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Sample records for population-based risk analysis

  1. Area-level poverty and preterm birth risk: A population-based multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    DeFranco, Emily A; Lian, Min; Muglia, Louis A; Schootman, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is a complex disease with etiologic influences from a variety of social, environmental, hormonal, genetic, and other factors. The purpose of this study was to utilize a large population-based birth registry to estimate the independent effect of county-level poverty on preterm birth risk. To accomplish this, we used a multilevel logistic regression approach to account for multiple co-existent individual-level variables and county-level poverty rate. Methods Population-based study utilizing Missouri's birth certificate database (1989–1997). We conducted a multilevel logistic regression analysis to estimate the effect of county-level poverty on PTB risk. Of 634,994 births nested within 115 counties in Missouri, two levels were considered. Individual-level variables included demographics factors, prenatal care, health-related behavioral risk factors, and medical risk factors. The area-level variable included the percentage of the population within each county living below the poverty line (US census data, 1990). Counties were divided into quartiles of poverty; the first quartile (lowest rate of poverty) was the reference group. Results PTB < 35 weeks occurred in 24,490 pregnancies (3.9%). The rate of PTB < 35 weeks was 2.8% in counties within the lowest quartile of poverty and increased through the 4th quartile (4.9%), p < 0.0001. High county-level poverty was significantly associated with PTB risk. PTB risk (< 35 weeks) was increased for women who resided in counties within the highest quartile of poverty, adjusted odds ratio (adjOR) 1.18 (95% CI 1.03, 1.35), with a similar effect at earlier gestational ages (< 32 weeks), adjOR 1.27 (95% CI 1.06, 1.52). Conclusion Women residing in socioeconomically deprived areas are at increased risk of preterm birth, above other underlying risk factors. Although the risk increase is modest, it affects a large number of pregnancies. PMID:18793437

  2. Predicting risk of hospitalisation or death: a retrospective population-based analysis

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Daniel Z; Robeson, Mary; McAna, John; Maio, Vittorio; Keith, Scott W; Liu, Mengdan; Gonnella, Joseph S; Grilli, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Develop predictive models using an administrative healthcare database that provide information for Patient-Centred Medical Homes to proactively identify patients at risk of hospitalisation for conditions that may be impacted through improved patient care. Design Retrospective healthcare utilisation analysis with multivariate logistic regression models. Data A population-based longitudinal database of residents served by the Emilia-Romagna, Italy, health service in the years 2004–2012 including demographic information and utilisation of health services by 3 726 380 people aged ≥18 years. Outcome measures Models designed to predict risk of hospitalisation or death in 2012 for problems that are potentially avoidable were developed and evaluated using the area under the receiver operating curve C-statistic, in terms of their sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value, and for calibration to assess performance across levels of predicted risk. Results Among the 3 726 380 adult residents of Emilia-Romagna at the end of 2011, 449 163 (12.1%) were hospitalised in 2012; 4.2% were hospitalised for the selected conditions or died in 2012 (3.6% hospitalised, 1.3% died). The C-statistic for predicting 2012 outcomes was 0.856. The model was well calibrated across categories of predicted risk. For those patients in the highest predicted risk decile group, the average predicted risk was 23.9% and the actual prevalence of hospitalisation or death was 24.2%. Conclusions We have developed a population-based model using a longitudinal administrative database that identifies the risk of hospitalisation for residents of the Emilia-Romagna region with a level of performance as high as, or higher than, similar models. The results of this model, along with profiles of patients identified as high risk are being provided to the physicians and other healthcare professionals associated with the Patient Centred Medical Homes to aid in planning for care

  3. Population-based analysis of Alzheimer’s disease risk alleles implicates genetic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ebbert, Mark T. W.; Ridge, Perry G.; Wilson, Andrew R.; Sharp, Aaron R.; Bailey, Matthew; Norton, Maria C.; Tschanz, JoAnn T.; Munger, Ronald G.; Corcoran, Christopher D.; Kauwe, John S. K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Reported odds ratios and population attributable fractions (PAF) for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) risk loci (BIN1, ABCA7, CR1, MS4A4E, CD2AP, PICALM, MS4A6A, CD33, and CLU) come from clinically ascertained samples. Little is known about the combined PAF for these LOAD risk alleles and the utility of these combined markers for case-control prediction. Here we evaluate these loci in a large population-based sample to estimate PAF and explore the effects of additive and non-additive interactions on LOAD status prediction performance. Methods 2,419 samples from the Cache County Memory Study were genotyped for APOE and nine LOAD risk loci from AlzGene.org. We used logistic regression and ROC analysis to assess the LOAD status prediction performance of these loci using additive and non-additive models, and compared ORs and PAFs between AlzGene.org and Cache County. Results Odds ratios were comparable between Cache County and AlzGene.org when identical SNPs were genotyped. PAFs from AlzGene.org ranged from 2.25–37%; those from Cache County ranged from 0.05–20%. Including non-APOE alleles significantly improved LOAD status prediction performance (AUC = 0.80) over APOE alone (AUC = 0.78) when not constrained to an additive relationship (p < 0.03). We identified potential allelic interactions (p-values uncorrected): CD33-MS4A4E (Synergy Factor = 5.31; p < 0.003) and CLU-MS4A4E (SF = 3.81; p < 0.016). Conclusions While non-additive interactions between loci significantly improve diagnostic ability, the improvement does not reach the desired sensitivity or specificity for clinical use. Nevertheless, these results suggest that understanding gene-gene interactions may be important in resolving Alzheimer’s disease etiology. PMID:23954108

  4. RECURRENCE OF HIGH-RISK BLADDER CANCER: A POPULATION-BASED ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Chamie, Karim; Litwin, Mark S.; Bassett, Jeffrey C.; Daskivich, Timothy J.; Lai, Julie; Hanley, Jan M.; Konety, Badrinath R.; Saigal, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with bladder cancer are apt to develop multiple recurrences that require intervention. We examined the recurrence, progression and bladder cancer-related mortality rates in a cohort of individuals with high-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Methods Using linked SEER-Medicare data, we identified subjects with a diagnosis of high-grade, non-muscle-invasive disease in 1992–2002 and were followed until 2007. We then used multivariate competing-risks regression analyses to examine recurrence, progression, and bladder cancer-related mortality rates. Results Of 7,410 subjects, 2,897 (39.1%) experienced a recurrence without progression, 2,449 (33.0%) experienced disease progression, of whom 981 succumbed to bladder cancer. Using competing-risks regression analysis, we found the 10-year recurrence, progression, and bladder cancer-related mortality rates to be 74.3%, 33.3%, and 12.3%, respectively. Stage T1 was the only variable associated with a higher rate of recurrence. Women, black race, undifferentiated grade, stage Tis and T1 were associated with a higher risk of progression and mortality. Advanced age (≥70) was associated with a higher risk of bladder cancer-related mortality. Conclusions Nearly three-fourths of patients diagnosed with high-risk bladder cancer will recur, progress, or die within ten years of their diagnosis. Even though most patients do not die of bladder cancer, the vast majority endures the morbidity of recurrence and progression of their cancer. Increasing efforts should be made to offer patients intravesical therapy with the goal of minimizing the incidence of recurrences. Furthermore, the high recurrence rate seen during the first two years of diagnosis warrants an intense surveillance schedule. PMID:23737352

  5. Risk factors for financial hardship in patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer: a population-based exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Shankaran, Veena; Jolly, Sanjay; Blough, David; Ramsey, Scott D

    2012-05-10

    Characteristics that predispose patients to financial hardship during cancer treatment are poorly understood. We therefore conducted a population-based exploratory analysis of potential factors associated with financial hardship and treatment nonadherence during and following adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer. Patients diagnosed with stage III colon cancer between 2008 and 2010 were identified from a population-based cancer registry representing 13 counties in Washington state. Patients were asked to complete a comprehensive survey on treatment-related costs. Patients were considered to have experienced financial hardship if they accrued debt, sold or refinanced their home, borrowed money from friends or family, or experienced a 20% or greater decline in their annual income as a result of treatment-related expenses. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate factors associated with financial hardship and treatment nonadherence. A total of 284 responses were obtained from 555 eligible patients (response rate, 51.2%). Nearly all patients in the final sample were insured during treatment. In this sample, 38% of patients reported one or more financial hardships as a result of treatment. The factors most closely associated with treatment-related financial hardship were younger age and lower annual household income. Younger age, lower income, and unemployment or disability (which occurred in most instances following diagnosis) were most closely associated with treatment nonadherence. A significant proportion of patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer may experience financial hardship, despite having health insurance coverage. Interventions to help at-risk patients early on during therapy may prevent long-term financial adverse effects.

  6. Risk of dementia and death in patients with atrial fibrillation: A competing risk analysis of a population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Marzona, Irene; Baviera, Marta; Vannini, Tommaso; Tettamanti, Mauro; Cortesi, Laura; Riva, Emma; Nobili, Alessandro; Marcon, Gabriella; Fortino, Ida; Bortolotti, Angela; Merlino, Luca; Roncaglioni, Maria Carla

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have stated that atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with a higher risk of dementia. However, none have examined the competition between death and incident dementia in patients with AF. We evaluated the risk of incident dementia in patients with AF in comparison to people without this arrhythmia, considering of the competing risk of death. AF and non-AF cohorts were identified using the large administrative database of the Lombardy Region and followed for ten years. Patients with incident dementia were identified if they had an ICD 9 code referring to dementia at hospital discharge or a prescription for any anti-dementia drug. The association of AF with dementia or death was assessed with the multivariable Cox proportional-regression model, sensitivity analysis with a 1:1 propensity score matching and competing-risk analysis. In 2003 a total of 27,431 patients were hospitalized for AF in the Lombardy Region, while the cohort of non-AF counted 1,600,200 people. AF was associated with a higher risk of dementia (17%) and death (51%) at multivariable Cox analysis. These results were confirmed by the model fitted after propensity score matching. However, competing risk analysis found the association between AF and incident dementia was no longer significant (HR 0.99; 95% CI 0.94-1.04). In this real-world population the association between AF and dementia was no longer statistically significant when death was considered a competing risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dairy products intake and cancer mortality risk: a meta-analysis of 11 population-based cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei; Chen, Hanwen; Niu, Yuequn; Wu, Han; Xia, Dajing; Wu, Yihua

    2016-10-21

    Dairy products are major components of daily diet and the association between consumption of dairy products and public health issues has captured great attention. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the association between dairy products intake and cancer mortality risk. After a literature search in PubMed and EMBASE, 11 population-based cohort studies involving 778,929 individuals were considered eligible and included in the analyses. Data were extracted and the association between dairy products intake and cancer mortality risk was estimated by calculating pooled relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Sensitivity analyses and subgroup analyses based on regions, genders and dairy types were performed as well. Potential dose-response relationship was further explored by adopting the generalized least squares (GLST) method. Total dairy products intake was not associated with all cancer mortality risk, with the pooled RR of 0.99 (95 % CI 0.92-1.07, p = 0.893). Subgroup analyses showed that the pooled RRs were 0.97 (95 % CI 0.92-1.03, p = 0.314) for milk, 0.88 (95 % CI 0.71-1.10, p = 0.271) for yogurt, 1.23 (95 % CI 0.94-1.61, p = 0.127) for cheese and 1.13 (95 % CI 0.89-1.44, p = 0.317) for butter in male and female, however the pooled RR was 1.50 (95 % CI 1.03-2.17, p = 0.032) for whole milk in male, which was limited to prostate cancer. Further dose-response analyses were performed and we found that increase of whole milk (serving/day) induced elevated prostate cancer mortality risk significantly, with the RR of 1.43 (95 % CI 1.13-1.81, p = 0.003). Total dairy products intake have no significant impact on increased all cancer mortality risk, while low total dairy intake even reduced relative risk based on the non-linear model. However, whole milk intake in men contributed to elevated prostate cancer mortality risk significantly. Furthermore, a linear dose

  8. Cesarean Section Delivery Is Not a Risk Factor for Development of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Population-based Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Charles N; Banerjee, Ankona; Targownik, Laura E; Singh, Harminder; Ghia, Jean Eric; Burchill, Charles; Chateau, Dan; Roos, Leslie L

    2016-01-01

    Mode of birth affects development of the intestinal microbiota, and microbial dysbiosis has been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We performed a population-based analysis to determine whether mode of delivery (cesarean section vs. vaginal delivery) affects risk of IBD. We collected data from the University of Manitoba IBD Epidemiology Database, which contains records on all Manitobans diagnosed with IBD from 1984 through 2010. Starting in 1970, 6-digit family health registration numbers were used in Manitoba to link mothers with their offspring. Maternal health records, including dates and modes of delivery and siblings of individuals with IBD, were identified. We obtained data on 1671 individuals with IBD and 10,488 controls (individuals without IBD, matched by age, sex, and area of residence at IBD diagnosis) linked to mothers' obstetrical records. Higher proportions of urban than rural residents were delivered by cesarean section for IBD cases (12.8% vs. 9.7%, P = .05) and controls (13.3% vs. 9.4%, P < .0001). A higher percentage of men with Crohn's disease than women with Crohn's disease were born via cesarean section (13.5% vs. 8.4%, P = .01). Overall, there was no difference in the percentage of IBD cases born by cesarean section (11.6%) vs. controls (11.7%, P = .93). In multivariate analysis, birth by cesarean section was not associated with an increased risk of subsequent IBD, controlling for age, sex, urban residence, and income (odds ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-1.23). Persons with IBD were no more likely to have been born by cesarean section than their siblings without IBD (1740 siblings from 1615 families) (11.6% vs. 11.3%; odds ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.72-1.80; P = .79). People with IBD were not more likely to have been born via cesarean section than controls or siblings without IBD. These findings indicate that events of the immediate postpartum period that shape the developing intestinal microbiome do not

  9. Lipoprotein lipase gene variants and risk of coronary disease: a quantitative analysis of population-based studies.

    PubMed

    Hokanson, J E

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify the magnitude of the association between common variants in the lipoprotein lipase gene and coronary disease, based on published population-based studies. Fourteen studies, representing 15,708 subjects, report allelic distribution for lipoprotein lipase gene variants among coronary disease patients and control subjects. Patient outcomes included clinical coronary disease events and documented coronary disease based on angiography. Allele frequencies are estimated for disease and non-disease groups within each study. A 2 x 2 contingency table is used to compute individual study odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals, relating the presence of the rare allele to disease status. Mantel-Haenszel-stratified analysis of each allelic variant results in a summary odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for the association between each rare allele in the lipoprotein lipase gene and coronary disease. The lipoprotein lipase D9N allele has a summary odds ratio of 1.59 (95% confidence interval 1.03-2.55), indicating a 59% increase in risk of coronary disease for carriers with this allelic variant. The lipoprotein lipase N291S allele showed no association with coronary disease (summary odds ratio 0.93, 95% confidence interval 0.73-1.19). The summary odds ratio for lipoprotein lipase S447Ter allele is 0.81 (95% confidence interval 0.65-1.0), indicating a marginal negative association between this variant and coronary disease. The common lipoprotein lipase Pvu II polymorphism shows no relation to coronary disease (summary odds ratio 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.80-1.01). The rare allele of the lipoprotein lipase HindIII polymorphism is negatively associated with coronary disease (summary odds ratio 0.84, 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.96). The lipoprotein lipase D9N allele is associated with high levels of triglyceride and low levels of high-density lipoprotein. Similar atherogenic lipid levels are observed in subjects with structural

  10. Risk of venous thromboembolism in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a population-based matched cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Steven T.; Hartzema, Abraham G.; Brophy, James M.; Etminan, Mahyar; Delaney, Joseph A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is an increased risk of venous thromboembolism among women taking oral contraceptives. However, whether there is an additional risk among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is unknown. Methods: We developed a population-based cohort from the IMS LifeLink Health Plan Claims Database, which includes managed care organizations in the United States. Women aged 18–46 years taking combined oral contraceptives and who had a claim for PCOS (n = 43 506) were matched, based on a propensity score, to control women (n = 43 506) taking oral contraceptives. Venous thromboembolism was defined using administrative coding and use of anticoagulation. We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the relative risk (RR) of venous thromboembolism among users of combined oral contraceptives with and without PCOS. Results: The incidence of venous thromboembolism among women with PCOS was 23.7/10 000 person-years, while that for matched controls was 10.9/10 000 person-years. Women with PCOS taking combined oral contraceptives had an RR for venous thromboembolism of 2.14 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41–3.24) compared with other contraceptive users. The incidence of venous thromboembolism was 6.3/10 000 person-years among women with PCOS not taking oral contraceptives; the incidence was 4.1/10 000 person-years among matched controls. The RR of venous thromboembolism among women with PCOS not taking oral contraceptives was 1.55 (95% CI 1.10–2.19). Interpretation: We found a 2-fold increased risk of venous thromboembolism among women with PCOS who were taking combined oral contraceptives and a 1.5-fold increased risk among women with PCOS not taking oral contraceptives. Physicians should consider the increased risk of venous thromboembolism when prescribing contraceptive therapy to women with PCOS. PMID:23209115

  11. Polygenic Risk Score, Parental Socioeconomic Status, Family History of Psychiatric Disorders, and the Risk for Schizophrenia: A Danish Population-Based Study and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Agerbo, Esben; Sullivan, Patrick F; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Pedersen, Carsten B; Mors, Ole; Børglum, Anders D; Hougaard, David M; Hollegaard, Mads V; Meier, Sandra; Mattheisen, Manuel; Ripke, Stephan; Wray, Naomi R; Mortensen, Preben B

    2015-07-01

    Schizophrenia has a complex etiology influenced both by genetic and nongenetic factors but disentangling these factors is difficult. To estimate (1) how strongly the risk for schizophrenia relates to the mutual effect of the polygenic risk score, parental socioeconomic status, and family history of psychiatric disorders; (2) the fraction of cases that could be prevented if no one was exposed to these factors; (3) whether family background interacts with an individual's genetic liability so that specific subgroups are particularly risk prone; and (4) to what extent a proband's genetic makeup mediates the risk associated with familial background. We conducted a nested case-control study based on Danish population-based registers. The study consisted of 866 patients diagnosed as having schizophrenia between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2006, and 871 matched control individuals. Genome-wide data and family psychiatric and socioeconomic background information were obtained from neonatal biobanks and national registers. Results from a separate meta-analysis (34,600 cases and 45,968 control individuals) were applied to calculate polygenic risk scores. Polygenic risk scores, parental socioeconomic status, and family psychiatric history. Odds ratios (ORs), attributable risks, liability R2 values, and proportions mediated. Schizophrenia was associated with the polygenic risk score (OR, 8.01; 95% CI, 4.53-14.16 for highest vs lowest decile), socioeconomic status (OR, 8.10; 95% CI, 3.24-20.3 for 6 vs no exposures), and a history of schizophrenia/psychoses (OR, 4.18; 95% CI, 2.57-6.79). The R2 values were 3.4% (95% CI, 2.1-4.6) for the polygenic risk score, 3.1% (95% CI, 1.9-4.3) for parental socioeconomic status, and 3.4% (95% CI, 2.1-4.6) for family history. Socioeconomic status and psychiatric history accounted for 45.8% (95% CI, 36.1-55.5) and 25.8% (95% CI, 21.2-30.5) of cases, respectively. There was an interaction between the polygenic risk score and family history

  12. Risk of Second Cancers in Merkel Cell Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis of Population Based Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Anshul; Ramamoorthy, Venkataraghavan; Khan, Hafiz

    2014-01-01

    The risk of second cancers in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) remains uncertain since risk estimates vary worldwide. The global MCC population is growing and there is a demand for better knowledge of prognosis of this disease. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, and EMBASE search engines were searched for the relevant literature between January 1999 and September 2014 by use of explicit search criteria. The main outcome was second malignancies associated with MCC patients measured by standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) or other estimates of risks. Five papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria and reported SIRs of second cancer in MCC which varied from 1.07 to 2.80. Performing meta-analysis using random effects model revealed that there was an increased risk for second malignancies due to MCC (SIR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.10–2.11). There was a significant increase in risk for malignant melanoma (SIR, 3.09; 95% CI, 2.02–4.73) as compared to all common second malignancies among the studies. Updated knowledge about risk of second malignancies in MCC will help in better assessment of the disease prognosis and will help in optimizing the medical and surgical treatment, radiotherapy, follow-up, and surveillance procedures. PMID:25574398

  13. Risk of second cancers in merkel cell carcinoma: a meta-analysis of population based cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Anshul; Rubens, Muni; Ramamoorthy, Venkataraghavan; Khan, Hafiz

    2014-01-01

    The risk of second cancers in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) remains uncertain since risk estimates vary worldwide. The global MCC population is growing and there is a demand for better knowledge of prognosis of this disease. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, and EMBASE search engines were searched for the relevant literature between January 1999 and September 2014 by use of explicit search criteria. The main outcome was second malignancies associated with MCC patients measured by standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) or other estimates of risks. Five papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria and reported SIRs of second cancer in MCC which varied from 1.07 to 2.80. Performing meta-analysis using random effects model revealed that there was an increased risk for second malignancies due to MCC (SIR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.10-2.11). There was a significant increase in risk for malignant melanoma (SIR, 3.09; 95% CI, 2.02-4.73) as compared to all common second malignancies among the studies. Updated knowledge about risk of second malignancies in MCC will help in better assessment of the disease prognosis and will help in optimizing the medical and surgical treatment, radiotherapy, follow-up, and surveillance procedures.

  14. Risk Factors for Child Malnutrition in Bangladesh: A Multilevel Analysis of a Nationwide Population-Based Survey.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Mohammad Rocky Khan; Rahman, Mohammad Shafiur; Khan, Mohammad Mubarak Hossain; Mondal, Mohammad Nazrul Islam; Rahman, Mohammad Mosiur; Billah, Baki

    2016-05-01

    To identify the prevalence and risk factors of child malnutrition in Bangladesh. Data was extracted from the Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey (2011). The outcome measures were stunting, wasting, and underweight. χ(2) analysis was performed to find the association of outcome variables with selected factors. Multilevel logistic regression models with a random intercept at each of the household and community levels were used to identify the risk factors of stunting, wasting, and underweight. From the 2011 survey, 7568 children less than 5 years of age were included in the current analysis. The overall prevalence of stunting, wasting, and underweight was 41.3% (95% CI 39.0-42.9). The χ(2) test and multilevel logistic regression analysis showed that the variables age, sex, mother's body mass index, mother's educational status, father's educational status, place of residence, socioeconomic status, community status, religion, region of residence, and food security are significant factors of child malnutrition. Children with poor socioeconomic and community status were at higher risk of malnutrition. Children from food insecure families were more likely to be malnourished. Significant community- and household-level variations were found. The prevalence of child malnutrition is still high in Bangladesh, and the risk was assessed at several multilevel factors. Therefore, prevention of malnutrition should be given top priority as a major public health intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. HOXB13 G84E mutation in Finland: population-based analysis of prostate, breast, and colorectal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, Virpi H; Wahlfors, Tiina; Saaristo, Leena; Rantapero, Tommi; Pelttari, Liisa M; Kilpivaara, Outi; Laasanen, Satu-Leena; Kallioniemi, Anne; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aaltonen, Lauri; Vessella, Robert L; Auvinen, Anssi; Visakorpi, Tapio; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Schleutker, Johanna

    2013-03-01

    A recently identified germline mutation G84E in HOXB13 was shown to increase the risk of prostate cancer. In a family-based analysis by The International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics (ICPCG), the G84E mutation was most prevalent in families from the Nordic countries of Finland (22.4%) and Sweden (8.2%). To further investigate the importance of G84E in the Finns, we determined its frequency in more than 4,000 prostate cancer cases and 5,000 controls. In addition, 986 breast cancer and 442 colorectal cancer (CRC) cases were studied. Genotyping was conducted using TaqMan, MassARRAY iPLEX, and sequencing. Statistical analyses were conducted using Fisher exact test, and overall survival was analyzed using Cox modeling. The frequency of the G84E mutation was significantly higher among patients with prostate cancer and highest among patients with a family history of the disease, hereditary prostate cancer [8.4% vs. 1.0% in controls; OR 8.8; 95% confidence interval (CI), 4.9-15.7]. The mutation contributed significantly to younger age (≤55 years) at onset and high prostate-specific antigen (PSA; ≥20 ng/mL) at diagnosis. An association with increased prostate cancer risk in patients with prior benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) diagnosis was also revealed. No statistically significant evidence for a contribution in CRC risk was detected, but a suggestive role for the mutation was observed in familial BRCA1/2-negative breast cancer. These findings confirm an increased cancer risk associated with the G84E mutation in the Finnish population, particularly for early-onset prostate cancer and cases with substantially elevated PSA. This study confirms the overall importance of the HOXB13 G84E mutation in prostate cancer susceptibility.

  16. Metastatic lymph node ratio can further stratify risk for mortality in medullary thyroid cancer patients: A population-based analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhong-wu; Liao, Tian; Wen, Duo; Sun, Guo-hua; Li, Duan-shu; Ji, Qing-hai

    2016-01-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) has a propensity to cervical lymph node metastases (LNM). Recent studies have shown that both the number of involved lymph nodes (LNs) and the metastatic lymph node ratio (MLNR) confer prognostic information. This study was to determine the predictive value of MLNR on cancer-specific survival (CSS) in SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results)-registered MTC patients treated with thyroidectomy and lymphadenectomy between 1991 and 2012, investigate the cutoff points for MLNR in stratifying risk of mortality and provide evidence for selection of appropriate treatment strategies. X-tile program determined 0.5 as optimal cut-off value for MLNR in terms of CSS in 890 MTC patients. According to multivariate Cox regression analysis, MLNR (0.50–1.00) is a significant independent prognostic factor for CSS (hazard ratio 2.161, 95% confidence interval 1.327–3.519, p=0.002). MLNR (0.50–1.00) has a greater prognostic impact on CSS in female, non-Hispanic white, T3/4, N1b and M1 patients. The lymph node yield (LNY) influences the effect of MLNR on CSS; LNY ≥9 results in MLNR (0.50–1.00) having a higher HR for CSS than MLNR (0.00-0.49). In conclusion, higher MLNRs predict poorer survival in MTC patients. Eradication of involved nodes ensures accurate staging and maximizes the ability of MLNR to predict prognosis. PMID:27588396

  17. Psychopathological mechanisms linking childhood traumatic experiences to risk of psychotic symptoms: analysis of a large, representative population-based sample.

    PubMed

    van Nierop, Martine; Lataster, Tineke; Smeets, Feikje; Gunther, Nicole; van Zelst, Catherine; de Graaf, Ron; ten Have, Margreet; van Dorsselaer, Saskia; Bak, Maarten; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; van Os, Jim; van Winkel, Ruud

    2014-03-01

    Different psychological models of trauma-induced psychosis have been postulated, often based on the observation of "specific" associations between particular types of childhood trauma (CT) and particular psychotic symptoms or the co-occurrence of delusions and hallucinations. However, the actual specificity of these associations remains to be tested. In 2 population-based studies with comparable methodology (Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-1 [NEMESIS-1] and NEMESIS-2, N = 13 722), trained interviewers assessed CT, psychotic symptoms, and other psychopathology. Specificity of associations was assessed with mixed-effects regression models with multiple outcomes, a statistical method suitable to examine specificity of associations in case of multiple correlated outcomes. Associations with CT were strong and significant across the entire range of psychotic symptoms, without evidence for specificity in the relationship between particular trauma variables and particular psychotic experiences (PEs). Abuse and neglect were both associated with PEs (OR abuse: 2.12, P < .001; OR neglect: 1.96, P < .001), with no large or significant difference in effect size. Intention-to-harm experiences showed stronger associations with psychosis than CT without intent (χ(2) = 58.62, P < .001). Most trauma variables increased the likelihood of co-occurrence of delusions and hallucinations rather than either symptom in isolation. Intention to harm is the key component linking childhood traumatic experiences to psychosis, most likely characterized by co-occurrence of hallucinations and delusions, indicating buildup of psychotic intensification, rather than specific psychotic symptoms in isolation. No evidence was found to support psychological theories regarding specific associations between particular types of CT and particular psychotic symptoms.

  18. Risk of autism associated with general anesthesia during cesarean delivery: a population-based birth-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Chien, Li-Nien; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Shao, Yu-Hsuan Joni; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chiou, Hung-Yi

    2015-04-01

    The rates of Cesarean delivery (C-section) have risen to >30% in numerous countries. Increased risk of autism has been shown in neonates delivered by C-section. This study examined the incidence of autism in neonates delivered vaginally, by C-section with regional anesthesia (RA), and by C-section with general anesthesia (GA) to evaluate the risk of autism associated with C-section and obstetric anesthesia. During a mean follow-up of 4.3 years, the incidence of autism was higher in neonates delivered by C-section with GA than in neonates delivered vaginally, with an adjusted risk of 1.52 (95% confidence interval 1.18-1.94). However, the adjusted risk of autism in neonates delivered by C-section with RA and in neonates delivered vaginally was nonsignificantly different.

  19. Risk of Autism Associated with General Anesthesia during Cesarean Delivery: A Population-Based Birth-Cohort Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chien, Li-Nien; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Shao, Yu-Hsuan Joni; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chiou, Hung-Yi

    2015-01-01

    The rates of Cesarean delivery (C-section) have risen to >30 % in numerous countries. Increased risk of autism has been shown in neonates delivered by C-section. This study examined the incidence of autism in neonates delivered vaginally, by C-section with regional anesthesia (RA), and by C-section with general anesthesia (GA) to evaluate the…

  20. Risk of Autism Associated with General Anesthesia during Cesarean Delivery: A Population-Based Birth-Cohort Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chien, Li-Nien; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Shao, Yu-Hsuan Joni; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chiou, Hung-Yi

    2015-01-01

    The rates of Cesarean delivery (C-section) have risen to >30 % in numerous countries. Increased risk of autism has been shown in neonates delivered by C-section. This study examined the incidence of autism in neonates delivered vaginally, by C-section with regional anesthesia (RA), and by C-section with general anesthesia (GA) to evaluate the…

  1. Advancing paternal age and risk of autism: new evidence from a population-based study and a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Hultman, C M; Sandin, S; Levine, S Z; Lichtenstein, P; Reichenberg, A

    2011-12-01

    Advanced paternal age has been suggested as a risk factor for autism, but empirical evidence is mixed. This study examines whether the association between paternal age and autism in the offspring (1) persists controlling for documented autism risk factors, including family psychiatric history, perinatal conditions, infant characteristics and demographic variables; (2) may be explained by familial traits associated with the autism phenotype, or confounding by parity; and (3) is consistent across epidemiological studies. Multiple study methods were adopted. First, a Swedish 10-year birth cohort (N=1 075 588) was established. Linkage to the National Patient Register ascertained all autism cases (N=883). Second, 660 families identified within the birth cohort had siblings discordant for autism. Finally, meta-analysis included population-based epidemiological studies. In the birth cohort, autism risk increased monotonically with increasing paternal age. Offspring of men aged ≥50 years were 2.2 times (95% confidence interval: 1.26-3.88: P=0.006) more likely to have autism than offspring of men aged ≤29 years, after controlling for maternal age and documented risk factors for autism. Within-family analysis of discordant siblings showed that affected siblings had older paternal age, adjusting for maternal age and parity (P<0.0001). Meta-analysis demonstrated advancing paternal age association with increased risk of autism across studies. These findings provide the strongest evidence to date that advanced paternal age is a risk factor for autism in the offspring. Possible biological mechanisms include de novo aberration and mutations or epigenetic alterations associated with aging.

  2. Patterns of care for elderly men diagnosed with favorable-risk prostate cancer from 2004 to 2008: a population-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Mark V; Shen, Xinglei; Den, Robert B; Champ, Colin E; Trabulsi, Edouard J; Lallas, Costas D; Gomella, Leonard G; Dicker, Adam P; Showalter, Timothy N

    2013-12-01

    With the widespread use of prostate-specific antigen testing, an increasing number of men are diagnosed with favorable-risk prostate cancer (PC). Recently, emphasis has been placed on active surveillance for selected men with favorable-risk PC to avoid unnecessary treatment for tumors that may be clinically insignificant. We performed a population-based analysis to assess patterns of initial treatment (IT) for a contemporary cohort of elderly men diagnosed with a favorable-risk PC in the United States. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database to identify men aged more than or equal to 70 years diagnosed with a favorable-risk PC from 2004 to 2008. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine patient, tumor, and socioeconomic factors associated with IT. A total of 15,108 men more than or equal to 70 years with a favorable-risk PC were identified. Prostatectomy was performed in 2.6% of patients. Fifty-nine percent of patients were recommended to undergo radiation therapy (RT). Among patients 70 to 74 years, 66.45% were recommended to undergo RT. Fifty-nine percent, 36.6%, and 15.8% of patients between 75 and 79, 80 and 84, and more than or equal to 85 years were recommended to receive RT, respectively. Factors significantly associated with IT on multivariable logistic regression analysis included: younger age, white race, Gleason Score 6 (vs.≤5), married marital status, and no history of prior malignancy. We also identified significant geographic variations in patterns of IT. A large percentage of elderly men diagnosed with favorable-risk PC undergo IT, most commonly with RT. Future research should be performed to identify barriers to patient and physician acceptance of active surveillance.

  3. Risk of placenta previa in second birth after first birth cesarean section: a population-based study and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Objective: To compare the risk of placenta previa at second birth among women who had a cesarean section (CS) at first birth with women who delivered vaginally. Methods Retrospective cohort study of 399,674 women who gave birth to a singleton first and second baby between April 2000 and February 2009 in England. Multiple logistic regression was used to adjust the estimates for maternal age, ethnicity, deprivation, placenta previa at first birth, inter-birth interval and pregnancy complications. In addition, we conducted a meta-analysis of the reported results in peer-reviewed articles since 1980. Results The rate of placenta previa at second birth for women with vaginal first births was 4.4 per 1000 births, compared to 8.7 per 1000 births for women with CS at first birth. After adjustment, CS at first birth remained associated with an increased risk of placenta previa (odds ratio = 1.60; 95% CI 1.44 to 1.76). In the meta-analysis of 37 previously published studies from 21 countries, the overall pooled random effects odds ratio was 2.20 (95% CI 1.96-2.46). Our results from the current study is consistent with those of the meta-analysis as the pooled odds ratio for the six population-based cohort studies that analyzed second births only was 1.51 (95% CI 1.39-1.65). Conclusions There is an increased risk of placenta previa in the subsequent pregnancy after CS delivery at first birth, but the risk is lower than previously estimated. Given the placenta previa rate in England and the adjusted effect of previous CS, 359 deliveries by CS at first birth would result in one additional case of placenta previa in the next pregnancy. PMID:22103697

  4. The impact of clinical, demographic and risk factors on rates of HIV transmission: a population-based phylogenetic analysis in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Poon, Art F Y; Joy, Jeffrey B; Woods, Conan K; Shurgold, Susan; Colley, Guillaume; Brumme, Chanson J; Hogg, Robert S; Montaner, Julio S G; Harrigan, P Richard

    2015-03-15

    The diversification of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is shaped by its transmission history. We therefore used a population based province wide HIV drug resistance database in British Columbia (BC), Canada, to evaluate the impact of clinical, demographic, and behavioral factors on rates of HIV transmission. We reconstructed molecular phylogenies from 27,296 anonymized bulk HIV pol sequences representing 7747 individuals in BC-about half the estimated HIV prevalence in BC. Infections were grouped into clusters based on phylogenetic distances, as a proxy for variation in transmission rates. Rates of cluster expansion were reconstructed from estimated dates of HIV seroconversion. Our criteria grouped 4431 individuals into 744 clusters largely separated with respect to risk factors, including large established clusters predominated by injection drug users and more-recently emerging clusters comprising men who have sex with men. The mean log10 viral load of an individual's phylogenetic neighborhood (composed of 5 other individuals with shortest phylogenetic distances) increased their odds of appearing in a cluster by >2-fold per log10 viruses per milliliter. Hotspots of ongoing HIV transmission can be characterized in near real time by the secondary analysis of HIV resistance genotypes, providing an important potential resource for targeting public health initiatives for HIV prevention. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The Impact of Clinical, Demographic and Risk Factors on Rates of HIV Transmission: A Population-based Phylogenetic Analysis in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Art F. Y.; Joy, Jeffrey B.; Woods, Conan K.; Shurgold, Susan; Colley, Guillaume; Brumme, Chanson J.; Hogg, Robert S.; Montaner, Julio S. G.; Harrigan, P. Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background. The diversification of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is shaped by its transmission history. We therefore used a population based province wide HIV drug resistance database in British Columbia (BC), Canada, to evaluate the impact of clinical, demographic, and behavioral factors on rates of HIV transmission. Methods. We reconstructed molecular phylogenies from 27 296 anonymized bulk HIV pol sequences representing 7747 individuals in BC—about half the estimated HIV prevalence in BC. Infections were grouped into clusters based on phylogenetic distances, as a proxy for variation in transmission rates. Rates of cluster expansion were reconstructed from estimated dates of HIV seroconversion. Results. Our criteria grouped 4431 individuals into 744 clusters largely separated with respect to risk factors, including large established clusters predominated by injection drug users and more-recently emerging clusters comprising men who have sex with men. The mean log10 viral load of an individual's phylogenetic neighborhood (composed of 5 other individuals with shortest phylogenetic distances) increased their odds of appearing in a cluster by >2-fold per log10 viruses per milliliter. Conclusions. Hotspots of ongoing HIV transmission can be characterized in near real time by the secondary analysis of HIV resistance genotypes, providing an important potential resource for targeting public health initiatives for HIV prevention. PMID:25312037

  6. Bone fracture risk is not associated with the use of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists: a population-based cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Driessen, Johanna H M; Henry, Ronald M A; van Onzenoort, Hein A W; Lalmohamed, Arief; Burden, Andrea M; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Neef, Cees; Leufkens, Hubert G M; de Vries, Frank

    2015-08-01

    Glucagon-like Peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP1-ra) are a relatively new class of anti-hyperglycemic drugs which may positively affect bone metabolism and thereby decrease (osteoporotic) bone fracture risk. Data on the effect of GLP1-ra on fracture risk are scarce and limited to clinical trial data only. The aim of this study was to investigate, in a population-based cohort, the association between the use of GLP1-ra and bone fracture risk. We conducted a population-based cohort study, with the use of data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) database (2007-2012). The study population (N = 216,816) consisted of all individuals with type 2 diabetes patients with at least one prescription for a non-insulin anti-diabetic drug and were over 18 years of age. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratio of fracture in GLP1-ra users versus never-GLP1-ra users. Time-dependent adjustments were made for age, sex, lifestyle, comorbidity and the use of other drugs. There was no decreased risk of fracture with current use of GLP1-ra compared to never-GLP1-ra use (adjusted HR 0.99, 95 % CI 0.82-1.19). Osteoporotic fracture risk was also not decreased by current GLP1-ra use (adjusted HR 0.97; 95 % CI 0.72-1.32). In addition, stratification according to cumulative dose did not show a decreased bone fracture risk with increasing cumulative GLP1-ra dose. We showed in a population-based cohort study that GLP1-ra use is not associated with a decreased bone fracture risk compared to users of other anti-hyperglycemic drugs. Future research is needed to elucidate the potential working mechanisms of GLP1-ra on bone.

  7. Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Risk Behaviors among California Farmworkers: Results from a Population-Based Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brammeier, Monique; Chow, Joan M.; Samuel, Michael C.; Organista, Kurt C.; Miller, Jamie; Bolan, Gail

    2008-01-01

    Context: The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers is not well described. Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of population-based survey data from 6…

  8. Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Risk Behaviors among California Farmworkers: Results from a Population-Based Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brammeier, Monique; Chow, Joan M.; Samuel, Michael C.; Organista, Kurt C.; Miller, Jamie; Bolan, Gail

    2008-01-01

    Context: The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers is not well described. Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of population-based survey data from 6…

  9. Population-based absolute risk estimation with survey data

    PubMed Central

    Kovalchik, Stephanie A.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.

    2013-01-01

    Absolute risk is the probability that a cause-specific event occurs in a given time interval in the presence of competing events. We present methods to estimate population-based absolute risk from a complex survey cohort that can accommodate multiple exposure-specific competing risks. The hazard function for each event type consists of an individualized relative risk multiplied by a baseline hazard function, which is modeled nonparametrically or parametrically with a piecewise exponential model. An influence method is used to derive a Taylor-linearized variance estimate for the absolute risk estimates. We introduce novel measures of the cause-specific influences that can guide modeling choices for the competing event components of the model. To illustrate our methodology, we build and validate cause-specific absolute risk models for cardiovascular and cancer deaths using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our applications demonstrate the usefulness of survey-based risk prediction models for predicting health outcomes and quantifying the potential impact of disease prevention programs at the population level. PMID:23686614

  10. Risk factors for and perinatal outcomes of major depression during pregnancy: a population-based analysis during 2002-2010 in Finland.

    PubMed

    Räisänen, Sari; Lehto, Soili M; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Gissler, Mika; Kramer, Michael R; Heinonen, Seppo

    2014-11-14

    To identify risk factors for and the consequences (several adverse perinatal outcomes) of physician-diagnosed major depression during pregnancy treated in specialised healthcare. A population-based cross-sectional study. Data were gathered from Finnish health registers for 1996-2010. All singleton births (n=511,938) for 2002-2010 in Finland. Prevalence, risk factors and consequences of major depression during pregnancy. Among 511,938 women, 0.8% experienced major depression during pregnancy, of which 46.9% had a history of depression prior to pregnancy. After history of depression, the second strongest associated factor for major depression was fear of childbirth, with a 2.6-fold (adjusted OR (aOR=2.63, 95% CI 2.39 to 2.89) increased prevalence. The risk profile of major depression also included adolescent or advanced maternal age, low or unspecified socioeconomic status (SES), single marital status, smoking, prior pregnancy terminations, anaemia and gestational diabetes regardless of a history of depression. Outcomes of pregnancies were worse among women with major depression than without. The contribution of smoking was substantial to modest for small-for-gestational age newborn (<-2 SD below mean birth), low birth weight (<2500 g), preterm birth (<37 weeks) and admission to neonatal intensive care associated with major depression, whereas SES made only a minor contribution. Physician-diagnosed major depression during pregnancy was found to be rare. The strongest risk factor was history of depression prior to pregnancy. Other associated factors were fear of childbirth, low SES, lack of social support and unhealthy reproductive behaviour such as smoking. Outcomes of pregnancies were worse among women with major depression than without. Smoking during pregnancy made a substantial to modest contribution to adverse outcomes associated with depression during pregnancy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  11. Analysis of Patients with Helicobacter pylori Infection and the Subsequent Risk of Developing Osteoporosis after Eradication Therapy: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Hong-Mo; Hsu, Tai-Yi; Chen, Chih-Yu; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung; Chen, Chao-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies have reported conflicting results on the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and osteoporosis. A few studies have discussed the influence of H. pylori eradication therapy on bone mineral density. Methods We assessed the prevalence of osteoporosis among the H. pylori-infected population in Taiwan and the influence of early and late H. pylori eradication therapy on bone mineral density. Results Using data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified 5,447 patients who received H. pylori eradication therapy from 2000 to 2010 and 21,788 controls, frequency-matched according to age, sex, and year of receiving H. pylori eradication therapy. Those who received H. pylori eradication therapy were divided into two groups based on the time interval between the diagnosis of a peptic ulcer and commencement of eradication therapy. The risk of developing osteoporosis was higher in the early H. pylori treatment cohort (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.23–1.89) and late H. pylori treatment cohort (HR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.39–2.05), compared with the risk in the control cohort. When followed for less than 5 years, both the early and late cohorts had a higher risk of developing osteoporosis (HR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.32–2.16 and HR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.38–2.14). However, when the follow-up period was over 5 years, only the late eradication group exhibited a higher incidence of osteoporosis (HR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.06–2.47). Conclusion The development of osteoporosis is complex and multi-factorial. Via this population-based cohort study and adjustment of possible confounding variables, we found H. pylori infection may be associated with an increased risk of developing osteoporosis in Taiwan. Early eradication could reduce the influence of H. pylori infection on osteoporosis when the follow-up period is greater than 5 years. Further prospective studies are necessary to discover the connection of

  12. Pediatric specialist care is associated with a lower risk of bowel resection in children with intussusception: a population-based analysis.

    PubMed

    McAteer, Jarod P; Kwon, Steve; LaRiviere, Cabrini A; Oldham, Keith T; Goldin, Adam B

    2013-08-01

    Although previous studies have shown that radiologic intussusception reduction is more likely at children's hospitals, no study to date has compared outcomes among children advancing to surgical intervention. We hypothesized that rates of bowel resection would differ between hospitals with and without pediatric surgeons. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study using Washington State discharge records. All children younger than 18 years undergoing operative intussusception reduction between 1999 and 2009 were included (n = 327). Data were collected on demographics, disease severity, comorbidities, and concomitant gastrointestinal pathology. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds of intestinal resection during operative intussusception reduction. Pediatric hospitals treated a smaller proportion of children older than 4 years of age (12.1% vs 44.4%), as well as a greater proportion of Medicaid patients (50.9% vs 42.6%). Patients at pediatric hospitals had a lower prevalence of underlying intestinal anomalies or identifiable mass lesions (14.3% vs 16.7%). "Severe disease" (perforation, ischemia, acidosis) was more common at pediatric hospitals (17.6% vs 9.3%). Overall, bowel resection was more commonly performed at nonpediatric hospitals (59.3% vs 33.0%). On multivariate analysis, the odds of bowel resection were significantly lower at pediatric compared with nonpediatric hospitals (odds ratio [OR] 0.20, p < 0.001), and this association was strongest in younger patients. Adjusted odds of postoperative complications were greater for bowel resection patients (OR 2.83, p < 0.001). Bowel resection during operative intussusception reduction is more likely at hospitals without pediatric surgeons, and is associated with increased complications. Improved outcomes may be achieved by efforts aimed at standardizing care and decreasing variability in the treatment of pediatric intussusception. Copyright © 2013 American College of Surgeons

  13. A multistate population-based analysis of linked maternal and neonatal discharge records to identify risk factors for neonatal brachial plexus injury.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Michael D; Goodyear, Shaun M; Leith, Wendy M

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the interaction and contribution of maternal and fetal risk factors associated with neonatal brachial plexus injury (BPI). In a case-control study, matched maternal and neonatal discharge records were accessed from US State Inpatient Databases for New Jersey (2010-2012), Michigan (2010-2011), and Hawaii (2010-2011). Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to evaluate associations between risk factors and BPI. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was used to build predictive models, including two stratified models evaluating deliveries among obese and diabetic cohorts. Among 376 325 deliveries, BPI was diagnosed in 274 (0.1%). Significant BPI risk factors included maternal obesity (odds ratio [OR] 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-4.4), maternal diabetes (OR 4.6, 95% CI 3.0-7.0), use of forceps (OR 4.6, 95% CI 2.3-9.0), and vacuum assistance (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.7-3.3). After adjusting for shoulder dystocia and other predictive factors, cesarean reduced the risk of BPI by 88% (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.07-0.2). When stratified by obesity and diabetes, the ORs for BPI increased significantly for macrosomia, forceps, and vacuum assistance. The analysis confirms and quantifies more precisely the impact of risk factors for neonatal BPI, and provides a reliable basis for evidence-based clinical decision-making models. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  14. Familial risk of epilepsy: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Peljto, Anna L.; Barker-Cummings, Christie; Vasoli, Vincent M.; Leibson, Cynthia L.; Hauser, W. Allen; Buchhalter, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Almost all previous studies of familial risk of epilepsy have had potentially serious methodological limitations. Our goal was to address these limitations and provide more rigorous estimates of familial risk in a population-based study. We used the unique resources of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify all 660 Rochester, Minnesota residents born in 1920 or later with incidence of epilepsy from 1935–94 (probands) and their 2439 first-degree relatives who resided in Olmsted County. We assessed incidence of epilepsy in relatives by comprehensive review of the relatives’ medical records, and estimated age-specific cumulative incidence and standardized incidence ratios for epilepsy in relatives compared with the general population, according to proband and relative characteristics. Among relatives of all probands, cumulative incidence of epilepsy to age 40 was 4.7%, and risk was increased 3.3-fold (95% confidence interval 2.75–5.99) compared with population incidence. Risk was increased to the greatest extent in relatives of probands with idiopathic generalized epilepsies (standardized incidence ratio 6.0) and epilepsies associated with intellectual or motor disability presumed present from birth, which we denoted ‘prenatal/developmental cause’ (standardized incidence ratio 4.3). Among relatives of probands with epilepsy without identified cause (including epilepsies classified as ‘idiopathic’ or ‘unknown cause’), risk was significantly increased for epilepsy of prenatal/developmental cause (standardized incidence ratio 4.1). Similarly, among relatives of probands with prenatal/developmental cause, risk was significantly increased for epilepsies without identified cause (standardized incidence ratio 3.8). In relatives of probands with generalized epilepsy, standardized incidence ratios were 8.3 (95% confidence interval 2.93–15.31) for generalized epilepsy and 2.5 (95% confidence interval 0.92–4.00) for focal epilepsy. In relatives of

  15. Indoor secondhand tobacco smoke and risk of under-five mortality in 23 sub-Saharan Africa countries: A population based study and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Owili, Patrick Opiyo; Muga, Miriam Adoyo; Pan, Wen-Chi; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Inhalation of secondhand smoke from tobacco results in serious health outcomes among under-five children, and yet, few studies have assessed its effect on under-five mortality. We investigated the association between frequency of exposure to household tobacco smoke and risk of under-five mortality in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Demographic Health Survey data of under-five children from 23 SSA countries (n = 787,484) were used. Cox proportional hazard models described the association between exposure to tobacco smoke and the risk of under-five mortality in each country, with age as the time-to-event indicator. Meta-analysis was used to investigate the overall effect of tobacco smoke in SSA. The association between tobacco smoke exposure and the risk of under-five mortality attenuated in eight countries (Burkina Faso, Benin, Congo, Gabon, Guinea, Liberia, Togo, and Zambia) after adjustment, while the hazard ratios (HR) of daily exposure to tobacco smoke in Kenya (HR = 1.40; 95% CI, 1.16-1.70) and Namibia (HR = 1.40; 1.07-1.83) grew. The children in rural areas in SSA were 1.08 (95% CI, 1.04-1.13) times more likely to die than their urban peers. In general, the exposure to household tobacco smoke was associated with an increased risk of under-five mortality in SSA (HR = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.06-1.13). This study provided evidence of a positive association between exposure to household tobacco smoke and risk of under-five mortality in SSA. Policymakers in low- and middle-income countries, where tobacco control as a child health issue is relatively neglected, should integrate tobacco control measures with other child health promotion policies.

  16. Indoor secondhand tobacco smoke and risk of under-five mortality in 23 sub-Saharan Africa countries: A population based study and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Owili, Patrick Opiyo; Muga, Miriam Adoyo; Pan, Wen-Chi

    2017-01-01

    Background Inhalation of secondhand smoke from tobacco results in serious health outcomes among under-five children, and yet, few studies have assessed its effect on under-five mortality. We investigated the association between frequency of exposure to household tobacco smoke and risk of under-five mortality in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Methods Demographic Health Survey data of under-five children from 23 SSA countries (n = 787,484) were used. Cox proportional hazard models described the association between exposure to tobacco smoke and the risk of under-five mortality in each country, with age as the time-to-event indicator. Meta-analysis was used to investigate the overall effect of tobacco smoke in SSA. Results The association between tobacco smoke exposure and the risk of under-five mortality attenuated in eight countries (Burkina Faso, Benin, Congo, Gabon, Guinea, Liberia, Togo, and Zambia) after adjustment, while the hazard ratios (HR) of daily exposure to tobacco smoke in Kenya (HR = 1.40; 95% CI, 1.16–1.70) and Namibia (HR = 1.40; 1.07–1.83) grew. The children in rural areas in SSA were 1.08 (95% CI, 1.04–1.13) times more likely to die than their urban peers. In general, the exposure to household tobacco smoke was associated with an increased risk of under-five mortality in SSA (HR = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.06–1.13). Conclusions This study provided evidence of a positive association between exposure to household tobacco smoke and risk of under-five mortality in SSA. Policymakers in low- and middle-income countries, where tobacco control as a child health issue is relatively neglected, should integrate tobacco control measures with other child health promotion policies. PMID:28542166

  17. Prevalence and risk factors for erectile dysfunction and lower urinary tract symptoms in Russian Federation men: analysis from a national population-based multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Korneyev, I A; Alexeeva, T A; Al-Shukri, S H; Bernikov, A N; Erkovich, A A; Kamalov, A A; Kogan, M I; Pavlov, V N; Zhuravlev, V N; Pushkar, D Y

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of prevalence and associated common risk factors of ED and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) was performed in Russian Federation by cross-sectional multicenter survey. International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) score and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) were used for data collection in 1225 men between 20 and 77 years interviewed in six regions of Russian Federation. In addition, each participant's social, demographic, lifestyle, sexual and medical history was taken with special emphasis on risk factors for ED. Upon the basis of IIEF erectile domain score interpretation, ED was found in 530 (48.9%) men, consisting of mild and mild to moderate, moderate and severe ED in 375 (34.6%), 78 (7.2%) and 77 (7.1%) respondents, respectively. According to IPSS assessment, LUTSs were present in 649 (59.9%) responders; inclusive 370 (34.2%), 216 (19.9%) and 63 (5.8%) men with mild, moderate and severe LUTS, respectively. Men with both ED and LUTS shared common co-morbidities and lifestyle risk factors with age-adjusted odds ratio between 1.2 and 5.2. In logistic regression model (R(2)=0.361), the strongest associated with ED factor found was IPSS symptom score, followed by hypertension, IPSS-related quality of life, age, diabetes mellitus, obesity and unmotivated fatigue.

  18. Associations of Steroid Sex Hormones and Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin With the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Women: A Population-Based Cohort Study and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Muka, Taulant; Nano, Jana; Jaspers, Loes; Meun, Cindy; Bramer, Wichor M; Hofman, Albert; Dehghan, Abbas; Kavousi, Maryam; Laven, Joop S E; Franco, Oscar H

    2017-03-01

    It remains unclear whether endogenous sex hormones (ESH) are associated with risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in women. Data of 3,117 postmenopausal women participants of the Rotterdam Study were analyzed to examine whether ESH and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were associated with the risk of incident T2D. Additionally, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies assessing the prospective association of ESH and SHBG with T2D in women. During a median follow-up of 11.1 years, we identified 384 incident cases of T2D in the Rotterdam Study. No association was observed between total testosterone (TT) or bioavailable testosterone (BT) with T2D. SHBG was inversely associated with the risk of T2D, whereas total estradiol (TE) was associated with increased risk of T2D. Similarly, in the meta-analysis of 13 population-based prospective studies involving more than 1,912 incident T2D cases, low levels of SHBG and high levels of TE were associated with increased risk of T2D, whereas no associations were found for other hormones. The association of SHBG with T2D did not change by menopause status, whereas the associations of ESH and T2D were based only in postmenopausal women. SHBG and TE are independent risk factors for the development of T2D in women.

  19. Newly Diagnosed Anemia Increases Risk of Parkinson's disease: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chien Tai; Huang, Yao Hsien; Liu, Hung Yi; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chan, Lung; Chien, Li-Nien

    2016-07-14

    Anemia and low hemoglobin have been identified to increase Parkinson's disease (PD) risk. This population-based cohort study investigated PD risk in newly diagnosed anemic patients by using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. All newly diagnosed anemic patients (n = 86,334) without a history of stroke, neurodegenerative diseases, traumatic brain injury, major operations, or blood loss diseases were enrolled. A cohort of nonanemic controls, 1:1 matched with anemic patients on the basis of the demographics and pre-existing medical conditions, was also included. Competing risk analysis was used to evaluate PD risk in anemic patients compared with that in their matched controls. The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of PD risk in the anemic patients was 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-1.52, p < 0.001). Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) patients tended to exhibit a higher PD risk (aHR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.24-1.79, p < 0.001). Furthermore, Iron supplement did not significantly affect the PD risk: the aHRs for PD risk were 1.32 (95% CI: 1.07-1.63, p < 0.01) and 1.86 (95% CI: 1.46-2.35, p < 0.001) in IDA patients with and without iron supplementation, respectively. The population-based cohort study indicated newly diagnosed anemia increases PD risk.

  20. Fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of overall cancer in Japanese: A pooled analysis of population-based cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Takachi, Ribeka; Inoue, Manami; Sugawara, Yumi; Tsuji, Ichiro; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Ito, Hidemi; Matsuo, Keitaro; Tanaka, Keitaro; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Wakai, Kenji; Nagata, Chisato; Sasazuki, Shizuka

    2017-04-01

    A series of recent reports from large-scale cohort studies involving more than 100,000 subjects reported no or only very small inverse associations between fruit and vegetable intake and overall cancer incidence, despite having sufficient power to do so. To date, however, no such data have been reported for Asian populations. To provide some indication of the net impact of fruit and vegetable consumption on overall cancer prevention, we examined these associations in a pooled analysis of large-scale cohort studies in Japanese populations. We analyzed original data from four cohort studies that measured fruit and vegetable consumption using validated questionnaires at baseline. Hazard ratios (HRs) in the individual studies were calculated, with adjustment for a common set of variables, and combined using a random-effects model. During 2,318,927 person-years of follow-up for a total of 191,519 subjects, 17,681 cases of overall cancers were identified. Consumption of fruit or vegetables was not associated with decreased risk of overall cancers: corresponding HRs for the highest versus lowest quartiles of intake for men and women were 1.03 (95% CI, 0.97-1.10; trend p = 1.00) and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.95-1.11; trend p = 0.97), respectively, for fruit and 1.07 (95% CI, 1.01-1.14; trend p = 0.18) and 0.98 (95% CI, 0.91-1.06; trend p = 0.99), respectively, for vegetables, even in analyses stratified by smoking status and alcohol drinking. The results of this pooled analysis do not support inverse associations of fruit and vegetable consumption with overall cancers in the Japanese population. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Type 1 diabetes risk analysis on dried blood spot samples from population-based newborns: design and feasibility of an unselected case-control study.

    PubMed

    Eising, Stefanie; Svensson, Jannet; Skogstrand, Kristin; Nilsson, Anita; Lynch, Kristian; Andersen, Paal Skytt; Lernmark, Ake; Hougaard, David M; Pociot, Flemming; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Nerup, Jørn

    2007-11-01

    Development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) may be triggered pre- or perinatally by multiple factors. Identifying new predisposing T1D markers or combinations of markers in a large, well-characterised case-control collection may be important for future T1D prevention. The present work describes the design and feasibility of a large and unselected case-control study, which will define and evaluate prediction criteria for T1D at the time of birth. Danish registries (Biological Specimen Bank for Neonatal Screening, and the National Discharge Registry) made it possible to identify and collect dried blood spots (DBS) from newborns who later developed T1D (cases) born 1981-2002. DBS samples from 2086 cases and two matching control subjects per case were analysed for genetic and immune factors that are associated with T1D: (a) candidate genes (HLA, INS and CTLA4), (b) cytokines and inflammatory markers, (c) islet auto-antibodies (GAD65A, IA-2A). The objective of the study was to define reliable prediction tools for T1D using samples available at the time of birth. In a unique approach, the study linked a large unselected and population-based sample resource to well-ascertained clinical databases and advanced technology. It combined genetic, immunological and demographic data to develop prediction algorithms. It also provided a resource for future studies in which new genetic markers can be included as they are identified.

  2. Distributions of personal VOC exposures: a population-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Jia, Chunrong; D'Souza, Jennifer; Batterman, Stuart

    2008-10-01

    Information regarding the distribution of volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations and exposures is scarce, and there have been few, if any, studies using population-based samples from which representative estimates can be derived. This study characterizes distributions of personal exposures to ten different VOCs in the U.S. measured in the 1999--2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Personal VOC exposures were collected for 669 individuals over 2-3 days, and measurements were weighted to derive national-level statistics. Four common exposure sources were identified using factor analyses: gasoline vapor and vehicle exhaust, methyl tert-butyl ether (MBTE) as a gasoline additive, tap water disinfection products, and household cleaning products. Benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylenes chloroform, and tetrachloroethene were fit to log-normal distributions with reasonably good agreement to observations. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene and trichloroethene were fit to Pareto distributions, and MTBE to Weibull distribution, but agreement was poor. However, distributions that attempt to match all of the VOC exposure data can lead to incorrect conclusions regarding the level and frequency of the higher exposures. Maximum Gumbel distributions gave generally good fits to extrema, however, they could not fully represent the highest exposures of the NHANES measurements. The analysis suggests that complete models for the distribution of VOC exposures require an approach that combines standard and extreme value distributions, and that carefully identifies outliers. This is the first study to provide national-level and representative statistics regarding the VOC exposures, and its results have important implications for risk assessment and probabilistic analyses.

  3. A Population-Based Analysis of Quality Indicators in CKD.

    PubMed

    Manns, Liam; Scott-Douglas, Nairne; Tonelli, Marcello; Weaver, Robert; Tam-Tham, Helen; Chong, Christy; Hemmelgarn, Brenda

    2017-05-08

    Awareness of CKD remains low in comparison with other chronic diseases, such as diabetes, leading to low use of preventive medications and appropriate testing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of care provided to people with and at risk of CKD. We conducted a population-based analysis of all Albertans with eGFR=15-59 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) between April 1, 2011 and March 31, 2012 as well as patients with diabetes (as of March 31, 2012). We assessed multiple quality indicators in people with eGFR=15-59 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), including appropriate risk stratification with albuminuria testing and preventive medication use and screened people with diabetes using urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio and serum creatinine measurements. Among 96,480 adults with eGFR=15-59 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), we found that 17.0% of those without diabetes were appropriately risk stratified with a measure of albuminuria compared with 64.2% of those with diabetes (P<0.001). Of those with eGFR=15-59 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and moderate or severe albuminuria, 63.2% of those without diabetes received an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker compared with 82.1% in those with diabetes (P<0.001). Statin use was also significantly lower in patients with eGFR=15-59 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) without diabetes (39.2%) compared with those with diabetes (64.6%; P<0.001). Among 235,649 adults with diabetes, only 41.8% received a urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio and 73.2% received a serum creatinine measurement over 1 year. We identified large gaps in care, especially in those with CKD but no diabetes. The largest gap was in the prescription of guideline-concordant medication in those with CKD as well as appropriate screening for albuminuria in those with diabetes. Our work illustrates the importance of measuring health system performance as the first step in a quality improvement process to improve care and outcomes in CKD. Copyright © 2017 by the American

  4. Cessation rate of anti-osteoporosis treatments and risk factors in Spanish primary care settings: a population-based cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Martín-Merino, Elisa; Huerta-Álvarez, Consuelo; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Montero-Corominas, Dolores

    2017-12-01

    Among 95,057 patients ≥50 years with new anti-osteoporosis medications (AOM) (2001-2013) in primary care, 1-year cessation was 51% (28%-68%), higher in men, smokers, patients with missing lifestyle data, and out normal BMI, and lower in those aged 60-79, with recent fractures or other anti-osteoporotics, suggesting non-severe osteoporosis and less risk awareness. Low compliance to anti-osteoporosis medications (AOM) has been previously reported. We aimed to estimate 1-year cessation rates of different AOMs as used in Spanish healthcare settings, and to identify associated risk factors. A cohort study was performed using primary care records data (BIFAP). Patients entered the cohort when aged 50 years in 2001-2013, with ≥1 year of data available, and identified as incident users of AOM (1-year washout). Participants were divided into six cohorts: alendronate, other oral bisphosphonates, selective oestrogen receptor modulators, strontium ranelate, teriparatide, and denosumab. Patients were followed from therapy initiation to the earliest of cessation (90-day refill gap), switching (to alternative AOM), loss to follow-up, death, or end of 2013. One-year therapy cessation was estimated using life tables. Hazard ratios (of cessation) according to age, sex, lifestyle factors, morbidity, and co-medication were estimated after stepwise backwards selection. A total of 95,057 AOM users were identified (91% women; mean age 68). One-year cessation was 51% overall, highest for strontium ranelate (68%), and lowest for denosumab (28%). Cessation probability was higher in men (14% to 2.1-fold), smokers (>6%), and patients with missing BMI (19-28%) or smoking (6-20%) data, and overweight/obese/underweight (7% to 2.6-fold increase compared to normal weight). Patients aged 60-79 years, with a recent fracture or other drugs used for osteoporosis, had better persistence. Over half of the patients initiating AOM stopped therapy within the first year after initiation. The

  5. Awareness levels about breast cancer risk factors, early warning signs, and screening and therapeutic approaches among Iranian adult women: a large population based study using latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Tazhibi, Mahdi; Feizi, Awat

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality among women throughout the world and in Iran. Lack of awareness and early detection program in developing country is a main reason for escalating the mortality. The present research was conducted to assess the Iranian women's level of knowledge about breast cancer risk factors, early warning signs, and therapeutic and screening approaches, and their correlated determinants. In a cross-sectional study, 2250 women before participating at a community based screening and public educational program in an institute of cancer research in Isfahan, Iran, in 2012 were investigated using a self-administered questionnaire about risk factors, early warning signs, and therapeutic and screening approaches of BC. Latent class regression as a comprehensive statistical method was used for evaluating the level of knowledge and its correlated determinants. Only 33.2%, 31.9%, 26.7%, and 35.8% of study participants had high awareness levels about screening approaches, risk factors, early warning signs and therapeutic modalities of breast cancer, respectively, and majority had poor to moderate knowledge levels. Most effective predictors of high level of awareness were higher educational qualifications, attending in screening and public educational programs, personal problem, and family history of BC, respectively. Results of current study indicated that the levels of awareness among study population about key elements of BC are low. These findings reenforce the continuing need for more BC education through conducting public and professional programs that are intended to raise awareness among younger, single women and those with low educational attainments and without family history.

  6. Awareness Levels about Breast Cancer Risk Factors, Early Warning Signs, and Screening and Therapeutic Approaches among Iranian Adult Women: A large Population Based Study Using Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tazhibi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective. Breast cancer (BC) continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality among women throughout the world and in Iran. Lack of awareness and early detection program in developing country is a main reason for escalating the mortality. The present research was conducted to assess the Iranian women's level of knowledge about breast cancer risk factors, early warning signs, and therapeutic and screening approaches, and their correlated determinants. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, 2250 women before participating at a community based screening and public educational program in an institute of cancer research in Isfahan, Iran, in 2012 were investigated using a self-administered questionnaire about risk factors, early warning signs, and therapeutic and screening approaches of BC. Latent class regression as a comprehensive statistical method was used for evaluating the level of knowledge and its correlated determinants. Results. Only 33.2%, 31.9%, 26.7%, and 35.8% of study participants had high awareness levels about screening approaches, risk factors, early warning signs and therapeutic modalities of breast cancer, respectively, and majority had poor to moderate knowledge levels. Most effective predictors of high level of awareness were higher educational qualifications, attending in screening and public educational programs, personal problem, and family history of BC, respectively. Conclusion. Results of current study indicated that the levels of awareness among study population about key elements of BC are low. These findings reenforce the continuing need for more BC education through conducting public and professional programs that are intended to raise awareness among younger, single women and those with low educational attainments and without family history. PMID:25295257

  7. Physical activity and risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in diabetic adults from Great Britain: pooled analysis of 10 population-based cohorts.

    PubMed

    Sadarangani, Kabir P; Hamer, Mark; Mindell, Jenny S; Coombs, Ngaire A; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2014-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine associations between specific types of physical activity and all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in a large nationally representative sample of adults with diabetes from Great Britain. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS There were a total of 3,038 participants (675 deaths) with diabetes in the Health Survey for England and the Scottish Health Surveys conducted between 1997 and 2008. Participants aged ≥50 years at baseline were followed up for an average of 75.2 months for all-cause and CVD mortality. Data were collected on self-reported frequency, duration, and intensity of participation in sports and exercise, walking, and domestic physical activity, from which the number of MET-hours/week were derived. Sex-specific medians of time spent in each type of physical activity (for those physically active) were calculated, and Cox proportional hazards regression conducted to examine type-specific associations between the level of physical activity and all-cause and CVD mortality risk. RESULTS Inverse associations with all-cause and CVD mortality were observed for overall physical activity in a dose-response manner after adjusting for covariates. Compared with those who individuals were inactive, participants who reported some activity, but below the recommended amount, or who met the physical activity recommendations had a 26% (95% CI 39-11) and 35% (95% CI 47-21) lower all-cause mortality, respectively. Similar results were found for below/above median physical activity levels. Sports and exercise participation was inversely associated with all-cause (but not CVD) mortality, as were above average levels of walking. Domestic physical activity was not associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS Moderate physical activity levels were associated with better prognosis in diabetic adults.

  8. Fracture risk following bariatric surgery: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, K M; Haglind, E G C; Clowes, J A; Achenbach, S J; Atkinson, E J; Melton, L J; Kennel, K A

    2014-01-01

    The effects of bariatric surgery on skeletal health are poorly understood. We found that bariatric surgery patients are more prone to fracture when compared to the general population. While further studies of fracture risk in this population are needed, bone health should be discussed in bariatric surgery clinics. Bariatric surgery is an increasingly common treatment for medically complicated obesity. Adverse skeletal changes after bariatric surgery have been reported, but their clinical importance remains unknown. We hypothesized that bariatric surgery patients are at increased risk of fracture. We conducted a historical cohort study of fracture incidence among 258 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents who underwent a first bariatric surgery in 1985-2004. Relative fracture risk was expressed as standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), while potential risk factors were evaluated by hazard ratios (HR) obtained from a time-to-fracture regression model. The mean (±SD) body mass index at bariatric surgery was 49.0 ± 8.4 kg/m(2), with an average age of 44 ± 10 years and 82% (212) females. Gastric bypass surgery was performed in 94% of cases. Median follow-up was 7.7 years (range, 6 days to 25 years), during which 79 subjects experienced 132 fractures. Relative risk for any fracture was increased 2.3-fold (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.8-2.8) and was elevated for a first fracture at the hip, spine, wrist, or humerus (SIR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-2.9), as well as for a first fracture at any other site (SIR, 2.5; 95% CI, 2.0-3.2). Better preoperative activity status was associated with a lower age-adjusted risk (HR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.8) while prior fracture history was not associated with postoperative fracture risk. Bariatric surgery, which is accompanied by substantial biochemical, hormonal, and mechanical changes, is associated with an increased risk of fracture.

  9. Infective Endocarditis and Cancer Risk: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Min; Wu, Jung-Nan; Lin, Cheng-Li; Day, Jen-Der; Liang, Ji-An; Liou, Li-Ren; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the possible relationship between endocarditis and overall and individual cancer risk among study participants in Taiwan.We used data from the National Health Insurance program of Taiwan to conduct a population-based, observational, and retrospective cohort study. The case group consisted of 14,534 patients who were diagnosed with endocarditis between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010. For the control group, 4 patients without endocarditis were frequency matched to each endocarditis patient according to age, sex, and index year. Competing risks regression analysis was conducted to determine the effect of endocarditis on cancer risk.A large difference was noted in Charlson comorbidity index between endocarditis and nonendocarditis patients. In patients with endocarditis, the risk for developing overall cancer was significant and 119% higher than in patients without endocarditis (adjusted subhazard ratio = 2.19, 95% confidence interval = 1.98-2.42). Regarding individual cancers, in addition to head and neck, uterus, female breast and hematological malignancies, the risks of developing colorectal cancer, and some digestive tract cancers were significantly higher. Additional analyses determined that the association of cancer with endocarditis is stronger within the 1st 5 years after endocarditis diagnosis.This population-based cohort study found that patients with endocarditis are at a higher risk for colorectal cancer and other cancers in Taiwan. The risk was even higher within the 1st 5 years after endocarditis diagnosis. It suggested that endocarditis is an early marker of colorectal cancer and other cancers. The underlying mechanisms must still be explored and may account for a shared risk factor of infection in both endocarditis and malignancy.

  10. Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma: A Population-Based Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dubal, Pariket M; Svider, Peter F; Kam, David; Dutta, Rahul; Baredes, Soly; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2015-11-01

    Verrucous carcinoma of the larynx (VCL) is a rare entity with reportedly favorable prognosis. Current analyses are limited primarily to case reports and case series, thus making a population-based analysis useful in characterizing frequency, incidence, and survival trends to guide clinical diagnosis and decision making. Analysis of the National Cancer Institute's SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) database. Cases of VCL diagnosed between 1973 and 2011 were searched in the SEER database. Analysis was carried out with respect to patient demographics, tumor characteristics, incidence, treatment modality, and survival. In sum, 516 patients with VCL were identified. Males composed 88.4% of cases. Whites accounted for 88.4% of cases, with 8.1% of cases occurring in black patients. Most cases (79.7%) arose in the glottis, a statistically significant predilection when compared with other laryngeal malignancies (P < .0001). Incidence of VCL decreased from 2000 to 2011, with an annual percent change of -5.4%. Overall 1-, 5-, and 10-year disease-specific survival for VCL was 97.5%, 88.0%, and 77.4%, while 1-, 5-, and 10-year relative survival was 98.1%, 85.5%, and 74.2%, respectively. Surgery seemed to confer better prognosis when compared with other treatment modalities. This large population-based analysis of VCL demonstrates that this entity has a good prognosis, arises in the glottis, and is decreasing in incidence. Five-year survival seems highest when surgery is utilized. However, this finding may be subject to selection bias in high-stage lesions. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  11. Propranolol Reduces Cancer Risk: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ping-Ying; Huang, Wen-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Li; Huang, Tzu-Chuan; Wu, Yi-Ying; Chen, Jia-Hong; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-07-01

    β-Blockers have been reported to exhibit potential anticancer effects in cancer cell lines and animal models. However, clinical studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding cancer outcomes and cancer risk when β-blockers were used. This study investigated the association between propranolol and cancer risk.Between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2011, a patient cohort was extracted from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000, a subset of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A propranolol cohort (propranolol usage >6 months) and nonpropranolol cohort were matched using a propensity score. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cancer associated with propranolol treatment.The study sample comprised 24,238 patients. After a 12-year follow-up period, the cumulative incidence for developing cancer was low in the propranolol cohort (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.67-0.85; P < 0.001). Patients with propranolol treatment exhibited significantly lower risks of cancers in head and neck (HR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.35-0.95), esophagus (HR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.13-0.96), stomach (HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30-0.98), colon (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.49-0.93), and prostate cancers (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.33-0.83). The protective effect of propranolol for head and neck, stomach, colon, and prostate cancers was most substantial when exposure duration exceeded 1000 days.This study supports the proposition that propranolol can reduce the risk of head and neck, esophagus, stomach, colon, and prostate cancers. Further prospective study is necessary to confirm these findings.

  12. Multimodality therapy for locoregional extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: a population based analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Clifton D.; Wang, Samuel J.; Choi, Mehee; Czito, Brian G.; Cornell, John; Welzel, Tania M.; McGlynn, Katherine A.; Luh, Join Y.; Thomas, Charles R.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: While surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment for extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (EHCC), most patients present with advanced disease. Owing in part to numerical rarity, the optimum role of radiotherapy (RT) for EHCC, as well as its relative benefit is an area of debate. The specific aim of this series is to estimate survival for EHCC patients receiving surgery and adjuvant RT using a robust population based dataset. Methods: Data was extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) limited-use dataset for selected EHCC cases. Lognormal multivariate survival analysis was implemented to estimate survival for patients for treatment cohorts based on extent of surgical intervention and RT. Results: Parametric estimated median survival for patients receiving total/radical resection+RT was 26 months, 25 months for total/radical resection alone, 25 months for subtotal/debulking resection+RT, 21 months for subtotal/debulking resection, 12 months for RT alone, and 9 months for those not receiving surgery or RT. Parametric multivariate analysis revealed age, AJCC Stage, grade, and surgical/radiation regimen as statistically significant covariates with survival. Surgery-alone and adjuvant radiotherapy cohorts showed evidence of improved survival compared to no treatment; comparatively, radiation alone was associated with survival decrement. Early improvement in survival in adjuvant cohorts was not observed at later time-points. Conclusions: Survival estimates using SEER data suggest an early survival advantage for adjuvant radiotherapy for locoregional EHCC. While future prospective series are needed to confirm these observations, SEER data represents the largest domestic population-based EHCC cohort, and may provide useful baseline survival estimates for future studies. PMID:19637356

  13. Increased risk of antidepressant use in childhood cancer survivors: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lund, Lasse Wegener; Winther, J F; Cederkvist, L; Andersen, K K; Dalton, S O; Appel, C W; Rechnitzer, C; Schmiegelow, K; Johansen, C

    2015-03-01

    Childhood cancer survivors are at risk of both somatic and mental late effects, but large population-based studies of depression are lacking. Risk of antidepressant use was evaluated in a population-based cohort of 5452 Danish children treated for cancer in 1975-2009 by linkage to the National Prescription Drug Database, which worldwide is the oldest nationwide registry of prescription medication. Hazard ratios (HRs) for antidepressant use were estimated in a Cox proportional hazards model stratified on sex, with population comparisons as referents. Overall, childhood cancer survivors were at increased risk of having antidepressants prescribed (HR, 1.4; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3-1.5). The excess absolute risk of antidepressant use was 2.5 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 1.7-3.3), equivalent to an excess of 2.5 survivors for every 100 survivors followed for 10years. Increased HRs of 30-50% were seen for survivors of cancers of all main groups (haematological malignancies, central nervous system (CNS) and solid tumors); the highest risk was among children treated with haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-3.1). Our data suggested that the risk was most pronounced for children treated in the most recent calendar periods (test for interaction between cancer and calendar periods: P<0.001), especially for survivors of haematological cancers (P=0.007). Interaction analysis of the effect of parental socioeconomic position and psychiatric disease on the association between childhood cancer and antidepressant use indicated no modifying effect. Childhood cancer survivors should be followed-up for depression. Our results indicate an increasing need for follow-up especially in survivors treated by more recent, intensive anticancer treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk factors for operated carpal tunnel syndrome: a multicenter population-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli, Stefano; Baldasseroni, Alberto; Bovenzi, Massimo; Curti, Stefania; Cooke, Robin MT; Campo, Giuseppe; Barbieri, Pietro G; Ghersi, Rinaldo; Broccoli, Marco; Cancellieri, Maria Pia; Colao, Anna Maria; dell'Omo, Marco; Fateh-Moghadam, Pirous; Franceschini, Flavia; Fucksia, Serenella; Galli, Paolo; Gobba, Fabriziomaria; Lucchini, Roberto; Mandes, Anna; Marras, Teresa; Sgarrella, Carla; Borghesi, Stefano; Fierro, Mauro; Zanardi, Francesca; Mancini, Gianpiero; Violante, Francesco S

    2009-01-01

    Background Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a socially and economically relevant disease caused by compression or entrapment of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel. This population-based case-control study aims to investigate occupational/non-occupational risk factors for surgically treated CTS. Methods Cases (n = 220) aged 18-65 years were randomly drawn from 13 administrative databases of citizens who were surgically treated with carpal tunnel release during 2001. Controls (n = 356) were randomly sampled from National Health Service registry records and were frequency matched by age-gender-specific CTS hospitalization rates. Results At multivariate analysis, risk factors were blue-collar/housewife status, BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, sibling history of CTS and coexistence of trigger finger. Being relatively tall (cut-offs based on tertiles: women ≥165 cm; men ≥175 cm) was associated with lower risk. Blue-collar work was a moderate/strong risk factor in both sexes. Raised risks were apparent for combinations of biomechanical risk factors that included frequent repetitivity and sustained force. Conclusion This study strongly underlines the relevance of biomechanical exposures in both non-industrial and industrial work as risk factors for surgically treated CTS. PMID:19758429

  15. Preoperative risk score predicting 90-day mortality after liver resection in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Ming; Yin, Wen-Yao; Su, Yu-Chieh; Wei, Chang-Kao; Lee, Cheng-Hung; Juang, Shiun-Yang; Chen, Yi-Ting; Chen, Jin-Cherng; Lee, Ching-Chih

    2014-09-01

    The impact of important preexisting comorbidities, such as liver and renal disease, on the outcome of liver resection remains unclear. Identification of patients at risk of mortality will aid in improving preoperative preparations. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a population-based score based on available preoperative and predictable parameters predicting 90-day mortality after liver resection using data from a hepatitis endemic country.We identified 13,159 patients who underwent liver resection between 2002 and 2006 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. In a randomly selected half of the total patients, multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to develop a prediction score for estimating the risk of 90-day mortality by patient demographics, preoperative liver disease and comorbidities, indication for surgery, and procedure type. The score was validated with the remaining half of the patients.Overall 90-day mortality was 3.9%. Predictive characteristics included in the model were age, preexisting cirrhosis-related complications, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, renal disease, malignancy, and procedure type. Four risk groups were stratified by mortality scores of 1.1%, 2.2%, 7.7%, and 15%. Preexisting renal disease and cirrhosis-related complications were the strongest predictors. The score discriminated well in both the derivation and validation sets with c-statistics of 0.75 and 0.75, respectively.This population-based score could identify patients at risk of 90-day mortality before liver resection. Preexisting renal disease and cirrhosis-related complications had the strongest influence on mortality. This score enables preoperative risk stratification, decision-making, quality assessment, and counseling for individual patients.

  16. Long term alcohol intake and risk of rheumatoid arthritis in women: a population based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Di Giuseppe, Daniela; Alfredsson, Lars; Bottai, Matteo; Askling, Johan; Wolk, Alicja

    2012-07-10

    To analyse the association between alcohol intake and incidence of rheumatoid arthritis in women. Prospective cohort study with repeated measurements. The Swedish Mammography Cohort, a population based cohort from central Sweden. 34,141 women born between 1914 and 1948, followed up from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2009. Newly diagnosed cases of rheumatoid arthritis identified by linkage with two Swedish national registers. Data on alcohol consumption were collected in 1987 and 1997. During the follow-up period (226,032 person years), 197 incident cases of rheumatoid arthritis were identified. There was a statistically significant 37% decrease in risk of rheumatoid arthritis among women who drank >4 glasses of alcohol (1 glass = 15 g of ethanol) per week compared with women who drank <1 glass per week or who never drank alcohol (relative risk 0.63 (95% confidence interval 0.42 to 0.96), P = 0.04). Drinking of all types of alcohol (beer, wine, and liquor) was non-significantly inversely associated with the risk of rheumatoid arthritis. Analysis of long term alcohol consumption showed that women who reported drinking >3 glasses of alcohol per week in both 1987 and 1997 had a 52% decreased risk of rheumatoid arthritis compared with those who never drank (relative risk 0.48 (0.24 to 0.98)). Moderate consumption of alcohol is associated with reduced risk of rheumatoid arthritis.

  17. Benzodiazepines use and breast cancer risk: A population-based study and gene expression profiling evidence.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Usman; Chang, Tzu-Hao; Nguyen, Phung-Anh; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Yang, Hsuan-Chia; Huang, Chih-Wei; Atique, Suleman; Yang, Wei-Chung; Moldovan, Max; Jian, Wen-Shan; Hsu, Min-Huei; Yen, Yun; Jack Li, Yu-Chuan

    2017-08-26

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether long-term use of Benzodiazepines (BZDs) is associated with breast cancer risk through the combination of population-based observational and gene expression profiling evidence. We conducted a population-based case-control study by using 1998 to 2009 year Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database and investigated the association between BZDs use and breast cancer risk. We selected subjects age of > 20 years old and six eligible controls matched for age, sex and the index date (i.e., free of any cancer at the case diagnosis date) by using propensity scores. A bioinformatics analysis approach was also performed for the identification of oncogenesis effects of BZDs on breast cancer. We used breast cancer gene expression data from the Cancer Genome Atlas and perturbagen signatures of BZDs from the Library of Integrated Cellular Signatures database in order to identify the oncogenesis effects of BZDs on breast cancer. We found evidence of increased breast cancer risk for diazepam (OR, 1.16; 95%CI, 0.95-1.42; connectivity score [CS], 0.3016), zolpidem (OR, 1.11; 95%CI, 0.95-1.30; CS, 0.2738), but not for lorazepam (OR, 1.04; 95%CI, 0.89-1.23; CS, -0.2952) consistently in both methods. The finding for alparazolam was contradictory from the two methods. Diazepam and zolpidem trends showed association, although not statistically significant, with breast cancer risk in both epidemiological and bioinformatics analyses outcomes. The methodological value of our study is in introducing the way of combining epidemiological and bioinformatics approaches in order to answer a common scientific question. Combining the two approaches would be a substantial step towards uncovering, validation and further application of previously unknown scientific knowledge to the emerging field of precision medicine informatics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Impact of socioeconomic status and gender on glycaemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes complications in type 1 and 2 diabetes: a population based analysis from a Scottish region.

    PubMed

    Collier, A; Ghosh, S; Hair, M; Waugh, N

    2015-04-01

    In this cross-sectional study, the aims were to investigate the association of the socioeconomic status and gender on the prevalence of type 1 and 2 diabetes, glycaemic control, cardiovascular risk factors plus the complications of diabetes in a population-based analysis in the county of Ayrshire and Arran, Scotland. Quality Outcome Framework data was obtained from General Practices in Ayrshire and Arran, Scotland (n=15,351 patients). In type 1 diabetes, there was an increasing linear trend in HbA1c across deprivation levels (P<0.01). In type 1 diabetes, obesity in women (P<0.01) and increased non-fasting triglyceride levels in both men and women were associated with deprivation (P<0.05). In type 2 diabetes, there was a significant prevalence trend with deprivation for women (P<0.01) but not with glycaemic control (P=0.12). Smoking, ischaemic heart disease and neuropathy (P<0.01) were all associated with increasing deprivation with gender differences. In type 2 diabetes, reduced HDL cholesterol (P<0.01 both genders), and percentage of people on lipid lowering therapy (men P<0.05; women P<0.01) were associated with deprivation. Smoking, ischaemic heart disease, peripheral vascular disease and neuropathy plus foot ulcers (P<0.05) were all associated with increasing deprivation with gender differences. Socioeconomic status and gender are associated with changes in glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors plus complication development in both type 1 and 2 diabetes. The mechanisms are unclear but follow-up of these patients should allow greater understanding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk factors associated with symptomatic cholelithiasis in Taiwan: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Hung, Shih-Chang; Liao, Kuan-Fu; Lai, Shih-Wei; Li, Chia-Ing; Chen, Wen-Chi

    2011-10-17

    Cholelithiasis has become a major health problem in Taiwan. The predominant type of gallstone found in Asian populations differs from that in the West, indicating possible differences in the etiology and risk factors for cholelithiasis. The aim of this study is to investigate the risk factors for cholelithiasis using data representative of the general population. We performed a population-based, case-control study in which we analyzed medical data for 3725 patients newly diagnosed with cholelithiasis and 11175 gender- and age-matched controls with no history of cholelithiasis, using information obtained from the 2005 Registry for Beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance Research Database. Coexisting medical conditions were included in the analysis. Relative risks were estimated by adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using a multivariate logistic regression analysis. After controlling for the other covariates, multivariate logistic regression analysis identified the following as risk factors for cholelithiasis (in descending order of contribution): Among all patients - hepatitis C (OR = 2.78), cirrhosis (OR = 2.47), hepatitis B (OR = 2.00), obesity (OR = 1.89), and hyperlipidemia (OR = 1.54); Among women - hepatitis C (OR = 3.05), cirrhosis (OR = 1.92), obesity (OR = 1.91), menopause (OR = 1.61), hepatitis B (OR = 1.54), and hyperlipidemia (OR = 1.49). Diabetes mellitus appeared to have a marked influence on the development of cholelithiasis but was not identified as a significant independent risk factor for cholelithiasis. The risk factors for cholelithiasis were obesity, hyperlipidemia, hepatitis B infection, hepatitis C infection, and cirrhosis in both genders, and menopause in females. Despite differences in the predominate type of gallstone in Asian versus Western populations, we identified no unique risk factors among the population of Taiwan.

  20. Risk factors associated with symptomatic cholelithiasis in Taiwan: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cholelithiasis has become a major health problem in Taiwan. The predominant type of gallstone found in Asian populations differs from that in the West, indicating possible differences in the etiology and risk factors for cholelithiasis. The aim of this study is to investigate the risk factors for cholelithiasis using data representative of the general population. Methods We performed a population-based, case-control study in which we analyzed medical data for 3725 patients newly diagnosed with cholelithiasis and 11175 gender- and age-matched controls with no history of cholelithiasis, using information obtained from the 2005 Registry for Beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance Research Database. Coexisting medical conditions were included in the analysis. Relative risks were estimated by adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results After controlling for the other covariates, multivariate logistic regression analysis identified the following as risk factors for cholelithiasis (in descending order of contribution): Among all patients - hepatitis C (OR = 2.78), cirrhosis (OR = 2.47), hepatitis B (OR = 2.00), obesity (OR = 1.89), and hyperlipidemia (OR = 1.54); Among women - hepatitis C (OR = 3.05), cirrhosis (OR = 1.92), obesity (OR = 1.91), menopause (OR = 1.61), hepatitis B (OR = 1.54), and hyperlipidemia (OR = 1.49). Diabetes mellitus appeared to have a marked influence on the development of cholelithiasis but was not identified as a significant independent risk factor for cholelithiasis. Conclusions The risk factors for cholelithiasis were obesity, hyperlipidemia, hepatitis B infection, hepatitis C infection, and cirrhosis in both genders, and menopause in females. Despite differences in the predominate type of gallstone in Asian versus Western populations, we identified no unique risk factors among the population of Taiwan. PMID:21999925

  1. New evidence of risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Almirall, J; Bolíbar, I; Serra-Prat, M; Roig, J; Hospital, I; Carandell, E; Agustí, M; Ayuso, P; Estela, A; Torres, A

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), with special emphasis on modifiable risk factors and those applicable to the general population. A population-based, case-control study was conducted, with a target population of 859,033 inhabitants aged >14 yrs. A total of 1,336 patients with confirmed CAP were matched to control subjects by age, sex and primary centre over 1 yr. In the univariate analysis, outstanding risk factors were passive smoking in never-smokers aged >65 yrs, heavy alcohol intake, contact with pets, households with >10 people, contact with children, interventions on the upper airways and poor dental health. Risky treatments included amiodarone, N-acetylcysteine and oral steroids. Influenza and pneumococcal vaccine, and visiting the dentist were protective factors. Multivariable analysis confirmed cigarette smoking, usual contact with children, sudden changes of temperature at work, inhalation therapy (particularly containing steroids and using plastic pear-spacers), oxygen therapy, asthma and chronic bronchitis as independent risk factors. Interventions for reducing community-acquired pneumonia should integrate health habits and lifestyle factors related to household, work and community, together with individual clinical conditions, comorbidities and oral or inhaled regular treatments. Prevention would include vaccination, dental hygiene and avoidance of upper respiratory colonisation.

  2. Increased risk of essential tremor in migraine: A population-based retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Chi-Ieong; Lin, Che-Chen; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Wang, Han-Cheng; Chen, Wei-Hung

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To examine the long-term risk of essential tremor (ET) in migraine. Methods Using population-based administrative data from a subset of the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan, we identified 22,696 newly diagnosed migraineurs (mean age 44.5 years) and a matched migraine-free cohort of 90,784 individuals in the period 2000–2008. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was conducted for assessing the ET risk for the migraine cohort compared to the migraine-free cohort. Results After adjusting for covariates, the migraine cohort had a 1.83-fold increased risk (95% CI 1.50–2.23) of subsequent ET in comparison to the migraine-free cohort (8.97 vs. 4.81 per 10,000 person-years). In the subgroup analysis, patients with migraine were associated with higher risks of ET, regardless of gender, age or the existence of comorbidities. Conclusion Our findings demonstrated an association between migraine and ET, suggesting a possible shared pathophysiology underpinning both disorders. PMID:28288163

  3. Medication use and kidney cancer risk: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Nayan, Madhur; Juurlink, David N; Austin, Peter C; Macdonald, Erin M; Finelli, Antonio; Kulkarni, Girish S; Hamilton, Robert J

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to commonly prescribed medications may be associated with cancer risk. However, there is limited data in kidney cancer. Furthermore, methods of classifying cumulative medication exposure in previous studies may be prone to bias. We conducted a population-based case-control study of 10,377 incident kidney cancer cases aged ≥66 years matched with 35,939 controls on age, sex, history of hypertension, comorbidity score, and geographic location. Cumulative exposure to commonly prescribed medications hypothesised to modulate cancer risk was obtained using prescription claims data. We modelled exposure in four different fashions: (1) as continuous exposures using (a) fractional polynomials (which allow for a non-linear relationship between an exposure and outcome) or (b) assuming linear relationships; and 2) as dichotomous exposures denoting (a) ≥3 years versus <3 years exposure; or (b) "ever" versus "never" exposure. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate the association of medication exposure on incident kidney cancer. The directions of association were relatively consistent across analyses; however, the magnitudes were sensitive to the method of analysis. When utilising fractional polynomials, increasing cumulative exposure to acetylsalicylic acid, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and proton-pump inhibitors was associated with significantly reduced risk of kidney cancer, while increasing exposure to antihypertensive drugs was associated with significantly increased risk. Our study provides impetus to further explore the effect of commonly prescribed medications on carcinogenesis to identify modifiable pharmacological interventions to reduce the risk of kidney cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sexual violence, mood disorders and suicide risk: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Mondin, Thaíse Campos; Cardoso, Taiane de Azevedo; Jansen, Karen; Konradt, Caroline Elizabeth; Zaltron, Rosana Ferrazza; Behenck, Monalisa de Oliveira; de Mattos, Luciano Dias; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo

    2016-03-01

    This article seeks to analyze the association between sexual violence, manic and depressive episodes, and suicide risk among young adults. This is a cross-sectional population-based study carried out with young people between 18 and 24 years of age in a town in southern Brazil. The sample was selected through clusters. The prevalence of sexual violence, manic, depressive and mixed episodes and suicide risk were evaluated, as well as the association between them. The chi-square test and Poisson regression were used for statistical analysis. The study sample comprised 1,560 subjects. Among these, 3.1% had suffered sexual violence at some point in their life. The prevalence of depressive, mixed episodes, and (hypo)manic episodes were 10%, 2.4% and 2.3%, respectively. Suicide risk had a prevalence of 8.6% in the total sample. Young people who have suffered sexual violence are more likely to be subject to mood changes or suicide risk than those who have not (p < 0.05), except for the occurrence of (hypo)manic episodes. These results revealed a strong association between sexual violence and depressive and mixed episodes and suicide risk.

  5. Population-based Analysis of Bronchiolitis Epidemiology in Valencia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Quiles, Cintia; López-Lacort, Mónica; Úbeda-Sansano, Isabel; Alemán-Sánchez, Sara; Pérez-Vilar, Silvia; Puig-Barberà, Joan; Díez-Domingo, Javier

    2016-03-01

    There is a lack of European epidemiologic population-based studies on bronchiolitis and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis including both hospitalizations and primary care attendance. A retrospective cohort of all children born between 2009 and 2012 was followed from birth to 2 years of age using population and health databases. We searched for global bronchiolitis (International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification codes 466.1, 466.11 and 466.19) and RSV bronchiolitis (code 466.11 and code 466.19 with positive RSV test) in the first appearance either in primary care or in hospitalization databases. A preterm subcohort (International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification codes 765) was also analyzed. The cohort consisted of 198,223 children of whom 41,479 were diagnosed of bronchiolitis (incidence rate 16.4/100 children <2 years per year). Of those, 5390 were hospitalized with the majority of hospitalizations occurring at <6 months of age (incidence rate of 5.2/100 children <6 months per year) and 3106 of the hospitalizations were RSV positive (incidence rate 3.2/100 children <6 months per year). RSV hospitalizations were 26% longer than non-RSV. In preterm infants, hospitalization incidence was more than double, and the mean length of hospitalization was 29% longer. Most (87%) bronchiolitis cases are managed in primary care offices. Approximately 2 out of every 10 children <2 are diagnosed of bronchiolitis, 3 out of every 100 are hospitalized and 1.6 out of every 100 are hospitalized with RSV bronchiolitis in our cohort. Infants between 2 and 10 weeks constitute a risk group for severe bronchiolitis.

  6. HLA Associations and Risk of Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder in a Danish Population-Based Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Vase, Maja Ølholm; Maksten, Eva Futtrup; Strandhave, Charlotte; Søndergaard, Esben; Bendix, Knud; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen; Andersen, Claus; Møller, Michael Boe; Sørensen, Søren Schwartz; Kampmann, Jan; Eiskjær, Hans; Iversen, Martin; Weinreich, Ilse Duus; Møller, Bjarne; Jespersen, Bente; d'Amore, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Background Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a feared complication to organ transplantation, associated with substantial morbidity and inferior survival. Risk factors for PTLD include T cell–depleting induction therapy and primary infection or reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus. Possible associations between certain HLA types and the risk of developing PTLD have been reported by other investigators; however, results are conflicting. Methods We conducted a retrospective, population-based study on 4295 Danish solid organ transplant patients from the Scandiatransplant database. Having identified 93 PTLD patients in the cohort, we investigated the association of HLA types with PTLD, Epstein-Barr virus status and time to PTLD onset. The outcomes survival and PTLD were evaluated using Cox regression; mismatching, and the PTLD-specific mortality were evaluated in a competing risk analysis. Results Risk of PTLD was associated with male sex (odds ratio, 1.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-2.71), and, in women, HLA-DR13 conferred an increased risk (odds ratio, 3.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.41-7.31). In multivariate analysis, HLA-B45 and HLA-DR13 remained independent predictive factors of PTLD. Mismatching in the B locus was associated with a reduced risk of PTLD (P < 0.001). Overall survival was poor after a PTLD diagnosis and was significantly worse than that in the remaining transplant cohort (P < 0.001). Conclusions Our data indicate risk-modifying HLA associations, which can be clinically useful after transplantation in personalized monitoring schemes. Given the strong linkage disequilibrium in the HLA region, the associations must be interpreted carefully. The large size, virtually complete ascertainment of cases and no loss to follow-up remain important strengths of the study. PMID:27500227

  7. Dietary Pattern and Risk of Hodgkin Lymphoma in a Population-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Mara M.; Chang, Ellen T.; Zhang, Yawei; Fung, Teresa T.; Batista, Julie L.; Ambinder, Richard F.; Zheng, Tongzhang; Mueller, Nancy E.; Birmann, Brenda M.

    2015-01-01

    Classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) has few known modifiable risk factors, and the relationship between diet and cHL risk is unclear. We performed the first investigation of an association between dietary pattern and cHL risk in 435 cHL cases and 563 population-based controls from Massachusetts and Connecticut (1997–2000) who completed baseline diet questionnaires. We identified 4 major dietary patterns (“vegetable,” “high meat,” “fruit/low-fat dairy,” “desserts/sweets”) using principal components analysis. We computed multivariable odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations of dietary pattern score (quartiles) with younger-adult (age <50 years), older-adult (age ≥50 years), and overall cHL risk. Secondary analyses examined associations by histological subtype and tumor Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status. A diet high in desserts/sweets was associated with younger-adult (odds ratio(quartile 4 vs. quartile 1) = 1.60, 95% confidence interval: 1.05, 2.45; Ptrend = 0.008) and EBV-negative, younger-adult (odds ratio = 2.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.31, 3.41; Ptrend = 0.007) cHL risk. A high meat diet was associated with older-adult (odds ratio = 3.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 10.91; Ptrend = 0.04) and EBV-negative, older-adult (odds ratio = 4.64, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 20.86; Ptrend = 0.04) cHL risk. Other dietary patterns were not clearly associated with cHL. We report the first evidence for a role of dietary pattern in cHL etiology. Diets featuring high intake of meat or desserts and sweets may increase cHL risk. PMID:26182945

  8. Bipolar disorder and the risk of fracture: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Su, Jian-An; Cheng, Bi-Hua; Huang, Yin-Cheng; Lee, Chuan-Pin; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Lu, Mong-Liang; Hsu, Chung-Yao; Lee, Yena; McIntyre, Roger S; Chin Lin, Tzu; Chin-Hung Chen, Vincent

    2017-08-15

    The co-primary aims are: 1) to compare the risk of fracture between adults with bipolar disorder and those without bipolar disorder; and 2) to assess whether lithium, anticonvulsants and antipsychotics reduce risk of fracture among individuals with bipolar disorder. The analysis herein is a population-based retrospective cohort study, utilizing the National Health Insurance (NHI) medical claims data collected between 1997 and 2013 in Taiwan. We identified 3705 cases with incident diagnoses of bipolar disorder during study period and 37,050 matched controls without bipolar diagnoses. Incident diagnosis of fracture was operationalized as any bone fracture after the diagnosis of bipolar disorder or after the matched index date for controls. Bipolar patients had significantly higher risk of facture when compared to matched controls (17.6% versus 11.7%, respectively p<0.001). The hazard ratio (HR) was 1.33 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.23-1.48, p<0.001) after adjusting for covariates. Persons with bipolar disorder and a prior history of psychiatric hospitalization were had higher risk for bone fracture than those without prior history of psychiatric hospitalization when compared to match controls. Higher cumulative dose of antipsychotics or mood stabilizers did not increase the risk of fracture. The diagnoses of bipolar disorder were not confirmed with structured clinical interview. Drug adherence, exact exposure dosage, smoking, lifestyle, nutrition and exercise habits were unable to be assessed in our dataset. Bipolar disorder is associated with increased risk of fracture, and higher cumulative dose of mood stabilizers and antipsychotics did not further increase the risk of fracture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. OCCUPATION AND BREAST CANCER RISK AMONG SHANGHAI WOMEN IN A POPULATION-BASED COHORT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Bu-Tian; Blair, Aaron; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Chow, Wong-Ho; Hauptmann, Michael; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Yang, Gong; Lubin, Jay; Gao, Yu-Tang; Rothman, Nat; Zheng, W

    2010-01-01

    Introduction A total of 74,942 female subjects were recruited in a population-based cohort study in Shanghai, China between 1997 and 2000. We examined the relationship between occupation and breast cancer risk by using baseline data from the cohort study. Methods Cases were 586 women previously diagnosed with breast cancer at baseline and 438 women newly diagnosed with breast cancer by December 2004 during follow-up. Eight controls were randomly selected for each case from cancer-free cohort members and frequency-matched to the cases by year of birth and age at diagnosis, respectively. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of breast cancer risk associated with occupations adjusting for typical breast cancer risk factors. Results In the prevalent breast cancer data analysis, increased risks of breast cancer were associated with technicians in engineering/agriculture/forestry (OR= 1.6, 1.0-2.4), teaching personnel (OR=1.5, 1.1-2.0), tailoring/sewing workers (OR=1.6, 1.0-2.7), examiners/measurers/testers (OR=1.5, 1.1-2.1) among those who started the jobs at least 20 years ago. In the incident cases, the significantly increased risks were associated with medical/health care workers (OR=1.4, 1.0-2.0), administrative clerical workers (OR=1.5, 1.0-2.4), postal/telecommunication workers (OR=2.2, 1.0-5.5), and odd-job workers (OR=1.7, 1.1-2.8) among those who started the jobs at least 20 years ago. The excess risks were found in both prevalent and incident cases for postal/telecommunication workers and purchasing/marketing personnel, although ORs reached only marginal significance. Conclusions This study suggests that white-collar professionals and several production occupations may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. PMID:18067183

  10. Insomnia and the Risk of Atrial Fibrillation: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hsiu-Hao; Chen, Yueh-Chung; Chen, Jien-Jiun; Lo, Shih-Hsiang; Guo, Yue-Liang; Hu, Hsiao-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Background Although advancements in the treatment of atrial fibrillation have improved patient prognosis for this persistent condition, interest in atrial fibrillation development is growing. Of note is the fact that additional attention is being focused on the accompanying effect of insomnia. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of insomnia on the risk of atrial fibrillation development. Methods This was a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study using data from the Taiwan National health Insurance Research Database. We analyzed 64,421 insomnia cases and 128,842 matched controls without insomnia from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2010. A Cox regression model was used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for atrial fibrillation development. Results During the follow-up period, the incidence of atrial fibrillation development was significantly higher in the insomnia cases than in the comparison cohort (2.6% vs. 2.3%, p < 0.001). Insomnia was associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (HR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.01-1.14). Males, those > 65 years of age, and patients with peripheral artery disease who have insomnia had a higher rate of atrial fibrillation development. Conclusions The findings of this nationwide analysis support the hypothesis that insomnia is associated with a significant risk of atrial fibrillation development. PMID:28344420

  11. Risk of dementia in patients with celiac disease: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lebwohl, Benjamin; Luchsinger, José A; Freedberg, Daniel E; Green, Peter H R; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2016-01-01

    Patients with celiac disease (CD) frequently report cognitive symptoms when they are exposed to gluten, and cognitive deficits have been quantified in patients with newly diagnosed CD. To determine whether patients with CD have an increased risk of dementia. Using a population-based database of older adults (age ≥50 years) with histologically proven CD (duodenal/jejunal villous atrophy) from all 28 pathology departments in Sweden, we compared the incidence of a subsequent dementia diagnosis to those of age- and gender-matched controls. Among patients with CD (n = 8,846) and controls (n = 43,474), the median age was 63 years and 56% were female. During a median follow-up time of 8.4 years, dementia was diagnosed in 4.3% of CD patients and 4.4% of controls (HR 1.07; 95% CI 0.95-1.20). Although there was an increased risk of dementia in the first year following a diagnosis of CD (HR 1.73; 95% CI 1.15-2.61), this risk was not present in the whole observation period. Among those subjects with a dementia subtype specified, the increased risk was restricted to vascular dementia (HR 1.28; 95% CI 1.00-1.64) and was not present for Alzheimer's dementia (HR 1.12; 95% CI 0.91-1.37). Patients with CD are not at increased risk for dementia overall, though subgroup analysis suggests that they may be at increased risk for vascular dementia.

  12. Risk of Cancer in Patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yu-Wen; Hu, Li-Yu; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Teng, Chung-Jen; Kuan, Ai-Seon; Chen, San-Chi; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Liu, Chia-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the risk of cancer among patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) by using a nationwide population-based data set. Method Patients newly diagnosed with IDA and without antecedent cancer between 2000 and 2010 were recruited from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of cancer types among patients with IDA were calculated. Results Patients with IDA exhibited an increased overall cancer risk (SIR: 2.15). Subgroup analysis showed that patients of both sexes and in all age groups had an increased SIR. After we excluded patients diagnosed with cancer within the first and first 5 years of IDA diagnosis, the SIRs remained significantly elevated at 1.43 and 1.30, respectively. In addition, the risks of pancreatic (SIR: 2.31), kidney (SIR: 2.23), liver (SIR: 1.94), and bladder cancers (SIR: 1.74) remained significantly increased after exclusion of patients diagnosed with cancer within 5 years after IDA diagnosis. Conclusion The overall cancer risk was significantly elevated among patients with IDA. After we excluded patients diagnosed with IDA and cancer within 1 and 5 years, the SIRs remained significantly elevated compared with those of the general population. The increased risk of cancer was not confined to gastrointestinal cancer when the SIRs of pancreatic, kidney, liver, and bladder cancers significantly increased after exclusion of patients diagnosed with IDA and cancer within the first 5 years. This finding may be caused by immune activities altered by IDA. Further study is necessary to determine the association between IDA and cancer risk. PMID:25781632

  13. Antidepressants and risk of dementia in migraine patients: A population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cynthia Wei-Sheng; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Pan-Yen; Thielke, Stephen; Su, Kuan-Pin; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2017-04-07

    To ascertain the relationship between receipt of antidepressant agents and the risk of subsequent dementia in migraine patients. A population-based case-control analysis, using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. We identified 1774 patients with dementia and 1774 matched nondementia controls from migraine patients enrolled in the Taiwan National Health Insurance program between 2005 and 2011. The proportional distributions of exposure to three classes of antidepressant were compared between dementia and nondementia groups. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of dementia based on antidepressant exposure. The proportions of subjects taking tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and new-generation antidepressants (NGAs) in dementia versus nondementia groups are 52.3 vs 51.2%, 25.5 vs 30.7%, and 18.8 vs 6.26%, respectively. The adjusted ORs of dementia were 1.02 (95% CI=0.89, 1.17; P=0.56) for TCAs, 0.58 (95% CI=0.50, 0.69; P<0.001) for SSRIs, and 4.23 (95% CI=3.34, 5.37; P<0.001) for NGAs. Treatment with SSRIs was associated with a decreased risk of dementia in migraine patients. TCAs showed no association with dementia risk, and NGAs showed increased risk. Given the possibility of confounding by indication, additional prospective trials and basic research are needed before drawing conclusions about the population-level risks for dementia onset conferred by antidepressant medications.

  14. Neonatal outcomes in obese mothers: a population-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Minsart, Anne-Frederique; Buekens, Pierre; De Spiegelaere, Myriam; Englert, Yvon

    2013-02-11

    If it is well known that obesity increases morbidity for both mother and fetus and is associated with a variety of adverse reproductive outcomes, then few studies have assessed the relation between obesity and neonatal outcomes. This is the aim of the present study after taking into account type of labor and delivery, as well as social, medical and hospital characteristics in a population-based analysis. This study used 2009 data from the Belgian birth register data pertaining to the regions of Brussels and Wallonia and included 38,675 consecutive births. Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals for admission to neonatal intensive care unit, Apgar score, and perinatal mortality were calculated by logistic regression analyses adjusting for medical, social and hospital characteristics using obesity as the primary independent variable. The impact of analyzing all delivery sites together was tested using mixed-effect analyses. The adjusted odds ratio for neonatal intensive care unit admission was higher for obese mothers by 38% compared to non-obese mothers (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22-1.56), and by 45% (CI: 1.21-1.73) and 34% (CI: 1.10-1.63) after spontaneous and induced labour respectively. The adjusted odds ratio was 1.18 (CI: 0.86-1.63) after caesarean section. The adjusted odds ratio for 1 minute Apgar score inferior to 7 was higher for obese mothers by 31% compared to non-obese mothers (CI: 1.15-1.49) and by 26% (CI: 1.04-1.52) and 38% (CI: 1.12-1.69) after spontaneous and induced labour respectively. The adjusted odds ratio was 1.50 (CI: 0.96-2.36) after caesarean section. The adjusted odds ratio for perinatal mortality was 1.36 (CI: 0.75-2.45) for obese mothers compared to non-obese mothers. Neonatal admission to intensive care and low Apgar scores were more likely to occur in infants from obese mothers, both after spontaneous and induced labor.

  15. Population-Based Breast Cancer Screening With Risk-Based and Universal Mammography Screening Compared With Clinical Breast Examination: A Propensity Score Analysis of 1 429 890 Taiwanese Women.

    PubMed

    Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Tsau, Huei-Shian; Fann, Jean Ching-Yuan; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng; Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia; Lee, Yi-Chia; Pan, Shin-Liang; Chiu, Han-Mo; Kuo, Wen-Horng; Chang, King-Jen; Wu, Yi-Ying; Chuang, Shu-Lin; Hsu, Chen-Yang; Chang, Dun-Cheng; Koong, Shing-Lang; Wu, Chien-Yuan; Chia, Shu-Lih; Chen, Mei-Ju; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Chiou, Shu-Ti

    2016-07-01

    Different screening strategies for breast cancer are available but have not been researched in quantitative detail. To assess the benefits and the harms of risk-based and universal mammography screening in comparison with annual clinical breast examination (CBE). Population-based cohort study comparing incidences of stage II+ disease and death from breast cancer across 3 breast cancer screening strategies, with adjustment for a propensity score for participation based on risk factors for breast cancer and comparing the 3 strategies for overdetection between January 1999 and December 2009. Asymptomatic women attending outreach screening in the community or undergoing mammography in hospitals were enrolled in the 3 screening programs. Risk-based biennial mammography, universal biennial mammography, and annual CBE. Detection rates, stage II+ disease incidence, mortality from breast cancer, and overdiagnosis were compared using a time-dependent Cox proportional hazards regression model. A total of 1 429 890 asymptomatic women attending outreach screening in the community or undergoing mammography in hospitals were enrolled in the 3 screening programs. Detection rates (prevalent screen and subsequent screens per 1000) were the highest for universal biennial mammography (4.86 and 2.98, respectively), followed by risk-based mammography (2.80 and 2.77, respectively), and lowest for annual CBE (0.97 and 0.70, respectively). Universal biennial mammography screening, compared with annual CBE, was associated with a 41% mortality reduction (risk ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.48-0.73) and a 30% reduction of stage II+ breast cancer (RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.66-0.74). Risk-based mammography screening was associated with an 8% reduction of stage II+ breast cancer (RR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.86-0.99) but was not associated with a statistically significant mortality reduction (risk ratio [RR], 0.86; 95% CI, 0.73-1.02). Estimates of overdiagnosis were no different from CBE for risk-based screening

  16. Long-term cancer risk after hysterectomy on benign indications: Population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Altman, Daniel; Yin, Li; Falconer, Henrik

    2016-06-01

    Hysterectomy on benign indications is associated with an increased risk for adverse health effects. However, little is known about the association between hysterectomy and subsequent cancer occurrence later in life. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of hysterectomy on the incidence of cancer. In this population-based cohort study, we used data on 111,595 hysterectomized and 537,9843 nonhysterectomized women from nationwide Swedish Health Care registers including the Inpatient Register, the Cancer Register and the Cause of Death Register between 1973 and 2009. Hysterectomy with or without concomitant bilateral salpingo-ophorectomy (BSO) performed on benign indications was considered as exposure and incidence of primary cancers was used as outcome measure. Rare primary cancers (<100 cases for the two groups combined) were excluded from analysis. A marginal risk reduction for any cancer was observed for women with previous hysterectomy and for those with hysterectomy and concurrent BSO (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.91-0.95 and HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.87-0.96, respectively). Compared to nonhysterectomized women, significant risks were observed for thyroid cancer (HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.45-2.14). For both hysterectomy and hysterectomy with BSO, an association with brain cancer was observed (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.32-1.65 and HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.15-1.83, respectively). Hysterectomy, with or without BSO, was not associated with breast, lung or gastrointestinal cancer. We conclude that hysterectomy on benign indications is associated with an increased risk for thyroid and brain cancer later in life. Further research efforts are needed to identify patient groups at risk of malignancy following hysterectomy. © 2016 UICC.

  17. Risks of subsequent epilepsy among patients with hypertensive encephalopathy: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tzu-Tsao; Lin, Chi-Yu; Huang, Wen-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Li; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2013-11-01

    To determine whether the diagnosis of hypertensive encephalopathy (HE) is linked to an increased risk of subsequent epilepsy by using a nationwide population-based retrospective study. Our study featured a study cohort and a comparison cohort. The study cohort consisted of all patients with newly diagnosed HE between 1997 and 2010, compiled from universal insurance claims data on patients with hypertension taken from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The comparison cohort comprised the remaining hypertensive patients without encephalopathy. The follow-up period was terminated following the development of epilepsy, death, withdrawal from the National Health Insurance system, or the end of 2010. We determined the cumulative incidences and hazard ratios (HRs) of epilepsy development. The incidence of subsequent epilepsy was 2.25-fold higher in the patients with HE than in comparisons (4.17 vs. 1.85 per 1000 person-years), with an adjusted HR of 2.06 (95% CI=1.66-2.56) in the multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis. The incidence of epilepsy was higher in men, younger patients with HE, and those with brain disorders. We found that, in Taiwan, patients with HE are at an increased risk of subsequent epilepsy. Physicians should be aware of HE's link to epilepsy when assessing patients with HE. © 2013.

  18. Risk of Peripheral Artery Occlusive Disease in Patients with Vertigo, Tinnitus, or Sudden Deafness: A Secondary Case-Control Analysis of a Nationwide, Population-Based Health Claims Database.

    PubMed

    Koo, Malcolm; Chen, Jin-Cherng; Hwang, Juen-Haur

    2016-01-01

    Cochleovestibular symptoms, such as vertigo, tinnitus, and sudden deafness, are common manifestations of microvascular diseases. However, it is unclear whether these symptoms occurred preceding the diagnosis of peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD). Therefore, the aim of this case-control study was to investigate the risk of PAOD among patients with vertigo, tinnitus, and sudden deafness using a nationwide, population-based health claim database in Taiwan. We identified 5,340 adult patients with PAOD diagnosed between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2010 and 16,020 controls, frequency matched on age interval, sex, and year of index date, from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Risks of PAOD in patients with vertigo, tinnitus, or sudden deafness were separately evaluated with multivariate logistic regression analyses. Of the 5,340 patients with PAOD, 12.7%, 6.7%, and 0.3% were diagnosed with vertigo, tinnitus, and sudden deafness, respectively. In the controls, 10.6%, 6.1%, and 0.3% were diagnosed with vertigo (P < 0.001), tinnitus (P = 0.161), and sudden deafness (P = 0.774), respectively. Results from the multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the risk of PAOD was significantly increased in patients with vertigo (adjusted odds ratio = 1.12, P = 0.027) but not in those with tinnitus or sudden deafness. A modest increase in the risk of PAOD was observed among Taiwanese patients with vertigo, after adjustment for comorbidities.

  19. Risk of Peripheral Artery Occlusive Disease in Patients with Vertigo, Tinnitus, or Sudden Deafness: A Secondary Case-Control Analysis of a Nationwide, Population-Based Health Claims Database

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Juen-Haur

    2016-01-01

    Background Cochleovestibular symptoms, such as vertigo, tinnitus, and sudden deafness, are common manifestations of microvascular diseases. However, it is unclear whether these symptoms occurred preceding the diagnosis of peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD). Therefore, the aim of this case-control study was to investigate the risk of PAOD among patients with vertigo, tinnitus, and sudden deafness using a nationwide, population-based health claim database in Taiwan. Methods We identified 5,340 adult patients with PAOD diagnosed between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2010 and 16,020 controls, frequency matched on age interval, sex, and year of index date, from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Risks of PAOD in patients with vertigo, tinnitus, or sudden deafness were separately evaluated with multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results Of the 5,340 patients with PAOD, 12.7%, 6.7%, and 0.3% were diagnosed with vertigo, tinnitus, and sudden deafness, respectively. In the controls, 10.6%, 6.1%, and 0.3% were diagnosed with vertigo (P < 0.001), tinnitus (P = 0.161), and sudden deafness (P = 0.774), respectively. Results from the multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the risk of PAOD was significantly increased in patients with vertigo (adjusted odds ratio = 1.12, P = 0.027) but not in those with tinnitus or sudden deafness. Conclusions A modest increase in the risk of PAOD was observed among Taiwanese patients with vertigo, after adjustment for comorbidities. PMID:27631630

  20. Risk of Malignancy Among Patients With Sarcoidosis: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Ungprasert, Patompong; Crowson, Cynthia S; Matteson, Eric L

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the risk of malignancy in patients with sarcoidosis in a population-based cohort. A cohort of Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents diagnosed with sarcoidosis between January 1, 1976 and December 31, 2013 was identified based on individual medical record review. For each sarcoidosis subject, 2 sex- and age-matched comparator subjects without sarcoidosis were randomly selected. Cases and comparators were then cross-indexed with the Mayo Clinic Cancer Registry, which collected data on every type of malignancy except for nonmelanoma skin cancer, for malignancy ascertainment. A total of 345 incident cases of sarcoidosis and 690 comparators were identified. There was no difference in the prevalence of malignancy at the index date between the 2 groups (4.3% among cases and 4.3% among comparators; P = 1.0). During followup, 36 patients with sarcoidosis and 91 subjects without sarcoidosis developed malignancy, with a cumulative incidence at 10 years of 3.8% and 7.1%, respectively. The difference corresponded to a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.72 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.49-1.06). The cumulative incidences at 10 years for individual types of malignancy were also similar between the 2 groups, with nonsignificant HRs. However, subgroup analysis found that cases with extrathoracic involvement were at higher risk of incident hematologic malignancy compared with cases without extrathoracic involvement (HR 1.87 [95% CI 1.09-3.22]). Risk of malignancy was similar among patients with sarcoidosis compared to nonsarcoidosis subjects. However, the risk of incident hematologic malignancy was significantly higher among patients with sarcoidosis with extrathoracic involvement compared to patients without extrathoracic disease. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  1. Depressive symptoms, social support, and risk of adult asthma in a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Loerbroks, Adrian; Apfelbacher, Christian J; Bosch, Jos A; Stürmer, Til

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the association between depressive symptoms, social support, and prevalent as well as incident asthma. Depressive symptoms and social support may affect the development of asthma. This relationship could be mediated by health behaviors and/or inflammatory processes. Evidence from prospective cohort studies on depressive symptoms and social support in relation to asthma risk in adults remains sparse. Between 1992 and 1995, a population-based sample of 5114 middle-aged adults completed questionnaires covering depressive symptoms, social support, self-reported asthma, and potential confounders. Among those alive in 2002/2003, 4010 (83%) were followed-up by questionnaires. Associations with prevalent and incident asthma were estimated by prevalence ratios (PR) and risk ratios (RR) along with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs), using Poisson regression. PRs and RRs were adjusted for demographics, family history of asthma, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and physical exercise. Cross-sectional analyses indicated that the prevalence of asthma was positively associated with depressive symptoms and inversely related to social support. Prospective analysis suggested a 24% increased risk of asthma with each 1-standard deviation increase in depressive symptoms (RR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.02, 1.50), whereas the social support z score showed an inverse association with asthma incidence (RR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.58, 0.88). Analyses with tertiles suggested similar, but nonsignificant, associations. Omitting health-related life-style variables from the multivariable models did not substantially alter these associations. Risk of adult asthma was found to increase with depressive symptoms and to decrease with social support. These associations do not seem to be explained by health-related life-style factors.

  2. Population-based study of risk of breast cancer in carriers of BRCA2 mutation.

    PubMed

    Thorlacius, S; Struewing, J P; Hartge, P; Olafsdottir, G H; Sigvaldason, H; Tryggvadottir, L; Wacholder, S; Tulinius, H; Eyfjörd, J E

    1998-10-24

    Estimates of an 80-90% risk of breast cancer for carriers of germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are based on studies of families at high risk of breast cancer. Risk estimates for a population are possible if the mutation status of a representative sample of that population can be assessed. In Iceland, one common founder BRCA2 mutation occurs in 0.6% of the population. Iceland has a population-based cancer registry and a large collection of pedigrees, and estimation of cancer risk in mutation carriers is therefore possible. We studied 575 breast-cancer patients, 541 women and 34 men unselected for family history of breast cancer. Data on cancer in first-degree relatives were available from the cancer registry. Risk of cancer was estimated by comparing the history of cancer in first-degree relatives of carriers and non-carriers. 56 (10.4%) of the 541 women and 13 (38%) of the 34 men carried the 999del5 mutation. The estimated risk of breast cancer at age 50 for all female carriers of the 999del5 mutation was 17.0% (95% CI 9.1-25.9) and 37.2% (22.4-53.9) at age 70. The results of our population-based study show that the mean risk of breast cancer in carriers of mutation in BRCA2 is lower than previously suggested. Individual risk assessment will, however, have to take account of family history.

  3. Preeclampsia as a risk factor for diabetes: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Feig, Denice S; Shah, Baiju R; Lipscombe, Lorraine L; Wu, C Fangyun; Ray, Joel G; Lowe, Julia; Hwee, Jeremiah; Booth, Gillian L

    2013-01-01

    Women with preeclampsia (PEC) and gestational hypertension (GH) exhibit insulin resistance during pregnancy, independent of obesity and glucose intolerance. Our aim was to determine whether women with PEC or GH during pregnancy have an increased risk of developing diabetes after pregnancy, and whether the presence of PEC/GH in addition to gestational diabetes (GDM) increases the risk of future (postpartum) diabetes. We performed a population-based, retrospective cohort study for 1,010,068 pregnant women who delivered in Ontario, Canada between April 1994 and March 2008. Women were categorized as having PEC alone (n=22,933), GH alone (n=27,605), GDM alone (n=30,852), GDM+PEC (n=1,476), GDM+GH (n=2,100), or none of these conditions (n=925,102). Our main outcome was a new diagnosis of diabetes postpartum in the following years, up until March 2011, based on new records in the Ontario Diabetes Database. The incidence rate of diabetes per 1,000 person-years was 6.47 for women with PEC and 5.26 for GH compared with 2.81 in women with neither of these conditions. In the multivariable analysis, both PEC alone (hazard ratio [HR]=2.08; 95% CI 1.97-2.19) and GH alone (HR=1.95; 95% CI 1.83-2.07) were risk factors for subsequent diabetes. Women with GDM alone were at elevated risk of developing diabetes postpartum (HR=12.77; 95% CI 12.44-13.10); however, the co-presence of PEC or GH in addition to GDM further elevated this risk (HR=15.75; 95% CI 14.52-17.07, and HR=18.49; 95% CI 17.12-19.96, respectively). Data on obesity were not available. Women with PEC/GH have a 2-fold increased risk of developing diabetes when followed up to 16.5 years after pregnancy, even in the absence of GDM. The presence of PEC/GH in the setting of GDM also raised the risk of diabetes significantly beyond that seen with GDM alone. A history of PEC/GH during pregnancy should alert clinicians to the need for preventative counseling and more vigilant screening for diabetes. Please see later in the

  4. Dietary pattern and risk of hodgkin lymphoma in a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Mara M; Chang, Ellen T; Zhang, Yawei; Fung, Teresa T; Batista, Julie L; Ambinder, Richard F; Zheng, Tongzhang; Mueller, Nancy E; Birmann, Brenda M

    2015-09-01

    Classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) has few known modifiable risk factors, and the relationship between diet and cHL risk is unclear. We performed the first investigation of an association between dietary pattern and cHL risk in 435 cHL cases and 563 population-based controls from Massachusetts and Connecticut (1997-2000) who completed baseline diet questionnaires. We identified 4 major dietary patterns ("vegetable," "high meat," "fruit/low-fat dairy," "desserts/sweets") using principal components analysis. We computed multivariable odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations of dietary pattern score (quartiles) with younger-adult (age <50 years), older-adult (age ≥50 years), and overall cHL risk. Secondary analyses examined associations by histological subtype and tumor Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status. A diet high in desserts/sweets was associated with younger-adult (odds ratio(quartile 4 vs. quartile 1) = 1.60, 95% confidence interval: 1.05, 2.45; Ptrend = 0.008) and EBV-negative, younger-adult (odds ratio = 2.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.31, 3.41; Ptrend = 0.007) cHL risk. A high meat diet was associated with older-adult (odds ratio = 3.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 10.91; Ptrend = 0.04) and EBV-negative, older-adult (odds ratio = 4.64, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 20.86; Ptrend = 0.04) cHL risk. Other dietary patterns were not clearly associated with cHL. We report the first evidence for a role of dietary pattern in cHL etiology. Diets featuring high intake of meat or desserts and sweets may increase cHL risk. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. Risk factors for child maltreatment in an Australian population-based birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Doidge, James C; Higgins, Daryl J; Delfabbro, Paul; Segal, Leonie

    2017-02-01

    Child maltreatment and other adverse childhood experiences adversely influence population health and socioeconomic outcomes. Knowledge of the risk factors for child maltreatment can be used to identify children at risk and may represent opportunities for prevention. We examined a range of possible child, parent and family risk factors for child maltreatment in a prospective 27-year population-based birth cohort of 2443 Australians. Physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect and witnessing of domestic violence were recorded retrospectively in early adulthood. Potential risk factors were collected prospectively during childhood or reported retrospectively. Associations were estimated using bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions and combined into cumulative risk scores. Higher levels of economic disadvantage, poor parental mental health and substance use, and social instability were strongly associated with increased risk of child maltreatment. Indicators of child health displayed mixed associations and infant temperament was uncorrelated to maltreatment. Some differences were observed across types of maltreatment but risk profiles were generally similar. In multivariate analyses, nine independent risk factors were identified, including some that are potentially modifiable: economic disadvantage and parental substance use problems. Risk of maltreatment increased exponentially with the number of risk factors experienced, with prevalence of maltreatment in the highest risk groups exceeding 80%. A cumulative risk score based on the independent risk factors allowed identification of individuals at very high risk of maltreatment, while a score that incorporated all significant risk and protective factors provided better identification of low-risk individuals.

  6. Risk factors and perinatal outcome of pregnancies complicated with cephalopelvic disproportion: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Tsvieli, Oren; Sergienko, Ruslan; Sheiner, Eyal

    2012-04-01

    To characterize risk factors and perinatal outcome following cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD). A retrospective population-based study comparing all singleton deliveries of women with and without CPD, between 1988 and 2010, was conducted. A multiple logistic regression model was used to control for confounders. Out of 242,520 patients, 0.3% (n = 673) were diagnosed with CPD. Using a multivariable analysis, the following obstetric risk factors were significantly associated with CPD: fetal macrosomia (birth weight above 4 kg, OR = 3.3, 95% CI 2.7-4.1, P < 0.001), infertility treatment (OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.8-3.8, P < 0.001), previous caesarean delivery (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.9-2.7, P < 0.001), maternal obesity (OR = 2.1, 95% 1.3-3.4, P < 0.001), and polyhydramnios (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.3-2.3, P < 0.001). Deliveries complicated by CPD resulted in Caesarean delivery in 99%, and were more likely to have laceration of the cervix (1.2 vs. 0.3%, P < 0.001), rupture of uterus (0.4 vs. 0.1%, P < 0.001), intrapartum mortality (0.6 vs. 0.1% in control, P < 0.001), and low 1-min Apgar scores (<7; 27.2 vs. 6.5%, P < 0.001). In our population, independent risk factors for CPD include fetal macrosomia, infertility treatment, previous caesarean delivery, maternal obesity and polyhydramnion. These pregnancies had higher rates of adverse perinatal outcomes and accordingly high index of suspicion should be pursued when commencing trial of labor of such pregnancies.

  7. Vitreous haemorrhage: a population-based study of the incidence and risk factors in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ching-Yu; Cheang, Wai-Man; Hwang, De-Kuang; Lin, Ching-Heng

    2017-01-01

    AIM To report the epidemiology and incidence of vitreous hemorrhage and to evaluate risk factors for patients with vitreous hemorrhage (VH) in Taiwan. METHODS A retrospective population-based study. Analyzing a sample of one million subjects from all enrollees of the Taiwan Health Insurance programme. All data were obtained from the Taiwan Health Insurance Research Database, which contained patient sex, date of birth, all records of clinical visits and hospitalizations, and diagnosis codes as included in the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM). The main outcome measures were the incidence and risk factors of VH. RESULT From 2001 to 2010, the database claim 4379 newly diagnosed cases were identified with VH. The average incidence of VH in Taiwan was 4.8 cases per ten-thousand person-years generally and increased with time especially in subjects who aged between 40 and 59y and when the VH was associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathies or retinal vein occlusions. A definitely upward trends in the incidence of VH from 2001 to 2010 were noted (P-value for increasing trend <0.001). Univariate Cox's regression analysis pointed out that older age (for 40-59, P<0.001, HR=9.39; for ≥60, P<0.001, HR=11.39), male gender (P=0.03, HR=1.07) and subjects who had been prescribed anti-coagulation drug included aspirin, warfarin and clopidogrel (P<0.001, HR=2.20) were significant risk factors for suffering from VH. CONCLUSION The incidence of VH is estimated being 4.8 cases per 10 000 person-years in Taiwan. Age, male gender and having been prescribed anti-coagulation drugs are associated with the incidence of VH. PMID:28393040

  8. Incidence and risk of seizures in Alzheimer's disease: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Liu, Chia-Jen; Ou, Shuo-Ming; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Lin, Yung-Yang; Wang, Shuu-Jiun

    2015-09-01

    The reported incidence and risk factors mediating seizures in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been extremely inconsistent and relevant data is lacking in Asia. We investigated the incidence rate and risk of seizures in AD and in a large, nationwide cohort from Han Chinese. A retrospective population-based study was conducted on the data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database from 2000 to 2010. To reduce selection bias, we applied propensity scores, wherein 981 patients with AD were matched to 3835 non-AD controls from a pool of 1000,000 randomly sampled cohort dataset. This approach was based on age, sex, comorbidities and previous brain conditions. Incidence rate, cumulative incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated. During the 10-year follow-up period (mean follow-up time, 4.02 years), 44 out of 937 AD patients (4.7%) developed seizures. The incidence rate in the AD cohort (11.9 per 1000 person-years) was higher than that in the matched cohort (5.7 per 1000 person-years), with an adjusted HR of 1.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-2.83, p=0.005). The mean duration from the diagnosis of AD to the occurrence of seizure is 3.6 years. The Cox regression analysis revealed that AD itself is a significant predictor after adjustment for confounders (HR=2.01, 95% CI, 1.40-2.90, p<0.001). Moreover, age is an independent predictor, with an adjusted HR of 1.03 (95% CI, 1.00-1.05, p=0.019). In conclusion, seizure occurrence in AD is more common than in the matched cohort. Notably, advanced age carries a higher risk for development of seizures in patients with AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Occupation and risk of pancreatic cancer: a population-based case-control study in iowa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yawei; Cantor, Kenneth P; Lynch, Charles F; Zhu, Yong; Zheng, Tongzhang

    2005-04-01

    Previous epidemiological studies have inconsistently linked various occupations and industries to pancreatic cancer risk. We analyzed data from a population-based case-control study conducted in Iowa involving 376 histologically confirmed incident pancreatic cancer cases and 2434 control subjects. A significantly increased risk was observed among men who worked in the following industries: chemical and allied products, transportation, and elementary and secondary schools. Increased risks also were observed in men who were employed as truck drivers; railroad brake, signal, and switch operators; purchasing agents and buyers; teachers; insurance agents; and retail supervisors. Among women, a significantly increased risk of pancreatic cancer was found for employment in furniture and home furnishing stores, and a borderline significantly increased risk among textile sewing machine operators and tenders. Working in several occupations and industries was associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer in this study, and these associations warrant further investigation.

  10. Smoldering multiple myeloma risk factors for progression: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sørrig, Rasmus; Klausen, Tobias W; Salomo, Morten; Vangsted, Annette J; Østergaard, Brian; Gregersen, Henrik; Frølund, Ulf Christian; Andersen, Niels F; Helleberg, Carsten; Andersen, Kristian T; Pedersen, Robert S; Pedersen, Per; Abildgaard, Niels; Gimsing, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Several risk scores for disease progression in patients with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) have been proposed; however, all have been developed using single-center registries. To examine risk factors for time to progression (TTP) to multiple myeloma (MM) for SMM, we analyzed a nationwide population-based cohort of 321 patients with newly diagnosed SMM registered within the Danish Multiple Myeloma Registry between 2005 and 2014. Significant univariable risk factors for TTP were selected for multivariable Cox regression analyses. We found that both an M-protein ≥30 g/L and immunoparesis significantly influenced TTP (HR 2.7, 95%CI (1.5;4.7), P = 0.001, and HR 3.3, 95%CI (1.4;7.8), P = 0.002, respectively). High free light chain (FLC) ratio did not significantly influence TTP in our cohort. Therefore, our data do not support recent IMWG proposal of identifying patients with FLC ratio above 100 as having ultra high-risk of transformation to MM. Using only immunoparesis and M-protein ≥30 g/L, we created a scoring system to identify low-, intermediate-, and high-risk SMM. This first population-based study of patients with SMM confirms that an M-protein ≥30 g/L and immunoparesis remain important risk factors for progression to MM. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. School performance and the risk of suicidal thoughts in young adults: population-based study.

    PubMed

    Kosidou, Kyriaki; Dalman, Christina; Fredlund, Peeter; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Although low school performance is related to attempted and completed suicide, its relationship with suicidal thoughts has been less clear. We conducted a population-based study including 10081 individuals aged 18-29 years in Stockholm, Sweden, and found a clear positive gradient in the risk of lifetime suicidal thoughts with decreasing levels of compulsory school leaving grades. This relationship was somewhat attenuated but remained significant in multivariate models accounting for family background, severe adult psychopathology and adult socioeconomic conditions. School failure is associated with an increased risk of experiencing suicidal thoughts and may also increase the tendency of acting upon them.

  12. An obesity/cardiometabolic risk reduction disease management program: a population-based approach.

    PubMed

    Villagra, Victor G

    2009-04-01

    Obesity is a critical health concern that has captured the attention of public and private healthcare payers who are interested in controlling costs and mitigating the long-term economic consequences of the obesity epidemic. Population-based approaches to obesity management have been proposed that take advantage of a chronic care model (CCM), including patient self-care, the use of community-based resources, and the realization of care continuity through ongoing communications with patients, information technology, and public policy changes. Payer-sponsored disease management programs represent an important conduit to delivering population-based care founded on similar CCM concepts. Disease management is founded on population-based disease identification, evidence-based care protocols, and collaborative practices between clinicians. While substantial clinician training, technology infrastructure commitments, and financial support at the payer level will be needed for the success of disease management programs in obesity and cardiometabolic risk reduction, these barriers can be overcome with the proper commitment. Disease management programs represent an important tool to combat the growing societal risks of overweight and obesity.

  13. Medullary carcinoma of the large intestine: a population based analysis.

    PubMed

    Thirunavukarasu, Pragatheeshwar; Sathaiah, Magesh; Singla, Smit; Sukumar, Shyam; Karunamurthy, Arivarasan; Pragatheeshwar, Kothai Divya; Lee, Kenneth K W; Zeh, Herbert; Kane, Kevin M; Bartlett, David L

    2010-10-01

    Medullary carcinoma (MC) of the colorectum is a relatively new histological type of adenocarcinoma characterized by poor glandular differentiation and intraepithelial lymphocytic infiltrate. To date, there has been no epidemiological study of this rare tumor type, which has now been incorporated as a separate entity in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of colorectal cancers. We used the population-based registries of the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database to identify all cases of colorectal MC between 1973 and 2006 and compared them to poorly and undifferentiated colonic adenocarcinomas (PDA and UDA, respectively). We observed that MCs were rare tumors, constituting approximately 5-8 cases for every 10,000 colon cancers diagnosed, with a mean annual incidence of 3.47 (+/-0.75) per 10 million population. Mean age at diagnosis was 69.3 (+/-12.5) years, with incidence increasing with age. MCs were twice as common in females, who presented at a later age, with a lower stage and a trend towards favorable prognosis. MCs were extremely rare among African-Americans. MCs were most common in the proximal colon (74%), where they present at a later age than the sigmoid colon. There were no cases reliably identified in the rectum or appendix. Serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels (CEA) were elevated prior to first course of treatment in 40% of the patients. MCs were more commonly poorly differentiated (72%), with 22% being undifferentiated. MCs commonly presented with Stage II disease, with 10% presenting with metastases. Only one patient presented with N2b disease (>7 positive nodes). Early outcome analyses showed that MCs have 1- and 2-year relative survival rates of 92.7 and 73.8% respectively. Although MCs showed a trend towards better early overall survival, undifferentiated MCs present more commonly with Stage III, with comparatively worse early outcomes.

  14. Cardiovascular Disease Risk in a Large, Population-Based Cohort of Breast Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Boekel, Naomi B; Schaapveld, Michael; Gietema, Jourik A; Russell, Nicola S; Poortmans, Philip; Theuws, Jacqueline C M; Schinagl, Dominic A X; Rietveld, Derek H F; Versteegh, Michel I M; Visser, Otto; Rutgers, Emiel J T; Aleman, Berthe M P; van Leeuwen, Flora E

    2016-04-01

    To conduct a large, population-based study on cardiovascular disease (CVD) in breast cancer (BC) survivors treated in 1989 or later. A large, population-based cohort comprising 70,230 surgically treated stage I to III BC patients diagnosed before age 75 years between 1989 and 2005 was linked with population-based registries for CVD. Cardiovascular disease risks were compared with the general population, and within the cohort using competing risk analyses. Compared with the general Dutch population, BC patients had a slightly lower CVD mortality risk (standardized mortality ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-0.97). Only death due to valvular heart disease was more frequent (standardized mortality ratio 1.28, 95% CI 1.08-1.52). Left-sided radiation therapy after mastectomy increased the risk of any cardiovascular event compared with both surgery alone (subdistribution hazard ratio (sHR) 1.23, 95% CI 1.11-1.36) and right-sided radiation therapy (sHR 1.19, 95% CI 1.04-1.36). Radiation-associated risks were found for not only ischemic heart disease, but also for valvular heart disease and congestive heart failure (CHF). Risks were more pronounced in patients aged <50 years at BC diagnosis (sHR 1.48, 95% CI 1.07-2.04 for left- vs right-sided radiation therapy after mastectomy). Left- versus right-sided radiation therapy after wide local excision did not increase the risk of all CVD combined, yet an increased ischemic heart disease risk was found (sHR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.28). Analyses including detailed radiation therapy information showed an increased CVD risk for left-sided chest wall irradiation alone, left-sided breast irradiation alone, and internal mammary chain field irradiation, all compared with right-sided breast irradiation alone. Compared with patients not treated with chemotherapy, chemotherapy used ≥1997 (ie, anthracyline-based chemotherapy) increased the risk of CHF (sHR 1.35, 95% CI 1.00-1.83). Radiation therapy regimens used in BC treatment

  15. Statin adherence and the risk of Parkinson's disease: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rozani, Violetta; Giladi, Nir; El-Ad, Baruch; Gurevich, Tanya; Tsamir, Judith; Hemo, Beatriz; Peretz, Chava

    2017-01-01

    While experimental data provided some compelling evidence on the benefits of statins on dopaminergic neurons, observational studies reported conflicting results regarding the potential of statins to effect the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). To evaluate the association between changes in statin adherence over time and PD risk. A population-based cohort of new statin users (ages 40-79, years 1999-2012) was derived from a large Israeli healthcare services organization. Data included history of statin purchases and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Personal statin adherence was measured annually by the proportion of days covered (PDC). PD was detected employing a drug-tracer approach. Stratified (by sex, LDL-C levels at baseline and age) Cox proportional hazards models with time-dependent covariates were used to compute adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR) with 95%CI. The cohort included 232,877 individuals, 49.3% men. Mean age at first statin purchase was 56.5 (±9.8) years for men and 58.7 (±9.2) years for women. PDC distribution for the whole follow up period differed between men and women: medians 58.3% and 54.1% respectively. During a mean follow up of 7.6 (±3.4) years, 2,550 (1.1%) PD cases were identified. In a 1-year lagged analysis, we found no association between annual statin adherence and PD risk in all age-groups regardless of statin type and potency. Age-pooled HR (95%CI) for men and women with LDL-C levels at baseline ≤160mg/dL were: 0.99 (0.99-1.01), 1.01 (1.00-1.02); and for men and women with LDL-C >160mg/dL levels: 0.99 (0.98-1.01), 0.97 (0.98-1.01). Our findings suggest that statin adherence over time does not affect PD risk. Future studies should use large-scale cohorts and refining assessments of long-term profiles in statin adherence.

  16. Perinatal risk factors in offenders with severe personality disorder: a population-based investigation

    PubMed Central

    Fazel, Seena; Bakiyeva, Liliya; Cnattingius, Sven; Grann, Martin; Hultman, Christina M.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Geddes, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Although perinatal factors are associated with the development of several psychiatric disorders, it is unknown whether these factors are linked with personality disorder. Cases of personality disorder were drawn from a national registry of all forensic psychiatric evaluations (n=150). Two control groups were used: 1. A sample of forensic evaluations without any psychiatric disorder (n=97) allowing for a nested case-control investigation; 2: A population-based sample matched by age and gender with no history of psychiatric hospitalization (n=1498). Prematurity (<37 weeks of completed gestation) was significantly associated with a diagnosis of personality disorder, both in the nested and the population-based case-control comparisons with adjusted odds ratios (OR) for this risk factors ranging from 2 to 4. Asphyxia (adjusted OR=2.4, 95% CI: 1.4-4.1) and complicated delivery (adjusted OR=1.5, 1.0-2.1) were associated with personality disorder in the population-based study, and the former remained significant in multivariate models. Overall, perinatal complications were found to be associated with a later diagnosis of personality disorder in this selected sample. As with other psychiatric disorders where such associations have been demonstrated, changes during the perinatal period may lead to abnormal brain development and function. PMID:23013342

  17. Frequency of and risk factors for the surgical resection of nonmalignant colorectal polyps: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Le Roy, Florence; Manfredi, Sylvain; Hamonic, Stéphanie; Piette, Christine; Bouguen, Guillaume; Riou, Françoise; Bretagne, Jean-François

    2016-03-01

    The management of patients with colon polyps who are referred to surgery remains uncharacterized in a population-based setting. The aims of this study were to determine the frequency, risk factors, and outcomes of patients referred for surgical resection of colorectal polyps. All patients who underwent a colonoscopy for positive fecal occult blood test in the setting of a population-based colorectal cancer screening program in France between 2003 and 2012 were analyzed. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients undergoing colorectal surgery for polyps without invasive carcinoma. Logistic regression analysis was applied to identify risk factors for surgical resection. Among 4251 patients with at least one colorectal polyp, 175 (4.1 %) underwent colorectal surgery. Risk factors for surgery included size, proximal polyp location, advanced histology (villous or high grade dysplasia), the endoscopy center, and colonoscopy performed during the first half of the study period. Subgroup analysis of 3475 colonoscopies performed by 22 endoscopists who performed at least 50 colonoscopies during the study period, identified the endoscopist as an additional risk factor. The adjusted proportions of referrals to surgery ranged from 0 to 46.6 % per endoscopist for polyps ≥ 20  mm (median 20.2 %). Overall, surgical complications occurred in 24.0 %, and one patient died following surgery (0.5 %). None of the 175 patients who underwent surgery were referred to a tertiary endoscopic center prior to surgery. In this population-based study, 4.1 % of patients with nonmalignant polyps were referred for surgical resection. The endoscopist was one important factor that was associated with surgical referral. To further decrease the proportion of inappropriate surgery in patients, endoscopists should refer their patients with large or difficult polyps to expert endoscopists prior to surgery. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Socioeconomic factors and penile cancer risk and mortality; a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Torbrand, Christian; Wigertz, Annette; Drevin, Linda; Folkvaljon, Yasin; Lambe, Mats; Håkansson, Ulf; Kirrander, Peter

    2017-02-01

    To investigate possible associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and penile cancer risk, stage at diagnosis, and mortality. A population-based register study including men in Sweden diagnosed with penile cancer between 2000 and 2012 (1676 men) and randomly chosen controls (9872 men). Data were retrieved from the National Penile Cancer Register (NPECR) and several other population-based healthcare and sociodemographic registers. Educational level, disposable income, marital status, and number of individuals in the household, were assessed as indicators of SES. The risk of penile cancer and penile cancer death in relation to SES were estimated using logistic regression and proportional hazards models, respectively. Cumulative cause-specific mortality (CSM) estimates by SES were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. A low educational level and low disposable income were associated with an increased risk of invasive penile cancer. Furthermore, low educational level was associated with more advanced primary tumour stage. Divorced and never married men had a generally increased risk of penile cancer and were diagnosed with more advanced primary tumour stages. However, neither educational level nor marital status was associated with lymph node or distant metastases. Also, men in single-person households had an increased risk of both non-invasive and invasive disease. In men with invasive penile cancer, there were no significant associations of indicators of SES and CSM. Low educational level, low disposable income, being divorced or never married, and living in a single-person household, all increase the risk of advanced stage penile cancer, but not lymph node or distant metastases. The assessed indicators of SES did not influence penile CSM. In conclusion, our findings indicates that SES influences the risk and stage of penile cancer, but not survival. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Stroke Risk After Non-Stroke ED Dizziness Presentations: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kerber, Kevin A.; Zahuranec, Darin B.; Brown, Devin L.; Meurer, William J.; Burke, James F.; Smith, Melinda A.; Lisabeth, Lynda D.; Fendrick, A. Mark; McLaughlin, Thomas; Morgenstern, Lewis B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Acute stroke is a serious concern in Emergency Department (ED) dizziness presentations. Prior studies, however, suggest that stroke is actually an unlikely cause of these presentations. Lacking are data on short- and long-term follow-up from population-based studies to establish stroke risk after presumed non-stroke ED dizziness presentations. Methods From 5/8/2011 to 5/7/2012, patients ≥ 45 years of age presenting to EDs in Nueces County, Texas, with dizziness, vertigo, or imbalance were identified, excluding those with stroke as the initial diagnosis. Stroke events after the ED presentation up to 10/2/2012 were determined using the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) study, which uses rigorous surveillance and neurologist validation. Cumulative stroke risk was calculated using Kaplan-Meier estimates. Results 1,245 patients were followed for a median of 347 days (IQR 230- 436 days). Median age was 61.9 years (IQR, 53.8-74.0 years). After the ED visit, fifteen patients (1.2%) had a stroke. Stroke risk was 0.48% (95% CI, 0.22%-1.07%) at 2 days; 0.48% (95% CI, 0.22%-1.07%) at 7 days; 0.56% (95% CI, 0.27%-1.18%) at 30 days; 0.56% (95% CI, 0.27%-1.18%) at 90 days; and 1.42% (95% CI, 0.85%-2.36%) at 12 months. Interpretation Using rigorous case ascertainment and outcome assessment in a population-based design, we found that the risk of stroke after presumed non-stroke ED dizziness presentations is very low, supporting a non-stroke etiology to the overwhelming majority of original events. High-risk subgroups likely exist, however, because most of the 90-day stroke risk occurred within 2-days. Vascular risk stratification was insufficient to identify these cases. PMID:24788511

  20. Vasectomy and risk of prostate cancer: population based matched cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Robert J; Macdonald, Erin M; Li, Qing; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Earle, Craig C; Kulkarni, Girish S; Jarvi, Keith A; Juurlink, David N

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between vasectomy and prostate cancer, adjusting for measures of health seeking behaviour. Design Population based matched cohort study. Setting Multiple validated healthcare databases in Ontario, Canada, 1994-2012. Participants 326 607 men aged 20 to 65 who had undergone vasectomy were identified through physician billing codes and matched 1:1 on age (within two years), year of cohort entry, comorbidity score, and geographical region to men who did not undergo a vasectomy. Main outcomes measures The primary outcome was incident prostate cancer. Secondary outcomes were prostate cancer related grade, stage, and mortality. Results 3462 incident cases of prostate cancer were identified after a median follow-up of 10.9 years: 1843 (53.2%) in the vasectomy group and 1619 (46.8%) in the non-vasectomy group. In unadjusted analysis, vasectomy was associated with a slightly increased risk of incident prostate cancer (hazard ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.20). After adjustment for measures of health seeking behaviour, however, no association remained (adjusted hazard ratio 1.02, 95% confidence interval 0.95 to 1.09). Moreover, no association was found between vasectomy and high grade prostate cancer (adjusted odds ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval 0.67 to 1.66), advanced stage prostate cancer (adjusted odds ratio 1.04, 0.81 to 1.34), or mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.06, 0.60 to 1.85). Conclusion The findings do not support an independent association between vasectomy and prostate cancer. PMID:27811008

  1. Population-Based Assessment of Exposure to Risk Behaviors in Motion Pictures.

    PubMed

    Sargent, James D; Worth, Keilah A; Beach, Michael; Gerrard, Meg; Heatherton, Todd F

    2008-01-01

    The aim of most population-based studies of media is to relate a specific exposure to an outcome of interest. A research program has been developed that evaluates exposure to different components of movies in an attempt of assess the association of such exposure with the adoption of substance use during adolescence. To assess exposure to movie substance use, one must measure both viewing time and content. In developing the exposure measure, the study team was interested in circumventing a common problem in exposure measurement, where measures often conflate exposure to media with attention to media. Our aim in this paper is to present a validated measure of exposure to entertainment media, the Beach method, which combines recognition of a movie title with content analysis of the movie for substance use, to generate population based measures of exposure to substance use in this form of entertainment.

  2. Gout and the risk of Alzheimer's disease: a population-based, BMI-matched cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Na; Dubreuil, Maureen; Zhang, Yuqing; Neogi, Tuhina; Rai, Sharan K; Ascherio, Alberto; Hernán, Miguel A; Choi, Hyon K

    2016-03-01

    While gout is associated with cardiovascular (CV)-metabolic comorbidities and their sequelae, the antioxidant effects of uric acid may have neuroprotective benefits. We evaluated the potential impact of incident gout on the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a general population context. We conducted an age-matched, sex-matched, entry-time-matched and body mass index (BMI)-matched cohort study using data from The Health Improvement Network, an electronic medical record database representative of the UK general population, from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2013. Up to five non-gout individuals were matched to each case of incident gout by age, sex, year of enrolment and BMI. We compared incidence rates of AD between the gout and comparison cohorts, excluding individuals with prevalent gout or dementia at baseline. Multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated, while adjusting for smoking, alcohol use, physician visits, social deprivation index, comorbidities and medication use. We repeated the same analysis among patients with incident osteoarthritis (OA) as a negative control exposure. We identified 309 new cases of AD among 59 224 patients with gout (29% female, mean age 65 years) and 1942 cases among 238 805 in the comparison cohort over a 5-year median follow up (1.0 vs 1.5 per 1000 person-years, respectively). Univariate (age-matched, sex-matched, entry-time-matched and BMI-matched) and multivariate HRs for AD among patients with gout were 0.71 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.80) and 0.76 (95% CI 0.66 to 0.87), respectively. The inverse association persisted among subgroups stratified by sex, age group (<75 and ≥75 years), social deprivation index and history of CV disease. The association between incident OA and the risk of incident AD was null. These findings provide the first general population-based evidence that gout is inversely associated with the risk of developing AD, supporting the purported potential neuroprotective role of uric acid

  3. Fetal growth and risk of stillbirth: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Radek; Hansen, Nellie I; Willinger, Marian; Reddy, Uma M; Parker, Corette B; Pinar, Halit; Silver, Robert M; Dudley, Donald J; Stoll, Barbara J; Saade, George R; Koch, Matthew A; Rowland Hogue, Carol J; Varner, Michael W; Conway, Deborah L; Coustan, Donald; Goldenberg, Robert L

    2014-04-01

    Stillbirth is strongly related to impaired fetal growth. However, the relationship between fetal growth and stillbirth is difficult to determine because of uncertainty in the timing of death and confounding characteristics affecting normal fetal growth. We conducted a population-based case-control study of all stillbirths and a representative sample of live births in 59 hospitals in five geographic areas in the US. Fetal growth abnormalities were categorized as small for gestational age (SGA) (<10th percentile) or large for gestational age (LGA) (>90th percentile) at death (stillbirth) or delivery (live birth) using population, ultrasound, and individualized norms. Gestational age at death was determined using an algorithm that considered the time-of-death interval, postmortem examination, and reliability of the gestational age estimate. Data were weighted to account for the sampling design and differential participation rates in various subgroups. Among 527 singleton stillbirths and 1,821 singleton live births studied, stillbirth was associated with SGA based on population, ultrasound, and individualized norms (odds ratio [OR] [95% CI]: 3.0 [2.2 to 4.0]; 4.7 [3.7 to 5.9]; 4.6 [3.6 to 5.9], respectively). LGA was also associated with increased risk of stillbirth using ultrasound and individualized norms (OR [95% CI]: 3.5 [2.4 to 5.0]; 2.3 [1.7 to 3.1], respectively), but not population norms (OR [95% CI]: 0.6 [0.4 to 1.0]). The associations were stronger with more severe SGA and LGA (<5th and >95th percentile). Analyses adjusted for stillbirth risk factors, subset analyses excluding potential confounders, and analyses in preterm and term pregnancies showed similar patterns of association. In this study 70% of cases and 63% of controls agreed to participate. Analysis weights accounted for differences between consenting and non-consenting women. Some of the characteristics used for individualized fetal growth estimates were missing and were replaced with reference

  4. Fetal Growth and Risk of Stillbirth: A Population-Based Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Bukowski, Radek; Hansen, Nellie I.; Willinger, Marian; Reddy, Uma M.; Parker, Corette B.; Pinar, Halit; Silver, Robert M.; Dudley, Donald J.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Saade, George R.; Koch, Matthew A.; Rowland Hogue, Carol J.; Varner, Michael W.; Conway, Deborah L.; Coustan, Donald; Goldenberg, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Stillbirth is strongly related to impaired fetal growth. However, the relationship between fetal growth and stillbirth is difficult to determine because of uncertainty in the timing of death and confounding characteristics affecting normal fetal growth. Methods and Findings We conducted a population-based case–control study of all stillbirths and a representative sample of live births in 59 hospitals in five geographic areas in the US. Fetal growth abnormalities were categorized as small for gestational age (SGA) (<10th percentile) or large for gestational age (LGA) (>90th percentile) at death (stillbirth) or delivery (live birth) using population, ultrasound, and individualized norms. Gestational age at death was determined using an algorithm that considered the time-of-death interval, postmortem examination, and reliability of the gestational age estimate. Data were weighted to account for the sampling design and differential participation rates in various subgroups. Among 527 singleton stillbirths and 1,821 singleton live births studied, stillbirth was associated with SGA based on population, ultrasound, and individualized norms (odds ratio [OR] [95% CI]: 3.0 [2.2 to 4.0]; 4.7 [3.7 to 5.9]; 4.6 [3.6 to 5.9], respectively). LGA was also associated with increased risk of stillbirth using ultrasound and individualized norms (OR [95% CI]: 3.5 [2.4 to 5.0]; 2.3 [1.7 to 3.1], respectively), but not population norms (OR [95% CI]: 0.6 [0.4 to 1.0]). The associations were stronger with more severe SGA and LGA (<5th and >95th percentile). Analyses adjusted for stillbirth risk factors, subset analyses excluding potential confounders, and analyses in preterm and term pregnancies showed similar patterns of association. In this study 70% of cases and 63% of controls agreed to participate. Analysis weights accounted for differences between consenting and non-consenting women. Some of the characteristics used for individualized fetal growth estimates were missing

  5. Public assistance, drug testing, and the law: the limits of population-based legal analysis.

    PubMed

    Player, Candice T

    2014-01-01

    In Populations, Public Health and the Law, legal scholar Wendy Parmet urges courts to embrace population-based legal analysis, a public health inspired approach to legal reasoning. Parmet contends that population-based legal analysis offers a way to analyze legal issues--not unlike law and economics--as well as a set of values from which to critique contemporary legal discourse. Population-based analysis has been warmly embraced by the health law community as a bold new way of analyzing legal issues. Still, population-based analysis is not without its problems. At times, Parmet claims too much territory for the population perspective. Moreover, Parmet urges courts to recognize population health as an important norm in legal reasoning. What should we do when the insights of public health and conventional legal reasoning conflict? Still in its infancy, population-based analysis offers little in the way of answers to these questions. This Article applies population-based legal analysis to the constitutional problems that arise when states condition public assistance benefits on passing a drug test, thereby highlighting the strengths of the population perspective and exposing its weaknesses.

  6. Physical activity and risk of rheumatoid arthritis in women: a population-based prospective study.

    PubMed

    Di Giuseppe, Daniela; Bottai, Matteo; Askling, Johan; Wolk, Alicja

    2015-03-04

    Only one study has analysed the association between exercise and development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), showing no association. Aim of this paper was to evaluate the association of physical activity in all its aspect with RA. To examine this association, middle age and elderly women from the Swedish Mammography Cohort, a population-based prospective study, were analysed. Data on physical activity were collected in 1997 by self-administrated food-frequency questionnaire. Risk of RA associated with physical activity was estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. Among 30,112 women born between 1914 and 1948 followed-up from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2010, 201 RA cases were identified (226,477 person-years). There was a statistically significant 35% lower risk of RA (relative risk (RR), 0.65; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.43-0.96) among women in the highest category of leisure-time activity (combining more than 20 minute per day of walking/bicycling (median 40-60 minute per day) and more than 1 hour per week of exercise (median 2-3 hours per week)) as compared to women in the lowest category (less than 20 minute per day of walking/bicycling and less than 1 hour per week of exercise). A non-statistically significant decreased risk was observed for household work (-32%) and work/occupation (-15%), while an increased risk was observed for leisure-time physical inactivity (+27%). Daily energy expenditure was not associated with risk of RA. This prospective population-based cohort study of women supports the hypothesis that physical activity can be a protective factor in the etiology of rheumatoid arthritis. Our results add to accumulated evidence on benefits of modifiable leisure-time physical activity for prevention of many other chronic diseases.

  7. Doctors' recognition and management of melanoma patients' risk: An Australian population-based study.

    PubMed

    Madronio, C M; Armstrong, B K; Watts, C G; Goumas, C; Morton, R L; Curtin, A; Menzies, S W; Mann, G J; Thompson, J F; Cust, A E

    2016-12-01

    Guidelines recommend that health professionals identify and manage individuals at high risk of developing melanoma, but there is limited population-based evidence demonstrating real-world practices. A population-based, observational study was conducted in the state of New South Wales, Australia to determine doctors' knowledge of melanoma patients' risk and to identify factors associated with better identification and clinical management. Data were analysed for 1889 patients with invasive, localised melanoma in the Melanoma Patterns of Care study. This study collected data on all melanoma diagnoses notified to the state's cancer registry during a 12-month period from 2006 to 2007, as well as questionnaire data from the doctors involved in their care. Three-quarters (74%) of patients had doctors who were aware of their risk factor status with respect to personal and family history of melanoma and the presence of many moles. Doctors working in general practice, skin cancer clinics and dermatology settings had better knowledge of patients' risk factors than plastic surgeons. Doctors were 15% more likely to know the family history of younger melanoma patients (<40years) than of those ≥80 years (95% confidence interval 4-26%). Early detection-related follow-up advice was more likely to be given to younger patients, by doctors aware of their patients' risk status, by doctors practising in plastic surgery, dermatology and skin cancer clinic settings, and by female doctors. Both patient-related and doctor-related factors were associated with doctors' recognition and management of melanoma patients' risk and could be the focus of strategies for improving care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Occupation and keratinocyte cancer risk: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Marehbian, Josh; Colt, Joanne S; Baris, Dalsu; Stewart, Patricia; Stukel, Therese A; Spencer, Steven K; Karagas, Margaret R

    2007-10-01

    The aim of our study was to identify occupations associated with increased risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We conducted a population-based case-control study of BCC and SCC in New Hampshire. Cases (n = 599 BCC, n = 290 SCC) and controls (n = 524) completed a self-administered residence and work history questionnaire and personal interview regarding major risk factors for skin cancer. Reported jobs were coded using the Standardized Occupational Classification system (SOC). Odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) for BCC and SCC were calculated for men and women separately using unconditional logistic regression models taking into account age, education, skin reaction to sun, history of painful sunburns, time spent outdoors, and for SCC, smoking. Among men, we observed elevated risks of both BCC and SCC among groundskeepers and gardeners, except farm (SOC 5622). We also found that garage and service station-related occupations (SOCs 873) and to some extent food/beverage preparation/service occupations (SOC 521) were associated with BCC risk among men. Women in health services occupations (SOC 523) had elevated risks for both tumors, especially for BCC. Additionally, administrative support (SOC 46/47) occupations were related to BCC risk among women. Other occupations were associated with excess risks, but without consistent trends by duration of employment. We observed several occupations associated with elevated BCC and SCC risk. These results resemble reported findings for cutaneous melanoma and are generally consistent with the few available studies on keratinocyte cancers.

  9. The impact of truncation and missing family links in population-based registers on familial risk estimates.

    PubMed

    Leu, Monica; Czene, Kamila; Reilly, Marie

    2007-12-15

    Family history information is often incomplete in population-based disease registers because of truncation and/or missing family links. In this study, the authors simulated complete populations of related individuals with realistic age, family structure, and incidence rates. After mimicking the realities of register-based data, such as left truncation of family history and missing family links due to death, the authors explored recovery of familial association parameters from standard epidemiologic models. Truncation of family history produced almost no bias for a familial risk of 2 and 50 years of follow-up, but it had a dramatic impact when the familial risk was 10. The age distribution of disease and the magnitude of background incidence rates also affected family history loss and thus the magnitude of bias. One can safeguard against bias by starting follow-up later, with the number of registration years to be ignored in the analysis depending on the value of familial risk. The missing familial links due to death had no effect, except when there was differential mortality for cases with and without a family history of disease. In summary, truncation, and to a lesser extent missing family links, induces bias in familial risk estimates from population-based registers.

  10. Cancer risk estimates for family members of a population-based family registry for breast and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Ziogas, A; Gildea, M; Cohen, P; Bringman, D; Taylor, T H; Seminara, D; Barker, D; Casey, G; Haile, R; Liao, S Y; Thomas, D; Noble, B; Kurosaki, T; Anton-Culver, H

    2000-01-01

    Population-based breast and ovarian cancer family registries can facilitate studies to evaluate genetic and environmental factors in the etiology of these malignancies. The purpose of this study is to describe what is, as far as we know, the first population-based breast and ovarian cancer family registry and to estimate breast and ovarian cancer risk in relatives of breast and ovarian cancer probands. Population-based consecutive incident cases of breast and ovarian cancer were invited to participate in the University of California, Irvine breast and ovarian family registry. In this study, we report data on 1567 breast cancer and 328 ovarian cancer probands. The operational components of this family registry include enrollment of probands, family history interviewing, confidentiality, pathology, verification and review, biospecimen bank, statistical/genetic analysis, and special studies on positional cloning of known genes. All of the components are tracked through the University of California, Irvine Genetic Research Information System. In non-Hispanic-white breast cancer probands, relative risk (RR) of breast cancer in mothers and sisters is significantly elevated [RR = 1.7 and 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-2.0 and RR = 2.8 and 95% CI = 2.3-3.3, respectively]. In families of ovarian cancer probands, mothers are at increased risk of ovarian cancer (RR = 4.6; 95% CI, 2.1-8.7). RR of breast cancer in mothers of Hispanic breast cancer probands is significantly elevated (RR = 4.9; 95% CI, 2.6-8.5). No elevation of breast or ovarian cancer risk was observed among relatives of Asian probands. In general, there is a decrease in RR among mothers and sisters with increase in age of onset of probands. In second-degree relatives and first cousins, the breast cancer hazards ratios increase with increase in the number of affected first-degree relatives and decrease with increase in age at onset of the proband.

  11. Genetic diversity among Zygophyllum (Zygophyllaceae) populations based on RAPD analysis.

    PubMed

    Hammad, I; Qari, S H

    2010-12-14

    Zygophyllum species are succulent plants that are drought resistant and/or salt tolerant, growing under severe, dry climatic conditions. Despite their importance and abundance in the Mediterranean and Middle East regions, there is little information concerning molecular variations among species of this genus. Genetic diversity was assessed, using RAPD primers, of 12 populations of Z. coccineum, Z. album and Z. aegyptium collected from various locations in Egypt and Saudi Arabia. Yong leaves were used for DNA extraction. Genetic distances were calculated using Nei's method. A dendrogram was constructed based on the similarity data matrix by unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages cluster analysis. Analysis with RAPD markers revealed genetic variation between and within populations of Zygophyllum. Zygophyllum coccineum showed higher levels of genetic variation and more unique alleles than the other species.

  12. Migraine and risk of stroke: a national population-based twin study.

    PubMed

    Lantz, Maria; Sieurin, Johanna; Sjölander, Arvid; Waldenlind, Elisabet; Sjöstrand, Christina; Wirdefeldt, Karin

    2017-10-01

    Numerous studies have indicated an increased risk for stroke in patients with migraine, especially migraine with aura; however, many studies used self-reported migraine and only a few controlled for familial factors. We aimed to investigate migraine as a risk factor for stroke in a Swedish population-based twin cohort, and whether familial factors contribute to an increased risk. The study population included twins without prior cerebrovascular disease who answered a headache questionnaire during 1998 and 2002 for twins born 1935-58 and during 2005-06 for twins born between 1959 and 1985. Migraine with and without aura and probable migraine was defined by an algorithm mapping on to clinical diagnostic criteria according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Stroke diagnoses were obtained from the national patient and cause of death registers. Twins were followed longitudinally, by linkage of national registers, from date of interview until date of first stroke, death, or end of study on 31 Dec 2014. In total, 8635 twins had any migraineous headache, whereof 3553 had migraine with aura and 5082 had non-aura migraineous headache (including migraine without aura and probable migraine), and 44 769 twins had no migraine. During a mean follow-up time of 11.9 years we observed 1297 incident cases of stroke. The Cox proportional hazards model with attained age as underlying time scale was used to estimate hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals for stroke including ischaemic and haemorrhagic subtypes related to migraine with aura, non-aura migraineous headache, and any migraineous headache. Analyses were adjusted for gender and cardiovascular risk factors. Where appropriate; within-pair analyses were performed to control for confounding by familial factors. The age- and gender-adjusted hazard ratio for stroke related to migraine with aura was 1.27 (95% confidence interval 1.00-1.62), P = 0.05, and 1.07 (95% confidence interval 0.91-1.26), P = 0

  13. Lipidomics profiling and risk of cardiovascular disease in the prospective population-based Bruneck study.

    PubMed

    Stegemann, Christin; Pechlaner, Raimund; Willeit, Peter; Langley, Sarah R; Mangino, Massimo; Mayr, Ursula; Menni, Cristina; Moayyeri, Alireza; Santer, Peter; Rungger, Gregor; Spector, Tim D; Willeit, Johann; Kiechl, Stefan; Mayr, Manuel

    2014-05-06

    The bulk of cardiovascular disease risk is not explained by traditional risk factors. Recent advances in mass spectrometry allow the identification and quantification of hundreds of lipid species. Molecular lipid profiling by mass spectrometry may improve cardiovascular risk prediction. Lipids were extracted from 685 plasma samples of the prospective population-based Bruneck Study (baseline evaluation in 2000). One hundred thirty-five lipid species from 8 different lipid classes were profiled by shotgun lipidomics with the use of a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. Levels of individual species of cholesterol esters (CEs), lysophosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs), sphingomyelins, and triacylglycerols (TAGs) were associated with cardiovascular disease over a 10-year observation period (2000-2010, 90 incident events). Among the lipid species with the strongest predictive value were TAGs and CEs with a low carbon number and double-bond content, including TAG(54:2) and CE(16:1), as well as PE(36:5) (P=5.1 × 10⁻⁷, 2.2 × 10⁻⁴, and 2.5 × 10⁻³, respectively). Consideration of these 3 lipid species on top of traditional risk factors resulted in improved risk discrimination and classification for cardiovascular disease (cross-validated ΔC index, 0.0210 [95% confidence interval, 0.0010-0.0422]; integrated discrimination improvement, 0.0212 [95% confidence interval, 0.0031-0.0406]; and continuous net reclassification index, 0.398 [95% confidence interval, 0.175-0.619]). A similar shift in the plasma fatty acid composition was associated with cardiovascular disease in the UK Twin Registry (n=1453, 45 cases). This study applied mass spectrometry-based lipidomics profiling to population-based cohorts and identified molecular lipid signatures for cardiovascular disease. Molecular lipid species constitute promising new biomarkers that outperform the conventional biochemical measurements of lipid classes currently used in

  14. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and risk of infections: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y; Tang, Min; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Björkholm, Magnus; Goldin, Lynn R; Blimark, Cecilie; Mellqvist, Ulf-Henrik; Wahlin, Anders; Turesson, Ingemar; Landgren, Ola

    2012-06-01

    No comprehensive evaluation has been made to assess the risk of viral and bacterial infections among patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. Using population-based data from Sweden, we estimated risk of infections among 5,326 monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance patients compared to 20,161 matched controls. Patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance had a 2-fold increased risk (P<0.05) of developing any infection at 5- and 10-year follow up. More specifically, patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance had an increased risk (P<0.05) of bacterial (pneumonia, osteomyelitis, septicemia, pyelonephritis, cellulitis, endocarditis, and meningitis), and viral (influenza and herpes zoster) infections. Patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance with M-protein concentrations over 2.5 g/dL at diagnosis had highest risks of infections. However, the risk was also increased (P<0.05) among those with concentrations below 0.5 g/dL. Patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance who developed infections had no excess risk of developing multiple myeloma, Waldenström macroglobulinemia or related malignancy. Our findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms behind infections in patients with plasma cell dyscrasias, and may have clinical implications.

  15. The burden of hypertension and its risk factors in Malawi: nationwide population-based STEPS survey.

    PubMed

    Msyamboza, Kelias P; Kathyola, Damson; Dzowela, Titha; Bowie, Cameron

    2012-12-01

    Hypertension is the most common cause of cardiovascular diseases, accounting for at least half of haemorrhagic and ischaemic strokes, heart failure and renal failure in sub-Saharan Africa. However, population-based data to inform policies are scarce. Using the WHO STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance, a population-based nationwide survey was conducted on participants aged 25-64 years in Malawi. Detailed findings on the burden of hypertension are presented in this paper. Blood pressure (BP) was measured in 3727 participants. The age-standardised prevalence of hypertension (BP ≥140/90 mmHg) was 33.2% (95% CI 30.9-35.6%). Hypertension was more frequent in males than females (36.9% vs 29.9%), alcohol drinkers than non-drinkers (40.9% vs 31.6%), overweight than non-overweight (41.5% vs 30.7%) and increased with increasing age (21.4% in 25-34 years old vs 59.2% in 55-64 years old). Three-quarters of the participants said they never had their BP measured before and 94.9% of those with hypertension said they were not aware that they had such a medical problem. High prevalence of hypertension and its risk factors calls for the implementation of primary healthcare approaches such as the WHO package for essential non-communicable diseases to promote healthy lifestyles, early detection, treatment and control.

  16. Hodgkin's disease in Asians: incidence patterns and risk factors in population-based data.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Sally L; Hsu, Joe L

    2002-03-01

    Hodgkin's disease (HD) has been reported to be rare in Asians. Data sparseness has hindered studies exploring the relative contributions of environment and heredity to HD etiology, and individual risk factors have never been studied in an Asian population. With the most recent, uniformly collected population-based data from the US and Asia, we compared HD incidence rates in Chinese, Japanese, Filipinos, and Asian Indians in the US and in Asia. HD incidence rates were quite low in all Asian subgroups, but approximately double in US Asians as in native Asians. In both, rates were lower for Japanese and Chinese than for Filipinos and Asian Indians. A modest young-adult rate peak occurred for most US Asian groups, but not for any population in Asia. In data from a population-based case-control study of HD in San Francisco area women, young-adult Asian cases, like young-adult cases of other racial/ethnic groups, had childhood social environments indicative of less early contact with children. Given environmental and lifestyle differences between the US and Asia, the consistently low rates of HD in Asians suggest genetic resistance to disease development, possibly associated with HLA type. International and inter-ethnic differences, and risk factor patterns in case-control data, implicate environmental influences in the etiology of HD.

  17. Organochlorine Pesticides and Risk of Endometriosis: Findings from a Population-Based Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Thompson, Mary Lou; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Scholes, Delia; Barr, Dana Boyd; Holt, Victoria L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Endometriosis is considered an estrogen-dependent disease. Persistent environmental chemicals that exhibit hormonal properties, such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), may affect endometriosis risk. Objective: We investigated endometriosis risk in relation to environmental exposure to OCPs. Methods: We conducted the present analyses using data from the Women’s Risk of Endometriosis (WREN) study, a population-based case–control study of endometriosis conducted among 18- to 49-year-old female enrollees of a large health care system in western Washington State. OCP concentrations were measured in sera from surgically confirmed endometriosis cases (n = 248) first diagnosed between 1996 and 2001 and from population-based controls (n = 538). We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% CIs using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for age, reference date year, serum lipids, education, race/ethnicity, smoking, and alcohol intake. Results: Our data suggested increased endometriosis risk associated with serum concentrations of β-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) (third vs. lowest quartile: OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.8; highest vs. lowest quartile OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 0.8, 2.4) and mirex (highest vs. lowest category: OR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.2). The association between serum β-HCH concentrations and endometriosis was stronger in analyses restricting cases to those with ovarian endometriosis (third vs. lowest quartile: OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.5, 5.2; highest vs. lowest quartile: OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 5.3). Conclusions: In our case–control study of women enrolled in a large health care system in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, serum concentrations of β-HCH and mirex were positively associated with endometriosis. Extensive past use of environmentally persistent OCPs in the United States or present use in other countries may affect the health of reproductive-age women. Citation: Upson K, De Roos AJ, Thompson ML, Sathyanarayana S, Scholes D, Barr DB, Holt VL. 2013

  18. Aortic Valve Calcification and the Risk of dementia: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Frank J; Bos, Daniel; Vernooij, Meike W; Franco, Oscar H; Hofman, Albert; Koudstaal, Peter J; van der Lugt, Aad; Ikram, M Arfan

    2017-01-01

    The association of aortic valve calcification (AVC) with dementia remains unknown. In 2,428 non-demented participants from the population-based Rotterdam Study, we investigated the association of CT-assessed AVC with risk of dementia and cognitive decline. AVC was present in 33.1% of the population. During a median follow-up of 9.3 years, 160 participants developed dementia. We found no association between presence of AVC and risk of all-cause dementia [hazard ratio (HR): 0.89 (95% confidence interval (CI):0.63;1.26)]. Presence of AVC was not associated with cognitive decline on any of the cognitive tests, nor with a measure of global cognition.

  19. Fluorometric discrimination technique of phytoplankton population based on wavelet analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shanshan; Su, Rongguo; Duan, Yali; Zhang, Cui; Song, Zhijie; Wang, Xiulin

    2012-09-01

    The discrete excitation-emission-matrix fluorescence spectra (EEMS) at 12 excitation wavelengths (400, 430, 450, 460, 470, 490, 500, 510, 525, 550, 570, and 590 nm) and emission wavelengths ranging from 600-750 nm were determined for 43 phytoplankton species. A two-rank fluorescence spectra database was established by wavelet analysis and a fluorometric discrimination technique for determining phytoplankton population was developed. For laboratory simulatively mixed samples, the samples mixed from 43 algal species (the algae of one division accounted for 25%, 50%, 75%, 85%, and 100% of the gross biomass, respectively), the average discrimination rates at the level of division were 65.0%, 87.5%, 98.6%, 99.0%, and 99.1%, with average relative contents of 18.9%, 44.5%, 68.9%, 73.4%, and 82.9%, respectively; the samples mixed from 32 red tide algal species (the dominant species accounted for 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, and 100% of the gross biomass, respectively), the average correct discrimination rates of the dominant species at the level of genus were 63.3%, 74.2%, 78.8%, 83.4%, and 79.4%, respectively. For the 81 laboratory mixed samples with the dominant species accounting for 75% of the gross biomass (chlorophyll), the discrimination rates of the dominant species were 95.1% and 72.8% at the level of division and genus, respectively. For the 12 samples collected from the mesocosm experiment in Maidao Bay of Qingdao in August 2007, the dominant species of the 11 samples were recognized at the division level and the dominant species of four of the five samples in which the dominant species accounted for more than 80% of the gross biomass were discriminated at the genus level; for the 12 samples obtained from Jiaozhou Bay in August 2007, the dominant species of all the 12 samples were recognized at the division level. The technique can be directly applied to fluorescence spectrophotometers and to the developing of an in situ algae fluorescence auto-analyzer for phytoplankton

  20. Increased risk of herpes zoster in children with cancer: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiao-Chuan; Chao, Yu-Hua; Wu, Kang-Hsi; Yen, Ting-Yu; Hsu, Yu-Lung; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsueh; Wei, Hsiu-Mei; Wu, Jhong-Lin; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Hwang, Kao-Pin; Peng, Ching-Tien; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Li, Tsai-Chung

    2016-07-01

    Herpes zoster is rare in healthy children, but immunocompromised persons have an increased risk of herpes zoster and severe diseases. Considering the very limited information on herpes zoster in children with cancer, we performed a nationwide population-based cohort study to estimate the incidence of herpes zoster in children with cancer and to explore the association between the 2 diseases.Data were obtained from the National Health Research Institutes Database in Taiwan. A total of 4432 children with newly diagnosed cancer between 2000 and 2007 were identified as the cancer cohort, and 17,653 children without cancer frequency-matched by sex and age at entry were considered the noncancer cohort. The association between herpes zoster and childhood cancer was determined.Children with cancer had a higher risk of herpes zoster. The incidence rate of herpes zoster was higher in the cancer cohort than in the noncancer cohort (20.7 vs 2.4 per 10,000 person-years; IRR = 8.6; 95% CI = 4.8-15.6). The cumulative incidence was significantly higher in the cancer cohort (P < 0.0001). Leukemia, lymphoma, and solid tumor were all associated with the increased risk, and leukemia had the highest magnitude of strength of association.This nationwide population-based cohort study demonstrated that children with cancer were associated with an increased risk of herpes zoster. In addition to early antiviral treatment, vaccination with heat-treated zoster vaccine or adjuvanted subunit vaccine could be an appropriate policy to decrease the incidence in children with cancer.

  1. Hepatitis C virus infection and risk of cancer: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Omland, Lars Haukali; Farkas, Dora Körmendiné; Jepsen, Peter; Obel, Niels; Pedersen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with an increased risk of primary liver cancer; however, 5- and 10-year risk estimates are needed. The association of HCV with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is uncertain and the association with other cancers is unknown. Method: We conducted a nationwide, population-based cohort study of 4,349 HCV-infected patients in Denmark, computing standardized incidence ratios (SIR) of cancer incidence in HCV infected patients compared with cancer incidence of the general population. We calculated 5- and 10-year risks of developing cancer, stratifying our analyses based on the presence of HIV coinfection and cirrhosis. Results: We recorded an increased risk of primary liver cancer (SIR: 76.63 [95% CI: 51.69–109.40]), NHL (SIR: 1.89 [95% CI: 0.39–5.52]), and several smoking- and alcohol-related cancers in HCV infected patients without HIV coinfection. HCV-infected patients without HIV coinfection had a 6.3% (95% CI: 4.6%–8.7%) risk of developing cancer and 2.0% (95% CI: 1.1%–3.8%) risk of developing primary liver cancer within 10 years. Conclusion: We confirmed the association of HCV infection with primary liver cancer and NHL. We also observed an association between HCV infection and alcohol- and smoking-related cancers. PMID:20865115

  2. Splenectomy and risk of renal and perinephric abscesses: A population-based cohort study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Hsien-Feng; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2016-08-01

    Little epidemiological research is available on the relationship between splenectomy and renal and perinephric abscesses. The purpose of the study was to examine this issue in Taiwan.We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study using the hospitalization dataset of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. A total of 16,426 participants aged 20 and older who were newly diagnosed with splenectomy from 1998 to 2010 were assigned to the splenectomy group, whereas 65,653 sex-matched, age-matched, and comorbidity-matched, randomly selected participants without splenectomy were assigned to the nonsplenectomy group. The incidence of renal and perinephric abscesses at the end of 2011 was measured in both groups. The multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to measure the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for risk of renal and perinephric abscesses associated with splenectomy and other comorbidities including cystic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, urinary tract infection, and urolithiasis.The overall incidence rate of renal and perinephric abscesses was 2.14-fold greater in the splenectomy group than that in the nonsplenectomy group (2.24 per 10,000 person-years vs 1.05 per 10,000 person-years, 95% CI 2.02, 2.28). After controlling for sex, age, cystic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, urinary tract infection, and urolithiasis, the multivariable regression analysis demonstrated that the adjusted HR of renal and perinephric abscesses was 2.24 for the splenectomy group (95 % CI 1.30, 3.88), when compared with the nonsplenectomy group. In further analysis, the adjusted HR markedly increased to 7.69 for those comorbid with splenectomy and diabetes mellitus (95% CI 3.31, 17.9).Splenectomy is associated with renal and perinephric abscesses, particularly comorbid with diabetes mellitus. In view of its potential morbidity and mortality, clinicians should consider the possibility of renal and perinephric abscesses when

  3. Risk of obstructive sleep apnoea in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Te-Chun; Hang, Liang-Wen; Liang, Shinn-Jye; Huang, Chien-Chung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Objective Sleep disorders are prevalent medical disorders in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, whether patients with RA are at an increased risk of developing obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is unclear. Design Using population-based retrospective cohort study to examine the risk of OSA in patients with RA. Setting We used claims data of the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. Participants We identified a RA cohort with 33 418 patients newly diagnosed in 2000–2010 and a randomly selected non-RA comparison cohort with 33 418 individuals frequency matched by sex, age and diagnosis year. Primary and secondary outcome measures Incident OSA was estimated by the end of 2011. The HRs of OSA were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Results The overall incidence rate of OSA was 75% greater in the RA cohort than in the non-RA cohort (3.04 vs 1.73/10 000 person-years, p<0.001), with an adjusted HR (aHR) of 1.75 (95% CI 1.18 to 2.60). Stratified analyses by sex, age group and comorbidity revealed that the incidence rates of OSA associated with RA were higher in all subgroups. Conclusions This population-based retrospective cohort study suggested that patients with RA should be monitored for the risk of developing OSA. PMID:27895064

  4. Opium use during pregnancy and risk of preterm delivery: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Maghsoudlou, Siavash; Cnattingius, Sven; Montgomery, Scott; Aarabi, Mohsen; Semnani, Shahriar; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Bahmanyar, Shahram

    2017-01-01

    Use of narcotic or "recreational" drugs has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm delivery. However, the associations might be confounded by other factors related to high-risk behaviours. This is the first study to investigate the association between traditional opium use during pregnancy and risk of preterm delivery. We performed a population-based cohort study in the rural areas of the Golestan province, Iran between 2008 and 2010. We randomly selected 920 women who used (usually smoked) opium during pregnancy and 920 women who did not. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between the opium use during pregnancy and preterm delivery and adjustment was made for potential confounding factors. This study shows compared with non-use of opium and tobacco, use of only opium during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery (OR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.05-2.32), and the risk was more than two-fold increased among dual users of opium and tobacco (OR = 2.31; 95% CI 1.37-3.90). We observed that opium use only was associated with a doubled risk for preterm caesarean delivery (OR = 2.05; 95% CI 1.10-3.82) but not for preterm vaginal delivery (OR = 1.25; 95% CI 0.75-2.07). Dual use of opium and tobacco was associated with a substantially increased risk of vaginal preterm delivery (OR = 2.58; 95% CI 1.41-4.71). Opium use during pregnancy among non-tobacco smokers is associated with an increased risk of preterm caesarean delivery, indicating an increased risk of a compromised foetus before or during labour. Women who use both opium and smoked during pregnancy have an increased risk of preterm vaginal delivery, indicating an increased risk of spontaneous preterm delivery.

  5. Fracture Risk in Women With Breast Cancer: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Melton, L. Joseph; Hartmann, Lynn C.; Achenbach, Sara J.; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Therneau, Terry M.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2012-01-01

    A positive association has been reported between greater bone density and higher breast cancer risk, suggesting that these women could be at reduced risk of fracture. To estimate fracture risk among unselected community women with breast cancer, and to systematically assess associations with various risk factors including breast cancer treatments, we conducted a population-based historical cohort study of 608 Olmsted County, MN women with invasive breast cancer first diagnosed in 1990-99 (mean age, 61.6 ± 14.8 years), who were followed for 5776 person-years. Altogether, 568 fractures were observed in 270 women (98 per 1000 person-years). Overall fracture risk was elevated 1.8-fold; but the absolute increase in risk was only 9%, and 56% of the women did not experience a fracture during follow-up. Excluding pathologic fractures (15%) and those found incidentally (24%), to allow for ascertainment bias, the standardized incidence ratio was 1.2 (95% CI, 0.99–1.3) for total fracture risk and 0.9 (95% CI, 0.7–1.2) for osteoporotic fracture risk alone. Various breast cancer treatments were associated with an increased risk of fracture, but those associations were strongest for pathologic fractures, which were relatively more common among the women who were premenopausal when their breast cancer was diagnosed. Moreover, underlying clinical characteristics prompting different treatments may have been partially responsible for the associated fracture outcomes (indication bias). These data thus demonstrate that breast cancer patients in general are not at greatly increased risk of fracture but neither are they protected from fractures despite any determinants that breast cancer and high bone density may have in common. PMID:22258822

  6. Fracture risk in women with breast cancer: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Melton, L Joseph; Hartmann, Lynn C; Achenbach, Sara J; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Therneau, Terry M; Khosla, Sundeep

    2012-05-01

    A positive association has been reported between greater bone density and higher breast cancer risk, suggesting that these women could be at reduced risk of fracture. To estimate fracture risk among unselected community women with breast cancer and to systematically assess associations with various risk factors including breast cancer treatments, we conducted a population-based historical cohort study of 608 Olmsted County, MN, USA, women with invasive breast cancer first diagnosed in 1990 to 1999 (mean age 61.6 ± 14.8 years), who were followed for 5776 person-years. Altogether, 568 fractures were observed in 270 women (98 per 1000 person-years). Overall fracture risk was elevated 1.8-fold, but the absolute increase in risk was only 9%, and 56% of the women did not experience a fracture during follow-up. Excluding pathologic fractures (15%) and those found incidentally (24%), to allow for ascertainment bias, the standardized incidence ratio was 1.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.99 to 1.3) for total fracture risk and 0.9 (95% CI 0.7 to 1.2) for osteoporotic fracture risk alone. Various breast cancer treatments were associated with an increased risk of fracture, but those associations were strongest for pathologic fractures, which were relatively more common among the women who were premenopausal when their breast cancer was diagnosed. Moreover, underlying clinical characteristics prompting different treatments may have been partially responsible for the associated fracture outcomes (indication bias). These data thus demonstrate that breast cancer patients in general are not at greatly increased risk of fracture but neither are they protected from fractures despite any determinants that breast cancer and high bone density may have in common. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  7. Population-based risks of central nervous system tumours in childhood cancer survivors: the British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Aliki J; Little, Mark P; Winter, David L; Sugden, Elaine; Ellison, David W; Stiller, Charles A; Stovall, Marilyn; Frobisher, Clare; Lancashire, Emma R; Reulen, Raoul C; Hawkins, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose CNS tumours are the most common second primary neoplasm observed after childhood cancer in Britain, but the relationship of risk to dose of previous radiotherapy and chemotherapy is uncertain. Methods The British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a national population-based cohort study of 17980 individuals surviving at least 5 years after diagnosis of childhood cancer. Linkage to national population-based cancer registries identified 247 second primary neoplasms of the CNS. Cohort and nested case-control studies were undertaken. Results There were 137 meningiomas, 73 gliomas and 37 other CNS neoplasms included in the analysis. The risk of meningioma increased strongly, linearly and independently with each of dose of radiation to meningeal tissue and dose of intrathecal methotrexate. Those whose meningeal tissue received 0.01-9.99,10.00-19.99,20.00-29.99,30.00-39.99 and ≥40Gy had a risk 2,8,52,568 and 479-fold that experienced by those whose meningeal tissue was unexposed, respectively. The risk of meningioma among individuals receiving 1-39,40-69 and at least 70mg/m2 of intrathecal methotrexate was 15,11 and 36-fold that experienced by those unexposed, respectively. The standardised incidence ratio for gliomas was 10·8 (95% confidence interval: 8·5, 13·6). The risk of glioma/primitive neuroectodermal tumours increased linearly with dose of radiation and those with CNS tissue exposed to at least 40Gy experienced a risk 4-fold that experienced by those with CNS tissue unexposed. Conclusion The largest ever study of CNS tumours in childhood cancer survivors indicates the risk of meningioma increases rapidly with increased dose of radiation to meningeal tissue and increased dose of intrathecal methotrexate. PMID:21079138

  8. Coronary Angioplasty and Cancer Risk: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Lambe, M. Hall, P.; Granath, F.; Azodi, O. Sadr; Nilsson, T.

    2005-01-15

    Background. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) has become the reperfusion method of choice in patients with coronary artery disease. This sometimes complicated and lengthy procedure is performed using fluoroscopy and cineradiography or digital imaging, which may result in considerable exposure to ionizing radiation. Possible cancer risks in PTCA patients have been discussed, but never before examined in a population-based setting. Objective. To assess the cancer risks following PTCA. Methods. A cohort study was carried out based on nationwide registration of all coronary angioplasty procedures in Sweden between 1989 and 1998. The study encompassed a total of 23,097 PTCA patients followed up for cancer outcomes in the Swedish Cancer Register until December 31, 2000. The mean and median follow-up times were 4.8 and 4.5 years, respectively. The main outcome measures were standardized incidence ratios of cancer. Results. Except for a transient excess of lung cancers, observed number of cancers in patients who had undergone coronary angioplasty did not differ from those expected in the general population. If anything, the overall cancer risk was lower in the PTCA group (SIR 0.94; 95% CI 0.88-0.99). In particular, no increased risks were detected for leukemias or thyroid cancer. Conclusion. There was no indication of increased risks of leukemia or cancers overall in PTCA patients.

  9. Risk of dementia in seniors with newly diagnosed diabetes: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Haroon, Nisha Nigil; Austin, Peter C; Shah, Baiju R; Wu, Jianbao; Gill, Sudeep S; Booth, Gillian L

    2015-10-01

    To study whether diabetes onset in late life is a risk factor for dementia. We conducted a population-based matched cohort study using provincial health data from Ontario, Canada. Seniors with (n = 225,045) and without newly diagnosed diabetes (n = 668,070) between April 1995 and March 2007 were followed until March 2012 for a new diagnosis of dementia. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to compare the risk of dementia between groups after adjusting for baseline cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease (CKD), hypertension, and other risk factors. Over this period, we observed 169,114 new cases of dementia. Individuals with diabetes had a modestly higher incidence of dementia (2.68 vs. 2.62 per 100 person-years) than those without diabetes. In the fully adjusted Cox model, the risk of dementia was 16% higher among our subgroup with diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 1.16 [95% CI 1.15-1.18]). Adjusted HRs for dementia were 1.20 (95% CI 1.17-1.22) and 1.14 (95% CI 1.12-1.16) among men and women, respectively. Among seniors with diabetes, the risk of dementia was greatest in those with prior cerebrovascular disease (HR 2.03; 95% CI 1.88-2.19), peripheral vascular disease (HR 1.47; 95% CI 1.19-1.82), and CKD (HR 1.44; 95% CI 1.38-1.51), and those with one or more hospital visits for hypoglycemia (HR 1.73; 95% CI 1.62-1.84). In this population-based study, newly diagnosed diabetes was associated with a 16% increase in the risk of dementia among seniors. Preexisting vascular disease and severe hypoglycemia were the greatest risk factors for dementia in seniors with diabetes. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  10. Effect of Modifiable Risk Factors on Preterm Birth: A Population Based-Cohort.

    PubMed

    Lengyel, Candice S; Ehrlich, Shelley; Iams, Jay D; Muglia, Louis J; DeFranco, Emily A

    2017-04-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence, impact, and interaction of short interpregnancy interval (IPI), pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) category, and pregnancy weight gain (PWG) on the rate of preterm birth. Methods This is a population-based retrospective cohort study using vital statistics birth records from 2006 to 2011 in OH, US, analyzing singleton live births to multiparous mothers with recorded IPI (n = 393,441). Preterm birth rate at <37 weeks gestational age was compared between the referent pregnancy (defined as normal pre-pregnancy maternal BMI, IPI of 12-24 months, and Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommended PWG) and those with short or long IPI, abnormal BMI (underweight, overweight, and obese), and high or low PWG (under or exceeding IOM recommendations). Results Only 6 % of the women in this study had a referent pregnancy, with a preterm birth rate of 7.6 % for this group. Short IPIs of <6 and 6-12 months were associated with increased rates of preterm birth rate to 12.9 and 10.4 %, respectively. Low PWG compared to IOM recommendations for pre-pregnancy BMI class was also associated with increased preterm birth rate of 13.2 % for all BMI classes combined. However, the highest rate of preterm birth of 25.2 % occurred in underweight women with short IPI and inadequate weight gain with adjOR 3.44 (95 % CI 2.80, 4.23). The fraction of preterm births observed in this cohort that can be attributed to short IPIs is 5.9 %, long IPIs is 8.3 %, inadequate PWG is 7.5 %, and low pre-pregnancy BMI is 2.2 %. Conclusions Our analysis indicates that a significant proportion of preterm births in Ohio are associated with potentially modifiable risk factors. These data suggest public health initiatives focused on preterm birth prevention could include counseling and interventions to optimize preconception health and prenatal nutrition.

  11. A population-based risk factor scoring will decrease unnecessary testing for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Caliskan, Eray; Kayikcioglu, Fulya; Oztürk, Nilgun; Koc, Sevgi; Haberal, Ali

    2004-06-01

    To determine the effectiveness of a population-based risk factor scoring to decrease unnecessary testing for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We formed a risk factor scoring over five, which questions maternal age, body mass index and first-degree relatives with a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, a prior macrosomic fetus and adverse outcome during the previous pregnancies. All participants underwent a 50-g glucose challenge test (GCT) followed by a 100-g oral glucose tolerence test (OGTT). We opened the 50-g GCT envelope if the participant had a risk score > or = 1 and opened the 100-g OGTT envelope if the 50-g GCT value was > or = 7.2 mmol/l. After all patients delivered we also built other strategies and tested their detection rates. Fourteen patients (3.3%) were diagnosed as having gestational diabetes mellitus via a 100-g OGTT. None of the patients with a score of zero had gestational diabetes mellitus. Logistic regression analysis revealed that an increase in the score by one caused a three times increase in gestational diabetes mellitus risk (OR = 3, CI = 1.9-5). Compared with the universal screening, our strategy to screen if the risk score was > or = 1, followed by a 50-g GCT with a 7.2-mmol/l cut-off value, decreased the number of women to be screened by 30% and diagnosed all cases with GDM. Screening the patients with a score > or = 2 would have decreased the number of women to be screened by 63%, still diagnosing 85% of cases with GDM. Also, risk factor-based screening strategies cause a 50% and 53% reduction in the number of OGTT applied, respectively. A well integrated, population-based scoring will decrease the number of unnecessary testing but still diagnose 85-100% of GDM cases.

  12. Increased risk of stroke after septicaemia: a population-based longitudinal study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Chung, Wen Ting; Lin, Jin-Ding; Peng, Giia-Sheun; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Lin, Che-Chen; Wen, Chi-Pang; Wang, I-Kuan; Tseng, Chun-Hung; Kao, Chia-Hung; Hsu, Chung Y

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation and infection have been noted to increase stroke risk. However, the association between septicaemia and increased risk of stroke remains unclear. This population-based cohort study, using a National Health Insurance database, aimed to investigate whether patients with septicaemia are predisposed to increased stroke risk. The study included all patients hospitalised for septicaemia for the first time between 2000 and 2003 without prior stroke. Patients were followed until the end of 2010 to evaluate incidence of stroke. An age-, gender- and co-morbidities-matched cohort without prior stroke served as the control. Cox's proportional hazards regressions were used to assess differences in stroke risk between groups. Based on hazard ratios (HRs), patients with septicaemia had greater stroke risk, especially in the younger age groups (age <45: HR = 4.16, 95% CI: 2.39-7.24, p<0.001; age 45-64: HR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.41-2.19, p<0.001; age ≥ 65: HR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.91-1.22, p>0.05). Haemorrhagic stroke was the dominant type (ischaemic stroke: HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.06-1.37, p<0.01; haemorrhagic stroke: HR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.35-2.46, p<0.001) and patients without co-morbidities were at slightly higher risk (without co-morbidities: HR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.02-2.17, p<0.05; with co-morbidities: HR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.10-1.41, p<0.001). The impact of septicaemia on stroke risk was highest within 6 months of the event and gradually declined over time. Our results suggest that septicaemia is associated with an increase in stroke risk, which is greatest in haemorrhagic stroke. Closer attention to patients with history of septicaemia may be warranted for stroke preventive measures, especially for younger patients without co-morbidities.

  13. Risk of Ventricular Arrhythmia with Citalopram and Escitalopram: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Qirjazi, Elena; McArthur, Eric; Nash, Danielle M.; Dixon, Stephanie N.; Weir, Matthew A.; Vasudev, Akshya; Jandoc, Racquel; Gula, Lorne J.; Oliver, Matthew J.; Wald, Ron; Garg, Amit X.

    2016-01-01

    Background The risk of ventricular arrhythmia with citalopram and escitalopram is controversial. In this study we investigated the association between these two drugs and the risk of ventricular arrhythmia. Methods We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of older adults (mean age 76 years) from 2002 to 2012 in Ontario, Canada, newly prescribed citalopram (n = 137 701) or escitalopram (n = 38 436), compared to those prescribed referent antidepressants sertraline or paroxetine (n = 96 620). After inverse probability of treatment weighting using a propensity score, the baseline characteristics of the comparison groups were similar. The primary outcome was a hospital encounter with ventricular arrhythmia within 90 days of a new prescription, assessed using hospital diagnostic codes. The secondary outcome was all-cause mortality within 90 days. Results Citalopram was associated with a higher risk of a hospital encounter with ventricular arrhythmia compared with referent antidepressants (0.06% vs. 0.04%, relative risk [RR] 1.53, 95% confidence intervals [CI]1.03 to 2.29), and a higher risk of mortality (3.49% vs. 3.12%, RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.18). Escitalopram was not associated with a higher risk of ventricular arrhythmia compared with the referent antidepressants (0.03% vs. 0.04%, RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.68), but was associated with a higher risk of mortality (2.86% vs. 2.63%, RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.18). Conclusion Among older adults, initiation of citalopram compared to two referent antidepressants was associated with a small but statistically significant increase in the 90-day risk of a hospital encounter for ventricular arrhythmia. PMID:27513855

  14. Latent Trajectories of Common Mental Health Disorder Risk Across 3 Decades of Adulthood in a Population-Based Cohort.

    PubMed

    Paksarian, Diana; Cui, Lihong; Angst, Jules; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Rössler, Wulf; Merikangas, Kathleen R

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiologic evidence indicates that most of the general population will experience a mental health disorder at some point in their lives. However, few prospective population-based studies have estimated trajectories of risk for mental disorders from young through middle adulthood to estimate the proportion of individuals who experience persistent mental disorder across this age period. To describe the proportion of the population who experience persistent mental disorder across adulthood and to estimate latent trajectories of disorder risk across this age period. A population-based, prospective cohort study was conducted between 1979 and 2008 in the canton of Zurich, Switzerland. A stratified random sample of 591 Swiss citizens was enrolled in 1978 at ages 19 years (men) and 20 years (women); 7 interviews were performed during a 29-year period. Men were sampled from military enrollment records and women from electoral records. From those initially enrolled, participants with high levels of psychiatric symptoms were oversampled for follow-up. Data analysis was performed from July 28, 2015, to June 8, 2016. Latent trajectories, estimated using growth mixture modeling, of past-year mood/anxiety disorder (ie, major depressive episode, phobias, panic, generalized anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder), substance use disorder (ie, drug abuse or dependence and alcohol abuse or dependence), and any mental disorder (ie, any of the above) assessed during in-person semistructured interviews at each wave. Diagnoses were based on DSM-III, DSM-III-R, and DSM-IV criteria. Of the 591 participants at baseline, 299 (50.6%) were female. Persistent mental health disorder across multiple study waves was rare. Among 252 individuals (42.6%) who participated in all 7 study waves, only 1.2% met criteria for disorder every time. Growth mixture modeling identified 3 classes of risk for any disorder across adulthood: low (estimated prevalence, 40.0%; 95% CI, -8.7% to 88

  15. Dietary inflammatory index and risk of first myocardial infarction; a prospective population-based study.

    PubMed

    Bodén, Stina; Wennberg, Maria; Van Guelpen, Bethany; Johansson, Ingegerd; Lindahl, Bernt; Andersson, Jonas; Shivappa, Nitin; Hebert, James R; Nilsson, Lena Maria

    2017-04-04

    Chronic, low-grade inflammation is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The inflammatory impact of diet can be reflected by concentrations of inflammatory markers in the bloodstream and the inflammatory potential of diet can be estimated by the dietary inflammatory index (DII(TM)), which has been associated with cardiovascular disease risk in some previous studies. We aimed to examine the association between the DII and the risk of first myocardial infarction (MI) in a population-based study with long follow-up. We conducted a prospective case-control study of 1389 verified cases of first MI and 5555 matched controls nested within the population-based cohorts of the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study (NSHDS), of which the largest is the ongoing Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) with nearly 100 000 participants during the study period. Median follow-up from recruitment to MI diagnosis was 6.4 years (6.2 for men and 7.2 for women). DII scores were derived from a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered in 1986-2006. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using quartile 1 (most anti-inflammatory diet) as the reference category. For validation, general linear models were used to estimate the association between the DII scores and two inflammatory markers, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in a subset (n = 605) of the study population. Male participants with the most pro-inflammatory DII scores had an increased risk of MI [ORQ4vsQ1 = 1.57 (95% CI 1.21-2.02) P trend = 0.02], which was essentially unchanged after adjustment for potential confounders, including cardiovascular risk factors [ORQ4vsQ1 = 1.50 (95% CI 1.14-1.99), P trend = 0.10]. No association was found between DII and MI in women. An increase of one DII score unit was associated with 9% higher hsCRP (95% CI 0

  16. Population-based genetic risk prediction and stratification for ovarian cancer: views from women at high risk.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Belinda; Meisel, Susanne F; Fraser, Lindsay; Side, Lucy; Gessler, Sue; Wardle, Jane; Lanceley, Anne

    2015-03-01

    There is an opportunity to improve outcomes for ovarian cancer (OC) through advances in risk stratification, early detection and diagnosis. A population-based OC genetic risk prediction and stratification program is being developed. A previous focus group study with individuals from the general population showed support for the proposed program. This qualitative interview study explores the attitudes of women at high risk of OC. Eight women participated in one-on-one, in-depth, semi-structured interviews to explore: experiences of learning of OC risk, risk perceptions, OC knowledge and awareness, and opinions on risk stratification approach. There was evidence of strong support for the proposed program. Benefits were seen as providing reassurance to women at low risk, and reducing worry in women at high risk through appropriate clinical management. Stratification into 'low' and 'high' risk groups was well-received. Participants were more hesitant about stratification to the 'intermediate' risk group. The data suggest formats to effectively communicate OC risk estimates will require careful thought. Interactions with GPs were highlighted as a barrier to OC risk assessment and diagnosis. These results are encouraging for the possible introduction and uptake of a risk prediction and stratification program for OC in the general population.

  17. Reproductive history and risk of small bowel cancer by histologic type: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yunxia; Lambe, Mats; Martling, Anna; Lagergren, Jesper

    2012-12-01

    The male predominance of the two main histologic malignancies of the small bowel cancer may reflect a role of sex hormones which will be examined in this study. This was a nationwide population-based nested case-control study, based on a cohort of subjects born between 1932 and 2008, as identified in the Swedish Multi-Generation Register. For each case of small bowel cancer, 10 age- and sex-matched controls were randomly selected. Number of children and age at having the first child were analyzed in relation to the risk of small bowel cancer using conditional logistic regression, providing odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 632 female cases and 894 male cases of small bowel cancer were included. No overall increased risk of small bowel cancer was found in parous compared to non-parous women (OR = 1.02, 95 % CI 0.67-1.54). There was no association between age at first birth and small bowel cancer (>30 years of age vs <20 years; OR = 1.04, 95 % CI 0.72-1.50). No associations were detected in separate analyses of adenocarcinoma or carcinoid of the small bowel. No distinct risk patterns were discerned in men compared to women. Reproductive history does not seem to be associated with the risk of small bowel cancer, independent of histologic type.

  18. Prevalence of exposure to suicide: A meta-analysis of population-based studies.

    PubMed

    Andriessen, Karl; Rahman, Bayzidur; Draper, Brian; Dudley, Michael; Mitchell, Philip B

    2017-05-01

    Those exposed to suicide are at increased risk of adverse outcomes including mental illness, impaired social functioning, and fatal and non-fatal suicidal behavior. However, it is unclear how many people are exposed to suicide in the general community. This first meta-analysis of population-based studies aimed to provide pooled estimates of past-year and lifetime prevalence of exposure to suicide among family, friends/peers, and all relationships. In addition, the study examined prevalence of exposure to suicide by age group: adolescents and adults. Systematic searches of the literature in Embase, Medline and PsycINFO identified eighteen studies that were included in the analysis. Pooled past-year prevalence was 4.31% (CI: 2.50 to 6.58) and life-time prevalence 21.83% (CI: 16.32 to 27.90). Both past-year and lifetime prevalences of exposure to suicide among friends and peers were significantly higher than the prevalence of exposure within families; there were no differences in the prevalence of exposure to suicide between adolescents and adults. Heterogeneity was highly significant. Future research should be conducted with large national representative samples and use standardised assessment instruments. Given the increased risks of adverse outcomes among those exposed to suicide, the high rate of exposure to suicide reported here has important ramifications for public health and mental health service delivery.

  19. [Knowledge on risk factors for chronic diseases: a population-based study].

    PubMed

    Borges, Thiago Terra; Rombaldi, Airton José; Knuth, Alan Goularte; Hallal, Pedro C

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate public awareness of the association between four behavioral factors (sedentary lifestyle, smoking, alcohol abuse, and inadequate diet) and eight diseases (diabetes, hypertension, AIDS, osteoporosis, lung cancer, depression, liver cirrhosis, and acute myocardial infarction). We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study including 2,096 individuals 10 years or older. A random clustered sampling strategy was used. For each behavioral factor, a knowledge score was constructed, ranging from zero to eight points. The highest mean score was observed for inadequate diet (5.3), followed by smoking (5.1), sedentary lifestyle (4.7), and alcohol abuse (4.5). Overall, higher knowledge scores were observed among people with high socioeconomic status and more schooling, and in intermediate age groups. Government health promotion strategies are needed to raise public awareness of risk factors for chronic diseases.

  20. Psychotropic drugs and the risk of fractures in old age: a prospective population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is evidence that the use of any psychotropic and the concomitant use of two or more benzodiazepines are related to an increased risk of fractures in old age. However, also controversial results exist. The aim was to describe associations between the use of a psychotropic drug, or the concomitant use of two or more of these drugs and the risk of fractures in a population aged 65 years or over. Methods This study was a part of a prospective longitudinal population-based study carried out in the municipality of Lieto, South-Western Finland. The objective was to describe gender-specific associations between the use of one psychotropic drug [benzodiazepine (BZD), antipsychotic (AP) or antidepressant (AD)] or the concomitant use of two or more psychotropic drugs and the risk of fractures in a population 65 years or over. Subjects were participants in the first wave of the Lieto study in 1990-1991, and they were followed up until the end of 1996. Information about fractures confirmed with radiology reports in 1,177 subjects (482 men and 695 women) during the follow-up was collected from medical records. Two follow-up periods (three and six years) were used, and previously found risk factors of fractures were adjusted as confounding factors separately for men and women. The Poisson regression model was used in the analyses. Results The concomitant use of two or more BZDs and the concomitant use of two or more APs were related to an increased risk of fractures during both follow-up periods after adjusting for confounding factors in men. No similar associations were found in women. Conclusions The concomitant use of several BZDs and that of several APs are associated with an increase in the risk of fractures in older men. Our findings show only risk relations. We cannot draw the conclusion that these drug combinations are causes of fractures. PMID:20602803

  1. Diet and risk of endometriosis in a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Trabert, Britton; Peters, Ulrike; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Scholes, Delia; Holt, Victoria L

    2011-02-01

    Diet plausibly has a role in the aetiology of endometriosis through effects on steroid hormone levels; however, few published studies have examined the diet and endometriosis risk. We evaluated dietary risk factors for endometriosis in a population-based case-control study. Cases were 284 Group Health (GH) enrollees aged 18-49 years with newly diagnosed, surgically confirmed endometriosis between 1996 and 2001. Controls were 660 randomly selected age-matched female GH enrollees without a history of endometriosis. Nutrients and selected food groups were assessed using the Women's Health Initiative FFQ. OR of endometriosis risk associated with dietary exposures were estimated using unconditional logistic regression and adjusted for identified covariates. Increased total fat consumption was associated with decreased endometriosis risk (fourth quartile v. lowest: OR 0·5, 95% CI 0·2, 1·0, P-trend = 0·12). Increased β-carotene consumption and servings/d of fruit were associated with increased risk (β-carotene third quartile v. lowest: OR 1·7, 95% CI 1·1, 2·6; fourth quartile v. lowest: OR 1·6, 95% CI 1·0, 2·5, P-trend 0·16; fruit >2 servings/d v. < 1: OR 1·5, 95% CI 1·0, 2·3, P-trend = 0·04). We also found a suggestion of decreased endometriosis risk associated with the consumption of dairy products (2 servings/d v. ≤ 1: OR 0·6, >2 servings/d v. ≤ 1: OR 0·7), but this association was not statistically significant for the highest tertile. The present study suggests that specific dietary components may be associated with endometriosis risk.

  2. Perinatal characteristics and breast cancer risk in daughters: a Scandinavian population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Troisi, R.; Grotmol, T.; Jacobsen, J.; Tretli, S.; Toft-Sørensen, H.; Gissler, M.; Kaaja, R.; Potischman, N.; Ekbom, A.; N. Hoover, R.; Stephansson, O.

    2013-01-01

    The in utero origins of breast cancer are an increasing focus of research. However, the long time period between exposure and disease diagnosis, and the lack of standardized perinatal data collection makes this research challenging. We assessed perinatal factors, as proxies for in utero exposures, and breast cancer risk using pooled, population-based birth and cancer registry data. Birth registries provided information on perinatal exposures. Cases were females born in Norway, Sweden or Denmark who were subsequently diagnosed with primary, invasive breast cancer (n = 1419). Ten controls for each case were selected from the birth registries matched on country and birth year (n = 14,190). Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional regression models. Breast cancer risk rose 7% (95% CI 2–13%) with every 500 g (roughly 1 S.D.) increase in birth weight and 7% for every 1 s.d. increase in birth length (95% CI 1–14%). The association with birth length was attenuated after adjustment for birth weight, while the increase in risk with birth weight remained with adjustment for birth length. Ponderal index and small- and large-for-gestational-age status were not better predictors of risk than either weight or length alone. Risk was not associated with maternal education or age, gestational duration, delivery type or birth order, or with several pregnancy complications, including preeclampsia. These data confirm the positive association between birth weight and breast cancer risk. Other pregnancy characteristics, including complications such as preeclampsia, do not appear to be involved in later breast carcinogenesis in young women. PMID:24027626

  3. Personality, lifestyle, and risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer: follow-up of population based cohort

    PubMed Central

    Stürmer, Til; Hasselbach, Petra; Amelang, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    Objective To study the relation between measures of personality and risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer in a large cohort. Design Follow-up of population based cohort. Setting Heidelberg, Germany. Participants 5114 women and men aged 40-65 in 1992-5. Main outcome measures Psychological traits assessed by several standardised personality questionnaires in 1992-5, related to cause of death (to 2002-3) or reported incidence of cardiovascular diseases and cancer (validated by treating doctors). Relative risks (and 95% confidence intervals) for combined morbidity and mortality according to five important personality traits were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. Results During median follow-up of 8.5 years, 257 participants died and 72 were diagnosed with a heart attack, 62 with stroke, and 240 with cancer (morbidity and mortality combined). A high internal locus of control over disease was associated with a decreased risk of myocardial infarction (adjusted relative risk for an increase of 1 SD = 0.75; 95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.96). An increase of 1 SD in time urgency was associated with a decreased risk of cancer (adjusted relative risk 0.83; 0.73 to 0.95). Other major personality traits—anger control, psychoticism, and symptoms of depression—were not consistently associated with myocardial infarction, stroke, or cancer. Conclusion Internal locus of control over disease and time urgency seem to be associated with reduced risk for common chronic diseases, probably by affecting unmeasured health related behaviour. The other personality traits assessed had no major impact on cardiovascular disease and cancer. PMID:16687457

  4. Personality, lifestyle, and risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer: follow-up of population based cohort.

    PubMed

    Stürmer, Til; Hasselbach, Petra; Amelang, Manfred

    2006-06-10

    To study the relation between measures of personality and risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer in a large cohort. Follow-up of population based cohort. Heidelberg, Germany. 5114 women and men aged 40-65 in 1992-5. Psychological traits assessed by several standardised personality questionnaires in 1992-5, related to cause of death (to 2002-3) or reported incidence of cardiovascular diseases and cancer (validated by treating doctors). Relative risks (and 95% confidence intervals) for combined morbidity and mortality according to five important personality traits were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. During median follow-up of 8.5 years, 257 participants died and 72 were diagnosed with a heart attack, 62 with stroke, and 240 with cancer (morbidity and mortality combined). A high internal locus of control over disease was associated with a decreased risk of myocardial infarction (adjusted relative risk for an increase of 1 SD = 0.75; 95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.96). An increase of 1 SD in time urgency was associated with a decreased risk of cancer (adjusted relative risk 0.83; 0.73 to 0.95). Other major personality traits--anger control, psychoticism, and symptoms of depression--were not consistently associated with myocardial infarction, stroke, or cancer. Internal locus of control over disease and time urgency seem to be associated with reduced risk for common chronic diseases, probably by affecting unmeasured health related behaviour. The other personality traits assessed had no major impact on cardiovascular disease and cancer.

  5. Left ventricular mass and the risk of sudden cardiac death: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Laukkanen, Jari A; Khan, Hassan; Kurl, Sudhir; Willeit, Peter; Karppi, Jouni; Ronkainen, Kimmo; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele

    2014-11-05

    Left ventricular (LV) mass ascertained using echocardiography may enhance risk stratification for sudden cardiac death. The objective of this study was to assess the association between left ventricular mass and the risk of sudden cardiac death in a population-based cohort and determine its incremental value beyond conventional risk predictors. Assessment of LV mass was based on echocardiography in a sample of 905 middle-aged men representative of the general population (aged 42 to 61 years). During the follow-up period of 20 years, there were a total of 63 sudden cardiac deaths. In a comparison of the top versus the bottom quartile of LV mass adjusted by body surface area (>120 versus <89 g/m(2)), the multivariable adjusted hazard ratio was 2.57 (95% CI 1.24 to 5.31, P=0.010). Further adjustment for LV function only modestly attenuated the risk of sudden cardiac death among men with LV mass of >120 g/m(2) (hazard ratio 2.29, 95% CI 1.10 to 4.74, P=0.026). Addition of LV mass adjusted by body surface area to a conventional risk factor model for sudden cardiac death improved the integrated discrimination index by 0.033 (95% CI 0.009 to 0.057, P=0.007) and the category-free net reclassification index by 0.501 (95% CI 0.092 to 0.911, P=0.016). Indexed LV mass by body surface area is an independent predictor of sudden cardiac death and may help improve the risk prediction of sudden cardiac death beyond conventional cardiovascular risk factors. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  6. Association of cardiometabolic risk factors and dental caries in a population-based sample of youths

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors begin from early life and track onto adulthood. Oral and dental diseases share some risk factors with CVD, therefore by finding a clear relation between dental diseases and cardiometabolic risk factors; we can then predict the potential risk of one based on the presence of the other. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of dental caries between two groups of age-matched adolescents with and without CVD risk factors. Methods In this case-control study, the decayed, missing and filled surfaces (DMFS), based on the criteria of the World Health Organization, were compared in two groups of equal number (n = 61 in each group) of population-based sample of adolescents with and without CVD risk factors who were matched for sex and age group. Results The study participants had a median age 13 y 5 mo, age range 11 y 7 mo to 16 y 1 mo, with male-to-female proportion of 49/51. We found significant difference between the mean values of DMFS, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, as well as serum lipid profile in the case and control groups. Significant correlations were documented for DMFS with TC (r = 0.54, p = 0.02), LDL-C (r = 0.55, p = 0.01) and TG (r = 0.52, p = 0.04) in the case group; with LDL-C (r = 0.47, p = 0.03) in the whole study participants and with TC in control s(r = 0.45, p = 0.04). Conclusions Given the significant associations between dental caries and CVD risk factors among adolescents, more attention should be paid to oral health, as one of the topics to be taken into account in primordial/primary prevention of cardiometabolic disorders. PMID:20374653

  7. Hyperthyroidism is a risk factor for developing adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder: a nationwide longitudinal population-based study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Lin, Jia-Wei; Wang, Wei-Te; Wu, Chin-Wen; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Lin, Hui-Wen

    2014-02-25

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk of adhesive capsulitis among hyperthyroidism patients. The data were obtained from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 (LHID 2005) in Taiwan, using 1 million participants and a prospective population-based 7-year cohort study of survival analysis. The ambulatory-care claim records of patients diagnosed according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes relating to hyperthyroidism between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2007, were obtained. The prevalence and the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of adhesive capsulitis among hyperthyroid patients and the control group were estimated. Of 4472 hyperthyroid patients, 162 (671/100,000 person-years) experienced adhesive capsulitis during the 24,122 person-year follow-up period. The crude HR of stroke was 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 1.49), which was larger than that of the control group. The adjusted HR of developing adhesive capsulitis was 1.22 (95% CI, 1.03 to 1.45) for hyperthyroid patients during the 7-year follow-up period, which achieved statistical significance. The results of our large-scale longitudinal population-based study indicated that hyperthyroidism is an independent risk factor of developing adhesive capsulitis.

  8. Population-based study of risk factors for severe maternal morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Kristen E; Wallace, Erin R; Nelson, Kailey R; Reed, Susan D; Schiff, Melissa A

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Severe maternal morbidity (SMM) is a serious health condition potentially resulting in death without immediate medical attention, including organ failure, obstetric shock, and elcampsia. SMM affects 20,000 US women every year; however, few population-based studies have examined SMM risk factors. Methods We conducted a population-based case-control study linking birth certificate and hospital discharge data from Washington State (1987–2008), identifying 9,485 women with an antepartum, intrapartum, or postpartum SMM with ≥3-day hospitalization or transfer from another facility and 41,112 random controls. Maternal age, race, smoking during pregnancy, parity, preexisting medical condition, multiple birth, prior cesarean delivery, and BMI were assessed as risk factors with logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for education and delivery payer source. Results Older women [35–39: OR 1.65 CI 1.52, 1.79; 40+: OR 2.48 CI 2.16, 2.81], non-white women [Black: OR 1.82 CI 1.64, 2.01; American Indian: OR 1.52 CI 1.32, 1.73; Asian/Pacific Islander: OR 1.30 CI 1.19, 1.41; Hispanic: OR 1.17 CI 1.07, 1.27], and women at parity extremes [OR 1.83 CI 1.72, 1.95, nulliparous; OR 1.34 CI 1.23, 1.45, parity 3+] were at greater risk of SMM. Women with a preexisting medical condition [OR 2.10 CI 1.88, 2.33], a multiple birth [OR 2.54 CI 2.26, 2.82], and a prior cesarean delivery [OR 2.08 CI 1.93, 2.23] were also at increased risk. Conclusion The risk factors identified are not modifiable at the individual level; therefore, provider and system-level factors may be the most appropriate target for preventing SMM. PMID:23061686

  9. Population-based study of risk factors for severe maternal morbidity.

    PubMed

    Gray, Kristen E; Wallace, Erin R; Nelson, Kailey R; Reed, Susan D; Schiff, Melissa A

    2012-11-01

    Severe maternal morbidity (SMM) is a serious health condition potentially resulting in death without immediate medical attention, including organ failure, obstetric shock and eclampsia. SMM affects 20000 US women every year; however, few population-based studies have examined SMM risk factors. We conducted a population-based case-control study linking birth certificate and hospital discharge data from Washington State (1987-2008), identifying 9485 women with an antepartum, intrapartum or postpartum SMM with ≥3-day hospitalisation or transfer from another facility and 41 112 random controls. Maternal age, race, smoking during pregnancy, parity, pre-existing medical condition, multiple birth, prior caesarean delivery, and body mass index were assessed as risk factors with logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals [CI], adjusted for education and delivery payer source. Older women (35-39: OR 1.65 [CI 1.52, 1.79]; 40+: OR 2.48 [CI 2.16, 2.81]), non-White women (Black: OR 1.82 [CI 1.64, 2.01]; American Indian: OR 1.52 [CI 1.32, 1.73]; Asian/Pacific Islander: OR 1.30 [CI 1.19, 1.41]; Hispanic: OR 1.17 [CI 1.07, 1.27]) and women at parity extremes (nulliparous: OR 1.83 [CI 1.72, 1.95]; parity 3+: OR 1.34 [CI 1.23, 1.45]) were at greater risk of SMM. Women with a pre-existing medical condition (OR 2.10 [CI 1.88, 2.33]), a multiple birth (OR 2.54 [CI 2.26, 2.82]) and a prior caesarean delivery (OR 2.08 [CI 1.93, 2.23]) were also at increased risk. The risk factors identified are not modifiable at the individual level; therefore, provider and system-level factors may be the most appropriate target for preventing SMM. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Multiple modifiable risk factors for first ischemic stroke: a population-based epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Hadjiev, D I; Mineva, P P; Vukov, M I

    2003-09-01

    The aims of this epidemiological population-based cohort study were to examine the prevalence of the multiple modifiable vascular risk factors, their distribution patterns and outcomes among a Bulgarian urban population. A total of 500 volunteers, 200 men and 300 women, without clinical signs and symptoms of cerebrovascular disease, aged 50-79 years, were enrolled in the study. A structured questionnaire, physical examination, electrocardiogram records, a battery of laboratory tests and carotid duplex scanning were employed. Three or more modifiable vascular risk factors were detected in 52% (260/500) of the subjects. Dyslipidemias, hypertension, obesity, cigarette smoking and cardiac diseases were found to be the most prevalent single risk factors. Asymptomatic carotid stenosis (ACS) of 50% or greater was detected in 8.8% (23/260) of the volunteers examined. After a 2-year follow-up, 2.7% (7/260) of the persons with modifiable vascular risk factors reached the end point transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction. The following combinations of risk factors among the subjects enrolled in the study were significantly associated with these outcomes: hypertension and cardiac diseases (OR = 6.82; 95% CI, 1.21-38.41), cardiac diseases and obesity (OR = 6.13; 95% CI, 1.27-29.72), ACS and high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels (OR = 11.11; 95% CI, 1.58-78.29). The identification of subjects with multiple vascular risk factors may be important for primary medical or surgical stroke prevention.

  11. Reduced risk of dyslipidaemia with oolong tea consumption: a population-based study in southern China.

    PubMed

    Yi, Deqing; Tan, Xuerui; Zhao, Zhiguo; Cai, Yingmu; Li, Yiming; Lin, Xiuying; Lu, Sailan; Chen, Yongsong; Zhang, Qingying

    2014-04-28

    Experimental studies have suggested that tea consumption could lower the risk of dyslipidaemia. However, epidemiological evidence is limited, especially in southern China, where oolong tea is the most widely consumed beverage. We conducted a population-based case-control study to evaluate the association between consumption of tea, especially oolong tea, and risk of dyslipidaemia in Shantou, southern China, from 2010 to 2011. Information on tea consumption, lifestyle characteristics and food consumption frequency of 1651 patients with newly diagnosed dyslipidaemia and 1390 controls was obtained using a semi-quantitative questionnaire. Anthropometric variables and serum biochemical indices were determined. Drinking more than 600 ml (2 paos) of green, oolong or black tea daily was found to be associated with the lowest odds of dyslipidaemia risk (P< 0.001) when compared with non-consumption, but only oolong tea consumption was found to be associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels. A dose-response relationship between duration of tea consumption and risk of dyslipidaemia (OR 0.10, 95% CI 0.06, 0.16), as well as that between amount of dried tea leaves brewed and risk of dyslipidaemia (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.24, 0.48), was found. Moreover, consumption of oolong tea for the longest duration was found to be associated with 3.22, 11.99 and 6.69% lower blood total cholesterol, TAG and LDL-cholesterol levels, respectively. In conclusion, the present study indicates that long-term oolong tea consumption may be associated with a lower risk of dyslipidaemia in the population of Shantou in southern China.

  12. Risk of fracture after bariatric surgery in the United Kingdom: population based, retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lalmohamed, Arief; de Vries, Frank; Bazelier, Marloes T; Cooper, Alun; van Staa, Tjeerd-Pieter; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas C

    2012-08-03

    To estimate fracture risk in patients receiving bariatric surgery versus matched controls. Population based, retrospective cohort study. Use of records from the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database, now known as the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (from January 1987 to December 2010). Patients with a body mass index of at least 30, with a record of bariatric surgery (n=2079), and matched controls without a record (n=10,442). Each bariatric surgery patient was matched to up to six controls by age, sex, practice, year, and body mass index. Patients were followed from the date of bariatric surgery for the occurrence of any fracture. We used time dependent Cox regression to calculate relative rates of fracture, adjusted for disease and previous drug treatment, and time-interaction terms to evaluate fracture timing patterns. Relative rates of any, osteoporotic, and non-osteoporotic fractures. Mean follow-up time was 2.2 years. Overall, there was no significantly increased risk of fracture in patients who underwent bariatric surgery, compared with controls (8.8 v 8.2 per 1000 person years; adjusted relative risk 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.60 to 1.33). Bariatric surgery also did not affect risk of osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic fractures. However, we saw a trend towards an increased fracture risk after three to five years following surgery, as well as in patients who had a greater decrease in body mass index after surgery, but this was not significant. Bariatric surgery does not have a significant effect on the risk of fracture. For the first few years after surgery, these results are reassuring for patients undergoing such operations, but do not exclude a more protracted adverse influence on skeletal health in the longer term.

  13. Asthma Status and Risk of Incident Myocardial Infarction: A population-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Duk Won; Wi, Chung-Il; Kim, Eun Na; Hagan, John; Roger, Veronique; Manemann, Sheila; Lahr, Brian; Ryu, Euijung; Juhn, Young J

    2016-01-01

    Background The role of asthma status and characteristics of asthma in the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) are poorly understood. Objective We determined whether asthma and its characteristics are associated with risk of MI. Methods The study was designed as a population-based retrospective case-control study, which included all eligible incident MI cases between November 1, 2002, and May 31, 2006, and their matched controls. Asthma was ascertained using predetermined criteria. Active (current) asthma was defined as the occurrence of asthma-related episodes (asthma symptoms, use of asthma medications, unscheduled medical or emergency department visit, or hospitalization for asthma) within one year prior to MI index date. Results There were 543 eligible incident MI cases during the study period. Of the 543 MI cases, 81 (15%) had a history of asthma prior to index date of MI whereas 52 of 543 controls (10%) had such a history (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.06–2.66) adjusting for risk factors for MI and comorbid conditions (excluding chronic obstructive lung disease). While inactive asthma did not increase the risk of MI, individuals with active asthma had a higher odds of MI, compared to those without asthma (adjusted OR: 3.18; 95% CI: 1.57–6.44) without controlling for COPD. After adjusting for COPD, although asthma overall was no longer statistically significant (adjusted OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 0.84–2.15), active asthma still was associated (adjusted OR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.12–4.82). Conclusion Active asthma is an unrecognized risk factor for MI. Further studies are needed to assess the role of asthma control and medications in the risk of MI. PMID:27157653

  14. [Direct Microlaryngoscopy: A Population-Based Analysis on Outcome, Complications and Surgery Rates].

    PubMed

    Gräfe, Lisa; Böger, Daniel; Büntzel, Jens; Eßer, Dirk; Hoffmann, Kerstin; Jecker, Peter; Müller, Andreas; Radtke, Gerald; Volk, Gerd Fabian; Koscielny, Sven; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando

    2017-07-01

    Although microlaryngoscopy is an integral part of surgical routine of otorhinolaryngologists, there is no population-based data published on surgery rates and efficiency of microlaryngoscopy country-wide or nation-wide. All 616 patients who underwent microlaryngoscopy 2011 in one of the eight ENT departments in Thuringia were analyzed according to patients' characteristics, therapy, complications and follow-up. The majority of admissions were performed because of a benign disease (60%) of the larynx, and in 33% related to a malignant disease or suspicion of a malignant disease. When a benign disease was suspected, it was confirmed 98% of cases. When a malignant tumor was suspected, it was confirmed in 51% of cases, i. e. ruled out in 49% of cases. Transient laryngeal edema (22%) and bleeding needing revision surgery (1%) were the most frequent or serve observed postoperative sequelae. Teeth damage occurred only in 2 cases (0.2%). A recurrence of the primary disease was observed in 14%. Longer surgery time was an independent predictor for postoperative bleeding and for postoperative laryngeal edema (p=0.050 and p=0.013, respectively). Revision surgery (p<0.0001) and a final diagnosis of a malignant disease (p=0.017) were independent predictors for recurrence of the primary disease. The overall incidence of microlaryngoscopy was 22.98/100000 population. The highest incidence was seen for patients 50-59 years of age with 39.76/100000. Benign diseases were the most frequent indication with 19.33/100000. This population-based analysis is showing that microlaryngoscopy is performed effectively and with low postoperative risks in daily routine of otorhinolaryngologists. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Management of malignant colonic polyps: a population-based analysis of colonoscopic polypectomy versus surgery.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Gregory S; Xu, Fang; Barnholtz Sloan, Jill S; Koroukian, Siran M; Schluchter, Mark D

    2012-02-01

    The management of colon polyps containing invasive carcinoma includes surgical resection or colonoscopic polypectomy. To date, there are very limited population-based data comparing outcomes with the 2 management approaches. Using the linked Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database, we identified 2077 patients aged ≥66 years with an initial diagnosis of stage T1N0M0 malignant polyp from 1992-2005. Patients were categorized as surgical or polypectomy depending on the most invasive treatment. To adjust for potential selection bias in treatment assignment, using multivariate analysis, patients were divided into quintiles of likelihood of polypectomy (propensity scores), and outcomes were compared in each quintile. Surgical resection was performed in 1340 (64.5%) patients and polypectomy was performed in 737 (35.5%) patients. Predictors for undergoing polypectomy (P<.001) included older age, greater comorbidity, no history of polyps, diagnosis in 2002 or later, left colon site of cancer, well-differentiated tumors, and colonoscopy performed in an outpatient setting. Both 1-year and 5-year survival were higher in the surgical group (92% and 75%, respectively) than in the polypectomy group (88% and 62%, respectively). The unadjusted hazard ratio was 1.51 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-1.74). After adjusting for propensity quintile, the hazard ratio was 1.15 (95% CI, 0.98-1.33). Within each propensity quintile, the risk of death was similar between the 2 groups (interaction test P = .96). In this large, population-based sample, more than one-third of patients with malignant polyps were treated with colonoscopic polypectomy. Outcomes were similar to surgical patients with comparable clinical characteristics and could be offered to patients who meet appropriate clinical criteria. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  16. The Effect of Age on Fracture Risk: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chikritzhs, Tanya

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To precisely estimate the effect of age on the risk of fracture hospitalisation among the Western Australia population over the life course. Methods. This population-based cohort study used hospital data on fractures for the period January 1991 to January 2013 among Western Australians born between 1915 and 1990. Results. The average incidence rates (per 10,000 person-years) of fracture hospitalisation (95% confidence interval) were 50.12 (49.90, 50.35), 55.14 (54.82, 55.48), and 45.02 (44.71, 45.32) for both males and females, males only, and females only, respectively. The age-specific rate of fracture hospitalisation (in natural logarithm form) in adults (>18 years) was well predicted by age at its 1st, 2nd, and 3rd power in males with an adjusted R-squared of 0.98 and p < 0.001. For females, the trend was also well predicted by its 1st and 2nd powers (the 3rd power term of age was removed due to its p value > 0.8) with an adjusted R-squared of 0.99 and p < 0.001. Conclusions. Overall trends in age and gender specific risk of fracture among the Western Australian population were similar to estimates reported from previous studies. The trend in fracture hospitalisation risk over the life course can be almost fully explained by age. PMID:27340566

  17. Risk factors for chronic periodontitis in Sri Lankan adults: a population based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wellapuli, Nimali; Ekanayake, Lilani

    2017-09-07

    To determine risk factors for chronic periodontitis in 30-60 year olds in Sri Lanka. Cases and controls for this population based unmatched case-control study were identified from a broader cross-sectional study which was conducted to determine the prevalence of chronic periodontitis in 30-60 year old adults in Colombo district Sri Lanka. The study included 694 cases and 706 controls. Data were collected by means of a pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire to obtain information about socio-demographic and behavioural factors, a physical examination to record anthropometric measurements and an oral examination. Being a male, a Muslim, belonging to the 45-60 year old age group, having less than 12 years of education, using the finger to clean teeth, current smoking, current betel quid chewing, self-reported diabetes and hypertension emerged as risk factors for chronic periodontitis. Several socio-demographic and behavioural factors as well as co-morbid conditions emerged as independent risk factors for chronic periodontits in this population. The findings could be used for planning programmes to reduce the burden of chronic periodontits in Colombo district Sri Lanka.

  18. Serum magnesium and the risk of prediabetes: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kieboom, Brenda C T; Ligthart, Symen; Dehghan, Abbas; Kurstjens, Steef; de Baaij, Jeroen H F; Franco, Oscar H; Hofman, Albert; Zietse, Robert; Stricker, Bruno H; Hoorn, Ewout J

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies have found an association between serum magnesium and incident diabetes; however, this association may be due to reverse causation, whereby diabetes may induce urinary magnesium loss. In contrast, in prediabetes (defined as impaired fasting glucose), serum glucose levels are below the threshold for urinary magnesium wasting and, hence, unlikely to influence serum magnesium levels. Thus, to study the directionality of the association between serum magnesium levels and diabetes, we investigated its association with prediabetes. We also investigated whether magnesium-regulating genes influence diabetes risk through serum magnesium levels. Additionally, we quantified the effect of insulin resistance in the association between serum magnesium levels and diabetes risk. Within the population-based Rotterdam Study, we used Cox models, adjusted for age, sex, lifestyle factors, comorbidities, kidney function, serum levels of electrolytes and diuretic use, to study the association between serum magnesium and prediabetes/diabetes. In addition, we performed two mediation analyses: (1) to study if common genetic variation in eight magnesium-regulating genes influence diabetes risk through serum magnesium levels; and (2) to quantify the proportion of the effect of serum magnesium levels on diabetes that is mediated through insulin resistance (quantified by HOMA-IR). A total of 8555 participants (mean age, 64.7 years; median follow-up, 5.7 years) with normal glucose levels (mean ± SD: 5.46 ± 0.58 mmol/l) at baseline were included. A 0.1 mmol/l decrease in serum magnesium level was associated with an increase in diabetes risk (HR 1.18 [95% CI 1.04, 1.33]), confirming findings from previous studies. Of interest, a similar association was found between serum magnesium levels and prediabetes risk (HR 1.12 [95% CI 1.01, 1.25]). Genetic variation in CLDN19, CNNM2, FXYD2, SLC41A2, and TRPM6 significantly influenced diabetes risk (p < 0.05), and for CNNM

  19. Driver sleepiness and risk of serious injury to car occupants: population based case control study

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Jennie; Norton, Robyn; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Robinson, Elizabeth; Civil, Ian; Dunn, Roger; Bailey, John; Jackson, Rod

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the contribution of driver sleepiness to the causes of car crash injuries. Design Population based case control study. Setting Auckland region of New Zealand, April 1998 to July 1999. Participants 571 car drivers involved in crashes where at least one occupant was admitted to hospital or killed (“injury crash”); 588 car drivers recruited while driving on public roads (controls), representative of all time spent driving in the study region during the study period. Main outcome measures Relative risk for injury crash associated with driver characteristics related to sleep, and the population attributable risk for driver sleepiness. Results There was a strong association between measures of acute sleepiness and the risk of an injury crash. After adjustment for major confounders significantly increased risk was associated with drivers who identified themselves as sleepy (Stanford sleepiness score 4-7 v 1-3; odds ratio 8.2, 95% confidence interval 3.4 to 19.7); with drivers who reported five hours or less of sleep in the previous 24 hours compared with more than five hours (2.7, 1.4 to 5.4); and with driving between 2 am and 5 am compared with other times of day (5.6, 1.4 to 22.7). No increase in risk was associated with measures of chronic sleepiness. The population attributable risk for driving with one or more of the acute sleepiness risk factors was 19% (15% to 25%). Conclusions Acute sleepiness in car drivers significantly increases the risk of a crash in which a car occupant is injured or killed. Reductions in road traffic injuries may be achieved if fewer people drive when they are sleepy or have been deprived of sleep or drive between 2 am and 5 am. What is already known on this topicDriver sleepiness is considered a potentially important risk factor for car crashes and related injuries but the association has not been reliably quantifiedPublished estimates of the proportion of car crashes attributable to driver sleepiness vary from

  20. Opium use during pregnancy and risk of preterm delivery: A population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Cnattingius, Sven; Montgomery, Scott; Aarabi, Mohsen; Semnani, Shahriar; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Bahmanyar, Shahram

    2017-01-01

    Background Use of narcotic or “recreational” drugs has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm delivery. However, the associations might be confounded by other factors related to high-risk behaviours. This is the first study to investigate the association between traditional opium use during pregnancy and risk of preterm delivery. Method and findings We performed a population-based cohort study in the rural areas of the Golestan province, Iran between 2008 and 2010. We randomly selected 920 women who used (usually smoked) opium during pregnancy and 920 women who did not. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between the opium use during pregnancy and preterm delivery and adjustment was made for potential confounding factors. This study shows compared with non-use of opium and tobacco, use of only opium during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery (OR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.05–2.32), and the risk was more than two-fold increased among dual users of opium and tobacco (OR = 2.31; 95% CI 1.37–3.90). We observed that opium use only was associated with a doubled risk for preterm caesarean delivery (OR = 2.05; 95% CI 1.10–3.82) but not for preterm vaginal delivery (OR = 1.25; 95% CI 0.75–2.07). Dual use of opium and tobacco was associated with a substantially increased risk of vaginal preterm delivery (OR = 2.58; 95% CI 1.41–4.71). Conclusions Opium use during pregnancy among non-tobacco smokers is associated with an increased risk of preterm caesarean delivery, indicating an increased risk of a compromised foetus before or during labour. Women who use both opium and smoked during pregnancy have an increased risk of preterm vaginal delivery, indicating an increased risk of spontaneous preterm delivery. PMID:28448546

  1. Excess risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with porphyria: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tollånes, Mette Christophersen; Aarsand, Aasne Karine; Sandberg, Sverre

    2011-02-01

    The porphyrias comprise a heterogeneous group of rare, primarily hereditary, metabolic diseases caused by a partial deficiency in one of the eight enzymes involved in the heme biosynthesis. Our aim was to assess whether acute or cutaneous porphyria has been associated with excess risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes. A population-based cohort study was designed by record linkage between the Norwegian Porphyria Register, covering 70% of all known porphyria patients in Norway, and the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, based on all births in Norway during 1967-2006. The risks of the adverse pregnancy outcomes preeclampsia, delivery by caesarean section, low birth weight, premature delivery, small for gestational age (SGA), perinatal death, and congenital malformations were compared between porphyric mothers and the rest of the population. The 200 mothers with porphyria had 398 singletons during the study period, whereas the 1,100,391 mothers without porphyria had 2,275,317 singletons. First-time mothers with active acute porphyria had an excess risk of perinatal death [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 4.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-16.0], as did mothers with the hereditable form of porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) (3.0, 1.2-7.7). Sporadic PCT was associated with an excess risk of SGA [adjusted relative risk (RR) 2.0, 1.2-3.4], and for first-time mothers, low birth weight (adjusted OR 3.4, 1.2-10.0) and premature delivery (3.5, 1.2-10.5) in addition. The findings suggest women with porphyria should be monitored closely during pregnancy.

  2. Excess risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with porphyria: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Aarsand, Aasne Karine; Sandberg, Sverre

    2010-01-01

    The porphyrias comprise a heterogeneous group of rare, primarily hereditary, metabolic diseases caused by a partial deficiency in one of the eight enzymes involved in the heme biosynthesis. Our aim was to assess whether acute or cutaneous porphyria has been associated with excess risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes. A population-based cohort study was designed by record linkage between the Norwegian Porphyria Register, covering 70% of all known porphyria patients in Norway, and the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, based on all births in Norway during 1967–2006. The risks of the adverse pregnancy outcomes preeclampsia, delivery by caesarean section, low birth weight, premature delivery, small for gestational age (SGA), perinatal death, and congenital malformations were compared between porphyric mothers and the rest of the population. The 200 mothers with porphyria had 398 singletons during the study period, whereas the 1,100,391 mothers without porphyria had 2,275,317 singletons. First-time mothers with active acute porphyria had an excess risk of perinatal death [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 4.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5–16.0], as did mothers with the hereditable form of porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) (3.0, 1.2–7.7). Sporadic PCT was associated with an excess risk of SGA [adjusted relative risk (RR) 2.0, 1.2–3.4], and for first-time mothers, low birth weight (adjusted OR 3.4, 1.2–10.0) and premature delivery (3.5, 1.2–10.5) in addition. The findings suggest women with porphyria should be monitored closely during pregnancy. PMID:20978938

  3. Coffee drinking and risk of endometrial cancer – a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Friberg, Emilie; Orsini, Nicola; Mantzoros, Christos S.; Wolk, Alicja

    2009-01-01

    Coffee drinking has been reported to have beneficial effects on insulin resistance which has been directly associated with endometrial cancer. Although a relationship between coffee consumption and endometrial cancer risk is biologically plausible, this hypothesis has been previously explored in only two prospective studies, with a small number of cases. We used data from the Swedish Mammography Cohort, a population-based prospective cohort study of 60 634 women. During 17.6 years of follow-up, 677 participants were diagnosed with incident endometrial cancer (adenocarcinoma). We examined the association between self-reported coffee consumption (at baseline 1987–90 and in 1997) and endometrial cancer risk using Cox proportional hazards models. Each additional cup (200g) of coffee per day was associated with a RR of 0.90 (95% CI 0.83–0.97). In women drinking four or more cups of coffee a day the risk reduction of endometrial cancer was RR 0.75 (95% CI 0.58–0.97) as compared to those who drank one cup or less. The association seemed largely confined to overweight and obese women, who showed a respective risk reduction of 12% (95% CI 0–23%) and 20% (95% CI 7–31%) for every cup of coffee, but was not observed among normal weight women. There was a statistically significant interaction between coffee consumption and body mass index (pinteraction <0.001). These data indicate that coffee consumption may be associated with decreased risk of endometrial cancer, especially among women with excessive body weight. If confirmed by other prospective studies, these results are of major public health significance. PMID:19585497

  4. Frailty and cardiovascular risk in community-dwelling elderly: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Natalia Aquaroni; Pessoa, Germane Silva; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Dias, Rosangela Correa; Perracini, Monica Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests a possible bidirectional connection between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the frailty syndrome in older people. Purpose To verify the relationship between CVD risk factors and the frailty syndrome in community-dwelling elderly. Methods This population-based study used data from the Fragilidade em Idosos Brasileiros (FIBRA) Network Study, a cross-sectional study designed to investigate frailty profiles among Brazilian older adults. Frailty status was defined as the presence of three or more out of five of the following criteria: unintentional weight loss, weakness, self-reported fatigue, slow walking speed, and low physical activity level. The ascertained CVD risk factors were self-reported and/or directly measured hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, waist circumference measurement, and smoking. Results Of the 761 participants, 9.7% were characterized as frail, 48.0% as pre-frail, and 42.3% as non-frail. The most prevalent CVD risk factor was hypertension (84.4%) and the lowest one was smoking (10.4%). It was observed that among those participants with four or five risk factors there was a higher proportion of frail and pre-frail compared with non-frail (Fisher’s exact test: P=0.005; P=0.021). Self-reported diabetes mellitus was more prevalent among frail and pre-frail participants when compared with non-frail participants (Fisher’s exact test: P≤0.001; P≤0.001). There was little agreement between self-reported hypertension and hypertension identified by blood pressure measurement. Conclusion Hypertension was highly prevalent among the total sample. In addition, frail and pre-frail older people corresponded to a substantial proportion of those with more CVD risk factors, especially diabetes mellitus, highlighting the need for preventive strategies in order to avoid the co-occurrence of CVD and frailty. PMID:25336932

  5. Gout increases risk of fracture: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Huey-En; Lin, Che-Chen; Wang, I-Kuan; Huang, Po-Hao; Tsai, Chun-Hao

    2016-08-01

    There is still debate on whether high uric acid increases bone mineral density (BMD) against osteoporotic fracture or bone resorption caused by gout inflammation. This study aimed to evaluate whether gout offers a protective effect on bone health or not. We conducted a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study to evaluate the association between gout history and risk factors of fracture.A retrospective cohort study was designed using the claim data from Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID). A total of 43,647 subjects with gout and a cohort of 87,294 comparison subjects without gout were matched in terms of age and sex between 2001 and 2009, and the data were followed until December 31, 2011. The primary outcome of the study was the fracture incidence, and the impacts of gout on fracture risks were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model.After an 11-year follow-up period, 6992 and 11,412 incidents of fracture were reported in gout and comparison cohorts, respectively. The overall incidence rate of fracture in individuals with gout was nearly 23%, which was higher than that in individuals without gout (252 vs 205 per 10,000 person-years) at an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.17 (95% confidence interval = 1.14-1.21). Age, sex, and fracture-associated comorbidities were adjusted accordingly. As for fracture locations, patients with gout were found at significant higher fracture risks for upper/lower limbs and spine fractures. In gout patient, the user of allopurinol or benzbromarone has significantly lower risk of facture than nonusers.Gout history is considered as a risk factor for fractures, particularly in female individuals and fracture sites located at the spine or upper/lower limbs.

  6. Cerebral Vasoreactivity, Apolipoprotein E, and the Risk of Dementia: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Frank J; de Bruijn, Renée F A G; Hofman, Albert; Koudstaal, Peter J; Ikram, M Arfan

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral vasoreactivity (CVR) is a key factor in maintenance of continuous cerebral perfusion and a marker of (micro)vascular damage. We aimed to determine the longitudinal relation between CVR and the risk of dementia in the general population. We determined CVR in nondemented participants who underwent transcranial Doppler with induced hypercapnia from 1997 to 1999, as part of the ongoing population-based Rotterdam Study. We used a Cox model to determine the risk of dementia in relation to CVR, adjusted for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, and carotid intima-media thickness. We furthermore determined decline on a cognitive test battery in relation to CVR, using linear mixed models. Among 1629 participants (mean ± SD age 70.6 ± 6.2 years, 46.2% female) with a mean follow-up of 11.5 years, 209 were diagnosed with dementia, of whom 171 had Alzheimer disease. Higher CVR at baseline was associated with lower risk of dementia (adjusted hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval, per SD increase: 0.87, 0.75-1.00) and Alzheimer disease (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.84; 0.71-0.99). This association was more profound in APOEε4 carriers than in noncarriers (adjusted hazard ratio for all dementia: 0.77, 0.60-0.98 versus 0.89, 0.73-1.07). Performance on cognitive tests at baseline was better with higher CVR (g-factor: P=0.02), but during 3 cognitive assessments over 11 years of follow-up, higher CVR at baseline was associated with less decline in test scores on the Stroop reading and interference tasks in APOEε4 carriers only (P=0.01 and 0.02, respectively). Impaired CVR is associated with an increased risk of dementia in the general population. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Genocide Exposure and Subsequent Suicide Risk: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Stephen Z.; Levav, Itzhak; Yoffe, Rinat; Becher, Yifat; Pugachova, Inna

    2016-01-01

    The association between periods of genocide-related exposures and suicide risk remains unknown. Our study tests that association using a national population-based study design. The source population comprised of all persons born during1922-1945 in Nazi-occupied or dominated European nations, that immigrated to Israel by 1965, were identified in the Population Register (N = 220,665), and followed up for suicide to 2014, totaling 16,953,602 person-years. The population was disaggregated to compare a trauma gradient among groups that immigrated before (indirect, n = 20,612, 9%); during (partial direct, n = 17,037, 8%); or after (full direct, n = 183,016, 83%) exposure to the Nazi era. Also, the direct exposure groups were examined regarding pre- or post-natal exposure periods. Cox regression models were used to compute Hazard Ratios (HR) of suicide risk to compare the exposure groups, adjusting for confounding by gender, residential SES and history of psychiatric hospitalization. In the total population, only the partial direct exposure subgroup was at greater risk compared to the indirect exposure group (HR = 1.73, 95% CI, 1.10, 2.73; P < .05). That effect replicated in six sensitivity analyses. In addition, sensitivity analyses showed that exposure at ages 13 plus among females, and follow-up by years since immigration were associated with a greater risk; whereas in utero exposure among persons with no psychiatric hospitalization and early postnatal exposure among males were at a reduced risk. Tentative mechanisms impute biopsychosocial vulnerability and natural selection during early critical periods among males, and feelings of guilt and entrapment or defeat among females. PMID:26901411

  8. Irritable Bowel Syndrome Increases the Risk of Epilepsy: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Hua; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-09-01

    An abnormal interaction in the brain-gut axis is regarded as the cause of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We attempted to determine the association between IBS and subsequent development of epilepsy.A total of 32,122 patients diagnosed with IBS between 2000 and 2011 were identified from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database as the study cohort, and 63,295 controls were randomly selected from the insurants without IBS and frequency-matched according to age, sex, and index year as the comparison cohort. Both cohorts were followed up until the end of 2011 to measure the incidence of epilepsy. We analyzed the risks of epilepsy using Cox proportional hazards regression models.The IBS patients had greater cumulative incidence of epilepsy than the cohort without IBS (log-rank test, P < 0.001 and 2.54 versus 1.86 per 1000 person-years). The IBS cohort had a higher risk of epilepsy after adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, coronary artery disease, head injury, depression, systemic lupus erythematosus, brain tumor, and antidepressants usage (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-1.45). Stratified by the presence of other risk factors, the relative risk was also greater for patients with (aHR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.10-1.41) or without other risk factors (aHR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.35-2.10) in the IBS cohort than for those in the non-IBS cohort. The age-specific relative risk of epilepsy in the IBS cohort was greater than that in the non-IBS cohort for both 35 to 49 age group and 50 to 64 age group (age ≤ 34, aHR:1.31, 95% CI: 0.93-1.85; age 35-49, aHR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.12-1.83; age 50-64, aHR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.27-1.91). However, there was no difference between patients > 65 years with IBS and those without IBS (aHR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.94-1.31).This population-based cohort study revealed that IBS increases the risk of developing epilepsy. However, IBS may be less influential than other risk factors. Further study is necessary to

  9. A Population-Based Study on Alcohol and High-Risk Sexual Behaviors in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Weiser, Sheri D; Leiter, Karen; Heisler, Michele; McFarland, Willi; Korte, Fiona Percy-de; DeMonner, Sonya M; Tlou, Sheila; Phaladze, Nthabiseng; Iacopino, Vincent; Bangsberg, David R

    2006-01-01

    Background In Botswana, an estimated 24% of adults ages 15–49 years are infected with HIV. While alcohol use is strongly associated with HIV infection in Africa, few population-based studies have characterized the association of alcohol use with specific high-risk sexual behaviors. Methods and Findings We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study of 1,268 adults from five districts in Botswana using a stratified two-stage probability sample design. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess correlates of heavy alcohol consumption (>14 drinks/week for women, and >21 drinks/week for men) as a dependent variable. We also assessed gender-specific associations between alcohol use as a primary independent variable (categorized as none, moderate, problem and heavy drinking) and several risky sex outcomes including: (a) having unprotected sex with a nonmonogamous partner; (b) having multiple sexual partners; and (c) paying for or selling sex in exchange for money or other resources. Criteria for heavy drinking were met by 31% of men and 17% of women. Adjusted correlates of heavy alcohol use included male gender, intergenerational relationships (age gap ≥10 y), higher education, and living with a sexual partner. Among men, heavy alcohol use was associated with higher odds of all risky sex outcomes examined, including unprotected sex (AOR = 3.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65 to 7.32), multiple partners (AOR = 3.08; 95% CI, 1.95 to 4.87), and paying for sex (AOR = 3.65; 95% CI, 2.58 to 12.37). Similarly, among women, heavy alcohol consumption was associated with higher odds of unprotected sex (AOR = 3.28; 95% CI, 1.71 to 6.28), multiple partners (AOR = 3.05; 95% CI, 1.83 to 5.07), and selling sex (AOR = 8.50; 95% CI, 3.41 to 21.18). A dose-response relationship was seen between alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors, with moderate drinkers at lower risk than both problem and heavy drinkers. Conclusions Alcohol use is associated with multiple risks

  10. Labour dystocia--risk of recurrence and instrumental delivery in following labour--a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sandström, A; Cnattingius, S; Wikström, A K; Stephansson, O

    2012-12-01

    To investigate risk of recurrence of labour dystocia and mode of delivery in second labour after taking first labour and fetal and maternal characteristics into account. A population-based cohort study. The Swedish Medical Birth Register from 1992 to 2006. A total of 239 953 women who gave birth to their first and second singleton infants in cephalic presentation at ≥ 37 weeks of gestation with spontaneous onset of labour. We used logistic regression analysis to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios. Labour dystocia and mode of delivery in second labour. Overall labour dystocia affected only 12% of women with previous dystocia. Regardless of mode of first delivery, rates of dystocia in the second labour were higher in women with than without previous dystocia, but were more pronounced in women with previous caesarean section (34%). Analyses with risk score groups for dystocia (risk factors were long interpregnancy interval, maternal age ≥ 35 years, obesity, short maternal stature, not cohabiting and post-term pregnancy) showed that risk of instrumental delivery in second labour increased with previous dystocia and increasing risk score. Among women with trial of labour after caesarean section with previous dystocia and a risk score of 3 or more, 66% had a vaginal instrumental or caesarean delivery (17 and 49%, respectively). In women with trial of labour after caesarean section without previous dystocia and a risk score of 0, corresponding risk was 32% (14 and 18%, respectively). Previous labour dystocia increases the risk of dystocia in subsequent delivery. Taking first labour and fetal and maternal characteristics into account is important in the risk assessments for dystocia and instrumental delivery in second labour. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  11. A population-based study of the effect of pregnancy history on risk of stillbirth.

    PubMed

    Räisänen, Sari; Hogue, Carol J R; Laine, Katariina; Kramer, Michael R; Gissler, Mika; Heinonen, Seppo

    2017-10-09

    To examine the effect of pregnancy history on the risk of stillbirth. In a population-based cross-sectional study, data were reviewed from all women aged at least 20 years with singleton pregnancies in Finland between 2000 and 2010. The primary outcome-stillbirth-was defined as fetal death after 22 gestational weeks or death of a fetus weighing at least 500 g. Among 604 047 singleton pregnancies, the prevalence of stillbirth was 3.17 per 1000 deliveries. Prevalence was lowest for multiparous women without previous pregnancy loss after adjusting for major pregnancy complications associated with stillbirth (placenta previa, placental abruption, and pre-eclampsia) and other confounders. Relative to these women, stillbirth prevalence was higher among multiparous women with previous spontaneous abortion and/or stillbirth (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.36), nulliparous women with no previous pregnancy loss (aOR 1.23, 95% CI 1.10-1.38), and nulliparous women with prior spontaneous abortion (aOR 1.43, 95% CI 1.18-1.74). Previous pregnancy loss was found to be an independent risk factor for stillbirth, irrespective of the number of prior deliveries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Gynecological malignancy risk in colorectal cancer survivors: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-Chun; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Liang, Ji-An; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-10-01

    This study was carried out to assess the risk of gynecological malignancy in colorectal cancer survivors using a population-based retrospective cohort study. Using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan, we identified 37,176 patients with colorectal cancer diagnosed in 1998-2009, aged 20 years and above, without other cancer history. We also randomly selected 148,700 women without any cancer in the comparison cohort, frequency matched by age and diagnosis date. Incidences and hazards of breast, cervix, endometrial and ovarian cancers were evaluated by 201l. The overall incidence of the 4 types of gynecological cancer was 39.0% higher in colorectal cancer patients than in comparisons (2.99 vs. 2.14 per 1000 person-years) with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.46 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.31-1.62). Breast cancer accounted for most subsequent cancer. The multivariable Cox method measured HR was the highest for endometrial cancer (3.40, 95% CI = 2.59-4.47) for the colorectal cohort relative to comparisons, followed by ovarian cancer and breast cancer, except cervix cancer. The risk of gynecological malignancies was apparently elevated for colorectal cancer survivors <50 years of age. Follow-up measures are suggested for women with colorectal cancer for early detection and prevention of the subsequent gynecological malignancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Atypical antipsychotic drugs and risk of ischaemic stroke: population based retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Sudeep S; Rochon, Paula A; Herrmann, Nathan; Lee, Philip E; Sykora, Kathy; Gunraj, Nadia; Normand, Sharon-Lise T; Gurwitz, Jerry H; Marras, Connie; Wodchis, Walter P; Mamdani, Muhammad

    2005-01-01

    Objective To compare the incidence of admissions to hospital for stroke among older adults with dementia receiving atypical or typical antipsychotics. Design Population based retrospective cohort study. Setting Ontario, Canada. Patients 32 710 older adults (≤ 65 years) with dementia (17 845 dispensed an atypical antipsychotic and 14 865 dispensed a typical antipsychotic). Main outcome measures Admission to hospital with the most responsible diagnosis (single most important condition responsible for the patient's admission) of ischaemic stroke. Observation of patients until they were either admitted to hospital with ischaemic stroke, stopped taking antipsychotics, died, or the study ended. Results After adjustment for potential confounders, participants receiving atypical antipsychotics showed no significant increase in risk of ischaemic stroke compared with those receiving typical antipsychotics (adjusted hazard ratio 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 1.26). This finding was consistent in a series of subgroup analyses, including ones of individual atypical antipsychotic drugs (risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine) and selected subpopulations of the main cohorts. Conclusion Older adults with dementia who take atypical antipsychotics have a similar risk of ischaemic stroke to those taking typical antipsychotics. PMID:15668211

  14. Familial Risks of Tourette Syndrome and Chronic Tic Disorders. A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Mataix-Cols, David; Isomura, Kayoko; Pérez-Vigil, Ana; Chang, Zheng; Rück, Christian; Larsson, K Johan; Leckman, James F; Serlachius, Eva; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2015-08-01

    Tic disorders, including Tourette syndrome (TS) and chronic tic disorders (CTDs), are assumed to be strongly familial and heritable. Although gene-searching efforts are well under way, precise estimates of familial risk and heritability are lacking. Previous controlled family studies were small and typically conducted within specialist clinics, resulting in potential ascertainment biases. They were also underpowered to disentangle genetic from environmental factors that contribute to the observed familiality. Twin studies have been either very small or based on parent-reported tics in population-based (nonclinical) twin samples. To provide unbiased estimates of familial risk and heritability of tic disorders at the population level. In this population cohort, multigenerational family study, we used a validated algorithm to identify 4826 individuals diagnosed as having TS or CTDs (76.2% male) in the Swedish National Patient Register from January 1, 1969, through December 31, 2009. We studied risks for TS or CTDs in all biological relatives of probands compared with relatives of unaffected individuals (matched on a 1:10 ratio) from the general population. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the heritability of tic disorders. The risk for tic disorders among relatives of probands with tic disorders increased proportionally to the degree of genetic relatedness. The risks for first-degree relatives (odds ratio [OR], 18.69; 95% CI, 14.53-24.05) were significantly higher than for second-degree relatives (OR, 4.58; 95% CI, 3.22-6.52) and third-degree relatives (OR, 3.07; 95% CI, 2.08-4.51). First-degree relatives at similar genetic distances (eg, parents, siblings, and offspring) had similar risks for tic disorders despite different degrees of shared environment. The risks for full siblings (50% genetic similarity; OR, 17.68; 95% CI, 12.90-24.23) were significantly higher than those for maternal half siblings (25% genetic similarity; OR, 4.41; 95

  15. Work injury risk by time of day in two population-based data sources

    PubMed Central

    Mustard, Cameron A; Chambers, Andrea; McLeod, Christopher; Bielecky, Amber; Smith, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate the rate of work injury over the 24 h clock in Ontario workers over 5 years (2004–2008). Methods A cross-sectional, observational study of work-related injury and illness was conducted for a population of occupationally active adults using two independent data sources (lost-time compensation claims and emergency department encounter records). Hours worked annually by the Ontario labour force by time of day, age, gender and occupation were estimated from population-based surveys. Results There was an approximately 40% higher incidence of emergency department visits for work-related conditions than of lost-time workers’ compensation claims (707 933 emergency department records and 457 141 lost-time claims). For men and women and across all age groups, there was an elevated risk of work-related injury or illness in the evening, night and early morning periods in both administrative data sources. This elevated risk was consistently observed across manual, mixed and non-manual occupational groups. The fraction of lost-time compensation claims that can be attributed to elevated risk of work injury in evening or night work schedules is 12.5% for women and 5.8% for men. Conclusions Despite the high prevalence of employment in non-daytime work schedules in developed economies, the work injury hazards associated with evening and night schedules remain relatively invisible. This study has demonstrated the feasibility of using administrative data sources to enhance capacity to conduct surveillance of work injury risk by time of day. More sophisticated aetiological research is needed to understand the specific mechanisms of hazards associated with non-regular work hours. PMID:23014592

  16. Autism risk across generations: a population-based study of advancing grandpaternal and paternal age.

    PubMed

    Frans, Emma M; Sandin, Sven; Reichenberg, Abraham; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul; McGrath, John J; Hultman, Christina M

    2013-05-01

    Advancing paternal age has been linked to autism. To further expand knowledge about the association between paternal age and autism by studying the effect of grandfathers' age on childhood autism. Population-based, multigenerational, case-control study. Nationwide multigeneration and patient registers in Sweden. We conducted a study of individuals born in Sweden since 1932. Parental age at birth was obtained for more than 90% of the cohort. Grandparental age at the time of birth of the parent was obtained for a smaller subset (5936 cases and 30 923 controls). International Classification of Diseases diagnosis of childhood autism in the patient registry. A statistically significant monotonic association was found between advancing grandpaternal age at the time of birth of the parent and risk of autism in grandchildren. Men who had fathered a daughter when they were 50 years or older were 1.79 times (95% CI, 1.35-2.37; P < .001) more likely to have a grandchild with autism, and men who had fathered a son when they were 50 years or older were 1.67 times (95% CI, 1.35-2.37; P < .001) more likely to have a grandchild with autism, compared with men who had fathered children when they were 20 to 24 years old, after controlling for birth year and sex of the child, age of the spouse, family history of psychiatric disorders, highest family educational level, and residential county. A statistically significant monotonic association was also found between advancing paternal age and risk of autism in the offspring. Sensitivity analyses indicated that these findings were not the result of bias due to missing data on grandparental age. Advanced grandparental age was associated with increased risk of autism, suggesting that risk of autism could develop over generations. The results are consistent with mutations and/or epigenetic alterations associated with advancing paternal age.

  17. Risk of Carotid Stroke after Chiropractic Care: A Population-Based Case-Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, J David; Boyle, Eleanor; Côté, Pierre; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Bondy, Susan J; Haldeman, Scott

    2017-04-01

    Chiropractic manipulation is a popular treatment for neck pain and headache, but may increase the risk of cervical artery dissection and stroke. Patients with carotid artery dissection can present with neck pain and/or headache before experiencing a stroke. These are common symptoms seen by both chiropractors and primary care physicians (PCPs). We aimed to assess the risk of carotid artery stroke after chiropractic care by comparing association between chiropractic and PCP visits and subsequent stroke. A population-based, case-crossover study was undertaken in Ontario, Canada. All incident cases of carotid artery stroke admitted to hospitals over a 9-year period were identified. Cases served as their own controls. Exposures to chiropractic and PCP services were determined from health billing records. We compared 15,523 cases to 62,092 control periods using exposure windows of 1, 3, 7, and 14 days prior to the stroke. Positive associations were found for both chiropractic and PCP visits and subsequent stroke in patients less than 45 years of age. These associations tended to increase when analyses were limited to visits for neck pain and headache-related diagnoses. There was no significant difference between chiropractic and PCP risk estimates. We found no association between chiropractic visits and stroke in those 45 years of age or older. We found no excess risk of carotid artery stroke after chiropractic care. Associations between chiropractic and PCP visits and stroke were similar and likely due to patients with early dissection-related symptoms seeking care prior to developing their strokes. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Socioeconomic status in relation to Parkinson's disease risk and mortality: A population-based prospective study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fei; Johansson, Anna L V; Pedersen, Nancy L; Fang, Fang; Gatz, Margaret; Wirdefeldt, Karin

    2016-07-01

    Little is known about the role of socioeconomic status in relation to Parkinson's disease (PD) risk, and no study has investigated whether the impact of socioeconomic status on all-cause mortality differs between individuals with and without PD.In this population-based prospective study, over 4.6 million Swedish inhabitants who participated in the Swedish census in 1980 were followed from 1981 to 2010. The incidence rate of PD and incidence rate ratio were estimated for the association between socioeconomic status and PD risk. Age-standardized mortality rate and hazard ratio (HR) were estimated for the association between socioeconomic status and all-cause mortality for individuals with and without PD.During follow-up, 66,332 incident PD cases at a mean age of 76.0 years were recorded. Compared to individuals with the highest socioeconomic status (high nonmanual workers), all other socioeconomic groups (manual or nonmanual and self-employed workers) had a lower PD risk. All-cause mortality rates were higher in individuals with lower socioeconomic status compared with high nonmanual workers, but relative risks for all-cause mortality were lower in PD patients than in non-PD individuals (e.g., for low manual workers, HR: 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-1.15 for PD patients; HR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.35-1.36 for non-PD individuals).Individuals with lower socioeconomic status had a lower PD incidence compared to the highest socioeconomic group. Lower socioeconomic status was associated with higher all-cause mortality among individuals with and without PD, but such impact was weaker among PD patients.

  19. Work injury risk by time of day in two population-based data sources.

    PubMed

    Mustard, Cameron A; Chambers, Andrea; McLeod, Christopher; Bielecky, Amber; Smith, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the rate of work injury over the 24 h clock in Ontario workers over 5 years (2004-2008). A cross-sectional, observational study of work-related injury and illness was conducted for a population of occupationally active adults using two independent data sources (lost-time compensation claims and emergency department encounter records). Hours worked annually by the Ontario labour force by time of day, age, gender and occupation were estimated from population-based surveys. There was an approximately 40% higher incidence of emergency department visits for work-related conditions than of lost-time workers' compensation claims (707 933 emergency department records and 457 141 lost-time claims). For men and women and across all age groups, there was an elevated risk of work-related injury or illness in the evening, night and early morning periods in both administrative data sources. This elevated risk was consistently observed across manual, mixed and non-manual occupational groups. The fraction of lost-time compensation claims that can be attributed to elevated risk of work injury in evening or night work schedules is 12.5% for women and 5.8% for men. Despite the high prevalence of employment in non-daytime work schedules in developed economies, the work injury hazards associated with evening and night schedules remain relatively invisible. This study has demonstrated the feasibility of using administrative data sources to enhance capacity to conduct surveillance of work injury risk by time of day. More sophisticated aetiological research is needed to understand the specific mechanisms of hazards associated with non-regular work hours.

  20. Obstetric risk factors for umbilical cord prolapse: a nationwide population-based study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Junichi; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Ishiwata, Isamu; Kinoshita, Katsuyuki

    2016-09-01

    To demonstrate the clinical course and the obstetric risk factors for umbilical cord prolapse. The clinical course of reported cases of umbilical cord prolapse that occurred in Japan between 2007 and 2011 was retrospectively analyzed. The obstetric risk factors for umbilical cord prolapse were investigated by a nationwide population-based case-cohort study. Three hundred and sixty-nine cases (0.018 %) of fore-lying/prolapsed umbilical cord in 2,037,460 deliveries were analyzed. Most cases of fore-lying umbilical cord were diagnosed by an ultrasound scan (78 %), whereas umbilical cord prolapse was most frequently diagnosed by an internal examination (63 %). Umbilical cord prolapse was found to be significantly associated with the following factors: multiple pregnancy [odds ratio (OR) 3.57; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 2.60, 4.90], non-vertex presentation (OR 4.67; 95 %CI 3.73, 5.86), preterm labor (OR 2.28; 95 %CI 1.83, 2.83), premature rupture of membranes (OR 3.84; 95 %CI 3.10, 4.77), prolapsed amniotic bag (OR 12.31; 95 %CI 9.00, 16.85), polyhydramnios (OR 2.89; 95 %CI 1.49, 5.61), and a birth weight of <2500 g (OR 2.26; 95 %CI 1.84, 2.79). The current study is the largest in Japan to demonstrate the obstetric clinical course and risk factors associated with umbilical cord prolapse. Prolapsed amniotic bag, labor and rupture of membrane during premature period, and fetal abnormal presentation induced by multiple pregnancy, and polyhydramnios were high risk situation for umbilical cord prolapse.

  1. Herpes zoster as a risk factor for osteoporosis: A 15-year nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chieh-Hsin; Chai, Chee-Yin; Tung, Yi-Ching; Lu, Ying-Yi; Su, Yu-Feng; Tsai, Tai-Hsin; Tzou, Rong-Dar; Lin, Chih-Lung

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the risk of osteoporosis in patients with herpes zoster (HZ) infection using a nationwide population-based dataset. The Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database was used to compare data between 11,088 patients aged 20 to 49 years diagnosed with HZ during 1996 to 2010 and a control group of 11,088 patients without HZ. Both cohorts were followed up until the end of 2010 to measure the incidence of osteoporosis. Cox proportional-hazards regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to calculate hazard ratio and cumulative incidences of osteoporosis, respectively. The overall risk of osteoporosis was 4.55 times greater in the HZ group than in the control group (2.48 vs. 0.30 per 1000 person-years, respectively) after adjusting for age, gender, Charlson Comorbidity Index, and related comorbidities. Compared with controls, patients with HZ and subsequent postherpetic neuralgia had a 4.76-fold higher likelihood of developing osteoporosis (95% confidence interval: 2.44-9.29), which was a statistically significant difference (P <0.001). Osteoporosis risk factors included female gender, age, advanced Charlson Comorbidity Index, depression, and postherpetic neuralgia. This study identified HZ is associated with an increased osteoporosis risk. Further evaluation of the value of bone mineral density test in detecting osteoporosis after HZ may be suggested. HZ vaccination could also be evaluated to lower the incidence of HZ and possibly subsequent osteoporosis. Physicians should be alerted to this association to improve early identification of osteoporosis in patients with HZ.

  2. Increased risk of trigeminal neuralgia in patients with migraine: A nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kuan-Hsiang; Chen, Yung-Tai; Fuh, Jong-Ling; Wang, Shuu-Jiun

    2015-12-20

    The objectives of this article are to evaluate the association between migraine and trigeminal neuralgia and to investigate the effects of age, sex, migraine subtype, and comorbid risk factors on trigeminal neuralgia development. This population-based cohort study was conducted using data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Individuals aged ≥ 20 years with neurologist-diagnosed migraine between 2005 and 2009 were included. A non-headache age-, sex-, and propensity score-matched control cohort was selected for comparison. All participants were followed until the end of 2010, death, or the occurrence of trigeminal neuralgia. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for comparison of the risk of trigeminal neuralgia between groups. Both cohorts (n = 137,529 each) were followed for a mean of 3.1 years. During the follow-up period, 575 patients (421,581 person-years) in the migraine cohort and 88 matched controls (438,712 person-years) were newly diagnosed with trigeminal neuralgia (incidence rates, 136.39 and 20.06/100,000 person-years, respectively). The HR for trigeminal neuralgia was 6.72 (95% CI, 5.37-8.41; p < 0.001). The association between migraine and trigeminal neuralgia remained significant in sensitivity analyses. Among migraine subtypes, patients with migraine with aura were at greater risk of trigeminal neuralgia development. No other significant interaction was identified in subgroup analyses. Migraine is a previously unidentified risk factor for trigeminal neuralgia. The association between these conditions suggests a linked underlying mechanism, which is worthy of further exploration. © International Headache Society 2015.

  3. Self-reported sleep duration, sleep quality, and breast cancer risk in a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Girschik, Jennifer; Heyworth, Jane; Fritschi, Lin

    2013-02-15

    Breast cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed invasive cancers. Established risk factors account for only a small proportion of cases. Previous studies have found reductions in sleep duration and quality in the general population over time. There is evidence to suggest a link between poor sleep and an increased risk of breast cancer. In this study, we investigated the relationship between breast cancer and sleep duration and quality in Western Australian women. Data were obtained from a population-based case-control study conducted from 2009 to 2011. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire that included questions on sleep. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Sensitivity analysis for potential selection and misclassification bias was also conducted. We found no association between self-reported sleep duration on workdays and risk of breast cancer (for <6 hours, odds ratio (OR) = 1.05 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.33); for 6-7 hours, OR = 0.96 (95% CI: 0.80, 1.16); and for >8 hours, OR = 1.10 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.39), compared with the reference category of 7-8 hours' sleep). In addition, we found no association between sleep duration on nonworkdays, subjective sleep quality, or combined duration and quality and risk of breast cancer. This study does not provide evidence to support an association between self-reported sleep duration or quality and the risk of breast cancer.

  4. Increased subsequent risk of acute coronary syndrome for patients with depressive disorder: a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Nien; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chang, Yen-Jung; Peng, Chiao-Ling; Sung, Fung-Chang; Chang, Kuan-Cheng; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the possible association between subsequent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) risk and depressive disorder. We used data from the National Health Insurance system of Taiwan to address the research topic. The exposure cohort contained 10 871 patients with new diagnoses of depressive disorders. Each patient was randomly frequency-matched for sex and age with four participants from the general population who did not have any ACS history before the index date (control group). Cox's proportion hazard regression analyses were conducted to estimate the relation between depressive disorders and subsequent ACS risk. Among patients with depressive disorders, the overall risk for developing subsequent ACS was significantly higher than that of the control group (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.88, 95% confidence interval: 1.63-2.17). Further analysis revealed that the higher risk was observed in patients who were male, were of older age, or whose diagnosis was combined with other comorbidities. The findings from this population-based retrospective cohort study suggest that depressive disorder is associated with an increased subsequent ACS risk. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  5. Hypothyroidism and Risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Elderly Persons - A Population Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Parsaik, Ajay K; Singh, Balwinder; Roberts, Rosebud O; Pankratz, Shane; Edwards, Kelly K.; Geda, Yonas E; Gharib, H; Boeve, Bradley F; Knopman, David S; Petersen, Ronald C

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Association of clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is not established. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association of clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism with MCI in a large population based cohort. DESIGN A cross-sectional, population-based study. SETTING Olmsted County, Minnesota. PARTICIPANTS Randomly selected participants were aged 70 to 89 years on October 1, 2004, and were without documented prevalent dementia. A total of 2,050 participants were evaluated and underwent in-person interview, neurological evaluation and neuropsychological testing to assess performance in memory, attention/executive function, visuospatial, and language domains. Subjects were diagnosed by consensus as cognitively normal, MCI or dementia according to published criteria. Clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism was ascertained from a medical records-linkage system. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Association of clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism with MCI. Results Among 1904 eligible participants, the frequency of MCI was 16% in 1450 subjects with normal thyroid function, 17% in 313 subjects with clinical hypothyroidism, and 18% in 141 subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism. After adjusting for covariates (age, gender, education, education years, sex, ApoE ε 4, depression, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, BMI and coronary artery disease) we found no significant association between clinical or subclinial hypothyroidism and MCI [OR 0.99 (95% CI 0.66–1.48) and OR 0.88 (95% CI 0.38–2.03) respectively]. No effect of gender interaction was seen on these effects. In stratified analysis, the odds of MCI with clinical and subclinical hypothyroidisn among males was 1.02 (95%CI, 0.57–1.82) and 1.29 (95%CI 0.68–2.44), among females was 1.04 (95% 0.66–1.66) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.37–2.02) respectively. Conclusion In this population based cohort of eldery, neither clinical nor subclinical hypothyrpodism was associated with MCI. Our findings

  6. Duration of second stage of labor and instrumental delivery as risk factors for severe perineal lacerations: population-based study.

    PubMed

    Simic, Marija; Cnattingius, Sven; Petersson, Gunnar; Sandström, Anna; Stephansson, Olof

    2017-02-21

    We sought to investigate the impact of the duration of second stage of labor on risk of severe perineal lacerations (third and fourth degree). This population based cohort study was conducted in the Stockholm/Gotland region, Sweden, 2008-2014. Study population included 52 211 primiparous women undergoing vaginal delivery with cephalic presentation at term. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to calculate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR), using 95% confidence intervals (CI). Main exposure was duration of second stage of labor, and main outcome was risks of severe perineal lacerations (third and fourth degree). Risk of severe perineal lacerations increased with duration of second stage of labor. Compared with a second stage of labor of 1 h or less, women with a second stage of more than 2 h had an increased risk (aOR 1.42; 95% CI 1.28-1.58). Compared with non-instrumental vaginal deliveries, the risk was elevated among instrumental vaginal deliveries (aOR 2.24; 95% CI 2.07-2.42). The risk of perineal laceration increased with duration of second stage of labor until less than 3 h in both instrumental and non-instrumental vaginal deliveries, but after 3 h, the ORs did not further increase. After adjustments for potential confounders, macrosomia (birth weight > 4 500 g) and occiput posterior fetal position were risk factors of severe perineal lacerations. The risk of severe perineal laceration increases with duration until the third hour of second stage of labor. Instrumental delivery is the most significant risk factor for severe lacerations, followed by duration of second stage of labor, fetal size and occiput posterior fetal position.

  7. Risk Factors for Stillbirth: Findings from a Population-Based Case-Control Study, Haryana, India.

    PubMed

    Neogi, Sutapa Bandyopadhyay; Negandhi, Preeti; Chopra, Sapna; Das, Ankan Mukherjee; Zodpey, Sanjay; Gupta, Ravi Kant; Gupta, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Stillbirth is a prevalent adverse outcome of pregnancy in India despite efforts to improve care of women during pregnancy. Risk factors for stillbirths include sociodemographic factors, medical complications during pregnancy, intake of harmful drugs, and complications during delivery. The objective of the study was to examine the risk factors for stillbirth with a focus on sex selection drugs (SSDs). A population-based case-control study was undertaken in Haryana. Cases of stillbirths were identified from the Maternal Infant Death Review System portal of Haryana state for the months of August-September 2014. A consecutive birth from the same geographical area as the case was selected as the control. The sample size was 325 per group. Mothers were interviewed using a validated tool. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression were conducted to examine the association between risk factors and stillbirth. Attributable risk proportions (ARP) and population attributable risk proportions (PARP) were estimated. The sociodemographic profiles of the cases and controls were similar. History of intake of SSDs [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5, 4.5] emerged as a risk factor. Other significant factors were preterm <37 weeks (OR 3.5, 95% CI 2.1, 6.0), history of previous stillbirths (OR 4.0, 95% CI 2.1, 7.8), and complications during labour (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.1, 5.3). Estimates of the ARP and PARP for intake of SSDs were 0.60 (95% CI 0.32, 0.77) and 0.1 (95% CI -0.13, 0.28), respectively. SSDs could be attributed as a risk factor in a fifth of the cases of stillbirths. The number needed to harm for the use of SSDs in causing adverse effect of stillbirths was 5, suggesting thereby that for every five mothers exposed to SSDs, one would have stillbirth. Greater efforts are required to inform people about the harmful effects of SSD consumption during pregnancy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Population-based case–control study of soyfood intake and breast cancer risk in Shanghai

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Q; Shu, X-O; Jin, F; Potter, J D; Kushi, L H; Teas, J; Gao, Y-T; Zheng, W

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the association of soyfood intake and breast cancer risk in a population-based case–control study among Chinese women in Shanghai. Included in the study were 1459 cases and 1556 age-matched controls, with respective response rates of 91.1% and 90.3%. Usual soyfood intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Separate analyses were performed for all subjects and for the subset who reported no recent change in soyfood intake. The intake levels of soyfoods among women in Shanghai are high, with 96.6% women reporting soyfood consumption at least once a week. A statistically non-significant reduced risk (odds ratio (OR) = 0.78 95% CI = 0.52–1.16) of breast cancer was observed among those who reported eating soyfood at least once a week. Compared to those in the lowest decile intake group, women in the highest decile intake group had a 30% reduced risk of breast cancer (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.46–0.95), but no monotonic dose–response relation was observed (P for trend, 0.28). Stratified analyses showed that the inverse association was restricted primarily among women who had a high body mass index (BMI), with an adjusted OR of 0.30 (95% CI = 0.10–0.94) observed for the highest intake group. The reduction in risk was stronger for breast cancer positive for both oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) (OR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.25–0.78) than those with other ER/PR status. More pronounced inverse associations were observed in analyses among those who reported no recent change in soyfood intake than those conducted in all subjects. A dose–response relation between soyfood intake and breast cancer risk was observed in this subset of women (P for trend, 0.02), with an OR of 0.46 (95%CI = 0.28–0.75) for those in the highest decile intake group. No clear monotonic dose–response relation was found between soyfood intake and breast cancer risk among regular soy eaters, but nevertheless the results suggest that regular

  9. Higher risk of developing a subsequent migraine in adults with nonapnea sleep disorders: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Harnod, Tomor; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-05-01

    This nationwide population-based cohort study evaluated the effect of nonapnea sleep disorders (NSDs) on the subsequent development of a migraine. We identified 46,777 patients aged 20 years and older who were diagnosed with an NSD (ICD-9-CM: 307.4 or 780.5) and without coding for apnea-sleep disorders (ICD-9-CM: 780.51, 780.53, or 780.57) between 2000 and 2002 as the sleep disorder (SD) cohort. A comparison cohort of 93,552 people was enrolled. We calculated the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for developing a migraine (ICD-9-CM: 346) after adjusting for age, sex, comorbidity, and drug use. A Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to measure the cumulative incidence of a migraine between 2 curves until the end of 2011. The cumulative incidence of a migraine was significantly higher in the SD cohort. The aHR for developing a migraine in the SD cohort was 3.52 (95% CI=3.28-3.79). The risk of developing a migraine with an NSD was higher in men (aHR=4.31) than in women (aHR=3.35). The age-stratified effect of an NSD on developing a migraine was highest among patients aged 55 years and younger. Higher risks of developing a migraine were observed among the participants without any comorbidity and without any drug treatment for their insomnia. The findings of this population-based cohort study indicate a higher risk of developing a subsequent migraine in patients with an NSD, which could be considered an independent, predisposing factor for developing subsequent a migraine in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Racial Differences in Gout Incidence in a Population-Based Cohort: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    PubMed Central

    Maynard, Janet W.; McAdams-DeMarco, Mara A.; Law, Andrew; Kao, Linda; Gelber, Allan C.; Coresh, Josef; Baer, Alan N.

    2014-01-01

    We examined racial differences in gout incidence among black and white participants in a longitudinal, population-based cohort and tested whether racial differences were explained by higher levels of serum urate. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study is a prospective, US population–based cohort study of middle-aged adults enrolled between 1987 and 1989 with ongoing annual follow-up through 2012. We estimated the adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of incident gout by race among 11,963 men and women using adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. The cohort was 23.6% black. The incidence rate of gout was 8.4 per 10,000 person-years (15.5/10,000 person-years for black men, 12.0/10,000 person-years for black women, 9.4/10,000 person-years for white men, and 5.0/10,000 person-years for white women; P < 0.001). Black participants had an increased risk of incident gout (for women, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.29, 2.22; for men, adjusted HR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.44, 2.56). Upon further adjustment for uric acid levels, there was modest attenuation of the association of race with incident gout (for women, adjusted HR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.24, 2.22; for men, adjusted HR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.00) compared with white participants. In this US population–based cohort, black women and black men were at increased risk of developing gout during middle and older ages compared with whites, which appears, particularly in men, to be partly related to higher urate levels in middle-aged blacks. PMID:24335384

  11. Coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer in a population based prospective cohort of Swedish women

    PubMed Central

    Terry, P; Bergkvist, L; Holmberg, L; Wolk, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The presumed protective effect of coffee consumption on colorectal cancer, which is supported by case control studies, has not been confirmed in prospective cohort studies. Cohort studies are few in number however and often suffer from a small number of cases, limited attention to confounding variables, and a low percentage of heavy coffee drinkers.
METHODS—We examined data from a large population based cohort of Swedish women who were free from cancer at the start of follow up, with a wide range of coffee consumption, information on many potentially confounding variables, and a larger number of cases than any previous cohort study of coffee consumption and colorectal cancer.
RESULTS—During an average of 9.6 years of follow up of 61 463 women aged 40-74 years, we observed 460 incident cases of colorectal cancer (291 with colon cancer, 159 with rectal cancer, 10 with cancer at both sites). We found no association between coffee consumption and colorectal cancer risk. The risk ratio for drinking four or more cups per day compared with none was 1.04 (95% confidence interval 0.63—1.69; p for trend 0.84). The findings were similar for cancers of the distal and proximal colon and rectum.
CONCLUSIONS—The recently published affirmative conclusions regarding the protective effect of coffee consumption may be premature. For patients seeking advice about coffee consumption, the evidence suggests that moderate or even high consumption will probably not influence the risk of colorectal cancer.


Keywords: colorectal neoplasms; cohort studies; coffee drinking PMID:11413115

  12. Increased risk of pemphigoid following scabies: a population-based matched-cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chung, S-D; Lin, H-C; Wang, K-H

    2014-05-01

    No prior study has investigated the possibility that scabies patients may be at an increased risk for developing pemphigoid. To evaluate the risk of pemphigoid following scabies during a 3-year follow-up period using a Taiwanese population-based claims database and taking clinical and demographic characteristics into consideration. This investigation consisted of a study group of 6793 subjects with a diagnosis of scabies and 33 965 randomly selected subjects used as a comparison group. Each patient was tracked for 3 years following their index dates to identify those who received a subsequent diagnosis of pemphigoid. Stratified Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to compute the hazard ratio (HR) of pemphigoid during the 3-year follow-up period. Of the 40 758 subjects, 52 (0.13%) had received a diagnosis of pemphigoid during the 3-year follow-up period; 33 (0.49% of the study group) were from the study group and 19 (0.06% of the comparison group) were from the comparison group. Compared to subjects without scabies, the HR for pemphigoid for subjects with scabies was 5.93 within the 3-year follow-up period following the index date after adjusting for monthly income, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, psoriasis, stroke, dementia, Parkinson's disease, coronary heart disease, schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, and after censoring those that died during the follow-up period. This study detected an increased risk for pemphigoid among patients suffering from scabies. Physicians treating elderly patients with a history of scabies should be alert to the development of pemphigoid. © 2013 The Authors Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  13. Risk of musculoskeletal disorder among Taiwanese nurses cohort: a nationwide population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) represent the leading causes of occupational injuries among nursing staff. This population-based study was designed to assess the incidence and age-specific incidence of MSDs among a Taiwanese nurse cohort compared with non-nurses. Description Data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database were used to identify MSDs in the study population. A total of 3914 nurses with a diagnosis of MSD were included, together with 11,744 non-nurses as a comparison group. The comparison subjects were randomly selected at a ratio of 3:1 relative to the nurse population and were matched by gender and age. The incidence of MSDs was calculated for the study group, with nurse-to-reference risk ratios presented as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During the period 2004–2010, 3004 MSDs occurred among the nurses (76.24%) and 7779 (65.79%) in the non-nurses. The annual incidence of MSDs for the nurses increased from 28.35% in 2006 to 33.65% in 2010. The nurse-to-reference risk ratio was 1.27 (95% CI 1.19–1.35) in 2004 and 1.46 (1.37–1.55) in 2010. Herniation of intervertebral disc, lumbago, rotator cuff syndrome, medial epicondylitis, trigger finger and carpal tunnel syndrome were the most common problems. Conclusions Nurses are at higher risk of MSDs and the trend is increasing. Incorrect work-related posture/movement, psychological issues and the rolling shift system may be the major causes of MSDs among nurses in Taiwan. PMID:23617330

  14. Risk of musculoskeletal disorder among Taiwanese nurses cohort: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yueh-Chin; Hung, Chin-Tun; Li, Shu-Fen; Lee, Horng-Mo; Wang, Shyang-Guang; Chang, Shu-Chuan; Pai, Lee-Wen; Huang, Chien-Ning; Yang, Jen-Hung

    2013-04-23

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) represent the leading causes of occupational injuries among nursing staff. This population-based study was designed to assess the incidence and age-specific incidence of MSDs among a Taiwanese nurse cohort compared with non-nurses. Data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database were used to identify MSDs in the study population. A total of 3914 nurses with a diagnosis of MSD were included, together with 11,744 non-nurses as a comparison group. The comparison subjects were randomly selected at a ratio of 3:1 relative to the nurse population and were matched by gender and age. The incidence of MSDs was calculated for the study group, with nurse-to-reference risk ratios presented as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During the period 2004-2010, 3004 MSDs occurred among the nurses (76.24%) and 7779 (65.79%) in the non-nurses. The annual incidence of MSDs for the nurses increased from 28.35% in 2006 to 33.65% in 2010. The nurse-to-reference risk ratio was 1.27 (95% CI 1.19-1.35) in 2004 and 1.46 (1.37-1.55) in 2010. Herniation of intervertebral disc, lumbago, rotator cuff syndrome, medial epicondylitis, trigger finger and carpal tunnel syndrome were the most common problems. Nurses are at higher risk of MSDs and the trend is increasing. Incorrect work-related posture/movement, psychological issues and the rolling shift system may be the major causes of MSDs among nurses in Taiwan.

  15. Sex differences in lifetime risk and first manifestation of cardiovascular disease: prospective population based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Leening, Maarten J G; Ferket, Bart S; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Kavousi, Maryam; Deckers, Jaap W; Nieboer, Daan; Heeringa, Jan; Portegies, Marileen L P; Hofman, Albert; Ikram, M Arfan; Hunink, M G Myriam; Franco, Oscar H; Stricker, Bruno H; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W

    2014-11-17

    To evaluate differences in first manifestations of cardiovascular disease between men and women in a competing risks framework. Prospective population based cohort study. People living in the community in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. 8419 participants (60.9% women) aged ≥ 55 and free from cardiovascular disease at baseline. First diagnosis of coronary heart disease (myocardial infarction, revascularisation, and coronary death), cerebrovascular disease (stroke, transient ischaemic attack, and carotid revascularisation), heart failure, or other cardiovascular death; or death from non-cardiovascular causes. Data were used to calculate lifetime risks of cardiovascular disease and its first incident manifestations adjusted for competing non-cardiovascular death. During follow-up of up to 20.1 years, 2888 participants developed cardiovascular disease (826 coronary heart disease, 1198 cerebrovascular disease, 762 heart failure, and 102 other cardiovascular death). At age 55, overall lifetime risks of cardiovascular disease were 67.1% (95% confidence interval 64.7% to 69.5%) for men and 66.4% (64.2% to 68.7%) for women. Lifetime risks of first incident manifestations of cardiovascular disease in men were 27.2% (24.1% to 30.3%) for coronary heart disease, 22.8% (20.4% to 25.1%) for cerebrovascular disease, 14.9% (13.3% to 16.6%) for heart failure, and 2.3% (1.6% to 2.9%) for other deaths from cardiovascular disease. For women the figures were 16.9% (13.5% to 20.4%), 29.8% (27.7% to 31.9%), 17.5% (15.9% to 19.2%), and 2.1% (1.6% to 2.7%), respectively. Differences in the number of events that developed over the lifespan in women compared with men (per 1000) were -7 for any cardiovascular disease, -102 for coronary heart disease, 70 for cerebrovascular disease, 26 for heart failure, and -1 for other cardiovascular death; all outcomes manifested at a higher age in women. Patterns were similar when analyses were restricted to hard atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

  16. Rates and risk factors for prolonged opioid use after major surgery: population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Soneji, Neilesh; Ko, Dennis T; Yun, Lingsong; Wijeysundera, Duminda N

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe rates and risk factors for prolonged postoperative use of opioids in patients who had not previously used opioids and undergoing major elective surgery. Design Population based retrospective cohort study. Setting Acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada, between 1 April 2003 and 31 March 2010. Participants 39 140 opioid naïve patients aged 66 years or older who had major elective surgery, including cardiac, intrathoracic, intra-abdominal, and pelvic procedures. Main outcome measure Prolonged opioid use after discharge, as defined by ongoing outpatient prescriptions for opioids for more than 90 days after surgery. Results Of the 39 140 patients in the entire cohort, 49.2% (n=19 256) were discharged from hospital with an opioid prescription, and 3.1% (n=1229) continued to receive opioids for more than 90 days after surgery. Following risk adjustment with multivariable logistic regression modelling, patient related factors associated with significantly higher risks of prolonged opioid use included younger age, lower household income, specific comorbidities (diabetes, heart failure, pulmonary disease), and use of specific drugs preoperatively (benzodiazepines, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors). The type of surgical procedure was also highly associated with prolonged opioid use. Compared with open radical prostatectomies, both open and minimally invasive thoracic procedures were associated with significantly higher risks (odds ratio 2.58, 95% confidence interval 2.03 to 3.28 and 1.95 1.36 to 2.78, respectively). Conversely, open and minimally invasive major gynaecological procedures were associated with significantly lower risks (0.73, 0.55 to 0.98 and 0.45, 0.33 to 0.62, respectively). Conclusions Approximately 3% of previously opioid naïve patients continued to use opioids for more than 90 days after major elective surgery. Specific patient and surgical characteristics were associated with

  17. Orthostatic Hypotension and the Long-Term Risk of Dementia: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Frank J; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U S; Koudstaal, Peter J; Hofman, Albert; Ikram, M Arfan

    2016-10-01

    Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a common cause of transient cerebral hypoperfusion in the population. Cerebral hypoperfusion is widely implicated in cognitive impairment, but whether OH contributes to cognitive decline and dementia is uncertain. We aimed to determine the association between OH and the risk of developing dementia in the general population. Between 4 October 1989 and 17 June 1993, we assessed OH in non-demented, stroke-free participants of the population-based Rotterdam Study. OH was defined as a ≥20 mm Hg drop in systolic blood pressure (SBP) or ≥10 mm Hg drop in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) within 3 min from postural change. We furthermore calculated within participant variability in SBP related to postural change, expressed as coefficient of variation. Follow-up for dementia was conducted until 1 January 2014. We determined the risk of dementia in relation to OH and SBP variability, using a Cox regression model, adjusted for age; sex; smoking status; alcohol intake; SBP; DBP; cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein ratio; diabetes; body mass index; use of antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, or anticholinergic medication; and apolipoprotein E genotype. Finally, we explored whether associations varied according to compensatory increase in heart rate. Among 6,204 participants (mean ± standard deviation [SD] age 68.5 ± 8.6 y, 59.7% female) with a median follow-up of 15.3 y, 1,176 developed dementia, of whom 935 (79.5%) had Alzheimer disease and 95 (8.1%) had vascular dementia. OH was associated with an increased risk of dementia (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.15, 95% CI 1.00-1.34, p = 0.05), which was similar for Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Similarly, greater SBP variability with postural change was associated with an increased risk of dementia (aHR per SD increase 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.16, p = 0.02), which was similar when excluding those who fulfilled the formal criteria for OH (aHR 1.08, 95% CI 1.00-1.17, p = 0.06). The risk of

  18. Risk factors and timing of venous thromboembolism after radical cystectomy in routine clinical practice: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Doiron, R Christopher; Booth, Christopher M; Wei, Xuejiao; Siemens, D Robert

    2016-11-01

    To describe the risk factors and timing of perioperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) and its association with survival for patients undergoing radical cystectomy (RC) in routine clinical practice. The population-based Ontario Cancer Registry was linked to electronic records of treatment to identify all patients who underwent RC between 1994 and 2008; VTE events were identified from hospital diagnostic codes. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with perioperative VTE. A Cox proportional hazards regression model explored the associations between VTE and survival. Of the 3 879 patients included in the study, 3.6% (141 patients) were diagnosed with VTE at ≤1 month of their surgical admission date. This increased to 4.7% (181) at ≤2 months and 5.4% (211) at ≤3 months. In all, 55% of VTE events presented after hospital discharge. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with VTE included higher surgeon volume (P = 0.004) and increased length of hospital stay (LOS; P < 0.001). Lymph node yield and adjuvant chemotherapy were not associated with VTE. VTE was associated with an inferior cancer-specific survival [hazard ratio (HR) 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-1.62] and overall survival (HR 1.27, 95% CI 1.08-1.49). Over half of VTE events in RC patients occur after hospital discharge, with a substantial incidence up to 3 months after surgery. Limited actionable risk factors for VTE were identified other than LOS. In this population-based cohort, VTE was associated with inferior long-term survival. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Population-based risk for peripartum hysterectomy during low- and moderate-risk delivery hospitalizations.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Alexander M; Wright, Jason D; Ananth, Cande V; Siddiq, Zainab; D'Alton, Mary E; Bateman, Brian T

    2016-11-01

    Postpartum hysterectomy is an obstetric procedure that carries significant maternal risk that is not well characterized by hospital volume. The objective of this study was to determine risk for peripartum hysterectomy for women at low and moderate risk for the procedure. This population-based study used data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to characterize risk for peripartum hysterectomy. Women with a diagnosis of placenta accreta or prior cesarean and placenta previa were excluded. Obstetrical risk factors along with demographic and hospital factors were evaluated. Multivariable mixed-effects log-linear regression models were developed to determine adjusted risk. Based on these models receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted, and the area under the curve was determined to assess discrimination. Peripartum hysterectomy occurred in 1 in 1913 deliveries. Risk factors associated with significant risk for hysterectomy included mode of delivery, stillbirth, placental abruption, fibroids, and antepartum hemorrhage. These factors retained their significance in adjusted models: the risk ratio for stillbirth was 3.44 (95% confidence interval, 2.94-4.02), abruption 2.98 (95% confidence interval, 2.52-3.20), fibroids 3.63 (95% confidence interval, 3.22-4.08), and antepartum hemorrhage 7.15 (95% confidence interval, 6.16-8.32). The area under the curve for the model was 0.833. Peripartum hysterectomy is a relatively common event that hospitals providing routine obstetric care should be prepared to manage. That specific risk factors are highly associated with risk for hysterectomy supports routine use of hemorrhage risk-assessment tools. However, given that a significant proportion of hysterectomies will be unpredictable, the availability of rapid transfusion protocols may be necessary for hospitals to safely manage these cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk of digoxin intoxication in heart failure patients exposed to digoxin–diuretic interactions: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng-Ting; Su, Chen-Yi; Chan, Agnes L F; Lian, Pei-Wen; Leu, Hsin-Bang; Hsu, Yu-Juei

    2010-01-01

    AIMS To quantify the digoxin intoxication risk associated with exposure to digoxin–diuretic interactions, and evaluate whether the risk varies by diuretic type, individually or in combination. METHODS This was a population-based nested case–control study in which data from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan were analysed. RESULTS The study cohort comprised 154 058 heart failure (HF) patients taking digoxin between 2001 and 2004, in whom digoxin intoxication requiring a hospitalization (ICD-9 code 972.1) occurred in 595 cases. A total of 28 243 matched controls were also selected for analysis. Cases were 3.08 times (adjusted OR 3.08, 95% CI 2.50, 3.79) more likely to have been prescribed diuretic medication in the previous month than controls. Regarding the class of diuretics, loop diuretics carried the greatest risk (adjusted OR 2.97, 95% CI 2.35, 3.75), followed by thiazides (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.70, 3.29) and potassium-sparing diuretics (OR 1.72, 95% CI 0.83, 3.56). The risk was also observed to vary with different combinations of diuretics, and the loops/thiazides/potassium-sparing diuretics combination carried the greatest risk (adjusted OR 6.85, 95% CI 4.93, 9.53). Among the individual diuretics examined, hydrochlorothiazide carried the greatest risk (adjusted OR 4.63, 95% CI 2.50, 8.57). CONCLUSIONS This study provided empirical evidence that digoxin–diuretic interactions increased the risk of hospitalization for digoxin intoxication in HF patients. The risk was particularly high for concomitant use of digoxin with a combination of loop diuretics, thiazide and potassium-sparing diuretics. The combined use of digoxin and diuretics should be avoided if possible. PMID:20653679

  1. Risk factors for vertebral and nonvertebral fracture over 10 years: a population-based study in women.

    PubMed

    Finigan, Judith; Greenfield, Diana M; Blumsohn, Aubrey; Hannon, Rosemary A; Peel, Nicola F; Jiang, Guirong; Eastell, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Risk factors may vary for different types of fracture, in particular for vertebral fractures. We followed 367 women >50 yr of age from a population-based cohort for up to 10 yr. Factors that predicted vertebral rather than nonvertebral fractures related to physical weakness, poor health, and weight loss. Similar factors were also associated with greater bone loss at the hip. Many risk factors predict fractures overall, but it is less clear whether certain factors relate to vertebral fractures in particular. The aim of this study was to compare the risk factors for vertebral and nonvertebral fractures. We carried out a 10-yr prospective population-based study of 375 women who were 50-85 yr of age initially. At baseline, we measured BMD, blood and urine biochemistry, and anthropometric measurements. Medical and lifestyle data were obtained by questionnaire. Incident vertebral fractures were determined for 311 subjects from spinal radiographs at 0, 2, 5, 7, and 10 yr using an algorithm-based qualitative method, and nonvertebral fractures were confirmed radiographically. Relative risks were calculated by Cox regression analysis. During follow-up, 70 subjects sustained one or more nonvertebral fractures and 29 sustained one or more vertebral fractures. Risk factors that predicted both types of fracture included increasing age, decreasing BMD at all sites, prevalent vertebral fracture, and shorter estrogen exposure. For nonvertebral fractures only, the risk factors included low urinary creatinine and less frequent use of stairs. The factors for vertebral fractures included lighter weight, reduced body fat, heavy smoking, lower serum calcium, albumin, and thyroid T(3), weak grip strength, and poor physical capability. In a multivariate model, weight, fat mass, serum calcium and T(3), prevalent vertebral fracture, and physical capability remained significant. Furthermore, grip strength, serum albumin, weight loss, and physical capability were associated with rate of bone

  2. Risk of Negative Outcomes After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Statewide Population-Based Survey.

    PubMed

    Whiteneck, Gale G; Cuthbert, Jeffery P; Corrigan, John D; Bogner, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the rates of negative outcomes associated with all severities of traumatic brain injury (TBI), treated in all settings or not treated at all, in comparison to the general population. Coloradoans without injury, with injury but no TBI, with mild TBI but no loss of consciousness (LOC), mild TBI with LOC, moderate TBI, or severe TBI. Statewide population-based survey. Computer-assisted, modified Ohio State University TBI Identification Method; Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and National Health Interview Survey questions; Satisfaction with Life Scale; and postconcussive symptoms. Up to 42.5% of participants reported a lifetime history of at least 1 TBI. Multiple negative outcomes were found to increase in prevalence in a stepwise fashion in association with greater TBI severity, with the clearest patterns observed for disability, poor life satisfaction, and impaired memory. Traumatic brain injury was found to be associated with disability and other negative outcomes in a general population survey. This study does not allow us to examine the proximate causes of disability, but it suggests that TBI may serve to both cause disability directly and exacerbate the influence of other etiologies. These relations should be examined in subsequent studies.

  3. History of depression and risk of hyperemesis gravidarum: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kjeldgaard, Helena Kames; Eberhard-Gran, Malin; Benth, Jūratė Šaltytė; Nordeng, Hedvig; Vikanes, Åse Vigdis

    2017-01-07

    Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is a pregnancy condition characterised by debilitating nausea and vomiting. HG has been associated with depression during pregnancy but the direction of the association remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess whether previous depression is associated with HG. This is a population-based pregnancy cohort study using data from The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. The study reviewed 731 pregnancies with HG and 81,055 pregnancies without. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between a lifetime history of depression and hyperemesis gravidarum. Odds ratios were adjusted for symptoms of current depression, maternal age, parity, body mass index, smoking, sex of the child, education and pelvic girdle pain. A lifetime history of depression was associated with higher odds for hyperemesis gravidarum (aOR = 1.49, 95% CI (1.23; 1.79)). Two thirds of women with hyperemesis gravidarum had neither a history of depression nor symptoms of current depression, and 1.2% of women with a history of depression developed HG. A lifetime history of depression increased the risk of HG. However, given the fact that only 1.2% of women with a history of depression developed HG and that the majority of women with HG had no symptoms of depression, depression does not seem to be a main driver in the aetiology of HG.

  4. Risk of psychiatric disorders following pelvic inflammatory disease: a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Cheng-Che; Yang, Albert C; Hung, Jeng-Hsiu; Hu, Li-Yu; Chiang, Yung-Yen; Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) a common infection in women that is associated with significant morbidity and is a major cause of infertility. A clear temporal causal relationship between PID and psychiatric disorders has not been well established. We used a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study to explore the relationship between PID and the subsequent development of psychiatric disorders. We identified subjects who were newly diagnosed with PID between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2002 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort was constructed for patients without PID. A total of 21 930 PID and 21 930 matched control patients were observed until diagnosed with psychiatric disorders, or until death, withdrawal from the NHI system, or until 31 December 2009. Adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of bipolar disorder, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder and sleep disorder in subjects with PID were significantly higher (HR: 2.671, 2.173, 2.006 and 2.251, respectively) than that of the controls during the follow-up. PID may increase the risk of subsequent newly diagnosed bipolar disorder, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder and sleep disorder, which will impair life quality. Our findings highlight that clinicians should pay particular attention to psychiatric comorbidities in PID patients.

  5. Lower Urinary Tract Infection and Subsequent Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Chao-Yueh; Huang, Wen-Yen; Lin, Kuen-Tze; Lin, Chun-Shu; Chao, Hsing-Lung; Yang, Jen-Fu; Lin, Cheng-Li

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We investigated whether lower urinary tract infection (LUTI), including cystitis or urethritis, is associated with an increased risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa), in a nationwide population-based cohort study. Methods We identified 14,273 men newly diagnosed with LUTI (9347 with cystitis, and 4926 with urethritis) between 1998 and 2011, from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. Each patient was randomly frequency-matched with 4 men without LUTI, based on age and index year of diagnosis. Cox’s proportional hazard regression analysis was performed to estimate the effect of LUTI on the PCa risk. Results The risk of developing PCa was significantly higher in the cystitis cohort (adjusted HR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.20–1.78) and in the urethritis cohort (adjusted HR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.26–2.34) than in the group without LUTI. Further analyses indicated that patients with more than 5 medical visits for LUTI per year had a significantly greater risk of developing PCa. Conclusion We found that cystitis or urethritis may play an etiological role in the development of PCa in Taiwanese men, particularly in those with repeated medical visits for cystitis or urethritis. Further studies are warranted on the association between LUTI and PCa in other countries, particularly where the prevalence of PCa is high. PMID:28046120

  6. Cerebral Perfusion and the Risk of Dementia: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Frank J; Zonneveld, Hazel I; Hofman, Albert; van der Lugt, Aad; Koudstaal, Peter J; Vernooij, Meike W; Ikram, M Arfan

    2017-08-22

    Cerebral hypoperfusion has previously been associated with mild cognitive impairment and dementia in various cross-sectional studies, but whether hypoperfusion precedes neurodegeneration is unknown. We prospectively determined the association of cerebral perfusion with subsequent cognitive decline and development of dementia. Between 2005 and 2012, we measured cerebral blood flow by 2-dimensional phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging in participants of the population-based Rotterdam Study without dementia. We determined the association of cerebral perfusion (mL/100mL/min) with risk of dementia (until 2015) using a Cox model, adjusting for age, sex, demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, and apolipoprotein E genotype. We repeated analyses for Alzheimer disease and accounting for stroke. We used linear regression to determine change in cognitive performance during 2 consecutive examination rounds in relation to perfusion. Finally, we investigated whether associations were modified by baseline severity of white matter hyperintensities. Of 4759 participants (median age 61.3 years, 55.2% women) with a median follow-up of 6.9 years, 123 participants developed dementia (97 Alzheimer disease). Lower cerebral perfusion was associated with higher risk of dementia (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.31; 95% confidence interval per standard deviation decrease, 1.07-1.61), similar for Alzheimer disease only, and unaltered by accounting for stroke. Risk of dementia with hypoperfusion was higher with increasing severity of white matter hyperintensities (with severe white matter hyperintensities; hazard ratio, 1.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-2.14). At cognitive reexamination after on average 5.7 years, lower baseline perfusion was associated with accelerated decline in cognition (global cognition: β=-0.029, P=0.003), which was similar after excluding those with incident dementia, and again most profound in individuals with higher volume of white matter hyperintensities (P value

  7. TGF-alpha genotypes, oral clefts, and environmental risk factors: A population-based California study

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, G.M.; Wasserman, C.R.; Lammer, E.J.

    1994-09-01

    Several studies have shown a relation between genetic variation at the TGF-alpha locus and oral clefts. These studies had limited sample sizes and also lacked data on additional factors potentially related to clefting. We investigated the influence on clefting from risk factors, such as maternal smoking, dependent on TFG-alpha genotype. This was accomplished using a large population-bases case-control study of fetuses and liveborn infants with oral clefts among a 1987-89 cohort of California births (N=548,844). To obtain data on potential risk factors, telephone interviews were conducted with mothers of 731 (84.5% of eligible) cleft cases, and 734 (78.2%) nonmalformed controls. DNA was obtained from newborn screening bloodspots and genotyped by using SSCP designed to detect the Taq1 RFLP. Among mothers who completed an interview, genotyping results were available for 571 (78.1%) cases and 640 (87.2%) controls. Compared to controls, the risk estimate for TGF-alpha polymorphism as measured by the odds ratio was: 0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.64, 1.5) for isolated cleft lip {plus_minus}palate; 0.88 (0.33, 2.2) for nonisolated cleft lip {plus_minus}palate; 1.6 (0.94, 2.8) for isolated cleft palate; 1.9 (0.82, 4.3) for nonisolated cleft palate; and 2.2 (0.99, 5.0) for clefts with known etiology. This dataset also revealed 1.4 to 2-fold increased risks for maternal cigarette smoking > 19 cigs/day in early pregnancy. Among these heavy smokers, risk of clefting was even more increased for infants with the TGF-alpha polymorphism. Our data suggest an association between the TGF-alpha uncommon allele and some phenotypic subgroups as well as provide evidence for a genetic-environment interaction between maternal smoking and the variant in the etiology of clefting. The fraction of cases possibly attributed to this interaction, however, was small.

  8. Medically diagnosed infections and risk of childhood leukaemia: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jeffrey S; Tsai, Chia-Rung; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Wiemels, Joseph L

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies on the association between childhood infections and childhood leukaemia have produced inconsistent results, likely due to the recall error/bias of infection data reported by the parents. The current study used a population-based and record-based case-control design to evaluate the association between childhood leukaemia and infections using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. In all, 846 childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and 193 acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients newly diagnosed between 2000 and 2008, aged >1 and <10 years, were included. Up to four controls (3374 for ALL and 766 for AML) individually matched to each case on sex, birth date and time of diagnosis (reference date for the controls) were identified. Conditional logistic regression was performed to assess the association between childhood leukaemia and infections. Having any infection before 1 year of age was associated with an increased risk for both childhood ALL (odds ratio = 3.2, 95% confidence interval 2.2-4.7) and AML (odds ratio = 6.0, 95% confidence interval 2.0-17.8), with a stronger risk associated with more episodes of infections. Similar results were observed for infections occurring >1 year before the cases' diagnosis of childhood leukaemia. Children with leukaemia may have a dysregulated immune function present at an early age, resulting in more episodes of symptomatic infections compared with healthy controls. However, confounding by other infectious measures such as birth order and day care attendance could not be ruled out. Finally, the results are only relevant to the medically diagnosed infections.

  9. Antioxidants and breast cancer risk- a population-based case-control study in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The effect of antioxidants on breast cancer is still controversial. Our objective was to assess the association between antioxidants and breast cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study. Methods The study population included 2,362 cases with pathologically confirmed incident breast cancer (866 premenopausal and 1,496 postmenopausal) and 2,462 controls in Canada. Intakes of antioxidants from diet and from supplementation as well as other potential risk factors for breast cancer were collected by a self-reported questionnaire. Results Compared with subjects with no supplementation, 10 years or longer supplementation of zinc had multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of 0.46 (0.25-0.85) for premenopausal women, while supplementation of 10 years or longer of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc had multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of 0.74 (0.59, 0.92), 0.58 (0.36, 0.95), 0.79 (0.63-0.99), 0.75 (0.58, 0.97), and 0.47 (0.28-0.78), respectively, for postmenopausal women. No significant effect of antioxidants from dietary sources (including beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and zinc) or from supplementation less than 10 years was observed. Conclusions This study suggests that supplementation of zinc in premenopausal women, and supplementation of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc in postmenopausal women for 10 or more years may protect women from developing breast cancer. However, we were unable to determine the overall effect of total dose or intake from both diet and supplement. PMID:21864361

  10. Refractory hypertension: determination of prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidities in a large, population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, David A; Booth, John N; Oparil, Suzanne; Irvin, Marguerite R; Shimbo, Daichi; Lackland, Daniel T; Howard, George; Safford, Monika M; Muntner, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Refractory hypertension is an extreme phenotype of antihypertensive treatment failure. Participants in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study, a large (n=30 239), population-based cohort were evaluated to determine the prevalence of refractory hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities. Refractory hypertension was defined as uncontrolled blood pressure (systolic/diastolic, ≥140/90 mm Hg) on ≥5 antihypertensive drug classes. Participants with resistant hypertension (systolic/diastolic, ≥140/90 mm Hg on ≥3 or <140/90 mm Hg on ≥4 antihypertensive classes) and all participants treated for hypertension served as comparator groups. Of 14 809 REGARDS participants receiving antihypertensive treatment, 78 (0.5%) had refractory hypertension. The prevalence of refractory hypertension was 3.6% among participants with resistant hypertension (n=2144) and 41.7% among participants on ≥5 antihypertensive drug classes. Among all participants with hypertension, black race, male sex, living in the stroke belt or buckle, higher body mass index, lower heart rate, reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, diabetes mellitus, and history of stroke and coronary heart disease were associated with refractory hypertension. Compared with resistant hypertension, prevalence ratios for refractory hypertension were increased for blacks (3.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.68-5.37) and those with albuminuria (2.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.40-3.52) and diabetes mellitus (2.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-3.31). The median 10-year Framingham risk for coronary heart disease and stroke was higher among participants with refractory hypertension when compared with those with either comparator group. These data indicate that although resistant hypertension is relatively common among treated patients with hypertension, true antihypertensive treatment failure is rare.

  11. Refractory Hypertension: Determination of Prevalence, Risk Factors and Comorbidities in a Large, Population-Based Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, David A.; Booth, John N.; Oparil, Suzanne; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Shimbo, Daichi; Lackland, Daniel T.; Howard, George; Safford, Monika M.; Muntner, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Refractory hypertension is an extreme phenotype of antihypertensive treatment failure. Participants in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study, a large (n=30,239), population-based cohort were evaluated to determine the prevalence of refractory hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities. Refractory hypertension was defined as uncontrolled blood pressure (systolic/diastolic ≥ 140/90 mm Hg) on ≥ 5 antihypertensive drug classes. Participants with resistant hypertension (systolic/diastolic ≥140/90 mm Hg on ≥ 3 or<140/90 mm Hg on ≥ 4 antihypertensive classes) and all treated hypertensive participants served as comparator groups. Of 14,809 REGARDS participants receiving antihypertensive treatment, 78 (0.5%) had refractory hypertension. The prevalence of refractory hypertension was 3.6% among participants with resistant hypertension(n=2,144) and 41.7% among participants on 5 or more antihypertensive drug classes. Among all hypertensive participants, African American race, male gender, living in the stroke belt or buckle, higher body mass index, lower heart rate, reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, diabetes and history of stroke and coronary heart disease were associated with refractory hypertension. Compared to resistant hypertension, prevalence ratios for refractory hypertension were increased for African Americans (3.00, 95% CI 1.68 – 5.37) and those with albuminuria (2.22, 95% CI 1.40 – 3.52) and diabetes (2.09, 95% CI 1.32 – 3.31). The median 10-year Framingham risk for coronary heart disease and stroke was higher among participants with refractory hypertension compared to either comparator group. These data indicate that while resistant hypertension is relatively common among treated hypertensive patients, true antihypertensive treatment failure is rare. PMID:24324035

  12. Identifying women at risk for postpartum anxiety: a prospective population-based study.

    PubMed

    Dennis, C-L; Falah-Hassani, K; Brown, H K; Vigod, S N

    2016-12-01

    To develop a multifactorial model to predict anxiety symptomatology at 8 weeks postpartum. In a population-based study, 522 women in a health region near Vancouver, Canada, completed questionnaires at 1, 4, and 8 weeks postpartum. Questionnaires included risk factors measured at 1 week (sociodemographic, biological, pregnancy-related, life stressors, social support, obstetric, and maternal adjustment). Sequential logistic regression was completed to develop a predictive model of anxiety symptomatology at 8 weeks (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory score >40). The prevalence of anxiety symptomatology at 1, 4, and 8 weeks postpartum was 22.6%, 17.2%, and 14.8% respectively. In multivariable models, anxiety symptomatology at 1 week (aOR 2.78, 95% CI: 1.04-7.43), multiparous parity (aOR 3.29, 95% CI: 1.28-8.48), history of psychiatric problems (aOR 3.07, 95% CI: 1.19-7.97), perceived stress (1 SD increase: aOR 4.92, 95% CI: 2.62-9.26), and childcare stress (1 SD increase: aOR 1.63, 95% CI: 1.01-2.64) were independent predictors of anxiety symptomatology at 8 weeks. While a significant proportion of women experience anxiety symptomatology following childbirth, multiparous women with a psychiatric history who have high levels of diverse stress are at greatest risk. These key factors may be used to promote early identification and secondary preventive interventions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Population-based study of autoimmune conditions and the risk of specific lymphoid malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Lesley A; Gadalla, Shahinaz; Morton, Lindsay M; Landgren, Ola; Pfeiffer, Ruth; Warren, Joan L; Berndt, Sonja I; Ricker, Winnie; Parsons, Ruth; Engels, Eric A

    2008-01-01

    Some autoimmune conditions are associated with increased risk of lymphoid malignancies, but information on specific malignancy subtypes is limited. From the U.S. Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database, we selected 44,350 lymphoid malignancy cases (≥67 years) and 122,531 population-based controls. Logistic regression was used to derive odds ratios (ORs) comparing the prevalence of autoimmune conditions in cases and controls, by lymphoid malignancy subtype, adjusted for gender, age at malignancy/selection, year of malignancy/selection, race and number of physician claims. The strongest associations observed by Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with rheumatoid arthritis (OR 1.4, 95%CI 1.2-1.5) and Sjögren syndrome (2.0, 1.5-2.8); T-cell lymphoma with hemolytic anemia (9.7, 4.3-22), psoriasis (3.1, 2.5-4.0), discoid lupus erythematosus (4.4, 2.3-8.4), and celiac disease (5.0, 2.4-14.); and marginal zone lymphoma with Sjögren syndrome (6.6, 4.6-9.5), systemic lupus erythematosus (2.8, 1.7-4.7), and hemolytic anemia (7.4, 3.1-18). Hodgkin lymphoma was associated with several autoimmune conditions. Multiple myeloma was associated only with pernicious anemia (1.5, 1.3-1.7). Several autoimmune conditions were associated with increased risk of lymphoid neoplasms, especially NHLs of diffuse large B-cell, marginal zone and T-cell subtypes. These results support a mechanism whereby chronic antigenic stimulation leads to lymphoid malignancy. PMID:19365835

  14. Advanced maternal age increases the risk of very preterm birth, irrespective of parity: a population-based register study.

    PubMed

    Waldenström, U; Cnattingius, S; Vixner, L; Norman, M

    2017-07-01

    To investigate whether advanced maternal age is associated with preterm birth, irrespective of parity. Population-based registry study. Swedish Medical Birth Register. First, second, and third live singleton births to women aged 20 years or older in Sweden, from 1990 to 2011 (n = 2 009 068). Logistic regression analysis was used in each parity group to estimate risks of very and moderately preterm births to women at 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, and 40 years or older, using 25-29 years as the reference group. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for year of birth, education, country of birth, smoking, body mass index, and history of preterm birth. Age-related risks of spontaneous and medically indicated preterm births were also investigated. Very preterm (22-31 weeks of gestation) and moderately preterm (32-36 weeks) births. Risks of very preterm birth increased with maternal age, irrespective of parity: adjusted ORs in first, second, and third births ranged from 1.18 to 1.28 at 30-34 years, from 1.59 to 1.70 at 35-39 years, and from 1.97 to 2.40 at ≥40 years. In moderately preterm births, age-related associations were weaker, but were statistically significant from 35-39 years in all parity groups. Advanced maternal age increased the risks of both spontaneous and medically indicated preterm births. Advanced maternal age is associated with an increased risk of preterm birth, irrespective of parity, especially very preterm birth. Women aged 35 years and older, expecting their first, second, or third births, should be regarded as a risk group for very preterm birth. Women aged 35 years and older should be regarded as a risk group for very preterm birth, irrespective of parity. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  15. Irradiation enhanced risks of hospitalised pneumonopathy in lung cancer patients: a population-based surgical cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hung, Shih-Kai; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chiou, Wen-Yen; Lai, Chun-Liang; Lee, Moon-Sing; Lo, Yuan-Chen; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Huang, Li-Wen; Chien, Nai-Chuan; Li, Szu-Chi; Liu, Dai-Wei; Hsu, Feng-Chun; Tsai, Shiang-Jiun; Chan, Michael Wy; Lin, Hon-Yi

    2017-09-27

    Pulmonary radiotherapy has been reported to increase a risk of pneumonopathy, including pneumonitis and secondary pneumonia, however evidence from population-based studies is lacking. The present study intended to explore whether postoperative irradiation increases occurrence of severe pneumonopathy in lung cancer patients. The nationwide population-based study analysed the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (covered >99% of Taiwanese) in a real-world setting. From 2000 to 2010, 4335 newly diagnosed lung cancer patients were allocated into two groups: surgery-RT (n=867) and surgery-alone (n=3468). With a ratio of 1:4, propensity score was used to match 11 baseline factors to balance groups. Irradiation was delivered to bronchial stump and mediastinum according to peer-audited guidelines. Hospitalised pneumonia/pneumonitis-free survival was the primary end point. Risk factors and hazard effects were secondary measures. Multivariable analysis identified five independent risk factors for hospitalised pneumonopathy: elderly (>65 years), male, irradiation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Compared with surgery-alone, a higher risk of hospitalised pneumonopathy was found in surgery-RT patients (HR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.93-2.51; 2-year hospitalised pneumonia/pneumonitis-free survival, 85.2% vs 69.0%; both p<0.0001), especially in elderly males with COPD and CKD (HR, 13.74; 95% CI, 6.61-28.53; p<0.0001). Unexpectedly, we observed a higher risk of hospitalised pneumonopathy in younger irradiated-CKD patients (HR, 13.07; 95% CI, 5.71-29.94; p<0.0001) than that of elderly irradiated-CKD patients (HR, 4.82; 95% CI, 2.88-8.08; p<0.0001). A high risk of hospitalised pneumonopathy is observed in irradiated patients, especially in elderly males with COPD and CKD. For these patients, close clinical surveillance and aggressive pneumonia/pneumonitis prevention should be considered. Further investigations are required to

  16. Risk of Subsequent Primary Kidney Cancer After Another Malignancy: A Population-based Study.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Omar

    2017-10-01

    Population-based data on the development of kidney cancer as a second malignant neoplasm following the diagnosis of other common malignancies are rare. This clinical scenario has been evaluated within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. The SEER-9 database (1973-2013) was queried using the SEER*Stat program to determine the standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of kidney cancer development following each one of 10 common invasive malignancies (colorectal, breast, prostate, lung, thyroid, corpus uteri, urinary bladder, kidney/renal pelvis, cutaneous melanoma, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma). The following data were collected for patients with a second renal cancer: age at diagnosis of the second renal cancer; gender, race, and histology of the second primary renal cancer; SEER historic stage of the second primary renal cancer; and method of diagnostic confirmation of the second primary cancer. A total of 10,145 kidney cancers were observed. Elevated SIRs for kidney cancer were noted for all 10 evaluated malignancies in the initial 12 months after diagnosis. The SIRs remained elevated 12 to 59 months after diagnosis for all cancers except breast and prostate cancers. Increased risks persisted 60 to 119 months beyond diagnosis for renal cancer (SIR, 4.13), thyroid cancer (SIR, 2.30), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR, 1.40); and 120+ months for renal cancer (SIR, 3.60), thyroid cancer (SIR, 1.90), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR, 1.27). Increased kidney cancer risk after non-Hodgkin lymphoma was not related to radiation therapy. Papillary renal cell carcinoma has the highest SIRs for subsequent kidney cancers. Many common cancers are associated with an increased risk of kidney cancer development within the first 5 years after their diagnosis. Although this can be partly interpreted by increased rates of surveillance tests, radiotherapy effects, or genetic associations for some cancers, additional research is required to explain the persistently

  17. Testosterone treatment and risk of venous thromboembolism: population based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Suissa, Samy; Rietbrock, Stephan; Katholing, Anja; Freedman, Ben; Cohen, Alexander T; Handelsman, David J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the risk of venous thromboembolism associated with use of testosterone treatment in men, focusing particularly on the timing of the risk. Design Population based case-control study Setting 370 general practices in UK primary care with linked hospital discharge diagnoses and in-hospital procedures and information on all cause mortality. Participants 19 215 patients with confirmed venous thromboembolism (comprising deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) and 909 530 age matched controls from source population including more than 2.22 million men between January 2001 and May 2013. Exposure of interest Three mutually exclusive testosterone exposure groups were identified: current treatment, recent (but not current) treatment, and no treatment in the previous two years. Current treatment was subdivided into duration of more or less than six months. Main outcome measure Rate ratios of venous thromboembolism in association with current testosterone treatment compared with no treatment were estimated using conditional logistic regression and adjusted for comorbidities and all matching factors. Results The adjusted rate ratio of venous thromboembolism was 1.25 (95% confidence interval 0.94 to 1.66) for current versus no testosterone treatment. In the first six months of testosterone treatment, the rate ratio of venous thromboembolism was 1.63 (1.12 to 2.37), corresponding to 10.0 (1.9 to 21.6) additional venous thromboembolisms above the base rate of 15.8 per 10 000 person years. The rate ratio after more than six months’ treatment was 1.00 (0.68 to 1.47), and after treatment cessation it was 0.68 (0.43 to 1.07). Increased rate ratios within the first six months of treatment were observed in all strata: the rate ratio was 1.52 (0.94 to 2.46) for patients with pathological hypogonadism and 1.88 (1.02 to 3.45) for those without it, and 1.41 (0.82 to 2.41) for those with a known risk factor for venous thromboembolism and 1.91 (1

  18. Risk factors for multiple sclerosis in Kuwait: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Al-Afasy, Hanan H; Al-Obaidan, Mohammed A; Al-Ansari, Yousef A; Al-Yatama, Sarah A; Al-Rukaibi, Mohammed S; Makki, Nourah I; Suresh, Anita; Akhtar, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and progressively disabling inflammatory autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system. MS has a multifactorial etiology and is triggered by environmental factors in individuals with complex genetic risk profiles. The epidemiology of MS changes with the spatial and temporal distribution of these genetic and nongenetic risk factors. This population-based matched case-control study aimed to determine the risk factors for MS in Kuwait. From May 2 to 9, 2010, we enrolled 101 confirmed MS cases using the list frame maintained by the Multiple Sclerosis Association of Kuwait. For each case, two population controls individually matched for age (±2 years), gender and nationality were selected. Data on demographic, socioeconomic variables, potential genetic and environmental factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. For a case, the questions were directed to the period that preceded the recognition of the disease, while for each of the two matched controls, a date of 'pseudodiagnosis' of MS was established, i.e. the date on which the control subject was of the same age as his/her matched case was at MS diagnosis and accordingly questions were directed to the preceding period. The multivariable conditional logistic regression model showed that compared with controls, the cases were significantly more likely to have a family history of MS [matched odds ratio (OR)(adj) = 6.7; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.5-18.0; p < 0.001] or have suffered from a head trauma in the past before MS diagnosis (matched OR(adj) = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.2-5.5; p = 0.014). Furthermore, compared with controls, cases were significantly more likely to have stayed in Kuwait during the Iraqi invasion of 1990 (matched OR(adj) = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.1-3.5; p = 0.022). This study showed that a family history of MS, a history of head injury, and presence in Kuwait at the time of the Iraqi invasion of 1990 were associated with a significantly increased MS risk

  19. Testosterone treatment and risk of venous thromboembolism: population based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Carlos; Suissa, Samy; Rietbrock, Stephan; Katholing, Anja; Freedman, Ben; Cohen, Alexander T; Handelsman, David J

    2016-11-30

     To determine the risk of venous thromboembolism associated with use of testosterone treatment in men, focusing particularly on the timing of the risk.  Population based case-control study SETTING:  370 general practices in UK primary care with linked hospital discharge diagnoses and in-hospital procedures and information on all cause mortality.  19 215 patients with confirmed venous thromboembolism (comprising deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) and 909 530 age matched controls from source population including more than 2.22 million men between January 2001 and May 2013.  Three mutually exclusive testosterone exposure groups were identified: current treatment, recent (but not current) treatment, and no treatment in the previous two years. Current treatment was subdivided into duration of more or less than six months.  Rate ratios of venous thromboembolism in association with current testosterone treatment compared with no treatment were estimated using conditional logistic regression and adjusted for comorbidities and all matching factors.  The adjusted rate ratio of venous thromboembolism was 1.25 (95% confidence interval 0.94 to 1.66) for current versus no testosterone treatment. In the first six months of testosterone treatment, the rate ratio of venous thromboembolism was 1.63 (1.12 to 2.37), corresponding to 10.0 (1.9 to 21.6) additional venous thromboembolisms above the base rate of 15.8 per 10 000 person years. The rate ratio after more than six months' treatment was 1.00 (0.68 to 1.47), and after treatment cessation it was 0.68 (0.43 to 1.07). Increased rate ratios within the first six months of treatment were observed in all strata: the rate ratio was 1.52 (0.94 to 2.46) for patients with pathological hypogonadism and 1.88 (1.02 to 3.45) for those without it, and 1.41 (0.82 to 2.41) for those with a known risk factor for venous thromboembolism and 1.91 (1.13 to 3.23) for those without one.  Starting testosterone treatment was

  20. Risk of cholecystitis in patients with cancer: a population-based cohort study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Reimar W; Thomsen, Henrik F; Nørgaard, Mette; Cetin, Karynsa; McLaughlin, Joseph K; Tarone, Robert E; Fryzek, Jon P; Sørensen, Henrik T

    2008-12-15

    To the authors' knowledge, little information is available regarding the incidence of cholecystitis among patients with cancer. The authors conducted a population-based historical cohort study of 51,228 patients with incident cancer, identified in medical databases of western Denmark between 1995 and 2003. A general population comparison cohort of 512,280 persons was assembled using the Danish Civil Registration System. The occurrence of cholecystitis in the 2 groups was determined by linkage to the regional Hospital Discharge Registry. In all, 230 incident diagnoses of cholecystitis were identified in the cancer cohort during 130,185 person-years (median follow-up time: 1.6 years), corresponding to an incidence rate of 1.8 of 1000 person-years. After adjustment for confounders, the relative risk (RR) for cholecystitis among cancer patients compared with the general population cohort was 1.38 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.20-1.58). Overall, the RR for cholecystitis was doubled during the first 6 months after cancer diagnosis (RR = 1.95; 95% CI, 1.50-2.54), after which the RR declined but remained greater than 1 throughout the rest of the follow-up period (RR = 1.23; 95% CI, 1.05-1.45). Cancer patients between the ages of 51 and 70 years had the highest risk increase for cholecystitis compared with other age groups. During the first 6 months after a cancer diagnosis, pancreatic cancers (12 cholecystitis events; RR = 9.44 [95% CI, 5.18-17.18]) and colorectal cancers (10 cholecystitis events; RR = 4.98 [95% CI, 2.65-9.34]) were found to be associated with the greatest cholecystitis risk increase compared with other tumor types. After 6 months, most cancers were associated with a relatively small increased risk, although there was an RR of 4.72 (95% CI, 1.99-11.21) based on 5 cholecystitis events among thyroid cancer patients. The results of the current study indicate that cholecystitis occurs more frequently among cancer patients than in the general population

  1. Long-term sedative use among community-dwelling adults: a population-based analysis

    PubMed Central

    Weymann, Deirdre; Gladstone, Emilie J.; Smolina, Kate; Morgan, Steven G.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Chronic use of benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine-like sedatives (z-drugs) presents substantial risks to people of all ages. We sought to assess trends in long-term sedative use among community-dwelling adults in British Columbia. Methods: Using population-based linked administrative databases, we examined longitudinal trends in age-standardized rates of sedative use among different age groups of community-dwelling adults (age ≥ 18 yr), from 2004 to 2013. For each calendar year, we classified adults as nonusers, short-term users, or long-term users of sedatives based on their patterns of sedative dispensation. For calendar year 2013, we applied cross-sectional analysis and estimated logistic regression models to identify health and socioeconomic risk factors associated with long-term sedative use. Results: More than half (53.4%) of long-term users of sedatives in British Columbia are between ages 18 and 64 years (young and middle-aged adults). From 2004 to 2013, long-term sedative use remained stable among adults more than 65 years of age (older adults) and increased slightly among young and middle-aged adults. Although the use of benzodiazepines decreased during the study period, the trend was offset by equal or greater increases in long-term use of z-drugs. Being an older adult, sick, poor and single were associated with increased odds of long-term sedative use. Interpretation: Despite efforts to stem such patterns of medication use, long-term use of sedatives increased in British Columbia between 2004 and 2013. This increase was driven largely by increased use among middle-aged adults. Future deprescribing efforts that target adults of all ages may help curb this trend. PMID:28401119

  2. Falls among the elderly: risk factors in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Iara Guimarães; Fraga, Gustavo Pereira; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify factors associated with the occurrence of falls among elderly adults in a population-based study (ISACamp 2008). A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out with two-stage cluster sampling. The sample was composed of 1,520 elderly adults living in the urban area of the city of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. The occurrence of falls was analyzed based on reports of the main accident occurred in the previous 12 months. Data on socioeconomic/demographic factors and adverse health conditions were tested for possible associations with the outcome. Prevalence ratios (PR) were estimated and adjusted for gender and age using the Poisson multiple regression analysis. Falls were more frequent, after adjustment for gender and age, among female elderly participants (PR = 2.39; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.47 - 3.87), elderly adults (80 years old and older) (PR = 2.50; 95% CI 1.61 - 3.88), widowed (PR = 1.74; 95% CI 1.04 - 2.89) and among elderly adults who had rheumatism/arthritis/arthrosis (PR = 1.58; 95% CI 1.00 - 2.48), osteoporosis (PR = 1.71; 95% CI 1.18 - 2.49), asthma/bronchitis/emphysema (PR = 1,73; 95% CI 1.09 - 2.74), headache (PR = 1.59; 95% CI 1.07 - 2.38), mental common disorder (PR = 1.72; 95% CI 1.12 - 2.64), dizziness (PR = 2.82; 95% CI 1.98 - 4.02), insomnia (PR = 1.75; 95% CI 1.16 - 2.65), use of multiple medications (five or more) (PR = 2.50; 95% CI 1.12 - 5.56) and use of cane/walker (PR = 2.16; 95% CI 1.19 - 3,93). The present study shows segments of the elderly population who are more prone to falls through the identification of factors associated with this outcome. The findings can contribute to the planning of public health policies and programs addressed to the prevention of falls.

  3. A population-based exposure assessment of risk factors associated with gastrointestinal pathogens: a Campylobacter study.

    PubMed

    MacRitchie, L A; Hunter, C J; Strachan, N J C

    2013-05-01

    A questionnaire survey was undertaken to determine the exposure of a study population to campylobacteriosis source risk factors (environmental, water, food) and results were stratified by age, population density and deprivation. Data were gathered using an exposure assessment carried out by telephone in the Grampian region of Scotland. Univariate analysis showed that children aged 5-14 years, living in low population density (0-44.4 persons/km2) and affluent areas had elevated exposure to environmental and water risk factors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that younger age groups and lower population density were significant indicators for most environmental risk factors. The results compared to reported disease incidence in Grampian showed that greater exposure to risk factors does not necessarily coincide with greater disease incidence for age groups, particularly for the 0-4 years age group. Further research is required to explain the relationship between exposure and disease incidence.

  4. Adult asthma is associated with an increased risk of herpes zoster: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yi-Hao; Fang, Hsin-Yu; Wu, Biing-Ru; Kao, Chia-Hung; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Hsia, Te-Chun; Liao, Wei-Chih

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether a new diagnosis of asthma is associated with a later diagnosis of herpes zoster (HZ) in a nationwide, retrospective, non-age limited, population-based cohort. We used data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. The asthma group consisted of all 40 069 patients in the database with newly diagnosed asthma and using asthma medications from 2000 through 2005. The nonasthma group comprised 40 069 age- and sex-matched patients without any asthma diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was applied to calculate the hazard ratio of HZ in the patients with asthma relative to those without asthma. During a mean follow-up period of 8.77 years, the risk of HZ was 1.48-fold higher in the asthma group compared with that in the nonasthma group after adjustment for sex, age, comorbidities, inhaled and systemic corticosteroid use, and annual outpatient department visits to dermatologists. Additional stratified analyses revealed that the risk of HZ was significantly higher in patients of both sexes and those aged older than 21 years. Newly diagnosed adult patients with asthma have a significantly higher risk of developing HZ than do those without asthma.

  5. Cadmium exposure and endometrial cancer risk: A large midwestern U.S. population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Jane A; Kruse, Robin L; Guthrie, James; Gangnon, Ronald E; Robertson, J David

    2017-01-01

    Estrogen-mimicking chemicals, such as cadmium, may be associated with increased susceptibility to hormone-dependent cancers, though supporting data are sparse, particularly for endometrial cancer. The Health and Environmental Exposure Research (HEER) study worked with the Arkansas Central Cancer Registry, Iowa Cancer Registry and Missouri Cancer Registry to obtain names of women diagnosed with endometrial cancer who were willing to be contacted for participation in our case control study. Voter registration lists from Iowa and Missouri were used to randomly select similarly aged women as represented in the case population. Participants were interviewed by telephone to obtain information on known or suspected endometrial risk factors. Urine kits were sent to participants for home collection and returned for analysis. Our case-control study consisted of 631 incident cases of endometrial cancer diagnosed from January 2010 to October 2012 and 879 age-matched population-based controls, ages 18-81 years (mean age 65 years). We quantified cadmium amounts in urine and standardized these values through creatinine adjustment. Using data from all survey completers, we developed a multivariable model for endometrial cancer. Creatinine-adjusted cadmium concentration was added to this model. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for endometrial cancer were calculated. After multivariable adjustment, higher creatinine-adjusted cadmium exposure was associated with a statistically significant increase of endometrial cancer risk (OR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.03-1.44). Our results provide evidence that cadmium may increase the risk of endometrial cancer, possibly through estrogenic effects.

  6. The Risk of Cancer in Patients With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Cheng-Che; Hu, Li-Yu; Hu, Yu-Wen; Chang, Wen-Han; Tang, Pei-Ling; Chen, Pan-Ming; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Su, Tung-Ping

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies suggest a link between anxiety disorders and cancer. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of cancer among patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using a nationwide population-based dataset. We recruited newly diagnosed OCD patients without antecedent cancer from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database between 2002 and 2011. The standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were estimated for 22 specific cancer types among OCD patients and we determined the SIRs for subgroups according to age and sex group. In addition, because of a potential detection bias, a subgroup analysis stratified with the duration of the OCD diagnosis was carried out. Among the 52,656 OCD patients, who were followed up for 259,945 person-years (median follow-up = 4.9 years), there were 718 cases of cancer. Patients with OCD did not exhibit an increased overall cancer risk relative to the general population (SIR 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.98-1.13). An increased SIR was observed among OCD patients only within the first year of OCD diagnosis (SIR 1.21, 95% CI 1.01-1.43).This study indicated that the overall cancer risk was not elevated among OCD patients. An increased SIR observed among OCD patients within the first year of OCD diagnosis may be caused by a surveillance bias, and because paraneoplastic manifestations presented with obsessive-compulsive behaviors. Prospective study is necessary to confirm these findings.

  7. Neonatal mortality, risk factors and causes: a prospective population-based cohort study in urban Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Jehan, Imtiaz; Harris, Hillary; Salat, Sohail; Zeb, Amna; Mobeen, Naushaba; Pasha, Omrana; Moore, Janet; Wright, Linda L; Goldenberg, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the prevalence, sex distribution and causes of neonatal mortality, as well as its risk factors, in an urban Pakistani population with access to obstetric and neonatal care. Methods Study area women were enrolled at 20–26 weeks’ gestation in a prospective population-based cohort study that was conducted from 2003 to 2005. Physical examinations, antenatal laboratory tests and anthropometric measures were performed, and gestational age was determined by ultrasound to confirm eligibility. Demographic and health data were also collected on pretested study forms by trained female research staff. The women and neonates were seen again within 48 hours postpartum and at day 28 after the birth. All neonatal deaths were reviewed using the Pattinson et al. system to assign obstetric and final causes of death; the circumstances of the death were determined by asking the mother or family and by reviewing hospital records. Frequencies and rates were calculated, and 95% confidence intervals were determined for mortality rates. Relative risks were calculated to evaluate the associations between potential risk factors and neonatal death. Logistic regression models were used to compute adjusted odds ratios. Findings Birth outcomes were ascertained for 1280 (94%) of the 1369 women enrolled. The 28-day neonatal mortality rate was 47.3 per 1000 live births. Preterm birth, Caesarean section and intrapartum complications were associated with neonatal death. Some 45% of the deaths occurred within 48 hours and 73% within the first week. The primary obstetric causes of death were preterm labour (34%) and intrapartum asphyxia (21%). Final causes were classified as immaturity-related (26%), birth asphyxia or hypoxia (26%) and infection (23%). Neither delivery in a health facility nor by health professionals was associated with fewer neonatal deaths. The Caesarean section rate was 19%. Almost all (88%) neonates who died received treatment and 75% died in the

  8. Scoliosis and the Subsequent Risk of Depression: A Nationwide Population-based Cohort Study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-Pin; Lin, Yaleng; Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Lu, Hsing-Fang; Wang, Shih-Tien; Chi, Ying-Chen; Hung, Kuo-Sheng; Chen, Hsiang-Yin

    2016-02-01

    A retrospective cohort study by using the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). The purpose of this study is to conduct a large-scale cohort study to investigate the relationship between scoliosis and depression. The association between scoliosis and depression has rarely been studied in Asian populations. The study cohort consisted of patients with diagnosis of scoliosis between 2003 and 2005 (N = 1409). A comparison cohort was constructed from five age- and gender-matched control subjects selected via random sampling (N = 7045). Data on adjusted hazard ratios (AHRs) of depression, 5-year freedom from depression rates, and risk factors for depression for the two cohorts were compared. All subjects were tracked for 5 years from the date of cohort entry to identify the development of depression. Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed to evaluate the 5-year freedom from depression rates. This study is supported by the University research grant without any study-specific conflicts. During the 5-year follow-up period, 116 and 307 depression patients belonged to the scoliosis cohort and the comparison cohort, respectively. The AHRs of depression in patients with scoliosis was higher [AHR 1.95; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.58-2.42; P < 0.001] than that of the controls during the 5-year follow-up. The risk of depression also demonstrated to be age-dependent for scoliosis patients. The middle-age (41-65 years old) and young adults (18-40 years old) scoliosis patients had higher AHRs (middle-age: AHR 2.45; 95% CI 1.67-3.59; P < 0.05; young adult: AHR 1.99; 95% CI 1.41-2.82; P < 0.05). The population-based study indicated that patients with scoliosis may have an increased risk of depression. Health care professionals should consider designing and planning effective psychological prevention and treatment for scoliosis patients. 4.

  9. Incidence and Risk Factors of Insomnia in a Population-Based Sample

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Mélanie; Mérette, Chantal; Savard, Josée; Ivers, Hans; Baillargeon, Lucie; Morin, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    effective public health prevention and intervention programs to promote better sleep quality. Citation: LeBlanc M; Mérette C; Savard J; Ivers H; Baillargeon L; Morin CM. Incidence and risk factors of insomnia in a population-based sample. SLEEP 2009;32(8):1027-1037. PMID:19725254

  10. Prenatal antidepressant use and risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in offspring: population based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Man, Kenneth K C; Chan, Esther W; Ip, Patrick; Coghill, David; Simonoff, Emily; Chan, Phyllis K L; Lau, Wallis C Y; Schuemie, Martijn J; Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M; Wong, Ian C K

    2017-05-31

    Objective To assess the potential association between prenatal use of antidepressants and the risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in offspring.Design Population based cohort study.Setting Data from the Hong Kong population based electronic medical records on the Clinical Data Analysis and Reporting System.Participants 190 618 children born in Hong Kong public hospitals between January 2001 and December 2009 and followed-up to December 2015.Main outcome measure Hazard ratio of maternal antidepressant use during pregnancy and ADHD in children aged 6 to 14 years, with an average follow-up time of 9.3 years (range 7.4-11.0 years).Results Among 190 618 children, 1252 had a mother who used prenatal antidepressants. 5659 children (3.0%) were given a diagnosis of ADHD or received treatment for ADHD. The crude hazard ratio of maternal antidepressant use during pregnancy was 2.26 (P<0.01) compared with non-use. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, including maternal psychiatric disorders and use of other psychiatric drugs, the adjusted hazard ratio was reduced to 1.39 (95% confidence interval 1.07 to 1.82, P=0.01). Likewise, similar results were observed when comparing children of mothers who had used antidepressants before pregnancy with those who were never users (1.76, 1.36 to 2.30, P<0.01). The risk of ADHD in the children of mothers with psychiatric disorders was higher compared with the children of mothers without psychiatric disorders even if the mothers had never used antidepressants (1.84, 1.54 to 2.18, P<0.01). All sensitivity analyses yielded similar results. Sibling matched analysis identified no significant difference in risk of ADHD in siblings exposed to antidepressants during gestation and those not exposed during gestation (0.54, 0.17 to 1.74, P=0.30).Conclusions The findings suggest that the association between prenatal use of antidepressants and risk of ADHD in offspring can be partially explained by

  11. 10-year trajectories of depressive symptoms and risk of dementia: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Saira Saeed; Wolters, Frank J; Swanson, Sonja A; Koudstaal, Peter J; Hofman, Albert; Tiemeier, Henning; Ikram, M Arfan

    2016-07-01

    Late-life depressive symptoms have been extensively studied for their relationship with incident dementia, but have been typically assessed at a single timepoint. Such an approach neglects the course of depression, which, given its remitting and relapsing nature, might provide further insights into the complex association of depression with dementia. We therefore repeatedly measured depressive symptoms in a population of adults over a decade to study the subsequent risk of dementia. Our study was embedded in the Rotterdam Study, a population-based study of adults aged 55 years or older in Rotterdam (Netherlands), ongoing since 1990. The cohort is monitored continuously for major events by data linkage between the study database and general practitioners. We examined a cohort of participants who were free from dementia, but had data for depressive symptoms from at least one examination round in 1993-95, 1997-99, or 2002-04. We assessed depressive symptoms with the validated Dutch version of the Center for Epidemiology Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression. We used these data to identify 11-year trajectories of depressive symptoms by latent class trajectory modelling. We screened participants for dementia at each examination round and followed up participants for 10 years for incident dementia by latent trajectory from the third examination round to 2014. We calculated hazard ratios (HR) for dementia by assigned trajectory using two Cox proportional hazards models (model 1 adjusted for age and sex only, and model 2 adjusted additionally for APOEɛ4 carrier status, educational level, body-mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, cognitive score, use of antidepressants, and prevalent disease status at baseline). We repeated the analyses censoring for incident stroke, restricting to Alzheimer's disease as an outcome, and accounting for mortality as a competing risk for dementia. From 1993-2004, we obtained data for depressive

  12. Risk factors for homicide victimization in post-genocide Rwanda: a population -based case- control study.

    PubMed

    Rubanzana, Wilson; Ntaganira, Joseph; Freeman, Michael D; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L

    2015-08-21

    Homicide is one of the leading causes of mortality in the World. Homicide risk factors vary significantly between countries and regions. In Rwanda, data on homicide victimization is unreliable because no standardized surveillance system exists. This study was undertaken to identify the risk factors for homicide victimization in Rwanda with particular attention on the latent effects of the 1994 genocide. A population-based matched case-control study was conducted, with subjects enrolled prospectively from May 2011 to May 2013. Cases of homicide victimization were identified via police reports, and crime details were provided by law enforcement agencies. Three controls were matched to each case by sex, 5-year age group and village of residence. Socioeconomic and personal background data, including genocide exposure, were provided via interview of a family member or through village administrators. Conditional logistic regression, stratified by gender status, was used to identify risk factors for homicide victimization. During the study period, 156 homicide victims were enrolled, of which 57 % were male and 43 % were female. The most common mechanisms of death were wounds inflicted by sharp instruments (knives or machetes; 41 %) followed by blunt force injuries (36.5 %). Final models indicated that risk of homicide victimhood increased with victim alcohol drinking patterns. There was a dose response noted for alcohol use: for minimal drinking versus none, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.1, 95%CI: 1,3-7.9; for moderate drinking versus none, aOR = 10.1, 95%CI: 3.7-24.9; and for heavy drinking versus none, aOR = 11.5, 95%CI: 3.6-36.8. Additionally, having no surviving parent (aOR = 2.7, 95%CI: 1.1-6.1), previous physical and/or sexual abuse (aOR = 28.1, 95%CI: 5.1-28.3) and drinking illicit brew and/or drug use (aOR = 7.7, 95%CI: 2.4-18.6) were associated with a higher risk of being killed. The test of interaction revealed that the variables that

  13. Risk factors for incident venous thromboembolism in active cancer patients: A population based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Ashrani, Aneel A; Gullerud, Rachel E; Petterson, Tanya M; Marks, Randolph S; Bailey, Kent R; Heit, John A

    2016-03-01

    Independent risk factors for cancer-associated incident venous thromboembolism (VTE) and their magnitude of risk are not fully characterized. To identify non-cancer and cancer-specific risk factors for cancer-associated incident VTE. In a population-based retrospective case-control study, we used Rochester Epidemiology Project and Mayo Clinic Cancer Registry resources to identify all Olmsted County, MN residents with active cancer-associated incident VTE, 1973-2000 (cases; n=570) and 1-3 residents with active cancer matched to each case on age, sex, date and duration of active cancer (controls; n=604). Using conditional logistic regression, we tested cancer and non-cancer characteristics for an association with VTE, including a cancer site VTE risk score. In the multivariable model, higher cancer site VTE risk score (OR=1.4 per 2-fold increase), cancer stage≥2 (OR=2.2), liver metastasis (OR=2.7), chemotherapy (OR=1.8) and progesterone use (OR=2.1) were independently associated with VTE, as were BMI<18.5kg/m(2) (OR=1.9) or ≥35kg/m(2) (OR=4.0), hospitalization (OR=7.9), nursing home confinement (OR=4.7), central venous (CV) catheter (OR=8.5) and any recent infection (OR=1.7). In a subgroup analysis, platelet count≥350×10(9)/L at time of cancer diagnosis was marginally associated with VTE (OR=2.3, p=0.07). Cancer site, cancer stage≥2, liver metastasis, chemotherapy, progesterone, being underweight or obese, hospitalization/nursing home confinement, CV catheter, and infection are independent risk factors for incident VTE in active cancer patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pain and risk of completed suicide in Japanese men: a population-based cohort study in Japan (Ohsaki Cohort Study).

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Nobutaka; Ohmori-Matsuda, Kaori; Shimazu, Taichi; Sone, Toshimasa; Kakizaki, Masako; Nakaya, Naoki; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2009-03-01

    Unrelieved pain is a major factor that influences suicide risk among terminally ill patients, but little is known about the relationship between pain and the risk of completed suicide in the general population. We prospectively examined the association between self-reports of pain and subsequent risk of completed suicide in 26,481 men aged 40 to 79 years from the Ohsaki National Health Insurance Cohort study, a population-based, prospective cohort study initiated in 1994. On the basis of a five-item questionnaire on pain, individuals were classified as having no pain, very mild pain, mild pain, or moderate or severe pain. Completed suicide cases were documented from 1995 to 2001. During 131,027 person-years, 64 completed suicides were documented. After adjustment for covariates, the risk for completed suicide was significantly higher in the subjects with more pain. Multivariate hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) relative to the subjects who had no pain were 1.36 (0.67-2.75), 2.11 (1.02-4.33), and 2.93 (1.34-6.42) in the subjects who had very mild pain, mild pain, and moderate or severe pain, respectively (P for trend=0.004). Stratified analysis showed that the positive association between pain and suicide risk was robust in the subjects with good health, low stress, adequate sleep, good physical activity, and no history of chronic diseases. Our results suggest that pain is associated with an increased risk of completed suicide among Japanese men. The association was consistently observed among apparently healthy subjects.

  15. Childhood ADHD and risk for substance dependence in adulthood: a longitudinal, population-based study.

    PubMed

    Levy, Sharon; Katusic, Slavica K; Colligan, Robert C; Weaver, Amy L; Killian, Jill M; Voigt, Robert G; Barbaresi, William J

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are known to be at significantly greater risk for the development of substance use disorders (SUD) compared to peers. Impulsivity, which could lead to higher levels of drug use, is a known symptom of ADHD and likely accounts, in part, for this relationship. Other factors, such as a biologically increased susceptibility to substance dependence (addiction), may also play a role. This report further examines the relationships between childhood ADHD, adolescent- onset SUD, and substance abuse and substance dependence in adulthood. Individuals with childhood ADHD and non-ADHD controls from the same population-based birth cohort were invited to participate in a prospective outcome study. Participants completed a structured neuropsychiatric interview with modules for SUD and a psychosocial questionnaire. Information on adolescent SUD was obtained retrospectively, in a previous study, from medical and school records. Associations were summarized using odds ratios (OR) and 95% CIs estimated from logistic regression models adjusted for age and gender. A total of 232 ADHD cases and 335 non-ADHD controls participated (mean age, 27.0 and 28.6 years, respectively). ADHD cases were more likely than controls to have a SUD diagnosed in adolescence and were more likely to have alcohol (adjusted OR 14.38, 95% CI 1.49-138.88) and drug (adjusted OR 3.48, 95% CI 1.38-8.79) dependence in adulthood. The subgroup of participating ADHD cases who did not have SUD during adolescence were no more likely than controls to develop new onset alcohol dependence as adults, although they were significantly more likely to develop new onset drug dependence. Our study found preliminary evidence that adults with childhood ADHD are more susceptible than peers to developing drug dependence, a disorder associated with neurological changes in the brain. The relationship between ADHD and alcohol dependence appears to be more complex.

  16. Candida tropicalis bloodstream infection: Incidence, risk factors and outcome in a population-based surveillance.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Puig-Asensio, Mireia; Guinea, Jesús; Almirante, Benito; Padilla, Belén; Almela, Manuel; Díaz-Martín, Ana; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Aguado, José María

    2015-09-01

    To assess the current clinical features and determinants of outcome of Candida tropicalis bloodstream infection (BSI). A population-based surveillance on Candida BSI was conducted from May 2010 to April 2011 in 29 Spanish hospitals. Antifungal susceptibility testing (EUCAST methodology) was centrally performed. The characteristics and outcome of C. tropicalis BSI episodes were compared with those due to other species. Fifty-nine out of 752 episodes (7.8%) were due to C. tropicalis (annual incidence: 0.62 cases per 100,000 population). Resistance to fluconazole and voriconazole was found in 23.2% and 26.8% of isolates. Breakthrough BSI occurred in 10.5% of episodes. Risk factors for C. tropicalis BSI were age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.01; P-value = 0.05), underlying leukaemia (OR: 4.77; P-value = 0.001) and chronic lung disease (OR: 2.62; P-value = 0.002). There were no differences in clinical failure (persistent BSI for ≥72 h after initiation of therapy and/or 30-day all-cause mortality) between C. tropicalis (39.6%) and non-C. tropicalis groups (45.6%). The appropriateness of antifungal therapy or the fluconazole MIC values had no significant impact on outcome, whereas early central venous catheter removal exerted a protective effect. C. tropicalis BSI was associated with advanced age, haematological malignancy and respiratory comorbidity. We found no correlation between the unexpectedly high resistance rate to azoles observed and outcome. Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Visceral fat measured by DXA is associated with increased risk of non-spine fractures in nonobese elderly women: a population-based prospective cohort analysis from the São Paulo Ageing & Health (SPAH) Study.

    PubMed

    Machado, L G; Domiciano, D S; Figueiredo, C P; Caparbo, V F; Takayama, L; Oliveira, R M; Lopes, J B; Menezes, P R; Pereira, R M R

    2016-12-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between visceral fat measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and the incidence of non-spine fractures in community-dwelling elderly women. We demonstrated a potential negative effect of visceral fat on bone health in nonobese women. The protective effect of obesity on bone health has been questioned because visceral fat has been demonstrated to have a deleterious effect on bone. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of visceral fat measured by DXA with the incidence of non-spine fractures in community-dwelling elderly women. This longitudinal prospective population-based cohort study evaluated 433 community-dwelling women aged 65 years or older. A specific clinical questionnaire, including personal history of a fragility fracture in non-spine osteoporotic sites, was administered at baseline and after an average of 4.3 years. All incidences of fragility fractures during the study period were confirmed by affected-site radiography. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was measured in the android region of a whole-body DXA scan. The mean age was 72.8 ± 4.7 years, and 28 incident non-spine osteoporotic fractures were identified after a mean follow-up time of 4.3 ± 0.8 years. According to the Lipschitz classification for nutritional status in the elderly, 38.6 % of women were nonobese (BMI ≤ 27 kg/m(2)) and 61.4 % were obese/overweight. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the relationship between VAT and non-spine fractures in elderly women. After adjusting for age, race, previous fractures, and BMD, VAT (mass, area, volume) had a significant association with the incidence of non-spine fractures only in nonobese elderly women (VAT mass: OR, 1.42 [95 % CI, 1.09-1.85; p = 0.010]; VAT area: OR, 1.19 [95 % CI, 1.05-1.36; p = 0.008]; VAT volume: OR, 1.40 [95 % CI, 1.09-1.80; p = 0.009]). This study suggests a potential negative effect of visceral

  18. Orthostatic Hypotension and the Long-Term Risk of Dementia: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Wolters, Frank J.; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U. S.; Hofman, Albert; Ikram, M. Arfan

    2016-01-01

    Background Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a common cause of transient cerebral hypoperfusion in the population. Cerebral hypoperfusion is widely implicated in cognitive impairment, but whether OH contributes to cognitive decline and dementia is uncertain. We aimed to determine the association between OH and the risk of developing dementia in the general population. Methods and Findings Between 4 October 1989 and 17 June 1993, we assessed OH in non-demented, stroke-free participants of the population-based Rotterdam Study. OH was defined as a ≥20 mm Hg drop in systolic blood pressure (SBP) or ≥10 mm Hg drop in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) within 3 min from postural change. We furthermore calculated within participant variability in SBP related to postural change, expressed as coefficient of variation. Follow-up for dementia was conducted until 1 January 2014. We determined the risk of dementia in relation to OH and SBP variability, using a Cox regression model, adjusted for age; sex; smoking status; alcohol intake; SBP; DBP; cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein ratio; diabetes; body mass index; use of antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, or anticholinergic medication; and apolipoprotein E genotype. Finally, we explored whether associations varied according to compensatory increase in heart rate. Among 6,204 participants (mean ± standard deviation [SD] age 68.5 ± 8.6 y, 59.7% female) with a median follow-up of 15.3 y, 1,176 developed dementia, of whom 935 (79.5%) had Alzheimer disease and 95 (8.1%) had vascular dementia. OH was associated with an increased risk of dementia (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.15, 95% CI 1.00–1.34, p = 0.05), which was similar for Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Similarly, greater SBP variability with postural change was associated with an increased risk of dementia (aHR per SD increase 1.08, 95% CI 1.01–1.16, p = 0.02), which was similar when excluding those who fulfilled the formal criteria for OH (aHR 1.08, 95% CI 1

  19. Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Patients with Insomnia: A Population-based Historical Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Ling; Chien, Wu-Chien; Chung, Chi-Hsiang; Wu, Fei-Ling

    2017-08-18

    We investigated the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in patients with and without insomnia. In this historical cohort study, we performed a secondary analysis of data from 2001 to 2010, which was obtained from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Database. We developed a Cox proportional hazard regression model to estimate the effects of insomnia on T2DM risk. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was applied to compare the differences in the cumulative incidence of T2DM between the groups with and without insomnia. During the follow-up period, the T2DM incidence rate of patients with insomnia was significantly higher than that of patients without insomnia (34.7 vs. 24.3 per 1000 person-years). Overall, patients with insomnia had a higher risk of T2DM than did patients without insomnia [adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.10-1.19]. Among patients aged younger than 40 years, those with insomnia had a higher risk of T2DM than did the comparison cohort (adjusted HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.14-1.55). Compared with patients without insomnia, the risk tended to increase with the duration of follow-up in patients with insomnia; when the insomnia duration was <4 years, 4-8 years, and >8 years, the risk of T2DM increased by 1.14, 1.38, and 1.51 times (95% CI, 1.03-1.17, 1.15-1.49, and 1.20-1.86), respectively. Patients with insomnia had a higher risk of T2DM, and this risk was particularly pronounced among the young-aged (≤40 years) population. Chronic insomnia could be an important risk factor for T2DM. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Birth by Caesarean Section and the Risk of Adult Psychosis: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, Sinéad M.; Curran, Eileen A.; Dalman, Christina; Kenny, Louise C.; Kearney, Patricia M.; Clarke, Gerard; Cryan, John F.; Dinan, Timothy G.; Khashan, Ali S.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the biological plausibility of an association between obstetric mode of delivery and psychosis in later life, studies to date have been inconclusive. We assessed the association between mode of delivery and later onset of psychosis in the offspring. A population-based cohort including data from the Swedish National Registers was used. All singleton live births between 1982 and 1995 were identified (n = 1 345 210) and followed-up to diagnosis at age 16 or later. Mode of delivery was categorized as: unassisted vaginal delivery (VD), assisted VD, elective Caesarean section (CS) (before onset of labor), and emergency CS (after onset of labor). Outcomes included any psychosis; nonaffective psychoses (including schizophrenia only) and affective psychoses (including bipolar disorder only and depression with psychosis only). Cox regression analysis was used reporting partially and fully adjusted hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Sibling-matched Cox regression was performed to adjust for familial confounding factors. In the fully adjusted analyses, elective CS was significantly associated with any psychosis (HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.03, 1.24). Similar findings were found for nonaffective psychoses (HR 1.13, 95% CI 0.99, 1.29) and affective psychoses (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.05, 1.31) (χ2 for heterogeneity P = .69). In the sibling-matched Cox regression, this association disappeared (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.78, 1.37). No association was found between assisted VD or emergency CS and psychosis. This study found that elective CS is associated with an increase in offspring psychosis. However, the association did not persist in the sibling-matched analysis, implying the association is likely due to familial confounding by unmeasured factors such as genetics or environment. PMID:26615187

  1. Increased risk of Parkinson disease with diabetes mellitus in a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu-Wan; Hsieh, Teng-Fu; Li, Chia-Ing; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Lin, Wen-Yuan; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Li, Tsai-Chung; Lin, Cheng-Chieh

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This nationwide population-based study investigated the risk of Parkinson disease (PD) in relation to diabetes mellitus (DM) through the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. A retrospective study was conducted, consisting of 36,294 patients who were newly diagnosed with DM between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2006 and 108,882 individuals without DM as healthy controls from insurance claims data from Taiwan's National Health Research Institutes Dataset. The subjects were followed up until December 31, 2011 or until the first manifestation of PD. The hazard ratio (HR) of DM for PD incidence was estimated by Cox proportional hazard regression model. Compared with the non-DM cohort, the incidence density rate of PD was 1.36-fold higher in the DM cohort (1.53 vs 2.08 per 1000 person-years) with an adjusted HR of 1.19 (95% confidence interval = 1.08–1.32) after adjusting for age, sex, comorbidities, and medication use. The adjusted HR of PD for DM with a larger magnitude was observed in females (1.29, 1.12–1.49); individuals age 65 years and older (1.20, 1.06–1.35); those without schizophrenia (1.20, 1.08–1.33), bipolar disorder (1.20, 1.08–1.33), hypertension (1.18, 1.06–1.32), hyperlipidemia (1.21, 1.09–1.34), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (1.19, 1.06–1.32), coronary artery disease (1.22, 1.09–1.36), stroke (1.23, 1.10–1.37), asthma (1.20, 1.08–1.34), flunarizine use (1.21, 1.08–1.35), zolpidem use (1.16, 1.04–1.30), Charlson comorbidity index score of 0 (1.23, 1.08–1.40), and those using metoclopramide (1.35, 1.14–1.60) and zolpidem (1.46, 1.12–1.90). DM increased the risk of PD during a mean follow-up of 7.3 years. Further mechanistic research on the effect of DM on PD is needed. PMID:28099356

  2. Psychosocial Stress as a Risk Factor for Sepsis: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ojard, Connor; Donnelly, John P.; Safford, Monika M.; Griffin, Russell

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize the relationship between stress and future risk of sepsis. We also evaluated the role of depression in this relationship. METHODS We used population-based data on 30,183 participants in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort, characterizing stress using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and depressive symptoms using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). We identified incident sepsis events as hospitalizations for a serious infection with the presence of ≥2 SIRS criteria. We assessed associations between PSS and incidence of sepsis over one- and ten-years of follow-up, adjusting for demographics and chronic medical conditions and assessing the role of health behaviors and CES-D in these relationships. RESULTS During 2003–2012, 1,500 participants experienced an episode of sepsis. Mean PSS and CES-D scores were 3.2±2.9 and 1.2±2.1. PSS was associated with increased one-year adjusted incidence of sepsis (HR 1.21 per PSS standard deviation; 95% CI: 1.06–1.38); multivariable adjustment for health behaviors and CES-D did not change this association (1.20; 1.20; 1.03–1.39). PSS was also associated with increased 10-year adjusted incidence of sepsis (HR 1.07 per PSS standard deviation; 95% CI: 1.02–1.13). Multivariable adjustment showed that health behaviors did not affect this long-term association whereas addition of CES-D reduced the association between PSS and sepsis during 10-year follow-up (HR 1.04; 0.98–1.11). CONCLUSIONS Increased stress was associated higher one-year adjusted incidence of sepsis, even after accounting for depressive symptoms. The association between stress and ten-year adjusted incidence of sepsis was also significant, but this association was reduced when adjusting for depressive symptoms. Reduction of stress may limit short-term sepsis risk. PMID:25469683

  3. Increased risk of Parkinson disease with diabetes mellitus in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Wan; Hsieh, Teng-Fu; Li, Chia-Ing; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Lin, Wen-Yuan; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Li, Tsai-Chung; Lin, Cheng-Chieh

    2017-01-01

    This nationwide population-based study investigated the risk of Parkinson disease (PD) in relation to diabetes mellitus (DM) through the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan.A retrospective study was conducted, consisting of 36,294 patients who were newly diagnosed with DM between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2006 and 108,882 individuals without DM as healthy controls from insurance claims data from Taiwan's National Health Research Institutes Dataset. The subjects were followed up until December 31, 2011 or until the first manifestation of PD. The hazard ratio (HR) of DM for PD incidence was estimated by Cox proportional hazard regression model.Compared with the non-DM cohort, the incidence density rate of PD was 1.36-fold higher in the DM cohort (1.53 vs 2.08 per 1000 person-years) with an adjusted HR of 1.19 (95% confidence interval = 1.08-1.32) after adjusting for age, sex, comorbidities, and medication use. The adjusted HR of PD for DM with a larger magnitude was observed in females (1.29, 1.12-1.49); individuals age 65 years and older (1.20, 1.06-1.35); those without schizophrenia (1.20, 1.08-1.33), bipolar disorder (1.20, 1.08-1.33), hypertension (1.18, 1.06-1.32), hyperlipidemia (1.21, 1.09-1.34), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (1.19, 1.06-1.32), coronary artery disease (1.22, 1.09-1.36), stroke (1.23, 1.10-1.37), asthma (1.20, 1.08-1.34), flunarizine use (1.21, 1.08-1.35), zolpidem use (1.16, 1.04-1.30), Charlson comorbidity index score of 0 (1.23, 1.08-1.40), and those using metoclopramide (1.35, 1.14-1.60) and zolpidem (1.46, 1.12-1.90).DM increased the risk of PD during a mean follow-up of 7.3 years. Further mechanistic research on the effect of DM on PD is needed.

  4. Scabies increased the risk and severity of COPD: a nationwide population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jung-Yueh; Liu, Jui-Ming; Chang, Fung-Wei; Chang, Hung; Cheng, Kuan-Chen; Yeh, Chia-Lun; Wei, Yu-Feng; Hsu, Ren-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background Scabies is a common parasitic infectious disease, and COPD is a major pulmonary disease. However, there have been no previous studies that have investigated the relationship between scabies and COPD. Materials and methods This nationwide population-based study included a total of 3,568 patients with scabies as the study group and 14,255 patients as a control group. We followed up patients in both groups for a 5-year period to identify any new diagnoses of COPD. We then followed them up for an additional 2-year period to determine the severity of any newly diagnosed cases of COPD as indicated by acute respiratory events. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were performed to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) of COPD during the 5-year follow-up period and COPD complication during the additional 2-year follow-up period. Results Of the 17,823 patients in the study, 2,765 (15.5%) were newly diagnosed with COPD during the 5-year follow-up period; 904 (32.7%) were from the scabies group; and 1,861 (67.3%) were from the control group. Compared to the patients without scabies, the adjusted HR (aHR) for COPD for the subjects with scabies was 1.72 (95% CI: 1.59–1.87) during the 5-year follow-up period. For those newly diagnosed with COPD, the aHR for COPD with acute exacerbation was 1.85 (95% CI: 1.67–2.06), the aHR for COPD with pneumonia was 3.29 (95% CI: 2.77–3.92), the aHR for COPD with acute respiratory failure was 4.00 (95% CI: 3.08–5.19), and the aHR for COPD with cardiopulmonary arrest was 3.95 (95% CI: 2.25–6.95) during the additional 2-year follow-up period. Conclusion The results of this study indicate a 72% increased risk for COPD among patients with scabies. The results also reveal an increased risk of severe COPD complications such as acute respiratory failure, cardiopulmonary arrest, pneumonia, and acute exacerbation among patients with scabies. This useful information may help physicians in treating scabies and remaining alert to the

  5. Population-based, Case-Control-Family Design to Investigate Genetic and Environmental Influences on Melanoma Risk

    PubMed Central

    Cust, Anne E.; Schmid, Helen; Maskiell, Judith A.; Jetann, Jodie; Ferguson, Megan; Holland, Elizabeth A.; Agha-Hamilton, Chantelle; Jenkins, Mark A.; Kelly, John; Kefford, Richard F.; Giles, Graham G.; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Aitken, Joanne F.; Hopper, John L.; Mann, Graham J.

    2009-01-01

    Discovering and understanding genetic risk factors for melanoma and their interactions with phenotype, sun exposure, and other risk factors could lead to new strategies for melanoma control. This paper describes the Australian Melanoma Family Study, which uses a multicenter, population-based, case-control-family design. From 2001 to 2005, the authors recruited 1,164 probands including 629 cases with histopathologically confirmed, first-primary cutaneous melanoma diagnosed before age 40 years, 240 population-based controls frequency matched for age, and 295 spouse/friend controls. Information on lifetime sun exposure, phenotype, and residence history was collected for probands and nearly 4,000 living relatives. More than 3,000 subjects donated a blood sample. Proxy-reported information was collected for childhood sun exposure and deceased relatives. Important features of this study include the population-based, family-based design; a focus on early onset disease; probands from 3 major cities differing substantially in solar ultraviolet exposure and melanoma incidence; a population at high risk because of high ultraviolet exposure and susceptible pigmentation phenotypes; population-based, spouse/friend, and sibling controls; systematic recruitment of relatives of case and control probands; self and parent reports of childhood sun exposure; and objective clinical skin examinations. The authors discuss methodological and analytical issues related to the study design and conduct, as well as the potentially novel insights the study can deliver. PMID:19887461

  6. Occupations associated with COPD risk in the large population-based UK Biobank cohort study.

    PubMed

    De Matteis, Sara; Jarvis, Deborah; Hutchings, Sally; Darnton, Andy; Fishwick, David; Sadhra, Steven; Rushton, Lesley; Cullinan, Paul

    2016-06-01

    analyses restricted to never-smokers and non-asthmatics. Selected occupations are associated with increased COPD risk in a large cross-sectional population-based UK study. Further analyses should confirm the extent to which these associations reflect exposures still of concern and where strengthened preventive action may be needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Risk of Venous Thromboembolic Events in Pregnant Patients With Autoimmune Diseases: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Bleau, Nathalie; Patenaude, Valerie; Abenhaim, Haim A

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of autoimmune disease on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in pregnant women. Using the Health Care Cost and Utilization Project, Nationwide Inpatient Sample database from 2003 to 2011, the risk of developing DVT, PE, and VTE among pregnant patients with selected autoimmune diseases was estimated using unconditional logistic regression analysis. Our study cohort consisted of 7 917 453 women of which 43 523 had underlying autoimmune diseases. Risk of VTE was high in pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus, dermatomyositis, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease. Most autoimmune diseases considerably increase the risk of VTE. Thromboprophylaxis may be considered in pregnancies with autoimmune disease, particularly those with systemic lupus erythematosus and dermatomyositis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Gonorrhea infection increases the risk of prostate cancer in Asian population: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y-C; Chung, C-H; Chen, J-H; Chiang, M-H; Ti-Yin; Tsao, C-H; Lin, F-H; Chien, W-C; Shang, S-T; Chang, F-Y

    2017-05-01

    This nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study evaluated the risk of developing prostate cancer among patients with gonorrhea. We identified cases of newly diagnosed gonorrhea in men between 2000 and 2010 from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Each patient with gonorrhea was matched to four controls, based on age and index year. All subjects were followed up from the index date to December 31, 2010. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to assess the risk of prostate cancer. A total of 355 men were included in the study group, and 1,420 age-matched subjects without gonorrhea were included in the control group. After adjusting for age, comorbidities, urbanization level, hospital level, and monthly income, gonorrhea was significantly associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer (adjusted hazard ratio = 5.66, 95% confidence interval = 1.36-23.52). Men aged 45-70 years and those with lower monthly income were more strongly associated with prostate cancer in the study group than the control group. The higher risk for developing prostate cancer were also found in those without syphilis, without genital warts, without diabetes mellitus, without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, without benign prostatic hypertrophy, without chronic prostatitis, and without alcoholism. The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed the risk of prostate cancer was significantly higher in the study group than in the control group. Gonorrhea may be involved in the development of prostate cancer. More intensive screening and prevention interventions for prostate cancer should be recommended in men with gonorrhea.

  9. Helminth infection does not reduce risk for chronic inflammatory disease in a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bager, Peter; Vinkel Hansen, Anne; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic helminth infections can suppress symptoms of allergy, type 1 diabetes, arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease in animal models. We analyzed data from a large, population-based cohort study to determine whether common childhood enterobiasis protects against these diseases. We collected information on individual prescriptions filled for the drug mebendazole against Enterobius vermicularis for all children born in Denmark 1995-2008 from the National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics (n = 924,749; age 0-14 years); 132,383 of these children (14%) filled a prescription for mebendazole, 102,482 of the children (11%) had a household peer who was registered with a filled mebendazole prescription, and the remaining 689,884 children (75%) comprised the reference group. Children diagnosed with asthma, type 1 diabetes, juvenile arthritis, ulcerative colitis, or Crohn's disease were identified from the National Patient Registry. We used Poisson regression to estimate confounder-adjusted incidence rate ratios for first in- or outpatient hospital diagnosis of chronic inflammatory disease according to history of mebendazole treatment prescribed to children in the study. Chronic inflammatory disease was diagnosed in 10,352 children during 6.4 million person-years of follow-up. The incidence rate ratios was 1.07 for asthma (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00-1.13), 1.05 for type 1 diabetes (95% CI: 0.79-1.12), 1.13 for juvenile arthritis (95% CI: 0.94-1.37), 0.77 for ulcerative colitis (95% CI: 0.41-1.46), and 1.44 for Crohn's disease (95% CI: 0.82-2.53). Results were not modified by number of treatments or age at treatment. Based on a population-based analysis, enterobiasis does not reduce risk for asthma, type 1 diabetes, arthritis, or inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2012 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Risk-taking, coordination and upper limb fractures in children: a population based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Deqiong; Morley, Ruth; Jones, Graeme

    2004-08-01

    The aim of this population based case-control study was to examine the association between risk-taking behaviour, motor coordination and upper limb fractures in children aged 9-16 years. A total of 321 fracture cases and 321 randomly selected individually matched controls were studied. The number for different types of upper limb fractures was 91 for hand, 190 for wrist and forearm and 40 for upper arm. Risk-taking behaviour was determined by a 5-item interview-administered questionnaire. Motor coordination was assessed by the 8-point movement ABC that tests manual dexterity, ball skills as well as static and dynamic balance. Bone mass was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and metacarpal morphometry. In general, there was heterogeneity by fracture site with regard to associations. Risk-taking behaviour was associated with hand fracture risk but not other fracture sites for downhill cycling behaviour (OR: 2.0/category, 95% CI: 1.1-3.7), dare behaviour (OR: 3.3/category, 95% CI: 1.1-10.0) and total risk-taking score (OR: 2.6/category, 95% CI: 1.3-5.7). Conversely, coordination measures were associated with wrist and forearm fractures only: cutting/threading (OR: 1.2/unit, 95% CI: 1.0-1.4); flower trail (OR: 1.2/unit, 95% CI: 1.0-1.4) and dynamic balance score (OR: 1.1/unit, 95% CI: 1.0-1.2). Backward stepwise analysis selected total risk taking score for hand fracture, and dynamic balance score for wrist and forearm fracture. None of the risk-taking or coordination scores were associated with upper arm fractures. These associations were unchanged following adjustment for bone mass. In conclusion, the propensity to take risks is most strongly associated with hand fracture risk while dynamic balance is most strongly associated with wrist and forearm fracture risk in children. These results inform the development of fracture prevention strategies in children.

  11. Prevalence and correlates of cardiovascular risk factors in South Asians: population-based data from two California surveys.

    PubMed

    Ivey, Susan L; Mehta, Kala M; Fyr, Christina L Wassel; Kanaya, Alka M

    2006-01-01

    Few population-based studies report cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor prevalence for South Asians in the United States. We examined CVD risk for South Asians in California. We used data from two population-based surveys with South Asian participants in California, the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) and the Cardiovascular Health among Asian Indian (CHAI) survey. The CHIS 2001 was conducted in English; 769 South Asians aged 25-83 years participated as one of many ethnic groups. The CHAI survey was population-based but focused on ethnicity-specific characteristics in 304 South Asians aged 25-80 years in English and Punjabi in 2001-2002. A CVD risk score included smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, myocardial infarction, and angina. Separate logistic regression models examined the association of sociodemographics, lifestyle, medical risk, acculturation, and "any CVD risk." In CHAI, hypertension (20%), hypercholesterolemia (24%), and diabetes (10%) were high; smoking was low (12%). In CHIS, prevalence of these conditions was lower, except smoking (21%). Approximately 35% of participants in each survey had any CVD risk. Male sex, age, higher body mass index, education less than a bachelor's degree, and alcohol use were associated with CVD risk in both studies. The CHAI subjects interviewed in English had higher odds of any CVD risk than those interviewed in Punjabi (odds ratio 10.3, 95% confidence interval 2.9-36.7). Data from multiple sources add crucial information about heterogeneity of risk within ethnic populations. South Asians in the CHIS had higher rates of smoking, but lower CVD risk scores than participants in the CHAI study. In CHAI, English language use was associated with increased CVD risk score. Additional research should examine if acculturation increases CVD risk.

  12. Retinal vein occlusion and vascular mortality: pooled data analysis of 2 population-based cohorts.

    PubMed

    Cugati, Sudha; Wang, Jie Jin; Knudtson, Michael D; Rochtchina, Elena; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E K; Wong, Tien Yin; Mitchell, Paul

    2007-03-01

    To assess the association of retinal vein occlusion (RVO) with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality. Pooled data from 2 population-based cohort studies. At baseline, the Beaver Dam Eye Study (BDES) examined 4926 persons aged 43 to 86 years (from 1988-1990) and the Blue Mountains Eye Study (BMES) examined 3654 persons aged 49 to 97 years (from 1992 to 1994). Retinal vein occlusion was assessed from retinal photographs. Vascular deaths were determined using either death certificates (BDES) or the Australian National Death Index (BMES). Cox regression analysis was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Vascular (cardiovascular and cerebrovascular) mortality was determined. Of 8384 baseline participants, 96 (1.14%) had RVO at baseline (BDES, n = 38; BMES, n = 58). Over 12 years, 1312 (15.7%) died of cardiovascular-related conditions and 341 (4.1%) died of cerebrovascular-related conditions. Age-standardized vascular mortality rates were 26.0% and 5.3%, respectively, in persons with RVO and 17.1% and 4.5%, respectively, in those without RVO. After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, glaucoma, and study site, RVO was not associated with cardiovascular-related mortality (HR, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.8-1.8) or cerebrovascular-related mortality (HR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.4-2.1) among participants of all ages. However, in persons aged less than 70 years, baseline RVO was associated with higher cardiovascular mortality (combined BDES and BMES: HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.2; BDES: HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 0.9-6.9; BMES: HR, 2.1; 95% CI, 0.7-6.8). Retinal vein occlusion in persons aged 43 to 69 years may signal a doubling of the risk of cardiovascular mortality.

  13. [Knowledge of modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease among women and the associated factors: a population-based study].

    PubMed

    Bonotto, Gabriel Missaggia; Mendoza-Sassi, Raul Andres; Susin, Lulie Rosane Odeh

    2016-01-01

    The scope of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease and its distribution in terms of demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral and biological factors among women living in the State of Rio Grande. It was a cross-sectional population-based study, with the inclusion of women aged 18 years and over. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariable Poisson Regression analysis were performed. The outcome was defined as knowing three or more of the seven risk factors studied (75th percentile). Of the 1,593 respondents, 33% knew three or more factors. The outcome was independently associated with increased likelihood of knowledge among subjects in the 25-44 years old age group, non-white skin color, complete secondary education, higher income and having cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, sedentary women were less likely to have such knowledge. These findings indicate the need for educational activities for enhancing comprehension and knowledge of the factors associated with cardiovascular disease among women, particularly among the poorest and less educated.

  14. Burden and risk factors of ambulatory or hospitalized CAP: A population based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kolditz, Martin; Tesch, Falko; Mocke, Luise; Höffken, Gert; Ewig, Santiago; Schmitt, Jochen

    2016-12-01

    Data on incidence, risk factors and outcome of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) including outpatients is sparse. We conducted a cohort study on 1.837.080 adults insured by a German statutory health insurance in 2010-2011. CAP was identified via ICD-10-GM codes, ambulatory cases were validated by antibiotic prescription within 7 days. Primary outcomes were incidence, hospitalisation and 30-day all-cause mortality. Evaluated risk factors included age, sex and comorbidities. Evaluation was done by multivariate regression analysis adjusting for these factors and health care utilization. CAP incidence was 9.7 per 1000 person years, hospitalisation rate 46.5%, and 30-day mortality 12.9%. 30-day mortality of ambulatory cases was 5% (with 27% subsequently hospitalized for another diagnosis before death). 30-day mortality of hospitalized patients was 21.9%, but in-hospital mortality 17.2%. Risk factors for CAP included age, male sex and all evaluated comorbidities with highest risk for neurologic (OR 2.4), lung (OR 2.3) or immunosuppressive (OR 2.1) disease. Mortality risk was highest for neurologic (OR 2.3) and malignant (OR 2.0) disease. CAP constitutes a major burden in terms of incidence, morbidity and all-cause mortality in hospitalized and ambulatory patients. Interventions to raise awareness for disease impact also in ambulatory patients with risk factors are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Using geographic information systems and spatial and space-time scan statistics for a population-based risk analysis of the 2002 equine West Nile epidemic in six contiguous regions of Texas

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Min; Warner, Ronald D; Alexander, James L; Dixon, Kenneth R

    2007-01-01

    Background In 2002, West Nile virus (WNV) first appeared in Texas. Surveillance data were retrospectively examined to explore the temporal and spatial characteristics of the Texas equine WNV epidemic in 2002. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and the Spatial and Space-Time Scan (SaTScan) statistics, we analyzed 1421 of the reported equine WNV cases from six contiguous state Health Service Regions (HSRs), comprising 158 counties, in western, northern, central and eastern Texas. Results Two primary epidemic peaks occurred in Epidemiological (Epi) week 35 (August 25 to 31) and Epi week 42 (October 13 to 19) of 2002 in the western and eastern part of the study area, respectively. The SaTScan statistics detected nine non-random spatio-temporal equine case aggregations (mini-outbreaks) and five unique high-risk areas imbedded within the overall epidemic. Conclusion The 2002 Texas equine WNV epidemic occurred in a bi-modal pattern. Some "local hot spots" of the WNV epidemic developed in Texas. The use of GIS and SaTScan can be valuable tools in analyzing on-going surveillance data to identify high-risk areas and shifts in disease clustering within a large geographic area. Such techniques should become increasingly useful and important in future epidemics, as decisions must be made to effectively allocate limited resources. PMID:17888159

  16. Tourette syndrome increases risk of bone fractures: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Ming-Yu; Wei, I-Hua; Lin, Che-Chen; Huang, Chih-Chia

    2017-05-01

    This study assesses the risk of fractures among children with Tourette syndrome (TS), and identifies the effects of comorbidities and antipsychotics. We randomly sampled the claims data of 1 million enrollees in the National Health Insurance program of Taiwan, and identified 1258 children with TS diagnosed between 2000 and 2010. Additionally, 12,580 children without TS who were frequency matched for sex, age, residential area, parental occupation, and index year were identified for comparison. The children's cases were followed until December 31, 2010, or censored to ascertain incident fractures cases and associations with comorbidities of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and treatments with antipsychotics, antidepressants, or clonidine. The TS cohort had a 1.27-fold higher incidence of fractures than did the comparison cohort (190.37 vs. 149.94 per 10,000 person-years), with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.28 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.55] based on multivariable Cox regression analysis. This increased risk of fractures was apparent for fractures of the skull, neck, and spine. Comorbid ADHD and OCD did not result in an additional risk of fractures. The children without both ADHD and OCD were also at a higher risk of fractures, indicating that TS alone increases the risk of fractures. The children taking antipsychotics had a reduced risk of fractures, and the adjusted HR decreased to 1.17 (95% CI 0.90-1.52). Children with TS have an increased risk of fractures. ADHD and OCD do not increase the risk further.

  17. Antiepileptic drugs and the risk of ischaemic stroke and myocardial infarction: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Renoux, Christel; Dell'Aniello, Sophie; Saarela, Olli; Filion, Kristian B; Boivin, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Hepatic enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) increase serum lipid levels and other atherogenic markers via the induction of cytochrome P450 and may therefore increase the risk of vascular events. We sought to assess the risk of ischaemic stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) according to AED enzymatic properties. Design Population-based cohort study with nested case–control analysis. Setting 650 general practices in the UK contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Participants A cohort of 252 407 incident AED users aged 18 or older between January 1990 and April 2013. For each case of ischaemic stroke or MI, up to 10 controls were randomly selected among the cohort members in the risk sets defined by the case and matched on age, sex, indication for AED, calendar time and duration of follow-up. Interventions Current use of enzyme-inducing and enzyme-inhibiting AEDs compared with non-inducing AEDs. Primary outcome measures Incidence rate ratios (RRs) of ischaemic stroke and MI. Results 5069 strokes and 3636 MIs were identified during follow-up. Inducing AEDs use was associated with a small increased risk of ischaemic stroke (RR=1.16, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.33) relative to non-inducing AEDs, most likely due to residual confounding. However, current use of inducing AEDs for ≥24 months was associated with a 46% increased risk of MI (RR=1.46, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.85) compared with the same duration of non-inducing AED, corresponding to a risk difference of 1.39/1000 (95% CI 0.33 to 2.45) persons per year. Current use of inhibiting AED was associated with a decreased risk of MI (RR=0.81, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.00). Conclusions The use of enzyme-inducing AEDs was not associated with an increased risk of ischaemic stroke; a small increase of MI with prolonged use was observed. In contrast, use of inhibiting AEDs was associated with a decreased risk of MI. PMID:26270948

  18. Risk of fragility fracture among patients with sarcoidosis: a population-based study 1976-2013.

    PubMed

    Ungprasert, P; Crowson, C S; Matteson, E L

    2017-02-16

    Incidence of fragility fracture of a population-based cohort of 345 patients with sarcoidosis was compared with age and sex-matched comparators. The incidence of fragility fracture was higher among patients with sarcoidosis with hazard ratio (HR) of 2.18.

  19. Understanding Risk and Protective Factors for Child Maltreatment: The Value of Integrated, Population-Based Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; Needell, Barbara; Rhodes, Anne E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we argue for expanded efforts to integrate administrative data systems as a "practical strategy" for developing a richer understanding of child abuse and neglect. Although the study of child maltreatment is often critiqued for being atheoretical, we believe that a more pressing concern is the absence of population-based and…

  20. Metastatic breast cancer in young women: a population-based cohort study to describe risk and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Tjokrowidjaja, A; Lee, C K; Houssami, N; Lord, S

    2014-08-01

    There is limited information on the risk of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) to inform younger women, particularly those under 40 years. We conducted a retrospective analysis of a population-based cohort study to describe the risk, site and prognosis of MBC in young women under 40 years with an initial diagnosis of non-metastatic breast cancer and compared with older women. Data were extracted from the New South Wales Central Cancer Registry and the Admitted Patient Data Collection database between 2001-2007. Main outcome measures were 5-year cumulative incidence of MBC, prognostic factors for MBC and overall survival (OS) from the date of MBC diagnosis. Three hundred and ninety-five (6%) of 6640 women with non-metastatic BC were <40 years. The 5-year cumulative incidence of MBC was 24% (95% CI 20-29%) for women <40 years with non-metastatic BC, compared with 9% (95% CI 9-10%) for women ≥40 years. Significant independent risk factors for MBC ≤ 5 years were age <40, regional disease at diagnosis, low socioeconomic status and the presence of other non-breast primary. At first record of MBC, visceral sites were more common for women <40 years than ≥40 (54% vs 43%; P = 0.03). Median survival for women with MBC within 5 years was not significantly different between young and older women (<40 years 18 months vs ≥40 years 14 months; log-rank P = 0.21). Women with non-metastatic BC before age 40 have a higher 5-year risk of developing MBC than older women. There were no significant differences in median survival following MBC between young and older women. © 2014 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  1. Factors associated with type-specific persistence of high-risk human papillomavirus infection: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Stensen, Signe; Kjaer, Susanne K; Jensen, Signe M; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Junge, Jette; Iftner, Thomas; Munk, Christian

    2016-01-15

    Persistent genital infection with high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) is a prerequisite for cervical cancer development. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with type-specific persistence of HR HPV infections. From a population-based cohort of 40,399 women participating in cervical cancer screening established during 2002-2005, we selected all HR HPV-positive women (N = 7,778). During follow-up (2005-2008), we collected cervical samples from these women and tested them for HPV DNA to determine type-specific HR HPV persistence in the interval 1-4.5 years after enrolment. Data on hospitalisations, prescriptions and socioeconomic factors were obtained from nationwide registers. Women with abnormal cytology at baseline or who had undergone conisation during follow-up were excluded. Factors associated with persistence were identified by logistic regression analysis. The overall rate of HR HPV persistence was 31.4%. The risk for persistence was significantly increased among women with a previous episode of genital warts (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.04-1.74), current use of oral contraceptives (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.13-1.63) or use of systemic glucocorticoids (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.16-3.56). The number of pregnancies or births or use of a hormonal intrauterine device, hormonal therapy or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was not associated with risk for HR HPV persistence. A history of genital warts and current use of oral contraceptives or systemic glucocorticoids increased the risk, potentially indicating a decreased immune response to HPV infection. These findings suggest that host immune response characteristics are important in HR HPV persistence and consequently in cervical cancer development. © 2015 UICC.

  2. Early childhood measles vaccinations are not associated with paediatric IBD: a population-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Souradet Y; Blanchard, James F; Bernstein, Charles N

    2015-04-01

    Early childhood vaccinations have been hypothesized to contribute to the emergence of paediatric inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] in developed countries. Using linked population-based administrative databases, we aimed to explore the association between vaccination with measles-containing vaccines and the risk for IBD. This was a case-control study using the University of Manitoba IBD Epidemiology Database [UMIBDED]. The UMIBDED was linked to the Manitoba Immunization Monitoring System [MIMS], a population-based database of immunizations administered in Manitoba. All paediatric IBD cases in Manitoba, born after 1989 and diagnosed before March 31, 2008, were included. Controls were matched to cases on the basis of age, sex, and region of residence at time of diagnosis. Measles-containing vaccinations received in the first 2 years of life were documented, with vaccinations categorized as 'None' or 'Complete', with completeness defined according to Manitoba's vaccination schedule. Conditional logistic regression models were fitted to the data, with models adjusted for physician visits in the first 2 years of life and area-level socioeconomic status at case date. A total of 951 individuals [117 cases and 834 controls] met eligibility criteria, with average age of diagnosis among cases at 11 years. The proportion of IBD cases with completed vaccinations was 97%, compared with 94% of controls. In models adjusted for physician visits and area-level socioeconomic status, no statistically significant association was detected between completed measles vaccinations and the risk of IBD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.5-4.4; p = 0.419]. No significant association between completed measles-containing vaccination in the first 2 years of life and paediatric IBD could be demonstrated in this population-based study. Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For

  3. Organophosphate Poisoning and Subsequent Acute Kidney Injury Risk: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Feng-You; Chen, Wei-Kung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lai, Ching-Yuan; Wu, Yung-Shun; Lin, I-Ching; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-11-01

    Small numbers of the papers have studied the association between organophosphate (OP) poisoning and the subsequent acute kidney injury (AKI). Therefore, we used the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) to study whether patients with OP poisoning are associated with a higher risk to have subsequent AKI.The retrospective cohort study comprised patients aged ≥20 years with OP poisoning and hospitalized diagnosis during 2000-2011 (N = 8924). Each OP poisoning patient was frequency-matched to 4 control patients based on age, sex, index year, and comorbidities of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease, and stroke (N = 35,696). We conducted Cox proportional hazard regression analysis to estimate the effects of OP poisoning on AKI risk.The overall incidence of AKI was higher in the patients with OP poisoning than in the controls (4.85 vs 3.47/1000 person-years). After adjustment for age, sex, comorbidity, and interaction terms, patients with OP poisoning were associated with a 6.17-fold higher risk of AKI compared with the comparison cohort. Patients with highly severe OP poisoning were associated with a substantially increased risk of AKI.The study found OP poisoning is associated with increased risk of subsequent AKI. Future studies are encouraged to evaluate whether long-term effects exist and the best guideline to prevent the continuously impaired renal function.

  4. Use of antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy and risk of spontaneous abortion and stillbirth: population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kjaersgaard, Maiken Ina Siegismund; Pedersen, Henrik Søndergaard; Howards, Penelope P; Sørensen, Merete Juul; Olsen, Jørn; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Pedersen, Lars Henning; Vestergaard, Mogens; Christensen, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether use of antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy may increase the risk of spontaneous abortion or stillbirth. Design Population based cohort study. Setting Register based study in Denmark, 1997-2008. Participants 983 305 pregnancies identified in the Danish medical birth register and the Danish national hospital discharge register from 1 February 1997 to 31 December 2008 were linked to the Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics to obtain information on use of antiepileptic drugs. Main outcome measures Risk ratio of spontaneous abortion and stillbirth after use of antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy, estimated by using binomial regression adjusting for potential confounders of maternal age, cohabitation, income, education, history of severe mental disorder, and history of drug misuse. Results Antiepileptic drugs were used in a total of 4700 (0.5%) pregnancies. 16 out of 100 pregnant women using antiepileptics and 13 out of 100 pregnant women not using antiepileptics experienced a spontaneous abortion. After adjusting for potential confounders pregnant women using antiepileptics had a 13% higher risk of spontaneous abortions than pregnant women not using antiepileptics (adjusted risk ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 1.04 to 1.24). However, the risk of spontaneous abortion was not increased in women with an epilepsy diagnosis (0.98, 0.87 to 1.09), only in women without a diagnosis of epilepsy (1.30, 1.14 to 1.49). In an analysis including women with at least two pregnancies with discordant antiepileptic drug use (for example, use in the first pregnancy but not in the second), the adjusted hazard ratio for spontaneous abortion was 0.83 (0.69 to 1.00) for exposed pregnancies compared with unexposed pregnancies. Stillbirth was identified in 18 women who used antiepileptic drugs (unadjusted risk ratio 1.29, 0.80 to 2.10). Conclusion Among women with epilepsy and when analysing the risk in antiepileptic drug discordant pregnancies

  5. Significantly Increased Risk of Cardiovascular Disease among Patients with Gallstone Disease: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Olaiya, Muideen Tunbosun; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Lien, Li-Ming; Hsieh, Fang-I

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether gallstone disease (GD) increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a large population-based cohort. Methods A study population including 6,981 patients with GD was identified from The Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database between 2004 and 2005. GD patients were defined as patients with principal discharge diagnoses of cholelithiasis using the ICD-9-CM code 574. 27,924 patients without GD were randomly selected and matched for age and gender. All patients were followed for 6 years or until diagnosis for CVD. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to assess the risk of developing CVD with adjustment for age, gender and co-morbid conditions. Results During the six years follow-up period, 935 patients with GD and 2,758 patients without GD developed CVD. Patients with GD had an elevated risk of CVD (HR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.22-1.43) when compared with those without GD. Similar relationship was observed when CVD was categorized i.e. stroke (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.01-1.32), coronary heart disease (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.28-1.58) and heart failure (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.00-1.73). When GD was classified according to the level of severity, using patients without GD as reference, the risks of CVD were elevated in patients with non-severe GD (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.24-1.46) as well as those with severe GD (HR, 1.20, 95% CI, 1.02-1.40), after adjusting for age, gender and comorbidities. In age-stratified analysis, patients aged 18-40 years with GD were at higher risk of developing CVD (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.09-1.84) than older GD patients. Conclusion This study found an increased risk of CVD in patients diagnosed with GD. The excess risk was particularly high in younger GD patients. Prevention of GD could help reduce the risk of developing CVD, and the better effect could be achieved for the younger age groups. PMID:24098504

  6. Is Statin Use Associated With Tendon Rupture? A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Analysis.

    PubMed

    Contractor, Tahmeed; Beri, Abhimanyu; Gardiner, Joseph C; Tang, Xiaoqin; Dwamena, Francesca C

    2015-01-01

    Previous case reports and small studies have suggested that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors (HMG-CoA-Is) may increase the risk of tendon rupture. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort evaluation to better assess this relationship. From approximately 800,000 enrollees of a private insurance database, those who were aged ≤64 years with at least 1 year of continuous enrollment were selected. Exposure was defined as initiation of HMG-CoA-I after the beginning of the study period. Each exposed person was matched with 2 controls of similar age and gender. Baseline characteristics, including known risk factors for tendon rupture, were compared between exposed and control cohorts with fidelity to the study's matched design. After adjusting for differences in follow-up and baseline characteristics, incidence rate ratios for tendon rupture was assessed in HMG-CoA-I users and nonusers. A total of 34,749 exposed patients were matched with 69,498 controls. There was no difference in the occurrence of tendon ruptures in HMG-CoA-I users versus nonusers. The results remained unchanged after adjustment for age and gender. In conclusion, this population-based retrospective cohort evaluation suggests that use of HMG-CoA-Is as a group are not associated with tendon rupture.

  7. X-linked genes and risk of orofacial clefts: evidence from two population-based studies in Scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Jugessur, Astanand; Skare, Øivind; Lie, Rolv T; Wilcox, Allen J; Christensen, Kaare; Christiansen, Lene; Nguyen, Truc Trung; Murray, Jeffrey C; Gjessing, Håkon K

    2012-01-01

    Orofacial clefts are common birth defects of complex etiology, with an excess of males among babies with cleft lip and palate, and an excess of females among those with cleft palate only. Although genes on the X chromosome have been implicated in clefting, there has been no association analysis of X-linked markers. We added new functionalities in the HAPLIN statistical software to enable association analysis of X-linked markers and an exploration of various causal scenarios relevant to orofacial clefts. Genotypes for 48 SNPs in 18 candidate genes on the X chromosome were analyzed in two population-based samples from Scandinavia (562 Norwegian and 235 Danish case-parent triads). For haplotype analysis, we used a sliding-window approach and assessed isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate (iCL/P) separately from isolated cleft palate only (iCPO). We tested three statistical models in HAPLIN, allowing for: i) the same relative risk in males and females, ii) sex-specific relative risks, and iii) X-inactivation in females. We found weak but consistent associations with the oral-facial-digital syndrome 1 (OFD1) gene (formerly known as CXORF5) in the Danish iCL/P samples across all models, but not in the Norwegian iCL/P samples. In sex-specific analyses, the association with OFD1 was in male cases only. No analyses showed associations with iCPO in either the Norwegian or the Danish sample. The association of OFD1 with iCL/P is plausible given the biological relevance of this gene. However, the lack of replication in the Norwegian samples highlights the need to verify these preliminary findings in other large datasets. More generally, the novel analytic methods presented here are widely applicable to investigations of the role of X-linked genes in complex traits.

  8. Rheumatoid Arthritis Risk Associated with Periodontitis Exposure: A Nationwide, Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Yin-Yi; Lai, Kuo-Lung; Chen, Der-Yuan; Lin, Ching-Heng; Chen, Hsin-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Background The risk of periodontitis (PD) is increased in the patient group of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA and PD also shared some pathological mechanism. The aim of this study is to investigate the risk of RA associated with PD exposure. Methods and Findings This study identified 3 mutually exclusive cohorts using the 1999–2010 Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) to investigate the association between PD and the risk of incident RA. All patients with PD in 2000 were identified from the database of all enrollees as the PD cohort. From the representative database of 1,000,000 enrollees randomly selected in 2010 (LHID2010), individuals without any periodontal disease (PO) during 1999–2010 were selected as the non-PO cohort. Individuals who were not included in the non-PO cohort and received dental scaling (DS) no more than two times per year during 1999–2010 were selected as the DS cohort from LHID2010. Using cox proportional regression analysis, hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (Cis) were calculated to quantify the association between PD exposure and RA development. In the three-group comparison using the non-PO cohort as reference, we found that the risk of RA was higher in the PD and DS cohorts (HRs, 1.89 and 1.43; 95% CIs, 1.56–2.29 and 1.09–1.87, respectively). For comparisons between two cohorts, the PD cohort had a higher risk of RA than the non-PO and DS cohorts (HRs, 1.91 and 1.35; 95% CIs, 1.57–2.30 and 1.09–1.67, respectively). Conclusion PD was associated with an increased risk of RA development. PMID:26426533

  9. Increased Risk of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Te-Chun; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Chia-Hung; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Chang, Yen-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence that autoimmune disease is associated with development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aim to assess the relationship between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and COPD risk in a nationwide population. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the catastrophic illness registry of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). We identified 10,623 patients with SLE newly diagnosed between 2000 and 2010. Each patient was randomly frequency-matched with four people without SLE on age, sex, and index year from the general population. Both cohorts were followed up until the end of 2010 to measure the incidence of COPD. The risk of COPD was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression models including age, sex, index year and comorbidities. Results The overall incidence rate of COPD was 1.73–fold higher in the SLE cohort than in the control cohort (17.4 vs. 10.1 per 10,000 person-years, 95% CI = 1.62–1.84). Age related analysis showed increased incidence of COPD with age in both SLE and control cohorts. However, adjusted HR maximum was observed in the youngest age group (adjusted HR: 4.33, 95% CI, 2.39–7.85) while adjusted HR minimum was witnessed in the oldest age group (adjusted HR: 1.19, 95% CI, 0.85–1.22). Conclusion Patients with SLE have a significant risk of developing COPD than the control population. Based on the findings from this study, it can be hypothesized that in addition to cigarette smoke SLE may be a determining factor for COPD incidence. However, further investigation is needed to corroborate this hypothesis. PMID:24622340

  10. Risk factors for lumbar intervertebral disc height narrowing: a population-based longitudinal study in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Akeda, Koji; Yamada, Tomomi; Inoue, Nozomu; Nishimura, Akinobu; Sudo, Akihiro

    2015-11-09

    The progression of disc degeneration is generally believed to be associated with low back pain and/or degenerative lumbar diseases, especially in the elderly. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate changes in lumbar disc height using radiographic measurements and to investigate risk factors for development of disc height narrowing of the elderly. From 1997 to 2007, 197 village inhabitants at least 65 years-old who participated in baseline examinations and more than four follow-up examinations conducted every second year were chosen as subjects for this study. Using lateral lumbar spine radiographs of each subject, L1-L2 to L5-S1 disc heights were measured. The subjects were divided into two groups according to the rate of change in disc height: mildly decreased (≤20 % decrease) and severely decreased (>20 % decrease). A stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis was used to select those factors significantly associated with disc height narrowing. Disc height at each intervertebral disc (IVD) level decreased gradually over ten years (p < 0.01, an average 5.8 % decrease of all disc levels). There was no significant difference in the rate of change in disc height among the IVD levels. Female gender, radiographic knee osteoarthritis and low back pain at baseline were associated with increased risk for disc height narrowing. We conducted the first population-based cohort study of the elderly that quantitatively evaluated lumbar disc height using radiographic measurements. The risk factors identified in this study would contribute to a further understanding the pathology of disc degeneration.

  11. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction and possible risk factors among men of South-Western Nigeria: a population based study.

    PubMed

    Oyelade, Bolaji Oyetunde; Jemilohun, Abiodun Christopher; Aderibigbe, Sunday Adedeji

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is currently one of the most common sexual dysfunctions worldwide but it is usually underestimated because it is not a life threatening condition. The associated stigma makes men who have it to suffer in silence. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of erectile dysfunction and the possible associated risk factors among Nigerian men. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional population based survey among men aged 30-80 years in Ogbomoso, South-west, Nigeria. A multistage random sampling method was used. The instrument used was the International Index of Erectile Function Questionnaire-5 (IIEF-5). Unadjusted odds ratios of possible risk factors were calculated by univariate analyses. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to eliminate the effect of possible confounders on the risk factors to get the adjusted odds ratios. The general prevalence of ED in this study was 58.9%. Sixty-seven (47.2%), 16 (11.3%) and 59(41.5%) respondents had mild, moderate and severe ED respectively. Age, hypertension, use of anti-hypertensive drugs, diabetes mellitus and heart disease all had significant unadjusted associations with ED, but their adjusted associations were not statistically significant. Diabetes mellitus maintained a positive statistically significant relationship with ED after adjustment for potential confounders [OR= 8.31(95% CI 1.02 - 67.65), P= 0.048]. The prevalence of ED is high among south-western Nigeria male adults. Physicians, especially primary care ones, need to pay more attention to the sexual history of their patients in order to diagnose and manage ED more frequently.

  12. Increased risk for stroke in burn patients: a population-based one-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Chen, Chin-Shyan; Lin, Herng-Ching; Kang, Jiunn-Horng

    2014-02-01

    The study aimed to explore the frequency and risk of stroke following hospitalization for burn through the analysis of a population-based dataset in Taiwan. We identified 692 hospitalized subjects who had received a diagnosis of burn. We randomly selected 2768 comparison subjects to match the study subjects by sex and age group. We individually tracked each subject for one year identifying all those who received a diagnosis of stroke during that period. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to calculate the longitudinal hazard of stroke between the two cohorts. We found that the incidence rate of stroke during the one-year follow-up period was 6.65 (95% CI: 4.92-8.79) per 100 person-years and 2.75 (95% CI: 2.18-3.42) per 100 person-years for study cohort and comparison cohort, respectively. After adjusting for urbanization level, monthly income, geographic region, hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, hyperlipidemia, and chronic kidney disease, and censoring the cases that died from non-stroke causes, the hazard ratio (HR) for stroke during the one-year follow-up period for study cohort was 2.52 (95% CI=1.73-3.68, P<0.001) that of comparison subjects. We further analyzed the HR of stroke according to the extent of burned body surface area (<10%, 10-29%, and >29%). We found that there was no significant difference in the risk of stroke during the one-year follow-up period among these three groups of subjects. We found that burn victims were at higher risk for subsequent stroke that matched comparison subjects during one-year follow-up. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction and possible risk factors among men of South-Western Nigeria: a population based study

    PubMed Central

    Oyelade, Bolaji Oyetunde; Jemilohun, Abiodun Christopher; Aderibigbe, Sunday Adedeji

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Erectile dysfunction (ED) is currently one of the most common sexual dysfunctions worldwide but it is usually underestimated because it is not a life threatening condition. The associated stigma makes men who have it to suffer in silence. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of erectile dysfunction and the possible associated risk factors among Nigerian men. Methods The study was a descriptive cross-sectional population based survey among men aged 30-80 years in Ogbomoso, South-west, Nigeria. A multistage random sampling method was used. The instrument used was the International Index of Erectile Function Questionnaire-5 (IIEF-5). Unadjusted odds ratios of possible risk factors were calculated by univariate analyses. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to eliminate the effect of possible confounders on the risk factors to get the adjusted odds ratios. Results The general prevalence of ED in this study was 58.9%. Sixty-seven (47.2%), 16 (11.3%) and 59(41.5%) respondents had mild, moderate and severe ED respectively. Age, hypertension, use of anti-hypertensive drugs, diabetes mellitus and heart disease all had significant unadjusted associations with ED, but their adjusted associations were not statistically significant. Diabetes mellitus maintained a positive statistically significant relationship with ED after adjustment for potential confounders [OR= 8.31(95% CI 1.02 - 67.65), P= 0.048]. Conclusion The prevalence of ED is high among south-western Nigeria male adults. Physicians, especially primary care ones, need to pay more attention to the sexual history of their patients in order to diagnose and manage ED more frequently. PMID:27642462

  14. Prison tobacco control policies and deaths from smoking in United States prisons: population based retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Carson, E Ann; Krueger, Patrick M; Mueller, Shane R; Steiner, John F; Sabol, William J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the mortality attributable to smoking and years of potential life lost from smoking among people in prison and whether bans on smoking in prison are associated with reductions in smoking related deaths. Design Analysis of cross sectional survey data with the smoking attributable mortality, morbidity, and economic costs system; population based time series analysis. Setting All state prisons in the United States. Main outcome measures Prevalence of smoking from cross sectional survey of inmates in state correctional facilities. Data on state prison tobacco policies from web based searches of state policies and legislation. Deaths and causes of death in US state prisons from the deaths in custody reporting program of the Bureau of Justice Statistics for 2001-11. Smoking attributable mortality and years of potential life lost was assessed from the smoking attributable mortality, morbidity, and economic costs system of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate Poisson models quantified the association between bans and smoking related cancer, cardiovascular and pulmonary deaths. Results The most common causes of deaths related to smoking among people in prison were lung cancer, ischemic heart disease, other heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and chronic airways obstruction. The age adjusted smoking attributable mortality and years of potential life lost rates were 360 and 5149 per 100 000, respectively; these figures are higher than rates in the general US population (248 and 3501, respectively). The number of states with any smoking ban increased from 25 in 2001 to 48 by 2011. In prisons the mortality rate from smoking related causes was lower during years with a ban than during years without a ban (110.4/100 000 v 128.9/100 000). Prisons that implemented smoking bans had a 9% reduction (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.88 to 0.95) in smoking related deaths. Bans in place for longer than

  15. Prison tobacco control policies and deaths from smoking in United States prisons: population based retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Binswanger, Ingrid A; Carson, E Ann; Krueger, Patrick M; Mueller, Shane R; Steiner, John F; Sabol, William J

    2014-08-05

    To determine the mortality attributable to smoking and years of potential life lost from smoking among people in prison and whether bans on smoking in prison are associated with reductions in smoking related deaths. Analysis of cross sectional survey data with the smoking attributable mortality, morbidity, and economic costs system; population based time series analysis. All state prisons in the United States. Prevalence of smoking from cross sectional survey of inmates in state correctional facilities. Data on state prison tobacco policies from web based searches of state policies and legislation. Deaths and causes of death in US state prisons from the deaths in custody reporting program of the Bureau of Justice Statistics for 2001-11. Smoking attributable mortality and years of potential life lost was assessed from the smoking attributable mortality, morbidity, and economic costs system of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate Poisson models quantified the association between bans and smoking related cancer, cardiovascular and pulmonary deaths. The most common causes of deaths related to smoking among people in prison were lung cancer, ischemic heart disease, other heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and chronic airways obstruction. The age adjusted smoking attributable mortality and years of potential life lost rates were 360 and 5149 per 100,000, respectively; these figures are higher than rates in the general US population (248 and 3501, respectively). The number of states with any smoking ban increased from 25 in 2001 to 48 by 2011. In prisons the mortality rate from smoking related causes was lower during years with a ban than during years without a ban (110.4/100,000 v 128.9/100,000). Prisons that implemented smoking bans had a 9% reduction (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.88 to 0.95) in smoking related deaths. Bans in place for longer than nine years were associated with reductions in cancer

  16. Challenges of cardiac image analysis in large-scale population-based studies.

    PubMed

    Medrano-Gracia, Pau; Cowan, Brett R; Suinesiaputra, Avan; Young, Alistair A

    2015-03-01

    Large-scale population-based imaging studies of preclinical and clinical heart disease are becoming possible due to the advent of standardized robust non-invasive imaging methods and infrastructure for big data analysis. This gives an exciting opportunity to gain new information about the development and progression of heart disease across population groups. However, the large amount of image data and prohibitive time required for image analysis present challenges for obtaining useful derived data from the images. Automated analysis tools for cardiac image analysis are only now becoming available. This paper reviews the challenges and possible solutions to the analysis of big imaging data in population studies. We also highlight the potential of recent large epidemiological studies using cardiac imaging to discover new knowledge on heart health and well-being.

  17. Early menarche is associated with increased risk of asthma: Prospective population-based study of twins.

    PubMed

    Lieberoth, Sofie; Gade, Elisabeth; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Backer, Vibeke; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2015-05-01

    To examine the association between early menarche and risk of post-menarcheal asthma. Using data from two multidisciplinary questionnaire surveys, conducted eight years apart, we prospectively studied 10,648 female twins, 12-41 years of age, from the nationwide Danish Twin Registry. Early menarche was defined as menarche before 12 years of age. We performed a cohort analysis and a co-twin control analysis including twin pairs discordant for incident asthma. Early menarche was observed in 9.3% of the individuals. The eight-year cumulative incidence of asthma was higher in girls with early menarche compared to girls without early menarche (7.4 vs. 4.5%), OR = 1.71 (1.31-2.22), p < 0.001; also after adjustment for BMI, current age, physical activity, education, and smoking, OR = 1.53 (1.15-2.04), p = 0.003. The unadjusted risk of asthma was increased by 8% (1-15%), p = 0.041 per year earlier menarche occurred. Among 167 twin pairs discordant for incident asthma, there was a non-significant tendency towards early menarche being more common in the asthmatic than the non-asthmatic co-twin (12.0 vs. 9.6%), OR = 1.57 (0.61-4.05), p = 0.350. The risk of asthma was not uniform in discordant monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Early menarche is associated with increased risk of asthma among Danish female twins independently of BMI, age, physical activity, educational level and smoking. Results indicate a complex relationship possibly mediated through innate and non-genetic effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk of Atrial Fibrillation or Flutter Associated with Periodontitis: A Nationwide, Population-Based, Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Der-Yuan; Lin, Ching-Heng; Chen, Yi-Ming; Chen, Hsin-Hua

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the risk of atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter in patients with periodontitis (PD) in comparison with individuals without PD. We used the 1999-2010 Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database to identify cases of PD in the year 2000 matching (1:1) with persons without PD during 1999-2000 according to sex and individual age as the control group. Using Cox proportional regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders, including age, sex, and comorbidities at baseline, and average annual number of ambulatory visits and dental scaling frequency during the follow-up period, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to examine the risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter in PD patients in comparison with the control group. Subgroup analyses according to age, gender, or comorbidities were conducted to study the robustness of the association and investigate possible interaction effects. We enrolled 393,745 patients with PD and 393,745 non-PD individuals. The incidence rates of atrial fibrillation or flutter were 200 per 105 years among the PD group and 181 per 105 years in the non-PD group (incidence rate ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.06-1.14). After adjusting for potential confounders, we found an increased risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter in the PD group compared with the non-PD group (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.25-1.36). The greater risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter in the PD group remained significant across all disease subgroups except hyperthyroidism and sleep apnea. The present study results indicate an increased risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter in patients with PD. Lack of individual information about alcohol consumption, obesity, and tobacco use was a major limitation.

  19. Who needs bereavement support? A population based survey of bereavement risk and support need.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Samar M; Breen, Lauren J; Howting, Denise A; Rumbold, Bruce; McNamara, Beverley; Hegney, Desley

    2015-01-01

    This study identifies and describes the profiles of bereavement risk and support needs of a community sample in Australia and tests the fit of the data with the three-tiered public health model for bereavement support. Family members who were bereaved 6-24 months prior to the survey and who were clients of four funeral providers participated (May-July 2013). A postal survey was used to collect information about bereaved people's experience of caring and perceived satisfaction with any bereavement support provided. The questionnaire included a validated risk assessment screening measure for Prolonged Grief Disorder (PG-13). A total of 678 bereaved people responded. The model predicted that 60% of the sample would be low risk, 30% moderate risk, and 10% high risk. Actual figures were very close at 58.4%, 35.2% and 6.4% respectively. The analysis of the demographic characteristics, experience and impact of caring and bereavement, and satisfaction with support received from a variety of sources revealed differential experiences and needs that align with the expectation of low, moderate, and high bereavement support need, as articulated in the public health model. This is the first empirical test of the public health model of bereavement support. As there is a lack of clear evidence to guide development and allocation of bereavement support programs, the findings have the potential to inform the ability of services, community organizations and informal networks to prioritize care according to each level of bereavement need. This is essential to achieve cost-effective and equitable resource allocation.

  20. Hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer risk: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Yeh, N-C; Chou, C-W; Weng, S-F; Yang, C-Y; Yen, F-C; Lee, S-Y; Wang, J-J; Tien, K-J

    2013-07-01

    Thyroid hormones regulate the rate of metabolism and affect the differentiation and growth of many tissues in the body. We investigated the association between hyperthyroidism and cancer risk in Taiwan. A random sample of 1 000 000 individuals from Taiwan's National Health Insurance database was enrolled. We found 17 033 patients to have newly diagnosed hyperthyroidism between 2000 and 2005. These patients were recruited along with a match cohort of 34 066 patients without hyperthyroidism. Starting from index date, we followed up all patients for 4 years to identify those who developed cancer. During the 4-year follow-up study, cancer was diagnosed in 1.23% of patients with hyperthyroidism and 1.02% of the member of the comparison cohort. Regression analysis showed that patients with hyperthyroidism were at greater risk of cancer incidence, especially thyroid cancer, compared the comparison cohort (HR: 1.213; 95% CI: 1.022-1.440; p<0.05 and HR: 7.355; 95% CI: 3.885-13.92; p<0.05, respectively). After adjusting for age, gender, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, gout, geographic region, and income, patients with hyperthyroidism remained at increased risk of cancer incidence and thyroid cancer (Adjusted HR: 1.206; 95% CI: 1.015-1.433 and 6.803; 95% CI: 3.584-12.91, respectively) (both p<0.05). The longer the duration of hyperthyroidism, the greater the risk of thyroid cancer. This 4-year follow up study suggests that patients with hyperthyroidism are at increased risk of cancer, especially thyroid cancer. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Risk of Atrial Fibrillation or Flutter Associated with Periodontitis: A Nationwide, Population-Based, Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk of atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter in patients with periodontitis (PD) in comparison with individuals without PD. Methods We used the 1999–2010 Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database to identify cases of PD in the year 2000 matching (1:1) with persons without PD during 1999–2000 according to sex and individual age as the control group. Using Cox proportional regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders, including age, sex, and comorbidities at baseline, and average annual number of ambulatory visits and dental scaling frequency during the follow-up period, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to examine the risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter in PD patients in comparison with the control group. Subgroup analyses according to age, gender, or comorbidities were conducted to study the robustness of the association and investigate possible interaction effects. Results We enrolled 393,745 patients with PD and 393,745 non-PD individuals. The incidence rates of atrial fibrillation or flutter were 200 per 105 years among the PD group and 181 per 105 years in the non-PD group (incidence rate ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.06–1.14). After adjusting for potential confounders, we found an increased risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter in the PD group compared with the non-PD group (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.25–1.36). The greater risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter in the PD group remained significant across all disease subgroups except hyperthyroidism and sleep apnea. Conclusion The present study results indicate an increased risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter in patients with PD. Lack of individual information about alcohol consumption, obesity, and tobacco use was a major limitation. PMID:27798703

  2. Social Class, Social Mobility and Risk of Psychiatric Disorder - A Population-Based Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Tiikkaja, Sanna; Sandin, Sven; Malki, Ninoa; Modin, Bitte; Sparén, Pär; Hultman, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study explored how adult social class and social mobility between parental and own adult social class is related to psychiatric disorder. Material and Methods In this prospective cohort study, over 1 million employed Swedes born in 1949-1959 were included. Information on parental class (1960) and own mid-life social class (1980 and 1990) was retrieved from the censuses and categorised as High Non-manual, Low Non-manual, High Manual, Low Manual and Self-employed. After identifying adult class, individuals were followed for psychiatric disorder by first admission of schizophrenia, alcoholism and drug dependency, affective psychosis and neurosis or personality disorder (N=24 659) from the Swedish Patient Register. We used Poisson regression analysis to estimate first admission rates of psychiatric disorder per 100 000 person-years and relative risks (RR) by adult social class (treated as a time-varying covariate). The RRs of psychiatric disorder among the Non-manual and Manual classes were also estimated by magnitude of social mobility. Results The rate of psychiatric disorder was significantly higher among individuals belonging to the Low manual class as compared with the High Non-manual class. Compared to High Non-manual class, the risk for psychiatric disorder ranged from 2.07 (Low Manual class) to 1.38 (Low Non-manual class). Parental class had a minor impact on these estimates. Among the Non-manual and Manual classes, downward mobility was associated with increased risk and upward mobility with decreased risk of psychiatric disorder. In addition, downward mobility was inversely associated with the magnitude of social mobility, independent of parental class. Conclusions Independently of parental social class, the risk of psychiatric disorder increases with increased downward social mobility and decreases with increased upward mobility. PMID:24260104

  3. Heritability and Mortality Risk of Insomnia-Related Symptoms: A Genetic Epidemiologic Study in a Population-Based Twin Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Hublin, Christer; Partinen, Markku; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Our aim was to estimate heritability in phenotypic insomnia and the association between insomnia and mortality. Design: Representative follow-up study. Participants: 1990 survey of the Finnish Twin Cohort (N = 12502 adults; 1554 monozygotic and 2991 dizygotic twin pairs). Measurements: Current insomnia-related symptoms (insomnia in general, difficulty in initiating sleep, sleep latency, nocturnal awakening, early morning awakening, and non-restorative sleep assessed in the morning and during the day) were asked. Latent class analysis was used to classify subjects into different sleep quality classes. Quantitative genetic modelling was used to estimate heritability. Mortality data was obtained from national registers until end of April 2009. Results: The heritability estimates of each symptom were similar in both genders varying from 34% (early morning awakening) to 45% (nocturnal awakening). The most parsimonious latent class analysis produced 3 classes: good sleepers (48%), average sleepers (up to weekly symptoms, 40%), and poor sleepers (symptoms daily or almost daily, 12%). The heritability estimate for the cluster was 46% (95% confidence interval 41% to 50%). In a model adjusted for smoking, BMI, and depressive symptoms, the all-cause mortality of poor sleepers was elevated (excess mortality 55% in men and 51% in women). Further adjustment for sleep length, use of sleep promoting medications, and sleep apnea-related symptoms did not change the results. Conclusions: Insomnia-related symptoms were common in both genders. The symptoms and their clusters showed moderate heritability estimates. A significant association was found between poor sleep and risk of mortality, especially in those with somatic disease. Citation: Hublin C; Partinen M; Koskenvuo M; Kaprio J. Heritability and mortality risk of insomnia-related symptoms: a genetic epidemiologic study in a population-based twin cohort. SLEEP 2011;34(7):957-964. PMID:21731146

  4. Antidepressants and risk of cataract development: A population-based, nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Chou, Po-Han; Chu, Che-Sheng; Chen, Yi-Huei; Hsu, Min-Yen; Huang, Min-Wei; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Lin, Ching-Heng

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies demonstrated increased risk of cataract development among users of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). However, it remains unknown whether this risk also prevails with the use of other types of antidepressants. The aim of this study was to investigate whether use of antidepressants is associated with an increased risk of cataract development. Moreover, the relationship between binding affinities of serotonin transporter (SERT) of antidepressant and the risk of cataracts is examined. We conducted a nested case-control study using National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. A total of 14,288 patients were included; 7651 in the cataract group and 6637 in the control group. Antidepressant exposure was categorized by type, duration of use, and binding affinities of SERT. The association between antidepressant exposure and cataract development was assessed using conditional logistic regression analysis. The adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for developing cataracts among continuous users of SSRIs, serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and other antidepressants were 1.26 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12-1.41, p<0.001), 1.21 (95% CI: 1.02-1.43, p=0.027), and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.04-1.34, p=0.009) respectively. Specifically, continuous uses of fluoxetine (AOR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.01-1.46, p=0.042), fluvoxamine (AOR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.01-2.12, p=0.043), venlafaxine (AOR: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.19-1.74, p<0.001) significantly increased the risk of cataract development. Moreover, continuous users of antidepressants with intermediate SERT binding affinities (AOR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.10-2.56, p=0.017) were significantly associated with increased risks of cataract development. Several confounding factors such as obesity, multiple drug users, family history of cataracts, substance use, and environmental factors (such as sunlight or radiation exposure) were acquired. We found increased risk of cataract development in patients continuously using

  5. Population-based estimate of prostate cancer risk for carriers of the HOXB13 missense mutation G84E.

    PubMed

    MacInnis, Robert J; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Dowty, James G; Jenkins, Mark A; Southey, Melissa C; Hopper, John L; Giles, Graham G

    2013-01-01

    The HOXB13 missense mutation G84E (rs138213197) is associated with increased risk of prostate cancer, but the current estimate of increased risk has a wide confidence interval (width of 95% confidence interval (CI) >200-fold) so the point estimate of 20-fold increased risk could be misleading. Population-based family studies can be more informative for estimating risks for rare variants, therefore, we screened for mutations in an Australian population-based series of early-onset prostate cancer cases (probands). We found that 19 of 1,384 (1.4%) probands carried the missense mutation, and of these, six (32%) had a family history of prostate cancer. We tested the 22 relatives of carriers diagnosed from 1998 to 2008 for whom we had a DNA sample, and found seven more carriers and one obligate carrier. The age-specific incidence for carriers was estimated to be, on average, 16.4 (95% CI 2.5-107.2) times that for the population over the time frame when the relatives were at risk prior to baseline. We then estimated the age and birth year- specific cumulative risk of prostate cancer (penetrance) for carriers. For example, the penetrance for an unaffected male carrier born in 1950 was 19% (95% CI 5-46%) at age 60 years, 44% (95% CI 18-74%) at age 70 years and 60% (95% CI 30-85%) at age 80 years. Our study has provided a population-based estimate of the average risk of prostate cancer for HOXB13 missense mutation G84E carriers that can be used to guide clinical practice and research. This study has also shown that the majority of hereditary prostate cancers due to the HOXB13 missense mutation are 'sporadic' in the sense that unselected cases with the missense mutation do not typically report having a family history of prostate cancer.

  6. Population-Based Estimate of Prostate Cancer Risk for Carriers of the HOXB13 Missense Mutation G84E

    PubMed Central

    Baglietto, Laura; Dowty, James G.; Jenkins, Mark A.; Southey, Melissa C.; Hopper, John L.; Giles, Graham G.

    2013-01-01

    The HOXB13 missense mutation G84E (rs138213197) is associated with increased risk of prostate cancer, but the current estimate of increased risk has a wide confidence interval (width of 95% confidence interval (CI) >200-fold) so the point estimate of 20-fold increased risk could be misleading. Population-based family studies can be more informative for estimating risks for rare variants, therefore, we screened for mutations in an Australian population-based series of early-onset prostate cancer cases (probands). We found that 19 of 1,384 (1.4%) probands carried the missense mutation, and of these, six (32%) had a family history of prostate cancer. We tested the 22 relatives of carriers diagnosed from 1998 to 2008 for whom we had a DNA sample, and found seven more carriers and one obligate carrier. The age-specific incidence for carriers was estimated to be, on average, 16.4 (95% CI 2.5–107.2) times that for the population over the time frame when the relatives were at risk prior to baseline. We then estimated the age and birth year- specific cumulative risk of prostate cancer (penetrance) for carriers. For example, the penetrance for an unaffected male carrier born in 1950 was 19% (95% CI 5–46%) at age 60 years, 44% (95% CI 18–74%) at age 70 years and 60% (95% CI 30–85%) at age 80 years. Our study has provided a population-based estimate of the average risk of prostate cancer for HOXB13 missense mutation G84E carriers that can be used to guide clinical practice and research. This study has also shown that the majority of hereditary prostate cancers due to the HOXB13 missense mutation are ‘sporadic’ in the sense that unselected cases with the missense mutation do not typically report having a family history of prostate cancer. PMID:23457453

  7. Risk factors of Non-fatal Unintentional Home Injuries among Children under 5 Years Old; a Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Nouhjah, Sedigheh; R. Niakan Kalhori, Sharareh; Saki, Azadeh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In addition to the annual mortality rate, unintentional home injury may result in temporary or permanent disability and requires medical attention and continuous care in millions of children. This study aimed to explore features and risk factors of these injuries. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, demographic variables and epidemiologic pattern of home injuries among children under 5 years of age were collected via a population-based survey in seven main cities of Khuzestan province, southwest Iran, during September 2011 to December 2012. Developing a risk stratification model, independent risk factors of unintentional home injury were determined and put to multivariate logistic regression analysis. Result: 2693 children with the mean age of 27.36 ± 15.55 months (1 to 60) were evaluated (50.9% boy). 827 (30.7%) cases had a history of at least one home injury occurrence since birth to study time. The most common injury mechanisms were burning with 291 (38.4%) cases, falling with 214 (28.3%) and poisoning with 66 (8.7%) cases, respectively. The independent risk factors of unintentional home injury were age ≥ 24 month (p<0.001), residency in Ahvaz city (p<0.001), mother’s illiteracy (p<0.014), ethnicity (p<0.001), private housing (p=0.01), birth weight (p<0.001), and being the first child (p=0. 01). Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the ROC curve of the model designed by multivariate analysis were 53.5%, 84.8%, and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.73- 0.77; P < 0.001, figure 1), respectively. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, 30.7% of the studied children were injured at least once since birth. Burning, falling, poisoning, swallowing objects, choking, and biting were the main home injury mechanisms. Age ≥ 24 months, being the first child, living in a private house, being a resident of Ahvaz city, and having an illiterate mother were found to be risk factors of home injury. PMID:28286813

  8. Causes of death and associated risk factors among climacteric women from Southern Brazil: a population based-study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aging and menopause are particular cardiovascular risk factors for women, due to estrogen deprivation at the time of menopause. Studies show that diabetes mellitus (DM), smoking, hypertension, high body mass index (BMI), and serum lipids are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the main cause of female mortality in Brazil. The aim of this study was to assess the mortality rate, causes of death and associated risk factors in a cohort of women from Brazil. Methods A longitudinal population-based study of menopausal status is currently underway in a city in South Brazil. In 2010, a third follow-up of this population was performed to assess cardiovascular risk and mortality rate between 1995 and 2011. For this analysis, 358 participants were studied. At baseline, participants had completed a standardized questionnaire including demographic, lifestyle, medical and reproductive characteristics. In addition to the contacts with relatives, mortality data were obtained through review of medical records in all city hospitals and the Center for Health Information (NIS/RS-SES). Multivariate-adjusted hazard risk (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI95%) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier curve. Results There were 17 (4.7%) deaths from all causes during the study period. Seven (41.2%) deaths were caused by CVD, including four cases of stroke and three cases of myocardial infarction. Six (35.3%) deaths were due to cancer, and four (23.5%) were due to other reasons. In the age and smoking-adjusted multivariate models, diabetes (HR 6.645, 95% CI: 1.938–22.79, p = 0.003), alcohol intake (HR 1.228, 95% CI: 1.014-1.487, p = 0.035) and postmenopausal status (HR = 6.216, 95% CI: 0.963–40.143, p = 0.055) were associated with all-cause mortality. A significant association was found between abdominal obesity (WHR ≥ 0.85) and mortality even after the adjustment for BMI

  9. Risk factors for pneumonia among patients with Parkinson’s disease: a Taiwan nationwide population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yang-Pei; Yang, Chih-Jen; Hu, Kai-Fang; Chao, A-Ching; Chang, Yu-Han; Hsieh, Kun-Pin; Tsai, Jui-Hsiu; Ho, Pei-Shan; Lim, Shen-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Objective Pneumonia is the leading cause of death in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, few studies have been performed to explore the risk factors for pneumonia development in patients with PD. Methods We conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study of patients with PD to identify the risk factors for these patients developing pneumonia. Participants with newly diagnosed PD between 2000 and 2009 were enrolled from the 2000–2010 National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We compared patients with PD with an incidence of hospitalization with pneumonia vs those without, and Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the risk of pneumonia. Results Of the 2,001 enrolled patients (mean follow-up duration 5.8 years, range: 2.7–14.7 years), 381 (19.0%) had an incidence of hospitalization with pneumonia during the study period. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis identified older age group (≥80 years of age, hazard ratio [HR] =3.15 [95% confidence interval 2.32–4.28]), male sex (HR =1.59 [1.29–1.96]), certain geographic regions (northern, HR =1.36 [1.04–1.78], southern and eastern, HR =1.40 [1.05–1.88]), rural areas (HR =1.34 [1.05–1.72]), chronic heart failure (HR =1.53 [1.02–2.29]), and chronic kidney disease (HR =1.39 [1.03–1.90]) as risk factors for hospitalization with pneumonia in patients with PD. However, treatment for dental caries was a protective factor (HR =0.80 [0.64–0.99]). Conclusion The results of this study highlight risk factors that are associated with hospitalization with pneumonia, and, for the first time, suggest a link between treated dental caries and a diminished risk of hospitalization with pneumonia in patients with PD. PMID:27175081

  10. Risk of infective endocarditis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in Taiwan: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Y S; Chang, C C; Chen, Y H; Chen, W S; Chen, J H

    2017-10-01

    Objectives Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus are considered vulnerable to infective endocarditis and prophylactic antibiotics are recommended before an invasive dental procedure. However, the evidence is insufficient. This nationwide population-based study evaluated the risk and related factors of infective endocarditis in systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods We identified 12,102 systemic lupus erythematosus patients from the National Health Insurance research-oriented database, and compared the incidence rate of infective endocarditis with that among 48,408 non-systemic lupus erythematosus controls. A Cox multivariable proportional hazards model was employed to evaluate the risk of infective endocarditis in the systemic lupus erythematosus cohort. Results After a mean follow-up of more than six years, the systemic lupus erythematosus cohort had a significantly higher incidence rate of infective endocarditis (42.58 vs 4.32 per 100,000 person-years, incidence rate ratio = 9.86, p < 0.001) than that of the control cohort. By contrast, the older systemic lupus erythematosus cohort had lower risk (adjusted hazard ratio 11.64) than that of the younger-than-60-years systemic lupus erythematosus cohort (adjusted hazard ratio 15.82). Cox multivariate proportional hazards analysis revealed heart disease (hazard ratio = 5.71, p < 0.001), chronic kidney disease (hazard ratio = 2.98, p = 0.034), receiving a dental procedure within 30 days (hazard ratio = 36.80, p < 0.001), and intravenous steroid therapy within 30 days (hazard ratio = 39.59, p < 0.001) were independent risk factors for infective endocarditis in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Conclusions A higher risk of infective endocarditis was observed in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Risk factors for infective endocarditis in the systemic lupus erythematosus cohort included heart disease, chronic kidney disease, steroid pulse therapy within 30 days, and a

  11. IgE sensitization to inhalant allergens and the risk of airway infection and disease: A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk; Fenger, Runa Vavia; Linneberg, Allan

    2017-01-01

    Background Immunoglobulin E (IgE) sensitization, which is the propensity to develop IgE antibodies against common environmental allergens, is associated with a lymphocyte T-helper type 2 (Th2) skewed immune response and a high risk of allergic respiratory disease. Little is known about whether IgE sensitization confers an increased risk of respiratory infections in adults. We investigated the association between IgE sensitization and the incidence of acute airway infections, other infections and chronic lower airway disease events as recorded in nation-wide registries. Methods We included 14,849 persons from five population-based studies with measurements of serum specific IgE positivity against inhalant allergens. Participants were followed by linkage to Danish national registries (median follow-up time 11.3 years). The study-specific relative risks were estimated by Cox regression analysis, meta-analysed, and expressed as hazard ratios, HRs (95% confidence intervals, CIs). Results The relative risks for IgE sensitized vs. non-sensitized were: for pneumonia (HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.41), other acute airway infection (HR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.60, 1.22), infection (HR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.90, 1.24), asthma (HR = 2.26, 95% CI: 1.79, 2.86), and other chronic lower airway disease (HR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.58). In never smokers, the higher risk of pneumonia (HR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.23, 2.44) and asthma (HR = 3.17, 95% CI: 2.10, 4.76) among IgE sensitized was more pronounced. Conclusions IgE sensitization was associated with a higher risk of asthma, other chronic lower airway diseases, and pneumonia. However, the association between IgE sensitization and pneumonia may be explained by undiagnosed asthma causing the pneumonia. Further studies are needed for confirmation. PMID:28182643

  12. Personalized Surgical Risk Assessment Using Population-Based Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AbuSalah, Ahmad Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    The volume of information generated by healthcare providers is growing at a relatively high speed. This tremendous growth has created a gap between knowledge and clinical practice that experts say could be narrowed with the proper use of healthcare data to guide clinical decisions and tools that support rapid information availability at the…

  13. Personalized Surgical Risk Assessment Using Population-Based Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AbuSalah, Ahmad Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    The volume of information generated by healthcare providers is growing at a relatively high speed. This tremendous growth has created a gap between knowledge and clinical practice that experts say could be narrowed with the proper use of healthcare data to guide clinical decisions and tools that support rapid information availability at the…

  14. Increased risk of comorbid rheumatic disorders in vitiligo patients: A nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chong Won; Eun, Sung Hye; Choi, Kwang Hyun; Bae, Jung Min

    2017-08-01

    Vitiligo is a common acquired depigmentation disorder. Previous studies have shown that vitiligo is associated with a variety of autoimmune disorders. However, a large-scale epidemiological study focused on comorbid rheumatic disorders has not been undertaken. To clarify the associations between vitiligo and various rheumatic disorders, we performed a cross-sectional study using data from the Korean National Health Insurance claims database. Between 2009 and 2013, totals of 86 210 patients with vitiligo and 172 420 age- and sex-matched controls without vitiligo were enrolled in this study. Vitiligo patients were found to be at increased risk of systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, Sjögren's syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis, but no significant association was found between vitiligo and dermatomyositis/polymyositis, Behçet's disease or ankylosing spondylitis. Subgroup analysis showed an increased risk of dermatomyositis/polymyositis in male and ankylosing spondylitis in female vitiligo patients. The risks of dermatomyositis/polymyositis or ankylosing spondylitis were higher in young vitiligo patients. Our study confirms a significant association between vitiligo and rheumatic disorders. Differences in comorbid rheumatic disorders by age group and sex suggest the need for patient-specific approaches. Careful consideration of rheumatic disorders is required for the proper management of comorbidities in vitiligo patients. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  15. Association between periodontitis needing surgical treatment and subsequent diabetes risk: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Yi; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liu, Jiung-Hsiun; Wang, I-Kuan; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Chen, Chao-Jung; Ting, I-Wen; Wu, I-Ting; Sung, Fung-Chang; Huang, Chiu-Ching; Chang, Yen-Jung

    2014-06-01

    It is well known that patients with diabetes have higher extent and severity of periodontitis, but the backward relationship is little investigated. The relationship between periodontitis needing dental surgery and subsequent type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2) in those individuals without diabetes was assessed. This is a retrospective cohort study using data from the national health insurance system of Taiwan. The periodontitis cohort involved 22,299 patients, excluding those with diabetes already or those diagnosed with diabetes within 1 year from baseline. Each study participant was randomly frequency matched by age, sex, and index year with one individual from the general population without periodontitis. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of periodontitis on the risk of diabetes. The mean follow-up period is 5.47 ± 3.54 years. Overall, the subsequent incidence of DMT2 was 1.24-fold higher in the periodontitis cohort than in the control cohort, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.19 (95% confidence interval = 1.10 to 1.29) after controlling for sex, age, and comorbidities. This is the largest nation-based study examining the risk of diabetes in Asian patients with periodontitis. Those patients with periodontitis needing dental surgery have increased risk of future diabetes within 2 years compared with those participants with periodontitis not requiring dental surgery.

  16. Prevalence of hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors in an urban slum in Nairobi, Kenya: a population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Mark David; Ayah, Richard; Njau, Elijah Kaharo; Wanjiru, Rosemary; Kayima, Joshua Kyateesa; Njeru, Erastus Kennedy; Mutai, Kenneth Kipyegon

    2014-11-18

    Urbanisation has been described as a key driver of the evolving non-communicable disease (NCD) epidemic. In Africa, hypertension is the commonest cardiovascular problem. We determined the prevalence and risk factor correlates of hypertension in the largest Nairobi slum. In 2010 we conducted a population-based household survey in Kibera, a large informal settlement in Nairobi City; utilising cluster sampling with probability proportional to size. Households were selected using a random walk method. The WHO instrument for stepwise surveillance (STEPS) of chronic disease risk factors was administered by trained medical assistants, who also recorded blood pressure (BP) and anthropometric measures. BP was recorded using a mercury sphygmomanometer utilising the American Heart Association guidelines. Hypertension was defined as per the 7th Report of the Joint National Committee or use of prescribed antihypertensive medication. Those with hypertension or with random capillary blood sugar (RCBS) >11.1 mmol/l had an 8 hours fasting venous blood sugar sample drawn. Age standardised prevalence was computed and multivariate analysis to assess associations. We screened 2200 and enrolled 2061 adults; 50.9% were males; mean age was 33.4 years and 87% had primary level education. The age-standardised prevalence of hypertension (95% CI) was 22.8% (20.7, 24.9). 20% (53/258) were aware of their hypertensive status; 59.3% had pre-hypertension; 80% reported high levels of physical activity and 52% were classified as harmful alcohol drinkers; 10% were current smokers and 5% had diabetes. Majority of males had normal BMI and waist circumference, whereas a third of females were obese or overweight and 40% had central obesity. Older age, higher general and central obesity were independently associated with hypertension and higher SBP and DBP readings. Our findings of high prevalence of hypertension, in association with excess body weight in this poor urban slum community, point to the need

  17. Work-related stress, inability to relax after work and risk of adult asthma: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Loerbroks, A; Gadinger, M C; Bosch, J A; Stürmer, T; Amelang, M

    2010-10-01

    There is an extensive literature linking stressful work conditions to adverse health outcomes. Notwithstanding, the relationship with asthma has not been examined, although various other measures of psychological stress have been associated with asthma. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relation between work stress and asthma prevalence and incidence. We used data from a population-based cohort study (n = 5114 at baseline in 1992-1995 and n = 4010 at follow-up in 2002/2003). Asthma was measured by self-reports. Two scales that assessed psychologically adverse work conditions were extracted from a list of work-condition items by factor analysis (these scales were termed 'work stress' and 'inability to relax after work'). For each scale, the derived score was employed both as continuous z-score and as categorized variable in analyses. Associations with asthma were estimated by prevalence ratios (PRs) and risk ratios (RRs) using Poisson regression with a log-link function adjusting for demographics, health-related lifestyles, body mass index and family history of asthma. Analyses were restricted to those in employment (n = 3341). Work stress and inability to relax z-scores were positively associated with asthma prevalence (PR = 1.15, 95%CI = 0.97, 1.36 and PR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.12, 1.83, respectively). Prospective analyses using z-scores showed that for each 1 standard deviation increase in work stress and inability to relax, the risk of asthma increased by approximately 40% (RR for work stress = 1.46, 95%CI = 1.06, 2.00; RR for inability to relax = 1.39, 95%CI = 1.01, 1.91). Similar patterns of associations were observed in analyses of categorized exposures. This is the first study to show a cross-sectional and longitudinal association of work stress with asthma.

  18. Holocaust exposure and subsequent suicide risk: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Bursztein Lipsicas, Cendrine; Levav, Itzhak; Levine, Stephen Z

    2017-03-01

    To examine the association between the extent of genocide exposure and subsequent suicide risk among Holocaust survivors. Persons born in Holocaust-exposed European countries during the years 1922-1945 that immigrated to Israel by 1965 were identified in the Population Registry (N = 209,429), and followed up for suicide (1950-2014). They were divided into three groups based on likely exposure to Nazi persecution: those who immigrated before (indirect; n = 20,229; 10%), during (partial direct; n = 17,189; 8%), and after (full direct; n = 172,061; 82%) World War II. Groups were contrasted for suicide risk, accounting for the extent of genocide in their respective countries of origin, high (>70%) or lower levels (<50%). Cox model survival analyses were computed examining calendar year at suicide. Sensitivity analyses were recomputed for two additional suicide-associated variables (age and years since immigration) for each exposure group. All analyses were adjusted for confounders. Survival analysis showed that compared to the indirect exposure group, the partial direct exposure group from countries with high genocide level had a statistically significant (P < .05) increased suicide risk for the main outcome (calendar year: HR 1.78, 95% CI 1.09, 2.90). This effect significantly (P < .05) replicated in two sensitivity analyses for countries with higher relative levels of genocide (age: HR 1.77, 95% CI 1.09, 2.89; years since immigration: HR 1.85, 95% CI 1.14, 3.02). The full direct exposure group was not at significant suicide risk compared to the indirect exposure group. Suicide associations for groups from countries with relative lower level of genocide were not statistically significant. This study partly converges with findings identifying Holocaust survivors (full direct exposure) as a resilient group. A tentative mechanism for higher vulnerability to suicide risk of the partial direct exposure group from countries with higher genocide exposure includes

  19. Increased Risk for Substance Use-Related Problems in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Butwicka, Agnieszka; Långström, Niklas; Larsson, Henrik; Lundström, Sebastian; Serlachius, Eva; Almqvist, Catarina; Frisén, Louise; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Despite limited and ambiguous empirical data, substance use-related problems have been assumed to be rare among patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Using Swedish population-based registers we identified 26,986 individuals diagnosed with ASD during 1973-2009, and their 96,557 non-ASD relatives. ASD, without diagnosed comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or intellectual disability, was related to a doubled risk of substance use-related problems. The risk of substance use-related problems was the highest among individuals with ASD and ADHD. Further, risks of substance use-related problems were increased among full siblings of ASD probands, half-siblings and parents. We conclude that ASD is a risk factor for substance use-related problems. The elevated risks among relatives of probands with ASD suggest shared familial (genetic and/or shared environmental) liability.

  20. How risky is caring for emergency patients at risk of malpractice litigation: a population based epidemiological study of Taiwan's experiences

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Che-Ming; Tsai, Shin-Han; Chiu, Wen-Ta

    2009-01-01

    Background Emergency medicine has generally been considered a high risk specialty. The purpose of this study is to assess the risk of being sued in the district courts for caring emergency room (ER) patients from the perspective of epidemiology. Methods This research was designed to be a retrospective population based cohort study. We intended to find out the incidence of litigations arising from ER patients and that of birth inpatients in Taiwan, and computed their relative risks. The inclusion criterion was set to be incidents transpired in the time period of 1998 to 2002. The study materials included the reimbursement claim dataset of the National Health Insurance from 1998 to 2002, and the district court decision database of the Judicial Yuan from 1999 to 2006. Results The average annual incidence rate of becoming a plaintiff for ER patients is 0.86 per million, and for birth patients is 33.5 per million. There is a statistically significant difference between birth patients and ER patients. The relative risk comparing ER patients against birth inpatients is 0.03. Conclusion The findings of this population based study indicate that the patient population emergency physicians are facing in Taiwan have relatively lower risks of developing litigation in comparison with the patients that come to give birth. Due to the large volume of ER patients, malpractice still pose a major threat in the emergency department, and misdiagnosis remains the major complaint of plaintiffs in subsequent litigations. PMID:19761596

  1. Risk of Periodontal Disease in Patients With Asthma: A Nationwide Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Te-Chun; Chang, Pei-Ying; Lin, Cheng-Li; Wei, Chang-Ching; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2017-08-01

    Studies have reported an association between asthma and oral diseases, including periodontal diseases. The aim of this retrospective study is to investigate risk of periodontal diseases for patients with asthma. Using the claims data of National Health Insurance of Taiwan and patients without a history of periodontal diseases, 19,206 asthmatic patients, who were newly diagnosed from 2000 through 2010, were identified. For each case, four comparison individuals without history of asthma and periodontal disease were randomly selected from the general population and frequency matched (categorical matched) by sex, age, and year of diagnosis (n = 76,824). Both cohorts were followed to the end of 2011 to monitor occurrence of periodontal diseases. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) of periodontal disease were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Overall incidence of periodontal diseases was 1.18-fold greater in the asthma cohort than in the comparison cohort (P <0.001). Patients with at least three emergency visits annually had an aHR of 55.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 50.6 to 61.7) for periodontal diseases compared with those with a mean of less than one visit. Patients with at least three admissions annually also had a similar aHR (51.8) for periodontal disease. In addition, asthmatic patients on inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy had greater aHRs than non-users (aHR = 1.12; 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.23). In the studied population, asthmatic patients are at an elevated risk of developing periodontal diseases. The risk is much greater for those with emergency medical demands or hospital admissions and those on ICS treatment.

  2. Does geography influence the treatment and outcomes of colorectal cancer? A population-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Helewa, Ramzi M; Turner, Donna; Wirtzfeld, Debrah; Park, Jason; Hochman, David; Czaykowski, Piotr; Singh, Harminder; Shu, Emma; Xue, Lin; McKay, Andrew

    2013-06-17

    The Canadian province of Manitoba covers a large geographical area but only has one major urban center, Winnipeg. We sought to determine if regional differences existed in the quality of colorectal cancer care in a publicly funded health care system. This was a population-based historical cohort analysis of the treatment and outcomes of Manitobans diagnosed with colorectal cancer between 2004 and 2006. Administrative databases were utilized to assess quality of care using published quality indicators. A total of 2,086 patients were diagnosed with stage I to IV colorectal cancer and 42.2% lived outside of Winnipeg. Patients from North Manitoba had a lower odds of undergoing major surgery after controlling for other confounders (odds ratio (OR): 0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.26 to 0.90). No geographic differences existed in the quality measures of 30-day operative mortality, consultations with oncologists, surveillance colonoscopy, and 5-year survival. However, there was a trend towards lower survival in North Manitoba. We found minimal differences by geography. However, overall compliance with quality measures is low and there are concerning trends in North Manitoba. This study is one of the few to evaluate population-based benchmarks for colorectal cancer therapy in Canada.

  3. Temporal trends in stroke incidence in South Asian, Chinese and white patients: A population based analysis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nadia A; McAlister, Finlay A; Pilote, Louise; Palepu, Anita; Quan, Hude; Hill, Michael D; Fang, Jiming; Kapral, Moira K

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about potential ethnic differences in stroke incidence. We compared incidence and time trends of ischemic stroke and primary intracerebral hemorrhage in South Asian, Chinese and white persons in a population-based study. Population based census and administrative data analysis in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia, Canada using validated ICD 9/ICD 10 coding for acute ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke (1997-2010). There were 3290 South Asians, 4444 Chinese and 160944 white patients with acute ischemic stroke and 535 South Asian, 1376 Chinese and 21842 white patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. South Asians were younger than whites at onset of stroke (70 vs. 74 years for ischemic and 67 vs. 71 years for hemorrhagic stroke). Age and sex adjusted ischemic stroke incidence in 2010 was 43% lower in Chinese and 63% lower in South Asian than in White patients. Age and sex adjusted intracerebral hemorrhage incidence was 18% higher in Chinese patients, and 66% lower in South Asian relative to white patients. Stroke incidence declined in all ethnic groups (relative reduction 69% in South Asians, 25% in Chinese, and 34% in white patients for ischemic stroke and for intracerebral hemorrhage, 79% for South Asians, 51% for Chinese and 30% in white patients). Although stroke rates declined across all ethnic groups, these rates differed significantly by ethnicity. Further study is needed to understand mechanisms underlying the higher ischemic stroke incidence in white patients and intracerebral hemorrhage in Chinese patients.

  4. Sarcoma risk and dioxin emissions from incinerators and industrial plants: a population-based case-control study (Italy).

    PubMed

    Zambon, Paola; Ricci, Paolo; Bovo, Emanuela; Casula, Alessandro; Gattolin, Massimo; Fiore, Anna Rita; Chiosi, Francesco; Guzzinati, Stefano

    2007-07-16

    It is not clear whether environmental exposure to dioxin affects the general population. The aim of this research is to evaluate sarcoma risk in relation to the environmental pollution caused by dioxin emitted by waste incinerators and industrial sources of airborne dioxin. The study population lives in a part of the Province of Venice (Italy), where a population-based cancer registry (Veneto Tumour Registry--RTV) has been active since 1987. Two hundred and five cases of visceral and extravisceral sarcoma, confirmed by microscopic examination, diagnosed from 01.01.1990 to 31.12.1996, were extracted from the RTV database. Diagnoses were revised using the actual pathology reports and clinical records. For each sarcoma case, three controls of the same age and sex were randomly selected from the population files of the Local Health Units (LHUs). The residential history of each subject, whether case or control, was reconstructed, address by address, from 1960 to the date of diagnosis. All waste incinerators and industrial sources of airborne dioxin in the Province of Venice were taken into account, as was one very large municipal waste incinerator outside the area but close to its boundaries. The Industrial Source Complex Model in Long Term mode, version 3 (ISCLT3), was used to assess the level of atmospheric dispersion. A specific value for exposure was calculated for each point (geo-referenced address) and for each calendar year; the exposure value for each subject is expressed as the average of specific time-weighted values. The analysis takes into account 172 cases and 405 controls, aged more than 14 years. The risk of developing a sarcoma is 3.3 times higher (95% Confidence Interval--95% CI: 1.24-8.76) among subjects, both sexes, with the longest exposure period and the highest exposure level ; a significant excess of risk was also observed in women (Odds Ratio OR = 2.41, 95% CI: 1.04-5.59) and for cancers of the connective and other soft tissue (International

  5. Sarcoma risk and dioxin emissions from incinerators and industrial plants: a population-based case-control study (Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Zambon, Paola; Ricci, Paolo; Bovo, Emanuela; Casula, Alessandro; Gattolin, Massimo; Fiore, Anna Rita; Chiosi, Francesco; Guzzinati, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    Background It is not clear whether environmental exposure to dioxin affects the general population. The aim of this research is to evaluate sarcoma risk in relation to the environmental pollution caused by dioxin emitted by waste incinerators and industrial sources of airborne dioxin. The study population lives in a part of the Province of Venice (Italy), where a population-based cancer registry (Veneto Tumour Registry – RTV) has been active since 1987. Methods Two hundred and five cases of visceral and extravisceral sarcoma, confirmed by microscopic examination, diagnosed from 01.01.1990 to 31.12.1996, were extracted from the RTV database. Diagnoses were revised using the actual pathology reports and clinical records. For each sarcoma case, three controls of the same age and sex were randomly selected from the population files of the Local Health Units (LHUs). The residential history of each subject, whether case or control, was reconstructed, address by address, from 1960 to the date of diagnosis. All waste incinerators and industrial sources of airborne dioxin in the Province of Venice were taken into account, as was one very large municipal waste incinerator outside the area but close to its boundaries. The Industrial Source Complex Model in Long Term mode, version 3 (ISCLT3), was used to assess the level of atmospheric dispersion. A specific value for exposure was calculated for each point (geo-referenced address) and for each calendar year; the exposure value for each subject is expressed as the average of specific time-weighted values. The analysis takes into account 172 cases and 405 controls, aged more than 14 years. Results The risk of developing a sarcoma is 3.3 times higher (95% Confidence Interval – 95% CI: 1.24 – 8.76) among subjects, both sexes, with the longest exposure period and the highest exposure level ; a significant excess of risk was also observed in women (Odds Ratio OR = 2.41, 95% CI: 1.04 – 5.59) and for cancers of the connective

  6. Risk of acute myocardial infarction in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease: A nationwide population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Wei-Yi; Wang, Jen-Hung; Wen, Shu-Hui; Yi, Chih-Hsun; Hung, Jui-Sheng; Liu, Tso-Tsai; Orr, William C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common disease which can cause troublesome symptoms and affect quality of life. In addition to esophageal complications, GERD may also be a risk factor for extra-esophageal complications. Both GERD and coronary artery disease (CAD) can cause chest pain and frequently co-exist. However, the association between GERD and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remain unclear. The purpose of the study was to compare the incidence of acute myocardial infarction in GERD patients with an age-, gender-, and comorbidity matched population free of GERD. We also examine the association of the risk of AMI and the use of acid suppressing agents in GERD patients. Methods We identified patients with GERD from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The study cohort comprised 54,422 newly diagnosed GERD patients; 269,572 randomly selected age-, gender-, comorbidity-matched subjects comprised the comparison cohort. Patients with any prior CAD, AMI or peripheral arterial disease were excluded. Incidence of new AMI was studied in both groups. Results A total 1,236 (0.5%) of the patients from the control group and 371 (0.7%) patients from the GERD group experienced AMI during a mean follow-up period of 3.3 years. Based on Cox proportional-hazard model analysis, GERD was independently associated with increased risk of developing AMI (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.48; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31–1.66, P < 0.001). Within the GERD group, patients who were prescribed proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) for more than one year had slightly decreased the risk of developing AMI, compared with those without taking PPIs (HR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.31–1.04, P = 0.066). Conclusions This large population-based study demonstrates an association between GERD and future development of AMI, however, PPIs use only achieved marginal significance in reducing the occurrence of AMI in GERD patients. Further prospective studies are needed to evaluate

  7. Risk of Shingles in Adults with Primary Sjogren’s Syndrome and Treatments: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jen-Yin; Wang, Li-Kai; Feng, Ping-Hsun; Chu, Chin-Chen; Cheng, Tain-Junn; Weng, Shih-Feng; Wu, Su-Zhen; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Chang, Chia-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Background Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is associated with immunological dysfunctions—a well-known risk factor of shingles. This study aimed to examine the incidence and risk of shingles in adults with pSS and pharmacological treatments. Methods This retrospective population-based cohort study was conducted using National Health Insurance claims data. Using propensity scores, 4,287 pSS adult patients and 25,722-matched cohorts by age, gender, selected comorbidities and Charlson comorbidity index scores were identified. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression were conducted to compare the differences in developing shingles. In pSS, oral and eye dryness are treated with substitute agents. Extraglandular features are often treated with pharmacological drugs including steroids and immunosuppressants. pSS patients were grouped as follows: no pharmacological drugs, steroids alone; immunosuppressants alone; combined therapies. Results During the follow-up, 463 adults with pSS (10.80%) and 1,345 control cohorts (5.23%) developed shingles. The cumulative incidence of shingles in pSS patients (18.74/1,000 patient-years) was significantly higher than controls (8.55/1,000 patient-years). The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of shingles was 1.69 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.50–1.90). In age-subgroup analyses, incidences of shingles in pSS increased with age and peaked in pSS patients aged ≧60; however, adjusted HRs decreased with age. Compared to control cohorts with no drugs, adjusted HRs for shingles in pSS patients were ranked from high to low as: combined therapies (4.14; 95% CI 3.14–5.45) > immunosuppressants alone (3.24; 95% CI 2.36–4.45) > steroids alone (2.54; 95% CI 2.16–2.97) > no pharmacological drugs (2.06; 95% CI 1.76–2.41). Rates of shingles-associated hospitalization and postherpetic neuralgia were 5.62% and 24.41%, both of which were significantly higher than those (2.60%; 13.01%) in the control cohorts. Conclusions Adults with pSS were at

  8. Populations at Increased Risk for HIV Infection in Kenya: Results From a National Population-Based Household Survey, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Githuka, George; Hladik, Wolfgang; Mwalili, Samuel; Cherutich, Peter; Muthui, Mercy; Gitonga, Joshua; Maina, William K.; Kim, Andrea A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Populations with higher risks for HIV exposure contribute to the HIV epidemic in Kenya. We present data from the second Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey to estimate the size and HIV prevalence of populations with high-risk characteristics. Methods The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2012 was a national survey of Kenyans aged 18 months to 64 years which linked demographic and behavioral information with HIV results. Data were weighted to account for sampling probability. This analysis was restricted to adults aged 18 years and older. Results Of 5088 men and 6745 women, 0.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03 to 0.14] were persons who inject drugs (PWID). Among men, 0.6% (CI: 0.3 to 0.8) had ever had sex with other men, and 3.1% (CI: 2.4 to 3.7) were males who had ever engaged in transactional sex work (MTSW). Among women, 1.9% (CI: 1.3 to 2.5) had ever had anal sex, and 4.1% (CI: 3.5 to 4.8) were women who had ever engaged in transactional sex work (FTSW). Among men, 17.6% (CI: 15.7 to 19.6) had been male clients of transactional sex workers (TSW). HIV prevalence was 0% among men who have sex with men, 6.3% (CI: 0 to 18.1) among persons who injected drugs, 7.1% (CI: 4.8 to 9.4) among male clients of TSW, 7.6% (CI: 1.8 to 13.4) among MTSW, 12.1% (CI: 7.1 to 17.1) among FTSW, and 12.1% (CI: 5.0 to 19.2) among females who ever had engaged in anal sex. Conclusions Population-based data on high-risk populations can be used to set realistic targets for HIV prevention, care, and treatment for these groups. These data should inform priorities for high-risk populations in the upcoming Kenyan strategic plan on HIV/AIDS. PMID:24732821

  9. Populations at increased risk for HIV infection in Kenya: results from a national population-based household survey, 2012.

    PubMed

    Githuka, George; Hladik, Wolfgang; Mwalili, Samuel; Cherutich, Peter; Muthui, Mercy; Gitonga, Joshua; Maina, William K; Kim, Andrea A

    2014-05-01

    Populations with higher risks for HIV exposure contribute to the HIV epidemic in Kenya. We present data from the second Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey to estimate the size and HIV prevalence of populations with high-risk characteristics. The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2012 was a national survey of Kenyans aged 18 months to 64 years which linked demographic and behavioral information with HIV results. Data were weighted to account for sampling probability. This analysis was restricted to adults aged 18 years and older. Of 5088 men and 6745 women, 0.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03 to 0.14] were persons who inject drugs (PWID). Among men, 0.6% (CI: 0.3 to 0.8) had ever had sex with other men, and 3.1% (CI: 2.4 to 3.7) were males who had ever engaged in transactional sex work (MTSW). Among women, 1.9% (CI: 1.3 to 2.5) had ever had anal sex, and 4.1% (CI: 3.5 to 4.8) were women who had ever engaged in transactional sex work (FTSW). Among men, 17.6% (CI: 15.7 to 19.6) had been male clients of transactional sex workers (TSW). HIV prevalence was 0% among men who have sex with men, 6.3% (CI: 0 to 18.1) among persons who injected drugs, 7.1% (CI: 4.8 to 9.4) among male clients of TSW, 7.6% (CI: 1.8 to 13.4) among MTSW, 12.1% (CI: 7.1 to 17.1) among FTSW, and 12.1% (CI: 5.0 to 19.2) among females who ever had engaged in anal sex. Population-based data on high-risk populations can be used to set realistic targets for HIV prevention, care, and treatment for these groups. These data should inform priorities for high-risk populations in the upcoming Kenyan strategic plan on HIV/AIDS.

  10. Population Based Outcomes of Cataract Surgery in Three Tribal Areas of Andhra Pradesh, India: Risk Factors for Poor Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Rohit C.; Pallerla, Srinivasa Reddy; Eeda, Shiva Shankar; Gudapati, Bala Krishna; Cassard, Sandra D.; Rani, Padmaja Kumari; Shantha, Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash; Chakrabarti, Subhabrata; Schein, Oliver D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To report visual outcomes and risk factors for poor outcomes of cataract surgery in three Integrated Tribal Development Agency (ITDA) areas of Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods and Results Using validated Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) methodology, a population based cross-sectional study, was conducted in three ITDA areas. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to select 7281 participants aged 50 years and above. Vision assessment using a tumbling E chart and standard ocular examinations were completed. Visual outcomes and risk factors for poor outcomes were assessed among subjects undergoing cataract surgery (1548 eyes of 1124 subjects). Mean age at surgery was 67±8 years; Among the operated eyes, presenting visual acuity (PVA) and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) worse than 6/18 was seen in 492 (31.8%; 95% CI, 29.5–34.2%) and 298 eyes (19.3%; 95% CI, 17.3–21.3%), respectively. Similarly, PVA and BCVA worse than 6/60 was seen in 219 (14.1%; 95% CI, 12.4–16%) and 147 eyes (9.5%; 95% CI, 8.1–11.1%), respectively. When either eye was taken into consideration, the PVA and BCVA worse than 6/18 was seen in 323 (20.1%; 95% CI, 18.9–23%) and 144 subjects (9.3%; 95% CI, 7.9–10.9%), respectively. PVA and BCVA worse than 6/60 was seen in 74 (4.8%; 95% CI, 3.8–6%) and 49 subjects (3.2%; 95% CI, 2.4–4.2%), respectively. Posterior capsular opacification was seen in 51 of 1316 pseudophakic eyes (3.9%; 95% CI, 2.9–5.1%). In multivariable analysis among pseudophakic subjects with PVA worse than 6/18, increasing age (p = 0.002) and undergoing free surgery (p = 0.05) were independent risk factors. Undergoing surgery before 2005 (p = 0.05) and being illiterate (p = 0.05) were independent risk factors for BCVA worse than 6/18. Conclusions There are changing trends with improved outcomes in cataract surgery among these tribal populations of India. However, post-operative refractive error correction remains an issue

  11. Which infants with eczema are at risk of food allergy? Results from a population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Martin, P E; Eckert, J K; Koplin, J J; Lowe, A J; Gurrin, L C; Dharmage, S C; Vuillermin, P; Tang, M L K; Ponsonby, A-L; Matheson, M; Hill, D J; Allen, K J

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between early onset eczema and food allergy among infants has never been examined in a population-based sample using the gold standard for diagnosis, oral food challenge. We characterised the risk of challenge-proven food allergy among infants with eczema in the general population. One-year-old infants (n = 4453 meeting criteria for this analysis) were assessed for history of eczema, received a nurse-administered eczema examination and underwent skin prick testing to peanut, egg and sesame. Those with a detectable wheal to one of the test foods underwent an oral food challenge irrespective of wheal size. The risk of food allergy, stratified by eczema severity and age of onset, was estimated using multivariate logistic regression with population sampling weights. One in five infants with eczema were allergic to peanut, egg white or sesame, compared to one in twenty-five infants without eczema (OR 6.2, 95% CI 4.9, 7.9, P < 0.001). The prevalence of peanut allergy was low in the absence of eczema (0.7% 95% CI 0.4, 1.1). Infants with eczema were 11.0 times more likely to develop peanut allergy (95% CI 6.6, 18.6) and 5.8 times more likely to develop egg allergy (95% CI 4.6, 7.4) by 12 months than infants without eczema. 50.8% of infants (95% CI 42.8, 58.9) with early eczema onset (<3 months) who required doctor-prescribed topical corticosteroid treatment developed challenge-proven food allergy. Eczema, across the clinical severity spectrum in infancy, is a strong risk factor for IgE-mediated food allergy. Infants with eczema were six times more likely to have egg allergy and 11 times more likely to have peanut allergy by 12 months than infants without eczema. Our data suggest that a heightened awareness of food allergy risk among healthcare practitioners treating infants with eczema, especially if early onset and severe, is warranted. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Psychiatric Diagnoses, Medication and Risk for Disability Pension in Multiple Sclerosis Patients; a Population-Based Register Study

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Philip; Alexanderson, Kristina; Björkenstam, Charlotte; Hillert, Jan; Jokinen, Jussi; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Tinghög, Petter

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychiatric comorbidity is common among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The majority of MS patients of working ages are on disability pension. The aims of this study were to chart the prevalences of psychiatric diagnoses and medications among MS patients of working ages, and to investigate their association with the risk for future disability pension. Methods This nationwide, population-based prospective cohort study includes 10,750 MS patients and 5,553,141 non-MS individuals who in 2005 were aged 17–64 years. Psychiatric diagnoses and medications were identified using nationwide registers. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated adjusting for socio-demographics. Furthermore, a survival analysis with five-year follow-up was performed among the 4,571 MS patients not on disability pension in 2005, with psychiatric diagnoses and medication as risk factors, and disability pension as the outcome. Results Among MS patients, 35% had been prescribed psychiatric medication compared to 10% of non-MS individuals, adjusted OR 3.72 (95% CI 3.57 to 3.88). Ten percent of MS patients had received a psychiatric diagnosis, compared to 5.7% of non-MS individuals, OR 1.82 (95% CI 1.71 to 1.94). Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), were the most commonly prescribed drugs (17%) among MS patients, while depression (4.8%) was the most common psychiatric diagnosis. In the survival analysis, MS patients with any psychiatric diagnosis had a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.83 (95% CI 1.53 to 2.18) for disability pension compared to other MS patients. MS patients with any psychiatric drug prescription had a HR for disability pension of 2.09 (95% CI 1.84 to 2.33). Conclusion Psychiatric diagnoses and medications are common among MS patients and adversely affect risk for disability pension. This highlights the importance of correct diagnosis and management of psychiatric comorbidity, in a clinical as well as in a societal perspective. PMID:25093730

  13. Vascular risk factors and dementia in the general population aged >85 years: prospective population-based study.

    PubMed

    Rastas, Sari; Pirttilä, Tuula; Mattila, Kimmo; Verkkoniemi, Auli; Juva, Kati; Niinistö, Leena; Länsimies, Esko; Sulkava, Raimo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between dementia and common vascular risk factors including blood pressure, blood lipids, homocysteine and diabetes mellitus in a population of very old people. This study is a 9-year follow-up prospective population-based study monitoring 339 non-demented subjects aged 85 years or over in the city of Vantaa, Southern Finland. During the follow-up, those individuals with diabetes mellitus at the baseline and new incident stroke had a higher probability for developing dementia. History of hypertension or higher level of education were associated with a lower probability of dementia. It seems that the contribution of vascular risk factors to the risk of dementia may be age-dependent and their role in the very old subjects may be mediated through their influence on cerebrovascular morbidity. Thus, prevention of stroke and diabetes mellitus may reduce the risk of cognitive decline in the very old.

  14. Summary of the evidence on modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline and dementia: A population-based perspective.

    PubMed

    Baumgart, Matthew; Snyder, Heather M; Carrillo, Maria C; Fazio, Sam; Kim, Hye; Johns, Harry

    2015-06-01

    An estimated 47 million people worldwide are living with dementia in 2015, and this number is projected to triple by 2050. In the absence of a disease-modifying treatment or cure, reducing the risk of developing dementia takes on added importance. In 2014, the World Dementia Council (WDC) requested the Alzheimer's Association evaluate and report on the state of the evidence on modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline and dementia. This report is a summary of the Association's evaluation, which was presented at the October 2014 WDC meeting. The Association believes there is sufficient evidence to support the link between several modifiable risk factors and a reduced risk for cognitive decline, and sufficient evidence to suggest that some modifiable risk factors may be associated with reduced risk of dementia. Specifically, the Association believes there is sufficiently strong evidence, from a population-based perspective, to conclude that regular physical activity and management of cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes, obesity, smoking, and hypertension) reduce the risk of cognitive decline and may reduce the risk of dementia. The Association also believes there is sufficiently strong evidence to conclude that a healthy diet and lifelong learning/cognitive training may also reduce the risk of cognitive decline.

  15. Association of Perinatal Risk Factors With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Population-Based Birth Cohort, Sibling Control Study.

    PubMed

    Brander, Gustaf; Rydell, Mina; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Fernández de la Cruz, Lorena; Lichtenstein, Paul; Serlachius, Eva; Rück, Christian; Almqvist, Catarina; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Larsson, Henrik; Mataix-Cols, David

    2016-11-01

    Perinatal complications may increase the risk of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Previous reports were based on small, retrospective, specialist clinic-based studies that were unable to rigorously control for unmeasured environmental and genetic confounding. To prospectively investigate a wide range of potential perinatal risk factors for OCD, controlling for unmeasured factors shared between siblings in the analyses. This population-based birth cohort study included all 2 421 284 children from singleton births in Sweden from January 1, 1973, to December 31, 1996, who were followed up through December 31, 2013. From the 1 403 651 families in the cohort, differentially exposed siblings from the 743 885 families with siblings were evaluated; of these, 11 592 families included clusters of full siblings that were discordant for OCD. Analysis of the data was conducted from January, 26, 2015, to September, 5, 2016. Perinatal data were collected from the Swedish Medical Birth Register and included maternal smoking during pregnancy, labor presentation, obstetric delivery, gestational age (for preterm birth), birth weight, birth weight in relation to gestational age, 5-minute Apgar score, and head circumference. Previously validated OCD codes (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Health Related Problems, Tenth Revision, code F42) in the Swedish National Patient Register. Of 2 421 284 individuals included in the cohort, 17 305 persons were diagnosed with OCD. Of these, 7111 were men (41.1%). The mean (SD) age of individuals at first diagnosis of OCD was 23.4 (6.5) years. An increased risk for OCD remained after controlling for shared familial confounders and measured covariates (including sex, year of birth, maternal and paternal age at birth, and parity), for smoking 10 or more cigarettes per day during pregnancy (hazard ratio [HR], 1.27; 95% CI, 1.02-1.58), breech presentation (HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.06-1.71), delivery by cesarean

  16. Parental age and risk of pediatric cancer in the offspring: a population-based record-linkage study in California.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong; Metayer, Catherine; Morimoto, Libby; Wiemels, Joseph L; DeWan, Andrew T; Kang, Alice; Ma, Xiaomei

    2017-05-23

    By linking birth records and cancer registry data from California, we conducted a population-based study with 23,419 cases and 87,593 matched controls born in 1978-2009 to investigate the relation of parental age to risk of pediatric cancer. Compared to children born to mothers aged 20-24 years, those born to mothers in older age groups had a 13% to 36% increased risk of pediatric cancer, the odds ratio (OR) for each 5-year maternal age increase was 1.06 (95% confidence interval[CI]: 1.04,1.09). For cancer diagnosed at 0-14 and 15-19 years, the OR for each 5-year increase in maternal age was1.04 (95% CI: 1.02,1.06) and 1.10 (95% CI: 1.06,1.14), respectively. Having an older father also conferred an increased risk, with an OR of 1.03 (95% CI: 1.02,1.05) and 1.04 (95% CI: 1.02,1.06) for each 5-year increase for cancer diagnosed at 0-19 years and 0-14 years, respectively. While advancing maternal age increased risk of leukemia and central nervous system tumors, an older paternal age was not associated with risk of either type. Both older maternal and paternal ages were associated with risk of lymphoma. In this large, population-based record-linkage study, advancing parental age, especially advancing maternal age, increased pediatric cancer risk, with variations across types of cancer. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Prevalence of Fracture in Healthy Iranian Children Aged 9–18 Years and Associated Risk Factors; A Population Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeddi, Marjan; Dabbaghmanesh, Mohammad Hossein; Kharmandar, Alireza; Ranjbar Omrani, Gholamhossein; Bakhshayeshkaram, Marzieh

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of fractures and associated risk factors in healthy Iranian children and adolescents. Methods: In this cross sectional population based study, 478 healthy Iranian children and adolescents aged 9–18 years old participated. Baseline data and bone mineral content and density have been determined. One questionnaire was completed for all individuals including previous history of fracture, its location, and level of trauma. Albumin, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and vitamin D levels were measured. Results: We found a prevalence of 12.9% for fracture. (34.5% for girls and 65.5% for boys); about 71% suffered long bone fracture with distal forearm as the most common site. Totally 58% of the boys and 54% of the girls had fracture with low-energy trauma. The fracture group had lower bone mineral apparent density in the lumbar spine (0.19±0.04 vs. 0.20±0.03, p=0.04), lower serum albumin (4.6±0.5 vs 4.8±0.4, p=0.02), and higher serum alkaline phosphatase level (446±174 vs. 361±188, p=0.02) compared with non-fracture subjects. By logistic regression analysis, we found a significant association for sex, and bone mineral content of the lumbar spine with fracture (p=0.003, p=0.039). Conclusion: Compared to other studies, our subjects had lower rate of fracture. We found an association between low bone density and fracture in children and adolescents. This finding has important implications for public health. Further research may contribute to recognition of preventive measures. PMID:28246621

  18. Health: Policy or Law? A Population-Based Analysis of the Supreme Court's ACA Cases.

    PubMed

    Parmet, Wendy E

    2016-08-16

    This essay argues that it matters for the fate of health policies challenged in court whether courts consider health merely as a policy goal that must be subordinate to law, or as a legal norm warranting legal weight and consideration. Applying population-based legal analysis, this article demonstrates that courts have traditionally treated health as a legal norm. However, this norm appears to have weakened in recent years, a trend evident in the Supreme Court's first two decisions concerning the Affordable Care Act, NFIB v. Sebelius and Burwell v. Hobby Lobby However, in its more recent Affordable Care Act decision, King v. Burwell, the health legal norm is once again evident. Whether the Court will continue to treat health as a legal norm will prove critical to the deference and weight it grants health policies in the future. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  19. Anticoagulation and population risk of stroke and death in incident atrial fibrillation: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Amy Y.X.; Malo, Shaun; Wilton, Stephen; Parkash, Ratika; Svenson, Lawrence W.; Hill, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Atrial fibrillation increases the risk of stroke and death. Anticoagulation therapy is an effective treatment for stroke prevention, but remains underused in the community. We sought to determine the effectiveness and safety of anticoagulation therapy in an inception cohort with new-onset atrial fibrillation in the province of Alberta, Canada. Methods: We conducted a population-based cohort study of atrial fibrillation using an administrative database from Alberta's publicly funded and universally available health care system. All new-onset atrial fibrillation patients from Jan. 1, 2009, to Dec. 31, 2010, were included in the cohort and followed through Dec. 31, 2013. We assessed anticoagulation status as a predictor of stroke and death using time-to-event analysis and adjusted for sex and CHADS2 (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥ 75 yr, diabetes mellitus and prior stroke or transient ischemic attack) score using Cox proportional hazards modelling. Results: We identified 10 745 patients, 7358 (68.5%) of whom received anticoagulation therapy, principally with warfarin (n = 6997, 95.1%). Anticoagulation therapy was associated with significantly decreased risk of ischemic stroke (hazard ratio [HR] 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.58-0.82), all stroke (HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.65-0.91), all stroke and death (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.62-0.72) and all-cause mortality (HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.62-0.72), despite an association with increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke (HR 1.92, 95% CI 1.17-3.16). There was a neutral association with subdural (HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.53-1.93) and gastrointestinal (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.70-1.31) hemorrhage. Interpretation: Anticoagulation therapy is effective and safe for stroke prevention and decreases mortality in patients with incident atrial fibrillation. These population data support an aggressive approach to screening for atrial fibrillation and treatment with anticoagulant medicines to prevent stroke and death. PMID:27280108

  20. Recalibration of the ACC/AHA Risk Score in Two Population-Based German Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    de las Heras Gala, Tonia; Geisel, Marie Henrike; Peters, Annette; Thorand, Barbara; Baumert, Jens; Lehmann, Nils; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne; Erbel, Raimund; Meisinger, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Background The 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines introduced an algorithm for risk assessment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) within 10 years. In Germany, risk assessment with the ESC SCORE is limited to cardiovascular mortality. Applicability of the novel ACC/AHA risk score to the German population has not yet been assessed. We therefore sought to recalibrate and evaluate the ACC/AHA risk score in two German cohorts and to compare it to the ESC SCORE. Methods We studied 5,238 participants from the KORA surveys S3 (1994–1995) and S4 (1999–2001) and 4,208 subjects from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR) Study (2000–2003). There were 383 (7.3%) and 271 (6.4%) first non-fatal or fatal ASCVD events within 10 years in KORA and in HNR, respectively. Risk scores were evaluated in terms of calibration and discrimination performance. Results The original ACC/AHA risk score overestimated 10-year ASCVD rates by 37% in KORA and 66% in HNR. After recalibration, miscalibration diminished to 8% underestimation in KORA and 12% overestimation in HNR. Discrimination performance of the ACC/AHA risk score was not affected by the recalibration (KORA: C = 0.78, HNR: C = 0.74). The ESC SCORE overestimated by 5% in KORA and by 85% in HNR. The corresponding C-statistic was 0.82 in KORA and 0.76 in HNR. Conclusions The recalibrated ACC/AHA risk score showed strongly improved calibration compared to the original ACC/AHA risk score. Predicting only cardiovascular mortality, discrimination performance of the commonly used ESC SCORE remained somewhat superior to the ACC/AHA risk score. Nevertheless, the recalibrated ACC/AHA risk score may provide a meaningful tool for estimating 10-year risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease in Germany. PMID:27732641

  1. Identification of Hip BMD Loss and Fracture Risk Markers through Population-based Serum Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Nielson, Carrie M; Wiedrick, Jack; Shen, Jian; Jacobs, Jon; Baker, Erin S; Baraff, Aaron; Piehowski, Paul; Lee, Christine G; Baratt, Arie; Petyuk, Vladislav; McWeeney, Shannon; Lim, Jeong Youn; Bauer, Douglas C; Lane, Nancy E; Cawthon, Peggy M; Smith, Richard D; Lapidus, Jodi; Orwoll, Eric S

    2017-03-18

    Serum proteomics analysis may lead to the discovery of novel osteoporosis biomarkers. The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS) comprises men ≥65 in the US who have had repeated BMD measures and have been followed for incident fracture. High-throughput quantitative proteomic analysis was performed on baseline fasting serum samples from non-Hispanic white men using a multi-dimensional approach coupling liquid chromatography, ion-mobility separation, and mass spectrometry (LC-IMS-MS). We followed the participants for a mean of 4.6 years for changes in femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) and for incident hip fracture. Change in BMD was determined from mixed effects regression models taking age and weight into account. Participants were categorized into three groups: BMD maintenance (no decline; estimated change ≥ 0 g/cm(2) , n = 453); expected loss (estimated change 0 to 1 SD below the estimated mean change, -0.034 g/cm(2) for femoral neck, n = 1184); and accelerated loss (estimated change ≥ 1 SD below mean change, n = 237). Differential abundance values of 3,946 peptides were summarized by meta-analysis to determine differential abundance of each of 339 corresponding proteins for accelerated BMD loss vs maintenance. Using this meta-analytic standardized fold change at cutoffs of ≥ 1.1 or ≤ 0.9 (p < 0.10), 20 proteins were associated with accelerated BMD loss. Associations of those 20 proteins with incident hip fracture were tested using Cox proportional hazards models with age and BMI adjustment in 2473 men. Five proteins were associated with incident hip fracture (HR between 1.29 and 1.41 per SD increase in estimated protein abundance). Some proteins have been previously associated with fracture risk (e.g., CD14 and SHBG), while others have roles in cellular senescence and aging (B2MG and TIMP1) and complement activation and innate immunity (CO7, CO9, CFAD). These findings may inform development of biomarkers for future

  2. Isotretinoin Use and the Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Alhusayen, Raed O.; Juurlink, David N.; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Morrow, Richard L.; Shear, Neil H.; Dormuth, Colin R.

    2013-01-01

    Limited evidence suggests that isotretinoin may be associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To explore this association, we conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study in British Columbia, Canada, among participants who were newly treated with isotretinoin or topical acne medications. The entire population of untreated provincial residents aged 12–29 years served as the reference group. During the 12-year study period, we identified 46,922 participants treated with isotretinoin, 184,824 treated with a topical acne medication, and 1,526,946 untreated individuals. Compared with untreated individuals, we observed no significant association between isotretinoin use and IBD (rate ratio (RR) 1.14; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92–1.41). As expected, we found no association with topical acne medications (RR 1.11; 95% CI 0.99–1.24). In prespecified secondary analyses, isotretinoin was associated with IBD among individuals aged 12–19 years (RR 1.39; 95% CI 1.03–1.87) and topical acne medications were associated with ulcerative colitis (RR 1.19; 95% CI 1.00–1.42). Our primary analyses found no association between isotretinoin and IBD. In prespecified secondary analyses, some evidence was found of associations with isotretinoin as well as topical acne medications, suggesting a possible association between IBD and acne itself. Additional research is needed to explore this possibility. PMID:23096714

  3. Risk factors for first trimester miscarriage--results from a UK-population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Maconochie, N; Doyle, P; Prior, S; Simmons, R

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between biological, behavioural and lifestyle risk factors and risk of miscarriage. Population-based case-control study. Case-control study nested within a population-based, two-stage postal survey of reproductive histories of women randomly sampled from the UK electoral register. Six hundred and three women aged 18-55 years whose most recent pregnancy had ended in first trimester miscarriage (<13 weeks of gestation; cases) and 6116 women aged 18-55 years whose most recent pregnancy had progressed beyond 12 weeks (controls). Women were questioned about socio-demographic, behavioural and other factors in their most recent pregnancy. First trimester miscarriage. After adjustment for confounding, the following were independently associated with increased risk: high maternal age; previous miscarriage, termination and infertility; assisted conception; low pre-pregnancy body mass index; regular or high alcohol consumption; feeling stressed (including trend with number of stressful or traumatic events); high paternal age and changing partner. Previous live birth, nausea, vitamin supplementation and eating fresh fruits and vegetables daily were associated with reduced risk, as were feeling well enough to fly or to have sex. After adjustment for nausea, we did not confirm an association with caffeine consumption, smoking or moderate or occasional alcohol consumption; nor did we find an association with educational level, socio-economic circumstances or working during pregnancy. The results confirm that advice to encourage a healthy diet, reduce stress and promote emotional wellbeing might help women in early pregnancy (or planning a pregnancy) reduce their risk of miscarriage. Findings of increased risk associated with previous termination, stress, change of partner and low pre-pregnancy weight are noteworthy, and we recommend further work to confirm these findings in other study populations.

  4. Does perceived stress increase the risk of atrial fibrillation? A population-based cohort study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Graff, Simon; Prior, Anders; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Christensen, Bo; Glümer, Charlotte; Larsen, Finn Breinholt; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2017-06-01

    Psychological stress is associated with increased risk of acute cardiovascular diseases, as myocardial infarction. We recently found a higher risk of atrial fibrillation following an acute stressful life event, but it remains unknown whether this also applies to common and less acute stress exposures. We investigated the risk of incident atrial fibrillation in people with high levels of perceived stress by following a population-based cohort of 114,337 participants from the Danish National Health Survey from 2010 to 2014. The survey holds information on lifestyle factors and perceived stress measured by Cohen's 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). We obtained information on atrial fibrillation, comorbidities and socioeconomic status from Danish nationwide registers. We identified 2172 persons with a first episode of atrial fibrillation during 424,839 person-years of follow-up. The hazard ratio (HR) of atrial fibrillation with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated with Cox proportional hazard model. The risk of atrial fibrillation increased with increasing PSS score; persons in the highest perceived stress quintile had 28% (95% CI, 12%-46%) higher risk of atrial fibrillation compared with persons in the lowest perceived stress quintile. However, the association disappeared when adjusting for comorbidities, socioeconomic status and lifestyle factors; HR was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.88-1.16) when comparing persons in the highest and the lowest perceived stress quintile. This large population-based cohort study did not reveal a higher risk of atrial fibrillation among persons with a high degree of perceived stress after adjustment for participants' baseline characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Polypharmacy in the Elderly: A Marker of Increased Risk of Mortality in a Population-Based Prospective Study (NEDICES).

    PubMed

    Gómez, Candelas; Vega-Quiroga, Saturio; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix; Medrano, María José; Louis, Elan D; Benito-León, Julián

    2015-01-01

    Little information is available on the potential association between polypharmacy and risk of mortality. To determine in a population-based study whether polypharmacy is associated with increased risk of mortality in elderly persons. In this population-based, prospective study of 5,052 people aged 65 years and older (Neurological Disorders in Central Spain), current medications were recorded. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for sociodemographics and comorbidity factors, were used to assess the risk of death up to 13.3 years later, comparing the polypharmacy group (≥6 drugs) to those who were taking 1-5 drugs and those in a nonmedicated group (0 drugs). Out of 5,052 participants, 2,550 (50.5%) died over a median follow-up of 6.5 years, including 361 (28.8%) deaths among 931 nonmedicated participants, 1,946 (51.4%) deaths among 3,787 participants taking 1-5 drugs daily, and 243 (72.8%) among 334 participants on polypharmacy. In an unadjusted Cox model, risk of mortality was increased in participants on polypharmacy [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.36-3.27, p < 0.001) and in those taking between 1 and 5 drugs (HR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.31-1.64, p < 0.001) versus those who were nonmedicated (reference group). In a Cox model that adjusted for a variety of demographic factors and comorbidities, HR remained increased in participants on polypharmacy (HR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.51-2.21, p < 0.001). This study provides evidence that polypharmacy is associated with increased risk of mortality in elderly people. The extent to which polypharmacy is the proximate cause rather than a marker of this increase risk remains to be determined. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. High Risk of Depressive Disorders in Patients With Gout: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Changchien, Te-Chang; Yen, Yung-Chieh; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Ming-Chia; Liang, Ji-An; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-12-01

    Metabolic abnormalities are common in patients with depressive disorders. However, the relationship between gout and depression is unclear. We explored the causal relationship among gout, antigout medication, and the associated risk of incidental depressive disorders.In this nationwide cohort study, we sampled data from the National Health Insurance Research Database to recruit 34,050 patients with gout as the gout cohort and 68,100 controls (without gout) as the nongout cohort. Our primary endpoint was the diagnosis of depressive disorders during follow-up. The overall study population was followed up until depression diagnosis, withdrawal from the NHI program, or the end of the study. The differences in demographic and clinical characteristics between both cohorts were determined using the Chi-square test for categorical variables and the t-test for continuous variables. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to examine the effect of gout on the risk of depression, represented using the hazard ratio with the 95% confidence interval.Patients with gout exhibited a higher risk of depressive disorders than controls did. The risk of depressive disorders increased with age and was higher in female patients and those with hypertension, stroke, and coronary artery disease. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug and prednisolone use was associated with a reduced risk of depression. Patients with gout who had received antigout medication exhibited a reduced risk of depressive disorders compared with nongout patients.Our findings support that gout increases the risk of depressive disorders, and that antigout medication use reduces the risk.

  7. Cigarette Smoking as a Risk Factor for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: A Population-Based Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haglund, Bengt; Cnattingius, Sven

    1990-01-01

    Examines risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome based on Swedish births between 1983 and 1985. Results indicate that maternal smoking doubles the risk of infant death, and infants of smokers also died sooner. The more the mother smoked the more likely her infant was to die. (JS)

  8. Cigarette Smoking as a Risk Factor for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: A Population-Based Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haglund, Bengt; Cnattingius, Sven

    1990-01-01

    Examines risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome based on Swedish births between 1983 and 1985. Results indicate that maternal smoking doubles the risk of infant death, and infants of smokers also died sooner. The more the mother smoked the more likely her infant was to die. (JS)

  9. Burden of Liver Abscess and Survival Risk Score in Thailand: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Poovorawan, Kittiyod; Pan-Ngum, Wirichada; Soonthornworasiri, Ngamphol; Kulrat, Chotipa; Kittitrakul, Chatporn; Wilairatana, Polrat; Treeprasertsuk, Sombat; Kitsahawong, Bubpha; Phaosawasdi, Kamthorn

    2016-09-07

    In Thailand, the burden of liver abscess, a life-threatening infectious disease, has not been thoroughly evaluated. We developed a predictive scoring system to estimate survival of patients with liver abscess using information from the 2008-2013 Nationwide Hospital Admission Data to evaluate the burden of liver abscess in Thailand. All patients with primary diagnosis of pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) and amoebic liver abscess (ALA) were included. Epidemiological data, baseline characteristics, hospital course, and survival were analyzed. Overall, 11,296 admissions comprising 8,423 patients from 844 hospitals across Thailand were eligible for analysis. The mean age was 52 ± 17 years and 66.1% of patients were male. ALA was significantly prevalent in southern and western border regions of Thailand, and PLA occurred nationwide. The highest incidence of liver abscess occurred in the rainy season (June-November, P < 0.01). The median length of hospital stay was 8 days (interquartile range = 4-13 days), and mean direct cost of hospitalization was 846 ± 1,574 USD. The overall inhospital mortality rate was 2.8%. Incidence of ALA decreased over the 5-year study period, whereas PLA incidence increased (P < 0.01). Using multivariable Cox regression methods with stepwise variable selection, we developed a final model with five highly significant baseline parameters associated with increased 60-day mortality: older age, PLA, underlying chronic kidney disease, cirrhosis, and human immunodeficiency virus infection. Range of estimated probability of 60-day survival was 95-16% at cumulative risk score 0-13. This simplified score is practical, and may help clinicians prioritize patients requiring more intensive care. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  10. Risk of malignant melanoma in men with prostate cancer: Nationwide, population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Frederik B; Folkvaljon, Yasin; Garmo, Hans; Robinson, David; Loeb, Stacy; Ingvar, Christian; Lambe, Mats; Stattin, Pär

    2016-05-01

    An increased risk of malignant melanoma has been observed in men with prostate cancer. To assess potential shared risk factors and confounding factors, we analysed risk of melanoma in men with prostate cancer including information on tumor characteristics and demographics including socioeconomic status. In The Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden, risk of melanoma was assessed in a cohort of men with prostate cancer and in a comparison cohort of prostate-cancer free men. Data on prostate cancer risk category, melanoma stage, basal cell carcinoma, location of residency, and socioeconomic status were obtained from nationwide registers. Melanoma was diagnosed in 830/108,145 (0.78%) men with prostate cancer and in 3,699/556,792 (0.66%) prostate cancer-free men. In multivariable Cox regression models, men with prostate cancer had a significantly increased risk of melanoma (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.09-1.27), and so had married men, men with high education and income, and men residing in southern Sweden. The strongest associations were observed for stage 0 melanoma in men with low-risk prostate cancer (HR 1.45, 1.14-1.86), high education (HR 1.87, 1.60-2.18) and top income (HR 1.61, 1.34-1.93), respectively, whereas there was no association between these factors and late-stage melanoma. Men with prostate cancer also had an increased risk of basal cell carcinoma (HR 1.18, 1.15-1.22). In conclusion, men with low-risk prostate cancer, high education, high income and residency in southern Sweden had an increased risk of early-stage melanoma.

  11. Data harmonization and federated analysis of population-based studies: the BioSHaRE project

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstracts Background Individual-level data pooling of large population-based studies across research centres in international research projects faces many hurdles. The BioSHaRE (Biobank Standardisation and Harmonisation for Research Excellence in the European Union) project aims to address these issues by building a collaborative group of investigators and developing tools for data harmonization, database integration and federated data analyses. Methods Eight population-based studies in six European countries were recruited to participate in the BioSHaRE project. Through workshops, teleconferences and electronic communications, participating investigators identified a set of 96 variables targeted for harmonization to answer research questions of interest. Using each study’s questionnaires, standard operating procedures, and data dictionaries, harmonization potential was assessed. Whenever harmonization was deemed possible, processing algorithms were developed and implemented in an open-source software infrastructure to transform study-specific data into the target (i.e. harmonized) format. Harmonized datasets located on server in each research centres across Europe were interconnected through a federated database system to perform statistical analysis. Results Retrospective harmonization led to the generation of common format variables for 73% of matches considered (96 targeted variables across 8 studies). Authenticated investigators can now perform complex statistical analyses of harmonized datasets stored on distributed servers without actually sharing individual-level data using the DataSHIELD method. Conclusion New Internet-based networking technologies and database management systems are providing the means to support collaborative, multi-center research in an efficient and secure manner. The results from this pilot project show that, given a strong collaborative relationship between participating studies, it is possible to seamlessly co

  12. Impact of the Massachusetts tobacco control programme: population based trend analysis

    PubMed Central

    Biener, Lois; Harris, Jeffrey E; Hamilton, William

    2000-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of the Massachusetts tobacco control programme, which, since its start in January 1993, has spent over $200m—“the highest per capita expenditure for tobacco control in the world”—funded by an extra tax of 25 cents per pack of cigarettes. Design Population based trend analysis with comparison group. Subjects Adult residents of Massachusetts and other US states excluding California. Main outcome measures Per capita consumption of cigarettes as measured by states' sales tax records; prevalence of smoking in adults as measured by several population-based telephone surveys. Results From 1988 to 1992, decline in per capita consumption of cigarettes in Massachusetts (15%) was similar to that in the comparison states (14%), corresponding to an annual decline of 3-4% for both groups. During 1992-3, consumption continued to decline by 4% in the comparison states but dropped 12% in Massachusetts in response to the tax increase. From 1993 onward, consumption in Massachusetts showed a consistent annual decline of more than 4%, whereas in the comparison states it levelled off, decreasing by less than 1% a year. From 1992, the prevalence of adult smoking in Massachusetts has declined annually by 0.43% (95% confidence interval 0.21% to 0.66%) compared with an increase of 0.03% (-0.06% to 0.12%) in the comparison states (P<0.001). Conclusions These findings show that a strongly implemented, comprehensive tobacco control programme can significantly reduce tobacco use. PMID:10926595

  13. Socioeconomic status and risk of acute myocardial infarction. Population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    González-Zobl, Griselda; Grau, María; Muñoz, Miguel A; Martí, Ruth; Sanz, Héctor; Sala, Joan; Masiá, Rafael; Rohlfs, Izabella; Ramos, Rafel; Marrugat, Jaume; Elosua, Roberto

    2010-09-01

    Socioeconomic status is associated with cardiovascular mortality. The aims of this study were to investigate the association between socioeconomic status and its various indicators and the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and to determine whether any association found is independent of the presence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). Study cases were matched with controls by age, sex and year of recruitment. Cases were recruited from a hospital register and controls from cross-sectional studies of the general population. The socioeconomic status was determined from educational level and social class, as indicated by occupation. Self-reported data were collected on the presence of CVRFs. The study included 1369 cases and controls. Both educational level and social class influenced AMI risk. Among non-manual workers, there was an inverse linear relationship between educational level and AMI risk independent of CVRFs: compared with university educated individuals, the odds ratio (OR) for an AMI among those with a high school education was 1.63 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-2.3), and among those with an elementary school education, 3.88 (95% CI, 2.79-5.39). No association between educational level and AMI risk was observed in manual workers. However, the AMI risk was higher in manual workers than non-manual university educated workers: in those with an elementary school education, the increased risk (OR=2.09; 95% CI, 1.59-2.75) was independent of CVRFs. An association was found between socioeconomic status and AMI risk. The AMI risk was greatest in individuals with only an elementary school education, irrespective of CVRFs and social class, as indicated by occupation.

  14. Does obesity increase the risk of hot flashes among midlife women?: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Saccomani, Sylvio; Lui-Filho, Jeffrey Frederico; Juliato, Cassia Raquel; Gabiatti, Jose Roberto; Pedro, Adriana Orcesi; Costa-Paiva, Lucia

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the association between vasomotor symptoms and obesity in climacteric women. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study of 749 women aged 45 to 60 years. The dependent variable was intensity of menopausal symptoms evaluated by the menopause rating scale questionnaire. Independent variables were sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, and obesity evaluated by body mass index. There was no significant difference in the majority of clinical and sociodemographic characteristics between the body mass index groups. Obese women had less physical activity (P = 0.019) and a higher prevalence of hypertension (P < 0.001), diabetes (P = 0.002), urinary incontinence (P < 0.001), and urge incontinence (P = 0.0006). The total mean menopause rating scale score was 9.7. Scores for hot flashes increased progressively and were higher for participants with body mass index greater than 30 kg/m (P = 0.027). Joint and muscle pain scores also increased with increased body mass index (P < 0.001). Regarding urogenital symptoms, there was a significant difference in urinary problems only, which were more intense in obese women (body mass index >30 kg/m) (P < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in any psychological symptoms on the menopause rating scale. Factors associated with hot flash scores were higher body mass index, presence of urinary urgency, and vaginal dryness. We found that menopausal symptoms, including vasomotor, joint, and urinary symptoms, were related to obesity. Hot flashes were associated with higher body mass index, urinary urgency, and vaginal dryness. Understanding this relationship may contribute to the development of healthcare strategies aimed at minimizing the impact of obesity on several health issues of climacteric women.

  15. Statins and hip fracture risk in men: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Adams, Annette L; Shi, Jiaxiao M; Reynolds, Kristi; Haque, Reina; Cheetham, T Craig; Kawatkar, Aniket A; Fithian, Donald C; Jacobsen, Steven J

    2015-11-01

    To estimate the association between hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA inhibitor (statin) use and hip fracture. We conducted a population-based case-control study. Cases were 6774 male enrollees in a large managed care organization, aged 45 or more years, with an incident hip fracture from 1997 to 2006. Controls without fracture (n = 6774) were matched to cases on age, race, and medical center. Electronic information on pharmaceutical use was used to identify the dispensing of statins from 1991 forward. Overall, 1884 (27.8%) cases and 2150 controls (31.7%) used a statin before index date (matched odds ratio [mOR] = 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.74-0.87). Adjustment for comorbidity burden strengthened the magnitude of the overall association (mOR = 0.68, CI = 0.62-0.74). The adjusted association was similar across age groups but was strongest among men aged 80 years or more (mOR = 0.62, CI = 0.54-0.71) and was most pronounced in African Americans (mOR = 0.43, CI = 0.28-0.64). Greater duration of statin use did not alter the odds ratios. These data add to the growing evidence of a potential protective effect of statin use on bone health. However, these results need to be replicated in a prospective study that can account for confounding by indication which may explain these findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Road Trauma in Teenage Male Youth with Childhood Disruptive Behavior Disorders: A Population Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Redelmeier, Donald A.; Chan, William K.; Lu, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Background Teenage male drivers contribute to a large number of serious road crashes despite low rates of driving and excellent physical health. We examined the amount of road trauma involving teenage male youth that might be explained by prior disruptive behavior disorders (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder). Methods and Findings We conducted a population-based case-control study of consecutive male youth between age 16 and 19 years hospitalized for road trauma (cases) or appendicitis (controls) in Ontario, Canada over 7 years (April 1, 2002 through March 31, 2009). Using universal health care databases, we identified prior psychiatric diagnoses for each individual during the decade before admission. Overall, a total of 3,421 patients were admitted for road trauma (cases) and 3,812 for appendicitis (controls). A history of disruptive behavior disorders was significantly more frequent among trauma patients than controls (767 of 3,421 versus 664 of 3,812), equal to a one-third increase in the relative risk of road trauma (odds ratio  =  1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.22–1.54, p<0.001). The risk was evident over a range of settings and after adjustment for measured confounders (odds ratio 1.38, 95% confidence interval 1.21–1.56, p<0.001). The risk explained about one-in-20 crashes, was apparent years before the event, extended to those who died, and persisted among those involved as pedestrians. Conclusions Disruptive behavior disorders explain a significant amount of road trauma in teenage male youth. Programs addressing such disorders should be considered to prevent injuries. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:21125017

  17. Metabolite Profiling and Cardiovascular Event Risk: A Prospective Study of Three Population-Based Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Würtz, Peter; Havulinna, Aki S; Soininen, Pasi; Tynkkynen, Tuulia; Prieto-Merino, David; Tillin, Therese; Ghorbani, Anahita; Artati, Anna; Wang, Qin; Tiainen, Mika; Kangas, Antti J; Kettunen, Johannes; Kaikkonen, Jari; Mikkilä, Vera; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lawlor, Debbie A; Gaunt, Tom R; Hughes, Alun D; Sattar, Naveed; Illig, Thomas; Adamski, Jerzy; Wang, Thomas J; Perola, Markus; Ripatti, Samuli; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Raitakari, Olli T; Gerszten, Robert E; Casas, Juan-Pablo; Chaturvedi, Nish; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Salomaa, Veikko

    2015-01-01

    Background High-throughput profiling of circulating metabolites may improve cardiovascular risk prediction over established risk factors. Methods and Results We applied quantitative NMR metabolomics to identify biomarkers for incident cardiovascular disease during long-term follow-up. Biomarker discovery was conducted in the FINRISK study (n=7256; 800 events). Replication and incremental risk prediction was assessed in the SABRE study (n=2622; 573 events) and British Women’s Health and Heart Study (n=3563; 368 events). In targeted analyses of 68 lipids and metabolites, 33 measures were associated with incident cardiovascular events at P<0.0007 after adjusting for age, sex, blood pressure, smoking, diabetes and medication. When further adjusting for routine lipids, four metabolites were associated with future cardiovascular events in meta-analyses: higher serum phenylalanine (hazard ratio per standard deviation: 1.18 [95%CI 1.12–1.24]; P=4×10−10) and monounsaturated fatty acid levels (1.17 [1.11–1.24]; P=1×10−8) were associated with increased cardiovascular risk, while higher omega-6 fatty acids (0.89 [0.84–0.94]; P=6×10−5) and docosahexaenoic acid levels (0.90 [0.86–0.95]; P=5×10−5) were associated with lower risk. A risk score incorporating these four biomarkers was derived in FINRISK. Risk prediction estimates were more accurate in the two validation cohorts (relative integrated discrimination improvement 8.8% and 4.3%), albeit discrimination was not enhanced. Risk classification was particularly improved for persons in the 5–10% risk range (net reclassification 27.1% and 15.5%). Biomarker associations were further corroborated with mass spectrometry in FINRISK (n=671) and the Framingham Offspring Study (n=2289). Conclusions Metabolite profiling in large prospective cohorts identified phenylalanine, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids as biomarkers for cardiovascular risk. This study substantiates the value of high

  18. Metabolite profiling and cardiovascular event risk: a prospective study of 3 population-based cohorts.

    PubMed

    Würtz, Peter; Havulinna, Aki S; Soininen, Pasi; Tynkkynen, Tuulia; Prieto-Merino, David; Tillin, Therese; Ghorbani, Anahita; Artati, Anna; Wang, Qin; Tiainen, Mika; Kangas, Antti J; Kettunen, Johannes; Kaikkonen, Jari; Mikkilä, Vera; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lawlor, Debbie A; Gaunt, Tom R; Hughes, Alun D; Sattar, Naveed; Illig, Thomas; Adamski, Jerzy; Wang, Thomas J; Perola, Markus; Ripatti, Samuli; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Raitakari, Olli T; Gerszten, Robert E; Casas, Juan-Pablo; Chaturvedi, Nish; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Salomaa, Veikko

    2015-03-03

    High-throughput profiling of circulating metabolites may improve cardiovascular risk prediction over established risk factors. We applied quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics to identify the biomarkers for incident cardiovascular disease during long-term follow-up. Biomarker discovery was conducted in the National Finnish FINRISK study (n=7256; 800 events). Replication and incremental risk prediction was assessed in the Southall and Brent Revisited (SABRE) study (n=2622; 573 events) and British Women's Health and Heart Study (n=3563; 368 events). In targeted analyses of 68 lipids and metabolites, 33 measures were associated with incident cardiovascular events at P<0.0007 after adjusting for age, sex, blood pressure, smoking, diabetes mellitus, and medication. When further adjusting for routine lipids, 4 metabolites were associated with future cardiovascular events in meta-analyses: higher serum phenylalanine (hazard ratio per standard deviation, 1.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.24; P=4×10(-10)) and monounsaturated fatty acid levels (1.17; 1.11-1.24; P=1×10(-8)) were associated with increased cardiovascular risk, while higher omega-6 fatty acids (0.89; 0.84-0.94; P=6×10(-5)) and docosahexaenoic acid levels (0.90; 0.86-0.95; P=5×10(-5)) were associated with lower risk. A risk score incorporating these 4 biomarkers was derived in FINRISK. Risk prediction estimates were more accurate in the 2 validation cohorts (relative integrated discrimination improvement, 8.8% and 4.3%), albeit discrimination was not enhanced. Risk classification was particularly improved for persons in the 5% to 10% risk range (net reclassification, 27.1% and 15.5%). Biomarker associations were further corroborated with mass spectrometry in FINRISK (n=671) and the Framingham Offspring Study (n=2289). Metabolite profiling in large prospective cohorts identified phenylalanine, monounsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids as biomarkers for cardiovascular risk

  19. Rate of recurrent anaphylaxis and associated risk factors among Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangil; Bashore, Curtis; Lohse, Christine M; Bellolio, M Fernanda; Chamberlain, Alanna; Yuki, Kumi; Hess, Erik P; Campbell, Ronna L

    2016-12-01

    The rate and risk factors for recurrence of anaphylaxis are not well known. To measure the rate and risk factors for recurrent anaphylaxis in a population-based cohort in Olmsted County, Minnesota. We conducted a population-based cohort study using the Rochester Epidemiology Project, a comprehensive medical records linkage system, to obtain records of patients who presented to medical centers within the Olmsted County area with anaphylaxis from January 1, 2001, through December 31, 2010. We evaluated the rate and associations of risk factors with anaphylaxis recurrence. Among the 611 patients with anaphylaxis, 50 (8%) experienced a total of 60 recurrences within the 10-year period, resulting in a recurrence rate of 2.6 per 100 person-years. A history of atopic dermatitis (hazard ratio [HR], 5.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0-16.1; P = .001), presenting symptoms of cough (HR, 4.7; 95% CI, 2.1-10.7; P < .001) oral pruritus (HR, 9.9; 95% CI, 4.3-23.2; P < .001), and receiving corticosteroids (HR, 5.2; 95% CI, 2.3-11.7; P < .001) were associated with an increased risk of recurrence. The cardiovascular symptom of chest pain (HR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.07-0.79; P = .02) was associated with a decreased risk of recurrence. In this epidemiologic study, the rate of recurrence was 8% during the 10-year study period (recurrence rate of 2.6 per 100 person-years). Those with atopic dermatitis and mucocutaneous or respiratory symptoms were more likely to have a recurrent anaphylactic event. Our findings underscore the importance of early patient access to self-injectable epinephrine and referral to an allergist/immunologist for additional testing and education. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mood disorder, anxiety, and suicide risk among subjects with alcohol abuse and/or dependence: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Carolina D; Moreira, Fernanda P; Zago, Alethea; Souza, Luciano M; Branco, Jeronimo C; Oliveira, Jacqueline F de; Silva, Ricardo A da; Portela, Luis V; Lara, Diogo R; Jansen, Karen; Oses, Jean P

    2017-06-22

    To evaluate the prevalence of alcohol abuse and/or dependence in a population-based sample of young adults and assess the prevalence of comorbid mood disorders, anxiety, and suicide risk in this population. This cross-sectional, population-based study enrolled 1,953 young adults aged 18-35 years. The CAGE questionnaire was used to screen for alcohol abuse and/or dependence, with CAGE scores ≥ 2 considered positive. Psychiatric disorders were investigated through the structured Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Alcohol abuse and/or dependence was identified in 187 (9.60%) individuals (5.10% among women and 15.20% among men). Alcohol abuse and/or dependence were more prevalent among men than women, as well as among those who used tobacco, illicit drugs or presented with anxiety disorder, mood disorder, and suicide risk. These findings suggest that alcohol abuse and/or dependence are consistently associated with a higher prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities, could be considered important predictors of other psychiatric disorders, and deserve greater public heath attention, pointing to the need for alcohol abuse prevention programs.

  1. Risk of contracting pneumonia among patients with predialysis chronic kidney disease: a population-based cohort study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2017-09-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the association between predialysis chronic kidney disease and contracting pneumonia in Taiwan. We employed a population-based, retrospective cohort design using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) Program. There were 18807 subjects aged 20-84 years who were newly diagnosed with predialysis chronic kidney disease between 2000 to 2012 as the predialysis chronic kidney disease group and 18807 randomly selected subjects without chronic kidney disease as the non-chronic kidney disease group. The predialysis chronic kidney disease and non-chronic kidney disease groups were matched according to sex, age, comorbidities, and the year of index date. The incidence of contracting pneumonia among both groups at the end of 2013 was calculated. The multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for contracting pneumonia being associated with predialysis chronic kidney disease. The overall incidence of contracting pneumonia was 1.47-fold higher in the predialysis chronic kidney disease group than that in the non-chronic kidney disease group (24.6 vs. 16.7 per 1, 000 person-years, 95% CI 1.40, 1.55). After adjusting for co-variables, the HR of contracting pneumonia became 1.52 for subjects with predialysis chronic kidney disease (95% CI 1.43, 1.60) compared to subjects without chronic kidney disease. With even further analysis, in the absence of any comorbidity, the adjusted HR of contracting pneumonia was 1.53 for subjects with predialysis chronic kidney disease alone (95% CI 1.32, 1.76). Patients with predialysis chronic kidney disease have a 1.52-fold increased risk of contracting pneumonia as compared to those with non-chronic kidney disease. Even in the absence of any comorbidity, a greater than average risk of contracting pneumonia remains present. © Author(s) 2017. This article is published with open access by China

  2. Identification of occupational cancer risks using a population-based cancer registry.

    PubMed

    Band, P R; Spinelli, J J; Gallagher, R P; Threlfall, W J; Ng, V T; Moody, J; Raynor, D; Svirchev, L M; Kan, D; Wong, M

    1990-01-01

    The study of Xuan Wei fuel use and lung cancer mortality and also the interim case-control study suggested an association between domestic smoky coal use and Xuan Wei lung cancer. The collaborative studies of physical characterization, chemical analysis, and toxicology further substantiated this linkage. The Xuan Wei residents who used smoky coal inhaled extremely high concentrations of mostly submicron-sized particles, which can be inhaled and deposited effectively deep in the lung. These fine particles were composed mostly of organic compounds (72%), including mutagenic and carcinogenic organic compounds, especially in the aromatic and polar fractions. These residents were exposed to polycyclic aromatic compounds, such as benzo[a]pyrene, at comparable or higher levels than those measured in coke oven plants and other occupational environments (International Agency for Research on Cancer 1984). In comparison with wood and smokeless coal combustion emissions, the organic extracts of smoky coal emission particles showed much higher activity of genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. These results all point to a strong etiological link between the complex organic mixtures from smoky coal emissions and Xuan Wei lung cancer. This study and studies reported by other investigators (de Koning et al. 1984) suggested little association between indoor open-fire wood smoke and lung cancer. The less efficient lung deposition of the larger particles from wood combustion, as well as the lower concentrations of biologically active organic compounds, may contribute to the low rate of lung cancer in the wood-burning communes. As to the smokeless coal emissions, the lower particulate concentration and the lower organic content of the particles emitted may also contribute to the low lung cancer rate in the commune using this fuel. In conclusion, the complex organic mixtures from combustion emissions are genotoxic and carcinogenic in animal and in vitro assays. The magnitude of the cancer

  3. Thalassaemia and risk of cancer: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Wei-Sheng; Lin, Chun-Liang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-11-01

    Studies that have investigated the epidemiological relationship between thalassaemia and cancers are scarce. Therefore, we conducted a longitudinal nationwide cohort study to determine whether patients with thalassaemia are at an increased risk of cancer. We investigated the incidence and risk of cancer in 2655 patients diagnosed with thalassaemia between 1998 and 2010 by using data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. The comparison cohort comprised 10 620 people from the general population without thalassaemia. The follow-up period extended from the diagnostic date for thalassaemia to the date of a cancer diagnosis, censoring or 31 December 2011. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to analyse the risks of cancer. The incidences of cancer were 3.96 and 2.60/1000 person-years for the thalassaemia and comparison cohorts, respectively. The overall incidence of cancer was 52% higher in the thalassaemia cohort than in the comparison cohort, with an adjusted HR (aHR) of 1.54 (95% CI 1.15 to 2.07). Patients with thalassaemia had a considerably higher risk of haematological malignancy (aHR=5.32, 95% CI 2.18 to 13.0) and abdominal cancer (aHR=1.96, 95% CI 1.22 to 3.15) than did the comparison cohort. Furthermore, patients with thalassaemia with transfusion exhibited a 9.31-fold risk for developing haematological malignancy and a 9.12-fold risk for developing abdominal cancer compared with those who did not receive transfusion. This nationwide retrospective cohort study indicates that patients with thalassaemia carried substantial risks of haematological malignancy and abdominal cancer compared with those of the general population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Risk factors for colonoscopic perforation: A population-based study of 80118 cases

    PubMed Central

    Hamdani, Uzair; Naeem, Raza; Haider, Fyeza; Bansal, Pardeep; Komar, Michael; Diehl, David L; Kirchner, H Lester

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To assess the incidence and risk factors associated with colonic perforation due to colonoscopy. METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study. Patients were retrospectively eligible for inclusion if they were 18 years and older and had an inpatient or outpatient colonoscopy procedure code in any facility within the Geisinger Health System during the period from January 1, 2002 to August 25, 2010. Data are presented as median and inter-quartile range, for continuous variables, and as frequency and percentage for categorical variables. Baseline comparisons across those with and without a perforation were made using the two-sample t-test and Pearson’s χ2 test, as appropriate. RESULTS: A total of 50 perforations were diagnosed out of 80118 colonoscopies, which corresponded to an incidence of 0.06% (95%CI: 0.05-0.08) or a rate of 6.2 per 10000 colonoscopies. All possible risk factors associated with colonic perforation with a P-value < 0.1 were checked for inclusion in a multivariable log-binomial regression model predicting 7-d colonic perforation. The final model resulted in the following risk factors which were significantly associated with risk of colonic perforation: age, gender, body mass index, albumin level, intensive care unit (ICU) patients, inpatient setting, and abdominal pain and Crohn’s disease as indications for colonoscopy. CONCLUSION: The cumulative 7 d incidence of colonic perforation in this cohort was 0.06%. Advanced age and female gender were significantly more likely to have perforation. Increasing albumin and BMI resulted in decreased risk of colonic perforation. Having a colonoscopy indication of abdominal pain or Crohn’s disease resulted in a higher risk of colonic perforation. Colonoscopies performed in inpatients and particularly the ICU setting had substantially greater odds of perforation. Biopsy and polypectomy did not increase the risk of perforation and only three perforations occurred with screening colonoscopy

  5. Breast cancer risk factors in Queensland women attending population-based mammography screening.

    PubMed

    Protani, Melinda; Page, Andrew; Taylor, Richard; Glazebrook, Roz; Lahmann, Petra H; Branch, Elise; Muller, Jennifer

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence of established modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors associated with breast cancer in Queensland (Australia) women. Cross-sectional prevalence study of 9792 women (58% of women sent the questionnaire) attending BreastScreen Queensland Screening and Assessment Services between November 2008 and February 2009. Prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each risk factor, stratified by age-group (45-49 years, 50-59 years, 60-69 years, ≥70 years). First-degree family history (FH) of breast cancer (mother, sister, daughter), reproductive history, behavioural factors, co-morbidities, use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and alternatives, and socio-demographic factors. The prevalence of first-degree FH of breast cancer was 16% and a previous diagnosis of breast cancer was 3.5%; both are considered major risk factors for breast cancer. The prevalence of modifiable breast cancer risk factors of moderate risk were: current HRT use (12%), HRT use within the past 5 years (7%), overweight [body mass index 25-29] (33%) or obesity [BMI>30] (27%), alcohol consumption [≥11 drinks/week] (10%), sedentary behaviour (70%), and low fruit (34%) and vegetable consumption (69%). These risk factors tended to be higher in younger women (45-49 years) compared to older women (>50 years). Prevalence of risk factors in Queensland women were largely consistent with other Australian and international studies. Hormone therapy use is lower than previously reported estimates in Australia and internationally. The comparatively high prevalence of modifiable lifestyle factors which have been shown to be moderately associated with breast cancer are potential targets for reducing the public health burden of breast cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Migraine headache and risk of self-harm and suicide: A population-based study in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Colman, Ian; Kingsbury, Mila; Sareen, Jitender; Bolton, James; van Walraven, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Migraine has been associated with mental illness, and may also be associated with increased risk of suicidal behavior. The aim of this article was to examine the association between migraine headache and self-harm and suicide mortality using population-based health administrative data from Ontario, Canada. The sample included 101,114 participants in a population-based health survey in the province of Ontario, Canada, who responded to the survey in 2003, 2005, or 2007, and provided health card numbers for linkage to population-based health administrative data. Participants self-reported a physician diagnosis of migraine headache. Heath administrative data were used to calculate (1) Follow-up time until first presentation to the emergency department for intentional self-harm; (2) Follow-up time until death by suicide. Proportional subdistribution hazards regression was used to compare time until death among those with and without history of migraine, after accounting for competing risks of death and adjusting for confounders. Physician diagnosis of migraine was reported by 11.2% of the sample (11,314 individuals). Mean follow-up time was 7.3 years. Emergency department visits for self-harm during the follow-up period were almost 50% more likely in those with migraine (76.4 vs 35.7 per 100,000 person years; adjusted hazard ratio = 1.48; 95%CI: 1.11,1.96). Death by suicide was rare with only 55 suicides in the follow-up period (7.45 per 100,000 person-years). Risk of suicide was similar for both those with and without history of migraine headache (adjusted hazard ratio=0.60; 95%CI: 0.22,1.65). Physician diagnosis of migraine headache was found to be prospectively associated with increased risk of deliberate self-harm, but there was no evidence linking it to suicide mortality. Definitively linking migraine to death by suicide may require very large samples. Health care professionals should consider monitoring suicidal risk in individuals with migraine headache.

  7. Risk factors for fracture in elderly men: a population-based prospective study.

    PubMed

    Frost, M; Abrahamsen, B; Masud, T; Brixen, K

    2012-02-01

    Risk factors for fractures were assessed in a random sample of 4,696 elderly men followed for 5.4 years. Results highlighted the importance of assessment of falls and dizziness as well as novel risk factors including frequent urination and erectile dysfunction. Knowledge about risk factors for fracture in men is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate factors potentially associated with fracture risk in men. A questionnaire enquiring about potential risk factors for fractures in men was posted to a random sample of 9,314 men aged 60-74 years. A completed questionnaire was returned by 4,696 (50.4%). Follow-up on incident fractures over 5.4 years was performed using public registries. During the study, 203 individuals experienced a first clinical fracture, of which 85 patients were considered osteoporotic (9 in humerus, 10 vertebral, 32 in the hip and 34 in the forearm). Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to evaluate risk factors for any and osteoporotic fractures. The following variables were found to be associated with increased risk of any fracture in adjusted models family history of a hip fracture (HR; 95%CI: 1.56; 1.05-2.33), falls (2-4/year: 2.10; 1.35-3.27, >4/year: 2.46; 1.12-5.41, both compared to no falls), dizziness (2.36; 1.51-3.71), erectile dysfunction (1.41; 1.06-1.87) and frequent urination (2.06; 1.26-3.39). Similarly, falls (2.36; 1.45-3.86), dizziness (2.83; 1.52-5.25), erectile dysfunction (2.01; 1.30-3.09) and pulmonary illness (1.90; 1.03-3.53) were associated with increased risk of osteoporotic fractures in adjusted models. These results underline the importance of assessment of dizziness, falls and those with a family history of hip fracture. Frequent urination and erectile dysfunction were independently associated with increased fracture risk. Although the mechanism of association is unknown, these variables are likely to be indicators of frailty or hypogonadism.

  8. Comprehensive, Population-Based Sensitivity Analysis of a Two-Mass Vocal Fold Model

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Daniel; Zañartu, Matías; Cook, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Previous vocal fold modeling studies have generally focused on generating detailed data regarding a narrow subset of possible model configurations. These studies can be interpreted to be the investigation of a single subject under one or more vocal conditions. In this study, a broad population-based sensitivity analysis is employed to examine the behavior of a virtual population of subjects and to identify trends between virtual individuals as opposed to investigating a single subject or model instance. Four different sensitivity analysis techniques were used in accomplishing this task. Influential relationships between model input parameters and model outputs were identified, and an exploration of the model’s parameter space was conducted. Results indicate that the behavior of the selected two-mass model is largely dominated by complex interactions, and that few input-output pairs have a consistent effect on the model. Results from the analysis can be used to increase the efficiency of optimization routines of reduced-order models used to investigate voice abnormalities. Results also demonstrate the types of challenges and difficulties to be expected when applying sensitivity analyses to more complex vocal fold models. Such challenges are discussed and recommendations are made for future studies. PMID:26845452

  9. Diabetes and risk of incident cancer: a large population-based cohort study in Israel.

    PubMed

    Chodick, Gabriel; Heymann, Anthony D; Rosenmann, Lena; Green, Manfred S; Flash, Shira; Porath, Avi; Kokia, Ehud; Shalev, Varda

    2010-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus has been associated with an increased risk of a variety of cancers in observational studies, but few have reported the relationship between diabetes and cancer risk in men and women separately. The main goal of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the sex-specific risk of incident overall and site-specific cancer among people with DM compared with those without, who had no reported history of cancer at the start of the follow-up in January 2000. During an average of 8 years of follow-up (SD = 2.5), we documented 1,639 and 7,945 incident cases of cancer among 16,721 people with DM and 83,874 free of DM, respectively. In women, DM was associated with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.96 (95% CI: 1.53-2.50) and 1.41 (95% CI: 1.20-1.66) for cancers of genital organs and digestive organs, respectively. A significantly reduced HR was observed for skin cancer (0.38; 95% CI: 0.22-0.66). In men with DM, there was no significant increase in overall risk of cancer. DM was related with a 47% reduction in the risk of prostate cancer. These findings suggest that the nature of the association between DM and cancer depends on sex and specific cancer site.

  10. Risk of cancer among patients with herpes zoster infection: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Ping; Liu, Chia-Jen; Hu, Yu-Wen; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Lin, Yi-Tsung; Fung, Chang-Phone

    2012-01-01

    Background: Whether the risk of cancer is increased among patients with herpes zoster is unclear. We investigated the risk of cancer among patients with herpes zoster using a nationwide health registry in Taiwan. Methods: We identified 35 871 patients with newly diagnosed herpes zoster during 2000–2008 from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We analyzed the standardized incidence ratios for various types of cancer. Results: Among patients with herpes zoster, 895 cases of cancer were reported. Patients with herpes zoster were not at increased risk of cancer (standardized incidence ratio 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.93–1.06). Among the subgroups stratified by sex, age and years of follow-up, there was also no increased risk of overall cancer. Interpretation: Herpes zoster is not associated with increased risk of cancer in the general population. These findings do not support extensive investigations for occult cancer or enhanced surveillance for cancer in patients with herpes zoster. PMID:22988158

  11. Use of lithium and cancer risk in patients with bipolar disorder: population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ru-Yu; Hsieh, Kun-Pin; Huang, Wan-Wen; Yang, Yi-Hsin

    2016-11-01

    Lithium inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3, which is an enzyme involved in the pathogenesis of cancer. To investigate the association between lithium and cancer risk in patients with bipolar disorder. A retrospective cohort study was designed using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan. Patients using lithium comprised the index drug group and patients using anticonvulsants only comprised the control group. Time-dependent Cox regression was used to evaluate the hazard ratios (HRs) for risk of cancer. Compared with anticonvulsant-only exposure, lithium exposure was associated with significantly lower cancer risk (HR = 0.735, 95% CI 0.554-0.974). The hazard ratios for the first, second and third tertiles of the cumulative defined daily dose were 0.762 (95% CI 0.516-1.125), 0.919 (95% CI 0.640-1.318) and 0.552 (95% CI 0.367-0.831), respectively. Lithium is associated with reduced overall cancer risk in patients with bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship for cancer risk reduction was observed. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  12. Peripheral labour market position and risk of disability pension: a prospective population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Klas; Aronsson, Gunnar; Marklund, Staffan; Wikman, Anders; Floderus, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate what impact individuals’ position in a labour market core–periphery structure may have on their risk of disability pension (DP) in general and specifically on their risk of DP based on mental or musculoskeletal diagnoses. Methods The study comprised 45 567 individuals who had been interviewed for the annual Swedish Surveys of Living Conditions (1992–2007). The medical DP diagnoses were obtained from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency (1993–2011). The assumed predictors were studied in relation to DP by Cox's proportional hazards regression. The analyses were stratified on sex and age, controlling for social background and self-reported long-standing illness at baseline. Results All three indicators underlying the categorisation of the core–periphery structure: employment income, work hours and unemployment, increased the risk of DP in all strata. The risk of DP tended to increase gradually the more peripheral the labour market position was. The risk estimates for DP in general and for DP based on mental diagnoses were particularly high among men aged 20–39 years. Conclusions The core–periphery position of individuals, representing their labour market attachment, was found to be a predictor of future DP. The association was most evident among individuals below 40 years of age with regard to DP based on mental diagnoses. This highlights the need for preventative measures that increase the participation of young people in working life. PMID:25142263

  13. Snus and risk of gastroesophageal reflux. A population-based case-control study: the HUNT study.

    PubMed

    Lie, Tina Malene; Bomme, Maria; Hveem, Kristian; Hansen, Jane Møller; Ness-Jensen, Eivind

    2017-02-01

    Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for gastroesophageal reflux, but whether other tobacco products increase the risk is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate if snus increases the risk of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (GERS). The study was based on the third Nord-Trøndelag health study (HUNT3), a population-based study of all adult residents in Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway, performed in 2006-2009. The association between self-reported severe heartburn/regurgitation and snus use was assessed by logistic regression. Compared to never snus users, daily snus users had a reduced risk of GERS (OR 0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64-0.93), while previous snus users and those using <2 boxes of snus/month had an increased risk (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.00-1.46 and OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.02-1.96, respectively). There was no association between age when starting using snus and GERS. Snus users who started using snus to quit or cut down on cigarette smoking, who started using both snus and cigarettes or cigarettes alone had an increased risk of GERS. Snus users <30 years of age had an increased risk of GERS (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.02-2.16), while those aged between 50-60 and 60-70 years had a reduced risk (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.49-0.93 and OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.28-0.94, respectively). Daily snus users had a reduced risk of GERS. However, previous snus users and subgroups of snus users had an increased risk of GERS indicating reverse causality, such that snus use could increase the risk of GERS.

  14. Burnout and behavior-related health risk factors: results from the population-based Finnish Health 2000 study.

    PubMed

    Ahola, Kirsi; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Kouvonen, Anne; Rossi, Helena; Aromaa, Arpo; Lönnqvist, Jouko

    2012-01-01

    To explore the relationship between burnout and behavior-related health risk factors. We collected data from a population-based sample (n = 3264) through interviews, questionnaires, and health examinations. Burnout was assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and leisure-time physical activity were self-reported. Obesity was based on measurements at screening. Burnout and exhaustion were associated with a higher likelihood of risk factors. More specifically, burnout syndrome was related to low physical activity and obesity, exhaustion dimension to low physical activity and heavy drinking, cynicism dimension to low physical activity, and diminished professional efficacy to low physical activity, obesity, and lower likelihood of heavy drinking. Improving working conditions and psychoeducation on recommended ways of coping and recovery could help to prevent negative health consequences of chronic work stress.

  15. Does urticaria risk increase in patients with celiac disease? A large population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ludvigsson, Jonas F.; Lindelöf, Bernt; Rashtak, Shadi; Rubio-Tapia, Alberto; Murray, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Case reports and smaller case-control studies suggest an association between celiac disease (CD) and urticaria, but risk estimates have varied considerably across studies and as yet there are no studies on CD and the risk of future urticaria. Objective To examine the association between CD and urticaria. Methods We identified 28,900 patients with biopsy-verified CD (equal to Marsh stage 3) and compared them with 143,397 age- and sex-matched controls with regards to the risk of urticaria and chronic urticaria (duration ≥6 weeks). Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using a Cox regression model. Results During follow-up, 453 patients with CD and no previous diagnosis of urticaria developed urticaria (expected n=300) and 79 of these 453 had chronic urticaria (expected n=41). The corresponding HRs were 1.51 for any urticaria (95%CI=1.36–1.68) and 1.92 for chronic urticaria (95%CI=1.48–2.48). The absolute risk for urticaria in CD was 140/100,000 person-years (excess risk=47/100,000 person-years). Corresponding figures for chronic urticaria were 24/100,00 person-years and 12/100,000 person-years. Patients with CD were also at increased risk of having both urticaria (odds ratio, OR=1.31; 95%CI=1.12–1.52) and chronic urticaria (OR=1.54; 95%CI=1.08–2.18) prior to the CD diagnosis. Conclusion This study suggests that CD is associated with urticaria, especially chronic urticaria. PMID:24135663

  16. Endoscopic sphincterotomy and risk of cholangiocarcinoma: a population-based cohort study in Finland and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Strömberg, Cecilia; Böckelman, Camilla; Song, Huan; Ye, Weimin; Pukkala, Eero; Haglund, Caj; Nilsson, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Elevated long-term risk of cholangiocarcinoma is reported after endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES), but in a previous study we found a trend towards a decreased risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association in a larger cohort with a longer follow-up. Patients and methods: Data concerning all patients having had an inpatient endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) were collected from the hospital discharge registries of Finland and Sweden. Incident cases of malignancy were identified through linkage to the nationwide Cancer Registries. Patients with a diagnosis of malignancy, before or within 2 years of the ERCP, were excluded. The cohorts were followed until a diagnosis of malignancy, death or emigration, or end of follow-up (end of 2010). The relative risk of malignancy was calculated as standardized incidence ratio (SIR) compared with the general population, inherently adjusting for age, gender, and calendar year of follow-up. Results: A total of 69 925 patients undergoing ERCP from 1976 through 2008 were included in the pooled cohort. ES was performed in 40 193 subjects. The risk of malignancy was elevated in the total cohort (SIR = 2.3; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 2.1 – 2.5) irrespective of whether ES was performed or not. The SIRs diminished with duration of follow-up. Conclusions: We found an elevated risk of malignancy both in the bile ducts alone and in the bile ducts, liver or pancreas together, after ERCP. The risk was the same, regardless of whether ES had been performed or not, so ES was unlikely to be the cause, and a common carcinogenic exposure previous to the ERCP procedure, possibly ductal gallstone disease, was more likely. PMID:27747285

  17. Unemployment risk at 2 and 4 years following colorectal cancer diagnosis: a population based study.

    PubMed

    Rottenberg, Yakir; Ratzon, Navah Z; Cohen, Miri; Hubert, Ayala; Uziely, Beatrice; de Boer, Angela G E M

    2016-12-01

    About half of colorectal patients are diagnosed less than 65 years of age and they have a relatively high cure rate. However, little is known about their employment and related risk factors. The aim of the current study was to clarify the association between colorectal cancer (CRC) and subsequent risk of being unemployed. A historical prospective cohort study included baseline socio-demographic measurements of age, sex, ethnicity, residential socio-economic position and education from the 1995 Israeli National Census, cancer incidence between 2000 and 2007 and employment data between 1998 and 2011. Binary logistic regression analyses were used to assess odds ratios for unemployment, while controlling for socio-economic measurements and employment status at 2 years prior to diagnosis. The final study population included 885 colorectal patients and 2646 healthy controls. After controlling for confounders, positive associations were found between stages II (odds ratio [OR] = 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.31-2.76 or III (OR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.13-2.54) and increased risk for unemployment at 2 years. At 4 years follow-up, stages I (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.11-2.19), II (OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.09-2.26) and III (OR = 2.28, 95% CI: 1.55-3.37) were associated with increased risk for unemployment. Higher risk was seen among rectal cancer patients and among patients aged ≤50 years old at the time of cancer diagnosis. CRC patients are at increased long-term risk for unemployment, especially among rectal cancer and younger patients. The clinical ramifications of our findings emphasise the importance of an accurate evaluation and attention to unemployment status during the care of these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence and risk of migraine in patients with rosacea: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Egeberg, Alexander; Ashina, Messoud; Gaist, David; Gislason, Gunnar H; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2017-03-01

    Rosacea features increased neurovascular reactivity; migraine is a complex neurologic disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of headache associated with nausea and increased sensitivity to light and sound. We evaluated the prevalence and risk of new-onset migraine in patients with rosacea. All Danish individuals 18 years of age or older were linked in nationwide registers. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by Cox regression. In the total cohort (n = 4,361,688), there were 49,475 patients with rosacea. Baseline prevalence of migraine was 7.3% and 12.1% in the reference population and in patients with rosacea, respectively. The fully adjusted HR of migraine was 1.31 (95% confidence interval 1.23-1.39) for patients with rosacea. Patients with phymatous rosacea (n = 594) had no increased risk of migraine (adjusted HR 0.45; 95% confidence interval 0.11-1.80), whereas patients with ocular rosacea (n = 6977) had a 69% increased risk (adjusted HR 1.69; 95% confidence interval 1.43-1.99). Notably, the risk was higher among patients age 50 years or older than in younger individuals, and the risk was only significant among women. We were unable to distinguish between migraine subtypes. We found a significantly higher prevalence and risk of incident migraine especially in female patients with rosacea. These data add to the accumulating evidence for a link between rosacea and the central nervous system. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Association Between Zolpidem Use and Glaucoma Risk: A Taiwanese Population-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Yi-Hao; Chang, Yue-Cune; Huang, Wei-Cheng; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Che-Chen; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, the relationship between zolpidem use and subsequent risk of glaucoma in a Taiwanese population has not been assessed. Methods We used data from the National Health Insurance system to investigate whether zolpidem use was related to glaucoma risk. A 1:4 matched case-control study was conducted. The cases were patients newly diagnosed with glaucoma from 2001 to 2010. The controls were randomly selected non-glaucoma subjects matched by sex and age (±5 years). Zolpidem exposure and/or the average dosage of zolpidem used (mg/year) were evaluated. Medical comorbidities were considered as confounding factors. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the potential risk of zolpidem exposure on glaucoma with/without adjustment for the effects of confounding variables. Results The exposure rate of zolpidem use in the glaucoma group was significantly higher than that of the control group (2.8% vs. 2.0%, P < 0.0001). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of the risk of glaucoma for those with zolpidem use vs. those without was 1.19 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02–1.38). Compared to non-zolpidem users, zolpidem users with an average dose of more than 200 mg/year had significantly increased risk of glaucoma (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.03–1.68). Conclusions This study suggests that the use of zolpidem might increase the risk of subsequent glaucoma. Further confirmatory studies are recommended to clarify this important issue. PMID:25720944

  20. Causes and risk factors for mortality within 1 year after obesity surgery in a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tao, Wenjing; Plecka-Östlund, Magdalena; Lu, Yunxia; Mattsson, Fredrik; Lagergren, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    The use of obesity surgery has increased during the past decade. There is a need for population-based assessments of causes and risk factors for postoperative mortality. The objective of this study was to assess causes and risk factors for 1-year mortality after obesity surgery. This nationwide retrospective population-based cohort study included essentially all obesity surgery patients in Sweden from 1980-2010. Data were collected from Swedish national registries and medical records. Patient characteristics, co-morbidities, and surgical procedures were assessed in relation to 1-year mortality through multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression, providing hazard ratios (HR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for age, sex, surgical procedure, surgical access, and co-morbidity. Among 22,487 obesity surgery patients the 1-year cumulative mortality was .38% (n = 85). Follow-up of cohort was complete. Median time of postoperative death was 45 days. Main causes of death included cardiopulmonary complications (myocardial infarction [n = 14; 16%], pulmonary embolism [n = 12; 14%], sudden cardiac arrest [n = 11; 13%]), and anastomotic leak (n = 12; 14%). Male sex (HR = 2.31; 95% CI 1.48-3.60), diabetes (HR = 2.47; 95% CI 1.44-4.23), and congestive heart failure (HR = 4.82; 95% CI 2.25-10.35) were independently associated with increased 1-year mortality, while age, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, coronary heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and surgical procedure were not. Open surgery entailed an increased mortality compared to laparoscopic surgery from 2000-2010 (HR = 2.72; 95% CI 1.53-4.83), but not from 1990-1999 (HR = .39; 95% CI .11-1.32). Although the absolute risk of mortality is low, the increased relative risk of mortality associated with male sex, diabetes, congestive heart failure, and open surgical access could influence clinical decision making. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published

  1. Risk of erectile dysfunction in transfusion-naive thalassemia men: a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Guang; Lin, Te-Yu; Lin, Cheng-Li; Dai, Ming-Shen; Ho, Ching-Liang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-04-01

    Based on the mechanism of pathophysiology, thalassemia major or transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients may have an increased risk of developing organic erectile dysfunction resulting from hypogonadism. However, there have been few studies investigating the association between erectile dysfunction and transfusion-naive thalassemia populations. We constructed a population-based cohort study to elucidate the association between transfusion-naive thalassemia populations and organic erectile dysfunction. This nationwide population-based cohort study involved analyzing data from 1998 to 2010 obtained from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database, with a follow-up period extending to the end of 2011. We identified men with transfusion-naive thalassemia and selected a comparison cohort that was frequency-matched with these according to age, and year of diagnosis thalassemia at a ratio of 1 thalassemia man to 4 control men. We analyzed the risks for transfusion-naive thalassemia men and organic erectile dysfunction by using Cox proportional hazards regression models. In this study, 588 transfusion-naive thalassemia men and 2337 controls were included. Total 12 patients were identified within the thalassaemia group and 10 within the control group. The overall risks for developing organic erectile dysfunction were 4.56-fold in patients with transfusion-naive thalassemia men compared with the comparison cohort after we adjusted for age and comorbidities. Our long-term cohort study results showed that in transfusion-naive thalassemia men, there was a higher risk for the development of organic erectile dysfunction, particularly in those patients with comorbidities.

  2. Population-based cohort studies of type 2 diabetes and stomach cancer risk in Chinese men and women.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong-Li; Tan, Yu-Ting; Epplein, Meira; Li, Hong-Lan; Gao, Jing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2015-03-01

    Although positive associations have been found for diabetes and a number of cancer sites, investigations of stomach cancer are limited and the results lack consistency. In this prospective study we investigated the relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and stomach cancer risk in mainland China. We assessed the associations among T2DM, T2DM duration, and stomach cancer risk in two prospective population-based cohorts, the Shanghai Women's Health Study and the Shanghai Men's Health Study. Included in the study were 61 480 men and 74 941 women. Stomach cancer cases were identified through annual record linkage to the Shanghai Cancer Registry, and verified through home visits and review of medical charts. After a median follow-up of 7.5 years for the Shanghai Men's Health Study and 13.2 years for the Shanghai Women's Health Study, a total of 755 incident cases of stomach cancer (376 men and 379 women) were identified through to September 2013. Overall, we did not find any evidence that T2DM was associated with an increased risk of stomach cancer either in men (multi-adjusted hazard ratio = 0.83, 95% confidence interval, 0.59-1.16) or in women (multi-adjusted hazard ratio = 0.92, 95% confidence interval, 0.68-1.25). Our findings from two large prospective population-based cohorts suggest that T2DM was not associated with stomach cancer risk. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  3. Cancer risk in close relatives of women with early-onset breast cancer – a population-based incidence study

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, J H; Seersholm, N; Boice Jr, J D; Kjær, S Krüger; Jr, J F Fraumeni

    1999-01-01

    Inherited susceptibility to breast cancer is associated with an early onset and bilateral disease. The extent of familial risks has not, however, been fully assessed in population-based incidence studies. The purpose of the study was to quantify the risks for cancers of the breast, ovary and other sites of close relatives of women in whom breast cancer was diagnosed at an early age. Records collected between 1943 and 1990 at the Danish Cancer Registry were searched, and 2860 women were found in whom breast cancer was diagnosed before age 40. Population registers and parish records were used to identify 14 973 parents, siblings and offspring of these women. Cancer occurrence through to 31 December 1993 was determined within the Cancer Registry's files and compared with national incidence rates. Women with early-onset breast cancer were at a nearly fourfold increased risk of developing a new cancer later in life (268 observed vs 68.9 expected). The excess risk was most evident for second cancer of the breast (181 vs 24.5) and for ovarian cancer (20 vs 3.3). For mothers and sisters, risks for cancers of the breast and ovary were significantly increased by two- to threefold. Bilateral breast cancer and breast–ovarian cancer were very strong predictors of familial risks, with one in four female relatives predicted to develop breast and/or ovarian cancer by age 75. Mothers had a slightly increased risk of colon cancer, but not endometrial cancer. The risk for breast cancer was also increased among fathers (standardized incidence ratio 2.5; 95% CI 0.5–7.4) and especially brothers (29; 7.7–74), although based on small numbers. The risk for prostatic cancer was unremarkable. In this large population-based survey, the first-degree relatives of women who developed breast cancer before age 40 were prone to ovarian cancer as well as male and female breast cancer, but not other tumours that may share susceptibility genes with breast cancer. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign

  4. Periodontitis as a Modifiable Risk Factor for Dementia: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yao-Tung; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Hu, Chaur-Jongh; Huang, Li-Kai; Chao, Shu-Ping; Lin, Chia-Pei; Su, Emily Chia-Yu; Lee, Yi-Chen; Chen, Chu-Chieh

    2017-02-01

    To determine whether periodontitis is a modifiable risk factor for dementia. Prospective cohort study. National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Individuals aged 65 and older with periodontitis (n = 3,028) and an age- and sex-matched control group (n = 3,028). Individuals with periodontitis were compared age- and sex-matched controls with for incidence density and hazard ratio (HR) of new-onset dementia. Periodontitis was defined according to International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes 523.3-5 diagnosed by dentists. To ensure diagnostic validity, only those who had concurrently received antibiotic therapies, periodontal treatment other than scaling, or scaling more than twice per year performed by certified dentists were included. Dementia was defined according to ICD-9-CM codes 290.0-290.4, 294.1, 331.0-331.2. After adjustment for confounding factors, the risk of developing dementia was calculated to be higher for participants with periodontitis (HR = 1.16, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.32, P = .03) than for those without. Periodontitis is associated with greater risk of developing dementia. Periodontal infection is treatable, so it might be a modifiable risk factor for dementia. Clinicians must devote greater attention to this potential association in an effort to develop new preventive and therapeutic strategies for dementia. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  5. A population-based study of hepatitis D virus as potential risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jianguang; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan

    2012-05-16

    Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is dependent on the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) for transmission and replication because of its inability to produce its own coat. It remains unclear whether HDV infection increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Using the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register and Outpatient Registry, we identified 9160 patients with chronic HBV infection between 1997 and 2008, of whom 327 had chronic HDV infection and 323 had acute HDV infection. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for these patients compared with the general population. The risk of hepatocellular carcinoma was greatly increased in patients with HBV and HDV (SIR = 137.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 62.19 to 261.51). The risk of hepatocellular carcinoma among patients with HBV and HDV was increased (SIR = 6.11, 95% CI = 2.77 to 11.65) when patients with chronic HBV infection alone were used as the reference population. Similar results were observed for patients with chronic HDV infection (SIR = 99.26, 95% CI = 42.39 to 196.55). Our findings indicate that HDV is a strong risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma.

  6. Who Is Most at Risk for Intimate Partner Violence? A Canadian Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romans, Sarah; Forte, Tonia; Cohen, Marsha M.; Du Mont, Janice; Hyman, Ilene

    2007-01-01

    Whole population studies on intimate partner violence (IPV) have given contradictory information about prevalence and risk factors, especially concerning gender. The authors examined the 1999 Canadian General Social Survey data for gender patterns of physical, sexual, emotional, or financial IPV from a current or ex-partner. More women (8.6%) than…

  7. Plasma cytokine levels and risks of abdominal aortic aneurysms: A population-based prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Mengyang; Liu, Cong-Lin; Lv, Bing-Jie; Zhang, Jin-Ying; Cheng, Longxian; Cheng, Xiang; Lindholt, Jes S.; Rasmussen, Lars M.; Shi, Guo-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterized by inflammatory cell accumulation in AAA lesions that produce inflammatory cytokines and advance its pathogenesis. Peripheral cytokines may predict the degree or risk of AAA. Methods and Results ELISA determined plasma interleukin-6 (IL6), IL10, IL17A, IFN-γ, and C-reactive protein (CRP) from 476 AAA patients and 200 controls. AAA patients had lower IL6, IFN-γ, IL10, IL17A, and higher CRP than controls. IL10 correlated positively with IFN-γ, IL17A, or IL6, but not CRP in control or AAA populations. IL10 associated negatively with systolic blood pressure, whereas CRP associated positively with diastolic blood pressure and body mass index. CRP was an independent AAA risk factor and correlated positively with aortic diameters before and after adjustments for other risk factors. IFN-γ, IL17A, and CRP correlated positively with cross-sectional AAA area after adjustment. IL10 correlated positively with AAA growth rate before and after adjustment. AAA patients with CRP levels above the median doubled the risk of death. Conclusions Reduced IFN-γ, IL10, and IL17A in AAA patients, positive correlations of IFN-γ and IL17A with cross-sectional AAA area, IL10 with AAA growth rate, and IL10 with IFN-γ and IL17A suggest combined Th1, Th2, and Th17 immune responses in human AAAs. PMID:25856542

  8. Late Talkers: A Population-Based Study of Risk Factors and School Readiness Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Morgan, Paul; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne; Bitetti, Dana; Maczuga, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to (a) identify sociodemographic, pregnancy and birth, family health, and parenting and child care risk factors for being a late talker at 24 months of age; (b) determine whether late talkers continue to have low vocabulary at 48 months; and (c) investigate whether being a late talker plays a unique role in…

  9. A Population-Based Longitudinal Study of Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, James M.; Pagura, Jina; Enns, Murray W.; Grant, Bridget; Sareen, Jitender

    2010-01-01

    No longitudinal study has examined risk factors for future suicide attempts in major depressive disorder in a nationally representative sample. The objective of this study was to investigate baseline sociodemographic characteristics, comorbid mental disorders, specific depressive symptoms, and previous suicidal behavior as potential risk factors for suicide attempts at 3 years follow-up. Data came from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a large nationally representative longitudinal survey of mental illness in adults [Wave 1 (2001–2002); Wave 2 (2004–2005) n=34,653]. Logistic regression examined associations between risk factors present at Wave 1 and suicide attempts at Wave 2 (n=169) among individuals with major depressive disorder at baseline assessment (n=6004). Risk factors for incident suicide attempts at Wave 2 (n=63) were identified among those with major depressive disorder at Wave 1 and no lifetime history of suicide attempts (n=5170). Results revealed specific comorbid anxiety, personality, and substance use disorders to be associated with incident suicide attempts at Wave 2. Comorbid borderline personality disorder was strongly associated with suicide attempts in all models. Several comorbid disorders were strongly associated with suicide attempts at Wave 2 even after adjusting for previous suicidal behavior, notably posttraumatic stress disorder [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 2.20; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.27–3.83] and dependent personality disorder (AOR = 4.43; 95% CI 1.93–10.18). These findings suggest that mental illness comorbidity confers an increased risk of future suicide attempts in major depressive disorder that is not solely accounted for by past suicidal behavior. PMID:20122697

  10. A population-based longitudinal study of risk factors for suicide attempts in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Bolton, James M; Pagura, Jina; Enns, Murray W; Grant, Bridget; Sareen, Jitender

    2010-10-01

    No longitudinal study has examined risk factors for future suicide attempts in major depressive disorder in a nationally representative sample. The objective of this study was to investigate baseline sociodemographic characteristics, comorbid mental disorders, specific depressive symptoms, and previous suicidal behavior as potential risk factors for suicide attempts at 3 years follow-up. Data came from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions (NESARC), a large nationally representative longitudinal survey of mental illness in adults [Wave 1 (2001-2002); Wave 2 (2004-2005) n=34,653]. Logistic regression examined associations between risk factors present at Wave 1 and suicide attempts at Wave 2 (n=169) among individuals with major depressive disorder at baseline assessment (n=6004). Risk factors for incident suicide attempts at Wave 2 (n=63) were identified among those with major depressive disorder at Wave 1 and no lifetime history of suicide attempts (n=5170). Results revealed specific comorbid anxiety, personality, and substance use disorders to be associated with incident suicide attempts at Wave 2. Comorbid borderline personality disorder was strongly associated with suicide attempts in all models. Several comorbid disorders were strongly associated with suicide attempts at Wave 2 even after adjusting for previous suicidal behavior, notably posttraumatic stress disorder (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.20; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.27-3.83) and dependent personality disorder (AOR=4.43; 95% CI 1.93-10.18). These findings suggest that mental illness comorbidity confers an increased risk of future suicide attempts in major depressive disorder that is not solely accounted for by past suicidal behavior.

  11. Risk of reoperation after tonsillotomy versus tonsillectomy: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Odhagen, Erik; Sunnergren, Ola; Hemlin, Claes; Hessén Söderman, Anne-Charlotte; Ericsson, Elisabeth; Stalfors, Joacim

    2016-10-01

    Tonsil surgery to address upper airway obstruction in children can be performed either as a tonsillectomy (TE) or as a tonsillotomy/intracapsular/partial tonsillectomy (TT). The advantage of TT is a decreased risk of postoperative morbidity. The disadvantage is the risk of tonsil regrowth with recurrence of symptoms and/or problems with future tonsil infections, which may demand a reoperation of the tonsils. The aim of this study is to compare the risk of reoperation of the tonsils following TE and TT in children with tonsil-related upper airway obstruction. This is a retrospective register-based cohort study of the Swedish National Patient Register. All children aged 1-12 years who underwent TE or TT from 2007 to 2012 for the main indication of upper airway obstruction were included in the study. The unique Personal Identity numbers were used to follow patients over time in the register and identify additional tonsil surgery. A total of 27,535 patients were included in the study, contributing 76,054 person-years of follow-up. A total of 684 patients (2.5 %) underwent a second tonsil surgery during follow-up. The incidences of reoperation were 1.94 per 1000 person-years in the TE group and 16.34 per 1000 person-years in the TT group. The risk for reoperation was seven times higher (HR 7.16) after TT compared to TE. Younger age was significantly associated with reoperation for both TE and TT and the difference in risk between TE and TT gradually decreased with time. The most common indication for reoperation after both TE and TT was "Upper airway obstruction".

  12. Increased Risk of Tics in Children Infected with Enterovirus: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiun-Nong; Lin, Cheng-Li; Yen, Hung-Rong; Yang, Chi-Hui; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2017-05-01

    Both tics and enterovirus (EV) infections are common in children. The association between EV infections and tics has been seldom evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of diagnosed tics after EV infections in children. A nationwide retrospective cohort study was conducted to determine the risk of tics after EV infections by analyzing data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Children aged < 18 years with EV infection during 2000 to 2007 were enrolled. For comparison, non-EV-infected children were randomly selected and matched with EV-infected children at a 1:1 ratio according to sex, age, urbanization level, parental occupation, and the year of EV infection. All patients were followed up until the diagnosis of tics, death, loss to follow-up, withdrawal from the insurance system, or December 31, 2008. A total of 282,321 EV-infected and 282,317 non-EV-infected children were included in this study. The mean age was 2.39 years in both cohorts. The overall incidences of tics were 9.12 and 6.21 per 10,000 person-years in the EV-infected and non-EV-infected cohorts, respectively. Children with EV infection were significantly associated with an increased risk of tics compared with those without EV infection (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-1.5). Multivariable analyses showed that boys, children living in urbanized areas, children whose parents had white-collar jobs, and children with allergic rhinitis or bronchial asthma exhibited a significantly increased risk of tics. This study revealed an increased risk of tics after EV infection in children.

  13. Peripheral labour market position and risk of disability pension: a prospective population-based study.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Klas; Aronsson, Gunnar; Marklund, Staffan; Wikman, Anders; Floderus, Birgitta

    2014-08-20

    To investigate what impact individuals' position in a labour market core-periphery structure may have on their risk of disability pension (DP) in general and specifically on their risk of DP based on mental or musculoskeletal diagnoses. The study comprised 45,567 individuals who had been interviewed for the annual Swedish Surveys of Living Conditions (1992-2007). The medical DP diagnoses were obtained from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency (1993-2011). The assumed predictors were studied in relation to DP by Cox's proportional hazards regression. The analyses were stratified on sex and age, controlling for social background and self-reported long-standing illness at baseline. All three indicators underlying the categorisation of the core-periphery structure: employment income, work hours and unemployment, increased the risk of DP in all strata. The risk of DP tended to increase gradually the more peripheral the labour market position was. The risk estimates for DP in general and for DP based on mental diagnoses were particularly high among men aged 20-39 years. The core-periphery position of individuals, representing their labour market attachment, was found to be a predictor of future DP. The association was most evident among individuals below 40 years of age with regard to DP based on mental diagnoses. This highlights the need for preventative measures that increase the participation of young people in working life. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Spatial variation in mortality risk for hematological malignancies near a petrochemical refinery: A population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Di Salvo, Francesca; Meneghini, Elisabetta; Vieira, Veronica; Baili, Paolo; Mariottini, Mauro; Baldini, Marco; Micheli, Andrea; Sant, Milena

    2015-07-01

    The study investigated the geographic variation of mortality risk for hematological malignancies (HMs) in order to identify potential high-risk areas near an Italian petrochemical refinery. A population-based case-control study was conducted and residential histories for 171 cases and 338 sex- and age-matched controls were collected. Confounding factors were obtained from interviews with consenting relatives for 109 HM deaths and 267 controls. To produce risk mortality maps, two different approaches were applied and compared. We mapped (1) adaptive kernel density relative risk estimation for case-control studies which estimates a spatial relative risk function using the ratio between cases and controls' densities, and (2) estimated odds ratios for case-control study data using Generalized Additive Models (GAMs) to smooth the effect of location, a proxy for exposure, while adjusting for confounding variables. No high-risk areas for HM mortality were identified among all subjects (men and women combined), by applying both approaches. Using the adaptive KDE approach, we found a significant increase in death risk only among women in a large area 2-6 km southeast of the refinery and the application of GAMs also identified a similarly-located significant high-risk area among women only (global p-value<0.025). Potential confounding risk factors we considered in the GAM did not alter the results. Both approaches identified a high-risk area close to the refinery among women only. Those spatial methods are useful tools for public policy management to determine priority areas for intervention. Our findings suggest several directions for further research in order to identify other potential environmental exposures that may be assessed in forthcoming studies based on detailed exposure modeling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Vacuum assisted birth and risk for cerebral complications in term newborn infants: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have focused on cerebral complications among newborn infants delivered by vacuum extraction (VE). The aim of this study was to determine the risk for intracranial haemorrhage and/or cerebral dysfunction in newborn infants delivered by VE and to compare this risk with that after cesarean section in labour (CS) and spontaneous vaginal delivery, respectively. Methods Data was obtained from Swedish national registers. In a population-based cohort from 1999 to 2010 including all singleton newborn infants delivered at term after onset of labour by VE (n = 87,150), CS (75,216) or spontaneous vaginal delivery (n = 851,347), we compared the odds for neonatal intracranial haemorrhage, traumatic or non-traumatic, convulsions or encephalopathy. Logistic regressions were used to calculate adjusted (for major risk factors and indication) odds ratios (AOR), using spontaneous vaginal delivery as reference group. Results The rates of traumatic and non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhages were 0.8/10,000 and 3.8/1,000. VE deliveries provided 58% and 31.5% of the traumatic and non-traumatic cases, giving a ten-fold risk [AOR 10.05 (4.67-21.65)] and double risk [AOR 2.23 (1.57-3.16)], respectively. High birth weight and short mother were associated with the highest risks. Infants delivered by CS had no increased risk for intracranial hemorrhages. The risks for convulsions or encephalopathy were similar among infants delivered by VE and CS, exceeding the OR after non-assisted spontaneous vaginal delivery by two-to-three times. Conclusion Vacuum assisted delivery is associated with increased risk for neonatal intracranial hemorrhages. Although causality could not be established in this observational study, it is important to be aware of the increased risk of intracranial hemorrhages in VE deliveries, particularly in short women and large infants. The results warrant further studies in decision making and conduct of assisted vaginal delivery. PMID:24444326

  16. Defining high-risk individuals in a population-based molecular-epidemiological study of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Adrian; Myles, Jonathan P; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Duffy, Stephen W; Field, John K

    2006-05-01

    Within the framework of the Liverpool Lung Project (LLP), population-based case-control and prospective cohort studies are in progress to identify molecular and epidemiological risk factors and define populations and individuals most at risk of developing lung cancer. This report describes a strategy for selection of a high-risk population and further provides support for the inclusion of occupational and genetic risk factors in future models. Data from the case-control study (256 incident cases and 314 population controls) were analysed to define a high-risk population. Detailed lifestyle and occupational information were collected during structured interviews. Models were constructed using conditional logistic regression and included terms for age, tobacco consumption and previous respiratory disease. Smoking duration was chosen as the most important predictor of lung cancer risk [>50 years (OR 15.65, 95% CI 6.10-40.15)]. However, such a model would preclude younger individuals. Several combinations of previous respiratory disease were also considered, of which a history of bronchitis, emphysema or pneumonia (BEP) was the most significant (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.28-2.69). A high-risk subset (based on combinations of smoking duration and BEP) was identified, which have a 4.5-fold greater risk of developing lung cancer (OR 4.5, 95% CI 2.33-8.68). Future refinement of the risk model to include individuals occupationally exposed to asbestos and with the p21 genotypes is discussed. There is real potential for environmental and genetic factors to improve on risk prediction and targeting of susceptible individuals beyond the traditional models based only on smoking and age. The development of a molecular-epidemiological model will inform the development of effective surveillance, early detection and chemoprevention strategies.

  17. Spatial variation in mortality risk for haematological malignancies near a petrochemical refinery: a population-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Di Salvo, Francesca; Meneghini, Elisabetta; Vieira, Veronica; Baili, Paolo; Mariottini, Mauro; Baldini, Marco; Micheli, Andrea; Sant, Milena

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The study investigated the geographic variation of mortality risk for hematological malignancies (HMs) in order to identify potential high-risk areas near an Italian petrochemical refinery. Material and methods A population-based case-control study was conducted and residential histories for 171 cases and 338 sex- and age-matched controls were collected. Confounding factors were obtained from interviews with consenting relatives for 109 HM deaths and 267 controls. To produce risk mortality maps, two different approaches were applied. We mapped (1) adptive kernel density relative risk estimation (KDE) for case-control studies which estimates a spatial relative risk function using the ratio between cases and controls’ densities, and (2) estimated odds ratios for case-control study data using generalized additive models (GAMs) to smooth the effect of location, a proxy for exposure, while adjusting for confounding variables. Results No high-risk areas for HM mortality were identified among all subjects (men and women combined), by applying both approaches. Using the adaptive KDE approach, we found a significant increase in death risk only among women in a large area 2–6 km southeast of the refinery and the application of GAMs also identified a similarly-located significant high-risk area among women only (global p-value<0.025). Potential confounding risk factors we considered in the GAM did not alter the results. Conclusion Both approaches identified a high-risk area close to the refinery among women only. Those spatial methods are useful tools for public policy management to determine priority areas for intervention. Our findings suggest several directions for further research in order to identify other potential environmental exposures that may be assessed in forthcoming studies based on detailed exposure modeling. PMID:26073202

  18. Risk of Headache-Related Healthcare Visits in Patients With Celiac Disease: A Population-Based Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Lebwohl, Benjamin; Roy, Abhik; Alaedini, Armin; Green, Peter H R; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2016-03-12

    Patients with celiac disease (CD) are reported to be at increased risk for headaches, though large studies are lacking. We aimed to examine the risk of headache-related healthcare encounters in patients with CD in a nationwide population-based setting. In this population-based retrospective cohort study, we searched all (n = 28) pathology departments in Sweden and identified patients with CD based on the presence of villous atrophy (VA). Each patient was matched to up to 5 controls, by age, gender, calendar period, and region. Using Cox proportional hazards, we tested for an association between CD and subsequent headache-related visit. We also tested this association for those with intestinal inflammation but normal villi, and subjects with positive CD serologies but normal histology. Among 28,638 patients with CD and 143,126 controls, headache-related visit occurred in 1,337 (4.7%) and 4,102 (2.9%), respectively. The incidence of headache-related visit was 423 per 100,000 person-years in CD patients and 254 per 100,000 person-years in controls (HR 1.66; 95% CI 1.56-1.77; P < .0001). Individuals having inflammation without VA on small intestinal biopsy (n = 12,898; HR 2.08; 95% CI 1.90-2.27; P < .0001) and those with normal mucosa but positive CD serology (n = 3,617; HR 1.83; 95% CI 1.57-2.12; P < .0001) were also at increased risk for headache-related visit. In this population-based study we found a significantly increased risk of headache-related visits in patients with CD; this increase was also present in patients with intestinal inflammation and those with positive CD serology but with normal mucosal architecture on small bowel biopsy. Though limited by surveillance bias, this study indicates that headache-related visits are more common in these populations. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  19. Hospital variation and risk factors for bronchopulmonary dysplasia in a population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Lapcharoensap, Wannasiri; Gage, Susan C; Kan, Peiyi; Profit, Jochen; Shaw, Gary M; Gould, Jeffrey B; Stevenson, David K; O'Brodovich, Hugh; Lee, Henry C

    2015-02-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains a serious morbidity in very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants (<1500 g). Deregionalization of neonatal care has resulted in an increasing number of VLBW infants treated in community hospitals with unknown impact on the development of BPD. To identify individual risk factors for BPD development and hospital variation of BPD rates across all levels of neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) within the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative. Retrospective cohort study (January 2007 to December 2011) from the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative including more than 90% of California's NICUs. Eligible VLBW infants born between 22 to 29 weeks' gestational age. Varying levels of intensive care. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia was defined as continuous supplemental oxygen use at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age. A combined outcome of BPD or mortality prior to 36 weeks was used. Multivariable logistic regression accounting for hospital as a random effect and gestational age as a risk factor was used to assess individual risk factors for BPD. This model was applied to determine risk-adjusted rates of BPD across hospitals and assess associations between levels of care and BPD rates. The study cohort included 15,779 infants, of which 1534 infants died prior to 36 weeks' postmenstrual age. A total of 7081 infants, or 44.8%, met the primary outcome of BPD or death prior to 36 weeks. Combined BPD or death rates across 116 NICUs varied from 17.7% to 73.4% (interquartile range, 38.7%-54.1%). Compared with level IV NICUs, the risk for developing BPD was higher for level II NICUs (odds ratio, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.02-1.49) and similar for level III NICUs (odds ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.95-1.14). Bronchopulmonary dysplasia or death prior to 36 weeks' postmenstrual age affects approximately 45% of VLBW infants across California. The wide variability in BPD occurrence across hospitals could offer insights into potential risk or preventive factors

  20. Framingham Risk Score for Prediction of Cardiovascular Diseases: A Population-Based Study from Southern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Artigao-Rodenas, Luis M.; Carbayo-Herencia, Julio A.; Divisón-Garrote, Juan A.; Gil-Guillén, Vicente F.; Massó-Orozco, Javier; Simarro-Rueda, Marta; Molina-Escribano, Francisca; Sanchis, Carlos; Carrión-Valero, Lucinio; López de Coca, Enrique; Caldevilla, David; López-Abril, Juan; Carratalá-Munuera, Concepción; Lopez-Pineda, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Background The question about what risk function should be used in primary prevention remains unanswered. The Framingham Study proposed a new algorithm based on three key ideas: use of the four risk factors with the most weight (cholesterol, blood pressure, diabetes and smoking), prediction of overall cardiovascular diseases and incorporating the concept of vascular age. The objective of this study was to apply this new function in a cohort of the general non Anglo-Saxon population, with a 10-year follow-up to determine its validity. Methods The cohort was studied in 1992-94 and again in 2004-06. The sample comprised 959 randomly-selected persons, aged 30-74 years, who were representative of the population of Albacete, Spain. At the first examination cycle, needed data for the new function were collected and at the second examination, data on all events were recorded during the follow-up period. Discrimination was studied with ROC curves. Comparisons of prediction models and reality in tertiles (Hosmer-Lemeshow) were performed, and the individual survival functions were calculated. Results The mean risks for women and men, respectively, were 11.3% and 19.7% and the areas under the ROC curve were 0.789 (95%CI, 0.716-0.863) and 0.780 (95%CI, 0.713-0.847) (P<0.001, both). Cardiovascular disease events occurred in the top risk tertiles. Of note were the negative predictive values in both sexes, and a good specificity in women (85.6%) and sensitivity in men (79.1%) when their risk for cardiovascular disease was high. This model overestimates the risk in older women and in middle-aged men. The cumulative probability of individual survival by tertiles was significant in both sexes (P<0.001). Conclusions The results support the proposal for “reclassification” of Framingham. This study, with a few exceptions, passed the test of discrimination and calibration in a random sample of the general population from southern Europe. PMID:24039972

  1. Population-based case-control study of recreational drug use and testis cancer risk confirms an association between marijuana use and nonseminoma risk.

    PubMed

    Lacson, John Charles A; Carroll, Joshua D; Tuazon, Ellenie; Castelao, Esteban J; Bernstein, Leslie; Cortessis, Victoria K

    2012-11-01

    Testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) incidence increased steadily in recent decades, but causes remain elusive. Germ cell function may be influenced by cannabinoids, and 2 prior epidemiologic studies reported that the use of marijuana may be associated with nonseminomatous TGCT. Here, the authors evaluate the relation between TGCTs and exposure to marijuana and other recreational drugs using a population-based case-control study. In total, 163 patients who were diagnosed with TGCT in Los Angeles County from December 1986 to April 1991 were enrolled, and 292 controls were matched on age, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood. Participants were asked about drug use by a structured, in-person interview. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression analysis adjusted for history of cryptorchidism; education; religiosity; and reported use of marijuana, cocaine, and amyl nitrite. Compared with never use, ever use of marijuana had a 2-fold increased risk (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.02-3.68), whereas ever use of cocaine had a negative association with TGCT (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.32-0.91). Stratification on tumor histology revealed a specific association of marijuana use with nonseminoma and mixed histology tumors (OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.08-5.42). A specific association was observed between marijuana use and the risk of nonseminoma and mixed tumors. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a negative association between cocaine use and TGCT risk. The current results warrant mechanistic studies of marijuana's effect on the endocannabinoid system and TGCT risk and caution that recreational and therapeutic use of cannabinoids by young men may confer malignant potential to testicular germ cells. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  2. A population based analysis of prognostic factors in advanced biliary tract cancer

    PubMed Central

    Renouf, Daniel; Lim, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Background Data regarding prognostic factors in advanced biliary tract cancer (BTC) remains scarce. The aim of this study was to review our institutional experience with cisplatin and gemcitabine in advanced BTC as well as to evaluate potential prognostic factors for overall survival (OS). Material and methods Consecutive patients with advanced BTC who initiated palliative chemotherapy with cisplatin and gemcitabine from 2009 to 2012 at the BC Cancer Agency were identified using the pharmacy database. Clinicopathologic variables and treatment outcome were retrospectively collected. Potential prognostic factors were assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results A total of 106 patients were included in the analysis. Median OS was 8.5 months (95% CI: 6.5-10.5). On univariate analysis, poor ECOG performance status (ECOG PS) at diagnosis, primary tumor location (extra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and unknown biliary cancer), and sites of advanced disease (extra-hepatic metastasis) were significantly associated with worse OS (P<0.001, 0.036 and 0.034, respectively). Age, gender, CA19-9, CEA, hemoglobin, neutrophil count, and prior stent were not significantly associated with OS. On multivariate analysis, ECOG PS 2/3 was the only predictor of poor OS (P<0.001), while primary location (P=0.089) and sites of advanced disease (P=0.079) had a non-significant trend towards prognostic significance. Conclusions In this population based analysis, a poorer performance status was significantly prognostic of worse OS. Although not significant in our analysis, primary tumor location and sites of advanced disease may also have prognostic relevance. PMID:25436121

  3. Prevalence of stroke risk factors and their outcomes. A population-based longitudinal epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Manchev, I C; Mineva, P P; Hadjiev, D I

    2001-01-01

    This epidemiological study was performed to determine the prevalence of stroke risk factors and their outcomes among Bulgarian urban population. Volunteers, 200 men and 300 women, aged 50-79 years, without clinical signs and symptoms of vascular disease were enrolled in the study. A structured questionnaire, physical examination, ECG records and a battery of laboratory tests were employed. All volunteers underwent a carotid Duplex scan. High LDL-cholesterol levels, hypertension, obesity, cigarette smoking and cardiac diseases were the most prevalent risk factors. The annual incidence rate for TIA was 0.96% and for ischemic stroke -0.72%. Myocardial infarction incidence rate was 0.48%. Asymptomatic carotid stenosis (ACS) of 50% or greater was significantly related to the cerebral ischemic events (OR: 4.74; 95% CI 1.24-18.16). The aggregation of ACS and alcohol abuse was also significantly associated with cerebral ischemic events (OR: 5.04; 95% CI 1.29-19.63).

  4. Determining population based mortality risk in the Department of Veterans Affairs.

    PubMed

    Stefos, Theodore; Lehner, Laura; Render, Marta; Moran, Eileen; Almenoff, Peter

    2012-06-01

    We develop a patient level hierarchical regression model using administrative claims data to assess mortality outcomes for a national VA population. This model, which complements more traditional process driven performance measures, includes demographic variables and disease specific measures of risk classified by Diagnostic Cost Groups (DCGs). Results indicate some ability to discriminate survivors and non-survivors with an area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (C-statistic) of .86. Observed to expected mortality ranges from .86 to 1.12 across predicted mortality deciles while Risk Standardized Mortality Rates (RSMRs) range from .76 to 1.29 across 145 VA hospitals. Further research is necessary to understand mortality variation which persists even after adjusting for case mix differences. Future work is also necessary to examine the role of personal behaviors on patient outcomes and the potential impact on population survival rates from changes in treatment policy and infrastructure investment.

  5. Gastroesophageal reflux disease and risk for bipolar disorder: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wan-Shan; Hu, Li-Yu; Liu, Chia-Jen; Hsu, Chih-Chao; Shen, Cheng-Che; Wang, Yen-Po; Hu, Yu-Wen; Tsai, Chia-Fen; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Chen, Pan-Ming; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Lu, Ti

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that chronic inflammation may play a vital role in the pathophysiology of both gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and bipolar disorder. Among patients with GERD, the risk of bipolar disorder has not been well characterized. We explored the relationship between GERD and the subsequent development of bipolar disorder, and examined the risk factors for bipolar disorder in patients with GERD. We identified patients who were diagnosed with GERD in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort without GERD was matched according to age, sex, and comorbidities. The occurrence of bipolar disorder was evaluated in both cohorts based on diagnosis and the prescription of medications. The GERD cohort consisted of 21,674 patients, and the comparison cohort consisted of 21,674 matched control patients without GERD. The incidence of bipolar disorder (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 2.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.58-3.36, P<.001) was higher among GERD patients than among comparison cohort. Multivariate, matched regression models showed that the female sex (hazard ratio [HR] 1.78, 95% CI 1.76-2.74, P = .008), being younger than 60 years old (HR 2.35, 95% CI 1.33-4.16, P = .003), and alcohol use disorder (HR 4.89, 95% CI 3.06-7.84, P = .004) were independent risk factors for the development of bipolar disorder among GERD patients. GERD may increase the risk of developing bipolar disorder. Based on our data, we suggest that attention should be focused on female patients younger than 60 years, and patients with alcohol use disorder, following a GERD diagnosis.

  6. Association between Coffee Consumption and Its Polyphenols with Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Andreia Machado; Steluti, Josiane; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Marchioni, Dirce Maria

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have examined the effect of coffee intake on cardiovascular disease, but the benefits and risks for the cardiovascular system remain controversial. Our objective was to evaluate the association between coffee consumption and its polyphenols on cardiovascular risk factors. Data came from the “Health Survey of São Paulo (ISA-Capital)” among 557 individuals, in São Paulo, Brazil. Diet was assessed by two 24-h dietary recalls. Coffee consumption was categorized into <1, 1–3, and ≥3 cups/day. Polyphenol intake was calculated by matching food consumption data with the Phenol-Explorer database. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), triglycerides, fasting glucose, and homocysteine) and usual coffee intake. The odds were lower among individuals who drank 1–3 cups of coffee/day to elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.45; 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 0.26, 0.78), elevated diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (OR = 0.44; 95% CI: 0.20, 0.98), and hyperhomocysteinemia (OR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.93). Furthermore, significant inverse associations were also observed between moderate intake of coffee polyphenols and elevated SBP (OR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.24, 0.87), elevated DBP (OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.98), and hyperhomocysteinemia (OR = 0.29; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.78). In conclusion, coffee intake of 1–3 cups/day and its polyphenols were associated with lower odds of elevated SBP, DBP, and hyperhomocysteinemia. Thus, the moderate consumption of coffee, a polyphenol-rich beverage, could exert a protective effect against some cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:28335422

  7. Does Migraine Increase the Risk of Glaucoma?: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated whether migraine influences the risk of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) in Taiwan.We retrieved the data analyzed in this study from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We included 17,606 newly diagnosed migraine patients without preexisting glaucoma and randomly selected and matched 70,423 subjects without migraine as the comparison cohort. The same exclusion criteria were also applied to comparison subjects. Multivariate Cox proportion-hazards regression model was used to assess the effects of migraines on the risk of glaucoma after adjusting for demographic characteristics and comorbidities.The cumulative incidence of POAG was higher in the migraine cohort than that in the comparison cohort (log-rank P = 0.04). The overall incidence of POAG (per 10,000 person-years) was 9.62 and 7.69, respectively, for migraine cohort and nonmigraine cohort (crude hazard ratio [HR] = 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-1.54). After adjusting the covariates, the risk of POAG was not significantly higher in the migraine cohort than in the comparison cohort (adjusted HR [aHR] = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.93-1.42). The cumulative incidence of PACG did not differ between the migraine cohort and the comparison cohort (log-rank test P = 0.53). The overall incidence of PACG was not significantly higher in the migraine cohort than that in the comparison cohort (7.42 vs 6.84 per 10,000 person-years), with an aHR of 1.04 (95% CI = 0.82-1.32).This study shows that migraines are not associated with a higher risk either in POAG or in PACG.

  8. Association between Coffee Consumption and Its Polyphenols with Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Andreia Machado; Steluti, Josiane; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Marchioni, Dirce Maria

    2017-03-14

    Epidemiological studies have examined the effect of coffee intake on cardiovascular disease, but the benefits and risks for the cardiovascular system remain controversial. Our objective was to evaluate the association between coffee consumption and its polyphenols on cardiovascular risk factors. Data came from the "Health Survey of São Paulo (ISA-Capital)" among 557 individuals, in São Paulo, Brazil. Diet was assessed by two 24-h dietary recalls. Coffee consumption was categorized into <1, 1-3, and ≥3 cups/day. Polyphenol intake was calculated by matching food consumption data with the Phenol-Explorer database. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), triglycerides, fasting glucose, and homocysteine) and usual coffee intake. The odds were lower among individuals who drank 1-3 cups of coffee/day to elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.45; 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 0.26, 0.78), elevated diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (OR = 0.44; 95% CI: 0.20, 0.98), and hyperhomocysteinemia (OR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.93). Furthermore, significant inverse associations were also observed between moderate intake of coffee polyphenols and elevated SBP (OR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.24, 0.87), elevated DBP (OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.98), and hyperhomocysteinemia (OR = 0.29; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.78). In conclusion, coffee intake of 1-3 cups/day and its polyphenols were associated with lower odds of elevated SBP, DBP, and hyperhomocysteinemia. Thus, the moderate consumption of coffee, a polyphenol-rich beverage, could exert a protective effect against some cardiovascular risk factors.

  9. Hyperthyroidism and Risk for Bipolar Disorders: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yu-Wen; Chen, Mu-Hong; Tsai, Chia-Fen; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Wang, Wei-Shu; Chen, Pan-Ming; Hu, Tsung-Ming; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Su, Tung-Ping; Liu, Chia-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Background Thyroid disorders have long been associated with psychiatric illness, often with symptoms suggestive of mood disorders. The most common clinical features associated with hyperthyroidism are anxiety and depression. The risk of bipolar disorders, especially bipolar mania, among patients with thyroid disorders has not been well characterized. Objective We explored the relationship of hyperthyroidism and the subsequent development of bipolar disorders, and examined the risk factors for bipolar disorders in patients with hyperthyroidism. Methods We identified patients who were diagnosed with hyperthyroidism between 2000 and 2010 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort without hyperthyroidism was matched based on age, sex, and comorbidities. The occurrence of bipolar disorders was evaluated in both cohorts based on diagnosis and the use of mood stabilizer drugs. Results The hyperthyroidism cohort consisted of 21, 574 patients, and the comparison cohort consisted of 21, 574 matched control patients without hyperthyroidism. The incidence of bipolar disorders (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 2.31, 95% CI 1.80–2.99, P<.001) was higher for the hyperthyroidism patients than the control patients. Multivariate, matched regression models showed that women (HR 2.02, 95% CI 1.34–3.05, P = .001), patients with alcohol use disorders (HR 3.03, 95% CI 1.58–5.79, P = .001), and those with asthma (HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.18–2.43, P = .004) were independent risk factors for the development of bipolar disorders in hyperthyroidism patients. Conclusions Although a possibility that the diagnosis of bipolar disorders in this study actually includes "bipolar disorders due to hyperthyroidism" cannot be excluded, this study suggests that hyperthyroidism may increase the risk of developing bipolar disorders. PMID:24023669

  10. Hyperthyroidism and risk for bipolar disorders: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Li-Yu; Shen, Cheng-Che; Hu, Yu-Wen; Chen, Mu-Hong; Tsai, Chia-Fen; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Wang, Wei-Shu; Chen, Pan-Ming; Hu, Tsung-Ming; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Su, Tung-Ping; Liu, Chia-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid disorders have long been associated with psychiatric illness, often with symptoms suggestive of mood disorders. The most common clinical features associated with hyperthyroidism are anxiety and depression. The risk of bipolar disorders, especially bipolar mania, among patients with thyroid disorders has not been well characterized. We explored the relationship of hyperthyroidism and the subsequent development of bipolar disorders, and examined the risk factors for bipolar disorders in patients with hyperthyroidism. We identified patients who were diagnosed with hyperthyroidism between 2000 and 2010 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort without hyperthyroidism was matched based on age, sex, and comorbidities. The occurrence of bipolar disorders was evaluated in both cohorts based on diagnosis and the use of mood stabilizer drugs. The hyperthyroidism cohort consisted of 21, 574 patients, and the comparison cohort consisted of 21, 574 matched control patients without hyperthyroidism. The incidence of bipolar disorders (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 2.31, 95% CI 1.80-2.99, P<.001) was higher for the hyperthyroidism patients than the control patients. Multivariate, matched regression models showed that women (HR 2.02, 95% CI 1.34-3.05, P = .001), patients with alcohol use disorders (HR 3.03, 95% CI 1.58-5.79, P = .001), and those with asthma (HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.18-2.43, P = .004) were independent risk factors for the development of bipolar disorders in hyperthyroidism patients. Although a possibility that the diagnosis of bipolar disorders in this study actually includes "bipolar disorders due to hyperthyroidism" cannot be excluded, this study suggests that hyperthyroidism may increase the risk of developing bipolar disorders.

  11. A Population-Based Study of Dietary Acrylamide and Prostate Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    occupational acrylamide exposure were thought to be limited to tobacco products and drinking water. The data establishing acrylamide as a carcinogen comes...case-control study on prostate cancer. The exposure to acrylamide was estimated by using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and by hemoglobin adducts...two estimates. The relative risk of prostate cancer was 0.97 (95% CI 0.75-1.27) for the highest quintile of exposure compare to the lowest quintile

  12. Risk of retinal detachment after cataract extraction, 1980-2004: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Erie, Jay C; Raecker, Matthew A; Baratz, Keith H; Schleck, Cathy D; Burke, James P; Robertson, Dennis M

    2006-11-01

    To estimate the long-term cumulative risk of retinal detachment (RD) after cataract extraction (CE). Retrospective cohort study and nested case-control study. All residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota who had CE from 1980 through 2004 (10 256 CEs in 7137 residents) and were diagnosed subsequently with RD in the same period. Two controls chosen from the primary cataract surgery cohort were matched to each