 8,752 individuals followed from 1994 up to 2008. There was a 32% increased odds of psoriasis from a body mass index (BMI) of 27 kg/m2, in multi-variable logistic regression analysis, further increasing to 43% at BMI 28 kg/m2, and to 71% at BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 in non-smokers. There was a dose-response association between weight gain from age 25 years, with up to 90% higher odds of psoriasis from middle age, independent of weight category. There was no indication of a synergism between overweight and smoking, and no interaction with sex. Overweight and weight gain represent modifiable risk factors that may be targets for primary prevention of psoriasis.

  16. Coeliac disease and invasive pneumococcal disease: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Röckert Tjernberg, A; Bonnedahl, J; Inghammar, M; Egesten, A; Kahlmeter, G; Nauclér, P; Henriques-Normark, B; Ludvigsson, J F

    2017-04-01

    Severe infections are recognized complications of coeliac disease (CD). In the present study we aimed to examine whether individuals with CD are at increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). To do so, we performed a population-based cohort study including 29 012 individuals with biopsy-proven CD identified through biopsy reports from all pathology departments in Sweden. Each individual with CD was matched with up to five controls (n = 144 257). IPD events were identified through regional and national microbiological databases, including the National Surveillance System for Infectious Diseases. We used Cox regression analyses to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for diagnosed IPD. A total of 207 individuals had a record of IPD whereas 45/29 012 had CD (0·15%) and 162/144 257 were controls (0·11%). This corresponded to a 46% increased risk for IPD [HR 1·46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·05-2·03]. The risk estimate was similar after adjustment for socioeconomic status, educational level and comorbidities, but then failed to attain statistical significance (adjusted HR 1·40, 95% CI 0·99-1·97). Nonetheless, our study shows a trend towards an increased risk for IPD in CD patients. The findings support results seen in earlier research and taking that into consideration individuals with CD may be considered for pneumococcal vaccination.

  17. Risk factors for child maltreatment in an Australian population-based birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Doidge, James C; Higgins, Daryl J; Delfabbro, Paul; Segal, Leonie

    2017-02-01

    Child maltreatment and other adverse childhood experiences adversely influence population health and socioeconomic outcomes. Knowledge of the risk factors for child maltreatment can be used to identify children at risk and may represent opportunities for prevention. We examined a range of possible child, parent and family risk factors for child maltreatment in a prospective 27-year population-based birth cohort of 2443 Australians. Physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect and witnessing of domestic violence were recorded retrospectively in early adulthood. Potential risk factors were collected prospectively during childhood or reported retrospectively. Associations were estimated using bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions and combined into cumulative risk scores. Higher levels of economic disadvantage, poor parental mental health and substance use, and social instability were strongly associated with increased risk of child maltreatment. Indicators of child health displayed mixed associations and infant temperament was uncorrelated to maltreatment. Some differences were observed across types of maltreatment but risk profiles were generally similar. In multivariate analyses, nine independent risk factors were identified, including some that are potentially modifiable: economic disadvantage and parental substance use problems. Risk of maltreatment increased exponentially with the number of risk factors experienced, with prevalence of maltreatment in the highest risk groups exceeding 80%. A cumulative risk score based on the independent risk factors allowed identification of individuals at very high risk of maltreatment, while a score that incorporated all significant risk and protective factors provided better identification of low-risk individuals.

  18. Population-based cohort study of outcomes following cholecystectomy for benign gallbladder diseases.

    PubMed

    2016-11-01

    The aim was to describe the management of benign gallbladder disease and identify characteristics associated with all-cause 30-day readmissions and complications in a prospective population-based cohort. Data were collected on consecutive patients undergoing cholecystectomy in acute UK and Irish hospitals between 1 March and 1 May 2014. Potential explanatory variables influencing all-cause 30-day readmissions and complications were analysed by means of multilevel, multivariable logistic regression modelling using a two-level hierarchical structure with patients (level 1) nested within hospitals (level 2). Data were collected on 8909 patients undergoing cholecystectomy from 167 hospitals. Some 1451 cholecystectomies (16·3 per cent) were performed as an emergency, 4165 (46·8 per cent) as elective operations, and 3293 patients (37·0 per cent) had had at least one previous emergency admission, but had surgery on a delayed basis. The readmission and complication rates at 30 days were 7·1 per cent (633 of 8909) and 10·8 per cent (962 of 8909) respectively. Both readmissions and complications were independently associated with increasing ASA fitness grade, duration of surgery, and increasing numbers of emergency admissions with gallbladder disease before cholecystectomy. No identifiable hospital characteristics were linked to readmissions and complications. Readmissions and complications following cholecystectomy are common and associated with patient and disease characteristics. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Breastfeeding and childhood asthma: a six-year population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fredriksson, Pia; Jaakkola, Niina; Jaakkola, Jouni Jk

    2007-11-28

    The question of the protective effect of breastfeeding on development of asthma has raised substantial interest, but the scientific evidence of the optimal duration of breastfeeding is controversial. The authors elaborated the optimal duration of breastfeeding with respect to the risk of asthma primarily, and secondarily to the risk of persistent wheezing, cough and phlegm in school age in a population-based cohort study with the baseline in 1991 and follow-up in 1997. The study population comprised 1984 children aged 7 to 14 years at the end of the follow-up (follow-up rate 77). Information on breastfeeding was based on the baseline survey and information on the health outcomes at the follow-up. There was a U-shaped relation between breastfeeding and the outcomes with the lowest risk with breastfeeding from four to nine months for asthma and seven to nine months for persistent wheezing, cough and phlegm. Our results suggest a U shape relation between duration of breastfeeding and risk of asthma with an optimal duration of 4 to 6 months. A true concave relation would explain the inconsistent results from the previous studies.

  20. Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with liver disease: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chou, Tzu-Chieh; Liang, Wen-Miin; Wang, Chang-Bi; Wu, Trong-Neng; Hang, Liang-Wen

    2015-08-01

    The association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and the risk of liver disease is unclear. Moreover, population-based studies on the risk of liver disease among people with OSA have not yet been conducted. This study aimed to investigate the risk of subsequent development of liver disease among people with OSA. Using Taiwan National Health Insurance claims data, this study collected subjects from a cohort of 17,374 people with OSA who were diagnosed between 2000 and 2008. A control group of 69,496 people was selected from the same database and matched by age, gender, urbanization, income, and date of initial admission. All subjects were followed up until 2010. Liver disease incidence and risk were calculated. The overall risk of liver disease among people with OSA was significantly higher than in the control group (aHR = 5.52, p <0.001). Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatitis C had significant aHRs of 5.29, 7.50, and 7.19 (all at p <0.001), respectively. In contrast, hepatitis B had the smallest aHR of 3.71. The risk of liver disease was more than five times higher among people with OSA compared with the control group; this was particularly for cirrhosis and hepatitis C. Liver disease is thus a very important health issue among people with OSA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Temporal cognitive decline associated with exposure to infectious agents in a population-based, aging cohort

    PubMed Central

    Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L; Yolken, Robert H; Wang, Tianxiu; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; McClain, Lora; McDade, Eric; Snitz, Beth E.; Ganguli, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous cross-sectional studies have related exposure to neurotropic infectious agents with cognitive dysfunction in older adults, but the temporal sequence is uncertain. Methods In a representative, well-characterized, population-based aging cohort, we determined whether the temporal trajectories of multiple cognitive domains are associated with exposure to cytomegalovirus (CMV), Herpes Simplex virus, type 1 (HSV-1), Herpes Simplex virus, type 2 (HSV-2) or Toxoplasma gondii (TOX). Complex attention, executive functions, memory, language, and visuospatial function were assessed annually for five years among consenting individuals. Study entry IgG antibody titers indexing exposure to each infectious agent were examined in relation to slopes of subsequent temporal cognitive decline using multiple linear regressions adjusted for potential confounders. Results The IgG levels for HSV-2 were significantly associated with baseline cognitive domain scores (N=1022 participants). Further, the IgG levels for HSV-2, TOX and CMV, but not HSV-1 were significantly associated with greater temporal cognitive decline that varied by type of infection. Conclusions Exposure to CMV, HSV-2, or TOX is associated with cognitive deterioration in older individuals, independent of general age related variables. An increased understanding of the role of infectious agents in cognitive decline may lead to new methods for its prevention and treatment. PMID:26710257

  2. Intensive care outcomes in bone marrow transplant recipients: a population-based cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    Scales, Damon C; Thiruchelvam, Deva; Kiss, Alexander; Sibbald, William J; Redelmeier, Donald A

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Intensive care unit (ICU) admission for bone marrow transplant recipients immediately following transplantation is an ominous event, yet the survival of these patients with subsequent ICU admissions is unknown. Our objective was to determine the long-term outcome of bone marrow transplant recipients admitted to an ICU during subsequent hospitalizations. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort analysis of all adult bone marrow transplant recipients who received subsequent ICU care in Ontario, Canada from 1 January 1992 to 31 March 2002. The primary endpoint was mortality at 1 year. Results A total of 2,653 patients received bone marrow transplantation; 504 of which received ICU care during a subsequent hospitalization. Patients receiving any major procedure during their ICU stay had higher 1-year mortality than those patients who received no ICU procedure (87% versus 44%, P < 0.0001). Death rates at 1 year were highest for those receiving mechanical ventilation (87%), pulmonary artery catheterization (91%), or hemodialysis (94%). In combination, the strongest independent predictors of death at 1 year were mechanical ventilation (odds ratio, 7.4; 95% confidence interval, 4.8 to 11.4) and hemodialysis (odds ratio, 8.7; 95% confidence interval, 2.1 to 36.7), yet no combination of procedures uniformly predicted 100% mortality. Conclusion The prognosis of bone marrow transplant recipients receiving ICU care during subsequent hospitalizations is very poor but should not be considered futile. PMID:18547422

  3. Drug prescription patterns in patients with Addison's disease: a Swedish population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Björnsdottir, Sigridur; Sundström, Anders; Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Blomqvist, Paul; Kämpe, Olle; Bensing, Sophie

    2013-05-01

    There are no published data on drug prescription in patients with Addison's disease (AD). Our objective was to describe the drug prescription patterns in Swedish AD patients before and after diagnosis compared with population controls. We conducted a population-based cohort study in Sweden. Through the Swedish National Patient Register and the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, we identified 1305 patients with both a diagnosis of AD and on combination treatment with hydrocortisone/cortisone acetate and fludrocortisone. Direct evidence of the AD diagnosis from patient charts was not available. We identified 11 996 matched controls by the Register of Population. We determined the ratio of observed to expected number of patients treated with prescribed drugs. Overall, Swedish AD patients received more prescribed drugs than controls, and 59.3% of the AD patients had medications indicating concomitant autoimmune disease. Interestingly, both before and after the diagnosis of AD, patients used more gastrointestinal medications, antianemic preparations, lipid-modifying agents, antibiotics for systemic use, hypnotics and sedatives, and drugs for obstructive airway disease (all P values < .05). Notably, an increased prescription of several antihypertensive drugs and high-ceiling diuretics was observed after the diagnosis of AD. Gastrointestinal symptoms and anemia, especially in conjunction with autoimmune disorders, should alert the physician about the possibility of AD. The higher use of drugs for cardiovascular disorders after diagnosis in patients with AD raises concerns about the replacement therapy.

  4. Isotretinoin Use and the Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Alhusayen, Raed O.; Juurlink, David N.; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Morrow, Richard L.; Shear, Neil H.; Dormuth, Colin R.

    2013-01-01

    Limited evidence suggests that isotretinoin may be associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To explore this association, we conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study in British Columbia, Canada, among participants who were newly treated with isotretinoin or topical acne medications. The entire population of untreated provincial residents aged 12–29 years served as the reference group. During the 12-year study period, we identified 46,922 participants treated with isotretinoin, 184,824 treated with a topical acne medication, and 1,526,946 untreated individuals. Compared with untreated individuals, we observed no significant association between isotretinoin use and IBD (rate ratio (RR) 1.14; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92–1.41). As expected, we found no association with topical acne medications (RR 1.11; 95% CI 0.99–1.24). In prespecified secondary analyses, isotretinoin was associated with IBD among individuals aged 12–19 years (RR 1.39; 95% CI 1.03–1.87) and topical acne medications were associated with ulcerative colitis (RR 1.19; 95% CI 1.00–1.42). Our primary analyses found no association between isotretinoin and IBD. In prespecified secondary analyses, some evidence was found of associations with isotretinoin as well as topical acne medications, suggesting a possible association between IBD and acne itself. Additional research is needed to explore this possibility. PMID:23096714

  5. Sexually transmitted infections after bereavement - a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bond, Emily; Lu, Donghao; Herweijer, Eva; Sundström, Karin; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Fall, Katja; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Sparén, Pär; Fang, Fang

    2016-08-15

    Loss of a loved one has consistently been associated with various health risks. Little is however known about its relation to sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted a population-based cohort study during 1987-2012 using the Swedish Multi-Generation Register, including 3,002,209 women aged 10-44 years. Bereavement was defined as death of a child, parent, sibling or spouse (N = 979,579, 33 %). STIs were defined as hospital visits with an STI as main or secondary diagnosis. Poisson regression and negative binomial regression were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of STIs, comparing incidence rates of women who had experienced loss to those who had not. Bereaved women were at significantly higher risk of nearly all STIs studied. The relative risk of any STI was highest during the first year after loss (IRR: 1.45, 95 % CI: 1.27-1.65) and predominantly among women with subsequent onset of psychiatric disorders after bereavement (IRR: 2.61, 95 % CI: 2.00-3.34). Notably, a consistent excess risk, persisting for over five years, was observed for acute salpingitis (IRR: 1.28, 95 % CI: 1.13-1.44), a severe complication of bacterial STIs. These data suggest that women who have experienced bereavement are at increased risk of STIs.

  6. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder following kidney transplantation: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Maksten, Eva Futtrup; Vase, Maja Ølholm; Kampmann, Jan; d'Amore, Francesco; Møller, Michael Boe; Strandhave, Charlotte; Bendix, Knud; Bistrup, Claus; Thiesson, Helle Charlotte; Søndergaard, Esben; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen; Jespersen, Bente

    2016-04-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) incidence is difficult to determine, mainly because both early and other lesions may go unrecognized and unregistered. Few studies have included systematic pathology review to maximize case identification and decide more accurately PTLD frequency after long-term post-transplantation follow-up. A retrospective population-based cohort study including all kidney transplant recipients at two Danish centres (1990-2011; population covered 3.1 million; 2175 transplantations in 1906 patients). Pathology reports were reviewed for all patient biopsies to identify possible PTLDs. Candidate PTLDs underwent histopathological review and classification. Seventy PTLD cases were identified in 2175 transplantations (3.2%). The incidence rate (IR) after first transplantation was 5.4 cases per 1000 patient-years (95% CI: 4.0-7.3). Most PTLDs were monomorphic (58.5%), or early lesions (21.5%). Excluding early lesions and patients <18 years, IR was 3.7 (95% CI: 2.9-5.5). Ten patients with PTLD were retransplanted, 2 developing further PTLDs. Post-transplant patient survival was inferior in patients with PTLD, while death-censored graft survival was not. Using registry data together with extensive pathological review and long follow-up, a rather high incidence of PTLD was found.

  7. Statin adherence and the risk of Parkinson's disease: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rozani, Violetta; Giladi, Nir; El-Ad, Baruch; Gurevich, Tanya; Tsamir, Judith; Hemo, Beatriz; Peretz, Chava

    2017-01-01

    While experimental data provided some compelling evidence on the benefits of statins on dopaminergic neurons, observational studies reported conflicting results regarding the potential of statins to effect the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). To evaluate the association between changes in statin adherence over time and PD risk. A population-based cohort of new statin users (ages 40-79, years 1999-2012) was derived from a large Israeli healthcare services organization. Data included history of statin purchases and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Personal statin adherence was measured annually by the proportion of days covered (PDC). PD was detected employing a drug-tracer approach. Stratified (by sex, LDL-C levels at baseline and age) Cox proportional hazards models with time-dependent covariates were used to compute adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR) with 95%CI. The cohort included 232,877 individuals, 49.3% men. Mean age at first statin purchase was 56.5 (±9.8) years for men and 58.7 (±9.2) years for women. PDC distribution for the whole follow up period differed between men and women: medians 58.3% and 54.1% respectively. During a mean follow up of 7.6 (±3.4) years, 2,550 (1.1%) PD cases were identified. In a 1-year lagged analysis, we found no association between annual statin adherence and PD risk in all age-groups regardless of statin type and potency. Age-pooled HR (95%CI) for men and women with LDL-C levels at baseline ≤160mg/dL were: 0.99 (0.99-1.01), 1.01 (1.00-1.02); and for men and women with LDL-C >160mg/dL levels: 0.99 (0.98-1.01), 0.97 (0.98-1.01). Our findings suggest that statin adherence over time does not affect PD risk. Future studies should use large-scale cohorts and refining assessments of long-term profiles in statin adherence.

  8. Burn injury and long-term nervous system morbidity: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Vetrichevvel, Thirthar P; Randall, Sean M; Fear, Mark W; Wood, Fiona M; Boyd, James H; Duke, Janine M

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate if children and adults who are hospitalised for a burn injury have increased long-term hospital use for nervous system diseases. Design A population-based retrospective cohort study using linked administrative health data from the Western Australian Data Linkage System. Participants Records of 30 997 persons hospitalised for a first burn injury in Western Australia during the period 1980–2012, and 123 399 persons who were age and gender frequency matched with no injury admissions randomly selected from Western Australia's birth registrations and electoral roll. Main outcome measures Admission rates and summed length of stay for nervous system diseases. Negative binomial and Cox proportional hazards regression modelling were used to generate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and HRs with 95% CIs, respectively. Results After adjustment for demographic factors and pre-existing health status, the burn injury cohort had 2.20 times (95% CI 1.86 to 2.61) as many nervous system admissions and 3.25 times the number of days in hospital (95% CI: 2.28 to 4.64) than the uninjured cohort. This increase was found for those who had sustained burns during childhood (<15 years: IRR, 95% CI: 1.97, 1.49 to 2.61) and early to mid-adulthood (15–45 years: IRR, 95% CI: 2.70, 2.06 to 3.55) and older adults (≥45 years: IRR, 95% CI: 1.62, 1.33 to 1.97). Significantly elevated first-time postburn admissions were observed for children for 15 years postburn discharge (0–5 years: HR, 95% CI: 1.97, 1.75 to 2.22; 5–15 years: HR, 95% CI: 1.44, 1.28 to 1.63) and for adults 45 years and older at index burn for 5 years postburn only (HR, 95% CI: 1.72, 1.42 to 2.09). Conclusions Burn injury appears to be associated with increased nervous system-related morbidity for many years after burn injury. Further work into the mechanisms and possible treatments to reduce this morbidity are warranted in light of these findings. PMID:27609857

  9. Gout and the risk of Alzheimer's disease: a population-based, BMI-matched cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Na; Dubreuil, Maureen; Zhang, Yuqing; Neogi, Tuhina; Rai, Sharan K; Ascherio, Alberto; Hernán, Miguel A; Choi, Hyon K

    2016-03-01

    While gout is associated with cardiovascular (CV)-metabolic comorbidities and their sequelae, the antioxidant effects of uric acid may have neuroprotective benefits. We evaluated the potential impact of incident gout on the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a general population context. We conducted an age-matched, sex-matched, entry-time-matched and body mass index (BMI)-matched cohort study using data from The Health Improvement Network, an electronic medical record database representative of the UK general population, from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2013. Up to five non-gout individuals were matched to each case of incident gout by age, sex, year of enrolment and BMI. We compared incidence rates of AD between the gout and comparison cohorts, excluding individuals with prevalent gout or dementia at baseline. Multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated, while adjusting for smoking, alcohol use, physician visits, social deprivation index, comorbidities and medication use. We repeated the same analysis among patients with incident osteoarthritis (OA) as a negative control exposure. We identified 309 new cases of AD among 59 224 patients with gout (29% female, mean age 65 years) and 1942 cases among 238 805 in the comparison cohort over a 5-year median follow up (1.0 vs 1.5 per 1000 person-years, respectively). Univariate (age-matched, sex-matched, entry-time-matched and BMI-matched) and multivariate HRs for AD among patients with gout were 0.71 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.80) and 0.76 (95% CI 0.66 to 0.87), respectively. The inverse association persisted among subgroups stratified by sex, age group (<75 and ≥75 years), social deprivation index and history of CV disease. The association between incident OA and the risk of incident AD was null. These findings provide the first general population-based evidence that gout is inversely associated with the risk of developing AD, supporting the purported potential neuroprotective role of uric acid

  10. Pain and risk of completed suicide in Japanese men: a population-based cohort study in Japan (Ohsaki Cohort Study).

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Nobutaka; Ohmori-Matsuda, Kaori; Shimazu, Taichi; Sone, Toshimasa; Kakizaki, Masako; Nakaya, Naoki; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2009-03-01

    Unrelieved pain is a major factor that influences suicide risk among terminally ill patients, but little is known about the relationship between pain and the risk of completed suicide in the general population. We prospectively examined the association between self-reports of pain and subsequent risk of completed suicide in 26,481 men aged 40 to 79 years from the Ohsaki National Health Insurance Cohort study, a population-based, prospective cohort study initiated in 1994. On the basis of a five-item questionnaire on pain, individuals were classified as having no pain, very mild pain, mild pain, or moderate or severe pain. Completed suicide cases were documented from 1995 to 2001. During 131,027 person-years, 64 completed suicides were documented. After adjustment for covariates, the risk for completed suicide was significantly higher in the subjects with more pain. Multivariate hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) relative to the subjects who had no pain were 1.36 (0.67-2.75), 2.11 (1.02-4.33), and 2.93 (1.34-6.42) in the subjects who had very mild pain, mild pain, and moderate or severe pain, respectively (P for trend=0.004). Stratified analysis showed that the positive association between pain and suicide risk was robust in the subjects with good health, low stress, adequate sleep, good physical activity, and no history of chronic diseases. Our results suggest that pain is associated with an increased risk of completed suicide among Japanese men. The association was consistently observed among apparently healthy subjects.

  11. Investigating the utilization of radiological services by physician patients: a population-based cohort study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chen-Yi; Hu, Hsiao-Yun; Chen, Likwang; Huang, Nicole; Chou, Yiing-Jeng; Li, Chung-Pin

    2013-07-23

    Advances in radiology technology have contributed to a substantial increase in utilization of radiology services. Physicians, who are well educated in medical matters, would be expected to be knowledgeable about prudent or injudicious use of radiological services. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in the utilization of radiology modalities among physician and non-physician patients. This nationwide population-based cohort study was carried out using data obtained from the Taiwan National Insurance Database from 1997 to 2008. Physicians and comparison controls selected by propensity score matching were enrolled in the current study. The claims data of ambulatory care and inpatient discharge records were used to measure the utilization of various radiology modalities. Utilization rates of each modality were compared between physicians and non-physicians, and odds ratios of the utilization of each radiology modality were measured. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the predictors of X-ray, MRI, and interventional procedures utilization during the study period. The utilization of most radiologic services increased among physicians and the comparison group during the observation period. Compared to non-physicians, physicians had significantly higher utilization rates of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) but lower utilization rates of X-rays, sonography, and interventional procedures. After adjusting for age, gender, major diseases, urbanicity, and residential regions, logistic regression analysis showed that, compared to non-physicians, the physicians used significantly more MRI (odds ratio [OR]: 2.19, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.68-2.84, P < 0.001) and significantly less X-rays and interventional procedures (OR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.72-0.99, P = 0.04 for X-rays and OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.54-0.83, P < 0.001 for interventional procedures). Being a physician was a significant predictor of greater usage

  12. Healthcare costs in chronic kidney disease and renal replacement therapy: a population-based cohort study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Jonas K; Neovius, Martin; Jacobson, Stefan H; Elinder, Carl-Gustaf; Hylander, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare healthcare costs in chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 4 or 5 not on dialysis (estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min/1.73m2), peritoneal dialysis, haemodialysis and in transplanted patients with matched general population comparators. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting Swedish national healthcare system. Participants Prevalent adult patients with CKD 4 or 5 (n=1046, mean age 68 years), on peritoneal dialysis (n=101; 64 years), on haemodialysis (n=460; 65 years) and with renal transplants (n=825; 52 years) were identified in Stockholm County clinical quality registers for renal disease on 1 January 2010. 5 general population comparators from the same county were matched to each patient by age, sex and index year. Primary and secondary outcome measures Annual healthcare costs in 2009 incurred through inpatient and hospital-based outpatient care and dispensed prescription drugs ascertained from nationwide healthcare registers. Secondary outcomes were annual number of hospital days and outpatient care visits. Results Patients on haemodialysis had the highest mean annual cost (€87 600), which was 1.49 (95% CI 1.38 to 1.60) times that observed in peritoneal dialysis (€58 600). The mean annual cost was considerably lower in transplanted patients (€15 500) and in the CKD group (€9600). In patients on haemodialysis, outpatient care costs made up more than two-thirds (€62 500) of the total, while costs related to fluids ($29 900) was the largest cost component in patients on peritoneal dialysis (51%). Compared with their matched general population comparators, the mean annual cost (95% CI) in patients on haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, transplanted patients and patients with CKD was 45 (39 to 51), 29 (22 to 37), 11 (10 to 13) and 4.0 (3.6 to 4.5) times higher, respectively. Conclusions The mean annual costs were ∼50% higher in patients on haemodialysis than in those on peritoneal dialysis. Compared

  13. Prenatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs and use of primary healthcare during childhood: a population-based cohort study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Würtz, Anne Mette; Rytter, Dorte; Vestergaard, Claus Høstrup; Christensen, Jakob; Vestergaard, Mogens; Bech, Bodil Hammer

    2017-01-05

    Prenatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) has been associated with adverse outcomes in the offspring such as congenital malformations and neuropsychiatric disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate whether prenatal exposure to AEDs is also associated with more frequent use of primary healthcare during childhood. Population-based cohort study. Nationwide national registers in Denmark. All live-born singletons in Denmark during 1997-2012 identified in the Danish National Patient Register and followed until 31 December 2013 (n=963 010). Information on prenatal exposure to AEDs for maternal indication of epilepsy and other neurological conditions was obtained from the Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. The primary outcome measure was the number and type of contacts with the general practitioner (GP), excluding routine well-child visits and vaccinations. The secondary outcome measure was specific services provided at the GP contact. The association between prenatal exposure to AEDs and contacts with the GP was estimated by using negative binomial regression adjusting for sex and date of birth of the child, maternal age, cohabitation status, income, education, substance abuse, depression, severe psychiatric disorders and use of antipsychotics, antidepressants and insulin. Children exposed prenatally to AEDs (n=4478) had 3% (95% CI 0 to 5%) more GP contacts during the study period than unexposed children. This was primarily accounted for by the number of phone contacts. Within each year of follow-up, exposed children tended to have more contacts than unexposed children, but the differences were small. We found no difference between exposed and unexposed children with regard to specific services provided at the GP contact. For the individual AEDs, we found that exposure to valproate or oxcarbazepine was associated with more GP contacts. We found only minor differences between prenatally AED-exposed and unexposed children in the number

  14. Arsenic Exposure and Impaired Lung Function. Findings from a Large Population-based Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Parvez, Faruque; Chen, Yu; Yunus, Mahbub; Olopade, Christopher; Segers, Stephanie; Slavkovich, Vesna; Argos, Maria; Hasan, Rabiul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Akter, Mahmud M.; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Exposure to arsenic through drinking water has been linked to respiratory symptoms, obstructive lung diseases, and mortality from respiratory diseases. Limited evidence for the deleterious effects on lung function exists among individuals exposed to a high dose of arsenic. Objectives: To determine the deleterious effects on lung function that exist among individuals exposed to a high dose of arsenic. Methods: In 950 individuals who presented with any respiratory symptom among a population-based cohort of 20,033 adults, we evaluated the association between arsenic exposure, measured by well water and urinary arsenic concentrations measured at baseline, and post-bronchodilator–administered pulmonary function assessed during follow-up. Measurements and Main Results: For every one SD increase in baseline water arsenic exposure, we observed a lower level of FEV1 (−46.5 ml; P < 0.0005) and FVC (−53.1 ml; P < 0.01) in regression models adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, socioeconomic status, betel nut use, and arsenical skin lesions status. Similar inverse relationships were observed between baseline urinary arsenic and FEV1 (−48.3 ml; P < 0.005) and FVC (−55.2 ml; P < 0.01) in adjusted models. Our analyses also demonstrated a dose-related decrease in lung function with increasing levels of baseline water and urinary arsenic. This association remained significant in never-smokers and individuals without skin lesions, and was stronger in male smokers. Among male smokers and individuals with skin lesions, every one SD increase in water arsenic was related to a significant reduction of FEV1 (−74.4 ml, P < 0.01; and −116.1 ml, P < 0.05) and FVC (−72.8 ml, P = 0.02; and −146.9 ml, P = 0.004), respectively. Conclusions: This large population-based study confirms that arsenic exposure is associated with impaired lung function and the deleterious effect is evident at low- to moderate-dose range. PMID:23848239

  15. Presence of anticitrullinated protein antibodies in a large population-based cohort from the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Zanten, A; Arends, S; Roozendaal, C; Limburg, P C; Maas, F; Trouw, L A; Toes, R E M; Huizinga, T W J; Bootsma, H; Brouwer, E

    2017-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) and their association with known rheumatoid arthritis (RA) risk factors in the general population. Lifelines is a multidisciplinary prospective population-based cohort study in the Netherlands. Cross-sectional data from 40 136 participants were used. The detection of ACPA was performed by measuring anti-CCP2 on the Phadia-250 analyser with levels ≥6.2 U/mL considered positive. An extensive questionnaire was taken on demographic and clinical information, including smoking, periodontal health and early symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders. RA was defined by a combination of self-reported RA, medication use for the indication of rheumatism and visiting a medical specialist within the last year. Of the total 40 136 unselected individuals, 401 (1.0%) had ACPA level ≥6.2 U/mL. ACPA positivity was significantly associated with older age, female gender, smoking, joint complaints, RA and first degree relatives with rheumatism. Of the ACPA-positive participants, 22.4% had RA (15.2% had defined RA according to our criteria and 7.2% self-reported RA only). In participants without RA, 311 (0.8%) were ACPA-positive. In the non-RA group, older age, smoking and joint complaints remained significantly more frequently present in ACPA-positive compared with ACPA-negative participants. In this large population-based study, the prevalence of ACPA levels ≥6.2 U/mL was 1.0% for the total group and 0.8% when excluding patients with RA. Older age, smoking and joint complaints were more frequently present in ACPA-positive Lifelines participants. To our knowledge, this study is the largest study to date on ACPA positivity in the general, mostly Caucasian population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Risk of neurological diseases among survivors of electric shocks: a nationwide cohort study, Denmark, 1968-2008.

    PubMed

    Grell, Kathrine; Meersohn, Andrea; Schüz, Joachim; Johansen, Christoffer

    2012-09-01

    Several studies suggest a link between electric injuries and neurological diseases, where electric shocks may explain elevated risks for neuronal degeneration and, subsequently, neurological diseases. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on the risk of neurological diseases among people in Denmark who had survived an electric accident in 1968-2008. The cohort included 3,133 people and occurrences of neurological diseases were determined by linkage to the nationwide population-based Danish National Register of Patients. The numbers of cases observed at first hospital contact in the cohort were compared with the respective rates of first hospital contacts for neurological diseases in the general population. We observed significantly increased risks for peripheral nerve diseases (standardized hospitalization ratio (SHR), 1.66; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.22-2.22), for migraine (SHR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.23-2.54), for vertigo (SHR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.22-2.05), and for epilepsy (SHR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.11-1.85). Only small numbers of cases of other neurological diseases were found, making the risk estimates unstable. These findings suggest an association between a single electric shock and increased risks for peripheral nerve diseases, migraines, vertigo, and epilepsy, but confirmation of these observations is needed.

  17. The changing face of thyroid cancer in a population-based cohort

    PubMed Central

    Alok Pathak, K; Leslie, William D; Klonisch, Thomas C; Nason, Richard W

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In North America, the incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing by over 6% per year. We studied the trends and factors influencing thyroid cancer incidence, its clinical presentation, and treatment outcome during 1970–2010 in a population-based cohort of 2306 consecutive thyroid cancers in Canada, that was followed up for a median period of 10.5 years. Disease-specific survival (DSS) and disease-free survival were estimated by the Kaplan–Meier method and the independent influence of various prognostic factors was evaluated by Cox proportional hazard models. Cumulative incidence of deaths resulting from thyroid cancer was calculated by competing risk analysis. A P-value <0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. The age standardized incidence of thyroid cancer by direct method increased from 2.52/100,000 (1970) to 9.37/100,000 (2010). Age at diagnosis, gender distribution, tumor size, and initial tumor stage did not change significantly during this period. The proportion of papillary thyroid cancers increased significantly (P < 0.001) from 58% (1970–1980) to 85.9% (2000–2010) while that of anaplastic cancer fell from 5.7% to 2.1% (P < 0.001). Ten-year DSS improved from 85.4% to 95.6%, and was adversely influenced by anaplastic histology (hazard ratio [HR] = 8.7; P < 0.001), male gender (HR = 1.8; P = 0.001), TNM stage IV (HR = 8.4; P = 0.001), incomplete surgical resection (HR = 2.4; P = 0.002), and age at diagnosis (HR = 1.05 per year; P < 0.001). There was a 373% increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in Manitoba with a marked improvement in the thyroid cancer-specific survival that was independent of changes in patient demographics, tumor stage, or treatment practices, and is largely attributed to the declining proportion of anaplastic thyroid cancers. This article shows there is an increase in the incidence of thyroid cancers of all sizes in a population cohort in Canada. The improvement in thyroid

  18. Clinical and social outcomes of adolescent self harm: population based birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Heron, Jon; Crane, Catherine; Hawton, Keith; Lewis, Glyn; Macleod, John; Tilling, Kate; Gunnell, David

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the mental health, substance use, educational, and occupational outcomes of adolescents who self harm in a general population sample, and to examine whether these outcomes differ according to self reported suicidal intent. Design Population based birth cohort study. Setting Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a UK birth cohort of children born in 1991-92. Participants Data on lifetime history of self harm with and without suicidal intent were available for 4799 respondents who completed a detailed self harm questionnaire at age 16 years. Multiple imputation was used to account for missing data. Main outcome measures Mental health problems (depression and anxiety disorder), assessed using the clinical interview schedule-revised at age 18 years, self reported substance use (alcohol, cannabis, cigarette smoking, and illicit drugs) at age 18 years, educational attainment at age 16 and 19 years, occupational outcomes at age 19 years, and self harm at age 21 years. Results Participants who self harmed with and without suicidal intent at age 16 years were at increased risk of developing mental health problems, future self harm, and problem substance misuse, with stronger associations for suicidal self harm than for non-suicidal self harm. For example, in models adjusted for confounders the odds ratio for depression at age 18 years was 2.21 (95% confidence interval 1.55 to 3.15) in participants who had self harmed without suicidal intent at age 16 years and 3.94 (2.67 to 5.83) in those who had self harmed with suicidal intent. Suicidal self harm, but not self harm without suicidal intent, was also associated with poorer educational and employment outcomes. Conclusions Adolescents who self harm seem to be vulnerable to a range of adverse outcomes in early adulthood. Risks were generally stronger in those who had self harmed with suicidal intent, but outcomes were also poor among those who had self harmed without suicidal

  19. A population-based, retrospective, cohort study of esophageal cancer missed at endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Georgina; Groene, Oliver; Hoare, Jonathan; Hardwick, Richard H; Riley, Stuart; Crosby, Tom D; Hanna, George B; Cromwell, David A

    2014-07-01

    Several studies have suggested that a significant minority of esophageal cancers are missed at endoscopy The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of esophageal cancers missed at endoscopy on a national level, and to investigate the relationship between miss rates and patient and tumor characteristics. This retrospective, population-based, cohort study identified patients diagnosed with esophageal cancer between April 2011 and March 2012 in England, using two linked databases (National Oesophago-Gastric Cancer Audit and Hospital Episode Statistics). The main outcome was the rate of previous endoscopy within 3 - 36 months of cancer diagnosis. This was calculated for the overall cohort and by patient characteristics, including tumor site and disease stage. A total of 6943 new cases of esophageal cancer were identified, of which 7.8 % (95 % confidence interval 7.1 - 8.4) had undergone endoscopy in the 3 - 36 months preceding diagnosis. Of patients with stage 0/1 cancers, 34.0 % had undergone endoscopy in the 3 - 36 months before diagnosis compared with 10.0 % of stage 2 cancers and 4.5 % of stage 3/4 cancers. Of patients with stage 0/1 cancers, 22.1 % were diagnosed after ≥ 3 endoscopies in the previous 3 years. Patients diagnosed with an upper esophageal lesion were more likely to have had an endoscopy in the previous 3 - 12 months (P = 0.040). The most common diagnosis at previous endoscopy was an esophageal ulcer (48.2 % of investigations). Esophageal cancer may be missed at endoscopy in up to 7.8 % of patients who are subsequently diagnosed with cancer. Endoscopists should make a detailed examination of the whole esophageal mucosa to avoid missing subtle early cancers and lesions in the proximal esophagus. Patients with an esophageal cancer may be misdiagnosed as having a benign esophageal ulcer. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Bone mineral density in statin users: a population-based analysis from a Spanish cohort.

    PubMed

    Hernández, José L; Olmos, José M; Romaña, Galo; Martinez, Josefina; Castillo, Jesús; Yezerska, Irina; Pinedo, Gabriel; González-Macías, Jesús

    2014-03-01

    We studied 2,315 subjects (1,422 women and 893 men) from the Camargo Cohort and analyzed the differences in BMD between statin or non-statin users. We also studied effects of the type of statin, dose, pharmacokinetic properties, and length of treatment on bone mineral density (BMD). Of the subjects, 478 (21 %) were taking statins (256 women and 222 men). Overall, they had higher BMD than non-users (p < 0.0001). In adjusted multivariate models, women taking statins had higher BMD at femoral neck (p = 0.002) and total hip (p = 0.04) than non- users. No differences were found in men. Women taking simvastatin had higher increases in BMD than non-statin users at femoral neck (p = 0.02) and total hip (p = 0.009), those taking fluvastatin had lower BMD values at lumbar spine (p = 0.028), and those receiving lovastatin had higher increases at femoral neck (p = 0.006). In men, only atorvastatin was associated with higher femoral neck BMD than non-statin use (p = 0.029). Comparing with non-statin users, only women receiving lipophilic statins had greater BMD at femoral neck (p = 0.003). According to drug potency, women on high- or lower-potency agents showed higher BMD values at femoral neck than non-users (p = 0.028 and 0.022, respectively). In men, only high-potency statins were associated with higher femoral neck BMD than non-use (p = 0.021). No differences between dose or length of statin therapy were noted regarding BMD in either sex. In summary, in a large population-based cohort, women on statins had higher BMD at the hip than non-users. Overall, this increase in BMD was more evident in subjects on lipophilic or high-potency statins.

  1. Detection of Alzheimer's disease and dementia in the preclinical phase: population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Katie; Bäckman, Lars; Winblad, Bengt; Fratiglioni, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate a simple three step procedure to identify people in the general population who are in the preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease and dementia. Design Three year population based cohort study. Setting Kungsholmen cohort, Stockholm, Sweden. Participants 1435 people aged 75-95 years without dementia. Assessments Single question asking about memory complaints, assessment by mini-mental state examination, and neuropsychological testing. Main outcome measure Alzheimer's disease and dementia at three year follow up. Results None of the three instruments was sufficiently predictive of Alzheimer's disease and dementia when administered separately. After participants had been screened for memory complaints and global cognitive impairment, specific tests of word recall and verbal fluency had positive predictive values for dementia of 85-100% (95% confidence intervals range from 62% to 100%). However, only 18% of future dementia cases were identified in the preclinical phase by this three step procedure. Memory complaints were the most sensitive indicator of Alzheimer's disease and dementia in the whole population, but only half the future dementia cases reported memory problems three years before diagnosis. Conclusion This three step procedure, which simulates what might occur in clinical practice, has a high positive predictive value for dementia, although only a small number of future cases can be identified. What is already known on this topicAlzheimer's disease is characterised by a preclinical phase, during which cognitive deficits are seen before diagnosisElderly people with subjective memory complaints and objective global cognitive impairment have a high risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and dementiaWhat this study addsThis three step procedure (self report of memory complaints, test of global cognitive functioning, and then domain specific cognitive tests) has a positive predictivity of 85-100% for Alzheimer's disease and dementia at

  2. Effect of Modifiable Risk Factors on Preterm Birth: A Population Based-Cohort.

    PubMed

    Lengyel, Candice S; Ehrlich, Shelley; Iams, Jay D; Muglia, Louis J; DeFranco, Emily A

    2017-04-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence, impact, and interaction of short interpregnancy interval (IPI), pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) category, and pregnancy weight gain (PWG) on the rate of preterm birth. Methods This is a population-based retrospective cohort study using vital statistics birth records from 2006 to 2011 in OH, US, analyzing singleton live births to multiparous mothers with recorded IPI (n = 393,441). Preterm birth rate at <37 weeks gestational age was compared between the referent pregnancy (defined as normal pre-pregnancy maternal BMI, IPI of 12-24 months, and Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommended PWG) and those with short or long IPI, abnormal BMI (underweight, overweight, and obese), and high or low PWG (under or exceeding IOM recommendations). Results Only 6 % of the women in this study had a referent pregnancy, with a preterm birth rate of 7.6 % for this group. Short IPIs of <6 and 6-12 months were associated with increased rates of preterm birth rate to 12.9 and 10.4 %, respectively. Low PWG compared to IOM recommendations for pre-pregnancy BMI class was also associated with increased preterm birth rate of 13.2 % for all BMI classes combined. However, the highest rate of preterm birth of 25.2 % occurred in underweight women with short IPI and inadequate weight gain with adjOR 3.44 (95 % CI 2.80, 4.23). The fraction of preterm births observed in this cohort that can be attributed to short IPIs is 5.9 %, long IPIs is 8.3 %, inadequate PWG is 7.5 %, and low pre-pregnancy BMI is 2.2 %. Conclusions Our analysis indicates that a significant proportion of preterm births in Ohio are associated with potentially modifiable risk factors. These data suggest public health initiatives focused on preterm birth prevention could include counseling and interventions to optimize preconception health and prenatal nutrition.

  3. Usefulness of data from magnetic resonance imaging to improve prediction of dementia: population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Blossom C M; Tzourio, Christophe; Auriacombe, Sophie; Amieva, Hélène; Dufouil, Carole; Alpérovitch, Annick

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the addition of data derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain to a model incorporating conventional risk variables improves prediction of dementia over 10 years of follow-up. Design Population based cohort study of individuals aged ≥65. Setting The Dijon magnetic resonance imaging study cohort from the Three-City Study, France. Participants 1721 people without dementia who underwent an MRI scan at baseline and with known dementia status over 10 years’ follow-up. Main outcome measure Incident dementia (all cause and Alzheimer’s disease). Results During 10 years of follow-up, there were 119 confirmed cases of dementia, 84 of which were Alzheimer’s disease. The conventional risk model incorporated age, sex, education, cognition, physical function, lifestyle (smoking, alcohol use), health (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, systolic blood pressure), and the apolipoprotein genotype (C statistic for discrimination performance was 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.71 to 0.82). No significant differences were observed in the discrimination performance of the conventional risk model compared with models incorporating data from MRI including white matter lesion volume (C statistic 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.72 to 0.82; P=0.48 for difference of C statistics), brain volume (0.77, 0.72 to 0.82; P=0.60), hippocampal volume (0.79, 0.74 to 0.84; P=0.07), or all three variables combined (0.79, 0.75 to 0.84; P=0.05). Inclusion of hippocampal volume or all three MRI variables combined in the conventional model did, however, lead to significant improvement in reclassification measured by using the integrated discrimination improvement index (P=0.03 and P=0.04) and showed increased net benefit in decision curve analysis. Similar results were observed when the outcome was restricted to Alzheimer’s disease. Conclusions Data from MRI do not significantly improve discrimination performance in prediction of all cause dementia

  4. Lifetime sexual violence and childbirth expectations - A Norwegian population based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Lena; Schei, Berit; Lukasse, Mirjam

    2016-05-01

    this study aimed to explore the association between lifetime sexual violence and expectations about childbirth. Norwegian population-based cohort study. women presenting for routine ultrasound examinations were recruited to the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study between 1999 and 2008. 78,660 pregnant women. sexual violence and expectations about childbirth were self-reported during pregnancy using postal questionnaires. Risk estimations were performed using multivariable logistic regression analysis and stratified by parity. fear of childbirth, the thoughts about pain relief, worries about the infant's health and looking forward to the arrival of the infant. of 78,660 women, 18.4% reported a history of sexual violence and 0.9% were exposed to sexual violence within the last 12 months, including during the current pregnancy. We found that nulliparous women who reported previous or recent sexual violence had a decrease in the odds of looking forward to the arrival of the infant with an AOR of 0.8 (95% CI 0.7-0.9) and 0.4 (95% CI 0.3-0.6), respectively, compared to non-abused women. The same pattern was observed among multiparous women and they were more likely to report worries about the infant's health. Severe sexual violence (rape) was associated with concerns about childbirth, especially for nulliparous women that were more likely to express fear of birth, a hope for a pain-free birth, a desire for caesarean section and worries about the infant's health than non-exposed women. women with a lifetime exposure to sexual violence, both past experiences and within the last 12 months, were less likely to look forward to the arrival of the infant than non-exposed women, and they were more likely to worry about the infant's health. Women with experiences of severe sexual violence (rape) had more concerns about childbirth than women without this experience. This finding shows that exploring women's attitudes toward childbirth may work as an approach when examining

  5. Consumption of spicy foods and total and cause specific mortality: population based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jun; Qi, Lu; Yu, Canqing; Yang, Ling; Guo, Yu; Chen, Yiping; Bian, Zheng; Sun, Dianjianyi; Du, Jianwei; Ge, Pengfei; Tang, Zhenzhu; Hou, Wei; Li, Yanjie; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming

    2015-08-04

    To examine the associations between the regular consumption of spicy foods and total and cause specific mortality. Population based prospective cohort study. China Kadoorie Biobank in which participants from 10 geographically diverse areas across China were enrolled between 2004 and 2008. 199,293 men and 288,082 women aged 30 to 79 years at baseline after excluding participants with cancer, heart disease, and stroke at baseline. Consumption frequency of spicy foods, self reported once at baseline. Total and cause specific mortality. During 3,500,004 person years of follow-up between 2004 and 2013 (median 7.2 years), a total of 11,820 men and 8404 women died. Absolute mortality rates according to spicy food consumption categories were 6.1, 4.4, 4.3, and 5.8 deaths per 1000 person years for participants who ate spicy foods less than once a week, 1 or 2, 3 to 5, and 6 or 7 days a week, respectively. Spicy food consumption showed highly consistent inverse associations with total mortality among both men and women after adjustment for other known or potential risk factors. In the whole cohort, compared with those who ate spicy foods less than once a week, the adjusted hazard ratios for death were 0.90 (95% confidence interval 0.84 to 0.96), 0.86 (0.80 to 0.92), and 0.86 (0.82 to 0.90) for those who ate spicy food 1 or 2, 3 to 5, and 6 or 7 days a week, respectively. Compared with those who ate spicy foods less than once a week, those who consumed spicy foods 6 or 7 days a week showed a 14% relative risk reduction in total mortality. The inverse association between spicy food consumption and total mortality was stronger in those who did not consume alcohol than those who did (P=0.033 for interaction). Inverse associations were also observed for deaths due to cancer, ischemic heart diseases, and respiratory diseases. In this large prospective study, the habitual consumption of spicy foods was inversely associated with total and certain cause specific mortality

  6. Consumption of spicy foods and total and cause specific mortality: population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jun; Qi, Lu; Yu, Canqing; Yang, Ling; Guo, Yu; Chen, Yiping; Bian, Zheng; Sun, Dianjianyi; Du, Jianwei; Ge, Pengfei; Tang, Zhenzhu; Hou, Wei; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations between the regular consumption of spicy foods and total and cause specific mortality. Design Population based prospective cohort study. Setting China Kadoorie Biobank in which participants from 10 geographically diverse areas across China were enrolled between 2004 and 2008. Participants 199 293 men and 288 082 women aged 30 to 79 years at baseline after excluding participants with cancer, heart disease, and stroke at baseline. Main exposure measures Consumption frequency of spicy foods, self reported once at baseline. Main outcome measures Total and cause specific mortality. Results During 3 500 004 person years of follow-up between 2004 and 2013 (median 7.2 years), a total of 11 820 men and 8404 women died. Absolute mortality rates according to spicy food consumption categories were 6.1, 4.4, 4.3, and 5.8 deaths per 1000 person years for participants who ate spicy foods less than once a week, 1 or 2, 3 to 5, and 6 or 7 days a week, respectively. Spicy food consumption showed highly consistent inverse associations with total mortality among both men and women after adjustment for other known or potential risk factors. In the whole cohort, compared with those who ate spicy foods less than once a week, the adjusted hazard ratios for death were 0.90 (95% confidence interval 0.84 to 0.96), 0.86 (0.80 to 0.92), and 0.86 (0.82 to 0.90) for those who ate spicy food 1 or 2, 3 to 5, and 6 or 7 days a week, respectively. Compared with those who ate spicy foods less than once a week, those who consumed spicy foods 6 or 7 days a week showed a 14% relative risk reduction in total mortality. The inverse association between spicy food consumption and total mortality was stronger in those who did not consume alcohol than those who did (P=0.033 for interaction). Inverse associations were also observed for deaths due to cancer, ischemic heart diseases, and respiratory diseases. Conclusion In this large prospective study, the habitual

  7. Rates and risk factors for prolonged opioid use after major surgery: population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Soneji, Neilesh; Ko, Dennis T; Yun, Lingsong; Wijeysundera, Duminda N

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe rates and risk factors for prolonged postoperative use of opioids in patients who had not previously used opioids and undergoing major elective surgery. Design Population based retrospective cohort study. Setting Acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada, between 1 April 2003 and 31 March 2010. Participants 39 140 opioid naïve patients aged 66 years or older who had major elective surgery, including cardiac, intrathoracic, intra-abdominal, and pelvic procedures. Main outcome measure Prolonged opioid use after discharge, as defined by ongoing outpatient prescriptions for opioids for more than 90 days after surgery. Results Of the 39 140 patients in the entire cohort, 49.2% (n=19 256) were discharged from hospital with an opioid prescription, and 3.1% (n=1229) continued to receive opioids for more than 90 days after surgery. Following risk adjustment with multivariable logistic regression modelling, patient related factors associated with significantly higher risks of prolonged opioid use included younger age, lower household income, specific comorbidities (diabetes, heart failure, pulmonary disease), and use of specific drugs preoperatively (benzodiazepines, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors). The type of surgical procedure was also highly associated with prolonged opioid use. Compared with open radical prostatectomies, both open and minimally invasive thoracic procedures were associated with significantly higher risks (odds ratio 2.58, 95% confidence interval 2.03 to 3.28 and 1.95 1.36 to 2.78, respectively). Conversely, open and minimally invasive major gynaecological procedures were associated with significantly lower risks (0.73, 0.55 to 0.98 and 0.45, 0.33 to 0.62, respectively). Conclusions Approximately 3% of previously opioid naïve patients continued to use opioids for more than 90 days after major elective surgery. Specific patient and surgical characteristics were associated with

  8. Missed strokes using computed tomography imaging in patients with vertigo: population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Keerat; Austin, Peter C; Kapral, Moira K; Lu, Hong; Atzema, Clare L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the proportion of emergency department (ED) patients with a diagnosis of peripheral vertigo who received computed tomography (CT) head imaging in the ED and to examine whether strokes were missed using CT imaging. This population-based retrospective cohort study assessed patients who were discharged from an ED in Ontario, Canada, with a diagnosis of peripheral vertigo, April 2006 to March 2011. Patients who received CT imaging (exposed) were matched by propensity score methods to patients who did not (unexposed). If performed, CT imaging was presumed to be negative for stroke because brain stem/cerebellar stroke would result in hospitalization. We compared the incidence of stroke within 30, 90, and 365 days subsequent to ED discharge between groups, to determine whether the exposed group had a higher frequency of early strokes than the matched unexposed group. Among 41 794 qualifying patients, 8596 (20.6%) received ED head CT imaging, and 99.8% of these patients were able to be matched to a control. Among exposed patients, 25 (0.29%) were hospitalized for stroke within 30 days when compared with 11 (0.13%) among matched nonexposed patients. The relative risk of a 30- and 90-day stroke among exposed versus unexposed patients was 2.27 (95% confidence interval, 1.12-4.62) and 1.94 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-3.43), respectively. There was no difference between groups at 1 year. Strokes occurred at a median of 32.0 days (interquartile range, 4.0-33.0 days) in exposed patients, compared with 105 days (interquartile range, 11.5-204.5) in unexposed patients. One fifth of patients diagnosed with peripheral vertigo in Ontario received imaging that is not recommended in guidelines, and that imaging was associated with missed strokes. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Excess risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with porphyria: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tollånes, Mette Christophersen; Aarsand, Aasne Karine; Sandberg, Sverre

    2011-02-01

    The porphyrias comprise a heterogeneous group of rare, primarily hereditary, metabolic diseases caused by a partial deficiency in one of the eight enzymes involved in the heme biosynthesis. Our aim was to assess whether acute or cutaneous porphyria has been associated with excess risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes. A population-based cohort study was designed by record linkage between the Norwegian Porphyria Register, covering 70% of all known porphyria patients in Norway, and the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, based on all births in Norway during 1967-2006. The risks of the adverse pregnancy outcomes preeclampsia, delivery by caesarean section, low birth weight, premature delivery, small for gestational age (SGA), perinatal death, and congenital malformations were compared between porphyric mothers and the rest of the population. The 200 mothers with porphyria had 398 singletons during the study period, whereas the 1,100,391 mothers without porphyria had 2,275,317 singletons. First-time mothers with active acute porphyria had an excess risk of perinatal death [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 4.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-16.0], as did mothers with the hereditable form of porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) (3.0, 1.2-7.7). Sporadic PCT was associated with an excess risk of SGA [adjusted relative risk (RR) 2.0, 1.2-3.4], and for first-time mothers, low birth weight (adjusted OR 3.4, 1.2-10.0) and premature delivery (3.5, 1.2-10.5) in addition. The findings suggest women with porphyria should be monitored closely during pregnancy.

  10. Excess risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with porphyria: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Aarsand, Aasne Karine; Sandberg, Sverre

    2010-01-01

    The porphyrias comprise a heterogeneous group of rare, primarily hereditary, metabolic diseases caused by a partial deficiency in one of the eight enzymes involved in the heme biosynthesis. Our aim was to assess whether acute or cutaneous porphyria has been associated with excess risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes. A population-based cohort study was designed by record linkage between the Norwegian Porphyria Register, covering 70% of all known porphyria patients in Norway, and the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, based on all births in Norway during 1967–2006. The risks of the adverse pregnancy outcomes preeclampsia, delivery by caesarean section, low birth weight, premature delivery, small for gestational age (SGA), perinatal death, and congenital malformations were compared between porphyric mothers and the rest of the population. The 200 mothers with porphyria had 398 singletons during the study period, whereas the 1,100,391 mothers without porphyria had 2,275,317 singletons. First-time mothers with active acute porphyria had an excess risk of perinatal death [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 4.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5–16.0], as did mothers with the hereditable form of porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) (3.0, 1.2–7.7). Sporadic PCT was associated with an excess risk of SGA [adjusted relative risk (RR) 2.0, 1.2–3.4], and for first-time mothers, low birth weight (adjusted OR 3.4, 1.2–10.0) and premature delivery (3.5, 1.2–10.5) in addition. The findings suggest women with porphyria should be monitored closely during pregnancy. PMID:20978938

  11. Low-level exposure to lead, blood pressure, and hypertension in a population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Gambelunghe, Angela; Sallsten, Gerd; Borné, Yan; Forsgard, Niklas; Hedblad, Bo; Nilsson, Peter; Fagerberg, Björn; Engström, Gunnar; Barregard, Lars

    2016-08-01

    Environmental lead exposure is a possible causative factor for increased blood pressure and hypertension, but large studies at low-level exposure are scarce, and results inconsistent. We aimed to examine the effects of environmental exposure to lead in a large population-based sample. We assessed associations between blood lead and systolic/diastolic blood pressure and hypertension in 4452 individuals (46-67 years) living in Malmö, Sweden, in 1991-1994. Blood pressure was measured using a mercury sphygmomanometer after 10min supine rest. Hypertension was defined as high systolic (≥140mmHg) or diastolic (≥90mmHg) blood pressure and/or current use of antihypertensive medication. Blood lead was calculated from lead in erythrocytes and haematocrit. Multivariable associations between blood lead and blood pressure or hypertension were assessed by linear and logistic regression. Two-thirds of the cohort was re-examined 16 years later. At baseline, mean blood pressure was 141/87mmHg, 16% used antihypertensive medication, 63% had hypertension, and mean blood lead was 28µg/L. Blood lead in the fourth quartile was associated with significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (point estimates: 1-2mmHg) and increased prevalence of hypertension (odds ratio: 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-1.5) versus the other quartiles after adjustment for sex, age, smoking, alcohol, waist circumference, and education. Associations were also significant with blood lead as a continuous variable. Blood lead at baseline, having a half-life of about one month, was not associated with antihypertensive treatment at the 16-year follow-up. Low-level lead exposure increases blood pressure and may increase the risk of hypertension. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Inflammatory bowel disease in immigrants to Canada and their children: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Benchimol, Eric I; Mack, David R; Guttmann, Astrid; Nguyen, Geoffrey C; To, Teresa; Mojaverian, Nassim; Quach, Pauline; Manuel, Douglas G

    2015-04-01

    The risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) contributed by the environment can be elucidated by assessing the risk in migrants from low prevalence to Western countries. The incidence of IBD in immigrants to Canada and their Canadian-born children was compared with nonimmigrants. A population-based cohort of IBD patients derived from health administrative data was linked to immigration data to determine the standardized incidence of IBD in immigrants to Ontario, Canada, by region of birth between 1994 and 2010. The hazard contributed by younger age at immigration was determined. Incidence for Ontario-born children of immigrant mothers was compared with the children of nonimmigrants. In 2,144,660 immigrants, incidence of IBD was 7.3/100,000 person-years compared with 23.9/100,000 in 12,036,921 nonimmigrants (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.34, 95% CI 0.26-0.44). Incidence was lowest risk in East Asians (IRR 0.14, 95% CI 0.11-0.18) and highest in Western Europeans/North Americans (IRR 0.59, 95% CI 0.46-0.75). Increased age at immigration was associated with decreased risk of IBD (HR 0.986, 95% CI 0.982-0.990), a 14% increased risk per younger decade of life at immigration. Children of immigrants from the Middle East/North Africa, South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, and North America/Western Europe had similar risk of IBD as children of nonimmigrants; however, the incidence remained lower among children of immigrants from other regions. Younger age at arrival to Canada increased the risk of IBD in immigrants. Canadian-born children of immigrants from some regions assumed the high Canadian incidence of IBD, indicating that the underlying risk is activated with earlier life exposure to the Canadian environment in certain groups.

  13. Monitoring of patients on long-term glucocorticoid therapy: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fardet, Laurence; Petersen, Irene; Nazareth, Irwin

    2015-04-01

    About 1% of the general population receives long-term systemic glucocorticoids. The monitoring provided to these patients is unknown. We conducted a population-based cohort study using The Health Improvement Network database. A total of 100,944 adult patients prescribed systemic glucocorticoids for >3 months between January 2000 and December 2012 were studied. The monitoring done before prescribing glucocorticoid therapy and during exposure to the drug was examined. This included measurement of body weight, blood pressure, lipids, glucose and potassium levels, referrals for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA-scan) or to an ophthalmologist/optician, and vaccinations. We assessed factors associated with the odds of being monitored before and during exposure. Before glucocorticoid initiation, weight and blood pressure were monitored in < 20% and < 50% of patients, respectively. Glucose and lipid levels were monitored in less than one-third of the patients, while DEXA-scan and eye monitoring were offered to <15% of them. Vaccination against flu and pneumococcus was given to 57% and 46% of the patients, respectively. During exposure to the drug, <60% of patients who were prescribed the drug for more than a year had their weight, glucose, or lipid levels recorded at least once and <25% of patients were referred at least once for DEXA-scan or screening for eye diseases. Overall, the odds of being monitored were higher in older patients and in those with comorbidities. There were variations in the level of monitoring provided across the UK, but the monitoring has improved over the last 12 years. Although the extent of monitoring of people on long-term glucocorticoids has improved over time, the overall monitoring provided is not satisfactory, particularly in young patients and those without comorbidities.

  14. Comorbidity of schizophrenia and infection: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Philip Rising; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Agerbo, Esben

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the hypothesis that there is an overlap between infection and schizophrenia. Infections have been identified as a risk factor for schizophrenia, but the possible overlap between schizophrenia and infections remains unidentified so far. Here, we describe the use of the comorbidity index, a method for objectively integrating associations into a single measure estimating overlap. Data were drawn from three population-based registers, the Civil Registration Register, the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register, and the Danish National Hospital Register. We selected a cohort of 1,403,183 persons born in Denmark 1977-2002. Our results indicate that persons who have had a hospital contact with an infection (IRR 1.53, CI 1.46-1.61) are more likely to develop schizophrenia than persons who have not had such a contact. Persons who have had a diagnosis with schizophrenia are more likely to have had a hospital contact with an infection (IRR 1.73, 95 % CI 1.57-1.91) than persons who have had no schizophrenia diagnosis. A comorbidity index of 1.40 (95 % CI 1.34-1.46) was found, indicating an overlap between schizophrenia and infection. Our findings indicate that schizophrenia and infections overlap and that they share risk factors. The comorbidity index showed that the co-occurrence of schizophrenia and infection was 40 % higher than if the two disorders had occurred independently. Although the incidence of schizophrenia and infection was associated with each factor, the overlap could not be explained by urbanicity, parental history of psychiatric admission and infection.

  15. Predictors of Death among Patients Who Completed Tuberculosis Treatment: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Juan-Pablo; Orcau, Angels; Rius, Cristina; Casals, Marti; de Olalla, Patricia Garcia; Moreno, Antonio; Nelson, Jeanne L.; Caylà, Joan A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mortality among patients who complete tuberculosis (TB) treatment is still high among vulnerable populations. The objective of the study was to identify the probability of death and its predictive factors in a cohort of successfully treated TB patients. Methods A population-based retrospective longitudinal study was performed in Barcelona, Spain. All patients who successfully completed TB treatment with culture-confirmation and available drug susceptibility testing between 1995–1997 were retrospectively followed-up until December 31, 2005 by the Barcelona TB Control Program. Socio-demographic, clinical, microbiological and treatment variables were examined. Mortality, TB Program and AIDS registries were reviewed. Kaplan-Meier and a Cox regression methods with time-dependent covariates were used for the survival analysis, calculating the hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Among the 762 included patients, the median age was 36 years, 520 (68.2%) were male, 178 (23.4%) HIV-infected, and 208 (27.3%) were alcohol abusers. Of the 134 (17.6%) injecting drug users (IDU), 123 (91.8%) were HIV-infected. A total of 30 (3.9%) recurrences and 173 deaths (22.7%) occurred (mortality rate: 3.4/100 person-years of follow-up). The predictors of death were: age between 41–60 years old (HR: 3.5; CI:2.1–5.7), age greater than 60 years (HR: 14.6; CI:8.9–24), alcohol abuse (HR: 1.7; CI:1.2–2.4) and HIV-infected IDU (HR: 7.9; CI:4.7–13.3). Conclusions The mortality rate among TB patients who completed treatment is associated with vulnerable populations such as the elderly, alcohol abusers, and HIV-infected IDU. We therefore need to fight against poverty, and promote and develop interventions and social policies directed towards these populations to improve their survival. PMID:21980423

  16. Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection among Medicare patients in nursing homes: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zilberberg, Marya D; Shorr, Andrew F; Jesdale, William M; Tjia, Jennifer; Lapane, Kate

    2017-03-01

    We explored the epidemiology and outcomes of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) recurrence among Medicare patients in a nursing home (NH) whose CDI originated in acute care hospitals.We conducted a retrospective, population-based matched cohort combining Medicare claims with Minimum Data Set 3.0, including all hospitalized patients age ≥65 years transferred to an NH after hospitalization with CDI 1/2011-11/2012. Incident CDI was defined as ICD-9-CM code 008.45 with no others in prior 60 days. CDI recurrence was defined as (within 60 days of last day of CDI treatment): oral metronidazole, oral vancomycin, or fidaxomicin for ≥3 days in part D file; or an ICD-9-CM code for CDI (008.45) during a rehospitalization. Cox proportional hazards and linear models, adjusted for age, gender, race, and comorbidities, examined mortality within 60 days and excess hospital days and costs, in patients with recurrent CDI compared to those without.Among 14,472 survivors of index CDI hospitalization discharged to an NH, 4775 suffered a recurrence. Demographics and clinical characteristics at baseline were similar, as was the risk of death (24.2% with vs 24.4% without). Median number of hospitalizations was 2 (IQR 1-3) among those with and 0 (IQR 0-1) among those without recurrence. Adjusted excess hospital days per patient were 20.3 (95% CI 19.1-21.4) and Medicare reimbursements $12,043 (95% CI $11,469-$12,617) in the group with a recurrence.Although recurrent CDI did not increase the risk of death, it was associated with a far higher risk of rehospitalization, excess hospital days, and costs to Medicare.

  17. Risk of fracture after bariatric surgery in the United Kingdom: population based, retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lalmohamed, Arief; de Vries, Frank; Bazelier, Marloes T; Cooper, Alun; van Staa, Tjeerd-Pieter; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas C

    2012-08-03

    To estimate fracture risk in patients receiving bariatric surgery versus matched controls. Population based, retrospective cohort study. Use of records from the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database, now known as the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (from January 1987 to December 2010). Patients with a body mass index of at least 30, with a record of bariatric surgery (n=2079), and matched controls without a record (n=10,442). Each bariatric surgery patient was matched to up to six controls by age, sex, practice, year, and body mass index. Patients were followed from the date of bariatric surgery for the occurrence of any fracture. We used time dependent Cox regression to calculate relative rates of fracture, adjusted for disease and previous drug treatment, and time-interaction terms to evaluate fracture timing patterns. Relative rates of any, osteoporotic, and non-osteoporotic fractures. Mean follow-up time was 2.2 years. Overall, there was no significantly increased risk of fracture in patients who underwent bariatric surgery, compared with controls (8.8 v 8.2 per 1000 person years; adjusted relative risk 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.60 to 1.33). Bariatric surgery also did not affect risk of osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic fractures. However, we saw a trend towards an increased fracture risk after three to five years following surgery, as well as in patients who had a greater decrease in body mass index after surgery, but this was not significant. Bariatric surgery does not have a significant effect on the risk of fracture. For the first few years after surgery, these results are reassuring for patients undergoing such operations, but do not exclude a more protracted adverse influence on skeletal health in the longer term.

  18. Investigating shared aetiology between type 2 diabetes and major depressive disorder in a population based cohort

    PubMed Central

    Obsteter, Jana; Hall, Lynsey S.; Hayward, Caroline; Thomson, Pippa A.; Smith, Blair H.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Hocking, Lynne J.; Deary, Ian J.; Porteous, David J.; McIntosh, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Type II diabetes (T2D) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are often co‐morbid. The reasons for this co‐morbidity are unclear. Some studies have highlighted the importance of environmental factors and a causal relationship between T2D and MDD has also been postulated. In the present study we set out to investigate the shared aetiology between T2D and MDD using Mendelian randomization in a population based sample, Generation Scotland: the Scottish Family Health Study (N = 21,516). Eleven SNPs found to be associated with T2D were tested for association with MDD and psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire scores). We also assessed causality and genetic overlap between T2D and MDD using polygenic risk scores (PRS) assembled from the largest available GWAS summary statistics to date. No single T2D risk SNP was associated with MDD in the MR analyses and we did not find consistent evidence of genetic overlap between MDD and T2D in the PRS analyses. Linkage disequilibrium score regression analyses supported these findings as no genetic correlation was observed between T2D and MDD (rG = 0.0278 (S.E. 0.11), P‐value = 0.79). As suggested by previous studies, T2D and MDD covariance may be better explained by environmental factors. Future studies would benefit from analyses in larger cohorts where stratifying by sex and looking more closely at MDD cases demonstrating metabolic dysregulation is possible. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27480393

  19. Maternal tobacco use and extremely premature birth - a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dahlin, S; Gunnerbeck, A; Wikström, A-K; Cnattingius, S; Edstedt Bonamy, A-K

    2016-11-01

    To study the associations of maternal tobacco use (smoking or use of snuff) and risk of extremely preterm birth, and if tobacco cessation before antenatal booking influences this risk. To study the association between tobacco use and spontaneous or medically indicated onset of delivery. Population-based cohort study. Sweden. All live singleton births, registered in the Swedish Medical Birth Register, 1999-2012. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multiple logistic regression analysis. Extremely preterm birth (<28 weeks of gestation), very preterm birth (28-31 weeks), moderately preterm birth (32-36 weeks). Maternal snuff use (OR 1.58; 95% CI: 1.14-2.21) and smoking (OR 1.61; 95% CI: 1.39-1.87 and OR 1.91; 95% CI: 1.53-2.39 for moderate and heavy smoking, respectively) were associated with an increased risk of extremely preterm birth. When cessation of tobacco use was obtained there was no increased risk of preterm birth. Snuff use was associated with a twofold risk increase of medically indicated extremely preterm birth, whereas smoking was associated with increased risks of both medically indicated and spontaneous extremely preterm birth. Snuff use and smoking in pregnancy were associated with increased risks of extremely preterm birth. Women who stopped using tobacco before the antenatal booking had no increased risk. These findings indicate that nicotine, the common substance in cigarettes and snuff, is involved in the mechanisms behind preterm birth. The use of nicotine should be minimized in pregnancy. Tobacco use increases risk of extremely preterm birth. Cessation is preventive. Avoid nicotine in pregnancy. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  20. The changing face of thyroid cancer in a population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Pathak, K Alok; Leslie, William D; Klonisch, Thomas C; Nason, Richard W

    2013-08-01

    In North America, the incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing by over 6% per year. We studied the trends and factors influencing thyroid cancer incidence, its clinical presentation, and treatment outcome during 1970-2010 in a population-based cohort of 2306 consecutive thyroid cancers in Canada, that was followed up for a median period of 10.5 years. Disease-specific survival (DSS) and disease-free survival were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and the independent influence of various prognostic factors was evaluated by Cox proportional hazard models. Cumulative incidence of deaths resulting from thyroid cancer was calculated by competing risk analysis. A P-value <0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. The age standardized incidence of thyroid cancer by direct method increased from 2.52/100,000 (1970) to 9.37/100,000 (2010). Age at diagnosis, gender distribution, tumor size, and initial tumor stage did not change significantly during this period. The proportion of papillary thyroid cancers increased significantly (P < 0.001) from 58% (1970-1980) to 85.9% (2000-2010) while that of anaplastic cancer fell from 5.7% to 2.1% (P < 0.001). Ten-year DSS improved from 85.4% to 95.6%, and was adversely influenced by anaplastic histology (hazard ratio [HR] = 8.7; P < 0.001), male gender (HR = 1.8; P = 0.001), TNM stage IV (HR = 8.4; P = 0.001), incomplete surgical resection (HR = 2.4; P = 0.002), and age at diagnosis (HR = 1.05 per year; P < 0.001). There was a 373% increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in Manitoba with a marked improvement in the thyroid cancer-specific survival that was independent of changes in patient demographics, tumor stage, or treatment practices, and is largely attributed to the declining proportion of anaplastic thyroid cancers.

  1. Refractory hypertension: determination of prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidities in a large, population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, David A; Booth, John N; Oparil, Suzanne; Irvin, Marguerite R; Shimbo, Daichi; Lackland, Daniel T; Howard, George; Safford, Monika M; Muntner, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Refractory hypertension is an extreme phenotype of antihypertensive treatment failure. Participants in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study, a large (n=30 239), population-based cohort were evaluated to determine the prevalence of refractory hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities. Refractory hypertension was defined as uncontrolled blood pressure (systolic/diastolic, ≥140/90 mm Hg) on ≥5 antihypertensive drug classes. Participants with resistant hypertension (systolic/diastolic, ≥140/90 mm Hg on ≥3 or <140/90 mm Hg on ≥4 antihypertensive classes) and all participants treated for hypertension served as comparator groups. Of 14 809 REGARDS participants receiving antihypertensive treatment, 78 (0.5%) had refractory hypertension. The prevalence of refractory hypertension was 3.6% among participants with resistant hypertension (n=2144) and 41.7% among participants on ≥5 antihypertensive drug classes. Among all participants with hypertension, black race, male sex, living in the stroke belt or buckle, higher body mass index, lower heart rate, reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, diabetes mellitus, and history of stroke and coronary heart disease were associated with refractory hypertension. Compared with resistant hypertension, prevalence ratios for refractory hypertension were increased for blacks (3.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.68-5.37) and those with albuminuria (2.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.40-3.52) and diabetes mellitus (2.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-3.31). The median 10-year Framingham risk for coronary heart disease and stroke was higher among participants with refractory hypertension when compared with those with either comparator group. These data indicate that although resistant hypertension is relatively common among treated patients with hypertension, true antihypertensive treatment failure is rare.

  2. Demographic characteristics and healthcare use of centenarians: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rochon, Paula A; Gruneir, Andrea; Wu, Wei; Gill, Sudeep S; Bronskill, Susan E; Seitz, Dallas P; Bell, Chaim M; Fischer, Hadas D; Stephenson, Anne L; Wang, Xuesong; Gershon, Andrea S; Anderson, Geoffrey M

    2014-01-01

    To better understand how centenarians use the healthcare system as an important step toward improving their service delivery. Population-based retrospective cohort study using linked health administrative data. Ontario--Canada's largest province. All individuals living in Ontario aged 65 and older on April 1 of each year between 1995 and 2010 were identified and divided into three age groups (65-84, 85-99, ≥ 100). A detailed description was obtained on 1,842 centenarians who were alive on April 1, 2010. Sociodemographic characteristics and use of health services. The number of centenarians increased from 1,069 in 1995 to 1,842 in 2010 (72.3%); 6.7% were aged 105 and older. Over the same period, the number of individuals aged 85 to 99 grew from 119,955 to 227,703 (89.8%). Women represented 85.3% of all centenarians and 89.4% of those aged 105 and older. Almost half of centenarians lived in the community (20.0% independently, 25.3% with publicly funded home care). Preventive drug therapies (bisphosphonates and statins) were frequently dispensed. In the preceding year, 18.2% were hospitalized and 26.6% were seen in an emergency department. More than 95% saw a primary care provider, and 5.3% saw a geriatrician. The number of centenarians in Ontario increased by more than 70% over the last 15 years, with even greater growth among older people who could soon become centenarians. Almost half of centenarians live in the community, most are women, and almost all receive care from a primary care physician. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. Vitamin D deficiency and supplementation in pregnancy in a multiethnic population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Eggemoen, Åse R; Falk, Ragnhild S; Knutsen, Kirsten V; Lagerløv, Per; Sletner, Line; Birkeland, Kåre I; Jenum, Anne K

    2016-01-19

    To investigate ethnic differences in vitamin D levels during pregnancy, assess risk factors for vitamin D deficiency and explore the effect of vitamin D supplementation in women with deficiency in early pregnancy. This is a population-based, multiethnic cohort study of pregnant women attending Child Health Clinics for antenatal care in Oslo, Norway. Serum-25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was measured in 748 pregnant women (59% ethnic minorities) at gestational weeks (GW) 15 (SD:3.6) and 28 (1.4). Women with 25(OH)D <37 nmol/L at GW 15 were for ethical reasons recommended vitamin D3 supplementation. Main outcome measure was 25(OH)D, and linear regression models were performed. Severe deficiency (25(OH)D <25 nmol/L) was found at GW 15 in 45% of women from South Asia, 40% from the Middle East and 26% from Sub-Saharan Africa, compared to 2.5% in women from East Asia and 1.3% of women from Western Europe. Women from South Asia, the Middle East and Sub-Saharan Africa had mean values that were -28 (95 % CI:-33, -23), -24 (-29, -18) and -20 (-27, -13) nmol/L lower than in Western women, respectively. Ethnicity, education, season and intake of vitamin D were independently associated with 25(OH)D. At GW 28, the mean 25(OH)D had increased from 23 (SD:7.8) to 47 (27) nmol/L (p < 0.01) in women who were recommended vitamin D supplementation, with small or no change in women with sufficient vitamin D levels at baseline. Vitamin D deficiency was prevalent among South Asian, Middle Eastern and African women. The serum levels of 25(OH)D increased significantly from GW 15 to 28 in vitamin D deficient women who received a recommendation for supplementation. This recommendation of vitamin D supplementation increased vitamin D levels in deficient women.

  4. Venous thromboembolism in children with cancer – A population-based cohort study☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Alex J.; Grainge, Matthew J.; Card, Tim R.; West, Joe; Ranta, Susanna; Ludvigsson, Jonas F.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cancer is a known risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in adults, but population-based data in children are scarce. Materials and methods We conducted a cohort study utilising linkage of the Clinical Practice Research Database (primary care), Hospital Episodes Statistics (secondary care), UK Cancer Registry data and Office for National Statistics cause of death data. From these databases, we selected 498 children with cancer diagnosed between 1997 and 2006 and 20,810 controls without cancer. We calculated VTE incidence rates in children with cancer vs. controls, and hazard ratios (HRs) using Cox regression. Results We identified four VTE events in children with cancer compared with four events in the larger control population corresponding to absolute risks of 1.52 and 0.06 per 1000 person-years respectively. The four children with VTE and cancer were diagnosed with hematological, bone or non-specified cancer. Childhood cancer was hence associated with a highly increased risk of VTE (HR adjusted for age and sex: 28.3; 95%CI = 7.0-114.5). Conclusions Children with cancer are at increased relative risk of VTE compared to those without cancer. Physicians could consider thromboprophylaxis in children with cancer to reduce their excess risk of VTE however the absolute risk is extremely small and the benefit gained therefore would need to be balanced against the risk invoked of implementing such a strategy. Novelty & Impact Statements While there is a reasonable level of knowledge about the risk of VTE in adult populations, it is not well known whether this risk is reflected in paediatric patients. We found a substantial increase in risk of VTE in children with cancer compared to a child population without cancer. While this finding is important, the absolute risk of VTE is still low and must be balanced with the risks of anticoagulation. PMID:24388573

  5. Depressive symptoms, social support, and risk of adult asthma in a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Loerbroks, Adrian; Apfelbacher, Christian J; Bosch, Jos A; Stürmer, Til

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the association between depressive symptoms, social support, and prevalent as well as incident asthma. Depressive symptoms and social support may affect the development of asthma. This relationship could be mediated by health behaviors and/or inflammatory processes. Evidence from prospective cohort studies on depressive symptoms and social support in relation to asthma risk in adults remains sparse. Between 1992 and 1995, a population-based sample of 5114 middle-aged adults completed questionnaires covering depressive symptoms, social support, self-reported asthma, and potential confounders. Among those alive in 2002/2003, 4010 (83%) were followed-up by questionnaires. Associations with prevalent and incident asthma were estimated by prevalence ratios (PR) and risk ratios (RR) along with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs), using Poisson regression. PRs and RRs were adjusted for demographics, family history of asthma, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and physical exercise. Cross-sectional analyses indicated that the prevalence of asthma was positively associated with depressive symptoms and inversely related to social support. Prospective analysis suggested a 24% increased risk of asthma with each 1-standard deviation increase in depressive symptoms (RR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.02, 1.50), whereas the social support z score showed an inverse association with asthma incidence (RR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.58, 0.88). Analyses with tertiles suggested similar, but nonsignificant, associations. Omitting health-related life-style variables from the multivariable models did not substantially alter these associations. Risk of adult asthma was found to increase with depressive symptoms and to decrease with social support. These associations do not seem to be explained by health-related life-style factors.

  6. Gastric cancer and salt preference: a population-based cohort study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongseon; Park, Sohee; Nam, Byung-Ho

    2010-05-01

    Although the incidence of gastric cancer is declining, it remains the most common cancer in Korea. There have been discrepancies in epidemiologic studies regarding a causal relation between highly salted food and the risk of gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of salt preference on the incidence of gastric cancer in Korean adults through a population-based, prospective cohort study. Participants were Korean government employees, school faculty members, and their unemployed dependents, aged 30-80 y, who underwent health examinations between 1996 and 1997. In 2003, information on the gastric cancer incidence in these participants was obtained during the 6-7-y follow-up period. The final data analysis included 2,248,129 study subjects. The hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI of the HR were estimated by using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. The age-standardized incidence rates per 100,000 person-years for the overall total population, men only, and women only were 97.64, 136.03, and 52.90, respectively. The Cox proportional hazards regression model, with adjustment for possible confounding factors, showed evidence of an increased risk of gastric cancer with salt preference. The HRs were 1.10 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.16) and 1.10 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.17) for the overall total population and men only, respectively. The current findings suggest that salt preference has a marginal positive association with a risk of gastric cancer.

  7. Refractory Hypertension: Determination of Prevalence, Risk Factors and Comorbidities in a Large, Population-Based Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, David A.; Booth, John N.; Oparil, Suzanne; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Shimbo, Daichi; Lackland, Daniel T.; Howard, George; Safford, Monika M.; Muntner, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Refractory hypertension is an extreme phenotype of antihypertensive treatment failure. Participants in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study, a large (n=30,239), population-based cohort were evaluated to determine the prevalence of refractory hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities. Refractory hypertension was defined as uncontrolled blood pressure (systolic/diastolic ≥ 140/90 mm Hg) on ≥ 5 antihypertensive drug classes. Participants with resistant hypertension (systolic/diastolic ≥140/90 mm Hg on ≥ 3 or<140/90 mm Hg on ≥ 4 antihypertensive classes) and all treated hypertensive participants served as comparator groups. Of 14,809 REGARDS participants receiving antihypertensive treatment, 78 (0.5%) had refractory hypertension. The prevalence of refractory hypertension was 3.6% among participants with resistant hypertension(n=2,144) and 41.7% among participants on 5 or more antihypertensive drug classes. Among all hypertensive participants, African American race, male gender, living in the stroke belt or buckle, higher body mass index, lower heart rate, reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, diabetes and history of stroke and coronary heart disease were associated with refractory hypertension. Compared to resistant hypertension, prevalence ratios for refractory hypertension were increased for African Americans (3.00, 95% CI 1.68 – 5.37) and those with albuminuria (2.22, 95% CI 1.40 – 3.52) and diabetes (2.09, 95% CI 1.32 – 3.31). The median 10-year Framingham risk for coronary heart disease and stroke was higher among participants with refractory hypertension compared to either comparator group. These data indicate that while resistant hypertension is relatively common among treated hypertensive patients, true antihypertensive treatment failure is rare. PMID:24324035

  8. The epidemiology and treatment of anal fissures in a population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Mapel, Douglas W; Schum, Michael; Von Worley, Ann

    2014-07-16

    Anal fissure (AF) is regarded as a common problem, but there are no published epidemiologic data, nor information on current treatment. The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence, associated comorbidities, and treatment of AF in a population-based cohort. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all persons who were enrolled in one large regional managed care system and treated for AF during calendar years 2005-2011. All persons aged 6 years or older who had a clinic, hospitalization, or surgical procedure associated with AF were identified from utilization data. To identify comorbidities associated with AF, each case was matched by age and gender to 3 controls. There were 1,243 AF cases, including 721 (58%) females and 522 (42%) males; 150 (12%) of the cases occurred in children aged 6-17 years. The overall annual incidence was 0.11% (1.1 cases per 1000 person-years), but ranged widely by age [0.05% in patients 6-17 years to 0.18% in patients 25-34 years]. The incidence also varied by sex, and was significantly higher among females 12-24 years, and among males 55-64 years (P < 0.001). Comorbidities associated with AF included chronic constipation (prevalence 14.2% vs 3.6%), hypothyroidism (14.7% vs 10.4%), obesity (13.0% vs 7.7%), and solid tumors without metastasis (5.2% vs 3.7%) (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). A total of 448 were dispensed a topical prescription medication, 31 had botulinum toxin injection, and only 13 had lateral internal sphincterotomy. AF is a common clinical problem, and the incidence varies substantially by age and sex. Constipation, obesity, and hypothyroidism are associated comorbidities. Most patients are prescribed topical treatments, although it appears that many prescriptions are never filled. Surgical interventions for AF including botulinum toxin and lateral internal sphincterotomy are uncommon.

  9. Dietary cadmium exposure and prostate cancer incidence: a population-based prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Julin, B; Wolk, A; Johansson, J-E; Andersson, S-O; Andrén, O; Åkesson, A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Experimental data convincingly propose the toxic metal cadmium as a prostate carcinogen. Cadmium is widely dispersed into the environment and, consequently, food is contaminated. Methods: A population-based cohort of 41 089 Swedish men aged 45–79 years was followed prospectively from 1998 through 2009 to assess the association between food frequency questionnaire-based estimates of dietary cadmium exposure (at baseline, 1998) and incidence of prostate cancer (3085 cases, of which 894 were localised and 794 advanced) and through 2008 for prostate cancer mortality (326 fatal cases). Results: Mean dietary cadmium exposure was 19 μg per day±s.d. 3.7. Multivariable-adjusted dietary cadmium exposure was positively associated with overall prostate cancer, comparing extreme tertiles; rate ratio (RR) 1.13 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03–1.24). For subtypes of prostate cancer, the RR was 1.29 (95% CI: 1.08–1.53) for localised, 1.05 (95% CI: 0.87–1.25) for advanced, and 1.14 (95% CI: 0.86–1.51) for fatal cases. No statistically significant difference was observed in the multivariable-adjusted risk estimates between tumour subtypes (Pheterogeneity=0.27). For localised prostate cancer, RR was 1.55 (1.16–2.08) among men with a small waist circumference and RR 1.45 (1.15, 1.83) among ever smokers. Conclusion: Our findings provide support that dietary cadmium exposure may have a role in prostate cancer development. PMID:22850555

  10. Regional differences in use of endoscopic ultrasonography in Ontario: a population-based retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    James, Paul D.; Hegagi, Mae; Antonova, Lilia; Tinmouth, Jill; Heitman, Steven J.; Simone, Carmine; Yeung, Elaine; Yong, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    Background: Endoscopic ultrasonography is a safe and accurate modality for evaluating and managing hepatobiliary and gastrointestinal conditions (malignant and nonmalignant); its use is increasing. The aim of this study was to describe regional trends in the use of endoscopic ultrasonography in Ontario. Methods: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study using health administrative databases. We identified all patients who underwent an endoscopic ultrasound procedure in Ontario from 2003 to 2011 using physician billing data. Patient, physician and institution characteristics were examined. The primary outcome was use of endoscopic ultrasonography. Results: We identified 9076 endoscopic ultrasound procedures performed in 8001 patients (3858 women [48.2%]; median patient age at first procedure 59 years). A total of 3066 procedures (33.8%) involved fine-needle aspiration. Use of endoscopic ultrasonography increased 17-fold over the study period. In 2011, people living in the health region with the highest rate of use of endoscopic ultrasonography were more than 4 times more likely to undergo the procedure than people living in the health region with the lowest rate of use (standardized rate 61.6 v. 12.9 per 100 000). About 7 in 10 endoscopic ultrasound procedures were performed in an academic institution or regional cancer centre. All 17 endoscopists performing endoscopic ultrasonography during the study period practised in urban areas. Interpretation: Although the use of endoscopic ultrasonography increased over time in Ontario, there were marked regional differences in use. Provincial needs- and evidence-based initiatives may be needed to narrow the regional gaps in provision of endoscopic ultrasound services in the province. PMID:28600449

  11. Perinatal outcomes among women with bipolar disorder: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mei-Dan, Elad; Ray, Joel G; Vigod, Simone N

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes among pregnant women previously hospitalized for bipolar disorder. We completed a population-based cohort study of women with a singleton delivery in Ontario, Canada (2003 to 2011). Women previously hospitalized for bipolar disorder (n = 1859) or major depressive disorder (n = 3724) were each compared to women without a documented mental illness (n = 432,358). Main study outcomes were preterm birth, severe small for gestational age <3rd percentile birthweight, and severe large for gestational age >97th percentile birthweight. Secondary outcomes included stillbirth, congenital malformations, neonatal morbidity and readmission to hospital <28 days. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for maternal age, parity, prepregnancy obesity, substance use, and diabetes mellitus or hypertension before or during pregnancy. Bipolar disorder (adjusted OR [AOR], 1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.68-2.26) and major depressive disorder (AOR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.72-2.13) were each associated with preterm birth. Bipolar disorder was associated with severe large for gestational age (AOR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.03-1.67). Major depressive disorder was associated with severe small for gestational age (AOR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.05-1.42). Both mood disorder groups had significantly higher risk of congenital malformations, neonatal morbidity, and neonatal hospital readmission. Although study covariates explained some of the increased risk, we could not address all potential explanatory factors. Women previously hospitalized for bipolar disorder are at increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes compared with the general population. Their level of risk is comparable to women previously hospitalized for major depressive disorder. These risks must be considered in the management of pregnant women with a history of major mood disorders. Attention to potentially modifiable risk factors such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension before and during pregnancy could

  12. Investigating shared aetiology between type 2 diabetes and major depressive disorder in a population based cohort.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Toni-Kim; Obsteter, Jana; Hall, Lynsey S; Hayward, Caroline; Thomson, Pippa A; Smith, Blair H; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Hocking, Lynne J; Deary, Ian J; Porteous, David J; McIntosh, Andrew M

    2017-04-01

    Type II diabetes (T2D) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are often co-morbid. The reasons for this co-morbidity are unclear. Some studies have highlighted the importance of environmental factors and a causal relationship between T2D and MDD has also been postulated. In the present study we set out to investigate the shared aetiology between T2D and MDD using Mendelian randomization in a population based sample, Generation Scotland: the Scottish Family Health Study (N = 21,516). Eleven SNPs found to be associated with T2D were tested for association with MDD and psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire scores). We also assessed causality and genetic overlap between T2D and MDD using polygenic risk scores (PRS) assembled from the largest available GWAS summary statistics to date. No single T2D risk SNP was associated with MDD in the MR analyses and we did not find consistent evidence of genetic overlap between MDD and T2D in the PRS analyses. Linkage disequilibrium score regression analyses supported these findings as no genetic correlation was observed between T2D and MDD (rG = 0.0278 (S.E. 0.11), P-value = 0.79). As suggested by previous studies, T2D and MDD covariance may be better explained by environmental factors. Future studies would benefit from analyses in larger cohorts where stratifying by sex and looking more closely at MDD cases demonstrating metabolic dysregulation is possible. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Opium use during pregnancy and risk of preterm delivery: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Maghsoudlou, Siavash; Cnattingius, Sven; Montgomery, Scott; Aarabi, Mohsen; Semnani, Shahriar; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Bahmanyar, Shahram

    2017-01-01

    Use of narcotic or "recreational" drugs has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm delivery. However, the associations might be confounded by other factors related to high-risk behaviours. This is the first study to investigate the association between traditional opium use during pregnancy and risk of preterm delivery. We performed a population-based cohort study in the rural areas of the Golestan province, Iran between 2008 and 2010. We randomly selected 920 women who used (usually smoked) opium during pregnancy and 920 women who did not. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between the opium use during pregnancy and preterm delivery and adjustment was made for potential confounding factors. This study shows compared with non-use of opium and tobacco, use of only opium during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery (OR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.05-2.32), and the risk was more than two-fold increased among dual users of opium and tobacco (OR = 2.31; 95% CI 1.37-3.90). We observed that opium use only was associated with a doubled risk for preterm caesarean delivery (OR = 2.05; 95% CI 1.10-3.82) but not for preterm vaginal delivery (OR = 1.25; 95% CI 0.75-2.07). Dual use of opium and tobacco was associated with a substantially increased risk of vaginal preterm delivery (OR = 2.58; 95% CI 1.41-4.71). Opium use during pregnancy among non-tobacco smokers is associated with an increased risk of preterm caesarean delivery, indicating an increased risk of a compromised foetus before or during labour. Women who use both opium and smoked during pregnancy have an increased risk of preterm vaginal delivery, indicating an increased risk of spontaneous preterm delivery.

  14. Inappropriate asthma therapy—a tale of two countries: a parallel population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Belhassen, Manon; Nibber, Anjan; Van Ganse, Eric; Ryan, Dermot; Langlois, Carole; Appiagyei, Francis; Skinner, Derek; Laforest, Laurent; Soriano, Joan B; Price, David

    2016-01-01

    Against recurrent controversies around the safety of short- and long-acting β2-agonists (SABA and LABA), and the National Review of Asthma Deaths inquiry in the United Kingdom, we investigated the prevalence of inappropriate therapy in asthma. Our study aimed to determine the prevalence of inappropriate use of asthma therapy in the United Kingdom and in France. Two interval, parallel, population-based cohorts (2007 and 2013) were developed in each country by using the UK OPCRD and the French EGB databases. Patients aged 6–40 years were studied over the 12-month period following inclusion, regarding overuse (⩾12 units) of SABA, use of LABA without inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and ⩾2-fold higher use of LABA compared with that of ICS. Overall, 39,743 UK and 4,910 French patients were included in 2007, and 14,036 and 5,657 patients, respectively, were included in 2013. UK adults were more frequently exposed to SABA overuse compared with those in France in both periods, with an upward trend in the United Kingdom (P<0.05). In 2013, LABA use without ICS occurred in 0.1% and 1.5% of United Kingdom and French adults, respectively. Unbalanced use of LABA relative to ICS became marginal in both countries in 2013. Inappropriate use of therapy was less marked, but present, in children. Inappropriate therapy remains a common issue in asthma. Based on our figures, it may be estimated that >210,000 British and >190,000 French asthmatics aged 6–40 years were inappropriately treated in 2013. PMID:27735927

  15. Medication use and survival in diabetic patients with kidney cancer: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Nayan, Madhur; Macdonald, Erin M; Juurlink, David N; Austin, Peter C; Finelli, Antonio; Kulkarni, Girish S; Hamilton, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Survival rates in kidney cancer have improved little over time, and diabetes may be an independent risk factor for poor survival in kidney cancer. We sought to determine whether medications with putative anti-neoplastic properties (statins, metformin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)) are associated with survival in diabetics with kidney cancer. We conducted a population-based cohort study utilizing linked healthcare databases in Ontario, Canada. Patients were aged 66 or older with newly diagnosed diabetes and a subsequent diagnosis of incident kidney cancer. Receipt of metformin, statins or NSAIDs was defined using prescription claims. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality and the secondary outcome was cancer-specific mortality. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression, with medication use modeled with time-varying and cumulative exposure analyses to account for intermittent use. During the 14-year study period, we studied 613 patients. Current statin use was associated with a markedly reduced risk of death from any cause (adjusted hazard ratio 0.74; 95% CI 0.59-0.91) and death due to kidney cancer (adjusted hazard ratio 0.71; 95% CI 0.51-0.97). However, survival was not associated with current use of metformin or NSAIDs, or cumulative exposure to any of the medications studied. Among diabetic patients with kidney cancer, survival outcomes are associated with active statin use, rather than total cumulative use. These findings support the use of randomized trials to confirm whether diabetics with kidney cancer should be started on a statin at the time of cancer diagnosis to improve survival outcomes.

  16. Full spectrum of psychiatric disorders related to foreign migration: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Pedersen, Carsten B

    2013-04-01

    Although increased risk for schizophrenia among immigrants is well established, knowledge of the broader spectrum of psychiatric disorders associated with a foreign migration background is lacking. To examine the full range of psychiatric disorders associated with any type of foreign migration background among persons residing in Denmark, including foreign-born adoptees, first- and second-generation immigrants, native Danes with a history of foreign residence, and persons born abroad to Danish expatriates. Danish population-based cohort study. Persons were followed up from their 10th birthday for the development of mental disorders based on outpatient and inpatient data. All persons born between January 1, 1971, and December 31, 2000 (N = 1 859 419) residing in Denmark by their 10th birthday with follow-up data to December 31, 2010. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and cumulative incidences for psychiatric outcomes. All categories of foreign migration background, except persons born abroad to Danish expatriates, were associated with increased risk for at least 1 psychiatric disorder. Foreign-born adoptees had increased IRRs for all psychiatric disorders and had the highest IRRs for these disorders compared with other foreign migration categories. First- and second-generation immigrants having 2 foreign-born parents had significantly increased IRRs for schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders and had similar risk magnitudes. Second-generation immigrants having 1 foreign-born parent had significantly increased IRRs for all psychiatric disorders. Native Danes with a history of foreign residence had increased IRRs for bipolar affective disorder, affective disorders, personality disorders, and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The extent to which a background of foreign migration confers an increased risk for the broad spectrum of psychiatric disorders varies according to parental origin, with greatest risks for foreign-born adoptees. The spectrum of psychiatric

  17. Chronic pain, opioid prescriptions, and mortality in Denmark: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ekholm, Ola; Kurita, Geana Paula; Højsted, Jette; Juel, Knud; Sjøgren, Per

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the risk of death, development of cancer, and hospital inpatient admissions resulting from injuries and toxicity/poisoning among opioid users with chronic noncancer pain. A population-based cohort of 13,127 adults, who have participated in the Danish Health Interview Surveys in 2000 or 2005 and have been followed up prospectively by registers until the end of 2011, were classified according to the absence or presence of chronic pain (ie, pain lasting ⩾ 6 months) and long-term or short-term opioid use (individuals using at least 1 prescription per month for 6 months in the previous year and at least 1 prescription in the previous year, respectively). The risk of all-cause mortality was 1.72 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.23-2.41) times higher among long-term opioid users than among individuals without chronic pain. The risk of death was lower, but still significantly higher in short-term (1.36, 95% CI=1.07-1.72) and non-opioid users with chronic pain (1.39, 95% CI=1.22-1.59) than in the background population. There was no statistically significant association between long-term opioid use and cardiovascular and cancer mortality. No deaths among opioid users were caused by accidents or suicides, although opioid users had higher risks of injuries and toxicity/poisoning resulting in hospital inpatient admissions than individuals without chronic pain. The risk of all-cause mortality was significantly higher among long-term opioid users, but no obvious associations between long-term opioid use and cause-specific mortality were observed. However, opioid use increased the risk of injuries and toxicity/poisoning resulting in hospital inpatient admissions. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Birth by Caesarean Section and the Risk of Adult Psychosis: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, Sinéad M.; Curran, Eileen A.; Dalman, Christina; Kenny, Louise C.; Kearney, Patricia M.; Clarke, Gerard; Cryan, John F.; Dinan, Timothy G.; Khashan, Ali S.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the biological plausibility of an association between obstetric mode of delivery and psychosis in later life, studies to date have been inconclusive. We assessed the association between mode of delivery and later onset of psychosis in the offspring. A population-based cohort including data from the Swedish National Registers was used. All singleton live births between 1982 and 1995 were identified (n = 1 345 210) and followed-up to diagnosis at age 16 or later. Mode of delivery was categorized as: unassisted vaginal delivery (VD), assisted VD, elective Caesarean section (CS) (before onset of labor), and emergency CS (after onset of labor). Outcomes included any psychosis; nonaffective psychoses (including schizophrenia only) and affective psychoses (including bipolar disorder only and depression with psychosis only). Cox regression analysis was used reporting partially and fully adjusted hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Sibling-matched Cox regression was performed to adjust for familial confounding factors. In the fully adjusted analyses, elective CS was significantly associated with any psychosis (HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.03, 1.24). Similar findings were found for nonaffective psychoses (HR 1.13, 95% CI 0.99, 1.29) and affective psychoses (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.05, 1.31) (χ2 for heterogeneity P = .69). In the sibling-matched Cox regression, this association disappeared (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.78, 1.37). No association was found between assisted VD or emergency CS and psychosis. This study found that elective CS is associated with an increase in offspring psychosis. However, the association did not persist in the sibling-matched analysis, implying the association is likely due to familial confounding by unmeasured factors such as genetics or environment. PMID:26615187

  19. Natural history of elderly-onset inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Charpentier, Cloé; Salleron, Julia; Savoye, Guillaume; Fumery, Mathurin; Merle, Véronique; Laberenne, Jean-Eric; Vasseur, Francis; Dupas, Jean-Louis; Cortot, Antoine; Dauchet, Luc; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Lerebours, Eric; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Gower-Rousseau, Corinne

    2014-03-01

    Data on the natural history of elderly-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are scarce. In a French population-based cohort we identified 841 IBD patients >60 years of age at diagnosis from 1988 to 2006, including 367 Crohn's disease (CD) and 472 ulcerative colitis (UC). Median age at diagnosis was similar for CD (70 years (IQR: 65-76)) and UC (69 years (64-74)). Median follow-up was 6 years (2-11) for both diseases. At diagnosis, in CD, pure colonic disease (65%) and inflammatory behaviour (78%) were the