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Sample records for population-based prevalence type

  1. Prevalence of immediate-type food allergy in Korean schoolchildren: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kangmo; Kim, Jihyun; Hahm, Myung-Il; Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Chae, Yoomi; Park, Yong Mean; Han, Man Yong; Lee, Kee-Jae; Kim, Ja Kyoung; Yang, Eun Seok; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2012-01-01

    Although the prevalence and causes of food allergy (FA) vary by geographic location, large well-designed epidemiological studies in Asia are lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of immediate-type FA in the general population of Korean schoolchildren. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 using a stratified two-stage cluster-sampling design. In this survey, children aged 6-7 years and 12-13 years were randomly selected, and the presence of FA was determined by a questionnaire survey and assessment of specific IgE. After adjustment for missing data, 3907 children aged 6-7 years and 3975 students aged 12-13 years who completed the questionnaire were included in this study. In children aged 6-7 years, the prevalence of confirmed immediate-type FA was 0.3%, and the prevalence of possible immediate-type FA was 0.3%. By contrast, 0.6 and 1.0% of children aged 12-13 years had confirmed immediate-type FA and possible immediate-type FA, respectively. In 6- to 7-year-old children, egg was the most frequent causative food associated with a confirmed or possible immediate-type FA. In 12- to 13-year-old children, crustaceans were the most frequent cause of confirmed immediate-type FA, and fruit was most frequently involved in possible immediate-type FA. This is the first nationwide population-based study of FA in Korean schoolchildren. Unlike in western countries, the prevalence of immediate-type FA seems to be low. In 12- to 13 year-old children with confirmed immediate-type FA, peanuts/tree nuts are not common causes, whereas crustaceans are frequent triggers. PMID:23394505

  2. Prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence by type and severity: population-based studies in Azerbaijan, Moldova, and Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Ismayilova, Leyla; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2013-08-01

    The article estimates the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) by type and severity in population-based samples from three countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU). The article utilized nationally representative data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in Azerbaijan (2006), Moldova (2005), and Ukraine (2007). Respondents were selected using stratified multistage cluster sampling. The sample included ever-married (or cohabitating) females of reproductive age (15-49 years old); weighted sample n = 3,847 in Azerbaijan, n = 4,321 in Moldova, and n = 2,355 in Ukraine. The analysis used multinomial survey logistic regression adjusting for the sampling design and sampling weights. Ten percent of ever-partnered women in Azerbaijan and Ukraine and 20% in Moldova ever experienced physical IPV (without sexual) from their most recent husband or cohabitating partner; 3% of women in Azerbaijan and Ukraine and 5% in Moldova experienced sexual IPV (with or without physical), and 2% of women in Azerbaijan, 3% in Ukraine, and 6% in Moldova experienced violence resulting in severe physical injuries from their most recent partner. In all three countries physical, sexual, and injurious IPV was higher among formerly married women. Compared to women with above secondary education, women with secondary education or below demonstrated higher risk for physical IPV (in Moldova and Ukraine), sexual IPV in Moldova, and injurious IPV in all three countries. Poor socioeconomic status-as indicated by low household wealth status in Azerbaijan and partner's unemployment in Moldova and Ukraine-was significantly associated with higher risk for physical and injurious IPV. In Moldova and Ukraine partners' low level of education was associated with higher risk for sexual IPV. The article demonstrates that experiences and factors associated with IPV are diverse and context specific. The findings may be helpful in targeting interventions to

  3. Prevalence and Incidence of Hypoglycaemia in 532,542 People with Type 2 Diabetes on Oral Therapies and Insulin: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Population Based Studies

    PubMed Central

    Edridge, Chloe L.; Dunkley, Alison J.; Bodicoat, Danielle H.; Rose, Tanith C.; Gray, Laura J.; Davies, Melanie J.; Khunti, Kamlesh

    2015-01-01

    Objective To collate and evaluate the current literature reporting the prevalence and incidence of hypoglycaemia in population based studies of type 2 diabetes. Research Design and Methods Medline, Embase and Cochrane were searched up to February 2014 to identify population based studies reporting the proportion of people with type 2 diabetes experiencing hypoglycaemia or rate of events experienced. Two reviewers independently screened studies for eligibility and extracted data for included studies. Random effects meta-analyses were carried out to calculate the prevalence and incidence of hypoglycaemia. Results 46 studies (n = 532,542) met the inclusion criteria. Prevalence of hypoglycaemia was 45% (95%CI 0.34,0.57) for mild/moderate and 6% (95%CI, 0.05,0.07) for severe. Incidence of hypoglycaemic episodes per person-year for mild/moderate and for severe was 19 (95%CI 0.00, 51.08) and 0.80 (95%CI 0.00,2.15), respectively. Hypoglycaemia was prevalent amongst those on insulin; for mild/moderate episodes the prevalence was 50% and incidence 23 events per person-year, and for severe episodes the prevalence was 21% and incidence 1 event per person-year. For treatment regimes that included a sulphonylurea, mild/moderate prevalence was 30% and incidence 2 events per person-year, and severe prevalence was 5% and incidence 0.01 events per person-year. A similar prevalence of 5% was found for treatment regimes that did not include sulphonylureas. Conclusions Current evidence shows hypoglycaemia is considerably prevalent amongst people with type 2 diabetes, particularly for those on insulin, yet still fairly common for other treatment regimens. This highlights the subsequent need for educational interventions and individualisation of therapies to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia. PMID:26061690

  4. The prevalence of ADHD in a population-based sample

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Andrew S.; Skipper, Betty J.; Umbach, David M.; Rabiner, David L.; Campbell, Richard A.; Naftel, A. Jack; Sandler, Dale P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Few studies of ADHD prevalence have used population-based samples, multiple informants, and DSM-IV criteria. In addition, children who are asymptomatic while receiving ADHD mediction often have been misclassified. Therefore, we conducted a population-based study to estimate the prevalence of ADHD in elementary school children using DSM-IV critera. Methods We screened 7587 children for ADHD. Teachers of 81% of the children completed a DSM-IV checklist. We then interviewed parents using a structured interview (DISC). Of these, 72% participated. Parent and teacher ratings were combined to determine ADHD status. We also estimated the proportion of cases attributable to other conditions. Results Overall, 15.5% of our sample (95% confidence interval (C.I.) 14.6%-16.4%) met DSM-IV-TR criteria for ADHD. Over 40% of cases reported no previous diagnosis. With additional information, other conditions explained about 9% of cases. Conclusions The prevalence of ADHD in this population-based sample was higher than the 3-7% commonly reported. To compare study results, the methods used to implement the DSM criteria need to be standardized. PMID:24336124

  5. Population-based incidence and prevalence of facioscapulohumeral dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Arnts, Hisse; van der Maarel, Silvère M.; Padberg, George W.; Verschuuren, Jan J.G.M.; Bakker, Egbert; Weinreich, Stephanie S.; Verbeek, André L.M.; van Engelen, Baziel G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the incidence and prevalence of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) in the Netherlands. Methods: Using 3-source capture-recapture methodology, we estimated the total yearly number of newly found symptomatic individuals with FSHD, including those not registered in any of the 3 sources. To this end, symptomatic individuals with FSHD were available from 3 large population-based registries in the Netherlands if diagnosed within a 10-year period (January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2010). Multiplication of the incidence and disease duration delivered the prevalence estimate. Results: On average, 52 people are newly diagnosed with FSHD every year. This results in an incidence rate of 0.3/100,000 person-years in the Netherlands. The prevalence rate was 12/100,000, equivalent to 2,000 affected individuals. Conclusions: We present population-based incidence and prevalence estimates regarding symptomatic individuals with FSHD, including an estimation of the number of symptomatic individuals not present in any of the 3 used registries. This study shows that the total number of symptomatic persons with FSHD in the population may well be underestimated and a considerable number of affected individuals remain undiagnosed. This suggests that FSHD is one of the most prevalent neuromuscular disorders. PMID:25122204

  6. HPV prevalence and type-distribution in cervical cancer and premalignant lesions of the cervix: A population-based study from Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lesley A; O'Rorke, Michael A; Wilson, Robbie; Jamison, Jackie; Gavin, Anna T

    2016-07-01

    Assessment of Human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and genotype distribution is important for monitoring the impact of prophylactic HPV vaccination. This study aimed to demonstrate the HPV genotypes predominating in pre-malignant and cervical cancers in Northern Ireland (NI) before the vaccination campaign has effect. Formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks from 2,303 women aged 16-93 years throughout NI were collated between April 2011 and February 2013. HPV DNA was amplified by PCR and HPV genotyping undertaken using the Roche(®) linear array detection kit. In total, 1,241 out of 1,830 eligible samples (68.0%) tested positive for HPV, with the majority of these [1,181/1,830 (64.5%)] having high-risk (HR) HPV infection; 37.4% were positive for HPV-16 (n = 684) and 5.1% for HPV-18 (n = 93). HPV type-specific prevalence was 48.1%, 65.9%, 81.3%, 92.2%, and 64.3% among cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) Grades I-III, squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC) cases, respectively. Most SCC cases (81.3%) had only one HPV genotype detected and almost a third (32.0%) of all cervical pathologies were HPV negative including 51.9% of CIN I (n = 283), 34.1% CIN II (n = 145), 18.7% of CIN III (n = 146), 7.8% of SCC (n = 5), and 35.7% of AC (n = 5) cases. This study provides important baseline data for monitoring the effect of HPV vaccination in NI and for comparison with other UK regions. The coverage of other HR-HPV genotypes apart from 16 and 18, including HPV-45, 31, 39, and 52, and the potential for cross protection, should be considered when considering future polyvalent vaccines.

  7. Prevalence of microcephaly in Europe: population based study

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Judith; Garne, Ester; Loane, Maria; Greenlees, Ruth; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Barisic, Ingeborg; Bergman, Jorieke E H; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Dias, Carlos; Draper, Elizabeth S; Gatt, Miriam; Khoshnood, Babak; Klungsoyr, Kari; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Lynch, Catherine; McDonnell, Robert; Nelen, Vera; Neville, Amanda J; O’Mahony, Mary T; Pierini, Anna; Randrianaivo, Hanitra; Rissmann, Anke; Tucker, David; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; de Walle, Hermien E K; Wellesley, Diana; Wiesel, Awi; Dolk, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To provide contemporary estimates of the prevalence of microcephaly in Europe, determine if the diagnosis of microcephaly is consistent across Europe, and evaluate whether changes in prevalence would be detected using the current European surveillance performed by EUROCAT (the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies). Design Questionnaire and population based observational study. Setting 24 EUROCAT registries covering 570 000 births annually in 15 countries. Participants Cases of microcephaly not associated with a genetic condition among live births, fetal deaths from 20 weeks’ gestation, and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly at any gestation. Main outcome measures Prevalence of microcephaly (1 Jan 2003-31 Dec 2012) analysed with random effects Poisson regression models to account for heterogeneity across registries. Results 16 registries responded to the questionnaire, of which 44% (7/16) used the EUROCAT definition of microcephaly (a reduction in the size of the brain with a skull circumference more than 3 SD below the mean for sex, age, and ethnic origin), 19% (3/16) used a 2 SD cut off, 31% (5/16) were reliant on the criteria used by individual clinicians, and one changed criteria between 2003 and 2012. Prevalence of microcephaly in Europe was 1.53 (95% confidence interval 1.16 to 1.96) per 10 000 births, with registries varying from 0.4 (0.2 to 0.7) to 4.3 (3.6 to 5.0) per 10 000 (χ2=338, df=23, I2=93%). Registries with a 3 SD cut off reported a prevalence of 1.74 per 10 000 (0.86 to 2.93) compared with those with the less stringent 2 SD cut off of 1.21 per 10 000 (0.21 to 2.93). The prevalence of microcephaly would need to increase in one year by over 35% in Europe or by over 300% in a single registry to reach statistical significance (P<0.01). Conclusions EUROCAT could detect increases in the prevalence of microcephaly from the Zika virus of a similar magnitude to those observed in Brazil. Because of the rarity

  8. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in Indonesia: a population-based study in three regions

    PubMed Central

    Vet, J N I; de Boer, M A; van den Akker, B E W M; Siregar, B; Lisnawati; Budiningsih, S; Tyasmorowati, D; Moestikaningsih; Cornain, S; Peters, A A W; Fleuren, G J

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in the Indonesian population, yet little is known about the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV). We investigated age-specific prevalence of HPV types and possible risk factors of HPV positivity in a population-based sample of 2686 women, aged 15–70 years, in Jakarta, Tasikmalaya, and Bali, Indonesia. The overall HPV prevalence was 11.4%, age-standardized to the world standard population 11.6%. The most prevalent types found were HPV 52, HPV 16, HPV 18, and HPV 39, respectively, 23.2, 18.0, 16.1, and 11.8% of the high-risk HPV types. In 20.7% of infections, multiple types were involved. Different age-specific prevalence patterns were seen: overall high in Jakarta, and in Tasikmalaya, and declining with age in Bali. The number of marriages was most associated with HPV positivity (OR 1.81 95% CI 1.31–2.51)). Remarkably, in Indonesia HPV 16 and HPV 18 are equally common in the general population, as they are in cervical cancer. HPV 52 was the most prevalent type in the general population, suggesting that this type should be included when prophylactic HPV vaccination is introduced in Indonesia. PMID:18609756

  9. Prevalence of Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS): A Population-Based Study in Olmsted County, Minnesota

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Varun; Alikhan, Ali; Vazquez, Benjamin G.; Weaver, Amy L.; Davis, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a follicular occlusion disorder occurring in apocrine-rich regions of the skin. Estimates of the prevalence of this disorder have not been population-based. We sought to provide population-based information on the prevalence of HS in Olmsted County, Minnesota as of 1/1/2009. METHODS Rochester Epidemiology Project, a unique infrastructure that combines and makes accessible all medical records in Olmsted County since the 1960s, was used to collect population-based data on the prevalence of HS. RESULTS We identified 178 confirmed cases of HS that included 135 females and 43 males, and estimated the total sex- and age-adjusted prevalence in Olmsted County to be 127.8 per 100,000 or 0.13%. The total prevalence was significantly higher among women than men. CONCLUSION This study represents the first population-based investigation on the prevalence of HS. In this population-based cohort, HS was less prevalent than previous reports have suggested. PMID:25228133

  10. Thromboembolic complications in Fontan patients: population-based prevalence and exploration of the etiology.

    PubMed

    Idorn, L; Jensen, A S; Juul, K; Reimers, J I; Johansson, P I; Sørensen, K E; Ostrowski, S R; Søndergaard, L

    2013-02-01

    After the Fontan procedure, patients face an increased risk for thromboembolic events (TE). The etiology for this increased thrombogenecity is incompletely understood. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of TE in Danish Fontan patients and to bring new insights into the etiology of TE. Using a population-based design, we retrospectively identified all TEs in 210 Fontan patients. Whole blood assays (thromboelastography, thromboelastography functional fibrinogen and Multiplate) reflecting global hemostasis, clot strength and platelet aggregation were analyzed prospectively in 112 patients and plasma was analyzed in 76 patients for biomarkers reflecting endothelial-, glycocalyx-, platelet-, and fibrinolysis function (histone-complexed DNA fragments, Protein C, soluble CD40 ligand, soluble thrombomodulin, syndecan-1, tissue-type plasminogen activator). The results were compared in groups stratified according to age, antithrombotic therapy, TE, and glycocalyx degradation (syndecan-1 < or ≥ median). Correlation between biomarkers and demographic-, anatomical-, clinical- and biochemical parameters was investigated. The prevalence of TE was 8.1 % after a mean follow-up of 8.4 years. None of the stratified groups demonstrated evidence of hypercoagulability in the whole blood assays and no unexpected significant differences were found between the groups. All biomarkers, except protein C, correlated with one another and after stratification of glycocalyx degradation only syndecan-1 levels ≥ median correlated with other biomarkers. The prevalence of TEs was 8.1 % after mean follow-up of 8.4 years. Overall, the hemostatic profile appeared normal, however, in a subset of patients, evidence of some endothelial activation/damage including glycocalyx degradation and fibrinolysis was found, identifying a potentially more thrombogenic group.

  11. Estimating HIV Prevalence in Zimbabwe Using Population-Based Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    Chinomona, Amos; Mwambi, Henry Godwell

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of HIV prevalence computed using data obtained from sampling a subgroup of the national population may lack the representativeness of all the relevant domains of the population. These estimates are often computed on the assumption that HIV prevalence is uniform across all domains of the population. Use of appropriate statistical methods together with population-based survey data can enhance better estimation of national and subgroup level HIV prevalence and can provide improved explanations of the variation in HIV prevalence across different domains of the population. In this study we computed design-consistent estimates of HIV prevalence, and their respective 95% confidence intervals at both the national and subgroup levels. In addition, we provided a multivariable survey logistic regression model from a generalized linear modelling perspective for explaining the variation in HIV prevalence using demographic, socio-economic, socio-cultural and behavioural factors. Essentially, this study borrows from the proximate determinants conceptual framework which provides guiding principles upon which socio-economic and socio-cultural variables affect HIV prevalence through biological behavioural factors. We utilize the 2010–11 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey (2010–11 ZDHS) data (which are population based) to estimate HIV prevalence in different categories of the population and for constructing the logistic regression model. It was established that HIV prevalence varies greatly with age, gender, marital status, place of residence, literacy level, belief on whether condom use can reduce the risk of contracting HIV and level of recent sexual activity whereas there was no marked variation in HIV prevalence with social status (measured using a wealth index), method of contraceptive and an individual’s level of education. PMID:26624280

  12. Estimating HIV Prevalence in Zimbabwe Using Population-Based Survey Data.

    PubMed

    Chinomona, Amos; Mwambi, Henry Godwell

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of HIV prevalence computed using data obtained from sampling a subgroup of the national population may lack the representativeness of all the relevant domains of the population. These estimates are often computed on the assumption that HIV prevalence is uniform across all domains of the population. Use of appropriate statistical methods together with population-based survey data can enhance better estimation of national and subgroup level HIV prevalence and can provide improved explanations of the variation in HIV prevalence across different domains of the population. In this study we computed design-consistent estimates of HIV prevalence, and their respective 95% confidence intervals at both the national and subgroup levels. In addition, we provided a multivariable survey logistic regression model from a generalized linear modelling perspective for explaining the variation in HIV prevalence using demographic, socio-economic, socio-cultural and behavioural factors. Essentially, this study borrows from the proximate determinants conceptual framework which provides guiding principles upon which socio-economic and socio-cultural variables affect HIV prevalence through biological behavioural factors. We utilize the 2010-11 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey (2010-11 ZDHS) data (which are population based) to estimate HIV prevalence in different categories of the population and for constructing the logistic regression model. It was established that HIV prevalence varies greatly with age, gender, marital status, place of residence, literacy level, belief on whether condom use can reduce the risk of contracting HIV and level of recent sexual activity whereas there was no marked variation in HIV prevalence with social status (measured using a wealth index), method of contraceptive and an individual's level of education. PMID:26624280

  13. Prevalence of Parkinson's disease in Baskale, Turkey: a population based study.

    PubMed

    Durmus, Hacer; Gokalp, Mehmet A; Hanagasi, Hasmet A

    2015-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, and its prevalence rate varies between 15 and 250/100.000. The data on the prevalence of PD in Turkey are limited. In this study, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of PD in Baskale, Turkey. The study area is a rural small area in the eastern part Turkey, with a population of 26.991 inhabitants. The first stage of the study was undertaken between February and October 2011. Field workers performed a door to door population screening for the cardinal symptoms of PD and identified cases were reevaluated by an experienced movement disorders specialist. In this population based study, 19 PD patients were identified in the screened population, indicating that the estimated age standardized prevalence of PD in Turkey was 202/100.000. This study is the first large population based study for identifying prevalence of PD in Turkey. Our prevalence rate is slightly lower than those of European countries, which may be caused by ethnical differences or environmental factors.

  14. Prevalence and Characteristics of Chemical Intolerance: A Japanese Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Kenichi; Uchiyama, Iwao; Katoh, Takahiko; Ogata, Hiromitsu; Arashidani, Keiichi; Kunugita, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Population-based cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the prevalence of chemical intolerance and to examine the characteristics of the sample. A Web-based survey was conducted that included 7,245 adults in Japan. The criteria for chemical intolerance proposed by Skovbjerg yielded a prevalence of 7.5% that was approximately consistent with that reported from a Danish population-based survey. Female gender, older age, and renovation in the house during the past 7 years were positively associated with chemical intolerance. Improvements in the condition were observed with daily ventilation habits. Medical history of atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, food allergy, multiple chemical sensitivity, and depression were associated with chemical intolerance. Fatigue, depressed mood, and somatic symptoms were also positively correlated with chemical intolerance. Better elucidation of the causes, comorbidities, concomitants, and consequences of chemical intolerance has the potential to provide effective solutions for its prevention and treatment. PMID:25137616

  15. Adult Prevalence of Epilepsy in Spain: EPIBERIA, a Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Castro, Pedro J.; Mauri-Llerda, Jose Angel; Hernández-Ramos, Francisco José; Sánchez-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Parejo-Carbonell, Beatriz; Quiroga-Subirana, Pablo; Vázquez-Gutierrez, Fernando; Santos-Lasaosa, Sonia; Mendez-Lucena, Carolina; Redondo-Verge, Luis; Tejero-Juste, Carlos; Morandeira-Rivas, Clara; Sancho-Rieger, Jerónimo; Matías-Guiu, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study assesses the lifetime and active prevalence of epilepsy in Spain in people older than 18 years. Methods. EPIBERIA is a population-based epidemiological study of epilepsy prevalence using data from three representative Spanish regions (health districts in Zaragoza, Almería, and Seville) between 2012 and 2013. The study consisted of two phases: screening and confirmation. Participants completed a previously validated questionnaire (EPIBERIA questionnaire) over the telephone. Results. A total of 1741 valid questionnaires were obtained, including 261 (14.99%) raising a suspicion of epilepsy. Of these suspected cases, 216 (82.75%) agreed to participate in phase 2. Of the phase 2 participants, 22 met the International League Against Epilepsy's diagnostic criteria for epilepsy. The estimated lifetime prevalence, adjusted by age and sex per 1,000 people, was 14.87 (95% CI: 9.8–21.9). Active prevalence was 5.79 (95% CI: 2.8–10.6). No significant age, sex, or regional differences in prevalence were detected. Conclusions. EPIBERIA provides the most accurate estimate of epilepsy prevalence in the Mediterranean region based on its original methodology and its adherence to ILAE recommendations. We highlight that the lifetime prevalence and inactive epilepsy prevalence figures observed here were compared to other epidemiological studies. PMID:26783554

  16. Sun Exposure Prevalence and Associated Skin Health Habits: Results from the Austrian Population-Based UVSkinRisk Survey

    PubMed Central

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Moshammer, Hanns

    2016-01-01

    Recreational sun exposure accounts for a large number of acute and chronic dermatological diseases, including skin cancer. This study aimed at estimating the one-year prevalence of sun exposure and skin health-associated knowledge and attitudes among Austrian citizens. The population-based UVSkinRisk survey investigated a representative sample of Austrian adults using a structured questionnaire. In total, 1500 study subjects (median age 33.0 years, 50.5% females) participated in this questionnaire survey. Among study participants, prevalence of sun exposure was 47%, with slightly higher rates in males (48%) compared to females (46%). Younger age, lower professional category, darker skin type, motives to tan, sunbed use, sunburn, and outdoor sport activity increased the odds for prevalent sun exposure. This is the first population-based study evaluating the prevailing sun exposure and recreational habits influencing skin health among Austrian citizens. Despite public media campaigns educating on the harmful effects of sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of self-reported sunlight exposure. The results suggest that multifaceted socio-cultural characteristics stimulate recreational sun exposure and tanning habits. Communicating individualized Public (Skin) Health messages might be the key to prevent photo-induced skin health hazards in light-skinned populations. The practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26797627

  17. Sun Exposure Prevalence and Associated Skin Health Habits: Results from the Austrian Population-Based UVSkinRisk Survey.

    PubMed

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Moshammer, Hanns

    2016-01-01

    Recreational sun exposure accounts for a large number of acute and chronic dermatological diseases, including skin cancer. This study aimed at estimating the one-year prevalence of sun exposure and skin health-associated knowledge and attitudes among Austrian citizens. The population-based UVSkinRisk survey investigated a representative sample of Austrian adults using a structured questionnaire. In total, 1500 study subjects (median age 33.0 years, 50.5% females) participated in this questionnaire survey. Among study participants, prevalence of sun exposure was 47%, with slightly higher rates in males (48%) compared to females (46%). Younger age, lower professional category, darker skin type, motives to tan, sunbed use, sunburn, and outdoor sport activity increased the odds for prevalent sun exposure. This is the first population-based study evaluating the prevailing sun exposure and recreational habits influencing skin health among Austrian citizens. Despite public media campaigns educating on the harmful effects of sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of self-reported sunlight exposure. The results suggest that multifaceted socio-cultural characteristics stimulate recreational sun exposure and tanning habits. Communicating individualized Public (Skin) Health messages might be the key to prevent photo-induced skin health hazards in light-skinned populations. The practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26797627

  18. Prevalence and correlates of coronary heart disease: first population-based study in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Zeidan, Rouba Karen; Farah, Rita; Chahine, Mirna N; Asmar, Roland; Hosseini, Hassan; Salameh, Pascale; Pathak, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Background Lebanon is experiencing a growing epidemic of coronary heart diseases (CHDs), as most low- and middle-income countries currently are. However, this growth can be attenuated if effective preventive strategies are adopted. Purpose To provide the first national population-based prevalence of CHD and to describe the profile of Lebanese adults with prevalent CHD. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional study using a multistage cluster sample across Lebanon. We interviewed residents aged 40 years and older using a questionnaire that captured the presence of CHDs and their risk factors (RFs). Results Our study showed that 13.4% of the Lebanese population aged ≥40 years suffer from a prevalent CHD. CHD seemed to appear more prematurely than in developed countries, and males seemed to be more subject to CHD than females until a certain age. CHD was associated with older age, male sex, a lower economic situation, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, having a family history of premature cardiovascular diseases, and suffering from diabetes. However, smoking and waist circumference did not seem to have an independent effect on CHD, but rather an effect mediated by biological RFs. Conclusion This is the first nationwide endeavor conducted in Lebanon to assess the prevalence of CHD. This study also confirms the relevance of the classic RFs of CHD and their applicability to the Lebanese population, thus allowing for prevention strategies. PMID:27051290

  19. Long term trends in prevalence of neural tube defects in Europe: population based study

    PubMed Central

    Loane, Maria; de Walle, Hermien; Arriola, Larraitz; Addor, Marie-Claude; Barisic, Ingeborg; Beres, Judit; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Dias, Carlos; Draper, Elizabeth; Garne, Ester; Gatt, Miriam; Haeusler, Martin; Klungsoyr, Kari; Latos-Bielenska, Anna; Lynch, Catherine; McDonnell, Bob; Nelen, Vera; Neville, Amanda J; O’Mahony, Mary T; Queisser-Luft, Annette; Rankin, Judith; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Rounding, Catherine; Sipek, Antonin; Tucker, David; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; Wellesley, Diana; Dolk, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Study question What are the long term trends in the total (live births, fetal deaths, and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly) and live birth prevalence of neural tube defects (NTD) in Europe, where many countries have issued recommendations for folic acid supplementation but a policy for mandatory folic acid fortification of food does not exist? Methods This was a population based, observational study using data on 11 353 cases of NTD not associated with chromosomal anomalies, including 4162 cases of anencephaly and 5776 cases of spina bifida from 28 EUROCAT (European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies) registries covering approximately 12.5 million births in 19 countries between 1991 and 2011. The main outcome measures were total and live birth prevalence of NTD, as well as anencephaly and spina bifida, with time trends analysed using random effects Poisson regression models to account for heterogeneities across registries and splines to model non-linear time trends. Summary answer and limitations Overall, the pooled total prevalence of NTD during the study period was 9.1 per 10 000 births. Prevalence of NTD fluctuated slightly but without an obvious downward trend, with the final estimate of the pooled total prevalence of NTD in 2011 similar to that in 1991. Estimates from Poisson models that took registry heterogeneities into account showed an annual increase of 4% (prevalence ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.07) in 1995-99 and a decrease of 3% per year in 1999-2003 (0.97, 0.95 to 0.99), with stable rates thereafter. The trend patterns for anencephaly and spina bifida were similar, but neither anomaly decreased substantially over time. The live birth prevalence of NTD generally decreased, especially for anencephaly. Registration problems or other data artefacts cannot be excluded as a partial explanation of the observed trends (or lack thereof) in the prevalence of NTD. What this study adds In the absence of mandatory fortification

  20. Prevalence and pattern of radiographic intervertebral disc degeneration in Vietnamese: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ho-Pham, Lan T; Lai, Thai Q; Mai, Linh D; Doan, Minh C; Pham, Hoa N; Nguyen, Tuan V

    2015-06-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is one of the most common skeletal disorders, yet few data are available in Asian populations. We sought to assess the prevalence and pattern of radiographic IDD in a Vietnamese population. This population-based cross-sectional investigation involved 170 men and 488 women aged ≥40 years, who were randomly sampled from the Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam). Anthropometric data, clinical history and self-reported back and neck pain were ascertained by a questionnaire. Plain radiographs (from the cervical spine, thoracic spine to the lumbar spine) were examined for the presence of disc space narrowing and/or osteophytosis using the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grading system. The presence of radiographic IDD was defined if the KL grade was 2 or greater in at least one disc. The prevalence of radiographic IDD was 62.4% (n = 106) in men and 54.7% (n = 267) in women. The most frequently affected site was the lumbar spine with prevalence being 50.6 and 43.2% in men and women, respectively. The prevalence of IDD increased with advancing age: 18.8% among those aged 40-49 years, and increased to 83.4% in those aged ≥60 years. Self-reported neck pain and lower back pain were found in 30 and 44% of individuals, respectively. There was no statistically significant association between self-reported neck pain and cervical spine OA. These data suggest that radiographic IDD is highly prevalent in the Vietnamese population, and that self-reported back pain is not a sensitive indicator of IDD.

  1. Prevalence and pattern of radiographic intervertebral disc degeneration in Vietnamese: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ho-Pham, Lan T; Lai, Thai Q; Mai, Linh D; Doan, Minh C; Pham, Hoa N; Nguyen, Tuan V

    2015-06-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is one of the most common skeletal disorders, yet few data are available in Asian populations. We sought to assess the prevalence and pattern of radiographic IDD in a Vietnamese population. This population-based cross-sectional investigation involved 170 men and 488 women aged ≥40 years, who were randomly sampled from the Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam). Anthropometric data, clinical history and self-reported back and neck pain were ascertained by a questionnaire. Plain radiographs (from the cervical spine, thoracic spine to the lumbar spine) were examined for the presence of disc space narrowing and/or osteophytosis using the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grading system. The presence of radiographic IDD was defined if the KL grade was 2 or greater in at least one disc. The prevalence of radiographic IDD was 62.4% (n = 106) in men and 54.7% (n = 267) in women. The most frequently affected site was the lumbar spine with prevalence being 50.6 and 43.2% in men and women, respectively. The prevalence of IDD increased with advancing age: 18.8% among those aged 40-49 years, and increased to 83.4% in those aged ≥60 years. Self-reported neck pain and lower back pain were found in 30 and 44% of individuals, respectively. There was no statistically significant association between self-reported neck pain and cervical spine OA. These data suggest that radiographic IDD is highly prevalent in the Vietnamese population, and that self-reported back pain is not a sensitive indicator of IDD. PMID:25791571

  2. Prevalence and risk factors associated with dry eye symptoms: a population based study in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, A J; Lee, J; Saw, S-M; Gazzard, G; Koh, D; Widjaja, D; Tan, D T H

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To determine the prevalence and identify associated risk factors for dry eye syndrome in a population in Sumatra, Indonesia. Methods: A one stage cluster sampling procedure was conducted to randomly select 100 households in each of the five rural villages and one provincial town of the Riau province, Indonesia, from April to June 2001. Interviewers collected demographic, lifestyle, and medical data from 1058 participants aged 21 years or over. Symptoms of dry eye were assessed using a six item validated questionnaire. Presence of one or more of the six dry eye symptoms often or all the time was analysed. Presence of pterygium was documented. Results: Prevalence of one or more of the six dry eye symptoms often or all the time adjusted for age was 27.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 24.8 to 30.2). After adjusting for all significant variables, independent risk factors for dry eye were pterygium (p<0.001, multivariate odds ratio (OR) 1.8; 95% CI 1.4 to 2.5) and a history of current cigarette smoking (p=0.05, multivariate OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.2). Conclusions: This population based study provides prevalence rates of dry eye symptoms in a tropical developing nation. From our findings, pterygium is a possible independent risk factor for dry eye symptoms. PMID:12446361

  3. Rare chromosome abnormalities, prevalence and prenatal diagnosis rates from population-based congenital anomaly registers in Europe.

    PubMed

    Wellesley, Diana; Dolk, Helen; Boyd, Patricia A; Greenlees, Ruth; Haeusler, Martin; Nelen, Vera; Garne, Ester; Khoshnood, Babak; Doray, Berenice; Rissmann, Anke; Mullaney, Carmel; Calzolari, Elisa; Bakker, Marian; Salvador, Joaquin; Addor, Marie-Claude; Draper, Elizabeth; Rankin, Judith; Tucker, David

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the prevalence and types of rare chromosome abnormalities (RCAs) in Europe for 2000-2006 inclusive, and to describe prenatal diagnosis rates and pregnancy outcome. Data held by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies database were analysed on all the cases from 16 population-based registries in 11 European countries diagnosed prenatally or before 1 year of age, and delivered between 2000 and 2006. Cases were all unbalanced chromosome abnormalities and included live births, fetal deaths from 20 weeks gestation and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly. There were 10,323 cases with a chromosome abnormality, giving a total birth prevalence rate of 43.8/10,000 births. Of these, 7335 cases had trisomy 21,18 or 13, giving individual prevalence rates of 23.0, 5.9 and 2.3/10,000 births, respectively (53, 13 and 5% of all reported chromosome errors, respectively). In all, 473 cases (5%) had a sex chromosome trisomy, and 778 (8%) had 45,X, giving prevalence rates of 2.0 and 3.3/10,000 births, respectively. There were 1,737 RCA cases (17%), giving a prevalence of 7.4/10,000 births. These included triploidy, other trisomies, marker chromosomes, unbalanced translocations, deletions and duplications. There was a wide variation between the registers in both the overall prenatal diagnosis rate of RCA, an average of 65% (range 5-92%) and the prevalence of RCA (range 2.4-12.9/10,000 births). In all, 49% were liveborn. The data provide the prevalence of families currently requiring specialised genetic counselling services in the perinatal period for these conditions and, for some, long-term care.

  4. The Prevalence of Peyronie's Disease in the United States: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Stuntz, Mark; Perlaky, Anna; des Vignes, Franka; Kyriakides, Tassos; Glass, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Peyronie’s disease (PD) is a connective tissue disorder which can result in penile deformity. The prevalence of diagnosed PD in the United States (US) has been estimated to be 0.5% in adult males, but there is limited additional information comparing definitive and probable PD cases. We conducted a population-based survey to assess PD prevalence using a convenience-sample of adult men participating in the ResearchNow general population panel. Respondents were categorized according to PD status (definitive, probable, no PD) and segmented by US geographic region, education, and income levels. Of the 7,711 respondents, 57 (0.7%) had definitive PD while 850 (11.0%) had probable PD. Using univariate logistic regression modeling, older age (18–24 vs 24+) (OR = 0.721; 95% CI = 0.570,0.913), Midwest/Northeast/West geographic region (South vs Midwest/Northeast/West) (OR = 0.747; 95% CI = 0.646,0.864), and higher income level (<25K vs 25K+) (OR = 0.820; 95% CI = 0.673,0.997) were each significantly associated with reduced odds of having a definitive/probable PD diagnosis compared with no PD diagnosis. When all three variables were entered in a stepwise multivariable logistic regression, only age (OR = 0.642; 95% CI = 0.497, 0.828) and region (OR = 0.752; 95% CI = 0.647, 0.872) remained significant. This study is the first to report PD prevalence by geographic region and income, and it advocates that the prevalence of PD in the US may be higher than previously cited. Further, given the large discrepancy between definitive PD cases diagnosed by a physician and probable cases not diagnosed by a physician, much more needs to be done to raise awareness of this disease. PMID:26907743

  5. Prevalence of CGG expansions of the FMR1 gene in a US population-based sample.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Baker, Mei Wang; Hong, Jinkuk; Maenner, Matthew; Greenberg, Jan; Mandel, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The primary goal of this study was to calculate the prevalence of the premutation of the FMR1 gene and of the "gray zone" using a population-based sample of older adults in Wisconsin (n = 6,747 samples screened). Compared with past research, prevalence was relatively high (1 in 151 females and 1 in 468 males for the premutation and 1 in 35 females and 1 in 42 males for the gray zone as defined by 45-54 CGG repeats). A secondary study goal was to describe characteristics of individuals found to have the premutation (n = 30, 7 males and 23 females). We found that premutation carriers had a significantly higher rate of divorce than controls, as well as higher rates of symptoms that might be indicative of fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS; numbness, dizziness/faintness) and fragile X primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI; age at last menstrual period). Although not statistically significant, premutation carriers were twice as likely to have a child with disability. PMID:22619118

  6. Prevalence of depressive symptoms and associated developmental disorders in preschool children: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Fuhrmann, Pia; Equit, Monika; Schmidt, Karin; von Gontard, Alexander

    2014-04-01

    Depression is an incapacitating disorder, which is often overlooked in preschool children. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of depressive symptoms and co-occurring risk factors in a large, population-based sample of preschool children. All 653 children (of a total of 731) in a defined geographical area were assessed during the school-entry exam by community care paediatricians. In addition to clinical appraisal, parents filled out the Preschool Feelings Checklist, a 16-item screening instrument with good psychometric properties. The mean age was 6.2 years (range 5.0-7.6 years) and the sample included 344 boys and 305 girls. The prevalence of depressive symptoms of clinical relevance (total score ≥3) was 5.7% (37). There were no differences between boys and girls, and between younger (<6 years) and older (>6 years) children. Depressive symptoms were associated with parental separation and comorbid behavioural problems, but especially with developmental motor and speech problems and disorders. Migration to Germany had no influence. Depressive symptoms are common in preschool children and associated with developmental problems. Depression should be considered in children with speech and motor problems who are at special risk. Early detection and treatment are recommended. PMID:23839066

  7. Refractory hypertension: determination of prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidities in a large, population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, David A; Booth, John N; Oparil, Suzanne; Irvin, Marguerite R; Shimbo, Daichi; Lackland, Daniel T; Howard, George; Safford, Monika M; Muntner, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Refractory hypertension is an extreme phenotype of antihypertensive treatment failure. Participants in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study, a large (n=30 239), population-based cohort were evaluated to determine the prevalence of refractory hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities. Refractory hypertension was defined as uncontrolled blood pressure (systolic/diastolic, ≥140/90 mm Hg) on ≥5 antihypertensive drug classes. Participants with resistant hypertension (systolic/diastolic, ≥140/90 mm Hg on ≥3 or <140/90 mm Hg on ≥4 antihypertensive classes) and all participants treated for hypertension served as comparator groups. Of 14 809 REGARDS participants receiving antihypertensive treatment, 78 (0.5%) had refractory hypertension. The prevalence of refractory hypertension was 3.6% among participants with resistant hypertension (n=2144) and 41.7% among participants on ≥5 antihypertensive drug classes. Among all participants with hypertension, black race, male sex, living in the stroke belt or buckle, higher body mass index, lower heart rate, reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, diabetes mellitus, and history of stroke and coronary heart disease were associated with refractory hypertension. Compared with resistant hypertension, prevalence ratios for refractory hypertension were increased for blacks (3.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.68-5.37) and those with albuminuria (2.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.40-3.52) and diabetes mellitus (2.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-3.31). The median 10-year Framingham risk for coronary heart disease and stroke was higher among participants with refractory hypertension when compared with those with either comparator group. These data indicate that although resistant hypertension is relatively common among treated patients with hypertension, true antihypertensive treatment failure is rare.

  8. Prevalence of and Predictors for Frequent Utilization of Emergency Department: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Ko, Mingchung; Lee, Yaling; Chen, Chuchieh; Chou, Pesus; Chu, Dachen

    2015-07-01

    Frequent emergency department (ED) users contribute to a disproportionate number of ED visits that consume a substantial amount of medical resources. Additionally, people with frequent ED visits may be at greater risks of illnesses and injury and are vulnerable to even more severe health events. We conducted, based on a nationally representative sample, a population-based study to estimate the prevalence of frequent ED users among all ED users, and to explore factors associated with frequent ED visits. This is a population-based cross-sectional study. Data of 1 million people randomly selected from all beneficiaries of Taiwan's National Health Insurance claim database in 2010 were analyzed to estimate the distribution of ED visit among ED users. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to calculate the independent associations of factors with prevalence of frequent (4-12 ED visits per year) and highly frequent (>12 ED visits per year) ED visits. Of the 1 million beneficiaries 170,475 subjects used ED service in 2010 and 103,111 (60.5%), 37,964 (22.3%), 14,881 (8.7%), 14,041 (8.2%), and 460 (0.3%) subjects had 1, 2, 3, 4 to 12, and more than 12 ED visits, respectively. ED users with 4 to 12 visits and those with >12 visits disproportionally accounted for 24.1% and 3.0%, respectively, of all ED visits in 2010. We noted significant associations of frequent ED visit with a number of factors including socio-demographics, health care utilization, and comorbidity. Among them, the most increased adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was noted for hospitalization during the past year (AOR = 1.85) and younger ages (1-6 years) (AOR = 1.84). On the contrary, the significant predictors for highly frequent ED visit with greater AOR included hospitalization during the past year (AOR = 3.95), > 12 outpatient visits during the past year (AOR = 2.66), and a history of congestive heart failure (AOR = 2.64) and psychiatric disorders (AOR = 2.35). People admitted and with frequent outpatient

  9. Extremely high prevalence of multidrug resistant tuberculosis in Murmansk, Russia: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, J; Marjamäki, M; Haanperä-Heikkinen, M; Marttila, H; Endourova, L B; Presnova, S E; Mathys, V; Bifani, P; Ruohonen, R; Viljanen, M K; Soini, H

    2011-09-01

    Drug resistance and molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in the Murmansk region was investigated in a 2-year, population-based surveillance of the civilian population. During 2003 and 2004, isolates from all culture-positive cases were collected (n = 1,226). Prevalence of multi-drug resistance (MDR) was extremely high, as 114 out of 439 new cases (26.0%), and 574 out of 787 previously treated cases (72.9%) were resistant to at least isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RIF). Spoligotyping of the primary MDR-TB isolates revealed that most isolates grouped to the Beijing SIT1 genotype (n = 91, 79.8%). Isolates of this genotype were further analyzed by IS6110 RFLP. Sequencing of gene targets associated with INH and RIF resistance further showed that the MDR-TB strains are highly homogeneous as 78% of the MDR, SIT1 strains had the same resistance-conferring mutations. The genetic homogeneity of the MDR-TB strains indicates that they are actively transmitted in Murmansk. PMID:21394425

  10. A population-based survey of the prevalence of refractive error in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Lewallen, S; Lowdon, R; Courtright, P; Mehl, G L

    1995-12-01

    Refractive errors, particularly myopia, are a common problem in industrialized countries, but the impression exists that myopia may be relatively uncommon in non-industrialized societies. We conducted a population-based survey of refractive error in two groups of Malawians: a group of rural agricultural workers (n = 510) and a group of students at an urban teachers' college (n = 534). The overall prevalence of myopia was low; 2.5% (95% confidence interval 1.3%, 3.7%) of participants had an error of -0.5 D or greater. The mean refractive error (right eye) in the urban student group was +0.52 D compared to +0.62 D among the rural agricultural workers and the excess myopia was accounted for by significant myopia (> or = -0.75 D) in a few individuals, rather than an overall shift towards myopia within the urban student group. Among the rural agricultural workers, literacy predicted refractive error (right eye), with a mean of +0.59 D in the rural literate compared to +0.67 D in the rural illiterate. These findings support the notion that myopia is uncommon in non-industrialized societies and that it is associated with increased literacy but we have not identified specific risk factors within this group to predict the occurrence of significant myopia. In settings such as Malawi, refractive services should be targeted to urban centers, where more educated populations are likely to be found.

  11. Prevalence of Tourette Syndrome and Chronic Tics in the Population-Based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Miller, Laura L.; Mathews, Carol A.; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Recent epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that Tourette syndrome (TS) and chronic tic disorder (CT) are more common than previously recognized. However, few population-based studies have examined the prevalence of co-occurring neuropsychiatric conditions such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and…

  12. Systematic review of the prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies.

    PubMed

    Dell'Aglio, José Caetano; Basso, Lissia Ana; Argimon, Irani Iracema de Lima; Arteche, Adriane

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the findings of a systematic literature review aimed at providing an overview of the lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies. Databases MEDLINE, ProQuest, Psychnet, and Web of Science were browsed for papers published in English between 1999 and May 2012 using the following search string: bipolar disorders OR bipolar spectrum disorders AND prevalence OR cross-sectional OR epidemiology AND population-based OR non-clinical OR community based. The search yielded a total of 434 papers, but only those published in peer-reviewed journals and with samples aged ≥ 18 years were included, resulting in a final sample of 18 papers. Results revealed rather heterogeneous findings concerning the prevalence of bipolar disorders and bipolar spectrum disorders. Lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder ranged from 0.1 to 7.5%, whereas lifetime prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorders ranged from 2.4 to 15.1%. Differences in the rates of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders may be related to the consideration of subthreshold criteria upon diagnosis. Differences in the prevalence of different subtypes of the disorder are discussed in light of diagnostic criteria and instruments applied.

  13. Systematic review of the prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies.

    PubMed

    Dell'Aglio, José Caetano; Basso, Lissia Ana; Argimon, Irani Iracema de Lima; Arteche, Adriane

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the findings of a systematic literature review aimed at providing an overview of the lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies. Databases MEDLINE, ProQuest, Psychnet, and Web of Science were browsed for papers published in English between 1999 and May 2012 using the following search string: bipolar disorders OR bipolar spectrum disorders AND prevalence OR cross-sectional OR epidemiology AND population-based OR non-clinical OR community based. The search yielded a total of 434 papers, but only those published in peer-reviewed journals and with samples aged ≥ 18 years were included, resulting in a final sample of 18 papers. Results revealed rather heterogeneous findings concerning the prevalence of bipolar disorders and bipolar spectrum disorders. Lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder ranged from 0.1 to 7.5%, whereas lifetime prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorders ranged from 2.4 to 15.1%. Differences in the rates of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders may be related to the consideration of subthreshold criteria upon diagnosis. Differences in the prevalence of different subtypes of the disorder are discussed in light of diagnostic criteria and instruments applied. PMID:25923299

  14. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in scholars from Bucaramanga, Colombia: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Villa-Roel, Cristina; Buitrago, Adriana; Rodríguez, Diana C; Cano, Diana J; Martínez, María P; Camacho, Paul A; Ruiz, Álvaro J; Durán, Álvaro E

    2009-01-01

    Background Obesity and metabolic syndrome are strongly associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, thus the increasing trend in their prevalence among children and adolescents from developing countries requires a further understanding of their epidemiology and determinants. Methods and design A cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among 6–10 year-old children from Bucaramanga, Colombia. A two-stage random-cluster (neighborhoods, houses) sampling process was performed based on local city maps and local statistics. The study involves a domiciliary survey; including a comprehensive socio-demographic, nutritional and physical activity characterization of the children that participated in the study, followed by a complete clinical examination; including blood pressure, anthropometry, lipid profile determination, fasting glucose and insulin levels. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome will be determined using definitions and specific percentile cut-off points for this population. Finally, the association between components of metabolic syndrome and higher degrees of insulin resistance will be analyzed through a multivariable logistic regression model. This study protocol was designed in compliance with the Helsinki declaration and approved by the local ethics board. Consent was obtained from the children and their parents/guardians. Discussion A complete description of the environmental and non-environmental factors underlying the burden of metabolic syndrome in children from a developing country like Colombia will provide policy makers, health care providers and educators from similar settings with an opportunity to guide primary and secondary preventive initiatives at both individual and community levels. Moreover, this description may give an insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms mediating the development of cardio-metabolic diseases early in life. PMID:19383169

  15. Prevalence of tics in schoolchildren in central Spain: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Cubo, Esther; Gabriel y Galán, José María Trejo; Villaverde, Vanesa Ausín; Velasco, Sara Sáez; Benito, Vanesa Delgado; Macarrón, Jesús Vicente; Guevara, José Cordero; Louis, Elan D; Benito-León, Julián

    2011-08-01

    Tic disorders constitute a neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood. This study sought to determine the prevalence of tic disorders in a school-based sample. A randomized sample of 1158 schoolchildren, based on clusters (classrooms) in the province of Burgos (Spain), was identified on a stratified sampling frame combining types of educational center and setting (mainstream schools and special education), using a two-phase approach (screening and diagnosis ascertainment by a neurologist). Tics with/without impairment criterion were diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria. In mainstream schools, tics were observed in 125/741 students (16.86%; 95% confidence interval, 14.10-19.63), and were more frequent in boys (87/448, 19.42%; 95% confidence interval, 15.64-23.19) compared with girls (38/293, 12.96%; 95% confidence interval, 8.95-16.98; P = 0.03). In special education centers, tics disorders were observed in 11/54 of children (20.37%; 95% confidence interval, 8.70-32.03). Overall, tics with impairment criteria were less frequent than tics without impairment criteria (4.65% vs 11.85%, P < 0.0001). The most frequent diagnoses involved chronic motor tics (6.07%) and Tourette syndrome (5.26%). Tic disorders are common in childhood, and the use or nonuse of impairment criteria exerts a significant impact on tic prevalence estimates.

  16. Variations in Incidence and Prevalence of Parkinson's Disease in Taiwan: A Population-Based Nationwide Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chih-Ching; Li, Chung-Yi; Lee, Pei-Chen; Sun, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Demographic, socioeconomic, and urbanization level variations in Parkinson's disease (PD) are rarely investigated, especially in Asia. This study describes an eight-year trend in PD incidence and prevalence in Taiwan as well as assessing the effects of sociodemographics and urbanization on the incidence and prevalence of PD. The data analyzed were acquired from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) entries between 2002 and 2009. The calendar year, sex, and age-specific rates were standardized, and the effects of the sociodemographics and urbanization on PD were assessed using Poisson regression analysis. PD incidence and prevalence showed a significantly increasing trend, with a greater magnitude noted for prevalence than for incidence (87.3% versus 9.2%). The PD incidence and prevalence increased with age and were slightly higher in men than in women. The people who were not under the labor force (i.e., dependents) or with lower monthly incomes were at significantly increased adjusted incidence rate ratio (1.50–1.56) and adjusted prevalence rate ratio (1.66–1.71) of PD. Moreover, significantly higher PD incidence and prevalence were noted in areas with lesser urbanization. This information emphasizes the need for preventive and clinical care strategies targeting the segment of Taiwanese population that exhibited a greater incidence and prevalence of PD. PMID:26904358

  17. Prevalence of autism-caused disability among Chinese children: a national population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Chen, Gong; Song, Xinming; Du, Wei; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2011-12-01

    Few articles in English have discussed the prevalence of autism in China. The work described here was aimed at estimating the prevalence rate of autism-caused disability among Chinese children and exploring family environmental factors associated with autism based on a national population sample. Data for this study were derived from the Second China National Sample Survey on Disability. A weighted number of 77,301 disabled children affected by autism were identified, yielding a prevalence rate of 2.38/10,000. A history of mental disorders in adults was strongly associated with autism. The prevalence of autism in Chinese children was underestimated, and the lack of qualified professionals able to identify and diagnose autism was the main reason. Countermeasures are warranted to obtain a more precise overview of autism in China.

  18. HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 2 SEROPOSITIVITY AMONG EVER MARRIED WOMEN IN SOUTH AND NORTH VIETNAM: A POPULATION-BASED STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Van Le, Hoa; Schoenbach, Victor J; Herrero, Rolando; Pham, Anh Thi Hoang; Nguyen, Hieu Trong; Nguyen, Thuy Thi; Muñoz, Nubia; Franceschi, Silvia; Vaccarella, Salvatore; Parkin, Max D; Snijders, Peter JF; Ashley, Rhoda; Smith, Jennifer S

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate herpes simplex virus type–2 (HSV-2) seropositivity and associated risk factors in Vietnamese women. Methods Cross-sectional study with personal interviews and gynecological examinations among population-based samples of ever married women, aged 15–69 years, living in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) and Hanoi in 1997. Type-specific IgG antibodies against HSV-2 were detected using HerpeSelect ELISA (Focus Diagnostics). Adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated with log-binomial regression. Results HSV-2 seroprevalence was higher in 1,106 women from HCMC (30.8%, 95% CI: 28.1–33.4, age-standardized to 2000 world standard population) than in 1,170 women from Hanoi (8.8%, 95% CI: 7.1–10.5). In HCMC, HSV-2 seroprevalence was higher for women who were not married, HPV DNA positive, current hormonal contraceptive users, or had a history of multiple sexual partners or spontaneous abortion. HCMC seroprevalence was inversely associated with educational attainment, age at first intercourse, and age at first pregnancy. In the multivariable model for HCMC, a trend of increasing HSV-2 seroprevalence with age was observed, and prevalence ratios were nearly identical to age-adjusted prevalence ratios for marital status, age at first pregnancy, and HPV DNA positivity. Conclusion HSV-2 was notably less prevalent in Hanoi than HCMC, where it was associated with traditional HSV-2 risk factors. These results are likely explained by socio-cultural, historical, economic, and demographic factors related to urban-rural and regional differences. Future population-based studies should include men and never-married women as a next step toward obtaining a more nearly complete picture of HSV-2 epidemiology in Vietnam. PMID:19617867

  19. Prevalence of familial hypercholesterolemia: a meta-analysis of six large, observational, population-based studies in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Szafraniec, Krystyna; Polak, Maciej; Drygas, Wojciech; Piotrowski, Walerian; Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Jankowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a severely underdiagnosed and undertreated genetic disorder. Little is known about regional variation in the prevalence of FH, and information for Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) is scarce. This paper assesses the prevalence of FH and related cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Poland. Material and methods We performed a meta-analysis of six population-based studies in Poland. The FH was assessed using the Dutch Lipids Clinics Network (DLCN) criteria. The categories “definite” (> 8 points) and “probable” (6–8 points) were combined into “potential FH”. Combined estimates of proportions across studies were pooled by meta-analysis with a random effects model. Results A total of 37,889 persons aged 20–79 years were included in the analysis. The distribution of DLCN scores was skewed, and there were only 7 cases of definite FH. Prevalence of potential FH was 404/100,000 people (95% CI = 277–531/100,000). Familial hypercholesterolemia was more prevalent in women than in men, and the prevalence was the highest in the age group 45–54 years in men and 55–64 years in women. After adjustment for age and sex, compared to participants with normal cholesterol, persons with potential FH had twice the prevalence of hypertension (p < 0.01); smoking was more prevalent by about 80% (p < 0.01) and hypertriglyceridemia was nine times more frequent (p < 0.001). There was no difference in the prevalence of low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol or diabetes. Conclusions We believe that our study might facilitate the planning of a strategy to manage the disease at a population level, i.e. to develop a national strategy for the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of FH. PMID:27478447

  20. The Prevalence of Scabies and Impetigo in the Solomon Islands: A Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Michael; Sokana, Oliver; Solomon, Anthony W.; Mabey, David C.; Romani, Lucia; Kaldor, John; Steer, Andrew C.; Engelman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background Scabies and impetigo are common, important and treatable skin conditions. Reports from several Pacific island countries show extremely high prevalence of these two conditions, but for many countries, including the Solomon Islands, there is a paucity of epidemiological data. Methodology Ten rural villages in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands were included in the study, chosen so that data collection could be integrated with an existing project investigating clinical and serological markers of yaws. All residents were eligible to participate, and 1908 people were enrolled. Participants were interviewed and examined by a paediatric registrar, who recorded relevant demographic information, and made a clinical diagnosis of scabies and/or impetigo, severity and distribution. Principal Findings The total unweighted prevalence of scabies was 19.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 17.5–21.0), and age and gender weighted prevalence 19.2% (95%CI 16.7–21.9). The adult prevalence of scabies was 10.4% (95%CI 8.2–13.2), and the highest prevalence was found in infants < 1 year of age (34.1%, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] compared with adults: 3.6, 95%CI 2.2–6.0) and children aged 1–4 years (25.7%, AOR 2.6, 95%CI 1.7–3.9). Scabies affected two or more body regions in 80.9% of participants, and 4.4% of scabies cases were classified as severe. The total unweighted prevalence of active impetigo was 32.7% (95%CI 30.6–34.8), and age and gender weighted prevalence 26.7% (95%CI 24.2–29.5). The highest prevalence was found in children aged 1–4 years (42.6%, AOR compared with adults: 4.1, 95%CI 2.9–5.8). Scabies infestation was associated with active impetigo infection (AOR 2.0, 95%CI 1.6–2.6); with 41.1% of active impetigo cases also having scabies. Conclusions and Significance Scabies and impetigo are very common in the rural Western Province of the Solomon Islands. Scabies infestation is strongly associated with impetigo. Community control strategies

  1. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: A Population-Based Study in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Liang; Guo, Xiaofan; Chang, Ye; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Limin; Li, Tan; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has attracted increasing attention worldwide. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of HFpEF and analyze its correlates in a sample of residents of northeast China; Methods: A population-based study of 2230 participants ≥35 years old was conducted in rural areas of Liaoning Province from January 2012 through August 2013. Information about lifestyle and other potential risk factors was obtained. HFpEF was diagnosed according to the recommendations of European Society of Cardiology; Results: The overall prevalence of HFpEF was 3.5% (1.8% in men and 4.9% in women). The prevalence of HFpEF increased with age in both genders and was greater in women than in men for every age group. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found that female gender (OR, 3.575; 95% CI, 1.761–7.256), hypertension (OR, 3.711; 95% CI, 2.064–6.674), and history of heart disease (2.086; 95% CI, 1.243–3.498) were associated factors for prevalent HFpEF; Conclusions: In a general population from rural northeast China, we found that female gender, hypertension, and history of heart disease were risk factors for prevalent HFpEF. PMID:27483300

  2. Prevalence of Intellectual Disability: A Meta-Analysis of Population-Based Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maulik, Pallab K.; Mascarenhas, Maya N.; Mathers, Colin D.; Dua, Tarun; Saxena, Shekhar

    2011-01-01

    Intellectual disability is an extremely stigmatizing condition and involves utilization of large public health resources, but most data about its burden is based on studies conducted in developed countries. The aim of this meta-analysis was to collate data from published literature and estimate the prevalence of intellectual disability across all…

  3. Prevalence and incidence of pituitary adenomas: a population based study in Malta.

    PubMed

    Gruppetta, Mark; Mercieca, Cecilia; Vassallo, Josanne

    2013-12-01

    Epidemiological data is important to correctly quantify the extent of disease and needed health care resources. The aim of the study was to establish the prevalence and incidence of pituitary adenomas (PAs) in the same well defined population, with in-depth analysis of the various subtypes. The design involved a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of PA patients diagnosed prior to 31 July 2011 for prevalence estimates and those diagnosed between July 2000 and July 2011 for incidence estimation. A thorough search for patients with PAs was carried out in central hospital registries including outpatients departments, surgical registries, radiological department and specialty clinic databases. Prevalence rates/100,000 and Standardised incidence ratios (SIR)/100,000/year were worked out. The respective prevalence rates and SIR for PAs overall were 75.7/100,000, and 4.27/100,000/year, for Prolactinomas 35.0/100,000 and 2.05/100,000/year, for nonfunctioning PA 25.9/100,000 and 1.79/100,000/year and for GH-secreting PAs 12.5/100,000 and 0.31/100,000/year. The overall prevalence for macroadenomas was 32.8/100,000 and SIR was 1.49/100,000/year. The prevalence rate in males for PAs overall was 46.3/100,000 and SIR was 2.08/100,000/year and in females 104.8/100,000 and SIR was 6.58/100,000/year. Females had a lower proportion of macroadenomas than males (29.5 vs. 75.0%; P < 0.001) and macroadenomas tended to present at a later age compared to microadenomas (48 vs. 34.5; P < 0.001). The highest SIR was reached in the 30-39 age group at 7.42/100,000/year. Our data confirm the considerable disease burden that PAs bear on health care resources. Males and females have similar prevalence and SIR rates for macroadenomas but there is a significant increase in SIR in females of child bearing age compared to males. These observations may have important implications in terms of the economic burden and need for early intervention.

  4. Population Based National Tuberculosis Prevalence Survey among Adults (>15 Years) in Pakistan, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Qadeer, Ejaz; Fatima, Razia; Yaqoob, Aashifa; Tahseen, Sabira; Ul Haq, Mahboob; Ghafoor, Abdul; Asif, Muhammad; Straetemans, Masja; Tiemersma, Edine W.

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to determine the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) amongst the adult population in 2010–2011 in Pakistan. Method A nationwide cross-sectional survey with multistage cluster sampling was conducted among adults (≥15 years) in 95 clusters in 2010–2011. All consenting participants were screened for cough and by chest X-ray. Participants with presumptive TB submitted two sputum samples for smear microscopy, culture, and molecular testing if needed. The TB prevalence estimates were adjusted for missing data and the cluster design. Result Of 131,329 eligible individuals, 105,913 (81%) participated in the survey, of whom 10,471 (9.9%) were eligible for sputum examination. We found 341 bacteriologically positive TB cases of whom 233 had sputum smear-positive TB. The adjusted prevalence estimates for smear and bacteriologically positive TB were 270/100,000 (95% confidence interval (CI) 217–323), and 398/100,000 (95% CI 333–463), respectively. Only 61% of the diagnosed TB cases screened positive on symptoms (cough >2wks), whereas the other TB cases were detected based on X-ray abnormalities. The TB prevalence increased with age and was 1.8 times higher among men than women. The prevalence-to-notification ratio of smear-positive TB was 3.1 (95% CI 2.5–3.7), was higher among men than women, and increased with age. Conclusion Our data suggest that there is under-detection and/or -notification of TB, especially among men and elderly. TB control should be strengthened specifically in these risk groups. X-ray examination should be combined with symptom screening to enhance case detection. PMID:26863617

  5. Hepatitis C Virus in Mexican Americans: a population-based study reveals relatively high prevalence and negative association with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    WATT, G. P.; VATCHEVA, K. P.; BERETTA, L.; PAN, J. J.; FALLON, M. B.; MCCORMICK, J. B.; FISHER-HOCH, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection in Mexican Americans living in South Texas. We tested plasma for the presence of HCV antibody from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort (CCHC), a randomized, population-based cohort in an economically disadvantaged Mexican-American community on the United States/Mexico border with high rates of chronic disease. A weighted prevalence of HCV antibody of 2.3% (n=1131, 95% CI 1.2%–3.4%) was found. Participants with diabetes had low rates of HCV antibody (0.4%, 95% CI 0.0%–0.9%) and logistic regression revealed a statistically significant negative association between HCV and diabetes (OR 0.20 95% CI 0.05–0.77) after adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical factors. This conflicts with reported positive associations of diabetes and HCV infection. No classic risk factors were identified, but important differences between genders emerged in analysis. This population-based study of HCV in Mexican-Americans suggests that national studies do not adequately describe the epidemiology of HCV in this border community and that unique risk factors may be involved. PMID:26088260

  6. Prevalence of ADHD in a sample of Italian students: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, Rio; Postorino, Valentina; Grasso, Rita; Santoro, Bartolo; Migliore, Salvatore; Burlò, Corrado; Tata, Carmela; Mazzone, Luigi

    2013-09-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common diagnosis for children and adolescents, although the reported estimates for prevalence are extremely variable worldwide. In the present work we investigate the prevalence of ADHD in a sample of Italian students in a study divided in two phases. In Phase I, a total of 6183 schoolchildren (3178 males and 3005 females, aged range 5-15 years) were screened using the SDAI rating scale for teachers. In Phase II, the parents of children and adolescents who met high screen criteria according to SDAI (cut-off>14; n=471, 7.3%) were invited to complete a specific clinical-diagnostic assessment for ADHD with the help of an experienced clinician. Within the entire sample, 107 children dropped out and 12 had mental retardation, whereas 332 subjects (278 males and 54 females, age range 5-14 years) completed the Phase II of the study. One hundred ninety subjects (163 males and 27 females, male: female ratio 6:1, mean age 8 years) were diagnosed with ADHD, indicating a prevalence of 3%. ADHD subtypes included the following: combined (n=108; 56.8%), inattentive (n=48; 25.2%) and hyperactive/impulsive (n=33; 17.3%). Our findings are in line with other reports of ADHD prevalence in the European Countries, and may contribute to underline the impact of this phenomenon in the population, and the need of achieving an improvement in the quality of the public health mental service for the prevention and treatment of ADHD. PMID:23751299

  7. Prevalence of hepatitis A antibodies in Eastern Bolivia: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    C, Masuet-Aumatell; J M, Ramon-Torrell; A, Casanova-Rituerto; M, Banqué-Navarro; M, Dávalos-Gamboa; S L, Montaño-Rodríguez

    2013-10-01

    The seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) is changing from high to intermediate endemicity in several Latin American countries, but the pattern in the Andean Latin American countries is unknown. A seroepidemiological survey (n = 436) of HAV in schoolchildren living in the Cochabamba region of Bolivia was conducted in 2010. A questionnaire was completed by parents to obtain demographic, socio-economic, and housing data, and blood samples were collected. The overall prevalence of HAV IgG was 95.4% (95% CI 93.5-97.4). The prevalence was higher in children aged 5-10 years (97%) and pre-adolescents aged 10-13 years (97.9%). The prevalence was also higher in subjects whose parents had a low level of education (99.4-99.5%), who lived in rural areas (98.7%), lived in municipalities with low urban development (99.1-100%), had water delivered at home from a tanker (99.4%), and spoke Quechua at home (99.5%). The descriptive and bivariate analysis suggested that no change in HAV epidemiology has occurred in Cochabamba.

  8. Prevalence of hepatitis A antibodies in Eastern Bolivia: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    C, Masuet-Aumatell; J M, Ramon-Torrell; A, Casanova-Rituerto; M, Banqué-Navarro; M, Dávalos-Gamboa; S L, Montaño-Rodríguez

    2013-10-01

    The seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) is changing from high to intermediate endemicity in several Latin American countries, but the pattern in the Andean Latin American countries is unknown. A seroepidemiological survey (n = 436) of HAV in schoolchildren living in the Cochabamba region of Bolivia was conducted in 2010. A questionnaire was completed by parents to obtain demographic, socio-economic, and housing data, and blood samples were collected. The overall prevalence of HAV IgG was 95.4% (95% CI 93.5-97.4). The prevalence was higher in children aged 5-10 years (97%) and pre-adolescents aged 10-13 years (97.9%). The prevalence was also higher in subjects whose parents had a low level of education (99.4-99.5%), who lived in rural areas (98.7%), lived in municipalities with low urban development (99.1-100%), had water delivered at home from a tanker (99.4%), and spoke Quechua at home (99.5%). The descriptive and bivariate analysis suggested that no change in HAV epidemiology has occurred in Cochabamba. PMID:23861034

  9. Hepatitis B prevalence and incidence in Greenland: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Børresen, Malene Landbo; Andersson, Mikael; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads; Biggar, Robert J; Ladefoged, Karin; Panum, Inge; Koch, Anders

    2015-03-15

    Greenland remains a highly endemic area for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This is in sharp contrast to other modern societies, such as Denmark. To address this discrepancy, we investigated the natural history of HBV infection in Greenland by estimating the age-specific incidence of HBV infection, the proportion of chronic carriers, and the rates of hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance. In total, 8,879 Greenlanders (16% of the population) from population-based surveys conducted in 1987 and 1998 were followed through March 2010. Data on HBV status were supplemented by HBV test results from all available HBV registries in Greenland to determine changes in HBV status over time. Incidence rates of HBV infection and hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance were estimated after taking into account interval censoring. The incidence of HBV infection in 5-14-year-old subjects was less than 1 per 100 person-years and peaked at 5 per 100 person-years in persons 15-24 years of age. Overall, 17.5% of persons infected in adulthood were estimated to become chronic carriers. HBV is primarily transmitted in adolescence and adulthood in Greenland. In contrast to what is observed in most other populations, HBV-infected adults in Greenland have a high risk of progressing to chronic HBV carriage. This phenomenon might explain how the high rate of infection is maintained in Greenland.

  10. Prevalence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in pediatric allergic rhinitis: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Chin; Lin, Heng-Kuei; Lin, Ching-Heng; Fu, Lin-Shien

    2011-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the most common chronic condition in pediatric populations. Characteristic symptoms in AR may bother daily activities and disturb sleep, leading to daytime inattention, irritability, and hyperactivity, which are also components of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Conflicting data exist in the literature regarding the relationship between ADHD and AR. The aim of this nationwide population-based study was to examine the prevalence and risk of ADHD among AR patients in a pediatric group. Data from a total of 226,550 pediatric patients <18 years old were collected from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database from January 1 to December 31, 2005 and analyzed. We calculated the prevalence of allergic diseases based on various demographic variables, as well as in ADHD patients. We also used multivariable logistic regression to analyze the risk factors of ADHD. In 2005, the period prevalence rates of atopy and ADHD in patients <18 years of age were 15.35 and 0.6%, respectively. Pediatric patients with AR had a substantially increased rate of ADHD (p < 0.001) in terms of period prevalence and odds ratio. This significance existed across various demographic groups regardless of age, gender, area, or degree of urbanization. Neither comorbidity of atopic dermatitis nor bronchial asthma carried high risk for ADHD in AR patients. The present study revealed an increased rate of ADHD among AR patients. Therefore, evaluation of ADHD is advised for treatment of AR children.

  11. One-year prevalence of migraine in Sweden: a population-based study in adults.

    PubMed

    Dahlöf, C; Linde, M

    2001-07-01

    A randomly selected sample of 1668 individuals (782 women and 886 men) aged 18-74 years was interviewed by telephone using a standardized questionnaire including the International Headache Society (IHS) criteria for migraine. The survey was performed by SIFO, the national public opinion poll agency. The results obtained demonstrate that 21% of the Swedish population had suffered from severe headaches during the past year. A majority of these headache sufferers (61%) fulfilled the IHS-criteria for migraine. The 1-year prevalence of migraine in Sweden was found to be 13.2 +/- 1.9% (16.7% among women and 9.5% among men). The prevalence of migraine in this Swedish population did not differ between the northern, middle and southern part of Sweden, or between urban and rural areas or different income groups. Only about half (49%) of the migraineurs had been diagnosed by a physician. Among the individuals who fulfilled the IHS criteria for migraine the mean attack-frequency was 1.3 per month and the mean attack-duration was 19 h. If the duration of the attack was disregarded as a strict criterion for migraine (attacks < 4 h and > 72 h were included), the prevalence increased to 17.0 +/- 1.9% without affecting the sex distribution. With this amendment, 92% of those who considered their headaches to be migraine or migraine-like in fact fulfilled the alternative criteria for migraine. However, only 76% of those who believed that they had migraine or migraine-like headaches fulfilled the strict IHS criteria for migraine. An extension of the time window from 4 to 72 h may be reasonable both from a pragmatic and from a rational clinical point of view. PMID:11531898

  12. A Population-Based Study of Peyronie's Disease: Prevalence and Treatment Patterns in the United States

    PubMed Central

    DiBenedetti, Dana Britt; Nguyen, Dat; Zografos, Laurie; Ziemiecki, Ryan; Zhou, Xiaolei

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To estimate the US prevalence of Peyronie's disease (PD) from patient-reported data and to identify diagnosis and treatment patterns. Methods. 11,420 US males ≥18 years old completed a brief web-based survey regarding the presence of PD, past treatments, and penile symptoms (Phase 1). Phase 1 respondents with PD diagnosis, history of treatment, or PD-related symptoms then completed a disease-specific survey (Phase 2). Results. Estimated prevalence of PD ranged from 0.5% (diagnosis of PD) to 13% (diagnosis, treatment, or penile symptoms). Thirty-six percent of Phase 2 participants reported that penile symptoms interfered with sexual activities. Of participants who sought treatment for penile symptoms (n = 128), 73% initially saw a primary care physician, 74% did not receive treatment from their first doctor, and 92% were not diagnosed with PD. Conclusions. PD may be underdiagnosed/undertreated in the US. Improved awareness is needed of PD symptoms and treatment options among health care professionals. PMID:22110491

  13. Prevalence of Self-Reported Diabetes and Its Associated Factors: A Population-Based Study in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Da-Mata, Fabiana A. F.; Galvao, Tais F.; Pereira, Mauricio G.; Silva, Marcus T.

    2015-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and its associated risk factors in adults from Brasilia, Brazil. Methods. The present cross-sectional population-based study consisted of interviews with individuals aged 18–65 years. Participants were selected through two-stage probability sampling by clusters and stratified by sex and age. Demographic and clinical data were collected directly with participants from February to May 2012. Self-reported diabetes prevalence was calculated at a 95% confidence interval (CI). Prevalence ratios (PR) were adjusted by Poisson regression with robust variance. Results. In all, 1,820 individuals were interviewed. Diabetes prevalence in the adult population of Brasilia was 10.1% (95% CI, 8.5%–11.6%). Variables associated with diabetes were an age between 35 and 49 years (PR = 1.83; 95% CI, 1.19–2.82) or 50 and 65 years (PR = 1.95; 95% CI, 1.17–3.23), hypertension (PR = 4.04; 95% CI, 2.66–6.13), respiratory disease (PR = 1.67; 95% CI, 1.11–2.50), cardiovascular disease (PR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.15–2.63), and pain/discomfort (PR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.21–2.41). Conclusion. Diabetes is a prevalent condition in adults living in Brasilia, and disease risk increases with age and comorbidities. Future health policies should focus on screening programs and prevention for the more vulnerable groups. PMID:26089888

  14. Tobacco smoking in Tanzania, East Africa: population based smoking prevalence using expired alveolar carbon monoxide as a validation tool

    PubMed Central

    Jagoe, K; Edwards, R; Mugusi, F; Whiting, D; Unwin, N

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the prevalence of tobacco smoking in an urban East African population while using a simple validation procedure to examine the degree of under reporting in men and women. Design: A cross sectional population based study in adults (15 years and over) with sampling from a well maintained census register. Setting: Ilala Ilala, a middle income district of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Subjects: An age and sex stratified random sample of 973 men and women. Main outcome measures: Self reported smoking status with correction by exhaled alveolar carbon monoxide (EACO). Results: From the 605 participants (response rate 67.9%) age standardised (new world population) smoking prevalence, based on questionnaire and EACO, was 27.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) 20.8% to 33.2%) in males and 5.0% (95% CI 2.8% to 7.2%) in females. The age specific prevalence of smoking was highest in the age group 35–54 years (34.3%) for men and in the over 54 years group (16%) for women. Of those classified as smokers, 7.3% of men and 27.3% of women were reclassified as current smokers based on EACO (≥ 9 parts per million), after they had reported themselves to be an ex- or non-smoker in the questionnaire. Conclusions: The data suggest: (1) high rates of smoking among men in an urban area of East Africa; and (2) the importance of validating self reports of smoking status, particularly among women. PMID:12198270

  15. Prevalence and Predictors of Anemia in a Population-Based Study of Octogenarians and Centenarians in Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Haslam, Alyson; Johnson, Mary Ann; Davey, Adam; Poon, Leonard W.; Allen, Robert H.; Stabler, Sally P.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Anemia has been associated with increased physical and financial costs and occurs more frequently in older individuals. Therefore, the primary objectives of this study were to examine the prevalence and possible predictors of anemia in the very old. Methods. Hemoglobin was used to identify those with anemia in a group of centenarians and near centenarians (98+, n = 185) and octogenarians (n = 69), who were recruited as part of the population-based multidisciplinary Georgia Centenarian Study. Blood markers, including ferritin, vitamin B12, red blood cell folate, methylmalonic acid, creatinine, and C-reactive protein, demographic variables, and medication and/or supplement usage were used to determine possible predictors of anemia. Results. The prevalence of anemia was 26.2% in octogenarians and 52.1% in centenarians. Low serum albumin (<3.6 g/dL) and decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (<45 mL/min/m2) were predictors of anemia in centenarians. Conclusions. Anemia is a major health issue, particularly as people age. Because of the high prevalence of anemia in older individuals, awareness of the predictors associated with anemia becomes increasingly important so as to reduce the negative consequences associated with it and allow for the identification of steps that can be taken to correct anemia, including managing chronic disease. PMID:21896502

  16. Urine Arsenic and Prevalent Albuminuria: Evidence From a Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Laura Y.; Umans, Jason G.; Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Yeh, Fawn; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Guallar, Eliseo; Howard, Barbara V.; Weaver, Virginia M.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic arsenic exposure is a major global health problem. Few epidemiologic studies, however, have evaluated the association of arsenic with kidney measures. Our objective was to evaluate the cross-sectional association between inorganic arsenic exposure and albuminuria in American Indian adults from rural areas of Arizona, Oklahoma and North and South Dakota. Study Design Cross-sectional. Setting & Partipants Strong Heart Study locations in Arizona, Oklahoma, and North and South Dakota. 3,821 American Indian men and women 45 to 74 years of age with urine arsenic and albumin measures. Predictor Urine arsenic. Outcomes Urine albumin/creatinine ratio and albuminuria status. Measurements Arsenic exposure was estimated by measuring total urine arsenic and urine arsenic species using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and high performance liquid chromatography-ICPMS, respectively. Urine albumin was measured by automated nephelometric immunochemistry. Results The prevalence of albuminuria (albumin-creatinine ratio, ≥30 mg/g) was 30%. The median value for the sum of inorganic and methylated arsenic species was 9.7 (IQR, 5.8-15.6) μg/g creatinine. The multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratios of albuminuria (albumin-creatinine ratio. ≥30 mg/g) comparing the three highest to lowest quartiles of the sum of inorganic and methylated arsenic species were 1.16 (95% CI, 1.00-1.34), 1.24 (95% CI, 1.07-1.43), and 1.55 (95% CI, 1.35-1.78), respectively (P for trend <0.001). The association between urine arsenic and albuminuria was observed across all participant subgroups evaluated and was evident for both micro and macroalbuminuria. Limitations The cross-sectional design cannot rule out reverse causation. Conclusions Increasing urine arsenic concentrations were cross-sectionally associated with increased albuminuria in a rural US population with a high burden of diabetes and obesity. Prospective epidemiologic and mechanistic evidence is needed to

  17. [Prevalence and factors associated with behavioral disorders in adolescents: a population-based study].

    PubMed

    Cruzeiro, Ana Laura Sica; Silva, Ricardo Azevedo da; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; Faria, Augusto Duarte; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Silveira, Inessa de Oliveira; Ferreira, Cecília Dieguez

    2008-09-01

    This study proposed to estimate the prevalence of behavioral disorders and associated factors in adolescents (11-15 years), using a cross-sectional design (n = 1,145). Subjects answered a self-administered questionnaire. Behavioral disorder was assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The study analyzed disorders in relation to gender, age, socioeconomic status, schooling, failure in school, religion, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, alcohol consumption, drug use, depression, and bullying (as victim). Ordinal regression was used for the statistical analysis, with a hierarchical model for the outcome. An estimated 29.2% of the sample presented behavioral disorders. In the multivariate analysis, the odds ratio for a male adolescent to present one additional point on the behavioral disorder scale was 2.04 (95%CI: 1.53-2.71). Alcohol consumption, drug use, and suffering bullying were associated with higher scores on the behavioral disorder scale. The findings also showed that the factors associated with behavioral disorder showed a strong interrelationship between health behaviors in adolescence.

  18. Declining HIV Prevalence in Parallel With Safer Sex Behaviors in Burkina Faso: Evidence From Surveillance and Population-Based Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kirakoya-Samadoulougou, Fati; Nagot, Nicolas; Samadoulougou, Sekou; Sokey, Mamadou; Guiré, Abdoulaye; Sombié, Issiaka; Meda, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate trends in HIV prevalence and changes in reported sexual behaviors between 1998 and 2014 in Burkina Faso. Methods: We obtained data on HIV prevalence from antenatal care (ANC) surveillance sites (N = 9) that were consistently included in surveillance between 1998 and 2014. We also analyzed data on HIV prevalence and reported sex behaviors from 3 population-based surveys from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), conducted in 1998–99, 2003, and 2010. Sex behavior indicators comprised never-married youth who have never had sex; sex with more than 1 partner; sex with a nonmarital, non-cohabiting partner; condom use at last sex with a nonmarital, non-cohabiting partner; and sex before age 15. We calculated survey-specific HIV prevalence with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and used the chi-square test or chi-square test for trend to compare HIV prevalence across survey years and to analyze trends in reported sex behaviors. Results: HIV prevalence among pregnant women ages 15–49 decreased by 72% in urban areas, from 7.1% in 1998 to 2.0% in 2014, and by 75% in rural areas, from 2.0% in 2003 to 0.5% in 2014. HIV declined most in younger age groups, which is a good reflection of recent incidence, with declines of 55% among 15–19-year-olds, 72% among 20–24-year-olds, 40% among 25–29-year-olds, and 7% among those ≥30 years old (considering urban and rural data combined). Data reported in the DHS corroborated these declines in HIV prevalence: between 2003 and 2010, HIV prevalence dropped significantly—by 89% among girls ages 15–19, from 0.9% (95% CI, 0.2 to 1.6) to 0.1% (95% CI, 0.0 to 0.4), and by 78% among young women ages 20–24, from 1.8% (95% CI, 1.6 to 3.0) to 0.4% (95% CI, 0.0 to 0.7). During the same time period, people reported safer sex behaviors. For example, significantly higher percentages of never-married youth reported they had never had sex, lower percentages of sexually active youth reported multiple

  19. Prevalence, Pharmacological Treatment, and Control of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors among Older People in Central Stockholm: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Fratiglioni, Laura; Liang, Yajun; Welmer, Anna-Karin; Xu, Weili; Mangialasche, Francesca; Johnell, Kristina; Qiu, Chengxuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiometabolic risk factors and related cardiovascular diseases represent major threats to healthy aging. Objective We aimed to estimate distribution, pharmacological treatment, and control of main cardiometabolic risk factors among older people. Methods This population-based study included 3363 participants (age≥60 years, 64.9% women) in the Swedish National study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen, in central Stockholm, Sweden (2001-2004). Data on demographics, cardiometabolic risk factors (hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and high cholesterol), and medication use were collected through face-to-face interviews, clinical examinations, laboratory tests, and the inpatient register. Cardiometabolic risk factors were defined following the most commonly used criteria. Prevalence was standardized using local census data. Results The age- and sex-standardized prevalence of diabetes, obesity, high cholesterol, and hypertension was 9.5%, 12.8%, 49.7%, and 74.9%, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes increased with age, whereas the prevalence of obesity and high cholesterol decreased with age. Forty-nine percent of older adults had two or more cardiometabolic risk factors; 9.8% had three or more. Overall, 55.5% of people with hypertension, 50.3% with diabetes, and 25.0% with high cholesterol received pharmacological treatment. Of those treated pharmacologically, 49.4%, 38.1%, and 85.5% reached therapeutic goals for hypertension (blood pressure<150/90 mmHg), diabetes (glycated haemoglobin<7%), and high cholesterol (total cholesterol<6.22 mmol/l), respectively. Conclusions Hypertension, high cholesterol, and clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors were common among older people in Stockholm, but pharmacological treatment and control of these major factors can be improved. Appropriate management of cardiometabolic profiles among older people may help improve cardiovascular health and achieve healthy aging. PMID:25799502

  20. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction and possible risk factors among men of South-Western Nigeria: a population based study

    PubMed Central

    Oyelade, Bolaji Oyetunde; Jemilohun, Abiodun Christopher; Aderibigbe, Sunday Adedeji

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Erectile dysfunction (ED) is currently one of the most common sexual dysfunctions worldwide but it is usually underestimated because it is not a life threatening condition. The associated stigma makes men who have it to suffer in silence. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of erectile dysfunction and the possible associated risk factors among Nigerian men. Methods The study was a descriptive cross-sectional population based survey among men aged 30-80 years in Ogbomoso, South-west, Nigeria. A multistage random sampling method was used. The instrument used was the International Index of Erectile Function Questionnaire-5 (IIEF-5). Unadjusted odds ratios of possible risk factors were calculated by univariate analyses. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to eliminate the effect of possible confounders on the risk factors to get the adjusted odds ratios. Results The general prevalence of ED in this study was 58.9%. Sixty-seven (47.2%), 16 (11.3%) and 59(41.5%) respondents had mild, moderate and severe ED respectively. Age, hypertension, use of anti-hypertensive drugs, diabetes mellitus and heart disease all had significant unadjusted associations with ED, but their adjusted associations were not statistically significant. Diabetes mellitus maintained a positive statistically significant relationship with ED after adjustment for potential confounders [OR= 8.31(95% CI 1.02 - 67.65), P= 0.048]. Conclusion The prevalence of ED is high among south-western Nigeria male adults. Physicians, especially primary care ones, need to pay more attention to the sexual history of their patients in order to diagnose and manage ED more frequently. PMID:27642462

  1. Prevalence and incidence of cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis: a population-based survey in Catania, Sicily.

    PubMed

    Patti, Francesco; Nicoletti, Alessandra; Messina, Silvia; Bruno, Elisa; Fermo, Salvatore Lo; Quattrocchi, Graziella; Chisari, Clara Grazia; Maimone, Davide; Cilia, Sabina; Zappia, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment (CIm) is a frequent finding in multiple sclerosis (MS) affecting up to 65% of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and incidence of CIm in a population-based cohort of MS patients identified in the city of Catania from 1995 to 2004. One-hundred and twenty-five patients experiencing the onset of MS during 1995-2004 were enrolled. Cognitive performance was assessed through the Brief Repeatable Battery (BRB) of neuropsychological tests and the Stroop word-color task (ST). CIm was defined as the failure on at least three tests involving at least two different domains. Patients without CIm at baseline were followed up after over 3 years. The most impaired tests were the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (36%) and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test 3 (35%). At baseline the prevalence of CIm was 44% (95% CI 35.2-53.1). An almost sixfold increased risk of developing CIm was found among MS patients aged 40 and above at the time of the NPS examination (OR 5.84; 95% CI 2.57-13.2; p value <0.0001) and a threefold increased risk for patients with an EDSS score >3 (OR 3.51; 95% CI 1.30-9.46, p value 0.01). At the follow-up out of the 70 MS patients without CIm at baseline evaluation, 26 (37.1 %) developed CIm. The total person-years at risk was 269 person-years giving an incidence rate of CIm of 96.6/1,000 person-year (95% CI 57.3-128.7). The overall prevalence of CIm in MS is 44% and the incidence after 4 years is 37.1%. CIm affects more frequently patients older than 40 years and with a higher EDSS score.

  2. Prevalence of Periodontitis in Patients with Established Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Swedish Population Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Kaja; Nise, Lena; Kats, Anna; Luttropp, Elin; Catrina, Anca Irinel; Askling, Johan; Jansson, Leif; Alfredsson, Lars; Klareskog, Lars; Lundberg, Karin; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The possible hypothesis of a link between periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), specifically anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) positive RA, prompted us to investigate the prevalence of periodontitis in the Swedish Epidemiological Investigation of RA (EIRA), a well-characterised population-based RA case-control cohort. Methods Periodontal status of 2,740 RA cases and 3,942 matched controls was retrieved through linking EIRA with the National Dental Health Registry (DHR), where dental diagnostic- and treatment codes on the adult Swedish population have been registered. Dental records from 100 cases and controls were reviewed to validate the periodontal diagnostic codes in DHR. Results The reviewed dental records confirmed 90% of the periodontitis diagnoses in DHR among RA cases, and 88% among controls. We found the positive predictive value of periodontitis diagnoses in the DHR to be 89% (95% CI 78 to 95%) with a sensitivity of 77% (95% CI: 65 to 86%). In total, 86% of EIRA participants were identified in DHR. The risk for periodontitis increased by age and current smoking status in both cases as well as controls. No significant differences in prevalence of periodontal disease in terms of gingivitis, periodontitis, peri-implantitis or increased risk for periodontitis or peri-implantitis were observed between RA cases and controls. In addition, there was no difference on the basis of seropositivity, ACPA or rheumatoid factor (RF), among patients with RA. Conclusions Our data verify that smoking and ageing are risk factors for periodontitis, both in RA and controls. We found no evidence of an increased prevalence of periodontitis in patients with established RA compared to healthy controls, and no differences based on ACPA or RF status among RA subjects. PMID:27203435

  3. Prevalent Intravenous Abuse of Methylphenidate Among Treatment-Seeking Patients With Substance Abuse Disorders: A Descriptive Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Haraldsson, Haraldur M.; Rafnar, Bjarni O.; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Steingrimsson, Steinn; Johannsson, Magnus; Bragadottir, Helena; Magnusson, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Prescription rates of methylphenidate (MPH) are sharply rising in most Western countries. Although it has been reported that MPH has abuse potential, little is known about the prevalence of intravenous (IV) abuse of MPH. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of IV MPH abuse among treatment-seeking IV substance abusers in Iceland. Methods: This is a descriptive population-based study using a semistructured interview assessing sociodemographics, substance abuse history, and the method of administration of 108 IV substance abusers. During 1 year, consecutively admitted adult inpatients with substance use disorder at any detoxification center in Iceland that reported any IV substance abuse in the past 30 days were invited to participate. Abuse was defined as nontherapeutic use of a substance to gain psychological or physiological effect. Results: Prevalence of any IV MPH abuse among participants was 88% in the last 30 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82-0.94) and MPH was the most commonly abused substance (65%) and the preferred substance (63%). Around one third (30%) reported MPH as the first IV substance ever abused. However, among those reporting a shorter history than 10 years of IV abuse, 42% reported MPH as the first IV substance ever abused. Conclusions: This first nationwide study on IV abuse of MPH shows that it is common among treatment-seeking IV abusers in Iceland and suggests that MPH has high abuse potential. Therefore, both the use and possible abuse of MPH in those with high abuse potential should be monitored, especially in countries where MPH prescriptions rates are on the rise. PMID:25748561

  4. A population-based survey of prevalence of diabetes and correlates in an urban slum community in Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Urban slum populations in Africa continue to grow faster than national populations. Health strategies that focus on non-communicable diseases (NCD) in this segment of the population are generally lacking. We determined the prevalence of diabetes and associated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors correlates in Kibera, Nairobi’s largest slum. Methods We conducted a population-based household survey utilising cluster sampling with probability proportional to size. Households were selected using a random walk method and consenting residents aged 18 years and above were recruited. The WHO STEPS instrument was administered. A random capillary blood sugar (RCBS) was obtained; known persons with diabetes and subjects with a RCBS >11.1 had an 8 hours fasting blood sugar (FBS) drawn. Diabetes was defined as a RCBS of ≥ 11.1 mmol/l and a FBS of ≥ 7.0 mmol/l, or a prior diagnosis or receiving diabetes drug treatment. Results Out of 2061 enrolled; 50.9% were males, mean age was 33.4 years and 87% had a minimum of primary education. Only 10.6% had ever had a blood sugar measurement. Age adjusted prevalence of diabetes was 5.3% (95% CI 4.2-6.4) and prevalence increased with age peaking at 10.5% (95% CI 6.8-14.3%) in the 45–54 year age category. Diabetes mellitus (DM) correlates were: 13.1% smoking, 74.9% alcohol consumption, 75.7% high level of physical activity; 16.3% obese and 29% overweight with higher rates in women. Among persons with diabetes the odds of obesity, elevated waist circumference and hypertension were three, two and three fold respectively compared to those without diabetes. Cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with diabetes were high and mirrored that of the entire sample; however they had a significantly higher use of tobacco. Conclusions This previously unstudied urban slum has a high prevalence of DM yet low screening rates. Key correlates include cigarette smoking and high alcohol consumption. However high

  5. Domestic violence against women in eastern India: a population-based study on prevalence and related issues

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Bontha V; Kar, Shantanu K

    2009-01-01

    Background Violence against women is now widely recognised as an important public health problem, owing to its health consequences. Violence against women among many Indian communities on a regularly basis goes unreported. The objective of this study is to report the prevalence and other related issues of various forms of domestic violence against women from the eastern zone of India. Methods It is a population-based study covering both married women (n = 1718) and men (n = 1715) from three of the four states of Eastern India selected through a systematic multistage sampling strategy. Interviews were conducted using separate pre-piloted structured questionnaires for women (victimization) and men (perpetration). Women were asked whether their husband or any other family members committed violent acts against them. And men were asked whether they had ever perpetrated violent acts against their wives. Three principle domestic violence outcome variables (physical, psychological and sexual violence) were determined by response to a set of questions for each variable. In addition, data on socio-economic characteristics were collected. Descriptive statistics, bi- and multivariate analyses were done. Results The overall prevalence of physical, psychological, sexual and any form of violence among women of Eastern India were 16%, 52%, 25% and 56% respectively. These rates reported by men were 22%, 59%, 17% and 59.5% respectively. Men reported higher prevalence of all forms of violence apart from sexual violence. Husbands were mostly responsible for violence in majority of cases and some women reported the involvement of husbands' parents. It is found that various acts of violence were continuing among majority of women who reported violence. Some socio-economic characteristics of women have significant association with the occurrence of domestic violence. Urban residence, older age, lower education and lower family income are associated with occurrence of domestic violence

  6. Sunbed Use Prevalence and Associated Skin Health Habits: Results of a Representative, Population-Based Survey among Austrian Residents

    PubMed Central

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Moshammer, Hanns

    2016-01-01

    Recreational sunbed use accounts for the main non-solar source of exposure to ultraviolet radiation in fair-skinned Western populations. Indoor tanning is associated with increased risks for acute and chronic dermatological diseases. The current community-based study assessed the one-year prevalence of sunbed use and associated skin health habits among a representative, gender-balanced sample of 1500 Austrian citizens. Overall one-year prevalence of sunbed use was 8.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 7.5%–10.4%), with slightly higher prevalence in females (9.2%, 95% CI 7.3%–11.2%) compared to males (8.6%, 95% CI 6.7%–10.6%). Factors predicting sunbed use were younger age (by trend decreasing with older age), place of living, smoking, skin type (by trend increasing with darker skin), sun exposure, motives to tan, and use of UV-free tanning products. Despite media campaigns on the harmful effects of excessive sunlight and sunbed exposure, we found a high prevalence of self-reported sunbed use among Austrian citizens. From a Public (Skin) Health perspective, the current research extends the understanding of prevailing leisure time skin health habits in adding data on prevalence of sunbed use in the general Austrian population. PMID:26907308

  7. Anxiety and Depression in Tension-Type Headache: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Tae-Jin; Cho, Soo-Jin; Kim, Won-Joo; Yang, Kwang Ik; Yun, Chang-Ho; Chu, Min Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Although tension-type headache (TTH) is a frequent type of headache disorder and imposes a significant burden, there is scant information about the prevalence and impact of comorbid anxiety and depression among individuals with TTH. We investigated the prevalence and clinical impact of anxiety and depression among patients with TTH in the general population. We recruited Korean participants aged 19–69 years using a two-stage clustered random sampling method. To identify the presence of headache type, anxiety, and depression, we used a semi-structured interview using certain questionnaires. To assess the level of anxiety and depression, we used the Goldberg Anxiety Scale and Patient Health Questionnaire-9, respectively. Among 2,695 participants, 570 people (21.2%) had TTH during previous 1 year. In participants with TTH, the prevalence of anxiety (9.5% vs. 5.3%, p = 0.001) and depression (4.2% vs. 1.8%, p = 0.001) was significantly higher than that of non-headache participants. The prevalence of anxiety among TTH participants with >15 attacks per month [21.4%, odds ratio (OR): 4.0] and 1–14 attacks per month (13.1%, OR: 2.2) was higher than that in those with <1 attack per month (6.4%), however this tendency was not observed in participants with depression. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score [median 5.0 vs. 4.0, p = 0.010] and Headache Impact Test-6 (HIT-6) score [median 45.5 vs. 42.0, p < 0.001] were significantly higher among those with anxiety. Furthermore, VAS scores [median 5.0 vs. 4.0, p = 0.010] and HIT-6 scores [median 45.5 vs. 42.0, p = 0.027] were also significantly higher among TTH patients with depression than among those without depression. In conclusion, anxiety and depression were more prevalent in participants with TTH than in non-headache participants. These two conditions were associated with an exacerbation of headache symptoms in individuals with TTH. PMID:27783660

  8. Prevalence of physical violence against children in Haiti: A national population-based cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Flynn-O'Brien, Katherine T; Rivara, Frederick P; Weiss, Noel S; Lea, Veronica A; Marcelin, Louis H; Vertefeuille, John; Mercy, James A

    2016-01-01

    Although physical violence against children is common worldwide, there are no national estimates in Haiti. To establish baseline national estimates, a three-stage clustered sampling design was utilized to administer a population-based household survey about victimization due to physical violence to 13-24 year old Haitians (n=2,916), including those residing in camps or settlements. Descriptive statistics and weighted analysis techniques were used to estimate national lifetime prevalence and characteristics of physical violence against children. About two-thirds of respondents reported having experienced physical violence during childhood (67.0%; 95% CI 63.4-70.4), the percentage being similar in males and females. More than one-third of 13-17 year old respondents were victimized in the 12 months prior to survey administration (37.8%; 95% CI 33.6-42.1). The majority of violence was committed by parents and teachers; and the perceived intent was often punishment or discipline. While virtually all (98.8%; 95% CI 98.0-99.3) victims of childhood physical violence were punched, kicked, whipped or beaten; 11.0% (95% CI 9.2-13.2) were subject to abuse by a knife or other weapon. Injuries sustained from violence varied by victim gender and perpetrator, with twice as many females (9.6%; 95% CI 7.1-12.7) than males (4.0%; 95% CI 2.6-6.1) sustaining permanent injury or disfigurement by a family member or caregiver (p-value<.001). Our findings suggest that physical violence against children in Haiti is common, and may lead to severe injury. Characterization of the frequency and nature of this violence provides baseline estimates to inform interventions.

  9. Early Cognitive Deficits in Type 2 Diabetes: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Marseglia, Anna; Fratiglioni, Laura; Laukka, Erika J; Santoni, Giola; Pedersen, Nancy L; Bäckman, Lars; Xu, Weili

    2016-06-15

    Evidence links type 2 diabetes to dementia risk. However, our knowledge on the initial cognitive deficits in diabetic individuals and the factors that might promote such deficits is still limited. This study aimed to identify the cognitive domains initially impaired by diabetes and the factors that play a role in this first stage. Within the population-based Swedish National Study on Aging and Care-Kungsholmen, 2305 cognitively intact participants aged ≥60 y were identified. Attention/working memory, perceptual speed, category fluency, letter fluency, semantic memory, and episodic memory were assessed. Diabetes (controlled and uncontrolled) and prediabetes were ascertained by clinicians, who also collected information on vascular disorders (hypertension, heart diseases, and stroke) and vascular risk factors (VRFs, including smoking and overweight/obesity). Data were analyzed with linear regression models. Overall, 196 participants (8.5%) had diabetes, of which 144 (73.5%) had elevated glycaemia (uncontrolled diabetes); 571 (24.8%) persons had prediabetes. In addition, diabetes, mainly uncontrolled, was related to lower performance in perceptual speed (β - 1.10 [95% CI - 1.98, - 0.23]), category fluency (β - 1.27 [95% CI - 2.52, - 0.03]), and digit span forward (β - 0.35 [95% CI - 0.54, - 0.17]). Critically, these associations were present only among APOEɛ4 non-carriers. The associations of diabetes with perceptual speed and category fluency were present only among participants with VRFs or vascular disorders. Diabetes, especially uncontrolled diabetes, is associated with poorer performance in perceptual speed, category fluency, and attention/primary memory. VRFs, vascular disorders, and APOE status play a role in these associations. PMID:27314527

  10. Early Cognitive Deficits in Type 2 Diabetes: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Marseglia, Anna; Fratiglioni, Laura; Laukka, Erika J.; Santoni, Giola; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Bäckman, Lars; Xu, Weili

    2016-01-01

    Evidence links type 2 diabetes to dementia risk. However, our knowledge on the initial cognitive deficits in diabetic individuals and the factors that might promote such deficits is still limited. This study aimed to identify the cognitive domains initially impaired by diabetes and the factors that play a role in this first stage. Within the population-based Swedish National Study on Aging and Care–Kungsholmen, 2305 cognitively intact participants aged ≥60 y were identified. Attention/working memory, perceptual speed, category fluency, letter fluency, semantic memory, and episodic memory were assessed. Diabetes (controlled and uncontrolled) and prediabetes were ascertained by clinicians, who also collected information on vascular disorders (hypertension, heart diseases, and stroke) and vascular risk factors (VRFs, including smoking and overweight/obesity). Data were analyzed with linear regression models. Overall, 196 participants (8.5%) had diabetes, of which 144 (73.5%) had elevated glycaemia (uncontrolled diabetes); 571 (24.8%) persons had prediabetes. In addition, diabetes, mainly uncontrolled, was related to lower performance in perceptual speed (β – 1.10 [95% CI – 1.98, – 0.23]), category fluency (β – 1.27 [95% CI – 2.52, – 0.03]), and digit span forward (β – 0.35 [95% CI – 0.54, – 0.17]). Critically, these associations were present only among APOE ɛ4 non–carriers. The associations of diabetes with perceptual speed and category fluency were present only among participants with VRFs or vascular disorders. Diabetes, especially uncontrolled diabetes, is associated with poorer performance in perceptual speed, category fluency, and attention/primary memory. VRFs, vascular disorders, and APOE status play a role in these associations. PMID:27314527

  11. Prevalence and correlates of dizziness in community-dwelling older people: a cross sectional population based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dizziness is a common complaint among older adults and has been linked to a wide range of health conditions, psychological and social characteristics in this population. However a profile of dizziness is still uncertain which hampers clinical decision-making. We therefore sought to explore the relationship between dizziness and a comprehensive range of demographic data, diseases, health and geriatric conditions, and geriatric syndromes in a representative sample of community-dwelling older people. Methods This is a cross-sectional, population-based study derived from FIBRA (Network for the Study of Frailty in Brazilian Elderly Adults), with 391 elderly adults, both men and women, aged 65 years and older. Elderly participants living at home in an urban area were enrolled through a process of random cluster sampling of census regions. The outcome variable was the self-report of dizziness in the last year. Several feelings of dizziness were investigated including vertigo, spinning, light or heavy headedness, floating, fuzziness, giddiness and instability. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate the adjusted odds ratios and build the probability model for dizziness. Results The complaint of dizziness was reported by 45% of elderly adults, from which 71.6% were women (p=0.004). The multivariate regression analysis revealed that dizziness is associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 2.08; 95% CI 1.29–3.35), perceived fatigue (OR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.21-3.10), recurring falls (OR = 2.01; 95% CI 1.11-3.62) and excessive drowsiness (OR = 1.91; 95% CI 1.11–3.29). The discrimination of the final model was AUC = 0.673 (95% CI 0.619-0.727) (p< 0.001). Conclusions The prevalence of dizziness in community-dwelling elderly adults is substantial. It is associated with other common geriatric conditions usually neglected in elderly adults, such as fatigue and drowsiness, supporting its possible multifactorial manifestation. Our findings

  12. The association between use of electronic media and prevalence of headache in adolescents: results from a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Use of electronic media, i.e. mobile phones, computers, television, game consoles or listening to music, is very common, especially amongst adolescents. There is currently a debate about whether frequent use of these media might have adverse effects on health, especially on headaches, which are among the most-reported health complaints in adolescents. The aim of the present study was to assess associations between frequent use of electronic media and the prevalence of different types of headache in adolescents. Methods Data were derived from a population-based sample (n = 1,025, ages 13-17 years). Type of headache (i.e. migraine, tension-type headache, unclassifiable headache) was ascertained by standardized questionnaires for subjects reporting headache episodes at least once per month during the last six months. Duration of electronic media use was assessed during personal interviews. Associations were estimated with logistic regression models adjusted for age group, sex, family condition and socio-economic status. Results Most of the adolescents used computers (85%), watched television (90%) or listened to music (90%) daily, otherwise only 23% of the participants used their mobile phones and only 25% played with game consoles on a daily basis. A statistically significant association between listening to music and any headache (odds ratio 1.8; 95% confidence interval 1.1-3.1 for 30 minutes per day, 2.1; 1.2-3.7 for 1 to 2 hours per day; 2.0; 1.2-3.5 for 3 hours and longer listening to music per day) was observed. When stratifying for type of headache, no statistically significant association was seen. Conclusions Apart from an association between listening to music on a daily basis and overall headache, no consistent associations between the use of electronic media and different types of headache were observed. PMID:20144204

  13. The prevalence of frontal variant frontotemporal dementia and the frontal lobe syndrome in a population based sample of 85 year olds

    PubMed Central

    Gislason, T; Sjogren, M; Larsson, L; Skoog, I

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of the frontal lobe syndrome (FLS) and the frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia (fvFTD) in a population based sample of 85 year olds. Methods: A representative sample of 85 year olds (n = 451) in Gothenburg, Sweden was examined with a neuropsychiatric examination and a key informant interview performed by an experienced psychiatrist. A subsample underwent computed tomography (CT) of the head. The Lund-Manchester research criteria were used as a basis for a symptom algorithm to identify individuals with FLS and fvFTD. These were diagnosed blindly to the diagnosis of dementia according to DSM-III-R. Results: A total of 86 individuals (19%) fulfilled the criteria for FLS, and 14 of them fulfilled criteria for fvFTD. There were no differences between men and women. Among those with FLS, 75 (87%) fulfilled DSM-III-R criteria for other types of dementia, mainly Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Among the 14 fvFTD cases, only five were demented according to DSM-III-R. Moderate to severe frontal atrophy was found in 93% of those with FLS (and in all cases with fvFTD), but also in 49% of those without FLS. FLS was found in 35% of those with moderate to severe frontal atrophy, and in 3% of those without these changes. Conclusions: The prevalence of fvFTD was 3% in 85 year olds, which is higher than previously expected in this age group. Only a minority of those with fvFTD were detected by the DSM-III-R criteria for dementia. FLS was even more common, especially in those diagnosed with a dementia disorder. PMID:12810769

  14. Prevalence of and risk factors for high-risk human papillomavirus infection: a population-based study from Hetian, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Niyazi, Mayinuer; Husaiyin, Sulaiya; Han, Lili; Mamat, Huduyum; Husaiyin, Kundus; Wang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection contributes to most cases of cervical cancer, and HPV genotypes exhibit different distributions according to geographic region. This study evaluates the prevalence of HPV infection in Hetian Prefecture, Xinjiang, and establishes risk factors associated with high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) genotypes in this region. In this cross-sectional, population-based study, 883 healthy women 15-54 years of age were enrolled. All participants completed a questionnaire regarding sociocultural and sexual activity characteristics. Visual inspections with acetic acid, colposcopies and biopsies were performed using the Preventive Oncology International microbiopsy protocol for pathological diagnosis. Cervical epithelial tissue specimens were collected and tested for HPV using linear array assays. According to the results of HR-HPV infection status, individuals infected with HR-HPV were classified into one group, and the remaining individuals were classified into the control group. The risk factors for HR-HPF infection were analyzed. The participants included 66 women (7.47%) with HR-HPV, 10 women (1.13%) with low-risk HPV, and 14 women (1.59%) with HPV of unknown risk. The five most prevalent types of HR-HPV were HPV-16 (0.31%), HPV-51 (0.08%), HPV-31 (0.07%), HPV-58 (0.07%), and HPV-39 (0.06%). Vulvovaginal ulcers and vulvovaginal inflammation were found in 190 participants (21.52%) and 256 participants (28.99%), respectively. The HR-HPV and control groups significantly differed with respect to age at first marriage, number of marriages, and the presence of vulvovaginal ulcers and vulvovaginal inflammation (p<0.05). Based on this study, an immunization strategy targeting HPV-16 should be prioritized in Hetian Prefecture. These findings contribute to the understanding of HPV infection. PMID:26773182

  15. The Co-Occurrence of Autism and Birth Defects: Prevalence and Risk in a Population-Based Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schendel, Diana E.; Autry, Andrew; Wines, Roberta; Moore, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To estimate the prevalence of major birth defects among children with autism, the prevalence of autism in children with birth defects, and the risk for autism associated with having birth defects. Method: Retrospective cohort including all children born in Atlanta, GA, USA, 1986 to 1993, who survived to age 3 years and were identified through…

  16. What is the impact of different spirometric criteria on the prevalence of spirometrically defined COPD and its comorbidities? Results from the population-based KORA study

    PubMed Central

    Karrasch, Stefan; Brüske, Irene; Smith, Maia P; Thorand, Barbara; Huth, Cornelia; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Kronenberg, Florian; Heinrich, Joachim; Holle, Rolf; Peters, Annette; Schulz, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Background There is an ongoing debate about the appropriate spirometric criterion for airway obstruction to detect COPD. Furthermore, the association of different criteria with comorbidity prevalence and inflammatory biomarkers in advanced age is unclear. Materials and methods Spirometry was performed in a population-based study (n=2,256) covering an age range of 41–90 years. COPD was spirometrically determined either by a fixed ratio (FR) of <0.7 for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) or by FEV1/FVC below the lower limit of normal (LLN). Comorbidity prevalences and circulating biomarker levels (C-reactive protein [CRP], interleukin [IL]-6) were compared between subjects with or without COPD by the two criteria using logistic and multiple regression models, adjusting for sex and age. Results The prevalence of spirometrically defined COPD by FR increased with age from 10% in subjects aged <65 years to 26% in subjects aged ≥75 years. For LLN-defined COPD, it remained below 10% for all age groups. Overall, COPD diagnosis was not associated with specific comorbidities, except for a lower prevalence of obesity in both FR- and LLN-defined cases. Both CRP and IL-6 tended to be higher in cases by both criteria. Conclusion In a population-based cohort of adults up to the age of 90 years, the prevalence of spirometrically defined COPD was higher for the FR criterion than for the LLN criterion. This difference increased with age. Neither prevalences of common comorbidities nor levels of the biomarkers, CRP or IL-6, were conclusively associated with the selection of the COPD criterion. Results have to be considered in light of the predominantly mild cases of airway obstruction in the examined study population. PMID:27574413

  17. The effects of household wealth on HIV prevalence in Manicaland, Zimbabwe – a prospective household census and population-based open cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Schur, Nadine; Mylne, Adrian; Mushati, Phyllis; Takaruza, Albert; Ward, Helen; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intensified poverty arising from economic decline and crisis may have contributed to reductions in HIV prevalence in Zimbabwe. Objectives To assess the impact of the economic decline on household wealth and prevalent HIV infection using data from a population-based open cohort. Methods Household wealth was estimated using data from a prospective household census in Manicaland Province (1998 to 2011). Temporal trends in summed asset ownership indices for sellable, non-sellable and all assets combined were compared for households in four socio-economic strata (small towns, agricultural estates, roadside settlements and subsistence farming areas). Multivariate logistic random-effects models were used to measure differences in individual-level associations between prevalent HIV infection and place of residence, absolute wealth group and occupation. Results Household mean asset scores remained similar at around 0.37 (on a scale of 0 to 1) up to 2007 but decreased to below 0.35 thereafter. Sellable assets fell substantially from 2004 while non-sellable assets continued increasing until 2008. Small-town households had the highest wealth scores but the gap to other locations decreased over time, especially for sellable assets. Concurrently, adult HIV prevalence fell from 22.3 to 14.3%. HIV prevalence was highest in better-off locations (small towns) but differed little by household wealth or occupation. Initially, HIV prevalence was elevated in women from poorer households and lower in men in professional occupations. However, most recently (2009 to 2011), men and women in the poorest households had lower HIV prevalence and men in professional occupations had similar prevalence to unemployed men. Conclusions The economic crisis drove more households into extreme poverty. However, HIV prevalence fell in all socio-economic locations and sub-groups, and there was limited evidence that increased poverty contributed to HIV prevalence decline. PMID:26593453

  18. Assessing the Validity of a Stage Measure on Physical Activity in a Population-Based Sample of Individuals with Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Lippke, Sonia; Reinbold-Matthews, Melissa; Courneya, Kerry S.; Karunamuni, Nandini; Sigal, Ronald J.; Birkett, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to test the validity of a transtheoretical model's physical activity (PA) stage measure with intention and different intensities of behavior in a large population-based sample of adults living with diabetes (Type 1 diabetes, n = 697; Type 2 diabetes, n = 1,614) and examine different age groups. The overall "specificity"…

  19. Prevalence, Determinants, and Clinical Significance of Masked Hypertension in a Population-Based Sample of African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Veerabhadrappa, Praveen; Brown, Michael D.; Whited, Matthew C.; Dubbert, Patricia M.; Hickson, DeMarc A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The disproportionate rates of cardiovascular disease in African Americans may, in part, be due to suboptimal assessment of blood pressure (BP) with clinic BP measurements alone. To date, however, the prevalence of masked hypertension in African Americans has not been fully delineated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate masked hypertension prevalence in a large population-based sample of African Americans and examine its determinants and association with indices of target organ damage (TOD). METHODS Clinic and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring were conducted in 972 African Americans enrolled in the Jackson Heart Study. Common carotid artery intima-media thickness, left ventricular mass index, and the urinary albumin:creatinine excretion ratio were evaluated as indices of TOD. RESULTS Masked hypertension prevalence was 25.9% in the overall sample and 34.4% in participants with normal clinic BP. All indices of TOD were significantly higher in masked hypertensives compared to sustained normotensives and were similar between masked hypertensives and sustained hypertensives. Male gender, smoking, diabetes, and antihypertensive medication use were independent determinants of masked hypertension in multivariate analyses. CONCLUSIONS In this population-based cohort of African Americans, approximately one-third of participants with presumably normal clinic BP had masked hypertension when BP was assessed in their daily environment. Masked hypertension was accompanied by a greater degree of TOD in this cohort. PMID:25499058

  20. Prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection in Libya: results from a national population based survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Libya is one of the largest countries in Africa and has the longest coast in the Mediterranean basin facing southern Europe. High rates of prevalence of viral hepatitis have been observed in various regions in Africa, but the prevalence in Libya is not well documented. We report on a large-scale nationwide study that evaluated the epidemiology of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in Libya and assessed the risk factors involved. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 on 65,761 individuals all over Libya. The country was divided into 12 regions according to the population density and sampling within each region was carried out under the supervision of the National Centre for Prevention of Infectious Diseases. Serum samples were collected from both males and females of all ages in both urban and rural areas and tested for HBsAg for hepatitis B and anti-HCV antibody for hepatitis C. Prevalence rates were determined in regions and in different groups and correlated with different demographic and risk factors involved in the spread of these viruses. Results The prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses varied regionally across the country. The overall prevalence of hepatitis B was 2.2% (95% CI 2.1%-2.3%) and was higher among males than females (1.4:1.0). Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence was 1.2% (95% CI 1.1-1.3) and it increased gradually after the age of 30 years (0.7-0.9% for < 30 years; 3.6% for ≥ 60 years). Prevalence of HBsAg was 0.8-0.9% below the age of 10 years, and higher but similar in older age groups (2.3-2.7%). There was an association between literacy and prevalence of hepatitis, particularly for HCV. Hospital admission, surgical operation, blood transfusion, and intravenous drug use were the main risk factors, and they were associated independently with a higher prevalence rate of viral hepatitis. Conclusions Libya may be considered an area of low-intermediate endemicity for hepatitis B virus infection, with lower

  1. Dyslipidemia Prevalence in Iranian Adult Men: The Impact of Population-Based Screening on the Detection of Undiagnosed Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Moshiri, Esamil; Mohammadsalehi, Narges; Ansari, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Dyslipidemia has been established as one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Due to the higher prevalence of dyslipidemia in males, this study aimed to estimate the prevalence of dyslipidemia in Iranian urban men. Materials and Methods A screening program was conducted in 845 Iranian men 25 years of age and older in 2014. A health interview survey was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of self-reported dyslipidemia and to collect demographic data, as well as serum lipid profile screening by a reference laboratory. Lipoprotein levels was categorized based on the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria and the data were analyzed using the chi-square test and analysis of variance. Results The overall prevalence of dyslipidemia was 51.8%, and the prevalence of various forms of dyslipidemia was as follows: hypercholesterolemia (≥240 mg/dL), 11.4%; hyper-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (≥160 mg/dL), 9.6%; hypertriglyceridemia (≥200 mg/dL), 25%; and hypo-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (<40 mg/dL), 34.3%. With the exception of hypo-HDL, all forms of dyslipidemia were significantly less common in men over 65 years of age (p<0.05). Conclusions The prevalence of hypo-HDL and hypertriglyceridemia was higher than expected in Iranian adult men, with half of men 25 years of age and older affected by at least one form of dyslipidemia. A large gap in primary and secondary care was observed, because nearly 80% of patients with dyslipidemia were unaware of their status. Urgent preventive programs and lifestyle changes are necessary to reduce the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:26770936

  2. Prevalence of Dementia and Cognitive Complaints in the Context of High Cognitive Reserve: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Perquin, Magali; Diederich, Nico; Pastore, Jessica; Lair, Marie-Lise; Stranges, Saverio; Vaillant, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess the prevalence of dementia and cognitive complaints in a cross-sectional sample of Luxembourg seniors, and to discuss the results in the societal context of high cognitive reserve resulting from multilingualism. Methods A population sample of 1,377 people representative of Luxembourg residents aged over 64 years was initially identified via the national social insurance register. There were three different levels of contribution: full participation in the study, partial participation, and non-participation. We examined the profiles of these three different samples so that we could infer the prevalence estimates in the Luxembourgish senior population as a whole using the prevalence estimates obtained in this study. Results After careful attention to the potential bias and of the possibility of underestimation, we considered the obtained prevalence estimates of 3.8% for dementia (with corresponding 95% confidence limits (CL) of 2.8% and 4.8%) and 26.1% for cognitive complaints (CL = [17.8–34.3]) as trustworthy. Conclusion Based on these findings, we postulate that high cognitive reserve may result in surprisingly low prevalence estimates of cognitive complaints and dementia in adults over the age of 64 years, which thereby corroborates the longer disability-free life expectancy observed in the Luxembourg population. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report such Luxembourgish public health data. PMID:26390288

  3. Prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria: results of a population-based house-to-house survey

    PubMed Central

    Ijezie, Innocent Chukwuonye; Chuku, Abali; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Umeizudike, Theophilus Ifeanyichukwu; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective Abdominal obesity is associated with the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes and hypertension. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. Materials and methods We carried out a cross-sectional study aimed at ascertaining the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. Participants in the study were recruited from communities in the three senatorial zones in the state. Screening for abdominal obesity was carried out in these subjects using waist circumference (the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel criteria were used). The World Health Organization Stepwise Approach to Surveillance of chronic disease risk factors was used. Body mass index, anthropometric measurements, and other relevant data were also collected. Results Data on waist circumference were obtained from 2,807 subjects. The prevalence of obesity using body mass index in the population was 11.12%. In men and women, it was 7.73%, and 14.37%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in the population was 21.75%. In men and women, it was 3.2% and 39.2%, respectively. Conclusion The prevalence of abdominal obesity is high in Nigeria, and needs to be monitored because it is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:23946664

  4. [Coronary risk assessment in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. General population-based scores or specific scores?].

    PubMed

    Hernáez, Rubén; Choque, Lucía; Giménez, Margarita; Costa, Angels; Márquez, Juan I; Conget, Ignacio

    2004-06-01

    Coronary risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus can be calculated using population-based scores or diabetes-specific scores. Our objective was to compare the results with both scores in a group of patients with type 2 diabetes and no history of cardiovascular disease. We analyzed the results for 101 patients aged 40 to 65 years with type 2 diabetes and no prior cardiovascular disease. Two scales were used, one based on the general population (Framingham function adapted from the REGICOR study), and the other based on the population with type 2 diabetes mellitus (UKPDS risk engine). The average 10-year likelihood of coronary events was 5.8 (2.5)% and 15.7 (8.4)% for the REGICOR risk score and the UKPDS risk score, respectively (P<.001), with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.525 (P<.01). Risk was higher in men (19.2 [8.7]% based on the UKPDS score, and 5.6 [2.8]% based on the REGICOR score, P<.001). The figures for women were 11.3 [5.9]% and 5.9 [2.1]% with the UKPDS and REGICOR scores, respectively (P<.001). Our results suggest that substantially different findings are obtained when general population-based scores or specific scores are used to assess cardiovascular risk in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

  5. Population-based prevalence of CDKN2A and CDK4 mutations in patients with multiple primary melanomas.

    PubMed

    Helsing, Per; Nymoen, Dag Andre; Ariansen, Sarah; Steine, Solrun J; Maehle, Lovise; Aamdal, Steinar; Langmark, Frøydis; Loeb, Mitchell; Akslen, Lars A; Molven, Anders; Andresen, Per Arne

    2008-02-01

    The presence of multiple primary cutaneous melanomas (MPM) has been advocated as guidance to identifying melanoma families. Frequencies of CDKN2A mutations in materials of sporadic MPM cases from pigmented lesion clinics vary between 8 and 15%. Patients with MPM have therefore been regarded as good candidates for CDKN2A mutational screening. We describe a population-based study where all persons in Norway diagnosed with MPM between 1953 and 2004 (n = 738 alive per April 2004) were invited to participate. Three-hundred-and-ninety patients (52.8%) responded confidentially. Mutations in CDKN2A were found in 6.9% of the respondents. Eighty-one MPM patients (20.8%) reported that they belonged to melanoma families, and 17 (21.0%) of these harboured a CDKN2A mutation, compared to 3.2% of the nonfamilial cases. The probability of finding a CDKN2A mutation increased when the patients had three or more melanomas, or a young age of onset of first melanoma. We identified five novel CDKN2A variants (Ala57Gly, Pro81Arg, Ala118Val, Leu130Val, and Arg131Pro) and four that previously have been reported in melanoma families (Glu27X, Met53Ile, Arg87Trp, and Ala127Pro). A large deletion (g.13623_23772del10150) encompassing exon 1alpha and the 5' part of exon 2 was detected in six patients with a family history of melanoma. Three patients, belonging to the same family, had the CDK4 Arg24His mutation. The frequency of CDKN2A mutations was lower than previously reported in other studies, an observation which probably is due to the population-based design of our study.

  6. Prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in Peru: report from PERUDIAB, a national urban population-based longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Seclen, Segundo N; Rosas, Moises E; Arias, Arturo J; Huayta, Ernesto; Medina, Cecilia A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to estimate the prevalences of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in a national sample in Peru and assess the relationships with selected sociodemographic variables. Methods We estimated prevalence in PERUDIAB study participants, a nationwide, stratified urban and suburban population selected by random cluster sampling. Between 2010 and 2012, questionnaires were completed and blood tests obtained from 1677 adults ≥25 years of age. Known diabetes was defined as participants having been told so by a doctor or nurse and/or receiving insulin or oral antidiabetic agents. Newly diagnosed diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL determined during the study and without a previous diabetes diagnosis. IFG was defined as fasting plasma glucose of 100–125 mg/dL. Results The estimated national prevalence of diabetes was 7.0% (95% CI 5.3% to 8.7%) and it was 8.4% (95% CI 5.6% to 11.3%) in metropolitan Lima. No gender differences were detected. Known and newly diagnosed diabetes prevalences were estimated as 4.2% and 2.8%, respectively. A logistic regression response surface model showed a complex trend for an increased prevalence of diabetes in middle-aged individuals and in those with no formal education. Diabetes prevalence was higher in coastal (8.2%) than in highlands (4.5%; p=0.03), and jungle (3.5%; p<0.02) regions. The estimated national prevalence of IFG was 22.4%, higher in males than in females (28.3% vs 19.1%; p<0.001), and higher in coastal (26.4%) than in highlands (17.4%; p=0.03), but not jungle regions (14.9%; p=0.07). Conclusions This study confirms diabetes as an important public health problem, especially for middle-aged individuals and those with no formal education. 40% of the affected individuals were undiagnosed. The elevated prevalence of IFG shows that nearly a quarter of the adult population of Peru has an increased risk of diabetes. PMID:26512325

  7. [Prevalence of weapons possession and associated factors and involvement in physical aggression among adolescents 15 to 18 years of age: a population-based study].

    PubMed

    Silva, Ricardo Azevedo da; Jansen, Karen; Godoy, Russélia Vanila; Souza, Luciano Dias Mattos; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares

    2009-12-01

    This cross-sectional, population-based study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of weapons possession and associated factors and involvement in physical aggression among adolescents 15 to 18 years of age (n = 960) in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Ninety of the city's 448 census tracts were selected, and 86 houses in each tract were visited. The statistical analysis used Poisson regression. Prevalence rates in the sample were 22.8% for involvement in fights with physical aggression and 9.6% for weapons possession in the previous 12 months. The study concluded that young males that use alcohol and/or illegal drugs and present minor psychiatric disorders show a higher probability of weapons possession and involvement in physical fights.

  8. A Population-Based Study of Childhood Sexual Contact in China: Prevalence and Long-Term Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Ye; Parish, William L.; Laumann, Edward O.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This study provides national estimates of the prevalence of childhood sexual contact and its association with sexual well-being and psychological distress among adults in China. Method: A national stratified probability sample of 1,519 women and 1,475 men aged 20-64 years in urban China completed a computer-administered survey in…

  9. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hypertension in Urban Areas of Cameroon: A Nationwide Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kingue, Samuel; Ngoe, Constant Ndong; Menanga, Alain Patrick; Jingi, Ahmadou M; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Fesuh, Betrand; Nouedoui, Christophe; Andze, Gervais; Muna, Walinjom F T

    2015-10-01

    Accurate estimates of the prevalence rate of hypertension and determinants in Cameroon are crucial to inform efficient prevention and control policies. The authors carried out a cluster-specific cross-sectional survey in urban areas of the 10 regions of Cameroon to assess the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension in Cameroonian adults using the WHO STEPwise approach to Surveillance (STEPS). Sociodemographic data were collected and blood pressure and glycemia were measured using standardized methods. Participants were adults of both sexes aged 16 years or older. A total of 15,470 participants were surveyed. The age-standardized prevalence rate of hypertension was 29.7%. The awareness rate was 14.1%. Independent correlates of hypertension included higher age, male sex, obesity, hyperglycemia, and living in the Savannah zone. The prevalence of hypertension is high in urban areas of Cameroon, with very low awareness. Prevention and control strategies should emphasize on improvement and vulgarization of population opportunistic screening and education. PMID:26140673

  10. Prevalence and correlates of perpetration of violence among young people: a population-based survey from Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Nadkarni, Abhijit; Dean, Kimberlie; Weiss, Helen A; Patel, Vikram

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and factors associated with perpetration of violence in young people in India. It was a cross-sectional survey of 3663 individuals (16-24 years old). Data on sociodemographics, sexual/physical violence, common mental disorders, and substance abuse were collected by face-to-face structured interviews. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios for association of violence with various factors. Prevalence of physical violence in the past year was 10.2%. In both genders, younger age, urbanicity, being a victim of sexual abuse, common mental disorders, and tobacco use were associated with increased risk of physical violence. Being a victim of forced sexual intercourse and alcohol use was associated with violence in males; and not living with parents was associated with violence in females. Future research should be designed to tease out the pathways that underlie the associations, identified in the study, to derive potential preventive strategies.

  11. Population-based HIV prevalence and associated factors in male-to-female transsexuals from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Angelo Brandelli; Fontanari, Anna Martha Vaitses; Jacinto, Michelle Moraes; da Silva, Dhiordan Cardoso; Lorencetti, Emilaine Karine; da Rosa Filho, Heitor Tomé; Mueller, Andressa; de Garcia, Claudia Garcia; Nardi, Henrique Caetano; Koller, Silvia Helena; Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues

    2015-02-01

    This study assessed HIV prevalence and associated factors in 284 male-to-female transsexuals from southern Brazil. Seroprevalence was 25 %. Seroprevalence was higher and associated with older age, residence in the metropolitan area, history of diagnosis of other STDs, and reported history of sex work. The year of diagnosis showed no significant relationship with the prevalence of HIV nor the fact of being in a stable relationship, a history of drug use, years of education, and race/ethnicity. The odds of HIV infection compared with the general Brazilian population was 55.55 (95 % CI 38.39-80.39). Changes in the views of the vulnerable groups to HIV/AIDS in Brazil and efforts in the construction of strategies of prevention and in the guarantee of human rights are required.

  12. A Population-Based Study of Childhood Sexual Contact in China: Prevalence and Long-Term Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ye; Parish, William L.; Laumann, Edward O.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives This study provides national estimates of the prevalence of childhood sexual contact and its association with sexual well-being and psychological distress among adults in China. Method A national stratified probability sample of 1,519 women and 1,475 men aged 20 to 64 years in urban China completed a computer-administered survey in 1999–2000. The data from this survey on both adult-to-child and peer-to-peer sexual contact before age 14 were subjected to descriptive and multivariate analyses that were adjusted for both sampling weights and sampling design. Results The overall prevalence of reported childhood sexual contact was 4.2%, with prevalence higher among men (5.1%) than among women (3.3%) and higher among those aged 20–29 years (8.3%). Childhood sexual contact was associated with multiplex consequences, including hyper-sexuality (high levels of masturbation, thoughts about sex, varieties of sexual practices, partner turnover), adult sexual victimization (unwanted sex, unwanted sexual acts, sexual harassment), sexual difficulties (genitor-urinary symptoms, sexually transmitted infections, sexual dysfunctions), and psychological distress. Psychological distress was largely mediated by adult sexual victimization, sexual difficulties, and hyper-sexuality. Conclusions Despite the relatively modest prevalence of childhood sexual contact among Chinese adults, the association with multiplex adult outcomes suggests that much as in the West early sexual contact is a significant issue. Practice Implications The findings underscore the importance of public education about childhood sexual contact and abuse in China. The findings suggest a need for public health campaigns that tackle the stigma associated with being abused and encourage victims to report abusive behavior to proper sources. The findings are also consistent with new efforts to alleviate the negative long-term impact of childhood sexual abuse. PMID:18614231

  13. Prevalences of sexually transmitted infections in young adults and female sex workers in Peru: a national population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Cárcamo, César P; Campos, Pablo E; García, Patricia J; Hughes, James P; Garnett, Geoff P; Holmes, King K

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background We assessed prevalences of seven sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Peru, stratified by risk behaviours, to help to define care and prevention priorities. Methods In a 2002 household-based survey of the general population, we enrolled randomly selected 18–29-year-old residents of 24 cities with populations greater than 50 000 people. We then surveyed female sex workers (FSWs) in these cities. We gathered data for sexual behaviour; vaginal specimens or urine for nucleic acid amplification tests for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis; and blood for serological tests for syphilis, HIV, and (in subsamples) herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2) and human T-lymphotropic virus. This study is a registered component of the PREVEN trial, number ISRCTN43722548. Findings 15 261 individuals from the general population and 4485 FSWs agreed to participate in our survey. Overall prevalence of infection with HSV2, weighted for city size, was 13·5% in men, 13·6% in women, and 60·6% in FSWs (all values in FSWs standardised to age composition of women in the general population). The prevalence of C trachomatis infection was 4·2% in men, 6·5% in women, and 16·4% in FSWs; of T vaginalis infection was 0·3% in men, 4·9% in women, and 7·9% in FSWs; and of syphilis was 0·5% in men, 0·4% in women, and 0·8% in FSWs. N gonorrhoeae infection had a prevalence of 0·1% in men and women, and of 1·6% in FSWs. Prevalence of HIV infection was 0·5% in men and FSWs, and 0·1% in women. Four (0·3%) of 1535 specimens were positive for human T-lymphotropic virus 1. In men, 65·0% of infections with HIV, 71·5% of N gonorrhoeae, and 41·4% of HSV2 and 60·9% of cases of syphilis were in the 13·3% who had sex with men or unprotected sex with FSWs in the past year. In women from the general population, 66·7% of infections with HIV and 16·7% of cases of syphilis were accounted for by the 4·4% who had been paid for sex by any of

  14. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Complications of Diabetes in the Kilimanjaro Region: A Population-Based Study from Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Makuka, Gerald Jamberi; Egger, Joseph R.; Maro, Venance; Maro, Honest; Karia, Francis; Patel, Uptal D.; Burton, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan Africa, diabetes is a growing burden, yet little is known about its prevalence, risk factors, and complications. To address these gaps and help inform public health efforts aimed at prevention and treatment, we conducted a community-based study assessing diabetes epidemiology. Methods and Findings We conducted a stratified, cluster-designed, serial cross-sectional household study from 2014–2015 in the Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania. We used a three-stage cluster probability sampling method to randomly select individuals. To estimate prevalence, we screened individuals for glucose impairment, including diabetes, using hemoglobin A1C. We also screened for hypertension and obesity, and to assess for potential complications, individuals with diabetes were assessed for retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy. We enrolled 481 adults from 346 urban and rural households. The prevalence of glucose impairment was 21.7% (95% CI 15.2–29.8), which included diabetes (5.7%; 95% CI 3.37–9.47) and glucose impairment with increased risk for diabetes (16.0%; 95% CI 10.2–24.0). Overweight or obesity status had an independent prevalence risk ratio for glucose impairment (2.16; 95% CI 1.39–3.36). Diabetes awareness was low (35.6%), and few individuals with diabetes were receiving biomedical treatment (33.3%). Diabetes-associated complications were common (50.2%; 95% CI 33.7–66.7), including renal (12.0%; 95% CI 4.7–27.3), ophthalmic (49.6%; 95% CI 28.6–70.7), and neurological (28.8%; 95% CI 8.0–65.1) abnormalities. Conclusions In a northern region of Tanzania, diabetes is an under-recognized health condition, despite the fact that many people either have diabetes or are at increased risk for developing diabetes. Most individuals were undiagnosed or untreated, and the prevalence of diabetes-associated complications was high. Public health efforts in this region will need to focus on reducing modifiable risk factors, which appear to include

  15. Prevalence of chronic diseases by immigrant status and disparities in chronic disease management in immigrants: a population-based cohort study, Valore Project

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background For chronic conditions, disparities can take effect cumulatively at various times as the disease progresses, even when care is provided. The aim of this study was to quantify the prevalence of diabetes, congestive heart failure (CHF) and coronary heart disease (CHD) in adults by citizenship, and to compare the performance of primary care services in managing these chronic conditions, again by citizenship. Methods This is a population-based retrospective cohort study on 1,948,622 people aged 16 years or more residing in Italy. A multilevel regression model was applied to analyze adherence to care processes using explanatory variables at both patient and district level. Results The age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes was found higher among immigrants from high migratory pressure countries (HMPC) than among Italians, while the age-adjusted prevalence of CHD and CHF was higher for Italians than for HMPC immigrants or those from highly-developed countries (HDC). Our results indicate lower levels in all quality management indicators for citizens from HMPC than for Italians, for all the chronic conditions considered. Patients from HDC did not differ from Italian in their adherence to disease management schemes. Conclusion This study revealed a different prevalence of chronic diseases by citizenship, implying a different burden of primary care by citizenship. Our findings show that more effort is needed to guarantee migrant-sensitive primary health care. PMID:23706129

  16. Educational level, prevalence of hysterectomy, and age at amenorrhoea: a cross-sectional analysis of 9536 women from six population-based cohort studies in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hysterectomy prevalence has been shown to vary by education level. Hysterectomy influences age at amenorrhoea. The aim of this study was to examine these associations in Germany within population-based data sets. Methods Baseline assessments in six population-based cohorts took place from 1997 through 2006 and included 9,548 women aged 20–84 years. All studies assessed hysterectomy history, school and professional degrees. Degrees were categorized into three levels each. Adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated. Results Prevalences were higher in West Germany than East Germany, increased by age, and leveled off starting at 55–64 years. The age- and study-adjusted prevalence ratio (lowest versus highest school level) was 2.61 (95% CI: 1.28-5.30), 1.48 (95% CI: 1.21-1.81), and 1.01 (95% CI: 0.80-1.28) for women aged 20–45, 45–64, and 65 and more years respectively. The estimated adjusted prevalence ratios per one unit decrement of the educational qualification score (range 1 = lowest, 8 = highest) were 1.29 (95% CI: 1.02-1.64), 1.08 (95% CI: 1.04-1.12), and 0.98 (95% CI: 0.93-1.03) for women aged 20–44, 45–64, and 65–84 years respectively. Age at amenorrhoea was on average 6.2 years lower (43.5 years versus 49.7 years) among women with a history of hysterectomy than those without. Conclusions Lower educational level was associated with a higher hysterectomy prevalence among women aged 20–64 years. Several mediators associated with educational level and hysterectomy including women’s disease risk, women’s treatment preference, and women’s access to uterus-preserving treatment may explain this association. At population level, hysterectomy decreases the age of amenorrhoea on average by 6.2 years. PMID:24433474

  17. Acne scars in 18-year-old male adolescents: a population-based study of prevalence and associated factors*

    PubMed Central

    Lauermann, Fernanda Tcatch; de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Breunig, Juliano de Avelar

    2016-01-01

    Background Acne vulgaris is a pilosebaceous follicle disorder affecting over 85% of adolescents to some degree. It frequently causes psychological distress that may persist into adulthood due to scarring. Little information about post-acne scarring epidemiology is available. Objectives To describe prevalence, distribution patterns and associated factors of acne scarring in young males, drawing on a representative population sample from a southern Brazilian city. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken during presentation for military service, which is compulsory for all 18-year-old males. A questionnaire was applied, covering topics like diet, smoking habits, ethnicity, family structure, socio-economic level, as well as specific questions about active acne and resulting scars. Dermatologists conducted the clinical examination. Results A total of 2,201 male adolescents were interviewed and examined. The overall prevalence of acne scarring was 22%. The malar region was the most frequently involved, present in 80% of affected individuals, followed by the frontal region (31.5%), back (17%), anterior chest (8.2%) and mentonian region (6.4%). Correlation between the intensity of clinical acne and the presence of scars was found, but no association was observed with educational level, smoking, ethnicity, obesity or socio-economic status. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of acne scars among this population. This is the first study to ascertain a correlation between acne scarring and factors such as socio-economic status and educational level. The direct relation between acne severity and scarring indicates that prompt and effective treatment is the best way to reduce scarring. PMID:27438194

  18. Prevalence, nature and potential preventability of adverse drug events – a population-based medical record study of 4970 adults

    PubMed Central

    Hakkarainen, Katja M; Gyllensten, Hanna; Jönsson, Anna K; Andersson Sundell, Karolina; Petzold, Max; Hägg, Staffan

    2014-01-01

    Aims To estimate the 3 month prevalence of adverse drug events (ADEs), categories of ADEs and preventable ADEs, and the preventability of ADEs among adults in Sweden. Further, to identify drug classes and organ systems associated with ADEs and estimate their seriousness. Methods A random sample of 5025 adults in a Swedish county council in 2008 was drawn from the Total Population Register. All their medical records in 29 inpatient care departments in three hospitals, 110 specialized outpatient clinics and 51 primary care units were reviewed retrospectively in a stepwise manner, and complemented with register data on dispensed drugs. ADEs, including adverse drug reactions (ADRs), sub-therapeutic effects of drug therapy (STEs), drug dependence and abuse, drug intoxications from overdose, and morbidities due to drug-related untreated indication, were detected during a 3 month study period, and assessed for preventability. Results Among 4970 included individuals, the prevalence of ADEs was 12.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) 11.1, 12.9%), and preventable ADEs 5.6% (95% CI 5.0, 6.2%). ADRs (6.9%; 95% CI 6.2, 7.6%) and STEs (6.4%; 95% CI 5.8, 7.1%) were more prevalent than the other ADEs. Of the ADEs, 38.8% (95% CI 35.8–41.9%) was preventable, varying by ADE category and seriousness. ADEs were frequently associated with nervous system and cardiovascular drugs, but the associated drugs and affected organs varied by ADE category. Conclusions The considerable burden of ADEs and preventable ADEs from commonly used drugs across care settings warrants large-scale efforts to redesign safer, higher quality healthcare systems. The heterogeneous nature of the ADE categories should be considered in research and clinical practice for preventing, detecting and mitigating ADEs. PMID:24372506

  19. Prevalence and Costs of Multimorbidity by Deprivation Levels in the Basque Country: A Population Based Study Using Health Administrative Databases

    PubMed Central

    Orueta, Juan F.; García-Álvarez, Arturo; García-Goñi, Manuel; Paolucci, Francesco; Nuño-Solinís, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Background Multimorbidity is a major challenge for healthcare systems. However, currently, its magnitude and impact in healthcare expenditures is still mostly unknown. Objective To present an overview of the prevalence and costs of multimorbidity by socioeconomic levels in the whole Basque population. Methods We develop a cross-sectional analysis that includes all the inhabitants of the Basque Country (N = 2,262,698). We utilize data from primary health care electronic medical records, hospital admissions, and outpatient care databases, corresponding to a 4 year period. Multimorbidity was defined as the presence of two or more chronic diseases out of a list of 52 of the most important and common chronic conditions given in the literature. We also use socioeconomic and demographic variables such as age, sex, individual healthcare cost, and deprivation level. Predicted adjusted costs were obtained by log-gamma regression models. Results Multimorbidity of chronic diseases was found among 23.61% of the total Basque population and among 66.13% of those older than 65 years. Multimorbid patients account for 63.55% of total healthcare expenditures. Prevalence of multimorbidity is higher in the most deprived areas for all age and sex groups. The annual cost of healthcare per patient generated for any chronic disease depends on the number of coexisting comorbidities, and varies from 637 € for the first pathology in average to 1,657 € for the ninth one. Conclusion Multimorbidity is very common for the Basque population and its prevalence rises in age, and unfavourable socioeconomic environment. The costs of care for chronic patients with several conditions cannot be described as the sum of their individual pathologies in average. They usually increase dramatically according to the number of comorbidities. Given the ageing population, multimorbidity and its consequences should be taken into account in healthcare policy, the organization of care and medical research

  20. Copeptin Is Associated with Kidney Length, Renal Function, and Prevalence of Simple Cysts in a Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Ponte, Belen; Pruijm, Menno; Ackermann, Daniel; Vuistiner, Philippe; Guessous, Idris; Ehret, Georg; Alwan, Heba; Youhanna, Sonia; Paccaud, Fred; Mohaupt, Markus; Péchère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Vogt, Bruno; Burnier, Michel; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Devuyst, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) has a key role in osmoregulation by facilitating water transport in the collecting duct. Recent evidence suggests that AVP may have additional effects on renal function and favor cyst growth in polycystic kidney disease. Whether AVP also affects kidney structure in the general population is unknown. We analyzed the association of copeptin, an established surrogate for AVP, with parameters of renal function and morphology in a multicentric population-based cohort. Participants from families of European ancestry were randomly selected in three Swiss cities. We used linear multilevel regression analysis to explore the association of copeptin with renal function parameters as well as kidney length and the presence of simple renal cysts assessed by ultrasound examination. Copeptin levels were log-transformed. The 529 women and 481 men had median copeptin levels of 3.0 and 5.2 pmol/L, respectively (P<0.001). In multivariable analyses, the copeptin level was associated inversely with eGFR (β=−2.1; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], −3.3 to −0.8; P=0.002) and kidney length (β=−1.2; 95% CI, −1.9 to −0.4; P=0.003) but positively with 24-hour urinary albumin excretion (β=0.11; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.20; P=0.03) and urine osmolality (β=0.08; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.10; P<0.001). A positive association was found between the copeptin level and the presence of renal cysts (odds ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.4; P=0.02). These results suggest that AVP has a pleiotropic role in renal function and may favor the development of simple renal cysts. PMID:25270071

  1. Prevalence of Active and Passive Smoking among Adult Population: Findings of a Population-Based Survey in Kerman (KERCADRS), Iran

    PubMed Central

    Salimzadeh, Hamideh; Najafipour, Hamid; Mirzaiepour, Fatemeh; Navadeh, Soodabeh; Shadkam-Farrokhi, Mitra; Mirzazadeh, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking is one of the major modifiable risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Our aim was to report the pattern of active and passive smoking using the data collected through a population-base household survey in Kerman, Iran [(KERCADRS) Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors Study]. Methods Using a cluster random sampling design, we recruited 5900 adult persons (15-75 years old) into our survey. After consenting, every participant was interviewed by a trained interviewer. The section for smoking included questions about daily (smoking at least one cigarette per day), non-daily, past and passive cigarette smoking as well as the duration of the exposure. We used Kerman population distribution (as the target population) to adjust our estimates using direct standardization method. Findings Overall, 8.3% of study participants (15.5% in men vs. 0.8% in women, P = 0.010) reported themselves as daily smokers and an additional 1.7% (2.9% in men vs. 0.4% in women, P = 0.010) as non-daily smokers. The passive smoking was common in total (27.5%), while women experienced more exposure than men (30.1% vs. 25.0%, P = 0.010). In daily smokers, 3.2% smoked more than 20 cigarettes per day. Among passive smokers, 62.6% were exposed to cigarette smoke more than 6 days per week. Conclusion Smoking is pretty common among adult populations, particularly in men. A majority of tobacco-free young adult women are exposed to passive smoking. Age and gender oriented interventions are required to change this risk pattern in Kerman community to prevent from further smoking related morbidities and mortalities. PMID:27274789

  2. DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 eating disorders in adolescents: prevalence, stability, and psychosocial correlates in a population-based sample of male and female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Allen, Karina L; Byrne, Susan M; Oddy, Wendy H; Crosby, Ross D

    2013-08-01

    The current study aimed to compare the prevalence, stability, and psychosocial correlates of DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 eating disorders, in a population-based sample of male and female adolescents followed prospectively from 14 to 20 years of age. Participants (N = 1,383; 49% male) were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, a prospective, population-based cohort study that has followed participants from prebirth to young adulthood. Detailed self-report questionnaires were used to assess eating disorder symptoms when participants were aged 14, 17, and 20 years. Comparisons between DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 were conducted using McNemar chi-square tests and Fisher's exact tests. Changes in eating disorder prevalence over time were considered using generalized estimating equations. Eating disorder prevalence rates were significantly greater when using DSM-5 than DSM-IV-TR criteria, at all time points for females and at age 17 only for males. "Unspecified"/"other" eating disorder diagnoses were significantly less common when applying DSM-5 than DSM-IV-TR criteria, but still formed 15% to 30% of the DSM-5 cases. Diagnostic stability was low for all disorders, and DSM-5 binge eating disorder or purging disorder in early adolescence predicted DSM-5 bulimia nervosa in later adolescence. Cross-over from binge eating disorder to bulimia nervosa was particularly high. Regardless of the diagnostic classification system used, all eating disorder diagnoses were associated with depressive symptoms and poor mental health quality of life. These results provide further support for the clinical utility of DSM-5 eating disorder criteria, and for the significance of binge eating disorder and purging disorder.

  3. Prevalence of selected genomic deletions and duplications in a French-Canadian population-based sample of newborns.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Tracy; Giroux, Sylvie; Clément, Valérie; Langlois, Sylvie; Friedman, Jan M; Rousseau, François

    2013-07-01

    Chromosomal microarray analysis has identified many novel microdeletions or microduplications that produce neurodevelopmental disorders with a recognizable clinical phenotype and that are not observed in normal individuals. However, imbalance of other genomic regions is associated with a variable phenotype with intellectual disability (ID) or autism in some individuals but are also observed in completely normal individuals. Several large studies have reported the prevalence of copy number (CN) variants in people with particular features (e.g., ID, autism, schizophrenia, or epilepsy); few studies have investigated the prevalence of genomic CN changes in the general population. We used a high-throughput method to screen 6813 consecutive cord blood samples from a predominantly French-Canadian population to assess genomic CN in five genomic regions: 1p36, 15q11-q13, 16p11.2, 16p11.2-p12.2, and 22q11.2. We identified one deletion and one duplication within 1p36, two deletions of 15q11-q13, eight deletions of 16p11.2-p12.2, two deletions and five duplications of 16p11.2, and six duplications of 22q11.2. This study provides estimates of the frequency of CN variants in an unselected population. Our findings have important implications for genetic counseling. PMID:24498606

  4. Effects of diabetes definition on global surveillance of diabetes prevalence and diagnosis: a pooled analysis of 96 population-based studies with 331 288 participants

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Diabetes has been defined on the basis of different biomarkers, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test (2hOGTT), and HbA1c. We assessed the effect of different diagnostic definitions on both the population prevalence of diabetes and the classification of previously undiagnosed individuals as having diabetes versus not having diabetes in a pooled analysis of data from population-based health examination surveys in different regions. Methods We used data from 96 population-based health examination surveys that had measured at least two of the biomarkers used for defining diabetes. Diabetes was defined using HbA1c (HbA1c ≥6·5% or history of diabetes diagnosis or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs) compared with either FPG only or FPG-or-2hOGTT definitions (FPG ≥7·0 mmol/L or 2hOGTT ≥11·1 mmol/L or history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs). We calculated diabetes prevalence, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights. We compared the prevalences of diabetes using different definitions graphically and by regression analyses. We calculated sensitivity and specificity of diabetes diagnosis based on HbA1c compared with diagnosis based on glucose among previously undiagnosed individuals (ie, excluding those with history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs). We calculated sensitivity and specificity in each survey, and then pooled results using a random-effects model. We assessed the sources of heterogeneity of sensitivity by meta-regressions for study characteristics selected a priori. Findings Population prevalence of diabetes based on FPG-or-2hOGTT was correlated with prevalence based on FPG alone (r=0·98), but was higher by 2–6 percentage points at different prevalence levels. Prevalence based on HbA1c was lower than prevalence based on FPG in 42·8% of age–sex–survey groups and higher in another 41·6%; in

  5. Prevalence and correlates of fecal incontinence among nursing home residents: a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fecal incontinence is highly prevalent among nursing home residents. Previous nursing home studies have identified co-morbidity associated with fecal incontinence, but as this population is increasingly old and frail, we wanted to see if the rate of fecal incontinence had increased and to investigate correlates of fecal incontinence further. Methods Cross-sectional study of the entire nursing home population in one Norwegian municipality. Registered nurses filled in a questionnaire for all residents in the municipality (980 residents aged ≥65). Statistical methods used are descriptive statistics, binary logistic regression and multivariable logistic regression. Results The response rate of the study was 90.3%. The prevalence of fecal incontinence was 42.3%. In multivariable analysis of FI, residents with diarrhea (OR 7.33, CI 4.39-12.24), urinary incontinence (OR 2.77, CI 1.73-4.42) and dementia (OR 2.17, CI 1.28-3.68) had higher odds of having fecal incontinence compared to those without the condition. Residents residing in a nursing home between 4–5 years had higher odds of having fecal incontinence compared to residents who had stayed under a year (OR 2.65, CI 1.20-5.85). Residents with deficiency in feeding (2.17, CI 1.26-3.71), dressing (OR 4.03, CI 1.39-11.65), toilet use (OR 7.37, CI 2.65-20.44) and mobility (OR 2.54, CI 1.07-6.00) had higher odds of having fecal incontinence compared to residents without deficiencies in activities of daily living (ADL). Needing help for transfer between bed and chair was a protective factor for fecal incontinence compared to residents who transferred independently (OR 0.49, CI 0.26-0.91). Conclusions Fecal incontinence is a prevalent condition in the nursing home population and is associated with ADL decline, frailty, diarrhea and quality of care. This knowledge is important for staff in nursing home in order to provide the best treatment and care for residents with fecal incontinence. PMID:24119057

  6. Prevalence and associated factors with body image dissatisfaction among adults in southern Brazil: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Santos Silva, Diego Augusto; Nahas, Markus Vinicius; de Sousa, Thiago Ferreira; Del Duca, Giovâni Firpo; Peres, Karen Glazer

    2011-09-01

    We investigated the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction (BID) and associated factors in Florianopolis, Brazil. BID was analyzed in a sample (N=1720) of adults through the Figure Rating Scale. The independent variables were sociodemographic factors, health behaviors, and morbidities. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was used. More men (14.2%) than women (6.1%) presented BID by being lighter than ideal (LI). Conversely, more women (66.6%) than men (46.3%) showed BID by being heavier than ideal (HI). BID by being HI was higher among older women, those with high BMI and those with a partner. In men, lower BMI and the presence of common mental disorders were associated with BID due to being LI. Advanced ages, alcohol abuse, physical inactivity, and obesity were associated with BID due to being HI. We must consider different public health interventions for men and women to reduce BID in Brazilian adults. PMID:21768003

  7. Prevalence and associated factors with body image dissatisfaction among adults in southern Brazil: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Santos Silva, Diego Augusto; Nahas, Markus Vinicius; de Sousa, Thiago Ferreira; Del Duca, Giovâni Firpo; Peres, Karen Glazer

    2011-09-01

    We investigated the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction (BID) and associated factors in Florianopolis, Brazil. BID was analyzed in a sample (N=1720) of adults through the Figure Rating Scale. The independent variables were sociodemographic factors, health behaviors, and morbidities. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was used. More men (14.2%) than women (6.1%) presented BID by being lighter than ideal (LI). Conversely, more women (66.6%) than men (46.3%) showed BID by being heavier than ideal (HI). BID by being HI was higher among older women, those with high BMI and those with a partner. In men, lower BMI and the presence of common mental disorders were associated with BID due to being LI. Advanced ages, alcohol abuse, physical inactivity, and obesity were associated with BID due to being HI. We must consider different public health interventions for men and women to reduce BID in Brazilian adults.

  8. Population-based cohort studies of type 2 diabetes and stomach cancer risk in Chinese men and women.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong-Li; Tan, Yu-Ting; Epplein, Meira; Li, Hong-Lan; Gao, Jing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2015-03-01

    Although positive associations have been found for diabetes and a number of cancer sites, investigations of stomach cancer are limited and the results lack consistency. In this prospective study we investigated the relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and stomach cancer risk in mainland China. We assessed the associations among T2DM, T2DM duration, and stomach cancer risk in two prospective population-based cohorts, the Shanghai Women's Health Study and the Shanghai Men's Health Study. Included in the study were 61 480 men and 74 941 women. Stomach cancer cases were identified through annual record linkage to the Shanghai Cancer Registry, and verified through home visits and review of medical charts. After a median follow-up of 7.5 years for the Shanghai Men's Health Study and 13.2 years for the Shanghai Women's Health Study, a total of 755 incident cases of stomach cancer (376 men and 379 women) were identified through to September 2013. Overall, we did not find any evidence that T2DM was associated with an increased risk of stomach cancer either in men (multi-adjusted hazard ratio = 0.83, 95% confidence interval, 0.59-1.16) or in women (multi-adjusted hazard ratio = 0.92, 95% confidence interval, 0.68-1.25). Our findings from two large prospective population-based cohorts suggest that T2DM was not associated with stomach cancer risk.

  9. Gender ratios of administrative prevalence and incidence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the lifespan: A nationwide population-based study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Charles Lung-Cheng; Weng, Shih-Feng; Ho, Chung-Han

    2016-10-30

    To verify the hypothesis that there is different gender ratio of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among adults compared to children and adolescents in the clinical setting among Asian population. The nationwide population-based database containing data on enrollees in the National Health Insurance program in Taiwan during 2000-2007 was used in this study, and we investigated the lifetime gender ratios of administrative prevalence and incidence in healthcare-seeking ADHD patients (n=228,029). The male-to-female ratios of diagnosed incidence and prevalence of child/adolescent ADHD (age <20 years) ranged from 3.39 to 4.07 and 3.87-4.31, respectively. The male-to-female ratios of diagnosed incidence and prevalence of ADHD in the adult group (age 20-65 years) ranged from 0.24 to 0.76 and 0.35-0.98, respectively. In conclusion, there was substantially increased female-to-male ratio in adults ADHD compared to children and adolescents in the clinical setting. Further researches on the management and mechanism are needed. PMID:27525828

  10. Gender ratios of administrative prevalence and incidence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the lifespan: A nationwide population-based study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Charles Lung-Cheng; Weng, Shih-Feng; Ho, Chung-Han

    2016-10-30

    To verify the hypothesis that there is different gender ratio of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among adults compared to children and adolescents in the clinical setting among Asian population. The nationwide population-based database containing data on enrollees in the National Health Insurance program in Taiwan during 2000-2007 was used in this study, and we investigated the lifetime gender ratios of administrative prevalence and incidence in healthcare-seeking ADHD patients (n=228,029). The male-to-female ratios of diagnosed incidence and prevalence of child/adolescent ADHD (age <20 years) ranged from 3.39 to 4.07 and 3.87-4.31, respectively. The male-to-female ratios of diagnosed incidence and prevalence of ADHD in the adult group (age 20-65 years) ranged from 0.24 to 0.76 and 0.35-0.98, respectively. In conclusion, there was substantially increased female-to-male ratio in adults ADHD compared to children and adolescents in the clinical setting. Further researches on the management and mechanism are needed.

  11. Population based study of prevalence of islet cell autoantibodies in monozygotic and dizygotic Danish twin pairs with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, J. S.; Kyvik, K. O.; Bingley, P. J.; Gale, E. A.; Green, A.; Dyrberg, T.; Beck-Nielsen, H.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the comparative importance of environment and genes in the development of islet cell autoimmunity associated with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Population based study of diabetic twins. SETTING: Danish population. SUBJECTS: 18 monozygotic and 36 dizygotic twin pairs with one or both partners having insulin dependent diabetes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Presence of islet cell antibodies, insulin autoantibodies, and autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) in serum samples from twin pairs 10 years (range 0-30 years) and 9.5 years (2-30 years) after onset of disease. RESULTS: In those with diabetes the prevalence of islet cell antibodies, insulin autoantibodies, and autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase in the 26 monozygotic twins was 38%, 85%, and 92%, respectively, and in the dizygotic twins was 57%, 70%, and 57%, respectively. In those without diabetes the proportions were 20%, 50%, and 40% in the 10 monozygotic twins and 26%, 49%, and 40% in the 35 dizygotic twins. CONCLUSION: There is no difference between the prevalence of islet cell autoantibodies in dizygotic and monozygotic twins without diabetes, suggesting that islet cell autoimmunity is environmentally rather than genetically determined. Furthermore, the prevalence of islet cell antibodies was higher in the non-diabetic twins than in other first degree relatives of patients with insulin dependent diabetes. This implies that the prenatal or early postnatal period during which twins are exposed to the same environment, in contrast with that experienced by first degree relatives, is of aetiological importance. PMID:9169400

  12. Prevalence of Germline BAP1, CDKN2A, and CDK4 Mutations in an Australian Population-Based Sample of Cutaneous Melanoma Cases.

    PubMed

    Aoude, Lauren G; Gartside, Michael; Johansson, Peter; Palmer, Jane M; Symmons, Judith; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Hayward, Nicholas K

    2015-04-01

    Mutations in Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) and Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 (CDK4) contribute to susceptibility in approximately 40% of high-density cutaneous melanoma (CMM) families and about 2% of unselected CMM cases. BRCA-1 associated protein-1 (BAP1) has been more recently shown to predispose to CMM and uveal melanoma (UMM) in some families; however, its contribution to CMM development in the general population is unreported. We sought to determine the contribution of these genes to CMM susceptibility in a population-based sample of cases from Australia. We genotyped 1,109 probands from Queensland families and found that approximately 1.31% harbored mutations in CDKN2A, including some with novel missense mutations (p.R22W, p.G35R and p.I49F). BAP1 missense variants occurred in 0.63% of cases but no CDK4 variants were observed in the sample. This is the first estimate of the contribution of BAP1 and CDK4 to a population-based sample of CMM and supports the previously reported estimate of CDKN2A germline mutation prevalence.

  13. Prevalence of Germline BAP1, CDKN2A, and CDK4 Mutations in an Australian Population-Based Sample of Cutaneous Melanoma Cases.

    PubMed

    Aoude, Lauren G; Gartside, Michael; Johansson, Peter; Palmer, Jane M; Symmons, Judith; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Hayward, Nicholas K

    2015-04-01

    Mutations in Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) and Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 (CDK4) contribute to susceptibility in approximately 40% of high-density cutaneous melanoma (CMM) families and about 2% of unselected CMM cases. BRCA-1 associated protein-1 (BAP1) has been more recently shown to predispose to CMM and uveal melanoma (UMM) in some families; however, its contribution to CMM development in the general population is unreported. We sought to determine the contribution of these genes to CMM susceptibility in a population-based sample of cases from Australia. We genotyped 1,109 probands from Queensland families and found that approximately 1.31% harbored mutations in CDKN2A, including some with novel missense mutations (p.R22W, p.G35R and p.I49F). BAP1 missense variants occurred in 0.63% of cases but no CDK4 variants were observed in the sample. This is the first estimate of the contribution of BAP1 and CDK4 to a population-based sample of CMM and supports the previously reported estimate of CDKN2A germline mutation prevalence. PMID:25787093

  14. Population-based Estimate of the Prevalence of HER-2 Positive Breast Cancer Tumors for Early Stage Patients in the US

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Kathleen A.; Harlan, Linda C.; Dodd, Kevin W.; Abrams, Jeffrey S.; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to estimate prevalence of HER-2 positive tumors in a population-based sample of 1026 women diagnosed in 2005 with early stage breast cancer. We modeled the relationship between patient and tumor characteristics and HER-2. HER-2 positive estimates were 19% for women aged ≤49 years and 15% aged ≥50 years. HER-2 varied by tumor grade and size in women aged ≤49 years but was not significant in multivariate analysis. Tumor grade and race were associated with HER-2 for women aged ≥50 years after controlling for other variables. HER-2 varies by age and by race and tumor in older women. PMID:20690807

  15. Alternative Methods for Defining Osteoarthritis and the Impact on Estimating Prevalence in a US Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cisternas, Miriam G.; Murphy, Louise; Sacks, Jeffrey J.; Solomon, Daniel H.; Pasta, David J.; Helmick, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Provide a contemporary estimate of osteoarthritis (OA) by comparing accuracy and prevalence of alternative definitions of OA. Methods The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) household component (HC) records respondent-reported medical conditions as open-ended responses; professional coders translate these responses into ICD-9-CM codes for the medical conditions files. Using these codes and other data from the MEPS-HC medical conditions files, we constructed three case definitions of OA and assessed them against medical provider diagnoses of ICD-9-CM 715 [osteoarthrosis and allied disorders] in a MEPS subsample. The three definitions were: 1) strict = ICD-9-CM 715; 2) expanded = ICD-9-CM 715, 716 [other and unspecified arthropathies], OR 719 [other and unspecified disorders of joint]); and 3) probable = strict OR expanded + respondent-reported prior diagnosis of OA or other arthritis excluding rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Results Sensitivity and specificity of the three definitions were: strict – 34.6% and 97.5%; expanded – 73.8% and 90.5%; and probable – 62.9% and 93.5%. Conclusion The strict definition for OA (ICD-9-CM 715) excludes many individuals with OA. The probable definition of OA has the optimal combination of sensitivity and specificity relative to the two other MEPS-based definitions and yields a national annual estimate of 30.8 million adults with OA (13.4% of US adult population) for 2008 – 2011. PMID:26315529

  16. Prevalence and predictors of refractive error and spectacle coverage in Nakuru, Kenya: a cross-sectional, population-based study.

    PubMed

    Bastawrous, Andrew; Mathenge, Wanjiku; Foster, Allen; Kuper, Hannah

    2013-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken in Nakuru, Kenya to assess the prevalence of refractive error and the spectacle coverage in a population aged ≥50 years. Of the 5,010 subjects who were eligible, 4,414 underwent examination (response rate 88.1 %). LogMAR visual acuity was assessed in all participants and refractive error was measured in both eyes using a Topcon auto refractor RM8800. Detailed interviews were undertaken and ownership of spectacles was assessed. Refractive error was responsible for 51.7 % of overall visual impairment (VI), 85.3 % (n = 191) of subjects with mild VI, 42.7 % (n = 152) of subjects with moderate VI, 16.7 % (n = 3) of subjects with severe VI and no cases of blindness. Myopia was more common than hyperopia affecting 59.5 % of those with refractive error compared to 27.4 % for hyperopia. High myopia (<-5.0 DS) was also more common than extreme hyperopia (>+5.0 DS). Of those who needed distance spectacles (spectacle coverage), 25.5 % owned spectacles. In conclusion, the oldest, most poor and least educated are most likely to have no spectacles and they should be specifically targeted when refractive services are put in place.

  17. Use of Antibiotics and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Knop, Filip Krag; Frost, Morten; Hallas, Jesper; Pottegård, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Context and objective: Evidence that bacteria in the human gut may influence nutrient metabolism is accumulating. We investigated whether use of antibiotics influences the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and whether the effect can be attributed to specific types of antibiotics. Methods: We conducted a population-based case-control study of incident type 2 diabetes cases in Denmark (population 5.6 million) between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2012. Data from the Danish National Registry of Patients, the Danish National Prescription Registry, and the Danish Person Registry were combined. Results: The odds ratio (OR) associating type 2 diabetes with exposure to antibiotics of any type was 1.53 (95% confidence interval 1.50–1.55) with redemption of more than or equal to 5 versus 0–1 prescriptions. Although no individual group of antibiotics was specifically associated with type 2 diabetes risk, slightly higher ORs for type 2 diabetes were seen with narrow-spectrum and bactericidal antibiotics (OR 1.55 and 1.48) compared to broad-spectrum and bacteriostatic types of antibiotics (OR 1.31 and 1.39), respectively. A clear dose-response effect was seen with increasing cumulative load of antibiotics. The increased use of antibiotics in patients with type 2 diabetes was found up to 15 years before diagnosis of type 2 diabetes as well as after the diagnosis. Conclusions: Our results could support the possibility that antibiotics exposure increases type 2 diabetes risk. However, the findings may also represent an increased demand for antibiotics from increased risk of infections in patients with yet-undiagnosed diabetes. PMID:26312581

  18. Sex prevalence of major congenital anomalies in the United Kingdom: A national population-based study and international comparison meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sokal, Rachel; Tata, Laila J; Fleming, Kate M

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess sex differences in major congenital anomaly (CA) diagnoses within a national population sample; to examine the influence of sociodemographic and maternal factors on these risks; and to conduct a meta-analysis using estimates from other population-based studies. Methods We conducted a population-based study in a United Kingdom research database of prospectively collected primary care data (The Health Improvement Network) including children born 1990 to 2009 (n = 794,169) and identified major CA diagnoses using EUROCAT (European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies) classification. Prevalence ratios (PR) were used to estimate the risk of CA in males compared with females for any CA, system-specific subgroups and specific CA diagnoses. In a subpopulation of children whose medical records were linked to their mothers', we assessed the effect of adjusting for sociodemographic and maternal factors on sex odds ratios. PRs were pooled with measures from previously published studies. Results The prevalence of any CA was 307/10,000 in males (95% CI, 302–313) and 243/10,000 in females (95% CI, 238–248). Overall the risk of any CA was 26% greater in males (PR (male: female) 1.26, 95% CI, 1.23–1.30) however there was considerable variation across specific diagnoses. The magnitude and direction of risk did not change for any specific CA upon adjustment for sociodemographic and maternal factors. Our PRs were highly consistent with those from previous studies. Conclusion The overall risk of CA is greater in males than females, although this masked substantial variation by specific diagnoses. Sociodemographic and maternal factors do not appear to affect these risks. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 100:79–91, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24523198

  19. Association of Overweight with the Prevalence of Lifetime Psychiatric Disorders and Suicidality: General Population-based Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies suggest that overweight is associated with an elevated risk of psychiatric disorders and suicidal tendency. However, findings vary across studies, and some have contradictory results. We investigated the relationship of overweight with a range of psychiatric disorders and suicidality in the Korean general population. A multistage cluster sampling design was adopted. A total of 6,022 participants aged 18–74 years completed face-to-face interviews (response rate: 78.7%) including assessment of psychiatric disorders, suicidality, and height and weight. Overweight (defined as body mass index of ≥ 25) was associated with an increase in the lifetime prevalence of depressive disorders (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07–1.77), suicidal ideation (AOR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.20–1.68), and suicidal plans (AOR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.02–2.03), controlling for sociodemographic variables. Subgroup analysis found that the association between overweight and depressive disorders exists only in women aged 18–44 years (AOR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.07–2.89) while the association of overweight with suicidal ideation (AOR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.53–2.82) and suicide plans (AOR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.25–5.37) existed only in men aged 18–44 years. Overweight was associated with increased odds of nicotine use disorders in women aged 18–44 years (AOR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.02–5.43), but the association was in the opposite direction in men aged 45–74 years (AOR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.43–0.94). In conclusion, overweight is related to various psychiatric disorders and suicidality in Korea. Policy makers and clinicians should pay more attention to the mental health of overweight individuals. PMID:27709862

  20. Obesity and overweight prevalence and its association with undiagnosed hypertension in Shanghai population, China: a cross-sectional population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinjian; Xu, Jiying; Yao, Haihong; Guo, Yanfei; Chen, Minna; Lu, Wei

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obese subjects in the Shanghai population of China and its association with undiagnosed hypertension, by taking age, gender and place of residence (urban or suburban) into account. A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted in 2007. The sample included 13,359 participants aged 15-69 years.Weight, height, and blood pressure were recorded, and information about gender, age and place of residence was obtained. Overweight and obesity prevalence were calculated by the body mass index (BMI) definition recommended by Working Group on Obesity in China (normal weight, 18.5-23.9 kg/m(2); overweight, 24-27.9 kg/m(2); obesity, ≥ 28 kg/m(2)). Undiagnosed hypertension was defined by China criteria in accord with that of WHO-ISH (subjects with systolic pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, and/or diastolic pressure ≥ 90 mmHg). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association of overweight or obesity with undiagnosed hypertension by adjusting for age, gender and place of residence. The overall overweight, obesity, and undiagnosed hypertension prevalence were 27.6% (95% CI: 26.8-28.4), 6.6% (95% CI: 6.2-7.0), and 15.5% (95% CI: 14.9-16.1), respectively. Compared to normal weight subjects, the odds ratios (OR) for subjects who were overweight and had hypertension was 2.33 (95% CI: 2.10-2.59); that for obesity and hypertension was 4.27 (95% CI: 3.66-4.99). These data suggest that overweight and obesity prevalence and their association with undiagnosed hypertension are high in our study population.

  1. Japanese secular trends in birthweight and the prevalence of low birthweight infants during the last three decades: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Yo; Ota, Erika; Yoneoka, Daisuke; Mori, Rintaro; Takeda, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Since low birthweight has been correlated with both neonatal and long-term health, we performed this epidemiological study to evaluate the Japanese secular trends in mean birthweight and the prevalence of preterm/term low birthweight infants during the last three decades. We used population-based birth certificate data from January 1979 to December 2010. Time trends were analysed using a linear regression model. During the study period, we observed a significant decrease in the mean birthweight for singleton live births (3,152 ± 436 g in 1979 and 3,018 ± 421 g in 2010 p < 0.001) and an increase in the prevalence of preterm/term low birthweight infants. A 96.3% increase in the proportion of term low birthweight infants was observed during the study period (2.7% in 1979 and 5.3% in 2010). In addition, an increased proportion of preterm/low birthweight infants born to younger women was observed (<35 years vs. ≥35 years). These trends may be related to changing patterns in Japanese women's nutritional status and the relatively strict recommended limit on weight gain during pregnancy. Understanding the long-term trends for singleton births may allow us to identify the associated risk factors and reduce the future socioeconomic burden that is associated with low birthweight infants. PMID:27503177

  2. Japanese secular trends in birthweight and the prevalence of low birthweight infants during the last three decades: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Yo; Ota, Erika; Yoneoka, Daisuke; Mori, Rintaro; Takeda, Satoru

    2016-08-09

    Since low birthweight has been correlated with both neonatal and long-term health, we performed this epidemiological study to evaluate the Japanese secular trends in mean birthweight and the prevalence of preterm/term low birthweight infants during the last three decades. We used population-based birth certificate data from January 1979 to December 2010. Time trends were analysed using a linear regression model. During the study period, we observed a significant decrease in the mean birthweight for singleton live births (3,152 ± 436 g in 1979 and 3,018 ± 421 g in 2010 p < 0.001) and an increase in the prevalence of preterm/term low birthweight infants. A 96.3% increase in the proportion of term low birthweight infants was observed during the study period (2.7% in 1979 and 5.3% in 2010). In addition, an increased proportion of preterm/low birthweight infants born to younger women was observed (<35 years vs. ≥35 years). These trends may be related to changing patterns in Japanese women's nutritional status and the relatively strict recommended limit on weight gain during pregnancy. Understanding the long-term trends for singleton births may allow us to identify the associated risk factors and reduce the future socioeconomic burden that is associated with low birthweight infants.

  3. Japanese secular trends in birthweight and the prevalence of low birthweight infants during the last three decades: A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Takemoto, Yo; Ota, Erika; Yoneoka, Daisuke; Mori, Rintaro; Takeda, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Since low birthweight has been correlated with both neonatal and long-term health, we performed this epidemiological study to evaluate the Japanese secular trends in mean birthweight and the prevalence of preterm/term low birthweight infants during the last three decades. We used population-based birth certificate data from January 1979 to December 2010. Time trends were analysed using a linear regression model. During the study period, we observed a significant decrease in the mean birthweight for singleton live births (3,152 ± 436 g in 1979 and 3,018 ± 421 g in 2010 p < 0.001) and an increase in the prevalence of preterm/term low birthweight infants. A 96.3% increase in the proportion of term low birthweight infants was observed during the study period (2.7% in 1979 and 5.3% in 2010). In addition, an increased proportion of preterm/low birthweight infants born to younger women was observed (<35 years vs. ≥35 years). These trends may be related to changing patterns in Japanese women’s nutritional status and the relatively strict recommended limit on weight gain during pregnancy. Understanding the long-term trends for singleton births may allow us to identify the associated risk factors and reduce the future socioeconomic burden that is associated with low birthweight infants. PMID:27503177

  4. Prevalence of DSM-IV disorders in a population-based sample of 5- to 8-year-old children: the impact of impairment criteria.

    PubMed

    Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; van der Ende, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2015-11-01

    This study determined the impact of impairment criteria on the prevalence and patterns of comorbidity of child DSM-IV disorders. The validity of these impairment criteria was tested against different measures of mental health care referral and utilization. We interviewed parents of 1,154 children aged 5-8 years in-depth using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, to establish DSM-IV diagnosis. These children were randomly selected or oversampled based on Child Behavior Checklist ratings from a large population-based study (N = 6,172). Referral data were extracted from the psychiatric interview as well as from a follow-up questionnaire. The results showed an overall prevalence of DSM-IV disorders of 31.1 % when impairment was not considered. This rate declined to 22.9 % when mild impairment was required and declined even further, to 10.3 %, for more severe levels of impairment. Similarly, the overall comorbidity rate declined from 8.5 to 6.7 and 2.7 % when mild and severe impairment were required, respectively. Virtually all children who attained symptom thresholds for a specific disorder, and had been referred to a mental health care professional because of the associated symptoms, also had mild impairment. The requirement of severe impairment criteria significantly increased diagnostic thresholds, but for most disorders, this definition captured only half of the clinically referred cases. In conclusion, prevalence was highly dependent upon the criteria used to define impairment. If severe impairment is made a diagnostic requirement, many children with psychiatric symptoms and mild impairment seeking mental health care will be undiagnosed and possibly untreated.

  5. Population-based cohort study of anti-infective medication use before and after the onset of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fazeli Farsani, Soulmaz; Souverein, Patrick C; van der Vorst, Marja M J; Knibbe, Catherijne A J; de Boer, Anthonius; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K

    2014-08-01

    A population-based cohort study was conducted in the Dutch PHARMO database to investigate prevalence and patterns of anti-infective medication use in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) before and after the onset of this disease. All patients <19 years with at least 2 insulin prescriptions (1999 to 2009) were identified (T1D cohort) and compared with an age- and sex-matched (ratio: 1 up to 4) diabetes-free reference group. The prevalence and average number of anti-infective use was studied from (up to) 8 years before until a maximum of 4 years after the onset of T1D. A total of 925 patients with T1D and 3,591 children and adolescents in the reference cohort (51% boys, mean age of 10.1 [standard deviation, 4.5] years) were included. The overall prevalence of anti-infective use (62.6 compared to 52.6%, P < 0.001) and average number of prescriptions (2.71 compared to 1.42 per child, P < 0.001) in the T1D cohort were significantly higher than those in the reference cohort after the onset of diabetes. This pattern was consistent across sex and age categories and already observed in the year before the onset of type 1 diabetes. Patients in the T1D cohort received more antibacterials (49.8 compared to 40%, P < 0.001), antimycotics (4.0 compared to 1.3%, P < 0.001), antivirals (2.5 compared to 0.4%, P < 0.001), and second-line antibiotics, such as aminoglycosides, quinolones, and third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems. Our findings that elevated anti-infective use in the T1D cohort exists in the period before the onset of type 1 diabetes and the consumption of more second-line anti-infective compounds in this time period warrant further research.

  6. Does Sitagliptin Affect the Rate of Osteoporotic Fractures in Type 2 Diabetes? Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Josse, Robert G.; Lin, Mu; Eurich, Dean T.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Type 2 diabetes and osteoporosis are both common, chronic, and increase with age, whereas type 2 diabetes is also a risk factor for major osteoporotic fractures (MOFs). However, different treatments for type 2 diabetes can affect fracture risk differently, with metaanalyses showing some agents increase risk (eg, thiazolidinediones) and some reduce risk (eg, sitagliptin). Objective: To determine the independent association between new use of sitagliptin and MOF in a large population-based cohort study. Design, Setting, and Subjects: A sitagliptin new user study design employing a nationally representative Unites States claims database of 72 738 insured patients with type 2 diabetes. We used 90-day time-varying sitagliptin exposure windows and controlled confounding by using multivariable analyses that adjusted for clinical data, comorbidities, and time-updated propensity scores. Main Outcomes: We compared the incidence of MOF (hip, clinical spine, proximal humerus, distal radius) in new users of sitagliptin vs nonusers over a median 2.2 years follow-up. Results: At baseline, the median age was 52 years, 54% were men, and median A1c was 7.5%. There were 8894 new users of sitagliptin and 63 834 nonusers with a total 181 139 person-years of follow-up. There were 741 MOF (79 hip fractures), with 53 fractures (4.8 per 1000 person-years) among new users of sitagliptin vs 688 fractures (4.0 per 1000 person-years) among nonusers (P = .3 for difference). In multivariable analyses, sitagliptin was not associated with fracture (adjusted hazard ratio 1.1, 95% confidence interval 0.8–1.4; P = .7), although insulin (P < .001), sulfonylureas (P < .008), and thiazolidinedione (P = .019) were each independently associated with increased fracture risk. Conclusions: Even in a young population with type 2 diabetes, osteoporotic fractures were not uncommon. New use of sitagliptin was not associated with fracture, but other commonly used second-line agents for type 2 diabetes

  7. The Prevalence, Clinical, and Molecular Characteristics of Congenital Hypothyroidism Caused by DUOX2 Mutations: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Guangzhou.

    PubMed

    Tan, M; Huang, Y; Jiang, X; Li, P; Tang, C; Jia, X; Chen, Q; Chen, W; Sheng, H; Feng, Y; Wu, D; Liu, L

    2016-09-01

    Thyroid dyshormonogenesis (DH) has recently been reported to be more frequently associated with mutations in the dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2) gene. The present study was aimed to investigate the prevalence, clinical, and molecular characteristics of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) caused by DUOX2 mutations in Guangzhou. A population-based cohort of 156 patients with CH was recruited based on neonatal screening among 433 578 newborns born in Guangzhou from 2011 to 2012. Genetic analysis of DUOX2 was performed in 96 patients with suspected thyroid dyshormonogenesis (SDH) by PCR-amplified direct sequencing. Apart from 2 cases without ultrasonographic data, 118 (76.6%) of the 156 patients were classified as SDH and 36 (23.4%) as thyroid dysgenesis (TD) according to thyroid ultrasound at diagnosis. Genetic analysis revealed 23 different variants in 60 unrelated individuals (60/96, 62.5%), including 13 novel variants that were absent from HGMD, dbSNP databases, and the 50 normal controls. The novel missense variants were predicted to be pathogenic by SIFT and PolyPhen-2. The p.K530X was the most common mutation. Ninety-three percent of mutant alleles occurred in exons 5, 6, 9, 14, 17, 20, 25, 27, and 28. There were no significant differences in phenotypes between biallelic and monoallelic variants cases or between with-DUOX2 and non-DUOX2 variants cases. Most patients with DUOX2 defects (78.2%) were transient CH. In conclusion, the prevalence of DUOX2 pathogenic variants was high (62.5%) in this cohort. Thirteen novel probably pathologic variants were reported. The p.K530X was the most common mutation in the Chinese population. There was no correlation between DUOX2 genotypes and clinical phenotypes. PMID:27557340

  8. Estimating the prevalence and burden of major disorders of the brain in Nepal: methodology of a nationwide population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The major disorders of the brain (MDBs), in terms of their prevalence and the burdens of ill health, disability and financial cost that they impose on individuals and society, are headache, depression and anxiety. No population-based studies have been conducted in Nepal. Aim Our purpose was to assess the prevalence and burden attributable to MDBs in Nepal in order to inform health policy. Here we report the methodology. Methods The unusual sociocultural diversity and extreme geographical variation of the country required adaptation of standard methodology. We ran pre-pilot and pilot studies before embarking on the main study. The study design was cross-sectional. The population of interest were adults aged 18–65 years who were Nepali speaking and living in Nepal. We selected, employed and trained groups of interviewers to visit randomly selected households by cold-calling. Households were selected from 15 representative districts out of 75 in the country through multistage cluster sampling. One participant was selected randomly from each household. We used structured questionnaires (the HARDSHIP questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire -Neuroticism), culturally adapted and translated into Nepali. We recorded blood pressure, weight, height and waist circumference, and altitude of each household. We implemented various quality-assurances measures. Results We completed the survey in one month, prior to onset of the monsoon. Among 2,210 selected households, all were contacted, 2,109 were eligible for the study and, from these, 2,100 adults participated. The participation rate was 99.6%. Conclusion Standard methodology was successfully applied in Nepal, with some adaptations. The sociocultural and extraordinary geographic diversity were challenging, but did not require us to compromise the scientific quality of the study. PMID:25146939

  9. Diabetes Self-Management Education Patterns in a US Population-based Cohort of Youth with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Jaacks, Lindsay M.; Bell, Ronny A.; Dabelea, Dana; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Dolan, Lawrence M.; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Klingensmith, Georgeanna; Lawrence, Jean M.; Saydah, Sharon; Yi-Frazier, Joyce; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to describe: 1) the receipt of diabetes self-management education (DSME) in a large, diverse cohort of US youth with type 1 diabetes (T1DM); 2) the segregation of self-reported DSME variables into domains; and 3) the demographic and clinical characteristics of youth who receive DSME. Methods Data are from the US population-based cohort, SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth. A cross-sectional analysis was employed using data from 1273 youth < 20 years of age at time of diagnosis of T1DM. Clusters of 19 self-reported DSME variables were derived using factor analysis and their associations with demographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated using polytomous logistic regression. Results Nearly all participants reported receiving DSME content consistent with ‘survival skills’ (e.g., target blood glucose and what to do for low or high blood glucose), yet gaps in continuing education were identified [e.g., fewer than half of participants reported receiving specific medical nutrition therapy (MNT) recommendations]. Five DSME clusters were explored: Receipt of Specific MNT Recommendations, Receipt of Diabetes Information Resources, Receipt of Clinic Visit Information, Receipt of Specific Diabetes Information, and Met with Educator or Nutritionist. Factor scores were significantly associated with demographic and clinical characteristics, including race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and diabetes self-management practices. Conclusions Health care providers should work together to address reported gaps in DSME in order to improve patient care. PMID:24248833

  10. Hypertension in the very old; prevalence, awareness, treatment and control: a cross-sectional population-based study in a Spanish municipality

    PubMed Central

    Aguado, Alba; López, Flora; Miravet, Sonia; Oriol, Pilar; Fuentes, M Isabel; Henares, Belén; Badia, Teresa; Esteve, Lluis; Peligro, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Background Information on hypertension in the very elderly is sparse. Until recently evidence of benefits from pharmacological treatment was inconclusive. We estimated the prevalence of hypertension in subjects aged 80 or more, the proportion of awareness, treatment and control. Explanatory variables associated with good control were also studied. Methods Cross sectional, population-based study, conducted in Martorell, an urban Spanish municipality, in 2005. By simple random sampling from the census, 323 subjects aged 80 or more were included. Patients were visited at home or in the geriatric institution and after giving informed consent, the study variables were collected. These included: supine and standing blood pressure and information about diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. The estimation and 95% confidence interval were obtained and a logistic regression model was used to study explanatory variables associated with blood pressure below 140/90 mm Hg. Results The prevalence of hypertension was 72.8% (95%CI: 69.5 – 76.6%) and 93% of the patients were aware of this condition, of whom 96.3% (95%CI: 93.65 – 97.9%) had been prescribed pharmacological treatment and 30.7% (95%CI: 25.8 – 36.1%) had blood pressure below 140/90 mm Hg. Some of the patients (43%) had one antihypertensive drug and 39.5% had two in combination. Explanatory variables associated with blood pressure below 140/90 mm Hg included prescription of a diuretic, OR: 0.31 (95%CI: 0.14 – 0.66), and history of ischemic heart disease, OR: 0.21 (95%CI: 0.1 – 0.47). Conclusion The prevalence of hypertension in population aged 80 or more was over 70%. Most patients were aware of this condition and they had antihypertensive medication prescribed. Approximately one third of treated patients had blood pressure below 140/90 mm Hg. Patients with heart disease and with diuretics had more frequently blood pressure below this value. PMID:19426484

  11. National surveillance for type 1, type 2 diabetes and prediabetes among children and adolescents: a population-based study (SAUDI-DM)

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of data on the national prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes among youth. The Saudi Abnormal Glucose Metabolism and Diabetes Impact Study (SAUDI-DM) was used to assess the prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes as well as impaired fasting glucose (IFG) among children and adolescents. Methods Sociodemographic, anthropometric and clinical data were collected through a nationwide household randomly selected 23 523 children and adolescents aged ≤18 years. Known participants with diabetes were classified according to their diabetes type, while participants without diabetes were subjected to fasting plasma glucose assessment and patients with diabetes were identified using the American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria. All the studied participants were tested for lipid parameters. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess different risk factors. Results The overall prevalence of diabetes was 10.84%, of which 0.45% were known type 1 and type 2 patients with diabetes and 10.39% were either newly identified cases of diabetes (4.27%) or IFG (6.12%) with more than 90% of the participants with diabetes being unaware of their disease. The prevalence of known type 1 and type 2 diabetes as well as the newly identified cases was higher than what has been reported internationally. Age, male gender, obesity, urban residency, high family income and presence of dyslipidaemia were found to be significant risk factors for diabetes and IFG. Conclusions Diabetes and IFG are highly prevalent in this society with the majority of the patients being unaware of their disease, which warrants urgent adoption of early detection, treatment and prevention programmes. PMID:26085648

  12. Blood pressure and complications in individuals with type 2 diabetes and no previous cardiovascular disease: national population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gudbjörnsdottir, Soffia; Manhem, Karin; Rosengren, Annika; Svensson, Ann-Marie; Miftaraj, Mervete; Franzén, Stefan; Björck, Staffan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare the risk associated with systolic blood pressure that meets current recommendations (that is, below 140 mm Hg) with the risk associated with lower levels in patients who have type 2 diabetes and no previous cardiovascular disease. Design Population based cohort study with nationwide clinical registries, 2006-12. The mean follow-up was 5.0 years. Setting 861 Swedish primary care units and hospital outpatient clinics. Participants 187 106 patients registered in the Swedish national diabetes register who had had type 2 diabetes for at least a year, age 75 or younger, and with no previous cardiovascular or other major disease. Main outcome measures Clinical events were obtained from the hospital discharge and death registers with respect to acute myocardial infarction, stroke, a composite of acute myocardial infarction and stroke (cardiovascular disease), coronary heart disease, heart failure, and total mortality. Hazard ratios were estimated for different levels of baseline systolic blood pressure with clinical characteristics and drug prescription data as covariates. Results The group with the lowest systolic blood pressure (110-119 mm Hg) had a significantly lower risk of non-fatal acute myocardial infarction (adjusted hazard ratio 0.76, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 0.91; P=0.003), total acute myocardial infarction (0.85, 0.72 to 0.99; P=0.04), non-fatal cardiovascular disease (0.82, 0.72 to 0.93; P=0.002), total cardiovascular disease (0.88, 0.79 to 0.99; P=0.04), and non-fatal coronary heart disease (0.88, 0.78 to 0.99; P=0.03) compared with the reference group (130-139 mm Hg). There was no indication of a J shaped relation between systolic blood pressure and the endpoints, with the exception of heart failure and total mortality. Conclusions Lower systolic blood pressure than currently recommended is associated with significantly lower risk of cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes. The association between low

  13. Prevalence and determinants of osteoporosis in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased risk of osteoporosis and its clinical significance in patients with diabetes is controversial. We analyze osteoporosis prevalence and determinants of bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes. Methods Three hundred and ninety-eight consecutive diabetic patients from a single outpatient clinic received a standardized questionnaire on osteoporosis risk factors, and were evaluated for diabetes-related complications, HbA1c levels, and lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) BMD. Of these, 139 (71 men, 68 women) type 1 and 243 (115 men, 128 women) type 2 diabetes patients were included in the study. BMD (T-scores and values adjusted for age, BMI and duration of disease) was compared between patient groups and between patients with type 2 diabetes and population-based controls (255 men, 249 women). Results For both genders, adjusted BMD was not different between the type 1 and type 2 diabetes groups but was higher in the type 2 group compared with controls (p < 0.0001). Osteoporosis prevalence (BMD T-score < −2.5 SD) at FN and LS was equivalent in the type 1 and type 2 diabetes groups, but lower in type 2 patients compared with controls (FN: 13.0% vs 21.2%, LS: 6.1% vs 14.9% men; FN: 21.9% vs 32.1%, LS: 9.4% vs 26.9% women). Osteoporosis prevalence was higher at FN-BMD than at LS-BMD. BMD was positively correlated with BMI and negatively correlated with age, but not correlated with diabetes-specific parameters (therapy, HbBA1c, micro- and macrovascular complications) in all subgroups. Fragility fracture prevalence was low (5.2%) and not different between diabetes groups. Fracture patients had lower BMDs compared with those without fractures; however, BMD T-score was above −2.5 SD in most patients. Conclusions Diabetes-specific parameters did not predict BMD. Fracture occurrence was similar in both diabetes groups and related to lower BMD, but seems unrelated to the threshold T-score, <−2.5 SD. These results

  14. Somatic Symptoms: Prevalence, Co-Occurrence and Associations with Self-Perceived Health and Limitations Due To Physical Health - A Danish Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Eliasen, Marie; Kreiner, Svend; Ebstrup, Jeanette F; Poulsen, Chalotte H; Lau, Cathrine J; Skovbjerg, Sine; Fink, Per K; Jørgensen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    A high number of somatic symptoms have been associated with poor health status and increased health care use. Previous studies focused on number of symptoms without considering the specific symptoms. The aim of the study was to investigate 1) the prevalence of 19 somatic symptoms, 2) the associations between the symptoms, and 3) the associations between the somatic symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health accounting for the co-occurrence of symptoms. Information on 19 somatic symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health was achieved from a population-based questionnaire survey of 36,163 randomly selected adults in the Capital Region of Denmark in 2006/07. Chain graph models were used to transparently identify and describe the associations between symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health. In total, 94.9% of the respondents were bothered by one or more of the 19 somatic symptoms. The symptoms were associated in a complex structure. Still, recognisable patterns were identified within organ systems/body parts. When accounting for symptom co-occurrence; dizziness, pain in legs, respiratory distress and tiredness were all strongly directly associated with both of the outcomes (γ>0.30). Chest pain was strongly associated with self-perceived health, and other musculoskeletal symptoms and urinary retention were strongly associated with limitations due to physical health. Other symptoms were either moderate or not statistically associated with the health status outcomes. Opposite, almost all the symptoms were strongly associated with the two outcomes when not accounting for symptom co-occurrence. In conclusion, we found that somatic symptoms were frequent and associated in a complex structure. The associations between symptoms and health status measures differed between the symptoms and depended on the co-occurrence of symptoms. This indicates an importance of considering both the specific

  15. Prevalence and contribution of BRCA1 mutations in breast cancer and ovarian cancer: Results from three US population-based case-control studies of ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Whittemore, A.S.; Gong, G.; Itnyre, J.

    1997-03-01

    We investigate the familial risks of cancers of the breast and ovary, using data pooled from three population-based case-control studies of ovarian cancer that were conducted in the United States. We base estimates of the frequency of mutations of BRCA1 (and possibly other genes) on the reported occurrence of breast cancer and ovarian cancer in the mothers and sisters of 922 women with incident ovarian cancer (cases) and in 922 women with no history of ovarian cancer (controls). Segregation analysis and goodness-of-fit testing of genetic models suggest that rare mutations (frequency .0014; 95% confidence interval .0002-.011) account for all the observed aggregation of breast cancer and ovarian cancer in these families. The estimated risk of breast cancer by age 80 years is 73.5% in mutation carriers and 6.8% in noncarriers. The corresponding estimates for ovarian cancer are 27.8% in carriers and 1.8% in noncarriers. For cancer risk in carriers, these estimates are lower than those obtained from families selected for high cancer prevalence. The estimated proportion of all U.S. cancer diagnoses, by age 80 years, that are due to germ-line BRCA1 mutations is 3.0% for breast cancer and 4.4% for ovarian cancer. Aggregation of breast cancer and ovarian cancer was less evident in the families of 169 cases with borderline ovarian cancers than in the families of cases with invasive cancers. Familial aggregation did not differ by the ethnicity of the probands, although the number of non-White and Hispanic cases (N = 99) was sparse. 14 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Validating prediction scales of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Spain: the SPREDIA-2 population-based prospective cohort study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Salinero-Fort, Miguel Ángel; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen; Mostaza Prieto, José; Lahoz Rallo, Carlos; Abánades-Herranz, Juan Carlos; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; Laguna Cuesta, Fernando; Estirado De Cabo, Eva; García Iglesias, Francisca; González Alegre, Teresa; Fernández Puntero, Belén; Montesano Sánchez, Luis; Vicent López, David; Cornejo Del Río, Víctor; Fernández García, Pedro J; Sabín Rodríguez, Concesa; López López, Silvia; Patrón Barandío, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing worldwide. When diagnosed, many patients already have organ damage or advance subclinical atherosclerosis. An early diagnosis could allow the implementation of lifestyle changes and treatment options aimed at delaying the progression of the disease and to avoid cardiovascular complications. Different scores for identifying undiagnosed diabetes have been reported, however, their performance in populations of southern Europe has not been sufficiently evaluated. The main objectives of our study are: to evaluate the screening performance and cut-off points of the main scores that identify the risk of undiagnosed T2DM and prediabetes in a Spanish population, and to develop and validate our own predictive models of undiagnosed T2DM (screening model), and future T2DM (prediction risk model) after 5-year follow-up. As a secondary objective, we will evaluate the atherosclerotic burden of the population with undiagnosed T2DM. Methods and analysis Population-based prospective cohort study with baseline screening, to evaluate the performance of the FINDRISC, DANISH, DESIR, ARIC and QDScore, against the gold standard tests: Fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance and/or HbA1c. The sample size will include 1352 participants between the ages of 45 and 74 years. Analysis: sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, likelihood ratio positive, likelihood ratio negative and receiver operating characteristic curves and area under curve. Binary logistic regression for the first 700 individuals (derivation) and last 652 (validation) will be performed. All analyses will be calculated with their 95% CI; statistical significance will be p<0.05. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol has been approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Carlos III Hospital (Madrid). The score performance and predictive model will be presented in medical conferences, workshops

  17. Increased Risk of Dementia in Patients with Tension-Type Headache: A Nationwide Retrospective Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fu-Chi; Lin, Te-Yu; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Lin, Chun-Chieh; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The association between primary headaches, including tension-type headache (TTH) as one of the most common primary headache disorders, and dementia remains controversial. In this nationwide, population-based, retrospective, cohort study, we explored the potential association between TTH and dementia and examined sex, age, and comorbidities as risk factors for dementia. Methods Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) claims data, the sample included 13908 subjects aged ≥20 years with newly-diagnosed TTH in 2000–2006. The non-TTH group included 55632 randomly selected sex- and age-matched TTH-free individuals. All subjects were followed until dementia diagnosis, death, or the end of 2011. Patients with dementia, including vascular and non-vascular (including Alzheimer’s) subtypes, were identified using International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the risk of dementia and dementia-associated risk factors, such as migraine and other medical comorbidities. Results During the average follow-up of 8.14 years, the incidence density rates of dementia were 5.30 and 3.68/1,000 person-years in the TTH and non-TTH groups, respectively. Compared with the non-TTH group, the risks of dementia were 1.25 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11–1.42) and 1.13 (95% CI, 1.01–1.27) times higher in the women and >65-year-old TTH group, respectively. TTH patients with comorbidities had a higher risk of dementia. TTH patients had a greater risk of non-vascular dementia (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.09–1.34) than the non-TTH group. Conclusion TTH patients have a future risk of dementia, indicating a potentially linked disease pathophysiology that warrants further study. The association between TTH and dementia is greater in women, older adults, and with comorbidities. Clinicians should be aware of potential dementia comorbidity in

  18. Type 2 diabetes and the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a report from two population-based cohort studies in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wan-Shui; Li, Hong-Lan; Xu, Hong-Li; Yang, Gong; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2016-03-01

    Coinciding with the increased incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) during the past decades, there has been a significant increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in mainland China. We therefore evaluated whether type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with the risk of NHL using data from the Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS) and the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS). The SMHS and SWHS are two on-going, prospective, population-based cohorts of more than 130 000 Chinese adults in urban Shanghai. Self-reported diabetes was recorded on the baseline questionnaire and updated in follow-up surveys. Cox regression models with T2D as a time-varying exposure were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals, adjusting for covariates. After a median follow-up of 12.9 years for SWHS and 7.4 years for SMHS, 172 NHL cases were identified. Patients with T2D have a higher risk of incident NHL with a hazard ratio of 2.00 (95% confidence interval: 1.32-3.03) compared with those without diabetes. This positive association remained when the analysis was restricted to untreated diabetes or after excluding NHL cases that occurred within 3 years after the onset of diabetes. No interaction effect was found in the development of NHL between T2D and other potential risk factors. A linear inverse association was found between T2D duration and the risk of NHL in both men and women (Pfor linearity<0.01), with a highest risk of incident NHL in the first 5 years after the diagnosis of diabetes. Our study suggested that T2D might be associated with an increased risk of NHL. PMID:25793918

  19. Psychotropic drugs and driving: prevalence and types

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Some psychotropic medications (e.g., benzodiazepines, sedative antidepressants, etc.) may impair cognitive and psychomotor functions and, therefore, endanger traffic safety (Ravera, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 72(3):505–513, 2011). They affect detection, registration, and information processing, problem solving, and decision-making processes, and they also affect emotional and social aspects. The objective of this research was to clarify three closely related issues that are significant for traffic safety: the prevalence of psychotropic drugs on driving, the most frequently used psychotropic drugs to treat depression, anxiety, insomnia, or any tranquilizers (whether it is a medical prescription or self-medication), and finally, provide a further understanding of the socio-demographic and psycho-social characteristics of drivers related to the psychotropic drugs consumption in Spain. Methods A sample of 1,200 Spanish drivers ranging from 18 to 64 years was used, 666 men and 534 women were asked to answer a questionnaire composed by a set of questions structured in different sections. The only selection criteria were to be in possession of any type of driving license for vehicles other than motorcycles and drive frequently. Results The results showed that 15% of the participants were consuming psychotropic drugs to treat depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, insomnia, or tranquilizers; 13.5% were using drugs to treat one of these disorders; while 1.5% used them for several of these disorders. A 2.5% of drivers were using medicines to treat depression, 2.6% to treat anxiety, and 3.7% to treat insomnia. The 8.3% of those drivers who were not using any drugs to treat these three disorders were occasionally using some type of tranquilizers. Benzodiazepines and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were the most used type of medicines among drivers. Benzodiazepines were the most used medicines to treat anxiety, while SSRIs were the most used to treat

  20. A Population-based Screening of Type 2 Diabetes in High-risk Population of Yasuj, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Yazdanpanah, Behrouz; Yazdanpanah, Behzad; Mobasheri, Ali

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Complications associated with diabetes can be prevented by early diagnostics. A high-risk population was screened for diabetes, and the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus (DM) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) were used for examining the impacts of lifestyle, social and anthropometric features, and other risk factors. The target population comprised 30-65 years old residents from the western suburbs of Yasuj. Homes were approached, and a standard questionnaire was used for collecting information on sex, blood pressure, weight, height, and BMI for each participant. The high-risk participants were recognized according to the National Diabetes Prevention and Control Committee criteria and were introduced to an assigned laboratory. Blood samples were collected after 12-hour fasting for the measurement of total cholesterol, triglycerides and fasting glucose levels. The statistical analysis was performed with the SPSS statistical package, using a logistic regression model. Out of 2,569 individuals, 1,336 (52%) were with high-risk diabetes, 71.5% were female, and 28.5% were male. Of 191 (7.4%) individuals with known diabetes, 5 (2.6%) had type 1 diabetes; 881 (66.9%) out of 1,336 high-risk individuals were referred to assigned laboratory. Of 881 high-risk individuals, 157 (17.8%) had fasting blood sugar (FBS) ≥126 mg/dL and 118 (13.4%) had FBS between110 and 125 mg/dL. Percentages of participants with triglyceride ≥150 mg/dL and cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL were 298 (33.8%) and 207 (23.5%) respectively. Diabetes was associated with ageing, dyslipidaemia, family history of diabetes, lower physical activity on occupation, intake of lower dietary fibre, and non-literacy in the sampled population. This study suggests that diabetes is a common health problem in this area. Furthermore, considerable rate of newly-diagnosed diabetes signifies the importance of the screening programme. PMID:25895201

  1. Regional differences in diabetes prevalence and awareness between coastal and interior provinces in China: a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most studies on diabetes prevalence and awareness in China are regional or about a single province, and differences between coastal and interior provinces have not been discussed even in the nation-based studies. The aim of this study was to determine regional differences in diabetes prevalence and awareness between coastal and interior provinces, and to identify the factors associated with diabetes prevalence and awareness. Methods Provinces Fujian and Shaanxi were chosen to represent the coastal and interior provinces, respectively. The data of two provinces were from the China National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study 2007–08. A total of 5926 people (Fujian 2672 and Shaanxi 3254) aged above 20 years were included as participants in the study. Age-standardized prevalence and awareness were compared between provinces. Logistic regression analysis was performed not only to examine risk factors of diabetes prevalence and awareness, but also to examine the association between regional difference and diabetes prevalence and awareness. Results The age-standardized prevalence of diabetes in Fujian was higher than that in Shaanxi among total (11.5% vs. 8.0%), male (13.6% vs. 8.9%) and female (10.8% vs. 7.4%) populations. Diabetes awareness for total and male population in Fujian was higher than that in Shaanxi (42.3% vs. 34.9% and 46.8% vs. 35.2%, respectively). Age, sex, central obesity, family history of diabetes, and metabolic risk factors were all significantly associated with diabetes prevalence in both provinces. However, cigarette smoking was significantly associated with prevalence in Fujian and physical activity was significantly associated with the prevalence in Shaanxi. Family history of diabetes was the only independent risk factor of diabetes awareness in both provinces. After being adjusted for all listed risk factors, the regional difference of diabetes prevalence was still significant, but that of diabetes awareness lost significance

  2. Prevalence of Masked Hypertension: a Population-Based Survey in a Large City by Using 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Woong; Choi, Eun-Hee; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Nah, Deuk-Young; Shin, Sung-Joon; Gu, Namyi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives We estimated the prevalence of hypertension and hypertension subtypes in a large semi-urban city in Korea, using 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in a randomly selected sample population. Subjects and Methods A random sample (aged 20-65 years) from a city with an adult population of approximately 600000 was selected by using a list-assisted random digit dialing method. The 24-hour ABPM and conventional blood pressure measurement (CBPM) of these individuals were obtained. Results Among the 496 participants, valid 24-hour ABPM and CBPM were obtained from 462 (93%) individuals. The estimated prevalence of hypertension in Goyang was 17.54% by CBPM and 32.70% by 24-hour ABPM (p<0.01). In the age stratified analysis, both CBPM and 24-hour ABPM showed increased prevalence of hypertension with age. The estimated prevalence of masked hypertension was 16.22% and that of white-coat hypertension was 1.08%. Men had a higher prevalence of masked hypertension than women (20.79% vs. 11.86%, p=0.0295). The estimated prevalence of masked hypertension was 17.5%, 20.58%, 24.34%, and 13.29% in the age categories of 30s, 40s, 50s, and 60s, respectively. The estimated prevalence of masked uncontrolled hypertension was 26.79% in patients with hypertension who were taking antihypertensive medications. Conclusion The estimated prevalence of hypertension by 24-hour ABPM was higher than that by CBPM, revealing high prevalence of masked hypertension. The high prevalence of masked hypertension supports the adoption of ABPM in the national population survey and clinical practice to improve public health and reduce health care costs. PMID:27721860

  3. Prevalence of type-specific HPV infection in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Berois, Nora; Heard, Isabelle; Fort, Zoraida; Alonso, Rafael; Sica, Adela; Moerzinger, Patricia; Rodriguez, Guillermo; Sancho-Garnier, Hélène; Osinaga, Eduardo; Favre, Michel

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this work was to describe the prevalence of type-specific Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in women attending organized cervical cancer screening program in Uruguay. Nine hundred sixty-five liquid cervical cell samples obtained after collection of cervical smears for cytology were assessed for HPV DNA using the Papillocheck system (Greiner BioOne). The overall prevalence of High-Risk (HR) HPV infections was 20.8% and increased from 16.5% in women with normal cytology to 93.3% in HSIL. Prevalence of HPV 16 and/or 18 was 6.3% and HPV 16 was the most prevalent genotype in normal cytology (3.6%). The five most prevalent genotypes were HPV 16, 31, 51, 56, and 39. The overall prevalence peaked below age 30. This study provides essential baseline information at national level on type-specific HPV prevalence in Uruguay before the introduction of HPV vaccination. It documents the current prevalence of each of the oncogenic genotypes in a population attending cervical cancer screening program, suggesting that at least 64.7% of high risk lesions are potentially preventable by available HPV vaccines, and possibly augmentable if cross-protection against non-vaccine HPV types 31, 33, and 45 is confirmed.

  4. Higher Risk of Thyroid Disorders in Young Patients with Type 1 Diabetes: A 12-Year Nationwide, Population-Based, Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Kuang-Yung; Koo, Malcolm; Lai, Ning-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background The association between type 1 diabetes and thyroid autoimmunity has been studied in various populations, but seldom on Taiwanese children and adolescents. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the incidence of autoimmune thyroid disorders in Taiwanese children and adolescent patients with type 1 diabetes, based on data from a nationwide, population-based, health claims database. Methods Using Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified 3,652 patients with type 1 diabetes between 2000 and 2012. A comparison cohort was assembled, which consisted of five patients without type 1 diabetes, based on frequency matching for sex and 3-year age interval, for each patient with type 1 diabetes. Both groups were followed until diagnosis of thyroid disorders or the end of the follow-up period. Poisson regression models were used to calculate incidence rate ratios for the thyroid disorders between the type 1 diabetes cohort and the comparison cohort. Results Simple and unspecified goiter (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] code 240), thyrotoxicosis (ICD-9-CM code 242), unspecified hypothyroidism (ICD-9-CM code 244.9), and thyroiditis (ICD-9-CM code 245) showed significantly higher incidences in the type 1 diabetes cohort compared with the control cohort, with incidence rate ratios of 2.74, 6.95, 6.54, 16.07, respectively. Conclusions Findings from this nationwide, population-based cohort study showed that the incidences of autoimmune thyroid disorders were significantly higher in Taiwanese children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes compared with those without the disease. PMID:27007574

  5. The Prevalence, Correlates, Detection and Control of Diabetes among Older People in Low and Middle Income Countries. A 10/66 Dementia Research Group Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Aquiles; Acosta, Daisy; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, K. S.; Jimenez-Velazquez, Ivonne Z.; Llibre Rodriguez, Juan J.; Sosa, Ana L.; Uwakwe, Richard; Williams, Joseph D.; Jotheeswaran, A. T.; Liu, Zhaorui; Lopez Medina, A. M.; Salinas-Contreras, Rosa Maria; Prince, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known of the epidemiology of diabetes among older people in low and middle income countries. We aimed to study and compare prevalence, social patterning, correlates, detection, treatment and control of diabetes among older people in Latin America, India, China and Nigeria. Methods Cross-sectional surveys in 13 catchment area sites in nine countries. Diagnosed diabetes was assessed in all sites through self-reported diagnosis. Undiagnosed diabetes was assessed in seven Latin American sites through fasting blood samples (glucose > = 7mmol/L). Results Total diabetes prevalence in catchment sites in Cuba (prevalence 24.2%, SMR 116), Puerto Rico (43.4%, 197), and urban (27.0%, 125), and rural Mexico (23.7%, 111) already exceeds that in the USA, while that in Venezuela (20.9%, 100) is similar. Diagnosed diabetes prevalence varied very widely, between low prevalences in sites in rural China (0.9%), rural India (6.6%) and Nigeria (6.0%). and 32.1% in Puerto Rico, explained mainly by access to health services. Treatment coverage varied substantially between sites. Diabetes control (40 to 61% of those diagnosed) was modest in the Latin American sites where this was studied. Diabetes was independently associated with less education, but more assets. Hypertension, central obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia, but not hypercholesterolaemia were consistently associated with total diabetes. Conclusions Diabetes prevalence is already high in most sites. Identifying undiagnosed cases is essential to quantify population burden, particularly in least developed settings where diagnosis is uncommon. Metabolic risk factors and associated lifestyles may play an important part in aetiology, but this requires confirmation with longitudinal data. Given the high prevalence among older people, more population research is indicated to quantify the impact of diabetes, and to monitor the effect of prevention and health system strengthening on prevalence, treatment and control

  6. Shift in prevalence of HPV types in cervical cytology specimens in the era of HPV vaccination

    PubMed Central

    FISCHER, SONJA; BETTSTETTER, MARCUS; BECHER, ANDREA; LESSEL, MARLENE; BANK, CYRIL; KRAMS, MATTHIAS; BECKER, INGRID; HARTMANN, ARNDT; JAGLA, WOLFGANG; GAUMANN, ANDREAS

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present population-based cohort study was to analyze the association between the prevalence of 32 types of human papilloma virus (HPV) in 615 female patients with abnormal cervical cytopathology findings. In total, 32 HPV types were screened by DNA array technology. HPV infection was detected in 470 women (76.42%), 419 of whom (89.15%) were infected with ≥1 high-risk (HR)-HPV type. HPV16, which is recognized as the main HR-HPV type responsible for the development of cervical cancer, was observed in 32.98% of HPV+ participants, followed by HPV42 (18.09%), HPV31 (17.66%), HPV51 (13.83%), HPV56 (10.00%), HPV53 (8.72%) and HPV66 (8.72%). The prevalence of HR-HPV types, which may be suppressed directly (in the case of HPV16 and 18), or possibly via cross-protection (in the case of HPV31) following vaccination, was considerably lower in participants ≤22 years of age (HPV16, 28.57%; HPV18, 2.04%; HPV31, 6.12%), compared with participants 23–29 years of age (HPV16, 45.71%; HPV18, 7.86%; HPV31, 22.86%), who were less likely to be vaccinated. Consequently, the present study hypothesizes that there may be a continuous shift in the prevalence of HPV types as a result of vaccination. Furthermore, the percentage of non-vaccine HR-HPV types was higher than expected, considering that eight HPV types formerly classified as ‘low-risk’ or ‘probably high-risk’ are in fact HR-HPV types. Therefore, it may be important to monitor non-vaccine HPV types in future studies, and an investigation concerning several HR-HPV types as risk factors for the development of cervical cancer is required. PMID:27347187

  7. Implications of Type1/2 Diabetes Mellitus in Breast Cancer Development: A General Female Population-based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Liaw, Yung-Po; Ko, Pei-Chieh; Jan, Shiou-Rung; Huang, Jing-Yang; Nfor, Oswald Ndi; Lung, Chia-Chi; Chiang, Yi-Chen; Yeh, Liang-Tsai; Chou, Ming-Chih; Tsai, Horng-Der; Hsiao, Yi-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The current study assessed the potential impact of diabetes type 1 and type 2 for female breast cancer risk. Materials and Methods: The health information and medical record of the entire adult female residents in Taiwan were retrieved from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models and descriptive statistics were used to identify potential correlations between type 1/2 diabetes and breast cancer. In addition, this study statistically assessed the possible association of diabetes and breast cancer risk with age, insurance amount (quality of care), and regions. Results: The diabetic status of the entire adult female population was assessed between 2001 and 2003. Of 10,827,079 adult females, 4,738 (0.04%) were diagnosed with type 1 and 830,546 (7.7%) with type 2 diabetes, and 9, 991,795 (92.3%) were free of diabetes. From 2004 to 2010, a total of 57,283 cases of breast cancer were detected, with an average breast cancer incidence rate of 0.53% in the generation population. The actual breast cancer incidence rate was 0.30% (14 of 4,738) in patients with type 1 diabetes, 1.10% (9,105 of 830,546) in patients with type 2 diabetes, and 0.48% (48,164 of 9,991,795) in patients free of diabetes. The breast cancer incidence rate is significantly higher (p < 0.001) in patients with type 2 diabetes than that in patients with type 1 diabetes and in patients free of diabetes. After adjusting for the covariates of age, insurance cost, and region, hazard ratios (HRs) for the association between breast cancer risk and types 1 and 2 DM were 1.01 (CI = 0.60-1.71) and 1.13 (CI = 1.10-1.16), respectively. Women with type 2 diabetes were at a significantly higher risk for development of breast cancer compared with those free of diabetes, but there appeared to have no significant increase in risk for those with type 1 diabetes. Our study also revealed that age, insurance amount (quality of care), and region are

  8. Trends in HIV-1 prevalence may not reflect trends in incidence in mature epidemics: data from the Rakai population-based cohort, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Wawer, M J; Serwadda, D; Gray, R H; Sewankambo, N K; Li, C; Nalugoda, F; Lutalo, T; Konde-Lule, J K

    1997-07-01

    Findings are reported from a 2-year follow-up study of an open cohort of people aged 15-59 years living in a sample of 31 representative community clusters in rural Rakai district, Uganda, to measure whether trends in serial HIV-1 prevalence reflect trends in HIV incidence, and to gain insight into the effects of HIV-1 incidence, mortality, mobility, and compliance upon HIV-1 prevalence. In each year of study, all consenting adults provided a serological sample and were interviewed; 2591 adults were enrolled at baseline. HIV prevalence among adults declined significantly between 1990 and 1992; from 23.4% in 1990, to 21.8% in 1991, and 20.9% in 1992. Declining prevalence was also observed in subgroups, including young adults aged 15-24 years from 20.6% to 16.2%, reproductive-age women from 27.1% to 23.5%, and pregnant women from 25.4% to 20.0%. The decline in HIV prevalence among pregnant women, however, is not significant. HIV incidence did not change significantly among all adults aged 15-59 years, nor in population subgroups. HIV-related mortality was 13.5/person-year of observation among those who were HIV-positive. Substantial numbers of HIV-infected individuals were also loss to emigration. PMID:9223737

  9. Socioeconomic Disparities in the Prevalence of Blepharoptosis in the South Korean Adult Population Based on a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Rha, Eun Young; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yongkyu; Yoo, Gyeol

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and the prevalence of blepharoptosis in a representative South Korean population. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on data obtained in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012. In total, 17,178 Korean adults (7,261 men and 9,917 women) aged 19 years or older were enrolled. Blepharoptosis was defined as a marginal reflex distance 1 (MDR 1) lower than 2 mm. Household income and education level were used as indicators of SES. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the relationship between SES and the prevalence of blepharoptosis. Results Household income was inversely associated with the prevalence of blepharoptosis in women [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was 1.894 (1.336, 2.685)], and educational level was inversely associated with blepharoptosis in both men and women [aORs and 95% CIs were 1.572 (1.113, 2.219) and 1.973 (1.153, 3.376), respectively]. After adjusting for household income and educational level, low SES was associated with a high prevalence of blepharoptosis in women only. Conclusions Socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of blepharoptosis were found among women. Indeed, future research using a prospective design to determine the causal relationship between SES and blepharoptosis may identify SES as a risk factor for this condition. PMID:26727468

  10. Prevalence, Characteristics, and Associations of Sexual Abuse with Sociodemographics and Consensual Sex in a Population-Based Sample of Swedish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Goran

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate lifetime prevalence and characteristics of self-reported child sexual abuse and associations between child sexual abuse, gender, sociodemographic data, and consensual sexual experiences. A questionnaire was completed by 4,339 Swedish high school seniors. Three categories of child sexual abuse were…

  11. Neighborhood walkability, deprivation and incidence of type 2 diabetes: a population-based study on 512,061 Swedish adults

    PubMed Central

    Sundquist, Kristina; Eriksson, Ulf; Mezuk, Briana; Ohlsson, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Neighborhood walkability has been associated with increased physical activity, but only a few studies have explored the association between walkability and health outcomes related to physical activity, such as type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between objectively assessed neighborhood walkability and the 4-year incidence of type 2 diabetes in a sample of 512,061 Swedish adults aged 18 years and older. Neighborhoods were defined by 408 administratively defined geographical areas in the city of Stockholm. We found a negative association between walkability and type 2 diabetes (OR=1.33, 95% CI=1.13–1.55) that remained significant after adjusting for neighborhood deprivation. This association, however, no longer remained statistically significant after adjusting for individual socio-demographic factors. These results were also confirmed using a co-sibling design. Future studies are encouraged to further explore the potential effect of a broader array of the neighborhood built environment on health outcomes related to physical activity. PMID:25463914

  12. The prevalence and management of low back pain across adulthood: results from a population-based cross-sectional study (the MUSICIAN study).

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Gary J; Beasley, Marcus; Jones, Elizabeth A; Prescott, Gordon J; Docking, Rachael; Keeley, Philip; McBeth, John; Jones, Gareth T

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine: the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) and associated disability; the frequency of consultation to general practice; whether there were differences in management by age. We conducted a cross-sectional population study in Aberdeen city and Cheshire County, UK. Participants were 15,272 persons aged 25 years and older. The 1-month period prevalence of LBP was 28.5%. It peaked at age 41-50 years, but at ages over 80 years was reported by 1 in 4 persons. Older persons were more likely to consult, and the prevalence of severe LBP continued to increase with age. Management by general practitioners differed by age of the patient. Older persons (> 70 vs ≤ 40 years) were more likely to only have been prescribed painkillers (odds ratio [OR] 1.74, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28-2.35) or only pain killers with other medications (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.07-1.98). They were less likely to be prescribed physiotherapy or exercise (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.46-0.85) or to be referred to a specialist (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.57-1.04). Older persons were more likely to have previously received exercise therapy for pain, were less likely to be enthusiastic about receiving it now (P<0.0001), and were less likely to think it would result in improved symptoms (P<0.0001). It is important that older persons, who have the highest prevalence of LBP with disability and are most likely to consult, are receiving optimal pharmacological and nonpharmacological management.

  13. Prevalence of pre-eclampsia, pregnancy hypertension and gestational diabetes in population-based data: impact of different ascertainment methods on outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian Sheng; Roberts, Christine L; Simpson, Judy M; Ford, Jane B

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated strategies for ascertaining pre-eclampsia, pregnancy hypertension and gestational diabetes mellitus from birth records and/or hospital discharge data. The results showed that ascertaining these conditions from a data set that linked birth records to the corresponding maternal hospital record for birth was sufficient for health outcomes research. Antenatal hospital records provided few extra cases and may be necessary only for the ascertainment when a very accurate estimate of the prevalence is required.

  14. Prevalence of chronic cough and possible causes in the general population based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung; Jeong, Ina; Lee, Sei Won; Park, Jinkyeong; Kim, Joo-Hee; Park, So Young; Park, Hye Yun; Rhee, Chin Kook; Kim, Yee Hyung; Jung, Ji Ye; Kim, Sung-Kyoung; Kim, Yong Hyun; Choi, Eun Young; Moon, Ji-Yong; Shin, Jong-Wook; Kim, Jin Woo; Min, Kyung Hoon; Kim, Sei Won; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Kim, Je Hyeong; Jang, Seung Hun; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Kim, Hui Jung; Jung, Ki-Suck; Kim, Deog Kyeom

    2016-09-01

    Although chronic cough is very common, its prevalence and causes have been rarely reported in the large general population including smokers. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of possible causes of chronic cough and their clinical impact.From Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data including 119,280 adults aged over 40 years, 302 individuals with chronic cough were recruited irrespective of smoking status. Data from questionnaire, laboratory tests including spirometry, chest radiographs, and otorhinolaryngologic examination were analyzed.The prevalence of chronic cough in adults was 2.5% ± 0.2%. Current smokers occupied 47.7% ± 3.8% of study population and 46.8% ± 3.9% of the subjects showed upper airway cough syndrome (UACS). Based on spirometry, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was identified in 26.4% ± 3.5%. Asthma explained for 14.5% ± 2.8% of chronic cough. Only 4.1% ± 1.6% showed chronic laryngitis suggesting gastro-esophageal reflux-related cough. Abnormalities on chest radiography were found in 4.0% ± 1.2%. Interestingly, 50.3% ± 4.5% of study subjects had coexisting causes. In multivariate analysis, only current smoking (odds ratio [OR] 3.16, P < 0.001), UACS (OR 2.50, P < 0.001), COPD (OR 2.41, P < 0.001), asthma (OR 8.89, P < 0.001), and chest radiographic abnormalities (OR 2.74, P = 0.003) were independent risk factor for chronic cough. This pattern was not different according to smoking status excepting the prevalence of COPD.Smoking, COPD, and chest radiographic abnormalities should be considered as causes of chronic cough, along with UACS and asthma. Gastro-esophageal reflux-related cough is not prevalent in study population. PMID:27631208

  15. Spectrum and prevalence of vasculopathy in pediatric neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Kaas, Bonnie; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Tekes, Aylin; Bergner, Amanda; Blakeley, Jaishri O; Jordan, Lori C

    2013-05-01

    To describe the spectrum and associated clinical features of peripheral and cerebral vasculopathy in pediatric patients with neurofibromatosis type 1, children seen at a single center from 2000 to 2010 with appropriate imaging studies were identified. Scans were assessed for vascular disease by 2 pediatric neuroradiologists. Of 181 children, 80 had pertinent imaging studies: 77 had brain imaging, 6 had peripheral imaging, and 3 had both. Vasculopathy was identified in 14/80 children (18%, minimum prevalence of 14/181; 8%). Of those with vascular abnormalities, 2/14 had peripheral vasculopathy (1% minimum prevalence) and 12/14 had cerebrovascular abnormalities (7% minimum prevalence). No associations were found between vasculopathy and common clinical features of neurofibromatosis type 1, including optic pathway glioma, plexiform neurofibroma, skeletal abnormalities, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or suspected learning disability. Both peripheral and cerebral vasculopathy are important complications of pediatric neurofibromatosis type 1 and should be considered in the management of this complex disease.

  16. Effects of Type of Health Insurance Coverage on Colorectal Cancer Survival in Puerto Rico: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Ortiz, Karen J.; Ramírez-García, Roberto; Cruz-Correa, Marcia; Ríos-González, Moraima Y.; Ortiz, Ana Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer represents a major health problem and an important economic burden in Puerto Rico. In the 1990's, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico implemented a health care reform through the privatization of the public health system. The goal was to ensure access to health services, eliminate disparities for medically indigent citizens and provide special coverage for high-risk conditions such as cancer. This study estimates the 5-year relative survival rate of colorectal cancer and the relative excess risk of death in Puerto Rico for 2004–2005, by type of health insurance coverage; Government Health Plan vs. Non-Government Health Plan. Colorectal cancer in advanced stages was more common in Government Health Plan patients compared with Non-Government Health Plan patients (44.29% vs. 40.24 had regional extent and 13.58% versus 10.42% had distant involvement, respectively). Government Health Plan patients in the 50–64 (RR = 6.59; CI: 2.85–15.24) and ≥65 (RR = 2.4; CI: 1.72–4.04) age-groups had the greater excess risk of death compared with Non-Government Health Plan patients. Further studies evaluating the interplay of access to health services and the barriers affecting the Government Health Plan population are warranted. PMID:24796444

  17. Point prevalence of type B tympanogram in Riyadh.

    PubMed

    el-Sayed, Y; Zakzouk, S

    1995-01-01

    Secretory otitis media (SOM) is primarily a disease of children which can have deleterious effect on their medical, social, educational and psychological welfare. It is well known that SOM is a common disease, but exact figures about its prevalence and incidence are scarce and fragmentary. In this community study, we determined the point prevalence of type B tympanogram as an indication to the prevalence of SOM. The study population consisted of a random sample of 4214 children aged 1-8 years. The point prevalence rates of unilateral and bilateral type B tympanogram among the children were 5.7% and 8.1%, respectively. The point prevalence rate per ears (a total of 8428) was 10.9%. The prevalence was found to be related to the age, the season and to the occurrance of the ear and upper respiratory tract infections. No correlation was found in relation to sex, allergy or the socio-economic condition. The findings are discussed in the light of studies conducted elsewhere.

  18. Nephrectomy Type Was Not Associated with a Subsequent Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Wu, Sheng-Tang; Lin, Herng-Ching; Huang, Chung-Chien; Kao, Li-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies investigated the impacts of a partial nephrectomy (PN) or radical nephrectomy (RN) on cardiovascular events and death. However, the association between the type of nephrectomy (PN vs. RN) and cardiovascular disease is still equivocal. This retrospective cohort study aimed to compare the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) between patients who underwent a PN and those who underwent an RN. We used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. In total, 60 patients who underwent a PN and 545 patients who underwent an RN were included. Each patient was tracked for 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year periods to identify those who were subsequently diagnosed with CHD. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for CHD during 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year follow-up periods between these two cohorts. For the 1-year follow-up period, the adjusted HR was 0.39 (95% CI: 0.05~2.90, p = 0.355) for patients who underwent a PN compared to those who underwent an RN. Additionally, the adjusted HRs of CHD in patients who underwent a PN for 2-, 3- and 5-year follow-up periods were 1.40 (95% CI: 0.62~3.16, p = 0.417), 1.09 (95% CI: 0.52~2.31, p = 0.814), and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.48~2.18, p = 0.961), respectively, compared to those who underwent an RN. We concluded that there was no significant difference in the risk of CHD between patients who underwent a PN and those who underwent an RN. PMID:27636094

  19. Nephrectomy Type Was Not Associated with a Subsequent Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chao-Yuan; Lin, Herng-Ching; Huang, Chung-Chien; Kao, Li-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies investigated the impacts of a partial nephrectomy (PN) or radical nephrectomy (RN) on cardiovascular events and death. However, the association between the type of nephrectomy (PN vs. RN) and cardiovascular disease is still equivocal. This retrospective cohort study aimed to compare the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) between patients who underwent a PN and those who underwent an RN. We used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. In total, 60 patients who underwent a PN and 545 patients who underwent an RN were included. Each patient was tracked for 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year periods to identify those who were subsequently diagnosed with CHD. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for CHD during 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year follow-up periods between these two cohorts. For the 1-year follow-up period, the adjusted HR was 0.39 (95% CI: 0.05~2.90, p = 0.355) for patients who underwent a PN compared to those who underwent an RN. Additionally, the adjusted HRs of CHD in patients who underwent a PN for 2-, 3- and 5-year follow-up periods were 1.40 (95% CI: 0.62~3.16, p = 0.417), 1.09 (95% CI: 0.52~2.31, p = 0.814), and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.48~2.18, p = 0.961), respectively, compared to those who underwent an RN. We concluded that there was no significant difference in the risk of CHD between patients who underwent a PN and those who underwent an RN. PMID:27636094

  20. Epidemiology of meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae type b in children in Bulgaria: a prospective, population-based surveillance study.

    PubMed Central

    Kojouharova, Mira; Gatcheva, Nina; Setchanova, Lena; Robertson, Susan E.; Wenger, Jay D.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) among children in Bulgaria and to provide evidence for an informed decision on the use of Hib vaccines in Bulgaria. METHODS: From 1 July 1997 to 31 December 1999, active surveillance for meningitis was conducted in six regions. For children with suspected meningitis, a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimen was sent for cytology, chemistry, latex agglutination testing, culture and sensitivity. FINDINGS: During the 2.5-year study period, surveillance was conducted among 138 249 children aged <5 years - a sample representing 40% of all Bulgarian children in this age group. Overall, 285 children with suspected meningitis were identified. In eight children, clinical symptoms of meningitis resolved rapidly before a CSF specimen could be obtained. Of the remaining 277 children, 121 (44%) were classified as having probable bacterial meningitis on the basis of a CSF examination. An organism was identified for 88 (73%) of the 121 cases with probable bacterial meningitis. There were 21 cases of Hib, giving a mean annual incidence of 6.1 Hib meningitis cases per 100 000 children <5 years; the case-fatality rate was 10%. Nearly 60% of Hib isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics, but they were not resistant to third-generation cephalosporins. CONCLUSION: On the basis of these findings, Hib conjugate vaccines have been included in the list of vaccines recommended for children by the Bulgarian Ministry of Health. The recommended initial treatment for paediatric bacterial meningitis has been changed to third-generation cephalosporins. PMID:12378285

  1. Incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in Vukovarsko-Srijemska County, Croatia, 1991-2000 and 2001-2010: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Pezerović, Davorin; Klarin, Ivo; Zulj, Marinko; Majnarić, Ljiljana; Khaznadar, Eyad; Vcev, Aleksandar

    2014-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), were retrospectively assessed on the incidence and prevalence in Vukovarsko-Srijemska County, continental Croatia. There were a total number of 150 patients, 119 with UC and 31 with CD. Of them, 79.3% were patients with UC, indicating a predominant participation of UC in the sample. Comparisons between the period of surveillance, 2001-2010, and the decade before, 1991-2000, showed a significant increase in the incidence rates of both, UC and CD (UC 3.5, CD 0.95, 2001-2010, and UC 1.0, CD 0.45, 1991-2000). Comparison of this study with that performed in Primorsko-Goranska County, coastal Croatia, revealed different distribution patterns of IBD. In Primorsko-Goranska County, significantly higher incidence and prevalence rates of UC and CD and rather equal ratios between two diseases, were observed. The results are indicative of the differences between more developed Western and less developed Eastern parts of Croatia.

  2. Prevalence, Distribution, and Impact of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Latin America, China, and India: A 10/66 Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Blossom C. M.; Dewey, Michael; Acosta, Daisy; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, K. S.; Jiménez-Velázquez, Ivonne Z.; Llibre Rodriguez, Juan J.; Salas, Aquiles; Williams, Joseph; Acosta, Isaac; González-Viruet, Maribella; Guerra Hernandez, Milagros A.; Shuran, Li; Prince, Martin J.; Stewart, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Background Rapid demographic ageing is a growing public health issue in many low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs). Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a construct frequently used to define groups of people who may be at risk of developing dementia, crucial for targeting preventative interventions. However, little is known about the prevalence or impact of MCI in LAMIC settings. Methods and Findings Data were analysed from cross-sectional surveys established by the 10/66 Dementia Research Group and carried out in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Peru, Mexico, Venezuela, Puerto Rico, China, and India on 15,376 individuals aged 65+ without dementia. Standardised assessments of mental and physical health, and cognitive function were carried out including informant interviews. An algorithm was developed to define Mayo Clinic amnestic MCI (aMCI). Disability (12-item World Health Organization disability assessment schedule [WHODAS]) and informant-reported neuropsychiatric symptoms (neuropsychiatric inventory [NPI-Q]) were measured. After adjustment, aMCI was associated with disability, anxiety, apathy, and irritability (but not depression); between-country heterogeneity in these associations was only significant for disability. The crude prevalence of aMCI ranged from 0.8% in China to 4.3% in India. Country differences changed little (range 0.6%–4.6%) after standardization for age, gender, and education level. In pooled estimates, aMCI was modestly associated with male gender and fewer assets but was not associated with age or education. There was no significant between-country variation in these demographic associations. Conclusions An algorithm-derived diagnosis of aMCI showed few sociodemographic associations but was consistently associated with higher disability and neuropsychiatric symptoms in addition to showing substantial variation in prevalence across LAMIC populations. Longitudinal data are needed to confirm findings—in particular, to investigate the predictive

  3. Exposure to, and searching for, information about suicide and self-harm on the Internet: Prevalence and predictors in a population based cohort of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Mars, Becky; Heron, Jon; Biddle, Lucy; Donovan, Jenny L.; Holley, Rachel; Piper, Martyn; Potokar, John; Wyllie, Clare; Gunnell, David

    2015-01-01

    Background There is concern over the potential impact of the Internet on self-harm and suicidal behaviour, particularly in young people. However, little is known about the prevalence and patterns of suicide/self-harm related Internet use in the general population. Methods Cross sectional study of 3946 of the 8525 participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) who were sent a self-report questionnaire including questions on suicide/self-harm related Internet use and self-harm history at age 21 years. Results Suicide/self-harm related Internet use was reported by 22.5% (886/3946) of participants; 11.9% (470/3946) had come across sites/chatrooms discussing self-harm or suicide, 8.2% (323/3946) had searched for information about self-harm, 7.5% (296/3946) had searched for information about suicide and 9.1% (357/3946) had used the Internet to discuss self-harm or suicidal feelings. Suicide/self-harm related Internet use was particularly prevalent amongst those who had harmed with suicidal intent (70%, 174/248), and was strongly associated with the presence of suicidal thoughts, suicidal plans, and history of self-harm. Sites offering help, advice, or support were accessed by a larger proportion of the sample (8.2%, 323/3946) than sites offering information on how to hurt or kill yourself (3.1%, 123/3946). Most individuals (81%) who had accessed these potentially harmful sites had also accessed help sites. Limitations (i) There were differences between questionnaire responders and non-responders which could lead to selection bias and (ii) the data were cross-sectional, and we cannot conclude that associations are causal. Conclusions Suicide/self-harm related Internet use is common amongst young adults, particularly amongst those with suicidal thoughts and behaviour. Both harmful and helpful sites were accessed, highlighting that the Internet presents potential risks but also offers opportunities for suicide prevention. PMID:26150198

  4. Prevalence and risk factors for erectile dysfunction and lower urinary tract symptoms in Russian Federation men: analysis from a national population-based multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Korneyev, I A; Alexeeva, T A; Al-Shukri, S H; Bernikov, A N; Erkovich, A A; Kamalov, A A; Kogan, M I; Pavlov, V N; Zhuravlev, V N; Pushkar, D Y

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of prevalence and associated common risk factors of ED and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) was performed in Russian Federation by cross-sectional multicenter survey. International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) score and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) were used for data collection in 1225 men between 20 and 77 years interviewed in six regions of Russian Federation. In addition, each participant's social, demographic, lifestyle, sexual and medical history was taken with special emphasis on risk factors for ED. Upon the basis of IIEF erectile domain score interpretation, ED was found in 530 (48.9%) men, consisting of mild and mild to moderate, moderate and severe ED in 375 (34.6%), 78 (7.2%) and 77 (7.1%) respondents, respectively. According to IPSS assessment, LUTSs were present in 649 (59.9%) responders; inclusive 370 (34.2%), 216 (19.9%) and 63 (5.8%) men with mild, moderate and severe LUTS, respectively. Men with both ED and LUTS shared common co-morbidities and lifestyle risk factors with age-adjusted odds ratio between 1.2 and 5.2. In logistic regression model (R(2)=0.361), the strongest associated with ED factor found was IPSS symptom score, followed by hypertension, IPSS-related quality of life, age, diabetes mellitus, obesity and unmotivated fatigue. PMID:26865104

  5. Prevalence and risk factors for erectile dysfunction and lower urinary tract symptoms in Russian Federation men: analysis from a national population-based multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Korneyev, I A; Alexeeva, T A; Al-Shukri, S H; Bernikov, A N; Erkovich, A A; Kamalov, A A; Kogan, M I; Pavlov, V N; Zhuravlev, V N; Pushkar, D Y

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of prevalence and associated common risk factors of ED and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) was performed in Russian Federation by cross-sectional multicenter survey. International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) score and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) were used for data collection in 1225 men between 20 and 77 years interviewed in six regions of Russian Federation. In addition, each participant's social, demographic, lifestyle, sexual and medical history was taken with special emphasis on risk factors for ED. Upon the basis of IIEF erectile domain score interpretation, ED was found in 530 (48.9%) men, consisting of mild and mild to moderate, moderate and severe ED in 375 (34.6%), 78 (7.2%) and 77 (7.1%) respondents, respectively. According to IPSS assessment, LUTSs were present in 649 (59.9%) responders; inclusive 370 (34.2%), 216 (19.9%) and 63 (5.8%) men with mild, moderate and severe LUTS, respectively. Men with both ED and LUTS shared common co-morbidities and lifestyle risk factors with age-adjusted odds ratio between 1.2 and 5.2. In logistic regression model (R(2)=0.361), the strongest associated with ED factor found was IPSS symptom score, followed by hypertension, IPSS-related quality of life, age, diabetes mellitus, obesity and unmotivated fatigue.

  6. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Argentina 1979-2012.

    PubMed

    Barengo, Noël C; Trejo, Ruby; Sposetti, Georgina

    2013-07-16

    The objective of this review was to revise the existing information regarding type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence in the Argentine population during the past 30 years and to see whether the available data and methodology of the studies conducted allow analysis of time trends. The PubMED and LILACS databases were searched using the search terms "diabetes prevalence" and "Argentina". A total of 301 studies were identified and 19 of them remained in the review after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The studies reviewed covered a time period of 30 years (1979-2012). The studies conducted in Argentina during the last 30 years assessing the prevalence of T2D are very heterogeneous. The majority of the studies were conducted in the province of Buenos Aires. As the assessment of T2D varied between the studies in respect of diagnostic criteria and diagnostic tests for T2D, meaningful comparisons are difficult to make, not to mention an analysis of time trends. All in all, the T2D prevalence seems to be at least 10% in the Argentina population. However, the latest large population surveys conducted in Argentina is promising and may offer the most reliable estimates of the T2D prevalence even though the diagnosis of T2D was based on participant self-report. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Disparity of anemia prevalence and associated factors among rural to urban migrant and the local children under two years old: a population based cross-sectional study in Pinghu, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Number of internal rural to urban migrant children in China increased rapidly. The disparity of anemia prevalence among them and children of local permanent residents has been reported, both in big and middle-size cities. There has been no population-based study to explore the associated factors on feeding behaviors in small size cities of China. This study aimed to identify whether there was a difference in the prevalence of anemia between children of rural to urban migrant families and local children under 2 years old in a small coastal city in China, and to identify the associated factors of any observed difference. Methods A community-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in Pinghu, a newly-developing city in Zhejiang Province, China, among the caregivers of 988 children (667 who were identified as children of migrants and 321 locals) aged 6–23 months. Disparity of anemia prevalence were reported. Association between anemia prevalence and socio-economic status and feeding behaviors were explored among two groups respectively. Results Anemia prevalence among the migrant and local children was 36.6% and 18.7% respectively (aPR 1.86, 95% CI 1. 40 to 2.47). Results from adjusted Poisson models revealed: having elder sibling/s were found as an associated factor of anemia with the aPR 1.47 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.87) among migrant children and 2.58 (95% CI 1.37 to 4.58) among local ones; anemia status was associated with continued breastfeeding at 6 months (aPR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.14) and lack of iron-rich and/or iron-fortified foods (aPR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.89) among the migrant children but not among local ones. Conclusion Anemia was more prevalent among migrant children, especially those aged 6–11 months. Dislike their local counterparts, migrant children were more vulnerable at early life and seemed sensitive to feeding behaviors, such as, over reliance on breastfeeding for nutrition after aged 6 months, lack of iron-rich and

  8. The Prevalence of Four Types of Childhood Maltreatment in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Christoffersen, Mogens N; Armour, Cherie; Lasgaard, Mathias; Andersen, Tonny E; Elklit, Ask

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of four types of childhood maltreatment in Denmark while taking into considerations how each of the types of maltreatment vary as a function of gender or child-protection status. Methods: Data were collected from a Danish national study conducted by The Danish National Centre for Social Research in 2008 and 2009. The study used a stratified random probability sample of young people aged 24 years. A sample of 4718 young adults were randomly selected by Statistics Denmark using the total birth cohort of all children born in 1984. The response rate was 63% leaving a total effective sample size of 2980. A structured residential or telephone interview enquired about a range of respondents maltreatment experiences. Results: Maltreatment is experienced by a significant proportion of Danish children. The reported prevalence rates were; physical neglect (3.0%), emotional abuse (5.2%), physical abuse (5.4%) and sexual abuse (3.4%). All trauma types were experienced by a greater percentage of females compared to males with the exception of physical abuse and all trauma types were experienced by a greater percentage of children given child-protection status. Conclusions: Female children and children who are given child protection status are those most at risk for experiencing maltreatment in Denmark. However, variability in prevalence rates of maltreatment across studies is problematic. Methodological variations and variation in abuse definitions may be partly attributable. PMID:24155769

  9. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor use is not associated with elevated risk of severe joint pain in patients with type 2 diabetes: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wen-Hsuan; Chang, Kai-Cheng; Li, Chung-Yi; Ou, Huang-Tz

    2016-09-01

    This is the first large longitudinal cohort study to investigate the putative association of severe joint pain (SJP) with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP4i) use in patients with type 2 diabetes. The propensity score-matched population-based cohort study was performed between 2009 and 2013 in a group of type 2 diabetes patients with stable metformin use. In total, 4743 patients with type 2 diabetes used a DPP4i as the second-line antidiabetic drug (ie, DPP4i users), and the same number of matched non-DPP4i users was selected. The 2 study groups were followed up until SJP diagnosis (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Reversion, Clinical Modification code 719.4), health insurance policy termination, or the end of 2013. The incidence rate of SJP was estimated under the Poisson assumption. Multiple Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the covariate-adjusted hazard ratio and 95% CI of SJP in association with DPP4i use. Over a maximum follow-up of 5 years, 679 DPP4i users and 767 non-DPP4i users were newly diagnosed with SJP, representing incidence rates of 47.20 and 50.66 per 1000 person-years, respectively. Cox proportional hazard model indicated that DPP4i use slightly but nonsignificantly reduced the risk of SJP (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.92 [95% CI: 0.83-1.02]). Such null results were also observed among all age and sex stratifications and in a sensitivity analysis using all nonspecific arthropathies as the study endpoint. This study provides no support for the putative risk of SJP related to DPP4i use in type 2 diabetes patients during a maximum follow-up of 5 years. PMID:27127847

  10. HPV DNA prevalence and type distribution in anal carcinomas worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Alemany, L; Saunier, M; Alvarado, I; Quirós, B; Salmeron, J; Shin, HR; Pirog, E; Guimerà, N; Hernández, GA; Felix, A; Clavero, O; Lloveras, B; Kasamatsu, E; Goodman, MT; Hernandez, BY; Laco, J; Tinoco, L; Geraets, DT; Lynch, CF; Mandys, V; Poljak, M; Jach, R; Verge, J; Clavel, C; Ndiaye, C; Klaustermeier, J; Cubilla, A; Castellsagué, X; Bravo, IG; Pawlita, M; Quint, W; Muñoz, N; Bosch, FX; Sanjosé, S

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge about the human papillomaviruses (HPV) types in anal cancers in some world regions is scanty. Here we describe the HPV DNA prevalence and type distribution in a series of invasive anal cancers and anal intraepithelial neoplasias (AIN) grades 2/3 from 24 countries. We analyzed 43 AIN 2/3 cases and 496 anal cancers diagnosed from 1986 to 2011. After histopathological evaluation of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples, HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed using SPF-10/DEIA/LiPA25 system (version 1). A subset of 116 cancers was further tested for p16INK4a expression, a cellular surrogate marker for HPV-associated transformation. Prevalence ratios were estimated using multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance in cancer dataset. HPV DNA was detected in 88.3% of anal cancers (95%CI:85.1–91.0%) and in 95.4% of AIN 2/3 (95%CI:84.2–99.4%). Among cancers, the highest prevalence was observed in warty-basaloid subtype of squamous cell carcinomas, in younger patients and in North American geographical region. There were no statistically significant differences in prevalence by gender. HPV16 was the most frequent HPV type detected in both cancers (80.7%) and AIN 2/3 lesions (75.4%). HPV18 was the second most common type in invasive cancers (3.6%). p16INK4a overexpression was found in 95% of HPV DNA positive anal cancers. In view of HPV DNA results and high proportion of p16INK4a overexpression, infection by HPV is most likely to be a necessary cause for anal cancers in both men and women. The large contribution of HPV16 reinforces the potential impact of HPV vaccines in the prevention of these lesions. PMID:24817381

  11. Sitagliptin and risk of heart failure hospitalization in patients with type 2 diabetes on dialysis: A population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Yi-Chih; Lin, Che-Chen; Huang, Wei-Lun; Chang, Man-Ping; Chen, Ching-Chu

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of heart failure hospitalization (HHF) after taking sitagliptin in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) on dialysis is unclear. In this population-based cohort study, we identified individuals with T2DM and ESRD on dialysis who were treated with sitagliptin between 2009 and 2011 and randomly selected a control cohort matched by age, sex, duration of T2DM, hypertension medications, use of statin and aspirin, sulfonylureas, glinides, and insulin usage, atherosclerotic heart disease, congestive heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at a 1:4 ratio. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to evaluate HHF risk. The overall incidence of HHF was higher in the sitagliptin cohort than in the control cohort (1130 vs. 754 per 10000 person-years; adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 1.52, 95% CI = 1.21–1.90). There was a significant trend towards increased HHF risk associated with increased sitagliptin dose (p for trend < 0.01). Subjects at greater risk of HHF after taking sitagliptin were those without severe hypoglycemia, without ACE inhibitors treatment, with history of heart failure or receiving hemodialysis rather than peritoneal dialysis. In conclusion, use of sitagliptin was associated with an increased risk of HHF in patients with T2DM on dialysis. PMID:27460913

  12. The relationship between cognitive impairment and diabetes self-management in a population-based community sample of older adults with Type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Feil, Denise G; Zhu, Carolyn W; Sultzer, David L

    2012-04-01

    Although nearly one-third of older diabetics are cognitively impaired, their diabetes management remains poorly understood. To examine the relationship between cognitive impairment and diabetes self-management in a population-based community sample of older adults with Type 2 diabetes. Cross-sectional observational analysis. 1,398 persons with diabetes, aged 60 years or older, who responded to the 2003 Health and Retirement Study Diabetes Survey. We conducted logistic regressions on the effects of cognitive impairment on respondents' self-management ability after controlling for diabetes comorbidities, demographics, and clinical characteristics. Participants with greater cognitive impairment were less likely to adhere to exercise (Adjusted Odds ratio [AOR] = 0.725 and 0.712 for moderate and severe cognitive impairment, both P < 0.05), and to diet (AOR = 0.906 and 0.618 for moderate and severe cognitive impairment, both P < 0.01). Cognitive impairment is associated with worse self-care and may pose challenges to diabetic older persons, notably in diet and exercise. Cognitive screening may be indicated in this high risk group.

  13. Sitagliptin and risk of heart failure hospitalization in patients with type 2 diabetes on dialysis: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yi-Chih; Lin, Che-Chen; Huang, Wei-Lun; Chang, Man-Ping; Chen, Ching-Chu

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of heart failure hospitalization (HHF) after taking sitagliptin in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) on dialysis is unclear. In this population-based cohort study, we identified individuals with T2DM and ESRD on dialysis who were treated with sitagliptin between 2009 and 2011 and randomly selected a control cohort matched by age, sex, duration of T2DM, hypertension medications, use of statin and aspirin, sulfonylureas, glinides, and insulin usage, atherosclerotic heart disease, congestive heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at a 1:4 ratio. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to evaluate HHF risk. The overall incidence of HHF was higher in the sitagliptin cohort than in the control cohort (1130 vs. 754 per 10000 person-years; adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 1.52, 95% CI = 1.21-1.90). There was a significant trend towards increased HHF risk associated with increased sitagliptin dose (p for trend < 0.01). Subjects at greater risk of HHF after taking sitagliptin were those without severe hypoglycemia, without ACE inhibitors treatment, with history of heart failure or receiving hemodialysis rather than peritoneal dialysis. In conclusion, use of sitagliptin was associated with an increased risk of HHF in patients with T2DM on dialysis. PMID:27460913

  14. Developing estimates of frequency and intensity of exposure to three types of metalworking fluids in a population-based case-control study of bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Melissa C; Park, Dong-Uk; Colt, Joanne S; Baris, Dalsu; Schwenn, Molly; Karagas, Margaret R.; Armenti, Karla R.; Johnson, Alison; Silverman, Debra T; Stewart, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    Background A systematic, transparent, and data-driven approach was developed to estimate frequency and intensity of exposure to straight, soluble, and synthetic/semi-synthetic metalworking fluids (MWFs) within a case-control study of bladder cancer in New England. Methods We assessed frequency using individual-level information from job-specific questionnaires wherever possible, then derived and applied job group-level patterns to likely exposed jobs with less information. Intensity estimates were calculated using a statistical model developed from measurements and determinants extracted from the published literature. Results For jobs with probabilities of exposure ≥0.5, median frequencies were 8 to 10 hours per week, depending on MWF type. Median intensities for these jobs were 2.5, 2.1, and 1.0 mg/m3 for soluble, straight, and synthetic/semi-synthetic MWFs, respectively. Conclusions Compared to case-by-case assessment, these data-driven decision rules are transparent and reproducible and may result in less biased estimates. These rules can also aid future exposure assessments of MWFs in population-based studies. PMID:25060071

  15. Universal HbA1c Measurement in Early Pregnancy to Detect Type 2 Diabetes Reduces Ethnic Disparities in Antenatal Diabetes Screening: A Population-Based Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In response to the type 2 diabetes epidemic, measuring HbA1c with the first-antenatal blood screen was recently recommended in NZ. This would enable prompt treatment of women with unrecognised type 2 diabetes, who may otherwise go undetected until the gestational diabetes (GDM) screen. We compare inter-ethnic antenatal screening practices to examine whether the HbA1c test would be accessed by ethnicities most at risk of diabetes, and we determined the prevalence of unrecognised type 2 diabetes and prediabetes in our pregnant population. This is an observational study of pregnancies in Christchurch NZ during 2008–2010. Utilising electronic databases, we matched maternal characteristics to first-antenatal bloods, HbA1c, and GDM screens (glucose challenge tests and oral glucose tolerance tests). Overall uptake of the first-antenatal bloods versus GDM screening was 83.1% and 53.8% respectively in 11,580 pregnancies. GDM screening was lowest in Māori 39.3%, incidence proportion ratio (IPR) 0.77 (0.71, 0.84) compared with Europeans. By including HbA1c with the first-antenatal bloods, the number screened for diabetes increases by 28.5% in Europeans, 40.0% in Māori, 28.1% in Pacific People, and 26.7% in ‘Others’ (majority of Asian descent). The combined prevalence of unrecognised type 2 diabetes and prediabetes by NZ criteria, HbA1c ≥5.9% (41mmol/mol), was 2.1% in Europeans, Māori 4.7% IPR 2.59 (1.71, 3.93), Pacific People 9.5% IPR 4.76 (3.10, 7.30), and ‘Others’ 6.2% IPR 2.99 (2.19, 4.07). Applying these prevalence data to 2013 NZ national births data, routine antenatal HbA1c testing could have identified type 2 diabetes in 0.44% and prediabetes in 3.96% of women. Routine HbA1c measurement in early pregnancy is an ideal screening opportunity, particularly benefitting vulnerable groups, reducing ethnic disparities in antenatal diabetes screening. This approach is likely to have world-wide relevance and applicability. Further research is underway to establish

  16. Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors and the Risk of Acute Pancreatitis in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes in Taiwan: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yun-Ju; Hu, Hsiao-Yun; Chen, Hsin-Hua; Chou, Pesus

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors on the risk of acute pancreatitis in patients with type 2 diabetes.This nationwide population-based cohort study used the diabetes patients dataset of Taiwan's National Health Research Insurance Research Database. Patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2009 and no history of acute pancreatitis were selected. This cohort was followed from the index date to the onset of acute pancreatitis or December 31, 2011. The main outcome measure was the hazard ratio (HR) for acute pancreatitis associated with DPP-4 inhibitor use. Cox proportional-hazards regression analyses were adjusted for alcohol use, hypertriglyceridemia, cholelithiasis, neoplasm, and Diabetes Complications Severity Index (DCSI) score. Subgroup analyses stratified by age and sex were conducted.The study cohort comprised 114,141 patients. Significant interaction effects were observed between sex and age (HR 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64-0.99) and age and DCSI score (HR 0.83, 95% CI: 0.71-0.97). In subgroup analyses, significant risks of acute pancreatitis were noted in female and elderly DPP-4 inhibitor users. Among women, the risk of acute pancreatitis was significantly higher among DPP-4 inhibitor users than among nonusers (HR 2.27, 95% CI: 1.30-3.97). This risk was also significantly higher in users than in nonusers among patients aged >65 years (HR 2.39, 95% CI: 1.11-5.15).Female and elderly DPP-4 inhibitor users had significantly elevated risks of acute pancreatitis development. Further well-conducted studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:26512613

  17. The Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Austrians Disease Management Program in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Riedl, Regina; Robausch, Martin; Berghold, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effectiveness of the Austrian Disease Management Program (DMP) ‘Therapie aktiv—Diabetes im Griff’ for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus concerning patient-relevant outcomes (mortality, myocardial infarction and stroke) and costs. Methods Based on routine health insurance data, we conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study using a propensity score (PS) matched control group design. The DMP-group consists of participants enrolled in the program during 2008 and 2009 (n = 7181). Out of 208.532 patients with no participation in the DMP up to 2013, PS-matched controls were selected with a matching ratio 1:3. In the PS-model, patient’s characteristics, form of antidiabetic drug therapy, several prescriptions, the number of hospital admissions and days, main discharge diagnoses and costs at baseline were included. Results Over a follow-up period of four years, we observed a significantly lower mortality rate in the DMP-group (9.4%) in comparison with the control group (15.9%, p<0.001). The cumulative number of hospital days and mean annual hospital costs were lower for DMP-participants resulting in significantly lower mean annual total costs, amounting to € 8226.80 per patient in the DMP-group and € 9231.10 in the control group respectively (p<0.001). Conclusions The evaluation shows a survival benefit and an average reduction of costs for participants in the DMP compared with the control-group. Despite we took great effort to ensure comparable groups, we cannot entirely rule out an influence by residual and unmeasured confounding due to the observational study design and the use of routine data. However, the results indicate that the disease management program implemented in Austria improves quality of care for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27532885

  18. Is thiazolidinediones use a factor in delaying the need for insulin therapy in type 2 patients with diabetes? A population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Greg A; Bassett, Ken; Wright, James M; Dormuth, Colin R

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the independent role of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) in delaying progression to parenteral insulin therapy. Design Population-based retrospective cohort study. Setting British Columbia, Canada. Participants A total of 18 867 type 2 diabetes patients (mean age 58.9) treated with metformin as first-line therapy who then switched or added a TZD or sulphonylurea as a second-line treatment between 1 January 1998 and 31 March 2008. Outcome measures Multivariable Poisson regression models were used to estimate the effect of using TZD compared to sulphonylureas on time to the initiation of insulin treatment (third-line). Results The adjusted rate difference in women aged <60 showed 2.22 fewer insulin initiation events per 100 person-years (PYs) in the TZD group versus the sulphonylurea group (95% CI −3.46 to −0.99). Men in the same age group had 1.50 fewer insulin initiation events per 100 PYs in the TZD group versus the sulphonylurea group (95% CI −2.44 to −0.56). The average time in days to initiation on insulin in the sulphonylurea, rosiglitazone and pioglitazone group was 343, 252 and 339, respectively. The cumulative hazard for starting insulin for sulphonylurea patients at 12, 24, 36 and 48 months was approximately three times higher compared to TZD patients. Conclusions Second-line TZD therapy compared to second-line sulphonylurea therapy was associated with a lower incidence of insulin initiation as third-line treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes, with a mean delay of 90 days. This duration of delay must be weighed against the absence of a proven reduction in morbidity or mortality with TZDs and their known serious cardiovascular harm. PMID:23148347

  19. Robot-assisted versus other types of radical prostatectomy: population-based safety and cost comparison in Japan, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, Toru; Yasunaga, Hideo; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Matsui, Hiroki; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Nishimatsu, Hiroaki; Fukuhara, Hiroshi; Kume, Haruki; Changhong, Yu; Kattan, Michael W; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Homma, Yukio

    2014-11-01

    In 2012, Japanese national insurance started covering robot-assisted surgery. We carried out a population-based comparison between robot-assisted and three other types of radical prostatectomy to evaluate the safety of robot-assisted prostatectomy during its initial year. We abstracted data for 7202 open, 2483 laparoscopic, 1181 minimal incision endoscopic, and 2126 robot-assisted radical prostatectomies for oncological stage T3 or less from the Diagnosis Procedure Combination database (April 2012-March 2013). Complication rate, transfusion rate, anesthesia time, postoperative length of stay, and cost were evaluated by pairwise one-to-one propensity-score matching and multivariable analyses with covariants of age, comorbidity, oncological stage, hospital volume, and hospital academic status. The proportion of robot-assisted radical prostatectomies dramatically increased from 8.6% to 24.1% during the first year. Compared with open, laparoscopic, and minimal incision endoscopic surgery, robot-assisted surgery was generally associated with a significantly lower complication rate (odds ratios, 0.25, 0.20, 0.33, respectively), autologous transfusion rate (0.04, 0.31, 0.10), homologous transfusion rate (0.16, 0.48, 0.14), lower cost excluding operation (differences, -5.1%, -1.8% [not significant], -10.8%) and shorter postoperative length of stay (-9.1%, +0.9% [not significant], -18.5%, respectively). However, robot-assisted surgery also resulted in a + 42.6% increase in anesthesia time and +52.4% increase in total cost compared with open surgery (all P < 0.05). Introduction of robotic surgery led to a dynamic change in prostate cancer surgery. Even in its initial year, robot-assisted radical prostatectomy was carried out with several favorable safety aspects compared to the conventional surgeries despite its having the longest anesthesia time and the highest cost.

  20. Prevalence of hepatopathy in type 1 diabetic children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Prevalence of liver disease among diabetics has been estimated to be between 17% and 100%. Most of these data were obtained from adult studies. The aim of our study was to screen for liver disease among type 1 diabetic children. Methods Children with type 1 diabetes following in clinic have been examined for existence of liver disease, from November 2008 to November 2009. All were subjected to the following: History, physical examination, liver function tests, fasting lipid profile, HbA1C, and ultrasound of the liver. A hyperechogenic liver and/or hepatomegaly on ultrasound were attributed most likely to excess glycogen or fat in the liver, after negative extensive work-up to rule out other underlying liver disease. Results 106 children with type 1 diabetes were studied: age ranged between 8 months to 15.5 years, sixty two patients were females. Twenty two patients (21%) were identified to have abnormal findings on ultrasound of the liver: 10 patients had hepatomegaly and 12 had hyperechogenic liver. The group with hyperechogenic liver had poorer glycemic control than patients with normal liver (Mean HbA1c 12.14% Vs 10.7%; P value = 0.09). Hyperechogenic liver resolved in 60% at 6 months follow-up upon achieving better glycemic control. Conclusions Hyperechogenic liver and/or hepatomegaly are not uncommon in children with type 1 diabetes and tend to be more prevalent among children with poor glycemic control. Type 1 diabetes related hepatopathy is reversible by optimizing glycemic control. Because of its safety, and reliability, ultrasound can be used to screen for hepatopathy in type 1 diabetic child. PMID:23039762

  1. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    PubMed Central

    Nsiah, Kwabena; Shang, V Owusua; Boateng, K Agyenim; Mensah, FO

    2015-01-01

    Background: The diabetic condition is influenced by several factors, some of which can accelerate the disease's progression to various complications that aggravate the morbidity. Aims: This study aimed at determining the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components and the most critical predictive risk factors of MetS in type 2 diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 150 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and was conducted at the Diabetes Centre of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, the Ashanti Region of Ghana, from February, 2013 to April, 2013. The study involved the use of a questionnaire to obtain some information on the diabetics, undertaking anthropometric measurements, as well as collecting blood samples for the measurement of some biochemical parameters; fasting blood glucose and lipid profile. MetS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Results: The prevalence of MetS was 58% in the studied Ghanaian population. Hypertension was the commonest risk factor (60%), followed by central obesity (48.67%) and dyslipidemia (37%). Female type 2 diabetics had a higher prevalence of MetS, and carried more components than their male counterparts. Regression analysis showed three factors; femininity, high body mass index and low educational status were the most critical predictive risk factors of MetS, according to this study. Conclusion: With hypertension being the commonest component, future cardiovascular disease prevention strategies should focus attention on its management and prevention, through education. PMID:26097823

  2. Type 2 diabetes among Asian Americans: Prevalence and prevention.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tam H; Nguyen, Thuc-Nhi; Fischer, Taylor; Ha, Won; Tran, Thanh V

    2015-05-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing problem among Asian Americans. Based on the Centers for Disease Control, the age-adjusted prevalence of T2DM for Asian Americans is 9%, placing them at "moderate risk". However differential patterns of disease burden emerge when examining disaggregated data across Asian American ethnic groups; with Filipino, Pacific Islander, Japanese, and South Asian groups consistently described as having the highest prevalence of T2DM. Disentangling and strengthening prevalence data is vital for on-going prevention efforts. The strongest evidence currently available to guide the prevention of T2DM in the United States comes from a large multicenter randomized clinical control trial called the Diabetes Prevention Program, which targets individual lifestyle behavior changes. It has been translated and adopted for some Asian American groups, and shows promise. However stronger study designs and attention to several key methodological considerations will improve the science. Increased attention has also been directed toward population level downstream prevention efforts. Building an infrastructure that includes both individual and population approaches is needed to prevent T2DM among Asian American populations, and is essential for reducing health disparities.

  3. Prevalence of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Among Children and Adolescents From 2001 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Dabelea, Dana; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Saydah, Sharon; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Linder, Barbara; Divers, Jasmin; Bell, Ronny; Badaru, Angela; Talton, Jennifer W.; Crume, Tessa; Liese, Angela D.; Merchant, Anwar T.; Lawrence, Jean M.; Reynolds, Kristi; Dolan, Lawrence; Liu, Lenna L.; Hamman, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Despite concern about an “epidemic,” there are limited data on trends in prevalence of either type 1 or type 2 diabetes across US race and ethnic groups. OBJECTIVE To estimate changes in the prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in US youth, by sex, age, and race/ethnicity between 2001 and 2009. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Case patients were ascertained in 4 geographic areas and 1 managed health care plan. The study population was determined by the 2001 and 2009 bridged-race intercensal population estimates for geographic sites and membership counts for the health plan. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Prevalence (per 1000) of physician-diagnosed type 1 diabetes in youth aged 0 through 19 years and type 2 diabetes in youth aged 10 through 19 years. RESULTS In 2001, 4958 of 3.3 million youth were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes for a prevalence of 1.48 per 1000 (95% CI, 1.44–1.52). In 2009, 6666 of 3.4 million youth were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes for a prevalence of 1.93 per 1000 (95% CI, 1.88–1.97). In 2009, the highest prevalence of type 1 diabetes was 2.55 per 1000 among white youth (95% CI, 2.48–2.62) and the lowest was 0.35 per 1000 in American Indian youth (95% CI, 0.26–0.47) and type 1 diabetes increased between 2001 and 2009 in all sex, age, and race/ethnic subgroups except for those with the lowest prevalence (age 0–4 years and American Indians). Adjusted for completeness of ascertainment, there was a 21.1% (95% CI, 15.6%–27.0%) increase in type 1 diabetes over 8 years. In 2001, 588 of 1.7 million youth were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes for a prevalence of 0.34 per 1000 (95% CI, 0.31–0.37). In 2009, 819 of 1.8 million were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes for a prevalence of 0.46 per 1000 (95% CI, 0.43–0.49). In 2009, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 1.20 per 1000 among American Indian youth (95% CI, 0.96–1.51); 1.06 per 1000 among black youth (95% CI, 0.93–1.22); 0.79 per 1000 among Hispanic youth (95% CI, 0

  4. Socioeconomic determinants of prostate-specific antigen testing and estimation of the prevalence of undiagnosed prostate cancer in an elderly Polish population based on the PolSenior study

    PubMed Central

    Prajsner, Andrzej; Szybalska, Aleksandra; Piotrowicz, Karolina; Zejda, Jan; Więcek, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Socioeconomic determinants of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing and prevalence of undiagnosed prostate cancer (PCa) in the Polish population are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with PSA testing in elderly Polish men, and estimate the size of the population at risk of PCa related to PSA non-testing. Material and methods We analyzed questionnaire-derived data concerning PSA testing, obtained in 2567 elderly and 332 younger (age: 55–59) participants of the population-based PolSenior study. Additionally, PSA was measured in 2414 subjects. Results The PSA had previously been tested in 41.2% of elderly and in 24.8% of younger participants. Non-smoking status (OR = 2.06, p < 0.001), higher personal income (OR = 1.56, p < 0.001), better education (OR = 1.49, p = 0.001), previous white-collar work (OR = 1.37, p = 0.005), alcohol abstinence (OR = 1.28, p = 0.02), married status (OR = 1.24, p = 0.04), dependence in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) but not in Activities of Daily Living (ADL) (OR = 0.65, p < 0.001), and dependence in ADL (OR = 0.55, p < 0.001) were independent predictors of previous PSA testing in elderly participants. There were 31 elderly previously treated for PCa (calculated standardized prevalence: 935 per 100,000 elderly population). The PSA levels > 4 ng/ml were found in 12.8% of 65–74-year-old and 4.5% of 55–59-year-old previously non-tested participants. We calculated the standardized prevalence rate of undiagnosed PCa as approximately 1370 and 2352 cases per 100,000 population aged 55–59 and 65–74 years, respectively. Conclusions In Poland, 58.8% of elderly men have never had PSA tested. These were less likely to be functionally independent, married, better educated, non-smokers or to have previous office employment or higher than average personal income. Our data suggest substantial underdiagnosis of prostate cancer among Polish men. PMID:27695494

  5. Matched population-based study examining the risk of type 2 diabetes in people with and without diagnosed hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Schnier, C; Wild, S; Kurdi, Z; Povey, C; Goldberg, D J; Hutchinson, S J

    2016-08-01

    Meta-analyses have found hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection to be associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Here, we examine this association within a large population-based study, according to HCV RNA status. A data-linkage approach was used to examine the excess risk of diagnosed T2DM in people diagnosed with antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV) in Scotland (21 929 anti-HCV(+ves) ; involving 15 827 HCV RNA(+ves) , 3927 HCV RNA(-ves) and 2175 with unknown RNA-status) compared to that of a threefold larger general population sample matched for gender, age and postcode (65 074 anti-HCV(-ves) ). To investigate effects of ascertainment bias the following periods were studied: up to 1 year before (pre-HCV)/within 1 year of (peri-HCV)/more than 1 year post (post-HCV) the date of HCV-diagnosis. T2DM had been diagnosed in 2.9% of anti-HCV(+ves) (including 3.2% of HCV RNA(+ves) and 2.3% of HCV RNA(-ves) ) and 2.7% of anti-HCV(-ves) . A higher proportion of T2DM was diagnosed in the peri-HCV period (i.e. around the time of HCV-diagnosis) for the anti-HCV(+ves) (22%) compared to anti-HCV(-ves) (10%). In both the pre-HCV and post-HCV periods, only those anti-HCV(+ves) living in less deprived areas (13% of the cohort) were found to have a significant excess risk of T2DM compared to anti-HCV(-ves) (adjusted odds ratio in the pre-HCV period: 4.0 for females and 2.3 for males; adjusted hazard ratio in the post-HCV period: 1.5). These findings were similarly observed for both HCV RNA(+ves) (chronic) and HCV RNA(-ves) (resolved). In the largest study of T2DM among chronic HCV-infected individuals to date, there was no evidence to indicate that infection conveyed an appreciable excess risk of T2DM at the population level.

  6. Poikilocytosis in rabbits: prevalence, type, and association with disease.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Mary M; Hawkins, Michelle G; Burton, Andrew G

    2014-01-01

    Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are a popular companion animal, food animal, and animal model of human disease. Abnormal red cell shapes (poikilocytes) have been observed in rabbits, but their significance is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and type of poikilocytosis in pet rabbits and its association with physiologic factors, clinical disease, and laboratory abnormalities. We retrospectively analyzed blood smears from 482 rabbits presented to the University of California-Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital from 1990 to 2010. Number and type of poikilocytes per 2000 red blood cells (RBCs) were counted and expressed as a percentage. Acanthocytes (>3% of RBCs) were found in 150/482 (31%) rabbits and echinocytes (>3% of RBCs) were found in 127/482 (27%) of rabbits, both healthy and diseased. Thirty-three of 482 (7%) rabbits had >30% acanthocytes and echinocytes combined. Mild to moderate (>0.5% of RBCs) fragmented red cells (schistocytes, microcytes, keratocytes, spherocytes) were found in 25/403 (6%) diseased and 0/79 (0%) healthy rabbits (P = 0.0240). Fragmentation and acanthocytosis were more severe in rabbits with inflammatory disease and malignant neoplasia compared with healthy rabbits (P<0.01). The % fragmented cells correlated with % polychromasia, RDW, and heterophil, monocyte, globulins, and fibrinogen concentrations (P<0.05). Echinocytosis was significantly associated with renal failure, azotemia, and acid-base/electrolyte abnormalities (P<0.05). Serum cholesterol concentration correlated significantly with % acanthocytes (P<0.0001), % echinocytes (P = 0.0069), and % fragmented cells (P = 0.0109), but correlations were weak (Spearman ρ <0.02). These findings provide important insights into underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms that appear to affect the prevalence and type of naturally-occurring poikilocytosis in rabbits. Our findings support the need to carefully document poikilocytes in research

  7. Trends in Lung Cancer Incidence Rates by Histological Type in 1975–2008: A Population-Based Study in Osaka, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Fukuaki Lee; Ito, Yuri; Nakayama, Tomio

    2016-01-01

    Background Monitoring trends in lung cancer incidence and mortality is important for the evaluation of cancer control activities. We investigated recent trends in age-standardized incidence rates by histological type of lung cancer in Osaka, Japan. Methods Cancer incidence data for 1975–2008 were obtained from the Osaka Cancer Registry. Lung cancer mortality data with population data in Osaka during 1975–2012 were obtained from vital statistics. We examined trends in age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for all histological types and age-standardized incidence rates by histological type and age group using a joinpoint regression model. Results The age-standardized incidence rate of lung cancer levelled off or slightly increased from 1975–2008, with an annual percentage change of 0.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1%–0.4%) for males and 1.1% (95% CI, 0.9%–1.3%) for females, and the mortality rate decreased by 0.9% (95% CI, 1.2%–0.7%) for males and 0.5% (95% CI, 0.8%–0.3%) for females. The incidence rates of squamous cell carcinoma (SQC) and small cell carcinoma (SMC) significantly decreased for both genders, whereas that of adenocarcinoma (ADC) significantly increased among almost all age groups in both genders. Conclusions The incidence rates of SQC and SMC decreased with the decline in smoking prevalence, which probably explains the change in trends in the incidence rates of lung cancer from the mid-1980s. However, the reason for the increase in ADC remains unclear. Therefore, trends in incidence rates of lung cancer should be carefully monitored, especially for ADC, and the associations between ADC and its possible risk factors should be studied. PMID:27150013

  8. Prevalence of mucopolysaccharidosis type VI mutations in Siamese cats.

    PubMed

    Crawley, A C; Muntz, F H; Haskins, M E; Jones, B R; Hopwood, J J

    2003-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI), a lysosomal storage disease, is one of the more prevalent inherited diseases in cats and is commonly found in cats with Siamese ancestry. The prevalence of 2 known MPS VI mutations in cats was investigated in 101 clinically normal Siamese cats, in 2 cats with clinical signs of MPS VI, and in 202 cats from 4 research colonies. The mutation L476P which causes a severe clinical phenotype, was present on both alleles in the known MPS VI cats from Italy and North America and was present in all research colonies that originated from North America. However, LA76P was not detected in the Siamese population screened. In contrast, the mutation D520N, which causes a mild clinical phenotype, was identified in 23 of 202 (11.4%) alleles tested in Siamese cats from 3 continents, 2 of which were homozygous for D520N. Thus, the D520N mutation was widespread, and it is likely that cats inheriting both mutations (LA76P/D520N compound heterozygotes) would be in the general Siamese population, particularly in North America. Practitioners should note the high incidence of degenerative joint disease in these animals.

  9. Prevalence and risk factors of type 2 diabetes in older Vietnam-born Australians.

    PubMed

    Tran, Duong Thuy; Jorm, Louisa R; Johnson, Maree; Bambrick, Hilary; Lujic, Sanja

    2014-02-01

    Vietnamese immigrants in Australia represent the second largest Vietnamese community in developed countries, following the United States. However, limited information is available about prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the relative roles of socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and Vietnamese ethnicity per se in this population. This study investigated the prevalence of T2D and its risk factors in older Vietnam-born Australians, in comparison to native-born Australians. The study used baseline questionnaire data from 787 Vietnam- and 196,866 Australia-born individuals (≥45 years), who participated in the 45 and Up Study, which is Australia's largest population-based cohort study. Country of birth specific prevalence of T2D and its risk factors were age-standardised to the 2006 Australian population (≥45 years). Multivariable logistic regression models were built for each group to assess the relationship between T2D and socio-demographic characteristics, family history of diabetes, lifestyle factors and health status. Compared to Australia-born counterparts, Vietnam-born individuals had significantly (p < 0.001) higher age-standardised prevalence of T2D (14.7 vs 7.4 %) and significantly (p < 0.001) lower levels of vegetable consumption (≥5 serves/day, 19.4 vs 33.5 %), physical activity (≥5 sessions/week, 68.7 vs 78.5 %) and overweight and obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2), 21.5 vs 62.7 %). The increased risk of T2D associated with a family history of diabetes for Vietnam-born people [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 7.14, 95 % CI 4.15-12.28] was almost double that for Australia-born people (OR 3.77, 95 % CI 3.63-3.90). The patterns of association between T2D and other factors were similar between the two groups. The findings suggest a genetic predisposition to T2D in people of Vietnamese ethnicity. Reducing lifestyle risk factors for diabetes and better management of diabetes are priorities for Vietnam-born populations.

  10. Human papillomavirus type-specific prevalence in women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasm in Western China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinke; Mei, Jie; Wang, Xuedong; Hu, Lina; Lin, Yong; Yang, Pei

    2012-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) type-specific prevalence was studied in 600 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasm in western China by GenoArray test. HPV-16 and -58 were the most prevalent types, with prevalences of 37.8% and 21.8%, respectively. HPV-18 and -45 were uncommon types. The results show different type distributions from that of other regions, which is important evidence for the selection of future genotypes in HPV vaccines in western China.

  11. The Prevalence of Gas Outflows in Type 2 AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Jong-Hak; Bae, Hyun-Jin; Son, Donghoon; Karouzos, Marios

    2016-02-01

    To constrain the nature and fraction of the ionized gas outflows in active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we perform a detailed analysis on gas kinematics as manifested by the velocity dispersion and shift of the [{{O}}\\{{III}}] λ5007 emission line, using a large sample of ˜39,000 type 2 AGNs at z < 0.3. First, we confirm a broad correlation between [{{O}} {{III}}] and stellar velocity dispersions, indicating that the bulge gravitational potential plays a main role in determining the [{{O}} {{III}}] kinematics. However, [{{O}} {{III}}] velocity dispersion is on average larger than stellar velocity dispersion by a factor of 1.3-1.4 for AGNs with double Gaussian [{{O}} {{III}}], suggesting that the non-gravitational component, i.e., outflows, is almost comparable to the gravitational component. Second, the increase of the [{{O}} {{III}}] velocity dispersion (after normalized by stellar velocity dispersion) with both AGN luminosity and Eddington ratio suggests that non-gravitational kinematics are clearly linked to AGN accretion. The distribution in the [{{O}} {{III}}] velocity-velocity dispersion diagram dramatically expands toward large values with increasing AGN luminosity, implying that the launching velocity of gas outflows increases with AGN luminosity. Third, the majority of luminous AGNs present the non-gravitational kinematics in the [{{O}} {{III}}] profile. These results suggest that ionized gas outflows are prevalent among type 2 AGNs. On the other hand, we find no strong trend of the [{{O}} {{III}}] kinematics with radio luminosity, once we remove the effect of the bulge gravitational potential, indicating that ionized gas outflows are not directly related to radio activity for the majority of type 2 AGNs.

  12. 10-Year Risk Estimation for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Coronary Heart Disease in Kuwait: A Cross-Sectional Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Abdelmoneim Ismail; Alsaleh, Fatemah Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), coronary heart disease (CHD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are major healthcare problems in Kuwait. The present study was designed to determine the prevalence of MetS, and to estimate the 10-year risk for developing T2DM and CHD among the general population in Kuwait. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was undertaken in 1800 individuals without diabetes or a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). They were selected from six governorates using two stage convenience sampling. The questionnaire was developed using the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISK), Framingham Risk Score [FRS] and the 2009 Joint Statement criteria for diagnosis of MetS as a framework. Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. Results The response rate was 89.4%. More than half (60.8%; 95% CI: 58.4–63.2) of responders were either overweight or obese. One hundred and ninety seven (12.2%) subjects had blood pressure (BP) ≥ 140/90 mm Hg. Almost three-in-ten (28.3%: 26.2–30.6) subjects had fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels ≥ 5.6 mmol/l, of whom 86.0% and 14.0% had impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and screen detected T2DM, respectively. MetS was present in 512 (31.8%; 29.5–34.2) respondents. Just under one third (n = 481; 29.9%; 27.7–32.2) of participants were at moderate, high, or very high risk of developing T2DM, while 283 (17.6%: 15.8–19.6) were at moderate/high 10-year risk of developing CHD. Approximately one-in-ten (8.5%; 7.2–9.9) subjects were at moderate/high/very high 10-year risk of developing both T2DM/CHD. T2DM risk was higher for females compared to males (p < 0.001); however, the pattern was reversed in terms of the risk of developing CHD or T2DM/CHD. The risk of developing T2DM, CHD, or T2DM/CHD was greater among those aged ≥ 45 years, and those having MetS (p<0.001). Conclusions The current findings highlight the need for multifaceted interventions for prevention. PMID:25629920

  13. High prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in affluent urban Indians.

    PubMed

    Boddula, R; Yadav, S; Bhatia, V; Genitta, G; Pandey, D; Kumar, A; Singh, H K; Ramesh, V; Julka, S; Bansal, B; Srikant, K; Bhatia, E

    2008-08-01

    The highest prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in developing countries occurs in the upper socio-economic group, but this has not been well documented in Indians. The age and sex standardized prevalence of diabetes in 1112 affluent adult Indian subjects was 21.1%. This is the highest prevalence of diabetes reported from India.

  14. Sexual dysfunction in diabetic women: prevalence and differences in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Mazzilli, Rossella; Imbrogno, Norina; Elia, Jlenia; Delfino, Michele; Bitterman, Olimpia; Napoli, Angela; Mazzilli, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of diabetes on female sexuality and to highlight any differences between sexuality in the context of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods The subjects selected were 49 women with type 1 DM, 24 women with type 2 DM, and 45 healthy women as controls. Each participant was given the nine-item Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire to complete. The metabolic profile was evaluated by body mass index and glycosylated hemoglobin assay. Results The prevalence of sexual dysfunction (total score ≤30) was significantly higher in the type 1 DM group (25/49, 51%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 18–31) than in the control group (4/45, 9%; 95% CI 3–5; P=0.00006); there were no significant variations in the type 2 DM group (4/24, 17%; 95% CI 3–4) versus the control group (P=0.630, not statistically significant). The mean total score was significantly lower in the type 1 DM group (30.2±6.9) versus the control group (36.5±4.9; P=0.0003), but there was no significant difference between the type 2 DM group and the control group (P=0.773). With regard to specific questionnaire items, the mean values for arousal, lubrication, dyspareunia, and orgasm were significantly lower only in the type 1 DM group versus the control group. The mean values for desire were reduced in type 1 and type 2 DM groups versus control group. Conclusion Type 1 DM is associated with sexual dysfunction. This may be due to classic neurovascular complications or to the negative impact of the disease on psychosocial factors. Larger and ideally longitudinal studies are necessary to better understand the relationship between DM and sexual dysfunction. PMID:25709482

  15. HLA-DQ primarily confers protection and HLA-DR susceptibility in type I (Insulin-dependent) diabetes studied in population-based affected families and controls

    SciTech Connect

    Kockum, I. Univ. of Lund Karolinska Institute, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm ); Wassmuth, R. ); Holmberg, E. ); Michelsen, B. ); Lernmark, A. Karolinska Institute, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm )

    1993-07-01

    The association between HLA-DR and -DQ and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in a defined high-incidence area was analyzed in a total of 58 population-based patients, representing 77% of IDDM patients with age at onset below 16 years, and in 92 unrelated parents in control families without IDDM. HLA haplotypes were confirmed by analyzing first-degree relatives in both groups. Seven different methods were used to analyze risk: (1) odds ratio, (2) absolute risk, (3) haplotype relative risk, (4) transcomplementation relative risk, (5) relative predisposing effects, (6) stratification analysis, and (7) test of predisposing allele on haplotype. DQB1*0302 indicated somewhat higher risk than did DR4, while DR3 had a higher risk than DQB1*0201; however, the 95% confidence intervals of the risk estimates overlapped. The positive association between IDDM and the DQB1*0201-DQA1*0501-DR3 haplotype seems to be due to DR3 or to an unknown linked gene. More important, DQA1*0301 was present among 93% of the patients, and this allele in various transcomplementation combinations with DQBL alleles showed closer association to IDDM than did any other alleles. The strong negative association of the DQB1*0602 allele also in the presence of either DR4 or DQBI*0302 or both suggests that, in a high-risk population for IDDM, HLA-DQ primarily confers protection, perhaps by induction of tolerance. Consistent with known functions, HLA-DR may primarily confer susceptibility, perhaps by induction of autoreactive T lymphocytes. 67 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and incident diabetes mellitus type 2: a competing risk analysis in a large population-based cohort of older adults.

    PubMed

    Schöttker, Ben; Herder, Christian; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Perna, Laura; Müller, Heiko; Brenner, Hermann

    2013-03-01

    Plausible mechanisms of how vitamin D deficiency may contribute to the development of diabetes mellitus have been proposed but longitudinal cohort studies have yielded heterogeneous results. In 7,791 initially diabetes-free participants of a German population-based cohort, aged 50-74 years, adjusted Cox regression models were employed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) quintiles and incident diabetes. Dose-response relationships were assessed with restricted cubic spline curves. Additionally, analyses accounting for the competing risks of diabetes and death were performed. During 8 years of follow-up, 829 study participants developed diabetes. In women, diabetes risk was significantly increased in the lowest 25(OH)D quintile (HR, 1.38; 1.09-1.75) and non-significantly increased in the 2nd quintile (HR, 1.24; 0.98-1.55) compared to women in 25(OH)D quintiles 3-5. The dose-response relationship showed a non-linear inverse association with risk starting to increase at 25(OH)D levels below 70 nmol/L (statistically significant: below 40 nmol/L). In men, 25(OH)D levels were not associated with diabetes incidence. Renal dysfunction was an effect modifier with a more than doubled diabetes risk in 25(OH)D quintile 1 and an about 1.5-fold risk in quintile 2 compared to quintiles 3-5 if subjects had renal dysfunction. The observed associations were not influenced by the competing risk of death. In this large cohort study of older adults, serum 25(OH)D levels were inversely associated with incident diabetes in women but not in men. The association was particularly strong in subjects with renal dysfunction.

  17. Oral Sex and HPV: Population Based Indications.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Anupam; Verma, Veerendra

    2015-03-01

    Human pappilloma virus (HPV) is well established in etiology of uterine cervical cancers, but its role in head and neck cancer is strongly suggested through many epidemiological and laboratory studies. Although HPV-16 induced oropharyngeal cancer is a distinct molecular entity, its role at other sub-sites (oral cavity, larynx, nasopharynx, hypopharynx) is less well established. Oral sex is supposedly the most commonly practiced unnatural sex across the globe and may prove to be a potential transmitting link between cancers of the uterine cervix and the oropharynx in males particularly in those 10-15% non-smokers. In India with the second largest population (higher population density than China) the oral sex is likely to be a common 'recreation-tool' amongst the majority (poor) and with the concurrent highly prevalent bad cervical/oral hygiene the HPV is likely to synergize other carcinogens. Hence in accordance (or coincidently), in India the cervical cancer happens to be the commonest cancer amongst females while oral/oropharyngeal cancer amongst males. Oral sex as a link between these two cancer types, can largely be argued considering a poor level of evidence in the existing literature. The modern world has even commercialized oral sex in the form of flavored condoms. The inadequate world literature currently is of a low level of evidence to conclude such a relationship because no such specific prospective study has been carried out and also due to wide (and unpredictable) variety of sexual practices, such a relationship can only be speculated. This article briefly reviews the existing literature on various modes and population based indications for HPV to be implicated in head and neck cancer with reference to oral sexual practice.

  18. Long-term use of metformin and colorectal cancer risk in type II diabetics: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Cardel, Majken; Jensen, Sara M; Pottegård, Anton; Jørgensen, Trine L; Hallas, Jesper

    2014-10-01

    In vitro and animal studies indicate that metformin prevents colorectal cancer (CRC). Epidemiological studies, however, have been equivocal. We undertook this study to assess whether metformin prevents CRC in individuals with type II diabetes. We performed a nested case-control study restricted to Danish citizens with type II diabetes. Data were collected from four Danish nationwide registries. Cases were type II diabetics with a primary CRC between 2000 and 2009, and controls were sampled among subjects with type II diabetes. Long-term exposure to metformin was defined by the redeeming of prescriptions for a cumulative dose of 2000 g within 5 years prior to the index date. To control for potential confounders, we used unconditional logistic regression. We generated adjusted odds ratios (OR) for the association between metformin and CRC and performed subanalyses for selected subgroups and for the dose-response relation. We identified 2088 cases and 9060 controls during the study period. The association between long-term metformin use and CRC gave an adjusted OR at 0.83 (95% CI 0.68-1.00). A protective effect on CRC with long-term use of metformin was only evident for women (OR 0.66 vs. 0.99 for men). There was a significant dose-response association of metformin use >250 defined daily dose (DDD) and for the duration of metformin use >1 year. We found an indication of a protective effect of long-term metformin use against CRC in type II diabetics, although this effect was only seen in women.

  19. Prospective Study of the Prevalence of Alzheimer-Type Dementia in Institutionalized Individuals with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, F. E.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Institutionalized patients with Down syndrome (N=307) were monitored for 5 to 10 years to determine prevalence of Alzheimer-type dementia. Prevalence increased from 11% between ages 40 and 49 to 77% between 60 and 69. All patients 70 and over had dementia. Mean age of onset of dementia was 56 years. Neuropathological findings were consistent with…

  20. Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Are at an Increased Risk of Gout But This Is Not Due to Diabetes: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wijnands, José Maria Andreas; van Durme, Caroline Marie Pierre Ghislaine; Driessen, Johanna Hendrika Maria; Boonen, Annelies; Klop, Corinne; Leufkens, Bert; Cooper, Cyrus; Stehouwer, Coen Dirk Adriaan; de Vries, Frank

    2015-08-01

    The relationship between type 2 diabetes and gout is complex. The objective of this study was to understand the role of diabetes itself and its comorbidities within the association between type 2 diabetes and gout.We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) GOLD. Persons with type 2 diabetes were identified as persons on a noninsulin antidiabetic drug (NIAD) between 2004 and 2012, and were matched to 1 control based on age, sex, and general practice. We estimated gout risk in NIAD users using Cox regression analysis. All analyses were stratified for sex.In total, 221,117 NIAD users were identified. NIAD users had an increased risk of gout (hazard ratio (HR) 1.48; 95% CI 1.41-1.54). This association was stronger in women (HR 2.23; 95% CI 2.07-2.41) compared with men (HR 1.19; 95% CI 1.13-1.26). After adjustments for BMI, eGFR, hypertension, renal transplantation, diuretics, statins, low-dose aspirin, ciclosporin, and tacrolimus, the risk disappeared in women (HR 1.01; 95% CI 0.92-1.11) and reversed in men (HR 0.61; 95% CI 0.58-0.66) (P for interaction <0.001). When stratifying gout risk according to HbA1c in male and female NIAD users, we found an inverse association between raising HbA1c and incident gout in men only. Further adjustment gave similar results.Individuals with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of gout. This is not due to diabetes itself, but to the comorbid conditions. Diabetes itself is apparently associated with a decreased risk of gout, especially in men.

  1. Cause-Specific Mortality Trends in a Large Population-Based Cohort With Long-Standing Childhood-Onset Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Secrest, Aaron M.; Becker, Dorothy J.; Kelsey, Sheryl F.; LaPorte, Ronald E.; Orchard, Trevor J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Little is known concerning the primary cause(s) of mortality in type 1 diabetes responsible for the excess mortality seen in this population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Allegheny County (Pennsylvania) childhood-onset (age <18 years) type 1 diabetes registry (n = 1,075) with diagnosis from 1965 to 1979 was used to explore patterns in cause-specific mortality. Cause of death was determined by a mortality classification committee of at least three physician epidemiologists, based on the death certificate and additional records surrounding the death. RESULTS Vital status for 1,043 (97%) participants was ascertained as of 1 January 2008, revealing 279 (26.0%) deaths overall (141 females and 138 males). Within the first 10 years after diagnosis, the leading cause of death was acute diabetes complications (73.6%), while during the next 10 years, deaths were nearly evenly attributed to acute (15%), cardiovascular (22%), renal (20%), or infectious (18%) causes. After 20 years' duration, chronic diabetes complications (cardiovascular, renal, or infectious) accounted for >70% of all deaths, with cardiovascular disease as the leading cause of death (40%). Women (P < 0.05) and African Americans (P < 0.001) have significantly higher diabetes-related mortality rates than men and Caucasians, respectively. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for non–diabetes-related causes do not significantly differ from the general population (violent deaths: SMR 1.2, 95% CI 0.6–1.8; cancer: SMR 1.2, 0.5–2.0). CONCLUSIONS The excess mortality seen in type 1 diabetes is almost entirely related to diabetes and its comorbidities but varies by duration of diabetes and particularly affects women and African Americans. PMID:20739685

  2. A population-based study comparing HRQoL among breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors to propensity score matched controls, by cancer type, and gender

    PubMed Central

    LeMasters, Traci; Madhavan, Suresh; Sambamoorthi, Usha; Kurian, Sobha

    2016-01-01

    Background Objectives were to compare health-related quality of life (HRQoL) between breast cancer survivors, prostate cancer survivors (PCS), and colorectal cancer survivors (CCS) to matched controls, stratified by short and long-term survivors, by cancer type, and gender. Methods By using the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, propensity scores matched three controls to adult survivors >1 year past diagnosis (N = 11,964) on age, gender, race/ethnicity, income, insurance status, and region of the USA Chi-square tests and logistic regression models compared HRQoL outcomes (life satisfaction, activity limitations, sleep quality, emotional support, general, physical, and mental health). Results Although all cancer survivors reported worse general health (p < 0.000) and more activity limitations (p < 0.004) than controls, these disparities decreased among long-term survivors. Short-term PCS and male CCS were more likely to report worse outcomes across additional domains of HRQoL than controls, but PCS were 0.61, 0.63, and 0.70 times less likely to report activity limitations, fair/poor general health, and 1–15 bad physical health days in the past month than male CCS. Breast cancer survivors and female CCS were 2.12 and 3.17, 1.58 and 1.86, and 1.49 and 153, respectively, times more likely to report rarely/never receiving needed emotional support, 1–15 bad mental health days in the past month, and not receiving enough sleep 1–15 days in the past month than PCS and male CCS. Conclusions Cancer survivors experience worse HRQoL than similar individuals without a history of cancer and the severity of affected HRQoL domains differ by time since diagnosis, cancer type, and gender. PMID:23606210

  3. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Dissection: An Observational Population-Based Study in Spain From 2001 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Trujillo, Isabel; González-Pascual, Montserrat; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; de Miguel-Yanes, José M; Méndez-Bailón, Manuel; de Miguel-Diez, Javier; Salinero-Fort, Miguel Ángel; Perez-Farinos, Napoleón; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; López-de-Andrés, Ana

    2016-05-01

    To describe trends in the rates of discharge due to thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (TAAD) among patients with and without type 2 diabetes in Spain (2001-2012).We used national hospital discharge data to select all of the patients who were discharged from the hospital after TAAD. We focused our analysis on patients with TAAD in the primary diagnosis field. Discharges were grouped by diabetes status (diabetic or nondiabetic). Incidence was calculated overall and stratified by diabetes status. We divided the study period into 4 periods of 3 years each. We analyzed diagnostic and surgical procedures, length of stay, and in-hospital mortality.We identified 48,746 patients who were discharged with TAAD. The rates of discharge due to TAAD increased significantly in both diabetic patients (12.65 cases per 100,000 in 2001/2003 to 23.92 cases per 100,000 in 2010/2012) and nondiabetic patients (17.39 to 21.75, respectively). The incidence was higher among nondiabetic patients than diabetic patients in 3 of the 4 time periods.The percentage of patients who underwent thoracic endovascular aortic repair increased in both groups, whereas the percentage of patients who underwent open repair decreased. The frequency of hospitalization increased at a higher rate among diabetic patients (incidence rate ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.20) than among nondiabetic patients (incidence rate ratio 1.08, 95% CI 1.07-1.11). The in-hospital mortality was lower in diabetic patients than in nondiabetic patients (odds ratio 0.83, 95% CI 0.69-0.99).The incidence rates were higher in nondiabetic patients. Hospitalizations seemed to increase at a higher rate among diabetic patients. Diabetic patients had a significantly lower mortality, possibly because of earlier diagnoses, and improved and more readily available treatments.

  4. Prevalence of the F-type lectin domain.

    PubMed

    Bishnoi, Ritika; Khatri, Indu; Subramanian, Srikrishna; Ramya, T N C

    2015-08-01

    F-type lectins are fucolectins with characteristic fucose and calcium-binding sequence motifs and a unique lectin fold (the "F-type" fold). F-type lectins are phylogenetically widespread with selective distribution. Several eukaryotic F-type lectins have been biochemically and structurally characterized, and the F-type lectin domain (FLD) has also been studied in the bacterial proteins, Streptococcus mitis lectinolysin and Streptococcus pneumoniae SP2159. However, there is little knowledge about the extent of occurrence of FLDs and their domain organization, especially, in bacteria. We have now mined the extensive genomic sequence information available in the public databases with sensitive sequence search techniques in order to exhaustively survey prokaryotic and eukaryotic FLDs. We report 437 FLD sequence clusters (clustered at 80% sequence identity) from eukaryotic, eubacterial and viral proteins. Domain architectures are diverse but mostly conserved in closely related organisms, and domain organizations of bacterial FLD-containing proteins are very different from their eukaryotic counterparts, suggesting unique specialization of FLDs to suit different requirements. Several atypical phylogenetic associations hint at lateral transfer. Among eukaryotes, we observe an expansion of FLDs in terms of occurrence and domain organization diversity in the taxa Mollusca, Hemichordata and Branchiostomi, perhaps coinciding with greater emphasis on innate immune strategies in these organisms. The naturally occurring FLDs with diverse domain organizations that we have identified here will be useful for future studies aimed at creating designer molecular platforms for directing desired biological activities to fucosylated glycoconjugates in target niches. PMID:25943580

  5. Prevalence of the F-type lectin domain.

    PubMed

    Bishnoi, Ritika; Khatri, Indu; Subramanian, Srikrishna; Ramya, T N C

    2015-08-01

    F-type lectins are fucolectins with characteristic fucose and calcium-binding sequence motifs and a unique lectin fold (the "F-type" fold). F-type lectins are phylogenetically widespread with selective distribution. Several eukaryotic F-type lectins have been biochemically and structurally characterized, and the F-type lectin domain (FLD) has also been studied in the bacterial proteins, Streptococcus mitis lectinolysin and Streptococcus pneumoniae SP2159. However, there is little knowledge about the extent of occurrence of FLDs and their domain organization, especially, in bacteria. We have now mined the extensive genomic sequence information available in the public databases with sensitive sequence search techniques in order to exhaustively survey prokaryotic and eukaryotic FLDs. We report 437 FLD sequence clusters (clustered at 80% sequence identity) from eukaryotic, eubacterial and viral proteins. Domain architectures are diverse but mostly conserved in closely related organisms, and domain organizations of bacterial FLD-containing proteins are very different from their eukaryotic counterparts, suggesting unique specialization of FLDs to suit different requirements. Several atypical phylogenetic associations hint at lateral transfer. Among eukaryotes, we observe an expansion of FLDs in terms of occurrence and domain organization diversity in the taxa Mollusca, Hemichordata and Branchiostomi, perhaps coinciding with greater emphasis on innate immune strategies in these organisms. The naturally occurring FLDs with diverse domain organizations that we have identified here will be useful for future studies aimed at creating designer molecular platforms for directing desired biological activities to fucosylated glycoconjugates in target niches.

  6. Prevalence of Risk for Type 2 Diabetes in School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urrutia-Rojas, Ximena; Menchaca, John

    2006-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1 in 3 children born in 2000 in the United States will become diabetic. The odds are higher for African American and Hispanic children as nearly 50% of them will develop diabetes. Random screening is not effective in identifying children at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM);…

  7. Type 2 diabetes, but not obesity, prevalence is positively associated with ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Speakman, John R; Heidari-Bakavoli, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Cold exposure stimulates energy expenditure and glucose disposal. If these factors play a significant role in whole body energy balance, and glucose homeostasis, it is predicted that both obesity and type 2 diabetes prevalence would be lower where it is colder. Previous studies have noted connections between ambient temperature and obesity, but the direction of the effect is confused. No previous studies have explored the link of type 2 diabetes to ambient temperature. We used county level data for obesity and diabetes prevalence across the mainland USA and matched this to county level ambient temperature data. Average ambient temperature explained 5.7% of the spatial variation in obesity and 29.6% of the spatial variation in type 2 diabetes prevalence. Correcting the type 2 diabetes data for the effect of obesity reduced the explained variation to 26.8%. Even when correcting for obesity, poverty and race, ambient temperature explained 12.4% of the variation in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes, and this significant effect remained when latitude was entered into the model as a predictor. When obesity prevalence was corrected for poverty and race the significant effect of temperature disappeared. Enhancing energy expenditure by cold exposure will likely not impact obesity significantly, but may be useful to combat type 2 diabetes. PMID:27477955

  8. Type 2 diabetes, but not obesity, prevalence is positively associated with ambient temperature

    PubMed Central

    Speakman, John R.; Heidari-Bakavoli, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Cold exposure stimulates energy expenditure and glucose disposal. If these factors play a significant role in whole body energy balance, and glucose homeostasis, it is predicted that both obesity and type 2 diabetes prevalence would be lower where it is colder. Previous studies have noted connections between ambient temperature and obesity, but the direction of the effect is confused. No previous studies have explored the link of type 2 diabetes to ambient temperature. We used county level data for obesity and diabetes prevalence across the mainland USA and matched this to county level ambient temperature data. Average ambient temperature explained 5.7% of the spatial variation in obesity and 29.6% of the spatial variation in type 2 diabetes prevalence. Correcting the type 2 diabetes data for the effect of obesity reduced the explained variation to 26.8%. Even when correcting for obesity, poverty and race, ambient temperature explained 12.4% of the variation in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes, and this significant effect remained when latitude was entered into the model as a predictor. When obesity prevalence was corrected for poverty and race the significant effect of temperature disappeared. Enhancing energy expenditure by cold exposure will likely not impact obesity significantly, but may be useful to combat type 2 diabetes. PMID:27477955

  9. The Prevalence and Trends of Antiviral Medication Use during Pregnancy in the U.S. A population-based study of 664,297 deliveries in 2001-2007

    PubMed Central

    Avalos, Lyndsay A.; Chen, Hong; Yang, Chunmei; Andrade, Susan E.; Cooper, William O.; Cheetham, Craig T.; Davis, Robert L.; Dublin, Sascha; Hammad, Tarek A.; Kaplan, Sigal; Pawloski, Pamala A.; Raebel, Marsha A.; Scott, Pamela E.; Smith, David H.; Toh, Sengwee; Li, De-Kun

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the prevalence, trends, timing and duration of exposure to antiviral medications during pregnancy within a US cohort of pregnant women and to evaluate the proportion of deliveries with a viral infection diagnosis among women given antiviral medication during pregnancy. Methods Live-born deliveries between 2001 and 2007, to women aged 15 to 45 years, were included from the Medication Exposure in Pregnancy Risk Evaluation Program (MEPREP), a collaborative research program between the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and eleven health plans. They were evaluated for prevalence, timing, duration, and temporal trends of exposure to antiviral medications during pregnancy. We also calculated the proportion of deliveries with a viral infection diagnosis among those exposed to antiviral medications. Results Among 664,297 live births, the overall prevalence of antiviral exposure during pregnancy was 4% (n=25,155). Between 2001 and 2007, antiviral medication exposure during pregnancy doubled from 2.5% to 5%. The most commonly used antiviral medication was acyclovir, with 3% of the deliveries being exposed and most of the exposure occurring after the 1st trimester. Most deliveries exposed to antiviral medications were exposed for less than 30 days (2% of all live births). Forty percent of the women delivering an infant exposed to antiviral medications had a herpes diagnosis. Conclusions Our findings highlight the increased prevalence of women delivering an infant exposed to antiviral medications over time. These findings support the need for large, well-designed studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of these medications during pregnancy. PMID:23420306

  10. Depression in type 2 diabetes mellitus: prevalence, impact, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Semenkovich, Katherine; Brown, Miriam E; Svrakic, Dragan M; Lustman, Patrick J

    2015-04-01

    Clinically significant depression is present in one of every four people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Depression increases the risk of the development of T2DM and the subsequent risks of hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and micro- and macrovascular complications. Conversely, a diagnosis of T2DM increases the risk of incident depression and can contribute to a more severe course of depression. This linkage reflects a shared etiology consisting of complex bidirectional interactions among multiple variables, a process that may include autonomic and neurohormonal dysregulation, weight gain, inflammation, and hippocampal structural alterations. Two recent meta-analyses of randomized controlled depression treatment trials in patients with T2DM concluded that psychotherapy and antidepressant medication (ADM) were each moderately effective for depression and that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) had beneficial effects on glycemic control. However, the number of studies (and patients exposed to randomized treatment) included in these analyses is extremely small and limits the certainty of conclusions that can be drawn from the data. Ultimately, there is no escaping the paucity of the evidence base and the need for additional controlled trials that specifically address depression management in T2DM. Future trials should determine both the effects of treatment and the change in depression during treatment on measures of mood, glycemic control, and medical outcome.

  11. Seasonal prevalence of Clostridium botulinum type C in the sediments of the northern California wetland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sandler, Renee J.; Rocke, T.E.; Samuel, M.D.; Yuill, Thomas M.

    1993-01-01

    The prevalence of Clostridium botulinum type C (% of positive sediment samples) was determined in 10 marshes at Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR), located in the Central Valley of California (USA), where avian botulism epizootics occur regularly. Fifty-two percent of 2,200 sediment samples collected over an 18-mo period contained C. botulinum type C (both neurotoxic and aneurotoxic) which was present throughout the year in all 10 marshes. The prevalence of C. botulinum type C was similar in marshes with either high or low botulism losses in the previous 5 yr. Marshes with avian botulism mortality during the study had similar prevalences as marshes with no mortality. However, the prevalence of C. botulinum type C was higher in marshes that remained flooded all year (permanent) compared with marshes that were drained in the spring and reflooded in the fall (seasonal). The prevalence of C. botulinum type C declined in seasonal marshes during the dry period. Similar declines did not occur in the permanently flooded marshes.

  12. Men's health: a population-based study on social inequalities.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Tássia Fraga; Alves, Maria Cecília Goi Porto; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão

    2012-11-01

    This study evaluates social inequalities in health according to level of schooling in the male population. This was a cross-sectional, population-based study with a sample of 449 men ranging from 20 to 59 years of age and living in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. The chi-square test was used to verify associations, and a Poisson regression model was used to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios. Men with less schooling showed higher rates of alcohol consumption and dependence, smoking, sedentary lifestyle during leisure time, and less healthy eating habits, in addition to higher prevalence of bad or very bad self-rated health, at least one chronic disease, hypertension, and other health problems. No differences were detected between the two schooling strata in terms of use of health services, except for dental services. The findings point to social inequality in health-related behaviors and in some health status indicators. However, possible equity was observed in the use of nearly all types of health services.

  13. Histocompatibility antigens in a population based silicosis series.

    PubMed Central

    Kreiss, K; Danilovs, J A; Newman, L S

    1989-01-01

    Individual susceptibility to silicosis is suggested by the lack of a uniform dose response relation and by the presence of immunological epiphenomena, such as increased antibody levels and associated diseases that reflect altered immune regulation. Human leucocyte antigens (HLA) are linked with immune response capability and might indicate a possible genetic susceptibility to silicosis. Forty nine silicotic subjects were identified from chest radiographs in a population based study in Leadville, Colorado. They were interviewed for symptoms and occupational history and gave a blood specimen for HLA-A, -B, -DR, and -DQ typing and for antinuclear antibody, immune complexes, immunoglobulins, and rheumatoid factor. Silicotic subjects had twice the prevalence of B44 (45%) of the reference population and had triple the prevalence of A29 (20%), both of which were statistically significant when corrected for the number of comparisons made. No perturbations in D-region antigen frequencies were detected. B44-positive subjects were older at diagnosis and had less dyspnoea than other subjects. A29-positive subjects were more likely to have abnormal levels of IgA and had higher levels of immune complexes. This study is the first to find significant HLA antigen excesses among a series of silicotic cases and extends earlier reported hypotheses that were based on groups of antigens of which B44 and A29 are components. PMID:2818968

  14. Celiac disease in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a prevalence study in western Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    Greco, Domenico; Pisciotta, Maria; Gambina, Francesco; Maggio, Filippo

    2013-02-01

    The association between celiac disease and type 1 diabetes mellitus is well known. Up to now, celiac disease prevalence in children and adults with type 1 diabetes in Sicily has not been reported. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of celiac disease in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who come from a defined geographical area in western Sicily and to investigate the clinical features of these subjects. The records of 492 consecutive patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus referred in a period of 5 years were analyzed. During the period of the survey, out of 492 patients with type 1 diabetes, 22 (4.5 %) had a previous diagnosis of celiac disease. There were 14 females and 8 males; these patients showed a mean age of 13 years at diabetes onset. Diagnosis of celiac disease was often simultaneous or subsequent to that of diabetes. Autoimmune thyroiditis was coexisting in 8 patients (36 %). Our data confirm, in a Sicilian population, the not unusual association between celiac disease and type 1 diabetes, although prevalence rate is lower than in others Italian studies. Autoimmune thyroiditis is present with high prevalence in these patients. Celiac disease diagnosis often followed onset of type 1 diabetes, particularly in female subjects with a young age at diabetes onset; therefore, in these subjects, an active search for the presence of celiac disease is warranted for many years after appearance of diabetes.

  15. Celiac disease in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a prevalence study in western Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    Greco, Domenico; Pisciotta, Maria; Gambina, Francesco; Maggio, Filippo

    2013-02-01

    The association between celiac disease and type 1 diabetes mellitus is well known. Up to now, celiac disease prevalence in children and adults with type 1 diabetes in Sicily has not been reported. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of celiac disease in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who come from a defined geographical area in western Sicily and to investigate the clinical features of these subjects. The records of 492 consecutive patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus referred in a period of 5 years were analyzed. During the period of the survey, out of 492 patients with type 1 diabetes, 22 (4.5 %) had a previous diagnosis of celiac disease. There were 14 females and 8 males; these patients showed a mean age of 13 years at diabetes onset. Diagnosis of celiac disease was often simultaneous or subsequent to that of diabetes. Autoimmune thyroiditis was coexisting in 8 patients (36 %). Our data confirm, in a Sicilian population, the not unusual association between celiac disease and type 1 diabetes, although prevalence rate is lower than in others Italian studies. Autoimmune thyroiditis is present with high prevalence in these patients. Celiac disease diagnosis often followed onset of type 1 diabetes, particularly in female subjects with a young age at diabetes onset; therefore, in these subjects, an active search for the presence of celiac disease is warranted for many years after appearance of diabetes. PMID:22707396

  16. Prevalence and types of birth defects in Ontario swine determined by mail survey.

    PubMed Central

    Partlow, G D; Fisher, K R; Page, P D; MacMillan, K; Walker, A F

    1993-01-01

    Preweaning mortality in piglets constitutes a major loss to the swine industry. Congenital defects account for a small but significant proportion of these losses. To implement appropriate strategies to reduce such losses, it is necessary to identify the specific causes and their relative importance. Consequently, a mail survey of swine production in Ontario was carried out to determine the prevalence and types of birth defects. Statistical comparisons of the prevalence of overall defects were made between accurate and estimate records, breeds (cross vs. purebred), size of operation (number of sows) and geographic location. The mean litter size of 11 pigs born per sow was not significantly different for those with accurate versus estimate records, but the difference in the prevalence of defective pigs (live and dead) was significant (accurate 3.1% vs. estimate 4.1%). Splayleg (spraddleleg) was the most common defect. The next four defects for both groups were belly rupture, other rupture, ridglings and other, but not in the same ranking. Purebred and small farm operations (< 25 sows) had a significantly higher prevalence of birth defects for estimated data only. Geographic location had no effect. Further work is required to determine whether recording prevalence of birth defects in Ontario swine will provide a useful monitor of environmental stress. The study provides a baseline for the prevalence and type of defects in Ontario swine. PMID:8490809

  17. High prevalence of atopy, but not of asthma, among children in an industrialized area in North Italy: the role of familial and environmental factors--a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Duse, Marzia; Donato, Francesco; Porteri, Vera; Pirali, Francesco; Spinoni, Vania; Tosoni, Cinzia; Vettore, Manuela; Lombardi, Carlo

    2007-05-01

    The prevalence of atopy and asthma, and their association with familial and environmental factors were investigated among 13- to 14-yr-old children living in Brescia, an industrialized town in North Italy. All the 1450 children attending primary school in the town were invited to participate, and 967 of them (66.7%, 493 males) provided a valid questionnaire filled in by their parents at home. We used a modified version of the questionnaire adopted in the Italian Study of Respiratory Disorders in Childhood and Environment, which is an extended version of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. Six hundred and twenty-eight subjects underwent skin prick test (SPT), and 308 of them (49%) were positive for at least one of the 12 allergen extracts commonly employed. Ninety-nine children (10.2%) had a physician's diagnosis of asthma - 12.4% of the males and 8.0% of the females (p = 0.03). The prevalence of wheezing in the past 12 months was 6.2%. Atopy was found in 76.8% of the subjects with, and in 45.6% of those without physician's diagnosis of asthma (p < 0.001). Analysis by multiple logistic regression showed an inverse association between physician-diagnosed asthma and female sex (odds ratio, OR = 0.5); presence of relatives in the bedroom in initial years of life (OR = 0.6); attending day care (OR = 0.4) and infant school (OR = 0.4); a positive association with parental history of wheezing (OR = 2.5) and asthma (OR = 3.8); and the child's history of asthmatic bronchitis (OR = 31.9) and atopic eczema (OR = 3.8) in the first 2 yr of life. The strength of the associations did not change when restricting the analysis to atopic asthma. In conclusion, atopy and clinical asthma among 13- to 14-yr-old adolescents are significantly associated with some familial and environmental factors, providing further support for the hygiene hypothesis. Prevalence of atopy, but not of asthma, is high in this industrialized area. The strong

  18. Prevalence and trends in the use of antipsychotic medications during pregnancy in the U.S., 2001–2007: A population-based study of 585,615 deliveries

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Sengwee; Li, Qian; Cheetham, T. Craig; Cooper, William O.; Davis, Robert L.; Dublin, Sascha; Hammad, Tarek A.; Li, De-Kun; Pawloski, Pamala A.; Pinheiro, Simone P.; Raebel, Marsha A.; Scott, Pamela E.; Smith, David H.; Bobo, William V.; Lawrence, Jean M.; Dashevsky, Inna; Haffenreffer, Katherine; Avalos, Lyndsay A.; Andrade, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the prevalence of and temporal trends in prenatal antipsychotic medication use within a cohort of pregnant women in the U.S. Methods We identified live born deliveries to women aged 15–45 years in 2001–2007 from 11 U.S. health plans participating in the Medication Exposure in Pregnancy Risk Evaluation Program (MEPREP). We ascertained prenatal exposure to antipsychotics from health plan pharmacy dispensing files, gestational age from linked infant birth certificate files, and ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes from health plan claims files. We calculated the prevalence of prenatal use of atypical and typical antipsychotics according to year of delivery, trimester of pregnancy, and mental health diagnosis. Results Among 585,615 qualifying deliveries, 4,223 (0.72%) were to women who received an atypical antipsychotic and 548 (0.09%) were to women receiving a typical antipsychotic any time from 60 days before pregnancy through delivery. There was a 2.5-fold increase in atypical antipsychotic use during the study period, from 0.33% (95% confidence interval: 0.29%, 0.37%) in 2001 to 0.82% (0.76%, 0.88%) in 2007, while the use of typical antipsychotics remained stable. Depression was the most common mental health diagnosis among deliveries to women with atypical antipsychotic use (63%), followed by bipolar disorder (43%) and schizophrenia (13%). Conclusions The number and proportion of pregnancies exposed to atypical antipsychotics has increased dramatically in recent years. Studies are needed to examine the comparative safety and effectiveness of these medications relative to other therapeutic options in pregnancy. PMID:23389622

  19. Prevalence and trends in the use of antipsychotic medications during pregnancy in the U.S., 2001-2007: a population-based study of 585,615 deliveries.

    PubMed

    Toh, Sengwee; Li, Qian; Cheetham, T Craig; Cooper, William O; Davis, Robert L; Dublin, Sascha; Hammad, Tarek A; Li, De-Kun; Pawloski, Pamala A; Pinheiro, Simone P; Raebel, Marsha A; Scott, Pamela E; Smith, David H; Bobo, William V; Lawrence, Jean M; Dashevsky, Inna; Haffenreffer, Katherine; Avalos, Lyndsay A; Andrade, Susan E

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to estimate the prevalence of and temporal trends in prenatal antipsychotic medication use within a cohort of pregnant women in the U.S. We identified live born deliveries to women aged 15-45 years in 2001-2007 from 11 U.S. health plans participating in the Medication Exposure in Pregnancy Risk Evaluation Program. We ascertained prenatal exposure to antipsychotics from health plan pharmacy dispensing files, gestational age from linked infant birth certificate files, and ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes from health plan claims files. We calculated the prevalence of prenatal use of atypical and typical antipsychotics according to year of delivery, trimester of pregnancy, and mental health diagnosis. Among 585,615 qualifying deliveries, 4,223 (0.72%) were to women who received an atypical antipsychotic and 548 (0.09%) were to women receiving a typical antipsychotic any time from 60 days before pregnancy through delivery. There was a 2.5-fold increase in atypical antipsychotic use during the study period, from 0.33% (95% confidence interval: 0.29%, 0.37%) in 2001 to 0.82% (0.76%, 0.88%) in 2007, while the use of typical antipsychotics remained stable. Depression was the most common mental health diagnosis among deliveries to women with atypical antipsychotic use (63%), followed by bipolar disorder (43%) and schizophrenia (13%). The number and proportion of pregnancies exposed to atypical antipsychotics has increased dramatically in recent years. Studies are needed to examine the comparative safety and effectiveness of these medications relative to other therapeutic options in pregnancy.

  20. Prevalence of Parkinson's disease and other types of Parkinsonism in Al Kharga district, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Tallawy, Hamdy N; Farghaly, Wafaa M; Shehata, Ghaydaa A; Rageh, Tarek A; Hakeem, Nabil M Abdel; Hamed, Mohamed Abd Al; Badry, Reda

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder in older people. The prevalence of PD varies among ethnic and geographic groups around the world. In this study, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of PD and other types of Parkinsonism in persons aged ≥40 years in the Al Kharga district of Egypt. The study was conducted on the total population of Al Kharga district (62,583 persons) between 2005 and 2009 and involved three neurology specialists and 15 female social workers undertaking a door-to-door survey. Suspected cases of Parkinsonism were subjected to meticulous clinical and neurological examination by three neurology staff members from Assiut University hospital who carried out their examinations separately. Of the total population surveyed, 15,482 persons were aged ≥40 years and 49 of these were identified as having Parkinsonism (prevalence: 316.50 per 100,000 people [95% confidence interval {CI} 240.21-404.98]). Of the 49, 33 fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for PD, giving a prevalence rate of 213.15/100,000 (95% CI 150.51-285.80) while 14 fulfilled those for vascular Parkinsonism, with a prevalence rate of 90.43/100,000 (95% CI 49.60-137.78). Postencephalitic and unspecified Parkinsonism each had a prevalence rate of 6.46/100,000. The prevalence of Parkinsonism was found to increase steadily with age, and the prevalence of all types of Parkinsonism was statistically higher in rural compared with urban communities, with no significant difference between men and women. PMID:24379673

  1. Prevalence and clinical profile of celiac disease in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Rajesh; Madvariya, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of celiac disease (CD) in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (TIDM) in follow-up in a Tertiary Care Referral Centre in Western India and to describe the clinical features indicative of CD in screened patients of TIDM. Study Design: In this single center observational cross-sectional study, 71 children who were diagnosed with TIDM were subjected to screening for CD with tissue transglutaminase antibody testing. Those who tested positive were offered intestinal biopsy for the confirmation of diagnosis. Clinical profiles of both groups of patients were compared and manifestations of CD were delineated. Results: The study revealed the prevalence of CD (based on serology) in children with Type 1 diabetes as 15.49%. The prevalence of biopsy-confirmed CD was 7.04%. Of the diagnosed CD patients, one-third were symptomatic at the time of screening while the majority was asymptomatic. The major clinical features indicative of CD were intestinal symptoms, anemia, rickets, and short stature. Autoimmune thyroid disease was prevalent in 29.6% of the patients with TIDM followed by CD. Conclusions: The high prevalence of CD in children with Type 1 diabetes emphasizes the need for routine screening programs to be in place for these high-risk populations. The clinical profile of patients with CD further elaborates the indicators of CD and the need to screen for them. PMID:26693431

  2. Trabecular bone score (TBS) predicts vertebral fractures in Japanese women over 10 years independently of bone density and prevalent vertebral deformity: the Japanese Population-Based Osteoporosis (JPOS) cohort study.

    PubMed

    Iki, Masayuki; Tamaki, Junko; Kadowaki, Eiko; Sato, Yuho; Dongmei, Namiraa; Winzenrieth, Renaud; Kagamimori, Sadanobu; Kagawa, Yoshiko; Yoneshima, Hideo

    2014-02-01

    Bone strength is predominantly determined by bone density, but bone microarchitecture also plays an important role. We examined whether trabecular bone score (TBS) predicts the risk of vertebral fractures in a Japanese female cohort. Of 1950 randomly selected women aged 15 to 79 years, we analyzed data from 665 women aged 50 years and older, who completed the baseline study and at least one follow-up survey over 10 years, and who had no conditions affecting bone metabolism. Each survey included spinal imaging by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for vertebral fracture assessment and spine areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measurement. TBS was obtained from spine DXA scans archived in the baseline study. Incident vertebral fracture was determined when vertebral height was reduced by 20% or more and satisfied McCloskey-Kanis criteria or Genant's grade 2 fracture at follow-up. Among eligible women (mean age 64.1 ± 8.1 years), 92 suffered incident vertebral fractures (16.7/10(3) person-years). These women were older with lower aBMD and TBS values relative to those without fractures. The unadjusted odds ratio of vertebral fractures for one standard deviation decrease in TBS was 1.98 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.56, 2.51) and remained significant (1.64, 95% CI 1.25, 2.15) after adjusting for aBMD. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of TBS and aBMD combined was 0.700 for vertebral fracture prediction and was not significantly greater than that of aBMD alone (0.673). However, reclassification improvement measures indicated that TBS and aBMD combined significantly improved risk prediction accuracy compared with aBMD alone. Further inclusion of age and prevalent vertebral deformity in the model improved vertebral fracture prediction, and TBS remained significant in the model. Thus, lower TBS was associated with higher risk of vertebral fracture over 10 years independently of aBMD and clinical risk factors including prevalent vertebral

  3. Metformin and other glucose-lowering drug initiation and rates of community-based antibiotic use and hospital-treated infections in patients with type 2 diabetes: a Danish nationwide population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Irene; Sørensen, Henrik T; Thomsen, Reimar W

    2016-01-01

    Objective Data on early risk of infection in patients receiving their first treatment for type 2 diabetes are limited. We examined rates of community-based antibiotic use and hospital-treated infection in initiators of metformin and other glucose-lowering drugs (GLDs). Design Population-based cohort study using medical databases. Setting General practice and hospitals in Denmark. Participants 131 949 patients with type 2 diabetes who initiated pharmacotherapy with a GLD between 2005 and 2012. Exposure Initial GLD used for pharmacotherapy. Main outcome measures We computed rates and adjusted HRs of community-based antibiotic use and hospital-treated infection associated with choice of initial GLD with reference to metformin initiation, using an intention-to-treat approach. Results The rate of community-based antibiotic use was 362 per 1000 patient-years at risk (PYAR) and that for hospital-treated infection was 51 per 1000 PYAR. Compared with metformin, the risk of hospital-treated infection was slightly higher in sulfonylurea initiators (HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.16) and substantially higher in insulin initiators (HR 1.63, 95% CI 1.54 to 1.72) initiators after adjustment for comorbid conditions, comedications and other confounding factors. In contrast, virtually no difference was observed for overall community-based antibiotic use (HR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.04, for sulfonylurea initiators; and 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.07, for insulin initiators). Conclusions Rates of community-based antibiotic treatment and hospitalisation for infection were high in patients receiving their first treatment for type 2 diabetes and differed with the choice of initial GLD used for pharmacotherapy. PMID:27543589

  4. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhipeng; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Wei; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Zhao, Shengcheng; Liu, Xuehui; Yu, Bing; Sun, Dianjun

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8–12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea), and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. Results The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in children (r = 0.134, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in adults (r = 0.162, P < 0.05), and altitude (r = 0.276, P < 0.05) were positively correlated with the prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Conclusions Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis. PMID:26499132

  5. The prevalence of acromegaly in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Suda, Kentaro; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Iguchi, Genzo; Hirota, Yushi; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Bando, Hironori; Matsumoto, Ryusaku; Takahashi, Michiko; Sakaguchi, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of acromegaly is estimated to be 8-24/100,000, but several recent studies suggest it is underestimated. In particular, acromegaly is considered more prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) than in the normal population. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of acromegaly in hospitalized patients with T2DM. A total of 327 hospitalized patients with T2DM were recruited as subjects. If serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels were found to be elevated, random GH level was measured or oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. Five patients with elevated serum IGF-1 levels and random GH level or inadequate suppression of GH in the OGTT underwent pituitary magnetic resonance imaging. Of those patients, pituitary adenoma was detected in 2 patients. These 2 patients were diagnosed with acromegaly, as they also exhibited mild acromegalic features. Intriguingly, both these patients exhibited severe macroangiopathy and an absence of microangiopathy. The prevalence of acromegaly in the hospitalized patients with T2DM in this study was therefore 0.6%, suggesting a higher prevalence than that predicted. Although a large-scale prospective study is required to clarify the precise prevalence of acromegaly in hospitalized patients with T2DM, the present study shows that it is useful to screen hospitalized patients with T2DM for acromegaly by measuring their serum IGF-1 level.

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of gastroparesis-related symptoms among patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Almogbel, Rakan A; Alhussan, Fulwa A; Alnasser, Sulaiman A; Algeffari, Metab A

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of gastroparesis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) vary widely. Our aim is to estimate the prevalence of clinical symptoms of gastroparesis among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and explore the relationship between gastroparesis and other risk factors. Methods A cross-sectional study evaluating 147 type 2 diabetics using the Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptoms Index (GCSI). A GCSI Total Score ≥ 1.90 were chosen as having definite symptoms of gastroparesis. All patients completed a demographic questionnaire and interviewed to complete the. Demographic Data, disease duration, Medication, comorbidities, recent blood glucose and HbA1C were collected and investigated. Results The prevalence of clinical symptoms of gastroparesis among type 2 diabetics was 10.8%. Clinical symptoms of gastroparesis were significantly correlated to HbA1c (p=0.001), blood glucose (p= 0.003), duration of diabetes (p= 0.02) and comorbidities (p=0.009). The most common symptoms were bloating, stomach fullness and early satiety (63.94%, 55.1% and 48.3% respectively). In logistic regression analysis, female gender emerged as significant independent predictors of the presence of at least one symptom. Conclusions The prevalence of clinical symptoms of gastroparesis observed in the Saudi patientsdiagnosedwithtype2 diabetes was 10.8% and is independently associated with poor controlled diabetes, hyperglycemia, and long duration of diabetes and history of Co-morbid conditions. PMID:27610063

  7. Prevalence, Types and Determinants of Complementary and Alternative Medications among Health Clinic Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almousa, H.; Rabie, Faten M.; Alsamghan, Awad S.; Alsaluli, Mobarak; Albqami, Sultan; Almusa, Mona; Al-shahrani, Areej

    2015-01-01

    Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) covers a wide range of over 100 healing approaches, philosophies and therapeutic modalities that are not provided by conventional medicine. Objectives: The study was aimed at identifying the prevalence, types and determinants of CAM use, sources of information about CAM that patients usually depend upon…

  8. Prevalence and risk factors of gastroparesis-related symptoms among patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Almogbel, Rakan A; Alhussan, Fulwa A; Alnasser, Sulaiman A; Algeffari, Metab A

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of gastroparesis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) vary widely. Our aim is to estimate the prevalence of clinical symptoms of gastroparesis among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and explore the relationship between gastroparesis and other risk factors. Methods A cross-sectional study evaluating 147 type 2 diabetics using the Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptoms Index (GCSI). A GCSI Total Score ≥ 1.90 were chosen as having definite symptoms of gastroparesis. All patients completed a demographic questionnaire and interviewed to complete the. Demographic Data, disease duration, Medication, comorbidities, recent blood glucose and HbA1C were collected and investigated. Results The prevalence of clinical symptoms of gastroparesis among type 2 diabetics was 10.8%. Clinical symptoms of gastroparesis were significantly correlated to HbA1c (p=0.001), blood glucose (p= 0.003), duration of diabetes (p= 0.02) and comorbidities (p=0.009). The most common symptoms were bloating, stomach fullness and early satiety (63.94%, 55.1% and 48.3% respectively). In logistic regression analysis, female gender emerged as significant independent predictors of the presence of at least one symptom. Conclusions The prevalence of clinical symptoms of gastroparesis observed in the Saudi patientsdiagnosedwithtype2 diabetes was 10.8% and is independently associated with poor controlled diabetes, hyperglycemia, and long duration of diabetes and history of Co-morbid conditions.

  9. Urbanization and prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Southern Asia: A systematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheema, Arsalan; Adeloye, Davies; Sidhu, Simrita; Sridhar, Devi; Chan, Kit Yee

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is one of the diseases considered to be the main constituents of the global non–communicable disease (NCD) pandemic. Despite the large impact that NCDs are predicted to have, particularly in developing countries, estimates of disease burden are sparse and inconsistent. This systematic review transparently estimates prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Southern Asia, its association with urbanization and provides insight into the policy challenges facing the region. Methods The databases Medline and PubMed were searched for population–based studies providing estimates of diabetes prevalence in the Southern Asia region. Studies using WHO diagnostic criteria of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥7.0mmol/L and/or 2h–plasma glucose (2hPG) ≥11.1mmol/L were included. Data from eligible studies was extracted into bubble graphs, and trend lines were applied to UNPD figures to estimate age–specific prevalence in the regional population. Estimates specific to sex, area of residency, and diagnostic method were compared and trends analysed. Results A total of 151 age–specific prevalence estimates were extracted from 39 studies. Diabetes prevalence was estimated to be 7.47% for 2005 and 7.60% for 2010. Prevalence was strongly associated with increased age, male gender and urban residency (P < 0.001). Conclusion Diabetes prevalence in Southern Asia is high and predicted to increase in the future as life expectancy rises and the region continues to urbanise. Countries in this region need to improve NCD surveillance and monitoring so policies can be informed with the best evidence. Programs for prevention need to be put in place, and health system capacity and access needs to be assessed and increased to deal with the predicted rise in NCD prevalence. PMID:24976963

  10. Effect of farm type on within-herd Salmonella prevalence, serovar distribution, and antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Rasschaert, G; Michiels, J; Arijs, D; Wildemauwe, C; De Smet, S; Heyndrickx, M

    2012-05-01

    Salmonella represents a major challenge to the pig industry, as pork presents a risk for human salmonellosis. In this study, we have examined the effect of farm type on the prevalence of fattening pigs shedding Salmonella on 12 farms at risk for harboring Salmonella. On six open (grow-to-finish) and six closed (farrow-to-finish) farms, the prevalence of pigs shedding Salmonella was determined on two occasions approximately 2 months apart. The serovar, phage type, and antimicrobial resistance of the obtained Salmonella isolates were determined. On all farms, pigs shedding Salmonella were detected on at least one of the two sampling days. The mean within-herd prevalence was 7.8%. Closed farms were two times less likely to have pigs shedding Salmonella than open farms. On open farms, the odds of finding Salmonella shedding in pigs were 1.9 times higher when sampling was performed at slaughter age than when samples were taken halfway through the fattening period. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was the most predominant serotype, with a prevalence of 62 to 63% on both farm types. Of all the Salmonella Typhimurium isolates, 65% had the tetraresistant profile ASSuT (ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamide, and tetracycline) with or without additional resistance to trimethoprim-sulfonamide. Phage type DT120 seemed to be especially associated with this antimicrobial-resistant profile. The prevalence of Salmonella Typhimurium isolates showing resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, sulfonamide, trimethoprim-sulfonamide, and lincomycin hydrochloride and spectinomycin sulfate tetrahydrate was significantly higher on open farms than on closed farms.

  11. Prevalence of Non-Volitional Sex Types and Associated Factors: A National Sample of Young People

    PubMed Central

    Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H. T. M.; Somers, Carlijn; de Graaf, Hanneke; Meijer, Suzanne; Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-volitional sex (NVS) in young people continues to be a major public health problem with long-term negative health outcomes. For the first time, the prevalence of different types of NVS and associated factors are compared between young people with same-sex sexual activities and those who have not. Methods We obtained data from 10,401 young women and men (aged 12 to 25 years) who participated in a population study on sexual health, the Netherlands. We calculated and compared the prevalence of six types of NVS between women who had sex with men (yWSM) or women (yWSW), and men who had sex with women (yMSW) or men (yMSM). In sexually experienced participants (n = 5986) logistic regression analyses were applied to assess associations with NVS by assault or penetration. Analyses were weighted to represent the Dutch population. Results The prevalence of NVS ranged from 1% to 61%, depending on type. Prevalence was higher for young women (any: 40.6%) than men (any: 20.4%), and highest for yMSM and yWSW. Prevalence of NVS by assault or penetration was related to a range of socio-demographic, behavioral and social factors, which were largely similar regardless of sex or same-sex-experiences. The NVS perpetrators were in over 70% of cases known to the victim; 1 in 4 cases of NVS by penetration were accompanied by violence. Conclusion A substantial proportion of young people in the Netherlands have experienced NVS. Medical professionals, educators and caregivers should integrate services to continue to address NVS by targeting young people’s multifaceted risk profiles and evidenced based interventions for doing so are needed. PMID:26214829

  12. Type-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus by cervical cytology among women in Brasov, Romania.

    PubMed

    Moga, Marius Alexandru; Irimie, Marius; Oanta, Alexandru; Pascu, Alina; Burtea, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    The oncogenic role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in triggering cervical cancer, the second most common cancer in women worldwide, is well established. Romania ranks in first place in Europe in terms of the incidence of cervical cancer. Geographical widespread data on HPV type-distribution are essential for estimating the impact of HPV vaccines and cervical cancer screening programmes. In this study we aimed to identify the prevalence of HPV genotypes and to establish correlations with abnormal cervical cytology among the female population of Brasov County, Romania. A total of 1,000 women aged 17.3-57 years, attending routine cervical examination in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Brasov, Romania, and undergoing both cytological examination and HPV genotyping were screened. Infection with 35 different HPV genotypes was detected in 39.6% of cytological specimens. Overall HPV infections were highest in young women under 25 years (p<0.0001), in which cervical cytological abnormalities also reached the highest prevalence. Patients infected by HPV-16 or HPV-18 showed the highest prevalence of cervical cytological abnormalities. Some 48.2% of women with abnormal cytology were infected with high-risk HPV types whereas less than 3% of them were infected only with low-risk HPV types. Our study showed that the prevalence of high-risk HPV infection among Romanian women is higher compared to other studies in other geographic areas. Thus, we consider that in areas where there is an increased prevalence of high-risk HPV infections, HPV genotyping should be performed in all women aged between 18 and 45 years, and Pap test should be performed every 6 months in women with high-risk HPV infection, even those with previous normal cervical cytology.

  13. Prevalence of human papillomavirus types in cervical cancerous and precancerous lesions of Ecuadorian women.

    PubMed

    Mejía, Lorena; Muñoz, Diana; Trueba, Gabriel; Tinoco, Leopoldo; Zapata, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide and it is responsible for most cases of uterine cancer. In Ecuador there is limited information about HPV types (and variants) in cancerous lesions; however, identifying the type-specific HPV prevalence in cervical lesions of women living in Ecuador is important to better predict the impact of HPV prophylactic vaccination in this country. We studied the prevalence of HPV types in cervical cancerous or precancerous lesions from 164 Ecuadorian women and found that 86.0% were HPV positive. The most common types were HPV16 (41.8%) and HPV58 (30.5%). Interestingly, HPV18 was detected only in 2.8% of the HPV-positive samples. Fifteen DNA sequences (genes E6 and L1) from 16 samples positive for HPV16 belonged to the European lineage, considered one of the least carcinogenic lineages, and 1 (6.25%) to the Asian-American lineage. Similar analysis in 12 HPV58 positive samples showed that 10 (83.3%) sequences grouped in sublineage A2, which belongs to the oldest HPV58 lineage, 1 belonged to A3 and 1 to lineage C. This study suggests that the currently used HPV vaccines (bivalent and tetravalent) may have lower effectiveness in Ecuador than in other geographic locations where HPV18 is more prevalent.

  14. Human Papillomavirus Prevalence and Type Distribution Among 968 Women in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    So, Kyeong A; Hong, Jin Hwa; Lee, Jae Kwan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Geographic variation in the prevalence of carcinogenic types and human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution is closely associated with the impact of HPV prophylactic vaccines. We determined the prevalence and distribution of HPV genotypes among healthy women in Korea. Methods: This study included 968 healthy women who were examined at a health promotion center of the Korea University Guro Hospital between January and June 2013. Each participant had a Pap test and a HPV DNA test using the Anyplex™ II HPV 28 Detection system, which detects 19 high-risk HPVs (HR HPVs) and 9 low-risk HPVs (LR HPVs). Women with abnormal cytology and/or positivity for HR HPVs were referred to colposcopic biopsy. Results: Overall HR HPV prevalence based on the assay was 33.7%. Among them, 225 women had single infection and 101 women had multiple infection. The most frequently occurring HR HPV types were 53 (6.5%), 52 (6.1%), 58 (4.8%), 16 (4.5%), and 68 (4.2%). The most frequently occurring LR HPV types were 54 (5.4%), 70 (3.8%), 42 (3.6%), 61 (3.4%), and 44 (3.1%). The prevalence of HPV 16 was highest (17.6%) among women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and HPV 16 was strongly associated with a diagnosis of CIN2/3 (odds ratio = 20.5; 95% confidence interval: 3.9–107.1; P < 0.0001). Conclusions: HPV 53, 52, 58, 16, and 68 were common HR HPV types among healthy Korean women. HPV16 was the most common type in high-grade CIN lesions, as shown in most studies worldwide. The results might be useful information for cervical cancer prevention in South Korea. PMID:27390739

  15. Prevalence and Type of BRCA Mutations in Hispanics Undergoing Genetic Cancer Risk Assessment in the Southwestern United States: A Report From the Clinical Cancer Genetics Community Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Clague, Jessica; Martir-Negron, Arelis; Ogaz, Raquel; Herzog, Josef; Ricker, Charité; Jungbluth, Chelsy; Cina, Cheryl; Duncan, Paul; Unzeitig, Gary; Saldivar, J. Salvador; Beattie, Mary; Feldman, Nancy; Sand, Sharon; Port, Danielle; Barragan, Deborah I.; John, Esther M.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Larson, Garrett P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence and type of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) mutations among Hispanics in the Southwestern United States and their potential impact on genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA). Patients and Methods Hispanics (n = 746) with a personal or family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer were enrolled in an institutional review board–approved registry and received GCRA and BRCA testing within a consortium of 14 clinics. Population-based Hispanic breast cancer cases (n = 492) enrolled in the Northern California Breast Cancer Family Registry, negative by sequencing for BRCA mutations, were analyzed for the presence of the BRCA1 ex9-12del large rearrangement. Results Deleterious BRCA mutations were detected in 189 (25%) of 746 familial clinic patients (124 BRCA1, 65 BRCA2); 21 (11%) of 189 were large rearrangement mutations, of which 62% (13 of 21) were BRCA1 ex9-12del. Nine recurrent mutations accounted for 53% of the total. Among these, BRCA1 ex9-12del seems to be a Mexican founder mutation and represents 10% to 12% of all BRCA1 mutations in clinic- and population-based cohorts in the United States. Conclusion BRCA mutations were prevalent in the largest study of Hispanic breast and/or ovarian cancer families in the United States to date, and a significant proportion were large rearrangement mutations. The high frequency of large rearrangement mutations warrants screening in every case. We document the first Mexican founder mutation (BRCA1 ex9-12del), which, along with other recurrent mutations, suggests the potential for a cost-effective panel approach to ancestry-informed GCRA. PMID:23233716

  16. Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating in Type 1 Diabetes: Prevalence, Screening, and Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Hanlan, Margo E.; Griffith, Julie; Patel, Niral

    2013-01-01

    This review is focused on the prevalence of eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Recent research indicates higher prevalence rates of eating disorders among people with type 1 diabetes, as compared to their peers without diabetes. Eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors – especially insulin omission – are associated with poorer glycemic control and serious risk for increased morbidity and mortality. Screening should begin in pre-adolescence and continue through early adulthood, as many disordered eating behaviors begin during the transition to adolescence and may persist for years. Available screening tools and treatment options are reviewed. Given the complexity of diabetes management in combination with eating disorder treatment, it is imperative to screen early and often, in order to identify those most vulnerable and begin appropriate treatment in a timely manner. PMID:24022608

  17. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Vietnam: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Chung T; Pham, Ngoc Minh; Lee, Andy H; Binns, Colin W

    2015-09-01

    This systematic review examined trends in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and identified its risk factors among adults in Vietnam. PubMed, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library, and Scopus databases were searched to identify relevant literature. The search yielded 10 studies, including 2 national surveys and 8 regional investigations. National prevalence estimates of T2DM were 2.7% in 2002 and 5.4% in 2012. The estimates for the northern region were 1.4% in 1994 and 3.7% in 2012 and those for the southern region were 3.8% in 2004, 7.0% in 2008, and 12.4% in 2010. The major determinants of T2DM included older age, urban residence, high levels of body and abdominal fat, physical inactivity, sedentary lifestyle, genetic factors, and hypertension. The prevalence rate by gender was variable in both national and regional studies. There was insufficient information available on some potentially important risk factors such as smoking, dietary intake, income, and educational level. Our review signifies a rapidly growing prevalence of T2DM in Vietnam and suggests that extra effort is required to prevent and control this disease.

  18. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Vietnam: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Chung T; Pham, Ngoc Minh; Lee, Andy H; Binns, Colin W

    2015-09-01

    This systematic review examined trends in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and identified its risk factors among adults in Vietnam. PubMed, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library, and Scopus databases were searched to identify relevant literature. The search yielded 10 studies, including 2 national surveys and 8 regional investigations. National prevalence estimates of T2DM were 2.7% in 2002 and 5.4% in 2012. The estimates for the northern region were 1.4% in 1994 and 3.7% in 2012 and those for the southern region were 3.8% in 2004, 7.0% in 2008, and 12.4% in 2010. The major determinants of T2DM included older age, urban residence, high levels of body and abdominal fat, physical inactivity, sedentary lifestyle, genetic factors, and hypertension. The prevalence rate by gender was variable in both national and regional studies. There was insufficient information available on some potentially important risk factors such as smoking, dietary intake, income, and educational level. Our review signifies a rapidly growing prevalence of T2DM in Vietnam and suggests that extra effort is required to prevent and control this disease. PMID:26187848

  19. Prevalence, distribution and correlates of endocervical human papillomavirus types in Brazilian women

    PubMed Central

    Lippman, S A; Sucupira, M C A; Jones, H E; Luppi, C G; Palefsky, J; van de Wijgert, J H H M; Oliveira, R L S; Diaz, R S

    2010-01-01

    Summary We determined the prevalence, distribution and correlates of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in 386 mixed-income, sexually active women in São Paulo, Brazil. Endocervical samples were tested for HPV DNA with L1 primers MY09 and MY11; negative and indeterminate samples were retested using GP 5+/6+ consensus primers. HPV was detected in 35% of all women; high-risk/probable high-risk types in 20%; low-risk types in 7%; and an indeterminate type in 10%. Twenty-five HPV types were found overall: 17 (probable) high-risk types and eight low-risk types. Approximately one-third (29%) of women with HPV infection were positive for type 16 or 18 and 36% were positive for types 6, 11, 16 or 18. The presence of (probable) high-risk HPV was associated with younger age, more lifetime sex partners and abnormal vaginal flora. Additional studies mapping the distribution of HPV types worldwide are necessary to prepare for vaccination programmes and direct future vaccine development. PMID:20089995

  20. Anthropometric markers and their association with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: which marker is best for prediction? Pooled analysis of four German population-based cohort studies and comparison with a nationwide cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hartwig, Saskia; Kluttig, Alexander; Tiller, Daniel; Fricke, Julia; Müller, Grit; Schipf, Sabine; Völzke, Henry; Schunk, Michaela; Meisinger, Christa; Schienkiewitz, Anja; Heidemann, Christin; Moebus, Susanne; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Werdan, Karl; Kuss, Oliver; Tamayo, Teresa; Haerting, Johannes; Greiser, Karin Halina

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the association between different anthropometric measurements and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to assess their predictive ability in different regions of Germany. Methods Data of 10 258 participants from 4 prospective population-based cohorts were pooled to assess the association of body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR) with incident T2DM by calculating HRs of the crude, adjusted and standardised markers, as well as providing receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves. Differences between HRs and ROCs for the different anthropometric markers were calculated to compare their predictive ability. In addition, data of 3105 participants from the nationwide survey were analysed separately using the same methods to provide a nationally representative comparison. Results Strong associations were found for each anthropometric marker and incidence of T2DM. Among the standardised anthropometric measures, we found the strongest effect on incident T2DM for WC and WHtR in the pooled sample (HR for 1 SD difference in WC 1.97, 95% CI 1.75 to 2.22, HR for WHtR 1.93, 95% CI 1.71 to 2.17 in women) and in female DEGS participants (HR for WC 2.24, 95% CI 1.91 to 2.63, HR for WHtR 2.10, 95% CI 1.81 to 2.44), whereas the strongest association in men was found for WHR among DEGS participants (HR 2.29, 95% CI 1.89 to 2.78). ROC analysis showed WHtR to be the strongest predictor for incident T2DM. Differences in HR and ROCs between the different markers confirmed WC and WHtR to be the best predictors of incident T2DM. Findings were consistent across study regions and age groups (<65 vs ≥65 years). Conclusions We found stronger associations between anthropometric markers that reflect abdominal obesity (ie, WC and WHtR) and incident T2DM than for BMI and weight. The use of these measurements in risk prediction should be encouraged. PMID:26792214

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of Peripheral Arterial Disease in Nigerians with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ikem, R. T.; Oluwadiya, K. S.; Bolarinwa, R. A.; Adebayo, O. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a major risk factor for nonhealing foot ulcers in people with diabetes. A number of traditional risk factors have been reported to be associated with PAD; however, there may be a need to consider nontraditional risk factors especially in some vulnerable populations. This study determined the prevalence and risk factors associated with PAD in diabetics. Methods. One hundred and fifty type 2 diabetics and an equal number of age- and sex-matched apparently healthy controls were studied. Assessment of PAD was made using history, palpation of lower limb vessels, and measurement of ankle-brachial index (ABI). Statistically significant differences between categorical and continuous variables were determined using Chi square (χ2) and Student t-tests, respectively. Regression analysis was done to determine the associated risk factors for PAD. Results. Prevalence of PAD using ABI was 22.0% and 8.0% among diabetic and nondiabetic populations, respectively. Peripheral arterial disease was associated with age, male gender, waist circumference, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Conclusion. This study highlights the high prevalence of PAD in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus and in apparently healthy controls; age, male gender, abdominal obesity, and high hs-CRP values were the associated risk factors. PMID:27800544

  2. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in individuals with type 2 diabetes who had recorded diabetic retinopathy from retinal photographs in Catalonia (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Poncelas, Antonio; Miravet-Jiménez, Sònia; Casellas, Aina; Barrot-De La Puente, Joan Francesc; Franch-Nadal, Josep; López-Simarro, Flora; Mata-Cases, Manel; Mundet-Tudurí, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Background/aims Retinal photography with a non-mydriatic camera is the method currently employed for diabetic retinography (DR) screening. We designed this study in order to evaluate the prevalence and severity of DR, and associated risk factors, in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) screened in Catalan Primary Health Care. Methods Retrospective, cross-sectional, population based study performed in Catalonia (Spain) with patients with T2DM, aged between 30 years and 90 years (on 31 December 2012) screened with retinal photography and whose DR category was recorded in their medical records. DR was classified as: no apparent retinopathy (no DR), mild non-proliferative DR (mild NPDR), moderate NPDR, severe NPDR, proliferative DR (PDR) and diabetic macular oedema (DMO). Non-vision threatening DR (non-VTDR) included mild and moderate NPDR; VTDR included severe NPDR, PDR and DMO. Clinical data were obtained retrospectively from the SIDIAP database (System for Research and Development in Primary Care). Results 108 723 patients with T2DM had been screened with retinal photography. The prevalence of any kind of DR was 12.3% (95% CI 12.1% to 12.5%). Non-VTDR and VTDR were present in 10.8% (mild 7.5% and moderate NPDR 3.3%) and 1.4% (severe NPDR 0.86%, PDR 0.36% and DMO 0.18%) of the study patients, respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of any type of DR in patients with T2DM screened with retinal photography was lower when compared with earlier studies. PMID:26089211

  3. Prevalence and temporal pattern of hospital readmissions for patients with type I and type II diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoqian; Liu, Yuanyuan; Lv, Yuanjun; Li, Changping; Cui, Zhuang; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objective Repeated hospitalisation for patients is common and costly, yet partly preventable. However, we know little about readmissions for patients with diabetes in China. The current study aims to assess the frequency and temporal pattern of and risk factors for all-cause readmission among hospitalised patients with diabetes in Tianjin, China. Method This retrospective, cohort analysis used the Tianjin Basic Medical Insurance Register System data of 2011. The patterns of and the reasons for all-cause readmissions for patients with diabetes were described. The differences of readmission-free survival (RFS) between newly and previously diagnosed patients were compared. Time-dependent Cox models were established to identify the risk factors for readmission at different time intervals after discharge. Results Readmission rates were approximately 30%, with the most common diagnoses of cerebral infarction (for type I) or diabetes (for type II) for patients with diabetes. The majority of patients were readmitted to the hospital after more than 90 days, followed by 8–30 days (all p=0.002). Approximately 37.2% and 42.8% of readmitted patients with type I and type II diabetes were diagnosed previously, and the RFS rates for previously diagnosed patients were significantly lower than for newly diagnosed patients at any time interval after discharge. Prior history of diabetes (all p<0.05), length of stay (all p<0.01) and reimbursement ratio (90% vs >92%, all p<0.0002) were consistently associated with the RFS for patients readmitted to the hospital at <7, 8–30, 31–60 and 61–90 days. Conclusions Hospital readmissions among patients with diabetes were affected by the diagnosis status. Patient characteristics and the quality of healthcare might regulate short-interval and long-interval hospital readmission, respectively, after discharge. PMID:26525716

  4. Porcine circovirus type 2 in China: an update on and insights to its prevalence and control.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Shao-Lun; Chen, Sheng-Nan; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Tang, Man-Hua; Wang, Feng-Guo; Li, Xiao-Jing; Sun, Bei-Bei; Deng, Su-Fang; Hu, Jun; Lv, Dian-Hong; Wen, Xiao-Hui; Yuan, Jie; Luo, Man-Lin; Wei, Wen-Kang

    2014-01-01

    Currently, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is considered the major pathogen of porcine circovirus associated-diseases (PCVAD) that causes large economic losses for the swine industry in the world annually, including China. Since the first report of PCV2 in 1998, it has been drawing tremendous attention for the government, farming enterprises, farmers, and veterinary practitioners. Chinese researchers have conducted a number of molecular epidemiological work on PCV2 by molecular approaches in the past several years, which has resulted in the identification of novel PCV2 genotypes and PCV2-like agents as well as the description of new prevalence patterns. Since late 2009, commercial PCV2 vaccines, including the subunit vaccines and inactivated vaccines, have already been used in Chinese swine farms. The aim of this review is to update the insights into the prevalence and control of PCV2 in China, which would contribute to understanding the epidemiology, control measures and design of novel vaccines for PCV2.

  5. Psychosocial Illness in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Prevalence, Pattern and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sengar, Ghanshyam Singh; Sharma, Monika; Choudhary, Shyama; Nagaraj, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) and psychosocial illness influence each other in multiple ways. The extent of psychosocial disorders in children with T1DM remains largely unstudied in India. Aim To assess the prevalence, severity, pattern and variables affecting psychosocial illness in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Material and Methods This observational study included 84 children (6-14 years of age) having T1DM at least for 1 year and 100 non diabetic children for comparison. “DSM-5 parent/guardian-Rated Level 1 & 2 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure –Child age 6-17” was used to assess psychosocial illness, specific domains and severity. Socio-demographic variables were studied and HbA1c levels were measured. Results Significantly higher prevalence of psychosocial illness was observed in children with T1DM as compared with non diabetic group (55.95% vs 20%; p<0.0001). The prevalence for mild, moderate and severe psychosocial illness was 8.33%, 27.38% and 20.24% respectively in diabetic children. Most common psychosocial abnormality was irritation (38.1%), followed by depression (36.9%) and anxiety (32.1%). The prevalence of psychosocial illness was significantly higher in T1DM patients with poorer metabolic control (HbA1c>7.5, p=0.014). Significant association of psychosocial illness was also noticed with poor dietary compliance (p=0.021) and higher mean HbA1c level (p<0.001). Conclusion This study established T1DM as a risk factor for development of psychosocial illness. Irritation, depression and anxiety were most common abnormalities. Significant association of psychosocial illness with poor dietary compliance and poor metabolic control was observed. Psychosocial assessment of every diabetic child is suggested for optimal management. PMID:27790539

  6. Prevalence of Autoantibodies and HLA DR, DQ in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Usha; Singh, Gyanendra; Agrawal, Neeraj Kumar; Singh, Rana Gopal; Kumar, Shashi Bhushan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Type I diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is caused by autoimmune destruction of β-cells of pancreas. Two forms of T1DM are known called as 1A (autoimmune) and 1B (idiopathic). Aim Aim was to study the prevalence of Anti-TTG IgA, Anti-TPO, GADA, ZnT8 and IA-2 autoantibodies and HLA DR and DQ genes and its diagnostic value in T1DM. Materials and Methods Thirty four T1DM patients, 59 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and 28 healthy controls were included in study. Antibodies levels were estimated by ELISA and HLA typing was performed by SSP-PCR method. Result The prevalence of various autoantibodies in T1DM were Anti-TTG 14.7%, Anti-TPO 17.65%, GADA 38.23%, ZnT8 11.76% and IA-2 5.88%. Only GADA and ZnT8 were significantly positive in T1DM. GADA (66.67%) and ZnT8 (33.33%) positivity was more in patients below 15 years age while levels of other antibodies were higher after 15 years age. All autoantibodies were detected in higher frequency in T1DM than in T2DM and controls. HLA DR and DQ typing showed highly significant increase in DRB1*0301 (61.76%, p=0.00) and DQB1*0201 (64.71%, p=0.00) in T1DM. Subjects with HLA DRB1*0301 and DQB1*0201 had 80-100% positive prevalence of GADA, ZnT8, IA-2, Anti-TTG and Anti-TPO autoantibodies. Conclusion Combination of GADA antibody with DRB1 and DQB1 estimation improved diagnosis of T1A than insulin antigen specific antibodies alone.

  7. Prevalence of Autoantibodies and HLA DR, DQ in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Usha; Singh, Gyanendra; Agrawal, Neeraj Kumar; Singh, Rana Gopal; Kumar, Shashi Bhushan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Type I diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is caused by autoimmune destruction of β-cells of pancreas. Two forms of T1DM are known called as 1A (autoimmune) and 1B (idiopathic). Aim Aim was to study the prevalence of Anti-TTG IgA, Anti-TPO, GADA, ZnT8 and IA-2 autoantibodies and HLA DR and DQ genes and its diagnostic value in T1DM. Materials and Methods Thirty four T1DM patients, 59 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and 28 healthy controls were included in study. Antibodies levels were estimated by ELISA and HLA typing was performed by SSP-PCR method. Result The prevalence of various autoantibodies in T1DM were Anti-TTG 14.7%, Anti-TPO 17.65%, GADA 38.23%, ZnT8 11.76% and IA-2 5.88%. Only GADA and ZnT8 were significantly positive in T1DM. GADA (66.67%) and ZnT8 (33.33%) positivity was more in patients below 15 years age while levels of other antibodies were higher after 15 years age. All autoantibodies were detected in higher frequency in T1DM than in T2DM and controls. HLA DR and DQ typing showed highly significant increase in DRB1*0301 (61.76%, p=0.00) and DQB1*0201 (64.71%, p=0.00) in T1DM. Subjects with HLA DRB1*0301 and DQB1*0201 had 80-100% positive prevalence of GADA, ZnT8, IA-2, Anti-TTG and Anti-TPO autoantibodies. Conclusion Combination of GADA antibody with DRB1 and DQB1 estimation improved diagnosis of T1A than insulin antigen specific antibodies alone. PMID:27630850

  8. A cross sectional study of HPV type prevalence according to age and cytology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A cross sectional study to investigate HPV prevalence according to age and cytology. Methods Women presenting to a gynaecological outpatient clinic for a Pap smear test were included in the study (n=3177). All women had cervical cytology and HPV testing. Results Overall prevalence of any 24 HPV type analysed was 33.1% (95% CI 31.5% to 34.7%) and HPV 16 and HPV 42 were the most frequent (6.7% (95% CI 5.8% to 7.6%), 6.8% (95% CI 5.9% to 7.6%)), in total samples. Multiple HPV infection rate was 12.9% (95% CI 11.8% to 14.1%). High risk HPV (hrHPV) types were present in 27.4% (95% CI 25.8% to 28.9%) of the samples. HPV prevalence was highest among 14 to 19 y.o (46.6% (95% CI 40.7%-52.4%)) and second highest among 30–34 y.o. (39.7%, 95% CI 35.4%–44%). HPV 16 was highest among 20–24 (9.0% (95% CI 6.4%–11.6%)) and second highest among 50 to 54 y.o. (6.3% (95% CI 2.9% to 9.8%). In Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (LgSIL) cytology samples, the most frequently detected hrHPV types were: 16 (14.5% (95% CI 12.1% to 16.9%)), 51 (13.0% (95% CI 10.7% to 15.3%)) and 53 (9.1% (95% CI 7.2% to 11.1%)) and in High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (HgSIL) were: HPV 16 (37.2% (95% CI 26.5% to 47.9%)), HPV 51 (17.9% (95% CI 9.4% to 26.5%)) and HPV 18 (12.8% (95% CI 5.4% to 20.2%)). Conclusions In the population studied, HPV 16 and 51 were the most frequent detected hrHPV types. HPV positivity, hrHPV and multiple HPV types infections were higher in young women, while HPV prevalence declined with increasing age and presented two peaks a higher (14–19 y.o.) and a lower one (30–34 y.o.) These results may contribute to the creation of a national screening programme. PMID:23363541

  9. Prevalence of Clostridium botulinum type E in Finnish fish and fishery products.

    PubMed Central

    Hyytiä, E.; Hielm, S.; Korkeala, H.

    1998-01-01

    The prevalence of Clostridium botulinum type E gene in fish and fishery products of commercial importance in Finland was determined using a quantitative PCR analysis. The contamination level in 438 raw fish samples from intestines, surface and whole fish and 208 fish roe samples varied from 10-40% and from 4-14% respectively, depending on the fish species studied. The presence of C. botulinum in European wild freshwater fish and roe was demonstrated for the first time by isolation of the organism from PCR-positive samples. Five percent of 214 vacuum-packed and 3% of 123 air-packed fishery product samples examined at retail level were positive for the botulinum neurotoxin type E gene. A contamination level of 10% in vacuum-packed hot-smoked whitefish was detected. The results demonstrate that C. botulinum type E poses a serious health risk for those consuming fishery products from the Baltic Sea area. PMID:9692602

  10. Ideal Cardiovascular Health and the Prevalence and Progression of Coronary Artery Calcification in Adults With and Without Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Alman, Amy C.; Maahs, David M.; Rewers, Marian J.; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In 2010, the American Heart Association defined seven metrics (smoking, BMI, physical activity, diet, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) for ideal cardiovascular health (ICH). Subsequent studies have shown that the prevalence of achieving these metrics is very low in the general population. Adults with type 1 diabetes are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but no studies to date have been published on the prevalence of ICH in this population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data for this analysis were collected as part of the prospective Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes study. This analysis involved 546 subjects with type 1 diabetes and 631 subjects without diabetes who had complete information for calculating the ICH metrics. RESULTS Overall, the prevalence of ICH was low in this population, with none meeting the ideal criteria for all seven metrics. The prevalence of ideal physical activity (10.0%) and diet (1.1%) were particularly low. ICH was significantly associated with both decreased prevalence (odds ratio [OR] 0.70; 95% CI 0.62–0.80) and progression (OR 0.77; 95% CI 0.66–0.90) of coronary artery calcification (CAC). CONCLUSIONS ICH is significantly associated with decreased prevalence and progression of CAC; however, prevalence of ICH metrics was low in adults both with and without type 1 diabetes. Efforts to increase the prevalence of ICH could have a significant impact on reducing the burden of CVD. PMID:24130360

  11. Prevalence and determinants of overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Yap, Roseline Wai Kuan; Loy, See Ling; Norris, Shane A; Biesma, Regien; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens

    2015-03-01

    This systematic review aimed to examine trends in overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among Malaysian adults, and to identify its underlying determinants. A review of studies published between 2000 and 2012 on overweight, obesity, and T2DM was conducted. The Cochrane library of systematic reviews, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Biosis, Scopus, and MyJurnal digital database were searched. According to national studies, the prevalence of overweight increased from 26.7% in 2003 to 29.4% in 2011; obesity prevalence increased from 12.2% in 2003 to 15.1% in 2011, and T2DM prevalence was reported as 11.6% in 2006 and 15.2% in 2011. Distal determinants of increased risk of overweight, obesity, and T2DM were as follows: female, Malay/Indian ethnicity, and low educational level. The limited number of studies on proximal determinants of these noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) indicated that an unhealthy diet was associated with increased risk, whereas smoking was associated with decreased risk. However, more studies on the proximal determinants of overweight, obesity, and T2DM within the Malaysian context are needed. Overall, our findings provide insights for designing both future investigative studies and strategies to control and prevent these NCDs in Malaysia.

  12. Prevalence and determinants of overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Yap, Roseline Wai Kuan; Loy, See Ling; Norris, Shane A; Biesma, Regien; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens

    2015-03-01

    This systematic review aimed to examine trends in overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among Malaysian adults, and to identify its underlying determinants. A review of studies published between 2000 and 2012 on overweight, obesity, and T2DM was conducted. The Cochrane library of systematic reviews, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Biosis, Scopus, and MyJurnal digital database were searched. According to national studies, the prevalence of overweight increased from 26.7% in 2003 to 29.4% in 2011; obesity prevalence increased from 12.2% in 2003 to 15.1% in 2011, and T2DM prevalence was reported as 11.6% in 2006 and 15.2% in 2011. Distal determinants of increased risk of overweight, obesity, and T2DM were as follows: female, Malay/Indian ethnicity, and low educational level. The limited number of studies on proximal determinants of these noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) indicated that an unhealthy diet was associated with increased risk, whereas smoking was associated with decreased risk. However, more studies on the proximal determinants of overweight, obesity, and T2DM within the Malaysian context are needed. Overall, our findings provide insights for designing both future investigative studies and strategies to control and prevent these NCDs in Malaysia. PMID:25524952

  13. HIV prevalence varies between female sex workers from different types of venues in southern China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiang-Sheng; Liang, Guo-Jun; Wang, Qian-Qiu; Yin, Yue-Ping; Jiang, Ning; Zhou, Yu-Jiao; Yang, Li-Gang; Liu, Qiao; Wang, Hong-Chun; Wang, Baoxi

    2012-11-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study on prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis among female sex workers (FSWs) recruited from different types of venues in 6 cities in China. Among 5322 FSWs (1379 were from high-tier venues, 2482 from middle-tier venues, and 1461 from low-tier venues, respectively), overall HIV prevalence was 0.54% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37%- 0.76%). By typology of venues where FSWs solicited clients, the prevalence was 1.37% (95% CI, 0.89%-2.11%) in low-tier venues, 0.28% (95% CI, 0.14%- 0.58%) in middle-tier venues, and 0.07% (95% CI, 0.01%-0.41%) in high-tier venues. The final logistic regression model showed an association of having had HIV infection with working in low-tier venues (adjusted odds ratio 2.73; 95% CI, 1.12-6.67) and coming from Guangxi Province (adjusted odds ratio, 7.89; 95% CI, 1.65-37.64). It can be concluded that FSWs working in low-tier venues (on the streets or public outdoor places) had higher risk of HIV infection than other venues. Such subgroup of FSWs should be efficiently covered by the current HIV/STD surveillance and intervention programs in China. PMID:23064536

  14. Regional Variability of Lifestyle Factors and Hypertension with Prediabetes and Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Population-Based KORA-F4 and SHIP-TREND Studies in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Heier, Margit; Peters, Annette; Schipf, Sabine; Krabbe, Christine; Völzke, Henry; Tamayo, Teresa; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Meisinger, Christa

    2016-01-01

    Objective Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) shows regional differences in Germany. The purpose of the project was to compare the prevalence of prediabetes and undiagnosed T2D in two regions in Germany, the Northeast and the South, and to evaluate their associations with regional variations in lifestyle factors and hypertension. Methods Data from the KORA-F4 study (South Germany, 2006–2008) and the SHIP-TREND study (Northeast Germany, 2008–2012) were used. Participants aged 35–79 years without T2D with an overnight fasting of more than 8 hours and an oral glucose tolerance test were included: KORA-F4: n = 2,616 and SHIP-TREND: n = 1,968. Results The prevalence of prediabetes/newly diagnosed T2D was especially high in men (about 60%) and women (about 50%) in the Northeast, followed by men (about 50%) and women (about 30%) in the South. Lifestyle factors associated with T2D varied between the regions: more participants in the Northeast were active smokers and the percentages of people with overweight or obesity were greater than in their southern counterparts. However, these differences could not explain the striking disparity in prediabetes/newly diagnosed T2D. The frequency of hypertension was also distinctly higher in the Northeast than in the South and clearly associated with prediabetes/newly diagnosed T2D. Especially in men living in the Northeast, screening individuals with blood pressure ≥ 140/90mmHg might reveal up to 70% of those with prediabetes/newly diagnosed T2D. Conclusions Knowledge about regional variability in T2D and related risk factors is important for the planning of diabetes prevention programs. In our analyses, common lifestyle factors did not nearly explain these variations between the northern SHIP-TREND and the southern KORA-F4 studies. Further examinations of regional socioeconomic, political, environmental and other aspects are needed. Meanwhile, targeted diabetes prevention strategies with a special focus on men living in the

  15. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Jun Ouk; Lee, Tae Hee; Park, Ja Young; Choi, Seong Ho; Park, Hee Seung; Lee, Jae Seung; Lee, Seung Heon; Seo, Eun Hee; Kim, Young Hwan; Kang, Young Woo

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in Korea appears to be increasing. Some studies have shown that T2DM is a risk factor for symptomatic GERD. However, this possibility is still debated, and the pathogenesis of GERD in T2DM is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence and risk factors (including autonomic neuropathy) of GERD in patients with T2DM. Methods This cross-sectional case-control study enrolled T2DM patients (n=258) and healthy controls (n=184). All participants underwent physical examinations and laboratory tests. We evaluated medical records and long-term diabetes complications, including peripheral and autonomic neuropathy in patients with T2DM. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed in all patients. The Los Angeles (LA) classification was used to grade GERD. GERD was defined as LA grade A (or higher) or minimal change with GERD symptoms. GERD symptoms were examined using a frequency scale. Data were expressed as mean±standard error. Independent t-tests or chi-square tests were used to make comparisons between groups. Results The prevalence of GERD (32.6% vs. 35.9%, P=0.266) and GERD symptoms (58.8% vs. 59.2%, P=0.503) was not significantly different between T2DM patients and controls. We found no significant differences between T2DM patients with GERD and T2DM patients without GERD with respect to diabetic complications, including autonomic neuropathy, peripheral neuropathy, duration of DM, and glucose control. Conclusion The prevalence of GERD in patients with T2DM showed no difference from that of controls. GERD was also not associated with peripheral and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, age, or duration of DM in patients with T2DM. PMID:27352149

  16. Depression in romanian patients with type 2 diabetes: prevalence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    MOCAN, ANDREIA S.; IANCU, SILVIA S.; DUMA, LIVIA; MURESEANU, CAMELIA; BABAN, ADRIANA S.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Co-existing major depression was found to have a negative impact on the diabetes outcome and the quality of life. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of depressive symptoms in Romanian diabetes patients and to identify the risk factors associated with depression. Methods A total of 144 type 2 diabetes patients were included in the study. Five models of presumed predictors were used to assess the risk factors for depressive symptoms, using hierarchical regression analysis. Together with demographics, disease, lifestyle predictors, previous depressive symptoms and diabetes distress were taken into account. Results In our sample the prevalence of depression was 12.6%. Main risk factors for depressive symptoms were previous depressive symptoms which were associated with depression in both Model 4 (β=0.297, p=0.013) and Model 5 (β=0.239, p=0.017) and diabetes distress in Model 5 (β=0.540, p≤0.001). Employment (β =−0.276, p=0.029) and increased number of diabetes complications (β=0.236, p=0.017) became significant when diabetes distress was added to the analysis. Conclusions The overall prevalence of depressive symptoms was found to be in range with the prevalence identified in the literature. Previous depression and diabetes distress were both independently associated with depression, confirming the bidirectional relationship between depression and diabetes distress. Due to the consequences for daily living, screening for diabetes distress and depression should be done in primary care units both by physicians and trained nurses. PMID:27547056

  17. Prevalence and Correlates of Depression in Individuals With and Without Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Gendelman, Nicole; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.; McFann, Kim; Kinney, Gregory; Wadwa, R. Paul; Bishop, Franziska; Rewers, Marian; Maahs, David M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Depression is associated with poor glycemic control and complications in people with type 1 diabetes. We assessed the prevalence of depression and antidepressant medication use among adults with and without type 1 diabetes and the association between depression and diabetes complications. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In 2006–2008, the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes Study applied the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) to 458 participants with type 1 diabetes (47% male, aged 44 ± 9 years, type 1 diabetes duration 29 ± 9 years) and 546 participants without diabetes (nondiabetic group) (51% male, aged 47 ± 9 years). Use of antidepressant medication was self-reported. Depression was defined as a BDI-II score >14 and/or use of antidepressant medication. Occurrence of diabetes complications (retinopathy, blindness, neuropathy, diabetes-related amputation, and kidney or pancreas transplantation) was self-reported. RESULTS Mean BDI-II score, adjusted for age and sex, was significantly higher in participants with type 1 diabetes than in nondiabetic participants (least-squares mean ± SE: 7.4 ± 0.3 vs. 5.0 ± 0.3; P < 0.0001). Type 1 diabetic participants reported using more antidepressant medications (20.7 vs. 12.1%, P = 0.0003). More type 1 diabetic than nondiabetic participants were classified as depressed by BDI-II cut score (17.5 vs. 5.7%, P < 0.0001) or by either BDI-II cut score or antidepressant use (32.1 vs. 16.0%, P < 0.0001). Participants reporting diabetes complications (n = 209) had higher mean BDI-II scores than those without complications (10.7 ± 9.3 vs. 6.4 ± 6.3, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS Compared with nondiabetic participants, adults with type 1 diabetes report more symptoms of depression and more antidepressant medication usage. Depression is highly prevalent in type 1 diabetes and requires further study on assessment and treatment. PMID:19171719

  18. Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Risk Behaviors among California Farmworkers: Results from a Population-Based Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brammeier, Monique; Chow, Joan M.; Samuel, Michael C.; Organista, Kurt C.; Miller, Jamie; Bolan, Gail

    2008-01-01

    Context: The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers is not well described. Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of population-based survey data from 6…

  19. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes in Spain: PERCEDIME2 study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Bakground The objective of this study was to determinate the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the different stages of CKD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) treated in primary care consults in Spain. Methods A national cross-sectional study was performed in primary care consults. The following data were collected: demographic and anthropometric information; list of present cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF); previous macrovascular and microvascular disease history; physical examination and analytical data from the previous 12 months, including the urine albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to evaluate renal function. Results With regard to the patients, 27.9% presented some degree of CKD as follows: 3.5% with stage 1; 6.4% with stage 2; 16.8% with stage 3 (11.6% with stage 3A and 5.2% with stage 3B); and 1.2% with stages 4 and 5. The prevalence of patients with UACR ≥ 30 mg/g was 15.4% (13% microalbuminuria and 2.4% macroalbuminuria). Renal impairment (RI) was found in 206 patients (18%) of whom 133 patients (64.6%) was stage 3A, 60 patients (29.1%) was stage 3B and 13 patients (6.3%) stages 4 and 5. Among patients with RI, 143 patients (69.4%) had normoalbuminuria. The following variables were significantly associated with CKD: age; sex (women); systolic arterial blood pressure (SABP) ≥ 150 mmHg; and a previous history of cardiovascular disease. Conclusions The results showed that the prevalence for any type of CKD was 27.9%. A systematic determination of UACR and eGFR may contribute to an early diagnosis, thus allowing intervention during the initial stages of the disease when treatment is more efficient. PMID:23433046

  20. Prevalence and types of hyponatraemia, its relationship with hyperglycaemia and mortality in ill pet rabbits.

    PubMed

    Bonvehi, C; Ardiaca, M; Barrera, S; Cuesta, M; Montesinos, A

    2014-05-31

    Prevalence of hyponatraemia has not been extensively studied in pet rabbits, and the reference data for calculated plasma tonicity and osmolarity are not available. This retrospective clinical study reports the prevalence of hyponatraemia, hyposmolarity and hypotonicity in ill pet rabbits (n=356). The relationship between sodium and glucose levels was studied (n=134). Mortality rates within seven days associated with different sodium levels were calculated in ill rabbits (n=322). Venous blood samples in lithium heparin were processed using iStat EC8+ cartridges. The 95% RI for plasma sodium, calculated osmolarity and tonicity from 51 healthy pet rabbits were 136-147 mEq/l, 284-312 mOsm/l and 278-302 mOsm/l, respectively. The prevalence of hyponatraemia, hypotonicity and hyposmolarity was 39.0 per cent, 28.7 per cent and 18.0 per cent, respectively. Pseudohyponatraemia was present in 28.1 per cent and true hyponatraemia was present in 71.9 per cent of the cases of hyponatraemia. Sodium levels less than 129 mEq/l were found to be associated with 2.3-fold increase in mortality risk. Plasmatic sodium levels in rabbits decrease in conditions of hyperglycaemia in a similar manner as it occurs in human beings. As hyperglycaemia is quite a common condition in rabbits, simultaneous measurement of plasmatic sodium along with glucose in ill rabbits is advised. Hyponatraemia is a common condition in ill rabbits and, depending on its type (true hyponatraemia or pseudohyponatraemia), of varying clinical relevance. Calculation of plasmatic tonicity is necessary for differentiation of types of hyponatraemia. PMID:24603463

  1. Oral Candida spp carriers: its prevalence in patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus*

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Ramon Felipe Fernandez; Jaimes-Aveldañez, Alejandra; Hernández-Pérez, Francisco; Arenas, Roberto; Miguel, Guadalupe Fabián-San

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prevalence of oral candidiasis in diabetic patients is 13.7-64%. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species (75-86.5%). OBJECTIVE: To obtain the prevalence of Candida carriers among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to identify the species of the yeast. Study design: It is an open, observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective study. METHODS: We included voluntary patients from the National Diabetes Marathon and performed a blood glucose measurement, sialometry test, Gram-stained exfoliative cytology, and culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar and CHROMagar Candida TM. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: We examined 141 patients (mean age 57 years): 103 women (73%) and 38 men (26.9%). Exfoliative cytology was positive in 32 cases (23 with oral lesions); 78 had oral lesions but no Candida (93.9%). Candida was isolated in 58 patients (41.1%), 21 (45.6 %) had blood glucose greater than 126 mg/dl, and 37 (38.9%) had less than 126 mg/dl. The most frequent species was C. albicans (82.7%). Forty-two Candida carriers had salivary flow greater than 20 mm (72.4%), and 16 (27.5%) had hyposalivation. Candida was isolated in 25 of 79 patients with dental prosthesis (31.6%), 9 of 15 were smokers (60%), and 22 of 71 had symptoms (30.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of oral Candida carriers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico was similar to that found in other countries; exfoliative cytology was effective in finding Candida; salivary flow rate, use of prosthesis, and presence of oral lesions and symptoms were similar in oral Candida carriers and negative patients. Most smokers were Candida carriers. PMID:23739717

  2. Human papillomavirus type-specific prevalence in women referred for colposcopic examination in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiurong; Liu, Zhizhong; Su, Jianrong; Yan, Donghui; Sun, Wei; Zeng, Zhaoying

    2014-11-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with several disorders of the genital tract, skin, and oropharynx. This study investigated the prevalence of infection by 37 HPV genotypes among women of the Beijing area in China. Cervical specimens from 1,082 patients and 165 healthy controls were tested for HPV genotypes using a chip hybridization assay. Based on the local pathology, patients were divided into cervicitis and cervical lesion groups. Overall HPV infection rates were 30.5% for the cervicitis group and 78.4% for the cervical lesion group; whereas infection rates for high-risk HPV types (i.e., those associated with cervical cancers) were 24.0% and 73.4%, respectively. The most common HPV genotypes were HPV 52, 16, 81, 58, and 18 in healthy controls, HPV 52, 61, 55, 16, and 53 in those with cervicitis, HPV 52, 16, 33, 39, and 58 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1, HPV 16, 58, 31, 52, and 33 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or grade 3, and HPV 16, 33, 18, 52, and 58 in cervical cancer. Established high-risk HPV showed two peaks, in patients aged 30-34 and 55-79 years. In Beijing, HPV 16, 52, 58, and 33 are the most prevalent HPV types in women with cervical lesions, which should affect development of a cervical cancer vaccination for local use.

  3. Type 1 diabetes prevalence increasing globally and regionally: the role of natural selection and life expectancy at birth

    PubMed Central

    You, Wen-Peng; Henneberg, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Objective Prevalence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) disease is increasing worldwide. We aim to test correlation of T1D prevalence to the reduced natural selection measured by Biological State Index (Ibs). Research design and methods Country-specific estimates of T1D prevalence, life expectancy, obesity prevalence rate, urbanization rates, per capita sugars consumption and per capita gross domestic product (GDP) were obtained. Ibs and country-specific longevity (e50) increase for each country were self-calculated. These data were then matched to T1D prevalence by country for our ecological study among 118 countries. Countries were also grouped to study the associations in different regions. SPSS V.22 was used for correlation analysis. Results Worldwide, both Ibs and life expectancy at birth (Ibs proxy) were significantly correlated to T1D prevalence in Pearson r (r=0.713, p<0.001 and r=0.722, p<0.001, respectively) and Spearman's r (r=0.724, p<0.001 and r=0.689, p<0.001, respectively). T1D prevalence was not correlated to longevity increase measured as life expectancy at 50 years old. T1D prevalence was significantly associated with Ibs (r=0.307, p<0.001) and newborn life expectancy (r=0.349, p<0.001) independent of per capita total sugar consumption, per capita GDP, urbanization and obesity prevalence in partial correlation. Globally, both life expectancy at birth and Ibs exponentially correlated to T1D prevalence. Pearson correlations generally existed in different country categorizations by geographic region, culture background and economic status. Conclusions Reduced natural selection may have contributed to the increasing T1D prevalence worldwide. T1D epidemiology study in total population may be the practical solution to identify the causes of increasing T1D prevalence. PMID:26977306

  4. The Prevalence and Predictors of Depression in Type 2 Diabetic Population of Punjab.

    PubMed

    Khullar, Shallu; Dhillon, Harjot; Kaur, Gurpreet; Sharma, Ritu; Mehta, Kanchan; Aggarwal, Rohit; Singh, Monica; Singh, Puneetpal

    2016-05-01

    The present cross sectional study was carried out on 787 type 2 diabetic subjects from tertiary health care hospitals to identify the prevalence and predictors of depression in diabetes. Depression was tested using Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Of the study participants, 199 (25.29%) met the criteria for mild to moderate depression, 252 (32.02%) were severely depressed and 336 (42.69%) were clinically non-depressed. The prevalence of depression was 65.02 % in women, which is 1.87 fold higher (p < 0.0001) than men (49.87%). Depression was observed to be strongly associated with advancing age >30 years (p < 0.05), low income (p = 0.0001), sedentary life style (p = 0.001), Plasma levels of low density lipoproteins (LDL) >100 mg/dl and triglycerides (TG) >150 mg/dl (p < 0.05), drinking alcohol (p < 0.001), statin use (p < 0.001), BMI >35-39.9 kg m(-2) (p = 0.018), WHR >0.9 cm (p < 0.0001), Glucose levels >125 mg/dl (p < 0.0001) and duration of diabetes 2-4 years (p = 0.003). In multivariate logistic regression model, risk factors such as, being a woman, duration of diabetes ≥10 years, BMI ≥30 kg m(-2), LDL >100 mg/dl, TG >150 mg/dl and sedentary life style emerged as independent predictors of depression in diabetes. In the present study, 86.4 % diabetic subjects were not diagnosed for depression prior participation. In conclusion, the present study revealed that higher prevalence of depression in diabetes was evident in population of Punjab, especially in women and majority of these patients remain undiagnosed for depression. PMID:26724818

  5. Short communication: prevalence of HIV type 1 transmitted drug resistance in Slovenia: 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Lunar, Maja M; Židovec Lepej, Snježana; Abecasis, Ana B; Tomažič, Janez; Vidmar, Ludvik; Karner, Primož; Vovko, Tomaž D; Pečavar, Blaž; Maver, Polona J; Seme, Katja; Poljak, Mario

    2013-02-01

    Slovenia is a small European country with a total of 547 HIV-infected individuals cumulatively reported by the end of 2011. However, the estimated incidence rate of HIV infections increased from 7.0 per million in 2003 to 26.8 per million in 2011. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in the past 6 years (2005-2010) and analyzed the time trend of the proportion of men having sex with men (MSM) and HIV-1 subtype B among newly diagnosed individuals in a 15-year period (1996-2010) in Slovenia. Among 150 patients included in the study, representing 63% of HIV-1 newly diagnosed patients in 2005-2010, TDR was found in seven patients (4.7%). The prevalence of TDR to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and protease inhibitors was 2% (3/150), 2% (3/150), and 0.7% (1/150), respectively. The majority of patients were infected with subtype B (134/150, 89%), while subtype A was detected in 6.0% (9/150), subtype D in 1.3% (2/150), and subtype G and CRF02_AG in 0.7% (one patient each). Three of 150 sequences could not be typed. Infection with subtype B was found to be significantly associated with male gender, Slovenia being reported as the country of the patient's nationality and origin of the virus, CDC class A, mode of transmission with homosexual/bisexual contact, sex with an anonymous person, and a higher CD4(+) count. Among patients carrying the subtype B virus, an MSM transmission route was reported in 87% of patients. Although the prevalence of TDR in Slovenia is still below the European average, active surveillance should be continued, especially among MSM, the most vulnerable population for HIV-1 infection in this part of Europe.

  6. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes type 2 in cryptogenic cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Tellez-Avila, Felix I; Sanchez-Avila, Francisco; García-Saenz-de-Sicilia, Mauricio; Chavez-Tapia, Norberto C; Franco-Guzman, Ada M; Lopez-Arce, Gustavo; Cerda-Contreras, Eduardo; Uribe, Misael

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS), obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a group of Mexican Mestizo patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis (CC) and to compare this group with patients with cirrhosis secondary to other causes (disease controls). METHODS: Patients with CC, diagnosed between January, 1990 and April, 2005, were included in a retrospective study. Patients with cirrhosis caused by chronic hepatitis C, alcohol abuse or autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) served as disease controls. RESULTS: A total of 134 patients with CC were analyzed. Disease controls consisted of 81 patients with chronic hepatitis C, 33 with alcohol abuse and 20 with AIH. The median age of patients with CC was 57 years (range, 16-87); 83 (61.9%) patients were female; 53 (39.6%) were Child A, 65 (48.5%) Child B, and 16 (11.9%) were Child C cirrhosis. The prevalence of MS (29.1% vs 6%; P < 0.001), obesity (16.4% vs 8.2%; P = 0.04) and T2DM (40% vs 22.4%; P = 0.013) was higher in CC patients than in disease controls. There were no differences in sex, age or liver function tests between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of MS, obesity and T2DM were higher in patients with CC than in patients with cirrhosis secondary to others causes. Our findings support the hypothesis that non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) plays an under-recognized role in CC. PMID:18720537

  7. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Douloumpakas, I; Pyrpasopoulou, A; Triantafyllou, A; Sampanis, Ch; Aslanidis, S

    2007-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is associated with a variety of musculoskeletal disorders. The prevalence of connective tissue disorders in these patients has increased in the recent years affecting significantly their quality of life. Methods - Results: We conducted a pilot study including 208 sequentially selected patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus regularly followed-up at the Diabetes Center of the Hippokration University Hospital. Among the diabetic patients who were screened according to the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Questionnaire for musculoskeletal symptoms and findings, 82.6% were found to exhibit musculoskeletal abnormalities, mainly of the degenerative, noninflammatory type. Conclusions: Musculoskeletal disorders are a common finding among patients with type 2 diabetes. Obesity and accumulation of abnormally glycosylated byproducts have been proposed as potential pathogenetic mediators of these connective tissue abnormalities. Of particular interest is, however, the common association of osteoarthritis, involving even non-weight bearing joints in patients with type 2 diabetes, indicating a common pathophysiologic mechanism connecting these two clinical conditions. PMID:19582198

  8. National reduction in porcine circovirus type 2 prevalence following introduction of vaccination.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, Cheryl M T; Yang, Yan; Haley, Charles; Sharma, Nikita; Murtaugh, Michael P

    2016-06-30

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), a small, single-stranded circular DNA virus and the causative agent of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD), was first observed in the mid-1990s in pigs with a post-weaning wasting disease. In 2006 the number of PCVAD cases greatly increased, marking it as an important viral pathogen for the United States (US) swine industry. PCV2 vaccines were introduced to the US in 2006 in response to widespread outbreaks of PCVAD. These vaccines were effective in preventing disease, but did not eliminate virus from the animals. In 2006, prior to vaccine use, a study of PCV2 prevalence in pig herds across the US was performed in conjunction with the US National Animal Health Monitoring System. In 2012, 6 years after widespread PCV2 vaccination, this study was repeated. Since the introduction of PCV2 vaccines in 2006, viral presence and viral loads have greatly decreased, and a genotypic shift dominated by PCV2b has occurred. Antibody levels have decreased in the pig population, but approximately 95% of sites continue to be antibody-positive. Widespread vaccination has controlled PCVAD and decreased PCV2 prevalence to the point that viremia is not detected on many sites. Thus, continued vaccination may lead to PCV2 elimination in the national herd over time. PMID:27259831

  9. Prevalence of Type VI Secretion System in Spanish Campylobacter jejuni Isolates.

    PubMed

    Ugarte-Ruiz, M; Stabler, R A; Domínguez, L; Porrero, M C; Wren, B W; Dorrell, N; Gundogdu, O

    2015-11-01

    Infections from Campylobacter jejuni pose a serious public health problem and are now considered the leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis throughout the world. Sequencing of C. jejuni genomes has previously allowed a number of loci to be identified, which encode virulence factors that aid survival and pathogenicity. Recently, a Type VI secretion system (T6SS) consisting of 13 conserved genes was described in C. jejuni strains and recognised to promote pathogenicity and adaptation to the environment. In this study, we determined the presence of this T6SS in 63 Spanish C. jejuni isolates from the food chain and urban effluents using whole-genome sequencing. Our findings demonstrated that nine (14%) strains harboured the 13 ORFs found in prototype strain C. jejuni 108. Further studies will be necessary to determine the prevalence and importance of T6SS-positive C. jejuni strains.

  10. Population-based p16 and HPV positivity rates in oropharyngeal cancer in Southeast Scotland.

    PubMed

    Wells, L A R; Junor, E J; Conn, B; Pattle, S; Cuschieri, K

    2015-10-01

    We assessed a population-based cohort of patients diagnosed with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in Southeast Scotland over 13 months. p16 and human papilloma virus (HPV) expression were determined, and correlated with stage, treatment, smoking and alcohol history, and disease outcomes. Retrospective analysis was performed on 60 patients. p16 immunohistochemistry and HPV genotyping were performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. HPV infection (as defined by p16 positivity and/or HPV PCR positivity) was identified in 57% of samples, while dual positives were detected in 45% of cases. HPV16 was most prevalent of the HPV types and was associated with 90% of positive samples. Cause-specific 1-year and 2-year survivals were 82.5% and 78.2%, respectively. The p16-positive and HPV-positive groups demonstrated significantly increased cause-specific survival in comparison with their negative counterparts.

  11. A study on prevalence of thyroid auto-immunity in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Dosi, Rupal V; Tandon, Nidhi

    2010-06-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an auto-immune disease. It is associated with other auto-immune endocrine disorders and auto-immune impairment of non-endocrine tissue. Auto-immune thyroid disease is one of the most frequent auto-immune diseases associated with it. Hypothyroidism can decrease insulin requirement in such patients and hyperthyroidism may cause glucose intolerance. This study attempts to review this concept and detect overt and subclinical forms of auto-immune thyroid disease in type 1 diabetics and to find its correlation with age, sex and duration of diabetes. Fifty type 1 diabetes mellitus patients were selected from SSG Hospital, Vadodara between April 2007 and September 2008. After detailed history and examination, haemogram, urine analysis, fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose level, serum free T4, TSH and antithyroid peroxidase antibody level were performed. The prevalence of auto-immune thyroid disease in type 1 diabetics was 60% with 40% having thyroid disorders (24% overt hypothyroidism, 8% subclinical hypothyroidism and 8% hyperthyroidism). Patients who were females (70% versus 53% in males), older (53.3% in 15-20 years age group versus 71% in 25-30 years age group), had a longer duration of diabetes (25% in those with the disease for <2 years and 100% in those >6 years) were more likely to have auto-immune thyroid disease than their counterparts. Thyroid auto-immunity is frequently associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus and patients should undergo antibody screening to detect the same and to find out assosiated undiagnosed thyroid dysfunction.

  12. Prevalence, Characteristics, and Prognostic Significance of HFE Gene Mutations in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Timothy M.E.; Beilby, John; Davis, Wendy A.; Olynyk, John K.; Jeffrey, Gary P.; Rossi, Enrico; Boyder, Conchita; Bruce, David G.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine the relationship between iron status, hereditary hemochromatosis (HFE) gene mutations, and clinical features and outcomes of type 2 diabetes in a well-characterized representative sample of community-based patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—HFE genotype data were available for 1,245 type 2 diabetic patients from the longitudinal observational Fremantle Diabetes Study (FDS), representing 96.2% of the total FDS type 2 diabetes cohort. Data were collected at recruitment between 1993 and 1996 and annually until the end of June 2001. Hospitalization and mortality data were available until the end of June 2006. The presence of the C282Y HFE mutation was determined in all subjects and H63D in C282Y heterozygotes. Fasting serum iron, transferrin, and ferritin were measured in all C282Y homozygotes and C282Y/H63D heterozygotes and in 286 randomly selected wild-type subjects. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine independent baseline associates of prevalent complications (myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease, retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy), as was Cox proportional hazards modeling to determine predictors of incident complications and mortality. RESULTS—Although there were expected positive associations between HFE gene mutations and serum iron and transferrin saturation, there were no independent positive associations between HFE gene status and either microvascular or macrovascular complications in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. HFE gene status did not independently predict cardiac or all-cause mortality. Measures of iron metabolism including serum ferritin were not associated with combined microvascular or macrovascular end points. CONCLUSIONS—Directed screening for iron overload and/or HFE mutations appears unwarranted in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:18566337

  13. Prevalence of Microvascular Complications in Newly Diagnosed Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Alia; Iqbal, Farrukh; Taj, Azeem; Iqbal, Zafar; Amin, Muhammad Joher; Iqbal, Qasim Zafar

    2013-01-01

    Background & Objective: Microvascular complications are the major outcome of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus progression, which reduce the quality of life, incur heavy economic burdens to the health care system and increase diabetic mortality. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of microvascular complications among newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients and to analyze the association between these complications and poor glycemic control. Methods: This cross sectional hospital based study was carried out in Diabetic Clinic of Shaikh Zayed Postgraduate Medical Institute, Lahore Pakistan. The study was conducted from November 2011 to November 2012 among newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients. Relevant information of all patients was recorded with the help of a proforma. They were investigated for retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. Results: We have divided the patients into two groups: Group I with good glycemic control (HbA1c <6.5) and group II with poor glycemic control (HbA1c >6.5). In group II microvascular complications were 89.8%. Neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy were present in 68.5%, 56.2% and 31.4% respectively. These similar percentages in Group I were 50%, 0% and 31% respectively and are significantly lower. Conclusion: The study showed that even in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients who had poor glycemic control, frequency of microvascular complications is much higher as compared to those who had average glycemic control. Thus tight glycemic control does count even in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics to prevent and minimize the occurrence of complications. PMID:24353655

  14. The Increasing Prevalence of Diabetes in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Kelly J.; Schuller, Kelly L.

    2007-01-01

    SYNOPSIS We review studies published in the past 10 years that examine the prevalence and trends in the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The prevalence of GDM in a population is reflective of the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in that population. In low-risk populations, such as those found in Sweden, the prevalence in population-based studies is lower than 2% even when universal testing is offered, while studies in high-risk populations, such as the Native American Cree, Northern Californian Hispanics and Northern Californian Asians, reported prevalence rates ranging from 4.9% to 12.8%. Prevalence rates for GDM obtained from hospital-based studies similarly reflect the risk of type 2 diabetes in a population with a single hospital-based study in Australia reporting prevalences ranging from 3.0% in Anglo-Celtic women to 17.0% in Indian women. Finally, of the eight studies published that report on trends in the prevalence of GDM, 6 studies report an increase in the prevalence of GDM across most racial/ethnic groups studied. In summary, diabetes during pregnancy is a common and increasing complication of pregnancy. PMID:17572266

  15. A population-based Habitable Zone perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zsom, Andras

    2015-08-01

    What can we tell about exoplanet habitability if currently only the stellar properties, planet radius, and the incoming stellar flux are known? The Habitable Zone (HZ) is the region around stars where planets can harbor liquid water on their surfaces. The HZ is traditionally conceived as a sharp region around the star because it is calculated for one planet with specific properties e.g., Earth-like or desert planets , or rocky planets with H2 atmospheres. Such planet-specific approach is limiting because the planets’ atmospheric and geophysical properties, which influence the surface climate and the presence of liquid water, are currently unknown but expected to be diverse.A statistical HZ description is outlined which does not select one specific planet type. Instead the atmospheric and surface properties of exoplanets are treated as random variables and a continuous range of planet scenarios are considered. Various probability density functions are assigned to each observationally unconstrained random variable, and a combination of Monte Carlo sampling and climate modeling is used to generate synthetic exoplanet populations with known surface climates. Then, the properties of the liquid water bearing subpopulation is analyzed.Given our current observational knowledge of small exoplanets, the HZ takes the form of a weakly-constrained but smooth probability function. The model shows that the HZ has an inner edge: it is unlikely that planets receiving two-three times more stellar radiation than Earth can harbor liquid water. But a clear outer edge is not seen: a planet that receives a fraction of Earth's stellar radiation (1-10%) can be habitable, if the greenhouse effect of the atmosphere is strong enough. The main benefit of the population-based approach is that it will be refined over time as new data on exoplanets and their atmospheres become available.

  16. Participation Dynamics in Population-Based Longitudinal HIV Surveillance in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Larmarange, Joseph; Mossong, Joël; Bärnighausen, Till; Newell, Marie Louise

    2015-01-01

    Population-based HIV surveillance is crucial to inform understanding of the HIV pandemic and evaluate HIV interventions, but little is known about longitudinal participation patterns in such settings. We investigated the dynamics of longitudinal participation patterns in a high HIV prevalence surveillance setting in rural South Africa between 2003 and 2012, taking into account demographic dynamics. At any given survey round, 22,708 to 30,495 persons were eligible. Although the yearly participation rates were relatively modest (26% to 46%), cumulative rates increased substantially with multiple recruitment opportunities: 68% of eligible persons participated at least once, 48% at least twice and 31% at least three times after five survey rounds. We identified two types of study fatigue: at the individual level, contact and consent rates decreased with multiple recruitment opportunities and, at the population level, these rates also decreased over calendar time, independently of multiple recruitment opportunities. Using sequence analysis and hierarchical clustering, we identified three broad individual participation profiles: consenters (20%), switchers (43%) and refusers (37%). Men were over represented among refusers, women among consenters, and temporary non-residents among switchers. The specific subgroup of persons who were systemically not contacted or refusers constitutes a challenge for population-based surveillance and interventions. PMID:25875851

  17. Prevalence of Helicobacter pullorum in conventional, organic, and free-range broilers and typing of isolates.

    PubMed

    Manfreda, Gerardo; Parisi, Antonio; Lucchi, Alex; Zanoni, Renato Giulio; De Cesare, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Helicobacter pullorum represents a potential food-borne pathogen, and avian species appear to be a relevant reservoir of this organism. In this study, the prevalence of H. pullorum was investigated at 30 conventional farms where 169 ceca from 34 flocks were tested, at eight organic farms where 39 ceca from eight flocks were tested, and at seven free-range farms where 40 ceca from eight flocks were tested. All of the ceca were obtained from healthy broiler chickens. Moreover, amplified fragment length polymorphism, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and automated ribotyping were employed to estimate the levels of genetic variability of H. pullorum broiler isolates within and between flocks. Overall, Gram-negative, slender, curved rods, identified as H. pullorum by PCR, were isolated at 93.3% of the farms tested. The percentage of positive free-range farms (54.2%) was significantly lower than that of conventional (100%) or organic (100%) farms (P < 0.001). The level of within-flock genetic variability, calculated as the number of flocks colonized by isolates genetically different by all of the typing methods, was 34.9%. Isolates showing identical profiles by each typing method were observed in 11.6% of the flocks, but they were never detected between flocks. However, groups of isolates clustered together with an overall similarity level of ≥85%. Our results suggest that even though a high level of genetic variability is attributable to H. pullorum broiler isolates, their hierarchical genotyping produces data useful for epidemiological investigations.

  18. Cardiovascular disease and type 1 diabetes: prevalence, prediction and management in an ageing population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Siang Ing; Patel, Mitesh; Jones, Christopher M.; Narendran, Parth

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). However, evidence of its risks and management is often extrapolated from studies in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients or the general population. This approach is unsatisfactory given that the underlying pathology, demographics and natural history of the disease differ between T1D and T2D. Furthermore, with a rising life expectancy, a greater number of T1D patients are exposed to the cardiovascular (CV) risk factors associated with an ageing population. The aim of this review is to examine the existing literature around CVD in T1D. We pay particular attention to CVD prevalence, how well we manage risk, potential biomarkers, and whether the studies included the older aged patients (defined as aged over 65). We also discuss approaches to the management of CV risk in the older aged. The available data suggest a significant CVD burden in patients with T1D and poor management of CV risk factors. This is underpinned by a poor evidence base for therapeutic management of CV risk specifically for patients with T1D, and in the most relevant population – the older aged patients. We would suggest that important areas remain to be addressed, particularly exploring the risks and benefits of therapeutic approaches to CVD management in the older aged. PMID:26568811

  19. Prevalence and mapping of a plasmid encoding a type IV secretion system in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chih-Chin; Kuo, Han-Yueh; Tang, Chuan Yi; Chang, Kai-Chih; Liou, Ming-Li

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the prevalence of a type IV secretion system (T4SS)-bearing plasmid among clinical isolates of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) using plasmid replicon typing. The complete sequence of a T4SS-bearing plasmid, pAB_CC, isolated from A. baumannii TYTH-1 was determined, and a comparative analysis of the T4SS gene modules was performed. Of the 129 isolates studied, GR6 (repAci6) was the most common (45 of 96 isolates) and was strongly linked with the T4SS. A comparative analysis of the T4SS locus in seven plasmid genomes, including pAB_CC, pACICU2, pABKp1, pABTJ1, p1BJAB0714, p2BJAB0868, and p2ABTCDC0715, indicated that fourteen genes on these plasmids were highly conserved compared to those of the F plasmid. Additionally, the chromosomes in the seven representative isolates may be evolutionarily distinct from their intrinsic T4SS-bearing plasmids, suggesting that the two T4SS lineages emerged long before the appearance of EC II. These two lineages are now widespread in A. baumannii strains.

  20. Prevalence and determinants of microalbuminurea among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, Baghdad, Iraq, 2013.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ali Abdalkader; Al Lami, Faris Hassan

    2016-03-01

    Microalbuminuria (MAU) is an early marker of diabetic nephropathy (DN), which accounts for a significant reduction in life expectancy of diabetic patients. The progression of DN from the appearance of clinical proteinuria to end stage renal failure is usually irreversible. Increased levels of urinary albumin secretion may represent a more generalized vascular damage. This is the first study conducted in Iraq to determine the prevalence and potential risk factors of MAU among Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a systematic random sample of 224 eligible T2DM patients aged 25-64 years attending a DM clinic in Baghdad. A questionnaire was developed to gather basic and clinical data, besides anthropometric measurements, and laboratory assessment of lipid profile, HbA1c, serum creatinine, albumin, and microalbumin/creatinin in urine. MAU was defined as albumin/creatinine ratio 30-300 mg/g on two occasions. Only 36 cases (16.1%) had MAU. A statistical significant association found between MAU and educational level (P = 0.009), family history of hypertension (P = 0.024) and DN (P = 0.013), history of hypertension (P = 0.001), duration of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor drug intake in hypertensive patients (P = 0.001), body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.014), and waist to hip ratio (P = 0.006). Logistic regression analyses revealed two independent risk factors influencing MAU: diastolic blood pressure [odds ratio (OR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.007-1.118] and BMI (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.037-1.220). The prevalence of MAU is not low among DM patients. Mandatory screening of all DM patients and amelioration of the assigned significant risk factors are recommended.

  1. Lymphoma incidence, survival and prevalence 2004–2014: sub-type analyses from the UK's Haematological Malignancy Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Smith, A; Crouch, S; Lax, S; Li, J; Painter, D; Howell, D; Patmore, R; Jack, A; Roman, E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Population-based information about cancer occurrence and survival are required to inform clinical practice and research; but for most lymphomas data are lacking. Methods: Set within a socio-demographically representative UK population of nearly 4 million, lymphoma data (N=5796) are from an established patient cohort. Results: Incidence, survival (overall and relative) and prevalence estimates for >20 subtypes are presented. With few exceptions, males tended to be diagnosed at younger ages and have significantly (P<0.05) higher incidence rates. Differences were greatest at younger ages: the <15 year male/female rate ratio for all subtypes combined being 2.2 (95% CI 1.3–3.4). These gender differences impacted on prevalence; most subtype estimates being significantly (P<0.05) higher in males than females. Outcome varied widely by subtype; survival of patients with nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma approached that of the general population, whereas less than a third of those with other B-cell (e.g., mantle cell) or T-cell (e.g., peripheral-T) lymphomas survived for ≥5 years. No males/female survival differences were detected. Conclusions: Major strengths of our study include completeness of ascertainment, world-class diagnostics and generalisability. The marked variations demonstrated confirm the requirement for ‘real-world' data to inform aetiological hypotheses, health-care planning and the future monitoring of therapeutic changes. PMID:25867256

  2. Prevalence of self-reported sleep duration and sleep habits in type 2 diabetes patients in South Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Ramtahal, Rishi; Khan, Claude; Maharaj-Khan, Kavita; Nallamothu, Sriram; Hinds, Avery; Dhanoo, Andrew; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Lazo, Mariana

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to determine the prevalence of self-reported sleep duration and sleep habits and their associated factors in patients with type 2 diabetes in Trinidad. This was a cross-sectional multicenter study. There were 291 patients with type 2 diabetes studied. Sleep habits were assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey sleep disorder questionnaire. Demographic, anthropometric and biochemical data were also collected. The sample had a mean age of 58.8 years; 66.7% were female. The mean BMI was 28.9 kg/m(2). The prevalence of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS) was 11.3%. The prevalence of patients with short sleep (⩽6h) was 28.5%. The prevalence of patients with poor sleep was 63.9%. Poor sleep was associated with age, intensive anti-diabetic treatment and longer duration of diabetes. Short sleep was associated with intensive anti-diabetic treatment and BMI, while EDS was associated with increased BMI. In a sample of patients with type 2 diabetes, a high prevalence of self-reported sleep duration and unhealthy sleep habits was found. There needs to be an increased awareness of sleep conditions in adults with type 2 diabetes by doctors caring for these patients.

  3. Prevalence of tension-type headache in adult general population: the PACE study and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, T; Manzoni, G C; Russo, M; Camarda, C; Taga, A; Veronesi, L; Pasquarella, C; Sansebastiano, G; Torelli, P

    2013-05-01

    The mean global prevalence of tension-type headache (TTH) in adult is 42 %. To date, there have been no Italian studies on TTH prevalence in the adult general population. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study, called PACE (PArma CEfalea, or "Headache in Parma"), aimed at detecting the prevalence and clinical features of primary headaches in the city of Parma's adult general population. Crude past-year prevalence for definite TTH was 19.4 % (95 % CI 16.8-21.9), namely 9.0 % (95 % CI 7.1-10.8) for infrequent TTH, 9.8 % (95 % CI 7.9-11.8) for frequent TTH, and 0.6 % (95 % CI 0.1-1) for chronic TTH. Crude prevalence for probable TTH was 2.3 % (95 % CI 1.3-3.3). Our study results indicate a TTH prevalence rate (19.4 %) at the lower limit of data ranges currently available for Western countries, and prevalence rates for infrequent forms (9 %) do not appear much different from those of frequent forms (9.8 %).

  4. Low prevalence of type 2 diabetes despite a high average body mass index in the Aymara natives from Chile.

    PubMed

    Santos, J L; Pérez-Bravo, F; Carrasco, E; Calvillán, M; Albala, C

    2001-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and the frequency of dyslipidemia, obesity, and hypertension in the rural Aymara population from Northern Chile. In this cross-sectional study, 196 Aymara adult subjects were characterized with respect to their reported physical activity, fasting plasma glucose levels, insulin concentrations, blood pressures, body mass indexes, and plasma lipid profiles. The participants also underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. The diagnostic criteria for DM2 and IGT followed those of the World Health Organization. The overall prevalence of DM2 was estimated as 1.5% (95% confidence interval: 0.3--4.5). Overall prevalence of IGT was calculated as 3.6% (1.5--7.3). The occurrence of obesity and dyslipidemia was relatively high in the Aymara population, although the frequency of sedentary habits, and the prevalence of hypertension were low. In conclusion, the prevalence of DM2 in the rural Aymara population living at high altitudes in Northern Chile, was much lower than that of other Amerindian groups that adopted lifestyles from industrialized Western societies. Despite a relatively high prevalence of a body mass index of at least 30 kg/m(2), especially in women (23.5%), high physical activity levels and low plasma-insulin concentrations may have been responsible in part for the low prevalence of DM2 in the Aymara population.

  5. Prevalence and determinants of delayed gastric emptying in hospitalised Type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Kojecky, Vladimir; Bernatek, Jaromir; Horowitz, Michael; Zemek, Stanislav; Bakala, Jiri; Hep, Ales

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of delayed gastric emptying (GE) in older patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: One hundred and forty seven patients with Type 2 diabetes, of whom 140 had been hospitalised, mean age 62.3 ± 8.0 years, HbA1c 9.1% ± 1.9%, treated with either oral hypoglycemic drugs or insulin were studied. GE of a solid meal (scintigraphy), autonomic nerve function, upper gastrointestinal symptoms, acute and chronic glycemic control were evaluated. Gastric emptying results were compared to a control range of hospitalised patients who did not have diabetes. RESULTS: Gastric emptying was delayed (T50 > 85 min) in 17.7% patients. Mean gastric emptying was slower in females (T50 72.1 ± 72.1 min vs 56.9 ± 68.1 min, P = 0.02) and in those reporting nausea (112.3 ± 67.3 vs 62.7 ± 70.0 min, P < 0.01) and early satiety (114.0 ± 135.2 vs 61.1 ± 62.6 min, P = 0.02). There was no correlation between GE with age, body weight, duration of diabetes, neuropathy, current glycemia or the total score for upper gastrointestinal symptoms. CONCLUSION: Prolonged GE occurs in about 20% of hospitalised elderly patients with Type 2 diabetes when compared to hospitalised patients who do not have diabetes. Female gender, nausea and early satiety are associated with higher probability of delayed GE. PMID:18330949

  6. Epidemiology of Rett syndrome: a population-based registry.

    PubMed

    Kozinetz, C A; Skender, M L; MacNaughton, N; Almes, M J; Schultz, R J; Percy, A K; Glaze, D G

    1993-02-01

    The Texas Rett Syndrome Registry maintains the largest population-based registry of cases and potential cases of Rett syndrome in the world. The most precise estimate of the prevalence of Rett syndrome of 1 per 22800 (0.44/10000) females aged 2 through 18 years of age was generated from this Registry. In addition, the first prevalence figures for black and Hispanic female cases were estimated. Registry cases are actively ascertained from multiple sources. Registry staff identify presumptive cases from review of information provided to the Registry by the parent or guardian. Preliminary diagnostic evaluation includes standardized review of medical records and videotape of key behaviors. Diagnosis is confirmed at clinical evaluation. The active surveillance system is monitored with the two-source capture-recapture methodology and case ascertainment is projected. The 1990 prevalence estimate of Rett syndrome indicates that the syndrome occurs less frequently than previously estimated. Until a biologic marker for Rett syndrome is identified or a standard definition for an incident case of Rett syndrome is designated, the prevalence of Rett syndrome will remain a major investigative issue of its epidemiology, and the Registry will be an important, systematic mean to gather case material for clinical and laboratory studies providing the foundation for the development of preventive interventions.

  7. Estimating glomerular filtration rate in a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Anoop; Lee, Kristine E; Klein, Barbara EK; Muntner, Paul; Brazy, Peter C; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Nieto, F Javier; Danforth, Lorraine G; Schubert, Carla R; Tsai, Michael Y; Klein, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Background: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR)-estimating equations are used to determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in population-based studies. However, it has been suggested that since the commonly used GFR equations were originally developed from samples of patients with CKD, they underestimate GFR in healthy populations. Few studies have made side-by-side comparisons of the effect of various estimating equations on the prevalence estimates of CKD in a general population sample. Patients and methods: We examined a population-based sample comprising adults from Wisconsin (age, 43–86 years; 56% women). We compared the prevalence of CKD, defined as a GFR of <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 estimated from serum creatinine, by applying various commonly used equations including the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equation, Cockcroft–Gault (CG) equation, and the Mayo equation. We compared the performance of these equations against the CKD definition of cystatin C >1.23 mg/L. Results: We found that the prevalence of CKD varied widely among different GFR equations. Although the prevalence of CKD was 17.2% with the MDRD equation and 16.5% with the CG equation, it was only 4.8% with the Mayo equation. Only 24% of those identified to have GFR in the range of 50–59 mL/min per 1.73 m2 by the MDRD equation had cystatin C levels >1.23 mg/L; their mean cystatin C level was only 1 mg/L (interquartile range, 0.9–1.2 mg/L). This finding was similar for the CG equation. For the Mayo equation, 62.8% of those patients with GFR in the range of 50–59 mL/min per 1.73 m2 had cystatin C levels >1.23 mg/L; their mean cystatin C level was 1.3 mg/L (interquartile range, 1.2–1.5 mg/L). The MDRD and CG equations showed a false-positive rate of >10%. Discussion: We found that the MDRD and CG equations, the current standard to estimate GFR, appeared to overestimate the prevalence of CKD in a general population sample. PMID:20730018

  8. The Prevalence of Transfusion Transmitted Infections in ABO Blood Groups and Rh Type System.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Jitendra Singh; Singh, Savitri; Kaur, Viplesh; Giri, Sumit; Kaushal, Ravi Prakash

    2014-11-19

    Screening of blood and blood products is important to reduce the risk of transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs). The transfusion of unscreened or inadequately screened blood and blood products are the major source of TTIs. The aim of this paper is to find out the prevalence of TTIs in ABO blood groups and Rh type system. A total of 4128 blood donors were screened from January 2010 to April 2014. Serological tests were performed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti hepatitis C virus (Anti-HCV), anti HIV-1 and 2, venereal disease research Laboratory test (VDRL) and malaria parasite (MP) antigen. In seroreactive donors, HBsAg, Anti-HCV, VDRL, MP antigen and anti HIV were positive in 40 cases, 26 cases, 19 cases, 6 cases and 2 cases, respectively. Highest percentage of HBsAg, Anti HCV, VDRL, MP antigen and anti HIV was observed in blood group A negative (2/50), O negative (1/66), B negative (1/91), AB positive (2/377) blood group respectively. In the present study, the total number of Rhnegative donors is lower when compared to Rh-positive blood donors, but Rh-negative blood donors show higher percentages of seroreactivity for TTIs. Larger scale studies at molecular level are required to improve the knowledge of this aspect.

  9. Prevalence and types of drug-resistant variants in Chinese patients with acute hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Su, Feifei; Dai, Jianyi; Yang, Shoufeng; Jiang, Xiangao; Cui, Xiaoya; Ning, Hongye; Li, Junhua; Huang, Mohe

    2015-09-01

    The presence of therapy-associated hepatitis B virus (HBV) variants is the main drawback of antiviral therapy for HBV infection. Moreover, drug-resistant variants are more insensitive to a second agent and more therapy-associated mutations will be present. To apply better nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) and reduce the occurrence of resistance, the prevalence and types of drug-resistant mutations in acute hepatitis B patients were investigated in this study. One hundred three HBV DNA-positive patients with symptomatic acute hepatitis B that were observed from 2011 to 2013 were enrolled. Direct polymerase chain reaction sequencing was used firstly to screen HBV reverse-transcriptase domain to detect HBV mutants. Five lamivudine-resistant variants were identified. Clonal sequencing was performed for 5 resistance-positive samples and 10 other random samples. Interestingly, all detected samples harbored drug-resistant mutations, although with different percentage. Thirteen harbored lamivudine-related alone (five) or together with other NA related mutations (five with adefovir, one with entecavir, and one with telbivudine), and two of them harbored adefovir-related mutations. Also, mutations associated with four currently used NA were all detected, and the frequency is in accordance with the popularity of NA used in clinical practice. These data suggest that drug-resistant variants are present in patients with acute hepatitis B and NA should be applied more carefully for chronic hepatitis B patients developed from acute hepatitis B.

  10. The relation between type of farming and prevalence of Parkinson's disease among agricultural workers in five French districts.

    PubMed

    Moisan, Frédéric; Spinosi, Johan; Dupupet, Jean-Luc; Delabre, Laurène; Mazurie, Jean-Louis; Goldberg, Marcel; Imbernon, Ellen; Tzourio, Christophe; Elbaz, Alexis

    2011-02-01

    Retrospective assessment of pesticide exposure is complex; however, patterns of pesticide use strongly depend on farming type, which is easier to assess than pesticide exposure. Our aim was to estimate Parkinson's disease (PD) prevalence in five French districts in 2007 among affiliates of Mutualité Sociale Agricole (MSA) and to investigate the relation between PD prevalence and farming type. We identified PD cases from administrative files as persons who used levodopa and/or benefited from free health care for PD. Densities of 16 farming types were defined at the canton of residence level (1988 French agricultural census). We used logistic regression to study the relation between PD prevalence and density of farming types and a semi-Bayes approach to deal with correlated exposures. We identified 1,659 PD cases, yielding an age- and sex-standardized PD prevalence of 3.01/1,000. Prevalence increased with age and was higher in men than women. We found a higher PD prevalence among affiliates living in cantons characterized by a higher density of farms specialized in fruits and permanent crops (multivariable semi-Bayes model: OR(4+5 vs 1+2+3 quintiles) = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.08-1.36; test for trend, P = 0.035). In France, farms specialized in fruits and permanent crops rank first in terms of insecticide use per hectare. Our findings are consistent with studies reporting an association between PD and insecticide use and show that workers in farms specialized in fruits or permanent crops may be an occupational group at higher PD risk.

  11. Prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus among US adolescents: results from the continuous NHANES, 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Demmer, Ryan T; Zuk, Aleksandra M; Rosenbaum, Michael; Desvarieux, Moïse

    2013-10-01

    Although prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are reportedly increasing among adolescents, national data are lacking, particularly in regard to undiagnosed T2DM. To estimate the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed T2DM among US adolescents, we analyzed a nationally representative cross-section of 11,888 adolescents aged 12-19 years who received a diabetes interview in the Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 1999-2010. Among them, a random subsample of 4,661 adolescents also had fasting blood samples collected. Persons who reported a previous diabetes diagnosis and were either taking no medication or taking an oral hypoglycemic agent (with or without insulin) were classified as having T2DM; persons who reported using insulin alone were classified as having type 1 diabetes. Undiagnosed diabetes was defined as a fasting plasma glucose concentration of ≥126 mg/dL and was assumed to be type 2. In the fasting subsample, 31 diabetes cases (types 1 and 2) were identified, representing a prevalence of 0.84% (weighted 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51, 1.40) (276,638 cases; 95% CI: 134,255, 419,020). Estimates of the prevalences of type 1 and type 2 diabetes were 0.48% (95% CI: 0.23, 1.02) and 0.36% (95% CI: 0.20, 0.67), respectively, indicating that T2DM accounted for 43% of all cases. Further, undiagnosed T2DM prevalence was 0.12% (95% CI: 0.05, 0.31), representing 34% of T2DM cases (40,611 cases; 95% CI: 2,850, 78,373). T2DM accounts for approximately half of adolescent diabetes in the United States, and one-third of these cases are undiagnosed.

  12. Prevalence, Type, Distribution, and Severity of Cerebral Palsy in Relation to Gestational Age: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himpens, E.; Van den Broeck, C.; Oostra, A.; Calders, P.; Vanhaesebrouck, P.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this review is to determine the relationship between gestational age (GA) and prevalence, type, distribution, and severity of cerebral palsy (CP). Epidemiological studies with cohorts expressed by GA were assessed. A comprehensive meta-analysis and meta-regression was performed on four fetal age categories. Studies of children with CP…

  13. The Prevalence, Types and Perceived Outcomes of Crisis Episodes in Early Adulthood and Midlife: A Structured Retrospective-Autobiographical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Oliver C.; Wright, Gordon R. T.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to gain data on the prevalence, types and perceived outcomes of crisis episodes in three age decades of adult life: 20-29, 30-39 and 40-49. A further aim was to explore the relationship between crisis occurrence and empathy. A retrospective-autobiographical survey instrument and an empathy questionnaire were…

  14. Prevalence, etiology, and types of dental trauma in children and adolescents: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Ebadifard Azar, Farbod; Pournaghi Azar, Fatemeh; Rezapour, Aziz; Moradi-Joo, Mohammad; Moosavi, Ahmad; Ghertasi Oskouei, Sina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental traumas are common among children and adolescents in many societies posing health and social problems. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on prevalence, etiology, types, and other epidemiologic aspects of dental trauma in children and adolescents (0-18 years old). Methods: In this systematic meta-analytical review, data were collected searching for key words including traumatic dental injuries, dental trauma, dental injury, dental trauma, tooth injuries, tooth trauma, traumatized teeth, dentoalveolar trauma, oral trauma, epidemiology, etiology, prevalence, incidence, occurrence, child*, and adolescence in the following databases: Scopus, CINAHL, Science Direct, PubMed and Google scholar. Results: From the total of 3197 articles, 44 completely relevant papers were included in the study. The prevalence of dental trauma was variable based on geographical area and was estimated 17.5% in the population, with higher prevalence in boys. Falling was the major cause for dental trauma, and the most frequent location was home. The most frequent type of trauma was enamel fracture. Conclusion: A relatively high prevalence was detected for dental trauma, which calls for effective planning and intervention to prevent the occurrence in children and adolescents. These may include special care for children, eliminating fall-prone areas, installing safety measures at homes, using protective appliances in sports, education, and raising the knowledge and availability of services to address enamel fracture. Region-specific criteria should be taken into account in programs and interventions. PMID:26793672

  15. Brief Report: The Prevalence of Neurofibromatosis Type 1 among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Identified by the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilder, Deborah A.; Bakian, Amanda V.; Stevenson, David A.; Carbone, Paul S.; Cunniff, Christopher; Goodman, Alyson B.; McMahon, William M.; Fisher, Nicole P.; Viskochil, David

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an inherited neurocutaneous disorder associated with neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The frequency of ASD/NF1 co-occurrence has been subject to debate since the 1980s. This relationship was investigated in a large population-based sample of 8-year-old children identified with…

  16. A Population-Based Longitudinal Study of Depression in Children with Developmental Disabilities in Manitoba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shooshtari, Shahin; Brownell, Marni; Dik, Natalia; Chateau, Dan; Yu, C. T.; Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Burchill, Charles A.; Wetzel, Monika

    2014-01-01

    In this population-based study, prevalence of depression was estimated and compared between children with and without developmental disability (DD). Twelve years of administrative data were linked to identify a cohort of children with DD living in the Canadian province of Manitoba. Children in the study cohort were matched with children without DD…

  17. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in Botucatu, Brazil: a population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Pires, Fabiana Venegas; da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza; Abraão, Lígia Maria; Martins, Patrícia Y F; Camargo, Carlos Henrique; Fortaleza, Carlos Magno Castelo Branco

    2014-01-01

    Recent increases in the incidence and severity of staphylococcal infections renewed interest in studies that assess the burden of asymptomatic carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in the community setting. We conducted a population-based survey in the city of Botucatu, Brazil (122,000 inhabitants), in order to identify the prevalence of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant strains). Nasal swabs were obtained from 686 persons over one year of age. Resistance to methicillin was assessed through phenotypic methods, identification of the mecA gene and typing of the Staphylococcal Chromosome Cassette mec (SCCmec). Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates were characterized using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) and spa typing. Polymerase chain reaction was applied to identify genes coding for Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) in isolates. The prevalence of overall S. aureus carriage was 32.7% (95%CI, 29.2%-36.2%). Carriers were significantly younger (mean age, 28.1 versus 36.3 for non-carriers; OR for age, 0.98; 95%CI, 0.97-0.99) and likely to report recent skin infection (OR, 1.85; 95%CI, 1.03-3.34). Carriage of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was found in 0.9% of study subjects (95%CI, 0.4%-1.8%). All MRSA isolates harbored SCCmec type IV, and belonged to spa types t002 or t021, but none among them harbored genes coding for PLV. In MLST, most isolates belonged to clones ST5 or ST1776. However, we found one subject who carried a novel clone, ST2594. Two out of six MRSA carriers had household contacts colonized with isolates similar to theirs. Our study pointed to dissemination of community-associated MRSA among the Brazilian population. PMID:24663818

  18. Genetic basis of glycogen storage disease type 1a: Prevalent mutations at the glucose-6-phosphatase locus

    SciTech Connect

    Ke-Jian Lei; Hungwen Chen; Ji-Lan Liu

    1995-10-01

    Diagnosis of glycogen storage disease (GSD) type 1a currently is established by demonstrating the lack of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) activity in the patient`s biopsied liver specimen. Recent cloning of the G6Pase gene and identification of mutations within the gene that causes GSD type 1a allow for the development of a DNA-based diagnostic method. Using SSCP analysis and DNA sequencing, we characterized the G6Pase gene of 70 unrelated patients with enzymatically confirmed diagnosis of GSD type 1a and detected mutations in all except 17 alleles (88%). Sixteen mutations were uncovered that were shown by expression to abolish or greatly reduce G6Pase activity and that therefore are responsible for the GSD type la disorder. R83C and Q347X are the most prevalent mutations found in Caucasians, 130X and R83C are most prevalent in Hispanics, and R83H is most prevalent in Chinese. The Q347X mutation has thus far been identified only in Caucasian patients, and the 130X mutation has been identified only in Hispanic patients. Our results demonstrate that the DNA-based analysis can accurately, rapidly, and noninvasively detect the majority of mutations in GSD type 1a. This DNA-based diagnosis now permits prenatal diagnosis among at-risk patients and serves as a database in screening and counseling patients clinically suspected of having this disease. 22 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Genetic basis of glycogen storage disease type 1a: prevalent mutations at the glucose-6-phosphatase locus.

    PubMed

    Lei, K J; Chen, Y T; Chen, H; Wong, L J; Liu, J L; McConkie-Rosell, A; Van Hove, J L; Ou, H C; Yeh, N J; Pan, L Y

    1995-10-01

    Diagnosis of glycogen storage disease (GSD) type 1a currently is established by demonstrating the lack of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) activity in the patient's biopsied liver specimen. Recent cloning of the G6Pase gene and identification of mutations within the gene that causes GSD type 1a allow for the development of a DNA-based diagnostic method. Using SSCP analysis and DNA sequencing, we characterized the G6Pase gene of 70 unrelated patients with enzymatically confirmed diagnosis of GSD type 1a and detected mutations in all except 17 alleles (88%). Sixteen mutations were uncovered that were shown by expression to abolish or greatly reduce G6Pase activity and that therefore are responsible for the GSD type 1a disorder. R83C and Q347X are the most prevalent mutations found in Caucasians, 130X and R83C are most prevalent in Hispanics, and R83H is most prevalent in Chinese. The Q347X mutation has thus far been identified only in Caucasian patients, and the 130X mutation has been identified only in Hispanic patients. Our results demonstrate that the DNA-based analysis can accurately, rapidly, and noninvasively detect the majority of mutations in GSD type 1a. This DNA-based diagnosis now permits prenatal diagnosis among at-risk patients and serves as a database in screening and counseling patients clinically suspected of having this disease.

  20. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution in women with cervical lesions: a cross-sectional study in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer ranks second among all cancers reported in Sri Lankan women. This study assessed the prevalence and type-distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) among Sri Lankan women with invasive cervical cancer (ICC) and pre-cancerous lesions. Methods 114 women aged 21 years and above, hospitalized in the National Cancer Institute, Sri Lanka with a diagnosis of ICC or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2/3 were prospectively enrolled between October 2009 and September 2010 (110430/NCT01221987). The cervical biopsy or excision specimens collected during routine clinical procedures were subjected to histopathological review. DNA was extracted from samples with a confirmed histological diagnosis and was amplified using polymerase chain reaction and HPV DNA was detected using Enzyme Immuno Assay. HPV positive samples were typed using reverse hybridization Line Probe Assay. Results Of the cervical samples collected, 93.0% (106/114) had a histologically confirmed diagnosis of either ICC (98/106) or CIN 2/3 (8/106). Among all ICC cases, squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed in the majority of women (81.6% [80/98]). HPV prevalence among ICC cases was 84.7% (83/98). The HPV types most commonly detected in ICC cases with single HPV infection (98.8% [82/83]) were HPV-16 (67.3%) and HPV-18 (9.2%). Infection with multiple HPV types was recorded in a single case (co-infection of HPV-16 and HPV-59). Conclusions HPV was prevalent in most women with ICC in Sri Lanka; HPV-16 and HPV-18 were the predominantly detected HPV types. An effective prophylactic vaccine against the most prevalent HPV types may help to reduce the burden of ICC disease. PMID:24558979

  1. Trends in Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control in an Adult Type 2 Diabetes Spanish Population between 2003 and 2009

    PubMed Central

    de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Salinero-Fort, Miguel A.; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; Gil, Ángel; Abánades-Herranz, Juan C.; Cárdenas-Valladolid, Juan; del Cura-González, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    In patients with type 2 diabetes, the prevalence of hypertension is higher than in non-diabetic subjects. Despite the high cardiovascular risk involving hypertension in these patients, its prevalence and control are not well known. The aims of this study were: to estimate the hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control in Spanish adults with type 2 diabetes attended in Primary Care; and to analyse its time trend from 2003 to 2009. A serial cross-sectional study from 2003 to 2009 was performed in 21 Primary Care Centres in Madrid. The study population comprised all patients with diagnosed type 2 diabetes in their computerised medical history. Overall annual prevalence during the period 2003–2009 was calculated from and according to sex and age groups. Linear trend tests, regression lines and coefficients of determination were used. In 2003 89.78% (CI 87.92–91.64) of patients with type 2 diabetes suffered hypertension and 94.76% (CI: 92.85–96.67) in 2009. This percentage was greater for women and for patients over 65 years old. 30% of patients suffered previously undiagnosed hypertension in 2003 and 23.1% in 2009. 97% of diagnosed patients received pharmacological treatment and 28.79% reached the blood pressure objective in 2009. The average number of antihypertensive drugs taken was 2.72 in 2003 and 3.27 in 2009. Only 5.2% of patients with type 2 diabetes show blood pressure levels below 130/80 mmHg. Although significant improvements have been achieved in the diagnosis and control of hypertension in people with type 2 diabetes, these continue to remain far from optimum. PMID:24475171

  2. Severity, not type, is the main predictor of decreased quality of life in elderly women with urinary incontinence: a population-based study as part of a randomized controlled trial in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Urinary incontinence negatively influences the lives of 25-50% of elderly women, mostly due to feelings of shame and being limited in activities and social interactions. This study explores whether differences exist between types of urinary incontinence (stress, urgency or mixed) and severity of the symptoms, with regard to their effects on generic and condition-specific quality of life. Methods This is a cross-sectional study among participants of a randomized controlled trial in primary care. A total of 225 women (aged ≥ 55 years) completed a questionnaire (on physical/emotional impact and limitations) and were interviewed for demographic characteristics and co-morbidity. Least squares regression analyses were conducted to estimate differences between types and severity of urinary incontinence with regard to their effect on quality of life. Results Most patients reported mixed urinary incontinence (50.7%) and a moderate severity of symptoms (48.9%). Stress urinary incontinence had a lower impact on the emotional domain of condition-specific quality of life compared with mixed urinary incontinence (r = −7.81). There were no significant associations between the types of urinary incontinence and generic quality of life. Severe symptoms affected both the generic (r = −0.10) and condition-specific (r = 17.17) quality of life. Conclusions The effects on condition-specific quality of life domains differ slightly between the types of incontinence. The level of severity affects both generic and condition-specific quality of life, indicating that it is not the type but rather the severity of urinary incontinence that is the main predictor of decreased quality of life. PMID:23249635

  3. Nonapnea Sleep Disorders and the Risk of Acute Kidney Injury: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hugo You-Hsien; Chang, Kai-Ting; Chang, Yu-Han; Lu, Tzongshi; Liang, Chan-Jung; Wang, Dean-Chuan; Tsai, Jui-Hsiu; Hsu, Chung-Yao; Hung, Chi-Chih; Kuo, Mei-Chuan; Lin, Chang-Shen; Hwang, Shang-Jyh

    2016-03-01

    Nonapnea sleep disorders (NASDs) and associated problems, which are highly prevalent in patients with kidney diseases, are associated with unfavorable medical sequelae. Nonetheless, whether NASDs are associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) development has not been thoroughly analyzed. We examined the association between NASD and AKI. We conducted a population-based study by using 1,000,000 representative data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for the period from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2010. We studied the incidence and risk of AKI in 9178 newly diagnosed NASD patients compared with 27,534 people without NASD matched according to age, sex, index year, urbanization level, region of residence, and monthly income at a 1:3 ratio. The NASD cohort had an adjusted hazard ratio (hazard ratio [HR]; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15-2.63) of subsequent AKI 1.74-fold higher than that of the control cohort. Older age and type 2 diabetes mellitus were significantly associated with an increased risk of AKI (P < 0.05). Among different types of NASDs, patients with insomnia had a 120% increased risk of developing AKI (95% CI = 1.38-3.51; P = 0.001), whereas patients with other sleep disorders had a 127% increased risk of subsequent AKI (95% CI = 1.07-4.80; P = 0.033). Men with NASDs were at a high risk of AKI (P < 0.05). This nationwide population-based cohort study provides evidence that patients with NASDs are at higher risk of developing AKI than people without NASDs. PMID:26986132

  4. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution in cervical glandular neoplasias: Results from a European multinational epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Holl, Katsiaryna; Nowakowski, Andrzej M; Powell, Ned; McCluggage, W Glenn; Pirog, Edyta C; Collas De Souza, Sabrina; Tjalma, Wiebren A; Rosenlund, Mats; Fiander, Alison; Castro Sánchez, Maria; Damaskou, Vasileia; Joura, Elmar A; Kirschner, Benny; Koiss, Robert; O'Leary, John; Quint, Wim; Reich, Olaf; Torné, Aureli; Wells, Michael; Rob, Lukas; Kolomiets, Larisa; Molijn, Anco; Savicheva, Alevtina; Shipitsyna, Elena; Rosillon, Dominique; Jenkins, David

    2015-12-15

    Cervical glandular neoplasias (CGN) present a challenge for cervical cancer prevention due to their complex histopathology and difficulties in detecting preinvasive stages with current screening practices. Reports of human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and type-distribution in CGN vary, providing uncertain evidence to support prophylactic vaccination and HPV screening. This study [108288/108290] assessed HPV prevalence and type-distribution in women diagnosed with cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS, N = 49), adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC, N = 104), and various adenocarcinoma subtypes (ADC, N = 461) from 17 European countries, using centralised pathology review and sensitive HPV testing. The highest HPV-positivity rates were observed in AIS (93.9%), ASC (85.6%), and usual-type ADC (90.4%), with much lower rates in rarer ADC subtypes (clear-cell: 27.6%; serous: 30.4%; endometrioid: 12.9%; gastric-type: 0%). The most common HPV types were restricted to HPV16/18/45, accounting for 98.3% of all HPV-positive ADC. There were variations in HPV prevalence and ADC type-distribution by country. Age at diagnosis differed by ADC subtype, with usual-type diagnosed in younger women (median: 43 years) compared to rarer subtypes (medians between 57 and 66 years). Moreover, HPV-positive ADC cases were younger than HPV-negative ADC. The six years difference in median age for women with AIS compared to those with usual-type ADC suggests that cytological screening for AIS may be suboptimal. Since the great majority of CGN are HPV16/18/45-positive, the incorporation of prophylactic vaccination and HPV testing in cervical cancer screening are important prevention strategies. Our results suggest that special attention should be given to certain rarer ADC subtypes as most appear to be unrelated to HPV.

  5. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution in cervical glandular neoplasias: Results from a European multinational epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Holl, Katsiaryna; Nowakowski, Andrzej M; Powell, Ned; McCluggage, W Glenn; Pirog, Edyta C; Collas De Souza, Sabrina; Tjalma, Wiebren A; Rosenlund, Mats; Fiander, Alison; Castro Sánchez, Maria; Damaskou, Vasileia; Joura, Elmar A; Kirschner, Benny; Koiss, Robert; O'Leary, John; Quint, Wim; Reich, Olaf; Torné, Aureli; Wells, Michael; Rob, Lukas; Kolomiets, Larisa; Molijn, Anco; Savicheva, Alevtina; Shipitsyna, Elena; Rosillon, Dominique; Jenkins, David

    2015-12-15

    Cervical glandular neoplasias (CGN) present a challenge for cervical cancer prevention due to their complex histopathology and difficulties in detecting preinvasive stages with current screening practices. Reports of human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and type-distribution in CGN vary, providing uncertain evidence to support prophylactic vaccination and HPV screening. This study [108288/108290] assessed HPV prevalence and type-distribution in women diagnosed with cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS, N = 49), adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC, N = 104), and various adenocarcinoma subtypes (ADC, N = 461) from 17 European countries, using centralised pathology review and sensitive HPV testing. The highest HPV-positivity rates were observed in AIS (93.9%), ASC (85.6%), and usual-type ADC (90.4%), with much lower rates in rarer ADC subtypes (clear-cell: 27.6%; serous: 30.4%; endometrioid: 12.9%; gastric-type: 0%). The most common HPV types were restricted to HPV16/18/45, accounting for 98.3% of all HPV-positive ADC. There were variations in HPV prevalence and ADC type-distribution by country. Age at diagnosis differed by ADC subtype, with usual-type diagnosed in younger women (median: 43 years) compared to rarer subtypes (medians between 57 and 66 years). Moreover, HPV-positive ADC cases were younger than HPV-negative ADC. The six years difference in median age for women with AIS compared to those with usual-type ADC suggests that cytological screening for AIS may be suboptimal. Since the great majority of CGN are HPV16/18/45-positive, the incorporation of prophylactic vaccination and HPV testing in cervical cancer screening are important prevention strategies. Our results suggest that special attention should be given to certain rarer ADC subtypes as most appear to be unrelated to HPV. PMID:26096203

  6. Adverse childhood experiences, gender, and HIV risk behaviors: Results from a population-based sample.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lin; Chuang, Deng-Min; Lee, Yookyong

    2016-12-01

    Recent HIV research suggested assessing adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) as contributing factors of HIV risk behaviors. However, studies often focused on a single type of adverse experience and very few utilized population-based data. This population study examined the associations between ACE (individual and cumulative ACE score) and HIV risk behaviors. We analyzed the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS) from 5 states. The sample consisted of 39,434 adults. Eight types of ACEs that included different types of child abuse and household dysfunctions before the age of 18 were measured. A cumulative score of ACEs was also computed. Logistic regression estimated of the association between ACEs and HIV risk behaviors using odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for males and females separately. We found that ACEs were positively associated with HIV risk behaviors overall, but the associations differed between males and females in a few instances. While the cumulative ACE score was associated with HIV risk behaviors in a stepwise manner, the pattern varied by gender. For males, the odds of HIV risk increased at a significant level as long as they experienced one ACE, whereas for females, the odds did not increase until they experienced three or more ACEs. Future research should further investigate the gender-specific associations between ACEs and HIV risk behaviors. As childhood adversities are prevalent among general population, and such experiences are associated with increased risk behaviors for HIV transmission, service providers can benefit from the principles of trauma-informed practice. PMID:27413671

  7. Prevalence and type of pain during conventional and self-ligating orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Tecco, Simona; D'Attilio, Michele; Tetè, Stefano; Festa, Felice

    2009-08-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and type of pain experienced during orthodontic treatment in 30 subjects (12 males, 18 females, aged 12-18 years) with crowding. Fifteen patients were treated with conventional brackets (Victory Series) and 15 with self-ligating brackets (Damon SL II). The first archwire for all patients was a 0.014 inch nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwire with a force of approximately 100 g. Conventional brackets were ligated with elastomeric modules. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used daily to assess the intensity of pain; the use of pain medication was also reported in a specially designed daybook for a total period of 3 months. Pearson's chi-square was used to investigate the difference between groups in the frequency of pain experience, its nature, and the use of analgesia. Non-parametric statistics (Mann-Whitney U-test) were computed to compare pain intensity between the groups. To investigate reported pain assessments, Friedman's two-way analysis of variance was used and the differences were estimated using Wilcoxon's signed-rank test. The results showed that pain was reported for a period of 9 days after archwire insertion. Patients treated with self-ligating brackets reported the highest pain intensity on the day following placement of the first archwire (VAS mean = 42.6), while those treated with conventional brackets experienced the greatest pain intensity at placement of the first archwire (VAS mean = 52) and after the second orthodontic appointment (VAS mean = 59.6). Analgesics were used by 16.5 per cent of patients treated with self-ligating brackets and by 10 per cent of those treated with conventional brackets, most often during the first 2 days after archwire placement. Patients treated with conventional brackets reported significantly more 'constant' pain than those treated with self-ligating brackets who complained of 'chewing/biting' pain. Pain appears to be common during orthodontic treatment but perhaps less intense when

  8. [Fungi in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2: prevalence, species of isolated strains].

    PubMed

    Maciejewska, Alina; Jaskółowska, Agnieszka; Kwaśniewska, Jolanta

    2004-01-01

    In 77 diabetic patients the detection of fungi was carried out in the oral cavity, digestive tract, genital organs and skin lesions. Patient age ranged from 39 to 82 years, with the Body Mass Index (BMI) from 22 to the highest values of 46.5. Diabetes control was assessed by determination of the glucose level in serum after overnight fasting and after lunch, as well as by determination of the HbA(1c) level. Fungi were diagnosed in 61 patients (79.6%). The total of 111 fungal strains were isolated in 319 cultures evaluated from 12 biological materials. Fungal strains were detected in the highest percentage in oral cavity (77.9%), in the lower percentage in anus (33.8%), vagina discharge (11.6%) and the region of vulva (14.3%). Fungi were observed in one focus--exclusively in the oral cavity--in 28 (36.4%) patients, whereas they occurred in multifocal infections in 33 (42.9%) patients. The isolated fungal strains were classified into 4 genera (Candida, Saccharomyces, Trichosporon, Aspergillus) and 12 species. The most frequently detected fungi were C. albicans (55.2%), followed by C. glabrata (12.4%), C parapsilosis (10.5%) and C. tropicalis (9.5%). Relatively low percentage of fungi identified in vagina was associated, among others, with the fact that most of the female patients with diabetes were at the postmenopausal period. In all the patients in whom fungi were isolated from the vagina contents, these fungi were also found in other ontocenoses. The increase in percentage of fungal strains from genera other than Candida in patients with a higher risk is of clinical importance, as some of them are resistant in vitro to azole derivatives e.g. fluconazole. The digestive tract is thought to be the most frequent fungal habitat. A considerable prevalence of fungi, multifocal infections, particularly related to oral cavity and anus, and occurrence of high percentage of strains different from C. albicans species of Candida genus in female patients with type 2 diabetes

  9. Prevalence and determinants of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Greek adult population.

    PubMed

    Tsirona, Sofia; Katsaros, Fotis; Bargiota, Alexandra; Polyzos, Stergios A; Arapoglou, George; Koukoulis, George N

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing worldwide reaching epidemic proportions. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of DM in Thessaly, a large region of Central Greece, and to extrapolate our results to the population of the entire country. A random sample of 805 adults (421 females and 384 men) living in Thessaly, aged 18-80 years, was surveyed. After completing a questionnaire about health status and a thorough physical examination, a blood sample was obtained from each participant for biochemical analysis. Participants with fasting glucose levels between 100-125 mg/dl underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). A second survey was also conducted, via telephone call-interviews, in a randomly selected sample age- and sex-stratified to the country's adult population in order to extrapolate the DM data from Thessaly to the whole country. The frequency of DM based on patient history and fasting blood glucose levels was 6.96%, comparable to that observed in the telephone-based nationwide survey (7.38%, p=0.669). However, after the OGTT an additional 3.72% of the population had undiagnosed DM, increasing DM prevalence to 10.68% (age adjusted 11.77%). The prevalence of pre-diabetes was 8.70%, with impaired fasting glucose at 5.84% and impaired glucose tolerance at 2.86%. The prevalence of DM was significantly higher in men (14.58%) than in women (7.13%, p<0.001), increased with age in both sexes and was more prevalent in hypertensive (p<0.001) and obese subjects (p=0.001) and in those living in rural areas (p=0.003). In the multiple logistic regression analysis, significant predictors of pre-diabetes and DM together were age, homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), alcohol consumption and educational status, whereas those of DM alone were age, HOMA-IR and triglycerides. Extrapolating our data to the whole country, the age-adjusted prevalence of DM was estimated at 11.97% (men 13.98%, women 9

  10. Human Papilloma Virus prevalence and type-specific relative contribution in invasive cervical cancer specimens from Italy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer represents an important global public health problem. It is the 2nd most common cancer among women worldwide. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is now well-established as a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) development. Only a few studies on HPV prevalence and type-specific distribution in ICC have been conducted in Italy. Aim To describe the prevalence of HPV and the HPV type-specific distribution in ICC cases identified in Rome, Italy. Methods 140 paraffin embedded tissue blocks of primary ICC diagnosed between 2001 and 2006 were identified at the Regina Elena Cancer Institute in Rome (Italy). HPV was detected through amplification of HPV DNA using SPF-10 HPV broad-spectrum primers followed by DEIA and then genotyping by LiPA25 (version 1). Results 134 cases were considered suitable for HPV DNA detection after histological evaluation; and overall, 90.3% (121/134) HPV prevalence was detected. 111 cases had a single HPV type, 4 cases had an uncharacterized type (HPVX) and 6 cases had multiple HPV infections. The five most common single HPV types among positive cases were: HPV16 (71/121; 58.7%), HPV18 (12/121; 9.9%), HPV31, HPV45 and HPV58 (5/121; 4.1% each). 2 (1.5%) of the single infections and 2 (1.5%) of the multiple infections contained low risk types. Statistically significant differences in the relative contribution of HPV18 were found when comparing squamous cell carcinomas with adenocarcinomas. Conclusions HPV16 and HPV18 accounted for almost 70% of all the HPV positive ICC cases. The study provides baseline information for further evaluation on the impact of recently introduced HPV vaccines in Italy. PMID:20525370

  11. Lack of access and continuity of adult health care: a national population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Dilélio, Alitéia Santiago; Tomasi, Elaine; Thumé, Elaine; da Silveira, Denise Silva; Siqueira, Fernando Carlos Vinholes; Piccini, Roberto Xavier; Silva, Suele Manjourany; Nunes, Bruno Pereira; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the lack of access and continuity of health care in adults. METHODS A cross-sectional population-based study was performed on a sample of 12,402 adults aged 20 to 59 years in urban areas of 100 municipalities of 23 states in the five Brazilian geopolitical regions. Barriers to the access and continuity of health care and were investigated based on receiving, needing and seeking health care (hospitalization and accident/emergency care in the last 12 months; care provided by a doctor, by other health professional or home care in the last three months). Based on the results obtained by the description of the sample, a projection is provided for adults living in Brazilian urban areas. RESULTS The highest prevalence of lack of access to health services and to provision of care by health professionals was for hospitalization (3.0%), whilst the lowest prevalence was for care provided by a doctor (1.1%). The lack of access to care provided by other health professionals was 2.0%; to accident and emergency services, 2.1%; and to home care, 2.9%. As for prevalences, the greatest absolute lack of access occurred in emergency care (more than 360,000 adults). The main reasons were structural and organizational problems, such as unavailability of hospital beds, of health professionals, of appointments for the type of care needed and charges made for care. CONCLUSIONS The universal right to health care in Brazil has not yet been achieved. These projections can help health care management in scaling the efforts needed to overcome this problem, such as expanding the infrastructure of health services and the workforce. PMID:26061454

  12. Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection among Women in Bangladesh: Findings from a Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Quamrun; Sultana, Farhana; Alam, Anadil; Islam, Jessica Yasmine; Rahman, Mustafizur; Khatun, Fatema; Alam, Nazmul; Dasgupta, Sushil Kanta; Marions, Lena; Ashrafunnessa; Kamal, Mohammed; Cravioto, Alejandro; Reichenbach, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been no population-based study on human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence or its genotypes in Bangladesh; a country eligible for GAVI funding for HPV vaccine. Methods We used baseline survey data of a prospective cohort study that was conducted in one urban and one rural area of Bangladesh. A total of 997 urban and 905 rural married women, aged 13 to 64 years, were enrolled in the baseline during July-December, 2011. Information was collected on socio-demographic characteristics and potential risk factors for HPV infection followed by gynecological examination and collection of endocervical samples using the cervical cytobrush (Digene cervical sampler). HPV DNA testing was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using a consensus primer set. Results Prevalence of any HPV infection was 7.7% with no significant difference between urban and rural women. Most common high-risk genotypes were HPV16, HPV66, HPV18, HPV45, HPV31 and HPV53. Urban women working as housemaids or garment workers were at higher risk of any HPV infection (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.13–4.11) compared to housewives. Rural women whose husband lived overseas were almost two times more likely to have any HPV infection (OR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.05–3.55) compared to women whose husbands lived with them. Conclusion The prevalence of HPV infection among Bangladeshi women is similar to other regions of Asia. However, type-specific patterns are different. The study findings will inform the formulation of HPV vaccination policies in Bangladesh, monitoring the impact of vaccination programmes, and the identification of target populations for screening. PMID:25271836

  13. The influence of type-specific human papillomavirus infections on the detection of cervical precancer and cancer: A population-based study of opportunistic cervical screening in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Cosette M; Hunt, William C; Cuzick, Jack; Langsfeld, Erika; Robertson, Michael; Castle, Philip E

    2014-01-01

    There are limited data on the prospective risks of detecting cervical precancer and cancer in United States (US) populations specifically where the delivery of opportunistic cervical screening takes place outside managed care and in the absence of organized national programs. Such data will inform the management of women with positive screening results before and after widespread human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and establishes a baseline preceding recent changes in US cervical cancer screening guidelines. Using data reported to the statewide passive surveillance systems of the New Mexico HPV Pap Registry, we measured the 3-year HPV type-specific cumulative incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or more severe (CIN2+) and grade 3 or more severe (CIN3+) detected during real-world health care delivery across a diversity of organizations, payers, clinical settings, providers and patients. A stratified sample of 47,541 cervical cytology specimens from a screening population of 379,000 women underwent HPV genotyping. Three-year risks for different combinations of cytologic interpretation and HPV risk group ranged from <1% (for several combinations) to approximately 70% for CIN2+ and 55% for CIN3+ in women with high-grade (HSIL) cytology and HPV16 infection. A substantial proportion of CIN2+ (35.7%) and CIN3+ (30.9%) were diagnosed following negative cytology, of which 62.3 and 78.2%, respectively, were high-risk HPV positive. HPV16 had the greatest 3-year risks (10.9% for CIN2+,8.0% for CIN3+) followed by HPV33, HPV31, and HPV18. Positive results for high-risk HPV, especially HPV16, the severity of cytologic interpretation, and age contribute independently to the risks of CIN2+ and CIN3+. PMID:24226935

  14. Association of the FABP2 Ala54Thr polymorphism with type 2 diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome: a population-based case-control study and a systematic meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Wu, G; Han, L; Zhao, K; Qu, Y; Xu, A; Huang, Q

    2015-02-06

    Previous studies have reported associations between the functional FABP2 Ala54Thr (rs1799883) polymorphism and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity, and metabolic syndrome in different populations with conflicting results. We investigated the association between the FABP2 Ala54Thr polymorphism and T2DM (235 cases, 431 controls), obesity (377 cases, 431 controls), and metabolic syndrome (315 cases, 323 controls) by logistic regression analysis in a Chinese study cohort recruited from Yichang, Hubei Province. We then comprehensively reviewed the association of the FABP2 Ala54Thr polymorphism with T2DM, obesity, and metabolic syndrome via meta-analysis. The strength of association was assessed by odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The FABP2 Ala54Thr polymorphism was significantly associated with obesity (AT vs AA: OR = 2.633, 95%CI = 1.065-6.663, P = 0.036; TT vs AA: OR = 4.160, 95%CI = 1.609-10.757, P = 0.003) and metabolic syndrome (TT vs AA: OR = 2.273, 95%CI = 1.242-4.156, P = 0.008) by logistic regression with adjustment for covariates. However, no significant association was found between T2DM and the FABP2 Ala54Thr polymorphism. We identified 24 studies on T2DM (4517 cases, 5224 controls), 9 studies on obesity (949 cases, 2002 controls), and 6 studies on metabolic syndrome (2194 cases, 3282 controls) by literature search. The meta-analyses revealed significant associations for metabolic syndrome (T allele: OR = 1.179, 95%CI = 1.015-1.362, P = 0.031) and T2DM (T allele: OR = 1.160, 95%CI = 1.08-1.24, P < 0.001), but no association for obesity (T allele: OR = 1.069, 95%CI = 0.925-1.235, P = 0.367).

  15. Prevalence of Skin and Skin-Related Diseases in the Rochester Epidemiology Project and a Comparison with Other Published Prevalence Studies.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Louise K; Davis, Mark D P

    2016-01-01

    In Olmsted County, Minn., USA, reliable, population-based epidemiologic research studies can be performed because of a unique medical records linkage system, the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP). Our objective was to summarize the epidemiologic data describing the prevalence of skin and skin-related diseases derived from the REP and to compare the findings with those from other studies worldwide. Retrospectively, we reviewed the results of population-based REP studies reporting the prevalence of skin and skin-related diseases over more than 4 decades and compared them to other published prevalences globally. Prevalences from the REP reported per 100,000 persons were as follows: hidradenitis suppurativa, 130.0; psoriasis, 700.0; psoriatic arthritis in 1992, 100.0, and in 2000, 160.0; Behçet disease, 5.2; scleroderma, 13.8; dermatomyositis, 21.42; systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), from 30.5 to 122.0 suspected SLE, 32.8; combined SLE, 41.8; discoid lupus erythematosus, 27.6, and cutaneous lupus erythematosus, 70.4 and 73.2 (from 2 studies). Many of the population-based prevalences of specific skin and skin-related diseases derived from the REP are different from those estimated globally. Suggested reasons for disparity in the prevalences globally may include differences in the type of reported prevalence, study methodology, geographic areas, ethnic groups, age distribution, and socioeconomic status. PMID:27011206

  16. Lessons learned in the conduct, validation, and interpretation of national population based HIV surveys.

    PubMed

    Calleja, Jesús M García; Marum, Lawrence H; Cárcamo, César P; Kaetano, Lovemore; Muttunga, James; Way, Ann

    2005-05-01

    In the past few years several countries have conducted national population-based HIV surveys. Survey methods, levels of participation bias from absence or refusal and lessons learned conducting such surveys are compared in four national population surveys: Mali, Kenya, Peru and Zambia. In Mali, Zambia, and Kenya, HIV testing of adult women and men was included in the national-level demographic and health surveys carried out regularly in these countries, whereas in Peru the national HIV survey targeted young people in 24 cities with populations over 50 000.The household response rate was above 90% in all countries, but some individuals were absent for interviews. HIV testing rates were between 70 and 79% of those eligible, with higher test rates for women. Three critical questions in this type of survey need to be answered: who did the surveys miss; how much it matters that they were missed; and what can be done to increase the participation of respondents so the coverage rates are adequate. The level of representativeness of the populations tested was adequate in each survey to provide a reliable national estimate of HIV prevalence that complements other methods of HIV surveillance. Different lessons were learned from each survey. These population-based HIV seroprevalence surveys demonstrate that reliable and useful results can be obtained, although they require careful planning and increased financial and human resource investment to maximize responses at the household and individual level, which are key elements to validate survey results.This review was initiated through an international meeting on 'New strategies for HIV/AIDS Surveillance in Resource-constrained Countries' held in Addis Ababa on 26-30 January 2004 to share and develop recommendations to guide future surveys. PMID:15930844

  17. PREVALENCE OF HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 2 AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH THIS INFECTION IN WOMEN IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Caldeira, Thaís Duquia Moraes; Gonçalves, Carla Vitola; de Oliveira, Gisele Rodrigues; da Fonseca, Tânia Vieira; Gonçalves, Regina; do Amaral, Clair Teixeira; da Hora, Vanusa Pousada; de Martinez, Ana Maria Barral

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The herpes simplex virus type 2 (HVS-2) is the most prevalent infection worldwide. It is a cofactor in the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the persistence of human papillomavirus (HPV). This study evaluated the prevalence of HSV-2, using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and associated factors in patients treated at the Federal University of Rio Grande (FURG) and Basic Health Units (BHU) in Rio Grande, Brazil. The observed prevalence of HSV-2 was 15.6%. Among the 302 women studied, 158 had received assistance in BHU and 144 were treated at FURG. The prevalence of HSV-2 in these groups was 10.8% and 20.8%, respectively, RR 1.9 and p = 0.012. Knowledge about the Pap smear, and the presence of lesions showed no association with HSV-2 infection. Multivariate analysis showed that the variable that most influenced the risk of HSV-2 infection was the presence of HIV infection, with a relative risk of 1.9 and p = 0.04. Discussion: Genital ulcers are an important entry point for HIV, and condom use is an important strategy to reduce transmission of HIV and HSV-2. PMID:24037285

  18. Prevalence of type 1 brugada electrocardiographic pattern evaluated by twelve-lead twenty-four-hour holter monitoring.

    PubMed

    Cerrato, Natascia; Giustetto, Carla; Gribaudo, Elena; Richiardi, Elena; Barbonaglia, Lorella; Scrocco, Chiara; Zema, Domenica; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Patients with drug-induced type 1 Brugada electrocardiograms (BrECGs) are considered to have good prognosis. Spontaneous type 1 is, instead, considered a risk factor; however, it is probably underestimated because of the BrECG fluctuations. The aim of this study was to analyze, in a large population of patients with Br, the real prevalence of type 1 BrECG using 12-lead 24-hour Holter monitoring (12L-Holter) and its correlation with the time of the day. We recorded 303 12L-Holter in 251 patients. Seventy-five (30%) patients exhibited spontaneous type 1 BrECG at 12-lead ECG (group 1) and 176 (70%) had only drug-induced type 1 (group 2). Type 1 BrECG was defined as "persistent" (>85% of the recording), "intermittent" (<85%), or "absent." In group 1, 12% showed persistent type 1 at 12L-Holter, 57% intermittent type 1%, and 31% never had type 1; in group 2, none had persistent type 1, 20% had intermittent type 1%, and 80% never showed type 1. To evaluate the circadian fluctuations of BrECG, 4 periods in the day were considered. Type 1 BrECG was more frequent between 12-noon and 6 p.m. (52%, p <0.001). In conclusion, in patients with drug-induced type 1, spontaneous type 1 BrECG can be detected more frequently with 12L-Holter than with conventional follow-up with periodic ECGs and this has important implications in the risk stratification. 12L-Holter recording might avoid 20% of the pharmacological challenges with sodium channel blockers, which are not without risks, and should thus be considered as the first screening test, particularly in children or in presence of borderline diagnostic basal ECG.

  19. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats Are emm Type-Specific in Highly Prevalent Group A Streptococci.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Po-Xing; Chan, Yuen-Chi; Chiou, Chien-Shun; Chiang-Ni, Chuan; Wang, Shu-Ying; Tsai, Pei-Jane; Chuang, Woei-Jer; Lin, Yee-Shin; Liu, Ching-Chuan; Wu, Jiunn-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are the bacterial adaptive immune system against foreign nucleic acids. Given the variable nature of CRISPR, it could be a good marker for molecular epidemiology. Group A streptococcus is one of the major human pathogens. It has two CRISPR loci, including CRISPR01 and CRISPR02. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of CRISPR-associated gene cassettes (cas) and CRISPR arrays in highly prevalent emm types. The cas cassette and CRISPR array in two CRISPR loci were analyzed in a total of 332 strains, including emm1, emm3, emm4, emm12, and emm28 strains. The CRISPR type was defined by the spacer content of each CRISPR array. All strains had at least one cas cassette or CRISPR array. More than 90% of the spacers were found in one emm type, specifically. Comparing the consistency between emm and CRISPR types by Simpson's index of diversity and the adjusted Wallace coefficient, CRISPR01 type was concordant to emm type, and CRISPR02 showed unidirectional congruence to emm type, suggesting that at least for the majority of isolates causing infection in high income countries, the emm type can be inferred from CRISPR analysis, which can further discriminate isolates sharing the same emm type.

  20. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats Are emm Type-Specific in Highly Prevalent Group A Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Po-Xing; Chan, Yuen-Chi; Chiou, Chien-Shun; Chiang-Ni, Chuan; Wang, Shu-Ying; Tsai, Pei-Jane; Chuang, Woei-Jer; Lin, Yee-Shin; Liu, Ching-Chuan; Wu, Jiunn-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are the bacterial adaptive immune system against foreign nucleic acids. Given the variable nature of CRISPR, it could be a good marker for molecular epidemiology. Group A streptococcus is one of the major human pathogens. It has two CRISPR loci, including CRISPR01 and CRISPR02. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of CRISPR-associated gene cassettes (cas) and CRISPR arrays in highly prevalent emm types. The cas cassette and CRISPR array in two CRISPR loci were analyzed in a total of 332 strains, including emm1, emm3, emm4, emm12, and emm28 strains. The CRISPR type was defined by the spacer content of each CRISPR array. All strains had at least one cas cassette or CRISPR array. More than 90% of the spacers were found in one emm type, specifically. Comparing the consistency between emm and CRISPR types by Simpson’s index of diversity and the adjusted Wallace coefficient, CRISPR01 type was concordant to emm type, and CRISPR02 showed unidirectional congruence to emm type, suggesting that at least for the majority of isolates causing infection in high income countries, the emm type can be inferred from CRISPR analysis, which can further discriminate isolates sharing the same emm type. PMID:26710228

  1. Type 2 diabetes in Asians: prevalence, risk factors, and effectiveness of behavioral intervention at individual and population levels.

    PubMed

    Weber, Mary Beth; Oza-Frank, Reena; Staimez, Lisa R; Ali, Mohammed K; Narayan, K M Venkat

    2012-08-21

    This review summarizes the current data on diabetes risk factors, prevalence, and prevention efforts in Asia and Asian migrant populations. Studies indicate that type 2 diabetes mellitus is a large and growing threat to public health in Asian populations. Furthermore, Asian subgroups (e.g., South Asians/Asian Indians, Chinese) have unique risk factor profiles for developing diabetes, which differ from other populations and between Asian ethnic groups. Lifestyle intervention programs are effective in preventing diabetes in Asians, as with other ethnicities. The strength of these findings is lessened by the lack of systematically collected data using objective measurements. Large epidemiologic studies of diabetes prevalence and risk factor profiles and translational trials identifying sustainable and culturally acceptable lifestyle programs for Asian subgroups are needed.

  2. Prevalence of herpes simplex type 2 and syphilis serology among young adults in a rural Gambian community

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, M.; van der Sande, M.; West, B.; Paine, K.; Ceesay, S.; Bailey, R.; Walraven, G.; Morison, L.; McAdam, K.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate prevalence and risk factors for herpes simplex 2 (HSV2) positivity, syphilis and Chlamydia trachomatis infection among rural people aged 15–34 in the Gambia. Methods: Questionnaires and serum samples were collected from 1076 men and women aged 15–34 during a cross sectional prevalence survey in a rural area of the Gambia. Sera were screened for antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2), and for syphilis using Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) tests. Urine was tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for C trachomatis infection. Results: 28% of women and 5% of men were HSV2 ELISA positive; 10% of women and 2% of men were TPHA positive; and 7% of women and 1% of men were both RPR and TPHA positive. Out of 1030 urine sample tested only six were positive for C trachomatis. 7% of those who reported never having sex were positive for one or other of these tests. Prevalences of all STIs increased with age and were higher in women than men. Women were much less likely than men to seek treatment for STI symptoms at a health centre. Married people were at increased risk of an STI compared with single people. Jola and Fula women had a higher prevalence of HSV2 than women from other ethnic groups, and Fulas also had a higher prevalence of RPR/TPHA positivity. The limited number of sexual behaviour questions were not significantly associated with STIs after adjustment for age, marital status, and ethnic group. Conclusions: The prevalences of the ulcerative infections HSV2 and syphilis in this population are a cause for concern. In a setting where HIV1 prevalence remains low this indicates an urgent need for STI control and behaviour change programmes to prevent an HIV epidemic. Concerns about the validity of reported sexual behaviour data high light the necessity of biological markers in the evaluation of behaviour change programmes. Key Words: seroepidemiological studies; Africa; herpes simplex

  3. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of listeria species isolated from different types of raw meat in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Yazdi, Farzad; Farzinezhadizadeh, Hussein

    2012-12-01

    Listeria and particularly Listeria monocytogenes are important foodborne pathogens that can cause listeriosis and severe complications in immunocompromised individuals, children, pregnant women, and the elderly. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Listeria spp. in raw meat in Iran. From July 2010 to November 2011, a total of 1,107 samples of various raw meats were obtained from randomly selected retail butcher shops. The results of conventional bacteriologic and PCR methods revealed that 141 samples (12.7%) were positive for Listeria spp. The highest prevalence of Listeria was found in raw buffalo meat samples (7 of 24 samples; 29.2%) followed by quail meat (26 of 116 samples; 22.4%), partridge meat (13 of 74 samples; 17.6%), and chicken meat (27 of 160 samples; 16.9%). The most common species recovered was Listeria innocua (98 of 141 strains; 75.9 % ); the remaining isolates were L. monocytogenes (19.1% of strains), Listeria welshimeri (6.4% of strains), Listeria seeligeri (3.5% of strains), and Listeria grayi (1.4% of strains). Susceptibilities of the 141 strains to 11 antimicrobial drugs were determined using the disk diffusion assay. Overall, 104 (73.8%) of the Listeria isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobials, and 17.0% of the isolates were resistant to three or more antimicrobials. The present study provides the first baseline data on the prevalence of Listeria in raw meat derived from sheep, goat, buffalo, quail, partridge, chicken, and ostrich in Iran and the susceptibility of these isolates to antimicrobials.

  4. Eating Disorders in children and adolescents with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: prevalence, risk factors, warning signs.

    PubMed

    Racicka, Ewa; Bryńska, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is associated with increased risk for eating disorders, various dependent on type of diabetes. Binge eating disorder is more common in patient with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Whereas, intentional omission of insulin doses for the purpose of weight loss occurs mainly in patient with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), however, in some patients with type 2 diabetes omission of oral hypoglycemic drugs can be present. Risk factors for the development of eating disorders in patients with diabetes include: age, female gender, greater body weight, body image dissatisfaction, history of dieting and history of depression. Poor glycemic control, recurrent episodes of ketoacidosis or recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia, secondary to intentional insulin overdose, missed clinical appointments, dietary manipulation and low self-esteem should raise concern. The consequence of eating disorders or disordered eating patterns in patients with diabetes is poor glycemic control and hence higher possibility of complications such as nephropathy, retinopathy and premature death. PMID:26688851

  5. High-risk HPV infection after five years in a population-based cohort of Chilean women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The need to review cervical cancer prevention strategies has been triggered by the availability of new prevention tools linked to human papillomavirus (HPV): vaccines and screening tests. To consider these innovations, information on HPV type distribution and natural history is necessary. This is a five-year follow-up study of gynecological high-risk (HR) HPV infection among a Chilean population-based cohort of women. Findings A population-based random sample of 969 women from Santiago, Chile aged 17 years or older was enrolled in 2001 and revisited in 2006. At both visits they answered a survey on demographics and sexual history and provided a cervical sample for HPV DNA detection (GP5+/6+ primer-mediated PCR and Reverse line blot genotyping). Follow-up was completed by 576 (59.4%) women; 45 (4.6%) refused participation; most losses to follow-up were women who were unreachable, no longer eligible or had missing samples. HR-HPV prevalence increased by 43%. Incidence was highest in women < 20 years of age (19.4%) and lowest in women > 70 (0%); it was three times higher among women HR-HPV positive versus HPV negative at baseline (25.5% and 8.3%; OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.8-8.0). Type-specific persistence was 35.3%; it increased with age, from 0% in women < 30 years of age to 100% in women > 70. An enrollment Pap result ASCUS or worse was the only risk factor for being HR-HPV positive at both visits. Conclusions HR-HPV prevalence increased in the study population. All HR-HPV infections in women < 30 years old cleared, supporting the current recommendation of HR-HPV screening for women > 30 years. PMID:22087645

  6. The Prevalence of Autoantibodies in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I

    PubMed Central

    Schreurs, Marco W. J.; de Mos, Marissa; Stronks, Dirk L.; Huygen, Frank J. P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmunity has been suggested as one of the pathophysiologic mechanisms that may underlie complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Screening for antinuclear antibodies (ANA) is one of the diagnostic tests, which is usually performed if a person is suspected to have a systemic autoimmune disease. Antineuronal antibodies are autoantibodies directed against antigens in the central and/or peripheral nervous system. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of these antibodies in CRPS patients with the normal values of those antibodies in the healthy population. Twenty seven (33%) of the 82 CRPS patients of whom serum was available showed a positive ANA test. This prevalence is significantly higher than in the general population. Six patients (7.3%) showed a positive result for typical antineuronal antibodies. This proportion, however, does not deviate from that in the general population. Our findings suggest that autoantibodies may be associated with the pathophysiology of CRPS, at least in a subset of patients. Further research is needed into defining this subset and into the role of autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of CRPS. PMID:25741131

  7. Birth Defects in Gaza: Prevalence, Types, Familiarity and Correlation with Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Naim, Awny; Al Dalies, Hedaya; El Balawi, Mohammed; Salem, Eman; Al Meziny, Kholud; Al Shawwa, Raneem; Minutolo, Roberto; Manduca, Paola

    2012-01-01

    This is the first report of registration at birth, and of incidence of major structural birth defects (BD) obtained in Gaza at Al Shifa Hospital, where 28% of total births in Gaza Strip occur. Doctors registered 4,027 deliveries, with a protocol comprehensive of clinical, demographic, kin and environmental questions. Prevalence of BD is 14/1,000, without association with intermarriage or gender of the child. Prevalence of late miscarriages and still births are respectively 23.3/1,000 and 7.4/1,000, and of premature births 19.6/1,000. Couples with a BD child have about 10 times higher frequency of recurrence of a BD in their progeny than those with normal children, but none of their 694 siblings and only 10/1,000 of their 1,423 progeny had BD, similar to the frequency in general population. These data suggest occurrence of novel genetic and epigenetic events in determination of BD. Children with BD were born with higher frequency (p < 0 001) in families where one or both parents were under “white phosphorus” attack, that in the general population. Bombing of the family home and removal of the rubble were also frequently reported by couples with BD occurrence. These data suggests a causative/favoring role of acute exposure of parents to the weapons-associated contaminants, and/or of their chronic exposure from their persistence in the environment on the embryonic development of their children. PMID:22754469

  8. Male Androgenetic Alopecia: Population-Based Study in 1,005 Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Krupa Shankar, DS; Chakravarthi, M; Shilpakar, Rachana

    2009-01-01

    Context: Male androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a common condition. There is limited information on its prevalence and patterns. Aims: (1). To find the prevalence and most common pattern (2). To correlate the age and pattern of alopecia. Settings and Design: Population-based study. Materials and Methods: This is a population-based study from the public. The selection was random. The method involved was asking the age and, if found to between 30 and 50 years, the scalp was examined for alopecia and the pattern was determined using the Hamilton Norwood classification. Results: Of 1,005 subjects, the youngest was 30 years old and the oldest 49 years old, with a mean age of 37.05 ± standard deviation 4.79. 39.2% of the subjects were in the age group of 30-35, 34.4% in the 36-40 year age group, 26.0% in the 41-45 years age group and 0.4% in the 46-50 years age group. Five hundred and eighty-three subjects (58%) had AGA, the most common type being grade II (27.27%) followed by grade I (22.12%) and grade III (21.78%). 47.5% (P = 0.003) had pattern alopecia in the 30-35 years age group, 58.7% in the 36-40 years age group (P = 0.8) and 73.2% in the 41-45 years age group (P ≤ 0.001). In the 30-35 years age group, grade I was 51.18%, grade II was 42.77% and grade VI was 18.52%. In the 41-45 years age group, grade I was 13.38%, grade III was 33.85% and grade VI was 66.67%. Conclusions: Fifty-eight percent of the male population aged 30-50 years had AGA. Its grade increased with increase in age. 12.9% of the male population had grades IV to VI, and would benefit from hair transplantation while 44.1% had grades I to III and are potential candidates for medical treatment PMID:20927235

  9. Prevalence of human papillomavirus types in invasive cervical cancers from seven US cancer registries prior to vaccine introduction

    PubMed Central

    Hopenhayn, Claudia; Christian, Amy; Christian, W. Jay; Watson, Meg; Unger, Elizabeth R.; Lynch, Charles F.; Peters, Edward S.; Wilkinson, Edward J.; Huang, Youjie; Copeland, Glenn; Cozen, Wendy; Saber, Maria Sibug; Goodman, Marc T.; Hernandez, Brenda Y.; Steinau, Martin; Lyu, Christopher; Tucker, Thomas T.; Saraiya, Mona

    2013-01-01

    Objective We conducted a baseline study of human papillomavirus (HPV) type prevalence in invasive cervical cancers (ICC) using data from seven cancer registries (CR) in the US. Cases were diagnosed between 1994 and 2005, before the implementation of the HPV vaccines. Materials and Methods CRs from Florida, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Hawaii, Iowa and Los Angeles, California identified eligible ICC cases, and obtained sections from representative blocks of archived tumor specimens for DNA extraction. All extracts were assayed by Linear Array and if inadequate or HPV negative, re-tested with INNO-LiPA Genotype test. Clinical and demographic factors were obtained from the CRs and merged with the HPV typing data to analyze factors associated with different types and with HPV negativity. Results A total of 777 ICCs were included in this analysis, with broad geographic, age and race distribution. Overall, HPV was detected in 91% of cases, including 51% HPV16, 16% HPV18 (HPV16 negative), and 24% other oncogenic and rare types. After HPV16 and 18, the most common types were 45, 33, 31, 35 and 52. Older age and non-squamous histology were associated with HPV negative typing. Conclusions This study provides baseline pre-vaccine HPV types for post-vaccine ICC surveillance in the future. HPV16 and/or 18 were found in 67% of ICCs, indicating the potential for vaccines to prevent a significant number of cervical cancers. PMID:24477171

  10. Validation, Replication, and Sensitivity Testing of Heckman-Type Selection Models to Adjust Estimates of HIV Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Samuel J.; Houle, Brian

    2014-01-01

    A recent study using Heckman-type selection models to adjust for non-response in the Zambia 2007 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) found a large correction in HIV prevalence for males. We aim to validate this finding, replicate the adjustment approach in other DHSs, apply the adjustment approach in an external empirical context, and assess the robustness of the technique to different adjustment approaches. We used 6 DHSs, and an HIV prevalence study from rural South Africa to validate and replicate the adjustment approach. We also developed an alternative, systematic model of selection processes and applied it to all surveys. We decomposed corrections from both approaches into rate change and age-structure change components. We are able to reproduce the adjustment approach for the 2007 Zambia DHS and derive results comparable with the original findings. We are able to replicate applying the approach in several other DHSs. The approach also yields reasonable adjustments for a survey in rural South Africa. The technique is relatively robust to how the adjustment approach is specified. The Heckman selection model is a useful tool for assessing the possibility and extent of selection bias in HIV prevalence estimates from sample surveys. PMID:25402333

  11. Prevalence of 9-Valent Human Papillomavirus Types by Race/Ethnicity in the Prevaccine Era, United States, 2003-2006.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gui; Unger, Elizabeth R; Hariri, Susan; Steinau, Martin; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2016-10-01

    Before any vaccine introduction, overall DNA prevalence of any 9-valent human papillomavirus (9vHPV) types, HPV 31/33/45/52/58, and HPV 16/18 was 16.0%, 9.5%, and 6.2%, respectively, among female participants in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Non-Hispanic black females were more likely to have infection with HPV 31/33/45/52/58, but not HPV 16/18, compared to non-Hispanic white females. PMID:27631358

  12. Collaborations in Population-Based Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Lieu, Tracy A.; Hinrichsen, Virginia L.; Moreira, Andrea; Platt, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The HMO Research Network (HMORN) is a consortium of 16 health care systems with integrated research centers. Approximately 475 people participated in its 17th annual conference, hosted by the Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute and Harvard Medical School. The theme, “Collaborations in Population-Based Health Research,” reflected the network’s emphasis on collaborative studies both among its members and with external investigators. Plenary talks highlighted the initial phase of the HMORN’s work to establish the NIH-HMO Collaboratory, opportunities for public health collaborations, the work of early career investigators, and the state of the network. Platform and poster presentations showcased a broad spectrum of innovative public domain research in areas including disease epidemiology and treatment, health economics, and information technology. Special interest group sessions and ancillary meetings provided venues for informal conversation and structured work among ongoing groups, including networks in cancer, cardiovascular diseases, lung diseases, medical product safety, and mental health. PMID:22090515

  13. Prevalence of different hip sonographic types: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Adibi, Atoosa; Karami, Mahdi; Koohi, Kaveh; Shirahmad, Mehran

    2015-01-01

    Background: Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is an anatomical abnormality, which needs early detection and treatment. Ultrasound (US) is a sensitive method to study neonatal hip joint and detection of different types of sonographic hip. This study was aimed to determine relative frequency of different types of DDH ultrasonographically. Materials and Methods: Ultrasound examination was performed on 380 newborns to determine hip joint status according to the Graf ultrasound classification system for infant hips. In addition, hip joint status was compared based on the hip side, gender, and method of delivery. Results: In this study, we observed three sonographic types: Ia (74%), type Ib (20%), and IIa (6%). No significant difference was found in relative frequency of different types of DDH regarding the side of the hip (P = 0.18). Type IIa was found significantly more in the female newborns (P < 0.0001) and in newborns who were born by cesarean section (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: This study supports the role of US detection of different types of DDH; however, the frequency of pathologic types of hip sonography is 6%. PMID:25709988

  14. Prevalence of Type A Acute Aortic Dissection in Patients With Out-Of-Hospital Cardiopulmonary Arrest.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Sakata, Kenji; Sakurai, Yasuo; Yoshimuta, Tsuyoshi; Morishita, Yuka; Nara, Satoshi; Takahashi, Isao; Hirokami, Mitsugu; Yamagishi, Masakazu

    2016-06-01

    Postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) has been recently reported to be useful for detecting causes of death in the emergency department. In this study, the incidence and causes of death of type A acute aortic dissection (AAD) were investigated in patients who experienced out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest (OHCPA) using PMCT. PMCT or enhanced computed tomography was performed in 311 of 528 consecutive patients experiencing OHCPA. A total of 23 (7%) of 311 patients were diagnosed with type A AAD based on clinical courses and CT findings. Eighteen consecutive patients who did not experience OHCPA were diagnosed with type A AAD during the same period. Pre-hospital death was observed in 21 (51%) of 41 patients with type A AAD. Bloody pericardial effusion was observed more frequently in patients who experienced OHCPA with type A AAD than in those who did not experience OHCPA with type A AAD (91% vs 28%, respectively; p <0.05). In conclusion, the incidence of type A AAD was common (7%) in patients who experienced OHCPA, with a high rate of pre-hospital death. Aortic rupture to the intrapericardial space was considered the major cause of death in patients who experienced OHCPA with type A AAD. PMID:27067619

  15. The growing prevalence of type 2 diabetes: increased incidence or improved survival?

    PubMed

    Maruthur, Nisa M

    2013-12-01

    Approximately 347 million persons were estimated to have diabetes worldwide in 2008, an increase of 194 million cases from 1980. Diabetes now affects both high- and low-income countries, with low-income countries bearing the majority of the burden. The epidemiologic transition from traditional health risks, such as poor hygiene, to modern health risks, such as sedentary lifestyle, has facilitated the increase in incidence in diabetes, especially in developing countries. The effect of these risk factors may be especially pronounced in some racial and ethnic populations. Increased surveillance for diabetes has contributed to increased diabetes prevalence in higher-income countries. Survival with and some risk factors for diabetes have improved in developed countries, but global diabetes mortality has increased by 20 % since 1990. Population growth and aging will only increase the burden of diabetes, and public health interventions are needed to address diabetes risk factors to stem the tide of this epidemic. PMID:24072478

  16. Hepatozoon infection prevalence in four snake genera: influence of diet, prey parasitemia levels, or parasite type?

    PubMed

    Tomé, Beatriz; Maia, João P M C; Harris, D James

    2012-10-01

    Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa: Haemogregarinidae) are the most commonly reported hemoparasites from snakes. Of over 300 Hepatozoon species identified, more than 120 were described from snakes. However, recent genetic assessments have found Hepatozoon lineages recovered from both prey and predators, indicating that diet may play an important role in the infection of final vertebrate hosts. Here 4 different snake genera with different diets were assessed. Hepatozoon spp. prevalence varied greatly between the genera, but only lineages already identified from potential prey, i.e., gecko and lacertid lizards, were recovered from the snakes. Interestingly, the Hepatozoon spp. lineage known from geckos was the most common in the snakes, but this does not reflect their diet. Higher parasitemia levels, reported for some geckos relative to lacertid lizards, may play a role. Alternatively, this lineage may be more effective at parasitizing snakes or may occur, despite being unrecorded, in other vertebrate groups consumed by snakes. PMID:22551400

  17. Nail involvement in adult patients with plaque-type psoriasis: prevalence and clinical features*

    PubMed Central

    Schons, Karen Regina Rosso; Beber, André Avelino Costa; Beck, Maristela de Oliveira; Monticielo, Odirlei André

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a disease of worldwide distribution with a prevalence of 1 to 3%. Nail psoriasis is estimated in 50% of patients with psoriasis, and in the presence of joint involvement, it can reach 80%. OBJECTIVE: To study the nail changes - and their clinical implications - presented by patients with psoriasis vulgaris under surveillance in a university hospital from the south of Brazil. METHODS: his cross-sectional study evaluated 65 adult patients from January 2012 to March 2013. Cutaneous severity was assessed according to the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI). The Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI) was used to evaluate patient's nails. The diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis was established according to the Classification Criteria for Psoriatic Arthritis (CASPAR). RESULTS: The prevalence of NP was 46.1%. These patients had a median [interquartilic range (IQR)] NAPSI of 1 (0-15). A total of 63.3% of patients reported aesthetic discomfort or functional impairment related to their nails. Onycholysis was the most common feature (80%). When compared with patients without nail involvement, patients with NP had lower mean age at psoriasis onset [21 (18-41) vs. 43 (30-56) years, p=0,001]; longer disease duration [15.5 (10-24) vs. 6 (2-12) years, p=0.001]; higher PASI [9.2 (5-17) vs. 3.7 (2-10), p=0.044], higher frequency of psoriatic arthritis (43.3 vs. 3.7, p = 0.002) and more often reported family history of psoriasis (40% vs. 7.4%, p = 0.011). CONCLUSION: Onycholysis was the most frequent finding and most patients feel uncomfortable with the psoriatic nail changes that they experience. PMID:26131859

  18. Burden of self-reported acute gastrointestinal illness in China: a population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) is an important public-health problem worldwide. Previous national studies of the incidence of AGI in China were performed decades ago, and detailed information was not available. This study therefore sought to determine the magnitude, distribution, and burden of self-reported AGI in China. Methods Twelve-month, retrospective face-to-face surveys were conducted in 20 sentinel sites from six provinces between July 2010 and July 2011. Results In total, 39686 interviews were completed. The overall adjusted monthly prevalence of AGI was 4.2% (95% confidence interval, 4.0–4.4), corresponding to 0.56 episodes of AGI per person-year. Rates of AGI were highest in children aged < 5 years. Healthcare was sought by 56.1% of those reporting illness. Of the cases who visited a doctor, 32.7% submitted a stool sample. The use of antibiotics was reported by 49.7% of the cases who sought medical care and 54.0% took antidiarrhoeals. In the multivariable model, gender, age, education, household type, residence, season, province and travel were significant risk factors of being a case of AGI. Conclusions This first population-based study in China indicated that AGI represents a substantial burden of health. Further research into the specific pathogens is needed to better estimate the burden of AGI and foodborne disease in China. PMID:23656835

  19. Criminal offending among males and females between ages 15 and 30 in a population-based nationwide 1981 birth cohort: results from the FinnCrime Study.

    PubMed

    Elonheimo, Henrik; Gyllenberg, David; Huttunen, Jukka; Ristkari, Terja; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Sourander, André

    2014-12-01

    We describe the epidemiology of crime between ages 15 and 30 in a population-based sample. We received police register data for 5405 males and females, representing the children born in Finland in 1981. We classified crimes into drug, violent, property, traffic, drunk driving, and sexual crimes, excluding minor traffic offenses. Of males, 60% and of females, 25% were registered for offending. For males, prevalence peaked in late adolescence, while for females, there was no peak age. Offending frequency remained stable for male offenders but was lower among adolescent female offenders. All crime types overlapped each other. Crime accumulated: 1% committed 34% of male and 56% of female offenses. In conclusion, the adolescent peak in offending reflects peaking prevalence among males, not females, nor frequency of offending among offenders. The crime problem is focused on two key groups: late adolescent males and the few males and females in whom crime concentrates. PMID:25285642

  20. Prevalence, antibiotic resistance and RAPD typing of Campylobacter species isolated from ducks, their rearing and processing environments in Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Adzitey, Frederick; Rusul, Gulam; Huda, Nurul; Cogan, Tristan; Corry, Janet

    2012-03-15

    We report for the first time on the prevalence, antibiotic resistance and RAPD types of Campylobacter species in ducks and duck related environmental samples in Malaysia. Samples were examined by enrichment in Bolton Broth followed by plating onto modified Charcoal Cefoperazone Deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) and/or plating directly onto mCCDA. A total of 643 samples were screened, and the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in samples from different sources ranged from 0% to 85%. The method of isolation had a significant (P<0.05) effect on the isolation rate. One hundred and sixteen Campylobacter isolates, comprising of 94 Campylobacter jejuni, 19 Campylobacter coli and three Campylobacter lari, were examined for their sensitivity to 13 antibiotics. Majority of the C. jejuni isolates were resistant to cephalothin (99%), tetracycline (96%), suphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (96%), and very few were resistant to gentamicin (5%), chloramphenicol (7%) and erythromycin (1%). All C. coli isolates were resistant to cephalothin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin and tetracycline but susceptible to chloramphenicol, erythromycin and gentamicin. The three C. lari isolates were resistant to all the antibiotics tested except chloramphenicol and gentamicin (1/3 and 2/3 susceptible, respectively). Genetic diversity of Campylobacter isolates were determined using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). C. jejuni and C. coli isolates belong to fifty-eight and twelve RAPD types, respectively.

  1. The Prevalence and Correlates of Mental and Emotional Health Among American Indian Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Walls, Melissa L.; Aronson, Benjamin D.; Soper, Garrett V.; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle D.

    2014-01-01

    Aims The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of mental and emotional health factors among a sample of American Indian (Indigenous) adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Methods Data are from a community-based participatory research project involving two Indigenous reservation communities. Data were collected from 218 Indigenous adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes via in-person paper-and-pencil survey interviews. Results Reports of greater numbers of mental/emotional health problems were associated with increases in self-reported hyperglycemia, comorbid health problems, and health-impaired physical activities. Conclusions This study addresses a gap in the literature by demonstrating the associations between various mental/emotional health factors and diabetes-related health problems for Indigenous Americans. Findings underscore the importance of holistic, integrated primary care models for more effective diabetes care. PMID:24562607

  2. SHAPE EVOLUTION OF MASSIVE EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES: CONFIRMATION OF INCREASED DISK PREVALENCE AT z > 1

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yu-Yen; Van der Wel, Arjen; Rix, Hans-Walter; Ramkumar, Balasubramanian; Wuyts, Stijn; Zibetti, Stefano; Holden, Bradford

    2013-01-10

    We use high-resolution K-band VLT/HAWK-I imaging over 0.25 deg{sup 2} to study the structural evolution of massive early-type galaxies since z {approx} 2. Mass-selected samples, complete down to log(M/M {sub Sun }) {approx} 10.7 such that 'typical' (L*) galaxies are included at all redshifts, are drawn from pre-existing photometric redshift surveys. We then separate the samples into different redshift slices and classify them as late- or early-type galaxies on the basis of their specific star formation rate. Axis-ratio measurements for the {approx}400 early-type galaxies in the redshift range 0.6 < z < 1.8 are accurate to 0.1 or better. The projected axis-ratio distributions are then compared with lower redshift samples. We find strong evidence for evolution of the population properties: early-type galaxies at z > 1 are, on average, flatter than at z < 1 and the median projected axis ratio at a fixed mass decreases with redshift. However, we also find that at all epochs z {approx}< 2, the most massive early-type galaxies (log(M/M {sub Sun }) > 11.3) are the roundest, with a pronounced lack of galaxies that are flat in projection. Merging is a plausible mechanism that can explain both results: at all epochs, merging is required for early-type galaxies to grow beyond log(M/M {sub Sun }) {approx} 11.3, and all early types over time gradually and partially lose their disk-like characteristics.

  3. Shape Evolution of Massive Early-type Galaxies: Confirmation of Increased Disk Prevalence at z > 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yu-Yen; van der Wel, Arjen; Rix, Hans-Walter; Wuyts, Stijn; Zibetti, Stefano; Ramkumar, Balasubramanian; Holden, Bradford

    2013-01-01

    We use high-resolution K-band VLT/HAWK-I imaging over 0.25 deg2 to study the structural evolution of massive early-type galaxies since z ~ 2. Mass-selected samples, complete down to log(M/M ⊙) ~ 10.7 such that "typical" (L*) galaxies are included at all redshifts, are drawn from pre-existing photometric redshift surveys. We then separate the samples into different redshift slices and classify them as late- or early-type galaxies on the basis of their specific star formation rate. Axis-ratio measurements for the ~400 early-type galaxies in the redshift range 0.6 < z < 1.8 are accurate to 0.1 or better. The projected axis-ratio distributions are then compared with lower redshift samples. We find strong evidence for evolution of the population properties: early-type galaxies at z > 1 are, on average, flatter than at z < 1 and the median projected axis ratio at a fixed mass decreases with redshift. However, we also find that at all epochs z <~ 2, the most massive early-type galaxies (log(M/M ⊙) > 11.3) are the roundest, with a pronounced lack of galaxies that are flat in projection. Merging is a plausible mechanism that can explain both results: at all epochs, merging is required for early-type galaxies to grow beyond log(M/M ⊙) ~ 11.3, and all early types over time gradually and partially lose their disk-like characteristics.

  4. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O-types and Shiga toxin genes in fecal samples from feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Dargatz, David A; Bai, Jianfa; Lubbers, Brian V; Kopral, Christine A; An, Baoyan; Anderson, Gary A

    2013-04-01

    While efforts to control foodborne illness associated with the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 through processes and procedures implemented at harvest facilities have been very successful, there is concern about the burden of illness associated with other Shiga toxin-producing E. coli. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service announced plans to classify an additional six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli as adulterants. Little is known about the prevalence and distribution of these E. coli in the animal production environment. An investigation of the prevalence of O157 and the six major non-O157 E. coli serogroups was conducted in 21 feedlots over the period July 2011 to October 2011. Individual fecal swabs were collected from cattle approximately 60 days after their arrival in the feedlot and were pooled for evaluation using a polymerase chain reaction assay to identify the presence of seven E. coli O-types (O157, O45, O103, O121, O145, O26, and O111) and four virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eaeA, and ehxA). Overall, 1145 fecal pools were evaluated, with 506 (44.2%) being positive for one or more of the E. coli O-serogroups. The pool prevalences for E. coli O157, O45, O26, O103, O121, O145, and O111 were 19.7%, 13.8%, 9.9%, 9.3%, 5.5%, 1.1%, and 0.5%, respectively. Nearly all pools were positive for ehxA (99.7%) or stx2 (98.6%). The pool level prevalence for stx1 and eae was 65.5% and 69.3%, respectively. Pools that were positive for one or more of the other E. coli O-serogroups were 1.37 times more likely to be positive for E. coli O157. Conversely, pools that were positive for E. coli O157 were 1.43 times more likely to be positive for at least one of the other E. coli O-serogroups evaluated. These data will be useful to understand the expected prevalence of potential Shiga toxin-producing E. coli in cattle feedlots.

  5. [Personality types in patients with atherosclerosis of different localization: prevalence and clinical features].

    PubMed

    Sumin, A N; Raĭkh, O I; Karpovich, A V; Korok, E V; Bezdenezhnykh, A V; Bokhan, I E; Barbarash, O L

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the work was to study the influence of D-type personality on clinical characteristics and extent of the pathological process in patients with atherosclerosis (AS) of different localization. A total of 943 patients (774 men and 169 women, mean age 58.6+-3 yr) were examined prior to arterial surgery. D-type personality was identified using a DS-14 questionnaire. The patients were divided into those with D-type personality (n=182) and without it (n=761). The following parameters were recorded: risk factors of AS, severity of clinical symptoms, history of myocardial infarction, acute cerebrovascular accidents, transitory ischemic attacks, concomitant pathology, and echocardiographic measuremnents. AS of non-coronary basins was diagnosed by color duplex scanning or angiograpgy. The number of affected vascular basins with stenosis of 30% or more arteries was detected. D-type personality was revealed in 19.3% of the patients with AS of different localization. It did not correlate with the social status, risk factors, and clinical symptoms. However D-type was associated with AS of extracranial arteries and combined lesions in several vascular basins as well as with the enhanced level of anxiety and depression and impaired quality of life.

  6. Prevalence of inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate receptor type 1 gene deletion, the mutation for spinocerebellar ataxia type 15, in Japan screened by gene dosage.

    PubMed

    Obayashi, Masato; Ishikawa, Kinya; Izumi, Yuishin; Takahashi, Makoto; Niimi, Yusuke; Sato, Nozomu; Onodera, Osamu; Kaji, Ryuji; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

    2012-03-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 15 (SCA15) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder clinically characterized by late-onset, slowly progressive pure cerebellar ataxia. This disease is caused by a heterozygous deletion of the inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate receptor type 1 (ITPR1) gene, suggesting that haploinsufficiency of the receptor function is the plausible disease mechanism. To clarify the prevalence of SCA15 in Japan, we designed four sets of probes and primers in different regions of ITPR1 and performed TaqMan PCR assay to search for gene deletions in 226 index SCA patients excluded for repeat expansion disorders. Deletion was found in only one patient, in whom gait ataxia started at 51 years of age and progressed to show cerebellar ataxia. This study demonstrates a simple but efficient method for screening ITPR1 deletion. We also conclude that ITPR1 gene deletions are much rare in Japan than in Europe, comprising only 0.3% in all SCAs in Japan.

  7. Prevalence and future prediction of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A systematic review of published studies.

    PubMed

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub

    2016-06-01

    To highlight the prevalence and future projections of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The systematic analytic study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from Dec 2014 to April 2015. Systematic bibliographic search of scientific databases including ISI-web of science, PubMed and Google Scholar was conducted with key words of "diabetes mellitus" "prevalence", "incidence". Total 46 peer reviewed papers were selected and examined. All the experimental and epidemiologic studies reporting the prevalence of diabetes in Saudi Arabia were included. There was no restriction on publication prestige and language of the publication. Finally, we included 21 publications and remaining 25 papers were excluded. The future predicted prevalence of type 2 diabetes was calculated on the results of the published studies by regressing the 33 years (1982-2015) of prevalence rate of diabetes against the time period. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Saudi Arabia is 32.8%. However, the predicted prevalence will be 35.37% in 2020; 40.37% in 2025 and 45.36% in the year 2030. The coefficient on time factor indicated that prevalence rate has increased during 1982-2015. Saudi Arabia has a highest prevalence (32.8%) of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We forecast that the incidence of type 2 diabetes will increase from 32.8% in 2015 to 45.36% in 2030. Saudi Arabia should include diabetes preventive measures on a war footing basis in their national health policy to minimize the burden of the disease.

  8. Prevalence of antibodies to type A influenza virus in wild avian species using two serologic assays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Justin D.; Luttrell, M. Page; Berghaus, Roy D.; Kistler, Whitney; Keeler, Shamus P.; Howey, Andrea; Wilcox, Benjamin; Hall, Jeffrey; Niles, Larry; Dey, Amanda; Knutsen, Gregory; Fritz, Kristen; Stallknecht, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Serologic testing to detect antibodies to avian influenza (AI) virus has been an underused tool for the study of these viruses in wild bird populations, which traditionally has relied on virus isolation and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In a preliminary study, a recently developed commercial blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) had sensitivity and specificity estimates of 82% and 100%, respectively, for detection of antibodies to AI virus in multiple wild bird species after experimental infection. To further evaluate the efficacy of this commercial bELISA and the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test for AI virus antibody detection in wild birds, we tested 2,249 serum samples collected from 62 wild bird species, representing 10 taxonomic orders. Overall, the bELISA detected 25.4% positive samples, whereas the AGID test detected 14.8%. At the species level, the bELISA detected as many or more positive serum samples than the AGID in all 62 avian species. The majority of positive samples, detected by both assays, were from species that use aquatic habitats, with the highest prevalence from species in the orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes. Conversely, antibodies to AI virus were rarely detected in the terrestrial species. The serologic data yielded by both assays are consistent with the known epidemiology of AI virus in wild birds and published reports of host range based on virus isolation and RT-PCR. The results of this research are also consistent with the aforementioned study, which evaluated the performance of the bELISA and AGID test on experimental samples. Collectively, the data from these two studies indicate that the bELISA is a more sensitive serologic assay than the AGID test for detecting prior exposure to AI virus in wild birds. Based on these results, the bELISA is a reliable species-independent assay with potentially valuable applications for wild bird AI surveillance.

  9. Genetic typing and prevalence of Border disease virus (BDV) in small ruminant flocks in Spain.

    PubMed

    Valdazo-González, B; Alvarez-Martínez, M; Greiser-Wilke, I

    2006-10-31

    Between 2001 and 2002, samples from 1,413 animals in 21 Spanish small ruminant flocks, most of them with animals showing clinical signs compatible with Border disease (BD), were screened for the presence of Pestivirus antigen and antibodies by an indirect peroxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) and the virus neutralization test (VNT), respectively. Although all flocks harboured seropositive animals, virus could only be isolated from animals in five of the flocks. Between 4 and 11 months later all animals older than 6 months in three of the flocks were resampled. At this time, 51-83% of them had neutralizing antibodies. The prevalence of persistently infected (PI) animals within two of the flocks was 0.3 and 0.6%, respectively. The third flock presumably had eliminated all the PI animals. Fourteen virus isolates were obtained. The 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) was amplified by RT-PCR and directly sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses classified them as a group of Border disease viruses (BDV), separated from BDV-1, but showing a relatively low bootstrap value. Three of the 14 isolates were in the same subgroup as a set of formerly characterised Spanish isolates from the Basque Country, which were allocated to subgroup BDV-C. In addition, they were in the group with an isolate from chamois, which is currently allocated in group BDV-4. Because of its close relation to the chamois isolate, these isolates were tentatively reallocated in a subgroup BDV-4a. The remaining isolates generated a new subgroup, related but not in the same cluster as the chamois isolate, and was therefore tentatively assigned to a new subgroup BDV-4b. Our results show that classification and nomenclature of BDV needs to be harmonised.

  10. High prevalence of NMDA receptor IgA/IgM antibodies in different dementia types

    PubMed Central

    Doss, Sarah; Wandinger, Klaus-Peter; Hyman, Bradley T; Panzer, Jessica A; Synofzik, Matthis; Dickerson, Bradford; Mollenhauer, Brit; Scherzer, Clemens R; Ivinson, Adrian J; Finke, Carsten; Schöls, Ludger; Müller vom Hagen, Jennifer; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Jahn, Holger; Höltje, Markus; Biswal, Bharat B; Harms, Lutz; Ruprecht, Klemens; Buchert, Ralph; Höglinger, Günther U; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Unger, Marcus M; Körtvélyessy, Peter; Bittner, Daniel; Priller, Josef; Spruth, Eike J; Paul, Friedemann; Meisel, Andreas; Lynch, David R; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Endres, Matthias; Teegen, Bianca; Probst, Christian; Komorowski, Lars; Stöcker, Winfried; Dalmau, Josep; Prüss, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Objective To retrospectively determine the frequency of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR) autoantibodies in patients with different forms of dementia. Methods Clinical characterization of 660 patients with dementia, neurodegenerative disease without dementia, other neurological disorders and age-matched healthy controls combined with retrospective analysis of serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for the presence of NMDAR antibodies. Antibody binding to receptor mutants and the effect of immunotherapy were determined in a subgroup of patients. Results Serum NMDAR antibodies of IgM, IgA, or IgG subtypes were detected in 16.1% of 286 dementia patients (9.5% IgM, 4.9% IgA, and 1.7% IgG) and in 2.8% of 217 cognitively healthy controls (1.9% IgM and 0.9% IgA). Antibodies were rarely found in CSF. The highest prevalence of serum antibodies was detected in patients with “unclassified dementia” followed by progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal syndrome, Parkinson’s disease-related dementia, and primary progressive aphasia. Among the unclassified dementia group, 60% of 20 patients had NMDAR antibodies, accompanied by higher frequency of CSF abnormalities, and subacute or fluctuating disease progression. Immunotherapy in selected prospective cases resulted in clinical stabilization, loss of antibodies, and improvement of functional imaging parameters. Epitope mapping showed varied determinants in patients with NMDAR IgA-associated cognitive decline. Interpretation Serum IgA/IgM NMDAR antibodies occur in a significant number of patients with dementia. Whether these antibodies result from or contribute to the neurodegenerative disorder remains unknown, but our findings reveal a subgroup of patients with high antibody levels who can potentially benefit from immunotherapy. PMID:25493273

  11. Sexually transmitted infections among married women in Dhaka, Bangladesh: unexpected high prevalence of herpes simplex type 2 infection

    PubMed Central

    Bogaerts, J; Ahmed, J; Akhter, N; Begum, N; Rahman, M; Nahar, S; Van Ranst, M; Verhaegen, J

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To document the prevalence of reproductive tract infections (RTI) and sexually transmitted infections (STI) among women attending a basic healthcare clinic in Dhaka, Bangladesh, to identify risk factors associated with the diseases and to estimate the incidence of syphilis, hepatitis C (HCV), hepatitis B (HBV), and herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) infection. Methods: A cross sectional sample of 2335 consecutive women was examined during 1996–8. Women were interviewed about risk factors for RTI/STI and tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Treponema pallidum, HIV, HCV, HBV, HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection as well as vaginal candidosis and bacterial vaginosis. Women with antibodies to T pallidum were retested at regular intervals. One year after ending the study seroconversion for syphilis, HBV, HCV, and HSV-2 infection was detected among women initially negative for the respective diseases. Results: The overall prevalence rate of N gonorrhoeae, C trachomatis, T vaginalis, and T pallidum infection was 0.5%, 1.9%, 2.0%, and 2.9% respectively. Overall, 35% of the women had antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen, 0.9% had HCV, and 12% HSV-2 infection. Risk factors for gonorrhoea/C trachomatis infection were a husband not living at home or suspected of being unfaithful. HSV-2 infection was associated with the same risk factors and with a polygamous marriage. The prevalence of HSV-2 infection among women "at risk" was 23%. HIV infection was not diagnosed. Repeated serological examination indicated that only 32% of women with serological evidence of syphilis had active disease. The seroincidences of HBV, HCV, and HSV-2 were 0.03, 0.007, and 0.009 per person year. Seroconversion for syphilis was not observed. Key Words: sexually transmitted infections; genital herpes; Bangladesh PMID:11287690

  12. Prevalence of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, in different types of production systems for egg layers in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Höglund, J; Nordenfors, H; Uggla, A

    1995-11-01

    This study was undertaken between May and December 1994 to investigate the prevalence of hematophagous mites in Sweden. A particular aim was to establish the relationship between occurrence of mites and certain types of production systems for egg layers. Initially a postal questionnaire study was performed. Some months later this was followed up by inspections, sampling, and interviews on farms. The only mite species found was the red poultry mite, Dermanyssus gallinae. Although this species was found to be present in cage batteries, deep-litter systems, and backyard flocks, it was less prevalent among birds housed in cages. About 4% of the cage systems were found to be affected both according to the results of the postal inquiry and from the field study. However, discrepancies in prevalence were found when comparing the results obtained with these two investigations regarding alternative, deep-litter systems and backyard flocks. According to the inquiry, 21% of the deep-litter flocks were afflicted whereas 33% were found to be afflicted in the field investigation. Among the backyard flocks, 19% were afflicted whereas as many as 67% of the flocks were found to be afflicted upon inspection. These discrepancies were probably due to the fact that the situation had actually changed in some farms during the study period, but possibly also to inherent methodological errors. Farmers were also interviewed with focus on methods of husbandry and control strategies. Most farmers answered that they were combatting the mites by cleaning the empty houses and using chemicals such as organophosphorous compounds, carbamates, and synthetic pyrethroids. In several instances the problems were still not solved despite these curative or preventive measures. A control program for D. gallinae is suggested by regular screening and certification of the ectoparasite status of the birds before their transfer to production sites.

  13. Prevalence, Level, and Types of Salmonella Isolated from North American In-Shell Pecans over Four Harvest Years.

    PubMed

    Brar, Pardeepinder K; Strawn, Laura K; Danyluk, Michelle D

    2016-03-01

    In-shell pecan samples (500 g) were collected over four harvest seasons (2010 to 2014) from seven pecan shelling facilities located in five U.S. states. Four varieties of pecans were analyzed: Mexican Improved, Native Seedlings, Southern Improved, and Western Improved. Pecan samples (100 g) were sent to a third party laboratory for initial Salmonella screening. When a sample was positive for Salmonella, the pathogen level was determined by the most-probable-number (MPN) method (25, 2.5, and 0.25 g). Two sample preparation strategies were used for the MPN analysis, and both strategies were combined for the reported MPN values. Forty-four (0.95%) of 4,641 in-shell pecan samples were positive for Salmonella during initial screening; prevalence by year was 0.47 to 1.4%. Prevalence was not significantly different between varieties: Mexican Improved, 1.2%; Native/Seedling, 0.99%; Southern Improved, 0.97%; and Western Improved, 0.75%. Salmonella was not isolated from 31 of 44 samples upon retesting during MPN analysis (<0.47 MPN/100 g). When Salmonella was detected, the levels were 0.47 to 39 MPN/100 g, with a mean of 2.4 MPN/100 g. Thirty-one Salmonella serotypes were obtained from 42 Salmonella-positive pecan samples; Enteritidis was the most common (12% of samples) followed by Javiana (9%) and Braenderup (7%). All Salmonella Enteritidis isolates were phage type 8. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis (XbaI) revealed within-serotype diversity, indicating introduction of contamination from a variety of sources. Most (64%) of the isolates were resistant to streptomycin or tetracycline, and 13% were resistant to three or more antibiotics. Salmonella prevalence and level on in-shell pecans is comparable to that on other nuts. PMID:26939644

  14. Prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular typing of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in bulk tank milk from southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Parisi, A; Caruso, M; Normanno, G; Latorre, L; Sottili, R; Miccolupo, A; Fraccalvieri, R; Santagada, G

    2016-09-01

    This paper assesses the prevalence of MRSA in bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from southern Italy, and the relationship between the Coagulase Positive Staphylococci count (CPS) and MRSA prevalence. Of 486 BTM samples tested, 12 samples (2.5%) resulted positive for the presence of MRSA. Great genetic diversity was found among the isolates: ST1/t127 and t174/IVa, ST5/t688/V, ST8/t unknown/IVa/V, ST45/t015/IVa, ST71/t524/V, ST88/t786/Iva, ST398/t011 and t899/IVa/V and ST2781/t1730/V. All isolates were pvl-negative and icaA positive. The majority of strains (58%) carried the ses (sec, seh, seg, seo, sem and sen) genes. All tested strains resulted susceptible to amikacin, cephalotin, cloramphenicol, gentamycin, trimethoprim - sulfamethoxazole, tobramycin and vancomycin, and variably resistant to ampicillin, oxacillin and tetracycline. No statistical association between the CPS count and MRSA detection was found in the MRSA-positive samples. Although some of the spa-types and STs detected in our survey are known to cause human infections, raw milk from Italian herds in the considered area is not a common source of MRSA. Nonetheless, it is necessary to assess the risk of foodborne infection and the risk related to the handling of milk.

  15. Role of Established Type 2 Diabetes–Susceptibility Genetic Variants in a High Prevalence American Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Rong; Kobes, Sayuko; Muller, Yunhua Li; Weil, E. Jennifer; Curtis, Jeffrey M.; Nelson, Robert G.; Baier, Leslie J.

    2015-01-01

    Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been identified, but there is little information on their role in populations at high risk for T2DM. We genotyped SNPs at 63 T2DM loci in 3,421 individuals from a high-risk American Indian population. Nominally significant (P < 0.05) associations were observed at nine SNPs in a direction consistent with the established association. A genetic risk score derived from all loci was strongly associated with T2DM (odds ratio 1.05 per risk allele, P = 6.2 × 10−6) and, in 292 nondiabetic individuals, with lower insulin secretion (by 4% per copy, P = 4.1 × 10−6). Genetic distances between American Indians and HapMap populations at T2DM markers did not differ significantly from genomic expectations. Analysis of U.S. national survey data suggested that 66% of the difference in T2DM prevalence between African Americans and European Americans, but none of the difference between American Indians and European Americans, was attributable to allele frequency differences at these loci. These analyses suggest that, in general, established T2DM loci influence T2DM in American Indians and that risk is mediated in part through an effect on insulin secretion. However, differences in allele frequencies do not account for the high population prevalence of T2DM. PMID:25667308

  16. Subdural haemorrhages in infants: population based study

    PubMed Central

    Jayawant, S; Rawlinson, A; Gibbon, F; Price, J; Schulte, J; Sharples, P; Sibert, J R; Kemp, A M

    1998-01-01

    Objectives To identify the incidence, clinical outcome, and associated factors of subdural haemorrhage in children under 2 years of age, and to determine how such cases were investigated and how many were due to child abuse. Design Population based case series. Setting South Wales and south west England. Subjects Children under 2 years of age who had a subdural haemorrhage. We excluded neonates who developed subdural haemorrhage during their stay on a neonatal unit and infants who developed a subdural haemorrhage after infection or neurosurgical intervention. Main outcome measures Incidence and clinical outcome of subdural haemorrhage in infants, the number of cases caused by child abuse, the investigations such children received, and associated risk factors. Results Thirty three children (23 boys and 10 girls) were identified with subdural haemorrhage. The incidence was 12.8/100 000 children/year (95% confidence interval 5.4 to 20.2). Twenty eight cases (85%) were under 1 year of age. The incidence of subdural haemorrhage in children under 1 year of age was 21.0/100 000 children/year and was therefore higher than in the older children. The clinical outcome was poor: nine infants died and 15 had profound disability. Only 22 infants had the basic investigations of a full blood count, coagulation screen, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, skeletal survey or bone scan, and ophthalmological examination. In retrospect, 27 cases (82%) were highly suggestive of abuse. Conclusion Subdural haemorrhage is common in infancy and carries a poor prognosis; three quarters of such infants die or have profound disability. Most cases are due to child abuse, but in a few the cause is unknown. Some children with subdural haemorrhage do not undergo appropriate investigations. We believe the clinical investigation of such children should include a full multidisciplinary social assessment, an ophthalmic examination, a skeletal survey supplemented with a bone scan or a

  17. Prevalence, type, and prognosis of ocular lesions in shelter and owned-client dogs naturally infected by Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    Pietro, Simona Di; Bosco, Valentina Rita Francesca; Crinò, Chiara; Francaviglia, Francesco; Giudice, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The point prevalence of ocular lesions due to leishmaniasis was evaluated in 127 dogs living in a municipal shelter placed in a highly endemic area (Sicily, Italy). Moreover, the period prevalence, the type, and prognosis of lesions due to leishmaniasis were evaluated in 132 dogs with ocular pathologies referred to a Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH) in the same endemic area over a 3-year period. Materials and Methods: All the dogs were submitted to ophthalmological examination. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was made by cytological, serological (immune-fluorescent antibody test), and molecular (quantitative polymerase chain reaction) tests. Results: The point prevalence of ocular lesions in 45 shelter dogs with leishmaniasis was 71.11% (45/127 dogs). The most frequent ocular lesion was blepharitis (50%) while anterior uveitis was observed in only 9.37% of cases. The period prevalence of ocular lesions due to leishmaniasis in the VTH group was 36.36% (48/132 dogs). In both groups, most of the lesions were bilateral and involved the anterior segment. Anterior uveitis was the most frequent ophthalmic finding in client-owned dogs (37.50%), but it occurred in only 9.37% of the shelter dogs. Keratouveitis often occurred during or after antiprotozoal treatment (14.58%; 7/48). In this study, the healing of eye injury following systemic antiprotozoal treatment was recorded in about half of cases (48%; 12/25 dogs), in which follow-up was possible. In more than 1/3 of cases (36%; 9/25), there was an improvement, but it was necessary to associate a long-term topical treatment; most of them, as well as those who had not responded to systemic therapy (16%; 4/25), had anterior uveitis or keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Conclusions: Ocular manifestations involve up to 2/3 of animals affected by canine leishmaniasis and lesions account for over 1/3 of ophthalmic pathologies observed at a referral clinic in an endemic area. The occurrence of anterior uveitis is more frequent in

  18. Descriptive Study of High-Stakes Science Assessments: Prevalence, Content, and the Possible Effect of Incorporating Innovative Item Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Shani Malaika

    Framed by a discussion of the heightened importance of science education in the U.S., this paper describes the prevalence, content, and format of high-stakes science assessments in the U.S. and explores the possibility that differences in assessment format may affect score gaps among student subgroups. An analysis of proficiency rates for 2010-11 high school exit exams in science was inconclusive; however, score gaps among ethnic subgroups on the 2009 grade 12 NAEP science assessment were larger for multiple choice items than for performance-based components. Further, a comparison of subgroup score gaps on the 2009 NAEP science assessment and those on the ACT science subtest suggest that the assessment with more diverse and innovative items resulted in a smaller gap in subgroup test scores. These findings point to the need for greater investigation of the extent to which item type affects subgroup score differences on science assessments.

  19. Childhood obesity in Canada: a review of prevalence estimates and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ball, Geoff D C; McCargar, Linda J

    2003-02-01

    Childhood obesity in Canada has become increasingly prevalent over the past 2 decades. Despite inconsistencies regarding different anthropometric indicators, cut-offs, and reference populations, both regional and national investigations have revealed high numbers of overweight and obese children and adolescents. A number of risk factors and health consequences have been associated with increased levels of body fatness in youth. Specifically, risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and type 2 diabetes are known to develop early in life and tend to emerge in clusters among overweight youngsters. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours (i.e., physical inactivity), a genetic disposition, and a centralized body fat distribution, all contribute to increased risk. In order to prevent future generations of children from experiencing increased morbidity and mortality as overweight and obese adults, coordinated efforts at all levels (family, school, community, and government) must be established with a long-term commitment to promote healthy nutrition and physical activity behaviours in our youth.

  20. Acute poisoning types and prevalence in Shanghai, China, from January 2010 to August 2011.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingshuo; Xiang, Ping; Zhuo, Xianyi; Shen, Min

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, the number of cases of acute poisoning has increased in China, yet; currently, there is no detailed report published that addresses acute poisoning in the mainland of China. We collected biological samples from 466 cases of suspected acute poisoning at the hospitals in Shanghai, China, and examined them using spectroscopy, chromatography and chromatography/mass spectrometry. Of the 466 cases, 230 cases (100 men and 130 women) were positively confirmed as acute poisonings. There were 80 types of compounds identified in this study. Medications were the most frequent substances identified, and the other substances included pesticides, multiple compounds, volatile compounds, natural toxins, and others. The results of this study indicate a need for strengthening the education about and management of the rational and safe use of drugs in Shanghai.

  1. The Prevalence of Gas Outflows in Type 2 AGNs. II. 3D Biconical Outflow Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Hyun-Jin; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2016-09-01

    We present 3D models of biconical outflows combined with a thin dust plane for investigating the physical properties of the ionized gas outflows and their effect on the observed gas kinematics in type 2 active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Using a set of input parameters, we construct a number of models in 3D and calculate the spatially integrated velocity and velocity dispersion for each model. We find that three primary parameters, i.e., intrinsic velocity, bicone inclination, and the amount of dust extinction, mainly determine the simulated velocity and velocity dispersion. Velocity dispersion increases as the intrinsic velocity or the bicone inclination increases, while velocity (i.e., velocity shifts with respect to systemic velocity) increases as the amount of dust extinction increases. Simulated emission-line profiles well reproduce the observed [O iii] line profiles, e.g., narrow core and broad wing components. By comparing model grids and Monte Carlo simulations with the observed [O iii] velocity-velocity dispersion distribution of ˜39,000 type 2 AGNs, we constrain the intrinsic velocity of gas outflows ranging from ˜500 to ˜1000 km s-1 for the majority of AGNs, and up to ˜1500-2000 km s-1 for extreme cases. The Monte Carlo simulations show that the number ratio of AGNs with negative [O iii] velocity to AGNs with positive [O iii] velocity correlates with the outflow opening angle, suggesting that outflows with higher intrinsic velocity tend to have wider opening angles. These results demonstrate the potential of our 3D models for studying the physical properties of gas outflows, applicable to various observations, including spatially integrated and resolved gas kinematics.

  2. The Prevalence of Gas Outflows in Type 2 AGNs. II. 3D Biconical Outflow Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Hyun-Jin; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2016-09-01

    We present 3D models of biconical outflows combined with a thin dust plane for investigating the physical properties of the ionized gas outflows and their effect on the observed gas kinematics in type 2 active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Using a set of input parameters, we construct a number of models in 3D and calculate the spatially integrated velocity and velocity dispersion for each model. We find that three primary parameters, i.e., intrinsic velocity, bicone inclination, and the amount of dust extinction, mainly determine the simulated velocity and velocity dispersion. Velocity dispersion increases as the intrinsic velocity or the bicone inclination increases, while velocity (i.e., velocity shifts with respect to systemic velocity) increases as the amount of dust extinction increases. Simulated emission-line profiles well reproduce the observed [O iii] line profiles, e.g., narrow core and broad wing components. By comparing model grids and Monte Carlo simulations with the observed [O iii] velocity–velocity dispersion distribution of ∼39,000 type 2 AGNs, we constrain the intrinsic velocity of gas outflows ranging from ∼500 to ∼1000 km s‑1 for the majority of AGNs, and up to ∼1500–2000 km s‑1 for extreme cases. The Monte Carlo simulations show that the number ratio of AGNs with negative [O iii] velocity to AGNs with positive [O iii] velocity correlates with the outflow opening angle, suggesting that outflows with higher intrinsic velocity tend to have wider opening angles. These results demonstrate the potential of our 3D models for studying the physical properties of gas outflows, applicable to various observations, including spatially integrated and resolved gas kinematics.

  3. Prevalence of Bartonella species and 16s rRNA gene types of Bartonella henselae from domestic cats in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, S; Sakai, T; Morita, Y; Tanaka, S; Kabeya, H; Boonmar, S; Poapolathep, A; Chalarmchaikit, T; Chang, C C; Kasten, R W; Chomel, B B; Katsube, Y

    2001-12-01

    Prevalence of Bartonella infection among 275 cats in 9 sites from 4 geographical regions (northern area: Chiang Mai; central area: Kanchanaburi, Ratchaburi, and Bangkok; northeastern area: Khon Kaen, Roi Et, Ubon Ratcharthani, and Nakhonratchasima; southern area: Songkhla) of Thailand was investigated. Overall, Bartonella species were isolated from 27.6% (76 of 275) of the cats. The isolation rate varied from 12.8% (5 of 39) in Songkhla (southern area) to 50.0% (26 of 52) in Khon Kaen (northeastern area). Bartonella henselae and B. clarridgeiae were isolated from 82.9% (63 of 76) and 11.8% (9 of 76) of the Bartonella-positive cats, respectively. Coinfection with both species was found in 5.3% (4 of 76) of the bacteremic cats. Of the 67 bacteremic cats from which B. henselae was isolated, 48 (71.6%) and 13 (19.4%) were infected with only Type I and Type II, respectively. Coinfection with both types was observed in 9.0% (6 of 67) of the B. henselae-positive cats. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the presence of Bartonella infection in domestic cats from Thailand, which constitute a large reservoir of Bartonella infection in this country.

  4. Weapon carrying and psychopathic-like features in a population-based sample of Finnish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saukkonen, Suvi; Laajasalo, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Kivivuori, Janne; Salmi, Venla; Aronen, Eeva T

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the prevalence of juvenile weapon carrying and psychosocial and personality-related risk factors for carrying different types of weapons in a nationally representative, population-based sample of Finnish adolescents. Specifically, we aimed to investigate psychopathic-like personality features as a risk factor for weapon carrying. The participants were 15-16-year-old adolescents from the Finnish self-report delinquency study (n = 4855). Four different groups were formed based on self-reported weapon carrying: no weapon carrying, carrying knife, gun or other weapon. The associations between psychosocial factors, psychopathic-like features and weapon carrying were examined with multinomial logistic regression analysis. 9% of the participants had carried a weapon in the past 12 months. Adolescents with a history of delinquency, victimization and antisocial friends were more likely to carry weapons in general; however, delinquency and victimization were most strongly related to gun carrying, while perceived peer delinquency (antisocial friends) was most strongly related to carrying a knife. Better academic performance was associated with a reduced likelihood of carrying a gun and knife, while feeling secure correlated with a reduced likelihood of gun carrying only. Psychopathic-like features were related to a higher likelihood of weapon carrying, even after adjusting for other risk factors. The findings of the study suggest that adolescents carrying a weapon have a large cluster of problems in their lives, which may vary based on the type of weapon carried. Furthermore, psychopathic-like features strongly relate to a higher risk of carrying a weapon.

  5. Weapon carrying and psychopathic-like features in a population-based sample of Finnish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saukkonen, Suvi; Laajasalo, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Kivivuori, Janne; Salmi, Venla; Aronen, Eeva T

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the prevalence of juvenile weapon carrying and psychosocial and personality-related risk factors for carrying different types of weapons in a nationally representative, population-based sample of Finnish adolescents. Specifically, we aimed to investigate psychopathic-like personality features as a risk factor for weapon carrying. The participants were 15-16-year-old adolescents from the Finnish self-report delinquency study (n = 4855). Four different groups were formed based on self-reported weapon carrying: no weapon carrying, carrying knife, gun or other weapon. The associations between psychosocial factors, psychopathic-like features and weapon carrying were examined with multinomial logistic regression analysis. 9% of the participants had carried a weapon in the past 12 months. Adolescents with a history of delinquency, victimization and antisocial friends were more likely to carry weapons in general; however, delinquency and victimization were most strongly related to gun carrying, while perceived peer delinquency (antisocial friends) was most strongly related to carrying a knife. Better academic performance was associated with a reduced likelihood of carrying a gun and knife, while feeling secure correlated with a reduced likelihood of gun carrying only. Psychopathic-like features were related to a higher likelihood of weapon carrying, even after adjusting for other risk factors. The findings of the study suggest that adolescents carrying a weapon have a large cluster of problems in their lives, which may vary based on the type of weapon carried. Furthermore, psychopathic-like features strongly relate to a higher risk of carrying a weapon. PMID:25986501

  6. Prevalence and genetic variation of porcine circovirus type 2 in Hebei, China from 2004 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Li, Limin; Yuan, Wanzhe; Guo, Haiyong; Ma, Zengjun; Song, Qinye; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Hongyuan

    2016-07-25

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), the primary causative agent of porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD), causes severe economic losses to the pig industry in China since 2002. To investigate the molecular epidemic characteristics and genetic evolution of PCV2, 12 PCV2 isolates obtained from different pig farms with various clinical symptoms of PCVAD in Hebei, China from 2004 to 2014 were sequenced and analyzed. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the 12 isolates were divided into two distinct genotypes, PCV2b (7/12) and PCV2d (5/12), based on the sequences of either viral complete genome or open reading frame 2 (ORF2). Of the 7 PCV2b strains, 5 were isolated from 2004 to 2008 while all PCV2d were isolated from 2009 to 2014. This exhibited that PCV2b isolates were the most common before 2009 and then PCV2d isolates became predominant and widely distributed in pig farms. Sequence comparisons among total isolates indicated that the nucleotide identity ranged from 95.5% to 100% for complete genome and 93.1%-100% for ORF2. Compared with seven PCV2b isolates, there were thirteen amino-acid substitutions in the ORF2 region and one additional amino-acid K at this region terminal for five PCV2d isolates. The results suggest that a higher genetic variation and a distinct genotype shift occurred among the PCV2 isolates collected from 2004 to 2014 in Hebei. PMID:27063558

  7. Male accessory gland inflammation prevalence in type 2 diabetic patients with symptoms possibly reflecting autonomic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Condorelli, Rosita A; Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E; La Vignera, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Male accessory gland inflammation or infection (MAGI) is a potentially underdiagnosed complication of type 2 diabetes (DM2); specifically, we reported in a recent study that the frequency of MAGI was 43% among DM2 patients. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is associated with a peculiar ultrasound characterization of the seminal vesicles (SVs) in DM2 patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of MAGI in two different categories of DM2 patients (i.e. patients with and without symptoms that possibly reflect DAN) and the respective ultrasound characterizations. Sixty DM2 patients with a mean (± s.e.m.) age of 42.0 ± 6.0 years (range: 34–47 years) were classified according to the presence or the absence of symptoms that could possibly reflect DAN (group A: DM2 with symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 28 patients and group B: DM2 without symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 32 patients). The patients in Group A exhibited a significantly higher frequency of MAGI compared with those in group B patients (P < 0.05); moreover, the Group A patients exhibited a significantly higher frequency of ultrasound signs suggestive of vesiculitis (P < 0.05). Finally, the concentrations of lymphocytes but not the concentrations of the leukocytes in the semen were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in group A compared with group B. PMID:24799635

  8. Longitudinal population-based studies of affective disorders: Where to from here?

    PubMed Central

    Beard, John R; Galea, Sandro; Vlahov, David

    2008-01-01

    Background Longitudinal, population-based, research is important if we are to better characterize the lifetime patterns and determinants of affective disorders. While studies of this type are becoming increasingly prevalent, there has been little discussion about the limitations of the methods commonly used. Methods Discussion paper including a brief review of key prospective population-based studies as the basis for a critical appraisal of current approaches. Results We identified a number of common methodological weaknesses that restrict the potential of longitudinal research to characterize the diversity, prognosis, and determinants of affective disorders over time. Most studies using comprehensive diagnostic instruments have either been of relatively brief duration, or have suffered from long periods between waves. Most etiologic research has focused on first onset diagnoses, although these may be relatively uncommon after early adulthood and the burden of mental disorders falls more heavily on individuals with recurring disorders. Analysis has tended to be based on changes in diagnostic status rather than anges in symptom levels, limiting study power. Diagnoses have generally been treated as homogeneous entities and few studies have explored whether diagnostic subtypes such as atypical depression vary in their etiology or prognosis. Little research has considered whether there are distinct trajectories of symptoms over time and most has focused on individual disorders such as depression, rather than considering the relationship over time between symptoms of different affective disorders. There has also been limited longitudinal research on factors in the physical or social environment that may influence the onset, recurrence or chronicity of symptoms. Conclusion Many important, and in some respects quite basic, questions remain about the trajectory of depression and anxiety disorders over the life course and the factors that influence their incidence

  9. The Prevalence of Pre-hypertension in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Rohani, Farzaneh; Hooman, Nakysa; Moradi, Sedighe; Mobarra, Mehdi; Najafizadeh, Mehri; Tatarpoor, Parvin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is more common in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) than the general population. The aim of this study was to detect the pre-hypertensive stage in children with T1D and to evaluate its correlation with diabetic nephropathy compared to non-diabetic children. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study in an out-patient clinic of a university hospital. A total of 62 which consists of 36 males and 26 females patients with stable T1D with a median age of 13 year and 42 age - sex-matched healthy children were entered in the study between September 2008 and February 2011. Three readings of blood pressure were recorded. Fasting blood sample was drawn for hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), creatinine and a 24 h urine aliquot was collected to measure microalbumin, creatinine and volume to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Results: From 62 children with T1DM, 25.8% were in pre-hypertensive stage, 4.8% Stage 1, and 1.6% Stage 2. In controls, 1 (2.4%) out of 42 children was in pre-hypertensive stage (P < 0.0001). Abnormal blood pressures were correlated with eGFR and the duration of disease (P < 0.05), but there were not associated with microalbominuria or HbA1C level. Conclusions: There was a higher rate of early stage of high normal blood pressure in children with T1DM compared with the healthy controls and this abnormality was only correlated with puberty stage and glomerular filtration rate. PMID:24791191

  10. Birth prevalence rates of skeletal dysplasias.

    PubMed

    Stoll, C; Dott, B; Roth, M P; Alembik, Y

    1989-02-01

    This study establishes the prevalence rates at birth of the skeletal dysplasias which can be diagnosed in the perinatal period or during pregnancy. Using a population-based register of congenital anomalies, a prevalence rate of 3.22 0/000 was observed. The most frequent types of skeletal dysplasia were achondroplasia and osteogenesis imperfecta (0.64 0/000, 1/15,000 births), thanatophoric dysplasia and achondrogenesis (0.28 0/000). The mutation rate for achondroplasia was higher in our material than in the other studies: 3.3 x 10(-5) per gamete per generation. Our study demonstrates that prenatal diagnosis by ultrasound is possible in some skeletal dysplasias. PMID:2785882

  11. Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi's Discrete Typing Units in a cohort of Latin American migrants in Spain.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Perez, Angela; Poveda, Cristina; Ramírez, Juan David; Norman, Francesca; Gironés, Núria; Guhl, Felipe; Monge-Maillo, Begoña; Fresno, Manuel; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-05-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. This is an endemic disease in the Americas, but increased migration to Europe has made it emerge in countries where it was previously unknown, being Spain the second non endemic country in number of patients. T. cruzi is a parasite with a wide genetic diversity, which has been grouped by consensus into 6 Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) affecting humans. Some authors have linked these DTUs either to a specific epidemiological context or to the different clinical presentations. Our main objective was to describe the T. cruzi DTUs identified from a population of chronically infected Latin American migrants attending a reference clinic in Madrid. 149 patients meeting this condition were selected for the study. Molecular characterization was performed by an algorithm that combines PCR of the intergenic region of the mini exon-gene, the 24Sα and 18S regions of rDNA and the variable region of the satellite DNA. A descriptive analysis was performed and associations between geographical/clinical data and the different DTUs were tested. DTUs could be determined in 105 out of 149 patients, 93.3% were from Bolivia, 67.7% were women and median age was 35 years (IQR 29-44). The most common DTU found was TcV (58; 55.2%), followed by TcIV (17; 16.2%), TcII (10; 9.5%) and TcI (4; 3.8%). TcIII and TcVI were not identified from any patient, and 15.2% patients presented mixed infections. In addition, we determined DTUs after treatment in a subset of patients. In 57% patients had different DTUs before and after treatment. DTUs distribution from this study indicates active transmission of T. cruzi is occurring in Bolivia, in both domestic and sylvatic cycles. TcIV was confirmed as a cause of chronic human disease. The current results indicate no correlation between DTU and any specific clinical presentation associated with Chagas disease, nor with geographical origin. Treatment with benznidazole does not always clear T. cruzi

  12. Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi's Discrete Typing Units in a cohort of Latin American migrants in Spain.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Perez, Angela; Poveda, Cristina; Ramírez, Juan David; Norman, Francesca; Gironés, Núria; Guhl, Felipe; Monge-Maillo, Begoña; Fresno, Manuel; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-05-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. This is an endemic disease in the Americas, but increased migration to Europe has made it emerge in countries where it was previously unknown, being Spain the second non endemic country in number of patients. T. cruzi is a parasite with a wide genetic diversity, which has been grouped by consensus into 6 Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) affecting humans. Some authors have linked these DTUs either to a specific epidemiological context or to the different clinical presentations. Our main objective was to describe the T. cruzi DTUs identified from a population of chronically infected Latin American migrants attending a reference clinic in Madrid. 149 patients meeting this condition were selected for the study. Molecular characterization was performed by an algorithm that combines PCR of the intergenic region of the mini exon-gene, the 24Sα and 18S regions of rDNA and the variable region of the satellite DNA. A descriptive analysis was performed and associations between geographical/clinical data and the different DTUs were tested. DTUs could be determined in 105 out of 149 patients, 93.3% were from Bolivia, 67.7% were women and median age was 35 years (IQR 29-44). The most common DTU found was TcV (58; 55.2%), followed by TcIV (17; 16.2%), TcII (10; 9.5%) and TcI (4; 3.8%). TcIII and TcVI were not identified from any patient, and 15.2% patients presented mixed infections. In addition, we determined DTUs after treatment in a subset of patients. In 57% patients had different DTUs before and after treatment. DTUs distribution from this study indicates active transmission of T. cruzi is occurring in Bolivia, in both domestic and sylvatic cycles. TcIV was confirmed as a cause of chronic human disease. The current results indicate no correlation between DTU and any specific clinical presentation associated with Chagas disease, nor with geographical origin. Treatment with benznidazole does not always clear T. cruzi

  13. Population-based carrier screening for cystic fibrosis: a systematic review of 23 years of research.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Liane; McClaren, Belinda J; Massie, John; Lewis, Sharon; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Forrest, Laura; Delatycki, Martin B

    2014-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis is the most common severe autosomal recessive disease, with a prevalence of 1 in 2,500-3,500 live births and a carrier frequency of 1 in 25 among Northern Europeans. Population-based carrier screening for cystic fibrosis has been possible since CFTR, the disease-causing gene, was identified in 1989. This review provides a systematic evaluation of the literature from the past 23 years on population-based carrier screening for cystic fibrosis, focusing on the following: uptake of testing; how to offer screening; attitudes, opinions, and knowledge; factors influencing decision making; and follow-up after screening. Recommendations are given for the implementation and evaluation of future carrier-screening programs.

  14. Prevalence and molecular typing of Coxiella burnetii in bulk tank milk in Belgian dairy goats, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Boarbi, Samira; Mori, Marcella; Rousset, Elodie; Sidi-Boumedine, Karim; Van Esbroeck, Marjan; Fretin, David

    2014-05-14

    Q fever, a worldwide zoonosis, is an arousing public health concern in many countries since the recent Dutch outbreak. An emerging C. burnetii clone, genotype CbNL01, was identified as responsible for the Dutch human Q fever cluster cases. Since 2009, Q fever surveillance in the goat industry was implemented by the Belgian authorities. The herd prevalence (December 2009-March 2013) ranged between 6.3 and 12.1%. Genotypic analysis highlighted the molecular diversity of the Belgian strains from goats and identified an emerging CbNL01-like genotype. This follow-up allowed the description of shedding profiles in positive farms which was either continuous (type I) and associated to the CbNL01-like genotype; or intermittent (type II) and linked to other genotypes. Despite the circulation of a CbNL01-like strain, the number of notified Belgian human cases was very low. The mandatory vaccination (in June 2011) on positive dairy goat farms in Belgium, contributed to a decrease in shedding.

  15. Prevalence of Lipohypertrophy and Associated Risk Factors in Insulin-Treated Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Al Ajlouni, Mo’men; Abujbara, Mousa; Batieha, Anwar; Ajlouni, Kamel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Secondary failure of oral hypoglycemic agents is common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); thus, patients often need insulin therapy. The most common complication of insulin treatment is lipohypertrophy (LH). Objectives: This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of LH among insulin-treated patients with Patients with T2DM, to identify the risk factors for the development of LH, and to examine the association between LH and glycemic control. Patients and Methods: A total of 1090 patients with T2DM aged 20 to 89 years, who attended the diabetes clinics at the National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Genetics (NCDEG, Amman, Jordan) between October 2011 and January 2012, were enrolled. The presence of LH was examined by inspection and palpation of insulin injection sites at the time of the visit as relevant clinical and laboratory data were obtained. The LH was defined as a local tumor-like swelling of subcutaneous fatty tissue at the site of repeated insulin injections. Results: The overall prevalence of LH was 37.3% (27.4% grade 1, 9.7% grade 2, and 0.2% grade 3). The LH was significantly associated with the duration of diabetes, needle length, duration of insulin therapy, lack of systematic rotation of insulin injection sites, and poor glycemic control. Conclusions: The LH is a common problem in insulin-treated Jordanian patients with T2DM. More efforts are needed to educate patients and health workers on simple interventions such as using shorter needles and frequent rotation of the insulin injection sites to avoid LH and improve glycemic control. PMID:25926852

  16. Association of Adiposity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Exercise Practice with the Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in Brazilian Elderly Women

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Maressa P.; Hallage, Tatiane; Gama, Mirnaluci Paulino Ribeiro; Goss, Fredric L.; Robertson, Robert; da Silva, Sergio G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Diabetes incidence in people with advanced age is increasing at an alarming rate, and for this reason the screening of high-risk individuals such as elderly women is critically important. Objective: To analyze the association of adiposity, cardiorespiratory fitness and exercise practice with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in elderly Brazilian women. Methods: Participated of this cross sectional study 1,059 elderly women (mean 69.5 yr; SD 6.1), who self-reported family history of cardiovascular disease, smoking status, hypertension, and T2D diagnosed previously by a physician. The following independent variables were assessed: exercise practice, body mass index, waist circumference, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association between each independent variable with T2D using adjusted-models. Results: T2D prevalence was 16%. General and central adiposity were directly associated with T2D, whereas cardiorespiratory fitness was inversely related with T2D. The joint effect of exercise practice and central adiposity showed that inactive women had higher odds ratio for T2D when compared with active ones, within the same WC group. Inactive women with WC ≥ 94.0 cm had an odds ratio of 5.8 (95%IC 1.3-25.3). Conclusions: A direct positive association was found between general and central adiposity, as well as an inverse relation between CRF and exercise practice with T2D. Elderly women who practice exercise regularly had lower odds for T2D. Health professionals should encourage individuals of all ages to engage on regular exercise practice, which could reduce body fatness and may be beneficial in reducing the prevalence of T2D in older ages. PMID:18071583

  17. High prevalence of Escherichia coli sequence type 131 among antimicrobial-resistant E. coli isolates from geriatric patients.

    PubMed

    Ho, Pak-Leung; Chu, Yuki Pui-Shan; Lo, Wai-U; Chow, Kin-Hung; Law, Pierra Y; Tse, Cindy Wing-Sze; Ng, Tak-Keung; Cheng, Vincent Chi-Chung; Que, Tak-Lun

    2015-03-01

    Previous work on the subclones within Escherichia coli ST131 predominantly involved isolates from Western countries. This study assessed the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance attributed to this clonal group. A total of 340 consecutive, non-duplicated urinary E. coli isolates originating from four clinical laboratories in Hong Kong in 2013 were tested. ST131 prevalence among the total isolates was 18.5 % (63/340) and was higher among inpatient isolates (23.0 %) than outpatient isolates (11.8 %, P<0.001), and higher among isolates from patients aged ≥65 years than from patients aged 18-50 years and 51-64 years (25.4 vs 3.4 and 4.0 %, respectively, P<0.001). Of the 63 ST131 isolates, 43 (68.3 %) isolates belonged to the H30 subclone, whereas the remaining isolates belonged to H41 (n = 17), H54 (n = 2) and H22 (n = 1). All H30 isolates were ciprofloxacin-resistant, of which 18.6 % (8/43) belonged to the H30-Rx subclone. Twenty-six (41.3 %) ST131 isolates were ESBL-producers, of which 19 had blaCTX-M-14 (12 non-H30-Rx, two H30-Rx and five H41), six had blaCTX-M-15 (five non-H30-Rx and one H30-Rx) and one was blaCTX-M-negative (H30). In conclusion, ST131 accounts for a large share of the antimicrobial-resistant E. coli isolates from geriatric patients. Unlike previous reports, ESBL-producing ST131 strains mainly belonged to non-H30-Rx rather than the H30-Rx subclone, with blaCTX-M-14 as the dominant enzyme type.

  18. Epilepsy in Onchocerciasis Endemic Areas: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Population-Based Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Pion, Sébastien D. S.; Kaiser, Christoph; Boutros-Toni, Fernand; Cournil, Amandine; Taylor, Melanie M.; Meredith, Stefanie E. O.; Stufe, Ansgar; Bertocchi, Ione; Kipp, Walter; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Boussinesq, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Objective We sought to evaluate the relationship between onchocerciasis prevalence and that of epilepsy using available data collected at community level. Design We conducted a systematic review and meta-regression of available data. Data Sources Electronic and paper records on subject area ever produced up to February 2008. Review Methods We searched for population-based studies reporting on the prevalence of epilepsy in communities for which onchocerciasis prevalence was available or could be estimated. Two authors independently assessed eligibility and study quality and extracted data. The estimation of point prevalence of onchocerciasis was standardized across studies using appropriate correction factors. Variation in epilepsy prevalence was then analyzed as a function of onchocerciasis endemicity using random-effect logistic models. Results Eight studies from west (Benin and Nigeria), central (Cameroon and Central African Republic) and east Africa (Uganda, Tanzania and Burundi) met the criteria for inclusion and analysis. Ninety-one communities with a total population of 79,270 individuals screened for epilepsy were included in the analysis. The prevalence of epilepsy ranged from 0 to 8.7% whereas that of onchocerciasis ranged from 5.2 to 100%. Variation in epilepsy prevalence was consistent with a logistic function of onchocerciasis prevalence, with epilepsy prevalence being increased, on average, by 0.4% for each 10% increase in onchocerciasis prevalence. Conclusion These results give further evidence that onchocerciasis is associated with epilepsy and that the disease burden of onchocerciasis might have to be re-estimated by taking into account this relationship. PMID:19529767

  19. [Relationship of hypertension prevalence in companies to business type and scale--from an analysis of health examination results in Fukui prefecture].

    PubMed

    Hirai, T; Kusaka, Y; Iki, M; Deguchi, Y; Sato, K; Umino, K; Kawahara, K

    1996-09-01

    The results of health examinations of 89,299 examines from companies in Fukui Prefecture conducted pursuant to the Occupational Safety and Health Act were analyzed to study the relationship between the prevalence in these companies of hypertension, and company size business type. The Mantel-Haenszel method was utilized to adjust for age structure of the examinees according to gender and the type of business of their companies to compare prevalence of hypertension. The results of the analysis indicated that the prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher in small-scale companies for the female examinees working in pulp/paper processing and motor freight transport business than in large-scale companies, but no significant difference was seen for scale of business when the female examinees were grouped without regard to the business type of their companies. In the case of the male examinees, the analysis results revealed that the prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher in small-scale companies for those working in ceramic/earth/rock, motor passenger transport and hotel/restaurant business than in large-scale industry while the prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher in large-scale companies for those working in non-ferrous metal industry, financial and other types of business. Moreover, the analysis results for the male examinees grouped without regard to the type of business of their companies indicated that the prevalence of hypertension remained significantly higher in small-scale companies. The above also suggests the need for measures for health care of workers that considers business type and scale for the purpose of primary prevention of hypertension.

  20. The prevalence of migraine and tension-type headache among schoolchildren in Kayseri, Turkey: an evaluation of sensitivity and specificity using multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Poyrazoğlu, Hatice Gamze; Kumandas, Sefer; Canpolat, Mehmet; Gümüs, Hakan; Elmali, Ferhan; Kara, Ahu; Per, Hüseyin

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence as well as psychosocial and demographic features of migraine and tension-type headache among school children between the ages of 7 and 17, and using the International Classification of Headache Disorders II. The study was conducted during the questionnaire phase and the interview phase. The prevalence of recurrent headache was 47.5%, whereas that of primary recurrent headache was 21%. The estimated prevalence rates of migraine and tension-type headache were 7.2% and 7.8%, respectively. Unilateral headache, throbbing-type headache, severe headache, and the severity of the headache with physical activity were specific for migraine. Headache was significantly higher in first-degree relatives of the children with migraine compared to the children with tension-type headache (P < .0001). We determined the prevalence rates of migraine and tension-type headache and revealed the characteristics as well as the psychosocial and demographic features of migraine and tension-type headache. Sensitivity, specificity, and multivariate analysis were also evaluated.

  1. ORIGIN AND PREVALENCE OF HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS TYPE 1 (HTLV-1) AND TYPE 2 (HTLV-2) AMONG INDIGENOUS POPULATIONS IN THE AMERICAS

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Arthur; Casseb, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is found in indigenous peoples of the Pacific Islands and the Americas, whereas type 2 (HTLV-2) is widely distributed among the indigenous peoples of the Americas, where it appears to be more prevalent than HTLV-1, and in some tribes of Central Africa. HTLV-2 is considered ancestral in the Americas and is transmitted to the general population and injection drug users from the indigenous population. In the Americas, HTLV-1 has more than one origin, being brought by immigrants in the Paleolithic period through the Bering Strait, through slave trade during the colonial period, and through Japanese immigration from the early 20th century, whereas HTLV-2 was only brought by immigrants through the Bering Strait. The endemicity of HTLV-2 among the indigenous people of Brazil makes the Brazilian Amazon the largest endemic area in the world for its occurrence. A review of HTLV-1 in all Brazilian tribes supports the African origin of HTLV-1 in Brazil. The risk of hyperendemicity in these epidemiologically closed populations and transmission to other populations reinforces the importance of public health interventions for HTLV control, including the recognition of the infection among reportable diseases and events. PMID:25651320

  2. Origin and prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and type 2 (HTLV-2) among indigenous populations in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Arthur; Casseb, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is found in indigenous peoples of the Pacific Islands and the Americas, whereas type 2 (HTLV-2) is widely distributed among the indigenous peoples of the Americas, where it appears to be more prevalent than HTLV-1, and in some tribes of Central Africa. HTLV-2 is considered ancestral in the Americas and is transmitted to the general population and injection drug users from the indigenous population. In the Americas, HTLV-1 has more than one origin, being brought by immigrants in the Paleolithic period through the Bering Strait, through slave trade during the colonial period, and through Japanese immigration from the early 20th century, whereas HTLV-2 was only brought by immigrants through the Bering Strait. The endemicity of HTLV-2 among the indigenous people of Brazil makes the Brazilian Amazon the largest endemic area in the world for its occurrence. A review of HTLV-1 in all Brazilian tribes supports the African origin of HTLV-1 in Brazil. The risk of hyperendemicity in these epidemiologically closed populations and transmission to other populations reinforces the importance of public health interventions for HTLV control, including the recognition of the infection among reportable diseases and events. PMID:25651320

  3. A cross-sectional study of the prevalence of foot lesions in post-weaning pigs and risks associated with floor type on commercial farms in England.

    PubMed

    Gillman, C E; KilBride, A L; Ossent, P; Green, L E

    2009-10-01

    We carried out a cross-sectional study during 2003 and 2004 to establish the prevalence and risk factors associated with floor type for commonly observed foot lesions in pigs aged 6, 8 and 14 weeks. The overall prevalence of foot lesions was 39.6% in 2283 pigs from 90 representative pig farms in England. The most prevalent lesions were heel/sole bruising (7.1%), heel/sole erosion (10.8%), heel flaps (8.4%) and toe erosion (11.6%). Pigs were kept on either solid (41%), partly slatted (28%) or fully slatted (31%) floors. Of the 104 pens with a solid floor, 26% of pens were outside with straw bedding on a soil base, 33% were indoors with deep bedding on solid concrete, 25% were partly deeply bedded on solid concrete and 16% were sparsely bedded on solid concrete. Only six of the pens with partly slatted floors were bedded. Multilevel logistic-regression models were built using data from 100 farms to examine the risks for individual foot lesions with prevalences >5%. The prevalence of toe erosions was positively associated with deep bedding, whereas deep bedding and soil floors were negatively associated with the prevalence of heel/sole erosions. Heel flaps and heel/sole bruising were both associated with slatted floors, possibly indicating a common aetiology. The greatest reduction in prevalence of all these lesions, from AFp calculations, would be achieved by moving pigs from slatted floors onto solid floors.

  4. A Population-based Habitable Zone Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zsom, Andras

    2015-11-01

    What can we tell about exoplanet habitability if currently only the stellar properties, planet radius, and the incoming stellar flux are known? A planet is in the habitable zone (HZ) if it harbors liquid water on its surface. The HZ is traditionally conceived as a sharp region around stars because it is calculated for one planet with specific properties. Such an approach is limiting because the planet’s atmospheric and geophysical properties, which influence the presence of liquid water on the surface, are currently unknown but expected to be diverse. A statistical HZ description is outlined that does not favor one planet type. Instead, the stellar and planet properties are treated as random variables, and a continuous range of planet scenarios is considered. Various probability density functions are assigned to each random variable, and a combination of Monte Carlo sampling and climate modeling is used to generate synthetic exoplanet populations with known surface climates. Then, the properties of the subpopulation bearing liquid water is analyzed. Given our current observational knowledge, the HZ takes the form of a weakly constrained but smooth probability function. The HZ has an inner edge, but a clear outer edge is not seen. Currently only optimistic upper limits can be derived for the potentially observable HZ occurrence rate. Finally, we illustrate through an example how future data on exoplanet atmospheres will help to narrow down the probability that an exoplanet harbors liquid water, and we identify the greatest observational challenge in the way of finding a habitable exoplanet.

  5. Prescription of opioids for breathlessness in end-stage COPD: a national population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Zainab; Bernelid, Eva; Currow, David C; Ekström, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Background Low-dose opioids can relieve breathlessness but may be underused in late-stage COPD due to fear of complications, contributing to poor symptom control. Objectives We aimed to study the period prevalence and indications of opioids actually prescribed in people with end-stage COPD. Methods The study was a longitudinal, population-based study of patients starting long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) for COPD between October 1, 2005 and June 30, 2009 in Sweden. A random sample (n=2,000) of their dispensed opioid prescriptions was obtained from the national Prescribed Drugs Register from 91 days before starting LTOT until the first of LTOT withdrawal, death, or study end (December 31, 2009). We analyzed medication type, dispensed quantity, date of dispensing, and indications categorized as pain, breathlessness, other, or unknown. Results In total, 2,249 COPD patients (59% women) were included. During a median follow-up of 1.1 (interquartile range 0.6–2.0) years, 1,034 patients (46%) were dispensed ≥1 opioid prescription (N=13,722 prescriptions). The most frequently prescribed opioids were tramadol (23%), oxycodone (23%), morphine (16%), and codeine (16%). Average dispensed quantity was 9.3 (interquartile range 3.7–16.7) defined daily doses per prescription. In the random sample, the most commonly stated indication was pain (97%), with only 2% for breathlessness and 1% for other reasons. Conclusion Despite evidence that supported the use of opioids for the relief of breathlessness predating this study, opioids are rarely prescribed to relieve breathlessness in oxygen-dependent COPD, potentially contributing to less-than-optimal symptom control. This study creates a baseline against which to compare future changes in morphine prescribing in this setting. PMID:27799763

  6. Ecologic analysis of some immune-related disorders, including type 1 diabetes, in Australia: latitude, regional ultraviolet radiation, and disease prevalence.

    PubMed

    Staples, Judith A; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Lim, Lynette L-Y; McMichael, Anthony J

    2003-04-01

    The apparent immune-suppressive effect of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has suggested that this environmental exposure may influence the development of immune-related disorders. Self-reported prevalence rates of type 1 diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), eczema/dermatitis, and asthma, from the 1995 Australian National Health Survey, were therefore examined by latitude and ambient level of UVR. A positive association of type 1 diabetes mellitus prevalence was found with both increasing southern latitude of residence (r = 0.77; p = 0.026) and decreasing regional annual ambient UVR (r= -0.80; p = 0.018); a 3-fold increase in prevalence from the northernmost region to the southernmost region was evident. In contrast, asthma correlated negatively with latitude (r = -0.72; p = 0.046), although the change in asthma prevalence from the north to the south of Australia was only 0.7-fold. For both RA and eczema/dermatitis, there were no statistically significant associations between latitude/UVR and disease prevalence. These ecologic data provide some support for a previously proposed beneficial effect of UVR on T-helper 1-mediated autoimmune disorders such as type 1 diabetes. The inverse association of type 1 diabetes prevalence with UVR is consistent with that previously reported for another autoimmune disease, multiple sclerosis, in Australia, and also with type 1 diabetes latitudinal gradients in the Northern Hemisphere. The finding also accords with photoimmunologic evidence of UVR-induced immunosuppression and may suggest a beneficial effect of UVR in reducing the incidence of such autoimmune conditions. In light of this study, analytic epidemiologic studies investigating risk of immune disorders in relation to personal UVR exposure in humans are required. PMID:12676609

  7. Ecologic analysis of some immune-related disorders, including type 1 diabetes, in Australia: latitude, regional ultraviolet radiation, and disease prevalence.

    PubMed

    Staples, Judith A; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Lim, Lynette L-Y; McMichael, Anthony J

    2003-04-01

    The apparent immune-suppressive effect of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has suggested that this environmental exposure may influence the development of immune-related disorders. Self-reported prevalence rates of type 1 diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), eczema/dermatitis, and asthma, from the 1995 Australian National Health Survey, were therefore examined by latitude and ambient level of UVR. A positive association of type 1 diabetes mellitus prevalence was found with both increasing southern latitude of residence (r = 0.77; p = 0.026) and decreasing regional annual ambient UVR (r= -0.80; p = 0.018); a 3-fold increase in prevalence from the northernmost region to the southernmost region was evident. In contrast, asthma correlated negatively with latitude (r = -0.72; p = 0.046), although the change in asthma prevalence from the north to the south of Australia was only 0.7-fold. For both RA and eczema/dermatitis, there were no statistically significant associations between latitude/UVR and disease prevalence. These ecologic data provide some support for a previously proposed beneficial effect of UVR on T-helper 1-mediated autoimmune disorders such as type 1 diabetes. The inverse association of type 1 diabetes prevalence with UVR is consistent with that previously reported for another autoimmune disease, multiple sclerosis, in Australia, and also with type 1 diabetes latitudinal gradients in the Northern Hemisphere. The finding also accords with photoimmunologic evidence of UVR-induced immunosuppression and may suggest a beneficial effect of UVR in reducing the incidence of such autoimmune conditions. In light of this study, analytic epidemiologic studies investigating risk of immune disorders in relation to personal UVR exposure in humans are required.

  8. Prevalence of three campylobacter species, C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari, using multilocus sequence typing in wild birds of the Mid-Atlantic region, USA.

    PubMed

    Keller, Judith I; Shriver, W Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is responsible for the majority of bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis in the US, usually due to the consumption of undercooked poultry. Research on which avian species transmit the bacterium is limited, especially in the US. We sampled wild birds in three families-Anatidae, Scolopacidae, and Laridae-in eastern North America to determine the prevalence and specific strains of Campylobacter. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was 9.2% for all wild birds sampled (n = 781). Campylobacter jejuni was the most prevalent species (8.1%), while Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter lari prevalence estimates were low (1.4% and 0.3%, respectively). We used multilocus sequence typing PCR specific to C. jejuni to characterize clonal complexes and sequence types isolated from wild bird samples and detected 13 novel sequence types, along with a clonal complex previously only associated with human disease (ST-658). Wild birds share an increasing amount of habitat with humans as more landscapes become fragmented and developed for human needs. Wild birds are and will remain an important aspect of public health due to their ability to carry and disperse emerging zoonotic pathogens or their arthropod vectors. As basic information such as prevalence is limited or lacking from a majority of wild birds in the US, this study provides further insight into Campylobacter epidemiology, host preference, and strain characterization of C. jejuni.

  9. Can MLVA Differentiate among Endemic-Like MRSA Isolates with Identical Spa-Type in a Low-Prevalence Region?

    PubMed Central

    Blomfeldt, Anita; Hasan, Abdullahi Abdi; Aamot, Hege Vangstein

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Norway is low, but an endemic-like MRSA clone with Staphylococcal protein A (spa)-type t304 has been established especially in nursing homes in the Oslo region causing several large outbreaks. The challenge was that spa-typing and the gold standard Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) were inadequate in discriminating isolates in outbreak investigations. Additional higher resolution genotyping methods were needed. The aims of this study were a) to evaluate whether Multiple-Locus Variable number of tandem repeat Analysis (MLVA) could differentiate within the PFGE clusters between epidemiologically related and unrelated endemic-like ST8-MRSA-IV-t304-PVL-neg (MRSA-t304) isolates and b) investigate the evolution of the endemic-like MRSA-t304 clone over a 15-year time period. All MRSA-t304 isolates detected in the region from 1998 through April 2013 were included. In total, 194 of 197 isolates were available for PFGE and MLVA analyses. PFGE results on isolates from 1998–2010 have been published previously. Two PFGE clusters subdivided into eight MLVA types were detected. One major outbreak clone (PFGE cluster C2/ MLVA type MT5045) appeared from 2004 to 2011 causing long-lasting and large outbreaks in seven nursing homes and one hospital. Five new MLVA types (N = 9 isolates) differing in only one VNTR compared to the outbreak clone C2/MT5045 were detected, but only one (C2/MT5044) was seen after 2011. We suggest that MLVA can replace PFGE analysis, but MLVA may not be the optimal method in this setting as it did not discriminate between all epidemiologically unrelated isolates. The results may indicate that all eight outbreaks in different locations within the PFGE C2 cluster may be branches of one large regional outbreak. The major outbreak strain C2/MT5045 may now, however, be under control, extinguished or has moved geographically. PMID:26859765

  10. Human papillomavirus infections in Mexican women with normal cytology, precancerous lesions, and cervical cancer: type-specific prevalence and HPV coinfections.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Vallejo-Ruiz, Verónica; Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I; Salgado-Bernabé, Manuel Eduardo; Ramos-González, Norma Patricia; Ortega-Cervantes, Laura; Arias-Flores, Rafael; Medina-Díaz, Irma M; Hernández-Garza, Fernando; Santos-López, Gerardo; Piña-Sánchez, Patricia

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence and genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) provides the basis for designing HPV prevention programs. The prevalence rates of type-specific HPV and coinfections in samples of Mexican women were investigated in 822 women aged 18-87 years. HPV detection was performed using a Linear Array™ genotyping test. HPV infection was found in 12.4% of controls, 46.3% of those with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1, and 100% of those with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 or cervical cancer. HPV 16 was the most prevalent type in all diagnosis groups. The HPV types most frequently found in cervical cancers were 16, 18, 45, 52, 58, and 39; HPV types 16, 62, 51, 84, 18, 53, and CP6108 were the most prevalent in control women. Considering HPV-positive samples only, coinfections occurred most often in controls (63%) and were less frequent in those with cervical cancer (26%). The most frequent viral types in coinfections with HPV 16 in control women were HPV 62, 51, and 84; in women with cervical cancers, HPV 18, 39, and 70 were most common. In conclusion, in addition to HPV types 16 and 18, types 45, 39, 58, 52, and 71 were found in cervical cancers in Mexican women (78%); among them, only 65% were attributable to HPV types 16 and 18. Therefore, it is necessary to consider these viral types in the design of new vaccines, and to determine whether certain HPV types coinfecting with HPV 16 in precursor lesions determine tumor progression or regression.

  11. Associations of childhood adversity and adulthood trauma with C-reactive protein: A cross-sectional population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Joy E; Neylan, Thomas C; Epel, Elissa; O'Donovan, Aoife

    2016-03-01

    Mounting evidence highlights specific forms of psychological stress as risk factors for ill health. Particularly strong evidence indicates that childhood adversity and adulthood trauma exposure increase risk for physical and psychiatric disorders, and there is emerging evidence that inflammation may play a key role in these relationships. In a population-based sample from the Health and Retirement Study (n=11,198, mean age 69 ± 10), we examine whether childhood adversity, adulthood trauma, and the interaction between them are associated with elevated levels of the systemic inflammatory marker high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). All models were adjusted for age, gender, race, education, and year of data collection, as well as other possible confounds in follow-up sensitivity analyses. In our sample, 67% of individuals had experienced at least one traumatic event during adulthood, and those with childhood adversity were almost three times as likely to have experienced trauma as an adult. Childhood adversities and adulthood traumas were independently associated with elevated levels of hsCRP (β=0.03, p=0.01 and β=0.05, p<0.001, respectively). Those who had experienced both types of stress had higher levels of hsCRP than those with adulthood trauma alone, Estimate=-0.06, 95% CI [-0.003, -0.12], p=0.04, but not compared to those with childhood adversity alone, Estimate=-0.06, 95% CI [0.03, -0.16], p=0.19. There was no interaction between childhood and adulthood trauma exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine adulthood trauma exposure and inflammation in a large population-based sample, and the first to explore the interaction of childhood adversity and adulthood trauma with inflammation. Our study demonstrates the prevalence of trauma-related inflammation in the general population and suggests that childhood adversity and adulthood trauma are independently associated with elevated inflammation. PMID:26616398

  12. Environmental Factors Influencing the Prevalence of a Clostridium botulinum Type C/D Mosaic Strain in Nonpermanent Mediterranean Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Anza, Ibone; Taggart, Mark A.; Pérez-Ramírez, Elisa; Crespo, Elena; Hofle, Ursula; Mateo, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Between 1978 and 2008, 13 avian botulism outbreaks were recorded in the wetlands of Mancha Húmeda (central Spain). These outbreaks caused the deaths of around 20,000 birds from over 50 species, including globally endangered white-headed ducks (Oxyura leucoceophala). Here, a significant association was found between the number of dead birds recorded in each botulism outbreak and the mean temperature in July (always >26°C). The presence of Clostridium botulinum type C/D in wetland sediments was detected by real-time PCR (quantitative PCR [qPCR]) in 5.8% of 207 samples collected between 2005 and 2008. Low concentrations of Cl− and high organic matter content in sediments were significantly associated with the presence of C. botulinum. Seventy-five digestive tracts of birds found dead during botulism outbreaks were analyzed; C. botulinum was present in 38.7% of them. The prevalence of C. botulinum was 18.2% (n = 22 pools) in aquatic invertebrates (Chironomidae and Corixidae families) and 33.3% (n = 18 pools) in necrophagous invertebrates (Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae families), including two pools of adult necrophagous flies collected around bird carcasses. The presence of the bacteria in the adult fly form opens up new perspectives in the epidemiology of avian botulism, since these flies may be transporting C. botulinum from one carcass to another. PMID:23645197

  13. Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment in Recently Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Patients: Are Chronic Inflammatory Diseases Responsible for Cognitive Decline?

    PubMed Central

    Lavielle, Pilar; Talavera, Juan O.; Reynoso, Nancy; González, Marissa; Gómez-Díaz, Rita A.; Cruz, Miguel; Vázquez, Felipe; Wacher, Niels H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence of cognitive impairment (CI) among patients recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (RDD) and to identify any relationships between CI and RDD comorbidities. Methods: One thousand seven hundred twelve patients with RDD participated in a cross-sectional study. The patients’ sociodemographic and clinical data were registered. Results The sample population had an average age of 51 ± 11 years, and 63.26% of the patients were female. CI was diagnosed in 38 patients (2.2%) and was more common among both females (2.8% vs. 1.3%, p = 0.063) and the elderly (0% at an age ≤ 30 years vs. 10.4% at an age > 70 years, p = 0.0001). Rheumatoid arthritis (present in 15.8% vs. absent in 2.1%) and asthma (13% vs. 2.1%) correlated significantly with CI based on the results of our logistic regression analysis. Conclusion Age, female gender, rheumatoid arthritis and asthma are risk factors for CI in the setting of RDD. PMID:26517541

  14. Prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV), distribution of HPV types, and risk factors for infection in HPV-positive women.

    PubMed

    Santos Filho, M V C; Gurgel, A P A D; Lobo, C D P; Freitas, A C F; Silva-Neto, J C; Silva, L A F

    2016-07-14

    The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV), the distribution of different HPV types, and the putative risk factors for infection among HPV-positive women from the State of Alagoas, Northeast Brazil. We analyzed data from 515 patients attending public and private health centers. HPV DNA from cervical samples was extracted and HPV genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction using MY09/11 consensus primers followed by direct sequencing. The chi-squared test for independence was used to assess statistical differences between the HPV groups. HPV DNA was found in 111 (21.55%) cervical samples. Twenty genotypes were detected: HPV6, 11, 16, 31, 33, 35, 39, 52, 53, 54, 58, 61, 62, 66, 70, 72, 81, 82, 83, and 84. In addition, multiple sexual partners (P = 0.002) and the use of oral contraceptives (P = 0.015) were associated with the presence of HPV. These findings may be relevant to the design of screening and vaccination strategies targeting specific groups of women in Northeast Brazil.

  15. Prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV), distribution of HPV types, and risk factors for infection in HPV-positive women.

    PubMed

    Santos Filho, M V C; Gurgel, A P A D; Lobo, C D P; Freitas, A C F; Silva-Neto, J C; Silva, L A F

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV), the distribution of different HPV types, and the putative risk factors for infection among HPV-positive women from the State of Alagoas, Northeast Brazil. We analyzed data from 515 patients attending public and private health centers. HPV DNA from cervical samples was extracted and HPV genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction using MY09/11 consensus primers followed by direct sequencing. The chi-squared test for independence was used to assess statistical differences between the HPV groups. HPV DNA was found in 111 (21.55%) cervical samples. Twenty genotypes were detected: HPV6, 11, 16, 31, 33, 35, 39, 52, 53, 54, 58, 61, 62, 66, 70, 72, 81, 82, 83, and 84. In addition, multiple sexual partners (P = 0.002) and the use of oral contraceptives (P = 0.015) were associated with the presence of HPV. These findings may be relevant to the design of screening and vaccination strategies targeting specific groups of women in Northeast Brazil. PMID:27421019

  16. Unique sleep disorders profile of a population-based sample of 747 Hmong immigrants in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Young, Eric; Xiong, Se; Finn, Laurel; Young, Terry

    2013-02-01

    Concerns regarding sleep disorders in Hmong immigrants in the US emerged when an astonishingly high mortality rate of Sudden Unexplained Nocturnal Death Syndrome (SUNDS) was documented in Hmong men. Stress, genetics, and cardiac abnormalities interacting with disordered sleep were hypothesized as contributing factors to SUNDS. Most recently, sleep apnea has been implicated in nighttime deaths of Brugada Syndrome. This syndrome is thought to comprise a spectrum of sudden cardiac death disorders, including SUNDS. However, little research since has placed SUNDS in its context of Hmong cultural beliefs, health, or the prevalence of other sleep disorders. Because the epidemiology of sleep disorders and terrifying nighttime experiences in Hmong is poorly documented, we investigated the prevalence and correlates of sleep apnea, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep stage related disorders, and insomnia in 3 population-based samples (collected from 1996 to 2001) comprising 747 Hmong immigrants in Wisconsin. Participants were questioned on sleep problems, cultural beliefs, health, and other factors. A random subsample (n = 37) underwent in-home polysomnography to investigate sleep apnea prevalence. Self-report and laboratory findings were compared with similarly collected data from the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort (WSC) study (n = 1170), a population-based longitudinal study of sleep. The results inform a unique Hmong sleep disorder profile of a high prevalence of sleep apnea, sleep paralysis, and other REM-related sleep abnormalities as well the interaction of culturally related nighttime stressors with these sleep problems. For example, experiences of dab tsog (frightening night spirit pressing on chest) was prevalent and related to sleep apnea indicators, sleep paralysis, nightmares, hypnogogic hallucinations, and insomnia. Understanding the role of sleep disorders and the cultural mechanisms that may trigger or condition response to them could ultimately provide a basis for

  17. Juvenile Huntington's disease: a population-based study using the General Practice Research Database

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Ian; Evans, Stephen; Rawlins, Michael D; Smeeth, Liam; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Wexler, Nancy S

    2013-01-01

    Background The juvenile form of Huntington's disease (HD) is a rare disorder. There are no population-based estimates of either its incidence or prevalence in any population in the world. The present study was undertaken to estimate the frequency of juvenile HD in the UK and to examine the range of pharmacological treatments used in its management. Method The records of individuals under the age of 21 who had recorded diagnoses of HD were retrieved from the General Practice Research Database from 1990 through 2010. From these data estimates of incidence and prevalence were made as well as the specific treatments used in the treatment of its physical and psychological manifestations. Results 12 incident and 21 prevalent patients with juvenile HD were identified. The 21 prevalent cases included the 12 incident cases. The minimum population-based estimate of incidence is 0.70 (95% CI 0.36 to 1.22) per million patient-years. The minimum estimate of prevalence is 6.77/million (95% CI 5.60 to 8.12) per million patient-years. Patients were most frequently prescribed antidepressants, hypnotics, antipsychotics and treatments for motor abnormalities. Conclusions In the UK, juvenile HD is an extremely rare and complex disorder. The prescribing data demonstrate that the clinical management of juvenile HD is undertaken with no formal evidence base for the efficacy or safety of the treatments used. Research into the safety and efficacy of appropriate therapies is urgently required to offset the haphazard nature of prescribing. Multinational collaboration will be necessary to enrol sufficient numbers. Exploratory studies, though, should begin now. PMID:23558730

  18. Unique sleep disorders profile of a population-based sample of 747 Hmong immigrants in Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Young, Eric; Xiong, Se; Finn, Laurel; Young, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Concerns regarding sleep disorders in Hmong immigrants in the US emerged when an astonishingly high mortality rate of Sudden Unexplained Nocturnal Death Syndrome (SUNDS) was documented in Hmong men. Stress, genetics, and cardiac abnormalities interacting with disordered sleep were hypothesized as contributing factors to SUNDS. Most recently, sleep apnea has been implicated in nighttime deaths of Brugada Syndrome. This syndrome is thought to comprise a spectrum of sudden cardiac death disorders, including SUNDS. However, little research since has placed SUNDS in its context of Hmong cultural beliefs, health, or the prevalence of other sleep disorders. Because the epidemiology of sleep disorders and terrifying nighttime experiences in Hmong is poorly documented, we investigated the prevalence and correlates of sleep apnea, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep stage related disorders, and insomnia in 3 population-based samples (collected from 1996 to 2001) comprising 747 Hmong immigrants in Wisconsin. Participants were questioned on sleep problems, cultural beliefs, health, and other factors. A random subsample (n = 37) underwent in-home polysomnography to investigate sleep apnea prevalence. Self-report and laboratory findings were compared with similarly collected data from the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort (WSC) study (n = 1170), a population-based longitudinal study of sleep. The results inform a unique Hmong sleep disorder profile of a high prevalence of sleep apnea, sleep paralysis, and other REM-related sleep abnormalities as well the interaction of culturally related nighttime stressors with these sleep problems. For example, experiences of dab tsog (frightening night spirit pressing on chest) was prevalent and related to sleep apnea indicators, sleep paralysis, nightmares, hypnogogic hallucinations, and insomnia. Understanding the role of sleep disorders and the cultural mechanisms that may trigger or condition response to them could ultimately provide a basis for

  19. Unique sleep disorders profile of a population-based sample of 747 Hmong immigrants in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Young, Eric; Xiong, Se; Finn, Laurel; Young, Terry

    2013-02-01

    Concerns regarding sleep disorders in Hmong immigrants in the US emerged when an astonishingly high mortality rate of Sudden Unexplained Nocturnal Death Syndrome (SUNDS) was documented in Hmong men. Stress, genetics, and cardiac abnormalities interacting with disordered sleep were hypothesized as contributing factors to SUNDS. Most recently, sleep apnea has been implicated in nighttime deaths of Brugada Syndrome. This syndrome is thought to comprise a spectrum of sudden cardiac death disorders, including SUNDS. However, little research since has placed SUNDS in its context of Hmong cultural beliefs, health, or the prevalence of other sleep disorders. Because the epidemiology of sleep disorders and terrifying nighttime experiences in Hmong is poorly documented, we investigated the prevalence and correlates of sleep apnea, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep stage related disorders, and insomnia in 3 population-based samples (collected from 1996 to 2001) comprising 747 Hmong immigrants in Wisconsin. Participants were questioned on sleep problems, cultural beliefs, health, and other factors. A random subsample (n = 37) underwent in-home polysomnography to investigate sleep apnea prevalence. Self-report and laboratory findings were compared with similarly collected data from the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort (WSC) study (n = 1170), a population-based longitudinal study of sleep. The results inform a unique Hmong sleep disorder profile of a high prevalence of sleep apnea, sleep paralysis, and other REM-related sleep abnormalities as well the interaction of culturally related nighttime stressors with these sleep problems. For example, experiences of dab tsog (frightening night spirit pressing on chest) was prevalent and related to sleep apnea indicators, sleep paralysis, nightmares, hypnogogic hallucinations, and insomnia. Understanding the role of sleep disorders and the cultural mechanisms that may trigger or condition response to them could ultimately provide a basis for

  20. Silverstein and WFB Prevalence of and Disparities in Barriers to Care Experienced by Youth with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, Jessica M.; Seid, Michael; Waitzfelder, Beth; Anderson, Andrea M.; Beavers, Daniel P.; Dabelea, Dana M.; Dolan, Lawrence M.; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Marcovina, Santica; Reynolds, Kristi; Yi-Frazier, Joyce; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence of access and process barriers to health care and to examine their relationship to sociodemographic and disease factors in a large and diverse cohort of US youth with type 1 diabetes. Study design A cross-sectional analysis of 780 youth who participated in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study and were diagnosed with T1DM in 2002-2005. Experience of barriers to care was collected from parent report on questionnaires. Analyses include multivariate regression models to predict the presence of specific barriers to care. Results Overall, 81.7% of participants reported at least one barrier; the three most common were costs (47.5%), communication (43.0%) and getting needed information (48.4%). Problems with access to care, not having a regular provider, and receiving contextual care (care that takes into account personal and family context) were associated with poorer glycated hemoglobin levels. Adjusted multivariate models indicated that barriers related to access (regular provider, cost) were most likely for youth with low family income and those without public health insurance. Barriers associated with the processes of quality care (contextual care, communication) were more likely for Hispanic youth and those whose parents had less education. Conclusions This study indicates that a large proportion of youth with type 1 diabetes experience substantial barriers to care. Barriers to access and those associated with processes of quality care differed by sociodemographic characteristics. Future investigators should expand knowledge of the systemic processes that lead to disparate outcomes for some youth with diabetes and assess potential solutions. PMID:24582008

  1. Pre-vaccination prevalence of infections with 25 non-high-risk human papillomavirus types among 1,000 Slovenian women in cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Učakar, Veronika; Poljak, Mario; Oštrbenk, Anja; Klavs, Irena

    2014-10-01

    Cervical infections with non-high-risk human papillomavirus (non-HR-HPV) types have been associated with genital warts and a fraction of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. The pre-vaccination prevalence of cervical infections with 25 non-HR-HPV types has been estimated, regardless of and without the coexistence of infection with HR-HPV types among Slovenian women 20-64 years old in cervical cancer screening, overall and according to age and cytology result. One thousand cervical specimens selected randomly from 4,455 specimens collected in 2010 in the Slovenian HPV prevalence survey were tested with Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test. Prevalence of cervical infections with any of the 25 non-HR-HPV types was 10.0% (95% CI: 8.1-11.9%) and with exclusively non-HR-HPV types 4.5% (95% CI: 3.2-5.8%). Prevalence of infections with any non-HR-HPV types among women with normal cytology was 8.8%, with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance 30.4%, with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions 60.0%, and with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions 7.7%. Non-HR-HPV types without coexisting HR-HPV types were found in 4.0% of women with normal cytology, 26.1% with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, 6.7% with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and none with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Non-HR-HPV type cervical infections without coexisting HR-HPV infections were common among Slovenian women in cervical cancer screening with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, while rare in those with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or worse. J. Med. Virol. 86: 1772-1779, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. High prevalence of Babesia microti 'Munich' type in small mammals from an Ixodes persulcatus/Ixodes trianguliceps sympatric area in the Omsk region, Russia.

    PubMed

    Rar, Vera; Yakimenko, Valeriy; Makenov, Marat; Tikunov, Artem; Epikhina, Tamara; Tancev, Aleksey; Bobrova, Oksana; Tikunova, Nina

    2016-09-01

    Babesia microti is a genetically diverse group of protozoan parasites whose life cycle is associated with both small mammals and Ixodes spp. ticks. In this study, the prevalence of different B. microti genetic groups in ticks and small rodents in an area with Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes trianguliceps occurring in sympatry was examined. A total of 541 small mammals were captured during eight sampling periods between 2013 and 2015 at a site in the Omsk region of Russia and tested for the presence of B. microti using nested PCR with subsequent sequencing of positive samples. B. microti DNA was found in 31.6 % of examined samples, and prevalence rates ranged from 5.3 to 61.6 % in different sampling periods. The sequenced B. microti samples belonged to two genetic groups: enzootic B. microti 'Munich' type and zoonotic B. microti 'US' type. B. microti 'Munich' type was more common across all sampling periods, with greater than 80 % prevalence in infected animals. Despite the high B. microti 'Munich'-type prevalence in voles, B. microti was not found in any of 394 adult I. persulcatus ticks collected by flagging or in the 84 I. persulcatus or 20 I. trianguliceps ticks taken from voles and molted under laboratory conditions. It was demonstrated that B. microti 'Munich'-type DNA can be detected in the blood of naturally infected voles for at least 20 weeks after capture. Thus, the high prevalence of B. microti 'Munich' type in small mammals may be explained by the prolonged persistence of B. microti in the blood of wild voles. PMID:27212463

  3. Disparities in type 2 diabetes prevalence among ethnic minority groups resident in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Meeks, Karlijn A C; Freitas-Da-Silva, Deivisson; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Beune, Erik J A J; Modesti, Pietro A; Stronks, Karien; Zafarmand, Mohammad H; Agyemang, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Many ethnic minorities in Europe have a higher type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence than their host European populations. The risk size differs between ethnic groups, but the extent of the differences in the various ethnic minority groups has not yet been systematically quantified. We conducted a meta-analysis of published data on T2D in various ethnic minority populations resident in Europe compared to their host European populations. We systematically searched MEDLINE (using PUBMED) and EMBASE for papers on T2D prevalence in ethnic minorities in Europe published between 1994 and 2014. The ethnic minority groups were classified into five population groups by geographical origin: South Asian (SA), Sub-Saharan African (SSA), Middle Eastern and North African (MENA), South and Central American (SCA), and Western Pacific (WP). Pooled odds ratios with corresponding 95 % confidence interval (CI) were calculated using Review Manager 5.3. Twenty articles were included in the analysis. Compared with the host populations, SA origin populations had the highest odds for T2D (3.7, 95 % CI 2.7-5.1), followed by MENA (2.7, 95 % CI 1.8-3.9), SSA (2.6, 95 % CI 2.0-3.5), WP (2.3, 95 % CI 1.2-4.1), and lastly SCA (1.3, 95 % CI 1.1-1.6). Odds ratios were in all ethnic minority populations higher for women than for men except for SCA. Among SA subgroups, compared with Europeans, Bangladeshi had the highest odds ratio of 6.2 (95 % CI 3.9-9.8), followed by Pakistani (5.4, 95 % CI 3.2-9.3) and Indians (4.1, 95 % CI 3.0-5.7). The risk of T2D among ethnic minority groups living in Europe compared to Europeans varies by geographical origin of the group: three to five times higher among SA, two to four times higher among MENA, and two to three times higher among SSA origin. Future research and policy initiatives on T2D among ethnic minority groups should take the interethnic differences into account.

  4. Influence of Type 2 Diabetes on Prevalence of Key Periodontal Pathogens, Salivary Matrix Metalloproteinases, and Bone Remodeling Markers in Sudanese Adults with and without Chronic Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Hasaan Gassim; Idris, Shaza Bushra; Mustafa, Manal; Ahmed, Mutaz Faisal; Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug; Mustafa, Kamal; Ibrahim, Salah Osman

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the influence of type 2 diabetes on the occurrence of six periodontal pathogens in plaque samples of patients with and without chronic periodontitis. Levels of salivary MMP-8, MMP-9, RANKL, and OPG were also investigated. The study enrolled 31 patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis (DM + CP), 29 with chronic periodontitis (CP), and 20 with type 2 diabetes (DM). Questionnaire-guided interviews were conducted and plaque index, bleeding on probing, and pocket depth were recorded. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was utilized to determine the prevalence of the bacteria. The levels of salivary molecules were determined by enzyme immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The CP group had the highest prevalence of P. gingivalis (81.5%), followed by the DM + CP (59.3%) and DM (55.0%) groups (P > 0.05). Similar trends were observed for P. intermedia and T. denticola. The prevalence of T. forsythia was 100% in both periodontitis groups compared to 90% in the DM group. There were no significant differences between the groups regarding the concentrations of MMP-8, MMP-9, or OPG. RANKL concentrations were below the detection limit. Our data show that type 2 diabetes has no significant influence on the prevalence of the investigated periodontal pathogens, or the levels of salivary MMP-8, MMP-9, and OPG. PMID:26989414

  5. Influence of Type 2 Diabetes on Prevalence of Key Periodontal Pathogens, Salivary Matrix Metalloproteinases, and Bone Remodeling Markers in Sudanese Adults with and without Chronic Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Hasaan Gassim; Idris, Shaza Bushra; Mustafa, Manal; Ahmed, Mutaz Faisal; Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug; Mustafa, Kamal; Ibrahim, Salah Osman

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the influence of type 2 diabetes on the occurrence of six periodontal pathogens in plaque samples of patients with and without chronic periodontitis. Levels of salivary MMP-8, MMP-9, RANKL, and OPG were also investigated. The study enrolled 31 patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis (DM + CP), 29 with chronic periodontitis (CP), and 20 with type 2 diabetes (DM). Questionnaire-guided interviews were conducted and plaque index, bleeding on probing, and pocket depth were recorded. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was utilized to determine the prevalence of the bacteria. The levels of salivary molecules were determined by enzyme immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The CP group had the highest prevalence of P. gingivalis (81.5%), followed by the DM + CP (59.3%) and DM (55.0%) groups (P > 0.05). Similar trends were observed for P. intermedia and T. denticola. The prevalence of T. forsythia was 100% in both periodontitis groups compared to 90% in the DM group. There were no significant differences between the groups regarding the concentrations of MMP-8, MMP-9, or OPG. RANKL concentrations were below the detection limit. Our data show that type 2 diabetes has no significant influence on the prevalence of the investigated periodontal pathogens, or the levels of salivary MMP-8, MMP-9, and OPG. PMID:26989414

  6. High HDL-C prevalence is common in type 1 diabetes and increases with age but is lower in Hispanic individuals.

    PubMed

    Alessa, Thamer; Szeto, Angela; Chacra, Walid; Mendez, Armando; Goldberg, Ronald B

    2015-01-01

    High HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) based on the 85th percentile of the 2009-2010 National Health and Education Survey (NHANES) was present in more than a third of 194 unselected subjects with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Age was associated with an increase and Hispanic ethnicity with a decrease in the prevalence of high HDL-C.

  7. Human Papillomavirus - Prevalence of High-Risk and Low-Risk Types among Females Aged 14-59 Years, National Health and ...

    MedlinePlus

    ... Archive Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Figure 45. Human Papillomavirus — Prevalence of High-risk and Low-risk Types Among Females Aged 14 – 59 Years, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003 – 2006 Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  8. Estimating and modeling the cure fraction in population-based cancer survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Paul C; Thompson, John R; Weston, Claire L; Dickman, Paul W

    2007-07-01

    In population-based cancer studies, cure is said to occur when the mortality (hazard) rate in the diseased group of individuals returns to the same level as that expected in the general population. The cure fraction (the proportion of patients cured of disease) is of interest to patients and is a useful measure to monitor trends in survival of curable disease. There are 2 main types of cure fraction model, the mixture cure fraction model and the non-mixture cure fraction model, with most previous work concentrating on the mixture cure fraction model. In this paper, we extend the parametric non-mixture cure fraction model to incorporate background mortality, thus providing estimates of the cure fraction in population-based cancer studies. We compare the estimates of relative survival and the cure fraction between the 2 types of model and also investigate the importance of modeling the ancillary parameters in the selected parametric distribution for both types of model.

  9. High prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) in immigrant male-to-female transsexual sex workers with HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Colasante, Chiara; De Maddalena, Chiara; Bernini, Flavia; Savasi, Valeria; Persico, Tiziana; Merli, Stefania; Ridolfo, Annalisa; Santambrogio, Sara; Moroni, Mauro; Galli, Massimo

    2004-10-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) infections in Europe are limited to intravenous drug users and migrants coming from areas in which they are endemic. A survey was undertaken of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infections in 393 recent immigrants: 167 HIV-1 positive subjects (including 52 male-to-female transsexual sex workers) and 226 pregnant HIV-1 negative women. The prevalence of HTLV-1 was 3.6% in the HIV-1 positive group and 0.9% in the HIV-1 negative group. The highest HTLV-1 prevalence in both groups was found in persons from Latin America, particularly those born in Peru (up to 26% in the HIV-1 positive group). All of the HIV-1/HTLV-1 co-infected individuals were male-to-female transsexual sex workers in whom the overall prevalence of HTLV-1 infection was 11.5%. HTLV-2 was only found in the HIV-1 positive group (prevalence 1.2%); all of the infected subjects were transsexual sex workers from Brazil (overall prevalence 6.4%). Phylogenetic analysis showed that all of the HTLV-1 isolates were of the cosmopolitan type, clustering with other strains circulating in the patients' birthplaces; the HTLV-2 isolates were of subtype 2a, and clustered significantly with other Brazilian strains. These results suggest the independent origin of each infection in the patient's birthplace. The data raise concerns about the further spread of HTLV infections mainly through the sexual route.

  10. Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in the States of The Co-Operation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Alhyas, Layla; McKay, Ailsa; Majeed, Azeem

    2012-01-01

    Aims The recent and ongoing worldwide expansion in prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM) is a considerable risk to individuals, health systems and economies. The increase in prevalence has been particularly marked in the states of the Co-operation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC), and these trends are set to continue. We aimed to systematically review the current prevalence of T2DM within these states, and also within particular sub-populations. Methods We identified 27 published studies for review. Studies were identified by systematic database searches. Medline and Embase were searched using terms such as diabetes mellitus, non-insulin-dependent, hyperglycemia, prevalence, epidemiology and Gulf States. Our search also included scanning reference lists, contacting experts and hand-searching key journals. Studies were judged against pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria, and where suitable for inclusion, data extraction and quality assessment was achieved using a specifically-designed tool. All studies where prevalence of diabetes was investigated were eligible for inclusion. The inclusion criteria required that the study population be of a GCC country, but otherwise all ages, sexes and ethnicities were included, resident and migrant populations, urban and rural, of all socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. No limitations on publication type, publication status, study design or language of publication were imposed. However, we did not include secondary reports of data, such as review articles without novel data synthesis. Conclusions The prevalence ofT2DM is an increasing problem for all GCC states. They may therefore benefit to a relatively high degree from co-ordinated implementation of broadly consistent management strategies. Further study of prevalence in children and in national versus expatriate populations would also be useful. PMID:22905094

  11. Study of the effect of vitamin D supplementation on glycemic control in type 2 diabetic prevalent hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Sarhan, Iman I; Halawa, Mohamed R; Afify, Essam N; Hebah, Hayam A; Al-Gohary, Eman A; El-Shazly, Islam O

    2015-10-01

    Vitamin D is claimed to have an adjuvant effect on glycemic control by dual action on pancreatic β-cells and insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to assess the possible effect of short-term alfacalcidol supply on glycemic control in type 2 diabetic hemodialysis (HD) patients. Twenty type 2 diabetic HD patients (using diet and oral drugs but not insulin) were randomly selected from our dialysis unit as well as 20 non-diabetic HD patients as control. A third group of 12 healthy subjects were studied as well. All three groups were similar in age, sex, and body mass index. Oral alfacalcidol therapy was administrated daily as recommended by Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) guidelines for 12 weeks guided by monthly serum phosphorus and Cax PO4 product. Corrected total calcium, phosphorus, intact parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25[OH]D), and glucoparameters (fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c%], insulin resistance by homeostatic model assessment, and β-cell function by HOMA-β%) were measured under basal conditions and after 3 months of therapy. 25(OH)D was non-significantly lower in diabetic than non-diabetic HD patients, but significantly lower than healthy subjects at the start of the study. However, vitamin D level increased significantly after 3 months of trial, although the levels did not reach normal values. This vitamin D rise was associated with highly significant improvement in concentrations of fasting blood sugar (FBS), fasting insulin, HbA1c%, and HOMA-β-cell function in diabetic and non-diabetic controls. However, there was a significant rise in insulin resistance after treatment. The percentage of change was evident more in diabetics regarding FBS and 25(OH)D concentration. Adjustment of 25(OH)D level in type 2 diabetic prevalent HD patients may improve, at least with short-term therapy, glycemic control mainly through improving β-cell function. PMID:26448381

  12. Trends in the Prevalence of Depression in Hospitalized Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in Spain: Analysis of Hospital Discharge Data from 2001 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-de-Andrés, Ana; Jiménez-Trujillo, Mª Isabel; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; de Miguel-Yanes, José Mª; Méndez-Bailón, Manuel; Perez-Farinos, Napoleón; de Burgos Lunar, Carmen; Cárdenas-Valladolid, Juan; Salinero-Fort, Miguel Ángel; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aims to describe trends in the prevalence of depression among hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes in Spain, 2001–2011. Methods We selected patients with a discharge diagnosis of type 2 diabetes using national hospital discharge data. Discharges were grouped by depression status. Prevalence of depression globally and according to primary diagnoses based on the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) were analyzed. We calculated length of stay (LOHS) and in-hospital mortality (IHM). Multivariate analysis was adjusted by age, year and comorbidity. Results From 2001 to 2011, 4,723,338 discharges with type 2 diabetes were identified (4.93% with depression). Prevalence of depression in diabetic patients increased from 3.54% in 2001 to 5.80% in 2011 (p<0.05). The prevalence of depression was significantly higher in women than in men in each year studied and increased from 5.22% in 2001 to 9.24% in 2011 (p<0.01). The highest prevalence was observed in the youngest age group (35–59 years). The median LOHS decreased significantly over this period. Men with diabetes and depression had higher IHM than women in all the years studied (p<0.05). Older age and greater comorbidity were significantly associated with a higher risk of dying, among diabetic patients with concomitant depression. Conclusions Prevalence of depression increased significantly among hospitalized diabetic patients from 2001 to 2011 even if the health profile and LOHS have improved over this period. Programs targeted at preventing depression among persons with diabetes should be reinforced in Spain. PMID:25706646

  13. Prevalence of human papilloma virus and human herpes virus types 1-7 in human nasal polyposis.

    PubMed

    Zaravinos, Apostolos; Bizakis, John; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2009-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV), herpes simplex virus-1/-2 (HSV-1/-2), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpes virus-6/-7 (HHV-6/-7) in 23 human nasal polyps by applying PCR. Two types of control tissues were used: adjacent inferior/middle turbinates from the patients and inferior/middle turbinates from 13 patients undergoing nasal corrective surgery. EBV was the virus most frequently detected (35%), followed by HPV (13%), HSV-1 (9%), and CMV (4%). The CMV-positive polyp was simultaneously positive for HSV-1. HPV was also detected in the adjacent turbinates (4%) and the adjacent middle turbinate (4%) of one of the HPV-positive patients. EBV, HSV, and CMV were not detected in the adjacent turbinates of the EBV-, HSV- or CMV-positive patients. All mucosae were negative for the VZV, HHV-6, and HHV-7. This is the first study to deal with the involvement of a comparable group of viruses in human nasal polyposis. The findings support the theory that the presence of viral EBV markedly influences the pathogenesis of these benign nasal tumors. The low incidence of HPV detected confirms the hypothesis that HPV is correlated with infectious mucosal lesions to a lesser extent than it is with proliferative lesions, such as inverted papilloma. The low incidence of HSV-1 and CMV confirms that these two herpes viruses may play a minor role in the development of nasal polyposis. Double infection with HSV-1 and CMV may also play a minor, though causative, role in nasal polyp development. VZV and HHV-6/-7 do not appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of these mucosal lesions.

  14. Prevalence of LuxR- and LuxI-type quorum sensing circuits in members of the Populus deltoides microbiome

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, Amy L; Lappala, Colin; Morlen, Ryan; Pelletier, Dale A; Lu, Tse-Yuan; Lankford, Patricia K; Harwood, Caroline S; Greenberg, E. Peter

    2013-01-01

    We are interested in the root microbiome of the fast-growing Eastern cottonwood tree, Populus 25 deltoides. There is a large bank of bacterial isolates from P. deltoides and there are 44 draft 26 genomes of bacterial endophyte and rhizosphere isolates. As a first step in efforts to understand 27 the roles of bacterial communication and plant-bacterial signaling in P. deltoides we focused on 28 the prevalence of acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum sensing signal production and 29 reception in members of the P. deltoides microbiome. We screened 129 bacterial isolates for 30 AHL production using a broad-spectrum bioassay that responds to many but not all AHLs, and 31 we queried the available genome sequences of microbiome isolates for homologs of AHL 32 synthase and receptor genes. AHL signal production was detected in 40% of 129 strains tested. 33 Positive isolates included -, - and -Proteobacteria. Members of the luxI family of AHL 34 synthases were identified in 18 of 39 Proteobacteria genomes including genomes of some 35 isolates that tested negative in the bioassay. Members of the luxR family of transcription factors, 36 that include AHL-responsive factors, were more abundant than luxI homologs. There were 72 in 37 the 39 Proteobacteria genomes. Some of the luxR homologs appear to be members of a 38 subfamily of LuxRs that respond to as yet unknown plant signals rather than bacterial AHLs. 39 Apparently, there is a substantial capacity for AHL cell-to-cell communication in Proteobacteria 40 of the P. deltoides microbiota and there are also Proteobacteria with LuxR homologs of the type 41 hypothesized to respond to plant signals or cues.

  15. Hand, hip and knee osteoarthritis in a Norwegian population-based study - The MUST protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Knowledge about the prevalence and consequences of osteoarthritis (OA) in the Norwegian population is limited. This study has been designed to gain a greater understanding of musculoskeletal pain in the general population with a focus on clinically and radiologically confirmed OA, as well as risk factors, consequences, and management of OA. Methods/Design The Musculoskeletal pain in Ullensaker STudy (MUST) has been designed as an observational study comprising a population-based postal survey and a comprehensive clinical examination of a sub-sample with self-reported OA (MUST OA cohort). All inhabitants in Ullensaker municipality, Norway, aged 40 to 79 years receive the initial population-based postal survey questionnaire with questions about life style, general health, musculoskeletal pain, self-reported OA, comorbidities, health care utilisation, medication use, and functional ability. Participants who self-report OA in their hip, knee and/or hand joints are asked to attend a comprehensive clinical examination at Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, including a comprehensive medical examination, performance-based functional tests, different imaging modalities, cardiovascular assessment, blood and urine samples, and a number of patient-reported questionnaires including five OA disease specific instruments. Data will be merged with six national data registries. A subsample of those who receive the questionnaire has previously participated in postal surveys conducted in 1990, 1994, and 2004 with data on musculoskeletal pain and functional ability in addition to demographic characteristics and a number of health related factors. This subsample constitutes a population based cohort with 20 years follow-up. Discussion This protocol describes the design of an observational population-based study that will involve the collection of data from a postal survey on musculoskeletal pain, and a comprehensive clinical examination on those with self-reported hand, hip and

  16. Socio-economic indicators and predisposing factors associated with traumatic dental injuries in schoolchildren at Brasília, Brazil: a cross-sectional, population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study assessed the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries (TDI) and its association with sociodemographic and physical characteristics in the anterior permanent teeth of 12-year-old schoolchildren at the city of Brasília – DF, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted on a sample of 1,389 boys and girls aged 12 years, enrolled in public and private fundamental schools at the Administrative Region (RA) of Brasília, Brazil, from October 2011 to September 2012. The demographic details were achieved by a structured questionnaire. The study recorded the type of damage, the size of incisal overjet, and whether lip coverage was inadequate. Sociodemographic data included sex, income and educational level of the parents or caretakers. Results A total of 1118 schoolchildren were examined, yielding a response rate of 80.48%. The prevalence of TDI was 14.63% in public schools and 23.40% in private schools. The students did not differ according to sex, income and educational level of the parents or caretakers concerning the occurrence of traumas in permanent anterior teeth. Increased overjet and inadequate lip coverage were found to be important contributing factors for TDIs. Conclusion In conclusion, this study showed an expressive prevalence of TDI in 12-year-old in schoolchildren at Brasília DF, Brazil. Sex and educational level of the parents were not associated with trauma. The increased overjet and inadequate lip coverage were significantly associated with dental trauma. PMID:25037704

  17. Prevalence and concentration of Escherichia coli O157 in different seasons and cattle types processed in North America: A systematic review and meta-analysis of published research.

    PubMed

    Ekong, Pius S; Sanderson, Michael W; Cernicchiaro, Natalia

    2015-09-01

    Systematic review (SR) and meta-analyses (MA) methodologies were used to identify, critically evaluate and synthesize prevalence and concentration estimates for Escherichia coli O157 contamination along the beef production chain, and to illustrate differences based on cattle types and seasonality in North America from the scientific peer-reviewed literature. Four electronic databases were searched to identify relevant articles. Two independent reviewers performed all SR steps. Random effects MA models were used to estimate the pooled prevalence and concentration of E. coli O157 in feces, hides and carcasses of cattle processed in North America, including their seasonal estimates. The potential sources of between studies heterogeneity were identified using meta-regression and sub-group analysis. Results indicated differences in the fecal prevalence of E. coli O157 among cattle types: 10.68% (95% CI: 9.17-12.28%) in fed beef, 4.65% (95% CI: 3.37-6.10%) in adult beef, and 1.79% (95% CI: 1.20-2.48%) in adult dairy. Fed beef fecal prevalence was 10.65% (95% CI: 8.93-12.49%) during summer and 9.17% (95% CI: 5.24-13.98%) during the winter months. For adult beef, the fecal prevalence was 7.86% (95% CI: 5.43-10.66%) during summer, and 4.21% (95% CI: 1.95-7.13%) during winter. Among adult dairy, the fecal prevalence was 2.27% (95% CI: 1.5-3.18%) during summer, and 0.36% (95% CI: 0.09-0.74%) during winter. There was a significantly higher percentage of hides with E. coli O157 concentration ≥ 40 CFU/100 cm(2) on hides of fed beef sampled at the processing plant (23.81%; 95% CI: 14.79-34.15%) compared to those sampled at the feedlot (1.74%; 95% CI: 0.53-3.44%). Prevalence of E. coli O157 on carcass surfaces differed by season only at the post-evisceration stage, but decreased considerably through the subsequent processing stages. Country, study setting, detection method, hide swab area, and study design were identified as significant sources of heterogeneity among studies

  18. Prevalence and concentration of Escherichia coli O157 in different seasons and cattle types processed in North America: A systematic review and meta-analysis of published research.

    PubMed

    Ekong, Pius S; Sanderson, Michael W; Cernicchiaro, Natalia

    2015-09-01

    Systematic review (SR) and meta-analyses (MA) methodologies were used to identify, critically evaluate and synthesize prevalence and concentration estimates for Escherichia coli O157 contamination along the beef production chain, and to illustrate differences based on cattle types and seasonality in North America from the scientific peer-reviewed literature. Four electronic databases were searched to identify relevant articles. Two independent reviewers performed all SR steps. Random effects MA models were used to estimate the pooled prevalence and concentration of E. coli O157 in feces, hides and carcasses of cattle processed in North America, including their seasonal estimates. The potential sources of between studies heterogeneity were identified using meta-regression and sub-group analysis. Results indicated differences in the fecal prevalence of E. coli O157 among cattle types: 10.68% (95% CI: 9.17-12.28%) in fed beef, 4.65% (95% CI: 3.37-6.10%) in adult beef, and 1.79% (95% CI: 1.20-2.48%) in adult dairy. Fed beef fecal prevalence was 10.65% (95% CI: 8.93-12.49%) during summer and 9.17% (95% CI: 5.24-13.98%) during the winter months. For adult beef, the fecal prevalence was 7.86% (95% CI: 5.43-10.66%) during summer, and 4.21% (95% CI: 1.95-7.13%) during winter. Among adult dairy, the fecal prevalence was 2.27% (95% CI: 1.5-3.18%) during summer, and 0.36% (95% CI: 0.09-0.74%) during winter. There was a significantly higher percentage of hides with E. coli O157 concentration ≥ 40 CFU/100 cm(2) on hides of fed beef sampled at the processing plant (23.81%; 95% CI: 14.79-34.15%) compared to those sampled at the feedlot (1.74%; 95% CI: 0.53-3.44%). Prevalence of E. coli O157 on carcass surfaces differed by season only at the post-evisceration stage, but decreased considerably through the subsequent processing stages. Country, study setting, detection method, hide swab area, and study design were identified as significant sources of heterogeneity among studies

  19. Prevalence of CTX-M-Type and PER Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases Among Klebsiella spp. Isolated From Clinical Specimens in the Teaching Hospital of Kashan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Atena; Firoozeh, Farzaneh; Moniri, Rezvan; Zibaei, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) is one of the most important mechanisms of resistance to β-lactams especially among Enterobacteriaceae family including Klebsiella spp. Different types of extended-spectrum β-lactamases including CTX-M-type and PER enzymes are identified among gram negative bacteria. Objectives: The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of CTX-M-type and PER extended-spectrum β-lactamases among Klebsiella spp. isolated from clinical specimens in the teaching hospital of Kashan, Iran. Patients and Methods: One hundred Klebsiella spp. were isolated from clinical specimens of hospitalized patients at Shahid-Beheshti hospital from December 2012 to November 2013. Disk diffusion method was used to determine the susceptibility of these isolates to 14 different antimicrobial agents; disks were purchased from MAST company (United Kingdom). The phenotypic double disk synergy confirmatory test was used to screen the isolates to produce extended-spectrum β-lactamase. DNAs of isolates were extracted using boiling method and PCR assay was used to characterize the blaCTX-M type and blaPER genes. The purified PCR products were sent to Macrogen research company (Korea) for sequencing. Results: Of the total 100 Klebsiella isolates, %93 was susceptible to imipenem. Resistance to ampicillin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, aztreonam and cefotaxime was (92%), (67%), (65%), (64%) and (59%), respectively. The phenotypic confirmatory test (PCT) confirmed that 35% (n = 35) of the isolates were ESBL-producing Klebsiella strains. The prevalence of blaCTX-M type and blaRER genes among Klebsiella isolates were 28% (n = 28) and 9% (n = 9), respectively. Conclusions: The prevalence of ESBL-producing Klebsiella strains in Shahid-Beheshti hospital in Kashan has increased. The study concluded that there was a high prevalence of the blaCTX-M type gene among ESBL positive isolates. PMID:27247786

  20. Prevalence and genetic diversity of arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) in clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci: identification of ACME type I variants in Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Mayumi; Urushibara, Noriko; Kawaguchiya, Mitsuyo; Ghosh, Souvik; Shinagawa, Masaaki; Watanabe, Naoki; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2013-12-01

    Arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME), a genomic island consisting of the arc and/or opp3 gene clusters found in staphylococcal species, is related to increased bacterial adaptability to hosts. Staphylococcus epidermidis is considered a major ACME reservoir; however, prevalence and genetic diversity of ACME in coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) have not yet been well characterized for clinical isolates in Japan. A total of 271 clinical isolates of CNS in a Japanese hospital were investigated for the presence and genotype of ACME and SCCmec. The prevalence of ACME-arcA was significantly higher (p<0.001) in S. epidermidis (45.8%) than in other CNS species (3.7%). ACME in S. epidermidis isolates (n=87) were differentiated into type I (n=33), variant forms of type I (ΔI, n=26) newly identified in this study, type II (n=6), and type ΔII (n=19). ACME-type ΔI, which were further classified into three subtypes, lacked some genetic components between the arc and opp3 clusters in archetypal type I, whereas the arc and opp3 clusters were intact. The arc cluster exhibited high sequence identity (95.8-100%) to that of type I ACME; in contrast, the opp3 cluster was highly diverse, and showed relatively lower identities (94.8-98.7%) to the identical regions in type I ACME. Twenty-one isolates of ΔI ACME-carrying S. epidermidis possessed SCCmec IVa and belonged to ST5 (clonal complex 2). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that isolates harboring ACME ΔI in this study clustered with previously reported S. epidermidis strains with other lineges, suggesting that S. epidermidis originally had some genetic variations in the opp3 cluster. In summary, ACME type ΔI, a truncated variant of ACME-I, was first identified in S. epidermidis, and revealed to be prevalent in ST5 MRSE clinical isolates with SCCmec IVa.

  1. Correlates of postpartum common mental disorders: results from a population-based study in Amhara region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Parcesepe, Angela; Mekuria, Yared Getachew; Abitew, Dereje Birhanu; Gebeyehu, Wondimu; Okello, Francis; Shattuck, Dominick

    2016-10-01

    Postpartum common mental disorders are prevalent among women in Ethiopia. Data on associated factors are limited. This population-based study assessed mental health among 1294 nonpregnant, postpartum women in Amhara region. Poor health of the last delivered child and inequitable gender attitudes were associated with poor mental health among other factors. Social support from female friends was strongly protective. Community mental health services could strengthen social support between female friends with education and support group facilitation by health extension workers. PMID:26961004

  2. Prevalence of Enhanced Granular Expression of Thrombospondin Type-1 Domain-Containing 7A in the Glomeruli of Japanese Patients with Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Iwakura, Takamasa; Ohashi, Naro; Kato, Akihiko; Baba, Satoshi; Yasuda, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Membranous nephropathy (MN) is a leading cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults. Autoantibodies against M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) and thrombospondin type-1 domain-containing 7A (THSD7A), which mainly belong to the IgG4 subclass, were reported as associated antibodies for the development of MN. Although PLA2R is a major target antigen for idiopathic MN, the prevalence of MN patients seropositive for PLA2R in Japan is lower than that in other countries. In this study, we conducted immunohistochemical analysis of the presence of THSD7A and PLA2R in renal specimens of MN patients to estimate the prevalence of THSD7A/PLA2R-related idiopathic MN in Japan. Enhanced granular expression of THSD7A and PLA2R was detected in 9.1% and 52.7%, respectively, of the patients with idiopathic MN. Although none of patients with secondary MN displayed enhanced granular expression of THSD7A, 5.4% of them had enhanced granular expression of PLA2R. In conclusion, the prevalence of enhanced granular expression of THSD7A in the glomeruli of Japanese patients with idiopathic MN was higher than the prevalence of MN patients seropositive for THSD7A in USA and Europe.

  3. Prevalence of Enhanced Granular Expression of Thrombospondin Type-1 Domain-Containing 7A in the Glomeruli of Japanese Patients with Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Iwakura, Takamasa; Ohashi, Naro; Kato, Akihiko; Baba, Satoshi; Yasuda, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Membranous nephropathy (MN) is a leading cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults. Autoantibodies against M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) and thrombospondin type-1 domain-containing 7A (THSD7A), which mainly belong to the IgG4 subclass, were reported as associated antibodies for the development of MN. Although PLA2R is a major target antigen for idiopathic MN, the prevalence of MN patients seropositive for PLA2R in Japan is lower than that in other countries. In this study, we conducted immunohistochemical analysis of the presence of THSD7A and PLA2R in renal specimens of MN patients to estimate the prevalence of THSD7A/PLA2R-related idiopathic MN in Japan. Enhanced granular expression of THSD7A and PLA2R was detected in 9.1% and 52.7%, respectively, of the patients with idiopathic MN. Although none of patients with secondary MN displayed enhanced granular expression of THSD7A, 5.4% of them had enhanced granular expression of PLA2R. In conclusion, the prevalence of enhanced granular expression of THSD7A in the glomeruli of Japanese patients with idiopathic MN was higher than the prevalence of MN patients seropositive for THSD7A in USA and Europe. PMID:26393352

  4. Estimation of the probability of exposure to metalworking fluids in a population-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong-Uk; Colt, Joanne S.; Baris, Dalsu; Schwenn, Molly; Karagas, Margaret R.; Armenti, Karla R.; Johnson, Alison; Silverman, Debra T; Stewart, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    We describe here an approach for estimating the probability that study subjects were exposed to metalworking fluids (MWFs) in a population-based case-control study of bladder cancer. Study subject reports on the frequency of machining and use of specific MWFs (straight, soluble, and synthetic/semi-synthetic) were used to estimate exposure probability when available. Those reports also were used to develop estimates for job groups, which were then applied to jobs without MWF reports. Estimates using both cases and controls and controls only were developed. The prevalence of machining varied substantially across job groups (10-90%), with the greatest percentage of jobs that machined being reported by machinists and tool and die workers. Reports of straight and soluble MWF use were fairly consistent across job groups (generally, 50-70%). Synthetic MWF use was lower (13-45%). There was little difference in reports by cases and controls vs. controls only. Approximately, 1% of the entire study population was assessed as definitely exposed to straight or soluble fluids in contrast to 0.2% definitely exposed to synthetic/semi-synthetics. A comparison between the reported use of the MWFs and the US production levels by decade found high correlations (r generally >0.7). Overall, the method described here is likely to have provided a systematic and reliable ranking that better reflects the variability of exposure to three types of MWFs than approaches applied in the past. PMID:25256317

  5. Impact of malocclusion on oral health-related quality of life among Brazilian preschool children: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Anita Cruz; Paiva, Saul Martins; Viegas, Claudia Marina; Scarpelli, Ana Carolina; Ferreira, Fernanda Morais; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of malocclusion on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of children and their families. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. A representative sample of 1069 male and female preschoolers aged 60 to 71 months was randomly selected from public and private preschools and daycare centers. Data were collected using the B-ECOHIS. In addition, a questionnaire addressing socioeconomic and demographic data was self-administered by the parents/guardians. The criteria used to diagnose malocclusion were based on Foster and Hamilton (1969), Graboswki et al. (2007) and Oliveira et al. (2008). Descriptive, univariate and multiple Poison logistic regression analyses were carried out. The prevalence of malocclusion was observed in 46.2% of the children and deep overbite was the most prevalent type of malocclusion (19.7%), followed by posterior crossbite (13.1%), accentuated overjet (10.5%), anterior open bite (7.9%) and anterior crossbite (6.7%). The impact of malocclusion on OHRQoL was 32.7% among the children and 27.1% among the families. In Poisson multiple regression model adjusted for socioeconomic status, no significant association was found between malocclusion and OHRQoL of the children (PR=1.09, 95% CI: 0.96-1.24) and their families (PR=1.11, 95% CI: 0.94-1.31). It is concluded that children with malocclusion in this sample did not have a negative impact on their OHRQoL and of their families.

  6. Big Data for Population-Based Cancer Research

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Anne-Marie; Olshan, Andrew F.; Green, Laura; Meyer, Adrian; Wheeler, Stephanie B.; Basch, Ethan; Carpenter, William R.

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Cancer Information and Surveillance System (ICISS) facilitates population-based cancer research by developing extensive information technology systems that can link and manage large data sets. Taking an interdisciplinary “team science” approach, ICISS has developed data, systems, and methods that allow researchers to better leverage the power of big data to improve population health. PMID:25046092

  7. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, control of type 2 diabetes mellitus and risk factors in Chinese rural population: the RuralDiab study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaotian; Li, Yuqian; Li, Linlin; Zhang, Luning; Ren, Yongcheng; Zhou, Hao; Cui, Lingling; Mao, Zhenxing; Hu, Dongsheng; Wang, Chongjian

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and to explore potential risk factors in rural areas of China. A total of 16413 individuals aged 18-74 years in rural districts were recruited from the Rural Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (RuralDiab) study for the epidemiological research. Meanwhile, a meta-analysis including 7 published studies was conducted to validate the result of the cross-sectional study. The rates of crude and age-standardized prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of T2DM were 12.19%, 67.00%, 62.35%, 22.20% and 6.98%, 60.11%, 54.85%, 18.77%, respectively. The prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of T2DM displayed increased trends with age (Ptrend < 0.01) and were strongly associated with education, drinking, more vegetable and fruit intake, physical activity, family history of diabetes, body mass index (BMI). The results of this meta-analysis showed that the pooled prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of T2DM in China countryside were 7.3% (5.3-9.4%), 57.3% (36.9-77.6%), 48.4% (32.4-64.5%) and 21.0% (9.9-32.1%), respectively. The prevalence of T2DM was high with inadequate awareness, treatment and control of T2DM in China rural areas. Healthy lifestyles should be advocated to reduce prevalence and improve awareness, treatment, and control of T2DM in Chinese rural residents. PMID:27510966

  8. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, control of type 2 diabetes mellitus and risk factors in Chinese rural population: the RuralDiab study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaotian; Li, Yuqian; Li, Linlin; Zhang, Luning; Ren, Yongcheng; Zhou, Hao; Cui, Lingling; Mao, Zhenxing; Hu, Dongsheng; Wang, Chongjian

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and to explore potential risk factors in rural areas of China. A total of 16413 individuals aged 18–74 years in rural districts were recruited from the Rural Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (RuralDiab) study for the epidemiological research. Meanwhile, a meta-analysis including 7 published studies was conducted to validate the result of the cross-sectional study. The rates of crude and age-standardized prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of T2DM were 12.19%, 67.00%, 62.35%, 22.20% and 6.98%, 60.11%, 54.85%, 18.77%, respectively. The prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of T2DM displayed increased trends with age (Ptrend < 0.01) and were strongly associated with education, drinking, more vegetable and fruit intake, physical activity, family history of diabetes, body mass index (BMI). The results of this meta-analysis showed that the pooled prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of T2DM in China countryside were 7.3% (5.3–9.4%), 57.3% (36.9–77.6%), 48.4% (32.4–64.5%) and 21.0% (9.9–32.1%), respectively. The prevalence of T2DM was high with inadequate awareness, treatment and control of T2DM in China rural areas. Healthy lifestyles should be advocated to reduce prevalence and improve awareness, treatment, and control of T2DM in Chinese rural residents. PMID:27510966

  9. A clinical survey on the prevalence and types of cheek teeth disorders present in 400 Zamorano-Leonés and 400 Mirandês donkeys (Equus asinus).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, J B; Dixon, P M; Bastos, E; San Roman, F; Viegas, C

    2013-12-14

    Dental disease is now recognised as a major but often unrecognised disorder of equids, including horses and donkeys. However, very few large clinical studies have documented the prevalence and type of dental disease present in different equid populations and no dental studies have been reported in Zamorano-Leonés or Mirandês donkeys, two endangered donkey breeds. Clinical and detailed oral examinations were performed in 400 Mirandês and 400 Zamorano-Leonés donkeys in Portugal and Spain. It was found that just 4.5 per cent had ever received any previous dental care. Cheek teeth (CT) disorders were present in 82.8 per cent of these donkeys, ranging from a prevalence of 29.6 per cent in the <2.5-year-old group to 100 per cent in the >25-year-old group. These CT disorders included enamel overgrowths (73.1 per cent prevalence but with just 6.3 per cent having associated soft tissue injuries), focal overgrowths (37.3 per cent), periodontal disease (23.5 per cent) and diastemata (19.9 per cent). Peripheral caries was present in 5.9 per cent of cases, but inexplicably, infundibular caries was very rare (1.3 per cent prevalence); this may have been due to their almost fully foraged diet. The high prevalence of enamel overgrowths in these donkeys, most which never received concentrates, also raises questions about the aetiology of this disorder. This very high prevalence of CT disorders, especially in older donkeys, was of great welfare concern in some cases and emphasises the need for routine dental care in these cases on welfare grounds and in order to help preserve these unique breeds.

  10. Toothache and associated factors in Brazilian adults: a cross-sectional population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Kuhnen, Mirian; Peres, Marco A; Masiero, Anelise V; Peres, Karen G

    2009-01-01

    Background Toothache is a dental public health problem and one of the predictors of dental attendance and it is strongly associated with the life quality of individuals. In spite of this, there are few population-based epidemiological studies on this theme. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of toothache and associated factors in adults of Lages, Southern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out in a sample of 2,022 adults aged 20 to 59 years living in the urban area of a medium sized city in Southern Brazil. A questionnaire including socioeconomic, demographic, smoking, alcohol, and use of dental service variables was applied at adults household. Toothache occurred six months previous of the interview was considered the outcome. Poisson regression analyses were performed following a theoretical hierarchical framework. All analysis was adjusted by the sample design effect. Results The response rate was 98.6%. The prevalence of toothache was 18.0% (95% CI 16.0; 20.1). The following variables were associated with toothache after adjustment: female (PR = 1.3 95% CI 1.3; 2.0), black skin colour vs. whites (PR = 1.5 95% CI 1.1, 1.9), low per capita income (PR = 1.7 95% CI 1.2, 2.3), smokers (PR = 1.5 95% CI 1.2, 1.9) and those who reported alcohol problems (PR = 1.4 95% CI 1.1; 1.9). To be 40 years of age (PR = 0.5 95% CI 0.4, 0.7) and use dental service in the last year (RR = 0.5 95% CI 0.4, 0.6) were protective factors for toothache. Conclusion The prevalence of toothache in adults of Lages can be considered a major problem of dental public health. PMID:19243630

  11. Characterization o