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  1. A population-based survey of Haemophilus influenzae type b nasopharyngeal carriage prevalence in Lombok Island, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Gessner, B D; Sutanto, A; Steinhoff, M; Soewignjo, S; Widjaya, A; Nelson, C; Arjoso, S

    1998-09-01

    The Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) nasopharyngeal carriage prevalence and invasive disease incidence rates are unknown in Indonesia; consequently Hib vaccine is not included in the routine vaccine schedule. To determine carriage prevalence we conducted a population-based, island-wide prospective study of a systematic sample of 484 children 0 to 2 years of age in Lombok, Indonesia. We conducted a risk factor questionnaire and determined serotypes and antibiotic sensitivity patterns. We identified 155 H. influenzae isolates, of which 22 were type b and 12 were encapsulated but not type b. The age- and population-weighted Hib carriage prevalence, adjusted for the sampling design, was 4.6% (95% confidence interval, 3.7 to 5.5%). Children younger than 6 months of age had a carriage prevalence less than one-half that of older children, and carriage varied within the four administrative regions of the island; otherwise no risk factors for Hib carriage were identified. All Hib specimens were sensitive to ampicillin and 20 (91%) were sensitive to chloramphenicol. The Hib carriage prevalence in Lombok is similar to that found in developed countries before vaccine introduction. This suggests that further studies should proceed to determine whether Lombok has invasive disease rates as high as those that justified vaccine introduction in developed countries.

  2. Prevalence, incidence and types of mild anemia in the elderly: the “Health and Anemia” population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Tettamanti, Mauro; Lucca, Ugo; Gandini, Francesca; Recchia, Angela; Mosconi, Paola; Apolone, Giovanni; Nobili, Alessandro; Tallone, Maria Vittoria; Detoma, Paolo; Giacomin, Adriano; Clerico, Mario; Tempia, Patrizia; Savoia, Luigi; Fasolo, Gilberto; Ponchio, Luisa; Della Porta, Matteo G.; Riva, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Background Hemoglobin concentrations slightly below the lower limit of normal are a common laboratory finding in the elderly, but scant evidence is available on the actual occurrence of mild anemia despite its potential effect on health. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence and incidence of mild grade anemia and to assess the frequency of anemia types in the elderly. Design and Methods This was a prospective, population-based study in all residents 65 years or older in Biella, Italy. Results Blood test results were available for analysis from 8,744 elderly. Hemoglobin concentration decreased and mild anemia increased steadily with increasing age. Mild anemia (defined as a hemoglobin concentration of 10.0–11.9 g/dL in women and 10.0–12.9 g/dL in men) affected 11.8% of the elderly included in the analysis, while the estimated prevalence in the entire population was 11.1%. Before hemoglobin determination, most mildly anemic individuals perceived themselves as non-anemic. Chronic disease anemia, thalassemia trait, and renal insufficiency were the most frequent types of mild anemia. The underlying cause of mild anemia remained unexplained in 26.4% of the cases, almost one third of which might be accounted for by myelodysplastic syndromes. In a random sample of non-anemic elderly at baseline (n=529), after about 2 years, the annual incidence rate of mild anemia was 22.5 per 1000 person-years and increased with increasing age. Conclusions The prevalence and incidence of mild anemia increase with age and mild anemia affects more than one out of ten elderly individuals. Unexplained anemia is common and may be due to myelodysplastic syndromes in some cases. PMID:20534701

  3. Prevalence, correlates and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Lebanon: findings from a national population-based study.

    PubMed

    Costanian, Christy; Bennett, Kathleen; Hwalla, Nahla; Assaad, Shafika; Sibai, Abla M

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to examine the prevalence, associated risk factors and complications of diabetes, as well management and preventive care in Lebanon, a small, middle-income country of the Mediterranean region. Using a comprehensive multi-dimensional questionnaire, a cross-sectional national survey of 2195 Lebanese adults aged ≥25 years was conducted based on the WHO STEPwise guidelines. The outcome variable, diabetes, was self-reported. Measures for diabetes management included frequency of blood glucose testing and regular eye and foot exams. Macrovascular and microvascular complications were also recorded. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 8.5% (95%CI=7.3-9.7). Factors associated with an increased risk of having diabetes were: being divorced or widowed (OR=2.56; 95%CI=1.07-5.42) compared to single, being obese (OR=1.50, 95%CI=1.00-2.57), and having a family history of diabetes (OR=3.40;95%CI=2.48-5.19). Vigorous physical activity significantly decreased the odds of diabetes (OR=0.42; 95%CI=0.24-0.72). Diabetes management and self-care goals were as follows: 82% were not measuring their blood sugar via dextro on a daily basis, 64.2% did not have a foot exam within the past year, and 52.4% did not obtain the recommended yearly eye exam. The most common complications included heart disease (27.8%) and retinopathy (16.6%). Prevalence of diabetes in Lebanon was comparable to that found in the West, yet remained lower than estimates in other resource-rich neighboring countries. Adherence to management and self-care measures was sub-optimal resulting in high complication rates. Contextual factors play a role in increasing diabetes risk. Population-based interventions to enhance and promote self-management behaviors are essential to improve complication rates. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Prevalence of Depressive Disorder in Persons With Type 2 Diabetes: A National Population-Based Cohort Study 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Tu, Hung-Pin; Hsieh, Hui-Min; Liu, Tai-Ling; Jiang, He-Jiun; Wang, Peng-Wei; Huang, Chun-Jen

    Diabetes mellitus, a chronic and disabling disease, is epidemic worldwide. Depressive disorder affects the productivity of workers and leads to disability. This study investigated the prevalence of depressive disorder among persons with type 2 diabetes in Taiwan. We extracted service claims data for subjects who had at least 2 ambulatory care service claims or 1 inpatient service claim with a principal diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and at least 1 ambulatory or inpatient service claim with a principal diagnosis of depressive disorder from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Database. From 2000-2010, the prevalence of depressive disorder increased from 3.50-4.07% in people with type 2 diabetes, and from 1.05-2.27% in the general population. The higher prevalence of depressive disorder in persons with type 2 diabetes was associated with being female; residence in central, southern, and eastern Taiwan; residence in urban areas; the comorbidities of hemiplegia or paraplegia, cerebrovascular disease, and anxiety disorder; Charlson Comorbidity Index scores ≥1; diabetes duration >9 years; and the use of rapid-acting insulin injection therapy. The prevalence of depressive disorder is higher among persons with type 2 diabetes than the general population. Consequently, more public health attention should be devoted to the prevention and treatment of this debilitating disease in persons with type 2 diabetes, especially those with the earlier mentioned risk factors. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence, incidence and mortality of type 2 diabetes mellitus revisited: a prospective population-based study in The Netherlands (ZODIAC-1).

    PubMed

    Ubink-Veltmaat, L J; Bilo, H J G; Groenier, K H; Houweling, S T; Rischen, R O; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    2003-01-01

    To present actual data to estimate prevalence, incidence and mortality of known type 2 diabetes mellitus in all age categories in The Netherlands. Prospective population-based study between 1998 and 2000 in The Netherlands. Baseline population of 155,774 patients, registered with 61 general practitioners participating in the Zwolle Outpatient Diabetes project Integrating Available Care (ZODIAC)-study. Age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 2.2% at baseline and 2.9% after 2 years of follow-up; for women and men it was 3.1 and 2.7% at follow-up, respectively. Patients aged >70 years account for almost 50% of all type 2 diabetes patients. Age- and sex-adjusted mean annual incidence per 10,000 over 3 years was 22.7 overall; for women 23.1 and for men 22.2. Incidence--even though high--decreases after the age of 70 years. The mortality rate was 47.9/1000 and standardised mortality ratio 1.40. Based on these results, the estimated total number of subjects known with type 2 diabetes was 466,000 for The Netherlands in 2000; the number of patients with newly diagnosed diabetes 36,000. Prevalence and incidence rates exceed all estimates regarding known type 2 diabetes for The Netherlands. Elderly patients, aged 70 years and over, account for 50% of the type 2 diabetic population. These results are important for health-care planning.

  6. Population-based prevalence of cervical infection with human papillomavirus genotypes 16 and 18 and other high risk types in Tlaxcala, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Samantha E; Lorincz, Attila; Wheeler, Cosette M; Gravitt, Patti; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Torres-Ibarra, Leticia; León-Maldonado, Leith; Ramírez, Paula; Rivera, Berenice; Hernández, Rubí; Franco, Eduardo L; Cuzick, Jack; Méndez-Hernández, Pablo; Salmerón, Jorge

    2016-09-01

    Cervical cancer remains an important cause of cancer mortality for Mexican women. HPV 16/18 typing may help to improve cervical cancer screening. Here we present the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) including HPV16 and HPV18 from the FRIDA (Forwarding Research for Improved Detection and Access) population. Beginning in 2013, we recruited 30,829 women aged 30-64 in Tlaxcala, Mexico. Cervical samples were collected and tested for 14 hrHPV genotypes (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68). We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals for hrHPV infections according to putative risk factors. Prevalence of infection with any of the 14 hrHPV types was 11.0 %. The age-specific prevalence of all hrHPV formed a U-shaped curve with a higher prevalence for women aged 30-39 and 50-64 than women aged 40-49. Across all age groups, 2.0 % of women were positive for HPV16 and/or HPV18 (HPV16/18), respectively. HPV16/18 prevalence also showed a U-shaped curve with increased prevalence estimates for women aged both 30-39 and 60-64. Both prevalence curves had a significant quadratic age coefficient. Infections with hrHPV were positively associated with an increased number of lifetime sexual partners, a history of sexually transmitted disease, being unmarried, use of hormonal contraception, having a history of smoking and reported condom use in the multivariate model. The FRIDA population has a bimodal distribution of both hrHPV and HPV16/18 positivity with higher prevalences at ages 30-39 and 60-64. These findings will help to evaluate triage algorithms based on HPV genotyping. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02510027 .

  7. Population-Based Incidence and Prevalence of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Somers, Emily C.; Marder, Wendy; Cagnoli, Patricia; Lewis, Emily E.; DeGuire, Peter; Gordon, Caroline; Helmick, Charles G.; Wang, Lu; Wing, Jeffrey J.; Dhar, J. Patricia; Leisen, James; Shaltis, Diane; McCune, W. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the incidence and prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a sociodemographically diverse southeastern Michigan source population of 2.4 million people. Methods SLE cases fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria (primary case definition) or meeting rheumatologist-judged SLE criteria (secondary definition) and residing in Wayne or Washtenaw Counties during 2002–2004 were included. Case finding was performed from 6 source types, including hospitals and private specialists. Age-standardized rates were computed, and capture–recapture was performed to estimate underascertainment of cases. Results The overall age-adjusted incidence and prevalence (ACR definition) per 100,000 persons were 5.5 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 5.0–6.1) and 72.8 (95% CI 70.8–74.8). Among females, the incidence was 9.3 per 100,000 persons and the prevalence was 128.7 per 100,000 persons. Only 7 cases were estimated to have been missed by capture–recapture, adjustment for which did not materially affect the rates. SLE prevalence was 2.3-fold higher in black persons than in white persons, and 10-fold higher in females than in males. Among incident cases, the mean ± SD age at diagnosis was 39.3 ± 16.6 years. Black SLE patients had a higher proportion of renal disease and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (40.5% and 15.3%, respectively) as compared to white SLE patients (18.8% and 4.5%, respectively). Black patients with renal disease were diagnosed as having SLE at younger age than white patients with renal disease (mean ± SD 34.4 ± 14.9 years versus 41.9 ± 21.3 years; P = 0.05). Conclusion SLE prevalence was higher than has been described in most other population-based studies and reached 1 in 537 among black female persons. There were substantial racial disparities in the burden of SLE, with black patients experiencing earlier age at diagnosis, >2-fold increases in SLE incidence and prevalence, and increased

  8. Prevalence of anxiety disorder in patients with type 2 diabetes: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Tu, Hung-Pin; Lin, Ching-Hua; Hsieh, Hui-Min; Jiang, He-Jiun; Wang, Peng-Wei; Huang, Chun-Jen

    2017-03-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of anxiety disorder (AD) in Taiwanese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Study participants were identified based on at least one service claim for ambulatory or inpatient care with a principal diagnosis of AD and at least 2 service claims for ambulatory care or one service claim for inpatient care with a principal diagnosis of T2D, as listed in the National Health Insurance database of Taiwan. The prevalence of AD decreased from 13.75 to 11.00 % in patients with T2D, whereas it increased from 4.17 to 6.09 % in the general population during the 2000-2010 period. A high prevalence of AD in patients with T2D was associated with age >30 years, the female sex, living in the northern region, comorbidities of congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, and depression disorder, and a Charlson participant comorbidity index of ≥1. A low prevalence of AD in patients with T2D was associated with residency in urban areas, the comorbidity of hemiplegia or paraplegia, the usage of metformin and sulfonylureas, and rapid-acting insulin injection therapy. The prevalence of AD was higher in patients with T2D than in the general population. Therefore, more public health emphasis is required for preventing and treating AD in patients with T2D, specifically those with the mentioned risk factors.

  9. Long-term survival, prevalence, and cure of cancer: a population-based estimation for 818 902 Italian patients and 26 cancer types

    PubMed Central

    Dal Maso, L.; Guzzinati, S.; Buzzoni, C.; Capocaccia, R.; Serraino, D.; Caldarella, A.; Dei Tos, A. P.; Falcini, F.; Autelitano, M.; Masanotti, G.; Ferretti, S.; Tisano, F.; Tirelli, U.; Crocetti, E.; De Angelis, R.; Virdone, S.; Zucchetto, A.; Gigli, A.; Francisci, S.; Baili, P.; Gatta, G.; Castaing, M.; Zanetti, R.; Contiero, P.; Bidoli, E.; Vercelli, M.; Michiara, M.; Federico, M.; Senatore, G.; Pannozzo, F.; Vicentini, M.; Bulatko, A.; Pirino, D. R.; Gentilini, M.; Fusco, M.; Giacomin, A.; Fanetti, A. C.; Cusimano, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Persons living after a cancer diagnosis represent 4% of the whole population in high-income countries. The aim of the study was to provide estimates of indicators of long-term survival and cure for 26 cancer types, presently lacking. Patients and methods Data on 818 902 Italian cancer patients diagnosed at age 15–74 years in 1985–2005 were included. Proportions of patients with the same death rates of the general population (cure fractions) and those of prevalent patients who were not at risk of dying as a result of cancer (cure prevalence) were calculated, using validated mixture cure models, by cancer type, sex, and age group. We also estimated complete prevalence, conditional relative survival (CRS), time to reach 5- and 10-year CRS >95%, and proportion of patients living longer than those thresholds. Results The cure fractions ranged from >90% for patients aged <45 years with thyroid and testis cancers to <10% for liver and pancreatic cancers of all ages. Five- or 10-year CRS >95% were both reached in <10 years by patients with cancers of the stomach, colon–rectum, pancreas, corpus and cervix uteri, brain, and Hodgkin lymphoma. For breast cancer patients, 5- and 10-year CRSs reached >95% after 19 and 25 years, respectively, and in 15 and 18 years for prostate cancer patients. Five-year CRS remained <95% for >25 years after cancer diagnosis in patients with liver and larynx cancers, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloma, and leukaemia. Overall, the cure prevalence was 67% for men and 77% for women. Therefore, 21% of male and 31% of female patients had already reached 5-year CRS >95%, whereas 18% and 25% had reached 10-year CRS >95%. Conclusions A quarter of Italian cancer patients can be considered cured. This observation has a high potential impact on health planning, clinical practice, and patients' perspective. PMID:25149707

  10. A Population-based survey of the prevalence and types of glaucoma in Nigeria: results from the Nigeria National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey.

    PubMed

    Kyari, Fatima; Entekume, Gabriel; Rabiu, Mansur; Spry, Paul; Wormald, Richard; Nolan, Winifred; Murthy, Gudlavalleti V S; Gilbert, Clare E

    2015-12-12

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. There tends to be a lower reporting of glaucoma in Africa compared to other blinding conditions in global burden data. Research findings of glaucoma in Nigeria will significantly increase our understanding of glaucoma in Nigeria, in people of the West African diaspora and similar population groups. We determined the prevalence and types of glaucoma in Nigeria from the Nigeria National Blindness and Visual Impairment cross-sectional Survey of adults aged ≥40 years. Multistage stratified cluster random sampling with probability-proportional-to-size procedures were used to select a nationally representative sample of 15,027 persons aged ≥40 years. Participants had logMAR visual acuity measurement, FDT visual function testing, autorefraction, A-scan biometry and optic disc assessment. Participants with visual acuity of worse than 6/12 or suspicious optic discs had detailed examination including Goldmann applanation tonometry, gonioscopy and fundus photography. Disc images were graded by Moorfields Eye Hospital Reading Centre. Glaucoma was defined using International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria; and classified into primary open-angle or primary angle-closure or secondary glaucoma. Diagnosis of glaucoma was based on ISGEO classification. The type of glaucoma was determined by gonioscopy. A total of 13,591 participants in 305 clusters were examined (response rate 90.4 %). Optic disc grading was available for 25,289 (93 %) eyes of 13,081 (96 %) participants. There were 682 participants with glaucoma; a prevalence of 5.02 % (95 % CI 4.60-5.47). Among those with definite primary glaucoma that had gonioscopy (n = 243), open-angle glaucoma was more common (86 %) than angle-closure glaucoma (14 %). 8 % of glaucoma was secondary with the commonest causes being couching (38 %), trauma (21 %) and uveitis (19 %). Only 5.6 % (38/682) of participants with

  11. HPV prevalence and type-distribution in cervical cancer and premalignant lesions of the cervix: A population-based study from Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lesley A; O'Rorke, Michael A; Wilson, Robbie; Jamison, Jackie; Gavin, Anna T

    2016-07-01

    Assessment of Human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and genotype distribution is important for monitoring the impact of prophylactic HPV vaccination. This study aimed to demonstrate the HPV genotypes predominating in pre-malignant and cervical cancers in Northern Ireland (NI) before the vaccination campaign has effect. Formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks from 2,303 women aged 16-93 years throughout NI were collated between April 2011 and February 2013. HPV DNA was amplified by PCR and HPV genotyping undertaken using the Roche(®) linear array detection kit. In total, 1,241 out of 1,830 eligible samples (68.0%) tested positive for HPV, with the majority of these [1,181/1,830 (64.5%)] having high-risk (HR) HPV infection; 37.4% were positive for HPV-16 (n = 684) and 5.1% for HPV-18 (n = 93). HPV type-specific prevalence was 48.1%, 65.9%, 81.3%, 92.2%, and 64.3% among cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) Grades I-III, squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC) cases, respectively. Most SCC cases (81.3%) had only one HPV genotype detected and almost a third (32.0%) of all cervical pathologies were HPV negative including 51.9% of CIN I (n = 283), 34.1% CIN II (n = 145), 18.7% of CIN III (n = 146), 7.8% of SCC (n = 5), and 35.7% of AC (n = 5) cases. This study provides important baseline data for monitoring the effect of HPV vaccination in NI and for comparison with other UK regions. The coverage of other HR-HPV genotypes apart from 16 and 18, including HPV-45, 31, 39, and 52, and the potential for cross protection, should be considered when considering future polyvalent vaccines. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Prevalence of microcephaly in Europe: population based study.

    PubMed

    Morris, Joan K; Rankin, Judith; Garne, Ester; Loane, Maria; Greenlees, Ruth; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Barisic, Ingeborg; Bergman, Jorieke E H; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Dias, Carlos; Draper, Elizabeth S; Gatt, Miriam; Khoshnood, Babak; Klungsoyr, Kari; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Lynch, Catherine; McDonnell, Robert; Nelen, Vera; Neville, Amanda J; O'Mahony, Mary T; Pierini, Anna; Randrianaivo, Hanitra; Rissmann, Anke; Tucker, David; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; de Walle, Hermien E K; Wellesley, Diana; Wiesel, Awi; Dolk, Helen

    2016-09-13

     To provide contemporary estimates of the prevalence of microcephaly in Europe, determine if the diagnosis of microcephaly is consistent across Europe, and evaluate whether changes in prevalence would be detected using the current European surveillance performed by EUROCAT (the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies).  Questionnaire and population based observational study.  24 EUROCAT registries covering 570 000 births annually in 15 countries.  Cases of microcephaly not associated with a genetic condition among live births, fetal deaths from 20 weeks' gestation, and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly at any gestation.  Prevalence of microcephaly (1 Jan 2003-31 Dec 2012) analysed with random effects Poisson regression models to account for heterogeneity across registries.  16 registries responded to the questionnaire, of which 44% (7/16) used the EUROCAT definition of microcephaly (a reduction in the size of the brain with a skull circumference more than 3 SD below the mean for sex, age, and ethnic origin), 19% (3/16) used a 2 SD cut off, 31% (5/16) were reliant on the criteria used by individual clinicians, and one changed criteria between 2003 and 2012. Prevalence of microcephaly in Europe was 1.53 (95% confidence interval 1.16 to 1.96) per 10 000 births, with registries varying from 0.4 (0.2 to 0.7) to 4.3 (3.6 to 5.0) per 10 000 (χ(2)=338, df=23, I(2)=93%). Registries with a 3 SD cut off reported a prevalence of 1.74 per 10 000 (0.86 to 2.93) compared with those with the less stringent 2 SD cut off of 1.21 per 10 000 (0.21 to 2.93). The prevalence of microcephaly would need to increase in one year by over 35% in Europe or by over 300% in a single registry to reach statistical significance (P<0.01).  EUROCAT could detect increases in the prevalence of microcephaly from the Zika virus of a similar magnitude to those observed in Brazil. Because of the rarity of microcephaly and discrepant diagnostic criteria, however, the smaller

  13. Prevalence of microcephaly in Europe: population based study

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Judith; Garne, Ester; Loane, Maria; Greenlees, Ruth; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Barisic, Ingeborg; Bergman, Jorieke E H; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Dias, Carlos; Draper, Elizabeth S; Gatt, Miriam; Khoshnood, Babak; Klungsoyr, Kari; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Lynch, Catherine; McDonnell, Robert; Nelen, Vera; Neville, Amanda J; O’Mahony, Mary T; Pierini, Anna; Randrianaivo, Hanitra; Rissmann, Anke; Tucker, David; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; de Walle, Hermien E K; Wellesley, Diana; Wiesel, Awi; Dolk, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To provide contemporary estimates of the prevalence of microcephaly in Europe, determine if the diagnosis of microcephaly is consistent across Europe, and evaluate whether changes in prevalence would be detected using the current European surveillance performed by EUROCAT (the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies). Design Questionnaire and population based observational study. Setting 24 EUROCAT registries covering 570 000 births annually in 15 countries. Participants Cases of microcephaly not associated with a genetic condition among live births, fetal deaths from 20 weeks’ gestation, and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly at any gestation. Main outcome measures Prevalence of microcephaly (1 Jan 2003-31 Dec 2012) analysed with random effects Poisson regression models to account for heterogeneity across registries. Results 16 registries responded to the questionnaire, of which 44% (7/16) used the EUROCAT definition of microcephaly (a reduction in the size of the brain with a skull circumference more than 3 SD below the mean for sex, age, and ethnic origin), 19% (3/16) used a 2 SD cut off, 31% (5/16) were reliant on the criteria used by individual clinicians, and one changed criteria between 2003 and 2012. Prevalence of microcephaly in Europe was 1.53 (95% confidence interval 1.16 to 1.96) per 10 000 births, with registries varying from 0.4 (0.2 to 0.7) to 4.3 (3.6 to 5.0) per 10 000 (χ2=338, df=23, I2=93%). Registries with a 3 SD cut off reported a prevalence of 1.74 per 10 000 (0.86 to 2.93) compared with those with the less stringent 2 SD cut off of 1.21 per 10 000 (0.21 to 2.93). The prevalence of microcephaly would need to increase in one year by over 35% in Europe or by over 300% in a single registry to reach statistical significance (P<0.01). Conclusions EUROCAT could detect increases in the prevalence of microcephaly from the Zika virus of a similar magnitude to those observed in Brazil. Because of the rarity

  14. Incidence, prevalence, costs and quality of care of type 1 diabetes in Italy, age 0-29 years: The population-based CINECA-SID ARNO Observatory, 2002-2012.

    PubMed

    Bruno, G; Pagano, E; Rossi, E; Cataudella, S; De Rosa, M; Marchesini, G; Miccoli, R; Vaccaro, O; Bonora, E

    2016-12-01

    To assess temporal trend in incidence (2003-12) and prevalence (2002-12) of type 1 diabetes in children and young adults, direct costs and selected indicators of quality of care under the coverage of the universalistic Italian National Health System (NHS). The ARNO Observatory, a healthcare monitoring system based on administrative data, identified a population-based multiregional cohort of subjects aged 0-29 years. Type 1 diabetes was defined by at least two prescriptions of insulin over 12 months and continuous insulin-treatment in the following year. Indicators of quality of care and directs costs were assessed in persons with diabetes and in people without diabetes, individually matched for age, gender and health unit (1:4 ratio). We identified 2357 incident cases of type 1 diabetes aged 0-29 years (completeness of ascertainment, 99%). Incidence rates were similar in ages 0-14 (15.8, 95% CI 14.9-16.8) and 15-29 years (16.3, 15.4-17.2), with no significant trend. Prevalence increased from 137 to 166.9/100,000, particularly in the age 15-29 years. Direct costs accounted for € 2117 in persons with diabetes and € 292 in control individuals. A statistically significant decreasing trend in hospitalization for acute complications was evident (p < 0.001), which was almost completely due to ketoacidosis. People with at least one HbA1c measurement over the year were 48.5%. We showed high incidence and increasing prevalence of type 1 diabetes in young adults in Italy, which impact on direct costs under the universalistic coverage of the NHS. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in Indonesia: a population-based study in three regions

    PubMed Central

    Vet, J N I; de Boer, M A; van den Akker, B E W M; Siregar, B; Lisnawati; Budiningsih, S; Tyasmorowati, D; Moestikaningsih; Cornain, S; Peters, A A W; Fleuren, G J

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in the Indonesian population, yet little is known about the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV). We investigated age-specific prevalence of HPV types and possible risk factors of HPV positivity in a population-based sample of 2686 women, aged 15–70 years, in Jakarta, Tasikmalaya, and Bali, Indonesia. The overall HPV prevalence was 11.4%, age-standardized to the world standard population 11.6%. The most prevalent types found were HPV 52, HPV 16, HPV 18, and HPV 39, respectively, 23.2, 18.0, 16.1, and 11.8% of the high-risk HPV types. In 20.7% of infections, multiple types were involved. Different age-specific prevalence patterns were seen: overall high in Jakarta, and in Tasikmalaya, and declining with age in Bali. The number of marriages was most associated with HPV positivity (OR 1.81 95% CI 1.31–2.51)). Remarkably, in Indonesia HPV 16 and HPV 18 are equally common in the general population, as they are in cervical cancer. HPV 52 was the most prevalent type in the general population, suggesting that this type should be included when prophylactic HPV vaccination is introduced in Indonesia. PMID:18609756

  16. Prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection, human immunodeficiency virus/herpes simplex virus type 2 coinfection, and associated risk factors in a national, population-based survey in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mugo, Nelly; Dadabhai, Sufia S; Bunnell, Rebecca; Williamson, John; Bennett, Eddas; Baya, Isaack; Akinyi, Nelly; Mohamed, Ibrahim; Kaiser, Reinhard

    2011-11-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a known biologic cofactor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission and acquisition. The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2007 provided Kenya's first nationally representative estimate of HSV-2 prevalence and risk factors. KAIS was a household serosurvey among women and men aged 15 to 64 years. The survey included a behavioral interview and serum testing for HSV-2, HIV, and syphilis infections. Results were weighted for sampling design and nonresponse. Of 19,840 eligible individuals, 90% completed an interview and 80% consented to testing. In all, 35% were infected with HSV-2, of which 42% were women and 26% were men. Between 15 and 24 years of age, HSV-2 prevalence increased from 7% to 34% in women and 3% to 14% in men. Among couples, 30% were HSV-2 concordant-positive, 21% were discordant, and 49% were concordant-negative. In all, 81% of HIV-infected persons were coinfected with HSV-2. HIV prevalence was 16% among those with HSV-2 and 2% among those without HSV-2. Women with circumcised partners had an HSV-2 prevalence of 39% compared to 77% of women with uncircumcised partners. One-third of Kenyans were HSV-2 infected. HIV-1 infection, age, female sex, and lack of male circumcision were population-level predictors for HSV-2 infection. Targeted prevention interventions are needed, including an effective vaccine.

  17. Prevalence of high-risk HPV types and associated genital diseases in women born in 1988/89 or 1983/84--results of WOLVES, a population-based epidemiological study in Wolfsburg, Germany.

    PubMed

    Petry, Karl Ulrich; Luyten, Alexander; Justus, Annika; Iftner, Angelika; Strehlke, Sarah; Reinecke-Lüthge, Axel; Grunwald, Elisabeth; Schulze-Rath, Renate; Iftner, Thomas

    2013-03-13

    High-risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV) infection is associated with the development of cervical cancer. HPV vaccination reduces the risk of developing malignant lesions and is expected to change the dynamics of HPV transmission. Data from non-vaccinated women may provide an important benchmark to allow the impact of HPV vaccination programs to be assessed.This study was designed to prospectively determine the changing dynamics of HR-HPV infection and associated genital diseases in young women, most of whom were non-vaccinated. Data from a population-based cohort study, comprising women of two predefined birth cohorts (women born in 1983/84 or 1988/89), were analyzed between 19 October 2009 and 31 December 2010 to determine risk factors for high-risk HPV infection and the association between specific HR-HPV types and atypical Pap smear test results. HPV status was determined by Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) assay and genotyping. The prevalence of HR-HPV was 22.8% in the 1983/84 cohort (150/659) and 23.7% in the 1988/99 cohort (142/599). Only the number of sexual partners was a significant risk factor for HPV infection (odds ratios 22.687 and 6.124 for more than five versus one partner 84 cohort,/84 and 1988/89 cohorts, respectively) in multivariate analysis. HPV16 positive-women were significantly more likely to have abnormal Pap smears of any degree than HPV16-negative women (22.0% versus 3.61%, p < 0.0001 for the 1983/84 cohort and 9.09% versus 2.52%, p = 0.0482 for the 1988/89 cohort). CIN3 was diagnosed in six women 84 cohort,/84 cohort and two in the 1988/89 cohort. All women with CIN3 tested positive for HC2-HR and all six CIN3 cases 84 cohort,/84 cohort tested positive for HPV16. In the 1988/89 cohort, the rate of HPV16 infection was significantly lower in vaccinated than non-vaccinated women (1.59% versus 8.88%; p = 0.003). HR-HPV infection was highly prevalent in both cohorts and associated with an increased risk of abnormal Pap smears and biopsy proven CIN2

  18. Prevalence of Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS): A Population-Based Study in Olmsted County, Minnesota

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Varun; Alikhan, Ali; Vazquez, Benjamin G.; Weaver, Amy L.; Davis, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a follicular occlusion disorder occurring in apocrine-rich regions of the skin. Estimates of the prevalence of this disorder have not been population-based. We sought to provide population-based information on the prevalence of HS in Olmsted County, Minnesota as of 1/1/2009. METHODS Rochester Epidemiology Project, a unique infrastructure that combines and makes accessible all medical records in Olmsted County since the 1960s, was used to collect population-based data on the prevalence of HS. RESULTS We identified 178 confirmed cases of HS that included 135 females and 43 males, and estimated the total sex- and age-adjusted prevalence in Olmsted County to be 127.8 per 100,000 or 0.13%. The total prevalence was significantly higher among women than men. CONCLUSION This study represents the first population-based investigation on the prevalence of HS. In this population-based cohort, HS was less prevalent than previous reports have suggested. PMID:25228133

  19. Population-based prevalence survey of tuberculosis in the Tigray region of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Berhe, Gebretsadik; Enqueselassie, Fikre; Hailu, Elena; Mekonnen, Wondale; Teklu, Tsigemariam; Gebretsadik, Ataklti; Berhe, Rezene; Haile, Tewodros; Aseffa, Abraham

    2013-09-28

    Population based prevalence survey is an important epidemiological index to measure the burden of tuberculosis (TB) disease and monitor progress towards TB control in high burden countries like Ethiopia. This study was aimed to estimate the prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in the Tigray region of Ethiopia. Sixteen rural and urban villages were randomly selected in a stratified multistage cluster sampling. Individuals aged 15 years and older were screened by symptom inquiry for PTB. Those individuals who were symptomatic of PTB provided two sputum samples for smear microscopy, culture and molecular typing. The study covering 4,765 households screened a total of 12,175 individuals aged 15 years and above. The overall weighted prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed PTB in the Tigray region of Ethiopia was found to be 216/100,000 (95% CI: 202.08, 230.76) while the weighted prevalence of smear-positive PTB was 169/100,000 (95% CI: 155.53, 181.60). The prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed TB was higher amongst males (352/100 000; 95% CI: 339.05, 364.52) than females (162/100 000; 95% CI: 153.60, 171.17) and among rural (222/100,000; 95% CI: 212.77-231.53) as compared to urban residents (193/100,000; 95% CI: 183.39-203.59). This study found a relatively higher prevalence smear-positive PTB in the region than in a same period nationwide survey and identified a significant number of undetected PTB cases. The urgency for improved TB case detection and intensified community awareness is emphasized.

  20. Prevalence of different forms of child maltreatment among Taiwanese adolescents: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jui-Ying; Chang, Yi-Ting; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Fetzer, Susan; Wang, Jung-Der

    2015-04-01

    Reported cases of child maltreatment are increasing in Taiwan. Yet, comprehensive epidemiological characteristics of adolescents' exposure over the wide spectrum of violence are still lacking. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and magnitude of child maltreatment among Taiwanese adolescents. A population-based study was conducted with 5,276 adolescents aged 12-18 from 35 schools in 17 cities and townships to determine the prevalence of five forms of child maltreatment in Taiwan. A total of 5,236 adolescents completed anonymous, self-report, structured questionnaires. Most adolescents (91%, n=4,788) experienced at least one form of maltreatment with 83% (n=4,347) exposed during the previous year. Violence exposure was the most common type of child maltreatment experienced, followed by psychological abuse, physical abuse, neglect, and sexual abuse. Adolescents reported an average of 7.4 (SD=5.87) victimizations over their lifetime and 4.8 (SD=4.82) victimizations during the past year. Females reported a higher rate of neglect, while males reported a higher rate of sexual abuse. Most of the sexual abuse perpetrators were known by their victims. Adolescents' victimization and polyvictimization from child maltreatment in Taiwan deserves a review and modification of national control and prevention policies.

  1. [Visual, hearing, and physical disability: prevalence and associated factors in a population-based study].

    PubMed

    Castro, Shamyr Sulyvan de; César, Chester Luiz Galvão; Carandina, Luana; Barros, Marilisa Berti Azevedo; Alves, Maria Cecília Goi Porto; Goldbaum, Moises

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of disabilities according to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, as well as to determine the main causes. The research used data from two population-based health surveys in São Paulo State, Brazil, in 2002 and 2003, designed with complex sampling techniques. Interviewees that reported disabilities comprised the study sample, according to the database variables. Prevalence of any disability was 110.8; visual disability, 62; hearing disability, 44; and physical disability, 13.3. Prevalence rates for disabilities varied according to age, gender, and schooling. Prevalence of hearing and physical disability was higher among men. The principal cause of disabilities was the disease itself. External causes were also one of the causative factors in disabilities. Disabilities increased with age and were more prevalent among women and persons with less schooling, and the principal causes were diseases and injuries.

  2. Prevalence of Parkinson's disease in Baskale, Turkey: a population based study.

    PubMed

    Durmus, Hacer; Gokalp, Mehmet A; Hanagasi, Hasmet A

    2015-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, and its prevalence rate varies between 15 and 250/100.000. The data on the prevalence of PD in Turkey are limited. In this study, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of PD in Baskale, Turkey. The study area is a rural small area in the eastern part Turkey, with a population of 26.991 inhabitants. The first stage of the study was undertaken between February and October 2011. Field workers performed a door to door population screening for the cardinal symptoms of PD and identified cases were reevaluated by an experienced movement disorders specialist. In this population based study, 19 PD patients were identified in the screened population, indicating that the estimated age standardized prevalence of PD in Turkey was 202/100.000. This study is the first large population based study for identifying prevalence of PD in Turkey. Our prevalence rate is slightly lower than those of European countries, which may be caused by ethnical differences or environmental factors.

  3. Validity of type 2 diabetes diagnosis in a population-based electronic health record database.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Iribas, Conchi; Sayon-Orea, Carmen; Delfrade, Josu; Ardanaz, Eva; Gorricho, Javier; Burgui, Rosana; Nuin, Marian; Guevara, Marcela

    2017-04-08

    The increasing burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus makes the continuous surveillance of its prevalence and incidence advisable. Electronic health records (EHRs) have great potential for research and surveillance purposes; however the quality of their data must first be evaluated for fitness for use. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of type 2 diabetes diagnosis in a primary care EHR database covering more than half a million inhabitants, 97% of the population in Navarra, Spain. In the Navarra EPIC-InterAct study, the validity of the T90 code from the International Classification of Primary Care, Second Edition was studied in a primary care EHR database to identify incident cases of type 2 diabetes, using a multi-source approach as the gold standard. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and the kappa index were calculated. Additionally, type 2 diabetes prevalence from the EHR database was compared with estimations from a health survey. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of incident type 2 diabetes recorded in the EHRs were 98.2, 99.3, 92.2 and 99.8%, respectively, and the kappa index was 0.946. Overall prevalence of type 2 diabetes diagnosed in the EHRs among adults (35-84 years of age) was 7.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.2-7.3) in men and 5.9% (95% CI 5.8-5.9) in women, which was similar to the prevalence estimated from the health survey: 8.5% (95% CI 7.1-9.8) and 5.5% (95% CI 4.4-6.6) in men and women, respectively. The high sensitivity and specificity of type 2 diabetes diagnosis found in the primary care EHRs make this database a good source for population-based surveillance of incident and prevalent type 2 diabetes, as well as for monitoring quality of care and health outcomes in diabetic patients.

  4. Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in a population-based sample of Hispanic people in Arizona: Proyecto VER.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Beatriz; Klein, Ronald; Rodriguez, Jorge; Snyder, Robert; West, Sheila K

    2005-11-01

    To report the prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a population-based sample of Hispanic individuals aged 50 years and older. Proyecto VER (Vision and Eye Research) is a population-based study of blindness and visual impairment of Hispanic people in Arizona. Participants underwent complete ophthalmic evaluation, including stereoscopic fundus photography of fields 1, 2, and 4. All photographs for participants aged 50 years and older were graded using the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading system. The following signs were graded: drusen size, drusen type, and the area covered by drusen; pigmentary abnormalities; geographic atrophy; and exudative AMD. Sixty-seven percent (3178) of the original 4774 participants were 50 years of age or older. Of those, 92% (2928) had fundus photographs in at least 1 eye, and 95% (2780) of the photographs were of sufficient quality to grade early and late AMD. The overall prevalence of late AMD was 0.5%. The prevalence increased from 0.1% in the 50- to 59-year age group to 4.3% in the group aged 80 years and older. Likewise, early AMD was strongly associated with age with a prevalence of 20% in the 50- to 59-year age group, increasing to 54% in the group aged 80 years and older. The prevalence of early AMD in Hispanic people was significantly higher than the reported prevalence in the white population. However, the prevalence of late AMD was lower than the estimates for the white population of the United States. Although early macular changes were very common among Hispanic people, the prevalence of late AMD was infrequent. Further work is necessary to understand the underlying reasons for the different patterns of presentation of early and late signs of AMD among racial/ethnic groups and to characterize early AMD based on predictive value for severe disease in different populations.

  5. Adult Prevalence of Epilepsy in Spain: EPIBERIA, a Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Castro, Pedro J.; Mauri-Llerda, Jose Angel; Hernández-Ramos, Francisco José; Sánchez-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Parejo-Carbonell, Beatriz; Quiroga-Subirana, Pablo; Vázquez-Gutierrez, Fernando; Santos-Lasaosa, Sonia; Mendez-Lucena, Carolina; Redondo-Verge, Luis; Tejero-Juste, Carlos; Morandeira-Rivas, Clara; Sancho-Rieger, Jerónimo; Matías-Guiu, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study assesses the lifetime and active prevalence of epilepsy in Spain in people older than 18 years. Methods. EPIBERIA is a population-based epidemiological study of epilepsy prevalence using data from three representative Spanish regions (health districts in Zaragoza, Almería, and Seville) between 2012 and 2013. The study consisted of two phases: screening and confirmation. Participants completed a previously validated questionnaire (EPIBERIA questionnaire) over the telephone. Results. A total of 1741 valid questionnaires were obtained, including 261 (14.99%) raising a suspicion of epilepsy. Of these suspected cases, 216 (82.75%) agreed to participate in phase 2. Of the phase 2 participants, 22 met the International League Against Epilepsy's diagnostic criteria for epilepsy. The estimated lifetime prevalence, adjusted by age and sex per 1,000 people, was 14.87 (95% CI: 9.8–21.9). Active prevalence was 5.79 (95% CI: 2.8–10.6). No significant age, sex, or regional differences in prevalence were detected. Conclusions. EPIBERIA provides the most accurate estimate of epilepsy prevalence in the Mediterranean region based on its original methodology and its adherence to ILAE recommendations. We highlight that the lifetime prevalence and inactive epilepsy prevalence figures observed here were compared to other epidemiological studies. PMID:26783554

  6. Sun Exposure Prevalence and Associated Skin Health Habits: Results from the Austrian Population-Based UVSkinRisk Survey

    PubMed Central

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Moshammer, Hanns

    2016-01-01

    Recreational sun exposure accounts for a large number of acute and chronic dermatological diseases, including skin cancer. This study aimed at estimating the one-year prevalence of sun exposure and skin health-associated knowledge and attitudes among Austrian citizens. The population-based UVSkinRisk survey investigated a representative sample of Austrian adults using a structured questionnaire. In total, 1500 study subjects (median age 33.0 years, 50.5% females) participated in this questionnaire survey. Among study participants, prevalence of sun exposure was 47%, with slightly higher rates in males (48%) compared to females (46%). Younger age, lower professional category, darker skin type, motives to tan, sunbed use, sunburn, and outdoor sport activity increased the odds for prevalent sun exposure. This is the first population-based study evaluating the prevailing sun exposure and recreational habits influencing skin health among Austrian citizens. Despite public media campaigns educating on the harmful effects of sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of self-reported sunlight exposure. The results suggest that multifaceted socio-cultural characteristics stimulate recreational sun exposure and tanning habits. Communicating individualized Public (Skin) Health messages might be the key to prevent photo-induced skin health hazards in light-skinned populations. The practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26797627

  7. Sun Exposure Prevalence and Associated Skin Health Habits: Results from the Austrian Population-Based UVSkinRisk Survey.

    PubMed

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Moshammer, Hanns

    2016-01-19

    Recreational sun exposure accounts for a large number of acute and chronic dermatological diseases, including skin cancer. This study aimed at estimating the one-year prevalence of sun exposure and skin health-associated knowledge and attitudes among Austrian citizens. The population-based UVSkinRisk survey investigated a representative sample of Austrian adults using a structured questionnaire. In total, 1500 study subjects (median age 33.0 years, 50.5% females) participated in this questionnaire survey. Among study participants, prevalence of sun exposure was 47%, with slightly higher rates in males (48%) compared to females (46%). Younger age, lower professional category, darker skin type, motives to tan, sunbed use, sunburn, and outdoor sport activity increased the odds for prevalent sun exposure. This is the first population-based study evaluating the prevailing sun exposure and recreational habits influencing skin health among Austrian citizens. Despite public media campaigns educating on the harmful effects of sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of self-reported sunlight exposure. The results suggest that multifaceted socio-cultural characteristics stimulate recreational sun exposure and tanning habits. Communicating individualized Public (Skin) Health messages might be the key to prevent photo-induced skin health hazards in light-skinned populations. The practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  8. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in women without cervical cancer: a population-based study in Eastern India.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Sankhadeep; Begum, Rakiba; Mazumder Indra, Dipanjana; Mandal, Shyam Sundar; Mondal, Ranajit; Biswas, Jaydip; Dey, Bindu; Panda, Chinmay Kumar; Basu, Partha

    2012-03-01

    Despite the high incidence of cervical cancer, population-based data on prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) are limited in India. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of any HPV type and type-specific prevalence of HPV 16/18 in women without cervical cancer. HPV viral load was measured and correlated with cytologic abnormalities of the cervix. A total of 2501 women between 25 and 65 years of age and without cervical cancer were screened by pap smear cytology. HPV DNA was detected from cervical scrapes by nested polymerase chain reaction. Detection of HPV 16/18 was carried out by polymerase chain reaction using type-specific primers and was confirmed by Southern hybridization. Viral load was determined by absolute real-time polymerase chain reaction. Population prevalence of any HPV was found to be 9.9%. The risk of HPV infection was higher in women aged 25 to 34 years (odds ratio, 1.11), in married women below 20 years of age (odds ratio, 1.80), and in women with parity ≥4 (odds ratio, 1.04). Prevalence of HPV 18 (1.4%) was greater than that of HPV 16 (0.6%) in the overall screened population. High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion cytology was more frequent in women infected with HPV 16 than in those infected with HPV 18 and other types. A gradual increase in HPV copy numbers was associated with progressive cytologic severity. In this study, HPV prevalence is comparable to HPV prevalence reported by other studies among Indian and Asian women. Although the prevalence of HPV 18 was more than that of HPV 16, type 16 infection was associated with higher oncogenicity.

  9. Prevalence of exposure to suicide: A meta-analysis of population-based studies.

    PubMed

    Andriessen, Karl; Rahman, Bayzidur; Draper, Brian; Dudley, Michael; Mitchell, Philip B

    2017-05-01

    Those exposed to suicide are at increased risk of adverse outcomes including mental illness, impaired social functioning, and fatal and non-fatal suicidal behavior. However, it is unclear how many people are exposed to suicide in the general community. This first meta-analysis of population-based studies aimed to provide pooled estimates of past-year and lifetime prevalence of exposure to suicide among family, friends/peers, and all relationships. In addition, the study examined prevalence of exposure to suicide by age group: adolescents and adults. Systematic searches of the literature in Embase, Medline and PsycINFO identified eighteen studies that were included in the analysis. Pooled past-year prevalence was 4.31% (CI: 2.50 to 6.58) and life-time prevalence 21.83% (CI: 16.32 to 27.90). Both past-year and lifetime prevalences of exposure to suicide among friends and peers were significantly higher than the prevalence of exposure within families; there were no differences in the prevalence of exposure to suicide between adolescents and adults. Heterogeneity was highly significant. Future research should be conducted with large national representative samples and use standardised assessment instruments. Given the increased risks of adverse outcomes among those exposed to suicide, the high rate of exposure to suicide reported here has important ramifications for public health and mental health service delivery.

  10. Impact of partial bivalent HPV vaccination on vaccine-type infection: a population-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Cuschieri, K; Kavanagh, K; Moore, C; Bhatia, R; Love, J; Pollock, K G

    2016-05-24

    Data on the effectiveness of one dose of HPV vaccine are lacking, particularly in population-based settings. Data from a national HPV immunisation catch-up programme of 14-18-year-old girls were used to assess the effectiveness of<3 doses of the bivalent vaccine on vaccine-type and cross-reactive-type HPV infection. Cervical samples from women attending for their first cervical smear, which had been genotyped for HPV as part of a longitudinal HPV surveillance programme were linked to immunisation records to establish the number of vaccine doses (0, 1, 2 and 3) administered. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) adjusted for deprivation and age at first dose, was assessed for prevalent HPV 16/18 and HPV 31/33/45 infection. VE for prevalent HPV 16/18 infection associated with 1, 2 and 3 doses was 48.2% (95% CI 16.8, 68.9), 54.8% (95% CI 30.7, 70.8) and 72.8% (95% CI 62.8, 80.3). Equivalent VE for prevalent HPV 31/33/45 infection was -1.62% (95% CI -85.1, 45.3), 48.3% (95% CI 7.6, 71.8) and 55.2% (95% CI 32.6, 70.2). Consistent with recent aggregated trial data, we demonstrate the potential effectiveness of even one dose of HPV vaccine on vaccine-type infection. Given that these women were immunised as part of a catch-up campaign, the VE observed in this study is likely to be an underestimate of what will occur in girls vaccinated at younger ages. Further population-based studies which look at the clinical efficacy of one-dose schedules are warranted.

  11. Prevalence of auditory hallucinations in Norwegian adolescents: Results from a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Kompus, Kristiina; Løberg, Else-Marie; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Lundervold, Astri Johansen

    2015-01-01

    Knowing the prevalence and characteristics of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in adolescents is important for estimations of need for mental health care and assessment of psychosis risk. In this report we assess the prevalence of AVH in a population-based sample of 16–19 years old Norwegian adolescents (n = 9,646, 46.4% male) using two items assessing AVH (from the extended Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale). The prevalence of hearing a voice speaking thoughts aloud was 10.6%. The prevalence of being troubled by voices was 5.3%, showing that negative emotionality about AVH is less frequent than the experience of hearing voices. Female respondents had slightly increased risk for being troubled by voices than males (odds ratio = 1.3), while age did not modulate prevalence. This AVH prevalence is in line with earlier reports in smaller samples of adolescents and indicates that AVH are not uncommon in this period of life. Further longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the value of AVH in predicting psychiatric disorder. PMID:25968251

  12. Insomnia in tension-type headache: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyoung; Cho, Soo-Jin; Kim, Won-Joo; Yang, Kwang Ik; Yun, Chang-Ho; Chu, Min Kyung

    2017-09-12

    Tension-type headache (TTH) represents the most common type of headache among the general population. Although such headaches are usually mild in severity, some individuals with TTH experience severe symptoms and psychiatric comorbidities. Such patients may also experience sleep disturbances, which have been associated with headache exacerbation. Nevertheless, information regarding the prevalence and impact of insomnia among individuals with TTH in a population-based setting is limited. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence and impact of insomnia among individuals with TTH using data from the Korean Headache-Sleep Study (KHSS). We analysed data from the KHSS-a nation-wide, cross-sectional, population-based survey on headache and sleep involving Korean adults aged 19 to 69 years. Insomnia was defined as an Insomnia Severity Index score ≥ 10. Among 2695 participants, 570 (21.2%) and 290 (10.8%) were classified as having TTH and insomnia, respectively. Among individuals with TTH, 113 (19.8%) met the criteria for probable migraine (PM). The prevalence of insomnia among individuals with TTH was significantly higher than that among individuals without headache (13.2% vs. 5.8%, p < 0.001). However, among the TTH group, the prevalence of insomnia did not significantly differ between participants fulfilling PM criteria and those not fulfilling PM criteria (14.2% vs. 12.9%, p = 0.725). Among individuals with TTH, headache frequency [median and interquartile range (IQR): 1.0 (0.3-3.0) vs. 0.4 (0.2-1.0), p = 0.002], visual analogue scale scores for headache intensity [median and IQR: 5.0 (4.0-7.0) vs. 4.0 (3.0-6.0), p < 0.001], Headache Impact Test-6 scores [median and IQR: 46.0 (40.0-52.0) vs. 42.0 (38.0-46.0), p < 0.001], anxiety prevalence (28.0% vs. 6.7%, p < 0.001), and depression prevalence (21.3% vs. 1.6%, p < 0.001) were significantly higher in those with insomnia than in those without insomnia. Our findings indicate

  13. Population-Based Prevalence of Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorders in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, Jenny; de Klerk, Nick; Smith, Timothy; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the prevalence of intellectual disability (ID) and/or autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in Western Australia (WA). A cohort of children born from 1983 to 2010 in WA with an ID and/or ASD were identified using the population-based IDEA (Intellectual Disability Exploring Answers) database, which ascertains cases through the Disability Services Commission (DSC) as well as education sources. Information on race, gender, mother's residence at birth and deaths was obtained through linkage to the Midwives Notification System and the Mortality Register. Diagnostic information on the cause of ID was obtained through review of medical records where available and children were classified as biomedical cause, ASD, or unknown cause. An overall prevalence of ID of 17.0/1000 livebirths (95% CI: 16.7, 17.4) showed an increase from the 10-year previous prevalence of 14.3/1000. The prevalence for mild or moderate ID was 15.0 (95% CI: 14.6, 15.3), severe ID was 1.2 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.3), and unknown level of ID was 0.9 (95% CI: 0.8, 1.0)/1000 livebirths. The prevalence for Aboriginal children was 39.0/1000 compared with 15.7/1000 for non-Aboriginal children, giving a prevalence ratio of 2.5 (95% CI: 2.4, 2.6). Prevalence of all ASD was 5.1/1000 of which 3.8/1000 had ASD and ID. The prevalence of ID has risen in WA over the last 10 years with most of this increase due to mild or moderate ID. Whilst the prevalence of ASD has also increased over this time this does not fully explain the observed increase. Aboriginal children are at a 2.5-fold risk of ID but are less likely to be accessing disability services. PMID:27227936

  14. Prevalence of substance use disorders in psychiatric patients: a nationwide Danish population-based study.

    PubMed

    Toftdahl, Nanna Gilliam; Nordentoft, Merete; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    The present study established the national prevalence of substance use disorders (SUDs) among Danish psychiatric patients. Furthermore, patients with SUDs and those without SUDs were compared on a range of socio-demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics. Data were obtained from several Danish population-based registers. The study population was defined as all individuals with incidents of schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder, other psychoses, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and personality disorders since 1969. The prevalence of SUDs was examined for the following psychoactive substances: alcohol, opioids, cannabis, sedatives, cocaine, psycho-stimulants and hallucinogens. A total of 463,003 patients were included in the analysis. The prevalence of any lifetime SUD was: 37 % for schizophrenia, 35 % for schizotypal disorder, 28 % for other psychoses, 32 % for bipolar disorder, 25 % for depression, 25 % for anxiety, 11 % for OCD, 17% for PTSD, and 46 % for personality disorders. Alcohol use disorder was the most dominating SUD in every psychiatric category (25 % of all included patients). Patients with SUDs were more often men, had fewer years of formal education, more often received disability pension and died due to unnatural causes. The study was the most comprehensive of its kind so far to estimate the prevalence of SUDs in an unselected population-based cohort, and it revealed remarkably high prevalence among the psychiatric patients. The results should encourage continuous focus on possible comorbidity of psychiatric patients, as well as specialised and integrated treatment along with increased support of patients with comorbid disorders.

  15. The Prevalence of Corneal Opacity in Rural Areas in Iran: A Population-based Study.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Hassan; Pakzad, Reza; Yekta, Abbasali; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2017-09-12

    To determine the prevalence of corneal opacity in rural areas in Iran: a population-based study Methods: This was a cross-sectional population-based study using multi-stage cluster sampling from rural-dwellers of villages in the north and southwest of Iran. All participants underwent vision testing including measurement of visual acuity and refraction followed by slit lamp examination by an ophthalmologist through which the presence of corneal opacity was determined. The participants were 3314 people (response rate = 86.5%), and 56.3% were female. The prevalence of corneal opacity in at least one eye in the studied subjects was 1.68% (95% CI: 1.08-2.27%); 1.07% (95% CI: 0.04-3.43%) and 2.47% (95% CI: 1.49-3.43%) in women and men, respectively, and 1.45% (95% CI: 0.4-2.45%) and 1.97% (95% CI: 1.3-2.94%) in the southwest and north of the country, respectively. The prevalence of corneal opacity was related to male gender (OR = 2.06, 95% CI: 1.13-3.74) and age (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.04- 1.09) but not with education level. The prevalence of visual impairment and blindness among cases with corneal opacity was 46.2% and 19.2%, respectively. Given the high prevalence of corneal opacity in rural areas in Iran, it is essential to prioritize rural areas for allocation of resources and facilities for the diagnosis, screening, and necessary treatment measures.

  16. Prevalence and correlates of diabetes mellitus in Malawi: population-based national NCD STEPS survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previously considered as a disease of the affluent, west or urban people and not of public health importance, diabetes mellitus is increasingly becoming a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. However, population-based data to inform prevention, treatment and control are lacking. Methods Using the WHO STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance, a population-based, nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted between July and September 2009 on participants aged 25–64 years. A multi-stage cluster sample design and weighting were used to produce a national representative data for that age range. Detailed findings on the magnitude of diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting blood glucose are presented in this paper. Results Fasting blood glucose measurement was conducted on 3056 participants (70.2% females, 87.9% from rural areas). The age- sex standardised population-based mean fasting blood glucose was 4.3 mmol/L (95% CI 4.1-4.4 mmol/L) with no significant differences by age, sex and location (urban/rural). The overall prevalence of impaired fasting blood glucose was 4.2% (95% CI 3.0%-5.4%). Prevalence of impaired blood glucose was higher in men than in women, 5.7% (95% CI 3.9%-7.5%) vs 2.7% (95% CI 1.6%- 3.8%), p < 0.01. In both men and women, prevalence of raised fasting blood glucose or currently on medication for diabetes was 5.6% (95% CI 2.6%- 8.5%). Although the prevalence of diabetes was higher in men than women, 6.5% (95% CI 2.6%-10.3%) vs 4.7% (95% CI 2.4%-7.0%), in rural than urban, 5.4% (95% CI 2.4%-8.4%) vs 4.4% (95% CI 2.8%-5.9%) and in males in rural than males in urban, 6.9% (95% CI 2.8%-11.0%) vs 3.2% (95% CI 0.1%-6.3%), the differences were not statistically significant, p > 0.05. Compared to previous estimates, prevalence of diabetes increased from <1.0% in 1960s to 5.6% in 2009 (this study). Conclusion High prevalence of impaired fasting blood glucose and diabetes mellitus

  17. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Central America: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    PubMed

    Wong-McClure, Roy A; Gregg, Edward W; Barceló, Alberto; Lee, Kahye; Abarca-Gómez, Leandra; Sanabria-López, Laura; Tortós-Guzmán, Jaime

    2015-09-01

    To report the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) as found by the Central American Diabetes Initiative (CAMDI) study for five major Central American populations: Belize (national); Costa Rica (San José); Guatemala (Guatemala City); Honduras (Tegucigalpa); and Nicaragua (Managua). Study data on 6 185 adults aged 20 years or older with anthropometric and laboratory determination of MetS from population-based surveys were analyzed. Overall, the survey response rate was 82.0%. MetS prevalence was determined according to criteria from the Adult Treatment Panel III of the National Cholesterol Education Program. The study's protocol was reviewed and approved by the bioethical committee of each country studied. The overall standardized prevalence of MetS in the Central American region was 30.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 27.1-33.4). There was wide variability by gender and work conditions, with higher prevalence among females and unpaid workers. The standardized percentage of the population free of any component of MetS was lowest in Costa Rica (9.0%; CI: 6.5-11.4) and highest in Honduras (21.1%; CI: 16.4-25.9). Overall prevalence of MetS in Central America is high. Strengthening surveillance of chronic diseases and establishing effective programs for preventing cardiovascular diseases might reduce the risk of MetS in Central America.

  18. Prevalence of trigeminal neuralgia and persistent idiopathic facial pain: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Daniel; Obermann, Mark; Yoon, Min-Suk; Poitz, Franziska; Hansen, Niels; Slomke, Marc-Andre; Dommes, Peter; Gizewski, Elke; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Katsarava, Zaza

    2011-11-01

    To estimate the lifetime prevalence of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and persistent idiopathic facial pain (PIFP) in a population-based sample in Germany. A total of 3336 responders of 6000 contacted inhabitants of the city of Essen in Germany were screened using a self-assessment questionnaire. 327 individuals, who reported recurrent facial pain and randomly selected 150 (5% of 3009) screening negative subjects, received a phone interview by one of six neurologists and if necessary a face-to-face examination. Those with suspected TN or PIFP following the phone interview underwent neurological examination by two neurologists who were unaware of the presumed diagnosis. A random group of 25 (10% of 247) phone interview negative subjects was examined face-to-face. All suspected cases of PIFP received otorhinolaryngological examination and diagnostic cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In TN patients the number of vessel-nerve contacts was determined by thin-slice cranial MRI. Lifetime prevalence of TN was estimated to be 0.3% [10 of 3336; 95% CI 0.1-0.5%], of PIFP 0.03% [1 of 3336; 95% CI < 0.08%]. Thin-slice cranial MRI detected five vessel-nerve contacts and no symptomatic lesions in the 10 TN patients. This large population-based study revealed that TN and PIFP are rare facial pain disorders.

  19. Prevalence and correlates of coronary heart disease: first population-based study in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Zeidan, Rouba Karen; Farah, Rita; Chahine, Mirna N; Asmar, Roland; Hosseini, Hassan; Salameh, Pascale; Pathak, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Background Lebanon is experiencing a growing epidemic of coronary heart diseases (CHDs), as most low- and middle-income countries currently are. However, this growth can be attenuated if effective preventive strategies are adopted. Purpose To provide the first national population-based prevalence of CHD and to describe the profile of Lebanese adults with prevalent CHD. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional study using a multistage cluster sample across Lebanon. We interviewed residents aged 40 years and older using a questionnaire that captured the presence of CHDs and their risk factors (RFs). Results Our study showed that 13.4% of the Lebanese population aged ≥40 years suffer from a prevalent CHD. CHD seemed to appear more prematurely than in developed countries, and males seemed to be more subject to CHD than females until a certain age. CHD was associated with older age, male sex, a lower economic situation, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, having a family history of premature cardiovascular diseases, and suffering from diabetes. However, smoking and waist circumference did not seem to have an independent effect on CHD, but rather an effect mediated by biological RFs. Conclusion This is the first nationwide endeavor conducted in Lebanon to assess the prevalence of CHD. This study also confirms the relevance of the classic RFs of CHD and their applicability to the Lebanese population, thus allowing for prevention strategies. PMID:27051290

  20. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in population-based studies: Systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiu-Li; Rothenbacher, Dietrich

    2008-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is becoming a major public health problem worldwide. This article reviews the published evidence of prevalence of CKD in population-based study samples that used the standardized definition from the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative of the National Kidney Foundation (K/DOQI) practice guideline, and particularly focus on performance of serum-creatinine based equations for GFR estimation. We provide a summary of available data about the burden of CKD in various populations. Methods We performed a systematic review of available published data in MEDLINE. A combination of various keywords relevant to CKD was used in this research. Related data of included studies were extracted in a systematic way. Results A total of 26 studies were included in this review. The studies were conducted in different populations, and the number of study participants ranged from 237 to 65181. The median prevalence of CKD was 7.2% in persons aged 30 years or older. In persons aged 64 years or older prevalence of CKD varied from 23.4% to 35.8%. Importantly, the prevalence of CKD strongly depended on which estimating equations were used. The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study (MDRD) equation was likely to be preferred in recent epidemiological studies compared to the adjusted Cockcroft-Gault (CG) equation. Conclusion Worldwide, CKD is becoming a common disease in the general population. Accurately detecting CKD in special groups remains inadequate, particularly among elderly persons, females or other ethnic groups such as Asians. PMID:18405348

  1. Prevalence and correlates of coronary heart disease: first population-based study in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Zeidan, Rouba Karen; Farah, Rita; Chahine, Mirna N; Asmar, Roland; Hosseini, Hassan; Salameh, Pascale; Pathak, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Lebanon is experiencing a growing epidemic of coronary heart diseases (CHDs), as most low- and middle-income countries currently are. However, this growth can be attenuated if effective preventive strategies are adopted. To provide the first national population-based prevalence of CHD and to describe the profile of Lebanese adults with prevalent CHD. We carried out a cross-sectional study using a multistage cluster sample across Lebanon. We interviewed residents aged 40 years and older using a questionnaire that captured the presence of CHDs and their risk factors (RFs). Our study showed that 13.4% of the Lebanese population aged ≥40 years suffer from a prevalent CHD. CHD seemed to appear more prematurely than in developed countries, and males seemed to be more subject to CHD than females until a certain age. CHD was associated with older age, male sex, a lower economic situation, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, having a family history of premature cardiovascular diseases, and suffering from diabetes. However, smoking and waist circumference did not seem to have an independent effect on CHD, but rather an effect mediated by biological RFs. This is the first nationwide endeavor conducted in Lebanon to assess the prevalence of CHD. This study also confirms the relevance of the classic RFs of CHD and their applicability to the Lebanese population, thus allowing for prevention strategies.

  2. The prevalence of diagnosed tourette syndrome in Canada: A national population-based study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jaeun; Hirsch, Lauren; Martino, Davide; Jette, Nathalie; Roberts, Jodie; Pringsheim, Tamara

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine: (1) the prevalence of diagnosed Tourette syndrome in Canada by sex in youth (aged 12-17) and adults and (2) socioeconomic factors in this population. The majority of epidemiological studies of tics have focused on children and youth, with few studies describing the prevalence of tics in adult populations. Canadian data on Tourette syndrome prevalence were derived from the Canadian Community Health Survey 2010 and 2011 cycles, a Statistics Canada population-based cross-sectional survey that collects information related to health status. We determined the prevalence of diagnosed Tourette syndrome and examined sociodemographic factors, including age, sex, education, income, employment, and birthplace. Overall, 122,884 Canadians participated in the surveys, with 122 participants diagnosed with Tourette syndrome. The prevalence of Tourette syndrome was higher in males in youth: 6.03 per 1000 (95% confidence interval: 3.24-8.81) in males versus 0.48 per 1,000 (95% confidence interval: 0.05-0.91) in females, with a prevalence risk ratio of 5.31 (95% confidence interval: 2.38-11.81). In adults, the prevalence of Tourette syndrome was 0.89 per 1,000 (95% confidence interval: 0.48-1.29) in males versus 0.44 (95% confidence interval: 0.16.0-0.71) in females, with a prevalence risk ratio of 1.93 (95% confidence interval: 1.21-3.08). After adjusting for age and sex, adults with Tourette syndrome had lower odds of receiving postsecondary education or being employed and higher odds of having income lower than the median and receiving governmental support. Data on the prevalence of Tourette syndrome in adults are scarce because most studies focus on children. Our data demonstrate a decreasing prevalence risk ratio for sex in adults compared to children. A diagnosis of Tourette syndrome is associated with lower education, income, and employment in adulthood. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016

  3. The prevalence of glaucoma in a population-based study of Hispanic subjects: Proyecto VER.

    PubMed

    Quigley, H A; West, S K; Rodriguez, J; Munoz, B; Klein, R; Snyder, R

    2001-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of glaucoma in a population-based sample of Hispanic adults older than 40 years. Using 1990 census data for Arizona, groups of persons living in sections of the city in Nogales and Tucson were randomly selected with a probability proportional to the Hispanic population older than 40 years. We tried to recruit all eligible adults in homes with 1 self-described Hispanic adult. Detailed ocular examinations at a local clinic included visual acuity testing, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, an optic disc evaluation, and a threshold visual field test. Open-angle glaucoma (OAG) was defined using a proposed international system for prevalence surveys, including threshold visual field defect and optic disc damage. Angle-closure glaucoma was defined as bilateral appositional angle closure, combined with optic nerve damage (judged by field and disc as for OAG). Examinations were conducted in 72% (4774/6658) of eligible persons, with a 1.97% prevalence (95% confidence interval, 1.58%-2.36%) of OAG (94 persons). The age-specific OAG prevalence increased nonlinearly from 0.50% in those aged 41 to 49 years to 12.63% in those 80 years and older. Angle-closure glaucoma was detected in 5 persons (0.10%). Sex, blood pressure, and cigarette smoking were not significant OAG risk factors. Only 36 (38%) of the 94 persons with OAG were aware of their OAG before the study. Screening results with an intraocular pressure higher than 22 mm Hg (in the eye with a higher pressure) would miss 80% of the OAG cases. The prevalence of OAG in Hispanic persons was intermediate between reported values for white and black persons. The prevalence increased more quickly with increasing age than in other ethnic groups. Glaucoma was the leading cause of bilateral blindness.

  4. Prevalence trends of pre- and postnatal depression in Japanese women: A population-based longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Takehara, Kenji; Tachibana, Yoshiyuki; Yoshida, Keiko; Mori, Rintaro; Kakee, Naoko; Kubo, Takahiko

    2017-08-18

    This study aimed to describe the prevalence trends of pre- and postnatal depression, via measures of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) total and factor scores, from 20 weeks' gestation to 3 months postpartum, stratified by parity, in a Japanese female population. A longitudinal, population-based study was conducted among perinatal women giving birth at maternity facilities in Setagaya area of Tokyo, Japan. Of the 1775 women who participated, 1311 women met the inclusion criteria of this analysis. All data, including EPDS, were collected via self-administrated questionnaires at 20 weeks' gestation and at 5 time points postpartum, from the first few days to 3 months postpartum. We divided EPDS items into three factors: "anxiety," "anhedonia," and "depression," according to factor analysis. The prevalence of individuals exhibiting depressive symptoms, EPDS total score, and each factor score peaked at two weeks postpartum in primiparas (EPDS total = 5.58, anhedonia = 0.47, anxiety = 2.64, and depression = 1.23). In contrast, the EPDS total score and factor scores for "anxiety" and "depression" gradually decreased for multiparas, from the prenatal to postpartum period (EPDS total 3.33, 3.03, 3.03, 2.72, 2.76, and 2.37). Each factor score was not weighted; instead, we simply added up the item scores ranging from 0 to 3 for each question. Additionally, the population representativeness of Japanese women was not high, although the sample was population-based and had a high follow-up rate. This study shows that the trends of EPDS total and factor scores differ by parity throughout the pre- and postnatal periods among a Japanese female population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of dementia in the oldest old: the Monzino 80-plus population based study.

    PubMed

    Lucca, Ugo; Tettamanti, Mauro; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Tiraboschi, Pietro; Landi, Cristina; Sacco, Leonardo; Garrì, Mariateresa; Ammesso, Sonia; Bertinotti, Chiara; Biotti, Anna; Gargantini, Elena; Piedicorcia, Alessandro; Nobili, Alessandro; Pasina, Luca; Franchi, Carlotta; Djade, Codjo Djignefa; Riva, Emma; Recchia, Angela

    2015-03-01

    Epidemiological studies commonly include too few of the oldest old to provide accurate prevalence rates of dementia in older age groups. Estimates of the number of those affected, necessary for healthcare planning, are thus flawed. The objective is to estimate the prevalence of dementia and levels of dementia severity in a very large population of oldest old and to investigate the relation between age and dementia prevalence in the extreme ages. The Monzino 80-plus is a population-based study among residents 80 years or older in Varese province, Italy. Dementia cases were identified using a one-phase design. The survey was conducted in the participant's place of residence, whether home or institution. Both participants and informants were interviewed. Information was available for 2504 of the 2813 residents (89%). In all, 894 individuals (714 women and 180 men) met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (fourth edition) criteria for dementia, for a standardized prevalence of 25.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 23.4, 27.2%), 28.5% (95% CI: 26.2, 30.9) in women and 18.6% (95% CI: 15.2, 21.9) in men. Age-specific prevalence estimates of dementia increased with age from 15.7% at age 80 to 84 years to 65.9% at age 100 years and higher. For women, prevalence continued to rise after age 100 years, from 64.8% at age 100 to 101 years to 76.1% at age 102 to 107 years. After age 85 years prevalence rates tended to rise linearly, on average 2.6% per year in women and 1.8% in men. About 80% of the cases were moderate or severe. The frequency of mild dementia decreased and that of severe dementia increased with age. One-quarter of 80-plus year olds are affected by dementia, mostly moderate or severe. Prevalence rates of dementia do not level off, but continue to rise gradually even in the extreme ages. Copyright © 2015 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Rare chromosome abnormalities, prevalence and prenatal diagnosis rates from population-based congenital anomaly registers in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Wellesley, Diana; Dolk, Helen; Boyd, Patricia A; Greenlees, Ruth; Haeusler, Martin; Nelen, Vera; Garne, Ester; Khoshnood, Babak; Doray, Berenice; Rissmann, Anke; Mullaney, Carmel; Calzolari, Elisa; Bakker, Marian; Salvador, Joaquin; Addor, Marie-Claude; Draper, Elizabeth; Rankin, Judith; Tucker, David

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the prevalence and types of rare chromosome abnormalities (RCAs) in Europe for 2000–2006 inclusive, and to describe prenatal diagnosis rates and pregnancy outcome. Data held by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies database were analysed on all the cases from 16 population-based registries in 11 European countries diagnosed prenatally or before 1 year of age, and delivered between 2000 and 2006. Cases were all unbalanced chromosome abnormalities and included live births, fetal deaths from 20 weeks gestation and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly. There were 10 323 cases with a chromosome abnormality, giving a total birth prevalence rate of 43.8/10 000 births. Of these, 7335 cases had trisomy 21,18 or 13, giving individual prevalence rates of 23.0, 5.9 and 2.3/10 000 births, respectively (53, 13 and 5% of all reported chromosome errors, respectively). In all, 473 cases (5%) had a sex chromosome trisomy, and 778 (8%) had 45,X, giving prevalence rates of 2.0 and 3.3/10 000 births, respectively. There were 1 737 RCA cases (17%), giving a prevalence of 7.4/10 000 births. These included triploidy, other trisomies, marker chromosomes, unbalanced translocations, deletions and duplications. There was a wide variation between the registers in both the overall prenatal diagnosis rate of RCA, an average of 65% (range 5–92%) and the prevalence of RCA (range 2.4–12.9/10 000 births). In all, 49% were liveborn. The data provide the prevalence of families currently requiring specialised genetic counselling services in the perinatal period for these conditions and, for some, long-term care. PMID:22234154

  7. Rare chromosome abnormalities, prevalence and prenatal diagnosis rates from population-based congenital anomaly registers in Europe.

    PubMed

    Wellesley, Diana; Dolk, Helen; Boyd, Patricia A; Greenlees, Ruth; Haeusler, Martin; Nelen, Vera; Garne, Ester; Khoshnood, Babak; Doray, Berenice; Rissmann, Anke; Mullaney, Carmel; Calzolari, Elisa; Bakker, Marian; Salvador, Joaquin; Addor, Marie-Claude; Draper, Elizabeth; Rankin, Judith; Tucker, David

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the prevalence and types of rare chromosome abnormalities (RCAs) in Europe for 2000-2006 inclusive, and to describe prenatal diagnosis rates and pregnancy outcome. Data held by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies database were analysed on all the cases from 16 population-based registries in 11 European countries diagnosed prenatally or before 1 year of age, and delivered between 2000 and 2006. Cases were all unbalanced chromosome abnormalities and included live births, fetal deaths from 20 weeks gestation and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly. There were 10,323 cases with a chromosome abnormality, giving a total birth prevalence rate of 43.8/10,000 births. Of these, 7335 cases had trisomy 21,18 or 13, giving individual prevalence rates of 23.0, 5.9 and 2.3/10,000 births, respectively (53, 13 and 5% of all reported chromosome errors, respectively). In all, 473 cases (5%) had a sex chromosome trisomy, and 778 (8%) had 45,X, giving prevalence rates of 2.0 and 3.3/10,000 births, respectively. There were 1,737 RCA cases (17%), giving a prevalence of 7.4/10,000 births. These included triploidy, other trisomies, marker chromosomes, unbalanced translocations, deletions and duplications. There was a wide variation between the registers in both the overall prenatal diagnosis rate of RCA, an average of 65% (range 5-92%) and the prevalence of RCA (range 2.4-12.9/10,000 births). In all, 49% were liveborn. The data provide the prevalence of families currently requiring specialised genetic counselling services in the perinatal period for these conditions and, for some, long-term care.

  8. Prevalence of Idiopathic Scoliosis in Chinese Schoolchildren: A Large, Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Hengwei, Fan; Zifang, Huang; Qifei, Wang; Weiqing, Tan; Nali, Deng; Ping, Yu; Junlin, Yang

    2016-02-01

    This is a population-based, cross-sectional study of school scoliosis screening program in mainland China. The aim of this study was to assess current prevalence and distribution of idiopathic scoliosis (IS) in schoolchildren and to compare with the results of previous studies. The feasibility and predictive values of scoliosis screening programs for school-age children remains controversial and many of these programs have recently been discontinued in different countries. Due to different race and medical model in China, it is not feasible to introduce these data without further study. Therefore, a reliable retrospective cohort study with a large sample size to ensure proper evaluation of school scoliosis screening is needed. Schoolchildren were initially screened by visual inspection of clinical signs, the forward-bending test, and the measurement of the angle of trunk rotation (ATR). Students suspected were rescreened, and then were referred for radiography or dismissed. The diagnosis and treatment were based on the Cobb angle. The personal information, demographic information, and results of tests performed were recorded and analyzed. A total of 99,695 children were screened, with a female-to-male ratio of 1:1.03. Around 6.56% of children screened were referred for radiography, and 5125 of them had confirmed diagnosis. The overall scoliosis prevalence rate was 5.14%. According to age and gender, 14- to 15-year-old girls had the highest prevalence rates (13.81%). And, the prevalence of IS in need of treatment was 0.64%. A prevalence rate of 13.1% was observed in girls with BMI less than 18 kg/m². The prevalence rate of IS was 5.14% in our study. Screening of 13- to 14- and 14- to 15-year-old girls identified a significant number who could benefit from preventive treatment. Low BMI may be a risk factor for IS. We present this study as a guide for studying the prevalence of IS and modifying our further research. 3.

  9. The Prevalence of Peyronie's Disease in the United States: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Stuntz, Mark; Perlaky, Anna; des Vignes, Franka; Kyriakides, Tassos; Glass, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Peyronie’s disease (PD) is a connective tissue disorder which can result in penile deformity. The prevalence of diagnosed PD in the United States (US) has been estimated to be 0.5% in adult males, but there is limited additional information comparing definitive and probable PD cases. We conducted a population-based survey to assess PD prevalence using a convenience-sample of adult men participating in the ResearchNow general population panel. Respondents were categorized according to PD status (definitive, probable, no PD) and segmented by US geographic region, education, and income levels. Of the 7,711 respondents, 57 (0.7%) had definitive PD while 850 (11.0%) had probable PD. Using univariate logistic regression modeling, older age (18–24 vs 24+) (OR = 0.721; 95% CI = 0.570,0.913), Midwest/Northeast/West geographic region (South vs Midwest/Northeast/West) (OR = 0.747; 95% CI = 0.646,0.864), and higher income level (<25K vs 25K+) (OR = 0.820; 95% CI = 0.673,0.997) were each significantly associated with reduced odds of having a definitive/probable PD diagnosis compared with no PD diagnosis. When all three variables were entered in a stepwise multivariable logistic regression, only age (OR = 0.642; 95% CI = 0.497, 0.828) and region (OR = 0.752; 95% CI = 0.647, 0.872) remained significant. This study is the first to report PD prevalence by geographic region and income, and it advocates that the prevalence of PD in the US may be higher than previously cited. Further, given the large discrepancy between definitive PD cases diagnosed by a physician and probable cases not diagnosed by a physician, much more needs to be done to raise awareness of this disease. PMID:26907743

  10. Prevalence of sun exposure and its associated factors in southern Brazil: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Almeida, Hiram Larangeira de; Reichert, Felipe Fossati; Santos, Iná da Silva dos; Haack, Ricardo Lanzetta; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2013-01-01

    Sunlight exposure is responsible for a large number of dermatological diseases. We estimated the prevalence of sunlight exposure and its associated factors in adults from southern Brazil in a cross-sectional, population-based study. We investigated a representative sample of individuals aged ≥ 20 years (n=3,136). Sunlight exposure and its associated factors were evaluated in two distinct situations: at leisure time and at work. The time period investigated ranged from December 2004 to March 2005, comprising 120 days of the highest ultraviolet index in the urban area of the city of Pelotas, in southern Brazil. The participants were asked about sunlight exposure for at least 20 minutes between 10 A.M. and 4 P.M. The analysis was stratified by sex, and sunlight exposure was grouped into five categories. Among the 3,136 participants, prevalence of sunlight exposure at the beach was 32.8% (95% CI, 30.3 - 35.2) and 26.3% (95% CI, 24.2 28.3) among men and women, respectively. The prevalence at work was 39.8% (95% CI, 37.2 - 42.4) among men and 10.5% (95% CI, 9.1 - 12.0) among women. Age was inversely associated with sunlight exposure. Family income and achieved schooling were positively associated with sunlight exposure at leisure time and inversely associated with sunglight exposure at work. Self-reported skin color was not associated. Knowledge of any friend or relative who has been affected by skin cancer was positively associated with sunlight exposure among men at work. Despite the media campaigns on the harmful effects of excessive sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of sunlight exposure during a period of high ultraviolet index.

  11. Higher prevalence of dementia in patients with schizophrenia: A nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ku, Hyemin; Lee, Eui-Kyung; Lee, Kyoung-Uk; Lee, Min-Young; Kwon, Jin-Won

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of dementia in patients with and without schizophrenia, with a particular focus on age-specific and sex-specific differences. We conducted a population-based study using the National Health Insurance claims database from 2010 to 2013. Using a 10:1 matching ratio, 248,919 patients without schizophrenia and 26,591 patients with schizophrenia were identified based on the ICD-10 code. Patients with dementia were extracted by diagnosis or use of anti-dementia drugs. Conditional logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association between schizophrenia and dementia. The prevalence of dementia was significantly higher in schizophrenia patients compared with that in matched non-schizophrenia patients (9.9% versus 2.2%, P < 0.0001). After adjusting for Charlson comorbidity index and underlying comorbidities, conditional logistic regression showed that schizophrenia was associated with dementia (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 4.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.4-5.1). When stratified by sex, the AOR was 5.6 (95% CI, 5.0-6.2) among women and 4.0 (95% CI, 3.6-4.5) among men. Moreover, the association between dementia and schizophrenia was strong in elderly patients. The AOR of dementia prevalence was 6.6 (95% CI, 6.1-7.2) in patients aged ≥65 years and 3.4 (95% CI, 3.0-3.8) in patients aged <65 years. Schizophrenia patients were more likely to have dementia compared with non-schizophrenia patients. This association seems greater in higher prevalence groups such as women and patients aged ≥65 years. Further investigation on the mechanism is required. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Prevalence of sun exposure and its associated factors in southern Brazil: a population-based study*

    PubMed Central

    Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; de Almeida, Hiram Larangeira; Reichert, Felipe Fossati; dos Santos, Iná da Silva; Haack, Ricardo Lanzetta; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sunlight exposure is responsible for a large number of dermatological diseases. OBJECTIVE We estimated the prevalence of sunlight exposure and its associated factors in adults from southern Brazil in a cross-sectional, population-based study. METHODS We investigated a representative sample of individuals aged ≥ 20 years (n=3,136). Sunlight exposure and its associated factors were evaluated in two distinct situations: at leisure time and at work. The time period investigated ranged from December 2004 to March 2005, comprising 120 days of the highest ultraviolet index in the urban area of the city of Pelotas, in southern Brazil. The participants were asked about sunlight exposure for at least 20 minutes between 10 A.M. and 4 P.M. The analysis was stratified by sex, and sunlight exposure was grouped into five categories. RESULTS Among the 3,136 participants, prevalence of sunlight exposure at the beach was 32.8% (95% CI, 30.3 - 35.2) and 26.3% (95% CI, 24.2 28.3) among men and women, respectively. The prevalence at work was 39.8% (95% CI, 37.2 - 42.4) among men and 10.5% (95% CI, 9.1 - 12.0) among women. Age was inversely associated with sunlight exposure. Family income and achieved schooling were positively associated with sunlight exposure at leisure time and inversely associated with sunglight exposure at work. Self-reported skin color was not associated. Knowledge of any friend or relative who has been affected by skin cancer was positively associated with sunlight exposure among men at work. CONCLUSION Despite the media campaigns on the harmful effects of excessive sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of sunlight exposure during a period of high ultraviolet index. PMID:24068126

  13. Prevalence and associations of gout and hyperuricaemia: results from an Australian population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ting, K; Gill, T K; Keen, H; Tucker, G R; Hill, C L

    2016-05-01

    Despite gout and hyperuricaemia being major comorbid health issues worldwide, there is a knowledge gap regarding their impact in the Australian community. To determine the prevalence and associations of self-reported medically diagnosed gout and hyperuricaemia in an Australian population-based cohort. The North West Adelaide Health Study is a longitudinal cohort study consisting of three stages of data collection. Each stage comprised a self-complete questionnaire, clinic assessment and computer-assisted telephone interview. In Stage 3 (2008-2010), participants were asked if a doctor had ever diagnosed them with gout. Additional data included demographics, comorbidities, laboratory data and Short Form 36 (SF-36). Participants were defined as having gout if they had self-reported medically diagnosed gout or were taking any gout-specific medication (allopurinol, colchicine, probenecid). Hyperuricaemia was defined as a serum uric acid (SUA) level >0.42 mmol/L in men and >0.34 mmol/L in women. The overall prevalence of gout was 5.2%. Males were significantly more likely to have gout than females (8.5 vs 2.1%, P < 0.001). The overall prevalence of hyperuricaemia was 16.6%, with being male again identified as a significant risk factor (17.8 vs 15.4%, P < 0.01). Both gout and hyperuricaemia were associated with male sex, body mass index and renal disease after multivariable adjustment. There was no significant difference reported in quality of life (mean SF-36) scores in participants with gout compared to unaffected individuals. The prevalence of gout and hyperuricaemia is high in the South Australian population. This study emphasises the need for optimal diagnosis and management of gout in Australia. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  14. Lumbosacral transitional vertebra in a population-based study of 5860 individuals: prevalence and relationship to low back pain.

    PubMed

    Tang, Min; Yang, Xian-feng; Yang, Shang-wen; Han, Peng; Ma, Yi-ming; Yu, Hui; Zhu, Bin

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence of lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV) within the Chinese Han population, and to determine whether LSTV correlates with low back pain (LBP) and gluteal pain. Typical standing pelvic radiographs were obtained for 5860 volunteers between 18 to 60 years of age. The lumbosacral region of each spine was evaluated to identify LSTV, which was classified into types I, II, III, and IV based on Castellvi's method. Histories of low back symptoms were obtained using a questionnaire. The association of different subtypes of LSTV with LBP and gluteal pain was explored. LSTV was found in 15.8% (928 of 5860) of our study population. Of the 928 individuals with LSTV, 44.8% were type I (dysplastic transverse process with height >19mm), 43.2% were type II (pseudoarticulation), 7.2% were type III (fusion), and 4.8% were type IV (a unilateral type II transition with a type III fusion on the contralateral side). Type II LSTV were closely associated with LBP and gluteal pain, with respective odds ratios (ORs) of 2.56 (95% CI: 2.17-3.89) and 5.38 (95% CI: 4.29-8.43). Similarly, types IV LSTV also demonstrated a significant correlation with LBP and gluteal pain, with respective ORs of 4.28 (95% CI: 3.21-6.35) and 6.82 (95% CI: 5.17-16.59). In this population-based study, the prevalence of LSTV was 15.8%, with type I being the most common. Importantly, LSTV types II and IV were significantly associated with LBP and gluteal pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence and outcome of asymptomatic carotid stenosis: a population-based ultrasonographic study.

    PubMed

    Mineva, P P; Manchev, I C; Hadjiev, D I

    2002-07-01

    The aims of this epidemiological population-based cohort study were to examine the prevalence and outcomes of asymptomatic carotid stenosis (ACS) detected by duplex scanning and its relations to other vascular risk factors. A total of 500 volunteers, 200 men and 300 women, without signs and symptoms of cerebrovascular disease, aged 50-79 years, were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of ACS of 50% or greater was 6.4%. Only severe carotid stenosis was detected in 0.4% of the subjects examined. Significant relationships between ACS and coronary heart disease (CHD) [odds ratio (OR)=8.00], peripheral arterial disease (PAD) (OR=3.66), cigarette smoking in men (OR=4.39) and obesity in women (OR=0.31) were found. The biennial incidence rate of cerebral ischaemic events was 9.4%. A progression of ACS was revealed in 14% and a regression in 6.25% of the subjects. The patients with progressing ACS to more than 70% diameter reduction reached the end-points. Follow-up with repeated duplex scans in patients with advancing ACS of 50% or greater, especially smokers with CHD and PAD, is recommended.

  16. Prevalence of depressive symptoms and associated developmental disorders in preschool children: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Fuhrmann, Pia; Equit, Monika; Schmidt, Karin; von Gontard, Alexander

    2014-04-01

    Depression is an incapacitating disorder, which is often overlooked in preschool children. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of depressive symptoms and co-occurring risk factors in a large, population-based sample of preschool children. All 653 children (of a total of 731) in a defined geographical area were assessed during the school-entry exam by community care paediatricians. In addition to clinical appraisal, parents filled out the Preschool Feelings Checklist, a 16-item screening instrument with good psychometric properties. The mean age was 6.2 years (range 5.0-7.6 years) and the sample included 344 boys and 305 girls. The prevalence of depressive symptoms of clinical relevance (total score ≥3) was 5.7% (37). There were no differences between boys and girls, and between younger (<6 years) and older (>6 years) children. Depressive symptoms were associated with parental separation and comorbid behavioural problems, but especially with developmental motor and speech problems and disorders. Migration to Germany had no influence. Depressive symptoms are common in preschool children and associated with developmental problems. Depression should be considered in children with speech and motor problems who are at special risk. Early detection and treatment are recommended.

  17. The prevalence of amblyopia in Germany: data from the prospective, population-based Gutenberg Health Study.

    PubMed

    Elflein, Heike M; Fresenius, Susanne; Lamparter, Julia; Pitz, Susanne; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Binder, Harald; Wild, Philipp; Mirshahi, Alireza

    2015-05-08

    Amblyopia is due to insufficient development of the visual system in early childhood and is a major source of lifelong impairment of visual acuity. Too little is known about the prevalence of amblyopia in Germany and the frequency of its various causes. The Gutenberg Health Study of the University of Mainz Faculty of Medicine is an ongoing population-based, prospective, monocentric cohort study with 15 010 participants aged 35 to 74. All participants are examined for the presence of ocular, cardiovascular, neoplastic, metabolic, immunologic, and mental diseases. 3227 participants aged 35 to 44 underwent ophthalmological examination from 2007 to 2012. Amblyopia was defined as impaired visual acuity in the absence of any organic pathology capable of explaining the condition, and in the presence of a known risk factor for amblyopia. Amblyopia, when defined as a visual acuity less than or equal to 0.63, was present in 182 participants (5.6%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.9-6.5%), 120 of whom had a visual acuity less than or equal to 0.5 (3.7%, 95% CI 3.3-5.2%). A narrower definition of amblyopia requiring, in addition, an interocular difference in acuity of at least two lines yielded slightly lower prevalence figures: 5.0% (95% CI 4.2-5.8%) and 3.7% (95% CI 3.1-4.4%), respectively. The causes of amblyopia (visual acuity ≤ 0.63) were anisometropia (different refractive strengths of the two eyes) in 49% of participants, strabismus (a squint) in 23%, both of these factors in 17%, and visual deprivation in 2%. 3 patients (2%) had relative amblyopia due to a traumatic cataract sustained in early childhood. 7% of the participants with amblyopia had binocular amblyopia. This study yielded a prevalence figure of 5.6% for amblyopia in Germany-a higher figure than in other, comparable population-based studies, which have generally yielded figures of ca. 3% for visual acuity ≤ 0.63. The distribution of the causes of amblyopia is similar across studies.

  18. Successful aging in Canada: prevalence and predictors from a population-based sample of older adults.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangfei; D'Arcy, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Little research has been conducted to thoroughly explore the prevalence and predicators of successful aging (SA) from a national point of view. The objectives of this study were (1) to estimate the prevalence of SA as defined by Rowe and Kahn using a large population-based dataset and (2) to determine the roles of sociodemographic, psychological, and lifestyle factors in SA among Canadian seniors. Data was from the Canadian Community Health Survey: Healthy Aging (CCHS-HA) (n = 25,864) conducted in 2008-2009. Rowe and Kahn's concept was used to measure SA. Descriptive analyses were used to estimate the prevalence of SA in those aged 45+ living in private dwellings in the ten provinces of Canada. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess predicators of SA among those aged 65+ and having complete data on cognition. The prevalence of SA was 50.1% among those aged 50+, then decreased to 46.2% for those aged 55+, 42.0% for those aged 60+, and 37.2% among those aged 65+. Assuming those 65+ living in institutions as unsuccessful agers, then the prevalence of SA was 35.3% among Canadian seniors aged 65+. There were no differences in prevalence rate of SA between males and females. We did not find higher income associated with SA. Being younger, married, regular drinkers, exercisers, perceived better health, satisfied with life, and taking calcium in the past month were associated with SA. The predicted probability of being a successful ager was 41% for those aged 65-74 years, 33% for 75-84 years, and 22% for those 85+ years, while controlling for other covariates. Presence of disease led to a major decline in SA, levels of functioning and engagement in contrast remained relatively constant. Over one third of the seniors in Canada met the criteria for SA, largely because the operationalization of the definition only considered severe chronic diseases that may not be well managed and thus likely to result in functional impairment. The modifiable risk factors

  19. Restless legs syndrome and tension-type headache: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Pil-Wook; Cho, Soo-Jin; Kim, Won-Joo; Yang, Kwang Ik; Yun, Chang-Ho; Chu, Min Kyung

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies have shown a significant association between restless legs syndrome (RLS) and primary headache disorders. Nevertheless, information regarding the association between tension-type headache (TTH) and RLS is limited. This study aimed to investigate the association between RLS and TTH in a population-based sample. We selected a stratified random population sample of Koreans aged 19-69 years and assessed them using a semi-structured interview designed to identify RLS, headache type, and clinical characteristics of TTH. We determined the prevalence and clinical impact of RLS in participants with TTH. Of the 2695 participants, 570 (21.2%) and 142 (5.3%) were classified as having TTH and RLS, respectively. Among the 570 individuals with TTH, 113 (19.8%) also met the criteria for probable migraine (PM). The prevalence of RLS was significantly higher among individuals with TTH than among those with non-headache (6.0% vs 3.6%, p = 0.018). The prevalence of RLS was significantly higher in subjects with TTH who fulfilled PM criteria than in those with non-headache participants (8.0% vs. 3.6%, p = 0.018). However, RLS prevalence in individuals with TTH who did not fulfil PM criteria did not differ from that of participants with non-headache (5.5% vs. 3.6%, p = 0.063). TTH participants with RLS had higher visual analogue scale scores for headache intensity (5.1 ± 2.0 vs. 4.3 ± 1.8, p = 0.038), and higher prevalence of anxiety (20.6% vs. 8.8%, p = 0.022) and depression (14.7% vs. 3.5%, p = 0.002) than TTH participants without RLS. Multivariable analyses revealed that headache aggravation by movement (odds ratio [OR] = 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-5.2) and depression (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.1-11.4) were significant indicators of RLS among individuals with TTH. The prevalence of RLS was higher among individuals with TTH than among those with non-headache. Some clinical presentations varied in accordance with

  20. Anthropometric measures and prevalence trends in adolescents with coeliac disease: a population based study.

    PubMed

    Assa, Amit; Frenkel-Nir, Yael; Leibovici-Weissman, Ya'ara; Tzur, Dorit; Afek, Arnon; Katz, Lior H; Levi, Zohar; Shamir, Raanan

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the impact of coeliac disease (CD) diagnosis on anthropometric measures at late adolescence and to assess trends in the prevalence of diagnosed CD over time. A population based study. Prior to enlistment, at the age of 17 years, most of the Israeli Jewish population undergoes a general health examination. Subjects' medical diagnoses are entered into a structured database. The enlistment database was thoroughly searched for CD cases between the years 1988 and 2015. Medical records of 2 001 353 subjects were reviewed. Anthropometric measures at the age of 17 years. Overall, 10 566 CD cases (0.53%) were identified and analysed. Median age at data ascertainment was 17.1 years (IQR, 16.9-17.4). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that boys with CD were leaner (Body Mass Index 21.2±3.7 vs 21.7±3.8, p=0.02) while girls with CD were shorter (161.5±6 cm vs 162.1±6 cm, p=0.017) than the general population. The prevalence of diagnosed CD increased from 0.5% to 1.1% in the last 20 years with a female predominance (0.64% vs 0.46%). CD prevalence was significantly lower in subjects of lower socioeconomic status and those of African, Asian and former Soviet Union origin. Adolescent boys with CD were leaner and girls with CD were shorter compared with the general population. However, the clinical relevance of the small differences suggests that when CD is diagnosed during childhood, final weight and height are not severely impaired. Our cohort reinforces the observed increase in diagnosed CD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Refractory hypertension: determination of prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidities in a large, population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, David A; Booth, John N; Oparil, Suzanne; Irvin, Marguerite R; Shimbo, Daichi; Lackland, Daniel T; Howard, George; Safford, Monika M; Muntner, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Refractory hypertension is an extreme phenotype of antihypertensive treatment failure. Participants in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study, a large (n=30 239), population-based cohort were evaluated to determine the prevalence of refractory hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities. Refractory hypertension was defined as uncontrolled blood pressure (systolic/diastolic, ≥140/90 mm Hg) on ≥5 antihypertensive drug classes. Participants with resistant hypertension (systolic/diastolic, ≥140/90 mm Hg on ≥3 or <140/90 mm Hg on ≥4 antihypertensive classes) and all participants treated for hypertension served as comparator groups. Of 14 809 REGARDS participants receiving antihypertensive treatment, 78 (0.5%) had refractory hypertension. The prevalence of refractory hypertension was 3.6% among participants with resistant hypertension (n=2144) and 41.7% among participants on ≥5 antihypertensive drug classes. Among all participants with hypertension, black race, male sex, living in the stroke belt or buckle, higher body mass index, lower heart rate, reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, diabetes mellitus, and history of stroke and coronary heart disease were associated with refractory hypertension. Compared with resistant hypertension, prevalence ratios for refractory hypertension were increased for blacks (3.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.68-5.37) and those with albuminuria (2.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.40-3.52) and diabetes mellitus (2.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-3.31). The median 10-year Framingham risk for coronary heart disease and stroke was higher among participants with refractory hypertension when compared with those with either comparator group. These data indicate that although resistant hypertension is relatively common among treated patients with hypertension, true antihypertensive treatment failure is rare.

  2. Refractory Hypertension: Determination of Prevalence, Risk Factors and Comorbidities in a Large, Population-Based Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, David A.; Booth, John N.; Oparil, Suzanne; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Shimbo, Daichi; Lackland, Daniel T.; Howard, George; Safford, Monika M.; Muntner, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Refractory hypertension is an extreme phenotype of antihypertensive treatment failure. Participants in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study, a large (n=30,239), population-based cohort were evaluated to determine the prevalence of refractory hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities. Refractory hypertension was defined as uncontrolled blood pressure (systolic/diastolic ≥ 140/90 mm Hg) on ≥ 5 antihypertensive drug classes. Participants with resistant hypertension (systolic/diastolic ≥140/90 mm Hg on ≥ 3 or<140/90 mm Hg on ≥ 4 antihypertensive classes) and all treated hypertensive participants served as comparator groups. Of 14,809 REGARDS participants receiving antihypertensive treatment, 78 (0.5%) had refractory hypertension. The prevalence of refractory hypertension was 3.6% among participants with resistant hypertension(n=2,144) and 41.7% among participants on 5 or more antihypertensive drug classes. Among all hypertensive participants, African American race, male gender, living in the stroke belt or buckle, higher body mass index, lower heart rate, reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, diabetes and history of stroke and coronary heart disease were associated with refractory hypertension. Compared to resistant hypertension, prevalence ratios for refractory hypertension were increased for African Americans (3.00, 95% CI 1.68 – 5.37) and those with albuminuria (2.22, 95% CI 1.40 – 3.52) and diabetes (2.09, 95% CI 1.32 – 3.31). The median 10-year Framingham risk for coronary heart disease and stroke was higher among participants with refractory hypertension compared to either comparator group. These data indicate that while resistant hypertension is relatively common among treated hypertensive patients, true antihypertensive treatment failure is rare. PMID:24324035

  3. The Prevalence and Causes of Primary Infertility in Iran: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Kazemijaliseh, Hadigheh; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani; Behboudi-Gandevani, Samira; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Khalili, Davood; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Primary infertility is a health issue among women over the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and causes of primary infertility based on a population-based study in an urban area of Iran. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, a total of 1067 married women who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study were randomly selected using systematic random sampling. Unmarried women, those with unwilling pregnancy and duration of marriage below one year were excluded from the study. Data was collected by using validated ad-hoc questionnaires. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Results: The mean (SD) of age and marriage age of the studied women were 40.3 (9.3) and 20.6 (4.49) years, respectively; the overall prevalence of lifetime primary infertility among couples was 17.3% (185/1067). Ovulatory disorder (39.7%) and male factors (29.1%) were the main causes of primary infertility. In addition, 31 (17%) of the women were diagnosed with more than one cause. According to the logistic regression analysis, primary infertility was independently related to the old age of women (OR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.14–13.63, P.value: 0.001), higher BMI (OR: 1.95; 95% CI: 1.87–4.14, P.value: 0.003), active smoking (OR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.38–3.53, P.value: 0.012) and higher educational level (OR: 2.23; 95% CI: 1.12–5.53, P.value: 0.03). Conclusion: The prevalence of primary infertility in Iran was higher than the worldwide trends of infertility, indicating that understanding such risks help healthcare providers and policy makers to design and implement interventions to slow down this trend. PMID:26153187

  4. Prevalence and correlates of diabetes mellitus in Uganda: a population-based national survey.

    PubMed

    Bahendeka, Silver; Wesonga, Ronald; Mutungi, Gerald; Muwonge, James; Neema, Stella; Guwatudde, David

    2016-03-01

    We analysed fasting blood glucose (FBG) and other data collected as part of a population-based nationwide non-communicable disease risk factor survey, to estimate the prevalence of impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG) and diabetes mellitus and to identify associated factors in Uganda. The nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted between April and July 2014. Participants were adults aged 18-69 years. A multistage stratified sample design was used to produce a national representative sample. Fasting capillary glucose was measured to estimate glycaemia. Data were managed with WHO e-STEPs software and Epi Info. Stata(®) survey procedures were used to account for the sampling design, and sampling weights were used to account for differential probability of selection between strata. Of the 3689 participants, 1467 (39.8%) were males, and 2713 (73.5%) resided in the rural areas. The mean age was 35.1 years (standard deviation = 12.6) for males and 35.8 years (13.2) for females. The overall prevalence of IFG was 2.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.5-2.5%), whereas that of diabetes mellitus was 1.4% (95% CI 0.9-1.9%). The prevalence of IFG was 2.1% (95% CI 1.3-2.9%) among males and 1.9% (95% CI 1.3-2.6%) among females, whereas that of diabetes mellitus was 1.6% (95% CI 0.8-2.6%) and 1.1% (95% CI 0.6-1.7%), respectively. The prevalence of IFG was 2.6% (95% CI 1.4-3.8%) among urban and 1.9% (95% CI 1.3-2.4%) among rural residents, whereas that of diabetes mellitus was 2.7% (95% CI 1.4-4.1) and 1.0% (95% 0.5-1.6%), respectively. The majority of participants identified with hyperglycaemia (90.5% IFG and 48.9% diabetes) were not aware of their hyperglycaemic status. Factors associated with IFG were region of residence, body mass index and total cholesterol; factors associated with diabetes mellitus were age, sex, household floor finish and abdominal obesity. The prevalence of IFG and of diabetes mellitus is low in the Ugandan population, providing an opportunity for the

  5. Prevalence and risk of violence against people with and without disabilities: findings from an Australian population-based study.

    PubMed

    Krnjacki, Lauren; Emerson, Eric; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2016-02-01

    There are no population-based estimates of the prevalence of interpersonal violence among people with disabilities in Australia. The project aimed to: 1) estimate the prevalence of violence for men and women according to disability status; 2) compare the risk of violence among women and men with disabilities to their same-sex non-disabled counterparts and; 3) compare the risk of violence between women and men with disabilities. We analysed the 2012 Australian Bureau of Statistics Survey on Personal Safety of more than 17,000 adults and estimated the population-weighted prevalence of violence (physical, sexual and intimate partner violence and stalking/harassment) in the past 12 months and since the age of 15. Population-weighted, age-adjusted, logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of violence by disability status and gender. People with disabilities were significantly more likely to experience all types of violence, both in the past 12 months and since the age of 15. Women with disabilities were more likely to experience sexual and partner violence and men were more likely to experience physical violence. These results underscore the need to understand risk factors for violence, raise awareness about violence and to target policies and services to reduce violence against people with disabilities in Australia. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  6. Delayed sleep phase syndrome in adolescents: prevalence and correlates in a large population based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome (DSPS) in adolescence, and to examine the association to insomnia and school non-attendance. Methods Data stem from a large population based study in Hordaland County in Norway conducted in 2012, the ung@hordaland study. In all, 10,220 adolescents aged 16–18 years (54% girls) provided self-reported data on a range of sleep parameters: DSPS was defined according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Revised (ICSD-R) criteria, while insomnia was defined according to the Quantitative Criteria for Insomnia. Other sleep parameters included time in bed, sleep duration, sleep efficiency, oversleeping, sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, subjective sleep need, sleep deficiency, sleepiness and tiredness. Sleep data were calculated separately for weekdays and weekends. Data on school non-attendance were provided by official registers. Results The prevalence of DSPS was 3.3%, and significantly higher among girls (3.7%) than boys (2.7%). There was a strong overlap between DSPS and insomnia, with more than half of the adolescents with DSPS also meeting the criteria for insomnia (53.8% for boys and 57.1% for girls). Adolescents with DSPS had significantly higher odds ratios (OR) of non-attendance at school. After adjusting for sociodeographical factors, insomnia and depression, the adjusted ORs for days of non-attendance were OR = 3.22 (95% CI: 1.94-5.34) for boys and OR = 1.87 (95% CI: 1.25-2.80) for girls. A similar effect was found for hours of non-attendance for boys, with an adjusted OR = 3.05 (95% CI: 1.89-4.92). The effect for girls was no longer significant after full adjustment (OR =1.48 [95% CI: 0.94-2.32]). Conclusions This is one of the first studies to estimate the prevalence of DSPS in adolescents. The high prevalence of DSPS, and overlap with insomnia, in combination with the odds of school non-attendance, suggest that a broad

  7. Prevalence and treatment coverage for depression: a population-based survey in Vidarbha, India.

    PubMed

    Shidhaye, Rahul; Gangale, Siddharth; Patel, Vikram

    2016-07-01

    VISHRAM is a community-based mental health program to address psycho-social distress and risk factors for suicide in a predominantly rural population in Central India, through targeted interventions for the prevention and management of Depression and Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD). The evaluation was designed to assess the impact of program on the contact coverage of evidence-based treatments for depression and AUD through a repeated survey design. This paper describes the baseline prevalence of depression among adults in rural community, association of various demographic and socio-economic factors with depression and estimates contact coverage and costs of care for depression. Population-based cross-sectional survey of adults in 30 villages of Amravati district in Vidarbha region of Central India. The outcome of interest was a probable diagnosis of depression which was measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Data were analyzed using simple and multiple logistic regression. The outcome of current depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 10) was observed in 14.6 % of the sample (95 % CI 12.8-16.4 %). The contact coverage for current depression was only 4.3 % (95 % CI 1.5-7.1 %). Prevalence of depression varied greatly between the two sites of the study; higher age, female gender, lower education, economic status below poverty line and indebtedness were associated with depression; and while a contact coverage with formal health care was very low, a large proportion of affected persons had consulted family members. Our findings clearly indicate that psycho-social distress in rural communities in Maharashtra is strongly associated with social determinants such as gender, poverty and indebtedness and affects the entire population and not just farmers.

  8. Prevalence of vertebral fractures in women and men in the population-based Tromsø Study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are, as the hip fractures, associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Norway has one of the highest reported incidences of hip fractures in the world. Because of methodological challenges, vertebral fractures are not extensively studied. The aim of this population based study was to describe, for the first time, the age- and sex specific occurrence of osteoporotic vertebral fractures in Norway. Methods Data was collected in the Tromso Study, 2007/8 survey. By the use of dual x-ray absorptiometry (GE Lunar Prodigy) vertebral fracture assessments were performed in 2887 women and men aged from 38 to 87 years, in addition to measurements of bone mineral density at the femoral sites. Information on lifestyle was collected through questionnaires. Comparisons between fractures and non-fractures were done sex stratified, by univariate analyses, adjusting for age when relevant. Results The prevalence of vertebral fractures varied from about 3% in the age group below 60 to about 19% in the 70+ group in women, and from 7.5% to about 20% in men, with an overall prevalence of 11.8% in women and 13.8% in men (p = 0.07). Among those with fractures, only one fracture was the most common; two and more fractures were present in approximately 30% of the cases. Fractures were seen from the fourth lumbar to the fifth thoracic vertebrae, most common between first lumbar and sixth thoracic vertebrae. The most common type of fracture was the wedge type in both sexes. Bone mineral density at the hip differed significantly according to type of fracture, being highest in those with wedge fractures and lowest in those with compression fractures. Conclusions The prevalence of vertebral fractures increased by age in women and men, but the overall prevalence was lower than expected, considering the high prevalence of hip and forearm fractures in Norway. In both sexes, the wedge type was the fracture type most frequently observed and most common

  9. Brief Report: Prevalence of Self-Injurious Behaviors among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder--A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soke, Gnakub N.; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Hamman, Richard F.; Fingerlin, Tasha; Robinson, Cordelia; Carpenter, Laura; Giarelli, Ellen; Lee, Li-Ching; Wiggins, Lisa D.; Durkin, Maureen S.; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Self-injurious behaviors (SIB) have been reported in more than 30% of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in clinic-based studies. This study estimated the prevalence of SIB in a large population-based sample of children with ASD in the United States. A total of 8,065 children who met the surveillance case definition for ASD in the…

  10. Prevalence of Tourette Syndrome and Chronic Tics in the Population-Based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Miller, Laura L.; Mathews, Carol A.; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Recent epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that Tourette syndrome (TS) and chronic tic disorder (CT) are more common than previously recognized. However, few population-based studies have examined the prevalence of co-occurring neuropsychiatric conditions such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and…

  11. Brief Report: Prevalence of Self-Injurious Behaviors among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder--A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soke, Gnakub N.; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Hamman, Richard F.; Fingerlin, Tasha; Robinson, Cordelia; Carpenter, Laura; Giarelli, Ellen; Lee, Li-Ching; Wiggins, Lisa D.; Durkin, Maureen S.; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Self-injurious behaviors (SIB) have been reported in more than 30% of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in clinic-based studies. This study estimated the prevalence of SIB in a large population-based sample of children with ASD in the United States. A total of 8,065 children who met the surveillance case definition for ASD in the…

  12. Prevalence of Tourette Syndrome and Chronic Tics in the Population-Based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Miller, Laura L.; Mathews, Carol A.; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Recent epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that Tourette syndrome (TS) and chronic tic disorder (CT) are more common than previously recognized. However, few population-based studies have examined the prevalence of co-occurring neuropsychiatric conditions such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and…

  13. Parent-reported prevalence of food allergy in Mexican schoolchildren: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ontiveros, N; Valdez-Meza, E E; Vergara-Jiménez, M J; Canizalez-Román, A; Borzutzky, A; Cabrera-Chávez, F

    Food allergy (FA) prevalence is well documented in developed countries and appears to be increasing, but remains unknown in most Latin American countries. We aimed to evaluate on a population basis the parent-reported prevalence of FA and its clinical characteristics in Mexican schoolchildren. A validated Spanish version of a structured written questionnaire was administered to parents of schoolchildren aged 5-13 years old from Culiacan, Mexico. A total of 1049 parents responded to the survey (response rate, 84%). The estimated prevalence rates (95% CI) were: adverse food reactions 10.0% (8.3-11.9), "perceived FA, ever" 5.5% (4.3-7.0), "physician-diagnosed FA, ever" 4.9% (3.7-6.3), "immediate-type FA, ever" 4.4% (3.3-5.8), "immediate-type FA, current" 3.5% (2.6-4.8), and anaphylaxis 1.2% (0.72-2.1). Immediate hypersensitivity reactions were mainly triggered by the consumption of shrimp (1.3%), other shellfish (0.7%), strawberry (0.6%), chocolate (0.5%), and egg (0.4%). Schoolchildren with "immediate-type FA, current" had more atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis (p<0.05), but not asthma or drug allergy (p>0.05) than children without FA. All cases of anaphylaxis sought medical attention, but only one child had physician-diagnosed anaphylaxis and was advised to acquire an epinephrine autoinjector. The prevalence of "immediate-type FA, current" to any food is 3.5% in Mexican schoolchildren. The poor recognition of anaphylaxis and the low frequency of prescription of epinephrine autoinjectors suggest that acute food-induced allergic reactions are not optimally managed in Mexico. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Population based prevalence of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa: uncovering a silent epidemic.

    PubMed

    Tesfaye, Fikru; Byass, Peter; Wall, Stig

    2009-08-23

    The prevention and control of high blood pressure or other cardiovascular diseases has not received due attention in many developing countries. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa, so as to inform policy and lay the ground for surveillance interventions. Addis Ababa is the largest urban centre and national capital of Ethiopia, hosting about 25% of the urban population in the country. A probabilistic sample of adult males and females, 25-64 years of age residing in Addis Ababa city participated in structured interviews and physical measurements. We employed a population based, cross sectional survey, using the World Health Organization instrument for stepwise surveillance (STEPS) of chronic disease risk factors. Data on selected socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle behaviours, including physical activity, as well as physical measurements such as weight, height, waist and hip circumference, and blood pressure were collected through standardized procedures. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to estimate the coefficient of variability of blood pressure due to selected socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, and physical measurements. A total of 3713 adults participated in the study. About 20% of males and 38% of females were overweight (body-mass-index > or = 25 kg/m2), with 10.8 (9.49, 12.11)% of the females being obese (body-mass-index > or = 30 kg/m2). Similarly, 17% of the males and 31% of the females were classified as having low level of total physical activity. The age-adjusted prevalence (95% confidence interval) of high blood pressure, defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) > or = 140 mmHg (millimetres of mercury) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) > or = 90 mmHg or reported use of anti-hypertensive medication, was 31.5% (29.0, 33.9) among males and 28.9% (26.8, 30.9) among females. High blood pressure is widely prevalent in Addis Ababa and may represent a silent

  15. Prevalence of neuromuscular disorders in Qena governorate/Egypt: population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Khedr, Eman M; Fawi, Gharib; Abbas, Mohammed Abd-Allah; Abo El-Fetoh, Noha; Zaki, Ahmed F; Gamea, Ayman; Al Attar, Ghada

    2016-12-01

    Few epidemiological studies of the prevalence of neuromuscular disorders have been undertaken. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of the most common types of neuromuscular disorders in Qena governorate/Egypt. A random sample was taken from 11 districts, involving 9303 inhabitants with 57.3% urban residents and 42.7% rural residence. Patients were diagnosed using a screening questionnaire for the diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders. All positive cases were referred to Qena University hospital where they underwent full clinical, electrophysiological, and laboratory investigations. Out of 9303 participants 448 cases were identified positive during survey. Four hundred and twenty-six cases proved to have neuromuscular disorders giving a crude prevalence rate (CPR) of 4.57%; 408 cases had definite neuropathy and 18 cases had muscular disorders equivalent to CPR of 4.39% and 193/10(5) respectively. There was a higher prevalence in the rural than urban population. The CPR of focal compression neuropathies was 1.8%, with the majority of cases having carpal tunnel syndrome (CPR = 1.67%). CPR of diabetic neuropathy was 1.67%. The CPR of compressive radiculopathy was 0.34%. Traumatic nerve injury had a CPR 0.06%. The lifetime prevalence of Bell's palsy was 0.16%. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy had a CPR 0.08%. The CPR of idiopathic neuropathy was 0.09% and Infective Leprotic neuropathy was 0.04%. Five patients were diagnosed as having muscular dystrophy and another 5 patients had myotonia with CPR of 54/10(5) for each. Two cases of myasthenia gravis and another two cases with systemic myopathy were recorded giving a CPR of 21/10(5). The overall CPR of neuromuscular disorders in the general population in Qena governorate/Egypt was higher than reported in other countries.

  16. Estimated prevalence of immunity to poliomyelitis in the city of São Paulo, Brazil: a population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Kiffer, Carlos Roberto Veiga; Conceição, Orlando Jorge; Santos, Edgar Bortholi; Sabino, Ester; Focaccia, Roberto

    2002-10-01

    Objectives. Estimate the prevalence of immunity to poliomyelitis (anti-polio antibodies) in the city of São Paulo/Brazil through a population-based survey. Methods. A quantitative and inductive method was used to draw a representative sample of the population. Randomization and stratification (based on sex, age and residence region) was done, and 1,059 individuals were studied on a home-visit basis (structured questionnaires and blood samples). A microneutralization test was performed to detect anti-polio antibodies against serotypes 1, 2 and 3. Results. The estimated prevalence of immunity to poliomyelitis was high, with 94.6% prevalence of anti-polio 1 antibodies, 98.8% anti-polio 2 and 91.9% anti-polio 3. Despite this high prevalence, there were significantly lower prevalence levels in some groups, specially among age and residence region groups. Discussion. Routine child immunization and NIDs with OPV have provided excellent levels of serological immunity to poliomyelitis in the population of the city of São Paulo, Brazil. However, there may be specific groups with a lower prevalence of immunity. Estimations of the prevalence of immunity to poliomyelitis were made in a population-based survey, which could be used as an auxiliary tool for supporting the polio eradication program.

  17. Systematic review of the prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies.

    PubMed

    Dell'Aglio, José Caetano; Basso, Lissia Ana; Argimon, Irani Iracema de Lima; Arteche, Adriane

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the findings of a systematic literature review aimed at providing an overview of the lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies. Databases MEDLINE, ProQuest, Psychnet, and Web of Science were browsed for papers published in English between 1999 and May 2012 using the following search string: bipolar disorders OR bipolar spectrum disorders AND prevalence OR cross-sectional OR epidemiology AND population-based OR non-clinical OR community based. The search yielded a total of 434 papers, but only those published in peer-reviewed journals and with samples aged ≥ 18 years were included, resulting in a final sample of 18 papers. Results revealed rather heterogeneous findings concerning the prevalence of bipolar disorders and bipolar spectrum disorders. Lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder ranged from 0.1 to 7.5%, whereas lifetime prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorders ranged from 2.4 to 15.1%. Differences in the rates of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders may be related to the consideration of subthreshold criteria upon diagnosis. Differences in the prevalence of different subtypes of the disorder are discussed in light of diagnostic criteria and instruments applied.

  18. [Prevalence of depressive symptoms and associated factors among southern Brazilian adults: cross-sectional population-based study].

    PubMed

    Rombaldi, Airton José; da Silva, Marcelo Cozzensa; Gazalle, Fernando Kratz; Azevedo, Mario Renato; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2010-12-01

    To identify the prevalence of depressive symptoms and examine associated factors in a Southern Brazilian adult population, a cross-sectional population-based study was carried out, including 972 subjects, men and women, aged 20 to 69 years, living in the urban area of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul. The sampling strategy relied on the census tracts of the city as primary sampling units and households as the secondary units. The questionnaire included socio-demographic, behavioral and nutritional variables. The prevalence of sadness, anxiety, loss of energy, lack of will to do things, thinking about the past, and wishing to stay at home were 29.4%, 57.6%, 37.4%, 40.4%, 33.8%, and 54.3%, respectively. Female gender, older ages, smokers and obese individuals showed association with depressive symptoms. Population-based studies using longitudinal designs may help to clarify the relationship between biopsychosocial variables and depressive symptoms.

  19. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in scholars from Bucaramanga, Colombia: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Villa-Roel, Cristina; Buitrago, Adriana; Rodríguez, Diana C; Cano, Diana J; Martínez, María P; Camacho, Paul A; Ruiz, Álvaro J; Durán, Álvaro E

    2009-01-01

    Background Obesity and metabolic syndrome are strongly associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, thus the increasing trend in their prevalence among children and adolescents from developing countries requires a further understanding of their epidemiology and determinants. Methods and design A cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among 6–10 year-old children from Bucaramanga, Colombia. A two-stage random-cluster (neighborhoods, houses) sampling process was performed based on local city maps and local statistics. The study involves a domiciliary survey; including a comprehensive socio-demographic, nutritional and physical activity characterization of the children that participated in the study, followed by a complete clinical examination; including blood pressure, anthropometry, lipid profile determination, fasting glucose and insulin levels. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome will be determined using definitions and specific percentile cut-off points for this population. Finally, the association between components of metabolic syndrome and higher degrees of insulin resistance will be analyzed through a multivariable logistic regression model. This study protocol was designed in compliance with the Helsinki declaration and approved by the local ethics board. Consent was obtained from the children and their parents/guardians. Discussion A complete description of the environmental and non-environmental factors underlying the burden of metabolic syndrome in children from a developing country like Colombia will provide policy makers, health care providers and educators from similar settings with an opportunity to guide primary and secondary preventive initiatives at both individual and community levels. Moreover, this description may give an insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms mediating the development of cardio-metabolic diseases early in life. PMID:19383169

  20. Neurofibromatosis type 1 and pregnancy complications: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Terry, Anna R; Barker, Fred G; Leffert, Lisa; Bateman, Brian T; Souter, Irene; Plotkin, Scott R

    2013-07-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether vascular and other complications are more common in pregnant women with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). We performed a population-based retrospective cohort study using the US Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 1988-2009, defining a cohort of pregnancy-related hospitalizations with an associated diagnosis of NF1 and comparing it with the control group not associated with NF1. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for suspected confounders. Among 19 million pregnancy-related admissions between 1988 and 2009, we identified 1553 associated with NF1 (prevalence 0.008%). A diagnosis of NF1 in delivering mothers was associated with gestational hypertension (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.0), preeclampsia (AOR, 2.8, 95% CI, 2.3-3.4), intrauterine growth restriction (AOR, 4.6, 95% CI, 3.7-5.6), cerebrovascular disease (OR, 8.1, 95% CI, 2.6-25.4), preterm labor (AOR, 1.6, 95% CI, 1.4-1.9), and cesarean delivery (AOR, 2.0, 95% CI, 1.8-2.3). Women with NF1 were not significantly more likely to have deep venous thrombosis/pulmonary embolism, acute cardiac events, or stillbirth or to die during their hospitalizations compared with the general obstetric population. NF1 was associated with increased maternal morbidity in pregnancy (including hypertensive and cerebrovascular complications) but not increased maternal mortality. Obstetricians should be aware of the potential for increased antenatal and peripartum complications among women with NF1. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence of tics in schoolchildren in central Spain: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Cubo, Esther; Gabriel y Galán, José María Trejo; Villaverde, Vanesa Ausín; Velasco, Sara Sáez; Benito, Vanesa Delgado; Macarrón, Jesús Vicente; Guevara, José Cordero; Louis, Elan D; Benito-León, Julián

    2011-08-01

    Tic disorders constitute a neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood. This study sought to determine the prevalence of tic disorders in a school-based sample. A randomized sample of 1158 schoolchildren, based on clusters (classrooms) in the province of Burgos (Spain), was identified on a stratified sampling frame combining types of educational center and setting (mainstream schools and special education), using a two-phase approach (screening and diagnosis ascertainment by a neurologist). Tics with/without impairment criterion were diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria. In mainstream schools, tics were observed in 125/741 students (16.86%; 95% confidence interval, 14.10-19.63), and were more frequent in boys (87/448, 19.42%; 95% confidence interval, 15.64-23.19) compared with girls (38/293, 12.96%; 95% confidence interval, 8.95-16.98; P = 0.03). In special education centers, tics disorders were observed in 11/54 of children (20.37%; 95% confidence interval, 8.70-32.03). Overall, tics with impairment criteria were less frequent than tics without impairment criteria (4.65% vs 11.85%, P < 0.0001). The most frequent diagnoses involved chronic motor tics (6.07%) and Tourette syndrome (5.26%). Tic disorders are common in childhood, and the use or nonuse of impairment criteria exerts a significant impact on tic prevalence estimates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of adult HIV prevalence from national population-based surveys and antenatal clinic surveillance in countries with generalised epidemics: implications for calibrating surveillance data

    PubMed Central

    Gouws, E; Mishra, V; Fowler, T B

    2008-01-01

    Background: Estimates of the impact of HIV in countries with generalised epidemics are generally based on antenatal clinic surveillance data collected over time. In an attempt to obtain geographically more representative estimates of HIV prevalence, many countries are now also conducting national population-based surveys in which HIV testing is included. We compare adult HIV prevalence estimates from antenatal clinic surveillance to those from national population-based surveys to assess the implications for calibrating surveillance data. Methods: HIV prevalence estimates derived from fitting prevalence curves to antenatal clinic surveillance data are statistically compared to prevalence from national population-based surveys using data from 26 countries with generalised epidemics for the year in which the survey was conducted. Appropriate transformations are applied to inform the correction factors needed to adjust prevalence in countries where population-based surveys have not been conducted. Results: HIV prevalence derived from antenatal clinic surveillance data generally overestimate population-based survey prevalence by about 20% (95% confidence interval: 10% to 30%) in both urban and rural areas. Conclusions: In countries where national population-based HIV surveys have been conducted, survey estimates of HIV prevalence (adjusted for potential survey biases as appropriate) can be used directly to calibrate antenatal clinic surveillance data. In countries where national HIV surveys have not been conducted, HIV prevalence derived from antenatal clinic surveillance data should be multiplied by about 0.8 to adjust for overestimation. PMID:18647861

  3. Prevalence of headache and migraine in children and adolescents: a systematic review of population-based studies.

    PubMed

    Abu-Arafeh, Ishaq; Razak, Sheik; Sivaraman, Baskaran; Graham, Catriona

    2010-12-01

    the aim of this study was to review systematically the prevalence of headache and migraine in children and adolescents and to study the influence of sex, age, and region of residence on the epidemiology.  we systematically searched the literature in electronic databases to cover the period between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2007. We assessed and included population-based studies on epidemiology of headache and migraine in children and adolescents if they fulfilled the following criteria: (1) reporting on unselected childhood population; (2) reliable methods of data collection using a questionnaire or face-to-face interviews; (3) using the International Headache Society's (IHS) criteria (1988 or 2004) for the diagnosis of migraine; and (4) provision of sufficient and explicit data for analysis. We used Excel, Stata, and Confidence Interval Analysis software.  we identified and analysed 50 population-based studies reporting the prevalence of headache and/or migraine in children and adolescents (<20y). The estimated prevalence of headache over periods between 1 month and lifetime in children and adolescents is 58.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 58.1-58.8). Females are more likely to have headache than males (odds ratio [OR] 1.53, 95% CI 1.48-1.6). The prevalence of migraine over periods between 6 months and lifetime is 7.7% (95% CI 7.6-7.8). Females are more likely than males to have migraine (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.60-1.75). Regional differences in prevalence of migraine, though statistically significant, may not be of clinical significance. The change in the IHS's criteria for the diagnosis of migraine was not associated with any significant change in the prevalence of migraine. this study confirms the global high prevalence of headache and migraine in children and adolescents. Sex, age, and regional differences are evident.

  4. Prevalence of mixed cryoglobulinaemia syndrome and circulating cryoglobulins in a population-based survey: the Origgio study.

    PubMed

    Monti, Giuseppe; Saccardo, Francesco; Castelnovo, Laura; Novati, Paola; Sollima, Salvatore; Riva, Agostino; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Quartuccio, Luca; De Vita, Salvatore; Galli, Massimo

    2014-06-01

    Mixed cryoglobulinaemia syndrome (MCS) is associated with a number of infectious, autoimmune and lymphoproliferative disorders, particularly chronic hepatitis C infection. Although circulating mixed cryoglobulins (cMCGs) are a frequent finding in HCV-infected patients, only a minority of them develop a frank MCS. The only available data concerning the prevalence of MCS, which is generally considered a rare disease, come from hospital records. The aim of this investigation was to estimate the prevalence of cMCGs and MCS in a population-based study. All of the adult residents in Origgio, a town of about seven thousand inhabitants in northern Italy, were mailed a validated questionnaire, and a randomly selected sample of respondents was invited to undergo a clinical examination and laboratory tests including the determination of cMCGs. The 1594 respondents to the questionnaire (54.3% women, 64.5% aged >49years) accounted for 26.4% of the total adult population. Forty-nine (3.1%) positively responded to at least two questions, including a disproportionately high number of people aged >70years (p=0.001). Of the 266 randomly selected subjects invited to undergo a clinical examination and laboratory tests, 147 accepted, 30 (20.4%) of whom had asymptomatic type III cMCGs and four MCS. The risk of cMCG positivity was independently associated with C4 levels of <16mg/dL (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-18.08; p=0.040) and HCV positivity (AOR 6.87, 95% CI 1.16-40.79; p=0.034). No co-morbidities known to be related to cMCG production could be detected in more than 50% of the positive cases. After including the other positive respondents who agreed to undergo a clinical examination, the number of diagnosed MCS increased to seven: five HCV-related, one HBV-related, and one essential MCS. In conclusion, MCS seems to be more frequent than expected for a 'rare' disease, and the unexpectedly high prevalence of cMCGs raises questions about the

  5. HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 2 SEROPOSITIVITY AMONG EVER MARRIED WOMEN IN SOUTH AND NORTH VIETNAM: A POPULATION-BASED STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Van Le, Hoa; Schoenbach, Victor J; Herrero, Rolando; Pham, Anh Thi Hoang; Nguyen, Hieu Trong; Nguyen, Thuy Thi; Muñoz, Nubia; Franceschi, Silvia; Vaccarella, Salvatore; Parkin, Max D; Snijders, Peter JF; Ashley, Rhoda; Smith, Jennifer S

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate herpes simplex virus type–2 (HSV-2) seropositivity and associated risk factors in Vietnamese women. Methods Cross-sectional study with personal interviews and gynecological examinations among population-based samples of ever married women, aged 15–69 years, living in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) and Hanoi in 1997. Type-specific IgG antibodies against HSV-2 were detected using HerpeSelect ELISA (Focus Diagnostics). Adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated with log-binomial regression. Results HSV-2 seroprevalence was higher in 1,106 women from HCMC (30.8%, 95% CI: 28.1–33.4, age-standardized to 2000 world standard population) than in 1,170 women from Hanoi (8.8%, 95% CI: 7.1–10.5). In HCMC, HSV-2 seroprevalence was higher for women who were not married, HPV DNA positive, current hormonal contraceptive users, or had a history of multiple sexual partners or spontaneous abortion. HCMC seroprevalence was inversely associated with educational attainment, age at first intercourse, and age at first pregnancy. In the multivariable model for HCMC, a trend of increasing HSV-2 seroprevalence with age was observed, and prevalence ratios were nearly identical to age-adjusted prevalence ratios for marital status, age at first pregnancy, and HPV DNA positivity. Conclusion HSV-2 was notably less prevalent in Hanoi than HCMC, where it was associated with traditional HSV-2 risk factors. These results are likely explained by socio-cultural, historical, economic, and demographic factors related to urban-rural and regional differences. Future population-based studies should include men and never-married women as a next step toward obtaining a more nearly complete picture of HSV-2 epidemiology in Vietnam. PMID:19617867

  6. Does education explain ethnic differences in myopia prevalence? A population-based study of young adult males in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Wu, H M; Seet, B; Yap, E P; Saw, S M; Lim, T H; Chia, K S

    2001-04-01

    To study interethnic variation in myopia prevalence and severity in young adult males in Singapore and to determine whether these variations are related to differences in education level. A population-based survey of refractive errors in a cohort of 15,095 military conscripts between July 1996 and June 1997 using noncycloplegic autorefraction and a standard questionnaire. Prevalence rates of myopia (<-0.5 D) and severe myopia (<-6.0 D) were determined for Chinese, Malay, and Indian men; prevalence rate ratios were compared after adjusting for education level. Singapore has one of the highest prevalences of myopia (79.3%) and severe myopia (13.1%), with Chinese having higher rates (82.2%, 95% confidence interval 81.5, 82.9) compared with Indians (68.7%, 95% confidence interval 65.1, 67.1) and Malays (65.0%, 95% confidence interval 62.9, 67.1). Education was strongly associated with prevalence and severity of myopia. However, significant interethnic variation persisted after adjusting for education. There is a high prevalence of myopia in Singapore. Although prevalence and severity of myopia were strongly associated with education, interethnic variation observed was not fully explained by differences in education level.

  7. Nationwide prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in Sweden: a population-based register study.

    PubMed

    Büsch, K; Ludvigsson, J F; Ekström-Smedby, K; Ekbom, A; Askling, J; Neovius, M

    2014-01-01

    Regional studies on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) suggest an increasing prevalence over time, but no nationwide estimate has been published so far. To estimate the IBD prevalence in 2010 in Sweden overall, by disease, and in specific patient segments. Patients were identified according to international classification codes for ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease in in-patient care (1987-2010), day surgery and nonprimary out-patient care (1997-2010) in the nationwide Swedish Patient Register. Requiring two or more diagnoses of IBD in nonprimary care, a total of 61 344 individuals with physician-diagnosed IBD were alive in Sweden in 2010 (mean age 50 years; 51% men), corresponding to a prevalence of 0.65% (95% CI, 0.65-0.66). The prevalence increased with age, and peaked in women at ages 50-59 years and in men at ages 60-69 years. Adding the requirement of IBD as main (vs. main or contributory) diagnosis code, or diagnosis from an internal medicine/gastroenterology/surgery department did not change the prevalence estimate. Prevalence of actively treated disease (defined as two or more IBD-related visits, of which one occurred in 2010, plus at least one dispensed prescription of IBD-related drugs in 2010) was 0.27% (95% CI, 0.27-0.28). The Swedish nationwide register-based IBD prevalence was higher compared with previous Swedish and international estimates. While prevalence estimates were robust across different case definitions, once two or more visits were required, only about one-third of prevalent patients were drawing resources from specialised care in 2010. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. PREVALENCE AND ASSOCIATIONS OF MYELINATED RETINAL NERVE FIBERS: Results From the Population-Based Gutenberg Health Study.

    PubMed

    Elbaz, Hisham; Peto, Tunde; Butsch, Christina; Orouji, Elias; Laubert-Reh, Dagmar; Ponto, Katharina A; Binder, Harald; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Mirshahi, Alireza

    2016-12-01

    To determine the prevalence, ocular, and systemic associations of myelinated retinal nerve fibers (MRNF) in a Caucasian cohort. The Gutenberg Health Study (GHS) is a population-based, prospective cohort study encompassing 15,010 subjects in Germany. Gutenberg Health Study participants, aged 35 to 74 years, stratified for gender, decades of age, and residence were examined for ophthalmologic and systemic conditions. Optic disc centered and macular photographs were reviewed for the presence of MRNF. In 25,728 eyes of 12,906 participants (86.0% of the cohort), the prevalence of MRNF was 0.4%. In a binary logistic regression analysis, MRNF was positively associated with history of stroke (OR, 6.8; 95% CI, 2.9-16.1; P < 0.001). Myelinated retinal nerve fibers was not associated with age, sex, cardiovascular conditions other than stroke or ocular parameters, such as refraction, visual acuity, intraocular pressure, or central corneal thickness. This population-based study provides novel data on the prevalence of MRNF in Western Europe. We report a positive association between history of stroke and MRNF. It adds an additional retinal sign for stroke and calls for further studying of the behavior of oligodendrocytes within cerebrovascular diseases.

  9. Prostate cancer prevalence in New South Wales Australia: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xue Qin; Luo, Qingwei; Smith, David P; Clements, Mark S; O'Connell, Dianne L

    2015-02-01

    Information on the current and future numbers of Australian men living with prostate cancer is limited. We describe a method for estimating complete prevalence of prostate cancer to provide a measure of the burden of prostate cancer in Australia. Prostate cancer data from the New South Wales (NSW) Central Cancer Registry were used with PIAMOD (Prevalence and Incidence Analysis MODel) software to estimate future prostate cancer prevalence in NSW. We first fitted parametric incidence and survival models then used the modelled incidence and survival estimates to calculate complete prevalence. The estimated and projected prevalence incorporate past observed trends and take into account different assumptions about future survival trends. These models were validated against observed prevalence from the counting method. Based on data for 1996-2007, the number of men living with prostate cancer in NSW was estimated to rise by 59% to 73%, from 38,322 in 2007 to 60,910-66,160 in 2017. The increasing incidence rates and the ageing population were the major contributors to this estimated increase. Validation suggested that these projections were reasonable, as the estimated prevalence in 1996-2007 was in good agreement with the corresponding prevalence calculated using the direct counting method, and the incidence models were supported by the recent data on prostate-specific antigen testing. As the number of men living with prostate cancer is expected to increase dramatically in the next decade in Australia, representing a significant challenge to the health system, careful planning and development of a healthcare system able to respond to this increased demand is required. These projections are useful for addressing the challenge in meeting the cancer care needs of men with prostate cancer. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence of intellectual disability: a meta-analysis of population-based studies.

    PubMed

    Maulik, Pallab K; Mascarenhas, Maya N; Mathers, Colin D; Dua, Tarun; Saxena, Shekhar

    2011-01-01

    Intellectual disability is an extremely stigmatizing condition and involves utilization of large public health resources, but most data about its burden is based on studies conducted in developed countries. The aim of this meta-analysis was to collate data from published literature and estimate the prevalence of intellectual disability across all such studies. The review includes studies published between 1980 and 2009, and includes data from populations that provided an overall estimate of the prevalence of intellectual disability. Meta-analysis was done using random effects to account for heterogeneity. Sub-group analyses were also done. The prevalence of intellectual disability across all 52 studies included in the meta-analysis was 10.37/1000 population. The estimates varied according to income group of the country of origin, the age-group of the study population, and study design. The highest rates were seen in countries from low- and middle income countries. Studies based on identification of cases by using psychological assessments or scales showed higher prevalence compared to those using standard diagnostic systems and disability instruments. Prevalence was higher among studies based on children/adolescents, compared to those on adults. Higher prevalence in low and middle income group countries is of concern given the limitations in available resources in such countries to manage intellectual disability. The importance of using standardized diagnostic systems to correctly estimate the burden is underlined. The public health and research implications of this meta-analysis have been discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Trace elements in early phase type 2 diabetes mellitus-A population-based study. The HUNT study in Norway.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Ailin Falkmo; Simić, Anica; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Romundstad, Pål Richard; Midthjell, Kristian; Syversen, Tore; Flaten, Trond Peder

    2017-03-01

    Differences in trace elements levels between individuals with type 2 diabetes and controls have been reported in several studies in various body fluids and tissues, but results have been inconsistent. In order to examine trace element levels in the early phase of type 2 diabetes, we investigated the association between whole blood levels of 26 trace elements and the prevalence of previously undiagnosed, screening-detected type 2 diabetes. The study was conducted as a case-control study nested within the third survey of the population-based Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3 Survey). Among participants without previously known diabetes, 128 cases of type 2 diabetes were diagnosed in people with a high diabetes risk score (FINDRISC≥15), and frequency-matched for age and sex with 755 controls. Blood samples were analyzed by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Associations between trace element levels and the prevalence of previously undiagnosed type 2 diabetes were evaluated with multivariable conditional logistic regression controlling for age, sex, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, education, income, smoking and family history of diabetes. The prevalence of previously undiagnosed type 2 diabetes increased across tertiles/quartiles for cadmium, chromium, iron, nickel, silver and zinc, and decreased with increasing quartiles of bromine (Ptrend<0.05). After corrections for multiple testing, associations for chromium remained significant (Qtrend<0.05), while associations for iron and silver were borderline significant. No associations were found for arsenic, boron, calcium, cesium, copper, gallium, gold, indium, lead, magnesium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, rubidium, selenium, strontium, tantalum, thallium and tin. Our results suggest a possible role of bromine, cadmium, chromium, iron, nickel, silver and zinc in the development of type 2 diabetes.

  12. The incidence and prevalence of pterygium in South Korea: A 10-year population-based Korean cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Moonjung; Kim, Sung Soo

    2017-01-01

    Although numerous population-based studies have reported the prevalences and risk factors for pterygium, information regarding the incidence of pterygium is scarce. This population-based cohort study aimed to evaluate the South Korean incidence and prevalence of pterygium. We retrospectively obtained data from a nationally representative sample of 1,116,364 South Koreans in the Korea National Health Insurance Service National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC). The associated sociodemographic factors were evaluated using multivariable Cox regression analysis, and the hazard ratios and confidence intervals were calculated. Pterygium was defined based on the Korean Classification of Diseases code, and surgically removed pterygium was defined as cases that required surgical removal. We identified 21,465 pterygium cases and 8,338 surgically removed pterygium cases during the study period. The overall incidences were 2.1 per 1,000 person-years for pterygium and 0.8 per 1,000 person-years for surgically removed pterygium. Among subjects who were ≥40 years old, the incidences were 4.3 per 1,000 person-years for pterygium and 1.7 per 1,000 person-years for surgically removed pterygium. The overall prevalences were 1.9% for pterygium and 0.6% for surgically removed pterygium, and the prevalences increased to 3.8% for pterygium and 1.4% for surgically removed pterygium among subjects who were ≥40 years old. The incidences of pterygium decreased according to year. The incidence and prevalence of pterygium were highest among 60–79-year-old individuals. Increasing age, female sex, and living in a relatively rural area were associated with increased risks of pterygium and surgically removed pterygium in the multivariable Cox regression analysis. Our analyses of South Korean national insurance claims data revealed a decreasing trend in the incidence of pterygium during the study period. PMID:28346495

  13. Prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: population based study.

    PubMed

    Amarapurkar, Deepak; Kamani, Prafull; Patel, Nikhil; Gupte, Parijat; Kumar, Pravin; Agal, Subhash; Baijal, Rajiv; Lala, Somesh; Chaudhary, Dinesh; Deshpande, Anjali

    2007-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common cause of chronic liver disease and liver transplantation in western countries. Increasing incidence of NAFLD has been well documented from Asian countries like Japan and China. Diabetes mellitus (DM), obesity, hyperinsulinemia are predisposing factors for NAFLD. There is increase in incidence of DM, obesity and insulin resistance in India in last two decades. Hence it is logical to expect increase in incidence of NAFLD in India. There is limited data on the prevalence of NAFLD from India. Majority of data comes from hospital based studies including small number of patients. Therefore this study was planned to estimate the prevalence of NAFLD in general population. Residents of two Railway colonies were evaluated on history, clinical examination, anthropometric measurements, biochemical tests and abdominal ultrasound. 1,168 participants were evaluated. Persons with any amount of alcohol consumption, HBs Ag positive, Anti HCV positive, persons with other known liver diseases and taking medications causing liver disease were excluded. Prevalence of NAFLD on ultrasound was 16.6%. Out of 730 subjects above the age of 20 years (341 male 384 female 389) mean age 39.08 +/- 12.3 years, 4% had diabetes, 57% had central obesity. Prevalence of NAFLD based on the ultrasound above 20 years of age was 18.9%. NAFLD was more prevalent in male than female (24.6% vs 13.6%, p < 0.001). Risk factors associated with NAFLD were age more than 40 years, male gender, central obesity, high BMR > 25, elevated fasting blood sugar, raised AST and ALT. Prevalence of NAFLD in Indian population is comparable to the west.

  14. The 2010-2015 Prevalence of Eosinophilic Esophagitis in the USA: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Emad; Cooper, Gregory S

    2016-10-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory disorder with increasing prevalence. However, epidemiologic data have mostly been acquired from small studies. We sought to describe the epidemiology of EoE in the USA, utilizing a large database. We queried a commercial database (Explorys Inc, Cleveland, OH, USA), an aggregate of electronic health record data from 26 major integrated US healthcare systems from 1999 to July 2015. We identified an aggregated patient cohort of eligible patients with EoE and a history of proton-pump inhibitor use between July 2010 and July 2015, based on Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms. We calculated the prevalence of EoE among different patient groups. Of the 30,301,440 individuals in the database, we identified 7840 patients with EoE with an overall prevalence of 25.9/100,000 persons. Prevalence was higher in males than females [odds ratio (OR) 2.00; 95 % CI 1.92-2.10, p < 0.0001], Caucasians versus African-Americans and Asians (OR 2.00; 95 % CI 1.86-2.14, p < 0.0001), and adults (18-65 years) versus elderly (>65 years) and children (<18 years) (OR 1.63; 95 % CI 1.54-1.71, p < 0.0001). Compared with controls (individuals in database without EoE), individuals with EoE were more likely to have other gastrointestinal diagnoses such as dysphagia and at least one allergic condition. In this large study, we found that the estimated prevalence of EoE in the USA is 25.9/100,000, which is at the lower end of prevalence rates reported in the USA and other industrial countries. We confirmed that EoE has a strong association with allergic and gastrointestinal diagnoses.

  15. The Prevalence of Scabies and Impetigo in the Solomon Islands: A Population-Based Survey.

    PubMed

    Mason, Daniel S; Marks, Michael; Sokana, Oliver; Solomon, Anthony W; Mabey, David C; Romani, Lucia; Kaldor, John; Steer, Andrew C; Engelman, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Scabies and impetigo are common, important and treatable skin conditions. Reports from several Pacific island countries show extremely high prevalence of these two conditions, but for many countries, including the Solomon Islands, there is a paucity of epidemiological data. Ten rural villages in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands were included in the study, chosen so that data collection could be integrated with an existing project investigating clinical and serological markers of yaws. All residents were eligible to participate, and 1908 people were enrolled. Participants were interviewed and examined by a paediatric registrar, who recorded relevant demographic information, and made a clinical diagnosis of scabies and/or impetigo, severity and distribution. The total unweighted prevalence of scabies was 19.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 17.5-21.0), and age and gender weighted prevalence 19.2% (95%CI 16.7-21.9). The adult prevalence of scabies was 10.4% (95%CI 8.2-13.2), and the highest prevalence was found in infants < 1 year of age (34.1%, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] compared with adults: 3.6, 95%CI 2.2-6.0) and children aged 1-4 years (25.7%, AOR 2.6, 95%CI 1.7-3.9). Scabies affected two or more body regions in 80.9% of participants, and 4.4% of scabies cases were classified as severe. The total unweighted prevalence of active impetigo was 32.7% (95%CI 30.6-34.8), and age and gender weighted prevalence 26.7% (95%CI 24.2-29.5). The highest prevalence was found in children aged 1-4 years (42.6%, AOR compared with adults: 4.1, 95%CI 2.9-5.8). Scabies infestation was associated with active impetigo infection (AOR 2.0, 95%CI 1.6-2.6); with 41.1% of active impetigo cases also having scabies. Scabies and impetigo are very common in the rural Western Province of the Solomon Islands. Scabies infestation is strongly associated with impetigo. Community control strategies for scabies may reduce the burden of both conditions and their downstream complications.

  16. The Prevalence of Scabies and Impetigo in the Solomon Islands: A Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Michael; Sokana, Oliver; Solomon, Anthony W.; Mabey, David C.; Romani, Lucia; Kaldor, John; Steer, Andrew C.; Engelman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background Scabies and impetigo are common, important and treatable skin conditions. Reports from several Pacific island countries show extremely high prevalence of these two conditions, but for many countries, including the Solomon Islands, there is a paucity of epidemiological data. Methodology Ten rural villages in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands were included in the study, chosen so that data collection could be integrated with an existing project investigating clinical and serological markers of yaws. All residents were eligible to participate, and 1908 people were enrolled. Participants were interviewed and examined by a paediatric registrar, who recorded relevant demographic information, and made a clinical diagnosis of scabies and/or impetigo, severity and distribution. Principal Findings The total unweighted prevalence of scabies was 19.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 17.5–21.0), and age and gender weighted prevalence 19.2% (95%CI 16.7–21.9). The adult prevalence of scabies was 10.4% (95%CI 8.2–13.2), and the highest prevalence was found in infants < 1 year of age (34.1%, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] compared with adults: 3.6, 95%CI 2.2–6.0) and children aged 1–4 years (25.7%, AOR 2.6, 95%CI 1.7–3.9). Scabies affected two or more body regions in 80.9% of participants, and 4.4% of scabies cases were classified as severe. The total unweighted prevalence of active impetigo was 32.7% (95%CI 30.6–34.8), and age and gender weighted prevalence 26.7% (95%CI 24.2–29.5). The highest prevalence was found in children aged 1–4 years (42.6%, AOR compared with adults: 4.1, 95%CI 2.9–5.8). Scabies infestation was associated with active impetigo infection (AOR 2.0, 95%CI 1.6–2.6); with 41.1% of active impetigo cases also having scabies. Conclusions and Significance Scabies and impetigo are very common in the rural Western Province of the Solomon Islands. Scabies infestation is strongly associated with impetigo. Community control strategies

  17. B-vitamin consumption and the prevalence of diabetes and obesity among the US adults: population based ecological study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The global increased prevalence of obesity and diabetes occurred after the worldwide spread of B-vitamins fortification, in which whether long-term exposure to high level of B vitamins plays a role is unknown. Our aim was to examine the relationships between B-vitamins consumption and the obesity and diabetes prevalence. Methods This population based ecological study was conducted to examine possible associations between the consumption of the B vitamins and macronutrients and the obesity and diabetes prevalence in the US population using the per capita consumption data from the US Economic Research Service and the prevalence data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results The prevalences of diabetes and adult obesity were highly correlated with per capita consumption of niacin, thiamin and riboflavin with a 26-and 10-year lag, respectively (R2 = 0.952, 0.917 and 0.83 for diabetes, respectively, and R2 = 0.964, 0.975 and 0.935 for obesity, respectively). The diabetes prevalence increased with the obesity prevalence with a 16-year lag (R2 = 0.975). The relationships between the diabetes or obesity prevalence and per capita niacin consumption were similar both in different age groups and in male and female populations. The prevalence of adult obesity and diabetes was highly correlated with the grain contribution to niacin (R2 = 0.925 and 0.901, respectively), with a 10-and 26-year lag, respectively. The prevalence of obesity in US adults during 1971-2004 increased in parallel with the increase in carbohydrate consumption with a 10-year lag. The per capita energy and protein consumptions positively correlated with the obesity prevalence with a one-year lag. Moreover, there was an 11-year lag relationship between per capita energy and protein consumption and the consumption of niacin, thiamin and riboflavin (R2 = 0.932, 0.923 and 0.849 for energy, respectively, and R2 = 0.922, 0.878 and 0.787 for protein, respectively). Conclusions Long

  18. B-vitamin consumption and the prevalence of diabetes and obesity among the US adults: population based ecological study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shi-Sheng; Li, Da; Zhou, Yi-Ming; Sun, Wu-Ping; Liu, Qi-Gui

    2010-12-02

    The global increased prevalence of obesity and diabetes occurred after the worldwide spread of B-vitamins fortification, in which whether long-term exposure to high level of B vitamins plays a role is unknown. Our aim was to examine the relationships between B-vitamins consumption and the obesity and diabetes prevalence. This population based ecological study was conducted to examine possible associations between the consumption of the B vitamins and macronutrients and the obesity and diabetes prevalence in the US population using the per capita consumption data from the US Economic Research Service and the prevalence data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The prevalences of diabetes and adult obesity were highly correlated with per capita consumption of niacin, thiamin and riboflavin with a 26-and 10-year lag, respectively (R2 = 0.952, 0.917 and 0.83 for diabetes, respectively, and R2 = 0.964, 0.975 and 0.935 for obesity, respectively). The diabetes prevalence increased with the obesity prevalence with a 16-year lag (R2 = 0.975). The relationships between the diabetes or obesity prevalence and per capita niacin consumption were similar both in different age groups and in male and female populations. The prevalence of adult obesity and diabetes was highly correlated with the grain contribution to niacin (R2 = 0.925 and 0.901, respectively), with a 10-and 26-year lag, respectively. The prevalence of obesity in US adults during 1971-2004 increased in parallel with the increase in carbohydrate consumption with a 10-year lag. The per capita energy and protein consumptions positively correlated with the obesity prevalence with a one-year lag. Moreover, there was an 11-year lag relationship between per capita energy and protein consumption and the consumption of niacin, thiamin and riboflavin (R2 = 0.932, 0.923 and 0.849 for energy, respectively, and R2 = 0.922, 0.878 and 0.787 for protein, respectively). Long-term exposure to high level of the B

  19. Prevalence of familial hypercholesterolemia: a meta-analysis of six large, observational, population-based studies in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Szafraniec, Krystyna; Polak, Maciej; Drygas, Wojciech; Piotrowski, Walerian; Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Jankowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a severely underdiagnosed and undertreated genetic disorder. Little is known about regional variation in the prevalence of FH, and information for Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) is scarce. This paper assesses the prevalence of FH and related cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Poland. Material and methods We performed a meta-analysis of six population-based studies in Poland. The FH was assessed using the Dutch Lipids Clinics Network (DLCN) criteria. The categories “definite” (> 8 points) and “probable” (6–8 points) were combined into “potential FH”. Combined estimates of proportions across studies were pooled by meta-analysis with a random effects model. Results A total of 37,889 persons aged 20–79 years were included in the analysis. The distribution of DLCN scores was skewed, and there were only 7 cases of definite FH. Prevalence of potential FH was 404/100,000 people (95% CI = 277–531/100,000). Familial hypercholesterolemia was more prevalent in women than in men, and the prevalence was the highest in the age group 45–54 years in men and 55–64 years in women. After adjustment for age and sex, compared to participants with normal cholesterol, persons with potential FH had twice the prevalence of hypertension (p < 0.01); smoking was more prevalent by about 80% (p < 0.01) and hypertriglyceridemia was nine times more frequent (p < 0.001). There was no difference in the prevalence of low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol or diabetes. Conclusions We believe that our study might facilitate the planning of a strategy to manage the disease at a population level, i.e. to develop a national strategy for the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of FH. PMID:27478447

  20. Perinatal mortality and congenital anomalies in babies of women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland: population based study.

    PubMed

    Macintosh, Mary C M; Fleming, Kate M; Bailey, Jaron A; Doyle, Pat; Modder, Jo; Acolet, Dominique; Golightly, Shona; Miller, Alison

    2006-07-22

    To provide perinatal mortality and congenital anomaly rates for babies born to women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland. National population based pregnancy cohort. 231 maternity units in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland. 2359 pregnancies to women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes who delivered between 1 March 2002 and 28 February 2003. Stillbirth rates; perinatal and neonatal mortality; prevalence of congenital anomalies. Of 2359 women with diabetes, 652 had type 2 diabetes and 1707 had type 1 diabetes. Women with type 2 diabetes were more likely to come from a Black, Asian, or other ethnic minority group (type 2, 48.8%; type 1, 9.1%) and from a deprived area (type 2, 46.3% in most deprived fifth; type 1, 22.8%). Perinatal mortality in babies of women with diabetes was 31.8/1000 births. Perinatal mortality was comparable in babies of women with type 1 (31.7/1000 births) and type 2 diabetes (32.3/1000) and was nearly four times higher than that in the general maternity population. 141 major congenital anomalies were confirmed in 109 offspring. The prevalence of major congenital anomaly was 46/1000 births in women with diabetes (48/1000 births for type 1 diabetes; 43/1000 for type 2 diabetes), more than double that expected. This increase was driven by anomalies of the nervous system, notably neural tube defects (4.2-fold), and congenital heart disease (3.4-fold). Anomalies in 71/109 (65%) offspring were diagnosed antenatally. Congenital heart disease was diagnosed antenatally in 23/42 (54.8%) offspring; anomalies other than congenital heart disease were diagnosed antenatally in 48/67 (71.6%) offspring. Perinatal mortality and prevalence of congenital anomalies are high in the babies of women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The rates do not seem to differ between the two types of diabetes.

  1. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Indigenous kindergarten children--a cross sectional population based study.

    PubMed

    Hickie, Megan; Douglas, Kirsty; Ciszek, Karen

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of overweight and obese Indigenous kindergarten children in the Australian Capital Territory. A retrospective analysis was performed on data collected as part of the Kindergarten Health Check, a cross sectional population based survey conducted in the ACT from 2004 to 2008. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was statistically significantly higher among Indigenous (18%) compared to non-Indigenous kindergarten children (14%) (p=0.02, OR=1.40, 95% CI=1.051-1.862). Ten percent of parents of normal weight children, and 16% of parents of overweight or obese children, reported concerns about weight and eating habits, with no significant difference between Indigenous and non-Indigenous parents. The low level of parental concern about obesity suggests that general practitioners should persist with screening for, and managing, overweight and obesity in kindergarten-aged children in similar jurisdictions on a proactive basis.

  2. Brief Report: Prevalence of Self-injurious Behaviors among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder-A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Soke, Gnakub N; Rosenberg, Steven A; Hamman, Richard F; Fingerlin, Tasha; Robinson, Cordelia; Carpenter, Laura; Giarelli, Ellen; Lee, Li-Ching; Wiggins, Lisa D; Durkin, Maureen S; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn

    2016-11-01

    Self-injurious behaviors (SIB) have been reported in more than 30 % of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in clinic-based studies. This study estimated the prevalence of SIB in a large population-based sample of children with ASD in the United States. A total of 8065 children who met the surveillance case definition for ASD in the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network during the 2000, 2006, and 2008 surveillance years were included. The presence of SIB was reported from available health and/or educational records by an expert clinician in ADDM Network. SIB prevalence averaged 27.7 % across all sites and surveillance years, with some variation between sites. Clinicians should inquire about SIB during assessments of children with ASD.

  3. Prevalence of Intellectual Disability: A Meta-Analysis of Population-Based Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maulik, Pallab K.; Mascarenhas, Maya N.; Mathers, Colin D.; Dua, Tarun; Saxena, Shekhar

    2011-01-01

    Intellectual disability is an extremely stigmatizing condition and involves utilization of large public health resources, but most data about its burden is based on studies conducted in developed countries. The aim of this meta-analysis was to collate data from published literature and estimate the prevalence of intellectual disability across all…

  4. Multicentre population-based dementia prevalence survey in Japan: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Ikejima, Chiaki; Hisanaga, Akito; Meguro, Kenichi; Yamada, Tatsuo; Ouma, Shinji; Kawamuro, Yu; Hyouki, Kazushi; Nakashima, Kenji; Wada, Kenji; Yamada, Shigeto; Watanabe, Itaru; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki; Aoyama, Yoshiko; Mizukami, Katsuyoshi; Asada, Takashi

    2012-06-01

    Community-based surveys were performed in seven rural areas in Japan to investigate the prevalence of dementia and illnesses causing dementia. A total of 5431 elderly subjects were selected based on census data from 1 October 2009. In total, 3394 participants were examined (participation rate: 62.5%), and 768 dementia cases and 529 mild cognitive impairment cases were identified. Of the illnesses causing dementia, Alzheimer's disease was the most frequent (67.4%), followed by vascular dementia (18.9%), dementia with Lewy body disease (4.6%), mixed dementia (4.2%) and other illnesses. The prevalence of dementia according to 5-year age strata between 65 and 99 years was 5.8-77.7% among the participants. The prevalence of dementia in this study was higher than in previous reports in Japan and other countries. To verify the upward trend of dementia prevalence and its background factors, we have scheduled surveys for three other urban areas in 2011-2012.

  5. Prevalence of Intellectual Disability: A Meta-Analysis of Population-Based Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maulik, Pallab K.; Mascarenhas, Maya N.; Mathers, Colin D.; Dua, Tarun; Saxena, Shekhar

    2011-01-01

    Intellectual disability is an extremely stigmatizing condition and involves utilization of large public health resources, but most data about its burden is based on studies conducted in developed countries. The aim of this meta-analysis was to collate data from published literature and estimate the prevalence of intellectual disability across all…

  6. Prevalence and comorbidities of chronic hepatitis C: a nationwide population-based register study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Büsch, Katharina; Waldenström, Jesper; Lagging, Martin; Aleman, Soo; Weiland, Ola; Kövamees, Jan; Duberg, Ann-Sofi; Söderholm, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of physician-diagnosed and registered chronic hepatitis C (CHC), and to estimate the reported frequencies of Charlson comorbidities compared with matched comparators from the general population. Patients were identified according to ICD codes for CHC in the Swedish National Patient Register (1997-2013). Prevalence was estimated according to different patient identification algorithms and for different subgroups. Charlson comorbidities were ascertained from the same register and compared with age/sex/county of residence matched general population comparators. A total of 34,633 individuals with physician-diagnosed CHC were alive in Sweden in 2013 (mean age, 49 years; 64% men), corresponding to a physician-diagnosed prevalence of 0.36%. The prevalence varied by case definition (0.22%-0.36%). The estimate dropped to 0.14% for monitored CHC disease (defined as ≥1 CHC-related visit in 2013). Overall, 41.3% of the CHC patients had ≥1 physician-registered Charlson comorbidity; the most common was liver diseases (22.1%). Compared with matched comparators from the general population (n = 171,338), patients with CHC had more physician-diagnosed and registered diseases such as chronic pulmonary disease (10.2% vs. 4.0%), diabetes (10.6% vs. 5.5%) and liver-related cancer (1.3% vs. 0.2%; all p < .01). No information on behavioural factors, such as smoking, alcohol consumption or on-going illicit drug use, was available. The physician-diagnosed prevalence of CHC was slightly lower than previously reported estimates, and varied by case definition. The additional comorbidities observed in the CHC group should be taken into consideration, as these comorbidities add to the disease burden.

  7. Population Based National Tuberculosis Prevalence Survey among Adults (>15 Years) in Pakistan, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Qadeer, Ejaz; Fatima, Razia; Yaqoob, Aashifa; Tahseen, Sabira; Ul Haq, Mahboob; Ghafoor, Abdul; Asif, Muhammad; Straetemans, Masja; Tiemersma, Edine W.

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to determine the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) amongst the adult population in 2010–2011 in Pakistan. Method A nationwide cross-sectional survey with multistage cluster sampling was conducted among adults (≥15 years) in 95 clusters in 2010–2011. All consenting participants were screened for cough and by chest X-ray. Participants with presumptive TB submitted two sputum samples for smear microscopy, culture, and molecular testing if needed. The TB prevalence estimates were adjusted for missing data and the cluster design. Result Of 131,329 eligible individuals, 105,913 (81%) participated in the survey, of whom 10,471 (9.9%) were eligible for sputum examination. We found 341 bacteriologically positive TB cases of whom 233 had sputum smear-positive TB. The adjusted prevalence estimates for smear and bacteriologically positive TB were 270/100,000 (95% confidence interval (CI) 217–323), and 398/100,000 (95% CI 333–463), respectively. Only 61% of the diagnosed TB cases screened positive on symptoms (cough >2wks), whereas the other TB cases were detected based on X-ray abnormalities. The TB prevalence increased with age and was 1.8 times higher among men than women. The prevalence-to-notification ratio of smear-positive TB was 3.1 (95% CI 2.5–3.7), was higher among men than women, and increased with age. Conclusion Our data suggest that there is under-detection and/or -notification of TB, especially among men and elderly. TB control should be strengthened specifically in these risk groups. X-ray examination should be combined with symptom screening to enhance case detection. PMID:26863617

  8. The prevalence of tandem spinal stenosis and its characteristics in a population-based MRI study: The Wakayama Spine Study.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Keiji; Yoshimura, Noriko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Ishimoto, Yuyu; Muraki, Shigeyuki; Yamada, Hiroshi; Oka, Hiroyuki; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Akune, Toru; Tanaka, Sakae; Nakamura, Kozo; Yoshida, Munehito

    2017-04-03

    Tandem spinal stenosis (TSS) is a condition of combined spinal stenosis in the cervical and lumbar regions. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of radiographic TSS and its association with developmental canal stenosis (DCS). The second purpose was to investigate the extent to which radiographic TSS is associated with cervical myelopathy and symptomatic LSS. We recruited 1011 (336 men and 675 women) participants in this population-based study. After excluding those with a pacemaker, a history of cervical or lumbar surgery, disqualification, the MRI data of whole spine was analysed in 931 (mean, 67.3 years) participants. Cervical cord compression (CCC) and radiographic lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) were evaluated by MRI. The canal-to-body ratio was also measured by plain X-ray. DCS was diagnosed as canal-to-body ratio <0.75. The diagnosis of cervical myelopathy and symptomatic LSS was made by presentation of both symptoms and radiographic compression using MRI. The prevalence of CCC was 24.7%, that of radiographic LSS was 30.2%, and that of radiographic TSS was 11.0% (men, 14.1%; women, 9.4%). The prevalence of TSS was significantly higher in the DCS group than in the non-DCS group (p < 0.001). Among the participants with radiographic TSS, the prevalence of cervical myelopathy and symptomatic LSS was 9.8 and 18.6%, respectively. The coexisting cervical myelopathy and symptomatic LSS was 6.1% in the participants with LSS. The present study is the first population-based study to clarify TSS characteristic using whole-spine MRI.

  9. Prevalence and correlates of cardiovascular risk factors in South Asians: population-based data from two California surveys.

    PubMed

    Ivey, Susan L; Mehta, Kala M; Fyr, Christina L Wassel; Kanaya, Alka M

    2006-01-01

    Few population-based studies report cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor prevalence for South Asians in the United States. We examined CVD risk for South Asians in California. We used data from two population-based surveys with South Asian participants in California, the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) and the Cardiovascular Health among Asian Indian (CHAI) survey. The CHIS 2001 was conducted in English; 769 South Asians aged 25-83 years participated as one of many ethnic groups. The CHAI survey was population-based but focused on ethnicity-specific characteristics in 304 South Asians aged 25-80 years in English and Punjabi in 2001-2002. A CVD risk score included smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, myocardial infarction, and angina. Separate logistic regression models examined the association of sociodemographics, lifestyle, medical risk, acculturation, and "any CVD risk." In CHAI, hypertension (20%), hypercholesterolemia (24%), and diabetes (10%) were high; smoking was low (12%). In CHIS, prevalence of these conditions was lower, except smoking (21%). Approximately 35% of participants in each survey had any CVD risk. Male sex, age, higher body mass index, education less than a bachelor's degree, and alcohol use were associated with CVD risk in both studies. The CHAI subjects interviewed in English had higher odds of any CVD risk than those interviewed in Punjabi (odds ratio 10.3, 95% confidence interval 2.9-36.7). Data from multiple sources add crucial information about heterogeneity of risk within ethnic populations. South Asians in the CHIS had higher rates of smoking, but lower CVD risk scores than participants in the CHAI study. In CHAI, English language use was associated with increased CVD risk score. Additional research should examine if acculturation increases CVD risk.

  10. Hepatitis C virus in Mexican Americans: a population-based study reveals relatively high prevalence and negative association with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Watt, G P; Vatcheva, K P; Beretta, L; Pan, J J; Fallon, M B; McCormick, J B; Fisher-Hoch, S P

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Mexican Americans living in South Texas. We tested plasma for the presence of HCV antibody from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort (CCHC), a randomized, population-based cohort in an economically disadvantaged Mexican American community on the United States/Mexico border with high rates of chronic disease. A weighted prevalence of HCV antibody of 2·3% [n = 1131, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·2-3·4] was found. Participants with diabetes had low rates of HCV antibody (0·4%, 95% CI 0·0-0·9) and logistic regression revealed a statistically significant negative association between HCV and diabetes (OR 0·20, 95% CI 0·05-0·77) after adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical factors. This conflicts with reported positive associations of diabetes and HCV infection. No classic risk factors were identified, but important differences between genders emerged in analysis. This population-based study of HCV in Mexican Americans suggests that national studies do not adequately describe the epidemiology of HCV in this border community and that unique risk factors may be involved.

  11. Increasing prevalence of overweight, obesity and physical inactivity: two population-based studies 1986 and 1994.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Martin; Isacsson, Sven-Olof; Merlo, Juan

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the 1986-1994 trend in obesity, overweight and sedentary leisure-time physical activity status, and the educational gradient in overweight and obesity in the city of Malmö, Sweden. The public health surveys in Malmö 1986 and 1994 are cross-sectional studies. A total of 4,800 and 5,600 individuals aged 20-80 years were randomly chosen to be interviewed by a postal questionnaire. The participation rates were 74% and 71%. Obesity was defined as BMI 30.0 or more and overweight as BMI 25.0-29.9. The prevalences of leisure-time physical inactivity, obesity and overweight were computed, and the differences between 1986 and 1994 as well as educational gradients in overweight and obesity were assessed. The prevalence of obesity increased from 4.6% to 11.4% (p<0.001) among men and from 6.1% to 9.8% (p<0.001) among women. The prevalence of overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9) increased from 33.9% to 45.2% (p<0.001) among men, and from 19.6% to 29.1% (p<0.001) among women. The prevalence of leisure time physical inactivity increased among men from 14.7% to 18.1% (p<0.001) among men and from 19.4% to 26.7% (p<0.001) among women. The increasing prevalences of obesity, overweight and physical inactivity were observed in all age, country of origin and educational status groups. The educational differences in BMI 25.0+ observed among both men and women in 1986 disappeared among men in 1994. In contrast, educational differences in obesity (BMI 30.0+), not seen in 1986, appeared in 1994 among men. The proportions of the population with obesity and overweight increased significantly between 1986 and 1994 for both men and women. The increasing prevalence of physical inactivity seems to be an important explanation.

  12. Hepatitis B prevalence and incidence in Greenland: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Børresen, Malene Landbo; Andersson, Mikael; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads; Biggar, Robert J; Ladefoged, Karin; Panum, Inge; Koch, Anders

    2015-03-15

    Greenland remains a highly endemic area for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This is in sharp contrast to other modern societies, such as Denmark. To address this discrepancy, we investigated the natural history of HBV infection in Greenland by estimating the age-specific incidence of HBV infection, the proportion of chronic carriers, and the rates of hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance. In total, 8,879 Greenlanders (16% of the population) from population-based surveys conducted in 1987 and 1998 were followed through March 2010. Data on HBV status were supplemented by HBV test results from all available HBV registries in Greenland to determine changes in HBV status over time. Incidence rates of HBV infection and hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance were estimated after taking into account interval censoring. The incidence of HBV infection in 5-14-year-old subjects was less than 1 per 100 person-years and peaked at 5 per 100 person-years in persons 15-24 years of age. Overall, 17.5% of persons infected in adulthood were estimated to become chronic carriers. HBV is primarily transmitted in adolescence and adulthood in Greenland. In contrast to what is observed in most other populations, HBV-infected adults in Greenland have a high risk of progressing to chronic HBV carriage. This phenomenon might explain how the high rate of infection is maintained in Greenland.

  13. Prevalence of stroke risk factors and their outcomes. A population-based longitudinal epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Manchev, I C; Mineva, P P; Hadjiev, D I

    2001-01-01

    This epidemiological study was performed to determine the prevalence of stroke risk factors and their outcomes among Bulgarian urban population. Volunteers, 200 men and 300 women, aged 50-79 years, without clinical signs and symptoms of vascular disease were enrolled in the study. A structured questionnaire, physical examination, ECG records and a battery of laboratory tests were employed. All volunteers underwent a carotid Duplex scan. High LDL-cholesterol levels, hypertension, obesity, cigarette smoking and cardiac diseases were the most prevalent risk factors. The annual incidence rate for TIA was 0.96% and for ischemic stroke -0.72%. Myocardial infarction incidence rate was 0.48%. Asymptomatic carotid stenosis (ACS) of 50% or greater was significantly related to the cerebral ischemic events (OR: 4.74; 95% CI 1.24-18.16). The aggregation of ACS and alcohol abuse was also significantly associated with cerebral ischemic events (OR: 5.04; 95% CI 1.29-19.63).

  14. Prevalence and predictors of depression in Iranian patients with multiple sclerosis: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Seyed Saadat, Seyed Mohammad; Hosseininezhad, Mozaffar; Bakhshayesh, Babak; Seyed Saadat, Seyedeh Nastaran; Nabizadeh, Seyedeh Parand

    2014-05-01

    Depression is a frequent symptom in multiple sclerosis (MS) which has a negative impact on quality of life and cognitive status. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of depression, and status of antidepressant use in Iranian MS patients. One-hundred and sixty patients with definite MS were included. Demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded. Fatigue and depression were evaluated using the fatigue severity scale and Beck depression inventory-II. Cognitive performance and disability were examined by mini-mental status examination and expanded disability status scale. Multiple logistic regressions were used to determine the associated factors of depression and antidepressant use. The prevalence of depression and severe depression was 59.4 and 18.1 %, respectively. However, only 21.1 % of patients were on antidepressant treatment, while the prevalence of unrecognized/untreated depression was found to be as high as 44.1 %. Multivariable analysis showed that fatigue (P < 0.0001, OR = 5.98, 95 % CI = 2.9-12.3) and older age (P = 0.027, OR = 2.24, 95 % CI = 1.09-4.6) were associated with depression in MS patient. A significant association was found between fatigue and antidepressant use (P = 0.001, OR = 6.81, 95 % CI = 2.26-20.48). Our findings demonstrate that depression is significantly associated with fatigue and older age, regardless of other factors. Moreover, despite the high prevalence of depression in MS, most patients do not receive adequate treatment.

  15. The prevalence of hearing loss in South Korea: data from a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Jun, Hyung J; Hwang, Soon Y; Lee, Soo H; Lee, Ji E; Song, Jae-Jun; Chae, Sungwon

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of hearing loss in the South Korean population and to understand the correlation between aging, sex, and hearing loss prevalence through the analysis of data collected from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Cross-sectional epidemiological study. The KNHANES is an ongoing population study that started in 1998. Examinations to detect diseases of the ear, nose, and throat, including audiological testing and otologic examinations, have been conducted since 2010. We included a total of 18,650 participants in the KNHANES, from 2010 to 2012, in the present study. Pure-tone audiometric testing was conducted in participants aged ≥ 12 years. The frequencies tested were 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 kHz. The prevalence of hearing loss in speech-relevant frequencies in the South Korean population was 9.31% for unilateral hearing loss and 13.42% for bilateral hearing loss. The overall hearing loss (unilateral or bilateral) was 22.73%. Male and older participants were more often affected by hearing loss than female and younger participants. High-frequency hearing loss appeared earlier than hearing loss at speech-relevant frequencies, and unilateral hearing loss showed a weaker correlation with aging than bilateral hearing loss. The prevalence of hearing loss in South Korea was higher in men and older participants according to the data collected from the KNHANES. The patterns of hearing loss differed between hearing loss at speech-relevant frequencies and at high frequencies. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. Prevalence of arsenic exposure and skin lesions. A population based survey in Matlab, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mahfuzar; Vahter, Marie; Wahed, Mohammad Abdul; Sohel, Nazmul; Yunus, Mohammad; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Arifeen, Shams El; Bhuiya, Abbas; Zaman, Khalequz; Chowdhury, A Mushtaq R; Ekström, Eva‐Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    Study objective To assess prevalence of arsenic exposure through drinking water and skin lesions, and their variation by geographical area, age, sex, and socioeconomic conditions. Design, setting, and participants Skin lesion cases were identified by screening the entire population above 4 years of age (n = 166 934) living in Matlab, a rural area in Bangladesh, during January 2002 and August 2003. The process of case identification involved initial skin examinations in the field, followed by verification by physicians in a clinic, and final confirmation by two independent experts reviewing photographs. The tubewell water arsenic concentrations (n = 13 286) were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Drinking water history since 1970 was obtained for each person. Exposure information was constructed using drinking water histories and data on water arsenic concentrations. Main results The arsenic concentrations ranged from <1 to 3644 μg/l, and more than 70% of functioning tubewells exceeded the World Health Organisation guideline of 10 μg/l. Arsenic exposure had increased steadily from 1970s to the late 1990s, afterwards a decrease could be noted. In total, 504 skin lesions cases were identified, and the overall crude prevalence was 3/1000. Women had significantly higher cumulative exposure to arsenic, while men had significantly higher prevalence of skin lesions (SMR 158, 95% CI 133 to 188). The highest prevalence occurred in 35–44 age groups for both sexes. Arsenic exposure and skin lesions had a positive association with socioeconomic groups and achieved educational level. Conclusions The result showed sex, age, and socioeconomic differentials in both exposure and skin lesions. Findings clearly showed the urgency of effective arsenic mitigation activities. PMID:16476755

  17. Cost burden of type 2 diabetes in Germany: results from the population-based KORA studies

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Susanne; Holle, Rolf; Wacker, Margarethe; Stark, Renee; Icks, Andrea; Thorand, Barbara; Peters, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of type 2 diabetes on direct and indirect costs and to describe the effect of relevant diabetes-related factors, such as type of treatment or glycaemic control on direct costs. Design Bottom-up excess cost analysis from a societal perspective based on population-based survey data. Participants 9160 observations from 6803 individuals aged 31–96 years (9.6% with type 2 diabetes) from the population-based KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg) studies in Southern Germany. Outcome measures Healthcare usage, productivity losses, and resulting direct and indirect costs. Methods Information on diabetes status, biomedical/sociodemographic variables, medical history and on healthcare usage and productivity losses was assessed in standardised interviews and examinations. Healthcare usage and productivity losses were costed with reference to unit prices and excess costs of type 2 diabetes were calculated using generalised linear models. Results Individuals with type 2 diabetes had 1.81 (95% CI 1.56 to 2.11) times higher direct (€3352 vs €1849) and 2.07 (1.51 to 2.84) times higher indirect (€4103 vs €1981) annual costs than those without diabetes. Cardiovascular complications, a long diabetes duration and treatment with insulin were significantly associated with increased direct costs; however, glycaemic control was only weakly insignificantly associated with costs. Conclusions This study illustrates the substantial direct and indirect societal cost burden of type 2 diabetes in Germany. Strong effort is needed to optimise care to avoid progression of the disease and costly complications. PMID:27872118

  18. Birth prevalence for congenital limb defects in the northern Netherlands: a 30-year population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Reported birth prevalences of congenital limb defects (CLD) vary between countries: from 13/10,000 in Finland for the period 1964–1977 to 30.4/10,000 births in Scotland from 1964–1968. Epidemiological studies permit the timely detection of trends in CLD and of associations with other birth defects. The aim of this study is to describe the birth prevalence of CLD in the northern Netherlands. Methods In a population-based, epidemiological study we investigated the birth prevalences of CLD for 1981–2010. Data were collected by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies in the northern Netherlands (EUROCAT-NNL). We excluded malpositions, club foot, and dislocation/dysplasia of hips or knees. Trends were analysed for the 19-year period 1992–2010 using χ2 tests, as well as CLD association with anomalies affecting other organs. Results The birth prevalence of CLD was 21.1/10,000 births for 1981–2010. There was an overall decrease in non-syndromic limb defects (P = 0.023) caused by a decrease in the prevalence of non-syndromic syndactyly (P < 0.01) in 1992–2010. Of 1,048 children with CLD, 55% were males, 57% had isolated defects, 13% had multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), and 30% had a recognised syndrome. The upper:lower limb ratio was 2:1, and the left:right side ratio was 1.2:1. Cardiovascular and urinary tract anomalies were common in combination with CLD (37% and 25% of cases with MCA). Digestive-tract anomalies were significantly associated with CLD (P = 0.016). Conclusions The birth prevalence of CLD in the northern Netherlands was 21.1/10,000 births. The birth prevalence of non-syndromic syndactyly dropped from 5.2/10,000 to 1.1/10,000 in 1992–2010. PMID:24237863

  19. Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder among Swedish women: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Brohede, Sabina; Wingren, Gun; Wijma, Barbro; Wijma, Klaas

    2015-04-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by a highly distressing and impairing preoccupation with nonexistent or slight defects in appearance. Patients with BDD present to both psychiatric and non-psychiatric physicians. A few studies have assessed BDD prevalence in representative samples of the general population and have demonstrated that this disorder is relatively common. Our primary objective was to assess the prevalence of BDD in the Swedish population because no data are currently available. In the current cross-sectional study, 2891 randomly selected Swedish women aged 18-60 years participated. The occurrence of BDD was assessed using the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire (BDDQ), which is a validated self-report measure derived from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV criteria for BDD. In addition, symptoms of depression and anxiety were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The prevalence of BDD among Swedish women was 2.1%. The women with BDD had significantly more symptoms of depression and anxiety than the women without BDD. Depression (HADS depression score ≥ 8) and anxiety (HADS anxiety score ≥ 8) were reported by 42% and 72% of the women with BDD, respectively. The results of the present study indicate that BDD is relatively common among Swedish women (2.1%) and that it is associated with significant morbidity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence of hepatitis A antibodies in Eastern Bolivia: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    C, Masuet-Aumatell; J M, Ramon-Torrell; A, Casanova-Rituerto; M, Banqué-Navarro; M, Dávalos-Gamboa; S L, Montaño-Rodríguez

    2013-10-01

    The seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) is changing from high to intermediate endemicity in several Latin American countries, but the pattern in the Andean Latin American countries is unknown. A seroepidemiological survey (n = 436) of HAV in schoolchildren living in the Cochabamba region of Bolivia was conducted in 2010. A questionnaire was completed by parents to obtain demographic, socio-economic, and housing data, and blood samples were collected. The overall prevalence of HAV IgG was 95.4% (95% CI 93.5-97.4). The prevalence was higher in children aged 5-10 years (97%) and pre-adolescents aged 10-13 years (97.9%). The prevalence was also higher in subjects whose parents had a low level of education (99.4-99.5%), who lived in rural areas (98.7%), lived in municipalities with low urban development (99.1-100%), had water delivered at home from a tanker (99.4%), and spoke Quechua at home (99.5%). The descriptive and bivariate analysis suggested that no change in HAV epidemiology has occurred in Cochabamba. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Prevalence and risk of migraine in patients with rosacea: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Egeberg, Alexander; Ashina, Messoud; Gaist, David; Gislason, Gunnar H; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2017-03-01

    Rosacea features increased neurovascular reactivity; migraine is a complex neurologic disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of headache associated with nausea and increased sensitivity to light and sound. We evaluated the prevalence and risk of new-onset migraine in patients with rosacea. All Danish individuals 18 years of age or older were linked in nationwide registers. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by Cox regression. In the total cohort (n = 4,361,688), there were 49,475 patients with rosacea. Baseline prevalence of migraine was 7.3% and 12.1% in the reference population and in patients with rosacea, respectively. The fully adjusted HR of migraine was 1.31 (95% confidence interval 1.23-1.39) for patients with rosacea. Patients with phymatous rosacea (n = 594) had no increased risk of migraine (adjusted HR 0.45; 95% confidence interval 0.11-1.80), whereas patients with ocular rosacea (n = 6977) had a 69% increased risk (adjusted HR 1.69; 95% confidence interval 1.43-1.99). Notably, the risk was higher among patients age 50 years or older than in younger individuals, and the risk was only significant among women. We were unable to distinguish between migraine subtypes. We found a significantly higher prevalence and risk of incident migraine especially in female patients with rosacea. These data add to the accumulating evidence for a link between rosacea and the central nervous system. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ten-year incidence and prevalence of clinically diagnosed blepharitis in South Korea: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rim, Tyler Hyungtaek; Kang, Min Jae; Choi, Moonjung; Seo, Kyoung Yul; Kim, Sung Soo

    2017-07-01

    Blepharitis is one of the most common conditions. However, no study has yet evaluated the epidemiology by evaluating a large population-based sample. To evaluate the incidence and prevalence of clinically diagnosed blepharitis in South Korea. Nationwide population-based study. We investigated the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort, a representative one million-sample of the Korean population, for patients diagnosed with blepharitis according to the Korean Classification of Diseases. Annual and overall incidence and prevalence of blepharitis during the study period (2004-2013) were estimated after excluding chronic blepharitis patients, diagnosed during 2002-2003. Sociodemographic factors and comorbidities associated with blepharitis were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard regression. The first occurrence of blepharitis. A total of 1 116 363 individuals over 9 698 118 person-years were evaluated (mean follow up: 8.7 years) from 2004 to 2013. The overall incidence was 1.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.1) per 100 person-years. The incidence increased with time (0.9 vs. 1.3 per 100 person-years, in 2004 and 2013, respectively) and was higher in female patients (1.3 vs. 0.9 per 100 person-years, respectively). The overall prevalence was 8.1% (95% confidence interval: 8.0-8.1) among subjects aged 40 years or older. Chalazion, gastritis, Sjögren's syndrome, pterygium, rosacea, prostatic hypertrophy, atopy, irritable bowel disease and peptic ulcer were associated with an increased incidence of blepharitis in the multivariable Cox model. We found that blepharitis was a relatively common disease and is associated with various ocular and systemic conditions. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of diabetes mellitus in a central district in Islamic Republic of Iran: a population-based study on adults aged 40-80 years.

    PubMed

    Katibeh, M; Hosseini, S; Soleimanizad, R; Manaviat, M R; Kheiri, B; Khabazkhoob, M; Daftarian, N; Dehghan, M H

    2015-09-08

    Previous studies on type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Islamic Republic of Iran were mainly performed in provinces with large populations. This study determined the prevalence and risk factors of diabetes mellitus in an adult population (40-80 years old) from Yazd district. Multistage, systematic cluster random sampling was used in a crosssectional, population-based survey. Demographic, clinical and anthropometric data were collected, with diabetes defined as fasting blood sugar ≥ 7 mmol/L or a positive medical history of diabetes. The age- and sex-standardized prevalence of diabetes in 2090 individuals participants was 24.5% (95% CI: 22.2-26.8%), including 10.5% new cases. For each year of ageing, the prevalence of diabetes increased significantly by 4% and this trend was more pronounced in females than males. Low education and hypertension were significantly associated with diabetes prevalence. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Yazd is greater than the average levels nationwide and those of nearby countries.

  4. Population-based prevalence of symptomatic and asymptomatic astrovirus infection in rural Mayan infants.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Y; Cantwell, M; Old, M; Hill, D; Sanchez, M L; Logan, L; Millan-Velasco, F; Valdespino, J L; Sepulveda, J; Matsui, S

    1998-08-01

    Symptomatic and asymptomatic astrovirus infection was prospectively determined in a 3-year birth cohort of Mayan infants. Stool samples from 271 infants and 268 older siblings were tested for astrovirus, adenovirus 40/41, rotavirus and Salmonella, Shigella and Campylobacter species. Concurrent diarrhea, vomiting, fever, or anorexia were noted. Astrovirus was detected in 164 infants (61%) and 20 siblings (7%). Rotavirus (4%) and adenovirus 40/41 (13%) were isolated less frequently. Of all diarrheal episodes reported at a visit, 26% (78/305) were associated with astrovirus; 17% (78/452) of astrovirus infections were associated with diarrhea and 9% with other symptoms. Only diarrhea was associated with astrovirus infection (odds ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.92; P = .01). Of infants with astrovirus, 70% shed at multiple visits over a period of 2-17 weeks (median, 5). The point prevalence of astrovirus infection was significantly higher among infants than siblings (relative risk, 6.18; 95% CI, 3.93-9.72; P < .0001, chi2). Astrovirus was identified throughout the year, peaked in March and May, and decreased in September. In this population, astrovirus was the most common enteric pathogen isolated; symptomatic infection was prevalent among infants.

  5. Impact of instrument error on the estimated prevalence of overweight and obesity in population-based surveys

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The basis for this study is the fact that instrument error increases the variance of the distribution of body mass index (BMI). Combined with a defined cut-off value this may impact upon the estimated proportion of overweight and obesity. It is important to ensure high quality surveillance data in order to follow trends of estimated prevalence of overweight and obesity. The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of instrument error, due to uncalibrated scales and stadiometers, on prevalence estimates of overweight and obesity. Methods Anthropometric measurements from a nationally representative sample were used; the Norwegian Child Growth study (NCG) of 3474 children. Each of the 127 participating schools received a reference weight and a reference length to determine the correction value. Correction value corresponds to instrument error and is the difference between the true value and the measured, uncorrected weight and height at local scales and stadiometers. Simulations were used to determine the expected implications of instrument errors. To systematically investigate this, the coefficient of variation (CV) of instrument error was used in the simulations and was increased successively. Results Simulations showed that the estimated prevalence of overweight and obesity increased systematically with the size of instrument error when the mean instrument error was zero. The estimated prevalence was 16.4% with no instrument error and was, on average, overestimated by 0.5 percentage points based on observed variance of instrument error from the NCG-study. Further, the estimated prevalence was 16.7% with 1% CV of instrument error, and increased to 17.8%, 19.5% and 21.6% with 2%, 3% and 4% CV of instrument error, respectively. Conclusions Failure to calibrate measuring instruments is likely to lead to overestimation of the prevalence of overweight and obesity in population-based surveys. PMID:23413839

  6. The prevalence of crash risk factors in a population-based study of motorcycle riders.

    PubMed

    de Rome, Liz; Fitzharris, Michael; Baldock, Matthew; Fernandes, Ralston; Ma, Alice; Brown, Julie

    2016-09-01

    Motorcyclists represent an increasing proportion of road traffic casualties but, while factors associated with crashes are readily identifiable, little is known about the prevalence of those risk factors in the motorcycling population. A stratified random-sampling frame was used to survey the population of registered motorcycles owners in New South Wales (NSW) when they attended motor registry offices. The postal codes in the State database of registered motorcycle were used to stratify the population into quartiles based on socioeconomic characteristics and to determine sample weights. Participants (n=506) represented 47% of eligible riders approached. On average participants were aged 43, rode 7h/week and had 17 years of riding experience. Estimates based on multiple ownership rates suggest motorcycle registration numbers exceed the active riding population by approximately 15%. Less than half rode under 101km/week, 25% rode over 300km/week and just 42% rode every day. More rode frequently for leisure (70%) than for commuting (53%) and over half rarely rode in dark (52%) or wet (67%) conditions. Most wore protective clothing - helmets (100%), jackets (82%), pants (56%), boots (57%) and gloves (73%). Those with traffic infringements (32%) were mostly for driving (25%), not riding (10%) offences. In the past year, 13% had one or more motorcycle crashes including minor spills and 76% one or more near-crash experiences. The youngest riders (15-19) reported the highest rates of exposure in kilometres, hours, frequency of riding and commuting. They also reported lower crash involvement (3%) but more near-crashes (80%). This study provides an account of the prevalence of key risk factors across age groups in a population of active motorcycle riders in NSW. Novice riders were represented in all age groups although most novices were under 40 years. These data can be used to guide the development of targeted countermeasures aimed at improving motorcycling safety for riders

  7. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control of Diabetes Mellitus-A Population Based Study in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yuchen; Wang, Rui; Ma, Xiuqiang; Zhao, Yanfang; Lu, Jian; Wu, Cheng; He, Jia

    2016-05-19

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes in Shanghai, China. A sample of 3600 residents aged from 18 to 80 years selected by a randomized stratified multiple-stage sampling method in Shanghai was investigated, with blood samples collected. Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 7.0 mmol/L, or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5% (48 mmol/mol), or previous diagnosis by a physician. Adequate control of diabetes was taken as a level of HbA1c < 7.0% (53 mmol/mol) among people with treated diabetes. Multivariable regression analysis was used to explore associated factors for diabetes and prediabetes. In the 3136 participants suitable for analysis, the prevalences of diabetes, prediabetes, and previously diagnosed diabetes were 15.91%, 37.37%, and 4.46%, respectively. Among those with diabetes, only 28.06% were aware of their condition, 25.85% were currently undergoing medication treatment, and 12.42% achieved glycaemic control. Logistic regression showed that old age, preobesity, obesity, elevated triglyceride (TG), elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), and lower education level were associated with an increased risk of diabetes; old age, obesity, elevated TG, and elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were associated with an increased risk of prediabetes, while male sex and rural residence were associated with a decreased risk of prediabetes. In summary, the state of diabetes in China is alarming; the rates of awareness, treatment, and control were relatively low. More efforts should be made to promote the prevention and control of diabetes in china.

  8. Perinatal psychiatric episodes: a population-based study on treatment incidence and prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Munk-Olsen, T; Maegbaek, M L; Johannsen, B M; Liu, X; Howard, L M; di Florio, A; Bergink, V; Meltzer-Brody, S

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal psychiatric episodes comprise various disorders and symptom severity, which are diagnosed and treated in multiple treatment settings. To date, no studies have quantified the incidence and prevalence of perinatal psychiatric episodes treated in primary and secondary care, which we aimed to do in the present study. We designed a descriptive prospective study and included information from Danish population registers to study first-time ever and recurrent psychiatric episodes during the perinatal period, including treatment at psychiatric facilities and general practitioners (GPs). This was done for all women who had records of one or more singleton births from 1998 until 2012. In total, we had information on 822 439 children born to 491 242 unique mothers. Results showed first-time psychiatric episodes treated at inpatient facilities were rare during pregnancy, but increased significantly shortly following childbirth (0.02 vs 0.25 per 1000 births). In comparison, first-time psychiatric episodes treated at outpatient facilities were more common, and showed little variation across pregnancy and postpartum. For every single birth resulting in postpartum episodes treated at inpatient psychiatric facilities, 2.5 births were followed by an episode treated at outpatient psychiatric facility and 12 births by GP-provided pharmacological treatment. We interpret our results the following way: treated severe and moderate psychiatric disorders have different risk patterns in relation to pregnancy and childbirth, which suggests differences in the underlying etiology. We further speculate varying treatment incidence and prevalence in pregnancy vs postpartum may indicate that the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 peripartum specifier not adequately describes at-risk periods across moderate and severe perinatal psychiatric episodes. PMID:27754485

  9. Prevalence of mood and anxiety disorder in self reported irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). An epidemiological population based study of women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is commonly regarded as a functional disorder, and is hypothesized to be associated with anxiety and depression. This evidence mainly rests on population-based studies utilising self-report screening instruments for psychopathology. Other studies applying structured clinical interviews are generally based on small clinical samples, which are vulnerable to biases. The extant evidence base for an association between IBS and psychopathology is hence not conclusive. The aim of this study was therefore to re-examine the hypothesis using population-based data and psychiatric morbidity established with a structured clinical interview. Methods Data were derived from a population-based epidemiological study (n = 1077). Anxiety and mood disorders were established using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID-I/NP) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Current and lifetime IBS was self-reported. Hypertension and diabetes were employed as comparison groups as they are expected to be unrelated to mental health. Results Current IBS (n = 69, 6.4%) was associated with an increased likelihood of current mood and/or anxiety disorders (OR = 2.62, 95%CI 1.49 - 4.60). Half the population reporting a lifetime IBS diagnosis also had a lifetime mood or anxiety disorder. Exploratory analyses demonstrated an increased prevalence of IBS across most common anxiety and mood disorders, the exception being bipolar disorder. The association with IBS and symptoms load (GHQ-12) followed a curved dose response pattern. In contrast, hypertension and diabetes were consistently unrelated to psychiatric morbidity. Conclusions IBS is significantly associated with anxiety and mood disorders. This study provides indicative evidence for IBS as a disorder with a psychosomatic aspect. PMID:20687933

  10. Ethnic differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: results from a multi-ethnic population-based survey in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rampal, Sanjay; Mahadeva, Sanjiv; Guallar, Eliseo; Bulgiba, Awang; Mohamed, Rosmawati; Rahmat, Ramlee; Arif, Mohamad Taha; Rampal, Lekhraj

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing disproportionately among the different ethnicities in Asia compared to the rest of the world. This study aims to determine the differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome across ethnicities in Malaysia, a multi-ethnic country. In 2004, we conducted a national cross-sectional population-based study using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling design (N = 17,211). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute/American Heart Association (IDF/NHLBI/AHA-2009) criteria. Multivariate models were used to study the independent association between ethnicity and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. The overall mean age was 36.9 years, and 50.0% participants were female. The ethnic distribution was 57.0% Malay, 28.5% Chinese, 8.9% Indian and 5.0% Indigenous Sarawakians. The overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 27.5%, with a prevalence of central obesity, raised triglycerides, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol, raised blood pressure and raised fasting glucose of 36.9%, 29.3%, 37.2%, 38.0% and 29.1%, respectively. Among those <40 years, the adjusted prevalence ratios for metabolic syndrome for ethnic Chinese, Indians, and Indigenous Sarawakians compared to ethnic Malay were 0.81 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.96), 1.42 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.69) and 1.37 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.73), respectively. Among those aged ≥40 years, the corresponding prevalence ratios were 0.86 (95% CI 0.79 to 0.92), 1.25 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.36), and 0.94 (95% CI 0.80, 1.11). The P-value for the interaction of ethnicity by age was 0.001. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Malaysia was high, with marked differences across ethnicities. Ethnic Chinese had the lowest prevalence of metabolic syndrome, while ethnic Indians had the highest. Indigenous Sarawakians showed a marked increase in metabolic syndrome at young ages.

  11. Ethnic Differences in the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome: Results from a Multi-Ethnic Population-Based Survey in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Guallar, Eliseo; Bulgiba, Awang; Mohamed, Rosmawati; Rahmat, Ramlee; Arif, Mohamad Taha; Rampal, Lekhraj

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing disproportionately among the different ethnicities in Asia compared to the rest of the world. This study aims to determine the differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome across ethnicities in Malaysia, a multi-ethnic country. Methods In 2004, we conducted a national cross-sectional population-based study using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling design (N = 17,211). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute/American Heart Association (IDF/NHLBI/AHA-2009) criteria. Multivariate models were used to study the independent association between ethnicity and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. Results The overall mean age was 36.9 years, and 50.0% participants were female. The ethnic distribution was 57.0% Malay, 28.5% Chinese, 8.9% Indian and 5.0% Indigenous Sarawakians. The overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 27.5%, with a prevalence of central obesity, raised triglycerides, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol, raised blood pressure and raised fasting glucose of 36.9%, 29.3%, 37.2%, 38.0% and 29.1%, respectively. Among those <40 years, the adjusted prevalence ratios for metabolic syndrome for ethnic Chinese, Indians, and Indigenous Sarawakians compared to ethnic Malay were 0.81 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.96), 1.42 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.69) and 1.37 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.73), respectively. Among those aged ≥40 years, the corresponding prevalence ratios were 0.86 (95% CI 0.79 to 0.92), 1.25 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.36), and 0.94 (95% CI 0.80, 1.11). The P-value for the interaction of ethnicity by age was 0.001. Conclusions The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Malaysia was high, with marked differences across ethnicities. Ethnic Chinese had the lowest prevalence of metabolic syndrome, while ethnic Indians had the highest. Indigenous Sarawakians showed a marked increase in metabolic syndrome at young

  12. Prevalence of autism and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder in Down syndrome: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Oxelgren, Ulrika Wester; Myrelid, Åsa; Annerén, Göran; Ekstam, Bodil; Göransson, Cathrine; Holmbom, Agneta; Isaksson, Anne; Åberg, Marie; Gustafsson, Jan; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a population-based group of children and adolescents with Down syndrome, and to relate the findings to level of intellectual disability and to medical conditions. From a population-based cohort of 60 children and adolescents with Down syndrome, 41 individuals (29 males, 12 females; mean age 11y, age range 5-17y) for whom parents gave consent for participation were clinically assessed with regard to ASD and ADHD. The main instruments used were the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham-IV Rating Scale, and the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II. High rates of ASD and ADHD were found: 17 (42%) and 14 (34%) of the 41 children met DSM criteria for ASD and ADHD respectively. Children with Down syndrome and coexisting neurodevelopmental/neuropsychiatric disorders in addition to intellectual disability and medical disorders constitute a severely disabled group. Based on the results, we suggest that screening is implemented for both ASD and ADHD, at the age of 3 to 5 years and early school years respectively, to make adequate interventions possible. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  13. Prevalence and impact of physical disability on Malaysian school-aged children: a population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Teik-Beng; Kassim, Aminah Bee; Omar, Mohd Azahadi; Hasnan, Nazirah; Amin, Rahmah Mohd; Omar, Zaliha; Yusoff, Ahmad Faudzi H J

    2009-01-01

    To determine the magnitude and impact of physical disability on Malaysian school-aged children between 7 and less than 18 years old. Cross-sectional population-based household interview with two-stage stratified sampling design. The Malaysian Third National Health of Morbidity Survey, 2006. Overall prevalence of physical disability was 2.8 per 1000 population among children aged between 7 and less than 18 years old. The commonest cause was congenital, in 61.5% of the affected children. Slightly more than a third of these children with physical disability were partially or totally dependent on their caregivers in the various areas of self care (37.4%) and mobility (34.9%). We also found that the more severe the physical disability, the more adverse impact it had on the functional independence and community participation of these children. Among these children, almost 40% of them had no verbal communication, 31.5% had not attended formal education and 21% were housebound. This population-based survey on physical disability among school-aged children highlighted the key areas where physical disability can greatly impact on the child's function. It has identified the areas of needs that require multisectoral involvement and commitment from the government, non-government and private agencies.

  14. Prevalence of Self-Reported Diabetes and Its Associated Factors: A Population-Based Study in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Da-Mata, Fabiana A. F.; Galvao, Tais F.; Pereira, Mauricio G.; Silva, Marcus T.

    2015-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and its associated risk factors in adults from Brasilia, Brazil. Methods. The present cross-sectional population-based study consisted of interviews with individuals aged 18–65 years. Participants were selected through two-stage probability sampling by clusters and stratified by sex and age. Demographic and clinical data were collected directly with participants from February to May 2012. Self-reported diabetes prevalence was calculated at a 95% confidence interval (CI). Prevalence ratios (PR) were adjusted by Poisson regression with robust variance. Results. In all, 1,820 individuals were interviewed. Diabetes prevalence in the adult population of Brasilia was 10.1% (95% CI, 8.5%–11.6%). Variables associated with diabetes were an age between 35 and 49 years (PR = 1.83; 95% CI, 1.19–2.82) or 50 and 65 years (PR = 1.95; 95% CI, 1.17–3.23), hypertension (PR = 4.04; 95% CI, 2.66–6.13), respiratory disease (PR = 1.67; 95% CI, 1.11–2.50), cardiovascular disease (PR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.15–2.63), and pain/discomfort (PR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.21–2.41). Conclusion. Diabetes is a prevalent condition in adults living in Brasilia, and disease risk increases with age and comorbidities. Future health policies should focus on screening programs and prevention for the more vulnerable groups. PMID:26089888

  15. Sex difference in the association between habitual daytime napping and prevalence of diabetes: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kan; Li, Feng; Qi, Yiqin; Lin, Diaozhu; Ren, Meng; Xu, Mingtong; Li, Fangping; Li, Yan; Yan, Li

    2016-05-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the associations between habitual daytime napping and diabetes and whether it varies by sex, menopause, and sleep quality. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in 8621 eligible individuals aged 40 years or older. Information on daytime napping hours, night-time sleep duration, history of menstruation, and sleep quality was self-reported. Diabetes was diagnosed according to the 1999 World Health Organization diagnostic criteria. The prevalence of diabetes was 19.4 % in men and 15.6 % in women. Increased daytime napping hours were positively associated with parameters of glycometabolism in women, such as fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 2-h plasma glucose, and Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, all P for trend <0.05). In women, the prevalence of diabetes in no-habitual daytime napping group, 0-1-h daytime napping group, and more than 1-h daytime napping group were 14.5, 15.6, and 20.8 %, respectively (P for trend = 0.0004). A similar trend was detected in postmenopausal women (P for trend = 0.002). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, compared with no-habitual daytime napping postmenopausal women, those with daytime napping more than 1 h had higher prevalent diabetes (odds ratios 1.36, 95 % confidence interval, 1.04-1.77). In subgroup analysis of postmenopausal women, associations of daytime napping levels and prevalent diabetes were detected in older, overweight participants with good sleep quality who have not retired from work. In conclusion, our study suggests that habitual daytime napping is associated with prevalence of diabetes in postmenopausal women.

  16. Prevalence of fetal alcohol syndrome in a population-based sample of children living in remote Australia: the Lililwan Project.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, James P; Latimer, Jane; Carter, Maureen; Oscar, June; Ferreira, Manuela L; Carmichael Olson, Heather; Lucas, Barbara R; Doney, Robyn; Salter, Claire; Try, Julianne; Hawkes, Genevieve; Fitzpatrick, Emily; Hand, Marmingee; Watkins, Rochelle E; Martiniuk, Alexandra L C; Bower, Carol; Boulton, John; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2015-04-01

    Aboriginal leaders concerned about high rates of alcohol use in pregnancy invited researchers to determine the prevalence of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial fetal alcohol syndrome (pFAS) in their communities. Population-based prevalence study using active case ascertainment in children born in 2002/2003 and living in the Fitzroy Valley, in Western Australia (April 2010-November 2011) (n = 134). Socio-demographic and antenatal data, including alcohol use in pregnancy, were collected by interview with 127/134 (95%) consenting parents/care givers. Maternal/child medical records were reviewed. Interdisciplinary assessments were conducted for 108/134 (81%) children. FAS/pFAS prevalence was determined using modified Canadian diagnostic guidelines. In 127 pregnancies, alcohol was used in 55%. FAS or pFAS was diagnosed in 13/108 children, a prevalence of 120 per 1000 (95% confidence interval 70-196). Prenatal alcohol exposure was confirmed for all children with FAS/pFAS, 80% in the first trimester and 50% throughout pregnancy. Ten of 13 mothers had Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores and all drank at a high-risk level. Of children with FAS/pFAS, 69% had microcephaly, 85% had weight deficiency and all had facial dysmorphology and central nervous system abnormality/impairment in three to eight domains. The population prevalence of FAS/pFAS in remote Aboriginal communities of the Fitzroy Valley is the highest reported in Australia and similar to that reported in high-risk populations internationally. Results are likely to be generalisable to other age groups in the Fitzroy Valley and other remote Australian communities with high-risk alcohol use during pregnancy. Prevention of FAS/pFAS is an urgent public health challenge. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  17. Prevalence of human papillomavirus and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in China: a pooled analysis of 17 population-based studies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fang-Hui; Lewkowitz, Adam K; Hu, Shang-Ying; Chen, Feng; Li, Long-Yu; Zhang, Qing-Ming; Wu, Rui-Fang; Li, Chang-Qing; Wei, Li-Hui; Xu, Ai-Di; Zhang, Wen-Hua; Pan, Qin-Jing; Zhang, Xun; Belinson, Jerome L; Sellors, John W; Smith, Jennifer S; Qiao, You-Lin; Franceschi, Silvia

    2012-12-15

    High-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence has been shown to correlate well with cervical cancer incidence rates. Our study aimed to estimate the prevalence of HR-HPV and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in China and indirectly informs on the cervical cancer burden in the country. A total of 30,207 women from 17 population-based studies throughout China were included. All women received HPV DNA testing (HC2, Qiagen, Gaithersburg, MD), visual inspection with acetic acid and liquid-based cytology. Women positive for any test received colposcopy-directed or four-quadrant biopsies. A total of 29,579 women had HR-HPV testing results, of whom 28,761 had biopsy confirmed (9,019, 31.4%) or assumed (19,742, 68.6%) final diagnosis. Overall crude HR-HPV prevalence was 17.7%. HR-HPV prevalence was similar in rural and urban areas but showed dips in different age groups: at age 25-29 (11.3%) in rural and at age 35-39 (11.3%) in urban women. In rural and urban women, age-standardized CIN2 prevalence was 1.5% [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4-1.6%] and 0.7% (95% CI: 0.7-0.8%) and CIN3+ prevalence was 1.2% (95% CI: 1.2-1.3%) and 0.6% (95% CI: 0.5-0.7%), respectively. Prevalence of CIN3+ as a percentage of either all women or HR-HPV-positive women steadily increased with age, peaking in 45- to 49-year-old women. High prevalence of HR-HPV and CIN3+ was detected in both rural and urban China. The steady rise of CIN3+ up to the age group of 45-49 is attributable to lack of lesion removal through screening. Our findings document the inadequacy of current screening in China while indirectly raising the possibility that the cervical cancer burden in China is underreported.

  18. Declining HIV Prevalence in Parallel With Safer Sex Behaviors in Burkina Faso: Evidence From Surveillance and Population-Based Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kirakoya-Samadoulougou, Fati; Nagot, Nicolas; Samadoulougou, Sekou; Sokey, Mamadou; Guiré, Abdoulaye; Sombié, Issiaka; Meda, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate trends in HIV prevalence and changes in reported sexual behaviors between 1998 and 2014 in Burkina Faso. Methods: We obtained data on HIV prevalence from antenatal care (ANC) surveillance sites (N = 9) that were consistently included in surveillance between 1998 and 2014. We also analyzed data on HIV prevalence and reported sex behaviors from 3 population-based surveys from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), conducted in 1998–99, 2003, and 2010. Sex behavior indicators comprised never-married youth who have never had sex; sex with more than 1 partner; sex with a nonmarital, non-cohabiting partner; condom use at last sex with a nonmarital, non-cohabiting partner; and sex before age 15. We calculated survey-specific HIV prevalence with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and used the chi-square test or chi-square test for trend to compare HIV prevalence across survey years and to analyze trends in reported sex behaviors. Results: HIV prevalence among pregnant women ages 15–49 decreased by 72% in urban areas, from 7.1% in 1998 to 2.0% in 2014, and by 75% in rural areas, from 2.0% in 2003 to 0.5% in 2014. HIV declined most in younger age groups, which is a good reflection of recent incidence, with declines of 55% among 15–19-year-olds, 72% among 20–24-year-olds, 40% among 25–29-year-olds, and 7% among those ≥30 years old (considering urban and rural data combined). Data reported in the DHS corroborated these declines in HIV prevalence: between 2003 and 2010, HIV prevalence dropped significantly—by 89% among girls ages 15–19, from 0.9% (95% CI, 0.2 to 1.6) to 0.1% (95% CI, 0.0 to 0.4), and by 78% among young women ages 20–24, from 1.8% (95% CI, 1.6 to 3.0) to 0.4% (95% CI, 0.0 to 0.7). During the same time period, people reported safer sex behaviors. For example, significantly higher percentages of never-married youth reported they had never had sex, lower percentages of sexually active youth reported multiple

  19. Prevalence of oesophageal eosinophils and eosinophilic oesophagitis in adults: the population-based Kalixanda study.

    PubMed

    Ronkainen, Jukka; Talley, Nicholas J; Aro, Pertti; Storskrubb, Tom; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Lind, Tore; Bolling-Sternevald, Elisabeth; Vieth, Michael; Stolte, Manfred; Walker, Marjorie M; Agréus, Lars

    2007-05-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis may be increasing but the prevalence in the general population remains unknown. Our aim was to assess this and the presence of eosinophils in the distal oesophageal epithelium in the community. Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed in a random sample (n = 1000) of the adult Swedish population (mean age 54 years, 49% men). Oesophageal biopsy samples were obtained from 2 cm above, and at, the Z-line. Any eosinophil infiltration of the epithelium was defined as "eosinophils present". Definite eosinophilic oesophagitis was defined as > or =20, probable as 15-19, and possible as 5-14 eosinophils/high-power field (HPF, at magnification x 40) in oesophageal biopsy specimens. Eosinophils were present in 48 subjects (4.8%, 95% CI 3.5 to 6.1%, mean age 54 years, 63% men), in 54% without troublesome reflux symptoms. Definite eosinophilic oesophagitis was present in four subjects (0.4%, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.8%, mean age 51 years, 75% men) and probable eosinophilic oesophagitis in seven subjects (0.7%, 95% CI 0.2 to 1.2%, mean age 58 years, 43% men). Erosive oesophagitis (OR = 2.99, 95% CI 1.58 to 5.66) and absence of dyspepsia (OR = 0.23, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.75) and Helicobacter pylori infection (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.92) were independent predictors for "eosinophils present". Definite eosinophilic oesophagitis was associated with dysphagia (2/66 vs 2/926, p = 0.025), and probable eosinophilic oesophagitis with narrowing of the oesophageal lumen (2/15 vs 5/978, p = 0.005). Oesophageal eosinophils were present in nearly 5% of the general population; approximately 1% had definite or probable eosinophilic oesophagitis. Oesophageal eosinophils may be a manifestation of reflux disease in adults, but the condition is as likely to be asymptomatic and go unrecognised.

  20. Prevalence and Persistence of Sleep Disordered Breathing Symptoms in Young Children: A 6-Year Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bonuck, Karen A.; Chervin, Ronald D.; Cole, Timothy J.; Emond, Alan; Henderson, John; Xu, Linzhi; Freeman, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To describe the prevalence, persistence, and characteristics associated with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) symptoms in a population-based cohort followed from 6 months to 6.75 years. Design: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Setting: England, 1991-1999. Participants: 12,447 children in ALSPAC with parental report of apnea, snoring, or mouth-breathing frequency on any one of 7 questionnaires. Measurements: Symptom prevalence rates—assessed as “Always” and “Habitually”—are reported at 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.75, 5.75, and 6.75 years of age. The proportion of children in whom symptoms develop, persist or abate between observation points is reported. Exploratory multivariate analyses identified SDB risk factors at 1.5, 4.75, and 6.75 years. Results: The prevalence of apnea (“Always”) is 1%-2% at all ages assessed. In contrast, snoring “Always” ranges from 3.6% to 7.7%, and snoring “Habitually” ranges from 9.6% to 21.2%, with a notable increase from 1.5- 2.5 years. At 6 years old, 25% are habitual mouth-breathers. The “Always” and “Habitual” incidence of each symptom between time points is 1%-5% and 5%-10%, respectively. In multivariate analyses of combined symptoms, socioeconomic factors have stronger, more persistent effects upon increased SDB risk than gestational age, gender, or race (aside from 1.5 years); adenoidectomy decreases risk by 40%-50%. Conclusions: This is the first natural history study of the primary symptoms of SDB across a key 6-year period in the development of SDB symptoms. Snoring rates are higher and spike earlier than previously reported. Symptoms are dynamic, suggesting the need for early and continued vigilance in early childhood. Citation: Bonuck KA; Chervin RD; Cole TJ; Emond A; Henderson J; Xu L; Freeman K. Prevalence and persistence of sleep disordered breathing symptoms in young children: a 6-year population-based cohort study. SLEEP 2011;34(7):875-884. PMID

  1. Human papillomavirus prevalence and associated factors in women and men in south China: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Feixue; Yin, Kai; Wu, Xin; Lan, Jian; Huang, Shoujie; Sheng, Wei; Zhao, Jun; Su, Yingying; Wang, Ying; Li, Yanping; Li, Rongcheng; Zhang, Jun; Li, Mingqiang; Wu, Ting; Xia, Ningshao

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a cause of many anogenital cancers in women and men; however, there is little research on HPV prevalence and risk factors that includes both women and men from the same population. A total of 4687 participants, including 2378 women and 2309 men aged 18–55 years old from the same community, were enrolled in the study in Liuzhou, China. Exfoliated cells were collected from the participants from different anatomic sites and were tested for 13 oncogenic and 3 non-oncogenic HPV types. The prevalence of any oncogenic HPV type was higher in women than in men (18.7% vs 9.4%, P<0.001), whereas the prevalence of HPV 6 and 11 infection was similar (1.4% vs 1.2%, P=0.6832). HPV 52, 58, 16, 39 and 18 were the five most prevalent types in both sexes. Sexual and hygienic behaviors were associated with HPV infection in both women and men. We found that oncogenic HPV DNA detection is more prevalent in women than in men in China, whereas the prevalence of HPV 6 and 11 is similar in both sexes. The data indicate that the interaction of host and virus might be different among high- and low-risk HPV types. PMID:27876782

  2. Childhood gender-typed behavior and adolescent sexual orientation: A longitudinal population-based study.

    PubMed

    Li, Gu; Kung, Karson T F; Hines, Melissa

    2017-04-01

    Lesbian and gay individuals have been reported to show more interest in other-sex, and/or less interest in same-sex, toys, playmates, and activities in childhood than heterosexual counterparts. Yet, most of the relevant evidence comes from retrospective studies or from prospective studies of clinically referred, extremely gender nonconforming children. In addition, findings are mixed regarding the relation between childhood gender-typed behavior and the later sexual orientation spectrum from exclusively heterosexual to exclusively lesbian/gay. The current study drew a sample (2,428 girls and 2,169 boys) from a population-based longitudinal study, and found that the levels of gender-typed behavior at ages 3.5 and 4.75 years, although less so at age 2.5 years, significantly and consistently predicted adolescents' sexual orientation at age 15 years, both when sexual orientation was conceptualized as 2 groups or as a spectrum. In addition, within-individual change in gender-typed behavior during the preschool years significantly related to adolescent sexual orientation, especially in boys. These results suggest that the factors contributing to the link between childhood gender-typed behavior and sexual orientation emerge during early development. Some of those factors are likely to be nonsocial, because nonheterosexual individuals appear to diverge from gender norms regardless of social encouragement to conform to gender roles. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Low prevalence and incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection in children: a population-based study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Masumi; Osaki, Takako; Lin, Yingsong; Yonezawa, Hideo; Maekawa, Kohei; Kamiya, Shigeru; Fukuda, Yoshihiro; Kikuchi, Shogo

    2015-04-01

    Infection of Helicobacter pylori mainly occurs in childhood. In Japan, incidence of gastric cancer is still high in the senior citizen population, but little is known about the current H. pylori infection status among children or their family members. As a population-based study, the prevalence of H. pylori infection and change in infection status over a 1-year interval in children were determined. Family members of some participants were also invited to participate in the study to determine their infection status. All children of specific ages attending 16 schools in Sasayama, Hyogo Prefecture, were invited to participate. H. pylori infection was determined by the stool antigen test and diagnosis confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and the urea breath test. Helicobacter pylori prevalence was 1.9% among 689 children aged 0-8 years in 2010 and 1.8% among 835 children aged 0-11 in 2011. No feco-conversion was observed in 430 children aged 0-8 years (170 were aged 0-4 years) who provided follow-up stool samples after 1 year. The prevalence of infection was 6% (2 of 33) and 38% (6 of 16) in mothers of negative and positive probands (p = .04), respectively, and 12% (3 of 25) and 50% (8 of 16) (p = .01), respectively, in fathers. Helicobacter pylori prevalence in Japanese children is approximately 1.8%, which is much lower than that reported in Japanese adults. New infection may be rare. Parent-to-child infection is thought to be the main infection route of the infrequent infection for children in Japan. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Prevalence of hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors in an urban slum in Nairobi, Kenya: a population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Mark David; Ayah, Richard; Njau, Elijah Kaharo; Wanjiru, Rosemary; Kayima, Joshua Kyateesa; Njeru, Erastus Kennedy; Mutai, Kenneth Kipyegon

    2014-11-18

    Urbanisation has been described as a key driver of the evolving non-communicable disease (NCD) epidemic. In Africa, hypertension is the commonest cardiovascular problem. We determined the prevalence and risk factor correlates of hypertension in the largest Nairobi slum. In 2010 we conducted a population-based household survey in Kibera, a large informal settlement in Nairobi City; utilising cluster sampling with probability proportional to size. Households were selected using a random walk method. The WHO instrument for stepwise surveillance (STEPS) of chronic disease risk factors was administered by trained medical assistants, who also recorded blood pressure (BP) and anthropometric measures. BP was recorded using a mercury sphygmomanometer utilising the American Heart Association guidelines. Hypertension was defined as per the 7th Report of the Joint National Committee or use of prescribed antihypertensive medication. Those with hypertension or with random capillary blood sugar (RCBS) >11.1 mmol/l had an 8 hours fasting venous blood sugar sample drawn. Age standardised prevalence was computed and multivariate analysis to assess associations. We screened 2200 and enrolled 2061 adults; 50.9% were males; mean age was 33.4 years and 87% had primary level education. The age-standardised prevalence of hypertension (95% CI) was 22.8% (20.7, 24.9). 20% (53/258) were aware of their hypertensive status; 59.3% had pre-hypertension; 80% reported high levels of physical activity and 52% were classified as harmful alcohol drinkers; 10% were current smokers and 5% had diabetes. Majority of males had normal BMI and waist circumference, whereas a third of females were obese or overweight and 40% had central obesity. Older age, higher general and central obesity were independently associated with hypertension and higher SBP and DBP readings. Our findings of high prevalence of hypertension, in association with excess body weight in this poor urban slum community, point to the need

  5. Prevalence and risk factors for anaemia in pregnant women: a population-based prospective cohort study in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiaoyi; Li, Zhu; Ananth, Cande V

    2009-07-01

    Maternal anaemia is a common pregnancy complication in developing countries; however, its epidemiology remains largely unexplored in China. This study was designed to explore the epidemiology and risk factors of anaemia during pregnancy. A prospective cohort study was conducted, using data from a population-based pregnancy-monitoring system in 13 counties in East China (1993-96). Women who delivered singleton infants at 20-44 weeks with at least one haemoglobin assessment during pregnancy were included (n = 164 667). The prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin < 10 g/dL) during pregnancy as well as in each trimester was estimated. Multivariable log-binomial regression models were used to evaluate risk factors. The overall prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy was 32.6%, with substantial variations across trimesters (11.2%, 20.1% and 26.2% in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters respectively). Risk factors for anaemia included older maternal age, education below junior high school (prevalence rate ratio [RR] 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08, 1.12), farming occupation (1.05, 95% CI 1.03, 1.06), and mild pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) (RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.05, 1.13) and severe PIH (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.06, 1.19). Peri-conception folic acid use was associated with a reduced risk for anaemia in the 1st trimester (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.72, 0.78). Initiating prenatal care after the 1st trimester was associated with increased risk of anaemia in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Our study found anaemia during pregnancy is highly prevalent in this indigenous Chinese population. The risk increases with the severity of hypertensive disorders. Folic acid supplementation during the peri-conception period is associated with reduced risk of 1st trimester anaemia.

  6. Prevalence of Self-Reported Lifetime History of Traumatic Brain Injury and Associated Disability: A Statewide Population-Based Survey.

    PubMed

    Whiteneck, Gale G; Cuthbert, Jeffrey P; Corrigan, John D; Bogner, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of all severities of traumatic brain injury (TBI), regardless of treatment setting, and their associated negative outcomes. A total of 2701 adult Coloradoans. A statewide, population-based, random digit-dialed telephone survey. The lifetime history of TBI was assessed by a modification of the Ohio State University TBI Identification Method; activity limitation and life satisfaction were also assessed. The distribution of self-reported lifetime injury was as follows: 19.8%, no injury; 37.7%, injury but no TBI; 36.4%, mild TBI; and 6.0%, moderate-severe TBI. Of those reporting a TBI, 23.1% were hospitalized, 38.5% were treated in an emergency department, 9.8% were treated in a physician's office, and 27.5% did not seek medical care. A clear gradient of activity limitations and low life satisfaction was seen, with the highest proportions of these negative outcomes occurring in people reporting more severe TBI and the lowest proportions in those not reporting a TBI. Approximately twice as many people reported activity limitations and low life satisfaction after nonhospitalized TBI compared with hospitalized TBI. This investigation highlights the seriousness of TBI as a public health problem and the importance of including all severities of TBI, no matter where, or if treated, in estimating the prevalence of disability co-occurring with TBI.

  7. Has the Prevalence of Migraine Changed over the Last Decade (2003–2012)? A Spanish Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Salom-Moreno, Jaime; López-de-Andres, Ana; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Jiménez-Trujillo, Isabel; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Gallardo-Pino, Carmen; García-Gómez-de-las-Heras, María S.; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Information on temporal trends can identify groups of people at risk for any particular condition; however information on temporal trends on migraine headache at population levels is scarce. Our aim was to estimate the time trends in the prevalence of migraine from 2003 to 2012 in Spain. Methods A population-based national study was conducted. We analyzed data using individualized information taken from national surveys conducted in 2003/4, 2006/7, 2009/10 and 2011/12. A total of 94,158 Spanish adults participated. We considered the presence of self-rated and diagnosed migraine, and we analyzed socio-demographic features, lifestyle habits, self-rated health status, and comorbid diseases using logistic regressions. Results The prevalence of migraine increased from 6.54% in 2003 to 9.69% in 2012 with significant time trends (adj. OR 1.65; 95%CI 1.50–1.81). The probability of women of suffering migraine was 3 times higher than for men (adj.OR 3.08; 2.82–3.37). There was a declining trend in migraine prevalence as age increased (adj.OR 0.42; 0.35–0.51). Demographic variables associated with migraine were lower educational level (adj.OR 1.32; 1.13–1.54) and not being an immigrant (adj.OR 1.37; 1.15–1.64). A worse self-reported health status was related to higher prevalence of migraine (adj.OR 2.83; 2.59–3.09). The prevalence of migraine also increased as the number of comorbid conditions increased (adj.OR 2.42; 2.05–2.86). Conclusion The prevalence of migraine has increased in the first decade of the 21st century in Spain. Migraine was associated with being female, mid-age, low educational level, not being an immigrant, worse self-rated health status and presence of comorbid conditions. PMID:25343495

  8. Prevalence and predictors of exclusive breastfeeding among women in Kilimanjaro region, Northern Tanzania: a population based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is a simple and cost-effective intervention to improve child health and survival. Effective EBF has been estimated to avert 13% - 15% of under-five mortality and contribute to reduce mother to child transmission of HIV. The prevalence of EBF for infant less than six months is low in most developing countries, including Tanzania (50%). While the Tanzania Demographic Health Survey collects information on overall EBF prevalence, it does not evaluate factors influencing EBF. The aim of this paper was to determine the prevalence and predictors of exclusive breastfeeding in urban and rural areas in Kilimanjaro region. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2010 to March 2011 among women with infants aged 6–12 months in Kilimanjaro. Multi-stage proportionate to size sampling was used to select participants from all the seven districts of the region. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic, reproductive, alcohol intake, breastfeeding patterns and nutritional data during the interviews. Estimation on EBF was based on recall since birth. Multivariable logistic regression was used to obtain independent predictors of EBF. Results A total of 624 women participated, 77% (483) from rural areas. The prevalence of EBF up to six months in Kilimanjaro region was 20.7%, without significant differences in the prevalence of EBF up to six months between urban (22.7%) and rural areas (20.1%); (OR = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5,1.4). In multivariable analysis, advice on breastfeeding after delivery (Adjusted odds ratio, AOR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.5, 4.6) was positively associated with EBF up to six months. Compared to married/cohabiting and those who do not take alcohol, single mothers (AOR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2, 0.9) and mothers who drank alcohol (AOR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.3, 0.7) had less odds to practice EBF up to six months. Conclusion Prevalence of EBF up to six months is still low in

  9. Prevalence and predictors of exclusive breastfeeding among women in Kilimanjaro region, Northern Tanzania: a population based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mgongo, Melina; Mosha, Mary V; Uriyo, Jacqueline G; Msuya, Sia E; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2013-10-09

    Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is a simple and cost-effective intervention to improve child health and survival. Effective EBF has been estimated to avert 13% - 15% of under-five mortality and contribute to reduce mother to child transmission of HIV. The prevalence of EBF for infant less than six months is low in most developing countries, including Tanzania (50%). While the Tanzania Demographic Health Survey collects information on overall EBF prevalence, it does not evaluate factors influencing EBF. The aim of this paper was to determine the prevalence and predictors of exclusive breastfeeding in urban and rural areas in Kilimanjaro region. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2010 to March 2011 among women with infants aged 6-12 months in Kilimanjaro. Multi-stage proportionate to size sampling was used to select participants from all the seven districts of the region. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic, reproductive, alcohol intake, breastfeeding patterns and nutritional data during the interviews. Estimation on EBF was based on recall since birth. Multivariable logistic regression was used to obtain independent predictors of EBF. A total of 624 women participated, 77% (483) from rural areas. The prevalence of EBF up to six months in Kilimanjaro region was 20.7%, without significant differences in the prevalence of EBF up to six months between urban (22.7%) and rural areas (20.1%); (OR = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5,1.4).In multivariable analysis, advice on breastfeeding after delivery (Adjusted odds ratio, AOR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.5, 4.6) was positively associated with EBF up to six months. Compared to married/cohabiting and those who do not take alcohol, single mothers (AOR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2, 0.9) and mothers who drank alcohol (AOR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.3, 0.7) had less odds to practice EBF up to six months. Prevalence of EBF up to six months is still low in Kilimanjaro, lower than the national coverage of

  10. Prevalence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Nakuru, Kenya: A Cross-Sectional Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Mathenge, Wanjiku; Bastawrous, Andrew; Peto, Tunde; Leung, Irene; Foster, Allen; Kuper, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Background Diseases of the posterior segment of the eye, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), have recently been recognised as the leading or second leading cause of blindness in several African countries. However, prevalence of AMD alone has not been assessed. We hypothesized that AMD is an important cause of visual impairment among elderly people in Nakuru, Kenya, and therefore sought to assess the prevalence and predictors of AMD in a diverse adult Kenyan population. Methods and Findings In a population-based cross-sectional survey in the Nakuru District of Kenya, 100 clusters of 50 people 50 y of age or older were selected by probability-proportional-to-size sampling between 26 January 2007 and 11 November 2008. Households within clusters were selected through compact segment sampling. All participants underwent a standardised interview and comprehensive eye examination, including dilated slit lamp examination by an ophthalmologist and digital retinal photography. Images were graded for the presence and severity of AMD lesions following a modified version of the International Classification and Grading System for Age-Related Maculopathy. Comparison was made between slit lamp biomicroscopy (SLB) and photographic grading. Of 4,381 participants, fundus photographs were gradable for 3,304 persons (75.4%), and SLB was completed for 4,312 (98%). Early and late AMD prevalence were 11.2% and 1.2%, respectively, among participants graded on images. Prevalence of AMD by SLB was 6.7% and 0.7% for early and late AMD, respectively. SLB underdiagnosed AMD relative to photographic grading by a factor of 1.7. After controlling for age, women had a higher prevalence of early AMD than men (odds ratio 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2–1.9). Overall prevalence rose significantly with each decade of age. We estimate that, in Kenya, 283,900 to 362,800 people 50 y and older have early AMD and 25,200 to 50,500 have late AMD, based on population estimates in 2007. Conclusions AMD is an

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of chlamydia infection in Hong Kong: A population-based geospatial household survey and testing

    PubMed Central

    Wong, William Chi Wai; Wong, Ngai Sze; Parish, William L.; Miu, Heidi Yin Hai; Yang, Li-Gang; Emch, Michael; Ho, King Man; Fong, Francois Yeung; Tucker, Joseph D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Chlamydia causes infertility and increases risk of HIV infection, and population-based studies provide essential information for effective infection control and prevention. This study examined Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence and risk factors among a representative sample of 18-49-year-old residents in Hong Kong. Methods Census boundary map of 412 constituency areas was used as primary sampling units to construct the sampling frame and, residential buildings and units were randomly selected using geospatial modelling. A questionnaire on sexual practice and health was conducted, and polymerase chain reaction was used to test the urine for genital chlamydial infection. Invitation letters were sent to the selected households and a team of interviewers were sent to recruit one subject per household. Prevalence data was weighted according to the 2011 census and risk factors identified through logistic regression. Results Among 881 participants (response rate of 24.5%), the overall Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence was low at 1.4% (95%CI 0.8–2.5%) but sexually active young (18–26 years) women had relatively high prevalence (5.8%, 95%CI 1.7–18.2%) in Hong Kong. A unique U-shape disease burden was observed with peaks in younger and older (40–49 years) women. Amongst the sexually active women, the risk factors of Chlamydia trachomatis infection were: younger age (aOR = 25.4, 95% CI 2.81–230); living alone (aOR = 8.99, 95% CI 1.46–55.40); and, among all the sexually active participants, males (including the male partners of the female participants) who had travelled out of Hong Kong in the previous 12 months had higher risks of infection (aOR = 5.35; 95% CI 1.25–22.8). A core-peripheral geographical distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence was also observed. Conclusion Young and older sexually active women in Hong Kong have high prevalence of chlamydia. Routine screening for sexually active women and young men should be considered. Further

  12. School performance in children with type 1 diabetes: a contemporary population-based study.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Matthew N; McNamara, Kaitrin A R; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Davis, Elizabeth A; Jones, Timothy W

    2016-03-01

    Our aim was to examine the school performance of children with type 1 diabetes in comparison to their peers, exploring changes over time, and the impact of clinical factors on school performance. The study included data on 666 children with type 1 diabetes from the Western Australia Children's Diabetes Database. (WACDD), a population-based registry, and 3260 school and school year matched non-diabetic children. Records from the National Assessment Program - Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) (2008-2011), which examines four educational outcome domains and is administered annually to all years 3, 5, 7, and 9 children in Australia, were sourced for both groups. Clinical data were obtained for the children with diabetes from the WACDD. No significant difference was observed between those with type 1 diabetes and their peers, across any of the tested domains and school years analysed. No decline over time was observed, and no decline following diagnosis was observed. Type 1 diabetes was associated with decreased school attendance, 3% fewer days attended per year. Poorer glycaemic control [higher haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)] was associated with a lower test score [0.2-0.3 SD per 1% (10.9 mmol/mol) increase in HbA1c], and with poorer attendance [1.8% decrease per 1% (10.9 mmol/mol) increase in HbA1c]. No association was observed with history of severe hypoglycaemia, diabetic ketoacidosis or age of onset and school test scores. These results suggest that type 1 diabetes is not associated with a significant decrement in school performance, as assessed by NAPLAN. The association of poorer glycaemic control with poorer school performance serves as further evidence for clinicians to focus on improving glycaemic control. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Prevalence and Regional Distribution of Lower Limb Amputations from 2006 to 2012 in Germany: A Population based Study.

    PubMed

    Heyer, K; Debus, E S; Mayerhoff, L; Augustin, M

    2015-12-01

    International studies show conflicting results regarding the frequency of lower limb amputations over time. However, published data are often based on event related amputation frequencies per year, on hospital statistics or on regional surveys. Thus, they do not allow population based statements. The present study assesses the population based epidemiology of amputations in Germany. Secondary analyses of 80 German statutory health insurance companies with 4 million insurants nationwide in 2012 were performed. From 2006 to 2012, lower limb amputations were identified in the entire population and in persons with diabetes mellitus (DM) and arterial occlusive disease (AOD). Lower limb amputations and persons with DM and arterial occlusive diseases were extracted by specific operation procedure codes and International Classification of Diseases-10 codes. Descriptive standardized analyses by age, sex, and regional distribution were conducted. The proportion of patients with at least one lower limb amputation in the entire population stayed constant over time at 0.04% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04-0.04). Extrapolated to the German population in 2012 there were 49,150 cases and 32,767 persons with amputations. In 2012, about 70% of amputations were minor (0.03% [95% CI 0.03-0.03]) versus major amputations (0.01% [95% CI 0.01-0.01]). Related to DM and AOD, there was a small decrease in the amputation rate per patient, even though the DM prevalence increased by 10.4%. The amputation rates per patient in Germany have remained stable in the overall population and show slight decline in patients with diabetes mellitus and with arterial occlusive disease between 2006 and 2012. In the future, intensified preventive measures are crucial to reduce the number of amputations of the lower extremities permanently. Copyright © 2015 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Meckel-Gruber Syndrome: a population-based study on prevalence, prenatal diagnosis, clinical features, and survival in Europe.

    PubMed

    Barisic, Ingeborg; Boban, Ljubica; Loane, Maria; Garne, Ester; Wellesley, Diana; Calzolari, Elisa; Dolk, Helen; Addor, Marie-Claude; Bergman, Jorieke Eh; Braz, Paula; Draper, Elizabeth S; Haeusler, Martin; Khoshnood, Babak; Klungsoyr, Kari; Pierini, Anna; Queisser-Luft, Annette; Rankin, Judith; Rissmann, Anke; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine

    2015-06-01

    Meckel-Gruber Syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive lethal ciliopathy characterized by the triad of cystic renal dysplasia, occipital encephalocele and postaxial polydactyly. We present the largest population-based epidemiological study to date using data provided by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) network. The study population consisted of 191 cases of MKS identified between January 1990 and December 2011 in 34 European registries. The mean prevalence was 2.6 per 100,000 births in a subset of registries with good ascertainment. The prevalence was stable over time, but regional differences were observed. There were 145 (75.9%) terminations of pregnancy after prenatal diagnosis, 13 (6.8%) fetal deaths, 33 (17.3%) live births. In addition to cystic kidneys (97.7%), encephalocele (83.8%) and polydactyly (87.3%), frequent features include other central nervous system anomalies (51.4%), fibrotic/cystic changes of the liver (65.5% of cases with post mortem examination) and orofacial clefts (31.8%). Various other anomalies were present in 64 (37%) patients. As nowadays most patients are detected very early in pregnancy when liver or kidney changes may not yet be developed or may be difficult to assess, none of the anomalies should be considered obligatory for the diagnosis. Most cases (90.2%) are diagnosed prenatally at 14.3 ± 2.6 (range 11-36) gestational weeks and pregnancies are mainly terminated, reducing the number of LB to one-fifth of the total prevalence rate. Early diagnosis is important for timely counseling of affected couples regarding the option of pregnancy termination and prenatal genetic testing in future pregnancies.

  15. Prevalence of Periodontitis in Patients with Established Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Swedish Population Based Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Kaja; Nise, Lena; Kats, Anna; Luttropp, Elin; Catrina, Anca Irinel; Askling, Johan; Jansson, Leif; Alfredsson, Lars; Klareskog, Lars; Lundberg, Karin; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay

    2016-01-01

    The possible hypothesis of a link between periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), specifically anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) positive RA, prompted us to investigate the prevalence of periodontitis in the Swedish Epidemiological Investigation of RA (EIRA), a well-characterised population-based RA case-control cohort. Periodontal status of 2,740 RA cases and 3,942 matched controls was retrieved through linking EIRA with the National Dental Health Registry (DHR), where dental diagnostic- and treatment codes on the adult Swedish population have been registered. Dental records from 100 cases and controls were reviewed to validate the periodontal diagnostic codes in DHR. The reviewed dental records confirmed 90% of the periodontitis diagnoses in DHR among RA cases, and 88% among controls. We found the positive predictive value of periodontitis diagnoses in the DHR to be 89% (95% CI 78 to 95%) with a sensitivity of 77% (95% CI: 65 to 86%). In total, 86% of EIRA participants were identified in DHR. The risk for periodontitis increased by age and current smoking status in both cases as well as controls. No significant differences in prevalence of periodontal disease in terms of gingivitis, periodontitis, peri-implantitis or increased risk for periodontitis or peri-implantitis were observed between RA cases and controls. In addition, there was no difference on the basis of seropositivity, ACPA or rheumatoid factor (RF), among patients with RA. Our data verify that smoking and ageing are risk factors for periodontitis, both in RA and controls. We found no evidence of an increased prevalence of periodontitis in patients with established RA compared to healthy controls, and no differences based on ACPA or RF status among RA subjects.

  16. Prevalence of Periodontitis in Patients with Established Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Swedish Population Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Kaja; Nise, Lena; Kats, Anna; Luttropp, Elin; Catrina, Anca Irinel; Askling, Johan; Jansson, Leif; Alfredsson, Lars; Klareskog, Lars; Lundberg, Karin; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The possible hypothesis of a link between periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), specifically anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) positive RA, prompted us to investigate the prevalence of periodontitis in the Swedish Epidemiological Investigation of RA (EIRA), a well-characterised population-based RA case-control cohort. Methods Periodontal status of 2,740 RA cases and 3,942 matched controls was retrieved through linking EIRA with the National Dental Health Registry (DHR), where dental diagnostic- and treatment codes on the adult Swedish population have been registered. Dental records from 100 cases and controls were reviewed to validate the periodontal diagnostic codes in DHR. Results The reviewed dental records confirmed 90% of the periodontitis diagnoses in DHR among RA cases, and 88% among controls. We found the positive predictive value of periodontitis diagnoses in the DHR to be 89% (95% CI 78 to 95%) with a sensitivity of 77% (95% CI: 65 to 86%). In total, 86% of EIRA participants were identified in DHR. The risk for periodontitis increased by age and current smoking status in both cases as well as controls. No significant differences in prevalence of periodontal disease in terms of gingivitis, periodontitis, peri-implantitis or increased risk for periodontitis or peri-implantitis were observed between RA cases and controls. In addition, there was no difference on the basis of seropositivity, ACPA or rheumatoid factor (RF), among patients with RA. Conclusions Our data verify that smoking and ageing are risk factors for periodontitis, both in RA and controls. We found no evidence of an increased prevalence of periodontitis in patients with established RA compared to healthy controls, and no differences based on ACPA or RF status among RA subjects. PMID:27203435

  17. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction and possible risk factors among men of South-Western Nigeria: a population based study.

    PubMed

    Oyelade, Bolaji Oyetunde; Jemilohun, Abiodun Christopher; Aderibigbe, Sunday Adedeji

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is currently one of the most common sexual dysfunctions worldwide but it is usually underestimated because it is not a life threatening condition. The associated stigma makes men who have it to suffer in silence. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of erectile dysfunction and the possible associated risk factors among Nigerian men. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional population based survey among men aged 30-80 years in Ogbomoso, South-west, Nigeria. A multistage random sampling method was used. The instrument used was the International Index of Erectile Function Questionnaire-5 (IIEF-5). Unadjusted odds ratios of possible risk factors were calculated by univariate analyses. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to eliminate the effect of possible confounders on the risk factors to get the adjusted odds ratios. The general prevalence of ED in this study was 58.9%. Sixty-seven (47.2%), 16 (11.3%) and 59(41.5%) respondents had mild, moderate and severe ED respectively. Age, hypertension, use of anti-hypertensive drugs, diabetes mellitus and heart disease all had significant unadjusted associations with ED, but their adjusted associations were not statistically significant. Diabetes mellitus maintained a positive statistically significant relationship with ED after adjustment for potential confounders [OR= 8.31(95% CI 1.02 - 67.65), P= 0.048]. The prevalence of ED is high among south-western Nigeria male adults. Physicians, especially primary care ones, need to pay more attention to the sexual history of their patients in order to diagnose and manage ED more frequently.

  18. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction and possible risk factors among men of South-Western Nigeria: a population based study

    PubMed Central

    Oyelade, Bolaji Oyetunde; Jemilohun, Abiodun Christopher; Aderibigbe, Sunday Adedeji

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Erectile dysfunction (ED) is currently one of the most common sexual dysfunctions worldwide but it is usually underestimated because it is not a life threatening condition. The associated stigma makes men who have it to suffer in silence. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of erectile dysfunction and the possible associated risk factors among Nigerian men. Methods The study was a descriptive cross-sectional population based survey among men aged 30-80 years in Ogbomoso, South-west, Nigeria. A multistage random sampling method was used. The instrument used was the International Index of Erectile Function Questionnaire-5 (IIEF-5). Unadjusted odds ratios of possible risk factors were calculated by univariate analyses. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to eliminate the effect of possible confounders on the risk factors to get the adjusted odds ratios. Results The general prevalence of ED in this study was 58.9%. Sixty-seven (47.2%), 16 (11.3%) and 59(41.5%) respondents had mild, moderate and severe ED respectively. Age, hypertension, use of anti-hypertensive drugs, diabetes mellitus and heart disease all had significant unadjusted associations with ED, but their adjusted associations were not statistically significant. Diabetes mellitus maintained a positive statistically significant relationship with ED after adjustment for potential confounders [OR= 8.31(95% CI 1.02 - 67.65), P= 0.048]. Conclusion The prevalence of ED is high among south-western Nigeria male adults. Physicians, especially primary care ones, need to pay more attention to the sexual history of their patients in order to diagnose and manage ED more frequently. PMID:27642462

  19. Meckel–Gruber Syndrome: a population-based study on prevalence, prenatal diagnosis, clinical features, and survival in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Barisic, Ingeborg; Boban, Ljubica; Loane, Maria; Garne, Ester; Wellesley, Diana; Calzolari, Elisa; Dolk, Helen; Addor, Marie-Claude; Bergman, Jorieke EH; Braz, Paula; Draper, Elizabeth S; Haeusler, Martin; Khoshnood, Babak; Klungsoyr, Kari; Pierini, Anna; Queisser-Luft, Annette; Rankin, Judith; Rissmann, Anke; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Meckel–Gruber Syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive lethal ciliopathy characterized by the triad of cystic renal dysplasia, occipital encephalocele and postaxial polydactyly. We present the largest population-based epidemiological study to date using data provided by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) network. The study population consisted of 191 cases of MKS identified between January 1990 and December 2011 in 34 European registries. The mean prevalence was 2.6 per 100 000 births in a subset of registries with good ascertainment. The prevalence was stable over time, but regional differences were observed. There were 145 (75.9%) terminations of pregnancy after prenatal diagnosis, 13 (6.8%) fetal deaths, 33 (17.3%) live births. In addition to cystic kidneys (97.7%), encephalocele (83.8%) and polydactyly (87.3%), frequent features include other central nervous system anomalies (51.4%), fibrotic/cystic changes of the liver (65.5% of cases with post mortem examination) and orofacial clefts (31.8%). Various other anomalies were present in 64 (37%) patients. As nowadays most patients are detected very early in pregnancy when liver or kidney changes may not yet be developed or may be difficult to assess, none of the anomalies should be considered obligatory for the diagnosis. Most cases (90.2%) are diagnosed prenatally at 14.3±2.6 (range 11–36) gestational weeks and pregnancies are mainly terminated, reducing the number of LB to one-fifth of the total prevalence rate. Early diagnosis is important for timely counseling of affected couples regarding the option of pregnancy termination and prenatal genetic testing in future pregnancies. PMID:25182137

  20. Prevalence and incidence of non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy in South Korea: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Yeun; Park, Kyung-Ah; Oh, Sei Yeul

    2017-09-28

    To determine the age and sex-specific prevalence and incidence of non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION) in South Korea. This is a nationwide population-based study using data from the Korean national health claims database to identify patients with NAION using the registration programme database, which comprises ophthalmologist-confirmed NAION from 2011 through 2015. We evaluated prevalence and incidence rates using these data. Among 25 816 797 of entire population 40 years of age or older, 26 167 patients had NAION (47.8% men) during the 5-year study period. The prevalence in the general population 40 years of age or older was 102.87 (95% CI 95.22 to 110.53) per 100 000 people. In men, it was 111.10 (95% CI 101.19 to 121.02), and in women, it was 94.64 (95% CI 89.25 to 100.03) per 100 000 people. The prevalence increased with advancing age and peaked at 70-74 years in men and 65-69 years in women. The incidence in the general population 40 years of age or older was 11.35 (95% CI 10.37 to 12.33) per 100 000 person-years. In men, it was 14.89 (95% CI 12.26 to 16.91), and in women, it was 9.92 (95% CI 8.85 to 10.99) per 100 000 person-years. The incidence increased with advancing age and peaked at 80-84 years in men and 70-74 years in women. The prevalence and incidence estimates of NAION are comparable with those of Caucasians. These detailed estimates could promote understanding of the disease's pathophysiology and allow for appropriate planning within the healthcare system. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Prevalence of neck and low back pain in community-dwelling adults in Spain: a population-based national study.

    PubMed

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Alonso-Blanco, Cristina; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Jiménez-Sánchez, Silvia; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo

    2011-02-01

    Cross-sectional epidemiological study. To determine the 1-year prevalence of neck pain and low back pain in the Spanish population and their association with sociodemographic and lifestyle habits, self-reported health status and comorbidity with other chronic disorders. No recent population-based epidemiological studies have estimated the prevalence of neck and low back pain in Spain. We analyzed data obtained from adults aged 16 years or older (n = 29,478) who participated in the 2006 Spanish National Health Survey, an ongoing, home-based personal interview which examines a nation-wide representative sample of civilian noninstitutionalized population residing in main family dwellings (household) of Spain. We analyzed prevalence data of neck and low back pain and their relationship with socio-demographic characteristics (sex, age, marital status, educational level, occupational status, or monetary income), self-perceived health status, lifestyle habits (smoking habit, alcohol consumption, sleep habit, physical exercise, or obesity), and the presence of concomitant chronic diseases or symptoms. The 1-year prevalence was 19.5% (95% CI: 18.9-20.1) for neck pain and 19.9% (95% CI: 19.3-20.5) for low back pain. Both neck pain and low back pain were higher among female (26.4% and 24.5%) than male (12.3% and 15.1%). Subjects in the 31 to 50 years group were 1.5 times (95% CI: 1.3-1.8) more likely to report low back pain than participants in the 16 to 30 years group. Individuals reporting neck or low back pain showed worse self-reported health status (OR: 4.9, 95% CI: 4.5-5.3 for neck pain; OR: 4.7, 95% CI: 4.3-5.1 for low back pain) and were more likely to complain of depression (OR: 4.3, 95% CI: 3.9-4.7 or OR: 3.6, 95% CI: 3.3-3.9, respectively). Further, a strong association between neck and low back pain was found (OR: 15.6, 95% CI: 14.2-17.1). Finally, neck pain and low back pain were also associated with several other chronic conditions, particularly arthrosis (OR: 6

  2. Phase of care prevalence for prostate cancer in New South Wales, Australia: A population-based modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qingwei; Smith, David P.; Clements, Mark S.; Patel, Manish I.; O’Connell, Dianne L.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To develop a method for estimating the future numbers of prostate cancer survivors requiring different levels of care. Design, setting and participants Analysis of population-based cancer registry data for prostate cancer cases (aged 18–84 years) diagnosed in 1996–2007, and a linked dataset with hospital admission data for men with prostate cancer diagnosed during 2005–2007 in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Methods Cancer registry data (1996–2007) were used to project complete prostate cancer prevalence in NSW, Australia for 2008–2017, and treatment information from hospital records (2005–2007) was used to estimate the inpatient care needs during the first year after diagnosis. The projected complete prevalence was divided into care needs-based groups. We first divided the cohort into two groups based on patient’s age (<75 and 75–84 years). The younger cohort was further divided into initial care and monitoring phases. Cause of death data were used as a proxy for patients requiring last year of life prostate cancer care. Finally, episode data were used to estimate the future number of cases with metastatic progression. Results Of the estimated total of 60,910 men with a previous diagnosis of prostate cancer in 2017, the largest groups will be older patients (52.0%) and younger men who require monitoring (42.5%). If current treatment patterns continue, in the first year post-diagnosis 41% (1380) of patients (<75 years) will have a radical prostatectomy, and 52.6% (1752) will be likely to have either active surveillance, external beam radiotherapy or androgen deprivation therapy. About 3% will require care for subsequent metastases, and 1288 men with prostate cancer are likely to die from the disease in 2017. Conclusions This method extends the application of routinely collected population-based data, and can contribute much to the knowledge of the number of men with prostate cancer and their health care requirements. This could be of

  3. Outcomes of preterm children according to type of delivery onset: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Morken, Nils-Halvdan; Källen, Karin; Jacobsson, Bo

    2007-09-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm births are associated with different paediatric outcomes. A nationwide population-based study comprising 1 010 487 singletons used data from 1991 to 2001 from the Swedish Medical Birth Register and the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register. Intrauterine fetal deaths, unknown type of delivery onset and congenital malformations were excluded. Neonatal, perinatal and long-term neurological outcomes were studied. Spontaneous preterm births were compared with iatrogenic preterm births. Odds ratios (OR) and hazard ratios (HR) for outcome variables were obtained using the Mantel-Haenszel technique and Cox analyses respectively. Adjustments were made for gestational age at birth, maternal age, parity and smoking. The preterm population consisted of 34 215 (73.2%) spontaneous preterm infants and 12 511 (26.8%) iatrogenic preterm infants. Spontaneous preterm infants were at increased risk of cerebral palsy at gestational age 28-31 weeks (HR: 1.86 [95% CI: 1.12, 3.10]), and of sepsis at gestational age 32-33 weeks (HR: 1.58 [95% CI: 1.28, 1.96]). Other outcome variables were associated with iatrogenic preterm birth, especially respiratory and gastrointestinal diagnoses. In conclusion, spontaneous preterm birth and iatrogenic preterm birth are associated with different paediatric outcomes.

  4. Reproductive history and risk of small bowel cancer by histologic type: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yunxia; Lambe, Mats; Martling, Anna; Lagergren, Jesper

    2012-12-01

    The male predominance of the two main histologic malignancies of the small bowel cancer may reflect a role of sex hormones which will be examined in this study. This was a nationwide population-based nested case-control study, based on a cohort of subjects born between 1932 and 2008, as identified in the Swedish Multi-Generation Register. For each case of small bowel cancer, 10 age- and sex-matched controls were randomly selected. Number of children and age at having the first child were analyzed in relation to the risk of small bowel cancer using conditional logistic regression, providing odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 632 female cases and 894 male cases of small bowel cancer were included. No overall increased risk of small bowel cancer was found in parous compared to non-parous women (OR = 1.02, 95 % CI 0.67-1.54). There was no association between age at first birth and small bowel cancer (>30 years of age vs <20 years; OR = 1.04, 95 % CI 0.72-1.50). No associations were detected in separate analyses of adenocarcinoma or carcinoid of the small bowel. No distinct risk patterns were discerned in men compared to women. Reproductive history does not seem to be associated with the risk of small bowel cancer, independent of histologic type.

  5. Anxiety and Depression in Tension-Type Headache: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Song, Tae-Jin; Cho, Soo-Jin; Kim, Won-Joo; Yang, Kwang Ik; Yun, Chang-Ho; Chu, Min Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Although tension-type headache (TTH) is a frequent type of headache disorder and imposes a significant burden, there is scant information about the prevalence and impact of comorbid anxiety and depression among individuals with TTH. We investigated the prevalence and clinical impact of anxiety and depression among patients with TTH in the general population. We recruited Korean participants aged 19-69 years using a two-stage clustered random sampling method. To identify the presence of headache type, anxiety, and depression, we used a semi-structured interview using certain questionnaires. To assess the level of anxiety and depression, we used the Goldberg Anxiety Scale and Patient Health Questionnaire-9, respectively. Among 2,695 participants, 570 people (21.2%) had TTH during previous 1 year. In participants with TTH, the prevalence of anxiety (9.5% vs. 5.3%, p = 0.001) and depression (4.2% vs. 1.8%, p = 0.001) was significantly higher than that of non-headache participants. The prevalence of anxiety among TTH participants with >15 attacks per month [21.4%, odds ratio (OR): 4.0] and 1-14 attacks per month (13.1%, OR: 2.2) was higher than that in those with <1 attack per month (6.4%), however this tendency was not observed in participants with depression. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score [median 5.0 vs. 4.0, p = 0.010] and Headache Impact Test-6 (HIT-6) score [median 45.5 vs. 42.0, p < 0.001] were significantly higher among those with anxiety. Furthermore, VAS scores [median 5.0 vs. 4.0, p = 0.010] and HIT-6 scores [median 45.5 vs. 42.0, p = 0.027] were also significantly higher among TTH patients with depression than among those without depression. In conclusion, anxiety and depression were more prevalent in participants with TTH than in non-headache participants. These two conditions were associated with an exacerbation of headache symptoms in individuals with TTH.

  6. Population-Based National Prevalence of Thyroid Dysfunction in Spain and Associated Factors: Di@bet.es Study.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Sergio; Maldonado-Araque, Cristina; Lago-Sampedro, Ana; Lillo, J Antonio; Garcia-Fuentes, Eduardo; Perez-Valero, Vidal; Gutierrez-Repiso, Carolina; Ocon-Sanchez, Pilar; Goday, Albert; Urrutia, Ines; Peláez, Laura; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso; Bordiú, Elena; Castaño, Luis; Castell, Conxa; Delgado, Elias; Menendez, Edelmiro; Franch, Josep; Gaztambide, Sonia; Girbés, Joan; Ortega, Emilio; Lopez-Alba, Alfonso; Chaves, Felipe J; Vendrell, Joan; Chacón, Matilde R; Soriguer, Federico; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the national prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in Spain and its association with various clinical, environmental, and demographic variables. The study included 4554 subjects (42.4% men) with a mean age of 50 years (range 18-93 years), who were participants in a national, cross-sectional, population-based survey conducted in 2009-2010. Data gathered included clinical and demographic characteristics, physical examination, and blood sampling. Thyrotropin, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) concentrations were analyzed by electrochemiluminescence. Urinary iodine (UI) levels were measured in an isolated urine sample. The prevalence of treated hypothyroidism, untreated subclinical hypothyroidism, and untreated clinical hypothyroidism was 4.2% [confidence interval (CI) 3.6-4.9%], 4.6% [CI 4.0-5.2%], and 0.3% [CI 0.1-0.5%], respectively. The prevalence of total hypothyroidism (including all fractions) was 9.1% [CI 8.2-10.0%]. The prevalence of total hyperthyroidism was 0.8% [CI 0.6-1.1]. A total of 7.5% [CI 6.7-8.3%] of the population tested positive for TPOAbs (≥50 IU/mL). In multivariate logistic regression models, TPOAbs were strongly associated with both hypothyroidism (p < 0.001) and hyperthyroidism (p = 0.005), whereas high UI levels (>200 μg/g creatinine) were associated with hypothyroidism (p < 0.001). The positive association between UI and hypothyroidism remained for both treated (p < 0.001) and untreated (p < 0.05) hypothyroidism, whereas it was especially significant for non-autoimmune (TPOAbs negative) forms (p < 0.001). At UI levels ≥200 μg/g, there was a positive correlation between UI and thyrotropin levels (β = 0.152, p < 0.001) and a negative correlation between UI and free triiodothyronine levels (β = -0.134, p = 0.001). According to the data, a large proportion (10%) of the Spanish population has some evidence of

  7. Domestic violence against women in eastern India: a population-based study on prevalence and related issues

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Bontha V; Kar, Shantanu K

    2009-01-01

    Background Violence against women is now widely recognised as an important public health problem, owing to its health consequences. Violence against women among many Indian communities on a regularly basis goes unreported. The objective of this study is to report the prevalence and other related issues of various forms of domestic violence against women from the eastern zone of India. Methods It is a population-based study covering both married women (n = 1718) and men (n = 1715) from three of the four states of Eastern India selected through a systematic multistage sampling strategy. Interviews were conducted using separate pre-piloted structured questionnaires for women (victimization) and men (perpetration). Women were asked whether their husband or any other family members committed violent acts against them. And men were asked whether they had ever perpetrated violent acts against their wives. Three principle domestic violence outcome variables (physical, psychological and sexual violence) were determined by response to a set of questions for each variable. In addition, data on socio-economic characteristics were collected. Descriptive statistics, bi- and multivariate analyses were done. Results The overall prevalence of physical, psychological, sexual and any form of violence among women of Eastern India were 16%, 52%, 25% and 56% respectively. These rates reported by men were 22%, 59%, 17% and 59.5% respectively. Men reported higher prevalence of all forms of violence apart from sexual violence. Husbands were mostly responsible for violence in majority of cases and some women reported the involvement of husbands' parents. It is found that various acts of violence were continuing among majority of women who reported violence. Some socio-economic characteristics of women have significant association with the occurrence of domestic violence. Urban residence, older age, lower education and lower family income are associated with occurrence of domestic violence

  8. Domestic violence against women in eastern India: a population-based study on prevalence and related issues.

    PubMed

    Babu, Bontha V; Kar, Shantanu K

    2009-05-09

    Violence against women is now widely recognised as an important public health problem, owing to its health consequences. Violence against women among many Indian communities on a regularly basis goes unreported. The objective of this study is to report the prevalence and other related issues of various forms of domestic violence against women from the eastern zone of India. It is a population-based study covering both married women (n = 1718) and men (n = 1715) from three of the four states of Eastern India selected through a systematic multistage sampling strategy. Interviews were conducted using separate pre-piloted structured questionnaires for women (victimization) and men (perpetration). Women were asked whether their husband or any other family members committed violent acts against them. And men were asked whether they had ever perpetrated violent acts against their wives. Three principle domestic violence outcome variables (physical, psychological and sexual violence) were determined by response to a set of questions for each variable. In addition, data on socio-economic characteristics were collected. Descriptive statistics, bi- and multivariate analyses were done. The overall prevalence of physical, psychological, sexual and any form of violence among women of Eastern India were 16%, 52%, 25% and 56% respectively. These rates reported by men were 22%, 59%, 17% and 59.5% respectively. Men reported higher prevalence of all forms of violence apart from sexual violence. Husbands were mostly responsible for violence in majority of cases and some women reported the involvement of husbands' parents. It is found that various acts of violence were continuing among majority of women who reported violence. Some socio-economic characteristics of women have significant association with the occurrence of domestic violence. Urban residence, older age, lower education and lower family income are associated with occurrence of domestic violence. Multivariate logistic

  9. Prevalence of hypertension and decreased glomerular filtration rate in obese children: results of a population-based field study.

    PubMed

    Duzova, Ali; Yalçinkaya, Fatos; Baskin, Esra; Bakkaloglu, Aysin; Soylemezoglu, Oguz

    2013-11-01

    Obesity has risen considerably in the Western world and the trend is increasing in non-Western, developing countries, as well. Several school screening studies showed the relation between body mass index and hypertension. In adults, obesity is associated with an increased risk of development and progression of kidney disease. However, data at the epidemiological level are limited, both for children and adults. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity and evaluate its association with hypertension and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) among children in Turkey. A population-based field study in which individuals were accessed by house visits throughout Turkey has been conducted. The study sample (3622 children; 5-18 years; 49.6% female, mean age 11.88 ± 3.40 years) was selected to represent the Turkish population regarding geographical region, gender and age (5-18 years). Obesity was defined as the body mass index ≥95th percentile for age and gender. The Schwartz formula was used to estimate GFR. Blood pressure (BP) percentile was determined according to age, gender and length. The prevalence of overweight, obesity and hypertension were 9.3, 8.9 and 6.1%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed urban area (OR 1.50; 95% CI 1.15-1.96; P = 0.003) as an independent risk for obesity and age decreased (OR 0.921; 95% CI 0.890-0.924; P < 0.001) risk for obesity. Obese children had the highest rate of hypertension (11.4 versus 5.6%; P < 0.001; OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.49-3.17; P < 0.001) and stage II hypertension (3.8 versus 0.7%; OR 6.01, 95% CI 2.93-12.33; P < 0.001). Systolic and diastolic BP z-scores were significantly higher in obese children. The mean estimated (eGFR) was lower in obese children (122.7 ± 21.6 versus 129.4 ± 23.1, P < 0.001). The rates of children with eGFR < 90 and <75 mL/min/1.73 m(2) were higher in obese patients, but did not reach statistical significance. Our nation-wide population-based field study among children

  10. A population-based study measuring the prevalence of chronic kidney disease among adults in West Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hooi, Lai Seong; Ong, Loke Meng; Ahmad, Ghazali; Bavanandan, Sunita; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Naidu, Balkish M; Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon W; Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli M

    2013-11-01

    In this population-based study, we determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in West Malaysia in order to have accurate information for health-care planning. A sample of 876 individuals, representative of 15,147 respondents from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2011, of the noninstitutionalized adult population (over 18 years old) in West Malaysia was studied. We measured the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (CKD-EPI equation); albuminuria and stages of chronic kidney disease were derived from calibrated serum creatinine, age, gender and early morning urine albumin creatinine ratio. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease in this group was 9.07%. An estimated 4.16% had stage 1 chronic kidney disease (eGFR >90 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and persistent albuminuria), 2.05% had stage 2 (eGFR 60-89 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and persistent albuminuria), 2.26% had stage 3 (eGFR 30-59 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)), 0.24% had stage 4 (eGFR 15-29 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)), and 0.36% had stage 5 chronic kidney disease (eGFR <15 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)). Only 4% of respondents with chronic kidney disease were aware of their diagnosis. Risk factors included increased age, diabetes, and hypertension. Thus, chronic kidney disease in West Malaysia is common and, therefore, warrants early detection and treatment in order to potentially improve outcome.

  11. Prevalence of Fracture in Healthy Iranian Children Aged 9–18 Years and Associated Risk Factors; A Population Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeddi, Marjan; Dabbaghmanesh, Mohammad Hossein; Kharmandar, Alireza; Ranjbar Omrani, Gholamhossein; Bakhshayeshkaram, Marzieh

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of fractures and associated risk factors in healthy Iranian children and adolescents. Methods: In this cross sectional population based study, 478 healthy Iranian children and adolescents aged 9–18 years old participated. Baseline data and bone mineral content and density have been determined. One questionnaire was completed for all individuals including previous history of fracture, its location, and level of trauma. Albumin, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and vitamin D levels were measured. Results: We found a prevalence of 12.9% for fracture. (34.5% for girls and 65.5% for boys); about 71% suffered long bone fracture with distal forearm as the most common site. Totally 58% of the boys and 54% of the girls had fracture with low-energy trauma. The fracture group had lower bone mineral apparent density in the lumbar spine (0.19±0.04 vs. 0.20±0.03, p=0.04), lower serum albumin (4.6±0.5 vs 4.8±0.4, p=0.02), and higher serum alkaline phosphatase level (446±174 vs. 361±188, p=0.02) compared with non-fracture subjects. By logistic regression analysis, we found a significant association for sex, and bone mineral content of the lumbar spine with fracture (p=0.003, p=0.039). Conclusion: Compared to other studies, our subjects had lower rate of fracture. We found an association between low bone density and fracture in children and adolescents. This finding has important implications for public health. Further research may contribute to recognition of preventive measures. PMID:28246621

  12. Prevalence and factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months of life in Tehran: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Noughabi, Z S; Tehrani, S Golian; Foroushani, A R; Nayeri, F; Baheiraei, A

    2014-02-11

    Exclusive breastfeeding is the best form of nutrition for infants in the first 6 months of life. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran in the first 6 months of life, and the factors that influence it. In a population-based, cross-sectional study 538 mothers with children aged 6-24 months completed an interview questionnaire. Only 46.5% of mothers exclusively breastfed their infant in the first 6 months of life. In multivariate analysis formula supplementation in the hospital (OR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.17-0.95) and mother receiving conflicting infant feeding advice (OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.37-0.78) had a negative effect on exclusive breastfeeding. Mother's intention to exclusively breastfeed (OR = 5.85, 95% CI: 2.88-11.9) and infant having first breast contact 6-30 minutes after delivery (OR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.17-4.72) had positive effects on exclusive breastfeeding.

  13. Type 2 diabetes and its correlates among adults in Bangladesh: a population based study.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Muhammad Abdul Baker; Uddin, Md Jamal; Khan, Hafiz M R; Haque, Md Rabiul

    2015-10-19

    Type 2 diabetes is one of the most prevalent non-communicable diseases in Bangladesh. However, the correlates of type 2 diabetes among adults in Bangladesh remain unknown. We aimed to investigate the correlates of type 2 diabetes among the adults in Bangladesh. We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the nationally representative 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. A random sample of 7,543 (3,823 women and 3,720 men) adults of age 35 years and older from both urban and rural areas, who participated in the survey was included. Diabetes was defined as having a fasting plasma blood glucose level of ≥ 7 mm/L or taking diabetes medication during the survey. Hypothesized factors, e.g., age, sex, education, place of residence, social status, body mass index, and hypertension were considered in the analyses. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify the important correlates of type 2 diabetes. Among the respondents, the overall prevalence of diabetes was 11 %, and the prevalence was slightly higher in women (11.2 %) than men (10.6 %). Respondents with the age group of 55-59 years had higher odds of having diabetes (odds ratios (OR) = 2.37, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.76-3.21) than the age group of 35-39 years. Moreover, respondents who had higher educational attainment (OR = 1.67, 95 % CI: 1.18-2.36) and higher social status (OR = 2.01, 95 % CI: 1.50-2.70) had higher odds of having diabetes than the respondents with no education and lower social status, respectively. We also found socioeconomic status, place of residence (rural or urban), regions of residence (different divisions), overweight and obesity, and hypertension as significant correlates of type 2 diabetes in Bangladesh. Our study shows that older age, higher socioeconomic status, higher educational attainment, hypertension, and obesity were found to be significant correlates of type 2 diabetes. Need-based policy program strategies including early diagnosis

  14. [Huntington's Disease in Balearic Islands Population-Based Registry of Rare Diseases: Prevalence and Mortality during the Period 2010-2013. Spain].

    PubMed

    Cáffaro Rovira, Mercedes; Salom Castell, M Magdalena

    2017-02-16

    Huntington's disease is a hereditary disease with low prevalence. The low frequency of Huntington's disease leads to its inclusion as one of the pathologies in the Registry of Rare Diseases. The Balearic Islands Population-based Registry of Rare Diseases began in 2010. Previously, there had been no prevalence or mortality data for Huntington's disease in the Balearic Islands. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and mortality of Huntington's disease in the Balearic Islands between 2010 and 2013. The data sources were the Balearic Islands Population-based Registry of Rare Diseases, from which the diagnosed cases were obtained; the Balearic Islands Mortality Register, from which the deceased cases were obtained; the Balearic Islands Health Service, from which the number of Health Cards was obtained; and the National Institute for Statistics, from which population data were obtained. Prevalence and mortality rates were calculated. The Balearic Islands Population-based Registry of Rare Diseases registered 27 cases of Huntington's disease between 2010-2013. 63% of these were women. The period prevalence rate was 2.6 per 100,000 and the period mortality rate was 1.1 per 100,000. Menorca was the island with the highest rates, the prevalence rate was 5,9 per 100,000 and the mortality rate was 2,1 per 100,000. Prevalence and mortality of Huntington's disease in the Balearic Islands are low compared to similar areas.

  15. Prevalence and regional correlates of road traffic injury among Chinese urban residents: A 21-city population-based study.

    PubMed

    Rockett, Ian R H; Jiang, Shuhan; Yang, Qian; Yang, Tingzhong; Yang, Xiaozhao Y; Peng, Sihui; Yu, Lingwei

    2017-08-18

    This study estimated the prevalence of road traffic injury among Chinese urban residents and examined individual and regional-level correlates. A cross-sectional multistage process was used to sample residents from 21 selected cities in China. Survey respondents reported their history of road traffic injury in the past 12 months through a community survey. Multilevel, multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify injury correlates. Based on a retrospective 12-month reporting window, road traffic injury prevalence among urban residents was 13.2%. Prevalence of road traffic injury, by type, was 8.7, 8.7, 8.5, and 7.7% in the automobile, bicycle, motorcycle, and pedestrian categories, respectively. Multilevel analysis showed that prevalence of road traffic injury was positively associated with minority status, income, and mental health disorder score at the individual level. Regionally, road traffic injury was associated with geographic location of residence and prevalence of mental health disorders. Both individual and regional-level variables were associated with road traffic injury among Chinese urban residents, a finding whose implications transcend wholesale imported generic solutions. This descriptive research demonstrates an urgent need for longitudinal studies across China on risk and protective factors, in order to inform injury etiology, surveillance, prevention, treatment, and evaluation.

  16. Sunbed Use Prevalence and Associated Skin Health Habits: Results of a Representative, Population-Based Survey among Austrian Residents

    PubMed Central

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Moshammer, Hanns

    2016-01-01

    Recreational sunbed use accounts for the main non-solar source of exposure to ultraviolet radiation in fair-skinned Western populations. Indoor tanning is associated with increased risks for acute and chronic dermatological diseases. The current community-based study assessed the one-year prevalence of sunbed use and associated skin health habits among a representative, gender-balanced sample of 1500 Austrian citizens. Overall one-year prevalence of sunbed use was 8.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 7.5%–10.4%), with slightly higher prevalence in females (9.2%, 95% CI 7.3%–11.2%) compared to males (8.6%, 95% CI 6.7%–10.6%). Factors predicting sunbed use were younger age (by trend decreasing with older age), place of living, smoking, skin type (by trend increasing with darker skin), sun exposure, motives to tan, and use of UV-free tanning products. Despite media campaigns on the harmful effects of excessive sunlight and sunbed exposure, we found a high prevalence of self-reported sunbed use among Austrian citizens. From a Public (Skin) Health perspective, the current research extends the understanding of prevailing leisure time skin health habits in adding data on prevalence of sunbed use in the general Austrian population. PMID:26907308

  17. Sunbed Use Prevalence and Associated Skin Health Habits: Results of a Representative, Population-Based Survey among Austrian Residents.

    PubMed

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Moshammer, Hanns

    2016-02-19

    Recreational sunbed use accounts for the main non-solar source of exposure to ultraviolet radiation in fair-skinned Western populations. Indoor tanning is associated with increased risks for acute and chronic dermatological diseases. The current community-based study assessed the one-year prevalence of sunbed use and associated skin health habits among a representative, gender-balanced sample of 1500 Austrian citizens. Overall one-year prevalence of sunbed use was 8.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 7.5%-10.4%), with slightly higher prevalence in females (9.2%, 95% CI 7.3%-11.2%) compared to males (8.6%, 95% CI 6.7%-10.6%). Factors predicting sunbed use were younger age (by trend decreasing with older age), place of living, smoking, skin type (by trend increasing with darker skin), sun exposure, motives to tan, and use of UV-free tanning products. Despite media campaigns on the harmful effects of excessive sunlight and sunbed exposure, we found a high prevalence of self-reported sunbed use among Austrian citizens. From a Public (Skin) Health perspective, the current research extends the understanding of prevailing leisure time skin health habits in adding data on prevalence of sunbed use in the general Austrian population.

  18. The Prevalence, Incidence and Natural Course of Positive Antithyroperoxidase Antibodies in a Population-Based Study: Tehran Thyroid Study

    PubMed Central

    Amouzegar, Atieh; Gharibzadeh, Safoora; Kazemian, Elham; Mehran, Ladan; Tohidi, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2017-01-01

    Objective Thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), the most common antibody frequently measured in population surveys is a protein expressed in the thyroid gland. We conducted the present study to analyze the prevalence and incidence of thyroid auto immunity and natural course of TPOAb in a population based study. Material and Methods This prospective study was conducted within the framework of the Tehran Thyroid Study (TTS) on 5783 (2376 men and 3407 women) individuals aged ≥ 20 years who had thyroid function tests at baseline and were followed up for median 9.1 year with TPOAb measurements at approximately every 3 years. Results The mean age of total population at baseline was 40.04±14.32. At baseline, of the 5783 participants, 742 (12.8%) were TPOAb positive, with higher prevalence among women than in men (16.0 vs. 8.5%, p = 0.001). The prevalence of TPOAb positivity in the total population was 11.9, 14.9 and 13.6% in the young, middle age and elderly respectively. The total incidence rate (95%CI) of TPOAb positivity in the total population (5020) was 7.1 (6.36–7.98) per 1000 person-years of follow-up, with higher incidence of TPOAb positivity among young participants, i.e. 8.5 (7.5–9.7) per 1000 person-years. Sex specific incidence rate demonstrated that TPOAb positivity was higher in women, 9.3 (8.2–10.7) per 1000 person-years. The Cox's proportional hazard model analysis showed that the hazard ratio of developing TPOAb positivity was higher in women than men (P<0.0001) and tended to increase slightly with serum TSH levels (P<0.0001) but declined with increasing age (P<0.0001) in the total population. Our findings demonstrate that individuals, who became TPOAb positive in each phase, had significant elevation of TSH levels at the phase of seroconversion, compared to baseline values. Conclusion Gender, age and elevated serum TSH were found to be risk factors for developing TPOAb positivity. Furthermore, compared to baseline a significant elevation of TSH

  19. Investigating shared aetiology between type 2 diabetes and major depressive disorder in a population based cohort

    PubMed Central

    Obsteter, Jana; Hall, Lynsey S.; Hayward, Caroline; Thomson, Pippa A.; Smith, Blair H.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Hocking, Lynne J.; Deary, Ian J.; Porteous, David J.; McIntosh, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Type II diabetes (T2D) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are often co‐morbid. The reasons for this co‐morbidity are unclear. Some studies have highlighted the importance of environmental factors and a causal relationship between T2D and MDD has also been postulated. In the present study we set out to investigate the shared aetiology between T2D and MDD using Mendelian randomization in a population based sample, Generation Scotland: the Scottish Family Health Study (N = 21,516). Eleven SNPs found to be associated with T2D were tested for association with MDD and psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire scores). We also assessed causality and genetic overlap between T2D and MDD using polygenic risk scores (PRS) assembled from the largest available GWAS summary statistics to date. No single T2D risk SNP was associated with MDD in the MR analyses and we did not find consistent evidence of genetic overlap between MDD and T2D in the PRS analyses. Linkage disequilibrium score regression analyses supported these findings as no genetic correlation was observed between T2D and MDD (rG = 0.0278 (S.E. 0.11), P‐value = 0.79). As suggested by previous studies, T2D and MDD covariance may be better explained by environmental factors. Future studies would benefit from analyses in larger cohorts where stratifying by sex and looking more closely at MDD cases demonstrating metabolic dysregulation is possible. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27480393

  20. Early Cognitive Deficits in Type 2 Diabetes: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Marseglia, Anna; Fratiglioni, Laura; Laukka, Erika J.; Santoni, Giola; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Bäckman, Lars; Xu, Weili

    2016-01-01

    Evidence links type 2 diabetes to dementia risk. However, our knowledge on the initial cognitive deficits in diabetic individuals and the factors that might promote such deficits is still limited. This study aimed to identify the cognitive domains initially impaired by diabetes and the factors that play a role in this first stage. Within the population-based Swedish National Study on Aging and Care–Kungsholmen, 2305 cognitively intact participants aged ≥60 y were identified. Attention/working memory, perceptual speed, category fluency, letter fluency, semantic memory, and episodic memory were assessed. Diabetes (controlled and uncontrolled) and prediabetes were ascertained by clinicians, who also collected information on vascular disorders (hypertension, heart diseases, and stroke) and vascular risk factors (VRFs, including smoking and overweight/obesity). Data were analyzed with linear regression models. Overall, 196 participants (8.5%) had diabetes, of which 144 (73.5%) had elevated glycaemia (uncontrolled diabetes); 571 (24.8%) persons had prediabetes. In addition, diabetes, mainly uncontrolled, was related to lower performance in perceptual speed (β – 1.10 [95% CI – 1.98, – 0.23]), category fluency (β – 1.27 [95% CI – 2.52, – 0.03]), and digit span forward (β – 0.35 [95% CI – 0.54, – 0.17]). Critically, these associations were present only among APOE ɛ4 non–carriers. The associations of diabetes with perceptual speed and category fluency were present only among participants with VRFs or vascular disorders. Diabetes, especially uncontrolled diabetes, is associated with poorer performance in perceptual speed, category fluency, and attention/primary memory. VRFs, vascular disorders, and APOE status play a role in these associations. PMID:27314527

  1. Investigating shared aetiology between type 2 diabetes and major depressive disorder in a population based cohort.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Toni-Kim; Obsteter, Jana; Hall, Lynsey S; Hayward, Caroline; Thomson, Pippa A; Smith, Blair H; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Hocking, Lynne J; Deary, Ian J; Porteous, David J; McIntosh, Andrew M

    2017-04-01

    Type II diabetes (T2D) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are often co-morbid. The reasons for this co-morbidity are unclear. Some studies have highlighted the importance of environmental factors and a causal relationship between T2D and MDD has also been postulated. In the present study we set out to investigate the shared aetiology between T2D and MDD using Mendelian randomization in a population based sample, Generation Scotland: the Scottish Family Health Study (N = 21,516). Eleven SNPs found to be associated with T2D were tested for association with MDD and psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire scores). We also assessed causality and genetic overlap between T2D and MDD using polygenic risk scores (PRS) assembled from the largest available GWAS summary statistics to date. No single T2D risk SNP was associated with MDD in the MR analyses and we did not find consistent evidence of genetic overlap between MDD and T2D in the PRS analyses. Linkage disequilibrium score regression analyses supported these findings as no genetic correlation was observed between T2D and MDD (rG = 0.0278 (S.E. 0.11), P-value = 0.79). As suggested by previous studies, T2D and MDD covariance may be better explained by environmental factors. Future studies would benefit from analyses in larger cohorts where stratifying by sex and looking more closely at MDD cases demonstrating metabolic dysregulation is possible. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Prevalence and sociodemographic characteristics of self-reported suicidal behaviours in Latvia in 2010: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Rancāns, Elmārs; Pulmanis, Toms; Taube, Māris; Spriņǵe, Lauma; Velika, Biruta; Pudule, Iveta; Grīnberga, Daiga

    2016-01-01

    The fact that Latvia is among the countries with the highest suicide mortality rates in the European Union highlights the importance of research in this field. The aims of the study were to determine the 2010 prevalence of self-reported suicidal behaviours in Latvia, to identify sociodemographic risk factors and to examine sequences for reporting of suicidal behaviours. Computer assisted personal interviews were carried out to gather information on a representative sample of the Latvian population aged 18 to 64 (n = 2816). The study sample was selected using a combination of stratified random sampling and quota methods. Last year prevalence of any type of suicidal behaviour was 18.5% - nearly threefold lower than observed in 2000 (52.6%). Middle age, non-cohabitation status and lower level of education were significant risk factors for serious types of suicidal behaviour (suicidal ideation, suicidal plans, suicide attempts) among men, but only lower level of education was for women. Risk factors regarding mild types of suicidal behaviour (life-weariness, death wishes) were the same for men and women: older and middle aged, non-cohabitation status, and lower level of education. A total of 79.6% reported a continuous pattern of suicidal behaviours. Several sociodemographic risk factors for suicidal behaviours have been found. Further research is needed to clarify additional risk factors, especially in the high-risk groups studied and specific determinants contributing to reduction in prevalence of suicidal behaviours and suicide mortality in Latvia.

  3. Prevalence of atrial fibrillation and its associated factors in Spain: An analysis of 6 population-based studies. DARIOS Study.

    PubMed

    Baena-Díez, J M; Grau, M; Forés, R; Fernández-Bergés, D; Elosua, R; Sorribes, M; Félix-Redondo, F J; Segura, A; Rigo, F; Cabrera de León, A; Sanz, H; Marrugat, J; Sala, J

    2014-12-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common type of arrhythmia. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of atrial fibrillation and its relationship with cardiovascular risk factors in Spain. Cross-sectional study based on a grouped analysis of 17,291 randomized individuals recruited in 6 population studies. The prevalence of atrial fibrillation was 1.5% (95% CI:1.3-1.7%). Men had a greater prevalence of the disease than women (1.9 vs. 1.1%, respectively). The prevalence of atrial fibrillation progressively increased with age: 0.05% for patients younger than 45 years, 0.5% for those between 45-59 years of age, 2.3% for those between 60-74 years of age and 6.3% for those older than 75 years. The percentage of individuals who were underwent anticoagulant treatment was 74.3%. The risk factors significantly associated with arrhythmia were an age older than 60 years (odds ratio [OR]: 7.6; 95% CI: 5.1-11.2), the male sex (OR:1.8; 95% CI: 1.4-2.4), arterial hypertension (OR:1.6; 95% CI: 1.2-2.1), obesity (OR:1.5; 95% CI:1.2-2.1) and a history of coronary artery disease (OR:1.9; 95% CI: 1.3-3.0). Atrial fibrillation is a common disease in elderly individuals, while its prevalence is low in individuals younger than 60 years. Most individuals with atrial fibrillation were on anticoagulant treatment. The risk factors for this type of arrhythmia are age, the male sex, hypertension, obesity and a history of coronary artery disease. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  4. Marked HIV prevalence declines in higher educated young people: evidence from population-based surveys (1995-2003) in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Michelo, Charles; Sandøy, Ingvild F; Fylkesnes, Knut

    2006-04-24

    Higher educational attainment has been associated with a greater risk of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated change over time in HIV prevalence by educational attainment in the general population. The data stem from serial population-based HIV surveys conducted in selected urban and rural communities in 1995 (n = 2989), 1999 (n = 3506) and 2003 (n = 4442). Analyses were stratified by residence, sex and age-group. Logistic regression was used to estimate age-adjusted odds ratio of HIV between low (< or = 4 school years) and higher education (> or = 8 years) for the rural population and between low (< or = 7 school years) and higher education (> or = 11 years) for the urban population. There was a universal shift towards reduced risk of HIV infection in groups with higher than lower education in both sexes among urban young people [odds ratio (OR), 0.20; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.05-0.73] in men and (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.15-0.72) in women. A similar pattern was observed in rural young men (OR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.05-0.59) but was less prominent and not statistically significant in rural women. In age 25-49 years, higher educated urban men had reduced risk in 2003 (OR, 0.43; 95%CI, 0.26-0.72) but this was less prominent in women. The findings suggested a shift in the association between educational attainment and HIV infection between 1995 and 2003. The most convincing sign was the risk reduction among more educated younger groups where most infections can be assumed to be recent. The changes in older groups are probably largely influenced by differential mortality rates. The stable risk among groups with lower education might also indicate limitations in past preventive efforts.

  5. Prevalence of physical violence against children in Haiti: A national population-based cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Flynn-O'Brien, Katherine T; Rivara, Frederick P; Weiss, Noel S; Lea, Veronica A; Marcelin, Louis H; Vertefeuille, John; Mercy, James A

    2016-01-01

    Although physical violence against children is common worldwide, there are no national estimates in Haiti. To establish baseline national estimates, a three-stage clustered sampling design was utilized to administer a population-based household survey about victimization due to physical violence to 13-24 year old Haitians (n=2,916), including those residing in camps or settlements. Descriptive statistics and weighted analysis techniques were used to estimate national lifetime prevalence and characteristics of physical violence against children. About two-thirds of respondents reported having experienced physical violence during childhood (67.0%; 95% CI 63.4-70.4), the percentage being similar in males and females. More than one-third of 13-17 year old respondents were victimized in the 12 months prior to survey administration (37.8%; 95% CI 33.6-42.1). The majority of violence was committed by parents and teachers; and the perceived intent was often punishment or discipline. While virtually all (98.8%; 95% CI 98.0-99.3) victims of childhood physical violence were punched, kicked, whipped or beaten; 11.0% (95% CI 9.2-13.2) were subject to abuse by a knife or other weapon. Injuries sustained from violence varied by victim gender and perpetrator, with twice as many females (9.6%; 95% CI 7.1-12.7) than males (4.0%; 95% CI 2.6-6.1) sustaining permanent injury or disfigurement by a family member or caregiver (p-value<.001). Our findings suggest that physical violence against children in Haiti is common, and may lead to severe injury. Characterization of the frequency and nature of this violence provides baseline estimates to inform interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of chronic morbidity among elderly people in Kosovo: a population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Jerliu, Naim; Toçi, Ervin; Burazeri, Genc; Ramadani, Naser; Brand, Helmut

    2013-03-01

    Our aim was to assess the prevalence and demographic and socioeconomic correlates of chronic morbidity in the elderly population of transitional Kosovo. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kosovo in 2011 including a representative sample of 1890 individuals aged ≥ 65 years (949 men, mean age 73 ± 6 years; 941 women, mean age 74 ± 7 years; response rate: 83%). A structured questionnaire inquired about the presence and the number of self-reported chronic diseases among elderly people, and their access to medical care. Demographic and socioeconomic data were also collected. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics with chronic conditions. In this nationwide population-based sample in Kosovo, 42% of elderly people were unable to access medical care, of whom 88% due to unaffordable costs. About 83% of the elderly people reported at least one chronic condition (63% cardiovascular diseases), and 45% had at least two chronic diseases. In multivariable-adjusted models, factors associated with the presence of chronic conditions and/or multimorbidity were female sex, older age, self-perceived poverty and the inability to access medical care. This study provides important evidence on the magnitude and distribution of chronic conditions among the elderly population of Kosovo. Our findings suggest that, in this sample of elderly people from Kosovo, the oldest-old (especially women) and the poor endure the vast majority of chronic conditions. These findings point to the urgent need to establish a social health insurance scheme including the marginalized segments of elderly people in this transitional country.

  7. Prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of chronic morbidity among elderly people in Kosovo: a population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Our aim was to assess the prevalence and demographic and socioeconomic correlates of chronic morbidity in the elderly population of transitional Kosovo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kosovo in 2011 including a representative sample of 1890 individuals aged ≥65 years (949 men, mean age 73 ± 6 years; 941 women, mean age 74 ± 7 years; response rate: 83%). A structured questionnaire inquired about the presence and the number of self-reported chronic diseases among elderly people, and their access to medical care. Demographic and socioeconomic data were also collected. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics with chronic conditions. Results In this nationwide population-based sample in Kosovo, 42% of elderly people were unable to access medical care, of whom 88% due to unaffordable costs. About 83% of the elderly people reported at least one chronic condition (63% cardiovascular diseases), and 45% had at least two chronic diseases. In multivariable-adjusted models, factors associated with the presence of chronic conditions and/or multimorbidity were female sex, older age, self-perceived poverty and the inability to access medical care. Conclusion This study provides important evidence on the magnitude and distribution of chronic conditions among the elderly population of Kosovo. Our findings suggest that, in this sample of elderly people from Kosovo, the oldest-old (especially women) and the poor endure the vast majority of chronic conditions. These findings point to the urgent need to establish a social health insurance scheme including the marginalized segments of elderly people in this transitional country. PMID:23452830

  8. Furthering the understanding of olfaction, prevalence of loss of smell and risk factors: a population-based survey (OLFACAT study)

    PubMed Central

    Mullol, Joaquim; Alobid, Isam; Mariño-Sánchez, Franklin; Quintó, Llorenç; de Haro, Josep; Bernal-Sprekelsen, Manuel; Valero, Antonio; Picado, Cèsar; Marin, Concepció

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate olfaction in general population, prevalence of olfactory dysfunction and related risk factors. Design Cross-sectional population-based survey, distributing four microencapsulated odorants (rose, banana, musk and gas) and two self-administered questionnaires (odour description; epidemiology/health status). Setting The survey was distributed to general population through a bilingual (Catalan, Spanish) newspaper in Catalonia (Spain), on December 2003. Participants Newspaper readers of all ages and gender; 9348 surveys were analysed from the 10 783 returned. Main outcome measures Characteristics of surveyed population, olfaction by age and gender, smell self-perception and smell impairment risk factors. Terms normosmia, hyposmia and anosmia were used when participants detected, recognised or identified all four, one to three or none of the odours, respectively. Results Survey profile was a 43-year-old woman with medium–high educational level, living in a city. Olfaction was considered normal in 80.6% (detection), 56% (recognition/memory) and 50.7% (identification). Prevalence of smell dysfunction was 19.4% for detection (0.3% anosmia, 19.1% hyposmia), 43.5% for recognition (0.2% anosmia, 43.3% hyposmia) and 48.8% for identification (0.8% anosmia, 48% hyposmia). Olfaction was worse (p<0.0001) in men than in women through all ages. There was a significant age-related smell detection decline however smell recognition and identification increased up to fourth decade and declined after the sixth decade of life. Risk factors for anosmia were: male gender, loss of smell history and poor olfactory self-perception for detection; low educational level, poor self-perception and pregnancy for recognition; and older age, poor self-perception and history of head trauma and loss of smell for identification. Smoking and exposure to noxious substances were mild protective factors for smell recognition. Conclusions Sense of smell in women is better than in

  9. Furthering the understanding of olfaction, prevalence of loss of smell and risk factors: a population-based survey (OLFACAT study).

    PubMed

    Mullol, Joaquim; Alobid, Isam; Mariño-Sánchez, Franklin; Quintó, Llorenç; de Haro, Josep; Bernal-Sprekelsen, Manuel; Valero, Antonio; Picado, Cèsar; Marin, Concepció

    2012-01-01

    To investigate olfaction in general population, prevalence of olfactory dysfunction and related risk factors. Cross-sectional population-based survey, distributing four microencapsulated odorants (rose, banana, musk and gas) and two self-administered questionnaires (odour description; epidemiology/health status). The survey was distributed to general population through a bilingual (Catalan, Spanish) newspaper in Catalonia (Spain), on December 2003. Newspaper readers of all ages and gender; 9348 surveys were analysed from the 10 783 returned. Characteristics of surveyed population, olfaction by age and gender, smell self-perception and smell impairment risk factors. Terms normosmia, hyposmia and anosmia were used when participants detected, recognised or identified all four, one to three or none of the odours, respectively. Survey profile was a 43-year-old woman with medium-high educational level, living in a city. Olfaction was considered normal in 80.6% (detection), 56% (recognition/memory) and 50.7% (identification). Prevalence of smell dysfunction was 19.4% for detection (0.3% anosmia, 19.1% hyposmia), 43.5% for recognition (0.2% anosmia, 43.3% hyposmia) and 48.8% for identification (0.8% anosmia, 48% hyposmia). Olfaction was worse (p<0.0001) in men than in women through all ages. There was a significant age-related smell detection decline however smell recognition and identification increased up to fourth decade and declined after the sixth decade of life. Risk factors for anosmia were: male gender, loss of smell history and poor olfactory self-perception for detection; low educational level, poor self-perception and pregnancy for recognition; and older age, poor self-perception and history of head trauma and loss of smell for identification. Smoking and exposure to noxious substances were mild protective factors for smell recognition. Sense of smell in women is better than in men suggesting a learning process during life with deterioration in older ages. Poor

  10. Plasmodium prevalence and artemisinin-resistant falciparum malaria in Preah Vihear Province, Cambodia: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    PubMed

    Bosman, Philippe; Stassijns, Jorgen; Nackers, Fabienne; Canier, Lydie; Kim, Nimol; Khim, Saorin; Alipon, Sweet C; Chuor Char, Meng; Chea, Nguon; Dysoley, Lek; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Etienne, William; De Smet, Martin; Ménard, Didier; Kindermans, Jean-Marie

    2014-10-06

    Intensified efforts are urgently needed to contain and eliminate artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in the Greater Mekong subregion. Médecins Sans Frontières plans to support the Ministry of Health in eliminating P. falciparum in an area with artemisinin resistance in the north-east of Cambodia. As a first step, the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and the presence of mutations associated with artemisinin resistance were evaluated in two districts of Preah Vihear Province. A cross-sectional population-based study using a two-stage cluster sampling was conducted in the rural districts of Chhaeb and Chey Saen, from September to October 2013. In each district, 30 clusters of 10 households were randomly selected. In total, blood samples were collected for 1,275 participants in Chhaeb and 1,224 in Chey Saen. Prevalence of Plasmodium spp. was assessed by PCR on dried blood spots. Plasmodium falciparum positive samples were screened for mutations in the K13-propeller domain gene (PF3D7_1343700). The prevalence of Plasmodium spp. was estimated at 1.49% (95% CI 0.71-3.11%) in Chhaeb and 2.61% (95% CI 1.45-4.66%) in Chey Saen. Twenty-seven samples were positive for P. falciparum, giving a prevalence of 0.16% (95% CI 0.04-0.65) in Chhaeb and 2.04% (95% CI 1.04-3.99%) in Chey Saen. Only 4.0% of the participants testing positive presented with fever or history of fever. K13-propeller domain mutant type alleles (C580Y and Y493H) were found, only in Chey Saen district, in seven out of 11 P. falciparum positive samples with enough genetic material to allow testing. The overall prevalence of P. falciparum was low in both districts but parasites presenting mutations in the K13-propeller domain gene, strongly associated with artemisinin-resistance, are circulating in Chey Saen.The prevalence might be underestimated because of the absentees - mainly forest workers - and the workers of private companies who were not included in the study. These results confirm the need to

  11. Prevalence of self-reported hypersensitivity to electric or magnetic fields in a population-based questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Hillert, Lena; Berglind, Niklas; Arnetz, Bengt B; Bellander, Tom

    2002-02-01

    The prevalence of medically unexplained symptoms attributed to exposure to electromagnetic fields is still largely unknown. Previous studies have investigated reported hypersensitivity to electricity in selected groups recruited from workplaces or outpatient clinics. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of self-reported hypersensitivity to electric or magnetic fields in the general population and to describe characteristics of the group reporting such hypersensitivity with regard to demographics, other complaints, hypersensitivities, and traditional allergies. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in 1997 among 15,000 men and women between 19 and 80 years of age in Stockholm County. The response rate was 73%. One and a half percent of the respondents reported hypersensitivity to electric or magnetic fields. Prevalence was highest among women and in the 60- to 69-year age group. The hypersensitive group reported all symptoms, allergies, and other types of hypersensitivities included in the survey (as well as being disturbed by various factors in the home) to a significantly greater extent than the rest of the respondents. No specific symptom profile set off the hypersensitive group from the rest of the respondents. The results should be interpreted with caution. But they suggest that there is widespread concern among the general population about risks to health posed by electric and magnetic fields. More research is warranted to explore ill health among people reporting hypersensitivity to electric or magnetic fields.

  12. Past History of Ocular Trauma in an Iranian Population-Based Study: Prevalence and its Associated Factors.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Hassan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Shariati, Mohammad; Mohazzab-Torabi, Saman; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of a history of ocular trauma and its association to age, sex, and biometric components. Residents of Shahroud, Iran aged 40-64 years, were sampled through a cross-sectional study using multistage cluster sampling. Three hundred clusters were randomly selected, and 20 individuals were systematically selected from each cluster. The subjects underwent optometric and ophthalmic examinations, and ocular imaging. A history of ocular trauma was determined through personal interviews. The prevalence of a history of trauma and blunt trauma, sharp trauma, and chemical burns were 8.57%, 3.91%, 3.82%, and 1.93%, respectively. After adjusting for age, the rate of all types of trauma was significantly higher for males. Only the prevalence of chemical burns significantly decreased with aging. A history of hospitalization was stated by 1.64% of the subjects. The axial length was significantly longer in cases with a history of trauma. The corneal curvature was significantly larger in cases with a history of sharp trauma and chemical burns. The prevalence of corneal opacities was significantly higher among cases with a history of the blunt trauma odds ratio (OR = 2.33) and sharp trauma (OR = 4.46). Based on corrected visual acuity, the odds of blindness was 3.32 times higher in those with a history of ocular trauma (P < 0.001). A considerable proportion of the 40-64-year-old population reported a history of ocular trauma. This observation has important health implications. Blindness, corneal opacities, and posterior subcapsular cataract were observed more frequently among these cases, and they demonstrated differences in some ocular biometric components.

  13. Prevalence of vertebral fractures and minor vertebral deformities evaluated by DXA-assisted vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) in a population-based study of postmenopausal women: the FRODOS study.

    PubMed

    Kanterewicz, E; Puigoriol, E; García-Barrionuevo, J; del Rio, L; Casellas, M; Peris, P

    2014-05-01

    Population-based studies performed with vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) morphometric technology are lacking in postmenopausal osteoporosis. In this study, we show a lower than expected prevalence of vertebral fractures, a high prevalence of minor vertebral deformities, and a clear association with clinical and densitometric parameters indicating the usefulness of this approach. Adequate epidemiological data on the prevalence of vertebral fractures (VF) is essential in studies of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Routine DXA-assisted VFA may be useful to determine the presence of VF. However, population-based studies performed with this technology are lacking. We aimed to assess the prevalence of VF and minor deformities in 2,968 postmenopausal women aged 59-70 years from a population-based cohort. VFA and bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were conducted, and McCloskey criteria (vertebral heights under 3 SD from reference values) confirmed with the Genant method were used to define VF. Additionally, minor vertebral deformities (vertebral heights between -2 and -2.99 SD) were evaluated. The prevalence of VF was 4.3%, and 17% of the participants had minor vertebral deformities. Low BMD was frequently observed in women with VF, with 4%, and 42% of participants showing osteoporosis and osteopenia. Minor vertebral deformities were observed in nearly 40% of women with VF. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age, history of previous fracture, osteoporotic BMD, receiving anti-osteoporotic treatment, and current use of glucocorticoids were significantly associated with VF. Although the VFA approach showed a lower than expected prevalence of VF in our cohort, its association with clinical and densitometric parameters may be useful to identify women at risk for developing fragility fractures and may therefore justify its use in longitudinal studies. The high prevalence of minor vertebral deformities detected in patients with VF indicates the need to

  14. Prevalence and correlates of dizziness in community-dwelling older people: a cross sectional population based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dizziness is a common complaint among older adults and has been linked to a wide range of health conditions, psychological and social characteristics in this population. However a profile of dizziness is still uncertain which hampers clinical decision-making. We therefore sought to explore the relationship between dizziness and a comprehensive range of demographic data, diseases, health and geriatric conditions, and geriatric syndromes in a representative sample of community-dwelling older people. Methods This is a cross-sectional, population-based study derived from FIBRA (Network for the Study of Frailty in Brazilian Elderly Adults), with 391 elderly adults, both men and women, aged 65 years and older. Elderly participants living at home in an urban area were enrolled through a process of random cluster sampling of census regions. The outcome variable was the self-report of dizziness in the last year. Several feelings of dizziness were investigated including vertigo, spinning, light or heavy headedness, floating, fuzziness, giddiness and instability. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate the adjusted odds ratios and build the probability model for dizziness. Results The complaint of dizziness was reported by 45% of elderly adults, from which 71.6% were women (p=0.004). The multivariate regression analysis revealed that dizziness is associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 2.08; 95% CI 1.29–3.35), perceived fatigue (OR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.21-3.10), recurring falls (OR = 2.01; 95% CI 1.11-3.62) and excessive drowsiness (OR = 1.91; 95% CI 1.11–3.29). The discrimination of the final model was AUC = 0.673 (95% CI 0.619-0.727) (p< 0.001). Conclusions The prevalence of dizziness in community-dwelling elderly adults is substantial. It is associated with other common geriatric conditions usually neglected in elderly adults, such as fatigue and drowsiness, supporting its possible multifactorial manifestation. Our findings

  15. Performance of the ISAAC questionnaire to establish the prevalence of asthma in adolescents: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lukrafka, Janice L; Fuchs, Sandra C; Moreira, Leila B; Picon, Rafael V; Fischer, Gilberto B; Fuchs, Flavio D

    2010-03-01

    The epidemiology of asthma has been investigated with questionnaires, such as the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood protocol. To investigate the performance of the questions of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire to diagnose asthma in adolescents. This is a population-based cross-sectional study of adolescents in the Syndrome of Obesity and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease study. The validity of the asthma symptoms of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood protocol was assessed by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative posttest probabilities, and Youden's Index, taking as a gold standard the history of a medical diagnosis of asthma. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for sex and age, were calculated using Cox regression model. In total, 575 adolescents were investigated. Overall, 28.7% reported a lifetime medical diagnosis of asthma, and 40.0% reported at least one episode of wheezing. Ever wheezing had the highest sensitivity (80.6%) for the diagnosis of asthma, compared with the other ISAAC questions. Adolescents who reported ever wheezing were about 8 times more likely (adjusted RR: 8.3; 95% CI: 4.9-14.2) to have ever had asthma, independent of age and sex. Symptoms within the last 12 months (wheezing, cough without cold or respiratory infection, sleep disturbed due to wheezing, wheezing due to exercise, speech limited due to wheezing) had specificity of 92.0% or higher. Dry cough at night without cold or respiratory infection was the strongest independent predictor of asthma (adjusted RR: 8.8; 95% CI: 6.1-12.7). Ever wheezing is the most sensitive indicator of the diagnosis of asthma but falsely identifies a portion of adolescents as asthmatic. Symptoms of asthma in the last 12 months, such as cough without cold or respiratory infection, are rarely positive in the absence of a lifetime asthma diagnosis. The combination of

  16. High cesarean prevalence in a national population-based study in Brazil: the role of private practice.

    PubMed

    Rebelo, Fernanda; da Rocha, Camilla Medeiros Macedo; Cortes, Taísa Rodrigues; Dutra, Carmem Lúcia; Kac, Gilberto

    2010-07-01

    Excessive use of cesarean sections (CSs) is a serious problem worldwide. To estimate the frequency and identify factors associated with cesarean deliveries in Brazil. Cross-sectional study conducted in 2006-2007 as part of the third edition of the Children's and Women's National Demographic and Health Survey. Brazil. Brazilian women in reproductive age. Socioeconomic and demographic data were utilized, including maternal age, education level, per capita income, skin color, smoking habit, marital status, age at first delivery, parity, and type of prenatal services. Adjusted estimate of the prevalence ratios of the type of delivery performed (cesarean or vaginal). Cesarean prevalence was 43.9% (95% CI: 40.9-46.9), 68.7% for women who had per capita income greater than US$ 125 per month, and 77.2% for those who had attended private or privately insured prenatal services. In the adjusted analysis, the variables that presented significant prevalence ratios (95% confidence interval) were macro-region [southeast = 1.45 (1.21-1.73); south = 1.48 (1.24-1.77), and midwest = 1.43 (1.21-1.71)], maternal age above 25 years [26-30 years = 1.57 (1.25-1.97); > or = 31 years = 1.77 (1.39-2.27)], education levels > or = 9 years (PR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.55-2.23), and having attended private or privately insured prenatal services (PR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.65-2.12) and parity [primipara = 1.87 (1.47-2.36)]. CS rates are generally very high in Brazil. They are significantly higher than the average among women attending private/insured antenatal care, among the highly educated, and in provinces with higher socioeconomic levels.

  17. Associations between sleep duration and type 2 diabetes in Taiwanese adults: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Ling; Tsai, Yu-Hsia; Yeh, Mei Chang

    2016-09-01

    Research on the association between sleep duration and type 2 diabetes in an adult community population has been relatively scarce. The objective of this study was to analyze the association between sleep duration and the risk of diabetes in Taiwanese adults. Secondary data analysis was based on the database of Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan between 2005 and 2008. A stratified three-staged probability sampling method was used to create a cross-sectional research design and 1533 participants (733 men, 800 women, between 19 years and 64 years of age) were selected in this study. Logistic regression models were conducted to estimate the effect of sleep duration for type 2 diabetes patients. The average sleep duration for all participants in this study was 7.2 ± 1.4 hours, with 35.1% of the participants having a sleep duration less than 7 hours. After controlling related confounders, such as age, sex, body mass index, abdominal circumference, total cholesterol levels, sleep disturbances, and hypertension, the risk of having diabetes for participants with ≤ 5 hours sleep was 2.04-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.05-3.95) higher than for participants with 7-8.9 hours of sleep. In particular, the risk of having diabetes for young adults (between 19 years and 44 years of age) with ≤5 hours of sleep was 5.24-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.17-23.47) higher than for young adults who reported 7-8.9 hours of sleep. Our results show that a short sleep duration was associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes and this correlation was particularly strong in young adults. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. The association between use of electronic media and prevalence of headache in adolescents: results from a population-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Milde-Busch, Astrid; von Kries, Rüdiger; Thomas, Silke; Heinrich, Sabine; Straube, Andreas; Radon, Katja

    2010-02-09

    Use of electronic media, i.e. mobile phones, computers, television, game consoles or listening to music, is very common, especially amongst adolescents. There is currently a debate about whether frequent use of these media might have adverse effects on health, especially on headaches, which are among the most-reported health complaints in adolescents. The aim of the present study was to assess associations between frequent use of electronic media and the prevalence of different types of headache in adolescents. Data were derived from a population-based sample (n = 1,025, ages 13-17 years). Type of headache (i.e. migraine, tension-type headache, unclassifiable headache) was ascertained by standardized questionnaires for subjects reporting headache episodes at least once per month during the last six months. Duration of electronic media use was assessed during personal interviews. Associations were estimated with logistic regression models adjusted for age group, sex, family condition and socio-economic status. Most of the adolescents used computers (85%), watched television (90%) or listened to music (90%) daily, otherwise only 23% of the participants used their mobile phones and only 25% played with game consoles on a daily basis. A statistically significant association between listening to music and any headache (odds ratio 1.8; 95% confidence interval 1.1-3.1 for 30 minutes per day, 2.1; 1.2-3.7 for 1 to 2 hours per day; 2.0; 1.2-3.5 for 3 hours and longer listening to music per day) was observed. When stratifying for type of headache, no statistically significant association was seen. Apart from an association between listening to music on a daily basis and overall headache, no consistent associations between the use of electronic media and different types of headache were observed.

  19. Prevalence of Mixed Connective Tissue Disease in a Population-Based Registry of American Indian/Alaska Native People in 2007.

    PubMed

    Ferucci, Elizabeth D; Johnston, Janet M; Gordon, Caroline; Helmick, Charles G; Lim, S Sam

    2017-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) in 2007 in the Indian Health Service (IHS) active clinical population from 3 regions of the US. The IHS Lupus Registry was designed to identify possible MCTD cases in addition to systemic lupus erythematosus cases. The population denominator for this report includes American Indian or Alaska Native adults within the IHS active clinical population in 2007, residing in select communities in 3 regions of the US. Potential MCTD cases were identified using a broad range of diagnostic codes and were confirmed by detailed medical record abstraction. Classification as MCTD for this analysis required both rheumatologist diagnosis of MCTD without diagnosis of other CTD, and documentation of the Alarcón-Segovia MCTD criteria in the medical record. Prevalence was also calculated using 2 alternate definitions of MCTD. The age-adjusted prevalence of MCTD using our primary definition was 6.4 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval 2.8-12.8). The prevalence was higher in women than in men using all 3 definitions of MCTD, and no men met the criteria for the primary definition of MCTD. The first population-based estimates of the prevalence of MCTD in the US American Indian/Alaska Native population show that the prevalence appears to be higher than in other populations. Additional population-based estimates are needed to better understand the epidemiology of MCTD. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  20. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection and genotyping for population-based cervical screening in developed regions in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Guo, Chun; Liu, Zhihua; Nie, Shaofa

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional analysis to assess the distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) types and explored an acceptable strategy for cervical screening in Shenzhen, China. A total of 2717 individuals ranging in age from 30–59 years were recruited. Clinical sensitivity and specificity as well as positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were estimated. A triage strategy was regarded as acceptable when the NPV was at least 98.0%. 432 (15.9%) participants presented HPV positive. The five most prevalent HPV types were HPV52 (22.9%), HPV16 (12.7%), HPV53 (10.0%), HPV51 (8.6%), and HPV58 (8.1%). The CIN2+ risks for each HPV type were 40.0% for HPV33, 32.4% for HPV16, 18.2% for HPV58, 13.3% for HPV56, and 11.1% for HPV68 in descending order. Baseline cytology testing combined with HPV16/33/52/58 genotyping met the NPV thresholds at 98.6% with a PPV of 17.9%, demonstrating excellent clinical performance for detecting HPV types in CIN2+ patients. In conclusion, triaging HPV-positive women by baseline cytology combined with HPV16/58/33/52 genotyping is an acceptable strategy for cervical cancer screening in Shenzhen, China. PMID:27566561

  1. The prevalence of frontal variant frontotemporal dementia and the frontal lobe syndrome in a population based sample of 85 year olds

    PubMed Central

    Gislason, T; Sjogren, M; Larsson, L; Skoog, I

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of the frontal lobe syndrome (FLS) and the frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia (fvFTD) in a population based sample of 85 year olds. Methods: A representative sample of 85 year olds (n = 451) in Gothenburg, Sweden was examined with a neuropsychiatric examination and a key informant interview performed by an experienced psychiatrist. A subsample underwent computed tomography (CT) of the head. The Lund-Manchester research criteria were used as a basis for a symptom algorithm to identify individuals with FLS and fvFTD. These were diagnosed blindly to the diagnosis of dementia according to DSM-III-R. Results: A total of 86 individuals (19%) fulfilled the criteria for FLS, and 14 of them fulfilled criteria for fvFTD. There were no differences between men and women. Among those with FLS, 75 (87%) fulfilled DSM-III-R criteria for other types of dementia, mainly Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Among the 14 fvFTD cases, only five were demented according to DSM-III-R. Moderate to severe frontal atrophy was found in 93% of those with FLS (and in all cases with fvFTD), but also in 49% of those without FLS. FLS was found in 35% of those with moderate to severe frontal atrophy, and in 3% of those without these changes. Conclusions: The prevalence of fvFTD was 3% in 85 year olds, which is higher than previously expected in this age group. Only a minority of those with fvFTD were detected by the DSM-III-R criteria for dementia. FLS was even more common, especially in those diagnosed with a dementia disorder. PMID:12810769

  2. Assessing the Validity of a Stage Measure on Physical Activity in a Population-Based Sample of Individuals with Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Lippke, Sonia; Reinbold-Matthews, Melissa; Courneya, Kerry S.; Karunamuni, Nandini; Sigal, Ronald J.; Birkett, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to test the validity of a transtheoretical model's physical activity (PA) stage measure with intention and different intensities of behavior in a large population-based sample of adults living with diabetes (Type 1 diabetes, n = 697; Type 2 diabetes, n = 1,614) and examine different age groups. The overall…

  3. Assessing the Validity of a Stage Measure on Physical Activity in a Population-Based Sample of Individuals with Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Lippke, Sonia; Reinbold-Matthews, Melissa; Courneya, Kerry S.; Karunamuni, Nandini; Sigal, Ronald J.; Birkett, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to test the validity of a transtheoretical model's physical activity (PA) stage measure with intention and different intensities of behavior in a large population-based sample of adults living with diabetes (Type 1 diabetes, n = 697; Type 2 diabetes, n = 1,614) and examine different age groups. The overall…

  4. The prevalence of food allergy and other allergic diseases in early childhood in a population-based study: HealthNuts age 4-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Peters, Rachel L; Koplin, Jennifer J; Gurrin, Lyle C; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Wake, Melissa; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Tang, Mimi L K; Lowe, Adrian J; Matheson, Melanie; Dwyer, Terence; Allen, Katrina J

    2017-07-01

    The HealthNuts study previously reported interim prevalence data showing the highest prevalence of challenge-confirmed food allergy in infants internationally. However, population-derived prevalence data on challenge-confirmed food allergy and other allergic diseases in preschool-aged children remain sparse. This study aimed to report the updated prevalence of food allergy at age 1 year from the whole cohort, and to report the prevalence of food allergy, asthma, eczema, and allergic rhinitis at age 4 years. HealthNuts is a population-based cohort study with baseline recruitment of 5276 one-year-old children who underwent skin prick test (SPT) to 4 food allergens and those with detectable SPT results had formal food challenges. At age 4 years, parents completed a questionnaire (81.3% completed) and those who previously attended the HealthNuts clinic at age 1 year or reported symptoms of a new food allergy were invited for an assessment that included SPT and oral food challenges. Data on asthma, eczema, and allergic rhinitis were captured by validated International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaires. The prevalence of challenge-confirmed food allergy at age 1 and 4 years was 11.0% and 3.8%, respectively. At age 4 years, peanut allergy prevalence was 1.9% (95% CI, 1.6% to 2.3%), egg allergy was 1.2% (95% CI, 0.9% to 1.6%), and sesame allergy was 0.4% (95% CI, 0.3% to 0.6%). Late-onset peanut allergy at age 4 years was rare (0.2%). The prevalence of current asthma was 10.8% (95% CI, 9.7% to 12.1%), current eczema was 16.0% (95% CI, 14.7% to 17.4%), and current allergic rhinitis was 8.3% (95% CI, 7.2% to 9.4%). Forty percent to 50% of this population-based cohort experienced symptoms of an allergic disease in the first 4 years of their life. Although the prevalence of food allergy decreased between age 1 year and age 4 years in this population-based cohort, the prevalence of any allergic disease among 4-year-old children in Melbourne

  5. Prevalence of obesity and overweight and associated nutritional factors in a population-based Swiss sample: an opportunity to analyze the impact of three different European cultural roots.

    PubMed

    Ogna, Adam; Forni Ogna, Valentina; Bochud, Murielle; Paccaud, Fred; Gabutti, Luca; Burnier, Michel

    2014-08-01

    Obesity represents a growing public health concern worldwide. The latest data in Switzerland rely on self-reported body mass index (BMI), leading to underestimation of prevalence. We reassessed the prevalence of obesity and overweight in a sample of the Swiss population using measured BMI and waist circumference (WC) and explored the association with nutritional factors and living in different linguistic-cultural regions. Data of 1,505 participants of a cross-sectional population-based survey in the three linguistic regions of Switzerland were analyzed. BMI and WC were measured, and a 24-h urine collection was performed to evaluate dietary sodium, potassium and protein intake. The prevalence of overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity was 32.2, 14.2 and 33.6%, respectively. Significant differences were observed in the regional distribution, with a lower prevalence in the Italian-speaking population. Low educational level, current smoking, scarce physical activity and being migrant were associated with an higher prevalence of obesity. Sodium, potassium and protein intake increased significantly across BMI categories. Obesity and overweight affect almost half of the Swiss adolescents and adults, and the prevalence appears to increase. Using BMI and WC to define obesity led to different prevalences. Differences were furthermore observed across Swiss linguistic-cultural regions, despite a common socio-economic and governmental framework. We found a positive association between obesity and salt intake, with a potential deleterious synergistic effect on cardiovascular risk.

  6. The Co-Occurrence of Autism and Birth Defects: Prevalence and Risk in a Population-Based Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schendel, Diana E.; Autry, Andrew; Wines, Roberta; Moore, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To estimate the prevalence of major birth defects among children with autism, the prevalence of autism in children with birth defects, and the risk for autism associated with having birth defects. Method: Retrospective cohort including all children born in Atlanta, GA, USA, 1986 to 1993, who survived to age 3 years and were identified through…

  7. The Co-Occurrence of Autism and Birth Defects: Prevalence and Risk in a Population-Based Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schendel, Diana E.; Autry, Andrew; Wines, Roberta; Moore, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To estimate the prevalence of major birth defects among children with autism, the prevalence of autism in children with birth defects, and the risk for autism associated with having birth defects. Method: Retrospective cohort including all children born in Atlanta, GA, USA, 1986 to 1993, who survived to age 3 years and were identified through…

  8. Male Sexual Function in New Zealand: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Survey of the Prevalence of Erectile Dysfunction in Men Aged 40-70 Years.

    PubMed

    Quilter, Merrin; Hodges, Lynette; von Hurst, Pamela; Borman, Barry; Coad, Jane

    2017-07-01

    Sexual function declines with age and erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition worldwide; however, prevalence rates vary markedly between populations and reliable data specific to New Zealand (NZ) are lacking. To assess the prevalence of ED in NZ men using a population-based cross-sectional survey. Postal questionnaires were sent, according to a modified Dillman method, to a randomly selected age-stratified population-based sample of 2,000 men 40 to 70 years old obtained from the electoral roll. Self-reported erectile function was assessed using the five-item International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and the single-question self-assessment tool. The prevalence of ED is presented as crude, age-adjusted to the distribution of the NZ population, and standardized to the World Health Organization World Standard Population (WSP). Associations between sexual function and age were analyzed using χ(2) test. The response rate was 30% (599) and 28% (562) were complete for analysis. The crude prevalence of ED was 42% (22% mild, 10% mild to moderate, 6% moderate, and 4% severe), the age-adjusted prevalence was 38%, and the WSP-adjusted prevalence was 37%. Among men reporting ED, 16% were medically diagnosed and 22% were treated. ED affected 24% of men in their 40s, 38% in their 50s, and 60% in their 60s (P < .001). Age was associated with a significant increase in diagnosed ED (P = .001), treated ED (P = .006), dissatisfaction with current sexual function (P < .001), associated anxiety or depression (P = .023), and a decrease in sexual activity (P < .001). Approximately one in three NZ men 40 to 70 years old might have ED. Although comparable to overseas populations, this prevalence is high. This study provides the most reliable, comprehensive, and current information on ED and its risk factors in NZ men. Strengths include the large sample, the use of random selection from a population-based sampling frame, established effective survey methods, and the

  9. What is the impact of different spirometric criteria on the prevalence of spirometrically defined COPD and its comorbidities? Results from the population-based KORA study

    PubMed Central

    Karrasch, Stefan; Brüske, Irene; Smith, Maia P; Thorand, Barbara; Huth, Cornelia; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Kronenberg, Florian; Heinrich, Joachim; Holle, Rolf; Peters, Annette; Schulz, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Background There is an ongoing debate about the appropriate spirometric criterion for airway obstruction to detect COPD. Furthermore, the association of different criteria with comorbidity prevalence and inflammatory biomarkers in advanced age is unclear. Materials and methods Spirometry was performed in a population-based study (n=2,256) covering an age range of 41–90 years. COPD was spirometrically determined either by a fixed ratio (FR) of <0.7 for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) or by FEV1/FVC below the lower limit of normal (LLN). Comorbidity prevalences and circulating biomarker levels (C-reactive protein [CRP], interleukin [IL]-6) were compared between subjects with or without COPD by the two criteria using logistic and multiple regression models, adjusting for sex and age. Results The prevalence of spirometrically defined COPD by FR increased with age from 10% in subjects aged <65 years to 26% in subjects aged ≥75 years. For LLN-defined COPD, it remained below 10% for all age groups. Overall, COPD diagnosis was not associated with specific comorbidities, except for a lower prevalence of obesity in both FR- and LLN-defined cases. Both CRP and IL-6 tended to be higher in cases by both criteria. Conclusion In a population-based cohort of adults up to the age of 90 years, the prevalence of spirometrically defined COPD was higher for the FR criterion than for the LLN criterion. This difference increased with age. Neither prevalences of common comorbidities nor levels of the biomarkers, CRP or IL-6, were conclusively associated with the selection of the COPD criterion. Results have to be considered in light of the predominantly mild cases of airway obstruction in the examined study population. PMID:27574413

  10. The effects of household wealth on HIV prevalence in Manicaland, Zimbabwe - a prospective household census and population-based open cohort study.

    PubMed

    Schur, Nadine; Mylne, Adrian; Mushati, Phyllis; Takaruza, Albert; Ward, Helen; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Intensified poverty arising from economic decline and crisis may have contributed to reductions in HIV prevalence in Zimbabwe. To assess the impact of the economic decline on household wealth and prevalent HIV infection using data from a population-based open cohort. Household wealth was estimated using data from a prospective household census in Manicaland Province (1998 to 2011). Temporal trends in summed asset ownership indices for sellable, non-sellable and all assets combined were compared for households in four socio-economic strata (small towns, agricultural estates, roadside settlements and subsistence farming areas). Multivariate logistic random-effects models were used to measure differences in individual-level associations between prevalent HIV infection and place of residence, absolute wealth group and occupation. Household mean asset scores remained similar at around 0.37 (on a scale of 0 to 1) up to 2007 but decreased to below 0.35 thereafter. Sellable assets fell substantially from 2004 while non-sellable assets continued increasing until 2008. Small-town households had the highest wealth scores but the gap to other locations decreased over time, especially for sellable assets. Concurrently, adult HIV prevalence fell from 22.3 to 14.3%. HIV prevalence was highest in better-off locations (small towns) but differed little by household wealth or occupation. Initially, HIV prevalence was elevated in women from poorer households and lower in men in professional occupations. However, most recently (2009 to 2011), men and women in the poorest households had lower HIV prevalence and men in professional occupations had similar prevalence to unemployed men. The economic crisis drove more households into extreme poverty. However, HIV prevalence fell in all socio-economic locations and sub-groups, and there was limited evidence that increased poverty contributed to HIV prevalence decline.

  11. The effects of household wealth on HIV prevalence in Manicaland, Zimbabwe – a prospective household census and population-based open cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Schur, Nadine; Mylne, Adrian; Mushati, Phyllis; Takaruza, Albert; Ward, Helen; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intensified poverty arising from economic decline and crisis may have contributed to reductions in HIV prevalence in Zimbabwe. Objectives To assess the impact of the economic decline on household wealth and prevalent HIV infection using data from a population-based open cohort. Methods Household wealth was estimated using data from a prospective household census in Manicaland Province (1998 to 2011). Temporal trends in summed asset ownership indices for sellable, non-sellable and all assets combined were compared for households in four socio-economic strata (small towns, agricultural estates, roadside settlements and subsistence farming areas). Multivariate logistic random-effects models were used to measure differences in individual-level associations between prevalent HIV infection and place of residence, absolute wealth group and occupation. Results Household mean asset scores remained similar at around 0.37 (on a scale of 0 to 1) up to 2007 but decreased to below 0.35 thereafter. Sellable assets fell substantially from 2004 while non-sellable assets continued increasing until 2008. Small-town households had the highest wealth scores but the gap to other locations decreased over time, especially for sellable assets. Concurrently, adult HIV prevalence fell from 22.3 to 14.3%. HIV prevalence was highest in better-off locations (small towns) but differed little by household wealth or occupation. Initially, HIV prevalence was elevated in women from poorer households and lower in men in professional occupations. However, most recently (2009 to 2011), men and women in the poorest households had lower HIV prevalence and men in professional occupations had similar prevalence to unemployed men. Conclusions The economic crisis drove more households into extreme poverty. However, HIV prevalence fell in all socio-economic locations and sub-groups, and there was limited evidence that increased poverty contributed to HIV prevalence decline. PMID:26593453

  12. International comparisons of the consultation prevalence of musculoskeletal conditions using population-based healthcare data from England and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Kelvin P; Jöud, Anna; Bergknut, Charlotte; Croft, Peter; Edwards, John J; Peat, George; Petersson, Ingemar F; Turkiewicz, Aleksandra; Wilkie, Ross; Englund, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the consultation prevalence of musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions as presented in different healthcare systems, and to determine the feasibility of comparing prevalence figures between nations. Methods The settings were an English regional database (Consultations in Primary Care Archive (CiPCA)) and the Swedish Skåne County Health Care Register. Case definitions, data extraction and analysis procedures were harmonised. The number of people consulting per 10 000 registered population in primary care, and in primary or secondary care, in the year 2010 (annual consultation prevalence) were determined for doctor-diagnosed osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), low back pain, and spondyloarthritis including psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Seven-year period consultation prevalences were also determined. Results Combining primary and secondary care, annual consultation prevalences of any MSK condition (2143 vs 1610/10 000) and low back pain (587 vs 294/10 000) were higher in England than in Sweden, but higher for RA, spondyloarthritis and psoriatic arthritis in Sweden. Annual primary care prevalence figures for OA (176 vs 196/10 000), RA (25 vs 26/10 000), spondyloarthritis (both 8/10 000) and psoriatic arthritis (5 vs 3/10 000) were similar between England and Sweden. AS was rarely recorded in Swedish primary care. These patterns were also observed for 7-year period consultation prevalences. Conclusions A rigorous methodological approach allowed feasible comparison of MSK consultation prevalence between England and Sweden. Differences in prevalence of inflammatory and unspecific pain conditions may be partially explained by known variations in healthcare systems and recording practice. Routine healthcare data offers potential for investigating variations in occurrence and outcome of MSK conditions between nations. PMID:23345602

  13. International comparisons of the consultation prevalence of musculoskeletal conditions using population-based healthcare data from England and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Kelvin P; Jöud, Anna; Bergknut, Charlotte; Croft, Peter; Edwards, John J; Peat, George; Petersson, Ingemar F; Turkiewicz, Aleksandra; Wilkie, Ross; Englund, Martin

    2014-01-01

    To assess the consultation prevalence of musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions as presented in different healthcare systems, and to determine the feasibility of comparing prevalence figures between nations. The settings were an English regional database (Consultations in Primary Care Archive (CiPCA)) and the Swedish Skåne County Health Care Register. Case definitions, data extraction and analysis procedures were harmonised. The number of people consulting per 10 000 registered population in primary care, and in primary or secondary care, in the year 2010 (annual consultation prevalence) were determined for doctor-diagnosed osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), low back pain, and spondyloarthritis including psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Seven-year period consultation prevalences were also determined. Combining primary and secondary care, annual consultation prevalences of any MSK condition (2143 vs 1610/10 000) and low back pain (587 vs 294/10 000) were higher in England than in Sweden, but higher for RA, spondyloarthritis and psoriatic arthritis in Sweden. Annual primary care prevalence figures for OA (176 vs 196/10 000), RA (25 vs 26/10 000), spondyloarthritis (both 8/10 000) and psoriatic arthritis (5 vs 3/10 000) were similar between England and Sweden. AS was rarely recorded in Swedish primary care. These patterns were also observed for 7-year period consultation prevalences. A rigorous methodological approach allowed feasible comparison of MSK consultation prevalence between England and Sweden. Differences in prevalence of inflammatory and unspecific pain conditions may be partially explained by known variations in healthcare systems and recording practice. Routine healthcare data offers potential for investigating variations in occurrence and outcome of MSK conditions between nations.

  14. Prevalence, Employment Rate, and Cost of Schizophrenia in a High-Income Welfare Society: A Population-Based Study Using Comprehensive Health and Welfare Registers.

    PubMed

    Evensen, Stig; Wisløff, Torbjørn; Lystad, June Ullevoldsæter; Bull, Helen; Ueland, Torill; Falkum, Erik

    2016-03-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with recurrent hospitalizations, need for long-term community support, poor social functioning, and low employment rates. Despite the wide- ranging financial and social burdens associated with the illness, there is great uncertainty regarding prevalence, employment rates, and the societal costs of schizophrenia. The current study investigates 12-month prevalence of patients treated for schizophrenia, employment rates, and cost of schizophrenia using a population-based top-down approach. Data were obtained from comprehensive and mandatory health and welfare registers in Norway. We identified a 12-month prevalence of 0.17% for the entire population. The employment rate among working-age individuals was 10.24%. The societal costs for the 12-month period were USD 890 million. The average cost per individual with schizophrenia was USD 106 thousand. Inpatient care and lost productivity due to high unemployment represented 33% and 29%, respectively, of the total costs. The use of mandatory health and welfare registers enabled a unique and informative analysis on true population-based datasets. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hypertension in Urban Areas of Cameroon: A Nationwide Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kingue, Samuel; Ngoe, Constant Ndong; Menanga, Alain Patrick; Jingi, Ahmadou M; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Fesuh, Betrand; Nouedoui, Christophe; Andze, Gervais; Muna, Walinjom F T

    2015-10-01

    Accurate estimates of the prevalence rate of hypertension and determinants in Cameroon are crucial to inform efficient prevention and control policies. The authors carried out a cluster-specific cross-sectional survey in urban areas of the 10 regions of Cameroon to assess the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension in Cameroonian adults using the WHO STEPwise approach to Surveillance (STEPS). Sociodemographic data were collected and blood pressure and glycemia were measured using standardized methods. Participants were adults of both sexes aged 16 years or older. A total of 15,470 participants were surveyed. The age-standardized prevalence rate of hypertension was 29.7%. The awareness rate was 14.1%. Independent correlates of hypertension included higher age, male sex, obesity, hyperglycemia, and living in the Savannah zone. The prevalence of hypertension is high in urban areas of Cameroon, with very low awareness. Prevention and control strategies should emphasize on improvement and vulgarization of population opportunistic screening and education.

  16. A population-based prevalence study of hepatitis A, B and C virus using oral fluid in Flanders, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Quoilin, Sophie; Hutse, Veronik; Vandenberghe, Hans; Claeys, Françoise; Verhaegen, Els; De Cock, Liesbet; Van Loock, Frank; Top, Geert; Van Damme, Pierre; Vranckx, Robert; Van Oyen, Herman

    2007-01-01

    Ten years after the first seroprevalence study performed in Flanders, the aim of this cross sectional study was to follow the evolution of hepatitis A, B and C prevalence. The prevalence of hepatitis A antibodies, hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C antibodies was measured in oral fluid samples collected by postal survey. Using the National Population Register, an incremental sampling plan was developed to obtain a representative sampling of the general population. A total of 24,000 persons were selected and 6,000 persons among them contacted in a first wave. With 1834 participants a response rate of 30.6% was achieved. The prevalence was weighted for age and was 20.2% (95% CI 19.43-21.08) for hepatitis A, 0.66% (95% CI 0.51-0.84) for hepatitis B surface antigen and 0.12% (95% CI 0.09-0.39) for hepatitis C. The prevalence of hepatitis A and C in the Flemish population is lower in 2003 compared with the results of the study performed in 1993. The difference may be due to a real decrease of the diseases but also to differences in the methodology. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen remains stable. Considering the 30% response rate and the high quality of the self-collected samples as reflect of a good participation of the general population, saliva test for prevalence study is a good epidemiological monitoring tool.

  17. Assistive technology use by disability type and race: exploration of a population-based health survey.

    PubMed

    Ilunga Tshiswaka, Daudet; Loggins Clay, Shondra; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Alston, Reginald; Lewis, Allen

    2015-09-28

    To examine the relationships among Assistive Technology (AT) use, race, type of disability and selected other demographic characteristics. Using 2009 National Health Interview Survey, descriptive statistics, statistical interactions and binary logistic regression were performed to identify, contrast and predict the likelihood of using AT based on the type of disability among African Americans (AAs) and European Americans (EAs). We found that more AAs (10% within group proportion of total AAs) used AT compared to EAs (7.5% within group proportion of total EAs). Physical (p < 0.001), auditory (p = 0.028) and emotional (p = 0.008) impairments were statistically significant predictors of AT use. However, physical impairment as a predictor of AT use was greater among AAs (OR = 222.49, CI: 64.04-773.04, p < 0.001) than EAs (OR = 50.77, CI: 31.78-81.12, p < 0.001). EAs had a greater number of disabling conditions that predict the use of AT than AAs, whereas AAs had more demographic characteristics beyond race that predict AT use than EAs. Disparities were observed in AT usage by disability types and demographic characteristics between AAs and EAs. Moreover, the predictive strength of AT usage based on disability types and other demographic variables differed by races. Overall, the findings about the different relationships among race, disability type, and AT use are found. Implications for Rehabilitation The finding may inform the development of initiatives by rehabilitation leaders to encourage the use of AT by AAs and EAs according to their type of impairment. Having identified physical impairment as statistically significant predictor of AT use greater among AAs, rehabilitation leaders should ensure that people living with those types of disability have access to the corresponding type of AT and can use them effectively.

  18. Muscle grip strength predicts incident type 2 diabetes: Population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Li, Joule J; Wittert, Gary A; Vincent, Andrew; Atlantis, Evan; Shi, Zumin; Appleton, Sarah L; Hill, Catherine L; Jenkins, Alicia J; Januszewski, Andrzej S; Adams, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    To determine the longitudinal relationship of muscle mass and strength with incident type 2 diabetes, and previously unstudied mediating effects of testosterone and inflammation. Community-dwelling male participants (aged ≥35years) of the Men Androgen Inflammation Lifestyle Environment and Stress (MAILES) Study underwent biomedical assessment in 2002-2006 and 2007-2010, including hand grip strength (dynamometer), testosterone and inflammatory markers. Body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) was assessed at baseline only. Incident type 2 diabetes was defined as a self-reported doctor diagnosis, diabetes medication use, fasting plasma glucose ≥7.0mmol/L, or glycated haemoglobin ≥6.5% (48mmol/mol) at follow-up, that was not present at baseline. Of n=1632 men, incident type 2 diabetes occurred in 146 (8.9%). Muscle mass was not associated with incident type 2 diabetes. Grip strength was inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes [unadjusted odds ratio (OR) per 5kg: 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.80-0.95; adjusted OR, 95% CI: 0.87, 0.78-0.97]. Arm muscle quality (grip strength divided by arm lean mass) was similarly associated with incident type 2 diabetes. Testosterone, IL-6 and TNF-α did not significantly mediate the associations. The population attributable fraction of type 2 diabetes from low grip strength was 27% (13-40%), assuming intervention could increase strength by 25%. Reduced muscle strength, but not reduced muscle mass, is a risk factor for incident type 2 diabetes in men. This is not mediated by testosterone or inflammation. Intervention could prevent a substantial proportion of disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. South Asian ethnicity is associated with a lower prevalence of atrial fibrillation despite greater prevalence of established risk factors: a population-based study in Bradford Metropolitan District.

    PubMed

    Gillott, Richard Geoffrey; Willan, Kathryn; Kain, Kirti; Sivananthan, Uduvil Mohanaraj; Tayebjee, Muzahir Hassan

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies indicate that South Asians (SAs) may have a reduced risk of developing atrial fibrillation (AF) despite having a higher prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. This observational study was designed to explore the relative differences between SAs and Whites in a well-defined, multi-ethnic population with careful consideration of traditional cardiovascular risk factors that are thought to contribute to the development of AF. Anonymized data from 417 575 adults were sourced from primary care records within Bradford Metropolitan District, UK. Atrial fibrillation diagnosis was indicated by the presence on the AF Quality Outcomes Framework register. Self-reported ethnicity was mapped to census ethnic codes. The age-standardized prevalence rates of AF were calculated for comparison between the White and SA populations; our study sample presented relative proportions of 2.39 and 0.4%. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the odds of developing AF given SA ethnicity. Adjustment for age, sex, and established risk factors found a 71% reduction in odds of AF in SAs when compared with Whites [odds ratio (OR): 0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.26-0.32]. When stratified by ethnicity, analyses revealed significantly different odds of AF for patients with diabetes; diabetes was not associated with the development of AF in the SA population (0.81, 95% CI: 0.63-1.05). This study, in a multi-ethnic population, presents ethnicity as a predictor of AF in which prevalence is significantly lower in SAs when compared with Whites. This is despite SAs having a higher frequency of established risk factors for the development of AF, such as ischaemic heart disease, heart failure, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. These findings are consistent with previous literature and add weight to the need for further investigation, although this is the first study to investigate the differential associations of individual risk factors

  20. Prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection in Libya: results from a national population based survey.

    PubMed

    Daw, Mohamed A; El-Bouzedi, Abdallah

    2014-01-09

    Libya is one of the largest countries in Africa and has the longest coast in the Mediterranean basin facing southern Europe. High rates of prevalence of viral hepatitis have been observed in various regions in Africa, but the prevalence in Libya is not well documented. We report on a large-scale nationwide study that evaluated the epidemiology of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in Libya and assessed the risk factors involved. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 on 65,761 individuals all over Libya. The country was divided into 12 regions according to the population density and sampling within each region was carried out under the supervision of the National Centre for Prevention of Infectious Diseases. Serum samples were collected from both males and females of all ages in both urban and rural areas and tested for HBsAg for hepatitis B and anti-HCV antibody for hepatitis C. Prevalence rates were determined in regions and in different groups and correlated with different demographic and risk factors involved in the spread of these viruses. The prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses varied regionally across the country. The overall prevalence of hepatitis B was 2.2% (95% CI 2.1%-2.3%) and was higher among males than females (1.4:1.0). Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence was 1.2% (95% CI 1.1-1.3) and it increased gradually after the age of 30 years (0.7-0.9% for < 30 years; 3.6% for ≥ 60 years). Prevalence of HBsAg was 0.8-0.9% below the age of 10 years, and higher but similar in older age groups (2.3-2.7%). There was an association between literacy and prevalence of hepatitis, particularly for HCV. Hospital admission, surgical operation, blood transfusion, and intravenous drug use were the main risk factors, and they were associated independently with a higher prevalence rate of viral hepatitis. Libya may be considered an area of low-intermediate endemicity for hepatitis B virus infection, with lower rates in young age groups, and an area of low

  1. Prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection in Libya: results from a national population based survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Libya is one of the largest countries in Africa and has the longest coast in the Mediterranean basin facing southern Europe. High rates of prevalence of viral hepatitis have been observed in various regions in Africa, but the prevalence in Libya is not well documented. We report on a large-scale nationwide study that evaluated the epidemiology of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in Libya and assessed the risk factors involved. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 on 65,761 individuals all over Libya. The country was divided into 12 regions according to the population density and sampling within each region was carried out under the supervision of the National Centre for Prevention of Infectious Diseases. Serum samples were collected from both males and females of all ages in both urban and rural areas and tested for HBsAg for hepatitis B and anti-HCV antibody for hepatitis C. Prevalence rates were determined in regions and in different groups and correlated with different demographic and risk factors involved in the spread of these viruses. Results The prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses varied regionally across the country. The overall prevalence of hepatitis B was 2.2% (95% CI 2.1%-2.3%) and was higher among males than females (1.4:1.0). Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence was 1.2% (95% CI 1.1-1.3) and it increased gradually after the age of 30 years (0.7-0.9% for < 30 years; 3.6% for ≥ 60 years). Prevalence of HBsAg was 0.8-0.9% below the age of 10 years, and higher but similar in older age groups (2.3-2.7%). There was an association between literacy and prevalence of hepatitis, particularly for HCV. Hospital admission, surgical operation, blood transfusion, and intravenous drug use were the main risk factors, and they were associated independently with a higher prevalence rate of viral hepatitis. Conclusions Libya may be considered an area of low-intermediate endemicity for hepatitis B virus infection, with lower

  2. Rheumatic heart disease: pilot study for a population-based evaluation of prevalence and cardiovascular outcomes among schoolchildren in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Nikesh Raj; Kalesan, Bindu; Karki, Prahlad; Sherpa, Kunjang; Basnet, Anil; Urban, Philip; Pilgrim, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate a protocol for a population-based programme targeting the prevention of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) progression by early echocardiographic diagnosis of valvular lesions and timely implementation of secondary prevention. Design Observational survey with a subsequent prospective cohort study. Setting Private boarding school in the urban area of the Sunsari district situated on the foothills of the Lower Himalayan Range in Eastern Nepal. Participants Fifty-four unselected school-going children 5–15 years of age, 24 girls and 30 boys. Primary outcome measure Logistic feasibility of a large-scale population-based screening study using the echocardiographic criteria formulated by the World Heart Federation, with longitudinal follow-up of children with definite or borderline RHD in a prospective cohort study. Results Standardised interview, physical examination and screening echocardiography were performed in a three-staged process and took approximately 6 min per child. Socio-economic status was assessed using surrogate markers such as the occupation of the primary caregiver, numbers of rooms at home, car, television, cell phone and internet connection. Physical examination was focused on cardiac auscultation and signs of acute rheumatic fever and targeted echocardiography was performed by an independent examiner without knowledge of the clinical findings. Two children with evidence of borderline RHD were re-examined at B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences and the indication for secondary antibiotic prevention was discussed with the parents and the children. At 6 months of follow-up, echocardiographic findings were stable in both children. Implementation of secondary antibiotic prevention was challenged by impaired awareness of subclinical RHD among parents and inadequate cooperation with family physicians. Conclusions This pilot study shows that the methods outlined in the protocol can be translated into a large-scale population-based

  3. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes in northern populations of Siberia.

    PubMed

    Dogadin, S A; Mashtakov, B P; Taranushenko, T E

    2001-04-01

    In the first part of the study the prevalence and incidence of diagnosed Type 2 diabetes among adult rural populations of southern, central and northern areas of the Krasnoyarsk region of Siberia is compared. The six-year mean incidence of diabetes in the southern area was 0.86 per 1000 (95% CI: 0.66-1.06), in the central area this incidence was 0.79 (0.57-1.01). In contrast, in the northern area the mean Type 2 incidence among indigenous population was 0.16 per 1000 (0-0.43) and among aliens it was 0.38 (0.22-0.54). The age-standardised Type 2 diabetes prevalence in the population of southern and central areas were 10.23 (9.55-10.-92) and 10.77 (9.99-11.55), respectively. In the northern area among aliens it was 8.98 (8.18-9.78) and among indigenous peoples only 2.54 per 1000 (1.46-3.62). The second part of this study consists of a population based survey to determine the prevalence rate of Type 2 diabetes among 596 Evenks and 306 alien inhabitants in Evenkia (82% eligible participants of Baikit district). No cases of glucose intolerance were found among Evenks in this study and one case of Type 2 diabetes was confirmed among aliens (prevalence rate 3.27 per 1000). These data indicate that Type 2 diabetes is still rare among northern indigenous populations of Siberia and that diabetes in northern alien populations is less prevalent than among peoples of central and southern areas of Siberia.

  4. Prevalence and Clustering of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Tibetan Adults in China: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shaopeng; Jiayong, Zepei; Li, Bin; Zhu, Hong; Chang, Hong; Shi, Wei; Gao, Zhengxuan; Ning, Xianjia; Wang, Jinghua

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors has increased worldwide. However, the prevalence and clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors among Tibetans is currently unknown. We aimed to explore the prevalence and clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors among Tibetan adults in China. In 2011, 1659 Tibetan adults (aged ≥ 18 years) from Changdu, China were recruited to this cross-section study. The questionnaire, physical examinations and laboratory testing were completed and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity, dyslipidemia, and current smoking, were counted. The association between the clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors and demographic characteristics, and geographic altitude were assessed. The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, overweight or obesity, dyslipidemia, and current smoking were 62.4%, 6.4%, 34.3%, 42.7%, and 6.1%, respectively, and these risk factors were associated with age, gender, education level, yearly family income, altitude, occupation, and butter tea consumption (P < 0.05). Overall, the age-adjusted prevalence of clustering of ≥ 1, ≥ 2, and ≥ 3 cardiovascular disease risk factors were 79.4%, 47.1%, and 20.9%, respectively. There appeared higher clustering of ≥ 2 and ≥ 3 cardiovascular disease risk factors among Tibetans with higher education level and family income yearly, and those living at an altitude < 3500 m and in a township. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors, especially hypertension, was high in Tibetans. Moreover, there was an increased clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors among those with higher socioeconomic status, lamas and those living at an altitude < 3500 m. These findings suggest that without the immediate implementation of an efficient policy to control these risk factors, cardiovascular disease will eventually become a major disease burden among

  5. Prevalence and Clustering of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Tibetan Adults in China: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Zhu, Hong; Chang, Hong; Shi, Wei; Gao, Zhengxuan; Ning, Xianjia; Wang, Jinghua

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors has increased worldwide. However, the prevalence and clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors among Tibetans is currently unknown. We aimed to explore the prevalence and clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors among Tibetan adults in China. Methods In 2011, 1659 Tibetan adults (aged ≥18 years) from Changdu, China were recruited to this cross-section study. The questionnaire, physical examinations and laboratory testing were completed and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity, dyslipidemia, and current smoking, were counted. The association between the clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors and demographic characteristics, and geographic altitude were assessed. Results The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, overweight or obesity, dyslipidemia, and current smoking were 62.4%, 6.4%, 34.3%, 42.7%, and 6.1%, respectively, and these risk factors were associated with age, gender, education level, yearly family income, altitude, occupation, and butter tea consumption (P < 0.05). Overall, the age-adjusted prevalence of clustering of ≥1, ≥2, and ≥3 cardiovascular disease risk factors were 79.4%, 47.1%, and 20.9%, respectively. There appeared higher clustering of ≥2 and ≥3 cardiovascular disease risk factors among Tibetans with higher education level and family income yearly, and those living at an altitude < 3500 m and in a township. Conclusions The prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors, especially hypertension, was high in Tibetans. Moreover, there was an increased clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors among those with higher socioeconomic status, lamas and those living at an altitude < 3500 m. These findings suggest that without the immediate implementation of an efficient policy to control these risk factors, cardiovascular disease will eventually become

  6. Population-based prevalence of CDKN2A and CDK4 mutations in patients with multiple primary melanomas.

    PubMed

    Helsing, Per; Nymoen, Dag Andre; Ariansen, Sarah; Steine, Solrun J; Maehle, Lovise; Aamdal, Steinar; Langmark, Frøydis; Loeb, Mitchell; Akslen, Lars A; Molven, Anders; Andresen, Per Arne

    2008-02-01

    The presence of multiple primary cutaneous melanomas (MPM) has been advocated as guidance to identifying melanoma families. Frequencies of CDKN2A mutations in materials of sporadic MPM cases from pigmented lesion clinics vary between 8 and 15%. Patients with MPM have therefore been regarded as good candidates for CDKN2A mutational screening. We describe a population-based study where all persons in Norway diagnosed with MPM between 1953 and 2004 (n = 738 alive per April 2004) were invited to participate. Three-hundred-and-ninety patients (52.8%) responded confidentially. Mutations in CDKN2A were found in 6.9% of the respondents. Eighty-one MPM patients (20.8%) reported that they belonged to melanoma families, and 17 (21.0%) of these harboured a CDKN2A mutation, compared to 3.2% of the nonfamilial cases. The probability of finding a CDKN2A mutation increased when the patients had three or more melanomas, or a young age of onset of first melanoma. We identified five novel CDKN2A variants (Ala57Gly, Pro81Arg, Ala118Val, Leu130Val, and Arg131Pro) and four that previously have been reported in melanoma families (Glu27X, Met53Ile, Arg87Trp, and Ala127Pro). A large deletion (g.13623_23772del10150) encompassing exon 1alpha and the 5' part of exon 2 was detected in six patients with a family history of melanoma. Three patients, belonging to the same family, had the CDK4 Arg24His mutation. The frequency of CDKN2A mutations was lower than previously reported in other studies, an observation which probably is due to the population-based design of our study.

  7. Prevalence of dementia in Latin America, India, and China: a population-based cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Juan J Llibre; Ferri, Cleusa P; Acosta, Daisy; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, KS; Krishnamoorthy, ES; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Acosta, Isaac; Dewey, Michael E; Gaona, Ciro; Jotheeswaran, AT; Li, Shuran; Rodriguez, Diana; Rodriguez, Guillermina; Kumar, P Senthil; Valhuerdi, Adolfo; Prince, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background Studies have suggested that the prevalence of dementia is lower in developing than in developed regions. We investigated the prevalence and severity of dementia in sites in low-income and middle-income countries according to two definitions of dementia diagnosis. Methods We undertook one-phase cross-sectional surveys of all residents aged 65 years and older (n=14 960) in 11 sites in seven low-income and middle-income countries (China, India, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico, and Peru). Dementia diagnosis was made according to the culturally and educationally sensitive 10/66 dementia diagnostic algorithm, which had been prevalidated in 25 Latin American, Asian, and African centres; and by computerised application of the dementia criterion from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV). We also compared prevalence of DSM-IV dementia in each of the study sites with that from estimates in European studies. Findings The prevalence of DSM-IV dementia varied widely, from 0·3% (95% CI 0·1–0·5) in rural India to 6·3% (5·0–7·7) in Cuba. After standardisation for age and sex, DSM-IV prevalence in urban Latin American sites was four-fifths of that in Europe (standardised morbidity ratio 80 [95% CI 70–91]), but in China the prevalence was only half (56 [32–91] in rural China), and in India and rural Latin America a quarter or less of the European prevalence (18 [5–34] in rural India). 10/66 dementia prevalence was higher than that of DSM-IV dementia, and more consistent across sites, varying between 5·6% (95% CI 4·2–7·0) in rural China and 11·7% (10·3–13·1) in the Dominican Republic. The validity of the 847 of 1345 cases of 10/66 dementia not confirmed by DSM-IV was supported by high levels of associated disability (mean WHO Disability Assessment Schedule II score 33·7 [SD 28·6]). Interpretation As compared with the 10/66 dementia algorithm, the DSM-IV dementia criterion might underestimate

  8. Prevalence of family history of breast, colorectal, prostate, and lung cancer in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Mai, P L; Wideroff, L; Greene, M H; Graubard, B I

    2010-01-01

    A positive family history is a known risk factor for several cancers; thus, obtaining a thorough family cancer history is essential in cancer risk evaluation and prevention management. The Family Health Study, a telephone survey in Connecticut, was conducted in 2001. A total of 1,019 participants with demographic information and family cancer history were included in this study. Prevalence of a positive family history of breast, colorectal, prostate, and lung cancer for first- and second-degree relatives was estimated. Logistic regression was used to compare prevalence by demographic factors. A positive family history among first-degree relatives was reported by 10.9% (95% Confidence Interval, CI = 8.8-13.3) of respondents for breast cancer, 5.1% (95% CI = 3.9-6.7) for colorectal cancer, 7.0% (95% CI = 5.2-9.4) for prostate cancer, and 6.4% (95% CI = 4.9-8.3) for lung cancer. The reported prevalence of family history of specific cancers varied by sex, age and race/ethnicity of the respondents. Family history prevalence for 4 of the most common adult solid tumors is substantial and the reported prevalence varied by respondent characteristics. Additional studies are needed to evaluate tools to promote accurate reporting of family history of cancer. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Prevalence of Dementia and Cognitive Complaints in the Context of High Cognitive Reserve: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Perquin, Magali; Diederich, Nico; Pastore, Jessica; Lair, Marie-Lise; Stranges, Saverio; Vaillant, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess the prevalence of dementia and cognitive complaints in a cross-sectional sample of Luxembourg seniors, and to discuss the results in the societal context of high cognitive reserve resulting from multilingualism. Methods A population sample of 1,377 people representative of Luxembourg residents aged over 64 years was initially identified via the national social insurance register. There were three different levels of contribution: full participation in the study, partial participation, and non-participation. We examined the profiles of these three different samples so that we could infer the prevalence estimates in the Luxembourgish senior population as a whole using the prevalence estimates obtained in this study. Results After careful attention to the potential bias and of the possibility of underestimation, we considered the obtained prevalence estimates of 3.8% for dementia (with corresponding 95% confidence limits (CL) of 2.8% and 4.8%) and 26.1% for cognitive complaints (CL = [17.8–34.3]) as trustworthy. Conclusion Based on these findings, we postulate that high cognitive reserve may result in surprisingly low prevalence estimates of cognitive complaints and dementia in adults over the age of 64 years, which thereby corroborates the longer disability-free life expectancy observed in the Luxembourg population. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report such Luxembourgish public health data. PMID:26390288

  10. Generic and crime type specific correlates of youth crime: a Finnish population-based study.

    PubMed

    Elonheimo, Henrik; Sourander, Andre; Niemelä, Solja; Helenius, Hans

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the psychosocial correlates of various crime types among adolescent males born in Finland in 1981. Data on crime registered in the Finnish National Police Register between 1998 and 2001 were received for 2,866 boys, of whom 81% (n = 2,330) filled in a questionnaire at obligatory military call-up at age 18 in 1999. Crime was divided into five types: drug, violent, property, traffic, and drunk driving offences. Of the 2,866 boys, 23% had been registered for offending; 4% for drug, 7% for violent, 11% for property, 11% for traffic, and 5% for drunk driving offences during the 4-year period in late adolescence. All the crime types correlated with each other and shared many of the psychosocial problems. Small community size, parents' divorce, aggressiveness, daily smoking, and weekly drunkenness were generic correlates of crime, being independently related to various crime types. The results support general rather than specific accounts of youth crime. In particular, measures moderating the adverse effects of divorce, alleviating parental adversities and supporting parenthood, and tackling substance abuse seem relevant in social and criminal policy because they address psychosocial problems characterizing youth crime in general.

  11. Remission of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Patients After Different Types of Bariatric Surgery: A Population-Based Cohort Study in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Yska, Jan Peter; van Roon, Eric N; de Boer, Anthonius; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Wilffert, Bob; de Heide, Loek J M; de Vries, Frank; Lalmohamed, Arief

    2015-12-01

    To our knowledge, an observational study on the remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) after different types of bariatric surgery based on data from general practice has not been carried out. To assess the effect of different types of bariatric surgery in patients with T2DM on diabetes remission compared with matched control patients, and the effect of the type of bariatric surgery on improvement of glycemic control and related clinical parameters. A retrospective cohort study conducted from May 2013 to May 2014 within the Clinical Practice Research Datalink involving 2978 patients with a record of bariatric surgery (2005-2012) and a body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) of 35 or greater. We identified 569 patients with T2DM and matched them to 1881 patients with diabetes without bariatric surgery. Data on the use of medication and laboratory results were evaluated. Bariatric surgery, stratified by type of surgery (gastric banding, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, or other/unknown). Remission of T2DM (complete discontinuation of glycemic therapy, accompanied with a subsequently recorded hemoglobin A1c level<6.0%). Among patients undergoing bariatric surgery, we found a prevalence of 19.1% for T2DM. Per 1000 person-years, 94.5 diabetes mellitus remissions were found in patients who underwent bariatric surgery compared with 4.9 diabetes mellitus remissions in matched control patients. Patients with diabetes who underwent bariatric surgery had an 18-fold increased chance for T2DM remission (adjusted relative rate [RR], 17.8; 95% CI, 11.2-28.4) compared with matched control patients. The greatest effect size was observed for gastric bypass (adjusted RR, 43.1; 95% CI, 19.7-94.5), followed by sleeve gastrectomy (adjusted RR, 16.6; 95% CI, 4.7-58.4) and gastric banding (adjusted RR, 6.9; 95% CI, 3.1-15.2). Body mass index and triglyceride, blood glucose, and hemoglobin A1c levels sharply decreased during

  12. The Epidemiology of Trachoma in Darfur States and Khartoum State, Sudan: Results of 32 Population-Based Prevalence Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Elshafie, Balgesa Elkheir; Osman, Kamal Hashim; Macleod, Colin; Hassan, Awad; Bush, Simon; Dejene, Michael; Willis, Rebecca; Chu, Brian; Courtright, Paul; Solomon, Anthony W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To complete the baseline trachoma map of Sudan by estimating the prevalence of trachoma and associated risk factors in the five Darfur States and Khartoum State. Methods: Using a standardized methodology developed for the Global Trachoma Mapping Project, we undertook a cross sectional, community-based survey in each of 32 evaluation units (EUs) covering all accessible districts. Results: We enumerated a total of 84,568 individuals, with 73,489 people (86.9%) examined from 20,242 households in 908 villages. The highest prevalence of trachomatous inflammation – follicular (TF) in children was found in El Fashir district (18.7%), and the lowest in El Malha district (0.0%). Five districts (El Fashir, Zalinji, Azoom, Maleet, and El Koma) were in the three EUs that had TF prevalences above the 10% threshold at which the World Health Organization recommends mass treatment with azithromycin, together with facial clean3liness and environmental improvement interventions, for at least 3 years. The highest trachomatous trichiasis prevalence in adults was found in the EU composed of Forbranga and Habillah (1.2%), and the lowest in the EU composed of As-salam and Belale districts in South Darfur (0.0%). TF in children was independently associated with younger age, unimproved sanitation in the household, having ≥5 children in the household, outside annual maximum temperatures <40°C, and living in an internally displaced persons camp. Conclusion: We found a high prevalence of trachoma in some areas of Darfur, but in general the prevalence throughout Darfur and Khartoum was low. PMID:27841721

  13. Prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in Peru: report from PERUDIAB, a national urban population-based longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Seclen, Segundo N; Rosas, Moises E; Arias, Arturo J; Huayta, Ernesto; Medina, Cecilia A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to estimate the prevalences of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in a national sample in Peru and assess the relationships with selected sociodemographic variables. Methods We estimated prevalence in PERUDIAB study participants, a nationwide, stratified urban and suburban population selected by random cluster sampling. Between 2010 and 2012, questionnaires were completed and blood tests obtained from 1677 adults ≥25 years of age. Known diabetes was defined as participants having been told so by a doctor or nurse and/or receiving insulin or oral antidiabetic agents. Newly diagnosed diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL determined during the study and without a previous diabetes diagnosis. IFG was defined as fasting plasma glucose of 100–125 mg/dL. Results The estimated national prevalence of diabetes was 7.0% (95% CI 5.3% to 8.7%) and it was 8.4% (95% CI 5.6% to 11.3%) in metropolitan Lima. No gender differences were detected. Known and newly diagnosed diabetes prevalences were estimated as 4.2% and 2.8%, respectively. A logistic regression response surface model showed a complex trend for an increased prevalence of diabetes in middle-aged individuals and in those with no formal education. Diabetes prevalence was higher in coastal (8.2%) than in highlands (4.5%; p=0.03), and jungle (3.5%; p<0.02) regions. The estimated national prevalence of IFG was 22.4%, higher in males than in females (28.3% vs 19.1%; p<0.001), and higher in coastal (26.4%) than in highlands (17.4%; p=0.03), but not jungle regions (14.9%; p=0.07). Conclusions This study confirms diabetes as an important public health problem, especially for middle-aged individuals and those with no formal education. 40% of the affected individuals were undiagnosed. The elevated prevalence of IFG shows that nearly a quarter of the adult population of Peru has an increased risk of diabetes. PMID:26512325

  14. Incidence, type of atrial fibrillation and risk factors for stroke: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Cecilia; Dahlqvist, Erik; Andersson, Jonas; Jansson, Jan-Håkan; Johansson, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this study were to estimate the incidence of atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter (AF), to assess the presence of provoking factors and risk factors for stroke and systemic embolism, and to determine the type of AF in patients with first-diagnosed AF. Patients and methods This cohort study was performed in northern Sweden between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2012. Diagnosis registries were searched for the International Classification of Diseases-10 code for AF (I48) to identify cases of incident AF. All AF diagnoses were electrocardiogram-verified. Data pertaining to provoking factors, type of AF and presence of risk factors for stroke and systemic embolism according to the CHA2DS2-VASc score were obtained from medical records. Results The incidence of AF in the entire population was 4.0 per 1,000 person-years. The incidence was 27.5 per 1,000 person-years in patients aged ≥80 years. A total of 21% of all patients had a provoking factor in association with the first-diagnosed episode of AF. The CHA2DS2-VASc score was 2 or higher in 81% of the patients. Permanent AF was the most common type of AF (29%). Conclusion There was a considerable increase in the incidence of AF with age, and a provoking factor was found in one-fifth. The most common type of AF was permanent AF. Four in five patients had a CHA2DS2-VASc score of 2 or more. PMID:28182159

  15. Calibrated prevalence of disabling chronic pain according to different approaches: a face-to-face cross-sectional population-based study in Southern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera-León, Andrés; Rueda, María; Cantero-Braojos, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To calculate the prevalence of disabling chronic pain (DCP) and to offer a more representative and accurate estimation by applying different calibration techniques. Settings 2011 Andalusian Health Survey, a cross-sectional population survey based on face-to-face home interviews. Participants 6507 people aged 16 years or older and living in Andalusia, Spain. Outcomes Design weights, linear calibration based on marginals and on crossings, and model-assisted calibration were used to estimate the prevalence and variance of DCP, for the whole sample and for the domains of sex and age groups (16–44; 45–64; +65). Results Calibration variables were sex, age groups and educational level. In the whole sample, DCP prevalence calibration reduced by more than 5.2% and 8.2% the estimated prevalences and variances, respectively, obtained with the design weights. Regarding the domains, prevalence reductions are from 33% to 1%, and variance reductions are from 0.2% to 1%. Model-assisted calibration is the best technique to estimate DCP prevalence for the whole population and crossing calibration for their domains, although with almost no differences compared to marginal calibration. Conclusions The validity and accuracy of estimations of DCP prevalence are improved by calibration adjustments. Model-assisted calibrated prevalence of DCP is 10.78% for the whole population, being at least 2-fold higher in women in all age groups. The results and methodology developed could be useful in clinical and population-based studies on chronic pain and disability. PMID:28137930

  16. [Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Spanish population aged 60 years-old or more. PREV-ICTUS, a population-based study].

    PubMed

    Llisterri, José Luis; Cea-Calvo, Luis; Martí-Canales, Juan C; Lozano, José V; Aznar, José; Redón, Josep

    2009-02-14

    Information about the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in elderly population is scarce. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of MS in Spanish population=60 years-old and the associated factors. Epidemiological population-based cross-sectional study carried out on a randomized representative simple of subjects aged=60 years-old across the Spanish territory, stratified according to autonomous communities, census and population setting. Demographic, clinical, biochemical and electrocardiographic data were collected. MS was defined following the National Education Cholesterol Program (NCEP) criteria. 7331 subjects -53.4% women; mean age (standard deviation): 71.6 (6.9) years- were included. The prevalence of MS was 39.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 34.5-42.4) and was greater in women (45.2%; 95% CI, 43.7-46.8%) than in men (33.8%; 95% CI, 32.3-35.4%) (p<0.001), and lower in the urban setting. High blood pressure (HBP) was the most prevalent criterion, followed by abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridemia. Subjects with MS were younger, with higher body mass index and blood pressure, and had more prevalence of organ damage and cardovascular disease (p<0,001). In the multivariate analysis, female gender, HBP, diabetes and abdominal obesity were the most strongly related factors. Four out of 10 subjects aged 60 years-old or more had MS, and this was related mainly to female gender, HBP, obesity and diabetes.

  17. [Prevalence of weapons possession and associated factors and involvement in physical aggression among adolescents 15 to 18 years of age: a population-based study].

    PubMed

    Silva, Ricardo Azevedo da; Jansen, Karen; Godoy, Russélia Vanila; Souza, Luciano Dias Mattos; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares

    2009-12-01

    This cross-sectional, population-based study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of weapons possession and associated factors and involvement in physical aggression among adolescents 15 to 18 years of age (n = 960) in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Ninety of the city's 448 census tracts were selected, and 86 houses in each tract were visited. The statistical analysis used Poisson regression. Prevalence rates in the sample were 22.8% for involvement in fights with physical aggression and 9.6% for weapons possession in the previous 12 months. The study concluded that young males that use alcohol and/or illegal drugs and present minor psychiatric disorders show a higher probability of weapons possession and involvement in physical fights.

  18. Prevalence of Osteoporosis and Low Bone Mass in Older Chinese Population Based on Bone Mineral Density at Multiple Skeletal Sites

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yi-Chien; Lin, Ying Chin; Lin, Yen-Kuang; Liu, Yi-Jui; Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Chieng, Poon-Ung; Chan, Wing P.

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of osteoporosis is based on bone mineral density (BMD) measurement, which is site dependent and commonly discordant between measurement sites. We aimed to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis diagnosed based on BMD T-scores measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at different sites: the lumbar spine (LS) alone, femoral neck (FN) alone, or both. A total of 1712 women and 2028 men with LS and FN BMD measurements were enrolled. Over 50% discordance was found between osteoporosis classifications based on T-scores measured at the LS and FN. Use of the lowest T-scores measured at both the LS and right and left FN (rather than one site) significantly increased the prevalence of osteoporosis from 4.03 to 10.75% in postmenopausal women and 1.82 to 4.29% in men aged ≧50 years (p < 0.001). The trends of overall and age-adjusted prevalence of osteoporosis were similar in women and men. Osteoporosis was diagnosed at a higher rate if the USA reference rather than the Asia reference was used to calculate the T-score (26.64% vs. 10.75%). In conclusion, diagnosis based on the lowest T-score from multiple site BMD measurement can increase the prevalence of osteoporosis, demonstrating the higher sensitivity of the multiple site measurement strategy. PMID:27143609

  19. Prevalence, incidence, and comorbidity of clinically diagnosed obsessive-compulsive disorder in Taiwan: a national population-based study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Chung; Tsai, Kuen-Jer; Wang, Hao-Kuang; Sung, Pi-Shan; Wu, Ming-Hsiu; Hung, Kuo-Wei; Lin, Sheng-Hsiang

    2014-12-15

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic debilitating anxiety disorder significant in intrusive thoughts and compensation repetitive behaviors. Few studies have reported on this condition Asia. This study estimated the prevalence, incidence and psychiatric comorbidities of OCD in Taiwan. We identified study subjects for 2000-2008 with a principal diagnosis of OCD according to the International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnostic criteria by using National Health Research Institute database. These patients received either outpatient or inpatient care for their condition. Rates were directly age- and sex-adjusted to the 2004 Taiwan population distribution. The estimated mean annual incidence was 27.57 per 10(5) inhabitants and the one year prevalence was 65.05 per 10(5) inhabitants. Incidence and prevalence increased with age, peaking at age 18-24 years in males and at 35-44 years in females. About 53% of adults (≥18 years) and 48% of child and adolescent patients (6-17 years) had one or more comorbid psychiatric conditions. The most common comorbid diagnosis was depressive disorders for both adult and child-adolescent patients. We found a lower prevalence and incidence of clinically diagnosed OCD than that of community studies. Many Asian patients with OCD also had various psychiatric comorbidities, a clinically relevant finding.

  20. A Population-Based Study of Childhood Sexual Contact in China: Prevalence and Long-Term Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Ye; Parish, William L.; Laumann, Edward O.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This study provides national estimates of the prevalence of childhood sexual contact and its association with sexual well-being and psychological distress among adults in China. Method: A national stratified probability sample of 1,519 women and 1,475 men aged 20-64 years in urban China completed a computer-administered survey in…

  1. A Population-Based Study of Childhood Sexual Contact in China: Prevalence and Long-Term Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Ye; Parish, William L.; Laumann, Edward O.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This study provides national estimates of the prevalence of childhood sexual contact and its association with sexual well-being and psychological distress among adults in China. Method: A national stratified probability sample of 1,519 women and 1,475 men aged 20-64 years in urban China completed a computer-administered survey in…

  2. Prevalence of Osteoporosis and Low Bone Mass in Older Chinese Population Based on Bone Mineral Density at Multiple Skeletal Sites.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi-Chien; Lin, Ying Chin; Lin, Yen-Kuang; Liu, Yi-Jui; Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Chieng, Poon-Ung; Chan, Wing P

    2016-05-04

    Diagnosis of osteoporosis is based on bone mineral density (BMD) measurement, which is site dependent and commonly discordant between measurement sites. We aimed to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis diagnosed based on BMD T-scores measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at different sites: the lumbar spine (LS) alone, femoral neck (FN) alone, or both. A total of 1712 women and 2028 men with LS and FN BMD measurements were enrolled. Over 50% discordance was found between osteoporosis classifications based on T-scores measured at the LS and FN. Use of the lowest T-scores measured at both the LS and right and left FN (rather than one site) significantly increased the prevalence of osteoporosis from 4.03 to 10.75% in postmenopausal women and 1.82 to 4.29% in men aged ≧50 years (p < 0.001). The trends of overall and age-adjusted prevalence of osteoporosis were similar in women and men. Osteoporosis was diagnosed at a higher rate if the USA reference rather than the Asia reference was used to calculate the T-score (26.64% vs. 10.75%). In conclusion, diagnosis based on the lowest T-score from multiple site BMD measurement can increase the prevalence of osteoporosis, demonstrating the higher sensitivity of the multiple site measurement strategy.

  3. Prevalence and predictors of prediabetes and diabetes among adults in Palau: population-based national STEPS survey

    PubMed Central

    Hilawe, Esayas Haregot; Chiang, Chifa; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Wang, Chaochen; Ikerdeu, Edolem; Honjo, Kaori; Mita, Takashi; Cui, Renzhe; Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Madraisau, Sherilynn; Ngirmang, Gregorio; Iso, Hiroyasu; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We aimed to investigate the prevalence and predictors of diabetes and prediabetes among adults in Palau. We used data of 1915 adults, aged 25 to 64 years, who participated in the World Health Organization’s (WHO) STEPwise Approach to Risk Factor Surveillance (STEPS) study in Palau. Information on behavioral risk factors of NCDs and physical and biochemical measurements were obtained using standard methods of the WHO. The diagnosis of diabetes and prediabetes was based on the recent American Diabetes Association criteria. Predictors of the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes were identified using multinomial logistic regression analysis. The overall age-standardized prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes were 40.4% (43.6% for men, 37.4% for women) and 17.7% (18.6% for men, 17% for women), respectively. Old age, overall obesity (high BMI), central obesity (large waist circumference or waist-hip ratio), hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia were significant predictors of prediabetes and/or diabetes. Diabetes occurred at a younger age in “obese” individuals than that of their “non-obese” counterparts. We confirmed that prediabetes and diabetes are highly prevalent in Palau affecting 40% and 18% adults, respectively. Introducing public health interventions to reduce and prevent obesity as early as possible could prove useful to curb the problem. PMID:28008203

  4. Sex, Age, and Prevalence of Pediatric Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Constipation in Colombia: A Population-based Study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Peter L; Velasco-Benítez, Carlos A; Saps, Miguel

    2017-06-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the role of sex and age in the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional constipation (FC) in Colombian children. We hypothesized that the prevalence of IBS and FC would be higher in female adolescents than in younger female children, with no corresponding difference in boys. We performed a cross-sectional study of Colombian children. Subjects completed the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III. Subjects were divided into child and adolescent age groups using 2 different cutoffs. Cutoffs were established at 12 and 13 years (CH-1 = 8-12 years, AD-1 = 13-18 years, CH-2 = 8-13 years, AD-2 = 14-18 years). A total of 3891 subjects (47.0% F, mean age 12.0 years) participated. One hundred eighty-seven (4.8%) met criteria for IBS. There was no difference in sex composition between CH-1/AD-1 (56.0%, 43.5% F) and CH-2/AD-2 (53.4%, 46.8% F). Prevalence of IBS among girls was higher in CH-1 than that in AD-1 (6.4%, 3.7%, P < 0.05) and overall prevalence was higher in CH-1 than in AD-1 (5.4%, 4.0%, P < 0.05). Four hundred ninety-four (12.7%) children met criteria for FC. There was no difference in sex composition between CH-1/AD-1 (47.6%, 48.7% F) and CH-2/AD-2 (47.7%, 49.0% F). Prevalence of FC among girls was higher in CH-1/CH-2 (14.6%, 14.1%) than in AD-1/AD-2 (10.4%, P < 0.01; 9.9%, P < 0.05). Prevalence of FC overall was higher in CH-1/CH-2 (14.5%, 14.0%) than in AD-1/AD-2 (10.0%, P < 0.0001; 9.3%, P < 0.0001). We did not find a significant female predominance among Colombian children with IBS or FC. Contrary to our hypothesis, IBS and FC prevalence was generally higher in younger children compared with adolescents regardless of sex.

  5. Trends for prevalence and incidence of resistant hypertension: population based cohort study in the UK 1995-2015.

    PubMed

    Sinnott, Sarah-Jo; Smeeth, Liam; Williamson, Elizabeth; Douglas, Ian J

    2017-09-22

    Objective To estimate the incidence and prevalence of resistant hypertension among a UK population treated for hypertension from 1995 to 2015.Design Cohort study.Setting Electronic health records from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink in primary care.Participants 1 317 290 users of antihypertensive drugs with a diagnosis of hypertension.Main outcome measures Resistant hypertension was defined as concurrent use of three antihypertensive drugs inclusive of a diuretic, uncontrolled hypertension (≥140/90 mm Hg), and adherence to the prescribed drug regimen, or concurrent use of four antihypertensive drugs inclusive of a diuretic and adherence to the prescribed drug regimen. To determine incidence, the numerator was new cases of resistant hypertension and the denominator was person years of those with treated hypertension and at risk of developing resistant hypertension. To determine prevalence, the numerator was total number of cases with resistant hypertension and the denominator was those with treated hypertension. Prevalence and incidence were age standardised to the 2015 hypertensive population.Results The age standardised incidence of resistant hypertension increased from 0.93 cases per 100 person years (95% confidence interval 0.87 to 1.00) in 1996 to a peak level of 2.07 cases per 100 person years (2.03 to 2.12) in 2004. Incidence then decreased to 0.42 cases per 100 person years (0.40 to 0.44) in 2015. Age standardised prevalence increased from 1.75% (95% confidence interval 1.66% to 1.83%) in 1995 to a peak of 7.76% (7.70% to 7.83%) in 2007. Prevalence then plateaued and subsequently declined to 6.46% (6.38% to 6.54%) in 2015. Compared with patients aged 65-69 years, those aged 80 or more years were more likely to have prevalent resistant hypertension throughout the study period.Conclusions Prevalent resistant hypertension has plateaued and decreased in recent years, consistent with a decrease in incidence from 2004 onwards. Despite this

  6. Trends for prevalence and incidence of resistant hypertension: population based cohort study in the UK 1995-2015

    PubMed Central

    Smeeth, Liam; Williamson, Elizabeth; Douglas, Ian J

    2017-01-01

    Objective To estimate the incidence and prevalence of resistant hypertension among a UK population treated for hypertension from 1995 to 2015. Design Cohort study. Setting Electronic health records from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink in primary care. Participants 1 317 290 users of antihypertensive drugs with a diagnosis of hypertension. Main outcome measures Resistant hypertension was defined as concurrent use of three antihypertensive drugs inclusive of a diuretic, uncontrolled hypertension (≥140/90 mm Hg), and adherence to the prescribed drug regimen, or concurrent use of four antihypertensive drugs inclusive of a diuretic and adherence to the prescribed drug regimen. To determine incidence, the numerator was new cases of resistant hypertension and the denominator was person years of those with treated hypertension and at risk of developing resistant hypertension. To determine prevalence, the numerator was total number of cases with resistant hypertension and the denominator was those with treated hypertension. Prevalence and incidence were age standardised to the 2015 hypertensive population. Results The age standardised incidence of resistant hypertension increased from 0.93 cases per 100 person years (95% confidence interval 0.87 to 1.00) in 1996 to a peak level of 2.07 cases per 100 person years (2.03 to 2.12) in 2004. Incidence then decreased to 0.42 cases per 100 person years (0.40 to 0.44) in 2015. Age standardised prevalence increased from 1.75% (95% confidence interval 1.66% to 1.83%) in 1995 to a peak of 7.76% (7.70% to 7.83%) in 2007. Prevalence then plateaued and subsequently declined to 6.46% (6.38% to 6.54%) in 2015. Compared with patients aged 65-69 years, those aged 80 or more years were more likely to have prevalent resistant hypertension throughout the study period. Conclusions Prevalent resistant hypertension has plateaued and decreased in recent years, consistent with a decrease in incidence from 2004 onwards. Despite

  7. Burden of cancer in Malawi; common types, incidence and trends: national population-based cancer registry.

    PubMed

    Msyamboza, Kelias Phiri; Dzamalala, Charles; Mdokwe, Catherine; Kamiza, Steve; Lemerani, Marshal; Dzowela, Titha; Kathyola, Damson

    2012-03-16

    Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with a majority of cases and deaths occurring in developing countries. While cancer of the lung, breast, colorectum, stomach and prostate are the most common types of cancer globally, in east and southern Africa these are less common and comprehensive data to inform policies are lacking. Nationwide cancer registry was conducted between September and October 2010 in Malawi. New cancer cases registered from 2007 to 2010 were identified from hospital and clinic registers of 81 out of 84 health facilities providing cancer diagnosis, treatment or palliative care services. Demographic and cancer data were extracted from registers and case notes using a standard form. A total of 18,946 new cases of cancer were registered in Malawi from 2007-2010. Of these 55.9% were females, 7.2% were children aged less than 15 years, 76.5% were adults aged 15-59 years and 16.4% were elderly aged 60 years or more. Only 17.9% of the cases had histologically verified diagnosis, 33.2% were diagnosed clinically and 49.6% based on clinical and some investigations. Amongst females, cancer of the cervix was the commonest accounting for 45.4% of all cases followed by Kaposi sarcoma (21.1%), cancer of the oesophagus (8.2%), breast (4.6%) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (4.1%). In males, Kaposi sarcoma was the most frequent (50.7%) then cancer of oesophagus (16.9%), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (7.8), prostate (4.0%) and urinary bladder (3.7%). Age-standardised incidence rate per 100,000 population for all types of cancer in males increased from 31 in 1999-2002 to 56 in 2007-2010. In females it increased from 29 to 69. Kaposi sarcoma and cancer of the oesophagus, cervical cancer and Kaposi sarcoma were the main causes for the increased incidence in males and females respectively. It was estimated that, annually at least 8,151 new cases of cancer (all types) occur in Malawi. This study provided data on common types and trends of cancer that could be

  8. Low prevalence of hypothyroidism among black and Mulatto people in a population-based study of Brazilian women.

    PubMed

    Sichieri, Rosely; Baima, Jader; Marante, Tatiana; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Moura, Anibal Sanchez; Vaisman, Mario

    2007-06-01

    Objective African-Americans have been shown to have low prevalence of hypothyroidism. Brazil has a high ethnic admixture allowing further exploration into whether environmental factors can explain the ethnic differences. Design A survey, representative of the population of Rio de Janeiro, a large metropolitan city in Brazil. Factors studied included race, parity, income, schooling, and smoking. Population The survey was carried out in Rio de Janeiro whereby households (1500) were selected using three-stage probability sampling. A total of 1298 (86.5%) women participated in the survey (non-response: 13.5%). Measurements TSH from blood drawn at the households. Anti-thyroperoxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies and free T4 were also measured. Results Overall prevalence of hypothyroidism (TSH > 4 mUI/ml or taking medication) was 12.3%. Prevalence was 6.9% in black people, 8.8% in Mulatto people, and 16.7% among white people. The mean serum TSH of the population was 2.65 (95% confidence interval 2.33-2.97). The TSH distribution of black and Mulatto people was shifted to the left compared to white people. After adjustment for age, income, smoking and presence of anti-TPO, Black and Mulatto people were still protected from hypothyroidism. The adjusted odds ratio for black compared to white people was 0.45 (95% CI 0.30-0.68) and for Mulatto people was 0.34 (95% CI 0.18-0.63). Serum TSH levels were significantly lower in smokers than in non-smokers, but there was no association between number of cigarettes smoked and serum TSH level. Conclusions This is the first time it has been demonstrated that Mulatto people have a prevalence of hypothyroidism which lies between that of white and black people, independent of the prevalence of anti-TPO and smoking.

  9. Prevalence of Fibromyalgia: A Population-Based Study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, Utilizing the Rochester Epidemiology Project

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Ann; Lahr, Brian D; Wolfe, Frederick; Clauw, Daniel J; Whipple, Mary O; Oh, Terry H; Barton, Debra L; St Sauver, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to estimate and compare the prevalence of fibromyalgia by two different methods, in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Methods The first method was a retrospective review of medical records of potential cases of fibromyalgia in Olmsted County using Rochester Epidemiology Project (from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2009) to estimate the prevalence of diagnosed fibromyalgia in clinical practice. The second method was a random survey of adults in Olmsted County using the fibromyalgia research survey criteria to estimate the percentage of responders who met fibromyalgia research survey criteria. Results Of the 3,410 potential patients identified by the first method, 1,115 had a fibromyalgia diagnosis documented in the medical record by a health care provider. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of diagnosed fibromyalgia by this method was 1.1%. By the second method, of the 2,994 people who received the survey by mail, 830 (27.6%) responded and 44 (5.3%) met fibromyalgia research survey criteria. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of fibromyalgia in the general population of Olmsted County by this method was estimated at 6.4%. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the rate at which fibromyalgia is being diagnosed in a community. This is also the first report of prevalence as assessed by the fibromyalgia research survey criteria. Our results suggest that patients, particularly men, who meet the fibromyalgia research survey criteria are unlikely to have been given a diagnosis of fibromyalgia. PMID:23203795

  10. Incidence and Prevalence of Celiac Disease and Dermatitis Herpetiformis in the UK Over Two Decades: Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    West, Joe; Fleming, Kate M; Tata, Laila J; Card, Timothy R; Crooks, Colin J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Few studies have quantified the incidence and prevalence of celiac disease (CD) and dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) nationally and regionally by time and age groups. Understanding this epidemiology is crucial for hypothesizing about causes and quantifying the burden of disease. METHODS: Patients with CD or DH were identified in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink between 1990 and 2011. Incidence rates and prevalence were calculated by age, sex, year, and region of residence. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) adjusted for age, sex, and region were calculated with Poisson regression. RESULTS: A total of 9,087 incident cases of CD and 809 incident cases of DH were identified. Between 1990 and 2011, the incidence rate of CD increased from 5.2 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval (CI), 3.8–6.8) to 19.1 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI, 17.8–20.5; IRR, 3.6; 95% CI, 2.7–4.8). The incidence of DH decreased over the same time period from 1.8 per 100,000 to 0.8 per 100,000 person-years (average annual IRR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94–0.97). The absolute incidence of CD per 100,000 person-years ranged from 22.3 in Northern Ireland to 10 in London. There were large regional variations in prevalence for CD but not DH. CONCLUSIONS: We found a fourfold increase in the incidence of CD in the United Kingdom over 22 years, with large regional variations in prevalence. This contrasted with a 4% annual decrease in the incidence of DH, with minimal regional variations in prevalence. These contrasts could reflect differences in diagnosis between CD (serological diagnosis and case finding) and DH (symptomatic presentation) or the possibility that diagnosing and treating CD prevents the development of DH. PMID:24667576

  11. Cancer among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A population-based cohort study in northeastern Italy.

    PubMed

    Gini, Andrea; Bidoli, Ettore; Zanier, Loris; Clagnan, Elena; Zanette, Giorgio; Gobbato, Michele; De Paoli, Paolo; Serraino, Diego

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with an elevated risk of cancer. The aim of this study was to assess cancer risk and survival in individuals with type 2 DM (T2DM) in Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy. A retrospective population-based cohort study of 32,247 T2DM patients aged 40-84 years was conducted through a record linkage of local healthcare databases and cancer registry for the period 2002-2009. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) and 5-year survival probabilities after T2DM and cancer diagnosis were computed. The SIRs for all cancers (n=2069) was 1.28 (95%CI: 1.23-1.34). The highest SIRs were observed for cancers of the liver, female genital organs, small intestine, and pancreas. After 3 years from T2DM diagnosis, a reduced risk of prostate cancer (SIR=0.73, 95%CI: 0.54-0.96) was found in men aged 65-74 years, and a higher risk for breast cancer (SIR=1.24, 95%CI: 1.00-1.52) was found among T2DM female patients. The overall 5-year survival after T2DM was 88.7%. Furthermore, T2DM appeared to have a negative effect on survival of women with breast cancer. This population-based study confirmed that T2DM patients are at increased risk of several cancers, and of premature death in women with breast cancer.

  12. Medical care of type 2 diabetes in German disease management programmes: a population-based evaluation.

    PubMed

    Stark, Reneé G; Schunk, Michaela V; Meisinger, Christine; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Leidl, Reiner; Holle, Rolf

    2011-05-01

    Type 2 diabetes disease management programmes (DDMPs) are offered by German social health insurance to promote healthcare consistent with evidence-based medical guidelines. The aim of this study was to compare healthcare quality and medical endpoints between diabetes management programme participants and patients receiving usual care designated as controls. All patients with type 2 diabetes (age range: 36-81) in a cross-sectional survey of a cohort study, performed by the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg, received a self-administered questionnaire regarding their diabetes care. Physical examination and laboratory tests were also performed. The analysis only included patients with social health insurance and whose participation status in a diabetes disease management program was validated by the primary physician (n = 166). Regression analyses, adjusting for age, sex, education, diabetes duration, baseline waist circumference and clustering regarding primary physician were conducted. Evaluation of healthcare processes showed that those in diabetes disease management programmes (n = 89) reported medical examination of eyes and feet and medical advice regarding diet [odds ratio (OR): 2.39] and physical activity (OR: 2.87) more frequently, received anti-diabetic medications (OR: 3.77) and diabetes education more often (OR: 2.66) than controls. Both groups had satisfactory HbA(1c) control but poor low-density lipoprotein cholesterol control. Blood pressure goals (<140/90 mmHg) were achieved more frequently by patients in diabetes disease management programmes (OR: 2.21). German diabetes disease management programmes are associated with improved healthcare processes and blood pressure control. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol control must be improved for all patients with diabetes. Further research will be required to assess the long-term effects of this diabetes disease management programme. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Estimating micro area behavioural risk factor prevalence from large population-based surveys: a full Bayesian approach.

    PubMed

    Seliske, L; Norwood, T A; McLaughlin, J R; Wang, S; Palleschi, C; Holowaty, E

    2016-06-07

    An important public health goal is to decrease the prevalence of key behavioural risk factors, such as tobacco use and obesity. Survey information is often available at the regional level, but heterogeneity within large geographic regions cannot be assessed. Advanced spatial analysis techniques are demonstrated to produce sensible micro area estimates of behavioural risk factors that enable identification of areas with high prevalence. A spatial Bayesian hierarchical model was used to estimate the micro area prevalence of current smoking and excess bodyweight for the Erie-St. Clair region in southwestern Ontario. Estimates were mapped for male and female respondents of five cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). The micro areas were 2006 Census Dissemination Areas, with an average population of 400-700 people. Two individual-level models were specified: one controlled for survey cycle and age group (model 1), and one controlled for survey cycle, age group and micro area median household income (model 2). Post-stratification was used to derive micro area behavioural risk factor estimates weighted to the population structure. SaTScan analyses were conducted on the granular, postal-code level CCHS data to corroborate findings of elevated prevalence. Current smoking was elevated in two urban areas for both sexes (Sarnia and Windsor), and an additional small community (Chatham) for males only. Areas of excess bodyweight were prevalent in an urban core (Windsor) among males, but not females. Precision of the posterior post-stratified current smoking estimates was improved in model 2, as indicated by narrower credible intervals and a lower coefficient of variation. For excess bodyweight, both models had similar precision. Aggregation of the micro area estimates to CCHS design-based estimates validated the findings. This is among the first studies to apply a full Bayesian model to complex sample survey data to identify micro areas with variation in risk

  14. Human Papillomavirus prevalence and probable first effects of vaccination in 20 to 25 year-old women in Germany: a population-based cross-sectional study via home-based self-sampling.

    PubMed

    Deleré, Yvonne; Remschmidt, Cornelius; Leuschner, Josefine; Schuster, Melanie; Fesenfeld, Michaela; Schneider, Achim; Wichmann, Ole; Kaufmann, Andreas M

    2014-02-19

    Estimates of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in a population prior to and after HPV vaccine introduction are essential to evaluate the short-term impact of vaccination. Between 2010 and 2012 we conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in Germany to determine HPV prevalence, genotype distribution and risk factors for HPV-infection in women aged 20-25 years. Women were recruited by a two-step cluster sampling approach. A home-based self-collection of cervicovaginal lavages was used. Specimens were analysed using a general primer GP5+/GP6+-based polymerase chain reaction and genotyped for 18 high-risk and 6 low-risk HPV- strains by Luminex-based multiplexed genotyping. Among 787 included women, 512 were not vaccinated against HPV. In the non-vaccinated population, HPV prevalence of any type was 38.1%, with HPV 16 (19.5%) being the most prevalent genotype. Prevalence of any high-risk type was 34.4%, and in 17.4% of all women, more than one genotype was identified. A higher number of lifetime sexual partners and low educational status were independently associated with HPV-infection. In 223 vaccinated women, prevalence of HPV 16/18 was significantly lower compared to non-vaccinated women (13.9% vs. 22.5%, p = 0.007). When stratifying by age groups, this difference was only significant in women aged 20-21 years, who at time of vaccination were on average younger and had less previous sexual contacts than women aged 22-25 years. We demonstrate a high prevalence of high-risk HPV genotypes in non-vaccinated women living in Germany that can be potentially prevented by vaccination. Probable first vaccination effects on the HPV prevalence were observed in women who were vaccinated at younger age. This finding reinforces the recommendation to vaccinate girls in early adolescence.

  15. Population-based HIV prevalence and associated factors in male-to-female transsexuals from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Angelo Brandelli; Fontanari, Anna Martha Vaitses; Jacinto, Michelle Moraes; da Silva, Dhiordan Cardoso; Lorencetti, Emilaine Karine; da Rosa Filho, Heitor Tomé; Mueller, Andressa; de Garcia, Claudia Garcia; Nardi, Henrique Caetano; Koller, Silvia Helena; Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues

    2015-02-01

    This study assessed HIV prevalence and associated factors in 284 male-to-female transsexuals from southern Brazil. Seroprevalence was 25 %. Seroprevalence was higher and associated with older age, residence in the metropolitan area, history of diagnosis of other STDs, and reported history of sex work. The year of diagnosis showed no significant relationship with the prevalence of HIV nor the fact of being in a stable relationship, a history of drug use, years of education, and race/ethnicity. The odds of HIV infection compared with the general Brazilian population was 55.55 (95 % CI 38.39-80.39). Changes in the views of the vulnerable groups to HIV/AIDS in Brazil and efforts in the construction of strategies of prevention and in the guarantee of human rights are required.

  16. Use of Antibiotics and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Knop, Filip Krag; Frost, Morten; Hallas, Jesper; Pottegård, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Context and objective: Evidence that bacteria in the human gut may influence nutrient metabolism is accumulating. We investigated whether use of antibiotics influences the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and whether the effect can be attributed to specific types of antibiotics. Methods: We conducted a population-based case-control study of incident type 2 diabetes cases in Denmark (population 5.6 million) between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2012. Data from the Danish National Registry of Patients, the Danish National Prescription Registry, and the Danish Person Registry were combined. Results: The odds ratio (OR) associating type 2 diabetes with exposure to antibiotics of any type was 1.53 (95% confidence interval 1.50–1.55) with redemption of more than or equal to 5 versus 0–1 prescriptions. Although no individual group of antibiotics was specifically associated with type 2 diabetes risk, slightly higher ORs for type 2 diabetes were seen with narrow-spectrum and bactericidal antibiotics (OR 1.55 and 1.48) compared to broad-spectrum and bacteriostatic types of antibiotics (OR 1.31 and 1.39), respectively. A clear dose-response effect was seen with increasing cumulative load of antibiotics. The increased use of antibiotics in patients with type 2 diabetes was found up to 15 years before diagnosis of type 2 diabetes as well as after the diagnosis. Conclusions: Our results could support the possibility that antibiotics exposure increases type 2 diabetes risk. However, the findings may also represent an increased demand for antibiotics from increased risk of infections in patients with yet-undiagnosed diabetes. PMID:26312581

  17. A Population-Based Study of Childhood Sexual Contact in China: Prevalence and Long-Term Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ye; Parish, William L.; Laumann, Edward O.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives This study provides national estimates of the prevalence of childhood sexual contact and its association with sexual well-being and psychological distress among adults in China. Method A national stratified probability sample of 1,519 women and 1,475 men aged 20 to 64 years in urban China completed a computer-administered survey in 1999–2000. The data from this survey on both adult-to-child and peer-to-peer sexual contact before age 14 were subjected to descriptive and multivariate analyses that were adjusted for both sampling weights and sampling design. Results The overall prevalence of reported childhood sexual contact was 4.2%, with prevalence higher among men (5.1%) than among women (3.3%) and higher among those aged 20–29 years (8.3%). Childhood sexual contact was associated with multiplex consequences, including hyper-sexuality (high levels of masturbation, thoughts about sex, varieties of sexual practices, partner turnover), adult sexual victimization (unwanted sex, unwanted sexual acts, sexual harassment), sexual difficulties (genitor-urinary symptoms, sexually transmitted infections, sexual dysfunctions), and psychological distress. Psychological distress was largely mediated by adult sexual victimization, sexual difficulties, and hyper-sexuality. Conclusions Despite the relatively modest prevalence of childhood sexual contact among Chinese adults, the association with multiplex adult outcomes suggests that much as in the West early sexual contact is a significant issue. Practice Implications The findings underscore the importance of public education about childhood sexual contact and abuse in China. The findings suggest a need for public health campaigns that tackle the stigma associated with being abused and encourage victims to report abusive behavior to proper sources. The findings are also consistent with new efforts to alleviate the negative long-term impact of childhood sexual abuse. PMID:18614231

  18. Specific and unspecific gynecological alarm symptoms--prevalence estimates in different age groups: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran; Ravn, Pernille; Larsen, Pia V; Søndergaard, Jens; Jarbøl, Dorte E

    2015-02-01

    To determine prevalence estimates of gynecological alarm symptoms in different age groups and to describe common patterns of gynecological symptoms. Web-based cross-sectional survey study. Nationwide in Denmark. A random sample of 51,090 women aged 20 years or above from the general population. An internet-based questionnaire study regarding the prevalence estimates of symptom experiences. A total of 18 symptoms of cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancer were selected through an extensive literature search, which included national and international guidelines. Prevalence estimates of self-reported experience of gynecological alarm symptoms within the preceding 4 weeks. A total of 26,466 women (54.5%) participated in the study. Some 80.3% had experienced at least one of the alarm symptoms within the preceding 4 weeks, and the median number of experienced symptoms was 2 (interquartile range 1-4). The most common symptoms were tiredness (53.0%) and abdominal bloating (36.7%); postmenopausal bleeding (2.3%) and involuntary weight loss (2.8%) were least frequent. Most of the symptoms were more prevalent among younger women, whereas only dyspnea and increased urgency of urination were more frequent among older women. Among younger women, multiple abdominal symptoms often occurred simultaneously and frequently in combination with pelvic pain, whereas older women were more likely to report single symptoms. Gynecological alarm symptoms are frequent in the general population, mostly among younger women. Older women reported fewer symptoms, and these often appeared as single symptoms. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Prevalence of maternal chronic diseases during pregnancy - a nationwide population based study from 1989 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Jølving, Line Riis; Nielsen, Jan; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Nielsen, Rasmus Gaardskaer; Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre; Nørgård, Bente Mertz

    2016-11-01

    There is substantial evidence of a negative impact of maternal chronic disease during pregnancy on reproductive outcomes. Knowledge of the prevalence of chronic diseases during pregnancy is limited, but essential for a focused preventive effort regarding optimal disease control during pregnancy. We aimed to analyze the prevalence of chronic diseases during pregnancy. This register-based cohort study included all women giving birth in Denmark between 1989 and 2013 based on data from Danish health registers. Maternal chronic diseases included 23 disease categories of both physical and mental health conditions recorded within a period of 10 years before childbirth. We included 1 362 200 childbirths during the study period. The overall prevalence of maternal chronic disease increased from 3.71% in 1989 to 15.76% in 2013. The most frequently registered chronic diseases were chronic lung diseases/asthma (1.73%), thyroid disorders (1.50%) and anxiety and personality disorders (1.33%). Taking increasing maternal age at birth into account, the relative risk for women to have a chronic disease from 2009 to 2013 was 4.14 (95% CI 4.05-4.22), compared with mothers giving birth from 1989 to 1993. We found an increasing prevalence of maternal chronic disease during pregnancy and more than a four-fold increased risk of maternal chronic disease during pregnancy for childbirths in the period 2009 through 2013, compared with 1989 through 1993. The main limitation of our study is related to a potentially greater awareness and hence more careful registration of maternal chronic disease over time and thereby an increased tendency to register diseases. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Population-based prevalence of high blood pressure among adults in an urban slum in Enugu, South East Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ezeala-Adikaibe, B A; Orjioke, C; Ekenze, O S; Ijoma, U; Onodugo, O; Okudo, G; Okwara, C; Chime, P; Mbadiwe, N; Eddy, A; Onyekonwu, C; Onyebueke, G; Ulasi, I; Mba, A U

    2016-04-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), rapid urbanization and changing lifestyle have modified the profile and pattern of various medical disorders. Apart from high prevalence rates, recent trends with regard to hypertension in Africa include: low levels of awareness, treatment and control. Although a large number of studies provide data about hypertension in SSA, few studies focused on special populations such as urban slum dwellers. The WHO STEP-wise approach to surveillance of noncommunicable diseases was used to access the prevalence of hypertension among adults in one of the urban slums in Enugu. Out of the 811 individuals aged 20 years and above surveyed, 774 (95.4%) cases were analyzed. About 4.7% and 2.7% reported a past history of diabetes and stroke, respectively, whereas 15% had a positive family history of hypertension. The mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) body mass index (BMI) was 23.7 (23.2-24.2) kg m(-2) among males and 26.6 (25.7-26.7) kg m(-2) among females (P<0.0001). The prevalence of hypertension was 52.5% (95% CI: 48.9-56.0) and 55.4% (95% CI: 49.5-61.3) in males and 50.8% (95% CI: 46.4-55.1) in females (P=0.23). It increased with age peaking at 45-54 years in females and ⩾55 years in males. About 40.1% were aware of their hypertension and 28.8% of those aware had normal blood pressure. In regression analysis, systolic (R(2)=0.192) and diastolic (R(2)=0.129) blood pressures increased with age and BMI. The prevalence of high blood pressure among adults in Enugu slums is very high and a cause for concern, and calls for urgent attention.

  1. Trends in the prevalences of congenital anomalies and age at motherhood in a southern European region: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Cambra, K; Ibañez, B; Urzelai, D; Portillo, I; Montoya, I; Esnaola, S; Cirarda, F B

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalences of the main groups of congenital anomalies and to assess their trend over time. Design Population-based study of prevalences. Setting The Basque Country, Spain. Participants All births and all congenital anomalies diagnosed prenatally, at birth or during the first year of age, in all hospitals of the country, from 1999 to 2008. Main outcomes measures Total diagnosed prevalences and prevalences at birth of all chromosomal and non-chromosomal anomalies, Down's syndrome, anomalies of the nervous system, urinary, limbs, digestive system and congenital heart defects. Results Mean age (SD) of women at childbirth and the proportion of them over 35 years of age shifted from 32.1 (4.5) years, with 18.3% in 1999–2001, to 32.3 (4.7) years, with 23.9% in 2006–2008. Between 1999 and 2008, 991 cases of chromosomal anomalies and 3090 of non-chromosomal anomalies were diagnosed, which yields, respectively, total prevalences of 5.2‰ and of 16.2‰. Among chromosomal anomalies, Down's syndrome is the most frequent (2.9‰). With marginal statistical significance, the results point at an increasing trend in total diagnosed chromosomal anomalies, but a decreasing one in prevalences at birth. Among non-chromosomal congenital anomalies, congenital heart defects are the most frequent (5.2‰) one. Rates of all non-chromosomal, urinary and limb anomalies grew during the study period, whereas those of congenital heart defects and anomalies of the digestive system did not change significantly. Conclusions In the Basque Country, rates of chromosomal anomalies are higher than the overall estimated prevalence in European countries, and continue to increase slightly, which may be related to the rise in maternal age. Rates of non-chromosomal anomalies are within the European frequent range of values, and the increases observed need to be checked in the following years. PMID:24589823

  2. Prevalence trends of selected major birth defects: A multi-state population-based retrospective study, United States, 1999 to 2007.

    PubMed

    St Louis, Amanda M; Kim, Keewan; Browne, Marilyn L; Liu, Gang; Liberman, Rebecca F; Nembhard, Wendy N; Canfield, Mark A; Copeland, Glenn; Fornoff, Jane; Kirby, Russell S

    2017-09-14

    We evaluated selected birth defects over a 9-year period to assess prevalence trends by selected maternal and infant factors. Data were pooled from 11 population-based birth defects surveillance programs in the United States for children born between 1999 and 2007. Overall prevalence, as well as 3-year interval prevalence, was calculated for 26 specific birth defects, stratified by maternal age, maternal race/ethnicity, and infant sex. Average annual percent change (AAPC) was calculated for each birth defect. Poisson regression was used to determine change in AAPC, and joinpoint regression to identify breakpoints and changes in slope for prevalence of each defect over time. Between 1999 and 2001 and 2005 and 2007, four birth defects increased by 10% or more: coarctation of the aorta (17%), gastroschisis (83%), omphalocele (11%), and Down syndrome (10%). Among mothers <20 years of age, the gastroschisis AAPC increased 10.1% overall and, cross-classified by maternal race/ethnicity, the AAPC for mothers <20 years increased 9.2%, 25.7%, and 7.7% among non-Hispanic white (NHW), non-Hispanic black (NHB), and Hispanic mothers, respectively. A small increase in Down syndrome (AAPC 4.4%) was found for NHB mothers ≥35 years. No significant trends in prevalence were identified for most birth defects. Gastroschisis prevalence increased significantly among NHW and NHB mothers <20 years of age, with the greatest increases in NHB mothers. Prevalence of Down syndrome among NHB mothers ≥35 years also increased slightly. Stratified results may suggest avenues of research in birth defect etiology and in evaluating prevention efforts. Birth Defects Research, 2017.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The prevalence of compulsive hoarding and its association with compulsive buying in a German population-based sample.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Astrid; Mitchell, James E; Crosby, Ross D; Glaesmer, Heide; de Zwaan, Martina

    2009-08-01

    The aims of the study were to estimate the prevalence rate of compulsive hoarding, and to determine the association between compulsive hoarding and compulsive buying in a nationally representative sample of the German population (N = 2307). Compulsive hoarding was assessed with the German version of the Saving Inventory-Revised (SI-R; Frost, R.O., Steketee, G., & Grisham, J. (2004). Measurement of compulsive hoarding: saving inventory-revised. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42, 1163-1182.). The point prevalence of compulsive hoarding was estimated to be 4.6%. Individuals with compulsive hoarding did not differ significantly from those without compulsive hoarding regarding age, gender, and other sociodemographic characteristics. Significant correlations were found between the compulsive hoarding and the compulsive buying measures. Participants with compulsive hoarding reported a higher propensity to compulsive buying than respondents without hoarding. About two thirds of participants classified as having compulsive hoarding were also defined as suffering from compulsive buying. In summary, these results suggest that compulsive hoarding may be relatively prevalent in Germany and they confirm the close association between compulsive hoarding and compulsive buying through the investigation of a large scale representative sample.

  4. Socioeconomic Impact on the Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Wallonia, Belgium: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Streel, Sylvie; Hoge, Axelle; Majerus, Sven; Kolh, Philippe; Chapelle, Jean-Paul; Albert, Adelin; Guillaume, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    Background. Monitoring the epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs) and their determinants is important to develop appropriate recommendations to prevent cardiovascular diseases in specific risk groups. The NESCaV study was designed to collect standardized data to estimate the prevalence of CRFs in relation to socioeconomic parameters among the general adult population in the province of Liège, Wallonia, Belgium. Methods. A representative stratified random sample of 1017 subjects, aged 20–69 years, participated in the NESCaV study (2010–2012). A self-administered questionnaire, a clinical examination, and laboratory tests were performed on participants. CRFs included hypertension, dyslipidemia, global obesity, abdominal obesity, diabetes, current smoking, and physical inactivity. Covariates were education and subjective and objective socioeconomic levels. Data were analyzed by weighted logistic regression. Results. The prevalence of hypertension, abdominal obesity, global obesity, current smoking, and physical inactivity was higher in subjects with low education and who considered themselves “financially in need.” Living below poverty threshold also increased the risk of global and abdominal obesity, current smoking, and physical inactivity. Conclusion. The study shows that socioeconomic factors impact the prevalence of CRFs in the adult population of Wallonia. Current public health policies should be adjusted to reduce health inequalities in specific risk groups. PMID:26380280

  5. Prevalence of essential tremor in the territory of Lake Trasimeno, Italy: results of a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Maria Luisa; Stracci, Fabrizio; Tambasco, Nicola; Sarchielli, Paola; Rossi, Aroldo; Calabresi, Paolo

    2007-03-15

    Because of the great variability in previous epidemiological data, and in light of the more accurate definition and diagnostic criteria recently formulated, we designed the present study to evaluate the prevalence of essential tremor (ET) in an Italian population. The study population included 13,604 individuals, who represented all patients of 11 family doctors working in the Territory of Lake Trasimeno in central Italy. Assessment of the sample and selection of the suspected cases were carried out by the same family doctors, previously trained to apply the inclusion and exclusion criteria for the definition of ET based on the Classification Criteria of the Movement Disorder Society (1998) and the Guidelines of the Ad Hoc Committee (2000). The total population was assessed over a period of 12 months. The age-adjusted prevalence of ET was 1.21% (95% confidence interval, 0.83-1.76). The probability of presenting with ET tended to increase with age and males showed a 50% greater risk for developing ET (male/female ratio = 1.5 for each age class). Our results are in line with the most recent epidemiological findings, which suggest a lower prevalence of ET than in older studies. These results can be attributed to the application of more stringent diagnostic criteria. (c) 2006 Movement Disorder Society.

  6. Use of motorcycle in Brazil: users profile, prevalence of use and traffic accidents occurrence - a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Seerig, Lenise Menezes; Bacchieri, Giancarlo; Nascimento, Gustavo Giacomelli; Barros, Aluisio J D; Demarco, Flávio Fernando

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to describe the profile of motorcycle users and determine the prevalence of use. Also, to evaluate the reason for using a motorcycle, users' perceived risk of traffic accident, pattern of helmet wearing and number of accidents related to motorcycle use in the last 12 months. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Sampling process was carried out in two stages, with the primary unit being the census track and the secondary the house. The study included 3,004 individuals aged 10 to 59 years, which answered a structured questionnaire. The outcome of the study was the use of motorcycle. The prevalence of motorcycle use was 25%. The majority of the riders were composed by males (79%). Individuals aged from 18 to 35-years-old comprised 42% of the total number of users, mainly as riders (24%). Forty percent of the users were not using properly the helmet strap. The major part of the users (76%) had a perception of high risk for accidents. The prevalence of accidents was 8%; it was higher among males and among those individuals aged from 18 to 35 years. The use of motorcycle was widespread in the population. Users were aware of the risk of accident, even though they reported to not wear correctly the helmet.

  7. Factors associated with the prevalence of anterior open bite among preschool children: A population-based study in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Daniella Borges; Brizon, Valéria Silva Cândido; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Madureira, Davidson Fróis; Gomes, Viviane Elisângela; de Oliveira, Ana Cristina Borges

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with the prevalence of anterior open bite among five-year-old Brazilian children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken using data from the National Survey of Oral Health (SB Brazil 2010). The outcome variable was anterior open bite classified as present or absent. The independent variables were classified by individual, sociodemographic and clinical factors. Data were analyzed through bivariate and multivariate analysis using SPSS statistical software (version 18.0) with a 95% level of significance. RESULTS: The prevalence of anterior open bite was 12.1%. Multivariate analysis showed that preschool children living in Southern Brazil had an increased chance of 1.8 more times of having anterior open bite (CI 95%: 1.16 - 3.02). Children identified with alterations in overjet had 14.6 times greater chances of having anterior open bite (CI 95%: 8.98 - 24.03). CONCLUSION: There was a significant association between anterior open bite and the region of Brazil where the children lived, the presence of altered overjet and the prevalence of posterior crossbite. PMID:25715723

  8. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its complications in a population-based sample in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Saadi, Hussein; Carruthers, S George; Nagelkerke, Nicolaas; Al-Maskari, Fatima; Afandi, Bachar; Reed, Richard; Lukic, Miodrag; Nicholls, M Gary; Kazam, Elsadig; Algawi, Kais; Al-Kaabi, Jumaa; Leduc, Charles; Sabri, Sufyan; El-Sadig, Mohamed; Elkhumaidi, Seham; Agarwal, Mukesh; Benedict, Sheela

    2007-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications in the adult population of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and assess the degree of metabolic control in subjects with diagnosed DM. A random sample of houses of Emirati citizens living in Al Ain, UAE was surveyed. Fasting blood glucose was determined by glucose meter and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted if blood sugar was <7 mmol/l. DM was defined according to the WHO criteria. Pre-diabetes status was based on fasting venous blood glucose concentration of 5.6-6.9 mmol/l or 2h post-OGTT venous blood glucose level of 7.8-11.0 mmol/l. There were 2455 adults (>18) living in the 452 surveyed houses of which 10.2% reported having the diagnosis of DM. A total of 373 men and non-pregnant women underwent testing, and after adjustment for factors affecting participation probability the prevalence of diagnosed DM, undiagnosed DM and pre-diabetes was 10.5, 6.6 and 20.2%, respectively. Age-standardized rates for DM (diagnosed and undiagnosed) and pre-diabetes among 30-64 years old were 29.0 and 24.2%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that only age and body mass index (BMI) were significantly independently related to undiagnosed DM. In patients with diagnosed DM, the prevalence rates for retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, peripheral vascular disease and coronary heart disease were 54.2, 34.7, 40.8, 11.1 and 10.5%, respectively. A significant proportion of subjects with undiagnosed DM and pre-diabetes also had micro- and macro-vascular complications. The proportion of subjects with diagnosed DM who achieved internationally recognized targets for HbA1c (<7%), LDL-C (<2.6 mmol/l) and blood pressure (<130/80 mmHg) was 33.3, 30.8 and 42.1%, respectively. This study confirms the previously reported high prevalence of DM in the UAE. Diabetic complications were highly prevalent among subjects with diagnosed and undiagnosed DM. Metabolic control was suboptimal in most

  9. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Complications of Diabetes in the Kilimanjaro Region: A Population-Based Study from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Stanifer, John W; Cleland, Charles R; Makuka, Gerald Jamberi; Egger, Joseph R; Maro, Venance; Maro, Honest; Karia, Francis; Patel, Uptal D; Burton, Matthew J; Philippin, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, diabetes is a growing burden, yet little is known about its prevalence, risk factors, and complications. To address these gaps and help inform public health efforts aimed at prevention and treatment, we conducted a community-based study assessing diabetes epidemiology. We conducted a stratified, cluster-designed, serial cross-sectional household study from 2014-2015 in the Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania. We used a three-stage cluster probability sampling method to randomly select individuals. To estimate prevalence, we screened individuals for glucose impairment, including diabetes, using hemoglobin A1C. We also screened for hypertension and obesity, and to assess for potential complications, individuals with diabetes were assessed for retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy. We enrolled 481 adults from 346 urban and rural households. The prevalence of glucose impairment was 21.7% (95% CI 15.2-29.8), which included diabetes (5.7%; 95% CI 3.37-9.47) and glucose impairment with increased risk for diabetes (16.0%; 95% CI 10.2-24.0). Overweight or obesity status had an independent prevalence risk ratio for glucose impairment (2.16; 95% CI 1.39-3.36). Diabetes awareness was low (35.6%), and few individuals with diabetes were receiving biomedical treatment (33.3%). Diabetes-associated complications were common (50.2%; 95% CI 33.7-66.7), including renal (12.0%; 95% CI 4.7-27.3), ophthalmic (49.6%; 95% CI 28.6-70.7), and neurological (28.8%; 95% CI 8.0-65.1) abnormalities. In a northern region of Tanzania, diabetes is an under-recognized health condition, despite the fact that many people either have diabetes or are at increased risk for developing diabetes. Most individuals were undiagnosed or untreated, and the prevalence of diabetes-associated complications was high. Public health efforts in this region will need to focus on reducing modifiable risk factors, which appear to include obesity, as well as early detection that includes increasing

  10. Prevalences of sexually transmitted infections in young adults and female sex workers in Peru: a national population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Cárcamo, César P; Campos, Pablo E; García, Patricia J; Hughes, James P; Garnett, Geoff P; Holmes, King K

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background We assessed prevalences of seven sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Peru, stratified by risk behaviours, to help to define care and prevention priorities. Methods In a 2002 household-based survey of the general population, we enrolled randomly selected 18–29-year-old residents of 24 cities with populations greater than 50 000 people. We then surveyed female sex workers (FSWs) in these cities. We gathered data for sexual behaviour; vaginal specimens or urine for nucleic acid amplification tests for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis; and blood for serological tests for syphilis, HIV, and (in subsamples) herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2) and human T-lymphotropic virus. This study is a registered component of the PREVEN trial, number ISRCTN43722548. Findings 15 261 individuals from the general population and 4485 FSWs agreed to participate in our survey. Overall prevalence of infection with HSV2, weighted for city size, was 13·5% in men, 13·6% in women, and 60·6% in FSWs (all values in FSWs standardised to age composition of women in the general population). The prevalence of C trachomatis infection was 4·2% in men, 6·5% in women, and 16·4% in FSWs; of T vaginalis infection was 0·3% in men, 4·9% in women, and 7·9% in FSWs; and of syphilis was 0·5% in men, 0·4% in women, and 0·8% in FSWs. N gonorrhoeae infection had a prevalence of 0·1% in men and women, and of 1·6% in FSWs. Prevalence of HIV infection was 0·5% in men and FSWs, and 0·1% in women. Four (0·3%) of 1535 specimens were positive for human T-lymphotropic virus 1. In men, 65·0% of infections with HIV, 71·5% of N gonorrhoeae, and 41·4% of HSV2 and 60·9% of cases of syphilis were in the 13·3% who had sex with men or unprotected sex with FSWs in the past year. In women from the general population, 66·7% of infections with HIV and 16·7% of cases of syphilis were accounted for by the 4·4% who had been paid for sex by any of

  11. Varicella infection is not associated with increasing prevalence of eczema: a U.S. population-based study.

    PubMed

    Li, J C; Silverberg, J I

    2015-11-01

    Chickenpox infection early in childhood has previously been shown to protect against the development of childhood eczema in line with the hygiene hypothesis. In 1995, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended routine vaccination against varicella zoster virus in the United States. Subsequently, rates of chickenpox infection have dramatically decreased in childhood. We sought to understand the impact of declining rates of chickenpox infection on the prevalence of eczema. We analysed data from 207 007 children in the 1997-2013 National Health Interview Survey. One-year prevalence of eczema and 'ever had' history of chickenpox were analysed. Associations between chickenpox infection and eczema were tested using survey-weighted logistic regression. The impact of chickenpox on trends of eczema prevalence was tested using survey logistic regression and generalized linear models. Children with a history of chickenpox compared with those without chickenpox had a lower prevalence [survey-weighted logistic regression (95% confidence interval, CI)] of eczema [8·8% (8·5-9·0%) vs. 10·6% (10·4-10·8%)]. In pooled multivariate models controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, household income, highest level of household education, insurance coverage, U.S. birthplace and family size, eczema was inversely associated with chickenpox [adjusted odds ratio (95% CI), 0·90 (0·86-0·94), P < 0·001]. The prevalence of eczema significantly increased over time (Tukey post-hoc test, P < 0·001 for comparisons of survey years 2001-13 vs. 1997-2000, 2008-13 vs. 2001-04 and 2008-13 vs. 2005-07). In multivariate generalized linear models, the odds of eczema was not associated with chickenpox in 2001-13 (P ≥ 0·06). These findings suggest that lower rates of chickenpox infection secondary to widespread vaccination against varicella zoster virus are not contributing to higher rates of childhood eczema in the U.S. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  12. Prevalences of sexually transmitted infections in young adults and female sex workers in Peru: a national population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Cárcamo, César P; Campos, Pablo E; García, Patricia J; Hughes, James P; Garnett, Geoff P; Holmes, King K

    2012-10-01

    We assessed prevalences of seven sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Peru, stratified by risk behaviours, to help to define care and prevention priorities. In a 2002 household-based survey of the general population, we enrolled randomly selected 18-29-year-old residents of 24 cities with populations greater than 50 000 people. We then surveyed female sex workers (FSWs) in these cities. We gathered data for sexual behaviour; vaginal specimens or urine for nucleic acid amplification tests for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis; and blood for serological tests for syphilis, HIV, and (in subsamples) herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2) and human T-lymphotropic virus. This study is a registered component of the PREVEN trial, number ISRCTN43722548. 15 261 individuals from the general population and 4485 FSWs agreed to participate in our survey. Overall prevalence of infection with HSV2, weighted for city size, was 13·5% in men, 13·6% in women, and 60·6% in FSWs (all values in FSWs standardised to age composition of women in the general population). The prevalence of C trachomatis infection was 4·2% in men, 6·5% in women, and 16·4% in FSWs; of T vaginalis infection was 0·3% in men, 4·9% in women, and 7·9% in FSWs; and of syphilis was 0·5% in men, 0·4% in women, and 0·8% in FSWs. N gonorrhoeae infection had a prevalence of 0·1% in men and women, and of 1·6% in FSWs. Prevalence of HIV infection was 0·5% in men and FSWs, and 0·1% in women. Four (0·3%) of 1535 specimens were positive for human T-lymphotropic virus 1. In men, 65·0% of infections with HIV, 71·5% of N gonorrhoeae, and 41·4% of HSV2 and 60·9% of cases of syphilis were in the 13·3% who had sex with men or unprotected sex with FSWs in the past year. In women from the general population, 66·7% of infections with HIV and 16·7% of cases of syphilis were accounted for by the 4·4% who had been paid for sex by any of their past three partners. Defining of high

  13. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Complications of Diabetes in the Kilimanjaro Region: A Population-Based Study from Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Makuka, Gerald Jamberi; Egger, Joseph R.; Maro, Venance; Maro, Honest; Karia, Francis; Patel, Uptal D.; Burton, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan Africa, diabetes is a growing burden, yet little is known about its prevalence, risk factors, and complications. To address these gaps and help inform public health efforts aimed at prevention and treatment, we conducted a community-based study assessing diabetes epidemiology. Methods and Findings We conducted a stratified, cluster-designed, serial cross-sectional household study from 2014–2015 in the Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania. We used a three-stage cluster probability sampling method to randomly select individuals. To estimate prevalence, we screened individuals for glucose impairment, including diabetes, using hemoglobin A1C. We also screened for hypertension and obesity, and to assess for potential complications, individuals with diabetes were assessed for retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy. We enrolled 481 adults from 346 urban and rural households. The prevalence of glucose impairment was 21.7% (95% CI 15.2–29.8), which included diabetes (5.7%; 95% CI 3.37–9.47) and glucose impairment with increased risk for diabetes (16.0%; 95% CI 10.2–24.0). Overweight or obesity status had an independent prevalence risk ratio for glucose impairment (2.16; 95% CI 1.39–3.36). Diabetes awareness was low (35.6%), and few individuals with diabetes were receiving biomedical treatment (33.3%). Diabetes-associated complications were common (50.2%; 95% CI 33.7–66.7), including renal (12.0%; 95% CI 4.7–27.3), ophthalmic (49.6%; 95% CI 28.6–70.7), and neurological (28.8%; 95% CI 8.0–65.1) abnormalities. Conclusions In a northern region of Tanzania, diabetes is an under-recognized health condition, despite the fact that many people either have diabetes or are at increased risk for developing diabetes. Most individuals were undiagnosed or untreated, and the prevalence of diabetes-associated complications was high. Public health efforts in this region will need to focus on reducing modifiable risk factors, which appear to include

  14. Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Patients with Insomnia: A Population-based Historical Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Ling; Chien, Wu-Chien; Chung, Chi-Hsiang; Wu, Fei-Ling

    2017-08-18

    We investigated the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in patients with and without insomnia. In this historical cohort study, we performed a secondary analysis of data from 2001 to 2010, which was obtained from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Database. We developed a Cox proportional hazard regression model to estimate the effects of insomnia on T2DM risk. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was applied to compare the differences in the cumulative incidence of T2DM between the groups with and without insomnia. During the follow-up period, the T2DM incidence rate of patients with insomnia was significantly higher than that of patients without insomnia (34.7 vs. 24.3 per 1000 person-years). Overall, patients with insomnia had a higher risk of T2DM than did patients without insomnia [adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.10-1.19]. Among patients aged younger than 40 years, those with insomnia had a higher risk of T2DM than did the comparison cohort (adjusted HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.14-1.55). Compared with patients without insomnia, the risk tended to increase with the duration of follow-up in patients with insomnia; when the insomnia duration was <4 years, 4-8 years, and >8 years, the risk of T2DM increased by 1.14, 1.38, and 1.51 times (95% CI, 1.03-1.17, 1.15-1.49, and 1.20-1.86), respectively. Patients with insomnia had a higher risk of T2DM, and this risk was particularly pronounced among the young-aged (≤40 years) population. Chronic insomnia could be an important risk factor for T2DM. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Headache characteristics and chronification of migraine and tension-type headache: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ashina, Sait; Lyngberg, Ann; Jensen, Rigmor

    2010-08-01

    Migraine and tension-type headache (TTH) can increase in frequency and transform from episodic to chronic forms. The process of transformation of these primary headaches is complex and involves multiple risk factors. In this cross-sectional and longitudinal population study, we aimed to investigate the relation of clinical characteristics of primary headaches to poor outcome: new-onset or persistent chronic headache (> or =180 days/year). Individuals who had migraine + / - TTH and those who had pure TTH were studied separately. Of 740 individuals who entered this study in 1989, 673 were eligible for follow-up in 2001, and a total of 549 individuals participated in the follow-up study. At baseline in 1989, no difference was found between episodic and chronic migraine headache ( + / - TTH). Duration of headache episodes >72 hours (p = .002) was associated with pure chronic TTH at baseline in 1989 whereas aggravation of headache by physical activity (p = .045) was associated with pure frequent episodic TTH. Of 64 subjects with migraine + / - TTH, 12 had a poor outcome in 2001. For pure TTH, of 116 subjects at baseline, 11 had a poor outcome in 2001. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis with adjustment for medication overuse and use of preventive medications, poor outcome of migraine + / - TTH tended to be associated with a baseline pulsating quality and severe intensity of migraine, photophobia and phonophobia, as well as longer duration of an individual headache attack. For pure TTH, unilateral headache, nausea and individual headache attack duration greater than 72 hours was associated with poor outcome. Pooled data univariate analysis revealed that nausea, daily use of acute headache medications, use of headache preventive medications and coexistent headaches were significant predictors of chronic headache in 2001(p<.05). In conclusion, our study demonstrates that certain clinical characteristics of headaches are associated with poor outcome but alone

  16. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Treatment Patterns Across Europe: A Population-based Multi-database Study.

    PubMed

    Overbeek, Jetty A; Heintjes, Edith M; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Blin, Patrick; Lassalle, Régis; Hall, Gillian C; Lapi, Francesco; Bianchini, Elisa; Hammar, Niklas; Bezemer, Irene D; Herings, Ron M C

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the similarities and differences of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treatment patterns in daily practice in 5 European countries and whether these reflect differences in guidelines. Prescriptions for drugs used in diabetes treatment during a 5-year study period were obtained from electronic databases. Patients initiating T2DM treatment during the study period were included. An SAS analysis tool was developed to create episodes of use of drug classes, which resulted in treatment patterns. A total of 253,530 patients initiating T2DM treatment during the study period were included; 52% to 55% were male, and the mean age ranged from 62 to 67 years. Metformin was the most common initial treatment in all countries. After initial therapy, most patients in the Netherlands, Spain, and the United Kingdom switched to a combination of metformin + a sulfonylurea derivative (SU). In Italy, metformin in combination with an SU was outnumbered by "other treatment," mainly because of repaglinide use. In France, treatments including dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors were most frequent as second- and fourth-line treatment. Metformin monotherapy was again most commonly observed as the third line of treatment in all countries. Fourth treatment was a combination of metformin + an SU in the Netherlands and Spain; in the United Kingdom and France, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors were the most frequently used fourth line of treatment. This study provides a comprehensive overview of T2DM treatment patterns among patients initiating T2DM treatment in 5 European countries. There were differences, especially regarding the uptake of newer incretin-based treatments, which are usually prescribed as a second and/or third treatment in agreement with local guidelines. These variations reflect the differences between the national guidelines of these countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Incidence and types of preventable adverse events in elderly patients: population based review of medical records

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Eric J; Brennan, Troyen A

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence and types of preventable adverse events in elderly patients. Design Review of random sample of medical records in two stage process by nurses and physicians to detect adverse events. Two study investigators then judged preventability. Setting Hospitals in US states of Utah and Colorado, excluding psychiatric and Veterans Administration hospitals. Subjects 15 000 hospitalised patients discharged in 1992. Main outcome measures Incidence of preventable adverse events (number of preventable events per 100 discharges) in elderly patients (⩾65 years old) and non-elderly patients (16-64 years). Results When results were extrapolated to represent all discharges in 1992 in both states, non-elderly patients had 8901 adverse events (incidence 2.80% (SE 0.18%)) compared with 7419 (5.29% (0.37%)) among elderly patients (P=0.001). Non-elderly patients had 5038 preventable adverse events (incidence 1.58% (0.14%)) compared with 4134 (2.95% (0.28%)) in elderly patients (P=0.001). Elderly patients had a higher incidence of preventable events related to medical procedures (such as thoracentesis, cardiac catheterisation) (0.69% (0.14%) v 0.13% (0.04%)), preventable adverse drug events (0.63% (0.14%) v 0.17% (0.05%)), and preventable falls (0.10% (0.06%) v 0.01% (0.02%)). In multivariate analyses, adjusted for comorbid illnesses and case mix, age was not an independent predictor of preventable adverse events. Conclusions Preventable adverse events were more common among elderly patients, probably because of the clinical complexity of their care rather than age based discrimination. Preventable adverse drug events, events related to medical procedures, and falls were especially common in elderly patients and should be targets for efforts to prevent errors. PMID:10720355

  18. Type 1 Diabetes and Increased Risk of Subsequent Asthma: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Yung-Tsung; Cheng, Wen-Chien; Liao, Wei-Chih; Lin, Cheng-Li; Shen, Te-Chun; Chen, Wei-Chun; Chen, Chia-Hung; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-09-01

    The association between type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and asthma remains controversial and has led to new interest in these 2 disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations among young people with T1DM and asthma and offer a clinical demonstration of the balance between Th1 and Th2 responses.We conducted a retrospective cohort study by using data from the National Health Insurance (NHI) system of Taiwan. The cohort consisted of 3545 T1DM cases and 14,180 controls established during the 1998 to 2011 period. Of the 3545 T1DM patients, 55.1% were girls and 26.5% were in the age group <8 years.The overall incidence of asthma was 47% higher in the T1DM cohort than in the control cohort (6.49 vs 4.42 per 1000 person-y), with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-1.62). Moreover, T1DM patients who visited the emergency room (ER) more than twice for diabetes had a higher adjusted HR of 17.4 (95% CI = 12.9-23.6) of developing asthma. The adjusted HR of asthma was 38.6 (95% CI = 28.5-52.2) in T1DM patients who had been hospitalized more than twice for diabetes.We observed a significantly higher incidence of asthma in young patients with T1DM than in the general population. Among young people of T1DM with more ER visits or frequent hospitalization because of diabetes mellitus were associated with risk of asthma, may indicate that poor glycemic control significantly contributes to asthma risk.

  19. Incidence of type 2 diabetes after bariatric surgery: population-based matched cohort study.

    PubMed

    Booth, Helen; Khan, Omar; Prevost, Toby; Reddy, Marcus; Dregan, Alex; Charlton, Judith; Ashworth, Mark; Rudisill, Caroline; Littlejohns, Peter; Gulliford, Martin C

    2014-12-01

    The effect of currently used bariatric surgical procedures on the development of diabetes in obese people is not well defined. We aimed to assess the effect of bariatric surgery on development of type 2 diabetes in a large population of obese individuals. We did a matched cohort study of adults (age 20–100 years) identified from a UK-wide database of family practices, who were obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) and did not have diabetes. We enrolled 2167 patients who had undergone bariatric surgery between Jan 1, 2002, and April 30, 2014, and matched them--according to BMI, age, sex, index year, and HbA1c--with 2167 controls who had not had surgery. Procedures included laparoscopic gastric banding (n=1053), gastric bypass (795), and sleeve gastrectomy (317), with two procedures undefined. The primary outcome was development of clinical diabetes, which we extracted from electronic health records. Analyses were adjusted for matching variables, comorbidity, cardiovascular risk factors, and use of antihypertensive and lipid-lowering drugs. During a maximum of 7 years of follow-up (median 2·8 years [IQR 1·3–4·5]), 38 new diagnoses of diabetes were made in bariatric surgery patients and 177 were made in controls. By the end of 7 years of follow-up, 4·3% (95% CI 2·9–6·5) of bariatric surgery patients and 16·2% (13·3–19·6) of matched controls had developed diabetes. The incidence of diabetes diagnosis was 28·2 (95% CI 24·4–32·7) per 1000 person-years in controls and 5·7 (4·2–7·8) per 1000 person-years in bariatric surgery patients; the adjusted hazard ratio was 0·20 (95% CI 0·13–0·30, p<0·0001). This estimate was robust after varying the comparison group in sensitivity analyses, excluding gestational diabetes, or allowing for competing mortality risk. Bariatric surgery is associated with reduced incidence of clinical diabetes in obese participants without diabetes at baseline for up to 7 years after the procedure. UK National Institute for Health

  20. Copeptin is associated with kidney length, renal function, and prevalence of simple cysts in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ponte, Belen; Pruijm, Menno; Ackermann, Daniel; Vuistiner, Philippe; Guessous, Idris; Ehret, Georg; Alwan, Heba; Youhanna, Sonia; Paccaud, Fred; Mohaupt, Markus; Péchère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Vogt, Bruno; Burnier, Michel; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Devuyst, Olivier; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-06-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) has a key role in osmoregulation by facilitating water transport in the collecting duct. Recent evidence suggests that AVP may have additional effects on renal function and favor cyst growth in polycystic kidney disease. Whether AVP also affects kidney structure in the general population is unknown. We analyzed the association of copeptin, an established surrogate for AVP, with parameters of renal function and morphology in a multicentric population-based cohort. Participants from families of European ancestry were randomly selected in three Swiss cities. We used linear multilevel regression analysis to explore the association of copeptin with renal function parameters as well as kidney length and the presence of simple renal cysts assessed by ultrasound examination. Copeptin levels were log-transformed. The 529 women and 481 men had median copeptin levels of 3.0 and 5.2 pmol/L, respectively (P<0.001). In multivariable analyses, the copeptin level was associated inversely with eGFR (β=-2.1; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], -3.3 to -0.8; P=0.002) and kidney length (β=-1.2; 95% CI, -1.9 to -0.4; P=0.003) but positively with 24-hour urinary albumin excretion (β=0.11; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.20; P=0.03) and urine osmolality (β=0.08; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.10; P<0.001). A positive association was found between the copeptin level and the presence of renal cysts (odds ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.4; P=0.02). These results suggest that AVP has a pleiotropic role in renal function and may favor the development of simple renal cysts.

  1. Copeptin Is Associated with Kidney Length, Renal Function, and Prevalence of Simple Cysts in a Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Ponte, Belen; Pruijm, Menno; Ackermann, Daniel; Vuistiner, Philippe; Guessous, Idris; Ehret, Georg; Alwan, Heba; Youhanna, Sonia; Paccaud, Fred; Mohaupt, Markus; Péchère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Vogt, Bruno; Burnier, Michel; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Devuyst, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) has a key role in osmoregulation by facilitating water transport in the collecting duct. Recent evidence suggests that AVP may have additional effects on renal function and favor cyst growth in polycystic kidney disease. Whether AVP also affects kidney structure in the general population is unknown. We analyzed the association of copeptin, an established surrogate for AVP, with parameters of renal function and morphology in a multicentric population-based cohort. Participants from families of European ancestry were randomly selected in three Swiss cities. We used linear multilevel regression analysis to explore the association of copeptin with renal function parameters as well as kidney length and the presence of simple renal cysts assessed by ultrasound examination. Copeptin levels were log-transformed. The 529 women and 481 men had median copeptin levels of 3.0 and 5.2 pmol/L, respectively (P<0.001). In multivariable analyses, the copeptin level was associated inversely with eGFR (β=−2.1; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], −3.3 to −0.8; P=0.002) and kidney length (β=−1.2; 95% CI, −1.9 to −0.4; P=0.003) but positively with 24-hour urinary albumin excretion (β=0.11; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.20; P=0.03) and urine osmolality (β=0.08; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.10; P<0.001). A positive association was found between the copeptin level and the presence of renal cysts (odds ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.4; P=0.02). These results suggest that AVP has a pleiotropic role in renal function and may favor the development of simple renal cysts. PMID:25270071

  2. Changes in Prevalence and Socioeconomic Factors of Psychiatric Disability among Children in China from 1987–2006: A Population Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenjie; Zheng, Xiaoying; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Gong

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence and risk factors associated with psychiatric disability among Chinese children under 14 years of age has long been of interest. Data used in the study included two nationally representative population-based surveys from the first and second China National Sample Surveys on Disability, conducted in 1987 and 2006. Both surveys used multistage, stratified random cluster sampling, with probability proportion to size, to derive nationally representative samples. Age-standardized point prevalence of mental disability was estimated through direct standardization using the 2000 census-derived Chinese population as the standard. Associations between psychiatric disability in children and possible risk factors were examined by logistic regression. Age-standardized point prevalence of psychiatric disability in children increased sharply from 0.18% to 1.11% in the 20 years between surveys. In the logistic regression analysis, the children’s age and household size presented inverse associations with psychiatric disability in both surveys, although these associations were not all significant in 1987. Residential area, minority group status and gender of children were consistently associated with psychiatric disability in both surveys. To face the challenge of rising prevalence rates of psychiatric disability among children in China, the government should adopt more vigorous strategies to prevent it, especially for minority ethnicity children and those living in rural areas. PMID:28282923

  3. Incremental Cost of Conducting Population-Based Prevalence Surveys for a Neglected Tropical Disease: The Example of Trachoma in 8 National Programs

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chaoqun; Cromwell, Elizabeth A.; King, Jonathan D.; Mosher, Aryc; Harding-Esch, Emma M.; Ngondi, Jeremiah M.; Emerson, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Trachoma prevalence surveys provide the evidence base for district and community-wide implementation of the SAFE strategy, and are used to evaluate the impact of trachoma control interventions. An economic analysis was performed to estimate the cost of trachoma prevalence surveys conducted between 2006 and 2010 from 8 national trachoma control programs in Africa. Methodology and Findings Data were collected retrospectively from reports for 165 districts surveyed for trachoma prevalence using a cluster random sampling methodology in Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Sudan, Southern Sudan and The Gambia. The median cost per district survey was $4,784 (inter-quartile range [IQR] = $3,508–$6,650) while the median cost per cluster was $311 (IQR = $119–$393). Analysis by cost categories (personnel, transportation, supplies and other) and cost activity (training, field work, supervision and data entry) revealed that the main cost drivers were personnel and transportation during field work. Conclusion Population-based cluster random surveys are used to provide the evidence base to set objectives and determine when elimination targets have been reached for several neglected tropical diseases, including trachoma. The cost of conducting epidemiologically rigorous prevalence surveys should not be a barrier to program implementation or evaluation. PMID:21408130

  4. Prevalence of chronic diseases by immigrant status and disparities in chronic disease management in immigrants: a population-based cohort study, Valore Project

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background For chronic conditions, disparities can take effect cumulatively at various times as the disease progresses, even when care is provided. The aim of this study was to quantify the prevalence of diabetes, congestive heart failure (CHF) and coronary heart disease (CHD) in adults by citizenship, and to compare the performance of primary care services in managing these chronic conditions, again by citizenship. Methods This is a population-based retrospective cohort study on 1,948,622 people aged 16 years or more residing in Italy. A multilevel regression model was applied to analyze adherence to care processes using explanatory variables at both patient and district level. Results The age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes was found higher among immigrants from high migratory pressure countries (HMPC) than among Italians, while the age-adjusted prevalence of CHD and CHF was higher for Italians than for HMPC immigrants or those from highly-developed countries (HDC). Our results indicate lower levels in all quality management indicators for citizens from HMPC than for Italians, for all the chronic conditions considered. Patients from HDC did not differ from Italian in their adherence to disease management schemes. Conclusion This study revealed a different prevalence of chronic diseases by citizenship, implying a different burden of primary care by citizenship. Our findings show that more effort is needed to guarantee migrant-sensitive primary health care. PMID:23706129

  5. Prevalence of chronic diseases by immigrant status and disparities in chronic disease management in immigrants: a population-based cohort study, Valore Project.

    PubMed

    Buja, Alessandra; Gini, Rosa; Visca, Modesta; Damiani, Gianfranco; Federico, Bruno; Francesconi, Paolo; Donato, Daniele; Marini, Alessandro; Donatini, Andrea; Brugaletta, Salvatore; Baldo, Vincenzo; Bellentani, Mariadonata

    2013-05-24

    For chronic conditions, disparities can take effect cumulatively at various times as the disease progresses, even when care is provided. The aim of this study was to quantify the prevalence of diabetes, congestive heart failure (CHF) and coronary heart disease (CHD) in adults by citizenship, and to compare the performance of primary care services in managing these chronic conditions, again by citizenship. This is a population-based retrospective cohort study on 1,948,622 people aged 16 years or more residing in Italy. A multilevel regression model was applied to analyze adherence to care processes using explanatory variables at both patient and district level. The age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes was found higher among immigrants from high migratory pressure countries (HMPC) than among Italians, while the age-adjusted prevalence of CHD and CHF was higher for Italians than for HMPC immigrants or those from highly-developed countries (HDC). Our results indicate lower levels in all quality management indicators for citizens from HMPC than for Italians, for all the chronic conditions considered. Patients from HDC did not differ from Italian in their adherence to disease management schemes. This study revealed a different prevalence of chronic diseases by citizenship, implying a different burden of primary care by citizenship. Our findings show that more effort is needed to guarantee migrant-sensitive primary health care.

  6. Changes in Prevalence and Socioeconomic Factors of Psychiatric Disability among Children in China from 1987-2006: A Population Based Survey.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenjie; Zheng, Xiaoying; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Gong

    2017-03-09

    The prevalence and risk factors associated with psychiatric disability among Chinese children under 14 years of age has long been of interest. Data used in the study included two nationally representative population-based surveys from the first and second China National Sample Surveys on Disability, conducted in 1987 and 2006. Both surveys used multistage, stratified random cluster sampling, with probability proportion to size, to derive nationally representative samples. Age-standardized point prevalence of mental disability was estimated through direct standardization using the 2000 census-derived Chinese population as the standard. Associations between psychiatric disability in children and possible risk factors were examined by logistic regression. Age-standardized point prevalence of psychiatric disability in children increased sharply from 0.18% to 1.11% in the 20 years between surveys. In the logistic regression analysis, the children's age and household size presented inverse associations with psychiatric disability in both surveys, although these associations were not all significant in 1987. Residential area, minority group status and gender of children were consistently associated with psychiatric disability in both surveys. To face the challenge of rising prevalence rates of psychiatric disability among children in China, the government should adopt more vigorous strategies to prevent it, especially for minority ethnicity children and those living in rural areas.

  7. A population-based study of the prevalence and influence of gifts to radiation oncologists from pharmaceutical companies and medical equipment manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Halperin, Edward C; Hutchison, Paul; Barrier, Robert C

    2004-08-01

    Hospital-based physicians are responsible for the purchase of expensive equipment. Little is known about the influence of gift giving on their behavior. We wanted to ascertain the prevalence of gift giving from the pharmaceutical industry and medical equipment manufacturers to radiation oncologists and determine whether or not the size of accepted gifts influences their opinions regarding gifts. A population-based survey of hospital-based physicians conducted between 2002 and 2003. The study population consisted of all radiation oncologists who were members of the American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology between 2000 and 2001. A random number generator was used to identify 20% of the population. This group was invited by e-mail and conventional mail to complete a Likert scale questionnaire. Those asked to complete the questionnaire electronically were directed to a specially designed web site. Of 640 individuals who were asked to participate, 241 (38%) completed the questionnaire. 96% admitted accepting gifts. The most commonly accepted low value gifts were: pen or pencil (78%), drug samples for patient's use (70%), meal (66%), and a note pad (59%). The most commonly accepted high value gifts were trips to "equipment-users meetings" (15%), honoraria for speaking at a conference (10%), and participation in a conference call (9%). Only 5% of radiation oncologists agreed with the statement "my prescribing practices are affected" by gifts; however, 33% agreed with the statement "I believe that other physicians prescribing practices are affected." Similarly, although only 4% felt that their recommendations concerning purchases of medical equipment are affected by gifts, 19% felt that other physicians would be influenced. A test of the hypothesis that physicians believe that their conduct is less affected than those of their colleagues (i.e., "I am not influenced by gifts but someone else is" was strongly affirmed by a correlation statistic) (p < 0

  8. Cancer prevalence, incidence and mortality in people who experience incarceration in Ontario, Canada: A population-based retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kouyoumdjian, Fiona G.; Pivnick, Lucie; McIsaac, Kathryn E.; Wilton, Andrew S.; Lofters, Aisha; Hwang, Stephen W.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Evidence suggests that many risk factors for cancer are overrepresented in people who experience incarceration, and data on cancer epidemiology are limited for this population. We aimed to describe cancer prevalence, incidence and mortality in adults admitted to provincial custody in Ontario, Canada in 2000. Methods We linked data on 48,166 adults admitted to provincial custody in Ontario in 2000 with Ontario Cancer Registry data to 2012. We calculated cancer prevalence in the 10 years prior to admission to custody in 2000, incidence between 2000 and 2012 and mortality between 2000 and 2011. Standardized for age, we calculated incidence and mortality ratios by sex compared to the general population of Ontario. Results The 10-year cancer prevalence was 0.4% in men and 0.6% in women at admission to provincial custody in 2000. Between 2000 and 2012, 2.6% of men and 2.8% of women were diagnosed with new cancer. The standardized incidence ratio for cancer was 1.0 (95% CI 0.9–1.0) for men and 0.9 (95% CI 0.7–1.0) for women compared to the general population, and was significantly increased for cervical, head and neck, liver and lung cancers. The standardized mortality ratio was 1.6 (95% CI 1.4–1.7) in men and 1.4 (95% CI 1.0–1.9) in women, and was significantly increased for head and neck, liver, and lung cancers. Conclusions There is an excess burden of cancer in people who experience incarceration. Cancer prevention should include people who experience incarceration, and the period of incarceration may offer an opportunity for intervention. PMID:28225780

  9. Acne scars in 18-year-old male adolescents: a population-based study of prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Lauermann, Fernanda Tcatch; Almeida, Hiram Larangeira de; Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins de; Breunig, Juliano de Avelar

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a pilosebaceous follicle disorder affecting over 85% of adolescents to some degree. It frequently causes psychological distress that may persist into adulthood due to scarring. Little information about post-acne scarring epidemiology is available. To describe prevalence, distribution patterns and associated factors of acne scarring in young males, drawing on a representative population sample from a southern Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was undertaken during presentation for military service, which is compulsory for all 18-year-old males. A questionnaire was applied, covering topics like diet, smoking habits, ethnicity, family structure, socio-economic level, as well as specific questions about active acne and resulting scars. Dermatologists conducted the clinical examination. A total of 2,201 male adolescents were interviewed and examined. The overall prevalence of acne scarring was 22%. The malar region was the most frequently involved, present in 80% of affected individuals, followed by the frontal region (31.5%), back (17%), anterior chest (8.2%) and mentonian region (6.4%). Correlation between the intensity of clinical acne and the presence of scars was found, but no association was observed with educational level, smoking, ethnicity, obesity or socio-economic status. There is a high prevalence of acne scars among this population. This is the first study to ascertain a correlation between acne scarring and factors such as socio-economic status and educational level. The direct relation between acne severity and scarring indicates that prompt and effective treatment is the best way to reduce scarring.

  10. Acne scars in 18-year-old male adolescents: a population-based study of prevalence and associated factors*

    PubMed Central

    Lauermann, Fernanda Tcatch; de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Breunig, Juliano de Avelar

    2016-01-01

    Background Acne vulgaris is a pilosebaceous follicle disorder affecting over 85% of adolescents to some degree. It frequently causes psychological distress that may persist into adulthood due to scarring. Little information about post-acne scarring epidemiology is available. Objectives To describe prevalence, distribution patterns and associated factors of acne scarring in young males, drawing on a representative population sample from a southern Brazilian city. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken during presentation for military service, which is compulsory for all 18-year-old males. A questionnaire was applied, covering topics like diet, smoking habits, ethnicity, family structure, socio-economic level, as well as specific questions about active acne and resulting scars. Dermatologists conducted the clinical examination. Results A total of 2,201 male adolescents were interviewed and examined. The overall prevalence of acne scarring was 22%. The malar region was the most frequently involved, present in 80% of affected individuals, followed by the frontal region (31.5%), back (17%), anterior chest (8.2%) and mentonian region (6.4%). Correlation between the intensity of clinical acne and the presence of scars was found, but no association was observed with educational level, smoking, ethnicity, obesity or socio-economic status. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of acne scars among this population. This is the first study to ascertain a correlation between acne scarring and factors such as socio-economic status and educational level. The direct relation between acne severity and scarring indicates that prompt and effective treatment is the best way to reduce scarring. PMID:27438194

  11. Prevalence and Costs of Multimorbidity by Deprivation Levels in the Basque Country: A Population Based Study Using Health Administrative Databases

    PubMed Central

    Orueta, Juan F.; García-Álvarez, Arturo; García-Goñi, Manuel; Paolucci, Francesco; Nuño-Solinís, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Background Multimorbidity is a major challenge for healthcare systems. However, currently, its magnitude and impact in healthcare expenditures is still mostly unknown. Objective To present an overview of the prevalence and costs of multimorbidity by socioeconomic levels in the whole Basque population. Methods We develop a cross-sectional analysis that includes all the inhabitants of the Basque Country (N = 2,262,698). We utilize data from primary health care electronic medical records, hospital admissions, and outpatient care databases, corresponding to a 4 year period. Multimorbidity was defined as the presence of two or more chronic diseases out of a list of 52 of the most important and common chronic conditions given in the literature. We also use socioeconomic and demographic variables such as age, sex, individual healthcare cost, and deprivation level. Predicted adjusted costs were obtained by log-gamma regression models. Results Multimorbidity of chronic diseases was found among 23.61% of the total Basque population and among 66.13% of those older than 65 years. Multimorbid patients account for 63.55% of total healthcare expenditures. Prevalence of multimorbidity is higher in the most deprived areas for all age and sex groups. The annual cost of healthcare per patient generated for any chronic disease depends on the number of coexisting comorbidities, and varies from 637 € for the first pathology in average to 1,657 € for the ninth one. Conclusion Multimorbidity is very common for the Basque population and its prevalence rises in age, and unfavourable socioeconomic environment. The costs of care for chronic patients with several conditions cannot be described as the sum of their individual pathologies in average. They usually increase dramatically according to the number of comorbidities. Given the ageing population, multimorbidity and its consequences should be taken into account in healthcare policy, the organization of care and medical research

  12. The high prevalence of unrecognized anaemia in patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    New, J P; Aung, T; Baker, P G; Yongsheng, G; Pylypczuk, R; Houghton, J; Rudenski, A; New, R P; Hegarty, J; Gibson, J M; O'Donoghue, D J; Buchan, I E

    2008-05-01

    Anaemia occurs early in the course of diabetes-related chronic kidney disease (CKD). There is little evidence about the prevalence of anaemia in people with diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of anaemia, by stage of CKD, in the general diabetic population. Haemoglobin (Hb) was measured on all glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) samples and the most recent (< 4 months) estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was obtained. Anaemia (at treatment level) was defined as Hb < 110 g/l or the use of erythropoetic stimulating agents (ESA). Twelve per cent (10-14%) of people had Hb < 110 g/l. The prevalence of anaemia increased progressively with worsening CKD. People with CKD stage 3 accounted for the largest number of people with anaemia; 18% (95% CI 13-24%) had Hb < 110 g/l. Those with eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and not on ESA or dialysis were four (2-7) times more likely than patients with better renal function to have Hb < 110 g/l. The relation between Hb and eGFR became approximately linear below an eGFR of 83 ml/min/1.73 m2, where, for every 1 ml/min/1.73 m2 fall in eGFR, there was a 0.4 (0.3-0.5) g/l fall in haemoglobin. This study demonstrates that anaemia, at levels where treatment is indicated, occurs commonly in people with diabetes and CKD stage 3 or worse. The screening for anaemia in current diabetes management should be extended.

  13. Prevalence and severity of vasomotor symptoms and joint pain in women at midlife in Bangladesh: a population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Islam, Rakibul M; Bell, Robin J; Billah, Baki; Hossain, Mohammad B; Davis, Susan R

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to document the prevalence of menopausal symptoms and the extent to which women are bothered by vasomotor symptoms (VMS) and joint pain in Bangladesh. A total of 1,590 women, aged 30 to 59 years, participated in a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study between September 2013 and March 2014. The main outcome measures were moderate to severely bothersome VMS and joint pain, measured by the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life questionnaire. Of participants, 59.4% were premenopausal, 8.4% perimenopausal, and 32.3% postmenopausal. Approximately all women reached menopause by the age of 50 years. The prevalence of moderate to severely bothersome VMS was 4.1% in premenopausal, 33.3% in perimenopausal, and 28.2% in postmenopausal women. Factors associated with moderate to severely bothersome VMS were being perimenopausal (odds ratio [OR] 46.34, 95% CI 13.29-161.56; P < 0.001) or postmenopausal (OR 19.15, 95% CI 5.63-65.11; P < 0.001) and obesity (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.03-4.71; P = 0.042). The prevalence of moderate to severely bothersome joint pain was 40.3% in postmenopausal, 36.2% in perimenopausal, and 15.3% in premenopausal women. Moderate to severely bothersome joint pain was more likely both in perimenopausal (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.63-4.29; P < 0.001) and postmenopausal women (OR 2.96, 95% CI 2.06-4.24; P < 0.001). Moderate to severely bothersome joint pain was also more likely in women with no education compared with women having education beyond secondary school (OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.02-2.32; P < 0.001). No women reported prescription therapy for menopausal symptoms. This study demonstrates that a high proportion of Bangladeshi women experience moderate to severely bothersome VMS and joint pain. Despite the considerable symptom prevalence, no women reported treatment, suggesting that menopause remains neglected in Bangladesh.

  14. Prevalence of Willis-Ekbom disease in rural coastal Ecuador. A two-phase, door-to-door, population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Del Brutto, Victor J; Zambrano, Mauricio; Castillo, Pablo R

    2014-09-15

    To estimate the prevalence of Willis-Ekbom disease (WED) in a racially homogeneous population of adults Amerindians living in rural coastal Ecuador, and to assess the reliability of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG) questionnaire when used in population-based studies. Two-phase, door-to-door, population-based survey. During Phase I, rural doctors screened all Atahualpa residents aged ≥40 years with the IRLSSG questionnaire. In Phase II, neurologists evaluated suspected WED cases and a matched sample of negative individuals. The census identified 665 persons aged ≥40 years. An affirmative response to the questionnaire was obtained in 94 persons. Medical history and neurological examination confirmed the diagnosis of WED in 40 of them. The evaluation of 188 non-suspected individuals revealed no further cases. The questionnaire had a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI, 89% to 100%), a specificity of 78% (95% CI, 72% to 83%), a positive predictive value of 0.43 (95% CI, 0.33 to 0.53), and a negative predictive value of 1 (95% CI, 0.98 to 1). The prevalence of WED in Atahualpa residents aged ≥40 years was 6%. The prevalence of WED in this adult Ecuadorian population is higher than that reported from most studies conducted in tropical countries, but similar to that found in Brazil. Specificity and positive predictive value of the IRLSSG questionnaire are poor, which reinforces the need for a second phase that should include an expert interview. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Educational level, prevalence of hysterectomy, and age at amenorrhoea: a cross-sectional analysis of 9536 women from six population-based cohort studies in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hysterectomy prevalence has been shown to vary by education level. Hysterectomy influences age at amenorrhoea. The aim of this study was to examine these associations in Germany within population-based data sets. Methods Baseline assessments in six population-based cohorts took place from 1997 through 2006 and included 9,548 women aged 20–84 years. All studies assessed hysterectomy history, school and professional degrees. Degrees were categorized into three levels each. Adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated. Results Prevalences were higher in West Germany than East Germany, increased by age, and leveled off starting at 55–64 years. The age- and study-adjusted prevalence ratio (lowest versus highest school level) was 2.61 (95% CI: 1.28-5.30), 1.48 (95% CI: 1.21-1.81), and 1.01 (95% CI: 0.80-1.28) for women aged 20–45, 45–64, and 65 and more years respectively. The estimated adjusted prevalence ratios per one unit decrement of the educational qualification score (range 1 = lowest, 8 = highest) were 1.29 (95% CI: 1.02-1.64), 1.08 (95% CI: 1.04-1.12), and 0.98 (95% CI: 0.93-1.03) for women aged 20–44, 45–64, and 65–84 years respectively. Age at amenorrhoea was on average 6.2 years lower (43.5 years versus 49.7 years) among women with a history of hysterectomy than those without. Conclusions Lower educational level was associated with a higher hysterectomy prevalence among women aged 20–64 years. Several mediators associated with educational level and hysterectomy including women’s disease risk, women’s treatment preference, and women’s access to uterus-preserving treatment may explain this association. At population level, hysterectomy decreases the age of amenorrhoea on average by 6.2 years. PMID:24433474

  16. Factors associated with the change in prevalence of cardiomyopathy at delivery from the years 2000 to 2009; a population-based prevalence study

    PubMed Central

    Grotegut, Chad A; Kuklina, Elena V; Anstrom, Kevin J; Heine, R Phillips; Callaghan, William M; Myers, Evan R; James, Andra H

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cardiomyopathy (CM) at delivery is increasing in prevalance. The objective of this study was to determine what medical conditions are attributable to this increasing prevalance. Design Population prevalence study from 2000 to 2009. Setting The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). Methods Pregnant women admitted for delivery were identified in the NIS for the years 2000-2009 and temporal trends in pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications at delivery admissions were determined by linear regression. The change in the prevalence of CM among all pregnant women was compared to the change in the prevalance of CM among pregnant women without pre-existing conditions or complications. Main Outcome Measures Prevalence of cardiomyopathy. Results The prevalence of CM increased from 0.25 per 1000 deliveries in 2000 to 0.43 per 1000 deliveries in 2009 (p<0.0001). Women with chronic hypertension had increased odds of developing CM compared to women without chronic hypertension (odds ratio[OR] 13.2 [95% CI 12.5, 13.7]). The linear increase in chronic hypertension over the ten-year period was the single identified pre-existing medical condition that explained the increasing prevalence of CM at delivery (p=0.005 for the differences in the slopes for linear trend). Conclusions Pregnant women with chronic hypertenion are at an increased risk for CM at delivery and the increasing prevalence of chronic hypertension is an important factor associated with the increasing prevalence of CM at the time of delivery. Among women without chronic hypertension, the prevalence of CM at delivery did not change during the time period. PMID:24661593

  17. Prevalence and correlates of perpetration of violence among young people: a population-based survey from Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Nadkarni, Abhijit; Dean, Kimberlie; Weiss, Helen A; Patel, Vikram

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and factors associated with perpetration of violence in young people in India. It was a cross-sectional survey of 3663 individuals (16-24 years old). Data on sociodemographics, sexual/physical violence, common mental disorders, and substance abuse were collected by face-to-face structured interviews. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios for association of violence with various factors. Prevalence of physical violence in the past year was 10.2%. In both genders, younger age, urbanicity, being a victim of sexual abuse, common mental disorders, and tobacco use were associated with increased risk of physical violence. Being a victim of forced sexual intercourse and alcohol use was associated with violence in males; and not living with parents was associated with violence in females. Future research should be designed to tease out the pathways that underlie the associations, identified in the study, to derive potential preventive strategies. © 2011 APJPH.

  18. Prevalence of selected genomic deletions and duplications in a French–Canadian population-based sample of newborns

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Tracy; Giroux, Sylvie; Clément, Valérie; Langlois, Sylvie; Friedman, Jan M; Rousseau, François

    2013-01-01

    Chromosomal microarray analysis has identified many novel microdeletions or microduplications that produce neurodevelopmental disorders with a recognizable clinical phenotype and that are not observed in normal individuals. However, imbalance of other genomic regions is associated with a variable phenotype with intellectual disability (ID) or autism in some individuals but are also observed in completely normal individuals. Several large studies have reported the prevalence of copy number (CN) variants in people with particular features (e.g., ID, autism, schizophrenia, or epilepsy); few studies have investigated the prevalence of genomic CN changes in the general population. We used a high-throughput method to screen 6813 consecutive cord blood samples from a predominantly French–Canadian population to assess genomic CN in five genomic regions: 1p36, 15q11-q13, 16p11.2, 16p11.2-p12.2, and 22q11.2. We identified one deletion and one duplication within 1p36, two deletions of 15q11-q13, eight deletions of 16p11.2-p12.2, two deletions and five duplications of 16p11.2, and six duplications of 22q11.2. This study provides estimates of the frequency of CN variants in an unselected population. Our findings have important implications for genetic counseling. PMID:24498606

  19. Time trends in the prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of neural tube defects in Liaoning Province, China, 2006-2015: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tie-Ning; Gong, Ting-Ting; Chen, Yan-Ling; Wu, Qi-Jun; Zhang, Yuan; Jiang, Cheng-Zhi; Li, Jing; Li, Li-Li; Zhou, Chen; Huang, Yan-Hong

    2017-02-03

    To evaluate the time trends in the prevalence of neural tube defects and all their subtypes as well as to identify the epidemiological characteristics of these malformations documented in the Liaoning Province of northeast China from 2006 to 2015. This was a population-based observational study using data from 3,248,954 live births as well as from 6217 cases of neural tube defects, 1,600 cases of anencephaly, 2,029 cases of spina bifida, 404 cases of encephalocele, and 3,008 cases of congenital hydrocephalus from 14 cities in Liaoning Province from 2006 to 2015. All analyses were conducted using SPSS software. During the observational period, the prevalence of neural tube defects, anencephaly, spina bifida, encephalocele, and congenital hydrocephalus was 19.1, 4.9, 6.2, 1.2, and 9.3 per 10,000 live births, respectively. Significantly decreasing trends were observed in the prevalence of all these malformations except for encephalocele. Notably, relatively higher prevalence rates were found in isolated compared with non-isolated malformations, with significant differences in selected characteristics (e.g., prognosis status, gestational age, and birth weight) between isolated and non-isolated cases of these malformations. The prevalence of neural tube defects showed a downward trend in Liaoning Province from 2006 to 2015. However, more attention should be focused on non-isolated cases in the future because of the severe clinical manifestations. Future prevention efforts should be strengthened to reduce the risk of these malformations, especially the non-isolated subtype, in areas with high prevalence.

  20. Prevalence of trachoma in unity state, South Sudan: results from a large-scale population-based survey and potential implications for further surveys.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Tansy; Smith, Jennifer; Sturrock, Hugh J W; Kur, Lucia W; Sabasio, Anthony; Finn, Timothy P; Lado, Mounir; Haddad, Danny; Kolaczinski, Jan H

    2012-01-01

    Large parts of South Sudan are thought to be trachoma-endemic but baseline data are limited. This study aimed to estimate prevalence for planning trachoma interventions in Unity State, to identify risk factors and to investigate the effect of different sampling approaches on study conclusions. The survey area was defined as one domain of eight counties in Unity State. Across the area, 40 clusters (villages) were randomly selected proportional to the county population size in a population-based prevalence survey. The simplified grading scheme was used to classify clinical signs of trachoma. The unadjusted prevalence of trachoma inflammation-follicular (TF) in children aged 1-9 years was 70.5% (95% CI: 68.6-72.3). After adjusting for age, sex, county and clustering of cases at household and village level the prevalence was 71.0% (95% CI: 69.9-72.1). The prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) in adults was 15.1% (95% CI: 13.4-17.0) and 13.5% (95% CI: 12.0-15.1) before and after adjustment, respectively. We estimate that 700,000 people (the entire population of Unity State) require antibiotic treatment and approximately 54,178 people require TT surgery. Risk factor analyses confirmed child-level associations with TF and highlighted that older adults living in poverty are at higher risk of TT. Conditional simulations, testing the alternatives of sampling 20 or 60 villages over the same area, indicated that sampling of only 20 villages would have provided an acceptable level of precision for state-level prevalence estimation to inform intervention decisions in this hyperendemic setting. Trachoma poses an enormous burden on the population of Unity State. Comprehensive control is urgently required to avoid preventable blindness and should be initiated across the state now. In other parts of South Sudan suspected to be highly trachoma endemic, counties should be combined into larger survey areas to generate the baseline data required to initiate interventions.

  1. The Incidence and Prevalence of Thromboangiitis Obliterans in Taiwan: A Nationwide, Population-based Analysis of Data Collected from 2002 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jie-Fu; Chen, Yi-Ming; Chen, Der-Yuan; Lin, Ching-Heng; Chen, Hsin-Hua

    2016-07-01

    To estimate the incidence and prevalence of thromboangiitis obliterans in Taiwan in the period spanning from 2002 to 2011. We identified all incident and prevalent cases with a diagnosis of thromboangiitis obliterans (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code 443.1) in the period spanning from 2002 to 2011 using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. We calculated the age- and sex-specific incidence and prevalence rates of thromboangiitis obliterans during the study period. From 2002 to 2011, 158 patients were diagnosed with thromboangiitis obliterans; of these, 76% were men. Most (63%) of the patients were <50 years old when they were first diagnosed. After reaching 20 years of age, the incidence rate increased with age and peaked among those aged ≥60 years. The average incidence rate of thromboangiitis obliterans during the 2002-2011 period was 0.068 per 105 years. The incidence of thromboangiitis obliterans decreased with time, from 0.10 per 105 years in 2002 to 0.04 per 105 years in 2011. The prevalence increased from 0.26 × 10-5 in 2002 to 0.65 × 10-5 in 2011. This is the first epidemiologic study of thromboangiitis obliterans using claims data from a general population in Taiwan. This nationwide, population-based study found that the incidence and prevalence of thromboangiitis obliterans in Taiwan in the 2002-2011 period were lower than those in other countries before 2000. This study also revealed a trend of decreasing incidence with simultaneous increasing prevalence of thromboangiitis obliterans in Taiwan from 2002 to 2011.

  2. Time-trend analysis of prevalence, incidence and traditional Chinese medicine use among children with asthma: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yi-Chun; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Li, Chia-Ing; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Li, Tsai-Chung; Lin, Jaung-Geng

    2016-09-01

    This study determined annual prevalence and incidence trends of asthma among children in Taiwan from 2002 to 2008. Risk factors and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) use were examined. A random sample was selected for a population-based study with a selection probability of 0.5 from all 3-18 years insurants. The annual prevalence and incidence of asthma were estimated according to age, sex, insurance premium and degree of urbanization. The prevalence of asthma increased from 12.99% in 2002 to 16.86% in 2008. The increase was greatest in 2008, among boys, 11-15 years, ≥medium insurance premium, and high- and medium-density urban area. TCM use in asthma-prevalent children decreased from 1.16% in 2002 to 0.59% in 2008. The incidence fluctuated, ranging from 1.01% in 2002 to 1.49% in 2005. The highest was in 2005, among boys, 3-5 years, ≥medium insurance premium and high-density urban area. TCM use in asthma-incident children decreased from 3.59% in 2002 to 1.69% in 2008. This study demonstrated a substantial increase in annual prevalence of asthma among children in Taiwan from 2002 to 2008. The incidence fluctuated. The TCM use showed a decreasing linear trend and was higher in incident than in prevalent cases. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Prevalence and risk factors for microalbuminuria in a population-based sample of children and adolescents with T1DM in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Patricia Herold; Bulsara, Max Kishor; Frazer, Fiona; Lafferty, Antony Richard; Davis, Elizabeth Ann; Jones, Timothy William

    2006-06-01

    To define the prevalence and describe the natural history of microalbuminuria (MA) in a population-based sample of children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Children with T1DM diagnosed or=20 and <200 microg/min, developed in 128 subjects (13.4%) at mean diabetes duration of 7.6 yrs. Cumulative probability for MA was 16% after 10 yrs. Determinants for MA were HbA1c [hazard ratio (HR) 1.21; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.38; p = 0.007], onset of puberty (HR 8.01; 95% CI 3.18-20.16; p < 0.001) and age at diagnosis (HR 1.25; 95% CI 1.18-1.33; p < 0.001). Females had a higher probability for MA during puberty than males (p = 0.03). The total incidence of MA (subjects with MA/100 person-years) was 1.26, 1.85 and 2.44 for those who developed diabetes at ages <5 yrs, 5-11 yrs and >11 yrs, respectively. Onset of puberty, diabetes duration and metabolic control are major factors predisposing the development of MA. Children diagnosed with T1DM at younger ages have a prolonged time for developing MA.

  4. Psychological and personality factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus, presenting the rationale and exploratory results from The Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    van Dooren, Fleur E P; Denollet, Johan; Verhey, Frans R J; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Sep, Simone J S; Henry, Ronald M A; Kremers, Stef P J; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Schaper, Nicolaas C; van der Kallen, Carla J H; Koster, Annemarie; Pouwer, Frans; Schram, Miranda T

    2016-01-27

    Strong longitudinal evidence exists that psychological distress is associated with a high morbidity and mortality risk in type 2 diabetes. Little is known about the biological and behavioral mechanisms that may explain this association. Moreover, the role of personality traits in these associations is still unclear. In this paper, we first describe the design of the psychological part of The Maastricht Study that aims to elucidate these mechanisms. Next, we present exploratory results on the prevalence of depression, anxiety and personality traits in type 2 diabetes. Finally, we briefly discuss the importance of these findings for clinical research and practice. We measured psychological distress and depression using the MINI diagnostic interview, the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 questionnaires in the first 864 participants of The Maastricht Study, a large, population-based cohort study. Personality traits were measured by the DS14 and Big Five personality questionnaires. Type 2 diabetes was assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of depression, anxiety and personality with type 2 diabetes, adjusted for age, sex and education level. Individuals with type 2 diabetes had higher levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms, odds ratios (95 % CI) were 3.15 (1.49; 6.67), 1.73 (0.83-3.60), 1.50 (0.72-3.12), for PHQ-9 ≥ 10, current depressive disorder and GAD-7 ≥ 10, respectively. Type D personality, social inhibition and negative affectivity were more prevalent in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios were 1.95 (1.23-3.10), 1.35 (0.93-1.94) and 1.70 (1.14-2.51), respectively. Individuals with type 2 diabetes were less extraverted, less conscientious, less agreeable and less emotionally stable, and similar in openness to individuals without type 2 diabetes, although effect sizes were small. Individuals with type 2 diabetes experience more psychological distress and have different personality traits compared to individuals

  5. Prevalence and risk factors for myopia in second-grade primary school children in Taipei: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chih-Chien; Huang, Nicole; Lin, Pei-Yu; Tsai, Der-Chong; Tsai, Ching-Yao; Woung, Lin-Chung; Liu, Catherine Jui-Ling

    2016-11-01

    High myopia is associated with multiple ocular morbidities that may lead to irreversible blindness. Because high myopia in an adult is thought to be related to onset of myopia in very early childhood, detecting myopia early and working to improve modifiable risk factors may help reduce the development of high myopia. In this study, we tried to evaluate the prevalence of myopia and associated risk factors in second-grade primary school children in Taipei, Taiwan. A questionnaire was distributed to the participants' parents, and their written informed consent was obtained before performing eye examinations that included visual acuity testing and cycloplegic autorefraction. Multiple logistic regression models were applied to assess possible risk factors associated with myopia. Myopia was defined as spherical equivalent of -0.50 D or less in either eye. The prevalence of myopia in the second graders was 36.4%. After adjustment for other characteristics, the following variables were significantly associated with a higher risk of myopia: male sex [odds ratio (OR)=1.24, p<0.001]; suburban residence (vs. urban; OR=1.10, p=0.02); lower maternal education level (OR=1.25, p<0.001); the presence of myopia in one parent (OR=1.66, p<0.001) or both parents (OR=2.82, p<0.001); time spent on near-work activity every day (OR=1.21, p<0.001); shorter visual distance when doing near-work activity (OR=1.17, p<0.001); and participation in an after-school tutorial program (OR=1.20, p<0.001). By contrast, resting after 30 minutes of near-work activity (OR=0.84, p<0.001) and spending more time participating in outdoor activities on weekends (OR=0.91, p=0.03) were significantly associated with a lower risk of myopia. Our findings indicate that lifestyle and reading habits impact the development of myopia during early childhood. Behavior modification, such as more time spent outside during the day and limited near-work activity, may be a feasible strategy for curbing the increasingly high

  6. Combined prevalence of impaired glucose level or diabetes and its correlates in Lusaka urban district, Zambia: a population based survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Developing countries are undergoing an epidemiological transition, from Communicable or Infectious to 'Non-Communicable' diseases (NCDs), such that cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory diseases, cancer, and diabetes were responsible for 60% of all deaths globally in 2005, with more than 75% of these deaths occurring in developing countries. A survey was conducted to determine among other objectives the prevalence of diabetes and its association with physical fitness and biological factors. Methods A cross sectional study utilizing a modified World Health Organization's STEPwise approach to surveillance of NCDs was conducted in Lusaka district, Zambia. A multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used to select study participants of age 25 years or older. All eligible members of a household that was selected were invited to participate in the study. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR), and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) together with their 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were obtained using Complex samples logistic regression Results A total of 1928 individuals participated in the survey, of which 33.0% were males. About half of the participants were of age 25-34 years (53.2%), and about a third of the respondents had attained secondary level of education (35.8%). The combined prevalence for impaired glucose level or diabetes was 4.0%. Age and mild hypertension were significantly associated with impaired levels of glucose or diabetes. Compared to participants in the age group 25-34 years, older participants were more likely to have impaired glucose level or diabetes (AOR = 2.49 (95%CI [1.35, 2.92]) for 35-44 years age group, and AOR = 3.80 (95%CI [2.00, 7.23]) for 45 + years age group). Mild hypertension was associated with impaired glucose level or diabetes (AOR = 2.57) (95%CI [1.44, 4.57])). Conclusions The prevalence of diabetes in Lusaka district has not reached an alarming level and it is now that interventions targeting the younger age group 25-34 years

  7. Prevalence and correlates of fecal incontinence among nursing home residents: a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fecal incontinence is highly prevalent among nursing home residents. Previous nursing home studies have identified co-morbidity associated with fecal incontinence, but as this population is increasingly old and frail, we wanted to see if the rate of fecal incontinence had increased and to investigate correlates of fecal incontinence further. Methods Cross-sectional study of the entire nursing home population in one Norwegian municipality. Registered nurses filled in a questionnaire for all residents in the municipality (980 residents aged ≥65). Statistical methods used are descriptive statistics, binary logistic regression and multivariable logistic regression. Results The response rate of the study was 90.3%. The prevalence of fecal incontinence was 42.3%. In multivariable analysis of FI, residents with diarrhea (OR 7.33, CI 4.39-12.24), urinary incontinence (OR 2.77, CI 1.73-4.42) and dementia (OR 2.17, CI 1.28-3.68) had higher odds of having fecal incontinence compared to those without the condition. Residents residing in a nursing home between 4–5 years had higher odds of having fecal incontinence compared to residents who had stayed under a year (OR 2.65, CI 1.20-5.85). Residents with deficiency in feeding (2.17, CI 1.26-3.71), dressing (OR 4.03, CI 1.39-11.65), toilet use (OR 7.37, CI 2.65-20.44) and mobility (OR 2.54, CI 1.07-6.00) had higher odds of having fecal incontinence compared to residents without deficiencies in activities of daily living (ADL). Needing help for transfer between bed and chair was a protective factor for fecal incontinence compared to residents who transferred independently (OR 0.49, CI 0.26-0.91). Conclusions Fecal incontinence is a prevalent condition in the nursing home population and is associated with ADL decline, frailty, diarrhea and quality of care. This knowledge is important for staff in nursing home in order to provide the best treatment and care for residents with fecal incontinence. PMID:24119057

  8. Effects of diabetes definition on global surveillance of diabetes prevalence and diagnosis: a pooled analysis of 96 population-based studies with 331,288 participants.

    PubMed

    2015-08-01

    Diabetes has been defined on the basis of different biomarkers, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test (2hOGTT), and HbA1c. We assessed the effect of different diagnostic definitions on both the population prevalence of diabetes and the classification of previously undiagnosed individuals as having diabetes versus not having diabetes in a pooled analysis of data from population-based health examination surveys in different regions. We used data from 96 population-based health examination surveys that had measured at least two of the biomarkers used for defining diabetes. Diabetes was defined using HbA1c (HbA1c ≥6·5% or history of diabetes diagnosis or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs) compared with either FPG only or FPG-or-2hOGTT definitions (FPG ≥7·0 mmol/L or 2hOGTT ≥11·1 mmol/L or history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs). We calculated diabetes prevalence, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights. We compared the prevalences of diabetes using different definitions graphically and by regression analyses. We calculated sensitivity and specificity of diabetes diagnosis based on HbA1c compared with diagnosis based on glucose among previously undiagnosed individuals (ie, excluding those with history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs). We calculated sensitivity and specificity in each survey, and then pooled results using a random-effects model. We assessed the sources of heterogeneity of sensitivity by meta-regressions for study characteristics selected a priori. Population prevalence of diabetes based on FPG-or-2hOGTT was correlated with prevalence based on FPG alone (r=0·98), but was higher by 2-6 percentage points at different prevalence levels. Prevalence based on HbA1c was lower than prevalence based on FPG in 42·8% of age-sex-survey groups and higher in another 41·6%; in the other 15·6%, the two definitions

  9. Effects of diabetes definition on global surveillance of diabetes prevalence and diagnosis: a pooled analysis of 96 population-based studies with 331 288 participants

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Diabetes has been defined on the basis of different biomarkers, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test (2hOGTT), and HbA1c. We assessed the effect of different diagnostic definitions on both the population prevalence of diabetes and the classification of previously undiagnosed individuals as having diabetes versus not having diabetes in a pooled analysis of data from population-based health examination surveys in different regions. Methods We used data from 96 population-based health examination surveys that had measured at least two of the biomarkers used for defining diabetes. Diabetes was defined using HbA1c (HbA1c ≥6·5% or history of diabetes diagnosis or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs) compared with either FPG only or FPG-or-2hOGTT definitions (FPG ≥7·0 mmol/L or 2hOGTT ≥11·1 mmol/L or history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs). We calculated diabetes prevalence, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights. We compared the prevalences of diabetes using different definitions graphically and by regression analyses. We calculated sensitivity and specificity of diabetes diagnosis based on HbA1c compared with diagnosis based on glucose among previously undiagnosed individuals (ie, excluding those with history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs). We calculated sensitivity and specificity in each survey, and then pooled results using a random-effects model. We assessed the sources of heterogeneity of sensitivity by meta-regressions for study characteristics selected a priori. Findings Population prevalence of diabetes based on FPG-or-2hOGTT was correlated with prevalence based on FPG alone (r=0·98), but was higher by 2–6 percentage points at different prevalence levels. Prevalence based on HbA1c was lower than prevalence based on FPG in 42·8% of age–sex–survey groups and higher in another 41·6%; in

  10. Prevalence and intensity of chronic pain and self-perceived health among elderly people: a population-based study1

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Lilian Varanda; de Vasconcelos, Patrícia Pereira; Souza, Layz Alves Ferreira; Pereira, Gilberto de Araújo; Nakatani, Adélia Yaeko Kyosen; Bachion, Maria Márcia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify the prevalence and intensity of chronic pain among elderly people of the community and to analyze associations with the self-perceived health status. METHOD: cross-sectional study with a populational sample (n=934), conducted through household interviews in the city of Goiânia, Brazil. The intensity of chronic pain (existing for 6 months or more) was measured using a numerical scale (0-10) and the self-perceived health through a verbal scale (very good, good, fair, poor, very poor). For the statistical analysis, the absolute frequency and percentage, CI (95%), Chi-square test, Odds ratio, and regression analysis were used. Significance of 5%. RESULTS: The prevalence of chronic pain was 52.8% [CI (95%):49.4-56.1]; most frequently located in the lower limbs (34.5%) and lumbar region (29.5%); with high or the worst possible intensity for 54.6% of the elderly people. The occurrence of chronic pain was associated with (p<0.0001) a worse self-perception of health (OR=4.2:2.5-7.0), a greater number of chronic diseases (OR=1.8:1.2-2.7), joint disease (OR=3.5:2.4-5.1) and the female gender (OR=2.3:1.7-3.0). A lower intensity of chronic pain was associated with a better self-perception of health (p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: the majority of the elderly people of the community reported chronic pain, of a severe intensity, and located in areas related to movement activities, thus influencing the morbidity and mortality of this population. PMID:25296151

  11. Prevalence of tobacco use and its contributing factors among adolescents in Bangladesh: Results from a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Mainuddin, A. K. M.; Bhuiyan, Faiz Ahmed; Chowdhury, Kamrun Nahar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tobacco use is an alarming public health problem worldwide and causes significant morbidity and mortality. In many developing countries tobacco use starts at a relative younger age. However, data on tobacco use among adolescents in Bangladesh is scarce. Objectives: The main objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use and its contributing factors among adolescents in Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: We used data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) Bangladesh 2007 which was a school-based survey of 2,135 students aged 13-15 years in grades 7-10. Analysis: A two-stage cluster sample design was used to produce representative data for Bangladesh. At the first stage, schools were selected with probability proportional to enrollment size. At the second stage, classes were randomly selected and all students in selected classes were eligible to participate. The GYTS sample design produced representative, independent, cross-sectional estimates for Bangladesh. Results: The overall prevalence of ever cigarette smokers in Bangladeshi students was about 9%, which was more than 3 times higher in boys compared to girls (15.8% versus 4.8%). Almost 4 in 10 students start smoking before the age of 10 in Bangladesh. In addition to current cigarette smoking, another 6% also reported to use other tobacco products currently. Nine in 10 current smokers reported that they had ever received help to stop smoking. More than 4 in 10 students were exposed to smoke from other people in public places. Among current smokers, 38.3% reported that they usually buy tobacco in a store and of which 97.8% reported that they were not refused cigarette purchase because of their age. Conclusion: Implementation and enforcement of tobacco control act is an urgent public health priority in Bangladesh. PMID:28032084

  12. APPROACHING THE PREVALENCE OF THE FULL SPECTRUM OF FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDERS IN A SOUTH AFRICAN POPULATION-BASED STUDY

    PubMed Central

    May, Philip A.; Blankenship, Jason; Marais, Anna-Susan; Gossage, J. Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Barnard, Ronel; De Vries, Marlene; Robinson, Luther K.; Adnams, Colleen M.; Buckley, David; Manning, Melanie; Jones, Kenneth L.; Parry, Charles; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Seedat, Soraya

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) were determined in this fourth study of first grade children in a South African community. METHODS Active case ascertainment methods were employed among 747 first grade pupils. The detailed characteristics of children within the continuum of FASD are contrasted with randomly-selected, normal controls on: 1. physical growth and dysmorphology; 2. cognitive/behavioral characteristics; and 3. maternal risk factors. RESULTS The rates of specific diagnoses within the FASD spectrum continue to be among the highest reported in any community in the world. The prevalence (per 1,000) is: FAS - 59.3 to 91.0; PFAS – 45.3 to 69.6; and ARND – 30.5 to 46.8. The overall rate of FASD is therefore 136.1 to 208.8 per 1,000 (or 13.6 to 20.9%). Clinical profiles of the physical and cognitive/behavioral traits of children with a specific FASD diagnosis and controls are provided for understanding the full spectrum of FASD in a community. The spectral effect is evident in the characteristics of the diagnostic groups and summarized by the total (mean) dysmorphology scores of the children: FAS = 18.9; PFAS = 14.3; ARND = 12.2; normal controls, alcohol exposed = 8.2; and unexposed = 7.1. Documented drinking during pregnancy is significantly correlated with verbal (r = -.253) and non-verbal ability (r = -.265), negative behaviors (r = .203) and total dysmorphology score (r = .431). Other measures of drinking during pregnancy are significantly associated with FASD, including binge drinking as low as three drinks per episode on two days of the week. CONCLUSIONS High rates of specific diagnoses within FASD were well documented in this new cohort of children. FASD persists in this community. The data reflect an increased ability to provide accurate and discriminating diagnoses throughout the continuum of FASD. PMID:23241076

  13. Population-based cohort studies of type 2 diabetes and stomach cancer risk in Chinese men and women.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong-Li; Tan, Yu-Ting; Epplein, Meira; Li, Hong-Lan; Gao, Jing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2015-03-01

    Although positive associations have been found for diabetes and a number of cancer sites, investigations of stomach cancer are limited and the results lack consistency. In this prospective study we investigated the relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and stomach cancer risk in mainland China. We assessed the associations among T2DM, T2DM duration, and stomach cancer risk in two prospective population-based cohorts, the Shanghai Women's Health Study and the Shanghai Men's Health Study. Included in the study were 61 480 men and 74 941 women. Stomach cancer cases were identified through annual record linkage to the Shanghai Cancer Registry, and verified through home visits and review of medical charts. After a median follow-up of 7.5 years for the Shanghai Men's Health Study and 13.2 years for the Shanghai Women's Health Study, a total of 755 incident cases of stomach cancer (376 men and 379 women) were identified through to September 2013. Overall, we did not find any evidence that T2DM was associated with an increased risk of stomach cancer either in men (multi-adjusted hazard ratio = 0.83, 95% confidence interval, 0.59-1.16) or in women (multi-adjusted hazard ratio = 0.92, 95% confidence interval, 0.68-1.25). Our findings from two large prospective population-based cohorts suggest that T2DM was not associated with stomach cancer risk. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  14. Prevalence of Germline BAP1, CDKN2A, and CDK4 Mutations in an Australian Population-Based Sample of Cutaneous Melanoma Cases.

    PubMed

    Aoude, Lauren G; Gartside, Michael; Johansson, Peter; Palmer, Jane M; Symmons, Judith; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Hayward, Nicholas K

    2015-04-01

    Mutations in Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) and Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 (CDK4) contribute to susceptibility in approximately 40% of high-density cutaneous melanoma (CMM) families and about 2% of unselected CMM cases. BRCA-1 associated protein-1 (BAP1) has been more recently shown to predispose to CMM and uveal melanoma (UMM) in some families; however, its contribution to CMM development in the general population is unreported. We sought to determine the contribution of these genes to CMM susceptibility in a population-based sample of cases from Australia. We genotyped 1,109 probands from Queensland families and found that approximately 1.31% harbored mutations in CDKN2A, including some with novel missense mutations (p.R22W, p.G35R and p.I49F). BAP1 missense variants occurred in 0.63% of cases but no CDK4 variants were observed in the sample. This is the first estimate of the contribution of BAP1 and CDK4 to a population-based sample of CMM and supports the previously reported estimate of CDKN2A germline mutation prevalence.

  15. Prevalence and associated factors of depressive and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy: a population based study in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nasreen, Hashima E; Kabir, Zarina N; Forsell, Yvonne; Edhborg, Maigun

    2011-06-02

    Few studies have examined the associated factors of antepartum depressive and anxiety symptoms (ADS and AAS) in low-income countries, yet the World Health Organization identifies depressive disorders as the second leading cause of global disease burden by 2020. There is a paucity of research on mental disorders and their predictors among pregnant women in Bangladesh. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms and explore the associated factors in a cross-section of rural Bangladeshi pregnant women. The study used cross-sectional data originating from a rural community-based prospective cohort study of 720 randomly selected women in their third trimester of pregnancy from a district of Bangladesh. The validated Bangla version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used to measure ADS, and a trait anxiety inventory to assess general anxiety symptoms. Background information was collected using a structured questionnaire at the respondents' homes. Prevalence of ADS was 18% and AAS 29%. Women's literacy (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.37-0.95), poor partner relationship (OR 2.23, 95% CI 3.37-3.62), forced sex (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.01-3.75), physical violence by spouse (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.02-2.80), and previous depression (OR 4.62 95% CI 2.72-7.85) were found to be associated with ADS. The associated factors of AAS were illiteracy, poor household economy, lack of practical support, physical partner violence, violence during pregnancy, and interaction between poor household economy and poor partner relationship. Depressive and anxiety symptoms are found to occur commonly during pregnancy in Bangladesh, drawing attention to a need to screen for depression and anxiety during antenatal care. Policies aimed at encouraging practical support during pregnancy, reducing gender-based violence, supporting women with poor partner relationships, and identifying previous depression may ameliorate the potentially harmful consequences of antepartum depression

  16. Prevalence and associated factors of depressive and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy: A population based study in rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the associated factors of antepartum depressive and anxiety symptoms (ADS and AAS) in low-income countries, yet the World Health Organization identifies depressive disorders as the second leading cause of global disease burden by 2020. There is a paucity of research on mental disorders and their predictors among pregnant women in Bangladesh. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms and explore the associated factors in a cross-section of rural Bangladeshi pregnant women. Methods The study used cross-sectional data originating from a rural community-based prospective cohort study of 720 randomly selected women in their third trimester of pregnancy from a district of Bangladesh. The validated Bangla version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used to measure ADS, and a trait anxiety inventory to assess general anxiety symptoms. Background information was collected using a structured questionnaire at the respondents' homes. Results Prevalence of ADS was 18% and AAS 29%. Women's literacy (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.37-0.95), poor partner relationship (OR 2.23, 95% CI 3.37-3.62), forced sex (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.01-3.75), physical violence by spouse (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.02-2.80), and previous depression (OR 4.62 95% CI 2.72-7.85) were found to be associated with ADS. The associated factors of AAS were illiteracy, poor household economy, lack of practical support, physical partner violence, violence during pregnancy, and interaction between poor household economy and poor partner relationship. Conclusion Depressive and anxiety symptoms are found to occur commonly during pregnancy in Bangladesh, drawing attention to a need to screen for depression and anxiety during antenatal care. Policies aimed at encouraging practical support during pregnancy, reducing gender-based violence, supporting women with poor partner relationships, and identifying previous depression may ameliorate the potentially harmful

  17. Prevalence of preterm, low birthweight, and small for gestational age delivery after breast cancer diagnosis: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Black, Kristin Zeneé; Nichols, Hazel B; Eng, Eugenia; Rowley, Diane Louise

    2017-01-31

    Black-white disparities in breast cancer incidence rates and birth outcomes raise concerns about potential disparities in the reproductive health of premenopausal breast cancer survivors. We examined the prevalence of preterm birth (PTB), low birthweight (LBW), and small for gestational age (SGA) by breast cancer history and effect modification by race. We analyzed linked North Carolina birth records and Central Cancer Registry files from 1990 to 2009 (n = 2,325,229). We used multivariable negative log-binomial regression to calculate prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between breast cancer history and PTB, LBW, and SGA. Of 1,912,269 eligible births, 512 births were to mothers with a previous breast cancer diagnosis history. Average age at breast cancer diagnosis was 31.8 years (SD = 4.7). Mean time from diagnosis to delivery was 3.3 years (SD = 2.8). After multivariable adjustment, the PR was 1.67 (95% CI, 1.42-1.97) for PTB, 1.50 (95% CI, 1.23-1.84) for LBW, and 1.30 (95% CI, 1.05-1.61) for SGA comparing women with a breast cancer history to the general population. Among black mothers, the PRs associated with breast cancer history for PTB, LBW, and SGA were 1.31 (95% CI, 1.00-1.72), 1.49 (95% CI, 1.14-1.94), and 1.44 (95% CI, 1.11-1.87), respectively. The corresponding PRs among white mothers were 2.06 (95% CI, 1.67-2.54), 1.53 (95% CI, 1.12-2.08), and 1.10 (95% CI, 0.77-1.58), respectively. The interaction between breast cancer history and race was statistically significant for associations with PTB, but not for LBW or SGA. In our data, women with a breast cancer history were at higher risk of delivering a PTB, LBW, or SGA infant, especially if they received chemotherapy or gave birth within 2 years of their breast cancer diagnosis date.

  18. Approaching the prevalence of the full spectrum of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in a South African population-based study.

    PubMed

    May, Philip A; Blankenship, Jason; Marais, Anna-Susan; Gossage, J Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O; Barnard, Ronel; De Vries, Marlene; Robinson, Luther K; Adnams, Colleen M; Buckley, David; Manning, Melanie; Jones, Kenneth L; Parry, Charles; Hoyme, H Eugene; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-05-01

    The prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) were determined in this fourth study of first-grade children in a South African community. Active case ascertainment methods were employed among 747 first-grade pupils. The detailed characteristics of children within the continuum of FASD are contrasted with randomly selected, normal controls on (i) physical growth and dysmorphology; (ii) cognitive/behavioral characteristics; and (iii) maternal risk factors. The rates of specific diagnoses within the FASD spectrum continue to be among the highest reported in any community in the world. The prevalence (per 1,000) is as follows: fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)-59.3 to 91.0; partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS)-45.3 to 69.6; and alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND)-30.5 to 46.8. The overall rate of FASD is therefore 135.1 to 207.5 per 1,000 (or 13.6 to 20.9%). Clinical profiles of the physical and cognitive/behavioral traits of children with a specific FASD diagnosis and controls are provided for understanding the full spectrum of FASD in a community. The spectral effect is evident in the characteristics of the diagnostic groups and summarized by the total (mean) dysmorphology scores of the children: FAS = 18.9; PFAS = 14.3; ARND = 12.2; and normal controls, alcohol exposed = 8.2 and unexposed = 7.1. Documented drinking during pregnancy is significantly correlated with verbal (r = -0.253) and nonverbal ability (r = -0.265), negative behaviors (r = 0.203), and total dysmorphology score (r = 0.431). Other measures of drinking during pregnancy are significantly associated with FASD, including binge drinking as low as 3 drinks per episode on 2 days of the week. High rates of specific diagnoses within FASD were well documented in this new cohort of children. FASD persists in this community. The data reflect an increased ability to provide accurate and discriminating diagnoses throughout the continuum of FASD. Copyright © 2012 by the

  19. Population based study of prevalence of islet cell autoantibodies in monozygotic and dizygotic Danish twin pairs with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, J. S.; Kyvik, K. O.; Bingley, P. J.; Gale, E. A.; Green, A.; Dyrberg, T.; Beck-Nielsen, H.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the comparative importance of environment and genes in the development of islet cell autoimmunity associated with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Population based study of diabetic twins. SETTING: Danish population. SUBJECTS: 18 monozygotic and 36 dizygotic twin pairs with one or both partners having insulin dependent diabetes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Presence of islet cell antibodies, insulin autoantibodies, and autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) in serum samples from twin pairs 10 years (range 0-30 years) and 9.5 years (2-30 years) after onset of disease. RESULTS: In those with diabetes the prevalence of islet cell antibodies, insulin autoantibodies, and autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase in the 26 monozygotic twins was 38%, 85%, and 92%, respectively, and in the dizygotic twins was 57%, 70%, and 57%, respectively. In those without diabetes the proportions were 20%, 50%, and 40% in the 10 monozygotic twins and 26%, 49%, and 40% in the 35 dizygotic twins. CONCLUSION: There is no difference between the prevalence of islet cell autoantibodies in dizygotic and monozygotic twins without diabetes, suggesting that islet cell autoimmunity is environmentally rather than genetically determined. Furthermore, the prevalence of islet cell antibodies was higher in the non-diabetic twins than in other first degree relatives of patients with insulin dependent diabetes. This implies that the prenatal or early postnatal period during which twins are exposed to the same environment, in contrast with that experienced by first degree relatives, is of aetiological importance. PMID:9169400

  20. Prevalence and predictors of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in a population-based sample of women in rural Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Asiimwe, Stephen; Whalen, Christopher C; Tisch, Daniel J; Tumwesigye, Elioda; Sethi, Ajay K

    2010-01-01

    Summary High-risk genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is aetiologically linked to cervical cancer; however, data on the prevalence and determinants of high-risk HPV infection in Uganda are limited. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey among 18–49-year-old women in rural Southwest Uganda. The primary outcome was presence or absence of high-risk HPV DNA (for genotypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 or 68) in the genital secretions as determined by HPV DNA Hybrid Capture 2 assay (Digene Corp, Beltsville, MD, USA). In 314 women who participated, the prevalence of high-risk HPV was 17.2% (54/314; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 13–21). Older women had a lower proportion of high-risk HPV infection; with a 9% decrease in the odds ratio (OR) of high-risk HPV infection per year increase in age (OR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.86, 0.96). The odds of detecting high-risk HPV infection was higher among women who were previously tested positive for HIV (OR = 12.1; 95% CI: 2.8, 52.3). In this population of rural Ugandan women, the prevalence of high-risk cervical HPV infection was high. Information on predictors of high-risk HPV infection and intention to receive a vaccine can guide future immunization initiatives for young sexually active women. PMID:18725551

  1. Prevalence, Age at Diagnosis, Mortality, and Cause of Death in Retinitis Pigmentosa in Korea-A Nationwide Population-based Study.

    PubMed

    Na, Kun-Hoo; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Han, Seungjin; Kim, Patrick; Hann, Hoo Jae; Ahn, Hyeong Sik

    2017-04-01

    To determine the prevalence and mortality of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients in Korea. Population-based retrospective cohort study. We used data covering the 2011-2014 period from the Rare Intractable Disease (RID) registry and Health Insurance Review and Assessment (HIRA) service, which include information on all patients diagnosed with RP based on predefined diagnostic criteria. Using the HIRA-RID database, we evaluated the prevalence and age at diagnosis of RP patients across the entire Korean population. We further linked the data from Statistics Korea to the HIRA-RID database to confirm mortality and causes of death. The prevalence in the total population across all ages was 11.09 per 10(5) people, and the prevalence in those over the age of 40 was 16.16 per 10(5) people. The age at diagnosis ranged from 0 to 95 and, on average, was 44.8. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 1.56 for all ages, peaking at 2.61 in men aged 40-59, which was attributed to 6.6-fold higher suicide rates than the same age group in the general male population. This is the first nationwide epidemiologic study of RP patients covering the entire population of all ages. The results suggest that the prevalence of RP in Korea is about 1 in 9000 for all ages and 1 in 6000 for those over 40 years of age. The higher mortality of RP patients than that of the general population is attributable to a high suicide rate in male RP patients of working ages, which necessitates a careful attention to their mental health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa in Spain: a population-based study using the 3-source capture-recapture method. Evidence of a need for improvement in care.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Martín, A; Aranegui, B; Escámez, M J; de Lucas, R; Vicente, A; Rodríguez-Díaz, E; Bernabeu-Wittel, J; Gonzalez-Hermosa, R; García-Patos, V; Ginarte, M; Mascaró, J M; Corredera, C; Baselga, E; Santiago, J L; Chaves, A; Román, C; Evole, M; Martin-Santiago, A; Torrelo, A; Del Río, M; Feito, M; Gonzalez-Enseñat, M A; Romero, G; Morcillo-Makow, E; Abaitua, I; García-Doval, I

    2013-12-01

    Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) is a rare disease that represents a heavy burden for both the patient and the health care system. There are currently no data on the prevalence of DEB in Spain. To determine the prevalence of DEB in Spain. We used data from 3 incomplete population-based sources (hospital dermatology departments, diagnostic laboratories performing antigenic mapping, genetic testing or both, and the Spanish Association of Epidermolysis Bullosa Patients [DEBRA]) and combined them using the 3-source capture-recapture methodology. We identified 152 living DEB patients. The estimated prevalence of DEB was 6.0 cases per million (95% CI, 4.2-11.8) in adults and 15.3 (95% CI, 10.4-40.8) in children under 18 years of age. The data indicated that 77% of the patients were not being followed up in specialized centers of reference; 65% had not had a genetic diagnosis, and 76% were not members of DEBRA. The prevalence of DEB in Spain is 6.0 patients per million (95% CI, 4.2-11.8), a figure higher than previous estimates in many areas, but similar to those found in other southern Europe countries. The north-south difference may represent real geographic differences in prevalence, but it might be due to the fact that most of the data come from registries with a lower than expected catchment. Many patients are not being followed up in centers of reference, do not have genetic diagnosis, and are not members of patients' associations, suggesting that there is room for considerable improvement in their care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  3. Unusual trend in the prevalence of trisomy 13 in mothers aged 35 and older: A population based study of national congenital anomaly data.

    PubMed

    Nair, Deepa Balachandran; Tucker, David; Hughes, Rhian; Greenacre, Judith; Morgan, Margery

    2015-07-01

    Trisomy 13 is one of the three autosomal trisomies compatible with viability. It is associated with structural anomalies, learning disability and poor survival. Advanced maternal age is the most frequently suggested risk factor. This is a population based register study to investigate the temporal trends of trisomy 13. Chromosomal trisomies were reviewed by the Welsh Congenital Anomaly Register using data from 1998-2012. All pregnancy outcomes were included. Prevalence rates and trends for all cases and for cases with mothers aged below 35 years and those aged 35 years and older were plotted for trisomy 13, 18 and 21. Possible risk factors contributing to the trend in older mothers were compared in the early and late period of the study. There were 124 cases of trisomy 13 over the 15 year period with 55 mothers aged 35 years and older. Overall prevalence was 2.5 per 10,000 total births. A significant declining trend in the prevalence of trisomy 13 in mothers aged 35 and older (χ(2) trend = 4.98, p=0.026) was noted. Rates for younger mothers were lower and remained stable. Prevalence of trisomy 18 and 21 in older mothers remained stable. The unexpected declining trend in trisomy 13 in older mothers could not be explained by the risk factors examined in this study. There have been no other reports of trends in the prevalence of trisomy 13 in older mothers in recent years. There is further need for surveillance of trends in future and in other populations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Eyelash Epilation in the Absence of Trichiasis: Results of a Population-Based Prevalence Survey in the Western Division of Fiji

    PubMed Central

    Butcher, Robert; Mudaliar, Umesh; Natutusau, Kinisimere; Rainima-Qaniuci, Mere; Haffenden, Chris; Watson, Conall; Cocks, Naomi; Cikamatana, Luisa; Roberts, Chrissy H.; Marks, Michael; Rafai, Eric; Mabey, David C. W.; Kama, Mike; Solomon, Anthony W.

    2017-01-01

    Background The WHO definition of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) is “at least one eyelash touching the globe, or evidence of recent epilation of in-turned eyelashes”, reflecting the fact that epilation is used as a self-management tool for TT. In Fiji’s Western Division, a high TT prevalence (8.7% in those aged ≥15 years) was reported in a 2012 survey, yet a 2013 survey found no TT and Fijian ophthalmologists rarely see TT cases. Local anecdote suggests that eyelash epilation is a common behaviour, even in the absence of trichiasis. Epilators may have been identified as TT cases in previous surveys. Methods We used a preliminary focus group to design an interview questionnaire, and subsequently conducted a population-based prevalence survey to estimate the prevalence of epilation in the absence of trichiasis, and factors associated with this behaviour, in the Western Division of Fiji. Results We sampled 695 individuals aged ≥15 years from a total of 457 households in 23 villages. 125 participants (18%) reported epilating their eyelashes at least once within the past year. Photographs were obtained of the eyes of 121/125 (97%) individuals who epilated, and subsequent analysis by an experienced trachoma grader found no cases of trachomatous conjunctival scarring or trichiasis. The age- and sex- adjusted prevalence of epilation in those aged ≥15 years was 8.6% (95% CI 5.7–11.3%). iTaukei ethnicity, female gender, and a higher frequency of drinking kava root were independently associated with epilation. Conclusion Epilation occurs in this population in the absence of trichiasis, with sufficient frequency to have markedly inflated previous estimates of local TT prevalence. Individuals with epilated eyelashes should be confirmed as having epilated in-turned eyelashes in an eye with scarring of the conjunctiva before being counted as cases of TT. PMID:28114364

  5. Eyelash Epilation in the Absence of Trichiasis: Results of a Population-Based Prevalence Survey in the Western Division of Fiji.

    PubMed

    Macleod, Colin; Yalen, Chelsea; Butcher, Robert; Mudaliar, Umesh; Natutusau, Kinisimere; Rainima-Qaniuci, Mere; Haffenden, Chris; Watson, Conall; Cocks, Naomi; Cikamatana, Luisa; Roberts, Chrissy H; Marks, Michael; Rafai, Eric; Mabey, David C W; Kama, Mike; Solomon, Anthony W

    2017-01-01

    The WHO definition of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) is "at least one eyelash touching the globe, or evidence of recent epilation of in-turned eyelashes", reflecting the fact that epilation is used as a self-management tool for TT. In Fiji's Western Division, a high TT prevalence (8.7% in those aged ≥15 years) was reported in a 2012 survey, yet a 2013 survey found no TT and Fijian ophthalmologists rarely see TT cases. Local anecdote suggests that eyelash epilation is a common behaviour, even in the absence of trichiasis. Epilators may have been identified as TT cases in previous surveys. We used a preliminary focus group to design an interview questionnaire, and subsequently conducted a population-based prevalence survey to estimate the prevalence of epilation in the absence of trichiasis, and factors associated with this behaviour, in the Western Division of Fiji. We sampled 695 individuals aged ≥15 years from a total of 457 households in 23 villages. 125 participants (18%) reported epilating their eyelashes at least once within the past year. Photographs were obtained of the eyes of 121/125 (97%) individuals who epilated, and subsequent analysis by an experienced trachoma grader found no cases of trachomatous conjunctival scarring or trichiasis. The age- and sex- adjusted prevalence of epilation in those aged ≥15 years was 8.6% (95% CI 5.7-11.3%). iTaukei ethnicity, female gender, and a higher frequency of drinking kava root were independently associated with epilation. Epilation occurs in this population in the absence of trichiasis, with sufficient frequency to have markedly inflated previous estimates of local TT prevalence. Individuals with epilated eyelashes should be confirmed as having epilated in-turned eyelashes in an eye with scarring of the conjunctiva before being counted as cases of TT.

  6. Prevalence and Correlates of Suicidal Ideation Among Transgender Youth in California: Findings From a Representative, Population-Based Sample of High School Students.

    PubMed

    Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Day, Jack K; Russell, Stephen T; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L

    2017-09-01

    No representative population-based studies of youth in the United States exist on gender identity-related disparities in suicidal ideation or on factors that underlie this disparity. To address this, this study examined gender identity-related disparities in the prevalence of suicidal ideation; evaluated whether established psychosocial factors explained these disparities; and identified correlates of suicidal ideation among all youth and stratified by gender identity. Data were derived from the 2013 to 2015 California Healthy Kids Survey (CHKS; N = 621,189) and a weighted subsample representative of the Californian student population (Biennial Statewide California Student Survey [CSS], N = 28,856). Prevalence of past 12-month self-reported suicidal ideation was nearly twice as high for transgender compared with non-transgender youth (33.73% versus 18.85%; χ(2) = 35.48, p < .001). In fully adjusted models within the representative sample, transgender youth had 2.99 higher odds (95% CI 2.25-3.98) of reporting past-year suicidal ideation compared with non-transgender youth. Among transgender youth, only depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio 5.44, 95% CI 1.81-16.38) and victimization (adjusted odds ratio 2.66, 95% CI 1.26-5.65) remained significantly associated with higher odds of suicidal ideation in fully adjusted models. In multiple mediation analyses, depression attenuated the association between gender identity and suicidal ideation by 17.95% and victimization by 14.71%. This study uses the first representative population-based sample of youth in the United States that includes a measurement of gender identity to report on gender identity-related disparities in suicidal ideation and to identify potential mechanisms underlying this disparity in a representative sample. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Migraine, tension-type headache, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in childhood: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Marco A; Guidetti, Vincenzo; Galli, Federica; Albuquerque, Regina C A P; Bigal, Marcelo E

    2010-09-01

    Primary headache syndromes (eg, migraine and tension-type headache [TTH]) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are prevalent in childhood and may cause impairment in social and academic functioning. We tested if ADHD or its symptoms are associated with specific headache syndromes or with headache frequency. Cross-sectional epidemiological study with direct interviews to parents and teachers using validated and standardized questionnaires. Populational study. Children aged 5 to 11 years (n = 1856). Prevalence of ADHD as a function of headache status in crude and adjusted analyses. The prevalence of migraine was 3.76%. Infrequent episodic TTH occurred in 2.3% of the sample, and frequent episodic TTH occurred in 1.6%. The prevalence of ADHD was 6.1%. The prevalence of ADHD was not significantly different by headache category. For hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms, the prevalence was 8.1% in children without headache, 23.7% in children with migraine (relative risk [RR], 2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-4.2), and 18.4% in children with probable migraine (RR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.4-3.2). For inattention, no significant differences were seen. In multivariate analyses, ADHD or inattention symptoms were not predicted by headache subtypes or headache frequency. Hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms were significantly associated with any headache (P < 0.01), TTH (P < 0.01), or migraine (P < 0.001). Migraine and TTH are not comorbid to ADHD overall, but are comorbid to hyperactive-impulsive behavior. Providers and educators should be aware of the association.

  8. A review of population-based prevalence studies of physical activity in adults in the Asia-Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) surveillance is an important component of non-communicable disease risk factor monitoring, and occurs through national and international surveillance systems. This review identifies population PA estimates for adults in the Asia-Pacific region, and examines variation in trends and prevalence rates obtained using different PA measures. Methods Data were obtained from a MEDLINE search; World Health Organization's Global Health Infobase; Government websites and reference lists of relevant papers. Inclusion criteria included: national studies or those reporting large scale population-level data; data published from 2000 to 2010 and trend data prior; sample sizes over n = 1000, or fewer subjects in small nations. Results In total, 56 population surveys from 29 Asia-Pacific countries were identified. Data on 'sufficient physical activity' amongst adults were available from 45 studies (80%), with estimates ranging from 7% to 93% (median 62%, inter-quartile range 40%-85%). For 14 countries, estimates of 'sufficient activity' were documented in multiple surveys using different methods, with the largest variation from 18% to 92% in Nepal. Median or mean MET-minutes/day, reported in 20 studies, ranged from 6 to 1356. Serial trend data were available for 11 countries (22%), for periods spanning 2-10 years. Of these, five countries demonstrated increases in physical activity over time, four demonstrated decreases and three showed no changes. Conclusions Many countries in the Asia-Pacific region collect population-level PA data. This review highlights differences in estimates within and between countries. Some differences may be real, others due to variation in the PA questions asked and survey methods used. Use of standardized protocols and measures, and combined reporting of data are essential goals of improved international PA surveillance. PMID:22251660

  9. Association of Overweight with the Prevalence of Lifetime Psychiatric Disorders and Suicidality: General Population-based Study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Soo; Chang, Sung Man; Seong, Su Jeong; Park, Jee Eun; Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong Jin; Hahm, Bong Jin; Lee, Dong Woo; Park, Jong Ik; Lee, Jun Young; Jeon, Hong Jin; Cho, Maeng Je

    2016-11-01

    Many epidemiological studies suggest that overweight is associated with an elevated risk of psychiatric disorders and suicidal tendency. However, findings vary across studies, and some have contradictory results. We investigated the relationship of overweight with a range of psychiatric disorders and suicidality in the Korean general population. A multistage cluster sampling design was adopted. A total of 6,022 participants aged 18-74 years completed face-to-face interviews (response rate: 78.7%) including assessment of psychiatric disorders, suicidality, and height and weight. Overweight (defined as body mass index of ≥ 25) was associated with an increase in the lifetime prevalence of depressive disorders (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.77), suicidal ideation (AOR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.20-1.68), and suicidal plans (AOR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.02-2.03), controlling for sociodemographic variables. Subgroup analysis found that the association between overweight and depressive disorders exists only in women aged 18-44 years (AOR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.07-2.89) while the association of overweight with suicidal ideation (AOR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.53-2.82) and suicide plans (AOR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.25-5.37) existed only in men aged 18-44 years. Overweight was associated with increased odds of nicotine use disorders in women aged 18-44 years (AOR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.02-5.43), but the association was in the opposite direction in men aged 45-74 years (AOR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.43-0.94). In conclusion, overweight is related to various psychiatric disorders and suicidality in Korea. Policy makers and clinicians should pay more attention to the mental health of overweight individuals.

  10. Association of Overweight with the Prevalence of Lifetime Psychiatric Disorders and Suicidality: General Population-based Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies suggest that overweight is associated with an elevated risk of psychiatric disorders and suicidal tendency. However, findings vary across studies, and some have contradictory results. We investigated the relationship of overweight with a range of psychiatric disorders and suicidality in the Korean general population. A multistage cluster sampling design was adopted. A total of 6,022 participants aged 18–74 years completed face-to-face interviews (response rate: 78.7%) including assessment of psychiatric disorders, suicidality, and height and weight. Overweight (defined as body mass index of ≥ 25) was associated with an increase in the lifetime prevalence of depressive disorders (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07–1.77), suicidal ideation (AOR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.20–1.68), and suicidal plans (AOR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.02–2.03), controlling for sociodemographic variables. Subgroup analysis found that the association between overweight and depressive disorders exists only in women aged 18–44 years (AOR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.07–2.89) while the association of overweight with suicidal ideation (AOR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.53–2.82) and suicide plans (AOR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.25–5.37) existed only in men aged 18–44 years. Overweight was associated with increased odds of nicotine use disorders in women aged 18–44 years (AOR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.02–5.43), but the association was in the opposite direction in men aged 45–74 years (AOR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.43–0.94). In conclusion, overweight is related to various psychiatric disorders and suicidality in Korea. Policy makers and clinicians should pay more attention to the mental health of overweight individuals. PMID:27709862

  11. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease among sasang constitutional types: a population-based study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Ku; Yoon, Dae Wui; Lee, Si Woo; Kim, Jong Yeol; Kim, Jin Kwan; Shin, Chol

    2015-11-07

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease and is highly prevalent in populations with metabolic conditions such as obesity and type II diabetes. Specific types of Sasang constitution can act as a risk factor for metabolic diseases, but there are no studies addressing the association between the Sasang constitutional types (SCTs) and NAFLD. A total of 1184 individuals (508 males, 676 females) that enrolled in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study were included in the present study. Classification of SCTs was done with an integrated diagnostic model. NAFLD was diagnosed when the liver attenuation index (LAI) value was <5 Hounsfield units using computed tomography. Relationships between the SCTs and NAFLD were analyzed using multiple logistic regressions. The average LAI was 13.3±6.0 in the So-eum (SE) type, 12.3±7.0 in the So-yang (SY) type, and 6.5±9.9 in the Tae-eum (TE) type. Prevalence of NAFLD was 4.7% in the SE type, 14.0% in the SY type, and 34% in the TE type. Even after adjusting for possible confounders, the SY and TE types continued to show a 3.90-fold (95% CI, 1.60-9.51; P=0.0028) and 3.36-fold (95% CI, 1.42-7.92; P=0.0057) increase in chance of having NAFLD, respectively, compared with the SE type. In the additional analysis including only non-obese subjects, the odds ratio of NAFLD was 3.27 (95% CI, 1.29-8.29; P=0.0126) in the SY type and 3.53 (95% CI, 1.30-9.58; P=0.0134) in the TE type compared with SE type. In the multivariate analysis to determine which parameter had an independent association with NAFLD, higher body mass index, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triglyceride (TG), and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were independently associated with developing NAFLD in the SY type. In contrast, male sex, alcohol consumption, higher ALT, TG, and fasting glucose were risk factors for NAFLD in the TE type. These results indicated that the SY and TE types are independent risk factors for

  12. Sex-related differences in the association of salivary cortisol levels and type 2 diabetes. Findings from the cross-sectional population based KORA-age study.

    PubMed

    Johar, Hamimatunnisa; Emeny, Rebecca Thwing; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Kruse, Johannes; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2016-07-01

    Dysregulation in the cortisol secretion may have a role in the development of type 2 diabetes although conflicting evidence on the particular cortisol secretion patterns and type 2 diabetes demands further investigations. We aim to examine the association of cortisol levels and diurnal secretion patterns with prevalence of type 2 diabetes and HbA1c levels as well as the potential impact of sex and adiposity on this association. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted among 757 participants (aged 65-90 years) of the population-based KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg)-Age study. Multivariate regression analyses were employed to examine the association between salivary cortisol (measured upon waking (M1), 30min after awakening (M2), and in the late night (LNSC)) and type 2 diabetes as well as glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) with adjustments for potential confounders. In the total sample population, an elevated LNSC level was observed in type 2 diabetes patients compared to non-patients (P=0.04). In sex-stratified analyses, diabetic men showed a greater Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR) (P=0.02). Diabetic women had significantly elevated LNSC levels (P=0.04). HbA1c was positively associated with both CAR and LNSC levels but was negatively associated with M1 to LNSC ratio. In this aged population, type 2 diabetes is associated with dysregulated cortisol secretion characterized by distinct sex specific diurnal patterns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sport disciplines, types of sports, and waist circumference in young adulthood - a population-based twin study.

    PubMed

    Rottensteiner, Mirva; Mäkelä, Sara; Bogl, Leonie H; Törmäkangas, Timo; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M

    2017-10-01

    The benefits of physical activity (PA) in preventing abdominal obesity are well recognized, but the role of different sport disciplines remains open. We aimed, therefore, to investigate how participation in different sport disciplines, and the number and types of sports engaged in are associated with waist circumference (WC) in young adulthood. This population-based cohort study comprised 4027 Finnish twin individuals (1874 men), with a mean age of 34 y (32-37), who answered a survey, including self-measured WC. We extracted the number and identified the types (aerobic, power, and mixed) of the different sport disciplines respondents reported participating in. The number of sport disciplines participated in was inversely associated with WC, the linear decrease averaging 1.38 cm (95% CI 1.10-1.65) per each additional sport discipline. The result persisted after adjustment for the main covariates, such as volume of PA and diet quality. Among dizygotic twin pairs discordant for sports participation (0-2 vs. 5 or more disciplines), the mean within-pair difference in WC was 4.8 cm (95% CI 0.4-9.1) for men and 11.2 cm (95% CI 4.4-18.0) for women; among discordant monozygotic pairs, no differences were observed. In men, all three types of sports were individually associated with smaller WC, while in women, only mixed and power sports showed this association. Participation in several sport disciplines and sport types was associated with smaller WC among young adults in their mid-30s. Shared genetic background may explain some of the associations.

  14. Direct medical costs attributable to type 2 diabetes mellitus: a population-based study in Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Mata-Cases, Manel; Casajuana, Marc; Franch-Nadal, Josep; Casellas, Aina; Castell, Conxa; Vinagre, Irene; Mauricio, Dídac; Bolíbar, Bonaventura

    2016-11-01

    We estimated healthcare costs associated with patients with type 2 diabetes compared with non-diabetic subjects in a population-based primary care database through a retrospective analysis of economic impact during 2011, including 126,811 patients with type 2 diabetes in Catalonia, Spain. Total annual costs included primary care visits, hospitalizations, referrals, diagnostic tests, self-monitoring test strips, medication, and dialysis. For each patient, one control matched for age, gender and managing physician was randomly selected from a population database. The annual average cost per patient was €3110.1 and €1803.6 for diabetic and non-diabetic subjects, respectively (difference €1306.6; i.e., 72.4 % increased cost). The costs of hospitalizations were €1303.1 and €801.6 (62.0 % increase), and medication costs were €925.0 and €489.2 (89.1 % increase) in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects, respectively. In type 2 diabetic patients, hospitalizations and medications had the greatest impact on the overall cost (41.9 and 29.7 %, respectively), generating approximately 70 % of the difference between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Patients with poor glycaemic control (glycated haemoglobin >7 %; >53 mmol/mol) had average costs of €3296.5 versus €2848.5 for patients with good control. In the absence of macrovascular complications, average costs were €3008.1 for diabetic and €1612.4 for non-diabetic subjects, while its presence increased costs to €4814.6 and €3306.8, respectively. In conclusion, the estimated higher costs for type 2 diabetes patients compared with non-diabetic subjects are due mainly to hospitalizations and medications, and are higher among diabetic patients with poor glycaemic control and macrovascular complications.

  15. Prevalence of Chronic Neck Pain, Low Back Pain, and Knee Pain and Their Related Factors in Community-Dwelling Adults in Iran: A Population-based National Study.

    PubMed

    Noormohammadpour, Pardis; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Asgari, Fereshteh; Rostami, Mohsen; Rafei, Ali; Kordi, Ramin

    2017-02-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP) is increasing in prevalence rapidly. Over the past 2 decades low back pain has been ranked globally as the primary cause of years lived with disability. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of chronic neck pain (CNP), chronic low back pain (CLBP), and chronic knee pain (CKP) and their related risk factors in the national Iranian population. We analyzed data obtained through a cross-sectional, population-based survey of 7889 Iranians who were aged between 30 and 70 years. The prevalence of CNP, CLBP, and CKP was 15.34%, 27.18%, and 29.97%, respectively. Female sex, aging, body mass index≥25, Lur or Arab ethnicity, illiteracy, passive smoking, positive osteoporosis history, and low or high physical activity levels were risk factors for CLBP, CNP, and CKP after adjustment for potential confounders. For example, in participants with a body mass index≥30, odds ratios for CNP, CLBP, and CKP adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, living area, education, employment status, smoking, and physical activity levels were 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.52), 1.37 (95% CI, 1.17-1.59), and 1.64 (95% CI, 1.41-1.91), respectively. This is the first study investigating the prevalence of CNP, CLBP, and CKP in the national population of Iran. It shows some modifiable risk factors for CMP, and suggests that affordable planning for these risk factors can be valuable in preventing CMP globally. However, this is a cross-sectional study and future longitudinal studies in this field are necessary.

  16. Prevalence of Myofascial Pain Syndrome in Chronic Non-Specific Neck Pain: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study.

    PubMed

    Cerezo-Téllez, Ester; Torres-Lacomba, María; Mayoral-Del Moral, Orlando; Sánchez-Sánchez, Beatriz; Dommerholt, Jan; Gutiérrez-Ortega, Carlos

    2016-06-20

    Chronic non-specific neck pain is a frequent complaint. It is a recognized medical and socioeconomic problem and a frequent cause of job absenteeism. In recent years, case reports about myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) are emerging among patients suffering from pain. MPS is a regional pain syndrome characterized by myofascial trigger points (MTrP) in palpable taut bands of skeletal muscle that refer pain to a distance, and that can cause distant motor and autonomic effects. To assess the prevalence of active and latent MTrPs in subjects suffering from chronic non-specific neck pain. A population-based cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out from January 2012 to December 2014. Three primary healthcare centers in Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain). Two hundred and twenty-four participants diagnosed by their family doctor with chronic non-specific neck pain. Participants were examined by a physical therapist to determine the presence of MPS. Pain descriptions from the subjects and pain body diagrams guided the physical examination. The subjects were not given any information concerning MPS or other muscle pain syndromes. All participants presented with MPS. MTrPs of the trapezius muscles were the most prevalent, in 93.75% of the participants. The most prevalent active MTrPs were located right (82.1%) and left (79%) in the nearly-horizontal fibers of the upper trapezius muscle. Furthermore, active MTrPs in the levator scapulae, multifidi, and splenius cervicis muscles reached a prevalence of 82.14%, 77.68%, and 62.5%, respectively. MPS is a common source of pain in subjects presenting chronic non-specific neck pain. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Prevalence of Myofascial Pain Syndrome in Chronic Non-Specific Neck Pain: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study.

    PubMed

    Cerezo-Téllez, Ester; Torres-Lacomba, María; Mayoral-Del Moral, Orlando; Sánchez-Sánchez, Beatriz; Dommerholt, Jan; Gutiérrez-Ortega, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Chronic non-specific neck pain is a frequent complaint. It is a recognized medical and socioeconomic problem and a frequent cause of job absenteeism. In recent years, case reports about myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) are emerging among patients suffering from pain. MPS is a regional pain syndrome characterized by myofascial trigger points (MTrP) in palpable taut bands of skeletal muscle that refer pain to a distance, and that can cause distant motor and autonomic effects. To assess the prevalence of active and latent MTrPs in subjects suffering from chronic non-specific neck pain. A population-based cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out from January 2012 to December 2014. Three primary healthcare centers in Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain). Two hundred and twenty-four participants diagnosed by their family doctor with chronic non-specific neck pain. Participants were examined by a physical therapist to determine the presence of MPS. Pain descriptions from the subjects and pain body diagrams guided the physical examination. The subjects were not given any information concerning MPS or other muscle pain syndromes. All participants presented with MPS. MTrPs of the trapezius muscles were the most prevalent, in 93.75% of the participants. The most prevalent active MTrPs were located right (82.1%) and left (79%) in the nearly-horizontal fibers of the upper trapezius muscle. Furthermore, active MTrPs in the levator scapulae, multifidi, and splenius cervicis muscles reached a prevalence of 82.14%, 77.68%, and 62.5%, respectively. MPS is a common source of pain in subjects presenting chronic non-specific neck pain. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Severe obesity increases the prevalence but not the incidence of depressive symptoms in the elderly-population-based cohort in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Goes, Vanessa Fernanda; Wazlawik, Elisabeth; D'Orsi, Eleonora; González-Chica, David Alejandro

    2017-08-01

    The relation between body weight status and depressive symptoms in the elderly differs according to age and country of origin. The goal of this study was to analyze the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and depressive symptoms in the elderly. A population-based cohort study of 1,702 elderly individuals (70.6+8.0 years) in Southern Brazil evaluated in 2009/10 and 2013/14 was accessed. The body weight status was assessed using measured data of BMI and WC. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) was used to determine depressive symptoms. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for sociodemographic and behavioral variables was performed. The prevalence of depressive symptoms in 2009/10 was 23.3% (95% CI 20.3-26.6) and the cumulative incidence in the 4-years period was 10.9% (95% CI 8.7-13.6). Elderly people with obesity class II-III and WC in the highest quartile had higher prevalence odds ratio of being depressed than individuals with normal weight or WC in the lower quartile (OR 2.34; 95% CI 1.42-3.87 and OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.13-2.65, respectively). Meanwhile, intermediary values of BMI and WC were associated with a lower prevalence. When evaluating the incidence of depressive symptoms, overweight individuals and those in the second quartile of WC had a lower risk (58% and 57%, respectively), but severely obese individuals had the same risk compared to those with normal BMI/WC. Severely obese individuals presented a similar incidence of depressive symptoms compared to those with normal BMI/WC, but higher prevalence. Intermediary values of body weight status decrease the risk of depressive symptoms.

  19. Predictors of skin examination in California twins Prevalence and predictors of recent skin examination in a population-based twin cohort

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kimberly A.; Langholz, Bryan M.; Zadnick, John; Hamilton, Ann S.; Cozen, Wendy; Mack, Thomas M.; Cockburn, Myles G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of melanoma is increasing worldwide. Guidelines for clinical skin exam for improving early diagnosis of melanoma remain inconsistent, and current data on factors associated with regular skin screening on a population basis are limited. Methods We used self-reported data from 50,044 members of the California Twin Program, a population-based cohort of twins born in California between 1908 and 1982, to identify prevalence and determinants of recent clinical screening for skin cancer. Results Prevalence of skin examination was higher than national estimates, with 32% of respondents of all ages reporting ever having skin examination. Socio-demographic and constitutional risk factors including white race, educational attainment, marital status, and number of large moles were strongly associated with recent screening, as were individual and family history of skin cancer. Lower socioeconomic status, racial/ethnic minority status, and paradoxically, frequent UV-related risk behaviors in adulthood were associated with a lower likelihood of recent screening. Conclusions As the evidence concerning the efficacy of skin examination continues to evolve, attention should be paid to motivators and barriers of screening, particularly in high-risk subgroups where lack of screening may contribute to disparate rates of thicker melanomas and lower survival. Impact Our results demonstrate the need for prevention strategies targeted to specific at-risk groups to increase earlier detection leading to improved outcomes. PMID:25994738

  20. Japanese secular trends in birthweight and the prevalence of low birthweight infants during the last three decades: A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Takemoto, Yo; Ota, Erika; Yoneoka, Daisuke; Mori, Rintaro; Takeda, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Since low birthweight has been correlated with both neonatal and long-term health, we performed this epidemiological study to evaluate the Japanese secular trends in mean birthweight and the prevalence of preterm/term low birthweight infants during the last three decades. We used population-based birth certificate data from January 1979 to December 2010. Time trends were analysed using a linear regression model. During the study period, we observed a significant decrease in the mean birthweight for singleton live births (3,152 ± 436 g in 1979 and 3,018 ± 421 g in 2010 p < 0.001) and an increase in the prevalence of preterm/term low birthweight infants. A 96.3% increase in the proportion of term low birthweight infants was observed during the study period (2.7% in 1979 and 5.3% in 2010). In addition, an increased proportion of preterm/low birthweight infants born to younger women was observed (<35 years vs. ≥35 years). These trends may be related to changing patterns in Japanese women’s nutritional status and the relatively strict recommended limit on weight gain during pregnancy. Understanding the long-term trends for singleton births may allow us to identify the associated risk factors and reduce the future socioeconomic burden that is associated with low birthweight infants. PMID:27503177

  1. Calibrated prevalence of infertility in 30- to 49-year-old women according to different approaches: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-León, A; Lopez-Villaverde, V; Rueda, M; Moya-Garrido, M N

    2015-11-01

    How does the estimated prevalence of infertility among 30- to 49-year-old women vary when using different approaches to its measurement? The prevalence of women with difficulties in conceiving differed widely according to the measurement approach adopted. Establishing the true magnitude of infertility as a public health problem is challenging, given that it is not categorized as a disability or chronic condition and may be largely unreported. The time required to conceive is an increasingly frequent concern among couples of reproductive age. Population-based studies do not consider multiple approaches to infertility measurement in the same sample. A face-to-face cross-sectional population-based survey of 443 women aged between 30 and 49 years residing in Huelva, southern Spain, was carried out. The sample size estimation was based on an assumed prevalence of infertility of 19%, a sampling error of ±4.84 percentage points, a design effect of 1.8 and a 95% confidence level. The information was collected in 2011. Self-reported information was gathered on socio-demographic data, pregnancy history, time required to become pregnant and perception of difficulties in becoming pregnant. Eight approaches to the estimation of infertility prevalence were considered: diagnosed infertility, subjective infertility, 1-year infertility, primary infertility, secondary infertility and subfertility based on the time taken to conceive (6, 12 or 24 months). Calibration estimators (indirect estimation techniques) were used to extrapolate the infertility prevalences to the whole of Spain. The response rate was 61.05%. Among 30- to 49-year-old Spanish women, 1.26% had a clinical diagnosis of infertility, 17.58% did not achieve pregnancy in 1 year (1-year infertility), 8.22% perceived difficulties in procreation (subjective infertility), 6.12% had not succeeded in having biological children (primary infertility) and 11.33% had not been able to have another biological child (secondary

  2. Prevalence, Incidence, and Mortality of Stroke in China: Results from a Nationwide Population-Based Survey of 480 687 Adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenzhi; Jiang, Bin; Sun, Haixin; Ru, Xiaojuan; Sun, Dongling; Wang, Linhong; Wang, Limin; Jiang, Yong; Li, Yichong; Wang, Yilong; Chen, Zhenghong; Wu, Shengping; Zhang, Yazhuo; Wang, David; Wang, Yongjun; Feigin, Valery L

    2017-02-21

    China bears the biggest stroke burden in the world. However, little is known about the current prevalence, incidence, and mortality of stroke at the national level, and the trend in the past 30 years. In 2013, a nationally representative door-to-door survey was conducted in 155 urban and rural centers in 31 provinces in China, totaling 480 687 adults aged ≥20 years. All stroke survivors were considered as prevalent stroke cases at the prevalent time (August 31, 2013). First-ever strokes that occurred during 1 year preceding the survey point-prevalent time were considered as incident cases. According to computed tomography/MRI/autopsy findings, strokes were categorized into ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and stroke of undetermined type. Of 480 687 participants, 7672 were diagnosed with a prevalent stroke (1596.0/100 000 people) and 1643 with incident strokes (345.1/100 000 person-years). The age-standardized prevalence, incidence, and mortality rates were 1114.8/100 000 people, 246.8 and 114.8/100 000 person-years, respectively. Pathological type of stroke was documented by computed tomography/MRI brain scanning in 90% of prevalent and 83% of incident stroke cases. Among incident and prevalent strokes, ischemic stroke constituted 69.6% and 77.8%, intracerebral hemorrhage 23.8% and 15.8%, subarachnoid hemorrhage 4.4% and 4.4%, and undetermined type 2.1% and 2.0%, respectively. Age-specific stroke prevalence in men aged ≥40 years was significantly greater than the prevalence in women (P<0.001). The most prevalent risk factors among stroke survivors were hypertension (88%), smoking (48%), and alcohol use (44%). Stroke prevalence estimates in 2013 were statistically greater than those reported in China 3 decades ago, especially among rural residents (P=0.017). The highest annual incidence and mortality of stroke was in Northeast (365 and 159/100 000 person-years), then Central areas (326 and 154/100 000 person

  3. Most people with long-duration type 1 diabetes in a large population-based study are insulin microsecretors.

    PubMed

    Oram, Richard A; McDonald, Timothy J; Shields, Beverley M; Hudson, Michelle M; Shepherd, Maggie H; Hammersley, Suzanne; Pearson, Ewan R; Hattersley, Andrew T

    2015-02-01

    Small studies using ultrasensitive C-peptide assays suggest endogenous insulin secretion is frequently detectable in patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes (T1D), but these studies do not use representative samples. We aimed to use the stimulated urine C-peptide-to-creatinine ratio (UCPCR) to assess C-peptide levels in a large cross-sectional, population-based study of patients with T1D. We recruited 924 patients from primary and secondary care in two U.K. centers who had a clinical diagnosis of T1D, were under 30 years of age when they received a diagnosis, and had a diabetes duration of >5 years. The median age at diagnosis was 11 years (interquartile range 6-17 years), and the duration of diabetes was 19 years (11-27 years). All provided a home postmeal UCPCR, which was measured using a Roche electrochemiluminescence assay. Eighty percent of patients (740 of 924 patients) had detectable endogenous C-peptide levels (UCPCR >0.001 nmol/mmol). Most patients (52%, 483 of 924 patients) had historically very low undetectable levels (UCPCR 0.0013-0.03 nmol/mmol); 8% of patients (70 of 924 patients) had a UCPCR ≥0.2 nmol/mmol, equivalent to serum levels associated with reduced complications and hypoglycemia. Absolute UCPCR levels fell with duration of disease. Age at diagnosis and duration of disease were independent predictors of C-peptide level in multivariate modeling. This population-based study shows that the majority of long-duration T1D patients have detectable urine C-peptide levels. While the majority of patients are insulin microsecretors, some maintain clinically relevant endogenous insulin secretion for many years after the diagnosis of diabetes. Understanding this may lead to a better understanding of pathogenesis in T1D and open new possibilities for treatment. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  4. The prevalence of alpha-thalassemia amongst Tai and Mon-Khmer ethnic groups residing in northern Thailand: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lithanatudom, Pathrapol; Khampan, Pornnapa; Smith, Duncan R; Svasti, Saovaros; Fucharoen, Suthat; Kangwanpong, Daoroong; Kampuansai, Jatupol

    2016-09-01

    Northern Thailand is one of the highest α-thalassemia incidence areas where 30-40% of inhabitants have been reported to carry aberrant α-globin genes. However, all previous α-thalassemia prevalence surveys in northern Thailand have been undertaken without consideration of ethnicity. Here we report the prevalence of α-thalassemia genes in 4 Tai (Yong, Yuan, Khuen, Lue) and 4 Mon-Khmer speaking populations (Blang, Mon, Paluang, Lawa). DNA extracted from 141 individuals was genotyped for 4 α-thalassemia deletional types (--(SEA), --(THAI), -α(3.7), -α(4.2)) using MultiplexGap-PCR analysis and 2 non-deletional types (Hb CS, Hb Pakse) using dot-blot hybridization technique. A total of 33 α-thalassemia carrying individuals (23.4%) were detected of which 32 were heterozygotes and one was a homozygote. The most common α-thalassemia detected were -α(3.7) (17.7%) and --(SEA) (3.5%), while Hb CS was detected in 2.1% of cases. No occurrence of --(THAI), -α(4.2) and Hb Pakse was observed. The prevalence of α-thalassemia carriers varied between the different ethnic groups, with the Yuan having the highest prevalence of α-thalassemia carriers (50%) while the Lawa had the lowest prevalence (0%). The Paluang had a high prevalence (42%) of a single deletion type (-α(3.7)) possibly related to the endogamous marriage traditions of this ethnic group. The extreme variation of α-thalassemia prevalence among the different ethnic groups highlights the significantly different genetic backgrounds found in these peoples, as consequences of dissimilar cultures. Our study suggests that ethnicity must be considered in any of the disease-causing allele prevalence surveys in this region.

  5. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and associated factors among adults in Southern Brazil: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Santos, Ina S; Boccio, Jose; Santos, Ari S; Valle, Neiva C J; Halal, Camila S; Bachilli, Marta Colvara; Lopes, Ricardo D

    2005-11-10

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection is associated with several upper gastrointestinal disorders. Local data on the epidemiology of the infection are scarce in Brazil. The purpose of this study is to measure the prevalence rate and to explore the associated factors among the adult population living in Pelotas, a southern Brazilian city. This was a population-based cross-sectional study. Through a multi-stage sampling method all individuals 20 years and over living at the selected households at the urban area of the city were interviewed regarding past and current socio-economic indicators; demographic characteristics; nutritional and behavioural habits; and history of upper gastrointestinal symptoms.Hp infection was ascertained through the 13C-UBT. Due to the high prevalence, data were analysed through robust Poisson regression. All analyses took into account the family clustering of the data. Among 563 eligible individuals, 363 agreed to perform the 13C-UBT (refusal rate of 35.5%). Refusals were associated with female sex, consumption of mate drinking, and presence of upper gastrointestinal symptoms. The prevalence rate of H. pylori infection was 63.4% (95%CI 59.3%-69.3%). In crude analyses, prevalence was associated with increasing age, non-white skin colour, lower current family income, lower education level, higher size of the family, low socio-economic conditions in childhood, higher number of siblings and attendance to day-care centres in childhood, and presence of dyspeptic symptoms. In adjusted analysis the level of education of the father was inversely associated with the infection, whereas number of siblings and attendance to day-care centre in childhood were directly associated with it. Non-white skin colour remained significantly associated with increased prevalence even after allowing for past and current socio-economic characteristics, age and sex. Compared to non-symptomatic individuals, those reporting dyspeptic symptoms presented a higher prevalence

  6. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and associated factors among adults in Southern Brazil: a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Ina S; Boccio, Jose; Santos, Ari S; Valle, Neiva CJ; Halal, Camila S; Bachilli, Marta Colvara; Lopes, Ricardo D

    2005-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection is associated with several upper gastrointestinal disorders. Local data on the epidemiology of the infection are scarce in Brazil. The purpose of this study is to measure the prevalence rate and to explore the associated factors among the adult population living in Pelotas, a southern Brazilin city. Methods This was a population-based cross-sectional study. Through a multi-stage sampling method all individuals 20 years and over living at the selected households at the urban area of the city were interviewed regarding past and current socio-economic indicators; demographic characteristics; nutritional and behavioural habits; and history of upper gastrointestinal symptoms.Hp infection was ascertained through the 13C-UBT. Due to the high prevalence, data were analysed through robust Poisson regression. All analyses took into account the family clustering of the data. Results Among 563 eligible individuals, 363 agreed to perform the 13C-UBT (refusal rate of 35.5%). Refusals were associated with female sex, consumption of mate drinking, and presence of upper gastrointestinal symptoms. The prevalence rate of H. pylori infection was 63.4% (95%CI 59.3%–69.3%). In crude analyses, prevalence was associated with increasing age, non-white skin colour, lower current family income, lower education level, higher size of the family, low socio-economic conditions in childhood, higher number of siblings and attendance to day-care centres in childhood, and presence of dyspeptic symptoms. In adjusted analysis the level of education of the father was inversely associated with the infection, whereas number of siblings and attendance to day-care centre in childhood were directly associated with it. Non-white skin colour remained significantly associated with increased prevalence even after allowing for past and current socio-economic characteristics, age and sex. Compared to non-symptomatic individuals, those reporting dyspeptic symptoms

  7. Prevalence of Trachoma in Unity State, South Sudan: Results from a Large-Scale Population-Based Survey and Potential Implications for Further Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Tansy; Smith, Jennifer; Sturrock, Hugh J. W.; Kur, Lucia W.; Sabasio, Anthony; Finn, Timothy P.; Lado, Mounir; Haddad, Danny; Kolaczinski, Jan H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Large parts of South Sudan are thought to be trachoma-endemic but baseline data are limited. This study aimed to estimate prevalence for planning trachoma interventions in Unity State, to identify risk factors and to investigate the effect of different sampling approaches on study conclusions. Methods and Findings The survey area was defined as one domain of eight counties in Unity State. Across the area, 40 clusters (villages) were randomly selected proportional to the county population size in a population-based prevalence survey. The simplified grading scheme was used to classify clinical signs of trachoma. The unadjusted prevalence of trachoma inflammation-follicular (TF) in children aged 1–9 years was 70.5% (95% CI: 68.6–72.3). After adjusting for age, sex, county and clustering of cases at household and village level the prevalence was 71.0% (95% CI: 69.9–72.1). The prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) in adults was 15.1% (95% CI: 13.4–17.0) and 13.5% (95% CI: 12.0–15.1) before and after adjustment, respectively. We estimate that 700,000 people (the entire population of Unity State) require antibiotic treatment and approximately 54,178 people require TT surgery. Risk factor analyses confirmed child-level associations with TF and highlighted that older adults living in poverty are at higher risk of TT. Conditional simulations, testing the alternatives of sampling 20 or 60 villages over the same area, indicated that sampling of only 20 villages would have provided an acceptable level of precision for state-level prevalence estimation to inform intervention decisions in this hyperendemic setting. Conclusion Trachoma poses an enormous burden on the population of Unity State. Comprehensive control is urgently required to avoid preventable blindness and should be initiated across the state now. In other parts of South Sudan suspected to be highly trachoma endemic, counties should be combined into larger survey areas to generate the

  8. Impact of sex hormonal changes on tension-type headache and migraine: a cross-sectional population-based survey in 2,600 women.

    PubMed

    Karlı, Necdet; Baykan, Betül; Ertaş, Mustafa; Zarifoğlu, Mehmet; Siva, Aksel; Saip, Sabahattin; Ozkaya, Güven; Onal, Ayşe Emel

    2012-10-01

    Sex hormones have some implications on headaches. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of hormonal changes comparatively on tension-type headache (TTH) and migraine, in a population-based sample. A nationwide face-to-face prevalence study was conducted using a structured electronic questionnaire. 54.3 % of the migraineurs reported that the probability of experiencing headache during menstruation was high, whereas 3.9 % had headache only during menstruation. Forward logistic regression analysis revealed that menstruation was a significant trigger for migraine in comparison to TTH. On the other hand, nearly double the number of TTH sufferers reported "pure menstrual headache" compared to migraineurs (p = 0.02). Menstrual headaches caused significantly higher MIDAS grades. One-third of the definite migraineurs reported improvement during pregnancy and oral contraceptives significantly worsened migraine. Menopause had a slight improving effect on migraine compared to TTH. Sex hormonal changes have major impacts particularly on migraine; however, the effects of hormonal fluctuations on TTH should not be underestimated.

  9. Disappointing reliability of pulsatility indices to identify candidates for magnetic resonance imaging screening in population-based studies assessing prevalence of cerebral small vessel disease

    PubMed Central

    Del Brutto, Oscar H.; Mera, Robertino M.; Andrade, María de la Luz; Castillo, Pablo R.; Zambrano, Mauricio; Nader, Juan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a challenge in remote areas where magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is not available. Hospital-based studies in high-risk or stroke patients have found an association between the pulsatility index (PI) of intracranial arteries – as derived from transcranial Doppler (TCD) – and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) of presumed vascular origin. We aimed to assess the reliability of cerebral pulsatility indices to identify candidates for MRI screening in population-based studies assessing prevalence of SVD. Methods: A representative sample of stroke-free Atahualpa residents aged ≥65 years investigated with MRI underwent TCD. Using generalized linear models, we evaluated whether the PI of major intracranial arteries correlate with WMH (used as a proxy of diffuse SVD), after adjusting for demographics and cardiovascular risk factors. Results: Out of 70 participants (mean age 70.6 ± 4.6 years, 57% women), 28 (40%) had moderate-to-severe WMH. In multivariate models, there were no differences across categories of WMH in the mean PI of middle cerebral arteries (1.10 ± 0.16 vs. 1.22 ± 0.24, β: 0.065, 95% confidence interval (CI): −0.084–0.177, P = 0.474) or vertebrobasilar arteries (1.11 ± 0.16 vs. 1.29 ± 0.27, β: 0.066, 95% CI: −0.0024–0.156, P = 0.146). Conclusions: Cerebral PI should not be used to identify candidates for MRI screening in population-based studies assessing the burden of SVD. PMID:26167015

  10. ADAMTS13 activity as a novel risk factor for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Paul S; van Herpt, Thijs T W; Ligthart, Symen; Hofman, Albert; Ikram, M Arfan; van Hoek, Mandy; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Franco, Oscar H; de Maat, Moniek P M; Leebeek, Frank W G; Dehghan, Abbas

    2017-02-01

    ADAMTS13 is a protease that breaks down von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimers into smaller, less active particles. VWF has been associated with an increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here, we determine whether ADAMTS13 activity and VWF antigen are associated with incident diabetes. This study included 5176 participants from the Rotterdam Study, a prospective population-based cohort study. Participants were free of diabetes at baseline and followed up for more than 20 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association of ADAMTS13 activity and VWF antigen with incident diabetes. ADAMTS13 activity was associated with an increased risk of incident diabetes (HR 1.17 [95% CI 1.08, 1.27]) after adjustment for known risk factors and VWF antigen levels. Although ADAMTS13 activity was positively associated with fasting glucose and insulin, the association with incident diabetes did not change when we adjusted for these covariates. ADAMTS13 activity was also associated with incident prediabetes (defined on the basis of both fasting and non-fasting blood glucose) after adjustment for known risk factors (HR 1.11 [95% CI 1.03, 1.19]), while the VWF antigen level was not. VWF antigen was associated with incident diabetes, but this association was attenuated after adjustment for known risk factors. ADAMTS13 activity appears to be an independent risk factor for incident prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. As the association between ADAMTS13 and diabetes did not appear to be explained by its cleavage of VWF, ADAMTS13 may have an independent role in the development of diabetes.

  11. Factors associated with type-specific persistence of high-risk human papillomavirus infection: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Stensen, Signe; Kjaer, Susanne K; Jensen, Signe M; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Junge, Jette; Iftner, Thomas; Munk, Christian

    2016-01-15

    Persistent genital infection with high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) is a prerequisite for cervical cancer development. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with type-specific persistence of HR HPV infections. From a population-based cohort of 40,399 women participating in cervical cancer screening established during 2002-2005, we selected all HR HPV-positive women (N = 7,778). During follow-up (2005-2008), we collected cervical samples from these women and tested them for HPV DNA to determine type-specific HR HPV persistence in the interval 1-4.5 years after enrolment. Data on hospitalisations, prescriptions and socioeconomic factors were obtained from nationwide registers. Women with abnormal cytology at baseline or who had undergone conisation during follow-up were excluded. Factors associated with persistence were identified by logistic regression analysis. The overall rate of HR HPV persistence was 31.4%. The risk for persistence was significantly increased among women with a previous episode of genital warts (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.04-1.74), current use of oral contraceptives (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.13-1.63) or use of systemic glucocorticoids (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.16-3.56). The number of pregnancies or births or use of a hormonal intrauterine device, hormonal therapy or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was not associated with risk for HR HPV persistence. A history of genital warts and current use of oral contraceptives or systemic glucocorticoids increased the risk, potentially indicating a decreased immune response to HPV infection. These findings suggest that host immune response characteristics are important in HR HPV persistence and consequently in cervical cancer development. © 2015 UICC.

  12. Prevalence, pattern and sociodemographic differentials in smokeless tobacco consumption in Bangladesh: evidence from a population-based cross-sectional study in Chakaria

    PubMed Central

    Mia, Mohammad Nahid; Hanifi, S M A; Rahman, M Shafiqur; Sultana, Amena; Hoque, Shahidul; Bhuiya, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Background The health hazards associated with the use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) are similar to those of smoking. However, unlike smoking, limited initiatives have been taken to control the use of SLT, despite its widespread use in South and Southeast Asian countries including Bangladesh. It is therefore important to examine the prevalence of SLT use and its social determinants for designing appropriate strategies and programmes to control its use. Objective To investigate the use of SLT in terms of prevalence, pattern and sociodemographic differentials in a rural area of Bangladesh. Design Population-based cross-sectional household survey. Setting and participants A total of 6178 individuals aged ≥13 years from 1753 households under the Chakaria HDSS area were interviewed during October–November 2011. Methods The current use of SLT, namely sadapatha (dried tobacco leaves) and zarda (industrially processed leaves), was used as the outcome variable. The crude and net associations between the sociodemographic characteristics of respondents and the outcome variables were examined using cross-tabular and multivariable logistic regression analysis, respectively. Results 23% of the total respondents (men: 27.0%, women: 19.3%) used any form of SLT. Of the respondents, 10.4% used only sadapatha,13.6% used only zarda and 2.2% used both. SLT use was significantly higher among men, older people, illiterate, ever married, day labourers and relatively poorer respondents. The odds of being a sadapatha user were 3.5-fold greater for women than for men and the odds of being a zarda user were 3.6-fold greater for men than for women. Conclusions The prevalence of SLT use was high in the study area and was higher among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. The limitation of the existing regulatory measures for controlling the use of non-industrial SLT products should be understood and discussion for developing new strategies should be a priority. PMID:28122830

  13. Population-based prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology findings and local risk factors in Ibadan, Nigeria: implications for cervical cancer control programs and human papilloma virus immunization.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J O; Ojemakinde, K O; Ajayi, I O; Omigbodun, A O; Fawole, O I; Oladepo, O

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of abnormal cervical cytological findings and local risk factors in Ibadan, Nigeria. All women aged ≥15 years in each household in Idikan, Ibadan, were invited to participate in a population-based study. Structured questionnaires were administered to all consenting women. Conventional cervical Papanicolaou smears obtained from sexually active women were classified using the 2001 Bethesda system. The diagnoses were correlated with sociodemographic data and risk factors. Of 2,870 women aged ≥15 years estimated to live in Idikan, 1,204 sexually active women consented to pelvic examination and cervical smears. Results were available for 1,104 women (mean age: 39.8 years). Mean ages at menarche, first sexual intercourse and first pregnancy were 16.1, 20.3 and 20.7 years, respectively. Cytological results were categorized into atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and atypical glandular cells 22 (1.99%); low-grade 43 (3.89%) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) 17 (1.54%); invasive cancer 2 (0.18%) and normal 593 (53.8%) and reactive changes 427 (38.7%). The prevalence of epithelial abnormalities is 7.6%. Significant host-related factors in those with HSIL and invasive cancer included older age (mean 56.2 years), high parity and gravidity, lack of formal education and being divorced (p < 0.05). This study provides prevalence data and local risk factors for abnormal cervical cytology in a Nigerian population, which will be useful for planning future cervical cancer control programs. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the association with socio-demographic characteristics and physical activity in urban population of Iranian adults: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Hajian-Tilaki, K; Heidari, B; Firouzjahi, A; Bagherzadeh, M; Hajian-Tilaki, A; Halalkhor, S

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is the main concern of health problem in transition population. The objective was to determine the prevalence of MetS and its association with socio-demographic and physical activity in Iranian adults. A population-based cross-sectional study of 1000 representative samples aged 20-70 years was conducted in urban area in northern Iran. The socio-demographic data were collected by interview and the physical activity was assessed by standard International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Weight, height, waist circumference and the systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured by standard methods. Fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol level and low density lipoprotein cholesterol level were measured using enzymatic method. The ATP III criteria were used for diagnosis of MetS. The prevalence rate of MetS was 42.3% (36.5% men and 47.1% women, p=0.001). The higher education at university level was appeared inversely associated with MetS (age adjusted OR=0.34, p=0.001) compared with illiterate. The prevalence rates of MetS were 49.0%, 42.5% and 22.6% in low, moderate and vigorous physical activity level respectively (p=0.001). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the vigorous physical activity was inversely associated with MetS compared with low level (adjusted OR=0.46, p=0.001). These results highlight an immediate action of preventive measures programs for modification of cardio metabolic risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Lililwan Project: study protocol for a population-based active case ascertainment study of the prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in remote Australian Aboriginal communities

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Elizabeth J; Latimer, Jane; Carter, Maureen; Oscar, June; Ferreira, Manuela; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Lucas, Barbara; Doney, Robyn; Salter, Claire; Peadon, Elizabeth; Hawkes, Genevieve; Hand, Marmingee

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Anecdotal reports suggest that high-risk drinking in pregnancy is common in some remote Australian communities. Alcohol is teratogenic and may cause a range of lifelong conditions termed ‘fetal alcohol spectrum disorders’ (FASD). Australia has few diagnostic services for FASD, and prevalence of these neurodevelopmental disorders remains unknown. In 2009, Aboriginal leaders in the remote Fitzroy Valley in North Western Australia identified FASD as a community priority and initiated the Lililwani Project in partnership with leading research organisations. This project will establish the prevalence of FASD and other health and developmental problems in school-aged children residing in the Fitzroy Valley, providing data to inform FASD prevention and management. Methods and analysis This is a population-based active case ascertainment study of all children born in 2002 and 2003 and residing in the Fitzroy Valley. Participants will be identified from the Fitzroy Valley Population Project and Communicare databases. Parents/carers will be interviewed using a standardised diagnostic questionnaire modified for local language and cultural requirements to determine the demographics, antenatal exposures, birth outcomes, education and psychosocial status of each child. A comprehensive interdisciplinary health and neurodevelopmental assessment will be performed using tests and operational definitions adapted for the local context. Internationally recognised diagnostic criteria will be applied to determine FASD prevalence. Relationships between pregnancy exposures and early life trauma, neurodevelopmental, health and education outcomes will be evaluated using regression analysis. Results will be reported according to STROBE guidelines for observational studies. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been granted by the University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee, the Western Australian Aboriginal Health Information and Ethics Committee, the Western

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal protozoan infections: a population-based study in rural areas of Boyer-Ahmad district, Southwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    Sarkari, Bahador; Hosseini, Ghasem; Motazedian, Mohammad Hossein; Fararouei, Mohammad; Moshfe, Abdolali

    2016-11-25

    Parasitic infections are still a significant health problem in rural areas in developing countries including Iran. There is no recent population-based data about the prevalence of human intestinal parasites in most rural areas of Iran. The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal protozoan infection in inhabitants of rural areas of Boyer-Ahmad district, Southwestern Iran. A total of 1025 stool samples were collected from the inhabitant of 50 randomly selected villages in Boyer-Ahmad Township. The stool samples were evaluated by parasitological methods including, direct wet-mounting, formalin ethyl acetate concentration, zinc sulfate floatation, and Trichrome permanent stain for detection of protozoan infections. Diarrheic samples were further evaluated with a modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining method for detection of coccidian parasites. The prevalence of both pathogenic and nonpathogenic intestinal parasites in the population was 37.5% (385 out of 1025 cases), some individual with multiple infections. Giardia lamblia was detected in 179 (17.46%), Blastocystis hominis in 182 (17.76%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar in 9 (0.87%), Endolimax nana in 216 (21.07%), Entamoeba coli in 151 (14.73%), Ioedamoeba butschlii in 45 (4.39%), Chillomastix mesnili in 22 (2.14%), Trichomonas hominis in 2 (0.19%) and Dientamoeba fragillis in 2 (0.19%) of cases. Multivariate logistic regression revealed significant associations between protozoan infection (pathogenic protozoa) and contact with animals (OR yes/no = 2.22, p < 0.001) and educational status (OR higher/illiterate = 0.40, P = 0.01). Findings of this study demonstrated that protozoan infection rate in rural areas of southwestern Iran is still high and remained as a challenging health problem in these areas.

  17. A population-based study of prevalence of complementary methods use by cancer survivors: a report from the American Cancer Society's studies of cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Gansler, Ted; Kaw, Chiewkwei; Crammer, Corinne; Smith, Tenbroeck

    2008-09-01

    The use of complementary methods (CMs) is widespread and increasing in the United States. Most literature on CM use among cancer survivors focuses on the treatment period, whereas only a few studies address use further along the cancer continuum. This study analyzed the prevalence and the medical and demographic associations of CM use among cancer survivors surveyed 10 to 24 months after diagnosis. The study's sample-4139 survivors of 1 of 10 adult cancers-was selected from stratified random samples provided by statewide cancer registries and surveyed by mail and telephone. Three logistic regression models examined associations between medical and demographic factors and CM use among survivors of sex-specific and non-sex-specific cancers. Of the 19 CMs included in the survey, the CMs most frequently reported were prayer/spiritual practice (61.4%), relaxation (44.3%), faith/spiritual healing (42.4%), nutritional supplements/vitamins (40.1%), meditation (15%), religious counseling (11.3%), massage (11.2%), and support groups (9.7%). Among these 19 CMs, the least prevalent were hypnosis (0.4%), biofeedback therapy (1.0%), and acupuncture/acupressure (1.2%). Survivors more likely to use CMs were female, younger, white, higher income, and more educated. This study provides information regarding prevalence and medical-demographic determinants of CM use reported by a large, population-based sample of survivors of 10 cancers surveyed 10 to 24 months after diagnosis. These findings may be used by clinicians and researchers to inform their decisions regarding which CMs to address in practice and research. (c) 2008 American Cancer Society.

  18. Prevalence, Long-term Development, and Predictors of Psychosocial Consequences of False-Positive Mammography among Women Attending Population-Based Screening.

    PubMed

    Bolejko, Anetta; Hagell, Peter; Wann-Hansson, Christine; Zackrisson, Sophia

    2015-09-01

    Cancer screening aims to detect cancer at an asymptomatic stage, although side effects from screening also occur. We investigated the prevalence, longitudinal development, and predictors of psychosocial consequences of false-positive breast cancer screening. Three hundred ninety-nine women with false-positive screening mammography responded to the Consequences of Screening-Breast Cancer (COS-BC) questionnaire immediately after a negative diagnosis (free from breast cancer) following recall examination(s) (baseline), and 6 and 12 months later. Age-matched controls (n = 499) with a negative mammogram responded to the COS-BC at the same occasions. Five COS-BC scales (Sense of dejection, Anxiety, Behavioral, Sleep, and Existential values) were used as outcome measures. Women with false-positive mammography had consistently higher prevalence of all five consequences compared with controls (P < 0.001). The prevalences decreased between baseline and 6 months (P < 0.001) but were stable between 6 and 12 months (P ≥ 0.136). Early recall profoundly predicted long-term consequences for all five outcomes (OR, 3.05-10.31), along with dissatisfaction with information at recall (OR, 2.28-2.56), being foreign-born (OR, 2.35-3.71), and lack of social support (OR, 1.13-1.25). This 1-year longitudinal study shows that women experience psychosocial consequences of false-positive screening mammography. Early recall should be performed cautiously, and provision of information as well as social support may reduce psychosocial consequences. Although delivery of population-based screening reduces breast cancer mortality, it also raises the issue of its impact on the psychosocial well-being of healthy women. Our findings identify predictors that can be targeted in future efforts to reduce the side effects of mammographic screening. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Estimated incidence of cardiovascular complications related to type 2 diabetes in Mexico using the UKPDS outcome model and a population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To estimate the incidence of complications, life expectancy and diabetes related mortality in the Mexican diabetic population over the next two decades using data from a nation-wide, population based survey and the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) outcome model Methods The cohort included all patients with type 2 diabetes evaluated during the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANut) 2006. ENSANut is a probabilistic multistage stratified survey whose aim was to measure the prevalence of chronic diseases. A total of 47,152 households were visited. Results are shown stratified by gender, time since diagnosis (> or ≤ to 10 years) and age at the time of diagnosis (> or ≤ 40 years). Results The prevalence of diabetes in our cohort was 14.4%. The predicted 20 year-incidence for chronic complications per 1000 individuals are: ischemic heart disease 112, myocardial infarction 260, heart failure 113, stroke 101, and amputation 62. Furthermore, 539 per 1000 patients will have a diabetes-related premature death. The average life expectancy for the diabetic population is 10.9 years (95%CI 10.7-11.2); this decreases to 8.3 years after adjusting for quality of life (CI95% 8.1-8.5). Male sex and cases diagnosed after age 40 have the highest risk for developing at least one major complication during the next 20 years. Conclusions Based on the current clinical profile of Mexican patients with diabetes, the burden of disease related complications will be tremendous over the next two decades. PMID:21214916

  20. Validity of Diagnostic Codes and Prevalence of Physician-Diagnosed Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis in Southern Sweden – A Population-Based Register Study

    PubMed Central

    Löfvendahl, Sofia; Theander, Elke; Svensson, Åke; Carlsson, Katarina Steen; Englund, Martin; Petersson, Ingemar F.

    2014-01-01

    A confirm other population-based studies, also after adjustment due to misclassification of disease. PMID:24875275

  1. Temporal changes in frequency of severe hypoglycemia treated by emergency medical services in types 1 and 2 diabetes: a population-based data-linkage cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Donnan, Peter T; Leese, Callum J; Duncan, Edward; Fitzpatrick, David; Frier, Brian M; Leese, Graham P

    2017-01-01

    Almost 20 years ago, the frequencies of severe hypoglycemia requiring emergency medical treatment were reported in people with types 1 and 2 diabetes in the Tayside region of Scotland. With subsequent improvements in the treatment of diabetes, concurrent with changes in the provision of emergency medical care, a decline in the frequency of severe hypoglycemia could be anticipated. The present population-based data-linkage cohort study aimed to ascertain whether a temporal change has occurred in the incidence rates of hypoglycemia requiring emergency medical services in people with types 1 and 2 diabetes. The study population comprised all people with diabetes in Tayside, Scotland over the period 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2012. Patients' data from different healthcare sources were linked anonymously to measure the incidence rates of hypoglycemia requiring emergency medical services that include treatment by ambulance staff and in hospital emergency departments, and necessitated hospital admission. These were compared with data recorded in 1997-1998 in the same region. In January 2011 to December 2012, 2029 people in Tayside had type 1 diabetes and 21,734 had type 2 diabetes, compared to 977 and 7678, respectively, in June 1997 to May 1998. In people with type 2 diabetes, the proportion treated with sulfonylureas had declined from 36.8 to 22.4% (p < 0.001), while insulin-treatment had increased from 11.7 to 18.7% (p < 0.001). The incidence rate of hypoglycemia requiring emergency medical treatment had significantly fallen from 0.115 (95% CI: 0.094-0.136) to 0.082 (0.073-0.092) events per person per year in type 1 diabetes (p < 0.001), and from 0.118 (0.095-0.141) to 0.037 (0.003-0.041) in insulin-treated type 2 diabetes (p = 0.008). However, the absolute annual number of hypoglycemia events requiring emergency treatment was 1.4-fold higher. Although from 1998 to 2012 the incidences of hypoglycemia requiring emergency medical services appeared to have

  2. Fear of hypoglycaemia in mothers and fathers of children with Type 1 diabetes is associated with poor glycaemic control and parental emotional distress: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Haugstvedt, A; Wentzel-Larsen, T; Graue, M; Søvik, O; Rokne, B

    2010-01-01

    To analyse, in a population-based study, the association between parental fear of hypoglycaemia and (i) the prevalence of hypoglycaemia and diabetes treatment factors in children with Type 1 diabetes and (ii) emotional distress in mothers and fathers. Mothers (n = 103) and fathers (n = 97) of 115 children with Type 1 diabetes (1-15 years old) participated in the study. In addition to demographic and disease-specific data, the participants completed the Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey-Parent version (HFS-P) (worry and behaviour subscales) and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 items (HSCL-25) to measure emotional distress. A higher HFS-P worry score was associated with higher glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)), a higher frequency (>or= 7) of what parents experienced as problematic hypoglycaemic events during the past year and co-morbid disease in the child. A higher HFS-P behaviour score was associated with children receiving insulin injections compared with using an insulin pump and a higher frequency (>or= 7 per day) of blood glucose measurements. The mothers had higher scores than the fathers in both the worry and behaviour subscales. The mothers' and the fathers' HFS-P worry scores correlated significantly with their HSCL-25 scores. The association between a higher level of hypoglycaemic-related fear and parental emotional distress and poorer glycaemic control in the child emphasizes the need for programmes to support and guide parents. The results suggest that future interventions should target both the parents' fear and appropriate ways to prevent hypoglycaemia in children with Type 1 diabetes.

  3. Human Papillomavirus prevalence and probable first effects of vaccination in 20 to 25 year-old women in Germany: a population-based cross-sectional study via home-based self-sampling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Estimates of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in a population prior to and after HPV vaccine introduction are essential to evaluate the short-term impact of vaccination. Methods Between 2010 and 2012 we conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in Germany to determine HPV prevalence, genotype distribution and risk factors for HPV-infection in women aged 20-25 years. Women were recruited by a two-step cluster sampling approach. A home-based self-collection of cervicovaginal lavages was used. Specimens were analysed using a general primer GP5+/GP6+-based polymerase chain reaction and genotyped for 18 high-risk and 6 low-risk HPV- strains by Luminex-based multiplexed genotyping. Results Among 787 included women, 512 were not vaccinated against HPV. In the non-vaccinated population, HPV prevalence of any type was 38.1%, with HPV 16 (19.5%) being the most prevalent genotype. Prevalence of any high-risk type was 34.4%, and in 17.4% of all women, more than one genotype was identified. A higher number of lifetime sexual partners and low educational status were independently associated with HPV-infection. In 223 vaccinated women, prevalence of HPV 16/18 was significantly lower compared to non-vaccinated women (13.9% vs. 22.5%, p = 0.007). When stratifying by age groups, this difference was only significant in women aged 20-21 years, who at time of vaccination were on average younger and had less previous sexual contacts than women aged 22-25 years. Conclusion We demonstrate a high prevalence of high-risk HPV genotypes in non-vaccinated women living in Germany that can be potentially prevented by vaccination. Probable first vaccination effects on the HPV prevalence were observed in women who were vaccinated at younger age. This finding reinforces the recommendation to vaccinate girls in early adolescence. PMID:24552260

  4. Prevalence of self-reported myocardial infarction in a Greek sample: findings from a population-based study in an urban area (medical express 2002).

    PubMed

    Gikas, A; Sotiropoulos, A; Panagiotakos, D; Pappas, S

    2004-12-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s, Greece was known as a country with low prevalence and incidence of coronary heart disease, compared to Western populations. However, during the past decades, the Greek population has experienced marked but uneven socio-economic development, as well as change in lifestyle habits. We assessed the prevalence of self-reported myocardial infarction (MI) in a sample of the general population, aged 20-94 years. The overall prevalence of self-reported MI was 4.1% (6.3% in men and 1.9% in women). The age-adjusted prevalence was found to be 3.6%, showing a threefold increase compared to 1980s. Age, gender (male), low educational level, obesity/overweight, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, hypertension, smoking and origin were strongly associated with prevalence of MI. Our findings indicate that the prevalence of MI increased dramatically during the past years, reflecting the change in lifestyle habits that have gradually given way to "Western"-type diets and a more sedentary lifestyle. Therefore, the need for urgent intervention is considered essential in order to prevent a further increase of disease burden.

  5. Prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in 15 states of India: results from the ICMR-INDIAB population-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Deepa, Mohan; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Mahanta, Jagadish; Narain, Kanwar; Das, Hiranya Kumar; Adhikari, Prabha; Rao, Paturi Vishnupriya; Saboo, Banshi; Kumar, Ajay; Bhansali, Anil; John, Mary; Luaia, Rosang; Reang, Taranga; Ningombam, Somorjit; Jampa, Lobsang; Budnah, Richard O; Elangovan, Nirmal; Subashini, Radhakrishnan; Venkatesan, Ulagamathesan; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Das, Ashok Kumar; Madhu, Sri Venkata; Ali, Mohammed K; Pandey, Arvind; Dhaliwal, Rupinder Singh; Kaur, Tanvir; Swaminathan, Soumya; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have not adequately captured the heterogeneous nature of the diabetes epidemic in India. The aim of the ongoing national Indian Council of Medical Research-INdia DIABetes study is to estimate the national prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in India by estimating the prevalence by state. We used a stratified multistage design to obtain a community-based sample of 57 117 individuals aged 20 years or older. The sample population represented 14 of India's 28 states (eight from the mainland and six from the northeast of the country) and one union territory. States were sampled in a phased manner: phase I included Tamil Nadu, Chandigarh, Jharkhand, and Maharashtra, sampled between Nov 17, 2008, and April 16, 2010; phase II included Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, and Punjab, sampled between Sept 24, 2012, and July 26, 2013; and the northeastern phase included Assam, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, Manipur, and Meghalaya, with sampling done between Jan 5, 2012, and July 3, 2015. Capillary oral glucose tolerance tests were used to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes in accordance with WHO criteria. Our methods did not allow us to differentiate between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes in different states was assessed in relation to socioeconomic status (SES) of individuals and the per-capita gross domestic product (GDP) of each state. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to examine the association of various factors with the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes. The overall prevalence of diabetes in all 15 states of India was 7·3% (95% CI 7·0-7·5). The prevalence of diabetes varied from 4·3% in Bihar (95% CI 3·7-5·0) to 10·0% (8·7-11·2) in Punjab and was higher in urban areas (11·2%, 10·6-11·8) than in rural areas (5·2%, 4·9-5·4; p<0·0001) and higher in mainland states (8·3%, 7·9-8·7) than in the northeast (5·9%, 5·5-6·2; p<0·0001). Overall, 1862 (47·3%) of 3938 individuals

  6. Disease management programs for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Germany: a longitudinal population-based descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Mehring, Michael; Donnachie, Ewan; Bonke, Florian Cornelius; Werner, Christoph; Schneider, Antonius

    2017-01-01

    The primary aim of the disease management program (DMP) for patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 is to improve the quality of health care and the treatment process. 12 years after its introduction in Germany, there is still no consensus as to whether DMP has been effective in reaching these goals. A retrospective longitudinal population-based study between 2004 and 2015 were conducted to evaluate the DMP for type 2 diabetes in Bavaria using routinely collected patient medical records hold from the National Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians of Bavaria. During the first 12 years of DMP, the number of participants increased continually to reach 580,222 in 2015. The proportion of participants older than 70 years increased during the observation from 41.6 to 51.1%. The percentage of smokers increased slightly from 9 to 11%. Similarly, the distribution of body mass index remained constant with approximately 50% of patients having a body mass index >30 kg/m(2). Control of HbA1c was without an appreciable change over the course, with between 8.3 and 9.4% of all patients with uncontrolled values higher than 8.5%. Prescription of metformin increased from 40.5% in 2004 to 54.1% in 2015. Among patients receiving insulin, the proportion receiving a combined therapy with metformin increased from 28.4% in 2004 to 50.8% in 2015. In contrast, the percentage with insulin monotherapy decreased from 55.4 to 33.7%. The proportion of patients with a diabetic education increased within the course from 12.8 to 29.3%. Data from the German DMP for type 2 diabetes demonstrates an improvement in the quality of care with respect to pharmacotherapy and patient education and therefore to an improved adherence to guidelines. However, no appreciable improvement was observed with regard to smoking status, obesity or HbA1c control.

  7. Prevalence and associated comorbidities of restless legs syndrome (RLS): Data from a large population-based door-to-door survey on 19176 adults in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Arash; Shafieesabet, Mahdiyeh; Soori, Mahshid; Delbari, Ahmad; Motamed, Mohammad Reza; Lökk, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Background Discrepancies have been reported in the prevalence rate of restless legs syndrome (RLS) among different ethnic groups and geographic populations. Furthermore, there are disagreements on determinant factors and associated comorbidities of RLS. We aimed to estimate prevalence of RLS and investigate its associated comorbid conditions and risk factors in a large population-based door-to-door survey. Methods Following a multistage random sampling from the households lived in 22 urban districts of Tehran, Iran, 19176 participants with ≥30 years of age were recruited. Trained surveyors filled study checklist consisting of baseline characteristics, risk factors and comorbidity profile and the International RLS Study Group (IRLSSG) diagnostic criteria through face-to-face interviews. Results In total, 1580 individuals were positively screened for RLS resulting in a standardized prevalence rate of 60.0/1000. There was a gradual increase in RLS prevalence by advancing age, however, sex difference disappeared after adjustment. Parkinsonism [adjusted odds’ ratio (adj-OR) = 7.4 (95% CI: 5.3–10.4)], peripheral neuropathy [adj-OR = 3.7 (95% CI: 3.3–4.1)], subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) [adj-OR = 3.1 (95% CI: 2.7–3.4)], acting out dreams [adj-OR = 2.8 (95% CI: 2.5–3.2)], hyposmia [adj-OR = 2.5 (95% CI: 2.2–2.9)], active smoking [adj-OR = 1.5 (95% CI: 1.3–1.9)] and additional number of cardiometabolic diseases associated with higher risk of RLS [adj-OR = 1.6 (95% CI: 1.2–2.3)]. Conclusion Our findings showed that neuro-cognitive co-morbidities such as parkinsonism, peripheral neuropathy, SCI, acting out dreams and hyposmia as well as cardio-metabolic risk factors and diseases were independent determinants of RLS. It is recommended to screen individuals with either these comorbid conditions for RLS or the ones with RLS for the accompanying diseases. PMID:28212408

  8. Prevalence of HIV infection among people with disabilities: a population-based observational study in Yaoundé, Cameroon (HandiVIH).

    PubMed

    De Beaudrap, Pierre; Beninguisse, Gervais; Pasquier, Estelle; Tchoumkeu, Alice; Touko, Adonis; Essomba, Frida; Brus, Aude; Aderemi, Toyin Janet; Hanass-Hancock, Jill; Eide, Arne Henning; Mac-Seing, Muriel; Mont, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    In resource-limited settings, people with disabilities have been left behind in the response to HIV. In the HandiVIH study, we estimate and compare HIV prevalence and associated risk factors between people with and without disabilities. In this cross-sectional, population-based, observational study, we used two-phase random sampling to recruit adults with disabilities and a control group matched for age, sex, and residential location from households of the general population. We used the Washington Group Short Set of Questions on Disability to identify people with disabilities. We administered an HIV test and a life-course history interview to participants. The primary outcome was the prevalence of HIV among participants with and without disabilities. Between Oct 2, 2014, and Nov 30, 2015, we recruited 807 people with disabilities and 807 participants without disabilities from Yaoundé, Cameroon. 28 of 716 people in the control population had a positive HIV test result (crude prevalence 3·9%, 95% CI 2·9-5·3) compared with 50 of 739 people with disabilities (6·8%, 5·0-8·6; conditional odds ratio [OR] 1·7; p=0·04). Women with disabilities were more often involved in paid sexual relationships than were women without disabilities (2·5% vs 0·5%, p=0·05). People with disabilities were also at increased risk of sexual violence than were women without disabilities (11·0% vs 7·5%, OR 1·5; p=0·01). Sexual violence and sex work were strongly associated with increased risk of HIV infection among participants with disabilities but not among controls (OR 3·0, 95% CI 1·6-5·6 for sexual violence and 12·3, 4·4-34·6 for sex work). Analyses were done in men and women. The higher prevalence of HIV infection in people with disabilities than people without disabilities reflects a higher exposure to HIV infection as well as the presence of disability-associated HIV infection. The susceptibility of people with disabilities to HIV infection seems to be shaped by social

  9. Prevalence of Maternal Morbidity and Its Association with Socioeconomic Factors: A Population-based Survey of a City in Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rosendo, Tatyana Souza; Roncalli, Angelo Giuseppe; Azevedo, George Dantas de

    2017-08-23

    Purpose To identify the prevalence of maternal morbidity and its socioeconomic, demographic and health care associated factors in a city in Northeastern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional and population-based study was conducted, with a design based on multi-stage complex sampling. A validated questionnaire was applied to 848 women aged between 15 and 49 years identified in 8,227 households from 60 census tracts of Natal, the capital of the state of Rio Grande do Norte (RN), Brazil. The main outcome measure was maternal morbidity. The Poisson regression analysis, with 5% significance, was used for the analysis of the associated factors. Results The prevalence of maternal morbidity was of 21.2%. A bivariate analysis showed the following variables associated with an increased number of obstetric complications: non-white race (prevalence ratio [PR] =1.23; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.04-1.46); lower socioeconomic status (PR = 1.33; 95%CI: 1.12-1.58); prenatal care performed in public services (PR = 1.42; 95%CI: 1.16-1.72): women that were not advised during prenatal care about where they should deliver (PR = 1.24; 95%CI: 1.05-1.46); delivery in public services (PR = 1.63; 95%CI: 1.30-2.03); need to search for more than one hospital for delivery (PR = 1.22; 95%CI: 1.03-1.45); and no companion at all times of delivery care (PR = 1.25, 95%CI: 1.05-1.48). The place where the delivery occurred (public or private) and the socioeconomic status remained significant in the final model. Conclusion Women in a worse socioeconomic situation and whose delivery was performed in public services had a higher prevalence of maternal morbidity. Such an association reinforces the need to strengthen public policies to tackle health inequalities through actions focusing on these determinants. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  10. Estimating the prevalence and burden of major disorders of the brain in Nepal: methodology of a nationwide population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The major disorders of the brain (MDBs), in terms of their prevalence and the burdens of ill health, disability and financial cost that they impose on individuals and society, are headache, depression and anxiety. No population-based studies have been conducted in Nepal. Aim Our purpose was to assess the prevalence and burden attributable to MDBs in Nepal in order to inform health policy. Here we report the methodology. Methods The unusual sociocultural diversity and extreme geographical variation of the country required adaptation of standard methodology. We ran pre-pilot and pilot studies before embarking on the main study. The study design was cross-sectional. The population of interest were adults aged 18–65 years who were Nepali speaking and living in Nepal. We selected, employed and trained groups of interviewers to visit randomly selected households by cold-calling. Households were selected from 15 representative districts out of 75 in the country through multistage cluster sampling. One participant was selected randomly from each household. We used structured questionnaires (the HARDSHIP questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire -Neuroticism), culturally adapted and translated into Nepali. We recorded blood pressure, weight, height and waist circumference, and altitude of each household. We implemented various quality-assurances measures. Results We completed the survey in one month, prior to onset of the monsoon. Among 2,210 selected households, all were contacted, 2,109 were eligible for the study and, from these, 2,100 adults participated. The participation rate was 99.6%. Conclusion Standard methodology was successfully applied in Nepal, with some adaptations. The sociocultural and extraordinary geographic diversity were challenging, but did not require us to compromise the scientific quality of the study. PMID:25146939

  11. Identification of dietary patterns in urban population of Argentina: study on diet-obesity relation in population-based prevalence study.

    PubMed

    Pou, Sonia Alejandra; Del Pilar Díaz, María; De La Quintana, Ana Gabriela; Forte, Carla Antonella; Aballay, Laura Rosana

    2016-12-01

    In Argentina, obesity prevalence rose from 14.6% in 2005 to 20.8% in 2013. Although the number of studies on noncommunicable diseases and dietary patterns as a unique dietary exposure measure has increased, information on this topic remains scarce in developing countries. This is the first population-based study investigating the association between diet and obesity using a dietary pattern approach in Argentina. We aimed (a) to identify current dietary patterns of the population of Córdoba city, (b) to investigate its association with obesity prevalence, and (c) to identify and describe dietary patterns from the subgroup of people with obesity. The Córdoba Obesity and Diet Study (CODIES) was conducted in Córdoba city by using a random sample of n = 4,327 subjects between 2005 and 2012. Empirically derived dietary patterns were identified through principal component factor analysis. A multiple logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association of dietary patterns with obesity. Four dietary patterns were identified, called "Starchy-Sugar", "Prudent", "Western", and "Sugary drinks". High scores for the "Western" pattern (with strongest factor loading on meats/eggs, processed meats, and alcohol) showed a positive association with obesity (OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.06-1.67, for third versus first tertile of factor score). "Meats/Cheeses" and "Snacks/Alcohol" patterns emerged in people with obesity. The findings suggest that high adherence to the "Western" pattern promoted obesity in this urban population. In addition, people with obesity showed characteristic dietary patterns that differ from those identified in the overall population.

  12. Identification of dietary patterns in urban population of Argentina: study on diet-obesity relation in population-based prevalence study

    PubMed Central

    Pou, Sonia Alejandra; del Pilar Díaz, María; De La Quintana, Ana Gabriela; Forte, Carla Antonella

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES In Argentina, obesity prevalence rose from 14.6% in 2005 to 20.8% in 2013. Although the number of studies on noncommunicable diseases and dietary patterns as a unique dietary exposure measure has increased, information on this topic remains scarce in developing countries. This is the first population-based study investigating the association between diet and obesity using a dietary pattern approach in Argentina. We aimed (a) to identify current dietary patterns of the population of Córdoba city, (b) to investigate its association with obesity prevalence, and (c) to identify and describe dietary patterns from the subgroup of people with obesity. SUBJECTS/METHODS The Córdoba Obesity and Diet Study (CODIES) was conducted in Córdoba city by using a random sample of n = 4,327 subjects between 2005 and 2012. Empirically derived dietary patterns were identified through principal component factor analysis. A multiple logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association of dietary patterns with obesity. RESULTS Four dietary patterns were identified, called “Starchy-Sugar”, “Prudent”, “Western”, and “Sugary drinks”. High scores for the “Western” pattern (with strongest factor loading on meats/eggs, processed meats, and alcohol) showed a positive association with obesity (OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.06-1.67, for third versus first tertile of factor score). “Meats/Cheeses” and “Snacks/Alcohol” patterns emerged in people with obesity. CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest that high adherence to the “Western” pattern promoted obesity in this urban population. In addition, people with obesity showed characteristic dietary patterns that differ from those identified in the overall population. PMID:27909559

  13. Prevalence of water pipe use and its correlates in Iranian women of reproductive age in Tehran: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Baheiraei, Azam; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Mohammadi, Eesa; Mohammad-Alizadeh Charandabi, Sakineh

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of water pipe smoking and its associated sociodemographic factors among Iranian women of reproductive age in Tehran. This was a population-based cross-sectional study of 1,359 Iranian women aged 15-49 years. The multistage random cluster technique was used to obtain the sample. Questionnaire-based interviews with questions relating to water pipe smoking and sociodemographic variables were used to collect the data. The multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyse the relationships between the dependent variable (water pipe smoking) and the independent variables (sociodemographic characteristics). The prevalence of water pipe smoking was 6.3% among Iranian women. Water pipe smoking was more likely in the age range of 15-24 years [odds ratio (OR) = 4.8, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 2.7-8.6] compared to the age range of 35 years or older, in women with a university education (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.3-3.0) compared to women with a high-school diploma or lower, and in women with an average crowding index score (OR = 4.7, 95% CI = 2.1-10.6) compared to women living in small families. The findings of this study show that Iranian women with a university education and the younger age group (15-24 years) were at most risk of water pipe smoking. The findings of this study about associated factors may contribute to the development of efficient health promotion programmes for the prevention and cessation of water pipe smoking. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Molecular and epidemiological population-based integrative analysis of human and animal Mycobacterium bovis infections in a low-prevalence setting.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Juan José; Navarro, Yurena; Romero, Beatriz; Penedo, Ana; Menéndez González, Ángela; Pérez Hernández, M Dolores; Fernández-Verdugo, Ana; Copano, Francisca; Torreblanca, Aurora; Bouza, Emilio; Domínguez, Lucas; de Juan, Lucía; García-de-Viedma, Darío

    2016-11-15

    Human Mycobacterium bovis infections are considered to be due to reactivations, when involve elderly people, or to recent transmissions, when exposure is occupational. We determined the cause of M. bovis infections by genotyping M. bovis isolates in a population-based study integrating human and animal databases. Among the 1,586 tuberculosis (TB) cases in Asturias, Northern Spain (1,080,000 inhabitants), 1,567 corresponded to M. tuberculosis and 19 to M. bovis. The number of human isolates sharing genotype with cattle isolates was higher than expected (47%) for a setting with low prevalence of bovine TB and efficient control programs in cattle. The risk of exposure to infected animals was probable/possible in most of these matched cases (77.7%). Recent transmission was the likely explanation of most M. bovis infections in elderly people. A potential human-to-human transmission was found. Our study illustrates a model of collaboration between human and animal health professionals to provide a precise snapshot of the transmission of M. bovis in the human-animal interface.

  15. National surveillance for type 1, type 2 diabetes and prediabetes among children and adolescents: a population-based study (SAUDI-DM)

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of data on the national prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes among youth. The Saudi Abnormal Glucose Metabolism and Diabetes Impact Study (SAUDI-DM) was used to assess the prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes as well as impaired fasting glucose (IFG) among children and adolescents. Methods Sociodemographic, anthropometric and clinical data were collected through a nationwide household randomly selected 23 523 children and adolescents aged ≤18 years. Known participants with diabetes were classified according to their diabetes type, while participants without diabetes were subjected to fasting plasma glucose assessment and patients with diabetes were identified using the American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria. All the studied participants were tested for lipid parameters. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess different risk factors. Results The overall prevalence of diabetes was 10.84%, of which 0.45% were known type 1 and type 2 patients with diabetes and 10.39% were either newly identified cases of diabetes (4.27%) or IFG (6.12%) with more than 90% of the participants with diabetes being unaware of their disease. The prevalence of known type 1 and type 2 diabetes as well as the newly identified cases was higher than what has been reported internationally. Age, male gender, obesity, urban residency, high family income and presence of dyslipidaemia were found to be significant risk factors for diabetes and IFG. Conclusions Diabetes and IFG are highly prevalent in this society with the majority of the patients being unaware of their disease, which warrants urgent adoption of early detection, treatment and prevention programmes. PMID:26085648

  16. Has the prevalence of invalidating musculoskeletal pain changed over the last 15 years (1993-2006)? A Spanish population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Sánchez, Silvia; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Villanueva-Martínez, Manuel; Ríos-Luna, Antonio; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César

    2010-07-01

    prevalence of invalidating musculoskeletal pain increased from 1993 to 2001 for both men (OR 1.31, 95% 1.08-1.58) and women (OR 1.19, 95% 1.03-1.39) with no significant increase from the remaining surveys. Our results suggest that invalidating musculoskeletal pain deserves an increased awareness among health professionals. More educational programs which address postural hygiene, physical exercise, and how to prevent obesity and sedentary lifestyle habits should be provided by Public Health Services. This population-based study indicates that invalidating musculoskeletal pain that reduces main working activity is a public health problem in Spain. The prevalence of invalidating musculoskeletal pain was higher in women than in men and associated to lower income, poor sleeping, worse self-reported health status, and other comorbid conditions. Further, the prevalence of invalidating musculoskeletal pain increased from 1993 to 2001, but remained stable from the last years (2001 to 2006).

  17. Racial disparities in the prevalence of monoclonal gammopathies: a population-based study of 12,482 persons from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Landgren, O; Graubard, B I; Katzmann, J A; Kyle, R A; Ahmadizadeh, I; Clark, R; Kumar, S K; Dispenzieri, A; Greenberg, A J; Therneau, T M; Melton, L J; Caporaso, N; Korde, N; Roschewski, M; Costello, R; McQuillan, G M; Rajkumar, S V

    2014-07-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) incidence is markedly higher in blacks compared with whites, which may be related to a higher prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Our objective was to define the prevalence and risk factors of MGUS in a large cohort representative of the US population. Stored serum samples from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) III or NHANES 1999-2004 were available for 12,482 individuals of age ⩾50 years (2331 'blacks', 2475 Hispanics, 7051 'whites' and 625 'others') on which agarose-gel electrophoresis, serum protein immunofixation, serum-free light-chain assay and M-protein typing were performed. MGUS was identified in 365 participants (2.4%). Adjusted prevalence of MGUS was significantly higher (P<0.001) in blacks (3.7%) compared with whites (2.3%) (P=0.001) or Hispanics (1.8%), as were characteristics that posed a greater risk of progression to MM. The adjusted prevalence of MGUS was 3.1% and 2.1% for the North/Midwest versus South/West regions of the United States, respectively (P=0.052). MGUS is significantly more common in blacks, and more often has features associated with higher risk of progression to MM. A strong geographic disparity in the prevalence of MGUS between the North/Midwest versus the South/West regions of the United States was found, which has etiologic implications.

  18. Hypertension in the very old; prevalence, awareness, treatment and control: a cross-sectional population-based study in a Spanish municipality

    PubMed Central

    Aguado, Alba; López, Flora; Miravet, Sonia; Oriol, Pilar; Fuentes, M Isabel; Henares, Belén; Badia, Teresa; Esteve, Lluis; Peligro, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Background Information on hypertension in the very elderly is sparse. Until recently evidence of benefits from pharmacological treatment was inconclusive. We estimated the prevalence of hypertension in subjects aged 80 or more, the proportion of awareness, treatment and control. Explanatory variables associated with good control were also studied. Methods Cross sectional, population-based study, conducted in Martorell, an urban Spanish municipality, in 2005. By simple random sampling from the census, 323 subjects aged 80 or more were included. Patients were visited at home or in the geriatric institution and after giving informed consent, the study variables were collected. These included: supine and standing blood pressure and information about diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. The estimation and 95% confidence interval were obtained and a logistic regression model was used to study explanatory variables associated with blood pressure below 140/90 mm Hg. Results The prevalence of hypertension was 72.8% (95%CI: 69.5 – 76.6%) and 93% of the patients were aware of this condition, of whom 96.3% (95%CI: 93.65 – 97.9%) had been prescribed pharmacological treatment and 30.7% (95%CI: 25.8 – 36.1%) had blood pressure below 140/90 mm Hg. Some of the patients (43%) had one antihypertensive drug and 39.5% had two in combination. Explanatory variables associated with blood pressure below 140/90 mm Hg included prescription of a diuretic, OR: 0.31 (95%CI: 0.14 – 0.66), and history of ischemic heart disease, OR: 0.21 (95%CI: 0.1 – 0.47). Conclusion The prevalence of hypertension in population aged 80 or more was over 70%. Most patients were aware of this condition and they had antihypertensive medication prescribed. Approximately one third of treated patients had blood pressure below 140/90 mm Hg. Patients with heart disease and with diuretics had more frequently blood pressure below this value. PMID:19426484

  19. Prevalence, Risk Factors and Outcomes of Velamentous and Marginal Cord Insertions: A Population-Based Study of 634,741 Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Ebbing, Cathrine; Kiserud, Torvid; Johnsen, Synnøve Lian; Albrechtsen, Susanne; Rasmussen, Svein

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of, and risk factors for anomalous insertions of the umbilical cord, and the risk for adverse outcomes of these pregnancies. Design Population-based registry study. Setting Medical Birth Registry of Norway 1999–2009. Population All births (gestational age >16 weeks to <45 weeks) in Norway (623,478 singletons and 11,263 pairs of twins). Methods Descriptive statistics and odds ratios (ORs) for risk factors and adverse outcomes based on logistic regressions adjusted for confounders. Main outcome measures Velamentous or marginal cord insertion. Abruption of the placenta, placenta praevia, pre-eclampsia, preterm birth, operative delivery, low Apgar score, transferral to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), malformations, birthweight, and perinatal death. Results The prevalence of abnormal cord insertion was 7.8% (1.5% velamentous, 6.3% marginal) in singleton pregnancies and 16.9% (6% velamentous, 10.9% marginal) in twins. The two conditions shared risk factors; twin gestation and pregnancies conceived with the aid of assisted reproductive technology were the most important, while bleeding in pregnancy, advanced maternal age, maternal chronic disease, female foetus and previous pregnancy with anomalous cord insertion were other risk factors. Velamentous and marginal insertion was associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes such as placenta praevia (OR = 3.7, (95% CI = 3.1–4.6)), and placental abruption (OR = 2.6, (95% CI = 2.1–3.2)). The risk of pre-eclampsia, preterm birth and delivery by acute caesarean was doubled, as was the risk of low Apgar score, transferral to NICU, low birthweight and malformations. For velamentous insertion the risk of perinatal death at term was tripled, OR = 3.3 (95% CI = 2.5–4.3). Conclusion The prevalence of velamentous and marginal insertions of the umbilical cord was 7.8% in singletons and 16.9% in twin gestations, with marginal insertion being more common

  20. Prevalence and association of refractive anisometropia with near work habits among young schoolchildren: The evidence from a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-Wei; Fang, Shao-You; Huang, Nicole; Hsu, Chih-Chien; Chen, Shing-Yi; Chiu, Allen Wen-Hsiang

    2017-01-01

    Background Lifestyle behaviour may play a role in refractive error among children, but the association between near work habits and refractive anisometropia remains unclear. Methods We estimated the prevalence of refractive anisometropia and examined its association with near work activities among 23,114 children in the Myopia Investigation Study in Taipei who were grade 2 elementary school students at baseline in 2013 and 2014. Baseline data on demographics, medical history, parental history and near work habits were collected by parent-administered questionnaire survey. Refractive status was determined by cycloplegic autorefraction. Refractive anisometropia was defined as the spherical equivalent difference ≥ 1.0 diopter between eyes. Results The prevalence of refractive anisometropia was 5.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.0% to 5.6%). The prevalence and severity of refractive anisometropia increased with both myopic and hyperopic refractive error. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that refractive anisometropia was significantly associated with myopia (odds ratio [OR], 2.98; 95% CI, 2.53–3.51), hyperopia (OR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.98–2.83), degree of astigmatism (OR, 1.005; 95% CI, 1.005–1.006), amblyopia (OR, 2.54; 95% CI, 2.06–3.12), male gender (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.78–0.99) and senior high school level of maternal education (OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.52–0.92). Though anisometropic children were more likely to spend more time on near work (crude OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.02–1.29) and to have less eye-to-object distance in doing near work (crude OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.01–1.30), these associations became insignificant after additional adjustment for ocular, demographic and parental factors. Conclusions The present study provides large-scale, population-based evidence showing no independent association between refractive anisometropia and near work habits, though myopia is associated with refractive anisometropia. PMID:28273153

  1. Validating prediction scales of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Spain: the SPREDIA-2 population-based prospective cohort study protocol.

    PubMed

    Salinero-Fort, Miguel Ángel; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen; Mostaza Prieto, José; Lahoz Rallo, Carlos; Abánades-Herranz, Juan Carlos; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; Laguna Cuesta, Fernando; Estirado De Cabo, Eva; García Iglesias, Francisca; González Alegre, Teresa; Fernández Puntero, Belén; Montesano Sánchez, Luis; Vicent López, David; Cornejo Del Río, Víctor; Fernández García, Pedro J; Sabín Rodríguez, Concesa; López López, Silvia; Patrón Barandío, Pedro

    2015-07-28

    The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing worldwide. When diagnosed, many patients already have organ damage or advance subclinical atherosclerosis. An early diagnosis could allow the implementation of lifestyle changes and treatment options aimed at delaying the progression of the disease and to avoid cardiovascular complications. Different scores for identifying undiagnosed diabetes have been reported, however, their performance in populations of southern Europe has not been sufficiently evaluated. The main objectives of our study are: to evaluate the screening performance and cut-off points of the main scores that identify the risk of undiagnosed T2DM and prediabetes in a Spanish population, and to develop and validate our own predictive models of undiagnosed T2DM (screening model), and future T2DM (prediction risk model) after 5-year follow-up. As a secondary objective, we will evaluate the atherosclerotic burden of the population with undiagnosed T2DM. Population-based prospective cohort study with baseline screening, to evaluate the performance of the FINDRISC, DANISH, DESIR, ARIC and QDScore, against the gold standard tests: Fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance and/or HbA1c. The sample size will include 1352 participants between the ages of 45 and 74 years. sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, likelihood ratio positive, likelihood ratio negative and receiver operating characteristic curves and area under curve. Binary logistic regression for the first 700 individuals (derivation) and last 652 (validation) will be performed. All analyses will be calculated with their 95% CI; statistical significance will be p<0.05. The study protocol has been approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Carlos III Hospital (Madrid). The score performance and predictive model will be presented in medical conferences, workshops, seminars and round table discussions. Furthermore, the predictive model

  2. Validating prediction scales of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Spain: the SPREDIA-2 population-based prospective cohort study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Salinero-Fort, Miguel Ángel; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen; Mostaza Prieto, José; Lahoz Rallo, Carlos; Abánades-Herranz, Juan Carlos; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; Laguna Cuesta, Fernando; Estirado De Cabo, Eva; García Iglesias, Francisca; González Alegre, Teresa; Fernández Puntero, Belén; Montesano Sánchez, Luis; Vicent López, David; Cornejo Del Río, Víctor; Fernández García, Pedro J; Sabín Rodríguez, Concesa; López López, Silvia; Patrón Barandío, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing worldwide. When diagnosed, many patients already have organ damage or advance subclinical atherosclerosis. An early diagnosis could allow the implementation of lifestyle changes and treatment options aimed at delaying the progression of the disease and to avoid cardiovascular complications. Different scores for identifying undiagnosed diabetes have been reported, however, their performance in populations of southern Europe has not been sufficiently evaluated. The main objectives of our study are: to evaluate the screening performance and cut-off points of the main scores that identify the risk of undiagnosed T2DM and prediabetes in a Spanish population, and to develop and validate our own predictive models of undiagnosed T2DM (screening model), and future T2DM (prediction risk model) after 5-year follow-up. As a secondary objective, we will evaluate the atherosclerotic burden of the population with undiagnosed T2DM. Methods and analysis Population-based prospective cohort study with baseline screening, to evaluate the performance of the FINDRISC, DANISH, DESIR, ARIC and QDScore, against the gold standard tests: Fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance and/or HbA1c. The sample size will include 1352 participants between the ages of 45 and 74 years. Analysis: sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, likelihood ratio positive, likelihood ratio negative and receiver operating characteristic curves and area under curve. Binary logistic regression for the first 700 individuals (derivation) and last 652 (validation) will be performed. All analyses will be calculated with their 95% CI; statistical significance will be p<0.05. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol has been approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Carlos III Hospital (Madrid). The score performance and predictive model will be presented in medical conferences, workshops

  3. A self-assessment predictive model for type 2 diabetes or impaired fasting glycaemia derived from a population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Asadollahi, Khairollah; Asadollahi, Parisa; Azizi, Monire; Abangah, Ghobad

    2017-09-01

    There is no cure for diabetes and its prevention is interesting for both people and health policy makers. The aim of this study was to construct a simple scoring system to predict diabetes and suggest a self assessment predictive model for type 2 diabetes in Iran. This study was a part of a comprehensive population based survey performed in Ilam province during 2011-2012, including 2158 cases≥25years. All demographic and laboratory results were entered into the prepared sheets and were analysed using SPSS 16. By identification of relative risks of diabetes and IFG, a predictive model was constructed and proposed for these abnormalities. Totally, 2158 people comprising 72% female, 60% from urban regions, mean age of 45.5±14years were investigated and the average height, weight, FBS and waist of participants were as follows respectively: 164±8.9cm, 68.4±12.3kg, 5.7±2.8mmol/l (102.6±49.9mg/dl) and 82.3±14.3cm. The prevalence of IFG, diabetes and hyperglycaemia among all participants were 7.8%, 11.8% and 19.6% respectively. Regression analysis revealed familial history of diabetes, place of life, age, hypertension, daily exercise, marital status, gender, waist size, smoking, and BMI as the most relevant risk factors for diabetes and hyperglycemia. A self-assessment predictive model was constructed for general population living in the west of Iran. This is the first self-assessment predictive model for diabetes in Iran. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of neural tube defects in a rural area of north india from 2001 to 2014: A population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Kant, Shashi; Malhotra, Sumit; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Haldar, Partha; Kaur, Ravneet; Misra, Puneet; Gupta, Neerja

    2017-02-15

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are one of the commonest birth defects. There was paucity of community-based data on occurrence of NTDs in India, especially from rural parts of the country. Against this background, the current study was carried out with main objectives to determine the prevalence of NTDs and its specific types (anencephaly, spina bifida and encephalocele) in a rural community setting over the time period 2001 to 2014. This was a community-based cross-sectional study carried out in 28 villages of Ballabgarh Tehsil of Faridabad district in north India (population ∼ 96,000). A household survey was undertaken by trained multi-purpose workers who enquired ever-married women about history of conception with outcome as NTD during the study period. The probable case of NTD was determined using a colored pictorial card with photographs of different types of NTDs. These cases were confirmed by doctors. A total of 26,946 live births occurred during the years 2001 to 2014. A total of 140 confirmed cases of NTDs were identified. The live birth prevalence of NTDs was 24.1 per 10,000 live births (95% confidence interval, 18.8-30.6). The birth prevalence of NTDs for the years 2008 to 2014 was 50.8 (95% confidence interval, 39.9-63.8) per 10,000 live and stillbirths. The most common type of NTD was found to be spina bifida followed by anencephaly and encephalocele. We found high prevalence of NTDs in rural community settings from north India for years 2001 to 2014.Birth Defects Research 109:203-210, 2017.© 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Prevalence and contribution of BRCA1 mutations in breast cancer and ovarian cancer: Results from three US population-based case-control studies of ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Whittemore, A.S.; Gong, G.; Itnyre, J.

    1997-03-01

    We investigate the familial risks of cancers of the breast and ovary, using data pooled from three population-based case-control studies of ovarian cancer that were conducted in the United States. We base estimates of the frequency of mutations of BRCA1 (and possibly other genes) on the reported occurrence of breast cancer and ovarian cancer in the mothers and sisters of 922 women with incident ovarian cancer (cases) and in 922 women with no history of ovarian cancer (controls). Segregation analysis and goodness-of-fit testing of genetic models suggest that rare mutations (frequency .0014; 95% confidence interval .0002-.011) account for all the observed aggregation of breast cancer and ovarian cancer in these families. The estimated risk of breast cancer by age 80 years is 73.5% in mutation carriers and 6.8% in noncarriers. The corresponding estimates for ovarian cancer are 27.8% in carriers and 1.8% in noncarriers. For cancer risk in carriers, these estimates are lower than those obtained from families selected for high cancer prevalence. The estimated proportion of all U.S. cancer diagnoses, by age 80 years, that are due to germ-line BRCA1 mutations is 3.0% for breast cancer and 4.4% for ovarian cancer. Aggregation of breast cancer and ovarian cancer was less evident in the families of 169 cases with borderline ovarian cancers than in the families of cases with invasive cancers. Familial aggregation did not differ by the ethnicity of the probands, although the number of non-White and Hispanic cases (N = 99) was sparse. 14 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Prevalence of Off-Label Use and Spending in 2010 Among Patent-Protected Chemotherapies in a Population-Based Cohort of Medical Oncologists

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Rena M.; Bernstein, Arielle C.; Villaflor, Victoria M.; Schilsky, Richard L.; Rosenthal, Meredith B.; Bach, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The prevalence of off-label anticancer drug use is not well characterized. The extent of off-label use is a policy concern because the clinical benefits of such use to patients may not outweigh costs or adverse health outcomes. Methods Prescribing data from IntrinsiQ Intellidose data systems, a pharmacy software provider maintaining a population-based cohort database of medical oncologists, was analyzed. Use of the most commonly prescribed anticancer drugs (“chemotherapies”) that were patent protected and administered intravenously to patients in 2010 was examined. Use was classified as “on-label” if the cancer site, stage, and therapy line met the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved indication. All other use was “off-label.” Off-label use was divided by whether it conformed to National Comprehensive Care Network (NCCN) Compendium recommendations, a basis of insurer coverage policies. IMS Health National Sales Perspectives was used to estimate national spending by use category. Results Ten chemotherapies met inclusion criteria. On-label use amounted to 70%, and off-label use amounted to 30%. Fourteen percent of use conformed to an NCCN-supported off-label indication, and 10% of off-label use was associated with an FDA-approved cancer site, but an NCCN-unsupported cancer stage and/or line of therapy. Total national spending on these chemotherapies amounted to $12 billion (B; $7.3B on-label, $2B off-label and NCCN supported; $2.5B off-label and NCCN unsupported). Conclusion Commonly used, novel chemotherapies are more often used on-label than off-label in contemporary practice. Off-label use is composed of a roughly equal mix of chemotherapy applied in clinical settings supported by the NCCN and those that are not. PMID:23423747

  7. The prevalence and risk factors of preterm small-for-gestational-age infants: a population-based retrospective cohort study in rural Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shi; Zhu, Rong; Zhu, Huijuan; Yang, Hongbo; Gong, Fengying; Wang, Linjie; Jiang, Yu; Lian, Bill Q; Yan, Chengsheng; Li, Jianqiang; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Shi-Kun; Pan, Hui

    2017-07-20

    Preterm birth and small for gestational age (SGA) are strong indicators of neonatal adverse outcomes. With the growing importance of preterm SGA infants, we aim to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for preterm SGA in China. We analyzed the data of parents and infants from a population-based cohort research of the free National Pre-pregnancy Checkups Project (NPCP) in rural China. Only singleton live births that occurred between 24 weeks +0 days and 36 weeks +6 days of pregnancy were included in this study. SGA was defined as birth weight less than the 10th percentile of the reference birth-weight-for-gestational-age population. A multiple logistic regression model was built using the statistically significant variables from the 371 variables in the questionnaire. A total of 11,474 singleton, preterm, live-birth infants were included. Of the total infants, 317 (2.77%) were preterm SGA infants. A higher risk of preterm SGA infants was observed among mothers who were on oral contraceptives (OR: 8.162, 95% CI: 1.622-41.072), mothers who had syphilis (OR: 12.800, 95% CI: 1.250-131.041), and mothers with a high eosinophil percentage (OR: 13.292, 95% CI: 1.282-135.796). Maternal intake of folic acid at least 3 months before pregnancy (OR: 0.284, 95% CI:0.124-0.654) and paternal intake of egg and meat (OR: 0.097,95% CI:0.030-0.315) were protective factors. Compared with North China, the incidence of preterm SGA infants was higher in South China. Preterm SGA infants were associated with both maternal and paternal factors.

  8. Prevalence and Burden of Gait Disorders in Elderly Men and Women Aged 60–97 Years: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Mahlknecht, Philipp; Kiechl, Stefan; Bloem, Bastiaan R.; Willeit, Johann; Scherfler, Christoph; Gasperi, Arno; Rungger, Gregorio; Poewe, Werner; Seppi, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Background Although gait disorders are common in the elderly, the prevalence and overall burden of these disorders in the general community is not well defined. Methods In a cross-sectional investigation of the population-based Bruneck Study cohort, 488 community-residing elderly aged 60–97 years underwent a thorough neurological assessment including a standardized gait evaluation. Gait disorders were classified according to an accepted scheme and their associations to falls, neuropsychological measures, and quality of life were explored. Results Overall, 32.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 28.2%–36.4%) of participants presented with impaired gait. Prevalence increased with age (p<0.001), but 38.3% (95%CI 30.1%–47.3%) of the subjects aged 80 years or older still had a normally preserved gait. A total of 24.0% (95%CI 20.4%–28.0%) manifested neurological gait disorders, 17.4% (14.3%–21.0%) non-neurological gait problems, and 9.2% (6.9%–12.1%) a combination of both. While there was no association of neurological gait disorders with gender, non-neurological gait disorders were more frequent in women (p = 0.012). Within the group of neurological gait disorders 69.2% (95%CI 60.3%–76.9%) had a single distinct entity and 30.8% (23.1%–39.7%) had multiple neurological causes for gait impairment. Gait disorders had a significant negative impact on quantitative gait measures, but only neurological gait disorders were associated with recurrent falls (odds ratio 3.3; 95%CI 1.4–7.5; p = 0.005 for single and 7.1; 2.7–18.7; p<0.001 for multiple neurological gait disorders). Finally, we detected a significant association of gait disorders, in particular neurological gait disorders, with depressed mood, cognitive dysfunction, and compromised quality of life. Conclusions Gait disorders are common in the general elderly population and are associated with reduced mobility. Neurological gait disorders in particular are associated with recurrent falls, lower

  9. Prevalence and correlates of cancer survivors’ supportive care needs 6 months after diagnosis: a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An understanding of the nature and magnitude of the impact of cancer is critical to planning how best to deliver supportive care to the growing population of cancer survivors whose need for care may span many years. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of and factors associated with moderate to high level unmet supportive care needs among adult cancer survivors six months after diagnosis. Methods A population-based sample of adult cancer survivors diagnosed with one of the eight most incident cancers in Australia was recruited from two state-based cancer registries. Data for 1323 survivors were obtained by self-report questionnaire and linkage with cancer registry data. Unmet needs were assessed by the 34-item Supportive Care Needs Survey (SCNS-SF34). The data were examined using chi-square and multiple logistic regression analyses. Results A total of 444 (37%) survivors reported at least one ‘moderate to high’ level unmet need and 496 (42%) reported ‘no need’ for help. Moderate to high level unmet needs were most commonly reported in the psychological (25%) and physical aspects of daily living (20%) domains. The five most frequently endorsed items of moderate to high unmet need were concerns about the worries of those close to them (15%), fears about the cancer spreading (14%), not being able to do the things they used to do (13%), uncertainty about the future (13%) and lack of energy/tiredness (12%). Survivors’ psychological characteristics were the strongest indicators of unmet need, particularly caseness for anxious preoccupation coping which was associated (OR = 2.2-5.9) with unmet need for help across all domains. Conclusions Unmet supportive care needs are prevalent among a subgroup of survivors transitioning from active treatment to survivorship, although lower than previously reported. In addition to coping support, valuable insight about how to prevent or address survivors’ unmet needs could be ga