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Sample records for por dentista thd

  1. Kinetics of evaporation of barium THD precursors used for organometallic chemical vapor deposition (OMCVD) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtman, V.; Schieber, M.; Yitzchaik, S.; Yaroslavsky, Y.

    1997-04-01

    Various methods have been used to synthesize Ba(THD) 2 and its molecular structure has been studied using nuclear magnetic resonance. Compared with Raman and infrared spectroscopy it was found that NMR is very useful to determine quantitatively the decomposition through aging of Ba(THD) 2. The transport kinetics of Ba(THD) 2 has been studied under experimental conditions of a OMCVD reactor. It has been found that the freshly prepared Ba(THD) 2 by the reaction of Ba metal with THD ligand in anhydrous conditions with subsequent crystallization from methanol transported quantitatively without decomposition. A simple model shows that the transport kinetics corresponds to a diffusion controlled process.

  2. Demonstration of a fully differential VGA chip with small THD for ECG acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gongli, Xiao; Yuliang, Qin; Weilin, Xu; Baolin, Wei; Jihai, Duan; Xueming, Wei

    2015-10-01

    We present both a theoretical and experimental demonstration of a fully differential variable gain amplifier (VGA) with small total harmonic distortion (THD) for an electrocardiogram (ECG) acquisition system. Capacitive feedback technology is adopted to reduce the nonlinearity of VGA. The fully differential VGA has been fabricated in SMIC 0.18-μm CMOS process, and it only occupies 0.11 mm2. The measurements are in good agreement with simulation results. Experimental results show that the gain of VGA changes from 6.17 to 43.75 dB with a gain step of 3 dB. The high-pass corner frequency and low-pass corner frequency are around 0.22 Hz and 7.9 kHz, respectively. For each gain configuration, a maximal THD of 0.13% is obtained. The fully differential VGA has a low THD and its key performance parameters are well satisfied with the demands of ECG acquisition system application in the UWB wireless body area network. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61264001, 61465004, 61161003, 61166004), the Guangxi Natural Science Foundation (Nos. 2013GXNSFAA019333, 2013GXNSFAA019338), the Science and Technology Research Key Project of Guangxi Department of Education (No. 2013ZD026), and the Innovation Project of GUET Graduate Education (No. GDYCSZ201457).

  3. Cryogenic THD and DT layer implosions with high density carbon ablators in near-vacuum hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meezan, N. B.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Le Pape, S.; Khan, S. F.; Pak, A. E.; Divol, L.; Ho, D. D.; Ma, T.; Doeppner, T.; Rygg, J. R.; Field, J. E.; Jones, O. S.; Milovich, J. L.; Kozioziemski, B. J.; Hamza, A. V.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Hsing, W. W.; Edwards, M. J.

    2014-10-01

    High Density Carbon (HDC or diamond) is a promising ablator material for use in near-vacuum hohlraums, as its high density allows for ignition designs with laser pulse durations <10 ns. A series of experiments in 2013 on the National Ignition Facility culminated in a DT layered implosion driven by a 6.5 ns, 2-shock laser pulse. This talk describes these experiments and comparisons with the design code HYDRA. Backlit radiography of a THD layered capsule demonstrated an ablator implosion velocity of 385 km/s with a slightly oblate hot spot shape; however, other diagnostics suggested an asymmetric compressed fuel layer. The streak camera-based SPIDER diagnostic showed a double-peaked history of the capsule self-emission. Simulations suggest that this is a signature of a low-temperature hot spot. Changes to the laser pulse-shape and pointing for a subsequent DT implosion resulted in a higher temperature, prolate hot-spot and a thermonuclear yield of 1 . 8 ×1015 neutrons. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  4. Cryogenic THD and DT layer implosions with high density carbon ablators in near-vacuum hohlraums

    DOE PAGES

    Meezan, N. B.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Le Pape, S.; ...

    2015-06-02

    High Density Carbon (HDC or diamond) is a promising ablator material for use in near-vacuum hohlraums, as its high density allows for ignition designs with laser pulse durations of <10 ns. A series of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments in 2013 on the National Ignition Facility [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] culminated in a DT layered implosion driven by a 6.8 ns, 2-shock laser pulse. This paper describes these experiments and comparisons with ICF design code simulations. Backlit radiography of a THD layered capsule demonstrated an ablator implosion velocity of 385 km/s with a slightlymore » oblate hot spot shape. Other diagnostics suggested an asymmetric compressed fuel layer. A streak camera-based hot spot self-emission diagnostic (SPIDER) showed a double-peaked history of the capsule self-emission. Simulations suggest that this is a signature of low quality hot spot formation. Changes to the laser pulse and pointing for a subsequent DT implosion resulted in a higher temperature, prolate hot spot and a thermonuclear yield of 1.8 x 10¹⁵ neutrons, 40% of the 1D simulated yield.« less

  5. Cryogenic THD and DT layer implosions with high density carbon ablators in near-vacuum hohlraums

    SciTech Connect

    Meezan, N. B.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Le Pape, S.; Divol, L.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Döppner, T.; Ho, D. D.; Jones, O. S.; Khan, S. F.; Ma, T.; Milovich, J. L.; Pak, A. E.; Ross, J. S.; Thomas, C. A.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Field, J. E.; Haan, S. W.; Izumi, N.; Kyrala, G. A.; Moody, J. D.; Patel, P. K.; Ralph, J. E.; Rygg, J. R.; Sepke, S. M.; Spears, B. K.; Tommasini, R.; Town, R. P. J.; Biener, J.; Bionta, R. M.; Bond, E. J.; Caggiano, J. A.; Eckart, M. J.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Grim, G. P.; Hamza, A. V.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Hoover, D. E.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Kozioziemski, B. J.; Kroll, J. J.; McNaney, J. M.; Nikroo, A.; Sayre, D. B.; Stadermann, M.; Wild, C.; Yoxall, B. E.; Landen, O. L.; Hsing, W. W.; Edwards, M. J.

    2015-06-02

    High Density Carbon (HDC or diamond) is a promising ablator material for use in near-vacuum hohlraums, as its high density allows for ignition designs with laser pulse durations of <10 ns. A series of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments in 2013 on the National Ignition Facility [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] culminated in a DT layered implosion driven by a 6.8 ns, 2-shock laser pulse. This paper describes these experiments and comparisons with ICF design code simulations. Backlit radiography of a THD layered capsule demonstrated an ablator implosion velocity of 385 km/s with a slightly oblate hot spot shape. Other diagnostics suggested an asymmetric compressed fuel layer. A streak camera-based hot spot self-emission diagnostic (SPIDER) showed a double-peaked history of the capsule self-emission. Simulations suggest that this is a signature of low quality hot spot formation. Changes to the laser pulse and pointing for a subsequent DT implosion resulted in a higher temperature, prolate hot spot and a thermonuclear yield of 1.8 x 10¹⁵ neutrons, 40% of the 1D simulated yield.

  6. EVALUATION OF PROMPT DOSE ENVIRONMENT IN THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY DURING D-D AND THD SHOTS

    SciTech Connect

    Khater, H; Dauffy, L; Sitaraman, S; Brereton, S

    2009-04-28

    Evaluation of the prompt dose environment expected in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) during Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) and Tritium-Hydrogen-Deuterium (THD) shots have been completed. D-D shots resulting in the production of an annual fusion yield of up to 2.4 kJ (200 shots with 10{sup 13} neutrons per shot) are considered. During the THD shot campaign, shots generating a total of 2 x 10{sup 14} neutrons per shot are also planned. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to estimate prompt dose values inside the facility as well as at different locations outside the facility shield walls. The Target Chamber shielding, along with Target Bay and Switchyard walls, roofs, and shield doors (when needed) will reduce dose levels in occupied areas to acceptable values during these shot campaigns. The calculated dose values inside occupied areas are small, estimated at 25 and 85 {micro}rem per shot during the D-D and THD shots, respectively. Dose values outside the facility are insignificant. The nearest building to the NIF facility where co-located workers may reside is at a distance of about 100 m from the Target Chamber Center (TCC). The dose in such a building is estimated at a fraction of a ?rem during a D-D or a THD shot. Dose at the nearest site boundary location (350 m from TCC), is caused by skyshine and to a lesser extent by direct radiation. The maximum off-site dose during any of the shots considered is less than 10 nano rem.

  7. 2D THD and 3D TEHD analysis of large spindle supported thrust bearings with pins and double layer system used in the three gorges hydroelectric generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, B.; Wu, Z. D.; Wu, J. L.; Wang, L. Q.

    2012-11-01

    A 2D THD model and a 3DTEHD model for large spindle supported thrust bearings were set up and used to analyze the lubrication performance of the Three Gorges test thrust beating withpins and double layer system developed by Alstom Power. The finite difference method was employed to solve the THD model, and the thermal-elasticdeformations in the pad and runner were obtained by the finite element software ANSYS11.0. The data transfer between the THD model and ANSYS11.0 was carried out automatically by an interface program.A detailed comparison between the experimental results and numerical predictions by the two different modelsset up in this paper was carried out. Poor agreement has been found between the theoretical results obtained by 2D THD model and experimental data, while 3D TEHD provides fairly good agreement, confirming the importance of thermal effects and thermal-elastic deformations in both pad and runner.

  8. Infrared and Raman spectra of tris(dipivaloylmethanato) lanthanides, Ln(thd)3 (Ln = La, Nd, Eu, Gd, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belova, Natalya V.; Sliznev, Valery V.; Christen, Dines

    2017-03-01

    The infrared and Raman vibrational spectra of the series of solid tris(dipivaloylmethanato) lanthanides, Ln(thd)3 (Ln = La, Nd, Eu, Gd, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu), have been recorded at room temperature over wide ranges (4000-50 cm-1 and 3500-80 cm-1, respectively). The experimental spectra obtained in the present study were successfully assigned based on the quantum chemical calculations (DFT/PBE0) performed for the monomer Ln(thd)3 molecules. The experimental vibrational spectra for all complexes studied are rather similar as are the theoretical simulations. The data analysis shows that the main contributions to vibrational modes arise from the vibrations of the ligand possessing practically the same geometry for all complexes. According to the calculation results the structure of the coordination polyhedron is increasingly distorted in the series from La(thd)3 to Lu(thd)3. Although the contributions of the polyhedron vibrations in vibrational modes are not predominant, there is rise in the frequencies associated with vibrations of the coordination polyhedron LnO6 in this series. This increase has been explained by the concept of lanthanide contraction.

  9. Molecular cloning and sequence of the thdF gene involved in the thiophene and furan oxidation by Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, K.Y.; Clark, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    Since sulfur dioxide emission from burning high sulfur coals is a major contributor to acid rain, it is important to develop bacteria which are capable of efficiently removing the sulfur from coal before combustion. Inorganic sulfur can be removed from coal by certain strains of Thiobacillus or Sulfolobus; however the organic sulfur remains intransigent. Since high sulfur Illinois coals typically contain 60% to 70% of their sulfur in the form of the heterocyclic thiophene ring we have started to investigate the biodegradation of derivatives of thiophene and the corresponding oxygen heterocycle, furan. Our previous work resulted in the isolation of a triple mutant, NAR30, capable of oxidizing a range of furan and thiophene derivatives. However, NAR30 does not completely degrade thiophenes or furans and its oxidation of these compounds is slow and inefficient. We decided to clone the thd genes both in order to increase the efficiency of degradation and to investigate the nature of the reactions involved. 37 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. On the role of the bridging dicyanamidobenzene ligand in a new binuclear ruthenium complex: [{Ru(tpy)(thd)}2(mu-dicyd)][PF6] with tpy = 2,2':6',2' '-terpyridine and thd = 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedione.

    PubMed

    Fabre, Muriel; Jaud, Joël; Hliwa, Mohamed; Launay, Jean-Pierre; Bonvoisin, Jacques

    2006-11-13

    The dicyanamidobenzene-bridge diruthenium complex [{Ru(tpy)(thd)}(2)(mu-dicyd)][PF(6)] ([3][PF(6)]) (dicyd = 1,4-dicyanamidobenzene, tpy = 2,2':6',2' '-terpyridine, thd = 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedione) and its mononuclear counterpart [Ru(tpy)(thd)(Ipcyd)] (2) [Ipcyd = 4-iodophenylcyanamide anion (Ipcyd(-))] were synthesized and fully characterized. Cyclic voltammetry of 3 showed the presence of four reversible one-electron redox couples. UV-vis-NIR spectroelectrochemistry and EPR spectroscopy of the electrogenerated paramagnetic intermediates were used to ascertain the oxidation-state distribution. The stable starting dinuclear complex 3(+) is found to be a ligand-centered anion radical as shown by EPR spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and DFT calculations. Oxidation of 3(+) to 3(2+) led to an EPR silent system due to substantial intramolecular antiferromagnetic interaction of the electron spins carried by the low spin ruthenium(III) atom and the bridging anion radical dicyanamido (dicyd(*)(-)), an observation which was supported by UV-vis-NIR, X-ray structure, and DFT calculations. Complex 3(3+) presented an EPR spectra consistent with a total effective spin S = (1)/(2) issued from an antiferromagnetic interaction of electron spins carried by two low spin ruthenium(III) atoms and the bridging anion radical dicyd(*)(-) in accordance with UV-vis-NIR. This study shows that the dicyanamidobenzene bridging ligand has indubitably a noninnocent behavior.

  11. Molecular cloning and sequence of the thdF gene, which is involved in thiophene and furan oxidation by Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, K.Y.; Clark, D.P. )

    1991-10-01

    The authors' previous work resulted in the isolation of mutant strains of Escherichia coli K-12 which were able to oxidize furans and thiophenes as a result of mutations in several novel genes. Some of the genes involved in thiophene oxidation fragment which encodes a previously undiscovered gene involved in thiophene oxidation. Three proteins with approximate molecular sizes of 48, 30, and 26 kDa were overproduced by cells carrying pKA10. Maxicell experiments and DNA sequence analysis indicated that the 480 and 26-kDa proteins are encoded by pKA10, whereas the 30-kDa protein is apparently chromosomally derived. A cassette specifying kanamycin resistance was inserted into various sites on pKA10. An insertion which abolished the 48-kDa protein also abolished thiophene oxidation. Chromosomal integration of pKA::Kan allowed us to locate the chromosomal insert of pKA10 at 84 min on the E. coli genetic map by transduction. Since no previously identified genes involved in thiophene metabolism are located in this region, we designated the gene for the 48-kDa protein as thdF. Sequencing of the 3.8-kb insert revealed an overlap of several hundred bases with the regulatory and structural regions of the tnaA gene, which is also located at 84 min. The 26-kDa protein is probably truncated tnaA protein, An open reading frame corresponding to the 48-kDa thdF protein was located next to the tnaA gene, which encodes tryptophanase, but was transcribed in the opposite sense.

  12. INCLUSIÓN DE LA ÉTICA Y BIOÉTICA EN LA FORMACIÓN DE PRE Y POSGRADO DEL CIRUJANO-DENTISTA EN PERÚ

    PubMed Central

    Rupaya, Carmen Rosa García

    2009-01-01

    Se revisan aspectos de la inclusión de la ética y bioética en la formación de pre y posgrado del cirujano-dentista en Perú. Desde el punto de vista de la formación del docente, se analiza la presencia de normatividad ética en la investigación científica que genera la universidad, así como los conocimientos y actitudes vinculados con la ética y bioética en la formación del odontólogo. Se concluye que es un compromiso fomentar un cambio de paradigma, a través de un movimiento masivo que involucre los ámbitos familiar, profesional y académico, con el n de integrar la reflexión ética en nuestro diario proceder. PMID:19946384

  13. Laboratory validation of the dual-zone phase mask coronagraph in broadband light at the high-contrast imaging THD testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delorme, J. R.; N'Diaye, M.; Galicher, R.; Dohlen, K.; Baudoz, P.; Caillat, A.; Rousset, G.; Soummer, R.; Dupuis, O.

    2016-08-01

    Context. Specific high-contrast imaging instruments are mandatory to characterize circumstellar disks and exoplanets around nearby stars. Coronagraphs are commonly used in these facilities to reject the diffracted light of an observed star and enable direct imaging and spectroscopy of its circumstellar environment. One important property of the coronagraph is to be able to work in broadband light. Aims: Among several proposed coronagraphs, the dual-zone phase mask coronagraph is a promising solution for starlight rejection in broadband light. In this paper, we perform the first validation of this concept in laboratory. Methods: First, we consider the principle of the dual-zone phase mask coronagraph. Then, we describe the high-contrast imaging THD testbed, the manufacturing of the components, and the quality control procedures. Finally, we study the sensitivity of our coronagraph to low-order aberrations (inner working angle and defocus) and estimate its contrast performance. Our experimental broadband light results are compared with numerical simulations to check agreement with the performance predictions. Results: With the manufactured prototype and using a dark hole technique based on the self-coherent camera, we obtain contrast levels down to 2 × 10-8 between 5 and 17λ0/D in monochromatic light (640 nm). We also reach contrast levels of 4 × 10-8 between 7 and 17λ0/D in broadband (λ0 = 675 nm, Δλ = 250 and Δλ/λ0 = 40%), which demonstrates the excellent chromatic performance of the dual-zone phase mask coronagraph. Conclusions: The performance reached by the dual-zone phase mask coronagraph is promising for future high-contrast imaging instruments that aim to detect and spectrally characterize old or light gaseous planets.

  14. Modeling gated neutron images of THD capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Douglas Carl; Grim, Gary P; Tregillis, Ian L; Wilke, Mark D; Morgan, George L; Loomis, Eric N; Wilde, Carl H; Oertel, John A; Fatherley, Valerie E; Clark, David D; Schmitt, Mark J; Merrill, Frank E; Wang, Tai - Sen F; Danly, Christopher R; Batha, Steven H; Patel, M; Sepke, S; Hatarik, R; Fittinghoff, D; Bower, D; Marinak, M; Munro, D; Moran, M; Hilko, R; Frank, M; Buckles, R

    2010-01-01

    Time gating a neutron detector 28m from a NIF implosion can produce images at different energies. The brighter image near 14 MeV reflects the size and symmetry of the capsule 'hot spot'. Scattered neutrons, {approx}9.5-13 MeV, reflect the size and symmetry of colder, denser fuel, but with only {approx}1-7% of the neutrons. The gated detector records both the scattered neutron image, and, to a good approximation, an attenuated copy of the primary image left by scintillator decay. By modeling the imaging system the energy band for the scattered neutron image (10-12 MeV) can be chosen, trading off the decayed primary image and the decrease of scattered image brightness with energy. Modeling light decay from EJ399, BC422, BCF99-55, Xylene, DPAC-30, and Liquid A leads to a preference from BCF99-55 for the first NIF detector, but DPAC 30 and Liquid A would be preferred if incorporated into a system. Measurement of the delayed light from the NIF scintillator using implosions at the Omega laser shows BCF99-55 to be a good choice for down-scattered imaging at 28m.

  15. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-09-04

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

  16. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Gorasia, Dhana G.; Veith, Paul D.; Hanssen, Eric G.; Glew, Michelle D.; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32–36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  17. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System.

    PubMed

    Gorasia, Dhana G; Veith, Paul D; Hanssen, Eric G; Glew, Michelle D; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-08-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32-36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component.

  18. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Maxence S.; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS. PMID:27630829

  19. TH-D-16A-01: Medical Physics Workshop: Editorial Vision and Guidance On Writing and Reviewing Papers

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, J; Das, S; Goodsitt, M

    2014-06-15

    On January 1, 2014, editorial leadership of Medical Physics passed from esteemed long-time Editor Bill Hendee to a collective editorial group composed of the three presenters listed above. In this presentation, we would like to outline our vision for the future of Medical Physics and review recent work-in-progress initiatives to implement this vision. Finally, we will close with guidance to authors on how to write a good Medical Physics paper. Vision for Medical Physics and current initiatives: Jeff Williamson, Editor-in-Chief We cannot improve on Dr. Hendee's succinct vision statement “to continue the Journal's tradition of publishing the very best science that propels our discipline forward and improves our contribution to patient care.” More concretely, the Journal should be s the preeminent forum for electronic exchange of cutting edge medical physics science. We seek to identify the best contributions in (a) high impact clinical physics innovations; (b) clinical translation and validation of basic science innovations; or (c) cutting edge basic science developments with potential for patient care improvements. Among the challenges and opportunities we face are: are electronic-only and open access publishing; trends towards more interactive, social-media based scientific communities; and diversification of the medical physics research, authorship, and readership domains, including clinical applications quite foreign to core ABR clinical competencies. To address these issues over the next 3 years, we have reduced the size of our Editorial Board and focused its efforts on improving the Journal's impact through 4 working groups (WGs): WG-1: Review process quality and selectivity Creation of 120 member Board of Associate Editors to improve review uniformity by placing Ms. management in fewer hands New reviewer guidelines and templates Answer: “what is the scope of medical physics research?” Recursive taxonomy for tagging review expertise and article contents WG-2 Improving reader experience Redesigning http://MedPhys.org to host interactive features and gateway to electronic issue archive Experimentation with interactive features beginning with “Point/Counterpoint” Data mining and Journal quality evaluation Find out who are audiences are Identify characteristics of high impact articles Measure effectiveness of innovations Outreach to related communities Special issues presenting high-impact work in designated subcommunities Addressing the needs of new research constituencies: engineers, biophysicists, clinicians Guidelines and templates for reviewers and associate editors: Shiva Das, Therapy Physics Editor We will discuss the Med. Phys. review process and a new initiative to create review templates that attempts to address current shortcomings. Template design is informed by the literature on of the review process effectiveness and practices of other journals. Its goals are to provide authors more constructive criticism to improve the manuscript; quantifying perceived importance and potential impact; and providing structured sections that prompt the reviewer to addresses important technical and editorial elements. While the template is recommended to be used, reviewers could alternatively enter their comments in the older free-form style. The expectations of the template are that it will enable consistently thorough, high quality reviews that accurately separate acceptable vs. substandard submissions but continue our tradition of helping authors to enhance papers with high potential. Ultimately, the goal is to reduce variability and subjectivity in the peer-review process, in turn leading to articles with higher research and clinical impact. We will also discuss interesting perspectives from several journals on aspects of the peer-review process such as public input via comments, influence of author-suggested reviewers, and bias in reviewer selection. Writing good scientific papers and responding to critiques: Mitch Goodsitt, Imaging Physics Editor The essential components of the abstract, introduction, methods, discussion and conclusion sections, as well as the desired writing style and style of the figures and tables will be reviewed. Publishable Medical Physics Ms. must include a clear and concise statement of the novelty and clinical and/or scientific importance of their work. Examples of novelty include: new technical solution to an important clinical problem; new generalizable knowledge; or first demonstration that an existing engineering solution solves a clinical problem. Authors must also include: sufficient background information and rationale; enough detail that the work can be reproduced by others; sufficient statistical analysis to refute or validate their hypothesis, how it compares to; is distinct from, and improves upon others' work; and the limitations of their study. When the authors receive critiques from the referees and associate editor, the authors should provide a detailed point-bypoint response to each comment. We now ask that the authors' rebuttal include the text of the original criticism, the authors' response, and the modified text along with the line numbers in the revised article. We also ask that the new text be highlighted in a different font color in the revised submission. These changes and others will be discussed. Their purpose is to facilitate the review process.

  20. THD-Module Extractor: An Application for CEN Module Extraction and Interesting Gene Identification for Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kakati, Tulika; Kashyap, Hirak; Bhattacharyya, Dhruba K.

    2016-01-01

    There exist many tools and methods for construction of co-expression network from gene expression data and for extraction of densely connected gene modules. In this paper, a method is introduced to construct co-expression network and to extract co-expressed modules having high biological significance. The proposed method has been validated on several well known microarray datasets extracted from a diverse set of species, using statistical measures, such as p and q values. The modules obtained in these studies are found to be biologically significant based on Gene Ontology enrichment analysis, pathway analysis, and KEGG enrichment analysis. Further, the method was applied on an Alzheimer’s disease dataset and some interesting genes are found, which have high semantic similarity among them, but are not significantly correlated in terms of expression similarity. Some of these interesting genes, such as MAPT, CASP2, and PSEN2, are linked with important aspects of Alzheimer’s disease, such as dementia, increase cell death, and deposition of amyloid-beta proteins in Alzheimer’s disease brains. The biological pathways associated with Alzheimer’s disease, such as, Wnt signaling, Apoptosis, p53 signaling, and Notch signaling, incorporate these interesting genes. The proposed method is evaluated in regard to existing literature. PMID:27901073

  1. System design description for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster Skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    The primary purpose of the two 1,000 CFM Exhauster Skids, POR-007-SKID E and POR-008-SKID F, is to provide backup to the waste tank primary ventilation systems for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102, and the AY-102 annulus in the event of a failure during the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 and subsequent transfer of sluiced waste to 241-AY-102. This redundancy is required since both of the tank ventilation systems have been declared as Safety Class systems.

  2. Click-chemistry approach to study mycoloylated proteins: Evidence for PorB and PorC porins mycoloylation in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Issa, Hanane; Huc-Claustre, Emilie; Reddad, Thamila; Bonadé Bottino, Nolwenn; Tropis, Maryelle; Houssin, Christine; Daffé, Mamadou; Bayan, Nicolas; Dautin, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    Protein mycoloylation is a recently identified, new form of protein acylation. This post-translational modification consists in the covalent attachment of mycolic acids residues to serine. Mycolic acids are long chain, α-branched, β-hydroxylated fatty acids that are exclusively found in the cell envelope of Corynebacteriales, a bacterial order that includes important genera such as Mycobacterium, Nocardia or Corynebacterium. So far, only 3 mycoloylated proteins have been identified: PorA, PorH and ProtX from C. glutamicum. Whereas the identity and function of ProtX is unknown, PorH and PorA associate to form a membrane channel, the activity of which is dependent upon PorA mycoloylation. However, the exact role of mycoloylation and the generality of this phenomenon are still unknown. In particular, the identity of other mycoloylated proteins, if any, needs to be determined together with establishing whether such modification occurs in Corynebacteriales genera other than Corynebacterium. Here, we tested whether a metabolic labeling and click-chemistry approach could be used to detect mycoloylated proteins. Using a fatty acid alkyne analogue, we could indeed label PorA, PorH and ProtX and determine ProtX mycoloylation site. Importantly, we also show that two other porins from C. glutamicum, PorB and PorC are mycoloylated.

  3. Click-chemistry approach to study mycoloylated proteins: Evidence for PorB and PorC porins mycoloylation in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Hanane; Huc-Claustre, Emilie; Reddad, Thamila; Bonadé Bottino, Nolwenn; Tropis, Maryelle; Houssin, Christine; Daffé, Mamadou; Bayan, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Protein mycoloylation is a recently identified, new form of protein acylation. This post-translational modification consists in the covalent attachment of mycolic acids residues to serine. Mycolic acids are long chain, α-branched, β-hydroxylated fatty acids that are exclusively found in the cell envelope of Corynebacteriales, a bacterial order that includes important genera such as Mycobacterium, Nocardia or Corynebacterium. So far, only 3 mycoloylated proteins have been identified: PorA, PorH and ProtX from C. glutamicum. Whereas the identity and function of ProtX is unknown, PorH and PorA associate to form a membrane channel, the activity of which is dependent upon PorA mycoloylation. However, the exact role of mycoloylation and the generality of this phenomenon are still unknown. In particular, the identity of other mycoloylated proteins, if any, needs to be determined together with establishing whether such modification occurs in Corynebacteriales genera other than Corynebacterium. Here, we tested whether a metabolic labeling and click-chemistry approach could be used to detect mycoloylated proteins. Using a fatty acid alkyne analogue, we could indeed label PorA, PorH and ProtX and determine ProtX mycoloylation site. Importantly, we also show that two other porins from C. glutamicum, PorB and PorC are mycoloylated. PMID:28199365

  4. Por La Vida intervention model for cancer prevention in Latinas.

    PubMed

    Navarro, A M; Senn, K L; Kaplan, R M; McNicholas, L; Campo, M C; Roppe, B

    1995-01-01

    Our goal was to describe the development and implementation of an intervention on cancer prevention for Latinas in San Diego, Calif. Thirty-six lay community workers ("consejeras") were recruited and trained to conduct educational group sessions. Each consejera recruited approximately 14 peers from the community to participate in the program (total number = 512). Half of the consejeras were randomly assigned to a control group, in which they participated in an equally engaging program entitled "Community Living Skills." Implementation of the intervention was assessed by qualitative and quantitative methods. Preintervention and postintervention self-report information was obtained from project participants on access to health care services, cancer knowledge, preventive measures, and previous cancer-screening examinations. Base-line data suggest that lack of knowledge, costs of cancer-screening tests, and the lack of a regular health care provider are the major obstacles against obtaining cancer-screening tests. Predisposing factors, such as fear and embarrassment, also constitute barriers to getting regular cervical cancer screening. Preliminary analysis indicates that the Por La Vida intervention increases use of cancer-screening tests in comparison to a community living skills control group. Universal access to health care would remove some of the major financial barriers to cancer screening. The Por La Vida program attempts to overcome the substantial barriers by reaching out to low-income Latinas and by providing information regarding the availability, acceptability, and preventive nature of cancer-screening tests.

  5. Compton imaging with the PorGamRays spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judson, D. S.; Boston, A. J.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Cullen, D. M.; Hardie, A.; Harkness, L. J.; Jones, L. L.; Jones, M.; Lazarus, I.; Nolan, P. J.; Pucknell, V.; Rigby, S. V.; Seller, P.; Scraggs, D. P.; Simpson, J.; Slee, M.; Sweeney, A.; PorGamRays Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The PorGamRays project aims to develop a portable gamma-ray detection system with both spectroscopic and imaging capabilities. The system is designed around a stack of thin Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors. The imaging capability utilises the Compton camera principle. Each detector is segmented into 100 pixels which are read out through custom designed Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This device has potential applications in the security, decommissioning and medical fields. This work focuses on the near-field imaging performance of a lab-based demonstrator consisting of two pixelated CZT detectors, each of which is bonded to a NUCAM II ASIC. Measurements have been made with point 133Ba and 57Co sources located ˜35 mm from the surface of the scattering detector. Position resolution of ˜20 mm FWHM in the x and y planes is demonstrated.

  6. Gliding motility and Por secretion system genes are widespread among members of the phylum bacteroidetes.

    PubMed

    McBride, Mark J; Zhu, Yongtao

    2013-01-01

    The phylum Bacteroidetes is large and diverse, with rapid gliding motility and the ability to digest macromolecules associated with many genera and species. Recently, a novel protein secretion system, the Por secretion system (PorSS), was identified in two members of the phylum, the gliding bacterium Flavobacterium johnsoniae and the nonmotile oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. The components of the PorSS are not similar in sequence to those of other well-studied bacterial secretion systems. The F. johnsoniae PorSS genes are a subset of the gliding motility genes, suggesting a role for the secretion system in motility. The F. johnsoniae PorSS is needed for assembly of the gliding motility apparatus and for secretion of a chitinase, and the P. gingivalis PorSS is involved in secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors. Comparative analysis of 37 genomes of members of the phylum Bacteroidetes revealed the widespread occurrence of gliding motility genes and PorSS genes. Genes associated with other bacterial protein secretion systems were less common. The results suggest that gliding motility is more common than previously reported. Microscopic observations confirmed that organisms previously described as nonmotile, including Croceibacter atlanticus, "Gramella forsetii," Paludibacter propionicigenes, Riemerella anatipestifer, and Robiginitalea biformata, exhibit gliding motility. Three genes (gldA, gldF, and gldG) that encode an apparent ATP-binding cassette transporter required for F. johnsoniae gliding were absent from two related gliding bacteria, suggesting that the transporter may not be central to gliding motility.

  7. An investigation of exploitation versus exploration in GBEA optimization of PORS 15 and 16 Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Kaelynn

    2012-01-01

    It was hypothesized that the variations in time to solution are driven by the competing mechanisms of exploration and exploitation.This thesis explores this hypothesis by examining two contrasting problems that embody the hypothesized tradeoff between exploration and exploitation. Plus one recall store (PORS) is an optimization problem based on the idea of a simple calculator with four buttons: plus, one, store, and recall. Integer addition and store are classified as operations, and one and memory recall are classified as terminals. The goal is to arrange a fixed number of keystrokes in a way that maximizes the numerical result. PORS 15 (15 keystrokes) represents the subset of difficult PORS problems and PORS 16 (16 keystrokes) represents the subset of PORS problems that are easiest to optimize. The goal of this work is to examine the tradeoff between exploitation and exploration in graph based evolutionary algorithm (GBEA) optimization. To do this, computational experiments are used to examine how solutions evolve in PORS 15 and 16 problems when solved using GBEAs. The experiment is comprised of three components; the graphs and the population, the evolutionary algorithm rule set, and the example problems. The complete, hypercube, and cycle graphs were used for this experiment. A fixed population size was used.

  8. Crystallographic analysis of Neisseria meningitidis PorB extracellular loops potentially implicated in TLR2 recognition

    PubMed Central

    Kattner, Christof; Toussi, Deana; Zaucha, Jan; Wetzler, Lee M.; Rüppel, Nadine; Zachariae, Ulrich; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    Among all Neisseriae species, N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae are the only human pathogens, causative agents of bacterial meningitis and gonorrhoea, respectively. PorB, a pan-Neisseriae trimeric porin that mediates diffusive transport of essential molecules across the bacterial outer membrane, is also known to activate host innate immunity via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated signaling. The molecular mechanism of PorB binding to TLR2 is not known, but it has been hypothesized that electrostatic interactions contribute to ligand/receptor binding. Strain-specific sequence variability in the surface-exposed loops of PorB which are potentially implicated in TLR2 binding, may explain the difference in TLR2-mediated cell activation in vitro by PorB homologs from the commensal N. lactamica and the pathogen N. meningitidis. Here, we report a comparative structural analysis of PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup B strain 8765 (63% sequence homology with PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup W135) and a mutant in which amino acid substitutions in the extracellular loop 7 lead to significantly reduced TLR2-dependent activity in vitro. We observe that this mutation both alters the loop conformation and causes dramatic changes of electrostatic surface charge, both of which may affect TLR2 recognition and signalling. PMID:24361688

  9. Preliminary Results on Direct Observation of True Ternary fission in the reaction {sup 232}Th+d (10 MeV)

    SciTech Connect

    Pyatkov, Yu.; Kamanin, D.; Alexandrov, A.; Alexandrova, I.; Kondratyev, N.; Kuznetsova, E.; Tyukavkin, A.; Zhuchko, V.; Krasznohorkay, A.; Csatlos, M.; Csige, L.; Gulyas, J.; Naqvi, F.; Tornyi, T.

    2010-04-30

    Results of the first direct observation of the true ternary fission of {sup 234}Pa* nucleus are presented. The yield of the effect depending of the experimental geometry is about 10{sup -5}/binary fission. Mass of the lightest fragment in the triplet lies mainly in the range of (20 divide 40) a.m.u. Connection between the effect and known heavy ion or lead radioactivity is discussed.

  10. Por Secretion System-Dependent Secretion and Glycosylation of Porphyromonas gingivalis Hemin-Binding Protein 35

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Mikio; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Kondo, Yoshio; Narita, Yuka; Kadowaki, Tomoko; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2011-01-01

    The anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen in severe forms of periodontal disease and refractory periapical perodontitis. We have recently found that P. gingivalis has a novel secretion system named the Por secretion system (PorSS), which is responsible for secretion of major extracellular proteinases, Arg-gingipains (Rgps) and Lys-gingipain. These proteinases contain conserved C-terminal domains (CTDs) in their C-termini. Hemin-binding protein 35 (HBP35), which is one of the outer membrane proteins of P. gingivalis and contributes to its haem utilization, also contains a CTD, suggesting that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS. In this study, immunoblot analysis of P. gingivalis mutants deficient in the PorSS or in the biosynthesis of anionic polysaccharide-lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) revealed that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS and is glycosylated with A-LPS. From deletion analysis with a GFP-CTD[HBP35] green fluorescent protein fusion, the C-terminal 22 amino acid residues of CTD[HBP35] were found to be required for cell surface translocation and glycosylation. The GFP-CTD fusion study also revealed that the CTDs of CPG70, peptidylarginine deiminase, P27 and RgpB play roles in PorSS-dependent translocation and glycosylation. However, CTD-region peptides were not found in samples of glycosylated HBP35 protein by peptide map fingerprinting analysis, and antibodies against CTD-regions peptides did not react with glycosylated HBP35 protein. These results suggest both that the CTD region functions as a recognition signal for the PorSS and that glycosylation of CTD proteins occurs after removal of the CTD region. Rabbits were used for making antisera against bacterial proteins in this study. PMID:21731719

  11. Molecular characterisation of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) isolates from different outbreaks in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Rivera-Benítez, J F; Blomström, A-L; Ramliden, M; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Ramírez-Mendoza, H; Berg, M

    2016-02-01

    Since the report of the initial outbreak of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) infection in pigs, only one full-length genome from 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been characterised. To investigate the overall genetic variation, full-length gene nucleotide sequences of current PorPV isolates were obtained from different clinical cases of infected swine. Genome organisation and sequence analysis of the encoded proteins (NP, P, F, M, HN and L) revealed high sequence conservation of the NP protein and the expression of the P and V proteins in all PorPV isolates. The V protein of one isolate displayed a mutation that has been implicated to antagonise the antiviral immune responses of the host. The M protein indicated a variation in a short region that could affect the electrostatic charge and the interaction with the membrane. One PorPV isolate recovered from the lungs showed a mutation at the cleavage site (HRKKR) of the F protein that could represent an important factor to determine the tissue tropism and pathogenicity of this virus. The HN protein showed high sequence identity through the years (up to 2013). Additionally, a number of sequence motifs of very high amino acid conservation among the PorPV isolates important for polymerase activity of the L protein have been identified. In summary, genetic comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that three different genetic variants of PorPV are currently spreading within the swine population, and a new generation of circulating virus with different characteristics has begun to emerge.

  12. In silico studies of outer membrane of Neisseria meningitidis por a: its expression and immunogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Behrouzi, Ava; Bouzari, Saeid; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Irani, Shiva

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a major causative agent of bacterial septicemia and meningitis in humans. Currently, there are no vaccines to prevent disease caused by strains of N.meningitidis serogroup B. The Class 1 Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) has been named porA which is a cation selective transmembrane protein of 45 KDa that forms trimeric pore in the meningococcal outer membrane. PorA from serogroup B N. meningitidis was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pBAD-gIIIA. Recombinant protein was expressed with arabinose and affinity purified by Ni-NTA agarose, SDS-PAGE and western blotting were performed for protein determination and verification. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified rPorA together with alum adjuvant. Serum antibody responses to serogroups B N.meningitidis were determined by ELISA. Serum IgG response significantly increased in the group immunized with rPorA together with alum adjuvant in comparison with control groups. These results suggest that rPorA can be a potential vaccine candidate for serogroup B N.meningitidis.

  13. In Silico Studies of Outer Membrane of Neisseria Meningitidis Por A: Its Expression and Immunogenic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Behrouzi, Ava; Bouzari, Saeid; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Irani, Shiva

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a major causative agent of bacterial septicemia and meningitis in humans. Currently, there are no vaccines to prevent disease caused by strains of N.meningitidis serogroup B. The Class 1 Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) has been named porA which is a cation selective transmembrane protein of 45 KDa that forms trimeric pore in the meningococcal outer membrane. PorA from serogroup B N. meningitidis was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pBAD-gIIIA. Recombinant protein was expressed with arabinose and affinity purified by Ni-NTA agarose, SDS-PAGE and western blotting were performed for protein determination and verification. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified rPorA together with alum adjuvant. Serum antibody responses to serogroups B N.meningitidis were determined by ELISA. Serum IgG response significantly increased in the group immunized with rPorA together with alum adjuvant in comparison with control groups. These results suggest that rPorA can be a potential vaccine candidate for serogroup B N.meningitidis. PMID:25317403

  14. PorA Represents the Major Cell Wall Channel of the Gram-Positive Bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Costa-Riu, Noelia; Burkovski, Andreas; Krämer, Reinhard; Benz, Roland

    2003-01-01

    The cell wall of the gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum contains a channel (porin) for the passage of hydrophilic solutes. The channel-forming polypeptide PorA is a 45-amino-acid acidic polypeptide with an excess of four negatively charged amino acids, which is encoded by the 138-bp gene porA. porA was deleted from the chromosome of C.glutamicum wild-type strain ATCC 13032 to obtain mutant ATCC 13032ΔporA. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that porA was deleted. Lipid bilayer experiments revealed that PorA was not present in the cell wall of the mutant strain. Searches within the known chromosome of C. glutamicum by using National Center for Biotechnology Information BLAST and reverse transcription-PCR showed that no other PorA-like protein is encoded on the chromosome or is expressed in the deletion strain. The porA deletion strain exhibited slower growth and longer growth times than the C. glutamicum wild-type strain. Experiments with different antibiotics revealed that the susceptibility of the mutant strain was much lower than that of the wild-type C. glutamicum strain. The results presented here suggest that PorA represents a major hydrophilic pathway through the cell wall and that C. glutamicum contains cell wall channels which are not related to PorA. PMID:12896997

  15. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant. PMID:25750999

  16. Variation in the Neisseria lactamica porin, and its relationship to meningococcal PorB.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Julia S; Callaghan, Martin J; Derrick, Jeremy P; Maiden, Martin C J

    2008-05-01

    One potential vaccine strategy in the fight against meningococcal disease involves the exploitation of outer-membrane components of Neisseria lactamica, a commensal bacterium closely related to the meningococcus, Neisseria meningitidis. Although N. lactamica shares many surface structures with the meningococcus, little is known about the antigenic diversity of this commensal bacterium or the antigenic relationships between N. lactamica and N. meningitidis. Here, the N. lactamica porin protein (Por) was examined and compared to the related PorB antigens of N. meningitidis, to investigate potential involvement in anti-meningococcal immunity. Relationships among porin sequences were determined using distance-based methods and F(ST), and maximum-likelihood analyses were used to compare the selection pressures acting on the encoded proteins. These analyses demonstrated that the N. lactamica porin was less diverse than meningococcal PorB and although it was subject to positive selection, this was not as strong as the positive selection pressures acting on the meningococcal porin. In addition, the N. lactamica porin gene sequences and the protein sequences of the loop regions predicted to be exposed to the human immune system were dissimilar to the corresponding sequences in the meningococcus. This suggests that N. lactamica Por, contrary to previous suggestions, may have limited involvement in the development of natural immunity to meningococcal disease and might not be effective as a meningococcal vaccine component.

  17. Detección y estudio mediante Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser de radicales libres formados por Disociación Multifotónica Infrarroja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M.; Díaz, L.; Torresano, J. A.; Rubio, L.; Samoudi, B.

    Una de las principales aplicaciones actuales de los procesos de disociación multifotónica inducidos por radiación láser infrarroja (DMI) es la producción de radiales libres, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades cinéticas y espectroscópicas. La disociación de moléculas poliatómicas en el IR con láseres de CO2 tiene lugar desde la superficie de energía molecular mas baja y conduce generalmente a la formación de fragmentos en el estado electrónico fundamental, con diversos grados de excitación vibracional. En el Grupo de Procesos Multifotónicos del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia del C.S.I.C. hemos puesto a punto la técnica de Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser (LIF) para la detección y análisis en tiempo real de los fragmentos producidos en la DMI inducida mediante uno o dos campos láseres de diferentes longitudes de onda. Objetivos de nuestro trabajo han sido el estudio de los canales de disociación mayoritarios y de las especies transitoria producidas, así como de la distribución de energía interna con que éstas son generadas. En particular hemos detectado mediante LIF las especies: C2, CF, CH, SiH2, CF2, CH2, SiHCl, y CF3 a partir de la disociación de, entre otras, las siguientes moléculas: C2H3Br, C3F6, C4H8Si, C2H5ClSi y CH5ClSi. En este trabajo presentamos algunos de los resultados obtenidos mediante el estudio por LIF de estos radicales: estudio temporal de la señal LIF obtenida con determinación de tiempos de vida, espectros de excitación y fluorescencia, temperaturas vibracionales de formación, variación de la intensidad LIF con el tiempo de retraso entre los láseres de disociación y prueba, etc.

  18. Methodology for obtaining stakeholder assessments of obesity policy options in the PorGrow project.

    PubMed

    Stirling, A; Lobstein, T; Millstone, E

    2007-05-01

    The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project (PorGrow) study provided a unique opportunity to develop a large-scale application of a semi-quantitative technique for exploring interviewees' views on options to tackle obesity, using multi-criteria mapping. This 'heuristic' approach utilizes the advantages of a structured interviews framework by predefining a set of options for appraisal, while leaving interviewees free to select their own criteria for making their judgements. Additional information can be gleaned from the interview transcripts and related materials to set the appraisals in their policy context, and allowing interviewees to express their views on the options presented and their own appraisals. The PorGrow study team agreed a predefined set of 20 options for appraisal, and interviewed sets of stakeholders representing more than 20 aspects of policy development in each of the nine participating countries. The details of the methodology adopted are set out in this paper.

  19. Improved purification of native meningococcal porin PorB and studies on its structure/function.

    PubMed

    Massari, Paola; King, Carol A; MacLeod, Heather; Wetzler, Lee M

    2005-12-01

    The outer membrane protein PorB of Neisseria meningitidis is a pore-forming protein which has various effects on eukaryotic cells. It has been shown to (1) up-regulate the surface expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD86 and of MHC class II (which are TLR2/MyD88 dependent and related to the porin's immune-potentiating ability), (2) be involved in prevention of apoptosis by modulating the mitochondrial membrane potential, and (3) form pores in eukaryotic cells. As an outer membrane protein, its native trimeric form isolation is complicated by its insoluble nature, requiring the presence of detergent throughout the whole procedure, and by its tight association with other outer membrane components, such as neisserial LOS or lipoproteins. In this study, an improved chromatographic purification method to obtain an homogeneous product free of endotoxin and lipoprotein is described, without loss of any of the above-mentioned properties of the porin. Furthermore, we have investigated the requirement of the native trimeric structure for the porin's activity. Inactivation of functional PorB trimers into non-functional monomers was achieved by incubation on ice. Thus, routine long- and medium-term storage at low temperature may be a cause of porin inactivation.

  20. Diagnóstico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA

    PubMed Central

    González-Valcárcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un síndrome característico de evolución multifásica y diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro clínico típico, pero que inicialmente señaló otras etiologías. Discusión La afectación frecuente de pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagnósticas; las más frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiquiátricos y el síndrome neuroléptico maligno. Varios síndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pediátricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones autonómicas. La caracterización clínica e inmunológica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificación de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis. PMID:20964986

  1. Effect of SPM-based cleaning POR on EUV mask performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaehyuck; Lee, Han-shin; Yoon, Jinsang; Shimomura, Takeya; Friz, Alex; Montgomery, Cecilia; Ma, Andy; Goodwin, Frank; Kang, Daehyuk; Chung, Paul; Shin, Inkyun; Cho, H.

    2011-11-01

    EUV masks include many different layers of various materials rarely used in optical masks, and each layer of material has a particular role in enhancing the performance of EUV lithography. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how the mask quality and patterning performance can change during mask fabrication, EUV exposure, maintenance cleaning, shipping, or storage. The fact that a pellicle is not used to protect the mask surface in EUV lithography suggests that EUV masks may have to undergo more cleaning cycles during their lifetime. More frequent cleaning, combined with the adoption of new materials for EUV masks, necessitates that mask manufacturers closely examine the performance change of EUV masks during cleaning process. We have investigated EUV mask quality and patterning performance during 30 cycles of Samsung's EUV mask SPM-based cleaning and 20 cycles of SEMATECH ADT exposure. We have observed that the quality and patterning performance of EUV masks does not significantly change during these processes except mask pattern CD change. To resolve this issue, we have developed an acid-free cleaning POR and substantially improved EUV mask film loss compared to the SPM-based cleaning POR.

  2. Multiple active site residues are important for photochemical efficiency in the light-activated enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR).

    PubMed

    Menon, Binuraj R K; Hardman, Samantha J O; Scrutton, Nigel S; Heyes, Derren J

    2016-08-01

    Protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyzes the light-driven reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide), an essential, regulatory step in chlorophyll biosynthesis. The unique requirement of the enzyme for light has provided the opportunity to investigate how light energy can be harnessed to power biological catalysis and enzyme dynamics. Excited state interactions between the Pchlide molecule and the protein are known to drive the subsequent reaction chemistry. However, the structural features of POR and active site residues that are important for photochemistry and catalysis are currently unknown, because there is no crystal structure for POR. Here, we have used static and time-resolved spectroscopic measurements of a number of active site variants to study the role of a number of residues, which are located in the proposed NADPH/Pchlide binding site based on previous homology models, in the reaction mechanism of POR. Our findings, which are interpreted in the context of a new improved structural model, have identified several residues that are predicted to interact with the coenzyme or substrate. Several of the POR variants have a profound effect on the photochemistry, suggesting that multiple residues are important in stabilizing the excited state required for catalysis. Our work offers insight into how the POR active site geometry is finely tuned by multiple active site residues to support enzyme-mediated photochemistry and reduction of Pchlide, both of which are crucial to the existence of life on Earth.

  3. Intermitência alfvênica gerada por caos na atmosfera solar e no vento solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempel, E. L.; Chian, A. C.-L.; Macau, E. E. N.; Rosa, R. R.

    2003-08-01

    Dados medidos no vento solar rápido proveniente dos buracos coronais revelam que os plasmas no meio interplanetário são dominados por flutuações Alfvênicas, caracterizadas por uma alta correlação entre as variações do campo magnético e da velocidade do plasma. As flutuações exibem muitas características esperadas em turbulência magneto-hidrodinâmica totalmente desenvolvida, tais como intermitência e espectros contínuos. Contudo, os mecanismos responsáveis pela evolução de turbulência Alfvênica intermitente não são completamente compreendidos. Neste trabalho a teoria de caos é usada para explicar como sistemas Alfvênicos, modelados pela equação Schrödinger não-linear derivativa e pela equação Kuramoto-Sivashinsky, podem se tornar fortemente caóticos à medida em que parâmetros do plasma são variados. Pequenas perturbações no parâmetro de dissipação podem fazer com que o sistema mude bruscamente de um regime periódico, ou fracamente caótico, para um regime fortemente caótico. As séries temporais das flutuações do campo magnético nos regimes fortemente caóticos exibem comportamento intermitente, em que fases laminares ou fracamente caóticas são interrompidas por fortes estouros caóticos. É mostrado que o regime fortemente caótico é atingido quando as soluções periódicas ou fracamente caóticas globalmente estáveis interagem com soluções do sistema que são fortemente caóticas, mas globalmente instáveis. Estas soluções globalmente instáveis são conjuntos caóticos não-atrativos conhecidos como selas caóticas, e são responsáveis pelos fortes estouros nos regimes intermitentes. Selas caóticas têm sido detectadas experimentalmente em uma grande variedade de sistemas, sendo provável que elas desempenhem um papel importante na turbulência intermitente observada em plasmas espaciais.

  4. Reconstrução tridimensional de arcos magnéticos por tomografia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simões, P. J. A.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    Uma explosão solar é uma variação súbita do brilho que ocorre nas regiões ativas da atmosfera solar. Estas regiões são constituídas por um plasma magnetizado com intensa indução magnética e em cenários bem complexos como visto recentemente através de experimentos embarcados em satélites operando instrumentos em raios X moles e ultra-violeta distante. A energia magnética, que pode ser armazenada por um período de horas até dias em configurações magnéticas estressadas, é subitamente lançada na atmosfera solar e transferida para partículas como elétrons, prótons e núcleos pesados, que são acelerados e/ou aquecidos, produzindo radiação eletromagnética. A proposta final deste projeto é determinar as características espaciais de alta resolução da emissão e polarização girossincrotrônica de explosões solares em ambientes complexos de campos magnéticos. Os recentes resultados da emissão difusa em EUV apresentado pelos satélites TRACE e SOHO dos arcos magnéticos conectando as diferentes polaridades magnéticas sobre as regiões ativas possibilitam novas abordagens sobre o papel do campo magnético na emissão em rádio. Nesta etapa apresentamos os resultados da reconstrução da geometria tridimensional das linhas de força destes arcos utilizando técnicas tomográficas, a partir de imagens de alta resolução espacial obtidas pelo instrumento EIT (Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope), além da modelagem das induções magnéticas por um campo dipolar e as densidades de partículas aceleradas. Utilizamos para a reconstrução geométrica, imagens tomadas em vários ângulos dos arcos devido à rotacão solar. Com estes resultados, daremos continuidade ao projeto, com os cálculos da transferência radiativa nos modos ordinário e extraordinário de propagação da radiação girossincrotrônica de explosões solares.

  5. Geometry sensing through POR1 regulates Rac1 activity controlling early osteoblast differentiation in response to nanofiber diameter.

    PubMed

    Higgins, A M; Banik, B L; Brown, J L

    2015-02-01

    Bone grafting procedures in the United States rely heavily upon autografts and allografts, which are donor-dependent, cause donor site pain, and can transmit disease. Synthetic bone grafts can reduce these risks; however, synthetics lack the bone differentiating (osteoinductive) abilities of auto- and allografts. Achieving innate osteoinductive properties of synthetics through surface modifications is currently under investigation. This study focuses on nanofibers, with emphasis on how fiber diameter and the potential curvature sensor POR1 affect the activation of the signaling molecules Rac1 and Arf1, and leading to expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an osteoinductive marker. Diameters of 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 μm were compared against a flat control. The highest level of Rac1 activation was achieved on the smallest fibers (0.1 μm), a trend that was lost in POR1 knockdowns. This supports the hypothesis that on small nanofibers, POR1 favorably binds to highly curved cell membranes, which allows Rac1 to subsequently dissociate and activate. When the curvature is insufficient to bind POR1, POR1 binds to inactive Rac1 and competitively inhibits its activation. Arf1 activation followed an opposite trend, with the largest nanofibers exhibiting the highest activity. This trend reinforces the known interaction between Rac1 and Arf1 through the GIT-PIX complex, an Arf1 GAP and Rac1 GEF, respectively. Large, (1.0 μm), nanofibers demonstrated the highest ALP activity, indicating that ALP expression is inversely dependent on Rac1 activation. Knockdown of POR1 resulted in increased ALP activity across the substrates but without regard to the curvature sensing trend seen previously. Thus, POR1 senses curvature and increases Rac1 activity, which negatively regulates bone differentiation.

  6. Using the PORS Problems to Examine Evolutionary Optimization of Multiscale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, Zachary; Molian, Vaelan; Bryden, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Nearly all systems of practical interest are composed of parts assembled across multiple scales. For example, an agrodynamic system is composed of flora and fauna on one scale; soil types, slope, and water runoff on another scale; and management practice and yield on another scale. Or consider an advanced coal-fired power plant: combustion and pollutant formation occurs on one scale, the plant components on another scale, and the overall performance of the power system is measured on another. In spite of this, there are few practical tools for the optimization of multiscale systems. This paper examines multiscale optimization of systems composed of discrete elements using the plus-one-recall-store (PORS) problem as a test case or study problem for multiscale systems. From this study, it is found that by recognizing the constraints and patterns present in discrete multiscale systems, the solution time can be significantly reduced and much more complex problems can be optimized.

  7. jPOR: An ImageJ macro to quantify total optical porosity from blue-stained thin sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, Clayton; Jerram, Dougal A.

    2011-11-01

    A fast and effective method has been developed to measure total optical porosity (TOP) of blue resin-impregnated thin sections. This utilises a macro file (jPOR.txt) for ImageJ, which can be used on digital photomicrographs of thin sections. The method requires no specialised scientific equipment and can be run entirely using free to download software. Digital images are acquired from blue resin-impregnated thin sections using a conventional film scanner in the present study, though the technique can be applied to any high resolution colour digital acquired by different means (e.g., flat bed scanning, digital capture). Images are preprocessed using a newly developed custom 8-bit palette and analysed for porosity in ImageJ using the simple to use jPOR macro. Our method rapidly calculates TOP for batches of images with or without the option of user adjustment. Results are compared with conventional methods (e.g., to point counting), and tested with several users to estimate any user variability. jPOR provided comparable results to more time-consuming point counting, but with significantly less "counting error" and less interoperator variability than published point counting studies. The jPOR macro has been integrated into a macro tool set that can be configured to be run on ImageJ start up.

  8. [Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD, students at Budapest and Prague Faculties of Medicine].

    PubMed

    Mydlík, M; Derzsiová, K

    2010-11-01

    Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD were contemporaries, both born in 1899, one in Zvolen, the other in Dombovar, at the time of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Prof. Por attended the Faculty of Medicine in Budapest from 1918 to 1920, and Prof. Klopstock studied at the same place between 1917 and 1919. From 1920 until graduation on 6th February 1926, Prof. Por continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. Prof. Klopstock had to interrupt his studies in Budapest due to pulmonary tuberculosis; he received treatment at Tatranske Matliare where he befriended Franz Kafka. Later, upon Kafka's encouragement, he changed institutions and continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, where he graduated the first great go. It is very likely that, during their studies in Budapest and Prague, both professors met repeatedly, even though their life paths later separated. Following his graduation, Prof. Por practiced as an internist in Prague, later in Slovakia, and from 1945 in Kosice. In 1961, he was awarded the title of university professor of internal medicine at the Faculty of Medicine, Pavol Jozef Safarik University in Kosice, where he practiced until his death in 1980. Prof. Klopstock continued his studies in Kiel and Berlin. After his graduation in 1933, he practiced in Berlin as a surgeon and in 1938 left for USA. In 1962, he was awarded the title of university professor of pulmonary surgery in NewYork, where he died in 1972.

  9. Unidas por la Vida (United for Life): implementing a culturally-tailored, community-based, family-oriented lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Dara H; Biegler, Kelly A; Peyreda, Margarita; Kilgore, David; Dow, Emily; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

    2013-01-01

    Unidas por la Vida, a behavioral weight-loss program, was developed for use among low-income, Mexican-American women with diabetes and their overweight/obese adult daughters. The program leverages community resources in a partnership between primary care and community-based organizations. This paper describes the program's implementation, lessons learned, and implications for sustainability.

  10. Global Microlending in Education Reform: Enseñá Por Argentina and the Neoliberalization of the Grassroots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the workings and underlying assumptions behind Enseñá por Argentina (Teach for Argentina), one specific program that takes part in the larger and expanding network of Teach for All, by thinking about the ways in which a global push for redefining teaching and teacher education encounters local characteristics and histories,…

  11. Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel

    Los generadores de calentamiento por induccion son puentes inversores con carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento por induccion: La corriente por la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido por la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar por debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, con la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control por variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la

  12. The amino acid sequence of Neisseria lactamica PorB surface-exposed loops influences Toll-like receptor 2-dependent cell activation.

    PubMed

    Toussi, Deana N; Carraway, Margaretha; Wetzler, Lee M; Lewis, Lisa A; Liu, Xiuping; Massari, Paola

    2012-10-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a major role in host mucosal and systemic defense mechanisms by recognizing a diverse array of conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). TLR2, with TLR1 and TLR6, recognizes structurally diverse bacterial products such as lipidated factors (lipoproteins and peptidoglycans) and nonlipidated proteins, i.e., bacterial porins. PorB is a pan-neisserial porin expressed regardless of organisms' pathogenicity. However, commensal Neisseria lactamica organisms and purified N. lactamica PorB (published elsewhere as Nlac PorB) induce TLR2-dependent proinflammatory responses of lower magnitude than N. meningitidis organisms and N. meningitidis PorB (published elsewhere as Nme PorB). Both PorB types bind to TLR2 in vitro but with different apparent specificities. The structural and molecular details of PorB-TLR2 interaction are only beginning to be unraveled and may be due to electrostatic attraction. PorB molecules have significant strain-specific sequence variability within surface-exposed regions (loops) putatively involved in TLR2 interaction. By constructing chimeric recombinant PorB loop mutants in which surface-exposed loop residues have been switched between N. lactamica PorB and N. meningitidis PorB, we identified residues in loop 5 and loop 7 that influence TLR2-dependent cell activation using HEK cells and BEAS-2B cells. These loops are not uniquely responsible for PorB interaction with TLR2, but NF-κB and MAP kinases signaling downstream of TLR2 recognition are likely influenced by a hypothetical "TLR2-binding signature" within the sequence of PorB surface-exposed loops. Consistent with the effect of purified PorB in vitro, a chimeric N. meningitidis strain expressing N. lactamica PorB induces lower levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) secretion than wild-type N. meningitidis, suggesting a role for PorB in induction of host cell activation by whole bacteria.

  13. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  14. Prevalencia y tamizaje del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad en Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicholas T.; Schuler, Jovita; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J.; Chavira, Denise; Bagnarello, Monica; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Resumen La investigación tuvo como propósito estimar la prevalencia del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH) en Costa Rica y determinar si la versión en español del cuestionario Swanson Nolan and Pelham Scale IV (SNAP-IV) es un instrumento de tamizaje útil en una población de niños y niñas escolares costarricenses. El instrumento fue entregado a padres y maestros de 425 niños entre 5 y 13 años de edad (promedio = 8.8). Todos fueron evaluados con el instrumento Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham Scale (SKAMP). Su diagnóstico fue confirmado con una entrevista clínica. La sensibilidad y la especificidad del SNAP-IV fueron evaluadas como predictores de criterios de diagnóstico según el DSM-IV. La prevalencia puntual en la muestra del TDAH fue del 5%. El tamizaje más preciso lo hizo el SNAP-IV completado por el maestro en un corte de 20%, con una sensibilidad de 96% y una especificidad de un 82%. La sensibilidad de los instrumentos completados por los padres fue más baja que aquella de los maestros. El SNAP-IV completado por las maestras con un corte aislando el 20% de los mayores puntajes categorizó correctamente a un 87% de los sujetos. PMID:22432094

  15. Racism in digital era: Development and initial validation of the Perceived Online Racism Scale (PORS v1.0).

    PubMed

    Keum, Brian TaeHyuk; Miller, Matthew J

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop the Perceived Online Racism Scale (PORS) to assess perceived online racist interpersonal interactions and exposure to online racist content among people of color. Items were developed through a multistage process involving a comprehensive literature review, focus-groups, qualitative data collection, and survey of online racism experiences. Based on a sample of 1,023 racial minority participants, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a 30-item bifactor model accounted by the general factor and the following 3 specific factors: (a) personal experience of racial cyber-aggression, (b) vicarious exposure to racial cyber-aggression, and (c) online-mediated exposure to racist reality. The PORS demonstrated measurement invariance across racial/ethnic groups in our sample. Internal reliability estimates for the total and subscale scores of the PORS were above .88 and the 4-week test-retest reliability was adequate. Limitations and future directions for research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Chlorophyll Synthesis in a Deetiolated (det340) Mutant of Arabidopsis without NADPH-Protochlorophyllide (PChlide) Oxidoreductase (POR) A and Photoactive PChlide-F655.

    PubMed Central

    Lebedev, N.; Van Cleve, B.; Armstrong, G.; Apel, K.

    1995-01-01

    Chlorophyll (Chl) synthesis in Arabidopsis is controlled by two light-dependent NADPH-protochlorophyllide (PChlide) oxidoreductases (PORs), one (POR A) that is active transiently in etiolated seedlings at the beginning of illumination and another (POR B) that also operates in green plants. The function of these two enzymes during the light-induced greening of dark-grown seedlings has been studied in the wild type and a deetiolated (det340) mutant of Arabidopsis. One of the consequences of the det mutation is that POR A is constitutively down-regulated, and therefore, synthesis of the POR A enzyme is shut off. When grown in the dark, the det340 mutant lacks POR A and the photoactive PChlide-F655 species but maintains the second PChlide reductase, POR B. Previously, photoactive PChlide-F655 has often been considered to be the only PChlide form that leads to Chl formation. Despite its deficiency in POR A and photoactive PChlide-F655, the det340 mutant is able to green when placed in the light. Chl accumulation, however, proceeds abnormally. At the beginning of illumination, seedlings of det340 mutants are extremely susceptible to photooxidative damage and accumulate Chl only at extremely low light intensities. They form core complexes of photosystems I and II but are almost completely devoid of light-harvesting structures. The results of this study demonstrate that in addition to the route of Chl synthesis that has been studied extensively in illuminated dark-grown wild-type plants, a second branch of Chl synthesis exists that is driven by POR B and does not require POR A. PMID:12242369

  17. The PorB porin from commensal Neisseria lactamica induces Th1 and Th2 immune responses to ovalbumin in mice and is a potential immune adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuping; Wetzler, Lee M; Massari, Paola

    2008-02-06

    Porins from pathogenic Neisseriae are among several bacterial products with immune adjuvant activity. Neisseria meningitidis (Nme) PorB, has been shown to induce immune cells activation in a TLR2-dependent manner and acts as a vaccine immune adjuvant. The PorB porin from Neisseria lactamica (Nlac), a common nasopharyngeal commensal, shares significant structural and functional similarities with Nme PorB. In this work we ask whether the immune adjuvant ability of porins from pathogenic Neisserial strains is a characteristic shared with porins from non-pathogenic Neisserial species or whether it is unique for bacterial products derived from microorganisms capable of inducing inflammation and disease. We evaluated the potential immune adjuvant effect of Nlac PorB in mice using ovalbumin (OVA) as a prototype antigen. Immunization with Nlac PorB/OVA induced high OVA-specific IgG and IgM titers compared to OVA alone, similar to other adjuvants such as Nme PorB and alum. High titers of IgG1 and IgG2b were detected as well as production of IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 and INF-gamma in response to Nlac PorB, consistent with induction of both a Th1-type and a Th2-type immune response. OVA-specific proliferation was also determined in splenocytes from Nlac PorB/OVA-immunized mice. In addition, B cell activation in vitro and cytokine production in response to Nlac PorB was found to be mediated by TLR2, in a similar manner to Nme PorB.

  18. CYP2C9*2 allele increases risk for hypoglycemia in POR*1/*1 type 2 diabetic patients treated with sulfonylureas.

    PubMed

    Ragia, G; Tavridou, A; Elens, L; Van Schaik, R H N; Manolopoulos, V G

    2014-01-01

    It is previously shown that carriers of the defective allele CYP2C9*3 that leads to impaired sulfonylurea metabolism are at increased sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycemia risk due to diminished drug metabolism, whereas no effect of CYP2C9*2 allele was found. Recently, a polymorphism in P450 oxidoreductase (POR) gene, assigned as POR*28 allele, was associated with increased CYP2C9 activity. The aim of this study was to assess i) the effect of POR*28 allele on sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycemia risk and ii) the association of CYP2C9*2 allele with hypoglycemia risk in non-carriers of POR*28 allele. The study group consisted of 176 patients with diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with sulfonylureas, of whom 92 patients had experienced at least one drug-associated hypoglycemic event (cases), while 84 had never experienced a hypoglycemic event (controls). POR*28 allele was detected by use of real-time TaqMan PCR. POR*28 allele was not associated with sulfonyl-urea-induced hypoglycemia. In POR*1/*1 patients, CYP2C9*1/*2 genotype was more common in cases than in controls (32.7 vs. 14.3%, p=0.041). In a model adjusted for age, BMI, duration of T2DM and renal function, and POR*1/*1 entered as a selection variable, CYP2C9*2 allele increased the hypoglycemia risk in response to sulfonylurea (odds ratio: 3.218, p=0.031). In conclusion, our results suggest that POR*28 allele is masking the association of CYP2C9*2 allele with sulfonyl-urea-induced hypoglycemia. Therefore, POR*28 allele is an important source of CYP2C9 activity variability and combined with CYP2C9 gene poly-morphisms may explain individual variability in the effect of sulfonylureas.

  19. Flavobacterium johnsoniae PorV is required for secretion of a subset of proteins targeted to the type IX secretion system.

    PubMed

    Kharade, Sampada S; McBride, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Flavobacterium johnsoniae exhibits gliding motility and digests many polysaccharides, including chitin. A novel protein secretion system, the type IX secretion system (T9SS), is required for gliding and chitin utilization. The T9SS secretes the cell surface motility adhesins SprB and RemA and the chitinase ChiA. Proteins involved in secretion by the T9SS include GldK, GldL, GldM, GldN, SprA, SprE, and SprT. Porphyromonas gingivalis has orthologs for each of these that are required for secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors by its T9SS. P. gingivalis porU and porV have also been linked to T9SS-mediated secretion, and F. johnsoniae has orthologs of these. Mutations in F. johnsoniae porU and porV were constructed to determine if they function in secretion. Cells of a porV deletion mutant were deficient in chitin utilization and failed to secrete ChiA. They were also deficient in secretion of the motility adhesin RemA but retained the ability to secrete SprB. SprB is involved in gliding motility and is needed for formation of spreading colonies on agar, and the porV mutant exhibited gliding motility and formed spreading colonies. However, the porV mutant was partially deficient in attachment to glass, apparently because of the absence of RemA and other adhesins on the cell surface. The porV mutant also appeared to be deficient in secretion of numerous other proteins that have carboxy-terminal domains associated with targeting to the T9SS. PorU was not required for secretion of ChiA, RemA, or SprB, indicating that it does not play an essential role in the F. johnsoniae T9SS.

  20. Structural and functional probing of PorZ, an essential bacterial surface component of the type-IX secretion system of human oral-microbiomic Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed Central

    Lasica, Anna M.; Goulas, Theodoros; Mizgalska, Danuta; Zhou, Xiaoyan; de Diego, Iñaki; Ksiazek, Mirosław; Madej, Mariusz; Guo, Yonghua; Guevara, Tibisay; Nowak, Magdalena; Potempa, Barbara; Goel, Apoorv; Sztukowska, Maryta; Prabhakar, Apurva T.; Bzowska, Monika; Widziolek, Magdalena; Thøgersen, Ida B.; Enghild, Jan J.; Simonian, Mary; Kulczyk, Arkadiusz W.; Nguyen, Ky-Anh; Potempa, Jan; Gomis-Rüth, F. Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a member of the human oral microbiome abundant in dysbiosis and implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontal (gum) disease. It employs a newly described type-IX secretion system (T9SS) for secretion of virulence factors. Cargo proteins destined for secretion through T9SS carry a recognition signal in the conserved C-terminal domain (CTD), which is removed by sortase PorU during translocation. Here, we identified a novel component of T9SS, PorZ, which is essential for surface exposure of PorU and posttranslational modification of T9SS cargo proteins. These include maturation of enzyme precursors, CTD removal and attachment of anionic lipopolysaccharide for anchorage in the outer membrane. The crystal structure of PorZ revealed two β-propeller domains and a C-terminal β-sandwich domain, which conforms to the canonical CTD architecture. We further documented that PorZ is itself transported to the cell surface via T9SS as a full-length protein with its CTD intact, independently of the presence or activity of PorU. Taken together, our results shed light on the architecture and possible function of a novel component of the T9SS. Knowledge of how T9SS operates will contribute to our understanding of protein secretion as part of host-microbiome interactions by dysbiotic members of the human oral cavity. PMID:27883039

  1. Influence of Various Polymorphic Variants of Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (POR) on Drug Metabolic Activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6

    PubMed Central

    Naranmandura, Hua; Zeng, Su; Chen, Shu Qing

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is known as the sole electron donor in the metabolism of drugs by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in human. However, little is known about the effect of polymorphic variants of POR on drug metabolic activities of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. In order to better understand the mechanism of the activity of CYPs affected by polymorphic variants of POR, six full-length mutants of POR (e.g., Y181D, A287P, K49N, A115V, S244C and G413S) were designed and then co-expressed with CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in the baculovirus-Sf9 insect cells to determine their kinetic parameters. Surprisingly, both mutants, Y181D and A287P in POR completely inhibited the CYP3A4 activity with testosterone, while the catalytic activity of CYP2B6 with bupropion was reduced to approximately ∼70% of wild-type activity by Y181D and A287P mutations. In addition, the mutant K49N of POR increased the CLint (Vmax/Km) of CYP3A4 up to more than 31% of wild-type, while it reduced the catalytic efficiency of CYP2B6 to 74% of wild-type. Moreover, CLint values of CYP3A4-POR (A115V, G413S) were increased up to 36% and 65% of wild-type respectively. However, there were no appreciable effects observed by the remaining two mutants of POR (i.e., A115V and G413S) on activities of CYP2B6. In conclusion, the extent to which the catalytic activities of CYP were altered did not only depend on the specific POR mutations but also on the isoforms of different CYP redox partners. Thereby, we proposed that the POR-mutant patients should be carefully monitored for the activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 on the prescribed medication. PMID:22719896

  2. Análise dos Conceitos Astronômicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

    2011-12-01

    A razão para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educação Básica (EB) não lidam com conceitos relacionados à astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didáticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como é de conhecimento geral a astronomia é um dos conteúdos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de São Paulo, mas é um fato, que vários pesquisadores apontam, a existência de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propósito de minimizar algumas dessas deficiências foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilização de questionários pré e pós pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extensão Universitária para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mauá, Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de São Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepções alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem após o curso, adotando-se como referência, para a análise dos resultados, os dicionários de Língua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopédico de Astronomia e Astronáutica (MOURĀO, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questões foram aplicadas antes e após o curso, assim pode-se verificar após a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar é composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstício, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrência das estações do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrência do equinócio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteróide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galáxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

  3. "Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo por inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado con fibra de vidrio"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose

    Mould materials for injection moulding of polymers and polymer-matrix composites represent a relevant industrial economic sector due to the large quantity of pieces and components processed. The material selection for mould manufacturing, its composition and heat treatment, the hardening procedures and machining and finishing processes determine the service performance and life of the mould. In the first part of the present study, the relationship between the hardness and microstructure and the wear resistance of mould steels from large blocks has been studied by pin-on-disc tests, studying the main wear mechanisms. In order to determine the surface damage on mould steels under real injection conditions, different commercial steels have been studied by measuring the variation of surface roughness with the number of injected pieces with different reinforcement percentages and different mould geometries, by using optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy techniques. It was important to determine the variation of surface roughness of the moulded pieces with the number of injection operations. The materials used were polybutyleneterephthalate pure and reinforced with either 20% or 50% glass fibre. For the different mould designs, the evolution of the glass fibre orientation with injection flow has been determined by image analysis and related to roughness changes and surface damage, both of the composite parts and of the mould steel surface. Finally, the abrasion resistance of the composite parts has been studied by scratch tests as a function of the number of injected parts and of the scratch direction with respect to injection flow and glass fibre orientation. Los materiales para moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos representan un sector economicamente muy relevante debido al gran aumento del numero de componentes fabricados a partir de materiales polimericos obtenidos mediante moldeo por inyeccion. La seleccion del material para la

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the C-terminal fragment of PorM, a subunit of the Porphyromonas gingivalis type IX secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Stathopulos, Julien; Cambillau, Christian; Cascales, Eric; Roussel, Alain; Leone, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    PorM is a membrane protein involved in the assembly of the type IX secretion system (T9SS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major bacterial pathogen responsible for periodontal disease in humans. The periplasmic domain of PorM was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. A fragment of the purified protein was obtained by limited proteolysis. Crystals of this fragment belonged to the tetragonal space group P43212. Native and MAD data sets were recorded to 2.85 and 3.1 Å resolution, respectively, using synchrotron radiation. PMID:25615973

  5. Community-based education in nutrition and cancer: the Por La Vida Cuidándome curriculum.

    PubMed

    Navarro, A M; Rock, C L; McNicholas, L J; Senn, K L; Moreno, C

    2000-01-01

    The Por La Vida (PLV) intervention model relies on community lay health advisors trained to conduct education sessions among members of their existing social networks. PLV Cuidándome was funded by the NCI to develop, implement, and evaluate the PLV model with respect to nutrition and cancer prevention, as well as early detection of breast and cervical cancers. The target population is the Latino community, for which substantial barriers to health care access exist. This article presents the curriculum that guides the sessions and describes its development, which was based on semi-structured interviews with Latina lay-health community workers to explore relevant attitudes and behaviors. Also key to the process was the work of the educational materials committee, whose members offered community representation as well as expertise in nutritional sciences, educational technologies, and community-based health promotion interventions and research. The 12-session curriculum's goal was to increase both the variety and the quality of fruits and/or vegetables consumed. It included information about consumption of fiber and fat in the importance of balance between energy intake and physical activity. The program has been well received. An ongoing study examines how it enhances nutrition and cancer prevention.

  6. El proceso hacia la integracion de la equidad por genero al curriculo.(The Process of the Integration of Gender Equity in the Curriculum.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Bermudez, Carmen D.

    "El Proyecto Colaborativo de Equidad por Genero en la Educacion," or the Collaborative Project for Gender Equity in Education, was undertaken in Puerto Rico between 1990 and 1992 to study how to facilitate the integration of gender equity themes in the curriculum through the direct action of participating teachers. A study examined the…

  7. P(O)R2-directed Pd-catalyzed C-H functionalization of biaryl derivatives to synthesize chiral phosphorous ligands.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rong-Bin; Wang, Hong-Li; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Heng; Ma, Yan-Na; Yang, Shang-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Chiral phosphorus ligands have been widely used in transition metal-catalyzed asymmetric reactions. Herein, we report a new synthesis approach of chiral biaryls containing a phosphorus moiety using P(O)R2-directed Pd-catalyzed C-H activation; the functionalized products are produced with good enantioselectivity.

  8. Estimaciones de Prevalencia del VIH por Género y Grupo de Riesgo en Tijuana, México: 2006

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Hogg, Robert S.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Elder, John P.; Viani, Rolando M.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO Estimar la prevalencia del VIH en adultos de 15-49 años de edad en Tijuana, México - en la población general y en subgrupos de riesgo en el 2006. METODOS Se obtuvieron datos demográficos del censo Mexicano del 2005, y la prevalencia del VIH se obtuvo de la literatura. Se construyó un modelo de prevalencia del VIH para la población general y de acuerdo al género. El análisis de sensibilidad consistió en estimar errores estándar del promedio-ponderado de la prevalencia del VIH y tomar derivados parciales con respecto a cada parámetro. RESULTADOS La prevalencia del VIH es 0.54%(N = 4,347) (Rango: 0.22%–0.86%, (N = 1,750–6,944)). Esto sugiere que 0.85%(Rango: 0.39%–1.31%) de los hombres y 0.22%(Rango: 0.04%–0.40%) de las mujeres podrían ser VIH-positivos. Los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), las trabajadoras sexuales usuarias de drogas inyectables (MTS-UDI), MTS-noUDI, mujeres UDI, y los hombres UDI contribuyeron las proporciones más elevadas de personas infectadas por el VIH. CONCLUSIONES El número de adultos VIH-positivos entre subgrupos de riesgo en la población de Tijuana es considerable, marcando la necesidad de enforcar las intervenciones de prevención en sus necesidades específicas. El presente modelo estima que hasta 1 en cada 116 adultos podrían ser VIH-positivos. PMID:19685824

  9. Adjuvant effects elicited by novel oligosaccharide variants of detoxified meningococcal lipopolysaccharides on Neisseria meningitidis recombinant PorA protein: a comparison in mice.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Ojas H; Norheim, Gunnstein; Hoe, J Claire; Rollier, Christine S; Nagaputra, Jerry C; Makepeace, Katherine; Saleem, Muhammad; Chan, Hannah; Ferguson, David J P; Jones, Claire; Sadarangani, Manish; Hood, Derek W; Feavers, Ian; Derrick, Jeremy P; Pollard, Andrew J; Moxon, E Richard

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has adjuvant properties that can be exploited to assist vaccine immunogenicity. The modified penta-acylated LPS retains the adjuvant properties of hexa-acylated LPS but has a reduced toxicity profile. In this study we investigated whether two modified glycoform structures (LgtE and IcsB) of detoxified penta-acylated LPS exhibited differential adjuvant properties when formulated as native outer membrane vesicles (nOMVs) as compared to the previously described LgtB variant. Detoxified penta-acylated LPS was obtained by disruption of the lpxL1 gene (LpxL1 LPS), and three different glycoforms were obtained by disruption of the lgtB, lgtE or icsB genes respectively. Mice (mus musculus) were immunized with a recombinant PorA P1.7-2,4 (rPorA) protein co-administered with different nOMVs (containing a different PorA serosubtype P1.7,16), each of which expressed one of the three penta-acylated LPS glycoforms. All nOMVs induced IgG responses against the rPorA, but the nOMVs containing the penta-acylated LgtB-LpxL1 LPS glycoform induced significantly greater bactericidal activity compared to the other nOMVs or when the adjuvant was Alhydrogel. Compared to LgtE or IcsB LPS glycoforms, these data support the use of nOMVs containing detoxified, modified LgtB-LpxL1 LPS as a potential adjuvant for future meningococcal protein vaccines.

  10. "Tu Que Te Mereces Un Principe, Un Dentista": The Use of Metaphors of Love, Desire, and Gender in Personal Ads on the Internet to Perform Heterosexuality. Creating and Supporting Ideologies of Heteronormativity and Sexuality in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas-Sosa, Deyanira

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates how heterosexuality is performed and achieved in everyday language use, specifically in personal ads from the Internet. Within personal ads, it focuses on the metaphors used by ad posters to articulate concepts of love, desire, gender and sexuality. The aim was to determine how the use of certain metaphors reflects ad…

  11. Astronomy in the Classroom: Why? (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Clase: ¿Por Qué?) Astronomia na Sala de Aula: Por Quê?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daros Gama, Leandro; Bagdonas Henrique, Alexandre

    2010-07-01

    There are many discussions about the relevance of the topics covered in classes. One subject in particular is the focus of this essay: astronomy. In what sense and to what extent it would be worth to teach it in science or other kind of classes? In this paper we discuss some aspects of the advantages of dealing with this area of knowledge in schools, taking into account the epistemological and axiological dimensions of astronomy, in light of the vision of science as an intelligent dialogue with the world (Bachelard), in addition to the "problematization" knowledge of Paulo Freire. We propose that in fact the Astronomy does not need to be seen as just a new set of contents to be taught, but appears as a set of motivational contents for historical-philosophical discussions, and permit the discussion of concepts of other disciplines. Numerosas discusiones se están llevando a cabo acerca de la pertinencia de los temas tradicionalmente tratados en las clases. Uno de los temas, en particular, es el foco de este ensayo: la astronomía. ¿En qué sentido y en qué medida sería conveniente tratarla en clase, ya sea en clases de ciencias naturales, específicamente en las de astronomía o asignaturas afines? Elaboramos en este artículo algunos aspectos de las ventajas de tratar esta área del conocimiento en las escuelas, teniendo en cuenta las dimensiones epistemológica y axiológica de la astronomía, a la luz de la visión de la ciencia como un diálogo inteligente con el mundo (Bachelard), además de la propuesta del conocimiento "problematizador" de Paulo Freire. Proponemos que en realidad la astronomía no tiene por qué ser vista sólo como un nuevo conjunto de contenidos que se enseñan, sino que aparece como un conjunto de temas de motivación para el debate histórico-filosófico y para permitir la discusión de los conceptos típicos de otras disciplinas. Muitas discussões vêm acontecendo sobre a relevância dos temas abordados em sala de aula. Um tema, em

  12. Obtención de la curva de luz en la ocultación de 35 Sgr por Júpiter el 6 de marzo de 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolantonio, S.; Duffard, R.; Carranza, G.

    La ocultación de la estrella de quinta magnitud 35 Sgr por Júpiter, se produjo el 6 de Marzo de 1996 a las 13 hs. TU. El objetivo era medir el cambio del flujo de la estrella en el ingreso y egreso por el limbo del planeta. Con estos datos se pueden determinar parámetros físicos del planeta (radio, eccentricidad) y de su atmósfera (escala de altura, temperatura, densidad, presión) Para lograr ésto se programó la cámara CCD TH 7896 1024 x 1025 instalada en el telescopio de 1.54 m de Bosque Alegre con el objetivo de lograr 2 imágenes por segundo. De esta forma se obtuvieron 2100 imágenes de la inmersión y otras tantas de la emersión. Hubo que tener grandes precauciones para evitar la saturación del CCD ya que la observación se realizó de día. En este momento las imágenes se encuentran en el Department of Planetary Sciences, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, para su reducción.

  13. Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infección por el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables

    PubMed Central

    MATEU-GELABERT, P.; FRIEDMAN, S.; SANDOVAL, M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con éxito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) están infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar cómo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infección por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. Material y métodos Hemos utilizado el concepto de «desviación positiva» aplicado en otros campos de salud pública. Estudiamos las estrategias, prácticas y tácticas de prevención de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado heroína durante años. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este artículo incluyen el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infección por el VHC y sin infección por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protección y vigilancia. Resultados La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante períodos de involución (períodos donde hay un deterioro económico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infección: a) evitar «el mono» (síntomas de abstención) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) «llevarlo bien» para no convertirse en un junkie y así evitar la «muerte social» y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin

  14. Synthesis and x-ray structure of the first divalent lanthanide acetylacetonate complex, bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethylheptane-3,5-dionato)bis-(dimethoxyethane)europium(II)

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, W.J.; Shreeve, J.L.; Ziller, J.W.

    1994-12-21

    The authors describe the synthesis of a novel europium(II)acetylacetonate complex, (THD){sub 2}Eu(DME){sub 2} (1) and (THD){sub 2}Sm(DME){sub 2} (2) and the decomposition product of (2), (THD){sub 3}Sm(DME), (3). The complexes were structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography.

  15. A survey of homopteran species (Auchenorrhyncha) from coffee shrubs and poró and laurel trees in shaded coffee plantations, in Turrialba, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rojas, L; Godoy, C; Hanson, P; Hilje, L

    2001-01-01

    A survey of homopteran species (Auchenorryncha) was conducted in coffee plantations with no shade (C), and in those with shade of either poró (Erythrina poeppigiana) (CP) or poró plus laurel (Cordia alliodora) (CPL), in Turrialba, Costa Rica. A total of 130 species in ten families were collected, dominated by Cicadellidae (82 species). Species richness was highest in the CP system (88), followed by CPL (74) and C systems (60). Five most common species for all systems were Fusigonalia lativittata, Hebralebra nicaraguensis, Neocoelidia sp., Oliarus sp. and Clastoptera sp. Diversification of the coffee agroecosystem favors some species while limiting others, and have no effect on the majority of species. Thus, only F. lativittata, Neocoelidia sp. and Scaphytopius ca. latidens were well represented in all systems, but were more abundant in coffee shrubs. Additionally, the following were the dominant species in each system: Graphocephala sp. 1 (C), F. lativittata (CP) and H. nicaraguensis (CPL). Four species abundant on laurel trees, including H. nicaraguensis, appeared almost exclusively on these tree species. Species similarity was highest on the CP and CPL systems (51% of the species in common), followed by the C and CP (39%) and the C and CPL systems (38%). These findings show that even disturbed systems can harbor many insect species, so that they deserve attention from conservation advocates and biologists.

  16. A Fast Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Method for Sensitive and Specific Detection of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae porA Pseudogene

    PubMed Central

    Hjelmevoll, Stig Ove; Olsen, Merethe Elise; Sollid, Johanna U. Ericson; Haaheim, Håkon; Unemo, Magnus; Skogen, Vegard

    2006-01-01

    Ever since the advent of molecular methods, the diagnostics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been troubled by false negative and false positive results compared with culture. Commensal Neisseria species and Neisseria meningitidis are closely related to N. gonorrhoeae and may cross-react when using molecular tests comprising too-low specificity. We have devised a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), including an internal amplification control, that targets the N. gonorrhoeae porA pseudogene. DNA was automatically isolated on a BioRobot M48. Our subsequent PCR method amplified all of the different N. gonorrhoeae international reference strains (n = 34) and N. gonorrhoeae clinical isolates (n = 176) but not isolates of the 13 different nongonococcal Neisseria species (n = 68) that we tested. Furthermore, a panel of gram-negative bacterial (n = 18), gram-positive bacterial (n = 23), fungal (n = 1), and viral (n = 4) as well as human DNA did not amplify. The limit of detection was determined to be less than 7.5 genome equivalents/PCR reaction. In conclusion, the N. gonorrhoeae porA pseudogene real-time PCR developed in the present study is highly sensitive, specific, robust, rapid and reproducible, making it suitable for diagnosis of N. gonorrhoeae infection. PMID:17065426

  17. Prevalencia y factores de riesgo para infecciones del tracto urinario de inicio en la comunidad causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Victor M.; Maya, Juan J.; Correa, Adriana; Perenguez, Marcela; Muñoz, Juan S.; Motoa, Gabriel; Pallares, Christian J.; Rosso, Fernando; Matta, Lorena; Celis, Yamile; Garzon, Martha; Villegas, y María V.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción Las infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU) son frecuentes en la comunidad. Sin embargo, la información de aislamientos resistentes en este contexto es limitada en Latinoamérica. Este estudio tiene como objetivo determinar la prevalencia y los factores de riesgo asociados con ITU de inicio en la comunidad (ITU-IC) causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) en Colombia. Materiales y métodos Entre agosto y diciembre de 2011 se realizó un estudio de casos y controles en 3 instituciones de salud de tercer nivel en Colombia. Se invitó a participar a todos los pacientes admitidos a urgencias con diagnóstico probable de ITU-IC, y se les pidió una muestra de orina. En los aislamien-tos de E. coli se realizaron pruebas confirmatorias para BLEE, susceptibilidad antibiótica, caracterización molecular (PCR en tiempo real para genes bla, repetitive element palindromic PCR [rep-PCR], multilocus sequence typing [MLST] y factores de virulencia por PCR). Se obtuvo información clínica y epidemiológica, y posteriormente se realizó el análisis estadístico. Resultados De los 2.124 pacientes seleccionados, 629 tuvieron un urocultivo positivo, en 431 de estos se aisló E. coli, 54 fueron positivos para BLEE y 29 correspondieron a CTX-M-15. La mayoría de los aislamientos de E. coli productor de BLEE fueron sensibles a ertapenem, fosfomicina y amikacina. La ITU complicada se asoció fuertemente con infecciones por E. coli productor de BLEE (OR = 3,89; IC 95%: 1,10–13,89; p = 0,03). E. coli productor de CTX-M-15 mostró 10 electroferotipos diferentes; de estos, el 65% correspondieron al ST131. La mayoría de estos aislamientos tuvieron 8 de los 9 factores de virulencia analizados. Discusión E. coli portador del gen blaCTX-M-15 asociado al ST131 sigue siendo frecuente en Colombia. La presencia de ITU-IC complicada aumenta el riesgo de tener E. coli productor de BLEE, lo cual debe tenerse en cuenta para ofrecer

  18. Concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as de biologia y futuros maestros/as de Ciencia de escuela secundaria sobre la teoria de evolucion biologica por seleccion natural

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Ramos, Egda M.

    La teoria de evolucion biologica (TEB) por seleccion natural es uno de los conceptos unificadores mas importantes del curriculo de Biologia. En Puerto Rico se han hecho pocas investigaciones que abunden sobre las concepciones y concepciones alternativas (CA) que tienen los estudiantes universitarios/as de Biologia y los maestros/as de Ciencia del nivel secundario sobre esta teoria. La politica publica educativa actual establece mediante documentos normativos como los Estandares de contenido y Expectativas de grado del Programa de Ciencias [Puerto Rico Core Standards] la ensenanza de esta teoria. Sin embargo, no se encontraron preguntas sobre la seleccion natural en los ejercicios de practica provistos por el Departamento de Educacion para las pruebas estandarizadas lo cual puede influir para que no se ensene adecuadamente. Las preguntas de investigacion fueron 1. ¿Cuales son las concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as y de los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB? 2. ¿Cuales conceptos que seleccionan los estudiantes universitarios/as y los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB coinciden con lo aceptado como valido por la comunidad cientifica? y 3. ¿Como comparan las respuestas de la prueba original. v. Entendiendo el cambio biologico que mide concepciones y CA sobre la TEB por seleccion natural, con las de la traducida al idioma espanol? Se utilizo el metodo cuantitativo con un diseno de investigacion transversal por encuesta. La tecnica principal para recopilar los datos fue una prueba con doce items, que formo parte de un instrumento para el cual se recopilaron diversas fuentes de evidencia acerca de su validez. Las muestras estuvieron formadas por 69 estudiantes de Ciencias Naturales y por 16 estudiantes futuros maestros y maestras del nivel secundario de la UPR-RP. Se utilizaron estadisticas descriptivas, analisis de Ji cuadrado y se calcularon los coeficientes alfa de Cronbach y de Spearman

  19. Relación masa-radio para estrellas enanas blancas y la interpretación de recientes mediciones hechas por Hipparcos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panei, J. A.; Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Recientes mediciones de la masa y el radio hechas por Hipparcos de las estrellas enanas blancas 40 Eri B y Procyon B (Shipman, H. & Provencal, J. - ApJ. 1998, 494, 759), sugieren un núcleo compuesto de hierro para dichas estrellas, en lugar de carbono y oxígeno como predice la teoría standard de evolución estelar. Para interpretar estas observaciones, presentamos aquí, relaciones masa-radio para configuraciones degeneradas a temperatura finita para distintas composiciones químicas centrales. Para tal fin hemos calculado secuencias evolutivas de enanas blancas utilizando el código de evolución estelar, desarrollado en el Observatorio de La Plata. Dicho código resuelve las ecuaciones de estructura y evolución estelar mediante la técnica de relajación de Henyey, y esta basado en una descripción física muy detallada y actualizada.

  20. Bifurcación de las soluciones de vientos impulsados por radiación en estrellas Be: formación de líneas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curé, M.; Rial, D.; Cidale, L.; Venero, R.

    Se ha estudiado la topología de la ecuación hidrodinámica no-lineal que describe el perfil de velocidades de vientos impulsados por radiación en estrellas tempranas. Al aplicar este modelo a estrellas Be se encuentra que existen dos tipos De soluciones: la estándar, que describe el viento polar, y una nueva, que describe un viento más denso y lento y que explicaría el disco que se encuentra alrededor de estos objetos. Existe una región de transición en donde ambas soluciones coexisten (bifurcación}). Ambas soluciones satisfacen en esta región las mismas condiciones de borde. Para estas dos soluciones se han obtenido los perfiles de líneas de hidrógeno del visible y del IR, resolviendo el transporte de radiación en el ``comoving frame". Para la solución estándar, se obtienen perfiles con componentes en emisión, mientras que para la nueva solución se obtienen perfiles en absorción. Se comparan cualitativamente los resultados con las observaciones.

  1. Weight of ABCB1 and POR genes on oral tacrolimus exposure in CYP3A5 nonexpressor pediatric patients with stable kidney transplant.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Paulo, G N; Dapía García, I; Lubomirov, R; Borobia, A M; Alonso-Sánchez, N L; Espinosa, L; Carcas-Sansuán, A J

    2017-01-17

    Tacrolimus (TAC) is highly effective for the prevention of acute organ rejection. However, its clinical use may be challenging due to its large interindividual pharmacokinetic variability, which can be partially explained by genetic variations in TAC-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of genetic and clinical factors on TAC pharmacokinetic variability in 21 stable pediatric renal transplant patients. This study was nested in a previous Prograf to Advagraf conversion clinical trial. CYP3A5, ABCB1 and two POR genotypes were assessed by real-time PCR. The impact on TAC pharmacokinetics of individual genetic variants on CYP3A5 nonexpressors was evaluated by genetic score. Explicative models for TAC AUC0-24h, Cmax and Cmin after Advagraf were developed by linear regression. The built genetic scores explain 13.7 and 26.5% of the total AUC0-24h and Cmin total variability, respectively. Patients genetic information should be considered to monitorizate and predict TAC exposure.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 17 January 2017; doi:10.1038/tpj.2016.93.

  2. IgE Reactivity of Blue Swimmer Crab (Portunus pelagicus) Tropomyosin, Por p 1, and Other Allergens; Cross-Reactivity with Black Tiger Prawn and Effects of Heating

    PubMed Central

    Varese, Nirupama; Zubrinich, Celia; Lopata, Andreas L.; O'Hehir, Robyn E.; Rolland, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Shellfish allergy is a major cause of food-induced anaphylaxis, but the allergens are not well characterized. This study examined the effects of heating on blue swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) allergens in comparison with those of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) by testing reactivity with shellfish-allergic subjects' serum IgE. Cooked extracts of both species showed markedly increased IgE reactivity by ELISA and immunoblotting, and clinical relevance of IgE reactivity was confirmed by basophil activation tests. Inhibition IgE ELISA and immunoblotting demonstrated cross-reactivity between the crab and prawn extracts, predominantly due to tropomyosin, but crab-specific IgE-reactivity was also observed. The major blue swimmer crab allergen tropomyosin, Por p 1, was cloned and sequenced, showing strong homology with tropomyosin of other crustacean species but also sequence variation within known and predicted linear IgE epitopes. These findings will advance more reliable diagnosis and management of potentially severe food allergy due to crustaceans. PMID:23840718

  3. Fuentes de variabilidad en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica multifocal asociada con la infección por Helicobacter pylori1

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Realpe, José Luis; Zarama, Guillermo; Piazuelo, MarÍa Blanca; Correa, Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del estómago y el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica disponibles para evaluación histopatológica son fuentes importantes de variación en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradación de la gastritis crónica. Objetivos Estimar la sensibilidad del número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica necesarios para establecer los diagnósticos de gastritis atrófica con metaplasia intestinal (MI), displasia y estado de infección por Helicobacter pylori. Además evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificación de estas lesiones precursoras del cáncer gástrico. Materiales y métodos En una cohorte de 6 años de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados por dos gastroenterólogos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa gástrica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un único patólogo hizo la interpretación histológica de las 5 biopsias y proporcionó un diagnóstico definitivo global que se utilizó como patrón de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa gástrica examinado condujo a un diagnóstico individual para cada biopsia que se comparó con el patrón de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evaluó en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento. Resultados La sensibilidad del diagnóstico de MI y displasia gástrica aumentó de manera significativa con el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados El sitio anatómico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagnóstico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logró alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa gástrica (95.9%) y fue independiente del sitio de obtención de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagnóstico de gastritis crónica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0.76-0.85). Las

  4. A UV-vis study of the effects of alcohols on formation and stability of Mn(por)(O)(OAc) complexes.

    PubMed

    Mohajer, Daryoush; Jahanbani, Maryam

    2012-06-01

    Interactions of three different (acetato) (tetraarylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(por) with tetra-n-butylammonium hydrogen monopersulfate (n-Bu(4)NHSO(5)), in the presence of excess tetra-n-butylammonium acetate (n-Bu(4)NOAc) and in the absence or presence of various alcohols (alcohols=CH(3)OH, C(2)H(5)OH, i-C(3)H(7)OH, t-C(4)H(9)OH) in CH(2)Cl(2), were monitored by their UV-vis spectral changes, under identical conditions, at room temperature. (Acetato) (tetrakispentafluorophenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(tpfpp)(OAc) and (acetato) (tetramesitylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(tmp)(OAc) produced their corresponding high valent Mn(tpfpp)(O)(OAc) and Mn(tmp)(O)(OAc) both in the absence or presence of alcohols. Whereas, (acetato) (tetraphenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(tpp)(OAc) only generated Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) in the presence of less bulky alcohols. In the absence of alcohols or in the presence of t-C(4)H(9)OH, the UV-vis spectra displayed a very weak sign of formation of Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) complex. It was observed that alcohols generally increased the rate of formation of Mn-oxo species in accordance with their acidity or hydrogen bonding strength, and enhanced the stability of Mn-oxo complexes, as their size increases. Attempts are made to explain these effects. A mechanistic scheme is also suggested for the decomposition of HSO(5)(-) to O(2) and HSO(4)(-), through the formation and dimerization of Mn-oxo species.

  5. A UV-vis study of the effects of alcohols on formation and stability of Mn(por)(O)(OAc) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohajer, Daryoush; Jahanbani, Maryam

    2012-06-01

    Interactions of three different (acetato) (tetraarylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(por) with tetra-n-butylammonium hydrogen monopersulfate (n-Bu4NHSO5), in the presence of excess tetra-n-butylammonium acetate (n-Bu4NOAc) and in the absence or presence of various alcohols (alcohols = CH3OH, C2H5OH, i-C3H7OH, t-C4H9OH) in CH2Cl2, were monitored by their UV-vis spectral changes, under identical conditions, at room temperature. (Acetato) (tetrakispentafluorophenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tpfpp)(OAc) and (acetato) (tetramesitylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tmp)(OAc) produced their corresponding high valent Mn(tpfpp)(O)(OAc) and Mn(tmp)(O)(OAc) both in the absence or presence of alcohols. Whereas, (acetato) (tetraphenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tpp)(OAc) only generated Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) in the presence of less bulky alcohols. In the absence of alcohols or in the presence of t-C4H9OH, the UV-vis spectra displayed a very weak sign of formation of Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) complex. It was observed that alcohols generally increased the rate of formation of Mn-oxo species in accordance with their acidity or hydrogen bonding strength, and enhanced the stability of Mn-oxo complexes, as their size increases. Attempts are made to explain these effects. A mechanistic scheme is also suggested for the decomposition of HSO5- to O2 and HSO4-, through the formation and dimerization of Mn-oxo species.

  6. Estudio teórico de la desorción de Na y K de SiO2 estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez Ariza, D.; López, N.; Illas, F.; Pacchioni, G.; Madey, T. E.

    Se ha estudiado el mecanismo de generación de sodio y potasio atómico a partir de muestras de SiO2 utilizando cálculos basados tanto en la teoría del funcional de la densidad como en métodos post-Hartree Fock, así como en el método de cluster para modelar el sólido. Como consecuencia del estudio se han propuesto distintos caminos posibles para la desorción, estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones, de sodio y potasio desde el óxido de silicio, proporcionando por lo tanto una explicación a la atmósfera tenue de sodio y potasio de La Luna.

  7. Long-term RNA persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) after an outbreak of a natural infection: the detection of viral mRNA in sentinel pigs suggests viral transmission.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Kennedy, S; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Berg, M; Moreno-López, J

    2014-08-08

    The persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) in five pigs that had survived an outbreak of a natural infection was determined. After the resolution of the outbreak, each animal was housed in an isolation pen together with one sentinel pig. Approximately every 2 months thereafter one group of animals was euthanized and tissue samples taken for virological and serological analysis. Infectious virus was not isolated from any samples; antibodies to PorPV-LPMV were detected in convalescent pigs by virus neutralisation test and blocking ELISA but not in sentinel pigs. PorPV-LPMV mRNA of the nucleoprotein (NP) and phosphoprotein (P) genes was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) in samples of trigeminal and optic nerves, cervical spinal cord, tonsils, salivary gland, lung and pancreas from convalescent pigs. mRNA was also detected in the midbrain, corpus callosum, or olfactory bulb in four out of five pigs by nRT-PCR, this result was confirmed by the sequencing of a 260bp PCR product of P gene region. The highest average viral copies/μg of total RNA occurred in the olfactory bulb and pancreas tissues of convalescent pigs and midbrain, tonsil and pancreas of sentinel pigs housed with the convalescent pigs. Satellitosis and gliosis of the midbrain, olfactory bulb, corpus callosum, medulla oblongata or choroid plexus were microscopically observed in four convalescent pigs. The control pig remained negative in all tests. The results indicate that PorPV-LPMV mRNA persists and induces a durable humoral immune response in pigs that have recovered from a natural infection. After a possible reactivation of the virus, it was transmitted to sentinel pigs in contact with the convalescent pigs.

  8. Comparación de resultados del método de clasificación de órbitas por análisis de frecuencias con el método de exponentes de Lyapunov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpintero, D. D.; Muzzio, J. C.; Wachlin, F. C.

    Hemos realizado extensas comparaciones del método de análisis de frecuencias con el de exponentes de Lyapunov. El primero resulta claramente superior por las siguientes razones: 1) permite distinguir distintos tipos de órbitas y no sólo si son regulares o caóticas 2) es mucho más veloz requiriendo mucho menos tiempo de cómputo. La concordancia de resultados es, en general, buena y se discuten algunas discrepancias.

  9. La inserción en el mercado laboral de los inmigrantes latinos en España y en los Estados Unidos: Diferencias por país de origen y estatus legal

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Phillip; Massey, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Resumen Este artículo compara los resultados económicos entre los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España y Estados Unidos. Detectamos un efecto de selección por el que la mayoría de los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España proceden de Sudamérica de un entorno de clases medias, mientras la mayoría de los inmigrantes que van a los Estados Unidos son centroamericanos de clase baja. Este efecto de selección explica las diferencias transnacionales en la probabilidad de empleo, logro ocupacional y salarios obtenidos. A pesar de las diferencias en los orígenes y las características de los latinoamericanos en ambos países, los factores demográficos, humanos y de capital social parecen operar de forma similar en ambos países; y cuando los modelos se estiman separadamente por estatus legal, descubrimos que los efectos se acentúan más entre los inmigrantes irregulares cuando se los compara con los regulares, especialmente en Estados Unidos. PMID:24532857

  10. Aquisição fonológica do português brasileiro por crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e surdas usuárias de implante coclear

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Carina Rebello; Finger, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Resumo O presente estudo investiga a aquisição fonológica do Português Brasileiro (PB) por 24 crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais, com acesso irrestrito à Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras), e por 6 crianças surdas que utilizam implante coclear (IC), com acesso restrito ou irrestrito à Libras. Para a avaliação do sistema fonológico das crianças em PB, foi utilizada a Parte A, Prova de Nomeação, do ABFW – Teste de Linguagem Infantil (ANDRADE et al. 2004). Os resultados revelaram que as crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e a criança surda usuária de IC com acesso irrestrito à Libras apresentaram processo de aquisição fonológica esperada (normal) para a sua faixa etária. Considera-se que a aquisição precoce e o acesso irrestrito à Libras podem ter sido determinantes para o desempenho dessas crianças no teste oral utilizado. PMID:25506105

  11. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía Por Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educação Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    We present the results obtained in a research on the comprehension of basic astronomical concepts, in which 561 students from fifth grade middle school to third grade high school of a public school of the city of Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) took part. A test with 20 multiple-choice questions was applied to indentify the most common conceptions expressed by the students. This test was elaborated based on the literature about misconceptions and covered the following topics: the day-night cycle; the time zones; the seasons of the year; the phases of the Moon; the movement of the Moon; the apparent movement of the Sun in the celestial sphere; the eclipses; the dimensions and distances in the Universe; the brightness of the stars and its observation from Earth. Though a small progress was verified in the proportion of scientifically acceptable answers when comparing the eighth grade of middle school to the fifth, and the third grade of high school to the first, there was an overall predominance of alternative conceptions regarding most of the explored subjects, which persisted up to the last year of secondary school. The comparison to data found in this research made in other socio-cultural contexts revealed, in many aspects, similar notions and difficulties revealed by the students. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre la comprensión de conceptos astronómicos básicos, en la cual participaron 561 estudiantes que cursaban entre el quinto grado de la enseñanza primaria y el tercer año de la enseñanza secundaria de una escuela pública de la ciudad de Foz do Iguaçu (Brasil). Se utilizó un test de 20 preguntas de opción múltiple para identificar las concepciones más comunes expresadas por los estudiantes. Este instrumento de recolección de datos se desarrolló en base a la literatura sobre las concepciones alternativas y trató los siguientes temas: el ciclo día-noche, los husos horarios, las estaciones del año, las fases de la Luna, el

  12. One-step purification and porin transport activity of the major outer membrane proteins P2 from Haemophilus influenzae, FomA from Fusobacterium nucleatum and PorB from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Kattner, Christof; Pfennig, Sabrina; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial porins are major outer membrane proteins that function as essential solute transporters between the bacteria and the extracellular environment. Structural features of porins are also recognized by eukaryotic cell receptors involved in innate and adaptive immunity. To better investigate the function of porins, proper refolding is necessary following purification from inclusion bodies [1, 2]. Using a single-step size exclusion chromatographic method, we have purified three major porins from pathogenic bacteria, the OmpP2 (P2) from Haemophilus influenzae, FomA from Fusobacterium nucleatum and PorB from Neisseria meningitidis, at high yield and report their unique solute transport activity with size exclusion limit. Furthermore, we have optimized their purification method and achieved improvement of their thermostability for facilitating functional and structural analyses.

  13. Thiophene metabolism by E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    The objective for this project was to continue the genetic analysis of the thiophene oxidation system, in particular: 1. characterization of the biochemical pathway for thiophene oxidation, 2. identification and mapping of any further genes involved in thiophene degradation, 3. analysis of how the thd genes are regulated, and 4. cloning and sequencing of at least some of the thd genes.

  14. Thiophene metabolism by E. coli. Final technical report, September 15, 1987--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.P.

    1991-12-31

    The objective for this project was to continue the genetic analysis of the thiophene oxidation system, in particular: 1. characterization of the biochemical pathway for thiophene oxidation, 2. identification and mapping of any further genes involved in thiophene degradation, 3. analysis of how the thd genes are regulated, and 4. cloning and sequencing of at least some of the thd genes.

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis clinical isolates identified as tetracycline resistant do not exhibit resistance in vitro: whole-genome sequencing reveals a mutation in porB but no evidence for tetracycline resistance genes.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, C E; Seth-Smith, H M B; Van Der Pol, B; Harris, S R; Thomson, N R; Cutcliffe, L T; Clarke, I N

    2013-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide and the leading cause of preventable blindness in developing countries. Tetracycline is commonly the drug of choice for treating C. trachomatis infections, but cases of antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates have previously been reported. Here, we used antibiotic resistance assays and whole-genome sequencing to interrogate the hypothesis that two clinical isolates (IU824 and IU888) have acquired mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. Immunofluorescence staining was used to identify C. trachomatis inclusions in cell cultures grown in the presence of tetracycline; however, only antibiotic-free control cultures yielded the strong fluorescence associated with the presence of chlamydial inclusions. Infectivity was lost upon passage of harvested cultures grown in the presence of tetracycline into antibiotic-free medium, so we conclude that these isolates were phenotypically sensitive to tetracycline. Comparisons of the genome and plasmid sequences for the two isolates with tetracycline-sensitive strains did not identify regions of low sequence identity that could accommodate horizontally acquired resistance genes, and the tetracycline binding region of the 16S rRNA gene was identical to that of the sensitive control strains. The porB gene of strain IU824, however, was found to contain a premature stop codon not previously identified, which is noteworthy but unlikely to be related to tetracycline resistance. In conclusion, we found no evidence of tetracycline resistance in the two strains investigated, and it seems most likely that the small, aberrant inclusions previously identified resulted from the high chlamydial load used in the original antibiotic resistance assays.

  16. Characterization of invasive Neisseria meningitidis from Atlantic Canada, 2009 to 2013: With special reference to the nonpolysaccharide vaccine targets (PorA, factor H binding protein, Neisseria heparin-binding antigen and Neisseria adhesin A)

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Raymond SW; Law, Dennis KS; Gad, Rita R; Mailman, Tim; German, Gregory; Needle, Robert

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) has always been a major cause of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in Canada. With the successful implementation of a meningitis C conjugate vaccine, the majority of IMD in Canada is now caused by MenB. OBJECTIVE: To investigate IMD case isolates in Atlantic Canada from 2009 to 2013. Data were analyzed to determine the potential coverage of the newly licensed MenB vaccine. METHODS: Serogroup, serotype and serosubtype antigens were determined from IMD case isolates. Clonal analysis was performed using multilocus sequence typing. The protein-based vaccine antigen genes were sequenced and the predicted peptides were investigated. RESULTS: The majority of the IMD isolates were MenB (82.5%, 33 of 40) and, in particular, sequence type (ST)-154 B:4:P1.4 was responsible for 47.5% (19 of 40) of all IMD case isolates in Atlantic Canada. Isolates of this clone expressed the PorA antigen P1.4 and possessed the nhba genes encoding for Neisseria heparin-binding antigen peptide 2, which together matched exactly with two of the four components of the new four-component meningococcal B vaccine. Nineteen MenB isolates had two antigenic matches, another five MenB and one meningitis Y isolate had one antigenic match. This provided 75.8% (25 of 33) potential coverage for MenB, or a 62.5% (25 of 40) overall potential coverage for IMD. CONCLUSION: From 2009 to 2013, IMD in Atlantic Canada was mainly caused by MenB and, in particular, the B:4:P1.4 ST-154 clone, which accounted for 47.5% of all IMD case isolates. The new four-component meningococcal B vaccine appeared to offer adequate coverage against MenB in Atlantic Canada. PMID:26744586

  17. Eficacia de la detección sistemática de la gripe en las fronteras en los viajeros que llegan por vía aérea*

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Patricia C.; Jennings, Lance C.; Duncan, Alasdair R.; Brunton, Cheryl R.; Baker, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Se midieron los síntomas y la prevalencia de la gripe (también llamada influenza), así como la eficacia del mecanismo de detección sistemática basado en los síntomas y la temperatura para diagnosticar la gripe en viajeros internacionales que llegaban por vía aérea. Métodos. El presente estudio transversal recopiló datos de viajeros que llegaron al aeropuerto internacional de Christchurch (Nueva Zelandia) en el invierno del 2008 mediante un cuestionario de salud, medición de la temperatura y toma de muestras de las vías respiratorias. Resultados. De los viajeros, 15 976 (68%) entregaron los formularios completos. De ellos, 17% notificaron al menos un síntoma de gripe; los síntomas más comunes fueron rinorrea o congestión nasal (10%) y tos (8%). Se tomaron muestras de las vías respiratorias de 3 769 viajeros. La prevalencia estimada de la gripe fue de 1,1% (4% en las personas sintomáticas, 0,2% en las asintomáticas). La sensibilidad de los criterios de detección varió de 84% para “cualquier síntoma” a 3% para la fiebre de 37,8 °C o mayor. El valor predictivo positivo fue bajo para todos los criterios. Conclusiones. El método de detección sistemática en las fronteras mediante la autonotificación de síntomas y la toma de la temperatura presenta limitaciones para impedir que una gripe pandémica entre en un país. Basarse en criterios como “cualquier síntoma” o la tos haría que se investigara a varias personas no infectadas, mientras que algunas personas infectadas pasarían inadvertidas. Si se usaran criterios más específicos como la fiebre, la mayoría de las personas infectadas entrarían en el país a pesar del mecanismo de detección.

  18. The Use of Transanal Hemorrhoidal Dearterialization for Treatment of Hemorrhoid Disease at a Single Institution.

    PubMed

    Haskins, Ivy N; Holzmacher, Jeremy; Obias, Vincent; Agarwal, Samir

    2016-12-01

    Transanal hemorrhoidal dearterialization (THD) is a relatively new, minimally invasive approach for the treatment of hemorrhoid disease. Despite increasing use of this procedure, there remains scarce United States-based data on the perioperative variables affected by this surgical technique. This article details the experience with THD at a single institution. This is a single-institution study that includes consecutive patients that underwent THD at George Washington University from November 2011 to April 2014. After Institutional Review Board approval, retrospective chart review was performed. Patient demographic information, preoperative management of hemorrhoid disease, and quality of life indicators after THD were collected for all patients. A total of 96 patients underwent THD during the period of investigation. A majority of the patients were male and all patients had grade II or III hemorrhoids. Most patients who underwent THD presented with rectal bleeding. Four patients required postoperative admission to the hospital for pain control, eight patients experienced constipation postoperatively, and one patient had recurrence of their hemorrhoid disease at 30-day follow-up. No patients required admission to the hospital for postoperative hemorrhage and none experienced urinary retention or incontinence of flatus or stool. THD is a feasible alternative to Ferguson hemorrhoidectomy for the surgical treatment of grade II and III hemorrhoidal disease. Future prospective studies are needed to help improve patient selection for each respective surgical approach.

  19. BST Films Grown by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition Incorporating Real-Time Control of Stoichiometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    grow multi-component oxide films including YBCO and ferroelectric PBT. In this paper, we describe preliminary studies of MOCVD growth of BST films...320 nm . These values as well as those for Ti and Bar are also summarized in Table 1. Table 1 Bubbler temperatures and UV absorption spectral windows...Precursor Tbubbler(◦C) UV Spectral Window ( nm ) Ba(thd) 237 260–235 Sr(thd) 232–235 250–320 Ti(thd2) 135–150 290–335 D ow nl oa de d by [ T & F In

  20. Differential surface expression of CD18 and CD44 by neutrophils in bone marrow and spleen contributed to the neutrophilia in thalidomide-treated female B6C3F1 mice

    SciTech Connect

    Auttachoat, Wimolnut; Zheng Jianfeng; Chi, Rui P.; Meng, Andrew; Guo, Tai L. . E-mail: tlguo@vcu.edu

    2007-02-01

    Previously, we have reported that thalidomide (Thd) can enhance neutrophil function in female B6C3F1 mice. The present study was intended to evaluate the mechanisms underlying the enhanced neutrophil responses following Thd treatment intraperitoneally (100 mg/kg) for 14 or 28 days. Treatment with Thd increased the numbers of neutrophils in the spleen, peripheral blood, bone marrow, peritoneal cavity and lungs of female B6C3F1 mice when compared to the vehicle control mice. Thd treatment for 14 days increased the percentage and the number of neutrophils in the spleen in the first 8 h (peaking at 2 h) after the last Thd treatment, and it returned to the baseline after 24 h. However, Thd treatment for 28 days increased the percentage and number of neutrophils in the spleen even at the 24-h time point after the last Thd treatment. These neutrophils were demonstrated to be functional by the myeloperoxidase activity assay. Further studies have ruled out the possibility of an increased bone marrow granulopoiesis following Thd treatment. Flow cytometric analysis of the surface expression of adhesion molecules suggested that Thd treatment for either 14 or 28 days decreased the surface expression of either CD18 or CD44 by bone marrow neutrophils. On the other hand, the surface expression of both CD18 and CD44 by splenic neutrophils was increased following Thd treatment for 28 days but not for 14 days. No effect was produced for other cell surface molecules such as CD62L and CD11a. It was possible that decreased surface expressions of CD18 and CD44 facilitated neutrophils' release from the bone marrow; increased surface expressions of CD44 and CD18 by splenic neutrophils after 28 days of Thd treatment increased their ability to remain in the periphery. Taken together, Thd treatment increased neutrophils in female B6C3F1 mice, at least partially, through differentially modulating the surface expression of CD18 and CD44 by the neutrophils in the bone marrow and spleen00.

  1. The research of the solar panels-commutator-inverter-load system with the pulse-amplitude control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taissariyeva, K. N.; Issembergenov, N. T.

    2014-11-01

    The system "solar panels-commutator-inverter-load" with amplitude-impulse control was researched. It was shown that if the solar panels are located in a certain way at the input of the inverter, it will be possible to get multilevel voltage close to sine wave with the help of amplitude-impulse control of commutator at the output of inverter. Herewith the effect is saving of solar panels depending on the quantity of voltage level, and also the enhanced voltage distortion coefficient (THD). For instance, with 8-level of voltage 28,2% and THD=4,64%, with 13-level of voltage, 30,5% and THD=2,65%, and with 26-level of voltage 31,7% and THD=1,22%. The given results were obtained through computer modeling and experimental research.

  2. Heterogeneity of basal keratinocytes: nonrandom distribution of thymidine-labeled basal cells in confluent cultures is not a technical artifact

    SciTech Connect

    Milstone, L.M.; LaVigne, J.F.

    1985-06-01

    Basal surface autoradiography of (/sup 3/H)dThd-labeled, confluent, keratinocyte cultures reveals that proliferating cells have a nonrandom, patterned distribution. Unlabeled cells, likewise, appear nonrandomly in clusters. The authors show here that failure to detect DNA synthesis in some basal cells in culture is not an artifact caused either by physical separation of the labeled nuclei from the radiographic emulsion or by a diffusion barrier that would prevent (/sup 3/H)dThd from reaching basal cells.

  3. Thermal rearrangements in 1,2-poly/1,4-hexadiene/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    The work described was carried out to study the thermal rearrangements of two unsaturated diene polymers - 1,2-poly(cis-1,4-hexadiene) (CHD) and 1,2-poly(trans-1.4-hexadiene) (THD). It is shown that both CHD and THD have a predominatly 1,8 diene structure and seem to cyclize mainly by the (2 + 2) thermal cycloaddition of double bonds, and to a small extent also by sigmatropic rearrangement with hydrogen shift.

  4. Minimizing the total harmonic distortion for a 3 kW, 20 kHz ac to dc converter using SPICE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lollar, Louis F.; Kapustka, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the SPICE model of a transformer-rectified-filter (TRF) circuit and the Micro-CAP (Microcomputer Circuit Analysis Program) model and their application. The models were used to develop an actual circuit with reduced input current THD. The SPICE analysis consistently predicted the THD improvements in actual circuits as various designs were attempted. In an effort to predict and verify load regulation, the incorporation of saturable inductor models significantly improved the fidelity of the TRF circuit output voltage.

  5. Stereoselective analysis of thioridazine-2-sulfoxide and thioridazine-5-sulfoxide: an investigation of rac-thioridazine biotransformation by some endophytic fungi.

    PubMed

    Borges, Keyller Bastos; De Souza Borges, Warley; Pupo, Mônica Tallarico; Bonato, Pierina Sueli

    2008-04-14

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method for the stereoselective analysis of thioridazine-2-sulfoxide (THD-2-SO) and thioridazine-5-sulfoxide (THD-5-SO) in culture medium and to study the biotransformation of rac-thioridazine (THD) by some endophytic fungi. The simultaneous resolution of THD-2-SO and THD-5-SO diastereoisomers was performed on a CHIRALPAK AS column using a mobile phase of hexane:ethanol:methanol (92:6:2, v/v/v)+0.5% diethylamine; UV detection was carried out at 262 nm. Diethyl ether was used as extractor solvent. The validated method was used to evaluate the biotransformation of THD by 12 endophytic fungi isolated from Tithonia diversifolia, Viguiera arenaria and Viguiera robusta. Among the 12 fungi evaluated, 4 of them deserve prominence for presenting an evidenced stereoselective biotransformation potential: Phomopsis sp. (TD2) presented greater mono-2-sulfoxidation to the form (S)-(SE) (12.1%); Glomerella cingulata (VA1) presented greater mono-5-sulfoxidation to the forms (S)-(SE)+(R)-(FE) (10.5%); Diaporthe phaseolorum (VR4) presented greater mono-2-sulfoxidation to the forms (S)-(SE) and (R)-(FE) (84.4% and 82.5%, respectively) and Aspergillus fumigatus (VR12) presented greater mono-2-sulfoxidation to the forms (S)-(SE) and (R)-(SE) (31.5% and 34.4%, respectively).

  6. [Prevalence of Dental Caries in Type 1 Diabetic Patients Treated with Insulin Pump].

    PubMed

    Garcia, Rosana; Coelho, Ana; Paula, Anabela; Marques Ferreira, Manuel; Caramelo, Francisco; Barros, Luísa; Batista, Carla; Melo, Miguel; Silva, Mário Jorge; Carrilho, Eunice

    2016-08-01

    Introdução: A diabetes mellitus tipo 1 e a saúde oral relacionam-se de forma estrita e recíproca, reconhecendo-se nos pacientes diabéticos uma maior suscetibilidade a uma grande variedade de patologias orais. O objetivo do presente estudo consistiu em investigar a relação entre a prevalência da cárie dentária em indivíduos diabéticos tipo 1 tratados com bomba infusora de insulina e a de indivíduos não diabéticos.Material e Métodos: Realizou-se um estudo clínico observacional, analítico e transversal. Incluíram-se no grupo de estudo 30 indivíduos adultos com diabetes mellitus tipo 1 tratados com bomba infusora de insulina (selecionados do Centro Hospitalar da Universidade de Coimbra) e no grupo de controlo 30 doentes não diabéticos (selecionados por entre os acompanhantes dos primeiros). Os elementos de ambos os grupos foram observados entre janeiro e maio de 2015, na Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra, por um médico dentista. A avaliação clínica foi acompanhada do preenchimento de um formulário clínico adaptado aos objetivosda investigação. Para análise estatística assumiu-se um nível de significância de 5%.Resultados: O grupo de estudo apresentou valores semelhantes de índice de cárie dentária e de placa bacteriana aos registados no grupo de controlo. Não se registaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre os dois grupos no que diz respeito a hábitos de higiene oral e à frequência de visitas ao médico dentista.Discussão: Embora a dieta dos doentes diabéticos seja menos abundante em hidratos de carbono, prevendo uma menor exposição a alimentos cariogénicos, o elevado número de refeições ingeridas de forma fracionada pode aumentar o risco de cárie, uma vez que o valor de pH crítico para desmineralização é atingido mais vezes ao longo do dia. No entanto, a existência de uma patologia crónica pode determinar um elevado nível de cuidados preventivos gerais, inclusivamente resultando

  7. Por los Ninos (For the Children): Education of Undocumented Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Elena R.; Team, Linda B.

    Published as a special project of Texas IMPACT and the Texas Conference of Churches, this booklet outlines legal aspects of the education of undocumented children, lists moral and practical reasons for educating them, provides reasons for changing the Texas law which prohibits use of state funds for education of children who are not legally…

  8. La busqueda textual por computadora (Textual Search by Computer)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Ned J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the use of the computer program EDIT for textual searches to locate a certain programmed word or word root. In the examples explained here, the vocabulary search is performed on poetry and allows examination of the metaphorical and conceptual poetic atmosphere achieved through word use. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  9. Decade of Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez, Por Ahora

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    controversial expansion of control was seen with Venezuela’s state-owned oil company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. ( PDVSA ), which, to this day has been...grew in response corruption reports related to the siphoning off money from PDVSA . In 2002, pro-Hugo Chavez groups, ‘Chavistas,’ engaged in...protest.16 Within a few days, the counter-coup facilitated Chavez’s return to power but problems remained. PDVSA witnessed a devastating strike

  10. Conjugate observations of flow diversion in the magnetotail and auroral arc extension in the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Z. H.; Angelopoulos, V.; Pu, Z. Y.; Fu, S. Y.; Kubyshkina, M.; Liu, J.; Chu, X. N.; Nishimura, T.; Cao, X.; Du, A. M.; Yue, C.; Shi, Q. Q.; Wei, Y.

    2013-08-01

    present a case study of a plasma flow diversion event in the inner magnetosphere to illustrate the effects of near-Earth pressure evolution, field-aligned current (FAC) generation, and associated auroral evolution during conjugate observations from THEMIS satellites and All-Sky Imagers (ASIs) on 29 January 2008. At ~0831 UT, an earthward flow at THC, at X ~ 18 Re, was observed which was likely to be associated with an auroral streamer observed at the ASI station FSMI. Near-Earth satellites THD and THE, separated in the Y-direction by ~1 Re, and magnetically mapping onto the preexisting aurora arc, also observed the earthward flow but with a small Alfvén transit time of ~20 s between the magnetotail and the ionosphere. As the earthward flow arrived at THD and THE, the aurora arc near the footprints of THD and THE brightened. A duskward pressure gradient developed between THD and THE in the equatorial magnetotail, corresponding to an upward FAC and consistent with the auroral brightening. At ~0834 UT, an eastward diversion of the flow was observed first at THE and later at THD, further to the East. At the head of that flow, pressure variations, coherent between THE and THD, were observed to propagate Eastward at ~400 km/s, consistent with an eastward auroral expansion near the footprints of THE and THD. Concurrent perturbations of the By component of the magnetic field signify eastward motion of a FAC pair at the two spacecraft locations. We interpret the pressure variations as the generator of the observed FAC that feeds the arc and its eastward expansion.

  11. [Acoustic trauma generated by exposure to gun powder].

    PubMed

    Arch-Tirado, Emilio; Garnica-Escamilla, Marco Antonio; Delgado-Hernández, Alhelí; Campos-Muñoz, Teodora; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Verduzco-Mendoza, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la pérdida auditiva inducida por ruido se ha incrementado debido a factores como la industrialización. Se estima que un tercio de la población mundial padece algún grado de hipoacusia causada por exposición a ruidos de alta intensidad. La exposición al ruido puede afectar diferentes estructuras del oído y destruir las células ciliadas externas, que provocan diferentes grados de hipoacusia. Objetivo: describir los hallazgos audiológicos encontrados en un grupo de personas expuestas a una fuente de explosión en el estado de Tlaxcala, México. Metodología: estudio transversal, descriptivo, con muestreo censal efectuado en ocho pacientes ingresados al Centro Nacional de Investigación y Atención de Quemados del Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación, expuestos a una explosión de pólvora. En cada sujeto se evaluó la vía aérea con audiometría de tonos puros, convencional, de 125 a 8000 Hz. Se utilizó un audiómetro clínico marca Madson, modelo Midimate 622, de dos canales y audífonos THD 39. Casos clínicos: en los 8 pacientes se encontró hipoacusia en todas las frecuencias, de media a severa en ambos oídos. Las audiometrías tuvieron caídas a partir de los 4000 Hz, en todos los pacientes se diagnosticó trauma acústico de tercer grado. Conclusiones: el principal síntoma referido por los pacientes fue el acúfeno, otros estudios donde los pacientes refieren acúfeno son, en el trauma acústico por uso de reproductores de audio, en músicos de orquesta sinfónica y en militares por detonación de arma de fuego. Para determinar de manera certera si existe alguna disfunción auditiva posterior a un accidente explosivo se recomienda la valoración audiométrica.

  12. Mechanism-based testing strategy using in vitro approaches for identification of thyroid hormone disrupting chemicals.

    PubMed

    Murk, AlberTinka J; Rijntjes, Eddy; Blaauboer, Bas J; Clewell, Rebecca; Crofton, Kevin M; Dingemans, Milou M L; Furlow, J David; Kavlock, Robert; Köhrle, Josef; Opitz, Robert; Traas, Theo; Visser, Theo J; Xia, Menghang; Gutleb, Arno C

    2013-06-01

    The thyroid hormone (TH) system is involved in several important physiological processes, including regulation of energy metabolism, growth and differentiation, development and maintenance of brain function, thermo-regulation, osmo-regulation, and axis of regulation of other endocrine systems, sexual behaviour and fertility and cardiovascular function. Therefore, concern about TH disruption (THD) has resulted in strategies being developed to identify THD chemicals (THDCs). Information on potential of chemicals causing THD is typically derived from animal studies. For the majority of chemicals, however, this information is either limited or unavailable. It is also unlikely that animal experiments will be performed for all THD relevant chemicals in the near future for ethical, financial and practical reasons. In addition, typical animal experiments often do not provide information on the mechanism of action of THDC, making it harder to extrapolate results across species. Relevant effects may not be identified in animal studies when the effects are delayed, life stage specific, not assessed by the experimental paradigm (e.g., behaviour) or only occur when an organism has to adapt to environmental factors by modulating TH levels. Therefore, in vitro and in silico alternatives to identify THDC and quantify their potency are needed. THDC have many potential mechanisms of action, including altered hormone production, transport, metabolism, receptor activation and disruption of several feed-back mechanisms. In vitro assays are available for many of these endpoints, and the application of modern '-omics' technologies, applicable for in vivo studies can help to reveal relevant and possibly new endpoints for inclusion in a targeted THDC in vitro test battery. Within the framework of the ASAT initiative (Assuring Safety without Animal Testing), an international group consisting of experts in the areas of thyroid endocrinology, toxicology of endocrine disruption

  13. An electrophysiological (ERP) component, the recognition potential, in the assessment of brain semantic networks in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Martín-Loeches, Manuel; Muñoz, Francisco; Casado, Pilar; Hinojosa, José A; Molina, Vicente

    2004-12-01

    Abnormal activation of semantic networks may be the underlying basis for thought disorder (ThD) in patients with schizophrenia. However, whether this abnormality consists of increased or decreased activation is unclear. Previous behavioral and electrophysiological (N400) data have failed to yield consistent evidence for clarifying this hypothesis. One of the event-related potentials (ERP) components (the recognition potential, RP), presumably reflecting activation of specific semantic networks involved in ThD, has not been used to studies of schizophrenia, and may add additional information to support or refute this hypothesis. In an initial experiment, RP amplitude was reduced in schizophrenic patients, but particularly in those with ThD. In a second experiment, in addition to reduced overall RP amplitude, concrete words were shown to have higher amplitudes than abstract words in both patients and controls, supporting a relative integrity of the lexicon in ThD patients. RP reduction suggests that a fewer number of networks' elements are activated when an incoming word is processed, thus supporting hypoactivation of the semantic networks as the basis for ThD.

  14. Luminescent YbVO4 by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Getz, Michael; Hansen, Per-Anders; Ahmed, Mohammed A K; Fjellvåg, Helmer; Nilsen, Ola

    2017-02-28

    UV to visible and near-infrared converting thin films of YbVO4 have been deposited by atomic layer deposition, using the precursor combinations Yb(thd)3 (thd = 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedione) and O3, and VO(thd)2 and O3 at a deposition temperature of 240 °C, followed by post deposition annealing at 400-1000 °C. The UV absorption and the visible and near-infrared emission have been investigated in detail. The structure, thickness and composition of the deposited films have been studied by X-ray diffraction, ellipsometry, and X-ray fluorescence, respectively. The optimal pulse ratio of Yb(thd)3 and VO(thd)2 with respect to near-infrared emission was found to be 1 : 3, which also yielded the most crystalline sample after annealing. Crystallization of the films is accelerated when an excess of V2O5 is present, enabling crystallization at temperatures as low as 500 °C, probably through a flux aided process.

  15. Prediction of ignition implosion performance using measurements of Low-deuterium surrogates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spears, B. K.; Brandon, S.; Clark, D.; Cerjan, C.; Edwards, J.; Landen, O.; Lindl, J.; Haan, S.; Hatchett, S.; Salmonson, J.; Springer, P.; Weber, S. V.; Wilson, D.

    2010-08-01

    The National Ignition Campaign (NIC) will use non-igniting "THD" capsules with cryogenic ice layers to study and optimize the hydrodynamic assembly of the fuel without burn. These capsules are characterized by the ratios of T:H:D. The species ratios are set with two goals in mind: (1) control T:D in order to adjust the nuclear energy production and (2) preserve the average atomic number of the fuel at 2.5 to maintain hydrodynamic similarity with the DT ignition capsule. We have developed an experimentally observable ignition threshold factor (ITFX) that uses measurements from THD experiments to predict the performance of DT ignition implosions. It was developed and tested on multiple large databases of 2D radhydro simulations. Each of the thousands of simulations includes twin DT and THD simulations with a variety of physical failure mechanisms - drive asymmetry, capsule roughness, continuum mixing, fabrication errors, among others. The results of our numerical database and the ITFX metric have allowed us to develop an experimental estimate of the probability of DT ignition based on THD experiments. The analysis accounts for both diagnostic precision and the effects of a finite number of shots. The NIC expects to field a combination of diagnostics and experimental attempts that result in a 15 to 20 percent uncertainty in the experimentally inferred probability of ignition. This work was completed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. Molecular Docking Studies of Marine Diterpenes as Inhibitors of Wild-Type and Mutants HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase

    PubMed Central

    Miceli, Leonardo A.; Teixeira, Valéria L.; Castro, Helena C.; Rodrigues, Carlos R.; Mello, Juliana F. R.; Albuquerque, Magaly G.; Cabral, Lucio M.; de Brito, Monique A.; de Souza, Alessandra M. T.

    2013-01-01

    AIDS is a pandemic responsible for more than 35 million deaths. The emergence of resistant mutations due to drug use is the biggest cause of treatment failure. Marine organisms are sources of different molecules, some of which offer promising HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitory activity, such as the diterpenes dolabelladienotriol (THD, IC50 = 16.5 µM), (6R)-6-hydroxydichotoma-3,14-diene-1,17-dial (HDD, IC50 = 10 µM) and (6R)-6-acetoxydichotoma-3,14-diene-1,17-dial (ADD, IC50 = 35 µM), isolated from a brown algae of the genus Dictyota, showing low toxicity. In this work, we evaluated the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of THD, HDD and ADD as anti HIV-1 RT, using a molecular modeling approach. The analyses of stereoelectronic parameters revealed a direct relationship between activity and HOMO (Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital)-LUMO (Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital) gap (ELUMO–EHOMO), where antiviral profile increases with larger HOMO-LUMO gap values. We also performed molecular docking studies of THD into HIV-1 RT wild-type and 12 different mutants, which showed a seahorse conformation, hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds with important residues of the binding pocket. Based on in vitro experiments and docking studies, we demonstrated that mutations have little influence in positioning and interactions of THD. Following a rational drug design, we suggest a modification of THD to improve its biological activity. PMID:24172210

  17. Síndrome del Outlet Torácico: ¿Una Patología Siempre Quirúrgica? Análisis de una Serie de 31 Cirugías Realizadas por Vía Supraclavicular Serie clínica

    PubMed Central

    Socolovsky, Mariano; Di Masi, Gilda; Binaghi, Daniela; Campero, Álvaro; Páez, Miguel Domínguez; Dubrovsky, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El síndrome de outlet torácico es una compresión del plexo braquial que suscita polémica. Se clasifica en Outlet Torácico Verdadero o neurogénico (OTV) y Outlet Torácico Disputado o no neurogénico (OTD). El primero presenta síntomas motores en la mano, mientras que el segundo sólo síntomas sensitivos en el miembro superior. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los resultados obtenidos en una serie de 31 cirugías. Métodos: Se analizaron las cirugías de nervios efectuadas entre 2003-2012, tomando los diagnósticos de outlet torácico cuyo período de seguimiento post-operatorio mínimo fuera de 6 meses. Se buscaron los siguientes datos: edad, sexo, presencia de síntomas sensitivos y/o motores, clasificación, resultado de los estudios neurofisiológicos y de imágenes, resultado de la cirugía, complicaciones post-operatorias y recidivas. Resultados: Se incluyeron 31 cirugías realizadas en 30 pacientes, 9 OTV (8 mujeres) de 24.3 años, y 21 con OTD (18 mujeres) de 37.4 años de edad en promedio. Un 90% presentaron alteraciones neurofisiológicas preoperatorias, y 66,6% imagenológicas. En el intraoperatorio, el 100% de los OTV presentó una alteración anatómica relacionada con la sintomatología, hecho observado sólo en el 36.7% de los OTD operados. El 87,5% de los OTV mejoraron sensitivamente, mientras que 77,7% mejoraron la atrofia. Por el contrario, 45.4% de los OTD mejoraron permanentemente, 36.3% no tuvieron cambios, 13.6% mejoraron transitoriamente y 4.5% (un caso) empeoró. Las complicaciones post-operatorias fueron más frecuentes aunque transitorias en el grupo de OTV (3 casos sobre 9 operados, 33.3%) que en los OTD (3 casos sobre 22, un 13.6%). Conclusión: El OTV suele mayormente mejorar luego de la cirugía, igual que el OTD aunque en una proporción mucho menor. Estos hallazgos coinciden con otros reportes recientes de esta patología. PMID:25165614

  18. A Comparison Between PSRK and GERG-2004 Equation of State for Simulation of Non-Isothermal Compressible Natural Gases Mixed with Hydrogen in Pipelines / Porównanie równań stanu opracowanych według metody PSRK oraz GERG-2004 wykorzystanych do symulacji zachowania ściśliwych mieszanin gazu ziemnego i wodoru w rurociągach, w warunkach przepływów nie-izotermicznych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uilhoorn, Frits E.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, the GERG-2004 equation of state based on a multi-fluid approximation explicit in the reduced Helmholtz energy is compared with the predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong group contribution method. In the analysis, both equations of state are compared by simulating a non-isothermal transient flow of natural gas and mixed hydrogen-natural gas in pipelines. Besides the flow conditions also linepack-energy and energy consumption of the compressor station are computed. The gas flow is described by a set of partial differential equations resulting from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. A pipeline section of the Yamal-Europe gas pipeline on Polish territory has been selected for the case study. W artykule dokonano porównania wyników uzyskanych przy wykorzystaniu równania stanu GERG- 2004 opartego na jawnym przybliżeniu wyników dla wielu cieczy w oparciu o zredukowaną energię Helmhotza oraz wyników uzyskanych w oparciu o metodę Soave-Redlich Kwonga. Obydwa równania stanu porównano poprzez przeprowadzenie symulacji stanów przejściowych przepływów gazu ziemnego oraz mieszanin gazu ziemnego i wodoru w rurociągach w warunkach przepływów nie-izotermicznych. Oprócz warunków przepływu, określono energię w napełnionym układzie oraz zużycie energii przez stację kompresora. Przepływ gazu opisano zbiorem równań różniczkowych cząstkowych, wyprowadzonych w oparciu o prawa zachowania masy, pędu i energii. Jako studium przypadku wybrano fragment rurociągu jamalskiego (Yamal- Europa) przebiegającego przez terytorium Polski.

  19. Insights to the effects of free cells on community structure of attached cells and chalcopyrite bioleaching during different stages.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shoushuai; Yang, Hailin; Wang, Wu

    2016-01-01

    The effects of free cells on community structure of attached cells and chalcopyrite bioleaching by Acidithiobacillus sp. during different stages were investigated. The attached cells of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans owned the community advantage from 14thd to the end of bioprocess in the normal system. The community structure of attached cells was greatly influenced in the free cells-deficient systems. Compared to A. thiooxidans, the attached cells community of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans had a higher dependence on its free cells. Meanwhile, the analysis of key biochemical parameters revealed that the effects of free cells on chalcopyrite bioleaching in different stages were diverse, ranging from 32.8% to 64.3%. The bioleaching contribution of free cells of A. ferrooxidans in the stationary stage (8-14thd) was higher than those of A. thiooxidans, while the situation was gradually reversed in the jarosite passivation inhibited stage (26-40thd). These results may be useful in guiding chalcopyrite bioleaching.

  20. The kinetics of process dependent ammonia inhibition of methanogenesis from acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Christopher Allen; Novak, John; Takacs, Imre; Wett, Bernhard; Murthy, Sudhir

    2012-12-01

    Advanced anaerobic digestion processes aimed at improving the methanization of sewage sludge may be potentially impaired by the production of inhibitory compounds (e.g. free ammonia). The result of methanogenic inhibition is relatively high effluent concentrations of acetic acid and other soluble organics, as well as reduced methane yields. An extreme example of such an advanced process is the thermal hydrolytic pretreatment of sludge prior to high solids digestion (THD). Compared to a conventional mesophilic anaerobic digestion process (MAD), THD operates in a state of constant inhibition driven by high free ammonia concentrations, and elevated pH values. As such, previous investigations of the kinetics of methanogenesis from acetic acid under uninhibited conditions do not necessarily apply well to the modeling of extreme processes such as THD. By conducting batch ammonia toxicity assays using biomass from THD and MAD reactors, we compared the response of these communities over a broad range of ammonia inhibition. For both processes, increased inhibitor concentrations resulted in a reduction of biomass growth rate (r(max) = μ(max)∙X) and a resulting decrease in the substrate half saturation coefficient (K(S)). These two parameters exhibited a high degree of correlation, suggesting that for a constant transport limited system, the K(S) was mostly a linear function of the growth rate. After correcting for reactor pH and temperature, we found that the THD and MAD biomass were both able to perform methanogenesis from acetate at high free ammonia concentrations (equivalent to 3-5 g/L total ammonia nitrogen), albeit at less than 30% of their respective maximum rates. The reduction in methane production was slightly less pronounced for the THD biomass than for MAD, suggesting that the long term exposure to ammonia had selected for a methanogenic pathway less dependent on those organisms most sensitive to ammonia inhibition (i.e. aceticlastic methanogens).

  1. Thiophene metabolism by E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the mechanism of degradation of sulfur containing heterocyclic molecules by mutants of Escherichia coli K-12. We previously isolated multiple mutants of E. coli which were selected for improved oxidation of furan and thiophene derivatives. We have focused on the thdA mutation in our subsequent research as it appears to be of central importance in thiophene oxidation. We hope that analysis of the thd gene of E. coli will lead to improvement of our thiophene metabolizing bacterial strains.

  2. Unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat pleural mesothelial cells treated with mineral fibres.

    PubMed

    Renier, A; Lévy, F; Pillière, F; Jaurand, M C

    1990-08-01

    Unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) was studied in confluent rat pleural mesothelial cells (RPMCs) arrested in G0/G1 with hydroxyurea (HU) and treated with various fibre types, i.e., chrysotile, crocidolite or attapulgite. In addition, the effects of UV light and of benzo[a]pyrene were determined as references. Using autoradiography after [3H]thymidine incorporation ([3H]dThd), RPMCs treated with 4 micrograms/cm2 of chrysotile fibres exhibited a low but significant enhancement of net grains compared to untreated cells. Treatment with higher doses of chrysotile was not possible because of the impairment of microscopic observation due to the presence of the fibres. Using liquid scintillation counting, RPMCs treated with chrysotile or crocidolite showed a significant dose-dependent increase in [3H]dThd incorporation compared to untreated cells. In contrast, attapulgite did not enhance [3H]dThd incorporation compared to untreated cells. Treatment of RPMCs with 1, 2 or 4 micrograms/ml of benzo[a]pyrene resulted in a significant increase in [3H]dThd incorporation. In order to discount a possible role of S cells in the augmentation of [3H]dThd incorporation, despite the presence of 5 mM HU, S cells were counted by autoradiography. Results indicated that the percentage of S cells was similar in asbestos-treated and untreated cultures. Stimulation of the S phase also seems unlikely because treatment of RPMCs with asbestos fibres in the absence of HU resulted in a reduction of [3H]dThd incorporation attributed to an impairment of the S phase by the fibres. 1-4 micrograms/ml benzo[a]pyrene or 10-50 J/m2 UV light resulted in an approximate doubling of [3H]dThd incorporation. The effects of inhibitors of DNA repair were determined in chrysotile-treated RPMCs. [3H]dThd incorporation was inhibited by cytosine arabinoside and nalidixic acid. These results show that asbestos produces UDS in RPMCs.

  3. Magnetic frustration in a hexaazatrinaphthylene-bridged trimetallic dysprosium single-molecule magnet.

    PubMed

    Grindell, Richard; Vieru, Veacheslav; Pugh, Thomas; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Layfield, Richard A

    2016-10-25

    The synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of the HAN-bridged tri-dysprosium complex [{(thd)3Dy}3HAN] (1) are described. The complex is an SMM that shows two relaxation processes owing to the presence of two geometrically distinct Dy(3+) sites in 1. Ab initio calculations reveal that the magnetic ground state of 1 is characterized by magnetic frustration.

  4. Performance metrics for Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions: aspects of the technical framework for measuring progress in the National Ignition Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Spears, B K; Glenzer, S; Edwards, M J; Brandon, S; Clark, D; Town, R; Cerjan, C; Dylla-Spears, R; Mapoles, E; Munro, D; Salmonson, J; Sepke, S; Weber, S; Hatchett, S; Haan, S; Springer, P; Moses, E; Mapoles, E; Munro, D; Salmonson, J; Sepke, S

    2011-12-16

    The National Ignition Campaign (NIC) uses non-igniting 'THD' capsules to study and optimize the hydrodynamic assembly of the fuel without burn. These capsules are designed to simultaneously reduce DT neutron yield and to maintain hydrodynamic similarity with the DT ignition capsule. We will discuss nominal THD performance and the associated experimental observables. We will show the results of large ensembles of numerical simulations of THD and DT implosions and their simulated diagnostic outputs. These simulations cover a broad range of both nominal and off nominal implosions. We will focus on the development of an experimental implosion performance metric called the experimental ignition threshold factor (ITFX). We will discuss the relationship between ITFX and other integrated performance metrics, including the ignition threshold factor (ITF), the generalized Lawson criterion (GLC), and the hot spot pressure (HSP). We will then consider the experimental results of the recent NIC THD campaign. We will show that we can observe the key quantities for producing a measured ITFX and for inferring the other performance metrics. We will discuss trends in the experimental data, improvement in ITFX, and briefly the upcoming tuning campaign aimed at taking the next steps in performance improvement on the path to ignition on NIF.

  5. Compact fluorescent lamps, LED lamps and harmonic distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, A. M. R.; Debatin, R. M.; Cotia, F. C. G.; Silva, M. V. M.; Ribeiro, R. S.; Zampilis, R. R. N.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the harmonic distortion in the current waveform of Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL) and Lamps Lighting Emitting Diode (LED). For this, we analysed the power factor, voltage waveform, current waveform, total harmonic distortion (THD) and active power consumed.

  6. Spatiotemporal heterogeneity in densities of the Taiwanese humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis taiwanensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dares, Lauren E.; Araújo-Wang, Claryana; Yang, Shih Chu; Wang, John Y.

    2017-03-01

    The inshore, estuarine distribution of Taiwanese humpback dolphins (THD) along the west coast of Taiwan puts them in direct conflict with many anthropogenic activities. We investigated the influence of environmental factors (depth, sea surface temperature (SST), salinity and distance to the nearest freshwater source) and coastal developments on THD density. Clear heterogeneity in density was found across the range of the THD, and there was significant spatial and temporal variation in mean densities. Density was not directly related to any environmental factors examined, which may be due to temporal variability and hydrological and oceanographic conditions that create, in effect, a continuous river delta along the central west coast of Taiwan rather than isolated, separate river estuaries. A high abundance of dolphins per unit of survey effort (DPUE) and mother-calf pairs per unit of survey effort (MCPUE) were found in waters adjacent to major coastal developments in which shallow waters had been filled to create new land (reclamation areas), but neither distance to reclamation area nor distance to the nearest river were found to be significant predictors of density. Most reclamation projects in THD habitat are situated near the mouths of major rivers or result in the creation of artificial confluences of smaller rivers, streams and other freshwater outlets, such as waste outflows. Thus, dolphins appear to use these areas in the absence of high quality natural habitat that has been lost to large-scale coastal reclamation throughout their range.

  7. First-principles study of nanotubes within the tetragonal, hexagonal and dodecagonal cycle structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BabaeiPour, M.; Safari, E. Keshavarz; Shokri, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    A systematic study has been done on the structural and electronic properties of carbon, boron nitride and aluminum nitride nanotubes with structure consisting of periodically distributed tetragonal (T ≡A2X2), hexagonal (H ≡A3X3) and dodecagonal (D ≡A6X6) (AX=C2, BN, AlN) cycles. The method has been performed using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). The optimized lattice parameters, density of state (DOS) curves and band structure of THD-NTs are obtained for (3, 0) and (0, 2) types. Our calculation results indicate that carbon nanotubes of these types (THD-CNTs) behave as a metallic, but the boron nitride nanotubes (THD-BNNTs) (with a band gap of around 4 eV) as well as aluminum nitride nanotubes (THD-AlNNTs) (with a band gap of around 2.6 eV) behave as an semiconductor. The inequality in number of atoms in different directions is affected on structures and diameters of nanotubes and their walls curvature.

  8. Development of Strategic Air Command, 1946 - 1976

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-03-01

    ballistic missile 90 XB-70A " Valkyrie " in flight Vcath ofa thd 8-70 - As part of his program to increase defense funds in several areas, President...Kennedy asked for reductions in some programs, including the B-70 Valkyrie , the Mach 3 bomber that was being developed as a replacement for the B-52

  9. See the World on the Internet: Tips for Parents of Young Readers--and "Surfers" = Vea el mundo por Internet: Ideas por padres de jovenes lectores y exploradores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jeanette

    Regardless of whether a parent has Internet access at home, it is essential that parents learn with their children and be aware of where their travels on the Internet are taking them. Many libraries have Internet workshops for parents or children or both. In the excitement of looking at sites, children may not even realize they are reading. Many…

  10. Ensenando El Espanol por Medio de Accion (Teaching Spanish through Action).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Bertha

    A teaching guide containing 102 elementary to intermediate level Spanish lessons is presented. The lessons are based on the Total Physical Response technique of second language teaching. They follow the stages of first language acquisition: listening, speaking, and reading. Each of the ten units contains a list of new vocabulary words, individual…

  11. Master equipment list 500 CFM portable exhauster POR-005 skid C

    SciTech Connect

    KRISKOVICH, J.R.

    1999-07-08

    The Master Equipment List (MEL) lists all the major components of the 500 cfm exhauster PORO5. The purpose of this Master Equipment List is to provide basic information and references to other documents for the listed components.

  12. Teaching Probability for Conceptual Change (La Ensenanza de la Probabilidad por Cambio Conceptual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Cesar Saenz

    1998-01-01

    Presents a theoretical proposal of a methodology for the teaching of probability theory. Discusses the importance of the epistemological approach of Lakatos and the perspective of the conceptual change. Discusses research using a proposed didactic method with Spanish high school students (N=6). Concludes that significant differences on all…

  13. Producao d Dijatos por Dupla Troca de Pomeron Exclusiva no Experimento D0

    SciTech Connect

    Murilo Santana Rangel

    2008-01-01

    The first search for exclusive diffractive dijet production with invariant mass ≳ 100 GeV in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider is performed. The set of data used is the Run IIa, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 30 pb-1 of p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV taken with the D0 detector. At 95% CL, an upper limit for the ratio between the number of diffractive exclusive events and the number of non diffractive events is set to be 7.5 x 10-6, excluding two of the three models proposed to explain this production.

  14. Abuso sexual por parte de los empleados del colegio (Sexual Misconduct by School Employees). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goorian, Brad

    This digest in Spanish defines sexual misconduct and offers guidelines that school boards and administrators can initiate to protect students from unwanted sexual behavior. The law recognizes two types of sexual misconduct: quid pro quo, when a school employee grants a student a favor in exchange for sexual gratification, and hostile environment,…

  15. El Titulo IX y La Discriminacion por Sexo (Title IX and Sex Discrimination).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance. This brochure outlines the responsibilities of education programs and activities covered by Title IX, the responsibilities of the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) in enforcing…

  16. Renovando la Esperanza por una Educacion sin Exclusiones (Rekindling the Hope for an Education without Exclusion).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revista Interamericana de Educacion de Adultos, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Articles in this issue, written in Spanish, focus on the following: current status and outlook of youth and adult education; opening statement of the 50th anniversary commemoration; regional framework for the education of youth and adults in Latin America and the Caribbean; interculturalism and the education of youth and adults; participation of…

  17. Pulsaciones excitadas por la quema de hidrógeno en enanas blancas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camisassa, M. E.; Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.

    2016-08-01

    Recent works show that low-mass white dwarfs derived from low-metallicity progenitors, in the absence of third dredge-up episodes during the asymptotic giant branch, are born with a hydrogen envelope thick enough to make stable hydrogen shell burning the most important energy source even at low luminosities. This extra source of energy delays the cooling times of these white dwarfs. Furthermore, in this type of stars some pulsational -modes could be excited by the epsilon mechanism due to the hydrogen shell burning. Motivated by these results, we decided to explore the pulsational properties of this type of stars, aimed at constraining hydrogen shell burning and the occurrence of third dredge-up during the AGB evolution of the progenitor stars. For this purpose, we have constructed nonadiabatic pulsation models of white dwarfs from low-metallicity progenitors with . Our calculations show that some modes are excited due to hydrogen shell burning.

  18. Microbicidas Metodo de Prevencion en VIH/SIDA Controlado por Mujeres.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Cindy; Torres, Viviana; Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian

    2009-03-01

    HIV/AIDS continues to expand throughout the world, and in recent times has had a severe impact on the number of women living with HIV. Access to methods of prevention for HIV/AIDS around the world is limited and for many women may not be feasible. Examples of such methods are sexual abstinence, which though recognized as an effective method of prevention is difficult for many women to achieve. Mutual fidelity is another option, but many women cannot control the sexual behavior of their partners. Finally, the male condom continues to be an available method of HIV prevention for sexually active people. However, in many places, gender inequality, social norms, and economic disparities severely limit women's capacity to negotiate the use of a condom with their partner. For this reason, an urgent need exists to develop a product for the prevention of HIV/AIDS that can be handled by women. Microbicides, products that can reduce HIV risk when applied intravaginally, hold promise for stopping the advance of HIV/AIDS, especially when considering that women can make their own decisions about whether to use them when other methods of prevention are not available. The objective of the current literature review was to understand the scientific advances related to microbicides in the prevention of HIV/AIDS in women through the analysis of available literature in this area. Interest in this topic emerged from the need to contribute to women's health and HIV/AIDS prevention. To achieve this review's objective, a search was carried out in multiple databases, including OVID, PUBMED, PROQUEST, and CINAHL, as well as published materials from organizations related to this area such as UNAIDS and CONASIDA, and literature available from the Internet. Upon completion of the literature review, it was concluded that microbicides are an effective method for preventing HIV/AIDS for women as well as their partners. Although they have a high level of acceptance among the female population, the majority of microbicides are still in clinical studies, requiring further evaluation for their safe use in humans. There are 3 microbicides in the final phases of clinical studies that will soon be available on the market. One of these was found to be 60% effective in protecting against the transmission of HIV and was used by women in 50% of their sexual activity, which resulted in avoiding approximately 2.5 million new HIV infections in men, women, and children over a 3-year period.

  19. Home before You Know It = De regres en casa en un dos por tres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida Health Communications, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The arrival of a newborn requires a great deal of adjustment. Intended for new and expectant parents, this booklet and companion video provide practical advice and hands-on demonstrations of the essentials of mother and baby care, from birth to the first visit to the pediatrician. The first part of the booklet, which comes in both English- and…

  20. El Libro de la Escritura por Pinguino Tinto (The Writing Book, by Inky Penguin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ron

    Presented completely in Spanish and intended for elementary level students, this book offers 12 writing ideas and several suggestions on how students can make a book using their writing. Each writing idea is presented with a brief description (addressed to the student), several examples of student writing, and a blank page on which to write.…

  1. Looking for a Job: Step by Step = Buscando Trabajo: Paso por Paso.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Patricia

    This bilingual document provides guidelines and learning activities to assist migrant workers in looking for a job. The document covers the following areas: (1) a checklist providing an overview of job search skills; (2) developing a fact sheet of personal information; (3) listing good work qualities; (4) identifying references and securing…

  2. Evolución de una protuberancia observada por el HASTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luoni, M. L.; Francile, C.

    Prominence eruptions are one of the most spectacular manifestations of solar activity; in addition to flares and coronal mass ejections. Both filaments and prominences are chromospheric material suspended in the corona by the magnetic field. Hence their importance as tracers of field ejections. Some parts of their magnetic structure are not well understood; especially with regard to the loss of stability. On 06 December 2010 the H-Alpha Telescope for Argentina (HASTA) observed a prominence in the eastern solar limb including when part of it was ejected. In this paper the evolution of the filament is analyzed; its structure before and after the eruption; determining parameters that characterize it from HASTA data. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  3. Microbicidas Metodo de Prevencion en VIH/SIDA Controlado por Mujeres

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Cindy; Torres, Viviana; Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS continues to expand throughout the world, and in recent times has had a severe impact on the number of women living with HIV. Access to methods of prevention for HIV/AIDS around the world is limited and for many women may not be feasible. Examples of such methods are sexual abstinence, which though recognized as an effective method of prevention is difficult for many women to achieve. Mutual fidelity is another option, but many women cannot control the sexual behavior of their partners. Finally, the male condom continues to be an available method of HIV prevention for sexually active people. However, in many places, gender inequality, social norms, and economic disparities severely limit women's capacity to negotiate the use of a condom with their partner. For this reason, an urgent need exists to develop a product for the prevention of HIV/AIDS that can be handled by women. Microbicides, products that can reduce HIV risk when applied intravaginally, hold promise for stopping the advance of HIV/AIDS, especially when considering that women can make their own decisions about whether to use them when other methods of prevention are not available. The objective of the current literature review was to understand the scientific advances related to microbicides in the prevention of HIV/AIDS in women through the analysis of available literature in this area. Interest in this topic emerged from the need to contribute to women's health and HIV/AIDS prevention. To achieve this review's objective, a search was carried out in multiple databases, including OVID, PUBMED, PROQUEST, and CINAHL, as well as published materials from organizations related to this area such as UNAIDS and CONASIDA, and literature available from the Internet. Upon completion of the literature review, it was concluded that microbicides are an effective method for preventing HIV/AIDS for women as well as their partners. Although they have a high level of acceptance among the female population, the majority of microbicides are still in clinical studies, requiring further evaluation for their safe use in humans. There are 3 microbicides in the final phases of clinical studies that will soon be available on the market. One of these was found to be 60% effective in protecting against the transmission of HIV and was used by women in 50% of their sexual activity, which resulted in avoiding approximately 2.5 million new HIV infections in men, women, and children over a 3-year period. PMID:28111528

  4. Enfermedad diarreica aguda por Escherichia coli patógenas en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G.

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Las cepas de E. coli patógenas intestinales son causas importantes de la enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA) en niños menores de 5 años en América Latina, África y Asia y están asociadas a alta mortalidad en niños en las comunidades más pobres de África y el Sudeste Asiático. Estudios sobre el papel de las E. coli patógenas intestinales en la EDA infantil en Colombia y otros países de América Latina son limitados debido a la carencia de ensayos para detección de estos patógenos en los laboratorios clínicos de centros de salud. Estudios recientes han reportado la detección de E. coli patógenas intestinales en Colombia, siendo la E. coli enterotoxigénica la cepa más frecuentemente asociada a diarrea en niños menores de 5 años. Otros patógenos detectados en estos pacientes incluyen las E. coli enteroagregativa, enteropatógena, productora de toxina Shiga, y de adherencia difusa. Con base en estudios que reportan la presencia de E. coli productora de toxina Shiga y E. coli enteroagregativa en carnes y vegetales en supermercados, se cree que productos alimentarios contaminados contribuyen a la transmisión de estos patógenos y a la infección del huésped susceptible. Más estudios son necesarios para evaluar los mecanismos de transmisión, el impacto en la epidemiologia de la EDA, y las pautas de manejo y prevención de estos patógenos que afectan la población pediátrica en Colombia. PMID:25491457

  5. PREJUICIO Y DISTANCIA SOCIAL HACIA PERSONAS HOMOSEXUALES POR PARTE DE JÓVENES UNIVERSITARIOS

    PubMed Central

    Fernández Rodríguez, María del C.; Squiabro, José Calderón

    2014-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con el propósito de explorar actitudes de rechazo y distancia social hacia las personas gays y lesbianas (GL) en 565 universitarios. Se utilizó una escala para medir Prejuicio y otra escala para medir Distancia Social. Los participantes reflejaron niveles moderados de prejuicio y distancia social (DS) hacia las personas gays y lesbianas. Los varones (M=104.5, DT= 27.47) mostraron significativamente más prejuicio que las mujeres (M=98.8, DT= 23.41). Los hombres (M=22.7, DT= 7.00) mostraron significativamente mayor DS que las mujeres (M=21.1, DT= 5.41). Las personas que asisten con regularidad a la iglesia mostraron más prejuicio y DS que los que no asisten. Se analiza importancia de incluir el tema de la diversidad sexual a través del currículo para desmontar prejuicios hacia la comunidad homosexual. PMID:25606066

  6. The Escuela Moderna Movement of Francisco Ferrer: "Por la Verdad y la Justicia."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Geoffrey C.

    1985-01-01

    The educational theory and practice of the Escuela Modern (Modern School) movement of the Spanish educator Francisco Ferrer, born in 1850, are discussed. Two fundamental tendencies of the movement are child-centered education and education in didactic terms. (RM)

  7. Luchando por una educacion: A Qualitative Understanding of Undocumented Latina/o College Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Elvia Lorena

    2013-01-01

    The current qualitative study explored the factors and resources that motivate undocumented Latino/a college students to persist in higher education. Through the data obtained from the four qualitative open-ended survey questions, a content analysis revealed specific codes, themes, and subthemes addressing the factors and resources that motivate…

  8. Language and La Academia, If English Works, Por Que Se Emplea Espanol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonz, Jon G.

    1978-01-01

    The dynamics of Mexican American nationalism reflected in the publications of the Academia de la Nueva Raza and in a 1971 work by Ricardo Sanchez are examined in this article. The connection between language and ideology is discussed in the context of Chicano nationalist writing. (GC)

  9. Phantom of RAMSES (POR): A new Milgromian dynamicsN-body code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüghausen, Fabian; Famaey, Benoit; Kroupa, Pavel

    2015-02-01

    Since its first formulation in 1983, Milgromian dynamics (MOND) has been very successful in predicting the gravitational potential of galaxies from the distribution of baryons alone, including general scaling relations and detailed rotation curves of large statistical samples of individual galaxies covering a large range of masses and sizes. Most predictions however rely on static models, and only a handful of N-body codes have been developed over the years to investigate the consequences of the Milgromian framework for the dynamics of complex evolving dynamical systems. In this work, we present a new Milgromian N-body code, which is a customized version of the RAMSES code (Teyssier 2002) and thus comes with all its features: it includes particles and gas dynamics, and importantly allows for high spatial resolution of complex systems due to the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) technique. It further allows the direct comparison between Milgromian simulations and standard Newtonian simulations with dark matter particles. We provide basic tests of this customized code and demonstrate its performance by presenting N-body computations of dark-matter-free spherical equilibrium models as well as dark-matter-free disk galaxies in Milgromian dynamics.

  10. The PorGrow project: overall cross-national results, comparisons and implications.

    PubMed

    Millstone, E; Lobstein, T

    2007-05-01

    European policymakers need more information on policy responses to obesity that stakeholders judge effective and acceptable. The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project gathered such intelligence by interviewing key stakeholder groups in nine countries. Interviews used an innovative multi-criteria mapping (MCM) methodology that gathers quantitative and qualitative information on the stakeholders' perceptions and judgements. Aggregating across all participants, a comprehensive portfolio of policy measures, integrated into a coherent programme, would be well-supported by broad coalitions of stakeholders. Those portfolios should include measures (i) to provide improved educations in schools and to the general adult population; (ii) measures to improve access to and incentives for physical activity; (iii) measures to improve information about both foods and physical activity and (iv) changes to the supply of and demand for foodstuffs. There was little support for fiscal measures and technological 'fixes'; they were judged ineffective and unacceptable. Significant differences were found across European regions, and across different stakeholder perspectives, but not across genders. There is a strong case for improved monitoring of body mass index levels, dietary habits and physical activity. An MCM study can effectively cover several countries, rather than being confined to just one, and generate both national and cross-national policy analyses and proposals.

  11. Deformation Along the Southeast Extension of the Lake Mead Fault System Evaluated with Paleomagnetic Data From Miocene Igneous Rocks, Hoover Dam area, Nevada and Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissman, J. W.

    2002-12-01

    At and near Hoover Dam, southeast of Las Vegas, Cenozoic left-slip offset along the NE-SW trending Lake Mead fault system (LMFS) has resulted in the apparent rotation of structures and total displacement of up to 65 km. Defining any rotation of blocks within and near the LMFS is critical to assessing the kinematics of strike-slip faulting and attending extension. Paleomagnetic data from Miocene volcanic and some sedimentary rocks and intrusions (over 160 sites) deposited on Precambrian basement show that part of the Hoover Dam locality has experienced counterclockwise rotation . The middle Miocene (ca. 14.2 Ma)Tuff of Hoover Dam (THD)(sampled at over 90 sites) yields a well-grouped characteristic magnetization (ChRM); about 5 km south and east of the dam, gently east-dipping, north-striking rocks of the THD yield a corrected ChRM of moderate positive inclination and northwest declination (D=324.8°, I=27.4°, a95=10.7°, k=24, N=9 sites). Structural corrections, based on compaction fabrics in the THD are consistent with stratigraphic contacts. The anomalous shallow inclination for the THD ChRM implies that it was emplaced over a short period of time during a field instability. contact and conglomerate test results are interpreted to show that the THD ChRM is primary. Corrected data from north and west of the dam (D=289.7°, I=30.2°,a95=8.6°,k=32, N=10) are interpreted to indicate about 35° of counterclockwise rotation (R= -35.1°, delR= 12.4, F= -2.8°, delF = 10.8, relative to data from south of the dam) of crust across the dam site, consistent with progressive changes in strike of tilted fault blocks. The transition from apparently unrotated crust to rotated crust occurs over a zone about 1 km wide, where blocks of THD and older strata have been tilted up to 50°, probably concurrent with rotation. Rotation of crust northwest of Hoover Dam may reflect differential extension northwest of the LMFS (e.g.,River Mountains area) as strain is partitioned into west to

  12. Phenothiazine Inhibitors of TLKs Affect Double-Strand Break Repair and DNA Damage Response Recovery and Potentiate Tumor Killing with Radiomimetic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ronald, Sharon; Awate, Sanket; Rath, Abhijit; Carroll, Jennifer; Galiano, Floyd; Dwyer, Donard; Kleiner-Hancock, Heather; Mathis, J Michael; Vigod, Simone; De Benedetti, Arrigo

    2013-01-01

    The Tousled-like kinases (TLKs) are involved in chromatin assembly, DNA repair, and transcription. Two TLK genes exist in humans, and their expression is often dysregulated in cancer. TLKs phosphorylate Asf1 and Rad9, regulating double-strand break (DSB) repair and the DNA damage response (DDR). TLKs maintain genomic stability and are important therapeutic intervention targets. We identified specific inhibitors of TLKs from several compound libraries, some of which belong to the family of phenothiazine antipsychotics. The inhibitors prevented the TLK-mediated phosphorylation of Rad9(S328) and impaired checkpoint recovery and DSB repair. The inhibitor thioridazine (THD) potentiated tumor killing with chemotherapy and also had activity alone. Staining for γ-H2AX revealed few positive cells in untreated tumors, but large numbers in mice treated with low doxorubicin or THD alone, possibly the result of the accumulation of DSBs that are not promptly repaired as they may occur in the harsh tumor growth environment.

  13. The effect of modern compact fluorescent lights on voltage distortion

    SciTech Connect

    Pileggi, D.J.; Gulachenski, E.M.; Root, C.E. ); Gentile, T.J. ); Emanuel, A.E. )

    1993-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a computer simulation of three real life 13.8kV feeders supplying consumers with non-linear loads which include CFL (Compact Fluorescent Lights) with electronic ballasts. The computer simulations are supported by laboratory testing and in-the-home installation/monitoring of CFL. The results of the laboratory tests and in-the-home monitoring were combined with load research information regarding residential load profiles to produce load models for use in computer simulation of the behavior of the three distribution feeders. The input current to electronically ballasted CFL has unusually high distortion, THD (total harmonic distortion) > 100%. The man conclusion of this work is that for a 15kV class feeder with a maximum 10 MVA load, the total load of electronically ballasted CFL should not exceed 100kW is the voltage THD is to be kept [<=] 5%.

  14. Effect of {sup 3}H decays on DNA partition during cell division

    SciTech Connect

    Macieira-Coelho, A.

    1994-01-01

    Normal human embryonic lung fibroblasts were grown in the presence of different concentrations of tritium-labeled thymidine ([{sup 3}H]dThd) for various periods of time, and the flow of cells from metaphase to anaphase was followed. Mitotic indices were evaluated as a function of the percentage of cells in metaphase and anaphase. They revealed that the presence of [{sup 3}H]dThd induces a disturbance of the metaphase-anaphase transition. The DNA content of cells in metaphase and anaphase was measured with cytophotometry after the cells were grown in the presence of the radioactive precursor. It was found that the latter interfered with the flow of cells from metaphase to anaphase, impairing the symmetric distribution of DNA between daughter cells. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. JPRS Report, Latin America.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    an overwhelming advantage in equipment and technology. Thd 3 500 had better equipment and had night vision equipment. The 10>"uu> in addition to...having inferior equipment and support, fought in the dark, they could not see. Night vision equipment was an advantage. Have you pictured a blind man...invent something based on specifically designed premises that are the product of their erroneous, apocalyptic vision . We know them. This is the way they

  16. Dynamic Testing of ADC: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Bhawana; Mishra, D. K.

    2012-09-01

    Analog to digital converters are Mixed signal devices. With the increasing popularity of these devices , it is important to get more faster and accurate device. Along with design, testing of ADC plays major role . Static and Dynamic methods are available for ADC testing. Ideal ADC itself has quantization error. A NonIdeal ADC consists many other errors like offset error, Gain error, DNL, INL,ENOB,SNR,THD,SINAD etc. In this paper various methods of dynamic testing of ADC are discussed.

  17. Basewide Groundwater Operable Unit. Groundwater Operable Unit Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    VOC GSAP CAMm&M em UPto Thd Q(msc IM 3 S1 US POae•d Loclim• fahr opu--le ID tag Dab 1JDCA t.1-DC e.t-DC IM L.lI-TAt TWE VC P- wq. mV.4 Zmo MW-W072 21...on roadways; and a slight possibility of exposure to the bacteria that causes Lyme disease through contact with the rabbit population in the area. Well

  18. Enhanced Preliminary Assessment. Task Order 2. Nike Battery Kansas City 30, Pleasant Hill, Missouri

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    a/ Geneva Van Cami Doty _ :.’ .S .. ,, I:.~ io ~ b~.±2, bar ~.2 c.ir~w~j €" -- .’ ’ .:u :.x\\ ’Z :,. (a.’,:, Lh....... . .. .b"n, J.Ŕ" A -7: .: : I...thence:in anortheastcrlydirection blong :thd. coextar of said ditch, nprorximatoly 125" fdot.torthe poLnt of Latersaction*with I-[n- the abova-d

  19. Characterization of an ICII82, 780-Induced, Estrogen Receptor (ER)-beta Mediated Apoptotic Pathway in Prostate Cancer Cells and Establishment of (ER)-beta-Regulated Electrophile-Processing Phase II Enzyme Downregulation as a Promotional Factor in Human Prostatic Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-01

    sore (preCe animls 38-1).Pardoxcaly, DS, AMandothr etroens in a PrEC preparation purchased from a commercial source (PrEC;animals (38-41...however, its cells derived from carcinoma and hyperplasia of the prostate in monolayer cell culture. A possible in vitro model for clinical chemotherapy. J...Makela S, Santti R: Animal models for thd preeoplsi~cthe spread of cells with either ER isoform from the primary lesions of the prostate. Eur Urol

  20. A novel class of lipophilic quinazoline-based folic acid analogues: cytotoxic agents with a folate-independent locus

    PubMed Central

    Skelton, L A; Ormerod, M G; Titley, J; Kimbell, R; Brunton, L A; Jackman, A L

    1999-01-01

    Three lipophilic quinazoline-based aminomethyl pyridine compounds, which differ only in the position of the nitrogen in their pyridine ring, are described. CB300179 (2-pyridine), CB300189 (4-pyridine) and CB30865 (3-pyridine) all inhibited isolated mammalian TS with IC50 values of 508, 250 and 156 nM respectively. CB30865 was the most potent growth inhibitory agent (IC50 values in the range 1– 100 nM for several mouse and human cell types). CB300179 and CB300189 were active in the micromolar range. Against W1L2 cells, CB300179 and CB300189 demonstrated reduced potency in the presence of exogenous thymidine (dThd), and against a W1L2:C1 TS overproducing cell line. In contrast, CB30865 retained activity in these systems. Furthermore, combinations of precursors and end products of folate metabolism, e.g. dThd/hypoxanthine (HX) or leucovorin (LV), did not prevent activity. CB30865 did not interfere with the incorporation of tritiated dThd, uridine or leucine after 4 h. A cell line was raised with acquired resistance to CB30865 (W1L2:R865; > 200-fold), which was not cross-resistant to CB300179 or CB300189. In addition, W1L2:R865 cells were as sensitive as parental cells to agents from all the major chemotherapeutic drug classes. CB300179 and CB300189 induced an S phase accumulation (preventable by co-administration of dThd). No cell cycle redistribution was observed following exposure (4–48 h) to an equitoxic concentration of CB30865. In the NCI anticancer drug-discovery screen, CB30865 displayed a pattern of activity which was not consistent with known anti-tumour agents. These data suggest that CB30865 represents a class of potent potential anti-tumour agents with a novel mechanism of action. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10206279

  1. A novel class of lipophilic quinazoline-based folic acid analogues: cytotoxic agents with a folate-independent locus.

    PubMed

    Skelton, L A; Ormerod, M G; Titley, J; Kimbell, R; Brunton, L A; Jackman, A L

    1999-04-01

    Three lipophilic quinazoline-based aminomethyl pyridine compounds, which differ only in the position of the nitrogen in their pyridine ring, are described. CB300179 (2-pyridine), CB300189 (4-pyridine) and CB30865 (3-pyridine) all inhibited isolated mammalian TS with IC50 values of 508, 250 and 156 nM respectively. CB30865 was the most potent growth inhibitory agent (IC50 values in the range 1-100 nM for several mouse and human cell types). CB300179 and CB300189 were active in the micromolar range. Against W1L2 cells, CB300179 and CB300189 demonstrated reduced potency in the presence of exogenous thymidine (dThd), and against a W1L2:C1 TS overproducing cell line. In contrast, CB30865 retained activity in these systems. Furthermore, combinations of precursors and end products of folate metabolism, e.g. dThd/hypoxanthine (HX) or leucovorin (LV), did not prevent activity. CB30865 did not interfere with the incorporation of tritiated dThd, uridine or leucine after 4 h. A cell line was raised with acquired resistance to CB30865 (W1L2:R865; > 200-fold), which was not cross-resistant to CB300179 or CB300189. In addition, W1L2:R865 cells were as sensitive as parental cells to agents from all the major chemotherapeutic drug classes. CB300179 and CB300189 induced an S phase accumulation (preventable by co-administration of dThd). No cell cycle redistribution was observed following exposure (4-48 h) to an equitoxic concentration of CB30865. In the NCI anticancer drug-discovery screen, CB30865 displayed a pattern of activity which was not consistent with known anti-tumour agents. These data suggest that CB30865 represents a class of potent potential anti-tumour agents with a novel mechanism of action.

  2. Data-Driven Approaches to Empirical Discovery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-31

    PAGE (When Data Entered) REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE READ INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE COMPLETING FORM 1. REPORT NUMBER 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S...aspects of discovery: thi form of laws fid theoretical terms discovered; thd ability to determine the scope and context of laws; aid the ability to design... symbolic in nature. 2 For instance, one might observe a particular combination of values for the temperature (T), volume (V), and pressure (P) for a con

  3. Bipolar-power-transistor-based limiter for high frequency ultrasound imaging systems

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hojong; Yang, Hao-Chung; Shung, K. Kirk

    2013-01-01

    High performance limiters are described in this paper for applications in high frequency ultrasound imaging systems. Limiters protect the ultrasound receiver from the high voltage (HV) spikes produced by the transmitter. We present a new bipolar power transistor (BPT) configuration and compare its design and performance to a diode limiter used in traditional ultrasound research and one commercially available limiter. Limiter performance depends greatly on the insertion loss (IL), total harmonic distortion (THD) and response time (RT), each of which will be evaluated in all the limiters. The results indicated that, compared with commercial limiter, BPT-based limiter had less IL (–7.7 dB), THD (–74.6 dB) and lower RT (43 ns) at 100MHz. To evaluate the capability of these limiters, they were connected to a 100 MHz single element transducer and a two-way pulse-echo test was performed. It was found that the -6 dB bandwidth and sensitivity of the transducer using BPT-based limiter were better than those of the commercial limiter by 22 % and 140 %, respectively. Compared to the commercial limiter, BPT-based limiter is shown to be capable of minimizing signal attenuation, RT and THD at high frequencies and is thus suited for high frequency ultrasound applications. PMID:24199954

  4. Experimental demonstration of analog signal transmission in a silicon photonic crystal L3 resonator.

    PubMed

    Gui, Chengcheng; Zhang, Yong; Du, Jing; Xia, Jinsong; Wang, Jian

    2015-06-01

    We design and fabricate a silicon photonic crystal L3 resonator for chip-scale analog signal transmission. The lattice constant (a) is 420 nm, and the radius of holes (r) is 126 nm. The three holes adjacent to the cavity are laterally shifted by 0.175a, 0.025a and 0.175a, respectively. We experimentally evaluate the performance of silicon photonic crystal L3 resonator for chip-scale analog signal transmission. The spurious free dynamic ranges (SFDRs) of the second-order harmonic distortion (SHD) and the third-order harmonic distortion (THD), which are important factors to assess the analog link performance, are measured for the chip-scale analog signal transmission through the fabricated silicon photonic crystal L3 resonator. The SHD SFDR and THD SFDR are measured to be ~34.6 dB and ~52.2 dB even with the input optical carrier sitting at the dip resonance wavelength of the fabricated silicon photonic crystal L3 resonator. The influences of the optical carrier wavelength and input optical power on the SHD SFDR and THD SFDR are studied in the experiment. The impacts of geometric parameters of the cavity structure (lattice constant, radius of holes, shift of the hole) on the analog signal transmission are also analyzed, showing favorable analog link performance with relatively large fabrication tolerance to design parameters.

  5. Effect of 5-fluorouracil combination therapy on RNA processing in human colonic carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, D. A.; Parish, J. H.

    1990-01-01

    We have evaluated the RNA-directed cytotoxicity of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in human colonic carcinoma cells. The mode of action of 5-FU and its effects on human pre-rRNA processing were then examined. From these data, possible reasons why the disruption of pre-rRNA maturation could induce cytotoxic effects are considered. The results imply that inhibition of thymidylate synthase is not the sole primary cytotoxic lesion in this cell line. First, exogenous thymidine (dTHd) enchanced cytotoxicity. Second, addition of dThd to the cells was found to enhance incorporation of 5-FU into total cellular RNA. Third, 5-FU disrupted rRNA processing by a different mechanism from actinomycin D and methotrexate (MTX), suggesting that the inhibition was not just a consequence of cell death. Finally, the addition of dThd was found to enhance the disruption of rRNA processing consistent with an increase in concentration of 5-FU. These data are discussed in the light of literature reports and their potential for optimising 5-FU protocols. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2328208

  6. Experimental investigation of bright spots in broadband, gated x-ray images of ignition-scale implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Barrios, M. A.; Suter, L. J.; Glenn, S.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Collins, G. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Izumi, N.; Ma, T.; Scott, H.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Regan, S. P.; Epstein, R.; Kyrala, G. A.

    2013-07-15

    Bright spots in the hot spot intensity profile of gated x-ray images of ignition-scale implosions at the National Ignition Facility [G. H. Miller et al., Opt. Eng. 443, (2004)] are observed. X-ray images of cryogenically layered deuterium-tritium (DT) and tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) ice capsules, and gas filled plastic shell capsules (Symcap) were recorded along the hohlraum symmetry axis. Heterogeneous mixing of ablator material and fuel into the hot spot (i.e., hot-spot mix) by hydrodynamic instabilities causes the bright spots. Hot-spot mix increases the radiative cooling of the hot spot. Fourier analysis of the x-ray images is used to quantify the evolution of bright spots in both x- and k-space. Bright spot images were azimuthally binned to characterize bright spot location relative to known isolated defects on the capsule surface. A strong correlation is observed between bright spot location and the fill tube for both Symcap and cryogenically layered DT and THD ice targets, indicating the fill tube is a significant seed for the ablation front instability causing hot-spot mix. The fill tube is the predominant seed for Symcaps, while other capsule non-uniformities are dominant seeds for the cryogenically layered DT and THD ice targets. A comparison of the bright spot power observed for Si- and Ge-doped ablator targets shows heterogeneous mix in Symcap targets is mostly material from the doped ablator layer.

  7. A Real-Time and Closed-Loop Control Algorithm for Cascaded Multilevel Inverter Based on Artificial Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Libing; Mao, Chengxiong; Wang, Dan; Lu, Jiming; Zhang, Junfeng; Chen, Xun

    2014-01-01

    In order to control the cascaded H-bridges (CHB) converter with staircase modulation strategy in a real-time manner, a real-time and closed-loop control algorithm based on artificial neural network (ANN) for three-phase CHB converter is proposed in this paper. It costs little computation time and memory. It has two steps. In the first step, hierarchical particle swarm optimizer with time-varying acceleration coefficient (HPSO-TVAC) algorithm is employed to minimize the total harmonic distortion (THD) and generate the optimal switching angles offline. In the second step, part of optimal switching angles are used to train an ANN and the well-designed ANN can generate optimal switching angles in a real-time manner. Compared with previous real-time algorithm, the proposed algorithm is suitable for a wider range of modulation index and results in a smaller THD and a lower calculation time. Furthermore, the well-designed ANN is embedded into a closed-loop control algorithm for CHB converter with variable direct voltage (DC) sources. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed closed-loop control algorithm is able to quickly stabilize load voltage and minimize the line current's THD (<5%) when subjecting the DC sources disturbance or load disturbance. In real design stage, a switching angle pulse generation scheme is proposed and experiment results verify its correctness. PMID:24772025

  8. Practical implementation of a digital signal processor controlled multilevel inverter with low total harmonic distortion for motor drive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colak, Ilhami; Kabalci, Ersan; Gazi Electrical Machines; Energy Control (Gemec) Group

    This paper presents a digital signal processor (DSP) based algorithm to generate three-level output voltage using H-Bridge multilevel inverter (MLI). The developed sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) scheme is employed to achieve lower harmonic contents in the output waveforms of inverter. Since SPWM scheme does not utilize vector positions, any pre-calculated switching states are not required. In addition to this advantage of conventional SPWM, modulators eliminate only base band harmonics due to regular control scheme. Therefore, neglecting the side band harmonics limits the efficiency of SPWM scheme. The harmonics located in the side bands of carrier frequency are also eliminated by the enhanced SPWM scheme proposed in this study. The validation of the modelled system is verified with the total harmonic distortion (THD) analyzes. The control algorithm is developed using TMS320F2812 DSP that is a 32-bit fixed-point processor operating at 150 MHz. The simulation and experimental results are compared to previous studies. The THD ratios of phase voltages and currents are measured loading the inverter with a three- phase 3 kW asynchronous motor. The lowest THD ratios of voltage and current are obtained at 1.9% and 0.4%, respectively.

  9. Comparing discriminant analysis and neural network for the determination of sex using femur head measurements.

    PubMed

    Alunni, Véronique; Jardin, Philippe du; Nogueira, Luisa; Buchet, Luc; Quatrehomme, Gérald

    2015-08-01

    The measurement of the femoral head is usually considered an interesting variable for the sex determination of skeletal remains. To date, there are few published reference measurements of the femoral head in a modern European population for the purpose of sex determination. In this study, 116 femurs from 58 individuals of the South of France (Nice Bone Collection, Nice, France) were studied. Three measurements of the femoral head were taken: the vertical head diameter (VHD), the transversal head diameter (THD) and the head circumference (HC). The results show that: (i) there is no statistical difference between the right and left femurs for each of the three measurements (VHD, THD and HC). Therefore we arbitrarily chose to use the measures from the right femurs (N=58) to pursue our experiments; (ii) the measurements of the femoral head are similar to those of contemporary American populations; (iii) the dimensions of the femoral head place the measurements of the French population somewhere between Germany or Croatia, and Spain; (iv) there is no significant secular trend (in contrast with the femoral neck diameter); (v) the femoral head measurement as a single variable is useful for sex determination: a 96.5% rate of accuracy was obtained using THD and HC measurements with the artificial neural network; and a 94.8% rate of accuracy using VHD, both with the discriminant analysis and the neural network.

  10. A real-time and closed-loop control algorithm for cascaded multilevel inverter based on artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Wang, Libing; Mao, Chengxiong; Wang, Dan; Lu, Jiming; Zhang, Junfeng; Chen, Xun

    2014-01-01

    In order to control the cascaded H-bridges (CHB) converter with staircase modulation strategy in a real-time manner, a real-time and closed-loop control algorithm based on artificial neural network (ANN) for three-phase CHB converter is proposed in this paper. It costs little computation time and memory. It has two steps. In the first step, hierarchical particle swarm optimizer with time-varying acceleration coefficient (HPSO-TVAC) algorithm is employed to minimize the total harmonic distortion (THD) and generate the optimal switching angles offline. In the second step, part of optimal switching angles are used to train an ANN and the well-designed ANN can generate optimal switching angles in a real-time manner. Compared with previous real-time algorithm, the proposed algorithm is suitable for a wider range of modulation index and results in a smaller THD and a lower calculation time. Furthermore, the well-designed ANN is embedded into a closed-loop control algorithm for CHB converter with variable direct voltage (DC) sources. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed closed-loop control algorithm is able to quickly stabilize load voltage and minimize the line current's THD (<5%) when subjecting the DC sources disturbance or load disturbance. In real design stage, a switching angle pulse generation scheme is proposed and experiment results verify its correctness.

  11. Bipolar-power-transistor-based limiter for high frequency ultrasound imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hojong; Yang, Hao-Chung; Shung, K Kirk

    2014-03-01

    High performance limiters are described in this paper for applications in high frequency ultrasound imaging systems. Limiters protect the ultrasound receiver from the high voltage (HV) spikes produced by the transmitter. We present a new bipolar power transistor (BPT) configuration and compare its design and performance to a diode limiter used in traditional ultrasound research and one commercially available limiter. Limiter performance depends greatly on the insertion loss (IL), total harmonic distortion (THD) and response time (RT), each of which will be evaluated in all the limiters. The results indicated that, compared with commercial limiter, BPT-based limiter had less IL (-7.7 dB), THD (-74.6 dB) and lower RT (43 ns) at 100 MHz. To evaluate the capability of these limiters, they were connected to a 100 MHz single element transducer and a two-way pulse-echo test was performed. It was found that the -6 dB bandwidth and sensitivity of the transducer using BPT-based limiter were better than those of the commercial limiter by 22% and 140%, respectively. Compared to the commercial limiter, BPT-based limiter is shown to be capable of minimizing signal attenuation, RT and THD at high frequencies and is thus suited for high frequency ultrasound applications.

  12. Effects of grass forage species and long-term period of low quality forage diet feeding on growth performance, nutrient utilization and microbial nitrogen yield in growing wether lambs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Da-Hye; Choi, Ki-Choon; Song, Sang-Houn; Ichinohe, Toshiyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Six growing lambs were used to evaluate the feeding value of two forage-based diets in a long-term feeding period by measuring body weight (BW) gain, digestibility, nitrogen (N) retention and microbial N (MBN) yield. The animals were fed imported low-quality timothy hay (TH) with concentrate diet (THD) or imported low-quality Italian ryegrass straw (IR) with concentrate diet (IRD) for 9 months. The forages were offered at 2% BW, and concentrate was fed at 40% of forage intake. The BW gain averaged 82.6 and 66.2 g/day for THD and IRD, respectively, without showing significant difference. Average forage intake (% BW) was significantly greater for IR than for TH, although it was not affected by feeding periods. The digestibility did not differ between diets or periods. The numerically greater (P = 0.06) ratio of retained N to absorbed N for IRD than that for THD was prominent. Neither diet nor period had significant effect on MBN supply and efficiency of MBN synthesis. The results suggest that the IR-based diet can be also used for long-term periods of feeding to growing ruminant animals as a grass hay-based diet without any detrimental effects on nutrient utilization and growth performance.

  13. Numerical investigation on the stabilization of the deceleration phase Rayleigh-Taylor instability due to alpha particle heating in ignition target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhengfeng; Zhu, Shaoping; Pei, Wenbing; Ye, Wenhua; Li, Meng; Xu, Xiaowen; Wu, Junfeng; Dai, Zhensheng; Wang, Lifeng

    2012-09-01

    Tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) target is adopted in order to experimentally diagnose the properties of the ignition hot spot and the highly compressed main fusion fuel (Edwards M. J. et al., Phys. Plasmas, 18 (2011) 051003). As compared with deuterium-tritium (DT) target, the thermonuclear alpha particles which are needed to heat the fusion fuel, are much less in the THD target. In the present paper, the effect of alpha particle heating on the deceleration phase Rayleigh-Taylor instability (dp-RTI), which is one of the key problems in hot spot formation, is investigated systematically through numerical simulations. It is found that the mass ablation at the hot spot boundary is greatly increased due to the direct alpha particle heating. As a result, the dp-RTI growth rates are greatly reduced and the cut-off mode number decreases greatly from about 33 to 17. This explains why the hydrodynamic instability in the THD target grows more severely than in the DT ignition target.

  14. Embryotoxic effects of thalidomide derivatives in the non-human primate callithrix jacchus. IV. Teratogenicity of micrograms/kg doses of the EM12 enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Heger, W; Schmahl, H J; Klug, S; Felies, A; Nau, H; Merker, H J; Neubert, D

    1994-01-01

    The dose-response of the teratogenic potency of the thalidomide (Thd) derivative EM12 was evaluated in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). The smallest daily dose found to be effective was 30 micrograms EM12/kg body wt. This is the lowest dose of a Thd derivative ever reported to induce severe skeletal abnormalities. Ten micrograms EM12/kg body wt may be considered the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) under the experimental conditions chosen. The teratogenic potencies of the two EM12 enantiomers were tested at 100 micrograms/kg body wt, the dose which just induces an almost 100% effect in the case of the racemate. The S(-)-EM12 was found to induce typical severe limb abnormalities such as amelia, phocomelia, and radius aplasia, and none of the exposed fetuses were devoid of skeletal defects. In contrast, only few and minor skeletal defects were observed after application of the R(+) enantiomer. Although a pronounced teratogenic potency of the R(+)-EM12 can now largely be excluded, these low-dose studies are not sufficient to completely rule out any teratogenic potential of this enantiomer, since racemisation to small amounts of the S(-) form may occur in vivo. Further studies with Thd derivatives which are unable to racemise are necessary to prove the assumed complete ineffectiveness of the R(+) enantiomers.

  15. NOAA ESRL Atmospheric Research Operations in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasel, B. A.; Borgeld, J.; Ives, M.; Conway, T.; Karion, A.; Fischer, M. L.; Andrews, A. E.; Sweeney, C.; Andrews, B.; Oltmans, S. J.; Johnson, B. J.; Patrick, L. C.; Berkoff, T.

    2009-12-01

    In 2009 the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) had over two dozen operational research programs within the state of California. These diverse research missions include the Fire Weather Service and Support, the Pt Sur Debris Flow Project, and the Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) regional test bed. The ESRL Global Monitoring Division had 10 atmospheric measurement programs with a common goal to understand the regional and global climate impacts in and around California. The NOAA Trinidad Head (THD) baseline observatory, run in cooperation with Humboldt State University (HSU), was recently promoted to the top-tier WMO/Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) global station in 2009. The Trinidad Head observatory was strategically located (April 2002) along the west coast to monitor the air entering the United States and is now being impacted by effluents and anthropogenic aerosols and gases from booming Asian economies. Recent forest fire seasons in CA have had dramatic effects on aerosol properties and ozone concentrations measured at the THD site. Light aircraft flights made by NOAA/ESRL as part of the Airborne Greenhouse Emissions Survey (AGES) campaign in collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley National Lab and UC Davis in the spring and summer of 2008 captured large signals indicative of urban air plumes with highly correlated CO2, CH4, CO, as well as agricultural signatures with enhanced CH4 coincident with depleted CO2. These flights also captured a large signal from the northern CA wildfires enabling the comparison of signatures from forest fires to other sources. Ozonesonde balloon flights have been done weekly at the THD site since August of 1997 and bi-monthly vertical aircraft profiles above THD for carbon cycle gases (>50 gas species) began in September of 2003. In 2008 carbon cycle flasks were added to the HSU research vessel, the Coral Sea, to obtain surface values ~20 nautical miles offshore from the THD observatory. Particular attention will be paid to the

  16. Que hay de nuevo acerca de la inmersion? Un Breve Recorrido por sus Fundamentos y por las Investigaciones Actuales (What's New in Immersion? A Brief Overview of Its Bases and Present-Day Research).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra, Josu

    This discussion briefly surveys the development of the immersion method of second language teaching, outlining the central program strategies and characteristics using Curtain's and Pesola's descriptions. An overview of recent research focuses on error correction and feedback studies as an example of pedagogical-methodological evolution in this…

  17. Increasing heat stress relief produced by coupled coat wetting and forced ventilation.

    PubMed

    Berman, A

    2008-12-01

    Coupling repeated wetting of the coat and forced ventilation is most efficient in removing heat stress in more humid climates. The procedure was initiated approximately 24 yr ago and is widely used, but the impact of air velocity on the efficiency of heat stress relief has not been examined. This study examined the feasibility of using surface temperature for real-time estimation of heat stress relief. It was carried out in midsummer in Israel on 6 mature lactating Holsteins. A 15 x 15 cm area on the right side of the body was thoroughly wetted. Hair surface and skin temperature on the wetted area and adjacent dry area were measured at 1-min intervals for 15 min while air movement was less than 0.1 m/s, and the sequence was repeated with air velocities of 0.5 to 3 m/s perpendicular to the body surface. Because the cooled surface was small, the response to cooling was local. In 3 animals, the whole left side of the body also was wetted and exposed to forced ventilation (1.5 m/s) to combine local cooling with larger body surface cooling. The air temperature was 29.5 +/- 0.05 degrees C, and the relative humidity was 56.7 +/- 0.2%. Rectal temperature and respiratory frequency indicated minor heat stress. Mean wet hair surface temperature (Thw) and wet skin temperature were 2.1 and 1.5 degrees C lower than the respective dry hair surface temperature (Thd) and dry skin temperature. At an air velocity of 0.5 m/s, Thw was practically identical to that in still air and to Thd. At greater air velocities, Thw decreased immediately after wetting, and minimal values were reached within 1 min, were maintained for 6 to 7 min after wetting, and reached 95% of the mean Thd value by 8 and 11 min after wetting at 1 and 2 m/s, respectively. Wetting the coat had the potential to reduce Thd temperature by 10 to 11 degrees C. The relatively small difference between Thd and Thw probably is due to heat flow from the body. The latter was estimated by comparing enthalpies at Thd, at Thw, and

  18. Hydroxyl ion addition to one-electron oxidized thymine: Unimolecular interconversion of C5 to C6 OH-adducts

    PubMed Central

    Adhikary, Amitava; Kumar, Anil; Heizer, Alicia N.; Palmer, Brian J.; Pottiboyina, Venkata; Liang, Yong; Wnuk, Stanislaw F.; Sevilla, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, addition of OH− to one-electron oxidized thymidine (dThd) and thymine nucleotides in basic aqueous glasses is investigated. At pHs ca. 9–10 where the thymine base is largely deprotonated at N3, one-electron oxidation of the thymine base by Cl2•− at ca. 155 K results in formation of a neutral thyminyl radical, T(−H)•. Assignment to T(−H)• is confirmed by employing 15N substituted 5'-TMP. At pH ≥ ca. 11.5, formation of the 5-hydroxythymin-6-yl radical, T(5OH)•, is identified as a metastable intermediate produced by OH− addition to T(−H)• at C5 at ca. 155 K. Upon further annealing to ca. 170 K, T(5OH)• readily converts to the 6-hydroxythymin-5-yl radical, T(6OH)•. One-electron oxidation of N3-methyl-thymidine (N3-Me-dThd) by Cl2•− at ca. 155 K produces the cation radical (N3-Me-dThd•+) for which we find a pH dependent competition between deprotonation from the methyl group at C5 and addition of OH− to C5. At pH 7 the 5-methyl deprotonated species is found; however, at pH ca. 9, N3-Me-dThd•+ produces T(5OH)• that on annealing up to 180 K forms T(6OH)•. Through use of deuterium substitution at C5' and on the thymine base, i.e., specifically employing [5',5”-D,D]-5'-dThd, [5',5”-D,D]-5'-TMP, [CD3]-dThd and [CD3,6D]-dThd, we find unequivocal evidence for T(5OH)• formation and its conversion to T(6OH)•. The addition of OH− to the C5 position in T(−H)• and N3-Me-dThd•+ is governed by spin and charge localization. DFT calculations predict that the conversion of the “reducing” T(5OH)• to the “oxidizing” T(6OH)• occurs by a unimolecular OH group transfer from C5 to C6 in the thymine base. The T(5OH)• to T(6OH)• conversion is found to occur more readily for deprotonated dThd and its nucleotides than for N3-Me-dThd. In agreement, calculations predict that the deprotonated thymine base has a lower energy barrier (ca. 6 kcal/mol) for OH transfer than its corresponding N3-protonated thymine

  19. Padres Trabajando por la Paz: a randomized trial of a parent education intervention to prevent violence among middle school children.

    PubMed

    Murray, N G; Kelder, S H; Parcel, G S; Frankowski, R; Orpinas, P

    1999-06-01

    This paper reports the results of a randomized trial to test the effectiveness of a theoretically derived intervention designed to increase parental monitoring among Hispanic parents of middle school students. Role model story newsletters developed through the process of Intervention Mapping were mailed to half of a subsample of parents whose children participated in Students for Peace, a comprehensive violence prevention program. The results indicated that parents in the experimental condition (N = 38) who had lower social norms for monitoring at baseline reported higher norms after the intervention than the parents in the control condition (N = 39) (P = 0.009). Children of parents in the experimental group reported slightly higher levels of monitoring at follow-up across baseline values, whereas control children who reported moderate to high levels of monitoring at pre-test reported lower levels at follow-up (P = 0.04). These newsletters are a population-based strategy for intervention with parents that show some promise for comprehensive school-based interventions for youth.

  20. Distribución superficial de impactos en Iapetus originada por el remanente de una colisión

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoppetti, F. A.; Leiva, A. M.; Briozzo, C. B.

    2015-08-01

    By means of Circular Restricted Three Body Problem Saturn--Iapetus, we analize potential impact distributions on the surface of Iapetus, originated from considering a low-energy population generated as remnants of a collisional event occurred in the past on the surface of this satellite. The results are analized in order to offer a new approach to explain the origin of the albedo dichotomy observed on Iapetus.

  1. Os Atores da Mobilizacao por Creches e Pre-Escolas Comunitarias (Mobilizing Agents for Nurseries and Infant Schools).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filgueiras, Cristina Almeida Cunha

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the role of community nurseries and preschools, within the context of Brazilian popular movements and social policy of the last 15 years. States that the experiences of these organizations reveal great complexity in terms of social, political, and pedagogic mobilization. Concludes that for all involved there are several levels of…

  2. Reconnaissance evaluation of Honduran geothermal sites. Una evaluacion por medio de reconocimiento de seis areas geotermicas en Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Eppler, D.; Fakundiny, R.; Ritchie, A.

    1986-12-01

    Six geothermal spring sites were selected on the basis of preliminary investigations conducted in Honduras over the last decade and were evaluated in terms of their development potential. Of the six, the Platanares and San Ignacio sites have high base temperatures and high surface fluid discharge rates and appear to have the best potential for further development as sources of electrical power. A third site, Azacualpa, has a high enough base temperature and discharge rate to be considered as a back-up, but the logistical problems involved in geophysical surveys make it less attractive than the two primary sites. Of the remaining three sites, Pavana may be a source of direct-use heat for local agricultural processing. Sambo Creek and El Olivar have either severe logistical problems that would impede further investigation and development or base temperatures and flow rates that are too low to warrant detailed investigation at this time.

  3. La trama celeste: por qué educar en astronomía. Una oportunidad de aprendizajes múltiples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, B.

    2016-08-01

    Astronomy education at all levels has been an issue addressed by the International Astronomical Union as part of its 2010--2020 plan. The content on astronomical topics are in the curriculum at primary and secondary levels worldwide. Being a cross-discipline, astronomy is also a science that allows to introduce students to the study of the nature in a non-confrontational way: no one is indifferent to their concepts and discoveries. The International Astronomical Union, through its Commission on Education and Development of Astronomy, has implemented, sponsored and carried out over the past five years two special programs, one about didactics of astronomy for teachers of middle level and another one for the transmission of astronomical topics for the disabled. In this presentation, achievements and impact of these programs are shared.

  4. Como ayudar a los padres a prevenir el envenenamiento por plomo (Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton

    Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. This Spanish-language Digest summarizes some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies…

  5. Relationship between hepatic phenotype and changes in gene expression in cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) null mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiu Jun; Chamberlain, Mark; Vassieva, Olga; Henderson, Colin J.; Wolf, C. Roland

    2005-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 reductase is the unique electron donor for microsomal cytochrome P450s; these enzymes play a major role in the metabolism of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. In mice with a liver-specific deletion of cytochrome P450 reductase, hepatic cytochrome P450 activity is ablated, with consequent changes in bile acid and lipid homoeostasis. In order to gain insights into the metabolic changes resulting from this phenotype, we have analysed changes in hepatic mRNA expression using microarray analysis and real-time PCR. In parallel with the perturbations in bile acid levels, changes in the expression of key enzymes involved in cholesterol and lipid homoeostasis were observed in hepatic cytochrome P450 reductase null mice. This was characterized by a reduced expression of Cyp7b1, and elevation of Cyp7a1 and Cyp8b1 expression. The levels of mRNAs for other cytochrome P450 genes, including Cyp2b10, Cyp2c29, Cyp3a11 and Cyp3a16, were increased, demonstrating that endogenous factors play a role in regulating the expression of these proteins and that the increases are due, at least in part, to altered levels of transcripts. In addition, levels of mRNAs encoding genes involved in glycolysis and lipid transport were also increased; the latter may provide an explanation for the increased hepatic lipid content observed in the hepatic null mice. Serum testosterone and oestradiol levels were lowered, accompanied by significantly decreased expression of Hsd3b2 (3β-hydroxy-Δ5-steroid dehydrogenase-2), Hsd3b5 (3β-hydroxy-Δ5-steroid dehydrogenase-5) and Hsd11b1 (11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1), key enzymes in steroid hormone metabolism. These microarray data provide important insights into the control of metabolic pathways by the cytochrome system. PMID:15717863

  6. Perfiles de densidad de galaxias 3-D y segregación por tipo espectral en grupos de galaxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, E.; Zandivarez, A.; Merchán, M. E.; Muriel, H.

    We have analysed the distribution of galaxies in groups identified in the largest redshift surveys available: the final release of the 2dF Galaxy Our work comprises the study of the galaxy density profiles and the fraction of galaxies per spectral type as a function of the group-centric distance. We have calculated the projected galaxy density profiles of groups using composite samples in order to increase the statistical significance of the results and we infer the 3-D galaxy density profiles using a deprojection method similar to the developed by Allen & Fabian. Special cares have been taken in order to avoid possible biases in the group identification and the construction of the projected galaxy density profile estimator due to the irregular sky coverage of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. We have adopted a generalized King profile to fit the obtained projected density profiles and use them to construct mock clusters and obtain the 3-D density profiles per spectral type. From the 3-D galaxy density profile we have estimated the 3-D fraction of galaxies per spectral type. Comparing with the fraction of galaxies computed using the projected profiles we observe a similar behavior of the galaxy spectral type segregation as the obtained by Domínguez et al. for groups in the early data release of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. As expected, the trends obtained for the 3-D galaxy fractions show steeper slopes.

  7. Monitoreo óptico de eta-Carina durante el pasaje por el periastro en 2014.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Lajús, E.; Salerno, N. E.; Scalia, M. C.; Ramos, X. S.; Giudici, F. N.; Gamen, R. C.

    2015-08-01

    We present the H light curves resulting from the 2013 and 2014 observing seasons of Car as well as its spectral evolution, including the latest ``event'' occurred in mid-2014. The direct CCD observations were made with the telescope ``VS Niemela'' the Observatory of La Plata, and spectroscopic observations were made with the telescope ``J. Sahade'' of Casleo, Argentina.

  8. Evaluacion de que consister y por que se lleva acabo? (Evaluation: What Does it Consist of, and for What Purpose?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    A guide is presented for the evaluation of the bilingual programs in the Austin, Texas, Independent School District. The reasons for an evaluation and a definition of program objectives and evaluation instruments are given. The program components, objectives and evaluation instruments for each grade level (K-4) are listed. The components involved…

  9. En otras palabras: Perfeccionamiento del espanol por medio de la traduccion (In Other Words: Perfecting Spanish Language Skills through Translation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, Patricia V.; Lunsford, Ernest J.

    This publication, written primarily in Spanish, is an activity book designed to teach Spanish through translation based on the theory that, in order to produce an acceptable translation, students must focus their attention on lexical and grammatical detail. The book combines incisive grammar explanations, relevant lexical information, and a wide…

  10. DNA synthesis in mouse epidermis: S phase cells that remain unlabeled after pulse labeling with DNA precursors progress slowly through S

    SciTech Connect

    Clausen, O.P.; Elgjo, K.; Kirkhus, B.; Pedersen, S.; Bolund, L.

    1983-12-01

    Epidermal basal cells from hairless mice were isolated after pulse labeling with tritiated DNA precursors and subjected to DNA flow cytometry combined with cell sorting. Cells were sorted from a window in the middle of the S phase, collected on glass slides, and subjected to autoradiography. Unlabeled cells in the middle of the S phase were found in normal mouse epidermis after optimal pulse labeling with tritiated thymidine ((/sup 3/H)dThd), in accordance with previous results. The proportion of unlabeled S phase cells was considerably increased among basal cells from mice treated with growth-inhibitory epidermal extracts. Reanalysis and re-sorting of cells previously sorted from mid S showed that unlabeled cells could not be accounted for by G1 contamination. Furthermore, labeling with precursors incorporated into DNA by ''de novo'' metabolic pathway ((/sup 3/H)Urd) did not reduce the proportion of unlabeled S phase cells, either when given alone or when given in combination with the precursor for DNA incorporated by the ''salvage'' pathway ((/sup 3/H)dThd). This strongly indicates that the unlabeled S phase cells do not synthesize DNA continuously, or are synthesizing DNA at a rate below the level of detection. A reduced proportion of unlabeled S phase cells was found in regenerating epidermis. This may be explained by a dilution effect caused by the 3-fold increase in the total number of cells within S phase at this condition. The observation that essentially all cells in mid S phase were labeled during 4 days of continuous labeling with (/sup 3/H)dThd, indicates that cells in S phase that remain unlabeled after optimal pulse labeling are cycling, albeit slowly. Two-parameter sorting based on DNA and light scatter indicated that slowly cycling cells are larger than the average. These cells may represent a subpopulation of basal cells going through their last division cycle before differentiation.

  11. Sirtuin-mediated nuclear differentiation and programmed degradation in Tetrahymena

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The NAD+-dependent histone deacetylases, known as "sirtuins", participate in a variety of processes critical for single- and multi-cellular life. Recent studies have elucidated the importance of sirtuin activity in development, aging, and disease; yet, underlying mechanistic pathways are not well understood. Specific sirtuins influence chromatin structure and gene expression, but differences in their pathways as they relate to distinct chromatin functions are just beginning to emerge. To further define the range of global chromatin changes dependent on sirtuins, unique biological features of the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila can be exploited. This system offers clear spatial and temporal separation of multiple whole genome restructuring events critical for the life cycle. Results Inhibition with nicotinamide revealed that sirtuin deacetylase activity in Tetrahymena cells promotes chromatin condensation during meiotic prophase, differentiation of heterochromatin from euchromatin during development, and chromatin condensation/degradation during programmed nuclear death. We identified a class I sirtuin, called Thd14, that resides in mitochondria and nucleoli during vegetative growth, and forms a large sub-nuclear aggregate in response to prolonged cell starvation that may be peripherally associated with nucleoli. During sexual conjugation and development Thd14 selectively concentrates in the parental nucleus prior to its apoptotic-like degradation. Conclusions Sirtuin activity is important for several functionally distinct events requiring global chromatin condensation. Our findings suggest a novel role for sirtuins in promoting programmed pycnosis by acting on chromatin destined for degradation. The sirtuin Thd14, which displays physiological-dependent differential localization within the nucleus, is a candidate for a chromatin condensation enzyme that is coupled to nuclear degradation. PMID:21933443

  12. Harmonic analysis and FPGA implementation of SHE controlled three phase CHB 11-level inverter in MV drives using deterministic and stochastic optimization techniques.

    PubMed

    Vesapogu, Joshi Manohar; Peddakotla, Sujatha; Kuppa, Seetha Rama Anjaneyulu

    2013-01-01

    With the advancements in semiconductor technology, high power medium voltage (MV) Drives are extensively used in numerous industrial applications. Challenging technical requirements of MV Drives is to control multilevel inverter (MLI) with less Total harmonic distortion (%THD) which satisfies IEEE standard 519-1992 harmonic guidelines and less switching losses. Among all modulation control strategies for MLI, Selective harmonic elimination (SHE) technique is one of the traditionally preferred modulation control technique at fundamental switching frequency with better harmonic profile. On the other hand, the equations which are formed by SHE technique are highly non-linear in nature, may exist multiple, single or even no solution at particular modulation index (MI). However, in some MV Drive applications, it is required to operate over a range of MI. Providing analytical solutions for SHE equations during the whole range of MI from 0 to 1, has been a challenging task for researchers. In this paper, an attempt is made to solve SHE equations by using deterministic and stochastic optimization methods and comparative harmonic analysis has been carried out. An effective algorithm which minimizes %THD with less computational effort among all optimization algorithms has been presented. To validate the effectiveness of proposed MPSO technique, an experiment is carried out on a low power proto type of three phase CHB 11- level Inverter using FPGA based Xilinx's Spartan -3A DSP Controller. The experimental results proved that MPSO technique has successfully solved SHE equations over all range of MI from 0 to 1, the %THD obtained over major range of MI also satisfies IEEE 519-1992 harmonic guidelines too.

  13. Dual-spacecraft reconstruction of a three-dimensional magnetic flux rope at the Earth's magnetopause

    DOE PAGES

    Hasegawa, H.; Sonnerup, B. U. Ö.; Eriksson, S.; ...

    2015-02-03

    We present the first results of a data analysis method, developed by Sonnerup and Hasegawa (2011), for reconstructing three-dimensional (3-D), magnetohydrostatic structures from data taken as two closely spaced satellites traverse the structures. The method is applied to a magnetic flux transfer event (FTE), which was encountered on 27 June 2007 by at least three (TH-C, TH-D, and TH-E) of the five THEMIS probes near the subsolar magnetopause. The FTE was sandwiched between two oppositely directed reconnection jets under a southward interplanetary magnetic field condition, consistent with its generation by multiple X-line reconnection. The recovered 3-D field indicates that amore » magnetic flux rope with a diameter of ~ 3000 km was embedded in the magnetopause. The FTE flux rope had a significant 3-D structure, because the 3-D field reconstructed from the data from TH-C and TH-D (separated by ~ 390 km) better predicts magnetic field variations actually measured along the TH-E path than does the 2-D Grad–Shafranov reconstruction using the data from TH-C (which was closer to TH-E than TH-D and was at ~ 1250 km from TH-E). Such a 3-D nature suggests that the field lines reconnected at the two X-lines on both sides of the flux rope are entangled in a complicated way through their interaction with each other. The generation process of the observed 3-D flux rope is discussed on the basis of the reconstruction results and the pitch-angle distribution of electrons observed in and around the FTE.« less

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the bone conduction implant – a pilot study at 1.5 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Jansson, Karl-Johan Fredén; Håkansson, Bo; Reinfeldt, Sabine; Rigato, Cristina; Eeg-Olofsson, Måns

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this pilot study was to investigate if an active bone conduction implant (BCI) used in an ongoing clinical study withstands magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 1.5 Tesla. In particular, the MRI effects on maximum power output (MPO), total harmonic distortion (THD), and demagnetization were investigated. Implant activation and image artifacts were also evaluated. Methods and materials One implant was placed on the head of a test person at the position corresponding to the normal position of an implanted BCI and applied with a static pressure using a bandage and scanned in a 1.5 Tesla MRI camera. Scanning was performed both with and without the implant, in three orthogonal planes, and for one spin-echo and one gradient-echo pulse sequence. Implant functionality was verified in-between the scans using an audio processor programmed to generate a sequence of tones when attached to the implant. Objective verification was also carried out by measuring MPO and THD on a skull simulator as well as retention force, before and after MRI. Results It was found that the exposure of 1.5 Tesla MRI only had a minor effect on the MPO, ie, it decreased over all frequencies with an average of 1.1±2.1 dB. The THD remained unchanged above 300 Hz and was increased only at lower frequencies. The retention magnet was demagnetized by 5%. The maximum image artifacts reached a distance of 9 and 10 cm from the implant in the coronal plane for the spin-echo and the gradient-echo sequence, respectively. The test person reported no MRI induced sound from the implant. Conclusion This pilot study indicates that the present BCI may withstand 1.5 Tesla MRI with only minor effects on its performance. No MRI induced sound was reported, but the head image was highly distorted near the implant. PMID:26604836

  15. Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase activity of thymidine kinase-deficient Escherichia coli K-12 mutant transformed by hybrid plasmids.

    PubMed

    Kit, S; Otsuka, H; Qavi, H; Hazen, M

    1981-01-01

    A hybrid plasmid (pAGO) that contains the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) thymidine kinase (TK) gene in the form of a 2-kilobase-pair (kbp) Pvu II fragment inserted at the Pvu II site of plasmid pBR322 was used to transform TK- Escherichia coli K-12 strain KY895. pAGO-transformed KY895 cells exhibited partially restored ability to incorporate [3H]dThd into DNA and an HSv-1-specific TK activity. Bacteria cured of plasmid pAGO (or transformed by plasmid pBR322) did not show enhanced incorporation of [3H]dThd into DNA or HSV-1 TK activity. Plasmid pMH1A was derived from pAGO by deletion of 2067 bp of DNA sequence from pBR322 and 105 bp from the HSV-1 TK gene. E. coli K-12 strain KY895 cells transformed by pMH1A did not show enhanced incorporation of [3H]dThd into bacterial DNA, although pMH1A DNA isolated from transformed KY895 cells, like pAGO DNA, did transform TK- mouse fibroblast [LM(TK-)] cells to the TK+ phenotype. The expression of HSV-1 TK activity by E. coli K-12 suggests that intervening sequences may be absent from the coding region of HSV-1 tk or that the coding region of the gene possesses short intervening sequences which do not disrupt the translational reading frame.

  16. Dual-spacecraft reconstruction of a three-dimensional magnetic flux rope at the Earth's magnetopause

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.; Sonnerup, B. U. Ö.; Eriksson, S.; Nakamura, T. K. M.; Kawano, H.

    2015-02-03

    We present the first results of a data analysis method, developed by Sonnerup and Hasegawa (2011), for reconstructing three-dimensional (3-D), magnetohydrostatic structures from data taken as two closely spaced satellites traverse the structures. The method is applied to a magnetic flux transfer event (FTE), which was encountered on 27 June 2007 by at least three (TH-C, TH-D, and TH-E) of the five THEMIS probes near the subsolar magnetopause. The FTE was sandwiched between two oppositely directed reconnection jets under a southward interplanetary magnetic field condition, consistent with its generation by multiple X-line reconnection. The recovered 3-D field indicates that a magnetic flux rope with a diameter of ~ 3000 km was embedded in the magnetopause. The FTE flux rope had a significant 3-D structure, because the 3-D field reconstructed from the data from TH-C and TH-D (separated by ~ 390 km) better predicts magnetic field variations actually measured along the TH-E path than does the 2-D Grad–Shafranov reconstruction using the data from TH-C (which was closer to TH-E than TH-D and was at ~ 1250 km from TH-E). Such a 3-D nature suggests that the field lines reconnected at the two X-lines on both sides of the flux rope are entangled in a complicated way through their interaction with each other. The generation process of the observed 3-D flux rope is discussed on the basis of the reconstruction results and the pitch-angle distribution of electrons observed in and around the FTE.

  17. Evaluation of Two Concepts for Reducing Sedimentation at Mayport Naval Station.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    predicted using the following open channel flow equation: 1.00 23 Ed -c A cR 21 c L(8 where: R c= hydraulic radius of the canal, meters Thd = total dynamic...4 0 -V 4- -0 X 461 DISTRIBUTION LIST AFESC AFESCTST, Tyndall AFB . FL AFB DET Wright- Patterson OH: HO MAC DEEE. Scott. II: Hq Space Corn Decq (P...Nlontova) Peterson AFB . CO: Scol of Engrng (AFITIDET) NATL ACADEMY OF ENG. Alexandria. VA ARCTICSUBLAB Code 54. San Diego. CA ARMY ARRADCOM. Dover. NJ

  18. Quantum Coherence and Reality: International Conference on Fundamental Aspects of Quantum Theory Held in Columbia, South Carolina on December 10-12, 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    abundantly clear that he was a mathematical prodigy. The res- idents of Kiryat Haim soon became ac- customed to the apparition of the boy Aharonov...tsU of this tyj )e thdCatl 6-u lp erfornmetd on the two aLtoms - 1 by myself here oil earth and 1by lxily enileagium Aliv St11-Uri , ’il (v- Cellimt i...here on earth , then we can quickly deduce three things concerning the results of measurensents on toy own dodecahedron alone: (a) Each vertex of msy

  19. A Thermal Equilibrium Analysis of Line Contact Hydrodynamic Lubrication Considering the Influences of Reynolds Number, Load and Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaoli; Sun, Zheng; Huang, Rui; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Yuqi

    2015-01-01

    Thermal effects such as conduction, convection and viscous dissipation are important to lubrication performance, and they vary with the friction conditions. These variations have caused some inconsistencies in the conclusions of different researchers regarding the relative contributions of these thermal effects. To reveal the relationship between the contributions of the thermal effects and the friction conditions, a steady-state THD analysis model was presented. The results indicate that the contribution of each thermal effect sharply varies with the Reynolds number and temperature. Convective effect could be dominant under certain conditions. Additionally, the accuracy of some simplified methods of thermo-hydrodynamic analysis is further discussed. PMID:26244665

  20. Assessment of physical fitness and exercise tolerance in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Faiçal; Hsairi, Ines; Baiti, Hamza; Cairney, John; Mchirgui, Radhouane; Masmoudi, Kaouthar; Padulo, Johnny; Triki, Chahinez; Moalla, Wassim

    2015-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have been shown to be less physically fit when compared to their typically developing peers. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships among body composition, physical fitness and exercise tolerance in children with and without DCD. Thirty-seven children between the ages of 7 and 9 years participated in this study. Participants were classified according to results obtained on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) and were divided in 2 groups: 19 children with DCD and 18 children without DCD. All children performed the following physical fitness tests: The five-jump test (5JT), the triple-hop distance (THD) and the modified agility test (MAT). Walking distance was assessed using the 6-min walking test (6MWT). Children with DCD showed higher scores than children without DCD in all MABC subscale scores, as well as in the total score (p<0.001). Participants with DCD were found to perform significantly worse on the MAT (p<0.001), the THD (p<0.001) and 5JT (p<0.05). Moreover, children with DCD had poorer performance on the 6MWT than children without DCD (p<0.01). Our results found significant correlations among body mass index (BMI), THD (r=0.553, p<0.05), 5JT (r=0.480, p<0.05) and 6MWT (r=0.544, p<0.05) only in DCD group. A significant correlation between MAT and 5JT (r=-0.493, p<0.05) was found. Similarly, THD and 5JT (r=0.611, p<0.01) was found to be correlated in children with DCD. We also found relationships among 6MWT and MAT (r=-0.522, p<0.05) and the 6MWT and 5JT (r=0.472, p<0.05) in DCD group. In addition, we found gender specific patterns in the relationship between exercise tolerance, explosive strength, power, DCD, and BMI. In conclusion, the present study revealed that BMI was indicative of poorer explosive strength, power and exercise tolerance in children with DCD compared to children without DCD probably due to a limited coordination on motor control.

  1. Final Report for Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) Controller Equipment (ACE) Operational Test and Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-01

    The THD measurements were recorded in the raw data Test Data Sheets ( TDSs ) and are available at the FAA William J. Hughes Technical Center, ACT-320...pass/fail results. 4.6.4.4 Power Factor. Power factor (PF) was recorded by the HA-2000 Amprobe Harmonic Power Analyzer, and reported in the TDSs for...Analyzer, and reported in the TDSs as Watts consumed for each test article. 4.6.4.6 True Power. True power was recorded by the HA-2000 Amprobe

  2. On the sintering of silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gugel, E.

    1986-01-01

    This document deals with the sintering of silicon carbide using pressureless sintering. This technique makes it possible to sinter a primarily covalent material to usable densities up to over 98% thD without having to use a high amount of sinter additives as is the case with other non-oxide ceramic materials. The process takes place rapidly, and it is also possible to produce relatively thick-walled structural parts without major problems. This sheds more light on the true characteristics of silicon carbide in one structural part, since there is no second or nearly no second phase. Heat pressing has improved stability.

  3. Novel Power MOSFET-Based Expander for High Frequency Ultrasound Systems

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hojong; Shung, K. Kirk

    2014-01-01

    The function of an expander is to obstruct the noise signal transmitted by the pulser so that it does not pass into the transducer or receive electronics, where it can produce undesirable ring-down in an ultrasound imaging application. The most common type is a diode-based expander, which is essentially a simple diode-pair, is widely used in pulse-echo measurements and imaging applications because of its simple architecture. However, diode-based expanders may degrade the performance of ultrasonic transducers and electronic components on the receiving and transmitting sides of the ultrasound systems, respectively. Since they are non-linear devices, they cause excessive signal attenuation and noise at higher frequencies and voltages. In this paper, a new type of expander that utilizes power MOSFET components, which we call a power MOSFET-based expander, is introduced and evaluated for use in high frequency ultrasound imaging systems. The performance of a power MOSFET-based expander was evaluated relative to a diode-based expander by comparing the noise figure (NF), insertion loss (IL), total harmonic distortion (THD), response time (RT), electrical impedance (EI) and dynamic power consumption (DPC). The results showed that the power MOSFET-based expander provided better NF (0.76 dB), IL (-0.3 dB) and THD (-62.9 dB), and faster RT (82 ns) than did the diode-based expander (NF (2.6 dB), IL (-1.4 dB), THD (-56.0 dB) and RT (119 ns)) at 70 MHz. The -6 dB bandwidth and the peak-to-peak voltage of the echo signal received by the transducer using the power MOSFET-based expander improved by 17.4 % and 240 % compared to the diode-based expander, respectively. The new power MOSFET-based expander was shown to yield lower NF, IL and THD, faster RT and lower ring down than the diode-based expander at the expense of higher dynamic power consumption. PMID:23835308

  4. A Thermal Equilibrium Analysis of Line Contact Hydrodynamic Lubrication Considering the Influences of Reynolds Number, Load and Temperature.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaoli; Sun, Zheng; Huang, Rui; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Yuqi

    2015-01-01

    Thermal effects such as conduction, convection and viscous dissipation are important to lubrication performance, and they vary with the friction conditions. These variations have caused some inconsistencies in the conclusions of different researchers regarding the relative contributions of these thermal effects. To reveal the relationship between the contributions of the thermal effects and the friction conditions, a steady-state THD analysis model was presented. The results indicate that the contribution of each thermal effect sharply varies with the Reynolds number and temperature. Convective effect could be dominant under certain conditions. Additionally, the accuracy of some simplified methods of thermo-hydrodynamic analysis is further discussed.

  5. Electromagnetic Fields Induced by Ocean Currents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    aVxa~ _- 1 - a~’ 0 (E-!l•b) ,From Eq. (E-1b) at2d a p- - a d avt a2~ ___av x• Vý E aza dy a4rz! Paat dy ax’ S•i which when substituted in Eq. E-IA...n :n n2a ] n(2 n=l :=i n In view of (F-9) this may be rewritten as follows: d 2 h _ K2 h = - K2 6(y-y’) dy 2 With h K 2g g is the solution of (Th-d

  6. Integrated Projectile Systems Synthesis Model (IPSSM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-01

    remote terminals. A ŕ" in the sixth position will provide a complete set of results at the remote terminal. A ŕ" in the fifth position will cause the...table gives the errors in range contributed by the deviations caused by changing drag data, angle of elevation (THD), and initial muzzle velocity (VMX...Initial spin rate (rad/sec) YFA F10.4 Terminal altitude (ft) on descent of trajec- tory FFA F10.4 Factor used for temper- ature variations CKD F10.4

  7. Electrical characterization of fluorinated benzothiadiazole based conjugated copolymer – a promising material for high-performance solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Toušek, J. Toušková, J.; Chomutová, R.; Remeš, Z.; Čermák, J.; Helgesen, M.; Carlé, J. E.; Krebs, F. C.

    2015-12-15

    Measurements of electrical conductivity, electron work function, carrier mobility of holes and the diffusion length of excitons were performed on samples of conjugated polymers relevant to polymer solar cells. A state of the art fluorinated benzothiadiazole based conjugated copolymer (PBDT{sub THD} − DTBTff) was studied and benchmarked against the reference polymer poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT). We employed, respectively, four electrode conductivity measurements, Kelvin probe work function measurements, carrier mobility using charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage (CELIV) measurements and diffusion length determinaton using surface photovoltage measurements.

  8. All-digital demodulation system of interferometric fiber optic sensors using an improved PGC algorithm based on fundamental frequency mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ai-ling; Wang, Kai-han; Zhang, Shuai; Wang, Yan

    2015-05-01

    We present an all-digital demodulation system of interferometric fiber optic sensor based on an improved arctangent-differential-self-multiplying (arctan-DSM) algorithm. The total harmonic distortion (THD) and the light intensity disturbance (LID) are also suppressed, the same as those in the traditional arctan-DSM algorithm. Moreover, the lowest sampling frequency is also reduced by introducing anti-aliasing filter, so the occupation of the system memory is reduced. The simulations show that the improved algorithm can correctly demodulate cosine signal and chirp signal with lower sampling frequency.

  9. An improved synchronous reference frame current control strategy for a photovoltaic grid-connected inverter under unbalanced and nonlinear load conditions

    PubMed Central

    Naderipour, Amirreza; Asuhaimi Mohd Zin, Abdullah; Bin Habibuddin, Mohd Hafiz; Miveh, Mohammad Reza; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, renewable energy sources have been considered the most encouraging resources for grid and off-grid power generation. This paper presents an improved current control strategy for a three-phase photovoltaic grid-connected inverter (GCI) under unbalanced and nonlinear load conditions. It is challenging to suppress the harmonic content in the output current below a pre-set value in the GCI. It is also difficult to compensate for unbalanced loads even when the grid is under disruption due to total harmonic distortion (THD) and unbalanced loads. The primary advantage and objective of this method is to effectively compensate for the harmonic current content of the grid current and microgrid without the use of any compensation devices, such as active and passive filters. This method leads to a very low THD in both the GCI currents and the current exchanged with the grid. The control approach is designed to control the active and reactive power and harmonic current compensation, and it also corrects the system unbalance. The proposed control method features the synchronous reference frame (SRF) method. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effective performance of the proposed method. PMID:28192436

  10. Cobalt (II) β-diketonate adducts as new precursors for the growth of cobalt oxide films by liquid injection MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasko, S.; Abrutis, A.; Hubert-Pfalzgraf, L. G.; Kubilius, V.

    2004-02-01

    New metalorganic compounds—adducts of cobalt(II) acetylacetonate (acac) and cobalt(II) 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionate (thd) with N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-1,2-diaminoethane have been synthesized and studied as potential precursors for liquid injection metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of Co 3O 4 films. The properties of the films were compared with those deposited using standard [Co(acac) 2] 4 and Co(thd) 2 precursors. Depositions were carried out at 350-600°C on LaAlO 3 (1 0 0), sapphire (R-plane), MgO (1 0 0) and Si (1 0 0) substrates. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Depending on substrate material, highly (1 1 0) or (1 0 0) textured Co 3O 4 films have been deposited; moreover, films exhibited preferential in-plane orientation. No significant difference has been found in the quality of Co 3O 4 films deposited from different precursors.

  11. A Simultaneous Biogeography based Optimal Placement of DG Units and Capacitor Banks in Distribution Systems with Nonlinear Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Hassan; Ghaffarzadeh, Navid

    2016-09-01

    This paper uses a new algorithm namely biogeography based optimization (BBO) intended for the simultaneous placement of the distributed generation (DG) units and the capacitor banks in the distribution network. The procedure of optimization has been conducted in the presence of nonlinear loads (a cause of harmonic injection). The purpose of simultaneous optimal placement of the DG and the capacitor is the reduction of active and reactive losses. The difference in the values of loss reduction at different levels of the load have been included in the objective function and the considered objective function includes the constraints of voltage, size and the number of DG units and capacitor banks and the allowable range of the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the total voltage in accordance with the IEEE 519 standards. In this paper the placement has been performed on two load types ie constant and mixed power, moreover the effects of load models on the results and the effects of optimal placement on reduction of the THD levels have also been analyzed. The mentioned cases have been studied on a 33 bus radial distribution system.

  12. Methane ignition catalyzed by in situ generated palladium nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, T.; Abid, A.D.; Poskrebyshev, G.; Wang, H.; Nabity, J.; Engel, J.; Yu, J.; Wickham, D.; Van Devener, B.; Anderson, S.L.; Williams, S.

    2010-03-15

    Catalytic ignition of methane over the surfaces of freely-suspended and in situ generated palladium nanoparticles was investigated experimentally and numerically. The experiments were conducted in a laminar flow reactor. The palladium precursor was a compound (Pd(THD){sub 2}, THD: 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedione) dissolved in toluene and injected into the flow reactor as a fine aerosol, along with a methane-oxygen-nitrogen mixture. For experimental conditions chosen in this study, non-catalytic, homogeneous ignition was observed at a furnace temperature of {proportional_to}1123 K, whereas ignition of the same mixture with the precursor was found to be {proportional_to}973 K. In situ production of Pd/PdO nanoparticles was confirmed by scanning mobility, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses of particles collected at the reactor exit. The catalyst particle size distribution was log-normal. Depending on the precursor loading, the median diameter ranged from 10 to 30 nm. The mechanism behind catalytic ignition was examined using a combined gas-phase and gas-surface reaction model. Simulation results match the experiments closely and suggest that palladium nanocatalyst significantly shortens the ignition delay times of methane-air mixtures over a wide range of conditions. (author)

  13. Phthalocyanine supported dinuclear Ln(III) complexes: the solvent-induced change of magnetic properties in dysprosium(iii) analogues.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jing-Yuan; Wang, Hai-Ying; Li, Jing; Xie, Jia-Ze; Song, You; Zuo, Jing-Lin

    2017-02-24

    Three dinuclear lanthanide complexes, [Ln2(thd)4Pc]·2C6H6 (Hthd = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylheptanedione, Ln = Sm (1), Tb (2), Dy (3)), have been synthesized based on phthalocyanine (Pc). They can be reversibly transformed into [Ln2(thd)4Pc] (Ln = Sm (1'), Tb (2'), Dy (3')) via desolvation and resolvation of the lattice benzene molecules. This change generates dramatic influences on the structural and magnetic properties of the dysprosium analogue. In complex 3, one crystallographically independent metal center is observed, and it exhibits a single relaxation process of magnetization with an energy barrier of 55.7 K. Upon desolvation, the resulting complex 3' contains two types of metal centers, and shows the field-induced single-molecule magnetic behavior with two thermally activated magnetic relaxation processes. The anisotropy barriers for 3' are as high as 63.3 K and 109.6 K, respectively. This work confirms that the solvated molecules can finely tune the magnetic relaxation mechanisms.

  14. An improved synchronous reference frame current control strategy for a photovoltaic grid-connected inverter under unbalanced and nonlinear load conditions.

    PubMed

    Naderipour, Amirreza; Asuhaimi Mohd Zin, Abdullah; Bin Habibuddin, Mohd Hafiz; Miveh, Mohammad Reza; Guerrero, Josep M

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, renewable energy sources have been considered the most encouraging resources for grid and off-grid power generation. This paper presents an improved current control strategy for a three-phase photovoltaic grid-connected inverter (GCI) under unbalanced and nonlinear load conditions. It is challenging to suppress the harmonic content in the output current below a pre-set value in the GCI. It is also difficult to compensate for unbalanced loads even when the grid is under disruption due to total harmonic distortion (THD) and unbalanced loads. The primary advantage and objective of this method is to effectively compensate for the harmonic current content of the grid current and microgrid without the use of any compensation devices, such as active and passive filters. This method leads to a very low THD in both the GCI currents and the current exchanged with the grid. The control approach is designed to control the active and reactive power and harmonic current compensation, and it also corrects the system unbalance. The proposed control method features the synchronous reference frame (SRF) method. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effective performance of the proposed method.

  15. Production of strontium sulfide coatings by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, T.S.; Dye, R.C.; Tuenge, R.T.

    1998-11-01

    This work was focused on the MOCVD of the cerium-doped strontium sulfide (SrS:Ce) phosphor for use in thin film electroluminescent displays (TFELs). Following previous research on a small scale reactor, a feasibility scale-up using a commercially available reactor enlarged the size of the deposition area to a 4`` diameter wafer or a 2`` by 2`` glass slide. Films were deposited from the reaction of Sr(thd){sub 2}, Ce(thd){sub 4}, and H{sub 2}S at 450{degrees}C and 5 torr. This system employed a liquid delivery system for the accurate and repeatable delivery of the metal organic reagents. The deposition from this reactor was shown to be crystalline-as-deposited SrS with a (200) orientation, possibly a result of the thin nature of the coating and the involvement of (200) grains in the initial nucleation process. The wafers showed good uniformity, but had some thickness variation near the outer radius of the wafer resulting from the addition of H{sub 2}S from the outer edge. There were eighteen total deposition experiments, of which nine were characterized for EL performance. The highest brightness observed was 5 fL.. The samples were exceedingly thin as a result of the fifteen fold increase in the surface area between the deposition reactors. Increasing the sample thickness to 7,000{angstrom} or higher will dramatically increase the brightness of the emission.

  16. Radioautographic measurement of electron-induced epidermal kinetic effects in different aged rats

    SciTech Connect

    Sargent, E.V.; Burns, F.J.

    1987-03-01

    We have previously shown that the ability of rat epidermal cells to repair electron-induced DNA damage decreases as a function of age. The present investigation was performed to examine the relationship between this finding and sensitivity of epidermal cells to the cytotoxic effects of the radiation. Male CD rats at ages 2, 28, 100, 200, 420, and 728 days were injected with (/sup 3/H)-thymidine (( /sup 3/H)Thd) at a dose of 2 mu Ci/g body weight. One hour later, the rats were anesthetized and the dorsal skin irradiated with various doses of 0.8 meV electrons at a dose rate of 660 rads/min. At 24 h after irradiation, radioautographs were made of a sheet of epidermis that was separated by trypsinization from the underlying dermis. Labeled cells were scored either as singlets or doublets (adjacent labeled cells). The percent labeled cells and percent labeled cells as doublets were determined. The estimated labeling index (the proportion of cells labeled by a single exposure to (/sup 3/H)Thd) of the epidermal basal layer decreased as a function of age. The slope of the semilog plot of the percent labeled cells as doublets as a function of electron dose indicates that the Do value decreases with increasing age. The results show, however, that the greatest difference in sensitivity occurs between 2-day (neonatal) and 28-day (pubescent) animals and again between 420-day (adult) and 728-day (senescent) animals.

  17. Single liquid source plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of high-quality YBa2Cu3O(7-x) thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Jiming; Gardiner, Robin A.; Kirlin, Peter S.; Boerstler, Robert W.; Steinbeck, John

    1992-01-01

    High quality YBa2Cu3O(7-x) films were grown in-situ on LaAlO3 (100) by a novel single liquid source plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition process. The metalorganic complexes M(thd) (sub n), (thd = 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionate; M = Y, Ba, Cu) were dissolved in an organic solution and injected into a vaporizer immediately upstream of the reactor inlet. The single liquid source technique dramatically simplifies current CVD processing and can significantly improve the process reproducibility. X-ray diffraction measurements indicated that single phase, highly c-axis oriented YBa2Cu3O(7-x) was formed in-situ at substrate temperature 680 C. The as-deposited films exhibited a mirror-like surface, had transition temperature T(sub cO) approximately equal to 89 K, Delta T(sub c) less than 1 K, and Jc (77 K) = 10(exp 6) A/sq cm.

  18. Relaxivity enhancement of aquated Tris(β-diketonate)gadolinium(III) chelates by confinement within ultrashort single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Law, Justin J; Guven, Adem; Wilson, Lon J

    2014-01-01

    Ultrashort single-walled carbon nanotubes loaded with gadolinium ions (gadonanotubes) have been previously shown to exhibit extremely high T1 -weighted relaxivities (>100 mm(-1) s(-1) ). To further examine the effect of nanoconfinement on the relaxivity of gadolinium-based contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, a series of ultrashort single-walled carbon nanotube (US-tube) materials internally loaded with gadolinium chelates have been prepared and studied. US-tubes were loaded with Gd(acac)3  · 2H2 O, Gd(hfac)3  · 2H2 O, and Gd(thd)3 (acac = acetylacetone, hfac = hexafluoroacetylacetone, thd = tetramethylheptanedione). The longitudinal relaxivities of the prepared materials determined at 25°C in a 1.5 T field were 103 mm(-1) s(-1) for Gd(acac)3  · 2H2 O@US-tubes, 105 mm(-1) s(-1) for Gd(hfac)3  · 2H2 O@US-tubes and 26 mm(-1) s(-1) for Gd(thd)3 @US-tubes. Compared with the relaxivities obtained for the unloaded chelates (<10 mm(-1) s(-1) ) as well as accounting for the T1 reduction observed for the empty US-tubes, the boost in relaxivity for chelate-loaded US-tubes is attributed to confinement within the nanotube and depends on the number of coordinated water molecules.

  19. Predictive control strategies for wind turbine system based on permanent magnet synchronous generator.

    PubMed

    Maaoui-Ben Hassine, Ikram; Naouar, Mohamed Wissem; Mrabet-Bellaaj, Najiba

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, Model Predictive Control and Dead-beat predictive control strategies are proposed for the control of a PMSG based wind energy system. The proposed MPC considers the model of the converter-based system to forecast the possible future behavior of the controlled variables. It allows selecting the voltage vector to be applied that leads to a minimum error by minimizing a predefined cost function. The main features of the MPC are low current THD and robustness against parameters variations. The Dead-beat predictive control is based on the system model to compute the optimum voltage vector that ensures zero-steady state error. The optimum voltage vector is then applied through Space Vector Modulation (SVM) technique. The main advantages of the Dead-beat predictive control are low current THD and constant switching frequency. The proposed control techniques are presented and detailed for the control of back-to-back converter in a wind turbine system based on PMSG. Simulation results (under Matlab-Simulink software environment tool) and experimental results (under developed prototyping platform) are presented in order to show the performances of the considered control strategies.

  20. Selective harmonic elimination strategy in eleven level inverter for PV system with unbalanced DC sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoudelbourk, Sihem.; Dib, D.; Meghni, B.; Zouli, M.

    2017-02-01

    The paper deals with the multilevel converters control strategy for photovoltaic system integrated in distribution grids. The objective of the proposed work is to design multilevel inverters for solar energy applications so as to reduce the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) and to improve the power quality. The multilevel inverter power structure plays a vital role in every aspect of the power system. It is easier to produce a high-power, high-voltage inverter with the multilevel structure. The topologies of multilevel inverter have several advantages such as high output voltage, lower total harmonic distortion (THD) and reduction of voltage ratings of the power semiconductor switching devices. The proposed control strategy ensures an implementation of selective harmonic elimination (SHE) modulation for eleven levels. SHE is a very important and efficient strategy of eliminating selected harmonics by judicious selection of the firing angles of the inverter. Harmonics elimination technique eliminates the need of the expensive low pass filters in the system. Previous research considered that constant and equal DC sources with invariant behavior; however, this research extends earlier work to include variant DC sources, which are typical of lead-acid batteries when used in system PV. This Study also investigates methods to minimize the total harmonic distortion of the synthesized multilevel waveform and to help balance the battery voltage. The harmonic elimination method was used to eliminate selected lower dominant harmonics resulting from the inverter switching action.

  1. Volatile single-source molecular precursor for the lithium ion battery cathode.

    PubMed

    Navulla, Anantharamulu; Huynh, Lan; Wei, Zheng; Filatov, Alexander S; Dikarev, Evgeny V

    2012-04-04

    The first single-source molecular precursor for a lithium-manganese cathode material is reported. Heterometallic β-diketonate LiMn(2)(thd)(5) (1, thd = 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionate) was obtained in high yield by simple one-step solid-state reactions employing commercially available reagents. Substantial scale-up preparation of 1 was achieved using a solution approach. The crystal structure of the precursor contains discrete Li:Mn = 1:2 trinuclear molecules held together by bridging diketonate ligands. The complex is relatively stable in open air, highly volatile, and soluble in all common solvents. It was confirmed to retain its heterometallic structure in solutions of non-coordinating solvents. The heterometallic diketonate 1 was shown to exhibit clean, low-temperature decomposition in air/oxygen that results in nanosized particles of spinel-type oxide LiMn(2)O(4), one of the leading cathode materials for lithium ion batteries.

  2. Molecular Dissection of the Role of Histidine in Nickel Hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi goesingense (Hálácsy)1

    PubMed Central

    Persans, Michael W.; Yan, Xiange; Patnoe, Jean-Marc M.L.; Krämer, Ute; Salt, David E.

    1999-01-01

    To understand the role of free histidine (His) in Ni hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi goesingense, we investigated the regulation of His biosynthesis at both the molecular and biochemical levels. Three T. goesingense cDNAs encoding the following His biosynthetic enzymes, ATP phosphoribosyltransferase (THG1, GenBank accession no. AF003347), imidazoleglycerol phosphate dehydratase (THB1, GenBank accession no. AF023140), and histidinol dehydrogenase (THD1, GenBank accession no. AF023141) were isolated by functional complementation of Escherichia coli His auxotrophs. Northern analysis of THG1, THD1, and THB1 gene expression revealed that each gene is expressed in both roots and shoots, but at the concentrations and dosage times of Ni treatment used in this study, these genes failed to show any regulation by Ni. We were also unable to observe any increases in the concentration of free His in root, shoot, or xylem sap of T. goesingense in response to Ni exposure. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of root and shoot tissue from T. goesingense and the non-accumulator species Thlaspi arvense revealed no major differences in the coordination of Ni by His in these tissues. We therefore conclude that the Ni hyperaccumulation phenotype in T. goesingense is not determined by the overproduction of His in response to Ni. PMID:10594099

  3. Estimation of the sinusoidal oscillation parameters in the adaptive optics system based on the example of the photovoltaic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kania, Dariusz

    2015-05-01

    In adaptive optics systems, there is a problem of a sinusoidal oscillations rejection. This paper presents the estimation method that can be used to reject these oscillations on the example of the photovoltaic system. In such a system, photovoltaic panels generate the DC signal converted by the inverter to the AC signal with specified parameters. This paper focuses on the fast and accurate estimation of these parameters taking into account the presence of harmonics in the sinusoidal signal. The estimation method is based on using maximum decay sidelobes windows and the Fast Fourier Transform procedure. In reality, the AC signal is not a pure sinusoid and it is often distorted in a deterministic manner by harmonics, and in a random manner by white, "colored" or quantization noise. The estimation error depends on the systematic error, i.e. the error caused by the quantization noise and the error caused by harmonic components. Several parameters determine which error component is dominant in the estimation results. The value of the error caused by harmonic components depends mainly on the distance between the harmonic component and the fundamental component in a frequency domain and the THD (Total Harmonic Distortion) ratio of the signal. The level of this maximum relative error is approximately 10-3 for the tested signal with THD=50%. It is important to use a filter that reduces unwanted harmonics before the data processing. The information provided in this paper can be used to determine the approximate level of estimation error before starting the estimation process.

  4. Fluorescent quantification of terazosin hydrochloride content in human plasma and tablets using second-order calibration based on both parallel factor analysis and alternating penalty trilinear decomposition.

    PubMed

    Zou, Hong-Yan; Wu, Hai-Long; OuYang, Li-Qun; Zhang, Yan; Nie, Jin-Fang; Fu, Hai-Yan; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2009-09-14

    Two second-order calibration methods based on the parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and the alternating penalty trilinear decomposition (APTLD) method, have been utilized for the direct determination of terazosin hydrochloride (THD) in human plasma samples, coupled with the excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy. Meanwhile, the two algorithms combing with the standard addition procedures have been applied for the determination of terazosin hydrochloride in tablets and the results were validated by the high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. These second-order calibrations all adequately exploited the second-order advantages. For human plasma samples, the average recoveries by the PARAFAC and APTLD algorithms with the factor number of 2 (N=2) were 100.4+/-2.7% and 99.2+/-2.4%, respectively. The accuracy of two algorithms was also evaluated through elliptical joint confidence region (EJCR) tests and t-test. It was found that both algorithms could give accurate results, and only the performance of APTLD was slightly better than that of PARAFAC. Figures of merit, such as sensitivity (SEN), selectivity (SEL) and limit of detection (LOD) were also calculated to compare the performances of the two strategies. For tablets, the average concentrations of THD in tablet were 63.5 and 63.2 ng mL(-1) by using the PARAFAC and APTLD algorithms, respectively. The accuracy was evaluated by t-test and both algorithms could give accurate results, too.

  5. Design of single phase inverter using microcontroller assisted by data processing applications software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, K.; Muharam, A.; Amin; Widodo Budi, S.

    2015-12-01

    Inverter is widely used for industrial, office, and residential purposes. Inverter supports the development of alternative energy such as solar cells, wind turbines and fuel cells by converting dc voltage to ac voltage. Inverter has been made with a variety of hardware and software combinations, such as the use of pure analog circuit and various types of microcontroller as controller. When using pure analog circuit, modification would be difficult because it will change the entire hardware components. In inverter with microcontroller based design (with software), calculations to generate AC modulation is done in the microcontroller. This increases programming complexity and amount of coding downloaded to the microcontroller chip (capacity flash memory in the microcontroller is limited). This paper discusses the design of a single phase inverter using unipolar modulation of sine wave and triangular wave, which is done outside the microcontroller using data processing software application (Microsoft Excel), result shows that complexity programming was reduce and resolution sampling data is very influence to THD. Resolution sampling must taking ½ A degree to get best THD (15.8%).

  6. Distortion and regulation characterization of a Mapham inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, Richard C.; Brush, Andrew S.; Button, Robert M.; Patterson, Alexander G.

    1989-01-01

    Output voltage Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) of a 20kHz, 6kVA Mapham resonant inverter is characterized as a function of its switching-to-resonant frequency ratio, f sub s/f sub r, using the EASY5 engineering analysis system. EASY5 circuit simulation results are compared with hardware test results to verify the accuracy of the simulations. The effects of load on the THD versus f sub s/f sub r ratio is investigated for resistive, leading, and lagging power factor load impedances. The effect of the series output capacitor on the Mapham inverter output voltage distortion and inherent load regulation is characterized under loads of various power factors and magnitudes. An optimum series capacitor value which improves the inherent load regulation to better than 3 percent is identified. The optimum series capacitor value is different than the value predicted from a modeled frequency domain analysis. An explanation is proposed which takes into account the conduction overlap in the inductor pairs during steady-state inverter operation, which decreases the effective inductance of a Mapham inverter. A fault protection and current limit method is discussed which allows the Mapham inverter to operate into a short circuit, even when the inverter resonant circuit becomes overdamped.

  7. Distortion and regulation characterization of a Mapham inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, Richard C.; Brush, Andrew S.; Button, Robert M.; Patterson, Alexander G.

    1989-01-01

    Output-voltage total harmonic distortion (THD) of a 20-kHz, 6-kVA Mapham resonant inverter is characterized as a function of its switching-to-resonant frequency ratio, f(s)/f(r), using the EASY5 Engineering Analysis System. EASY5 circuit simulation results are compared with hardware test results to verify the accuracy of the simulations. The effects of load on the THD versus f(s)/f(r) is investigated for resistive, leading, and lagging power factor load impedances. The effect of the series output capacitor on the Mapham inverter output-voltage distortion and inherent load regulation is characterized under loads of various power factors and magnitudes. An optimum series capacitor value which improves the inherent load regulation to better than 3 percent is identified. The optimum series capacitor value is different from the value predicted from a modeled frequency domain analysis. An explanation is proposed which takes into account the conduction overlap in the inductor pairs during steady-state inverter operation, which decreases the effective inductance of a Mapham inverter. A fault protection and current limit method is discussed which allows the Mapham inverter to operate into a short circuit, even when the inverter resonant circuit becomes overdamped.

  8. Analysis of Power Quality Based on Real Data and Quality Improvement at Campus Distribution System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Shoji; Matsuki, Junya; Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Ito, Akitoshi

    In recent years, a lot of equipments have been made using the inverter technology from home electric appliances to office automation apparatuses and industrial equipments with the development of power electronics technology. The voltage distortion of a distribution system has increased due to the harmonic currents generated from these apparatuses, and the increase in harmonics continues to be expected. In addition, the distribution system forms the circuit of harmonic distortion expansion by the prevalence of static capacitor without L for power factor improvement. Moreover, the voltage imbalance occurs by diversification of loads or imbalanced connection of single-phase loads. The deterioration of power quality in the distribution system causes various problems such as the overheating of equipments and malfunction of rotating machines. Since the power quality changes according to air temperature and date, it is desirable to measure the voltages and currents continuously for a long time. In this study, the authors focus attention on the distribution system in the University of Fukui campus, and the authors have measured the voltages and currents in the distribution system for a long period with WAMS (Wide Area Measurement System) using NCT (Network Computing Terminal). Based on the obtained data, the authors analyzed the power quality of the campus distribution system from viewpoints of voltage imbalance, current imbalance, voltage THD (Total Harmonic Distortion), and current THD. Furthermore, the improvement effect of power quality of the campus distribution system by exchange of single-phase load connection is described.

  9. An improved fixed phased demodulation method combined with phase generated carrier (PGC) and ellipse fitting algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Feng; Hou, Lu; Yang, Jun; Yuan, Yonggui; Li, Chuang; Yan, Dekai; Yuan, Libo; Zheng, Hui; Chang, Zheng; Ma, Kun; Yang, Jiyong

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we present an improved fixed phased demodulation method combined with phase generated carrier (PGC) and ellipse fitting algorithm (EFA) to enhance the phase resolution and suppress the total harmonic distortion (THD) caused by the laser intensity disturbance (LID) of modulation phase. We make the subtraction operation to the outputs of the two 1×2 couplers to get the differential signals without DC offset, which is used to achieve the fixed phase demodulation. The EFA is applied to construct the standard quadrature signals with the two signals. The last output is utilized to finish the small amplitude (<2π rad) demodulation in PGC method, which can increase the phase resolution. The distortion signals caused by the LID effect can be eliminated by the EFA. According to the result, the phase error of the EFA is 0.03rad, the amplitude error is 5% and the phase resolution of system is 2.0×10-6rad/√Hz@1kHz (-106.3dB) with the THD is 5%.

  10. Picosecond laser ablation of nickel-based superalloy C263

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semaltianos, N. G.; Perrie, W.; Cheng, J.; French, P.; Sharp, M.; Dearden, G.; Watkins, K. G.

    2010-02-01

    Picosecond laser (10.4 ps, 1064 nm) ablation of the nickel-based superalloy C263 is investigated at different pulse repetition rates (5, 10, 20, and 50 kHz). The two ablation regimes corresponding to ablation dominated by the optical penetration depth at low fluences and of the electron thermal diffusion length at high fluences are clearly identified from the change of the surface morphology of single pulse ablated craters (dimples) with fluence. The two corresponding thresholds were measured as F {th(D1)/1}=0.68±0.02 J/cm2 and F {th(D2)/1}=2.64±0.27 J/cm2 from data of the crater diameters D 1,2 versus peak fluence. The surface morphology of macroscopic areas processed with a scanning laser beam at different fluences is characterised by ripples at low fluences. As the fluence increases, randomly distributed areas among the ripples are formed which appear featureless due to melting and joining of the ripples while at high fluences the whole irradiated surface becomes grainy due to melting, splashing of the melt and subsequent resolidification. The throughput of ablation becomes maximal when machining at high pulse repetition rates and with a relatively low fluence, while at the same time the surface roughness is kept low.

  11. Voltage Generation of Three-Phase Double Sided Internal Stator Axial Flux Permanent Magnet (AFPM) Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastawan, I. M. W.; Rusmana

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes the development of a multidisc AFPM generator type namely the double sided internal stator. This generator consists of one stator disc with two surface sides placed in the middle between two rotor discs. 18 permanent magnet poles are placed in one rotor disc while 9 three-phase windings with 1450 turns per-winding are placed in one surface side of the stator disc. The laboratory test results show that three-phase sinusoidal voltage magnitude in range of 79 – 150 V (phase to neutral) is generated for 219 – 402 rpm of rotor speed. In its nominal speed i.e. 333 rpm, a 124.8 V, 50 Hz, three-phase sinusoidal voltage is generated with only 1.6% THD in average and 0°, ‑124°, ‑240° phase angles. Comparison with another type of multidisc AFPM generator namely the double sided internal rotor shows that the developed AFPM generator can produce an output voltage that is almost 2.5 times higher. Nevertheless, both generators are able to generate a relatively balance three-phase sinusoidal voltage with low THD value.

  12. Functional expression of the Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Kit, S; Otsuka, H; Qavi, H; Kit, M

    1981-12-01

    The recombinant plasmid pAGO contains the Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) thymidine kinase (TK) gene and consists of a 2-kb PvuII fragment of HSV-1 DNA inserted into the PvuII site of pBR322. A deletion mutant of pAGO, designated pMH110, has been isolated which removes the normal HSV-1 TK gene promoter but places the promoter of the pBR322 tetracycline-resistance (tetr) gene only about 400 bp from the translational start codon of the HSV-1 TK polypeptide. In contrast to pAGO, which transforms mouse LM(TK-) cells to TK+ but is only weakly expressed in TK- bacteria, pMH110 not only efficiently transforms LM(TK-) cells to TK+ but also enables TK- Escherichia coli K-12 cells to form colonies on selective plates containing 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (FdUrd) plus thymidine (dThd) and to exhibit fully restored ability to incorporate [3H]dThd into DNA. The levels of TK activity expressed by bacteria harboring pMH110 were about as high as those expressed by bacteria harboring plasmid pTK3, which contains the wild-type E. coli TK gene. The TK activity expressed in bacteria harboring pMH110 was partially purified and shown to be HSV-1-specific by serological and disc PAGE analyses and by experiments demonstrating that this enzyme phosphorylated [125I]deoxycytidine.

  13. Dysprosium oxide and dysprosium-oxide-doped titanium oxide thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Tamm, Aile Kozlova, Jekaterina; Aarik, Lauri; Aarik, Jaan; Kukli, Kaupo; Link, Joosep; Stern, Raivo

    2015-01-15

    Dysprosium oxide and dysprosium-oxide-doped titanium oxide thin films were grown by atomic layer deposition on silicon substrates. For depositing dysprosium and titanium oxides Dy(thd){sub 3}-O{sub 3} and TiCl{sub 4}-O{sub 3} were used as precursors combinations. Appropriate parameters for Dy(thd){sub 3}-O{sub 3} growth process were obtained by using a quartz crystal microbalance system. The Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were deposited on planar substrates and on three-dimensional substrates with aspect ratio 1:20. The Dy/Ti ratio of Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped TiO{sub 2} films deposited on a planar silicon substrate ranged from 0.04 to 0.06. Magnetometry studies revealed that saturation of magnetization could not be observed in planar Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} films, but it was observable in Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} films on 3D substrates and in doped TiO{sub 2} films with a Dy/Ti atomic ratio of 0.06. The latter films exhibited saturation magnetization 10{sup −6} A cm{sup 2} and coercivity 11 kA/m at room temperature.

  14. Thalidomide enhances both primary and secondary host resistances to Listeria monocytogenes infection by a neutrophil-related mechanism in female B6C3F1 mice

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Tai L. . E-mail: tlguo@hsc.vcu.edu; Chi, Rui P.; Karrow, Niel A.; Zhang, Ling X.; Pruett, Stephen B.; Germolec, Dori R.; White, Kimber L.

    2005-12-15

    Previously, we have reported that thalidomide can modulate the immune responses in female B6C3F1 mice. Furthermore, thalidomide immunomodulation increased primary host resistance to intravenously infected Listeria monocytogenes. The present study was intended to evaluate the mechanisms underlying the enhanced host resistance to L. monocytogenes by focusing on the neutrophils. Female B6C3F1 mice were treated intraperitoneally with thalidomide (100 mg/kg) for 15 days. Exposure to thalidomide increased the numbers of neutrophils in the spleens and livers of L. monocytogenes-infected mice when compared to the L. monocytogenes-infected control mice. Additionally, the percentage of neutrophils was also significantly increased after Thd treatment in L. monocytogenes-infected mice. Further studies using antibodies to deplete corresponding cells indicated that thalidomide-mediated increase in primary host resistance (both the moribundity and colony counts in the liver and spleen) to L. monocytogenes infection was due to its effect on neutrophils but not CD8{sup +} T cells or NK cells. Finally, Thd exposure also increased host resistance to secondary host resistance to L. monocytogenes infection, and depletion of neutrophils abolished the protective effect. In conclusion, thalidomide enhanced host resistance to both primary and secondary L. monocytogenes infections by a neutrophil-related mechanism in female B6C3F1 mice.

  15. The effects of the porous buffer layer and doping with dysprosium on internal stresses in the GaInP:Dy/por-GaAs/GaAs(100) heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Seredin, P. V.; Gordienko, N. N.; Glotov, A. V.; Zhurbina, I. A.; Domashevskaya, E. P.; Arsent'ev, I. N. Shishkov, M. V.

    2009-08-15

    In structures with a porous buffer layer, residual internal stresses caused by a mismatch between the crystal-lattice parameters of the epitaxial GaInP alloy and the GaAs substrate are redistributed to the porous layer that acts as a buffer and is conducive to disappearance of internal stresses. Doping of the epitaxial layer with dysprosium exerts a similar effect on the internal stresses in the film-substrate structure.

  16. Communicating with Mexican Americans: Por Su Buena Salud = Communicando Con Mexico Americanos: For Their Good Health. Proceedings of the Conference (Houston, TX, September 13-14, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas J., Ed.; And Others

    The conference focused on the role of the Mexican American's cultural language, tradition, life style, health practices, and media utilization in the design of effective health education and information programs. Representing various local, state, and national health, education, and media organizations, the 108 participants attended sessions on…

  17. Unanswered Questions in Colombia's Foreign Language Education Policy (Preguntas por responder en la política educativa de lenguas extranjeras en Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonilla Carvajal, Camilo Andrés; Tejada-Sánchez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Following the trend of much of the Western, non-English speaking world, Colombia has tirelessly strived for spreading English education in an effort to augment economic benefits. This paper aims at providing a critical account of foreign language education policy in Colombia, with special attention to English. It outlines the impact of its…

  18. Ameiridae Boeck and Argestidae Por revisited, with establishment of Parameiropsidae, a new family of Harpacticoida (Crustacea, Copepoda) from deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corgosinho, P. H. C.; Martínez Arbizu, P.

    2010-09-01

    Four new species of Parameiropsis are described from Angola and Guinea Basins and the Arctic Laptev Sea. The male of Parameiropsis poseidonicus sp. n. differs from that of P. neptuni sp. n. and P. senckenbergi sp. n. in antennule segmentation, length of the proximal aesthetasc, length of the outermost seta of the antennary endopod, degree of reduction of the mouthparts, relative length of the inner spine of the basis of thoracopod 1, shape of the furca and body length. The female of P. amphitriteae sp. n. differs from previously described females of other species in the smaller exopod and endpod of thoracopod 1, reduced armature of thoracopods 1-6, length of the outer setae of exopods and endopods of thoracopods 2-4, and mandible exopod weakly developed and fused to the basis. Parameiropsis is redefined by the following autapomorphies: presence of aesthetasc on 3rd segment of female antennule; antenna strong, with endopod curved upwardly, and shape of the outermost (strongly ornamented) spine; triangular labrum; elongated corpus mandibularis, gnathobasis very long; basis of mandibular palp unarmed; elongated maxillule, with long and flexible setae on praecoxal arthrite; basis of the maxilla with strongly modified claw. To discuss the phylogenetic position of Parameiropsis, we revaluated the subfamilies of Ameiridae (viz. Ameirinae and Stenocopiinae) and the family Argestidae. Anoplosomella and Malacopsyllus revealed to be not closely related to Ameiridae and are transferred to Argestidae, sharing with other members of this family the morphology of the mandible gnathobasis, armature of maxilla and armature and length of the first segment of the antennule. Argestoides prehensilis does not show any of the characters that we consider autapomorphic for Argestidae. Instead, it shows many characters in common with several Ameiridae species. Parameiropsis does not have any character that could justify its inclusion within Ameiridae or even within Podogennonta. It also cannot be included satisfactorily within Argestidae nor Exanechentera. Therefore, we here propose a new family for Parameiropsis, with unclear relationships within Harpacticoida. After these taxonomic rearrangements, Ameiridae and Argestidae are considered monophyletic based on certain maxilla characters that we consider autapomorphic for each group. A key to the identification of the known species of Parameiropsis is added at the end.

  19. Diseño, Construcción Y Desarrollo De Un Sistema Limitado Por Difracción Para Telescopios Terrestres: Fastcam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Lopez, Roberto

    2013-02-01

    This work describes the concept, design, development, evolution and application of the FastCam instrument. FastCam is an image photometer for astronomy with image capture in a high-frequency range and diraction limited, in order to apply the Lucky Imaging technique to medium- and large-sized ( 1.5 to 4 m) telescopes. The Lucky Imaging technique allows, for ground-based telescopes, to achieve the resolution limit for astronomical images under suitable conditions. This work describes the atmospheric problems and the active and adaptive optics techniques to solve them, as well as the Lucky Imaging fundamentals. A description of the considerations to the project development and design parameters is performed. Then, the optical design and dierent adaptations to several telescopes will be revised. In a next step, some of the scientic results obtained thanks to this project are shown, both in position astronomy and complex structures in globular cluster and binary systems. Dierent designs arising from the basic idea and the instruments now in development that are expanding the system's capabilities and the technique are explained. Some other possible applications to other elds in which the image sharpness is necessary despite uctuations or instabilities of the observing system will be also pointed out: ophthalmology, video-control, etc.

  20. Un Programa de Espanol para Colegio Universitario: Esfuerzos por Lograr una Mejor Articulacion (A Spanish Program for Colleges and Universities: Efforts to Improve Articulation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latoja, Luis E.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a three-year plan for colleges and universities in which the Spanish program attempts to increase its course offerings and improve articulation within the institution. The program is designed to put into practice the goals of a regional collaborative project on articulation of which the university is an integral part. (six references)…

  1. "¿Por qué leemos esto en la clase de español?": The Politics of Teaching Literature in Spanglish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postma, Regan L.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses what is at stake in teaching works written in "Spanglish" in Spanish departments and what teaching such works might mean for students and the scholarly community at large. This article primarily comes out of the author's experiences teaching "Spanglish" works in Spanish courses at a major research…

  2. Library Safari: Tips for Parents of Young Readers and Explorers = De safari por la biblioteca: Consejos para padres de lectores y exploradores jovenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Aedin

    Visiting the library is a great way for parents to encourage their child's imagination and learning. It gives parents the opportunity to model good reading behavior and to show their child that they value books and reading. No matter how young the child is, a trip to the library can be an enjoyable outing for parents and their children. Most…

  3. Study of morphological characteristic of por-Si formed using metal-assisted chemical etching by BET-method and fractal geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyko, Anton N.; Pyatilova, Olga V.; Kalmykov, Rustam M.; Gaev, Dahir S.; Timoshenkov, Sergei P.; Gavrilov, Sergei A.

    2016-12-01

    Study of new materials and composites based on porous silicon is of great interest for electronics and microelectronics industry. Functional characteristics of structured layers are closely associated with their morphology properties and treatment conditions correspondently. In this work a porous silicon layers formed by metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) with the use of gas adsorption-desorption method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fractal geometry have been examined. Specific surface area given by multi-point BET method was about of 7 m2/g and 13 m2/g for n-Si and p-Si specimens correspondently. Surface fractal dimension Ds was estimated for p-type mesoporous silicon from BET results using Neimark's thermodynamic approach, the value is Ds=2.86. "Slit islands" Mandelbrot's algorithm was applied for analysis of SEM images and calculations of surface fractal dimension Ds, computation gives Ds = 2.52 for n-Si sample and Ds = 2.84 for p-Si sample. The study testified the fractal nature of porous layers formed by MACE and exhibits correlation between different methods of fractal dimension estimation. The results can be applied for improvement of methods of structured solids characterization.

  4. Realidades Suburbanas: Latinos en el Condado de Dakota. Una Investigacion Dirigida por HACER = Suburban Realities: Latinos in Dakota County. A Study Conducted by HACER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HACER: Hispanic Advocacy and Community Empowerment through Research, Minneapolis, MN.

    A research project was conducted between April and December of 1998 to learn about the experiences of the sizable numbers of Latinos who live in Dakota County (Minnesota). This diverse group was studied through examining existing demographic information, conducting interviews with 45 Latino and Anglo individuals, and conducting several focus…

  5. Efectos de Campos Magnéticos en las Tasas de Consumo de Madera por Coptotermes formosanus, la Termita Subterránea de Formosa.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty groups of 500 workers and 50 soldiers of Coptotermes formosanus were maintained in costume designed containers and fed with a piece of red oak wood (Quercus rubra). Twenty of these groups were exposed to permanent magnets with a flux of 800 G. Another 20 groups were exposed to a permanent mag...

  6. Comparacion de modelos de Educacion Sexual en el conocimiento y cambio de actitudes en practicas sexuales por alumnos de nivel superior en la region de Caguas, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

    In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of the Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD). In addition, it provides activities to increase the self-esteem, the communication and the decision making. This investigation had the intention to compare the SETM and the HBM in the increase of knowledge and change of attitudes of high risk of propagation of the STD using a validated questionnaire (Agency of the United States for the International-USAID Development), named "Endesa 2007" and, adapted to Puerto Rico by the Dra.Marta Collazo to a sample of students between the 17 and 19 years of 2 state schools of San Lorenzo, as a pretest, and, selected by convenience. Then, a 10 hours training was administered to half of the students using the SETM to STD and condom use lessons. The other half of the students received additional lessons using the HBM. Finally, both groups took the questionnaire again as a posttest. The sample of students, in average, did not reach the knowledge and basic levels of attitudes towards the STD in the pretest. This reflected 2 possible implications on the SETM. In first place, that the way in which the STD is implemented as part of the Sexual Education curriculum is inefficient. Secondly, the possibility that the acquired information or attitudes does not have permanence. Culminated the questionnaire, the HBM increase the knowledge of the STD in 0.41 points (average) over the SETM. There was not a significant difference between both models, in attitudes, implying that both models are equally effective. The findings suggests that the HBM is more effective increasing the knowledge on the STD, but equally effective than the SETM in attitude change for the Puerto Rican youth.

  7. The HoMBReS and HoMBReS Por un Cambio Interventions to Reduce HIV Disparities Among Immigrant Hispanic/Latino Men.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Leichliter, Jami S; Sun, Christina J; Bloom, Fred R

    2016-02-12

    Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are affected disproportionately by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); however, few effective evidence-based prevention interventions for this population exist. This report describes the Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (Men Maintaining Wellbeing and Healthy Relationships) (HoMBReS) intervention, which was developed by a community-based, participatory research partnership in North Carolina and initially implemented during 2005-2009. HoMBReS is an example of an effective intervention that uses lay health advisors (known as Navegantes [navigators]) in the context of existing social networks (i.e., recreational soccer teams) to promote consistent condom use and HIV and STD testing among Hispanic/Latino men. In 2012, HoMBReS was classified as a best-evidence community-level HIV prevention intervention (CDC. Compendium of evidence-based behavioral interventions and best practices for HIV prevention. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2015). The intervention has been implemented elsewhere, enhanced, and further evaluated in longitudinal intervention and implementation studies. HoMBReS has been adapted for other populations, including men who have sex with men and transgender persons. Additional evaluation has found that Navegantes continue in their roles as health advisors, opinion leaders, and community advocates after study support ends. Hispanic/Latino men's social networks can be leveraged to promote sexual health within the community by decreasing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanics/Latinos in the United States.

  8. The HoMBReS and HoMBReS Por un Cambio Interventions to Reduce HIV Disparities Among Immigrant Hispanic/Latino Men

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Sun, Christina J.; Bloom, Fred R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are affected disproportionately by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); however, few effective evidence-based prevention interventions for this population exist. This report describes the Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (Men Maintaining Wellbeing and Healthy Relationships) (HoMBReS) intervention, which was developed by a community-based, participatory research partnership in North Carolina and initially implemented during 2005–2009. HoMBReS is an example of an effective intervention that uses lay health advisors (known as Navegantes [navigators]) in the context of existing social networks (i.e., recreational soccer teams) to promote consistent condom use and HIV and STD testing among Hispanic/Latino men. In 2012, HoMBReS was classified as a best-evidence community-level HIV prevention intervention (CDC. Compendium of evidence-based behavioral interventions and best practices for HIV prevention. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2015). The intervention has been implemented elsewhere, enhanced, and further evaluated in longitudinal intervention and implementation studies. HoMBReS has been adapted for other populations, including men who have sex with men and transgender persons. Additional evaluation has found that Navegantes continue in their roles as health advisors, opinion leaders, and community advocates after study support ends. Hispanic/Latino men’s social networks can be leveraged to promote sexual health within the community by decreasing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanics/Latinos in the United States. PMID:26916740

  9. "Pig in a poke (gato por liebre)": the "mota" (Calophysus macropterus) fishery, molecular evidence of commercialization in Colombia and toxicological analyses.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Cristian; Cubillos, Juan Camilo; Gómez, Rigoberto; Trujillo, Fernando; Caballero, Susana

    2014-06-01

    Overfishing has affected the population abundance trends of many commercial fish species. In the Amazon, the fishery of a catfish commonly known as "mota" or "piracatinga" (Calophysus macropterus) has become an important economic activity in the region as this species has replaced a number of other overexploited great catfish species in the markets. Due to this high exploitation, ways in which to increase captures have been identified. One strategy is to use decomposing animal carcasses as bait. Such strategy has increased the hunting pressure on endangered species such as caimans and river dolphins. We investigated which catfish species are currently commercialized in Colombian fish markets using DNA barcoding, and measured mercury concentration in the tissues of fish molecularly identified as C. macropterus. We collected 86 fish samples in markets of four Colombian cities. Sixty-eight of these were identified molecularly as C.macropterus. The mercury concentration of 29 such samples was analyzed. Samples presented total Hg concentrations higher than the limit for human consumption established by the WHO (0.5 μg/g). These results are worrisome and suggest that (1) C. macropterus is a widely used fish species for human consumption in Colombia and (2) C. macropterus has high concentrations of total Hg, making its consumption a public health risk. Results presented here suggest that C. macropterus has replaced capaz in most Colombian markets. This fishery threatens wild species of river dolphins and caimans, and is also a public health risk given the high mercury levels we found in a subsample of these fishes.

  10. Comparacion de Modelos de Educacion Sexual en El Conocimiento y Cambio de Actitudes en Practicas Sexuales por Alumnos de Nivel Superior en La Region De Caguas, Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

    2012-01-01

    In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of…

  11. (2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-Octa­ethyl­por­phin­ato)(trifluoro­methane­sulfonato)iron(III)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Nan; Powell, Douglas R.; Richter-Addo, George B.

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, [Fe(CF3O3S)(C36H44N4)], is an iron(III) porphyrin complex with the trifluoro­methane­sulfonate anion as an axial ligand. The Fe atom is displaced by 0.219 (2) Å toward the trifluoro­methane­sulfonate anion from the 24-atom mean plane of the porphyrin, resulting in a distorted FeN4O square-based pyramidal geometry. One ethyl­ene group is disordered over two orientations in a 0.502 (6):0.498 (6) ratio. PMID:21580825

  12. The Department of Defense’s Transition of Program of Record (POR) Systems from Internet Protocol Version Four (IPv4) to Internet Protocol Version Six (IPv6)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Protocol IA Information Assurance IANA Internet Assigned Numbers Authority ICANN Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers ICE... ICANN ) is responsible for the global coordination of the Internet’s system of unique identifiers. Unique identifies include domain names like .org...or .museum, and country codes such as .UK .IE. Any new RIR shall, on recognition by ICANN receive an IPv6 allocation from the IANA. A RIR is

  13. Sсandium(III) Beta-diketonate Derivatives as Precursors for Oxide Film Deposition by CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zherikova, Kseniya V.; Zelenina, Ludmila N.; Chusova, Tamara P.; Morozova, Natalia B.; Trubin, Sergey V.; Vikulova, Eugeniia S.

    Complexes with acetylacetone Sc(acac)3, dipivaloylmethane Sc(thd)3, 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-fluoro-3,5-heptanedione Sc(tfhd)3, pivaloyltrifluoroacetone Sc(ptac)3, trifluoroacetylacetone Sc(tfac)3, and hexafluoroacetylacetone Sc(hfac)3 were synthesized, purified and identified by elemental analysis, m.p., IR and NMR spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. The thermal behaviour of the synthesized compounds in the solid state was investigated by the method of difference-scanning calorimetry in vacuum. As a result the thermodynamic characteristics of the melting processes were determined. The temperature dependences of saturated and unsaturated vapour pressure of complexes under study were measured by static method with membrane-gauge manometers. The average molecular weight of gas calculated from the experimental data on unsaturated vapours using ideal gas law was close to the molecular weight of monomer for all investigated compounds. Decomposition temperatures of compounds under study were defined as the temperature above that pressure changes became irreversible. The information about melting and decomposition processes were taken into account at measuring saturated vapour pressure of complexes. The row of volatility Sc(hfac)3 > Sc(ptac)3 > Sc(tfac)3 > Sc(thd)3 ≥ Sc(tfhd)3 > Sc(acac)3 was determined from the p-T dependences obtained. Above information about thermal behaviour of complexes enabled one to use it as a guide for CVD experiments aimed at achieving oxide films with high optical properties. Precursor chosen for film deposition was Sc(thd)3 The Sc2O3 film deposition conditions were following: the gas-carrier rate 1 l/h, He gas-reagent rate 10 l/h, total pressure 10 Torr, evaporator temperature 105-110̊С, substrate temperature 450- 650̊С, substrate Si(100). Ellipsometry was applied to characterize the film thickness and refractive index. The morphology and the composition of the films were determined with XPS and SEM.

  14. Design of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine for a Flywheel Energy Storage System within a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ming

    As an energy storage device, the flywheel has significant advantages over conventional chemical batteries, including higher energy density, higher efficiency, longer life time, and less pollution to the environment. An effective flywheel system can be attributed to its good motor/generator (M/G) design. This thesis describes the research work on the design of a permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) as an M/G suitable for integration in a flywheel energy storage system within a large hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). The operating requirements of the application include wide power and speed ranges combined with high total system efficiency. Along with presenting the design, essential issues related to PMSM design including cogging torque, iron losses and total harmonic distortion (THD) are investigated. An iterative approach combining lumped parameter analysis with 2D Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was used, and the final design is presented showing excellent performance.

  15. Power supply improvements for ballasts-low pressure mercury/argon discharge lamp for water purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokhtache, A. Aissa; Zegaoui, A.; Djahbar, A.; Allouache, H.; Hemici, K.; Kessaissia, F. Z.; Bouchrit, M. S.; Aillerie, M.

    2017-02-01

    The low-pressure electrical discharges established in the mercury rare gas mixtures are the basis of many applications both in the field of lighting and for industrial applications. In order to select an efficient high frequency power supply (ECG -based PWM inverter), we present and discuss results obtained in the simulation of three kinds of power supplies delivering a 0.65 A - 50KHz sinusoidal current dedicated to power low pressure UV Mercury - Argon lamp used for effect germicide on water treatment thus allowing maximum UVC radiation at 253.7 nm. Three ballasts half-bridge configurations were compared with criteria based on resulting germicide efficiency, electrical yield and reliability, for example the quality of the sinusoidal current with reduced THD, and finally, we also considered in this analysis the final economic aspect.

  16. Simulation of Radiation Backgrounds associated with the HEXRI Diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Khater, H; Dauffy, L; Tommasini, R; Eckart, M; Eder, D

    2009-10-05

    Experiments resulting in a significant neutron yield are scheduled to start in 2010 at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). A wide range of diagnostics will be used to measure several parameters of implosion such as the core and fuel shape, temperatures and densities, and neutron yield. Accurate evaluations of the neutron and gamma backgrounds are important for several diagnostics, such as the High Energy X-ray Imager (HEXRI). Several Monte-Carlo simulations were performed to identify the expected signal to background ratios at several potential locations for the HEXRI diagnostics. Gamma backgrounds were significantly reduced by using tungsten collimators. The collimators resulted in the reduction of the gamma background at the HEXRI scintillators by more than an order of magnitude during the first 40 ns following a THD shot.

  17. A comparison of essential oils obtained from lavandin via different extraction processes: Ultrasound, microwave, turbohydrodistillation, steam and hydrodistillation.

    PubMed

    Périno-Issartier, Sandrine; Ginies, Christian; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Chemat, Farid

    2013-08-30

    A total of eight extraction techniques ranging from conventional methods (hydrodistillation (HD), steam distillation (SD), turbohydrodistillation (THD)), through innovative techniques (ultrasound assisted extraction (US-SD) and finishing with microwave assisted extraction techniques such as In situ microwave-generated hydrodistillation (ISMH), microwave steam distillation (MSD), microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG), and microwave steam diffusion (MSDf)) were used to extract essential oil from lavandin flowers and their results were compared. Extraction time, yield, essential oil composition and sensorial analysis were considered as the principal terms of comparison. The essential oils extracted using the more innovative processes were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained from the conventional techniques. The method which gave the best results was the microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG) method which gave reduced extraction time (30min against 220min for SD) and gave no differences in essential oil yield and sensorial perception.

  18. A nonlinear control scheme based on dynamic evolution path theory for improved dynamic performance of boost PFC converter working on nonlinear features.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Pratap Ranjan; Panda, Anup Kumar

    2016-11-01

    This paper is concerned to performance improvement of boost PFC converter under large random load fluctuation, ensuring unity power factor (UPF) at source end and regulated voltage at load side. To obtain such performance, a nonlinear controller based on dynamic evolution path theory is designed and its robustness is examined under both heavy and light loading condition. In this paper, %THD and zero-cross-over dead-zone of input current is significantly reduced. Also, very less response time of input current and output voltage to that of load and reference variation is remarked. A simulation model of proposed system is designed and it is realized using dSPACE 1104 signal processor for a 390VDC, 500W prototype. The relevant experimental and simulation waveforms are presented.

  19. Thermodynamics of Viscous Dark Energy in AN Rsii Braneworld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setare, M. R.; Sheykhi, A.

    We show that for an RSII braneworld filled with interacting viscous dark energy and dark matter, one can always rewrite the Friedmann equation in the form of the first law of thermodynamics, dE = ThdSh + WdV, at the apparent horizon. In addition, the generalized second law of thermodynamics can be fulfilled in a region enclosed by the apparent horizon on the brane for both constant and time-variable five-dimensional Newton's constant G5. These results hold regardless of the specific form of the dark energy. Our study further supports the belief that in an accelerating universe with spatial curvature, the apparent horizon is a physical boundary from the thermodynamical point of view.

  20. Improved direct torque control of an induction generator used in a wind conversion system connected to the grid.

    PubMed

    Abdelli, Radia; Rekioua, Djamila; Rekioua, Toufik; Tounzi, Abdelmounaïm

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a modulated hysteresis direct torque control (MHDTC) applied to an induction generator (IG) used in wind energy conversion systems (WECs) connected to the electrical grid through a back-to-back converter. The principle of this strategy consists in superposing to the torque reference a triangular signal, as in the PWM strategy, with the desired switching frequency. This new modulated reference is compared to the estimated torque by using a hysteresis controller as in the classical direct torque control (DTC). The aim of this new approach is to lead to a constant frequency and low THD in grid current with a unit power factor and a minimum voltage variation despite the wind variation. To highlight the effectiveness of the proposed method, a comparison was made with classical DTC and field oriented control method (FOC). The obtained simulation results, with a variable wind profile, show an adequate dynamic of the conversion system using the proposed method compared to the classical approaches.

  1. FPGA Techniques Based New Hybrid Modulation Strategies for Voltage Source Inverters

    PubMed Central

    Sudha, L. U.; Baskaran, J.; Elankurisil, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper corroborates three different hybrid modulation strategies suitable for single-phase voltage source inverter. The proposed method is formulated using fundamental switching and carrier based pulse width modulation methods. The main tale of this proposed method is to optimize a specific performance criterion, such as minimization of the total harmonic distortion (THD), lower order harmonics, switching losses, and heat losses. The proposed method is articulated using fundamental switching and carrier based pulse width modulation methods. Thus, the harmonic pollution in the power system will be reduced and the power quality will be augmented with better harmonic profile for a target fundamental output voltage. The proposed modulation strategies are simulated in MATLAB r2010a and implemented in a Xilinx spartan 3E-500 FG 320 FPGA processor. The feasibility of these modulation strategies is authenticated through simulation and experimental results. PMID:25821852

  2. A highly linear fully integrated powerline filter for biopotential acquisition systems.

    PubMed

    Alzaher, Hussain A; Tasadduq, Noman; Mahnashi, Yaqub

    2013-10-01

    Powerline interference is one of the most dominant problems in detection and processing of biopotential signals. This work presents a new fully integrated notch filter exhibiting high linearity and low power consumption. High filter linearity is preserved utilizing active-RC approach while IC implementation is achieved through replacing passive resistors by R-2R ladders achieving area saving of approximately 120 times. The filter design is optimized for low power operation using an efficient circuit topology and an ultra-low power operational amplifier. Fully differential implementation of the proposed filter shows notch depth of 43 dB (78 dB for 4th-order) with THD of better than -70 dB while consuming about 150 nW from 1.5 V supply.

  3. A CMOS Gm—C complex filter with a reconfigurable center and cutoff frequencies in low-IF WiMAX receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Cheng; Haigang, Yang; Tongqiang, Gao; Tao, Yin

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a reconfigurable fifth-order complex Gm—C filter for different data rates in low-IF WiMAX applications. The design procedure and linearized measures to realize the complex filter are described. In order to achieve the reconfigurability of bandwidth window, the center frequency and the cutoff frequency filter are adjusted simultaneously by changing capacitor values while keeping transconductors unchanged. Also, the filter integrates an on-chip automatic frequency tuning circuit based on a PLL. Experimental results show that it has an IRR of 32 dB, a THD of -43 dB, and an input-referred noise of 21 μVrms. The chip is fabricated in 0.13 μm CMOS process, occupies 0.7 × 1 mm2, and consumes 4.8 mA current from a 1.2 V power supply.

  4. Tests and calibration of NIF neutron time of flight detectors.

    PubMed

    Ali, Z A; Glebov, V Yu; Cruz, M; Duffy, T; Stoeckl, C; Roberts, S; Sangster, T C; Tommasini, R; Throop, A; Moran, M; Dauffy, L; Horsefield, C

    2008-10-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) neutron time of flight (NTOF) diagnostic will measure neutron yield and ion temperature in all NIF campaigns in DD, DT, and THD(*) implosions. The NIF NTOF diagnostic is designed to measure neutron yield from 1x10(9) to 2x10(19). The NTOF consists of several detectors of varying sensitivity located on the NIF at about 5 and 20 m from the target. Production, testing, and calibration of the NIF NTOF detectors have begun at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). Operational tests of the NTOF detectors were performed on several facilities including the OMEGA laser at LLE and the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Neutron calibrations were carried out on the OMEGA laser. Results of the NTOF detector tests and calibration will be presented.

  5. An ECG recording front-end with continuous-time level-crossing sampling.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongjia; Mansano, Andre L; Yuan, Yuan; Zhao, Duan; Serdijn, Wouter A

    2014-10-01

    An ECG recording front-end with a continuous- time asynchronous level-crossing analog-to-digital converter (LC-ADC) is proposed. The system is a voltage and current mixed-mode system, which comprises a low noise amplifier (LNA), a programmable voltage-to-current converter (PVCC) as a programmable gain amplifier (PGA) and an LC-ADC with calibration DACs and an RC oscillator. The LNA shows an input referred noise of 3.77 μVrms over 0.06 Hz-950 Hz bandwidth. The total harmonic distortion (THD) of the LNA is 0.15% for a 10 mVPP input. The ECG front-end consumes 8.49 μW from a 1 V supply and achieves an ENOB up to 8 bits. The core area of the proposed front-end is 690 ×710 μm2, fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS technology.

  6. Comment on 'A reinterpretation of the linear heat flow and heat production relationship for the exponential model of the heat production in the crust' by R.N. Singh & J.G. Negi.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lachenbruch, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    In their recent paper, Singh & Negi, (This journal, 57, 741-744) contend that if thd slope of the empirical linear relation between heat flow and heat production is interpreted as the decay-length of an exponential depth-distribution of sources, a discrepancy rises, whereas if it is interpreted as the depth of a step distribution, it does not. I should like to point out that their discrepancy follows from their arbitrary assumption of one of a range of physical possibilities unconstrained by the observations; with an equally valid alternate assumption (Lachenbruch 1970) the discrepancy disappears. In any case such discrepancies are probably minor compared to physical difficulties that arise from the step model, and to uncertainties introduced by other assumptions in any simple model.-Author

  7. Harmonic Optimization in Voltage Source Inverter for PV Application using Heuristic Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandil, Shaimaa A.; Ali, A. A.; El Samahy, Adel; Wasfi, Sherif M.; Malik, O. P.

    2016-12-01

    Selective Harmonic Elimination (SHE) technique is the fundamental switching frequency scheme that is used to eliminate specific order harmonics. Its application to minimize low order harmonics in a three level inverter is proposed in this paper. The modulation strategy used here is SHEPWM and the nonlinear equations, that characterize the low order harmonics, are solved using Harmony Search Algorithm (HSA) to obtain the optimal switching angles that minimize the required harmonics and maintain the fundamental at the desired value. Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) of the output voltage is minimized maintaining selected harmonics within allowable limits. A comparison has been drawn between HSA, Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Newton Raphson (NR) technique using MATLAB software to determine the effectiveness of getting optimized switching angles.

  8. Applying the min-projection strategy to improve the transient performance of the three-phase grid-connected inverter.

    PubMed

    Baygi, Mahdi Oloumi; Ghazi, Reza; Monfared, Mohammad

    2014-07-01

    Applying the min-projection strategy (MPS) to a three-phase grid-connected inverter to improve its transient performance is the main objective of this paper. For this purpose, the inverter is first modeled as a switched linear system. Then, the feasibility of the MPS technique is investigated and the stability criterion is derived. Hereafter, the fundamental equations of the MPS for the control of the inverter are obtained. The proposed scheme is simulated in PSCAD/EMTDC environment. The validity of the MPS approach is confirmed by comparing the obtained results with those of VOC method. The results demonstrate that the proposed method despite its simplicity provides an excellent transient performance, fully decoupled control of active and reactive powers, acceptable THD level and a reasonable switching frequency.

  9. FPGA techniques based new hybrid modulation strategies for voltage source inverters.

    PubMed

    Sudha, L U; Baskaran, J; Elankurisil, S A

    2015-01-01

    This paper corroborates three different hybrid modulation strategies suitable for single-phase voltage source inverter. The proposed method is formulated using fundamental switching and carrier based pulse width modulation methods. The main tale of this proposed method is to optimize a specific performance criterion, such as minimization of the total harmonic distortion (THD), lower order harmonics, switching losses, and heat losses. The proposed method is articulated using fundamental switching and carrier based pulse width modulation methods. Thus, the harmonic pollution in the power system will be reduced and the power quality will be augmented with better harmonic profile for a target fundamental output voltage. The proposed modulation strategies are simulated in MATLAB r2010a and implemented in a Xilinx spartan 3E-500 FG 320 FPGA processor. The feasibility of these modulation strategies is authenticated through simulation and experimental results.

  10. All Prime Contract Awards by State or Country, Place, and Contractor. Part 6 (Washington, DC-Palm Beach, Florida)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    AD-A236 303 :UMENTAT𔄀WPAGE I Form Approve - ~~ Oer MB No. 0704-0 188 thdU s b,rdpn ?,I ; r - . rr ,n e T , % AGL!NY ON 2. EPORT DATE ~ 3 .REPO RT...4 -4 -aN -10.- 4-4 .- C 444 g 4 C- 4-4 -4 4 4 -4-4 1-4 -4 - -4 - -4 - -4 1 0 00-4 4 OWO E 60 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 003 COW< 64 3 30 3oocc 000000000000 *D a...000000000 00000t000000))0000) ZilsEt IUN NZZZ>0ZZc)0ZMU00-0))0)0)OZZZZZZZZ&0>ZwZ0-0-zzzzzzzz0z Ofl c IN Nc Is w Ns E I UN- NII 3 1AU.4f44 LU N O -I ON N L-4

  11. Voltage harmonic elimination with RLC based interface smoothing filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekaran, K.; Ramachandaramurthy, V. K.

    2015-04-01

    A method is proposed for designing a Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) with RLC interface smoothing filter. The RLC filter connected between the IGBT based Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) is attempted to eliminate voltage harmonics in the busbar voltage and switching harmonics from VSI by producing a PWM controlled harmonic voltage. In this method, the DVR or series active filter produces PWM voltage that cancels the existing harmonic voltage due to any harmonic voltage source. The proposed method is valid for any distorted busbar voltage. The operating VSI handles no active power but only harmonic power. The DVR is able to suppress the lower order switching harmonics generated by the IGBT based VSI. Good dynamic and transient results obtained. The Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) is minimized to zero at the sensitive load end. Digital simulations are carried out using PSCAD/EMTDC to validate the performance of RLC filter. Simulated results are presented.

  12. Power System Harmonic Elimination to Improve Power Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekaran, K.; Ramachandaramurthy, V. K.

    2015-06-01

    An improvised RLC interface filter for a Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) is proposed. The RLC filter is connected in the front end between the IGBT based Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) and the injection transformer and is able to eliminate voltage harmonics in the system and also switching harmonics generated from VSI. The voltage at the sensitive load end is pure sinusoidal. In this method, the DVR produced Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) voltage with voltage harmonic canceling the voltage harmonic generated from the supply main. The VSI handles harmonic power. The low order switching harmonics generated by the IGBT based VSI is suppressed. The DVR has greater voltage injection capability. Good dynamic and transient results recorded and Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) at the sensitive load end is minimized. The voltage at the sensitive load is sinusoidal and at 1.0 pu. PSCAD/EMTDC is used to validate the performance of the interface filter and the DVR. Simulated results are presented.

  13. On the Maxwellian distribution, symmetric form, and entropy conservation for the Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, S. M.

    1986-01-01

    The Euler equations of gas dynamics have some very interesting properties in that the flux vector is a homogeneous function of the unknowns and the equations can be cast in symmetric hyperbolic form and satisfy the entropy conservation. The Euler equations are the moments of the Boltzmann equation of the kinetic theory of gases when the velocity distribution function is a Maxwellian. The present paper shows the relationship between the symmetrizability and the Maxwellian velocity distribution. The entropy conservation is in terms of the H-function, which is a slight modification of the H-function first introduced by Boltzmann in his famous H-theorem. In view of the H-theorem, it is suggested that the development of total H-diminishing (THD) numerical methods may be more profitable than the usual total variation diminishing (TVD) methods for obtaining wiggle-free solutions.

  14. Use of a Gluconobacter frateurii mutant to prevent dihydroxyacetone accumulation during glyceric acid production from glycerol.

    PubMed

    Habe, Hiroshi; Shimada, Yuko; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kitamoto, Dai; Itagaki, Masayuki; Watanabe, Kunihiro; Yanagishita, Hiroshi; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Sakaki, Keiji

    2010-01-01

    To prevent dihydroxyacetone (DHA) by-production during glyceric acid (GA) production from glycerol using Gluconobacter frateurii, we used a G. frateurii THD32 mutant, ΔsldA, in which the glycerol dehydrogenase subunit-encoding gene (sldA) was disrupted, but ΔsldA grew much more slowly than the wild type, growth starting after a lag of 3 d under the same culture conditions. The addition of 1% w/v D-sorbitol to the medium improved both the growth and the GA productivity of the mutant, and ΔsldA produced 89.1 g/l GA during 4 d of incubation without DHA accumulation.

  15. Power Factor Correction to Mitigate Harmonic Distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochetkov, Gary

    Many direct current (DC) devices must receive their power from the alternating current (AC) grid. Rectifiers use diodes to create DC for these devices. Due to diodes' non-linear nature however, harmonics are created and these travel back into the grid. A significant presence of harmonics causes component heating and possible malfunction. A harmonic mitigation procedure is needed. With the correct usage of transistors, the current drawn by a rectifier can be manipulated to remove almost all harmonics. This process is called power factor correction (PFC), and formally acts to reduce the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the current. To investigate this, a three phase active rectifier was computer simulated and a controller was designed to provide switching signals for the transistors. Finally, the device was constructed in the laboratory to drive a DC motor, verifying its operating principle outside of the idealities of simulation.

  16. Transparent ferrimagnetic semiconducting CuCr2O4 thin films by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, T. S.; Yadav, C. S.; Karppinen, M.

    2016-04-01

    We report the magnetic and optical properties of CuCr2O4 thin films fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD) from Cu(thd)2, Cr(acac)3, and ozone; we deposit 200 nm thick films and anneal them at 700 °C in oxygen atmosphere to crystallize the spinel phase. A ferrimagnetic transition at 140 K and a direct bandgap of 1.36 eV are determined for the films from magnetic and UV-vis spectrophotometric measurements. Electrical transport measurements confirm the p-type semiconducting behavior of the films. As the ALD technique allows the deposition of conformal pin-hole-free coatings on complex 3D surfaces, our CuCr2O4 films are interesting material candidates for various frontier applications.

  17. Cooperative Control of Active Power Filters in Power Systems without Mutual Communication

    DOE PAGES

    Tlustý, Josef; Škramlík, Jiří; Švec, Jan; ...

    2010-01-01

    The procedure for calculating controller parameters of the APFs implemented into a multibus industrial power system for harmonic voltage mitigation is presented. The node-voltage-detection control strategy is applied and the basic controller parameters are found under the condition that the demanded THD factors at the buses where the APFs are placed will be obtained. A cooperative control of several APFs without mutual communication is proposed, simulated, and experimentally verified. By tuning the controller gains without considering the power circuit parameters, all APFs used tend to share harmonic load currents approximately equally regardless of the operation modes of the nonlinear loadsmore » in different parts of the power system.« less

  18. Use of in vivo/in vitro unscheduled DNA synthesis for identification of organ-specific carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Furihata, C.; Matsushima, T.

    1987-01-01

    There are still only a few in vivo short-term assay methods for predicting potential organ-specific carcinogens and mutagens in mammals, although such methods are required for evaluating the in vivo effects of in vitro mutagens. In the in vivo/in vitro UDS assay methods described here, chemicals are given to experimental animals and induction of UDS in target organs is determined by in vitro organ culture or primary cell culture in the presence of (/sup 3/H)dThd. Incorporation of (/sup 3/H)dThd into DNA is measured with a liquid scintillation counter or by autoradiography. These methods have now been applied to the glandular stomach, forestomach, colon, liver, kidney, pancreas, tracheal epithelium, nasal epithelium, and spermatocytes. With minor modifications, they may also be applied to other organs. The present review shows that induction of UDS in various organs correlated well with the induction of cancer in these organs. The present authors have used the present methods to identify some potential organ-specific mutagens and carcinogens in mammals. The present authors found that three dicarbonyl compounds, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and diacetyl, induced apparent UDS and TDS in the glandular stomach, and other groups found that 2-NT, MA6BT, and CNEt6BT induced UDS in the liver. These in vivo/in vitro UDS assays are better than in vitro UDS assay for identification of potential organ-specific mutagens and carcinogens in mammals and are especially useful for identifying potential mutagens and carcinogens that are specific for certain organs, such as the stomach, liver, and kidney. They are also useful for examining the potential mutagenicities and carcinogenicities of carcinogen analogs. However, these methods are not suitable for general in vivo screening because they are not yet available for all organs. 113 references.

  19. [Research on Resistant Starch Content of Rice Grain Based on NIR Spectroscopy Model].

    PubMed

    Luo, Xi; Wu, Fang-xi; Xie, Hong-guang; Zhu, Yong-sheng; Zhang, Jian-fu; Xie, Hua-an

    2016-03-01

    A new method based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) analysis was explored to determine the content of rice-resistant starch instead of common chemical method which took long time was high-cost. First of all, we collected 62 spectral data which have big differences in terms of resistant starch content of rice, and then the spectral data and detected chemical values are imported chemometrics software. After that a near-infrared spectroscopy calibration model for rice-resistant starch content was constructed with partial least squares (PLS) method. Results are as follows: In respect of internal cross validation, the coefficient of determination (R2) of untreated, pretreatment with MSC+1thD, pretreatment with 1thD+SNV were 0.920 2, 0.967 0 and 0.976 7 respectively. Root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were 1.533 7, 1.011 2 and 0.837 1 respectively. In respect of external validation, the coefficient of determination (R2) of untreated, pretreatment with MSC+ 1thD, pretreatment with 1thD+SNV were 0.805, 0.976 and 0.992 respectively. The average absolute error was 1.456, 0.818, 0.515 respectively. There was no significant difference between chemical and predicted values (Turkey multiple comparison), so we think near infrared spectrum analysis is more feasible than chemical measurement. Among the different pretreatment, the first derivation and standard normal variate (1thD+SNV) have higher coefficient of determination (R2) and lower error value whether in internal validation and external validation. In other words, the calibration model has higher precision and less error by pretreatment with 1thD+SNV.

  20. [Phenolic compounds in leaves insertions of Mentha × villosa Huds. cv. Snežná].

    PubMed

    Tekeľová, Daniela; Bittner Fialová, Silvia; Tóth, Jaroslav; Czigle, Szilvia

    2016-01-01

    Lamiaceae plants mostly accumulate active ingredients in their leaves. The subfamily Nepetoideae, including the genus Mentha L., is characterized by the presence of essential oil and antioxidant phenolics, chiefly hydroxycinnamic acids with predominance of rosmarinic acid, and flavonoids. Mentha × piperita and M. spicata are the most broadly used mints in both medicine and industry, while M. x villosa is less known in our country. Herbal drugs in the form of leaves are usually analysed unpartitioned, while single leaves insertions have only been studied occasionally. Therefore, the aim of this work was the quantification of the active compounds content in the leaves pairs of Mentha × villosa Huds. cv. Snežná, using pharmacopoeial methods: total hydroxycinnamic derivatives expressed as rosmarinic acid (THD) and luteolin-type flavonoids. THD content ranged from 6.7% to 9.4% in the leaves pairs water extracts, and from 6.6% to 14.0% in methanol extracts. Flavonoids contents, expressed as luteolin-7-O-glucoside, ranged from 4.0% to 8.8% in water extracts, and from 4.0% to 10.5% in methanol extracts. Antioxidant activity (DPPH) expressed as SC50 ranged from 10.2 to 16.9 μg.ml-1 (drug dry weight) in water extracts, and from 10.7 to 21.6 μg.ml-1 in methanol extracts. The highest content of phenolic compounds as well as the highest antioxidant activity were found to be in the top sheet, while the lowest content of phenolic compounds and lowest antioxidant activity were detected in the leaves of the middle stem part.Key words: Mentha × villosa Huds cv. Snežná hydroxycinnamic derivatives rosmarinic acid luteolin-7-O-glucoside DPPH.

  1. The effect of a motor skills training program in the improvement of practiced and non-practiced tasks performance in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD).

    PubMed

    Farhat, Faiçal; Hsairi, Ines; Baati, Hamza; Smits-Engelsman, B C M; Masmoudi, Kaouthar; Mchirgui, Radhouane; Triki, Chahnez; Moalla, Wassim

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of a group-based task oriented skills training program on motor and physical ability for children with DCD. It was also investigated if there was an effect on fine motor and handwriting tasks that were not specifically practiced during the training program. Forty-one children aged 6-10years took part in this study. Children were assigned to three groups: an experimental training group consisting of 14 children with DCD, a control non-training group consisted of 13 children with DCD and a control non-training group consisting of 14 typically developed children. The measurements included were, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC), the Modified Agility Test (MAT), the Triple Hop Distance (THD), the 5 Jump-test (5JT) and the Handwriting Performance Test. All measures were administered pre and post an 8-week training program. The results showed that 10 children of the DCD training-group improved their performance in MABC test, attaining a score above the 15th percentile after their participation in the training program. DCD training-group showed a significant improvement on all cluster scores (manual dexterity (t (13)=5.3, p<.001), ball skills (t (13)=2.73, p<.05) and balance (t (13)=5.13, p<.001). Significant performance improvements were also found in MAT, THD, 5JT (t (13)=-4.55; p<.01), handwriting quality (t (12)=-2.73; p<.05) and speed (t (12)=-4.2; p<.01) after the training program. In conclusion, improvement in both practiced and non-practiced skills, in the training program, may reflect improvement in motor skill but also transfer to other skills.

  2. Hot-spot mix in ignition-scale implosions on the NIF [Hot-spot mix in ignition-scale implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, S. P.; Epstein, R.; Hammel, B. A.; Suter, L. J.; Ralph, J.; Scott, H.; Barrios, M. A.; Bradley, D. K.; Callahan, D. A.; Cerjan, C.; Collins, G. W.; Dixit, S. N.; Doeppner, T.; Edwards, M. J.; Farley, D. R.; Glenn, S.; Glenzer, S. H.; Golovkin, I. E.; Haan, S. W.; Hamza, A.; Hicks, D. G.; Izumi, N.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Kline, J. L.; Kyrala, G. A.; Landen, O. L.; Ma, T.; MacFarlane, J. J.; Mancini, R. C.; McCrory, R. L.; Meezan, N. B.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Nikroo, A.; Peterson, K. J.; Sangster, T. C.; Springer, P.; Town, R. P. J.

    2012-03-30

    Ignition of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target depends on the formation of a central hot spot with sufficient temperature and areal density. Radiative and conductive losses from the hot spot can be enhanced by hydrodynamic instabilities. The concentric spherical layers of current National Ignition Facility (NIF) ignition targets consist of a plastic ablator surrounding 2 a thin shell of cryogenic thermonuclear fuel (i.e., hydrogen isotopes), with fuel vapor filling the interior volume. The Rev. 5 ablator is doped with Ge to minimize preheat of the ablator closest to the DT ice caused by Au M-band emission from the hohlraum x-ray drive. Richtmyer–Meshkov and Rayleigh–Taylor hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by high-mode (50 < t < 200) ablator-surface perturbations can cause Ge-doped ablator to mix into the interior of the shell at the end of the acceleration phase. As the shell decelerates, it compresses the fuel vapor, forming a hot spot. K-shell line emission from the ionized Ge that has penetrated into the hot spot provides an experimental signature of hot-spot mix. The Ge emission from tritium–hydrogen–deuterium (THD) and DT cryogenic targets and gas-filled plastic shell capsules, which replace the THD layer with a massequivalent CH layer, was examined. The inferred amount of hot-spot mix mass, estimated from the Ge K-shell line brightness using a detailed atomic physics code, is typically below the 75 ng allowance for hot-spot mix. Furthermore, predictions of a simple mix model, based on linear growth of the measured surface-mass modulations, are consistent with the experimental results.

  3. Geological and structural interpretation of Peninsular Malaysia by marine and aeromagnetic data: Some preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrudin, Nurul Fairuz Diyana Binti; Hamzah, Umar

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic data were processed to interpret the geology of Peninsular Malaysia especially in delineating the igneous bodies and structural lineament trends by potential field geophysical method. A total of about 32000 magnetic intensity data were obtained from Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid (EMAG2) covering an area of East Sumatra to part of South China Sea within 99° E to 105° E Longitude and 1° N to 7°N Latitude. These data were used in several processing stages in generating the total magnetic intensity (TMI), reduce to equator (RTE), total horizontal derivative (THD) and total vertical derivative (TVD). Values of the possible surface and subsurface magnetic sources associated to the geological features of the study area. The magnetic properties are normally corresponding to features like igneous bodies and faults structures. The anomalies obtained were then compared to the geological features of the area. In general, the high magnetic anomalies of the TMI-RTE are closely matched with major igneous intrusion of Peninsular Malaysia such as the Main Range, Eastern Belt and the Mersing-Johor Bahru stretch. More dense lineaments of magnetic structures were observed in the THD and TVD results indicating the presence of more deep and shallow magnetic rich geological features. The positions of Bukit Tinggi, Mersing and Lepar faults are perfectly matched with the magnetic highs while the presence of Lebir and Bok Bak faults are not clearly observed in the magnetic results. The high magnetic values of igneous bodies may have concealed and obscured the magnetic values representing these faults.

  4. Quantitation of pyridyloxobutyl-DNA adducts in tissues of rats treated chronically with (R)- or (S)-N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) in a carcinogenicity study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lijiao; Balbo, Silvia; Wang, Mingyao; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Khariwala, Samir S.; Villalta, Peter W.; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2013-01-01

    We quantified DNA adducts resulting from 2’-hydroxylation of enantiomers of the tobacco-specific nitrosamine N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) in tissues of male F-344 rats after 10, 30, 50, and 70 weeks of treatment with 14 ppm in the drinking water. These rats were in subgroups of a carcinogenicity study in which (S)-NNN was highly tumorigenic in the oral cavity and esophagus while (R)-NNN was relatively weakly active. DNA adducts were quantified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry in six tissues – oral mucosa, esophageal mucosa, nasal respiratory mucosa, nasal olfactory mucosa, liver, and lung. O2-[4-(3-Pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]thymidine (O2-POB-dThd, 7) and 7-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]-2′-deoxyguanosine (7-POB-dGuo, 8), the latter as 7-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]guanine (7-POB-Gua, 11), were detected at each time point in each tissue. In the target tissues for carcinogenicity, oral mucosa and esophageal mucosa, levels of 7-POB-Gua (11) and O2-POB-dThd (7) were similar, or 11 predominated, while in all other tissues at all time points for both enantiomers, 7 was clearly present in greater amounts than 11. Total measured DNA adduct levels in esophageal mucosa and oral mucosa were higher in rats treated with (S)-NNN than (R)-NNN. The highest adduct levels were found in the nasal respiratory mucosa. DNA adducts generally persisted in all tissues without any sign of substantial decreases throughout the 70 week time course. The results of this study suggest that inefficient repair of 7-POB-dGuo (8) in the rat oral cavity and esophagus may be important in carcinogenesis by NNN and support the development of these DNA adducts as potential biomarkers of NNN metabolic activation in people who use tobacco products. PMID:24001146

  5. Nutritional education for management of osteodystrophy: Impact on serum phosphorus, quality of life, and malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Karavetian, Mirey; Elzein, Hafez; Rizk, Rana; Jibai, Rime; de Vries, Nanne

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Osteodystrophy management includes dietary phosphorus restriction, which may limit protein intake, exacerbate malnutrition-inflammation syndrome and mortality among hemodialysis patients. Methods A multicenter randomized controlled trial was conducted in Lebanon, to test the hypothesis that intensive nutrition education focused on phosphorus-to-protein balance will improve patient outcomes. Six hemodialysis units were randomly assigned to the trained hospital dietitian (THD) protocol (210 patients). Six others (184 patients) were divided equally according to the patients' dialysis shifts and assigned to Dedicated Dietitian (DD) and Control protocols. Patients in the THD group received nutrition education from hospital dietitians who were trained by the study team on renal dietetics, but had limited time for hemodialysis patients. Patients in the DD group received individualized nutritional education on dietary phosphorus and protein management for 6 months (2-hour/patient/month) from study renal dietitians. Patients in the control group continued receiving routine care from hospital dietitians who had limited time for these patients and were blinded to the study. Serum phosphorus (mmol/L), malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS), health-related quality of life (HRQOL) index and length of hospital stay (LOS) were assessed at T0 (baseline), T1 (postintervention) and T2 (post6 month follow up). Findings Only the DD protocol significantly improved serum phosphorus (T0:1.78 ± 0.5, T1:1.63 ± 0.46, T2:1.69 ± 0.53), 3 domains of the HRQOL and maintained MIS at T1, but this protective effect resolved at T2. The LOS significantly dropped for all groups. Discussion The presence of competent renal dietitians fully dedicated to hemodialysis units was superior over the other protocols in temporarily improving patient outcomes.

  6. Monomeric malonate precursors for the MOCVD of HfO2 and ZrO2 thin films.

    PubMed

    Pothiraja, Ramasamy; Milanov, Andrian; Parala, Harish; Winter, Manuela; Fischer, Roland A; Devi, Anjana

    2009-01-28

    New Hf and Zr malonate complexes have been synthesized by the reaction of metal amides with different malonate ligands (L = dimethyl malonate (Hdmml), diethyl malonate (Hdeml), di-tert-butyl malonate (Hdbml) and bis(trimethylsilyl) malonate (Hbsml)). Homoleptic eight-coordinated monomeric compounds of the type ML4 were obtained for Hf with all the malonate ligands employed. In contrast, for Zr only Hdmml and Hdeml yielded the eight-coordinated monomeric compounds of the type ML4, while using the bulky Hdbml and Hbsml ligands resulted into mixed alkoxo-malonato six-coordinated compounds of the type [ML2(OR)2]. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of all the compounds are presented and discussed, and they are found to be monomeric. The complexes are solids and in solution, they retain their monomeric nature as evidenced by NMR measurements. Compared to the classical beta-diketonate complexes, [M(acac)4] and [M(thd)4] (M = Hf, Zr; acac: acetylacetonate; thd: tetramethylheptadione), the new malonate compounds are more volatile, decompose at lower temperatures and have lower melting points. In particular, the homoleptic diethyl malonate complexes of Hf and Zr melt at temperatures as low as 62 degrees C. In addition, the compounds are very stable in air and can be sublimed quantitatively. The promising thermal properties makes these compounds interesting for metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). This was demonstrated by depositing HfO2 and ZrO2 thin films successfully with two representative Hf and Zr complexes.

  7. The production of S-equol from daidzein is associated with a cluster of three genes in Eggerthella sp. YY7918

    PubMed Central

    KAWADA, Yuika; YOKOYAMA, Shinichiro; YANASE, Emiko; NIWA, Toshio; SUZUKI, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Daidzein (DZN) is converted to equol (EQL) by intestinal bacteria. We previously reported that Eggerthella sp. YY7918, which is found in human feces, is an EQL-producing bacterium and analyzed its whole genomic sequence. We found three coding sequences (CDSs) in this bacterium that showed 99% similarity to the EQL-producing enzymes of Lactococcus sp. 20-92. These identified CDSs were designated eqlA, eqlB, and eqlC and thought to encode daidzein reductase (DZNR), dihydrodaidzein reductase (DHDR), and tetrahydrodaidzein reductase (THDR), respectively. These genes were cloned into pColdII. Recombinant plasmids were then introduced into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and DZNR, DHDR, and THDR were expressed and purified by 6×His-Tag chromatography. We confirmed that these three enzymes were involved in the conversion of DZN to EQL. Purified DZNR converted DZN to dihydrodaizein (DHD) in the presence of NADPH. DHDR converted DHD to tetrahydrodaizein (THD) in the presence of NADPH. Neither enzyme showed activities with NADH. THDR converted THD in the absence of cofactors, NAD(P)H, and also produced DHD as a by-product. Thus, we propose that THDR is not a reductase but a new type of dismutase. The GC content of these clusters was 64%, similar to the overall genomic GC content for Eggerthella and Coriobacteriaceae (56–60%), and higher than that for Lactococcus garvieae (39%), even though the gene cluster showed 99% similarity to that in Lactococcus sp. 20-92. Taken together, our results indicate that the gene cluster associated with EQL production evolved in high-GC bacteria including Coriobacteriaceae and was then laterally transferred to Lactococcus sp. 20-92. PMID:27508112

  8. Hot-spot mix in ignition-scale implosions on the NIF [Hot-spot mix in ignition-scale implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    DOE PAGES

    Regan, S. P.; Epstein, R.; Hammel, B. A.; ...

    2012-03-30

    Ignition of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target depends on the formation of a central hot spot with sufficient temperature and areal density. Radiative and conductive losses from the hot spot can be enhanced by hydrodynamic instabilities. The concentric spherical layers of current National Ignition Facility (NIF) ignition targets consist of a plastic ablator surrounding 2 a thin shell of cryogenic thermonuclear fuel (i.e., hydrogen isotopes), with fuel vapor filling the interior volume. The Rev. 5 ablator is doped with Ge to minimize preheat of the ablator closest to the DT ice caused by Au M-band emission from the hohlraummore » x-ray drive. Richtmyer–Meshkov and Rayleigh–Taylor hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by high-mode (50 < t < 200) ablator-surface perturbations can cause Ge-doped ablator to mix into the interior of the shell at the end of the acceleration phase. As the shell decelerates, it compresses the fuel vapor, forming a hot spot. K-shell line emission from the ionized Ge that has penetrated into the hot spot provides an experimental signature of hot-spot mix. The Ge emission from tritium–hydrogen–deuterium (THD) and DT cryogenic targets and gas-filled plastic shell capsules, which replace the THD layer with a massequivalent CH layer, was examined. The inferred amount of hot-spot mix mass, estimated from the Ge K-shell line brightness using a detailed atomic physics code, is typically below the 75 ng allowance for hot-spot mix. Furthermore, predictions of a simple mix model, based on linear growth of the measured surface-mass modulations, are consistent with the experimental results.« less

  9. TECNOLOGÍAS DE INFORMACIÓN Y COMUNICACIÓN PARA LA PREVENCIÓN Y CONTROL DE LA INFECCIÓN POR EL VIH Y OTRAS ITS*

    PubMed Central

    Curioso, Walter H.; Blas, Magaly M.; Kurth, Ann E.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Avances tecnológicos innovadores como Internet, computadoras personales de bolsillo, teléfonos celulares y otros equipos son un arsenal en crecimiento en el esfuerzo de impedir y controlar el VIH y otras infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS). A pesar que existe una diversidad de tecnologías de información y comunicación en diferentes etapas de desarrollo para la prevención del VIH e ITS, la investigación en esta área se encuentra aún en crecimiento, y el impacto en la incidencia de enfermedad, las evaluaciones con diseños rigurosos y los estudios económicos todavía son muy limitados. Sin embargo, algunas de estas evidencias son prometedoras y poseen un gran potencial para su uso en nuestro medio. En este artículo hemos realizado una revisión sistemática de la literatura relacionada con el uso de la tecnología aplicada a la prevención y control del VIH e ITS. De ser usada apropiadamente, esta tecnología podría mejorar la vigilancia del VIH y otras ITS, diagnóstico, notificación de parejas, prevención, manejo clínico, y capacitación de profesionales de la salud. PMID:26339254

  10. About to Graduate from High School? Consider Career Education Opportunities. EdSource Student/Parent Guide = Estas por graduarte de la escuela preparatoria? Considera oportunidades para seguir tu educacion de carrera. EdSource guia de estudiantes y padres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EdSource, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Getting a sound education is important to a student's ability to make a good living in a field they will enjoy. For many students graduating from high school, that includes high quality career technical (or vocational) education tailored to a specific job. In California, such programs are available in a wide range of fields, from healthcare to the…

  11. VISIÓN GENERAL DE LA EVALUACIÓN DEL RIESGO EN SALUD INFANTIL EMPLEANDO UN ENFOQUE POR ETAPAS DE DESARROLLO (American translation is: Overview of a Life Stage Approach to Children's Health Risk Assessment)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  12. Ingestion Reiterada de Cuerpos Extranos. Forma Inusual de Presentacion del Sindrome de Munchausen por Poderes (Reiterated Ingestion of Foreign Bodies. Unusual Form of Presentation of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terreros, I. Gomez de; And Others

    1996-01-01

    An unusual case of Munchausen syndrome by proxy is reported. A mother with a psychiatric record of behavior disorders and family dysfunction perpetrated the ingestion of foreign bodies (for example, earrings, a screw, sewing needles) on a 10-month-old infant with a history of prematurity, repeated visits to emergency rooms, and nonjustified…

  13. Vistazos Intimos De Puebla; Una Compilacion De Informes Individuales Preparados Por Los Participantes Del Instituto De Verano (NDEA) (Close-ups on Puebla; A Compilation of Individual Reports Prepared by the Participants of the NDEA Summer Institute).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita State Univ., KS.

    The individual and committee reports on the sociology of Puebla, Mexico, which are collected here, were written by participants in an NDEA Summer Institute program of the University of Wichita, Kansas. The underlying motives of the program, described in the preface, were to provide participants with real language experience and a chance to…

  14. Guiandose por la Intrincada Senda de la Educacion Especial: Una Guia para Padres y Maestros. Tercera Edicion. (Negotiating the Special Education Maze: A Guide for Parents & Teachers. Third Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Winifred; Chitwood, Stephen; Hayden, Deidre

    Designed to assist Spanish-speaking parents and teachers in understanding special education procedures, this book describes the process for obtaining school services for children with disabilities. An introduction reviews six major provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that relate to children's rights to a free,…

  15. Fields without Borders: An Anthology of Documentary Writing and Photography by Student Action with Farmworkers' Interns = Campos sin Fronteras: Una Antologia de Obras Escritas y Fotografia por Estudiantes Internos de Accion Estudiantil con Trabajadores Agricolas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manly, Libby, Ed.; Okie, Alejandra, Ed.; Wiggins, Melinda, Ed.

    In this booklet, essays and poems, presented both in English and in Spanish, portray the feelings, conditions, and economic plight of migrant and seasonal farmworkers in North and South Carolina, often in their own words. A preface describes Student Action with Farmworkers summer internships in which college students spend 10 weeks working with…

  16. The Latinas' Guide to the Information Superhighway: A Bilingual Guide for Latinas by Latinas = Guia para Mujeres Latinas sobre la Supercarretera de la Informacion: Una Guia Bilingue para Latinas por medio de Latinas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MANA, A National Latina Organization, Washington, DC.

    This guide to the Internet is designed to give Latinas basic information on computers and the information superhighway. Written in both Spanish and English, the guide begins by defining the Internet and making some suggestions about acquiring access to a computer. Among the topics discussed are how to choose an Internet service provider, how to…

  17. John Tracy Clinic: Programa de Ensenanza por Correspondencia para Los Padres de Ninos Sordo-Ciegos de Edad Preescolar (John Tracy Clinic Correspondence Learning Program for Parents of Preschool Deaf-Blind Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thielman, Virginia B.; And Others

    Written in Spanish, the document contains a correspondence learning program for parents of deaf blind preschoolers. An introductory section gives preliminary instructions, an introduction to sign language, and a list of resources for deaf blind children. Twelve lessons follow with information on: the parent's role in teaching the child, visual…

  18. Engaging Foreign Language Learners in a Web 2.0-Mediated Collaborative Learning Process (Inclusión de estudiantes de lenguas extranjeras en procesos colaborativos de aprendizaje mediados por la web 2.0)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote Parra, Gabriel Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this action research was to explore the types of interactions that foreign language learners experience while using a wiki as a supporting tool for a face-to-face research course. This design allowed me to play a dual role: first, I studied my own classroom setting and students. Second, I implemented a pedagogical intervention based…

  19. Dermatitis causada por Hylesia metabus (Lepidoptera: Hemileucidae) en la región costera del Estado del Delta del Amacuro, Venezuela [Dermatitis caused by Hylesia metabus (Lepidoptera: Hemileucidae) in the costal region of the state of Delta Amacuro, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Acosta, A; Rubiano, H; Reyes, M; Fernández, C T

    1998-01-01

    2 cases of acute dermatitis caused by butterfly Hylesia metabus in an area that so far has not been considered as endemic for this species were presented. The dermatitis observed in these individuals may be described as very circumscribed, pruriginous, erythematous generalized protruding papules that may be compared with urticaria, and with a variable degree oedema. Monomorphic eruption consisting in small hard papules crowned by a little vesicle was also present. The lesions of these 2 patients evolved with intensely pruriginous papules for a week and after that they healed without dermatological sequelae.

  20. Less and Less for More and More. Economic Organization Booklet 1. Teacher's Edition=Menos y menos por mas y mas. Organizacion economica libro 1. Manual para El Maestro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Los Angeles. National Dissemination and Assessment Center.

    The booklet is part of a grade 10-12 social studies series produced for bilingual education. The series consists of six major thematic modules, with four to five booklets in each. The interdisciplinary modules are based on major ideas and are designed to help students understand some major human problems and make sound, responsive decisions to…

  1. Por Que Mami No Puede Cambiar una Goma? Tercer Modulo de una Serie para Maestros de Escuela Elemental. (Why Can't Mommy Change a Flat Tire? Third Module of a Series for Elementary School Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Carmen Eneida, Ed.; And Others

    This guide for teachers, in English and Spanish, examines the role parents play in the socialization of sex roles. A pre-test and post test are included to measure the user's awareness of sexual stereotyping. Five object lessons cover the following topics: (1) stereotypes which exist prior to a baby's birth; (2) behavioral standards on which…

  2. Proyecto de Ley por el Cual se Dicta el Estatuto General de Educacion y Pliego de Modificaciones Propuesto (Bill Establishing a General Statute for Education and Explanation of Proposed Modifications).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez Villa, Diego

    This document contains the 1971 Colombian education bill and suggested bill modifications. The bill states educational objectives and establishes the structure of the national education system, the organization for educational administration, financing procedures, regulations for educational personnel, and the means for implementing the…

  3. Por Que Rosa No Es Valiente? Cuarto Modulo de una Serie para Maestros de Escuela Elemental (Why Isn't Rosie Brave? Fourth Module of a Series for Elementary School Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Carmen Eneida, Ed.; And Others

    This guide in English and Spanish provides teachers with methods for identifying textbook bias and stereotyping. A pre-test and post-test designed to measure awareness of textbook stereotypes are included. Four object lessons discuss the function of repetition, cumulative effect, omission, and distortion in reinforcing stereotypes, especially…

  4. Viajando por la Carretera de la Educacion Especial: Una Guia para los Padres para Tener un Viaje Feliz y Seguro (Traveling the Special Education Highway: A Parent's Guide to a Safe and Happy Journey).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Maria, Karen

    Designed for Spanish-speaking parents, this brochure, written in Spanish, uses a car-trip analogy to describe special education services for students with disabilities. It addresses: (1) child find; (2) initial evaluation and eligibility determination; (3) categories of students who receive special education services and related services; (4)…

  5. Rock magnetic properties estimated from coercivity - blocking temperature diagram: application to recent volcanic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, T.; Sato, M.; Mochizuki, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Tsunakawa, H.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic properties of ferromagnetic minerals generally depend on their chemical composition, crystal structure, size, and shape. In the usual paleomagnetic study, we use a bulk sample which is the assemblage of magnetic minerals showing broad distributions of various magnetic properties. Microscopic and Curie-point observations of the bulk sample enable us to identify the constituent magnetic minerals, while other measurements, for example, stepwise thermal and/or alternating field demagnetizations (ThD, AFD) make it possible to estimate size, shape and domain state of the constituent magnetic grains. However, estimation based on stepwise demagnetizations has a limitation that magnetic grains with the same coercivity Hc (or blocking temperature Tb) can be identified as the single population even though they could have different size and shape. Dunlop and West (1969) carried out mapping of grain size and coercivity (Hc) using pTRM. However, it is considered that their mapping method is basically applicable to natural rocks containing only SD grains, since the grain sizes are estimated on the basis of the single domain theory (Neel, 1949). In addition, it is impossible to check thermal alteration due to laboratory heating in their experiment. In the present study we propose a new experimental method which makes it possible to estimate distribution of size and shape of magnetic minerals in a bulk sample. The present method is composed of simple procedures: (1) imparting ARM to a bulk sample, (2) ThD at a certain temperature, (3) stepwise AFD on the remaining ARM, (4) repeating the steps (1) ~ (3) with ThD at elevating temperatures up to the Curie temperature of the sample. After completion of the whole procedures, ARM spectra are calculated and mapped on the HC-Tb plane (hereafter called HC-Tb diagram). We analyze the Hc-Tb diagrams as follows: (1) For uniaxial SD populations, theoretical curve for a certain grain size (or shape anisotropy) is drawn on the Hc

  6. Pre-onset low-frequency fluctuations in the magnetotail and their ionospheric signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motoba, T.; Ohtani, S.

    2013-12-01

    Low-frequency wave-like fluctuations often occur in the magnetotail and ionosphere before the onset of substorms. Although such pre-onset fluctuations are believed to be a possible precursor of the onset, the causal link between the magnetosphere and ionosphere still remains controversial. This paper reports observations of pre-onset low-frequency fluctuations (f ~0.0033-0.1 Hz; T ~10-300 s) in the magnetotail measured by the THEMIS spacecraft, and also of their possible ionospheric counterpart in the near-footprint THEMIS GBO all-sky imagers (ASI) and/or magnetometers. One of the selected events occurred in the course of the early-to-late growth phase (~0530-0607 UT) of an isolated small substorm on 5 March 2008. During this event, the THEMIS spacecraft crossed the central magnetotail in the pre-midnight sector (21-23 MLT): THA at ~7 Re, THD and THE at ~11 Re, THC at ~16 Re, and THB at ~20 Re. THB and THC in the mid-tail region observed the lower-frequency (T ~200 s or more) fluctuations, whereas THD and THE in the near-earth region observed the higher-frequency (T ~40-150 s) ones. The fluctuations were predominant in the compressional component (compressional mode), but sometimes moderate also in the transverse component. The low-frequency fluctuations exhibited the diamagnetic property, i.e., the compressional magnetic field fluctuations were in almost anti-correlation with the ion pressure fluctuations. During the same interval, a possible ionospheric counterpart was detected with some of the THEMIS GBO magnetometers close to the spacecraft footprints. In particular, it is interesting to note that the ground magnetic field at Gillam (GILL) displayed similar low-frequency fluctuations to the compressional field fluctuations at THB and THC, rather than them at THD and THE. The dominant wave activity at GILL had a high correlation (cc > 0.8) with that at THC in the early stage of growth phase, and with that at THB in the middle stage. Such a temporal change could

  7. Use of in vivo/in vitro unscheduled DNA synthesis for identification of organ-specific carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Furihata, C; Matsushima, T

    1987-01-01

    There are still only a few in vivo short-term assay methods for predicting potential organ-specific carcinogens and mutagens in mammals, although such methods are required for evaluating the in vivo effects of in vitro mutagens. In the in vivo/in vitro UDS assay methods described here, chemicals are given to experimental animals and induction of UDS in target organs is determined by in vitro organ culture or primary cell culture in the presence of [3H]dThd. Incorporation of [3H]dThd into DNA is measured with a liquid scintillation counter or by autoradiography. These methods have now been applied to the glandular stomach, forestomach, colon, liver, kidney, pancreas, tracheal epithelium, nasal epithelium, and spermatocytes. With minor modifications, they may also be applied to other organs. The present review shows that induction of UDS in various organs correlated well with the induction of cancer in these organs. The present authors have used the present methods to identify some potential organ-specific mutagens and carcinogens in mammals. The present authors found that three dicarbonyl compounds, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and diacetyl, induced apparent UDS and TDS in the glandular stomach, and other groups found that 2-NT, MA6BT, and CNEt6BT induced UDS in the liver. These in vivo/in vitro UDS assays are better than in vitro UDS assay for identification of potential organ-specific mutagens and carcinogens in mammals and are especially useful for identifying potential mutagens and carcinogens that are specific for certain organs, such as the stomach, liver, and kidney. They are also useful for examining the potential mutagenicities and carcinogenicities of carcinogen analogs. However, these methods are not suitable for general in vivo screening because they are not yet available for all organs. A further advantage of the methods is that they can be used to examine larger numbers of animals at one time than other methods for detecting DNA damage, such as alkaline

  8. Carcinogenicity and DNA adduct formation of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone and enantiomers of its metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol in F-344 rats.

    PubMed

    Balbo, Silvia; Johnson, Charles S; Kovi, Ramesh C; James-Yi, Sandra A; O'Sullivan, M Gerard; Wang, Mingyao; Le, Chap T; Khariwala, Samir S; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Hecht, Stephen S

    2014-12-01

    4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is metabolized to enantiomers of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), found in the urine of virtually all people exposed to tobacco products. We assessed the carcinogenicity in male F-344 rats of (R)-NNAL (5 ppm in drinking water), (S)-NNAL (5 ppm), NNK (5 ppm) and racemic NNAL (10 ppm) and analyzed DNA adduct formation in lung and pancreas of these rats after 10, 30, 50 and 70 weeks of treatment. All test compounds induced a high incidence of lung tumors, both adenomas and carcinomas. NNK and racemic NNAL were most potent; (R)-NNAL and (S)-NNAL had equivalent activity. Metastasis was observed from primary pulmonary carcinomas to the pancreas, particularly in the racemic NNAL group. DNA adducts analyzed were O (2)-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]thymidine (O (2)-POB-dThd), 7-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]guanine(7-POB-Gua),O (6)-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]deoxyguanosine(O (6)-POB-dGuo),the 4-(3-pyridyl)-4-hydroxybut-1-yl(PHB)adductsO (2)-PHB-dThd and 7-PHB-Gua, O (6)-methylguanine (O (6)-Me-Gua) and 4-hydroxy-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (HPB)-releasing adducts. Adduct levels significantly decreased with time in the lungs of rats treated with NNK. Pulmonary POB-DNA adducts and O (6)-Me-Gua were similar in rats treated with NNK and (S)-NNAL; both were significantly greater than in the (R)-NNAL rats. In contrast, pulmonary PHB-DNA adduct levels were greatest in the rats treated with (R)-NNAL. Total pulmonary DNA adduct levels were similar in (S)-NNAL and (R)-NNAL rats. Similar trends were observed for DNA adducts in the pancreas, but adduct levels were significantly lower than in the lung. The results of this study clearly demonstrate the potent pulmonary carcinogenicity of both enantiomers of NNAL in rats and provide important new information regarding DNA damage by these compounds in lung and pancreas.

  9. Hot-spot mix in ignition-scale implosions on the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, S. P.; Epstein, R.; McCrory, R. L.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Hammel, B. A.; Suter, L. J.; Ralph, J.; Scott, H.; Barrios, M. A.; Bradley, D. K.; Callahan, D. A.; Cerjan, C.; Collins, G. W.; Dixit, S. N.; Doeppner, T.; Edwards, M. J.; Farley, D. R.; Glenn, S.; Glenzer, S. H.; and others

    2012-05-15

    Ignition of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target depends on the formation of a central hot spot with sufficient temperature and areal density. Radiative and conductive losses from the hot spot can be enhanced by hydrodynamic instabilities. The concentric spherical layers of current National Ignition Facility (NIF) ignition targets consist of a plastic ablator surrounding a thin shell of cryogenic thermonuclear fuel (i.e., hydrogen isotopes), with fuel vapor filling the interior volume [S. W. Haan et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051001 (2011)]. The Rev. 5 ablator is doped with Ge to minimize preheat of the ablator closest to the DT ice caused by Au M-band emission from the hohlraum x-ray drive [D. S. Clark et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 052703 (2010)]. Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by high-mode () ablator-surface perturbations can cause Ge-doped ablator to mix into the interior of the shell at the end of the acceleration phase [B. A. Hammel et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 056310 (2011)]. As the shell decelerates, it compresses the fuel vapor, forming a hot spot. K-shell line emission from the ionized Ge that has penetrated into the hot spot provides an experimental signature of hot-spot mix. The Ge emission from tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) and deuterium-tritium (DT) cryogenic targets and gas-filled plastic-shell capsules, which replace the THD layer with a mass-equivalent CH layer, was examined. The inferred amount of hot-spot-mix mass, estimated from the Ge K-shell line brightness using a detailed atomic physics code [J. J. MacFarlane et al., High Energy Density Phys. 3, 181 (2006)], is typically below the 75-ng allowance for hot-spot mix [S. W. Haan et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051001 (2011)]. Predictions of a simple mix model, based on linear growth of the measured surface-mass modulations, are consistent with the experimental results.

  10. ICF gamma-ray reaction history diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, H. W.; Young, C. S.; Mack, J. M.; Kim, Y. H.; McEvoy, A.; Evans, S.; Sedillo, T.; Batha, S.; Schmitt, M.; Wilson, D. C.; Langenbrunner, J. R.; Malone, R.; Kaufman, M. I.; Cox, B. C.; Frogget, B.; Miller, E. K.; Ali, Z. A.; Tunnell, T. W.; Stoeffl, W.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M.

    2010-08-01

    Reaction history measurements, such as nuclear bang time and burn width, are fundamental components of diagnosing ICF implosions and will be employed to help steer the National Ignition Facility (NIF) towards ignition. Fusion gammas provide a direct measure of nuclear interaction rate (unlike x-rays) without being compromised by Doppler spreading (unlike neutrons). Gas Cherenkov Detectors that convert fusion gamma rays to UV/visible Cherenkov photons for collection by fast optical recording systems have established their usefulness in illuminating ICF physics in several experimental campaigns at OMEGA. In particular, bang time precision better than 25 ps has been demonstrated, well below the 50 ps accuracy requirement defined by the NIF. NIF Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostics are being developed based on optimization of sensitivity, bandwidth, dynamic range, cost, and NIF-specific logistics, requirements and extreme radiation environment. Implementation will occur in two phases. The first phase consists of four channels mounted to the outside of the target chamber at ~6 m from target chamber center (GRH-6m) coupled to ultra-fast photo-multiplier tubes (PMT). This system is intended to operate in the 1013-1017 neutron yield range expected during the early THD campaign. It will have high enough bandwidth to provide accurate bang times and burn widths for the expected THD reaction histories (> 80 ps fwhm). Successful operation of the first GRH-6m channel has been demonstrated at OMEGA, allowing a verification of instrument sensitivity, timing and EMI/background suppression. The second phase will consist of several channels located just inside the target bay shield wall at 15 m from target chamber center (GRH-15m) with optical paths leading through the cement shield wall to well-shielded streak cameras and PMTs. This system is intended to operate in the 1016-1020 yield range expected during the DT ignition campaign, providing higher temporal resolution for the

  11. Effect of Ligand Substitution around the Dy(III) on the SMM Properties of Dual-Luminescent Zn-Dy and Zn-Dy-Zn Complexes with Large Anisotropy Energy Barriers: A Combined Theoretical and Experimental Magnetostructural Study.

    PubMed

    Costes, Jean Pierre; Titos-Padilla, Silvia; Oyarzabal, Itziar; Gupta, Tulika; Duhayon, Carine; Rajaraman, Gopalan; Colacio, Enrique

    2016-05-02

    The new dinuclear Zn(II)-Dy(III) and trinuclear Zn(II)-Dy(III)-Zn(II) complexes of formula [(LZnBrDy(ovan) (NO3)(H2O)](H2O)·0.5(MeOH) (1) and [(L(1)ZnBr)2Dy(MeOH)2](ClO4) (3) (L and L(1) are the dideprotonated forms of the N,N'-2,2-dimethylpropylenedi(3-methoxysalicylideneiminato and 2-{(E)-[(3-{[(2E,3E)-3-(hydroxyimino)butan-2-ylidene ]amino}-2,2-dimethylpropyl)imino]methyl}-6-methoxyphenol Schiff base compartmental ligands, respectively) have been prepared and magnetostructurally characterized. The X-ray structure of 1 indicates that the Dy(III) ion exhibits a DyO9 coordination sphere, which is made from four O atoms coming from the compartmental ligand (two methoxy terminal groups and two phenoxido bridging groups connecting Zn(II) and Dy(III) ions), other four atoms belonging to the chelating nitrato and ovanillin ligands, and the last one coming to the coordinated water molecule. The structure of 3 shows the central Dy(III) ion surrounded by two L(1)Zn units, so that the Dy(III) and Zn(II) ions are linked by phenoxido/oximato bridging groups. The Dy ion is eight-coordinated by the six O atoms afforded by two L(1) ligands and two O atoms coming from two methanol molecules. Alternating current (AC) dynamic magnetic measurements of 1, 3, and the previously reported dinuclear [LZnClDy(thd)2] (2) complex (where thd = 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato ligand) indicate single molecule magnet (SMM) behavior for all these complexes with large thermal energy barriers for the reversal of the magnetization and butterfly-shaped hysteresis loops at 2 K. Ab initio calculations on 1-3 show a pure Ising ground state for all of them, which induces almost completely suppressed quantum tunnelling magnetization (QTM), and thermally assisted quantum tunnelling magnetization (TA-QTM) relaxations via the first excited Kramers doublet, leading to large energy barriers, thus supporting the observation of SMM behavior. The comparison between the experimental and theoretical

  12. Pseudocitrobacter gen. nov., a novel genus of the Enterobacteriaceae with two new species Pseudocitrobacter faecalis sp. nov., and Pseudocitrobacter anthropi sp. nov, isolated from fecal samples from hospitalized patients in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, Peter; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Raza, Muhammad W; Abbasi, Shahid Ahmed; Perry, John D

    2014-02-01

    Four isolates of Gram-negative facultatively anaerobic bacteria, three of them producing NDM-1 carbapenemase, were isolated from hospitalized patients and outpatients attending two military hospitals in Rawalpindi, Pakistan, and studied for their taxonomic position. Initially the strains were phenotypically identified as Citrobacter species. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences then showed that the four strains shared >97%, but in no case >98.3%, 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to members of the genera Citrobacter, Kluyvera, Pantoea, Enterobacter and Raoultella, but always formed a separate cluster in respective phylogenetic trees. Based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) including partial recN, rpoA, thdF and rpoB gene sequence and respective amino acid sequence analysis it turned out that the strains also here always formed separate clusters. Based on further comparative analyses including DNA-DNA hybridizations, genomic fingerprint analysis using rep- and RAPD-PCRs and physiological tests, it is proposed to classify these four strains into the novel genus Pseudocitrobacter gen. nov. with a new species Pseudocitrobacter faecalis sp. nov. with strain 25 CIT(T) (=CCM 8479(T)=LMG 27751(T)) and Pseudocitrobacter anthropi sp. nov. with strain C138(T) (=CCM 8478(T)=LMG 27750(T)), as the type strains, respectively.

  13. A Hilbert Transform-Based Smart Sensor for Detection, Classification, and Quantification of Power Quality Disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Granados-Lieberman, David; Valtierra-Rodriguez, Martin; Morales-Hernandez, Luis A.; Romero-Troncoso, Rene J.; Osornio-Rios, Roque A.

    2013-01-01

    Power quality disturbance (PQD) monitoring has become an important issue due to the growing number of disturbing loads connected to the power line and to the susceptibility of certain loads to their presence. In any real power system, there are multiple sources of several disturbances which can have different magnitudes and appear at different times. In order to avoid equipment damage and estimate the damage severity, they have to be detected, classified, and quantified. In this work, a smart sensor for detection, classification, and quantification of PQD is proposed. First, the Hilbert transform (HT) is used as detection technique; then, the classification of the envelope of a PQD obtained through HT is carried out by a feed forward neural network (FFNN). Finally, the root mean square voltage (Vrms), peak voltage (Vpeak), crest factor (CF), and total harmonic distortion (THD) indices calculated through HT and Parseval's theorem as well as an instantaneous exponential time constant quantify the PQD according to the disturbance presented. The aforementioned methodology is processed online using digital hardware signal processing based on field programmable gate array (FPGA). Besides, the proposed smart sensor performance is validated and tested through synthetic signals and under real operating conditions, respectively. PMID:23698264

  14. DNA repair within nucleosome cores of UV-irradiated human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, K.A.; Smerdon, M.J. )

    1990-05-22

    We have compared the distributions of repair synthesis and pyrimidine dimers (PD) in nucleosome core DNA during the early (fast) repair phase and the late (slow) repair phase of UV-irradiated human fibroblasts. As shown previously, repair synthesis is nonuniform in nucleosome core particles during the fast repair phase, and the distribution curve can be approximated by a model where repair synthesis occurs preferentially in the 5' and 3' end regions. In this report, we show that, during the slow repair phase, (3H)dThd-labeled repair patches are much more uniformly distributed in core DNA, although they appear to be preferentially located in sequences degraded slowly by exonuclease III. This change in distribution cannot be explained by an increase in patch size during slow repair, since the size of these patches actually decreases to about half the size measured during the fast repair phase. Furthermore, PD mapping within core DNA at the single-nucleotide level demonstrated that, at least within the 30-130-base region from the 5' end, there is little (or no) selective removal of PD during the fast repair phase. However, the nonuniform distribution of repair synthesis obtained during fast repair throughout most of the core DNA region (approximately 40-146 bases) is accounted for by the nonuniform distribution of PD in core DNA. The near-uniform distribution of repair synthesis observed during slow repair may result from more extensive nucleosome rearrangement and/or nucleosome modification during this phase.

  15. Symmetric 3 x 3 coupler-based demodulator for fiber optic interferometric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, David A.; Cameron, C. B.; Keolian, Robert M.; Gardner, David L.; Garrett, Steven L.

    1991-12-01

    A method for demodulation of fiber optic interferometric sensors that utilizes a 3 X 3 coupler is described. The passive demodulation scheme does not require carrier (phase) modulation. The demodulation scheme relies on the three outputs of a 3 X 3 coupler and uses all three of its phase modulated output signals to recreate the stimulus inducing the original optical phase modulation. The demodulator scale factor (volts/radian) is stable against fluctuations in both fringe visibility and average received power. Upon initial implementation of the scheme, a dynamic range of 116 dB was obtained (at 600 Hz in a 1 Hz bandwidth with maximum THD at 4%). The minimum detectable signal at 600 Hz was 220 (mu) rad/(root)Hz and the maximum tolerable signal was 140 radians. Both the maximum tolerable signal and the minimum detectable signal (noise floor) was observed to increase with decreasing frequency. Thus, depending on the frequency, the demodulation scheme is capable of detecting phase signals less than a milliradian to in excess of kiloradians.

  16. The Effect of Plug-in Electric Vehicles on Harmonic Analysis of Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidarian, T.; Joorabian, M.; Reza, A.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the effect of plug-in electric vehicles is studied on the smart distribution system with a standard IEEE 30-bus network. At first, harmonic power flow analysis is performed by Newton-Raphson method and by considering distorted substation voltage. Afterward, proper sizes of capacitors is selected by cuckoo optimization algorithm to reduce the power losses and cost and by imposing acceptable limit for total harmonic distortion and RMS voltages. It is proposed that the impact of generated current harmonics by electric vehicle battery chargers should be factored into overall load control strategies of smart appliances. This study is generalized to the different hours of a day by using daily load curve, and then optimum time for charging of electric vehicles batteries in the parking lots are determined by cuckoo optimization algorithm. The results show that injecting harmonic currents of plug-in electric vehicles causes a drop in the voltage profile and increases power loss. Moreover, charging the vehicle batteries has more impact on increasing the power losses rather than the harmonic currents effect. Also, the findings showed that the current harmonics has a great influence on increasing of THD. Finally, optimum working times of all parking lots was obtained for the utilization cost reduction.

  17. Cytotoxic and mutagenic properties of shale oil byproducts. I. Activation of retort process waters with near ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Strniste, G F; Chen, D J

    1981-01-01

    Cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were exposed to dilutions of shale oil retort process waters obtained from three different retorting processes located in the Green River oil shale formations in the western part of the United States. Although the intensity of the response was dictated by thd process water used, all induced a cytotoxic (reduction in colony-forming ability) and mutagenic (induced at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus) response in cells pretreated with dilutions of the waters and subsequent exposure to near ultraviolet light (NUV). Combinations of process water plus NUV yielded mutation frequencies as great as 50% that witnessed for the mutation frequency induced by the potent carcinogen far ultraviolet light. NUV alone was nontoxic and nonmutagenic at the doses of radiation used. Exposure of CHO cells in the dark to nontoxic dilutions of the process waters resulted in small but significant increases in 6-thioguanine resistant mutants. (1-2 time background rates). The biological consequences resulting from the disposal of retort process waters into the delicate environment present in this oil shale region could be further complicated by this photoactivating process.

  18. Formation and stability of lanthanum oxide thin films deposited from β-diketonate precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieminen, Minna; Putkonen, Matti; Niinistö, Lauri

    2001-04-01

    Lanthanum oxide thin film deposition by atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) was studied at 180-425°C on soda-lime glass and Si(1 0 0) substrates using a β-diketonate type precursor La(thd) 3 and ozone. The chemical constituents of the films were analyzed by TOF-ERDA, RBS and FTIR while XRD and AFM were used to determine the crystallinity and surface morphology. Films grown below 275°C were amorphous La 2O 2CO 3, while at deposition temperatures above 300°C XRD patterns indicated that cubic La 2O 3 phase was formed. All the films were transparent and uniform with only small thickness variations. Carbonate type impurity was found in all films, but the carbon content of the films decreased with growth temperature being 3 at.% in films grown above 400°C. Hexagonal La 2O 3 was obtained when the films grown on silicon substrates were annealed at 800°C or above in a nitrogen flow. The as-deposited cubic and annealed hexagonal La 2O 3 films were found to be chemically unstable in ambient air since a transformation to monoclinic LaO(OH) and hexagonal La(OH) 3 was detected, respectively.

  19. A Compact and Low-Cost MEMS Loudspeaker for Digital Hearing Aids.

    PubMed

    Sang-Soo Je; Rivas, F; Diaz, R E; Jiuk Kwon; Jeonghwan Kim; Bakkaloglu, B; Kiaei, S; Junseok Chae

    2009-10-01

    A microelectromechanical-systems (MEMS)-based electromagnetically actuated loudspeaker to reduce form factor, cost, and power consumption, and increase energy efficiency in hearing-aid applications is presented. The MEMS loudspeaker has multilayer copper coils, an NiFe soft magnet on a thin polyimide diaphragm, and an NdFeB permanent magnet on the perimeter. The coil impedance is measured at 1.5 Omega, and the resonant frequency of the diaphragm is located far from the audio frequency range. The device is driven by a power-scalable, 0.25-mum complementary metal-oxide semiconductor class-D SigmaDelta amplifier stage. The class-D amplifier is formed by a differential H-bridge driven by a single bit, pulse-density-modulated SigmaDelta bitstream at a 1.2-MHz clock rate. The fabricated MEMS loudspeaker generates more than 0.8-mum displacement, equivalent to 106-dB sound pressure level (SPL), with 0.13-mW power consumption. Driven by the SigmaDelta class-D amplifier, the MEMS loudspeaker achieves measured 65-dB total harmonic distortion (THD) with a measurement uncertainty of less than 10%. Energy-efficient and cost-effective advanced hearing aids would benefit from further miniaturization via MEMS technology. The results from this study appear very promising for developing a compact, mass-producible, low-power loudspeaker with sufficient sound generation for hearing-aid applications.

  20. Melanin photosensitizes ultraviolet light (UVC) DNA damage in pigmented cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huselton, C.A.; Hill, H.Z. )

    1990-01-01

    Melanins, pigments of photoprotection and camouflage, are very photoreactive and can both absorb and emit active oxygen species. Nevertheless, black skinned individuals rarely develop skin cancer and melanin is assumed to act as a solar screen. Since DNA is the target for solar carcinogenesis, the effect of melanin on Ultraviolet (UV)-induced thymine lesions was examined in mouse melanoma and carcinoma cells that varied in melanin content. Cells prelabeled with 14C-dThd were irradiated with UVC; DNA was isolated, purified, degraded to bases by acid hydrolysis and analyzed by HPLC. Thymine dimers were detected in all of the extracts of irradiated cells. Melanotic and hypomelanotic but not mammary carcinoma cell DNA from irradiated cells contained hydrophilic thymine derivatives. The quantity of these damaged bases was a function of both the UVC dose and the cellular melanin content. One such derivative was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy as thymine glycol. The other appears to be derived from thymine glycol by further oxidation during acid hydrolysis of the DNA. The finding of oxidative DNA damage in melanin-containing cells suggests that melanin may be implicated in the etiology of caucasian skin cancer, particularly melanoma. Furthermore, the projected decrease in stratospheric ozone could impact in an unanticipated deleterious manner on dark-skinned individuals.

  1. The interaction of melanin with ionizing and UVC radiations: Characterization of thymine damage

    SciTech Connect

    Huselton, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    These studies were undertaken to determine whether melanin could protect DNA against the harmful effects of ionizing or UVC radiations. A simple, in vitro, model system was developed to evaluate eumelanin (Sigma melanin) as a radioprotector of solutions of 0.1 mM thymine or thymidine exposed to 570Gy of ionizing radiation. Sigma melanin was compared to several amino acids, other biomolecules or to other forms of melanin. To investigate the role of melanin as a passive screen of UVC radiation, melanotic (I{sub 3}), amelanotic (AMEL) cells (both derived from a Cloudman S91 melanoma) and non-melanotic (EMT6) cells were labelled with radioactive dTHd and exposed to 0, 1, 5 or 10KJ/m{sup 2} of UVC. The DNA was extracted; the bases hydrolyzed with concentrated HCl. Thymine bases were separated by reverse phase HPLC. No difference in dimer content was observed between I{sub 3} and AMEL cells, but EMT6 cells had nearly twice the amount of dimer. Overall thymine degradation was more pronounced in I{sub 3} cells than in the other two cell lines, due to the production of non-dimer thymine damage. This damage was identified as thymine glycol by HPLC and mass spectrometry. Melanin, upon exposure to UVC, appears to enhance thymine damage by producing oxidative damage.

  2. Melanin photosensitizes ultraviolet light (UVC) DNA damage in pigmented cells.

    PubMed

    Huselton, C A; Hill, H Z

    1990-01-01

    Melanins, pigments of photoprotection and camouflage, are very photoreactive and can both absorb and emit active oxygen species. Nevertheless, black skinned individuals rarely develop skin cancer and melanin is assumed to act as a solar screen. Since DNA is the target for solar carcinogenesis, the effect of melanin on Ultraviolet (UV)-induced thymine lesions was examined in mouse melanoma and carcinoma cells that varied in melanin content. Cells prelabeled with 14C-dThd were irradiated with UVC; DNA was isolated, purified, degraded to bases by acid hydrolysis and analyzed by HPLC. Thymine dimers were detected in all of the extracts of irradiated cells. Melanotic and hypomelanotic but not mammary carcinoma cell DNA from irradiated cells contained hydrophilic thymine derivatives. The quantity of these damaged bases was a function of both the UVC dose and the cellular melanin content. One such derivative was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy as thymine glycol. The other appears to be derived from thymine glycol by further oxidation during acid hydrolysis of the DNA. The finding of oxidative DNA damage in melanin-containing cells suggests that melanin may be implicated in the etiology of caucasian skin cancer, particularly melanoma. Furthermore, the projected decrease in stratospheric ozone could impact in an unanticipated deleterious manner on dark-skinned individuals.

  3. Cryogenic tritium-hydrogen-deuterium and deuterium-tritium layer implosions with high density carbon ablators in near-vacuum hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meezan, N. B.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Le Pape, S.; Divol, L.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Döppner, T.; Ho, D. D.; Jones, O. S.; Khan, S. F.; Ma, T.; Milovich, J. L.; Pak, A. E.; Ross, J. S.; Thomas, C. A.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Field, J. E.; Haan, S. W.; Izumi, N.; Kyrala, G. A.; Moody, J. D.; Patel, P. K.; Ralph, J. E.; Rygg, J. R.; Sepke, S. M.; Spears, B. K.; Tommasini, R.; Town, R. P. J.; Biener, J.; Bionta, R. M.; Bond, E. J.; Caggiano, J. A.; Eckart, M. J.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Grim, G. P.; Hamza, A. V.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Hoover, D. E.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Kozioziemski, B. J.; Kroll, J. J.; McNaney, J. M.; Nikroo, A.; Sayre, D. B.; Stadermann, M.; Wild, C.; Yoxall, B. E.; Landen, O. L.; Hsing, W. W.; Edwards, M. J.

    2015-06-01

    High Density Carbon (or diamond) is a promising ablator material for use in near-vacuum hohlraums, as its high density allows for ignition designs with laser pulse durations of <10 ns. A series of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments in 2013 on the National Ignition Facility [Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] culminated in a deuterium-tritium (DT) layered implosion driven by a 6.8 ns, 2-shock laser pulse. This paper describes these experiments and comparisons with ICF design code simulations. Backlit radiography of a tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) layered capsule demonstrated an ablator implosion velocity of 385 km/s with a slightly oblate hot spot shape. Other diagnostics suggested an asymmetric compressed fuel layer. A streak camera-based hot spot self-emission diagnostic (SPIDER) showed a double-peaked history of the capsule self-emission. Simulations suggest that this is a signature of low quality hot spot formation. Changes to the laser pulse and pointing for a subsequent DT implosion resulted in a higher temperature, prolate hot spot and a thermonuclear yield of 1.8 × 1015 neutrons, 40% of the 1D simulated yield.

  4. An OTA-C filter for ECG acquisition systems with highly linear range and less passband attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jihai, Duan; Chuang, Lan; Weilin, Xu; Baolin, Wei

    2015-05-01

    A fifth order operational transconductance amplifier-C (OTA-C) Butterworth type low-pass filter with highly linear range and less passband attenuation is presented for wearable bio-telemetry monitoring applications in a UWB wireless body area network. The source degeneration structure applied in typical small transconductance circuit is improved to provide a highly linear range for the OTA-C filter. Moreover, to reduce the passband attenuation of the filter, a cascode structure is employed as the output stage of the OTA. The OTA-based circuit is operated in weak inversion due to strict power limitation in the biomedical chip. The filter is fabricated in a SMIC 0.18-μm CMOS process. The measured results for the filter have shown a passband gain of -6.2 dB, while the -3-dB frequency is around 276 Hz. For the 0.8 VPP sinusoidal input at 100 Hz, a total harmonic distortion (THD) of -56.8 dB is obtained. An electrocardiogram signal with noise interference is fed into this chip to validate the function of the designed filter. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61161003, 61264001, 61166004) and the Guangxi Natural Science Foundation (No. 2013GXNSFAA019333).

  5. Transmission of RF Signals Over Optical Fiber for Avionics Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaveski, Filip; Sluss, James, Jr.; Atiquzzaman, Mohammed; Hung, Nguyen; Ngo, Duc

    2002-01-01

    During flight, aircraft avionics transmit and receive RF signals to/from antennas over coaxial cables. As the density and complexity of onboard avionics increases, the electromagnetic interference (EM) environment degrades proportionately, leading to decreasing signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and potential safety concerns. The coaxial cables are inherently lossy, limiting the RF signal bandwidth while adding considerable weight. To overcome these limitations, we have investigated a fiber optic communications link for aircraft that utilizes wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) to support the simultaneous transmission of multiple signals (including RF) over a single optical fiber. Optical fiber has many advantages over coaxial cable, particularly lower loss, greater bandwidth, and immunity to EM. In this paper, we demonstrate that WDM can be successfully used to transmit multiple RF signals over a single optical fiber with no appreciable signal degradation. We investigate the transmission of FM and AM analog modulated signals, as well as FSK digital modulated signals, over a fiber optic link (FOL) employing WDM. We present measurements of power loss, delay, SNR, carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR), total harmonic distortion (THD), and bit error rate (BER). Our experimental results indicate that WDM is a fiber optic technology suitable for avionics applications.

  6. Resolving Ultrafast Photoinduced Deactivations in Water-solvated Pyrimidine Nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Pepino, Ana J; Segarra-Martí, Javier; Nenov, Artur; Improta, Roberto; Garavelli, Marco

    2017-03-27

    For the first time, ultrafast deactivations of photo-excited water-solvated pyrimidine nucleosides are mapped employing hybrid QM(CASPT2)/MM(AMBER) optimizations that account for explicit solvation, sugar effects and dynamically correlated potential energy surfaces. Low energy S1/S0 ring-puckering and ring-opening conical intersections (CIs) are suggested to drive the ballistic coherent sub-ps (<200fs) decays observed in each pyrimidine, the energetics controlling this processes correlating with the lifetimes observed. A second bright 1π2π* state, promoting excited-state population branching and leading towards a third CI with the ground state, is proposed to be involved in the slower ultrafast decay component observed in Thd/Cyd. The transient spectroscopic signals of the competitive deactivation channels are computed for the first time. A general unified scheme for ultrafast deactivations, spanning the sub-to-few ps time domain, is eventually delivered, with computed data that matches the experiments and elucidates the intrinsic photo-protection mechanism in solvated pyrimidine nucleosides.

  7. New Approach to Optimize the Apfs Placement Based on Instantaneous Reactive Power Theory by Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi-Dezaki, Hamed; Mohammadalizadeh-Shabestary, Masoud; Askarian-Abyaneh, Hossein; Rezaei-Jegarluei, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    In electrical distribution systems, a great amount of power are wasting across the lines, also nowadays power factors, voltage profiles and total harmonic distortions (THDs) of most loads are not as would be desired. So these important parameters of a system play highly important role in wasting money and energy, and besides both consumers and sources are suffering from a high rate of distortions and even instabilities. Active power filters (APFs) are innovative ideas for solving of this adversity which have recently used instantaneous reactive power theory. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to optimize the allocation of APFs. The introduced method is based on the instantaneous reactive power theory in vectorial representation. By use of this representation, it is possible to asses different compensation strategies. Also, APFs proper placement in the system plays a crucial role in either reducing the losses costs and power quality improvement. To optimize the APFs placement, a new objective function has been defined on the basis of five terms: total losses, power factor, voltage profile, THD and cost. Genetic algorithm has been used to solve the optimization problem. The results of applying this method to a distribution network illustrate the method advantages.

  8. Coronagraphic wavefront sensing with COFFEE: high spatial-frequency diversity and other news

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugnier, L. M.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Herscovici-Schiller, O.; Baudoz, P.; Galicher, R.; Le Duigou, J.-M.

    2016-07-01

    The final performance of current and future instruments dedicated to exoplanet detection and characterization is limited by intensity residuals in the scientific image plane, which originate in uncorrected optical aberrations. In order to reach very high contrasts, these aberrations needs to be compensated for. We have proposed a focalplane wave-font sensor called COFFEE (for COronagraphic Focal-plane wave-Front Estimation for Exoplanet detection), which consists in an extension of conventional phase diversity to a coronagraphic system. In this communication, we study the extension of COFFEE to the joint estimation of the phase and the amplitude in the context of space-based coronagraphic instruments: we optimize the diversity phase in order to minimize the reconstruction error; we also propose and optimize a novel low-amplitude high-frequency diversity that should allow the phase-diverse images to still be used for science. Lastly, we perform a first experimental validation of COFFEE in the very high, space-like contrast conditions of the THD bench and show that COFFEE is able to distinguish between phase and amplitude aberrations.

  9. Atomic layer deposition of NiS and its application as cathode material in dye sensitized solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Mahuli, Neha; Sarkar, Shaibal K.

    2016-01-15

    Nickel sulfide (NiS) is grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using sequential exposures of bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethylheptane-3,5-dionate)nickel(II) [Ni(thd){sub 2}] and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) at 175 °C. Complementary combinations of in situ and ex situ characterization techniques are used to understand the deposition chemistry and the nature of film growth. The saturated growth rate of ca. 0.21 Å per ALD cycle is obtained, which is constant within the ALD temperature window (175–250 °C). As deposited films on glass substrates are found polycrystalline without any preferred orientation. Electrical transport measurement reveals degenerative/semimetallic characteristics with a carrier concentration of ca. 9 × 10{sup 22} cm{sup −3} at room temperature. The ALD grown NiS thin film demonstrates high catalytic activity for the reduction of I{sup −}/I{sub 3}{sup −} electrolyte that opens its usage as cost-effective counter electrode in dye sensitized solar cells, replacing Pt.

  10. Studies on atomic layer deposition of IRMOF-8 thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Salmi, Leo D. Heikkilä, Mikko J.; Vehkamäki, Marko; Puukilainen, Esa; Ritala, Mikko; Sajavaara, Timo

    2015-01-15

    Deposition of IRMOF-8 thin films by atomic layer deposition was studied at 260–320 °C. Zinc acetate and 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid were used as the precursors. The as-deposited amorphous films were crystallized in 70% relative humidity at room temperature resulting in an unknown phase with a large unit cell. An autoclave with dimethylformamide as the solvent was used to recrystallize the films into IRMOF-8 as confirmed by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction. The films were further characterized by high temperature x-ray diffraction (HTXRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (TOF-ERDA), nanoindentation, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. HTXRD measurements revealed similar behavior to bulk IRMOF-8. According to TOF-ERDA and FTIR, composition of the films was similar to IRMOF-8. Through-porosity was confirmed by loading the films with palladium using Pd(thd){sub 2} (thd = 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato) as the precursor.

  11. Molecular dissection of the role of histidine in nickel hyperaccumulation in Thalspi goesingense (Halacsy)

    SciTech Connect

    Persans, M.W.; Yan, X.; Patnoe, J.M.M.L.; Kraemer, U.; Salt, D.E.

    1999-12-01

    To understand the role of free histidine (His) in Ni hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi goesingense, the authors investigated the regulation of His biosynthesis at both the molecular and biochemical levels. Three T. goesingense cDNAs encoding the following His biosynthetic enzymes, ATP phosphoribosyltransferase, imidazoleglycerol phosphate dehydratase, and histidinol dehydrogenase, were isolated by functional complementation of Escherichia coli His autotrophs. Northern analysis of THJG1, THD1, and THB1 gene expression revealed that each gene is expressed in both roots and shoots, but at the concentrations and dosage times of Ni treatment used in this study, these genes failed to show any regulation by Ni. The authors were also unable to observe any increases in the concentration of free His in root, shoot, or xylem sap of T. goesingense in response to Ni exposure. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of root and shoot tissue from T. goesingense and the non-accumulator species Thlaspi reverse revealed no major differences in the coordination of Ni by His in these tissues. They therefore conclude that the Ni hyperaccumulation phenotype in T. goesingense is not determined by the overproduction of His in response to Ni.

  12. Power quality control and design of power converter for variable-speed wind energy conversion system with permanent-magnet synchronous generator.

    PubMed

    Oğuz, Yüksel; Güney, İrfan; Çalık, Hüseyin

    2013-01-01

    The control strategy and design of an AC/DC/AC IGBT-PMW power converter for PMSG-based variable-speed wind energy conversion systems (VSWECS) operation in grid/load-connected mode are presented. VSWECS consists of a PMSG connected to a AC-DC IGBT-based PWM rectifier and a DC/AC IGBT-based PWM inverter with LCL filter. In VSWECS, AC/DC/AC power converter is employed to convert the variable frequency variable speed generator output to the fixed frequency fixed voltage grid. The DC/AC power conversion has been managed out using adaptive neurofuzzy controlled inverter located at the output of controlled AC/DC IGBT-based PWM rectifier. In this study, the dynamic performance and power quality of the proposed power converter connected to the grid/load by output LCL filter is focused on. Dynamic modeling and control of the VSWECS with the proposed power converter is performed by using MATLAB/Simulink. Simulation results show that the output voltage, power, and frequency of VSWECS reach to desirable operation values in a very short time. In addition, when PMSG based VSWECS works continuously with the 4.5 kHz switching frequency, the THD rate of voltage in the load terminal is 0.00672%.

  13. Modulators for the S-band test linac at DESY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieler, M.; Choroba, S.; Hameister, J.; Lewin, H.-Ch.

    1995-07-01

    The development of adequate modulators for high peak power klystrons is one of the focus points for linear collider R&D programs. For the DESY/THD S-band linear collider study 150 MW rf-pulse power at 50 Hz repetition rate and 3 μs pulse duration is required [1]. Two different modulator schemes are under investigation. One is the conventional line type pulser, using a pulse forming network and a step up transformer, the other one is a hard tube pulser, using a dc power source at the full klystron voltage and a switch tube. This paper is focused on the modulator development for the S-band Test Linac at DESY. After a short overview over the test linac and a brief description of the 150 MW S-band klystron the circuitry of the line type pulse (LTP) is given. A hard tube pulser (HTP), which switches the high voltage directly from a storage capacitor to the klystron, has been built up at DESY. Circuitry and the results of the commissioning of the switch tube are reported.

  14. A power supply error correction method for single-ended digital audio class D amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zeqi; Wang, Fengqin; Fan, Yangyu

    2016-12-01

    In single-ended digital audio class D amplifiers (CDAs), the errors caused by power supply noise in the power stages degrade the output performance seriously. In this article, a novel power supply error correction method is proposed. This method introduces the power supply noise of the power stage into the digital signal processing block and builds a power supply error corrector between the interpolation filter and the uniform-sampling pulse width modulation (UPWM) lineariser to pre-correct the power supply error in the single-ended digital audio CDA. The theoretical analysis and implementation of the method are also presented. To verify the effectiveness of the method, a two-channel single-ended digital audio CDA with different power supply error correction methods is designed, simulated, implemented and tested. The simulation and test results obtained show that the method can greatly reduce the error caused by the power supply noise with low hardware cost, and that the CDA with the proposed method can achieve a total harmonic distortion + noise (THD + N) of 0.058% for a -3 dBFS, 1 kHz input when a 55 V linear unregulated direct current (DC) power supply (with the -51 dBFS, 100 Hz power supply noise) is used in the power stages.

  15. Cryogenic tritium-hydrogen-deuterium and deuterium-tritium layer implosions with high density carbon ablators in near-vacuum hohlraums

    SciTech Connect

    Meezan, N. B. Hopkins, L. F. Berzak; Pape, S. Le; Divol, L.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Döppner, T.; Ho, D. D.; Jones, O. S.; Khan, S. F.; Ma, T.; Milovich, J. L.; Pak, A. E.; Ross, J. S.; Thomas, C. A.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Field, J. E.; Haan, S. W.; and others

    2015-06-15

    High Density Carbon (or diamond) is a promising ablator material for use in near-vacuum hohlraums, as its high density allows for ignition designs with laser pulse durations of <10 ns. A series of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments in 2013 on the National Ignition Facility [Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] culminated in a deuterium-tritium (DT) layered implosion driven by a 6.8 ns, 2-shock laser pulse. This paper describes these experiments and comparisons with ICF design code simulations. Backlit radiography of a tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) layered capsule demonstrated an ablator implosion velocity of 385 km/s with a slightly oblate hot spot shape. Other diagnostics suggested an asymmetric compressed fuel layer. A streak camera-based hot spot self-emission diagnostic (SPIDER) showed a double-peaked history of the capsule self-emission. Simulations suggest that this is a signature of low quality hot spot formation. Changes to the laser pulse and pointing for a subsequent DT implosion resulted in a higher temperature, prolate hot spot and a thermonuclear yield of 1.8 × 10{sup 15} neutrons, 40% of the 1D simulated yield.

  16. The remote-controlled, multiangle bent sub for drilling trajectory control and corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Boulet, J.G.; Morin, P.E.

    1986-10-01

    A downhole, adjustable, multiangle bent sub, called Telepilote, has been developed for remote control of the wellbore path on a real-time basis without changing the general bottomhole assembly (BHA) configuration. Different modes of actuation for changing the bent sub correspond to different types of construction. The tool is available in 6 3/4-, 7 3/4-, 8-, and 9 1/2-in. (17.1-, 19.7-, 20.3-, and 24.1-cm) nominal sizes. It can be set at six positions, from zero (or straight position) to a maximum angle position of 2/sup 0/, 2/sup 0/30', or 3/sup 0/, according to nominal sizes. The main construction features and different drilling applications are presented. In addition, the T-3000 Telepilote is described, which features the Telehydrocom (THD) actuator system. This system makes an immediate, direct hookup in the drillstring between the sub and all survey instruments, including measurement-while-drilling (MWD) systems, possible.

  17. Specifications of analog-to-digital converter for uncooled infrared readout circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, Patrick; Durand, Alain; Gravot, Vincent; Pochic, David; Tissot, Jean-Luc

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents how to specify an ADC to digitalize the analog video of the uncooled infrared readout circuit. In a first part the main features will be discussed to select the right resolution, SNR, THD and ENOB of the converter. In a second part the characteristics more specifically sensitive for an ADC integrated in the readout circuit will be presented: architecture, power consumption, electrical dynamic range, crosstalk issues. Indeed, the increasing demand for integrated functions in uncooled readout circuits leads to on-chip ADC design as interface between the internal analog core and the digital processing electronic. In addition this IP could be seen as an inescapable link to integrate also NUC, BPR or all other processing functions on-chip. However specifying an on-chip ADC dedicated to focal plane array raises many questions about its architecture and its performance requirements. We show two architectural approaches are needed to cover the different sensor features in term of array size and frame speed. Finally we will conclude with a trade-off between external or internal approach taking into account the application of the camera, the cost and the ADC state of art.

  18. Statistical Evaluation of Efficiency and Possibility of Earthquake Predictions with Gravity Field Variation and its Analytic Signal in Western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shi; Jiang, Changsheng; Zhuang, Jiancang

    2016-01-01

    This paper aimed at assessing gravity variations as precursors for earthquake prediction in the Tibet (Xizang)-Qinghai-Xinjiang-Sichuan Region, western China. We here take a statistical approach to evaluate efficiency and possibility of earthquake prediction. We used the most recent spatiotemporal gravity field variation datasets of 2002-2008 for the region that were provided by the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONC). The datasets were space sparse and time discrete. In 2007-2010, 13 earthquakes (> M s 6.0) occurred in the region. The observed gravity variations have a statistical correlation with the occurrence of these earthquakes through the Molchan error diagram tests that lead to alarms over a good fraction of space-time. The results show that the prediction efficiency of amplitude of analytic signal of gravity variations is better than seismicity rate model and THD and absolute value of gravity variation, implying that gravity variations before earthquake may include precursory information of future large earthquakes.

  19. A Novel Multiobjective Control of DVR to Enhance Power Quality of Sensitive Load

    PubMed Central

    Pandu, Sathish Babu; Nagappan, Kamaraj

    2015-01-01

    The Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) is one of the fast, flexible, and cost effective solutions available in compensating the voltage-related power quality problems in power distribution systems. In this paper is discussed how power quality enhancement of sensitive load is achieved by applying three versions of Autonomous Group Particle Swarm Optimization like AGPSO1, AGPSO2, and AGPSO3 for tuning the Proportional-Integral DVR controller under balanced and nonlinear load conditions. A novel multiobjective function is formulated to express the control performance of the system, which is quantified using three power quality indices such as Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), voltage sag index, and RMS voltage variation. The obtained results are compared with the Proportional-Integral (PI) controller tuned by Ziegler-Nichols (ZN) method and also by Simple Particle Swarm Optimization based PI controlled DVR. The proposed methodology has improved the performance in terms of the considered power quality indices and the simulation has been carried out in MATLAB/Simulink environment. PMID:26613100

  20. Pulse doubling in zigzag-connected autotransformer-based 12-pulse ac-dc converter for power quality improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdollahi, Rohollah

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a pulse doubling technique in a 12-pulse ac-dc converter which supplies direct torque controlled motor drives (DTCIMDs) in order to have better power quality conditions at the point of common coupling. The proposed technique increases the number of rectification pulses without significant changes in the installations and yields in harmonic reduction in both ac and dc sides. The 12-pulse rectified output voltage is accomplished via two paralleled six-pulse acdc converters each of them consisting of three-phase diode bridge rectifiers. An autotransformer is designed to supply the rectifiers. The design procedure of magnetics is in a way such that makes it suitable for retrofit applications where a six-pulse diode bridge rectifier is being utilized. Independent operation of paralleled diode-bridge rectifiers, i.e. dc-ripple re-injection methodology, requires a Zero Sequence Blocking Transformer (ZSBT). Finally, a tapped interphase reactor is connected at the output of ZSBT to double the pulse numbers of output voltage up to 24 pulses. The aforementioned structure improves power quality criteria at ac mains and makes them consistent with the IEEE-519 standard requirements for varying loads. Furthermore, near unity power factor is obtained for a wide range of DTCIMD operation. A comparison is made between 6-pulse, 12-pulse, and proposed converters from view point of power quality indices. Results show that input current total harmonic distortion (THD) is less than 5% for the proposed topology at various loads.

  1. Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in the vitamin D3-replete rat

    SciTech Connect

    Jarnagin, K.; Zeng, S.Y.; Phelps, M.; DeLuca, H.F.

    1985-11-05

    The time course of in vivo metabolism of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in rats has been examined. Several tissues were surveyed in an effort to discover new metabolites of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and to estimate the concentrations of previously identified metabolites. Rapidly growing male rats were dosed with 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 orally until plasma concentrations of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 were at steady state. 24,25-Dihydroxyvitamin (3-TH)D3 was then administered. At 10 min and 1, 6, 15, 24, 96, and 192 h after dosing, the animals were killed, and plasma, liver, intestine, and bones were analyzed with a newly developed gradient straight-phase high performance liquid chromatography system. The high performance liquid chromatography system is capable of base-line resolution of most of the major vitamin D metabolites. 24,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 clearance from plasma, liver, and kidney but not intestine followed a two-compartment model. 24,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 disappeared from plasma with a half-life of 0.55 h (fast phase) and 73.8 h (slow phase). Only two lipid-soluble metabolites of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 were detected: 24-oxo-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D3. These compounds circulate at very low concentrations in the plasma (50 pg/ml of plasma).

  2. Type II guanine oxidation photoinduced by the antibacterial fluoroquinolone Rufloxacin in isolated DNA and in 2'-deoxyguanosine.

    PubMed

    Belvedere, Alessandra; Boscá, Francisco; Catalfo, Alfio; Cuquerella, Maria C; de Guidi, Guido; Miranda, Miguel A

    2002-09-01

    The role played by type I (radical) and type II (singlet oxygen) mechanisms in the Rufloxacin (RFX)-photoinduced production of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in DNA has been evaluated. This fluoroquinolone drug has been shown to be able to photoinduce increased levels of some DNA base oxidation products, such as 8-OH-dGuo, that are indicative of mutagenic and carcinogenic events, with probable implications in aging processes. The relative weight of the two photosensitization mechanisms was obtained via determination of two different photoproducts of 2'-deoxyguanosine (dGuo), which are diagnostic of the two different pathways, namely, (4R)- and (4S)-4,8-dihydro-4-hydroxy-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine and 2,2-diamino-4-[(2-deoxy-beta-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)amino]-2,5-dihydrooxazol-5-one. The observed predominance of type II reaction is in agreement with the fact that the triplet state of RFX is able to transfer with high efficiency its energy to molecular oxygen, giving rise to singlet oxygen. Photophysical measurements suggest that hydrated electrons produced by Rufloxacin photoionization react with dGuo, Thd, and DNA, whereas these biomolecules quench the RFX triplet state with low efficiency. Static quenching of Rufloxacin fluorescence indicates an interaction of this drug both with DNA and with dGuo. On the basis of these experimental data, Rufloxacin photosensitization of DNA is proposed to occur by a type II mechanism.

  3. AC power generation from microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Fernanda Leite; Wang, Heming; Forrestal, Casey; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2015-11-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) directly convert biodegradable substrates to electricity and carry good potential for energy-positive wastewater treatment. However, the low and direct current (DC) output from MFC is not usable for general electronics except small sensors, yet commercial DC-AC converters or inverters used in solar systems cannot be directly applied to MFCs. This study presents a new DC-AC converter system for MFCs that can generate alternating voltage in any desired frequency. Results show that AC power can be easily achieved in three different frequencies tested (1, 10, 60 Hz), and no energy storage layer such as capacitors was needed. The DC-AC converter efficiency was higher than 95% when powered by either individual MFCs or simple MFC stacks. Total harmonic distortion (THD) was used to investigate the quality of the energy, and it showed that the energy could be directly usable for linear electronic loads. This study shows that through electrical conversion MFCs can be potentially used in household electronics for decentralized off-grid communities.

  4. La conception, la modelisation et la simulation du systeme VSC-HVDC offshore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benhalima, Seghir

    Wind energy is recognized worldwide as a proven technology to meet the growing demands of green sustainable energy. To exploit this stochastic energy source and put together with the conventional energy sources without affecting the performance of existing electrical grids, several research projects have been achieved. In addition, at ocean level, wind energy has a great potential. It means that the production of this energy will increase in the world. The optimal extraction of this energy source needs to be connected to the grid via a voltage source converter which plays the role of interface. To minimise losses due to the transport of energy at very long distances, the technology called High Voltage Direct Current based on Voltage Source Converter (VSC-HVDC) is used. To achieve this goal, a new topology is designed with a new control algorithm based on control of power generated by the wind farm, the DC voltage regulation and the synchronization between wind farm and VSC-HVDC (based on NPC). The proposed topology and its control technique are validated using the "MATLAB/Simulink program". The results are promising, because the THD is less than 5% and the power factor is close to one.

  5. Principe de commande numérique temps réel d'un onduleur à modulation de largeur d'impulsion sur charges non linéaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maussion, Pascal; Faucher, Jean; Grandpierre, Marcel

    1994-06-01

    This paper proposes a new method for the real time digital control of a P.W.M. inverter, used in U.P.S. (Uninterruptible Power Supply). The output voltage is compared to a sinusoidal reference, to compute in real time through a digital controller, the pulse width of the same interval. This strategy is verified through computer simulations and provides a very fast compensation of disturbances, caused by non linear loads such as rectifiers and triac loads, with low T.H.D. (Total Harmonic Distortion) and fondamental control. Cet article propose une méthode nouvelle et originale pour la commande numérique temps réel d'un onduleur MLI sur charges non linéaires. Un asservissement de la valeur moyenne instantanée de la tension de sortie est réalisé par l'intermédiaire d'un correcteur proportionnel dérivé et d'une boucle d'anticipation. Les variations de la charge sont prises en compte par précompensation ce qui permet d'obtenir de bons résultats vérifiés par simulation, tant pour le taux de distorsion harmonique que pour la valeur du terme fondamental.

  6. A Novel Multiobjective Control of DVR to Enhance Power Quality of Sensitive Load.

    PubMed

    Pandu, Sathish Babu; Nagappan, Kamaraj

    2015-01-01

    The Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) is one of the fast, flexible, and cost effective solutions available in compensating the voltage-related power quality problems in power distribution systems. In this paper is discussed how power quality enhancement of sensitive load is achieved by applying three versions of Autonomous Group Particle Swarm Optimization like AGPSO1, AGPSO2, and AGPSO3 for tuning the Proportional-Integral DVR controller under balanced and nonlinear load conditions. A novel multiobjective function is formulated to express the control performance of the system, which is quantified using three power quality indices such as Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), voltage sag index, and RMS voltage variation. The obtained results are compared with the Proportional-Integral (PI) controller tuned by Ziegler-Nichols (ZN) method and also by Simple Particle Swarm Optimization based PI controlled DVR. The proposed methodology has improved the performance in terms of the considered power quality indices and the simulation has been carried out in MATLAB/Simulink environment.

  7. A Power Factor Corrected SMPS with Improved Power Quality for Welding Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narula, Swati; Singh, Bhim; Bhuvaneswari, G.; Pandey, Rahul

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the analysis, design and implementation of a power factor corrected Arc Welding Power Supply (AWPS) with a boost converter at the front end and three full-bridge (FB) converters connected in parallel at the load end. The modular arrangement of the FB converters offers several meritorious features like usage of power devices with comparatively lower voltage and current ratings, ease of power expandability, easy maintenance, etc. The boost converter operates in continuous conduction mode minimizing the input current ripple and leading to the lowest RMS current thereby improving the input power quality. Individual control loops are designed for each power stage. A dual loop control scheme is employed to incorporate over-current limit on the proposed AWPS which ensures excellent weld bead quality. The proposed AWPS is implemented to validate its performance over a wide range of line/load variations. Test results confirm its fast parametrical response to load and source voltage variations and over-current protection leading to improved welding performance and weld bead quality. The system is found to perform extremely well with very low input current THD and unity power factor, adhering to international power quality norms.

  8. Mitochondrial Neurogastrointestinal Encephalomyopathy Caused by Thymidine Phosphorylase Enzyme Deficiency: From Pathogenesis to Emerging Therapeutic Options

    PubMed Central

    Yadak, Rana; Sillevis Smitt, Peter; van Gisbergen, Marike W.; van Til, Niek P.; de Coo, Irenaeus F. M.

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is a progressive metabolic disorder caused by thymidine phosphorylase (TP) enzyme deficiency. The lack of TP results in systemic accumulation of deoxyribonucleosides thymidine (dThd) and deoxyuridine (dUrd). In these patients, clinical features include mental regression, ophthalmoplegia, and fatal gastrointestinal complications. The accumulation of nucleosides also causes imbalances in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs), which may play a direct or indirect role in the mtDNA depletion/deletion abnormalities, although the exact underlying mechanism remains unknown. The available therapeutic approaches include dialysis and enzyme replacement therapy, both can only transiently reverse the biochemical imbalance. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is shown to be able to restore normal enzyme activity and improve clinical manifestations in MNGIE patients. However, transplant related complications and disease progression result in a high mortality rate. New therapeutic approaches, such as adeno-associated viral vector and hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy have been tested in Tymp-/-Upp1-/- mice, a murine model for MNGIE. This review provides background information on disease manifestations of MNGIE with a focus on current management and treatment options. It also outlines the pre-clinical approaches toward future treatment of the disease. PMID:28261062

  9. The molecular structure of tris(dipivaloylmethanato) thulium: Gas-phase electron diffraction and quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimenov, Oleg A.; Belova, Natalya V.; Sliznev, Valery V.

    2017-03-01

    The molecular structure of tris-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-heptane-3,5-dione thulium, or Tm(thd)3, has been studied by gas-phase electron diffraction monitored by mass spectrometry (GED/MS) and quantum chemical (DFT) calculations. Both the DFT(PBE0) calculations and the GED data collected at 400(8) K indicate that the molecules have D3 symmetry with a distorted antiprismatic TmO6 coordination geometry. According to GED refinements the twist angle θ, i.e. the angle of rotation of the upper O3 triangles relative to their position in regular prism is θ = 16.9(2.0)0. This value is close to both the equilibrium value obtained from the DFT calculations and to the thermal average value at the temperature of the GED experiment obtained by integration over the DFT potential energy surface. The bond distances (rh1) in the chelate ring are Tmsbnd O = 2.214(5) Å, Csbnd O = 1.278(4) Å, and Csbnd C = 1.404(3) Å. The DFT calculations yielded structure parameters in close agreement with those found experimentally. As an alternative to conventional Lewis model which was realized in NBO the topological analysis of ρ(r) in the frame of Bader's quantum theory of atoms in molecule (QTAIM) was performed.

  10. Power Quality Control and Design of Power Converter for Variable-Speed Wind Energy Conversion System with Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Generator

    PubMed Central

    Oğuz, Yüksel; Güney, İrfan; Çalık, Hüseyin

    2013-01-01

    The control strategy and design of an AC/DC/AC IGBT-PMW power converter for PMSG-based variable-speed wind energy conversion systems (VSWECS) operation in grid/load-connected mode are presented. VSWECS consists of a PMSG connected to a AC-DC IGBT-based PWM rectifier and a DC/AC IGBT-based PWM inverter with LCL filter. In VSWECS, AC/DC/AC power converter is employed to convert the variable frequency variable speed generator output to the fixed frequency fixed voltage grid. The DC/AC power conversion has been managed out using adaptive neurofuzzy controlled inverter located at the output of controlled AC/DC IGBT-based PWM rectifier. In this study, the dynamic performance and power quality of the proposed power converter connected to the grid/load by output LCL filter is focused on. Dynamic modeling and control of the VSWECS with the proposed power converter is performed by using MATLAB/Simulink. Simulation results show that the output voltage, power, and frequency of VSWECS reach to desirable operation values in a very short time. In addition, when PMSG based VSWECS works continuously with the 4.5 kHz switching frequency, the THD rate of voltage in the load terminal is 0.00672%. PMID:24453905

  11. A Fully On-Chip Gm-Opamp-RC Based Preamplifier for Electret Condenser Microphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Huy-Binh; Ryu, Seung-Tak; Lee, Sang-Gug

    An on-chip CMOS preamplifier for direct signal readout from an electret capacitor microphone has been designed with high immunity to common-mode and supply noise. The Gm-Opamp-RC based high impedance preamplifier helps to remove all disadvantages of the conventional JFET based amplifier and can drive a following switched-capacitor sigma-delta modulator in order to realize a compact digital electret microphone. The proposed chip is designed based on 0.18µm CMOS technology, and the simulation results show 86dB of dynamic range with 4.5µVrms of input-referred noise for an audio bandwidth of 20kHz and a total harmonic distortion (THD) of 1% at 90mVrms input. Power supply rejection ratio (PSRR) and common-mode rejection ration (CMRR) are more than 95dB at 1kHz. The proposed design dissipates 125µA and can operate over a wide supply voltage range of 1.6V to 3.3V.

  12. Modulators for the S-band test linac at DESY

    SciTech Connect

    Bieler, M.; Choroba, S.; Hameister, J.; Lewin, H.

    1995-07-05

    The development of adequate modulators for high peak power klystrons is one of the focus points for linear collider R&D programs. For the DESY/THD S-band linear collider study 150 MW rf-pulse power at 50 Hz repetition rate and 3 {mu}s pulse duration is required [1]. Two different modulator schemes are under investigation. One is the conventional line type pulser, using a pulse forming network and a step up transformer, the other one is a hard tube pulser, using a dc power source at the full klystron voltage and a switch tube. This paper is focused on the modulator development for the S-band Test Linac at DESY. After a short overview over the test linac and a brief description of the 150 MW S-band klystron the circuitry of the line type pulse (LTP) is given. A hard tube pulser (HTP), which switches the high voltage directly from a storage capacitor to the klystron, has been built up at DESY. Circuitry and the results of the commissioning of the switch tube are reported. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  13. Gamma Reaction History for the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, H W; Evans, S C; Kim, Y; Mack, J M; Young, C S; Cox, B C; Frogget, B C; Kaufman, M I; Malone, R M; Tunnell, T W; Stoeffl, W; Horsfield, C J

    2009-06-05

    Bang time and reaction history measurements are fundamental components of diagnosing ICF implosions and will be essential contributors to diagnosing attempts at ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Fusion gammas provide a direct measure of fusion interaction rate without being compromised by Doppler spreading. Gamma-based gas Cherenkov detectors that convert fusion gamma rays to optical Cherenkov photons for collection by fast recording systems have been developed and fielded at Omega. These systems have established their usefulness in illuminating ICF physics in several experimental campaigns. Bang time precision better than 25 ps has been demonstrated, well below the 50 ps accuracy requirement defined by the NIF System Design Requirements. A staged approach of implementing Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostics on the NIF has been initiated. In the early stage, multiple detectors located close to target chamber center (at 2 and 6 m) and coupled to photomultiplier tubes are geared toward the loweryield THD campaign. In the later stage, streak camera–coupled instruments will be used for improved temporal resolution at the higher yields expected from the DT ignition campaign. Multiple detectors will allow for increased dynamic range and gamma energy spectral information.

  14. Fiber optic control and diagnostic family of hardwares for the Confinement Physics Research Facility (CPRF) toroidal field and dc interrupter systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reass, W.A.; Schrank, L.S.

    1989-01-01

    A versatile fiber optic system of outstanding performance has been designed and utilized in the development of the CPRF pulsed power equipment. These fiber optic systems consist of a family of interchangeable, but application oriented, mother and daughter PC boards. Furthermore, a self contained, chassis, or CAMAC'' format of links are available. The transmitter family may be described as having a true instrumentation amplifier front end (of unique design), a temperature compensated V/F converter, and fiber optic and differential current loop outputs. The receiver family consists of various mother and daughter boards which can easily be interchanged to optimize overall system requirements. The receivers are temperature compensated and capable of driving 50{Omega} loads to full output. Receivers boast a better than 67 dB S+N/N ratio without any noticeable overshoot or ringing. A no input shutdown'' and a remote flag'' feature is used to protect sensitive or control hardware. The overall link performance can be typified by having a bipolar pick mix'' accuracy of better than .5% from all causes; offset, drift, non-linearity, and thd. Hand-picked pairs easily achieve better than .2% bipolar accuracy. A unipolar circuit can easily be set to 0'' error, with less than .5 mV/{degree}C offset. Presented will be the detailed design information along with examples of application specific hardware. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Observations of a transient event in the subsolar magnetosheath during strongly northward IMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias Silveira, M. V.; Sibeck, D. G.; Gonzalez, W. D.; Koga, D.

    2013-12-01

    We present multipoint THEMIS observation of a transient event in the subsolar magnetosheath on July 10, 2007. The event exhibits some features of a flux transfer event, such as a bipolar variation in the magnetic field component normal to the nominal magnetopause centered on a peak in the total magnetic field strength. Four THEMIS spacecraft were in the magnetosheath and one in the magnetosphere. Timing analysis and the absence of flow perturbation suggest that the event is a small scale structure (~0.12 Re in the direction of the flow) moving with the background magnetosheath flow. Despite the inferred small size of the event, THC and THD both observed large amplitude (~40 nT) bipolar magnetic field signatures normal to the nominal magnetopause. Nearby spacecraft THE (only 0.2 Re further outward in the Xgsm direction) observed no significant magnetic field perturbation. Neither did THB or THA, located further away in the magnetosheath and magnetosphere, respectively. During the event, the IMF was strongly northward (approximately 20nT), which does not favor subsolar magnetic reconnection. Inside the structure, the magnetic field briefly rotates 90° away from northward to dawnward. Ions stream antiparallel to the magnetic field in the magnetosheath, parallel to the magnetic field in the event.

  16. Profiles of electron temperature and Bz along Earth's magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Petrukovich, A. A.; Nakamura, R.; Zelenyi, L. M.

    2013-06-01

    We study the electron temperature distribution and the structure of the current sheet along the magnetotail using simultaneous observations from THEMIS spacecraft. We perform a statistical study of 40 crossings of the current sheet when the three spacecraft THB, THC, and THD were distributed along the tail in the vicinity of midnight with coordinates XB \\in [-30 RE, -20 RE], XC \\in [-20 RE, -15 RE], and XD ~ -10 RE. We obtain profiles of the average electron temperature \\mlab Te\\mrab and the average magnetic field \\mlab Bz\\mrab along the tail. Electron temperature and \\mlab Bz\\mrab increase towards the Earth with almost the same rates (i.e., ratio \\mlab Te\\mrab/\\mlab Bz\\mrab ≈ 2 keV/7 nT is approximately constant along the tail). We also use statistics of 102 crossings of the current sheet from THB and THC to estimate dependence of Te and Bz distributions on geomagnetic activity. The ratio \\mlab Te \\mrab/\\mlab Bz\\mrab depends on geomagnetic activity only slightly. Additionally we demonstrate that anisotropy of the electron temperature \\mlab T∥/T⊥\\mrab ≈ 1.1 is almost constant along the tail for X \\in [-30 RE, -10 RE].

  17. Current reduction in a pseudo-breakup event: THEMIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Z. H.; Pu, Z. Y.; Owen, C. J.; Fu, S. Y.; Chu, X. N.; Liu, J.; Angelopoulos, V.; Rae, I. J.; Yue, C.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Zong, Q.-G.; Cao, X.; Shi, Q. Q.; Forsyth, C.; Du, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    Pseudo-breakup events are thought to be generated by the same physical processes as substorms. This paper reports on the cross-tail current reduction in an isolated pseudo-breakup observed by three of the THEMIS probes (THEMIS A (THA), THEMIS D (THD), and THEMIS E (THE)) on 22 March 2010. During this pseudo-breakup, several localized auroral intensifications were seen by ground-based observatories. Using the unique spatial configuration of the three THEMIS probes, we have estimated the inertial and diamagnetic currents in the near-Earth plasma sheet associated with flow braking and diversion. We found the diamagnetic current to be the major contributor to the current reduction in this pseudo-breakup event. During flow braking, the plasma pressure was reinforced, and a weak electrojet and an auroral intensification appeared. After flow braking/diversion, the electrojet was enhanced, and a new auroral intensification was seen. The peak current intensity of the electrojet estimated from ground-based magnetometers, ~0.7 × 105 A, was about 1 order of magnitude lower than that in a typical substorm. We suggest that this pseudo-breakup event involved two dynamical processes: a current-reduction associated with plasma compression ahead of the earthward flow and a current-disruption related to the flow braking/diversion. Both processes are closely connected to the fundamental interaction between fast flows, the near-Earth ambient plasma, and the magnetic field.

  18. Multi-Spacecraft Observations of Magnetosheath High Speed Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaschke, F.; Hietala, H.; Angelopoulos, V.; Nakamura, R.

    2014-12-01

    The dynamic pressure of the plasma in the dayside magnetosheath is typically much lower than in the solar wind, just upstream of the bow shock. Sometimes, however, transient enhancements in dynamic pressure (called high speed jets) can be observed. Recently, we performed a statistical study of potentially geo-effective jets in the noon sector sheath. These jets exhibit a major velocity component in anti-sunward direction, toward the magnetopause. The study was based on four years (2008-2011) of THEMIS magnetosheath and OMNI solar wind measurements, and resulted in a set of 2859 single-spacecraft-based jet identifications. During those years, by orbit design, the three inner THEMIS spacecraft (THA, THD, and THE) were flying in close configuration near their respective apogees. Hence, dayside magnetosheath jet observations by one of the spacecraft are often complemented by context-providing measurements from the other two spacecraft. The multi-point information enables us to infer the spatial structure and extend of jets. In particular, we are able to compute a distribution of scale sizes (based on a model of probability for simultaneous multi-spacecraft jet observations), due to the high number of jets in our set and the relatively large spread in corresponding distances between the spacecraft. Furthermore, we present statistical results of the plasma flow pattern within jets and in their environment, showing how the magnetosheath plasma flow is modified on jet passage.

  19. Low-altitude electron acceleration due to multiple flow bursts in the magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, R.; Karlsson, T.; Hamrin, M.; Nilsson, H.; Marghitu, O.; Amm, O.; Bunescu, C.; Constantinescu, V.; Frey, H. U.; Keiling, A.; Semeter, J.; Sorbalo, E.; Vogt, J.; Forsyth, C.; Kubyshkina, M. V.

    2014-02-01

    At 10:00 UT on 25 February 2008, Cluster 1 spacecraft crossed the near-midnight auroral zone, at about 2 RE altitude, while two of the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions During Substorms (THEMIS) spacecraft, THD and THE, observed multiple flow bursts on the near-conjugate plasma sheet field lines. The flow shear pattern at THEMIS was consistent with the vortical motion at duskside of a localized flow channel. Coinciding in time with the flow bursts, Cluster 1 observed bursts of counterstreaming electrons with mostly low energies (≤441 eV), accompanied by short time scale (<5 s) magnetic field disturbances embedded in flow-associated field-aligned current systems. This conjugate event not only confirms the idea that the plasma sheet flows are the driver of the kinetic Alfvén waves accelerating the low-energy electrons but is a unique observation of disturbances in the high-altitude auroral region relevant to the multiple plasma sheet flows.

  20. Nucleotide binding database NBDB – a collection of sequence motifs with specific protein-ligand interactions

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zejun; Goncearenco, Alexander; Berezovsky, Igor N.

    2016-01-01

    NBDB database describes protein motifs, elementary functional loops (EFLs) that are involved in binding of nucleotide-containing ligands and other biologically relevant cofactors/coenzymes, including ATP, AMP, ATP, GMP, GDP, GTP, CTP, PAP, PPS, FMN, FAD(H), NAD(H), NADP, cAMP, cGMP, c-di-AMP and c-di-GMP, ThPP, THD, F-420, ACO, CoA, PLP and SAM. The database is freely available online at http://nbdb.bii.a-star.edu.sg. In total, NBDB contains data on 249 motifs that work in interactions with 24 ligands. Sequence profiles of EFL motifs were derived de novo from nonredundant Uniprot proteome sequences. Conserved amino acid residues in the profiles interact specifically with distinct chemical parts of nucleotide-containing ligands, such as nitrogenous bases, phosphate groups, ribose, nicotinamide, and flavin moieties. Each EFL profile in the database is characterized by a pattern of corresponding ligand–protein interactions found in crystallized ligand–protein complexes. NBDB database helps to explore the determinants of nucleotide and cofactor binding in different protein folds and families. NBDB can also detect fragments that match to profiles of particular EFLs in the protein sequence provided by user. Comprehensive information on sequence, structures, and interactions of EFLs with ligands provides a foundation for experimental and computational efforts on design of required protein functions. PMID:26507856

  1. A Hilbert transform-based smart sensor for detection, classification, and quantification of power quality disturbances.

    PubMed

    Granados-Lieberman, David; Valtierra-Rodriguez, Martin; Morales-Hernandez, Luis A; Romero-Troncoso, Rene J; Osornio-Rios, Roque A

    2013-04-25

    Power quality disturbance (PQD) monitoring has become an important issue due to the growing number of disturbing loads connected to the power line and to the susceptibility of certain loads to their presence. In any real power system, there are multiple sources of several disturbances which can have different magnitudes and appear at different times. In order to avoid equipment damage and estimate the damage severity, they have to be detected, classified, and quantified. In this work, a smart sensor for detection, classification, and quantification of PQD is proposed. First, the Hilbert transform (HT) is used as detection technique; then, the classification of the envelope of a PQD obtained through HT is carried out by a feed forward neural network (FFNN). Finally, the root mean square voltage (Vrms), peak voltage (Vpeak), crest factor (CF), and total harmonic distortion (THD) indices calculated through HT and Parseval's theorem as well as an instantaneous exponential time constant quantify the PQD according to the disturbance presented. The aforementioned methodology is processed online using digital hardware signal processing based on field programmable gate array (FPGA). Besides, the proposed smart sensor performance is validated and tested through synthetic signals and under real operating conditions, respectively.

  2. Characteristics of Newly Isolated Geobacillus sp. ZY-10 Degrading Hydrocarbons in Crude Oil.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yumei; Ning, Zhanguo; Yang, Fan; Li, Xianzhen

    2015-01-01

    An obligately thermophilic strain ZY-10 was isolated from the crude oil in a high-temperature oilfield, which was capable of degrading heavy crude oil. Phenotypic and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the isolate should be grouped in the genus Geobacillus, which shared thd highest similarity (99%) of the 16S rDNA sequence to Geobacillus stearothermophilus. However, the major cellular fatty acid iso-15:0 (28.55%), iso-16:0 (24.93%), iso-17:0 (23.53%) and the characteristics including indole production, tolerance to NaN3 and carbohydrate fermentation showed some difference from the recognized species in the genus Geobacillus. The isolate could use tridecane, hexadecane, octacosane and hexatridecane as sole carbon source for cell growth, and the digesting rate of long-chain alkane was lower than that of short-chain alkane. When the isolate was cultured in the heavy crude oil supplement with inorganic salts and trace yeast extract, the concentration of short-chain alkane was significantly increased and the content of long-chain alkane was decreased, suggesting that the larger hydrocarbon components in crude oil were degraded into shorter-chain alkane. Strain ZY-10 would be useful for improving the mobility of crude oil and upgrading heavy crude oil in situ.

  3. Mild Wind Series, Minute Steak Event

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-20

    AD-A286 599 _C *POR-6546’ IWT-65461 MILD WIND SERIES MINUTE STEAK EVENT PROJECT OFFICERS REPORT TECHNICAL DIRECTORS SUMMARY REPORT flELECTL...POR-6546 (2) POR-2039 (2) POR-6300 (2) POR-2725 (2) POR-6337 (2) POR-3000 (2) WT-561 (2) WT-601 (2) POR-6546 (WT-6546) MILD WIND SERIES MINUTE STEAK ...PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK. r lit ! ABSTRACT MINUTE STEAK was a Department of Defense Vertical Line of Sight (LOS) undergound It was detonated

  4. Por que no dejar a los estudiantes con habilidad superior comenzar la escuela en enero? Estudio de la Compactaction del Curriculum. Monografia Investigativa 94401 (Why Not Let High Ability Students Start School in January? The Curriculum Compacting Study. Research Monograph 94401).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Sally M.; And Others

    This report presents an executive summary, in Spanish, of a study which examined the effects of curriculum compacting, a curriculum modification technique for gifted and talented students. The study involved approximately 436 elementary teachers and 783 students in 27 school districts throughout the United States. The study was designed to…

  5. Selection and processing of the spatial enhanced multispectral Landsat TM images - comparison between the results from merged and source data. (Polish Title: Selekcja i przetwarzanie wzmocnionych przestrzennie obrazów wielospektralnych Landsat TM - porównanie wyników opartych o dane scalone i dane zródłowe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirowski, T.; Szczaciuk, G.

    2013-12-01

    The paper presents results of merging lower-resolution spectral data (Landsat, 30m) with panchromatic images of higher spatial resolution (IRS 5.8m). During the first stage of the research, thirty methods of merging satellite data (including their variants) have been tested. The first assessment was based on statistical measures covering spectral distortion and spatial enhancement of pansharpened images. The second assessment was based on the color composite factors essential for photo interpretation. Comparing both obtained ranks of methods revealed substantial differences in their assessed spectral distortion. On the other hand, there appeared similarities in the obtained values for the spatial enhancement of pansharpened images. The reasons of such discrepancies were defined. The research allowed appointing the HPF (High Pass Filter) and LCM (Local Correlation Modeling) methods as the best according to the tested factors. In the second part of the research, the applicability of the selected methods was tested. Information content of color composites was analyzed as well as tresholding and band ratioing. In the tests there were used images fused through five merging methods: HPF, LCM, IHS (Intensity, Hue, Saturation), PCA (Principal Components Analysis) and WMK (based on band ratioing and having specific photo interpretation features). The findings of the research suggest that none of the merging algorithms provide universal solution. Depending on the data processing technique used, the best results are based on images obtained from various integration methods. It means that the method ranks do not correspond with method applicability. Methods appointed as the best ones obtain poor results in some tests and methods which came low in the rank received high rank in some tests. If this conclusion becomes confirmed, it might be necessary to revise the assessment methods of merged images.

  6. Comparison of point clouds derived from aerial image matching with data from airborne laser scanning. (Polish Title: Porównanie wóaściwości chmury punktów wygenerowanej metodą dopasowania obrazów zdjęć lotniczych z danymi z lotniczego skanowania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominik, W.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the properties of point clouds derived from aerial image matching and to compare them with point clouds from airborne laser scanning. A set of aerial images acquired in years 2010-2013 over the city of Elblag were used for the analysis. Images were acquired with the use of three digital cameras: DMC II 230, DMC I and DigiCAM60 with a GSD varying from 4.5 cm to 15 cm. Eight sets of images that were used in the study were acquired at different stages of the growing season - from March to December. Two LiDAR point clouds were used for the comparison - one with a density of 1.3 p/m2 and a second with a density of 10 p/m2. Based on the input images point clouds were created with the use of the semi-global matching method. The properties of the obtained point clouds were analyzed in three ways: - by the comparison of the vertical accuracy of point clouds with reference to a terrain profile surveyed on bare ground with GPS-RTK method - by visual assessment of point cloud profiles generated both from SGM and LiDAR point clouds - by visual assessment of a digital surface model generated from a SGM point cloud with reference to a digital surface model generated from a LiDAR point cloud. The conducted studies allowed a number of observations about the quality of SGM point clouds to be formulated with respect to different factors. The main factors having influence on the quality of SGM point clouds are GSD and base/height ratio. The essential problem related to SGM point clouds are areas covered with vegetation where SGM point clouds are visibly worse in terms of both accuracy and the representation of terrain surface. It is difficult to expect that in these areas SGM point clouds could replace LiDAR point clouds. This leads to a general conclusion that SGM point clouds are less reliable, more unpredictable and are dependent on more factors than LiDAR point clouds. Nevertheless, SGM point clouds generated with appropriate parameters can have better accuracy than LiDAR point clouds and present more detailed information about the terrain surface.

  7. The Impact of Regional Differences on Elementary School Teachers' Attitudes towards Their Students' Use of Code Switching in a South Texas School District (El impacto de las diferencias regionales en las actitudes de docentes de primaria respecto a la alternancia de códigos por parte de los estudiantes en un distrito escolar del sur de Texas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nava Gómez, Guadalupe Nancy; García, Hilda

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on investigating whether the teachers' geographical distribution influences their attitudes towards their students' use of code switching. The study was guided by the following research question: Are there differences between teachers' opinions of the north elementary schools and teachers' opinions of the south elementary…

  8. Talking, Singing, Rhyming: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Hablar, cantar, recitar: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for…

  9. Exploring with Technology: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Exploremos con tecnologia: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides computer literacy…

  10. Reading with Children: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = La lectura con los ninos: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for…

  11. Words All around Us: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Palabras y palabras a nuestro alrededor: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for…

  12. Measurement of the branching ratio for the doubly cabibbo suppressed decay D++ K-K+K+; Medida da razao de ramificacao do Decaimento D++ K-K+K+ duplamente suprimido por cabibbo

    SciTech Connect

    Silva Carvalho, Hendly da

    1997-07-01

    In this thesis, we performed a study for the decay modes D++ K-K+K+ and D+s+ K-K+K+, using the data collected by the E791, a hadroproduction of charm experiment at Fermilab. The D++ K-K+K+ decay is doubly Cabibbo suppressed while the D+s+ K-K+K+ decay is singly Cabibbo suppressed. We found 11.6 +- 3.9 events in the D+ mass region and 8.9 +- 3.3 in the D+s mass region. The D++ K-K+K+ branching ratio is measured to be (3.7 +- 1.3 +- 0.6) x 10-4 while the D++ K-K+K+ branching ratio relative to D+s+ K-K+K+ is measured to be (4.2 +- 1.5 +- 0.6) x 10-2.

  13. Modèle numérique de terrain comme outil pour contrôler et mesurer l'érosion de ravinsModelos digitales de elevación como un instrumento para seguir y medir erosión por cárcavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, Harley D.; DeRose, Ronald C.

    This paper describes the use of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), constructed from sequential aerial photographs, as a tool for measuring gully erosion in a geomorphologically unstable environment. The technique is applied to a case study that examines erosion in 26 gullies in two study areas in the upper Waipaoa catchment, eastern North Island, New Zealand. Changes over two consecutive time periods, ranging in length from 14.0 years to 33.2 years, were studied at each site, drawing on available historical aerial photography. Several key aspects of the method used are described and discussed in detail, and recommendations are made for future application of DEMs for assessment of landscape change. DEM-measured gully degradation rates are directly proportional to the square root of the gully area.From this relationship it should be possible to rapidly estimate gully erosion at a catchment scale on the basis of gully areas alone. DEM-based measurement techniques, together with appropriate consideration for the sensitivity of the method, have significant cost and efficiency advantages over manual approaches to erosion measurements.

  14. A Visit to the Library: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Una visita a la biblioteca: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides suggestions for parents…

  15. Los Hispanos: Problemas y Oportunidades. Resumen de la Actual Situacion Demografica, Economica, Social y Politica de los Hispanos en los Estados Unidos y de las Iniciativas Tomadas por la Fundacion Ford Para Hacer Frente a las Necesidades de esta Poblacion en Aumento y Determinar sus Efectos Sobre la Sociedad Estadounidense. Documento de Trabajo de la Fundacion Ford, No. 436.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    The Hispanic population's growing impact on American society has caused the Ford Foundation to explore new Foundation initiatives. The 1980 census revealed 14.6 million Hispanics: 60% Mexican American; 14% Puerto Rican; 6% Cuban, and 20% Other. The Hispanic population in the United States is growing and is characterized by diversity; rapid growth…

  16. For a Child, Life is a Creative Adventure: Supporting Development and Learning through Art, Music, Movement, and Dialogue. A Guide for Parents and Professionals. = Para los ninos, la vida es una aventura creativa: Como estimular el desarrollo y el aprendizaje por medio de las artes visuales, la musica, el movimiento y el dialogo. Guia para padres de familia y profesionales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elena

    Recognizing that creativity facilitates children's learning and development, the Head Start Program Performance Standards require Head Start programs to include opportunities for creative self-expression. This guide with accompanying videotape, both in English- and Spanish- language versions, encourages and assists adults to support children's…

  17. Palabras del Secretario de Educacion Publica en la reunion anual de directores de education federal e inspectores generales en los estados que se rigen por el calendario "A". (Address by the Minister of Education at the Annual Meeting of Directors of Federal Education and Inspectors General in Calendar "A" States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanez, Agustin

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a speech by the Mexican Minister of Education at an annual educators meeting. The Minister dealt with the administration and quality of education, the role of the directors and the duties towards them of the inspectors, and the main features of the reform of national…

  18. Mitigation of Disagreement in Peer Review among L2 Learners and Native Speakers in a College Writing Class (Mitigación del Impacto de las Opiniones de Desacuerdo en el Proceso de Revisión por Pares entre Estudiantes de una Segunda Lengua y Hablantes Nativos en una Clase de Escritura a Nivel Universitario)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christoffersen, Katherine O'Donnell

    2015-01-01

    Peer review is now a commonplace practice in process-oriented writing instruction. A crucial aspect of peer review is assessing another classmate's work, which encompasses the act of disagreement. Given its prevalence in the classroom, it is necessary to analyze how L2 learners mitigate disagreement in the context of peer review with other L2…

  19. Art and Writing: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Arte y escritura: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for…

  20. Lo que los educadores necesitan saber sobre...El agrupamiento por habilidad [y] La compactacion del curriculum [y] Los alumnos dotados y el aprendizaje cooperativo [y] La actividad tutoral. Guias practica (What Educators Need To Know about...Ability Grouping [and] Curriculum Compacting [and] Gifted Students and Cooperative Learning [and] Mentoring. Practitioners' Guides).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegle, Del, Ed.

    These four pamphlets in Spanish offer guidelines supported by theory-driven quality research that is problem-based, practice-relevant, and consumer-oriented. Each pamphlet has a section summarizing research from the literature or topic notes as well as implications for the classroom. The first guide offers principles for teachers concerning the…

  1. Evaluation de la qualité de modèles numériques de terrain dérivés par interférométrieEvaluación de la calidad de modelos digitales de elevación derivados por interferometría

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gens, Rüdiger

    One of the most important uses of SAR interferometry is in the generation of digital elevation models (DEMs). However, a standard procedure for quality estimation of DEMs does not exist. This paper proposes a method of quality estimation using an adapted Monte Carlo simulation, which has the advantage that it could be used in areas where appropriate reference DEMs are not available. This paper also addresses interferometric processing, with special emphasis on the influence of the input parameters. Practical implementation of the proposed technique is shown on a data set from Lower Saxony in Germany. The error map generated, which is a measure of the quality of the DEM, is also presented. For further analysis of the critical aspects of quality, a reference DEM has also been used.

  2. Análise de Associação por Todo o Genoma para Identificar Locos Relacionados ao Lucro Líquido, à Vida Produtiva e ao Escore de Células Somáticas na raça Jersey1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genome scan was conducted in the US Jersey population to identify QTL affecting net merit, productive life, and somatic cell score. Data used at this study were DHI records from the national database of the Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory, USDA (Beltsville, MD). DNA was acquired for 2,380 a...

  3. Análisis clínico y epidemiológico de los accidentes por mordeduras de serpientes del género Bothrops en Venezuela [A clinical and epidemiological analysis of accidental bites by snakes of the genus Bothrops in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Acosta, A; Uzcategui, W; Azuaje, R; Aguilar, I; Girón, M E

    2000-01-01

    Clinical register of 60 patients bitten by Bothrops snake who assisted at Leopoldo Manrique Hospital and the Institute of Tropical Medicine (HLM-IMT) in Caracas during 1996-1997 were analysed. The accident was more frequent in males (45/75%). In 32 cases (53.3%) the snake was classified and 26 were Bothrops lanceolatus, 4 Bothrops venezuelensis and 2 Bothrops atrox. Anatomic regions more frequent bitten were superior members (40/66.6%): hands (36/60%), forearm (2/3.3%), elbow (1/1.6%) and arm (1/1.6%). On inferior members (20/33.3%): legs (6/10%), feet (10/16.7%), ankle (2/3.3%), and the hip (2:3.3%). The most frequent clinical manifestations in moderate and severe cases (33 patient) were pain (100%), oedema (98%), ecchymosis (76%), blisters (20%), necrosis (12%), abscess (6%) bleeding (19%), heart failure (1/1.6%), renal failure (1/1.6%). The blood clotting was evaluated in 60 (100%) cases and it was altered in 33 (55%) patients. No deaths were recorded.

  4. A protein secretion system linked to bacteroidete gliding motility and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Keiko; Naito, Mariko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Hirakawa, Hideki; Shoji, Mikio; McBride, Mark J.; Rhodes, Ryan G.; Nakayama, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes strong proteases called gingipains that are implicated in periodontal pathogenesis. Protein secretion systems common to other Gram-negative bacteria are lacking in P. gingivalis, but several proteins, including PorT, have been linked to gingipain secretion. Comparative genome analysis and genetic experiments revealed 11 additional proteins involved in gingipain secretion. Six of these (PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorW, and Sov) were similar in sequence to Flavobacterium johnsoniae gliding motility proteins, and two others (PorX and PorY) were putative two-component system regulatory proteins. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that porK, porL, porM, porN, porP, porT, and sov were down-regulated in P. gingivalis porX and porY mutants. Disruption of the F. johnsoniae porT ortholog resulted in defects in motility, chitinase secretion, and translocation of a gliding motility protein, SprB adhesin, to the cell surface, providing a link between a unique protein translocation system and a motility apparatus in members of the Bacteroidetes phylum. PMID:19966289

  5. A protein secretion system linked to bacteroidete gliding motility and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Naito, Mariko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Hirakawa, Hideki; Shoji, Mikio; McBride, Mark J; Rhodes, Ryan G; Nakayama, Koji

    2010-01-05

    Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes strong proteases called gingipains that are implicated in periodontal pathogenesis. Protein secretion systems common to other Gram-negative bacteria are lacking in P. gingivalis, but several proteins, including PorT, have been linked to gingipain secretion. Comparative genome analysis and genetic experiments revealed 11 additional proteins involved in gingipain secretion. Six of these (PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorW, and Sov) were similar in sequence to Flavobacterium johnsoniae gliding motility proteins, and two others (PorX and PorY) were putative two-component system regulatory proteins. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that porK, porL, porM, porN, porP, porT, and sov were down-regulated in P. gingivalis porX and porY mutants. Disruption of the F. johnsoniae porT ortholog resulted in defects in motility, chitinase secretion, and translocation of a gliding motility protein, SprB adhesin, to the cell surface, providing a link between a unique protein translocation system and a motility apparatus in members of the Bacteroidetes phylum.

  6. Differential Regulation of Duplicate Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductases in the Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    PubMed Central

    Hunsperger, Heather M.; Cattolico, Rose Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background Diatoms (Bacilliariophyceae) encode two light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (POR1 and POR2) that catalyze the penultimate step of chlorophyll biosynthesis in the light. Algae live in dynamic environments whose changing light levels induce photoacclimative metabolic shifts, including altered cellular chlorophyll levels. We hypothesized that the two POR proteins may be differentially adaptive under varying light conditions. Using the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as a test system, differences in POR protein abundance and por gene expression were examined when this organism was grown on an alternating light:dark cycles at different irradiances; exposed to continuous light; and challenged by a significant decrease in light availability. Results For cultures maintained on a 12h light: 12h dark photoperiod at 200μE m−2 s−1 (200L/D), both por genes were up-regulated during the light and down-regulated in the dark, though por1 transcript abundance rose and fell earlier than that of por2. Little concordance occurred between por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance. In contrast, por2 mRNA and POR2 protein abundances followed similar diurnal patterns. When 200L/D P. tricornutum cultures were transferred to continuous light (200L/L), the diurnal regulatory pattern of por1 mRNA abundance but not of por2 was disrupted, and POR1 but not POR2 protein abundance dropped steeply. Under 1200μE m−2 s−1 (1200L/D), both por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance displayed diurnal oscillations. A compromised diel por2 mRNA response under 1200L/D did not impact the oscillation in POR2 abundance. When cells grown at 1200L/D were then shifted to 50μE m−2 s−1 (50L/D), por1 and por2 mRNA levels decreased swiftly but briefly upon light reduction. Thereafter, POR1 but not POR2 protein levels rose significantly in response to this light stepdown. Conclusion Given the sensitivity of diatom por1/POR1 to real-time light cues and adherence of por2/POR2 regulation to

  7. JPRS Report, West Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-09

    finding its market in Jor- dan, Morocco, and Argentina . Outside of theBasque Country, he stresses Instalaza (Zaragoza), specializing in the Latin...30 por 100 J 3por100(Lf) fc 1por100(L$) (20) 4. £Cree qua las mujeres deben ir (2") SI ........... 36 poKlDO V No .......... 67 por 100

  8. Effect of dietary porphyran from the red alga, Porphyra yezoensis, on glucose metabolism in diabetic KK-Ay mice.

    PubMed

    Kitano, Yuki; Murazumi, Koki; Duan, Jingjing; Kurose, Kosuke; Kobayashi, Shunichi; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Hirata, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Porphyran (POR) from the red alga Porphyra yezoensis is a water soluble dietary fiber. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary POR on glucose metabolism in KK-Ay mice (a model for type 2 diabetes). Mice were divided into 4 groups and fed a diet containing 5% cellulose (control), POR, POR Arg or POR K. After 3 wk of feeding, plasma insulin levels and the calculated homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index were significantly lower in the POR group than in the control group. Compared with the control group, plasma adiponectin levels were significantly increased in the POR, POR Arg and POR K groups. These results suggest that dietary POR should improve glucose metabolism in diabetes via up-regulation of adiponectin levels. In addition, the amount of propionic acid in the cecum of the POR group was significantly higher than in the control group and the profile of bacterial flora was changed by dietary POR. In the cecum of the POR, POR Arg and POR K groups, Bacteroides was significantly increased and Clostridium coccoides was significantly decreased compared with in the control group. The effects of dietary POR on the hindgut environment might contribute to the improvement of glucose metabolism.

  9. Phase Calibration of Microphones by Measurement in the Free-field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Bartram, Scott M.; Humphreys, William M.; Zuckewar, Allan J.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past several years, significant effort has been expended at NASA Langley developing new Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS)-based microphone directional array instrumentation for high-frequency aeroacoustic measurements in wind tunnels. This new type of array construction solves two challenges which have limited the widespread use of large channel-count arrays, namely by providing a lower cost-per-channel and a simpler method for mounting microphones in wind tunnels and in field-deployable arrays. The current generation of array instrumentation is capable of extracting accurate noise source location and directivity on a variety of airframe components using sophisticated data reduction algorithms [1-2]. Commercially-available MEMS microphones are condenser-type devices and have some desirable characteristics when compared with conventional condenser-type microphones. The most important advantages of MEMS microphones are their size, price, and power consumption. However, the commercially-available units suffer from certain important shortcomings. Based on experiments with array prototypes, it was found that both the bandwidth and the sound pressure limit of the microphones should be increased significantly to improve the performance and flexibility of the microphone array [3]. It was also desired to modify the packaging to eliminate unwanted Helmholtz resonance s exhibited by the commercial devices. Thus, new requirements were defined as follows: Frequency response: 100 Hz to 100 KHz (+/-3dB) Upper sound pressure limit: Design 1: 130 dB SPL (THD less than 5%) Design 2: 150-160 dB SPL (THD less than 5%) Packaging: 3.73 x 6.13 x 1.3 mm can with laser-etched lid. In collaboration with Novusonic Acoustic Innovation, NASA modified a Knowles SiSonic MEMS design to meet these new requirements. Coupled with the design of the enhanced MEMS microphones was the development of a new calibration method for simultaneously obtaining the sensitivity and phase response of

  10. Reactions of 5-methylcytosine cation radicals in DNA and model systems: thermal deprotonation from the 5-methyl group vs. excited state deprotonation from sugar

    PubMed Central

    Adhikary, Amitava; Kumar, Anil; Palmer, Brian J.; Todd, Andrew D.; Heizer, Alicia N.; Sevilla, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To study the formation and subsequent reactions of the 5-methyl-2′-deoxycytidine cation radical (5-Me-2′-dC•+) in nucleosides and DNA-oligomers and compare to one electron oxidized thymidine. Materials and methods Employing electron spin resonance (ESR), cation radical formation and its reactions were investigated in 5-Me-2′-dC, thymidine (Thd) and their derivatives, in fully double stranded (ds) d[GC*GC*GC*GC*]2 and in the 5-Me-C/A mismatched, d[GGAC*AAGC:CCTAATCG], where C* = 5-Me-C. Results We report 5-Me-2′-dC•+ production by one-electron oxidation of 5-Me-2′-dC by Cl2•− via annealing in the dark at 155 K. Progressive annealing of 5-Me-2′-dC•+ at 155 K produces the allylic radical (C-CH2•). However, photoexcitation of 5-Me-2′-dC•+ by 405 nm laser or by photoflood lamp leads to only C3′• formation. Photoexcitation of N3-deprotonated thyminyl radical in Thd and its 5′-nucleotides leads to C3′• formation but not in 3′-TMP which resulted in the allylic radical (U-CH2•) and C5′• production. For excited 5-Me-2′,3′-ddC•+, absence of the 3′-OH group does not prevent C3′• formation. For d[GC*GC*GC*GC*]2 and d[GGAC*AAGC:CCTAATCG], intra-base paired proton transferred form of G cation radical (G(N1-H)•:C(+H+)) is found with no observable 5-Me-2′-dC•+ formation. Photoexcitation of (G(N1-H)•:C(+H+)) in d[GC*GC*GC*GC*]2 produced only C1′• and not the expected photoproducts from 5-Me-2′-dC•+. However, photoexcitation of (G(N1-H)•:C(+H+)) in d[GGAC*AAGC:CCTAATCG] led to C5′• and C1′• formation. Conclusions C-CH2• formation from 5-Me-2′-dC•+ occurs via ground state deprotonation from C5-methyl group on the base. In the excited 5-Me-2′-dC•+ and 5-Me-2′,3′-ddC•+, spin and charge localization at C3′ followed by deprotonation leads to C3′• formation. Thus, deprotonation from C3′ in the excited cation radical is kinetically controlled and sugar C-H bond energies are

  11. Development and characterization of Four-Quadrant Phase Mask coronagraph (FQPM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonafous, M.; Galicher, R.; Baudoz, P.; Firminy, J.; Boussaha, F.

    2016-07-01

    The goal of a coronagraph is to reduce the flux of a bright object (e.g. a star) in order to distinguish its faint neighborhood (e.g. exoplanets and disks). In this context, we proposed one coronagraph that uses a four quadrant phase mask (FQPM). Since 2000, we fabricated several monochromatic FQPM working in visible and near-infrared light at the Paris Observatory. We have developed systematic procedures for fabrication and characterization of the phase masks. Visual inspections with an optical microscope are performed for every component and a coronagraphic performance measurement based on inclination of the component is done on a dedicated bench that is set up in a clean room. This procedure gives a quick feedback on the quality and performance of the component. Depending on the results, images of the central transition can be recorded with an electron microscope to understand the limitations of the fabrication process. This procedure allowed us to understand the influence of various parameters such as the width of the transitions between the quadrants, the alignment of the transitions or the step depth. Based on these results, we modified the mask design and the fabrication process to improve our success rate to nearly 100% when building a FQPM for any given optimal wavelength in visible or near-infrared. Moreover, we improved the performance of the components, reaching attenuations of more than 20,000 on the central peak in raw images for most coronagraphs. The best of these components are now used on the THD bench, an optical/NIR bench developed for the study of high contrast imaging techniques, reaching 10-8 contrast level routinely.

  12. A new cascaded control strategy for paralleled line-interactive UPS with LCL filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, X. H.; Li, L.; Luo, F.; Zhang, Y. S.

    2016-08-01

    Traditional uninterrupted power supply (UPS) is difficult to meet the output voltage quality and grid-side power quality requirements at the same time, and usually has some disadvantage, such as multi-stage conversion, complex structure, or harmonic current pollution to the utility grid and so on. A three-phase three-level paralleled line-interactive UPS with LCL filter is presented in this paper. It can achieve the output voltage quality and grid-side power quality control simultaneously with only single-conversion power stage, but the multi-objective control strategy design is difficult. Based on the detailed analysis of the circuit structure and operation mechanism, a new cascaded control strategy for the power, voltage, and current is proposed. An outer current control loop based on the resonant control theory is designed to ensure the grid-side power quality. An inner voltage control loop based on the capacitance voltage and capacitance current feedback is designed to ensure the output voltage quality and avoid the resonance peak of the LCL filter. Improved repetitive controller is added to reduce the distortion of the output voltage. The setting of the controller parameters is detailed discussed. A 100kVA UPS prototype is built and experiments under the unbalanced resistive load and nonlinear load are carried out. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show the effectiveness of the control strategy. The paralleled line-interactive UPS can not only remain constant three-phase balanced output voltage, but also has the comprehensive power quality management functions with three-phase balanced grid active power input, low THD of output voltage and grid current, and reactive power compensation. The UPS is a green friendly load to the utility.

  13. Solid Collection Efforts: Ta Collimator Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Gostic, J M

    2011-11-21

    Ta collimator sets that were part of the gated x-ray detector diagnostic (GXD) at NIF were analyzed for debris distribution and damage in 2011. These disks (ranging in thickness from 250 to 750 {mu}m) were fielded approximately 10 cm from target chamber center (TCC) on various symcap, THD and re-emit shots. The nose cone holder and forward Ta collimator (facing target chamber center, TCC) from all shots show evidence of surface melt. Non-destructive analysis techniques such as optical microscopy, surface profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) were used to determine debris composition and degree of deformation associated with each Ta disk. Molten debris from the stainless steel nose cone contaminated the surface of the collimators along with other debris associated with the target assembly (Al, Si, Cu, Au and In). Surface elemental analysis of the forward collimator Ta disks indicates that Au hohlraum debris is less concentrated on these samples versus those fielded 50 cm from TCC in the wedge range filter (WRF) assembly. It is possible that the Au is distributed below or within the stainless steel melt layer covering the disk, as most of the foreign debris is captured in the melted coating. The other disks (fielded directly behind the forward collimator in a sandwiched configuration) have visible forms of deformation and warping. The degree of warping increases as the shock wave penetrates the assembly with the most damage sustained on the back collimator. In terms of developing a solid collection capability, the collimator analyses suggests that close proximity may cause more interference with capsule debris collection and more damage to the surface of the collector diagnostic. The analyses of the Ta collimators were presented to the Target and Laser Interaction Sphere (TaLIS) group; a representative presentation is attached to this document.

  14. An Open Label Clinical Trial of a Multi-Ingredient Anti-Aging Moisturizer Designed to Improve the Appearance of Facial Skin.

    PubMed

    Herndon, James H; Jiang, Lily; Kononov, Tatiana; Fox, Theresa

    2015-07-01

    An open label clinical trial was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a multi-ingredient anti-aging moisturizer designed to improve the appearance of facial skin. Parameters studied included fine lines and wrinkles, clarity/brightness, visual roughness, tactile roughness, evenness of skin tone (redness), evenness of skin tone (hyperpigmentation) and overall appearance. Thirty-seven female subjects, ages 35-60 years completed the study. Effective ingredients incorporated into the facial anti-aging moisturizer include: Astragalus membranaceus root extract, a peptide blend including palmitoyl tripeptide-38, standardized rosemary leaf extract (ursolic acid), tetrahexyldecyl ascorbate (THD ascorbate) and ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10). Subjects were instructed to apply the moisturizer twice daily, once in the morning and once in the evening. Subjects were evaluated at baseline and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of product usage. Clinical evaluations were conducted at each visit. A self-assessment questionnaire was conducted at week 4, week 8, and week 12. The self-assessment questionnaire included product efficacy inquiries and product aesthetic inquiries. Digital photography was conducted at baseline, week 8, and week 12. After 8 weeks of twice daily use, clinical evaluation results show that the multi-ingredient anti-aging moisturizer produced a statistically significant improvement in the scores of all clinical grading parameters assessed compared to baseline. A greater statistically significant improvement was seen at 12 weeks. At week 12, there was a statistically significant percentage of favorable results versus unfavorable results in all product efficacy and product aesthetic self-assessment questionnaire results. Digital photography supported the clinical grading and self-assessment questionnaire results. Additionally, the multi-ingredient anti-aging moisturizer is judged to be mild and well tolerated. Several tolerability parameters were assessed at all time

  15. Aroclor 1254 increases the genotoxicity of several carcinogens to liver primary cell cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza-Figueroa, T.; Lopez-Revilla, R.; Villa-Trevino, S.

    1985-01-01

    The genotoxicity of both direct-acting and precarcinogenic chemicals was evaluated in liver primary cell cultures (LPCC) from untreated and Aroclor 1254 (Ar) pretreated rats. Hepatocytes were isolated from partially hepatectomized rats and their DNA was labeled in vitro with (/sup 3/H) dThd; the molecular weight of single-stranded DNA was determined by alkaline sucrose sedimentation. Two parameters of DNA damage were defined: 1) the mean effective dose (ED50), i.e., the carcinogen concentration that decreased the DNA molecular weight to half the original, and 2) the DNA breaking potency (DBP), i.e., the number of breaks per DNA molecule produced by 2 h exposure to 1mM concentration of the chemical. Two hours exposure of LPCC from untreated rats to the direct-acting alkylating agent N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) (6.8-340..mu..M) and to the precarcinogens benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) (0.05-0.33 mM) and dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) (0.45-16 mM) produced a concentration-dependent decrease in the molecular weight of DNA. Pretreatment of rats with Ar decreased significantly the sedimentation velocity of DNA and increased five, three, and two times the DBP of MNNG, BaP, and DMN, respectively. These results show that Ar-pretreatment of rats increases the genotoxicity of both direct-acting and precarcinogenic chemicals and suggest that Ar might increase the genotoxicity of chemical carcinogens perhaps by enhancing their metabolic activation, by producing direct genotoxic effects, or both. Our results also emphasize the carcinogenic risk that the environmental pollution by polychlorinated biphenyls might represent to humans.

  16. RF plasma MOCVD of Y2O3 thin films: Effect of RF self-bias on the substrates during deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopade, S. S.; Barve, S. A.; Thulasi Raman, K. H.; Chand, N.; Deo, M. N.; Biswas, A.; Rai, Sanjay; Lodha, G. S.; Rao, G. M.; Patil, D. S.

    2013-11-01

    Yttrium oxide (Y2O3) thin films have been deposited by radio frequency plasma assisted metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) process using (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionate) yttrium (commonly known as Y(thd)3) precursor in a plasma of argon and oxygen gases at a substrate temperature of 350 °C. The films have been deposited under influence of varying RF self-bias (-50 V to -175 V) on silicon, quartz, stainless steel and tantalum substrates. The deposited coatings are characterized by glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), spectroscopic ellipsometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). GIXRD and FTIR results indicate deposition of Y2O3 (BCC structure) in all cases. However, XPS results indicate nonstoichiometric cubic phase deposition on the surface of deposited films. The degree of nonstoichiometry varies with bias during deposition. Ellipsometry results indicate that the refractive index for the deposited films is varying from 1.70 to 1.83 that is typical for Y2O3. All films are transparent in the investigated wavelength range 300-1200 nm. SEM results indicate that the microstructure of the films is changing with applied bias. Results indicate that it is possible to deposit single phase cubic Y2O3 thin films at low substrate temperature by RF plasma MOCVD process. RF self-bias that decides about the energy of impinging ions on the substrates plays an important role in controlling the texture of deposited Y2O3 films on the substrates. Results indicate that to control the structure of films and its texture, it is important to control the bias on the substrate during deposition. The films deposited at high bias level show degradation in the crystallinity and reduction of thickness.

  17. High levels of inactive thymidine kinase 1 polypeptide detected in sera from dogs with solid tumours by immunoaffinity methods: implications for in vitro diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Kiran Kumar, J; Sharif, H; Westberg, S; von Euler, H; Eriksson, S

    2013-09-01

    Determination of serum thymidine kinase 1 (STK1) activity has been used as a proliferation marker for neoplastic diseases in both human and veterinary medicine. The purpose of this study was to determine STK1 activity and enzyme levels in different dog tumours. Serum samples from three dogs with leukaemia, five with lymphoma, 21 with solid tumours and 18 healthy dogs were analyzed for STK1 activity, using an optimized [(3)H]-deoxythymidine (dThd) phosphorylation assay, and for STK1 protein levels using an immunoaffinity/western blot assay. STK1 activity in dogs with haematological tumours was significantly higher than in the solid tumour and healthy dog groups (mean ± standard deviation [SD] = 65 ± 79, 1.1 ± 0.5, and 1.0 ± 0.4 pmol/min/mL, respectively). Serum samples were analyzed after immunoaffinity isolation by western blot and the TK1 26 kDa band intensities quantified revealing that concentrations were significantly higher in dogs with haematological tumours and solid tumours compared to healthy dogs (mean ± SD=33 ± 12, 30 ± 13, and 10 ± 5 ng/mL, respectively). Pre-incubation with the reducing agent dithioerythritol (DTE) showed a decrease in STK1 activity and protein levels in most samples, but an increase of about 20% in sera from healthy dogs and from those with haematological malignancies. Compared to animals with solid tumours, the specific STK1 activity (nmol [(3)H]-deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP)/min/mg of TK1 protein of 26 kDa) was 30-fold higher in haematological malignancies and 2.5-fold higher in healthy dogs, respectively. The results demonstrate that there is a large fraction of inactive TK1 protein, particularly in sera from dogs with solid tumours. The findings are important in the use of STK1 as a biomarker.

  18. Power MOSFET-diode-based limiter for high-frequency ultrasound systems.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hojong; Kim, Min Gon; Cummins, Thomas M; Hwang, Jae Youn; Shung, K Kirk

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the limiter circuits used in the ultrasound imaging systems is to pass low-voltage echo signals generated by ultrasonic transducers while preventing high-voltage short pulses transmitted by pulsers from damaging front-end circuits. Resistor-diode-based limiters (a 50 Ω resistor with a single cross-coupled diode pair) have been widely used in pulse-echo measurement and imaging system applications due to their low cost and simple architecture. However, resistor-diode-based limiters may not be suited for high-frequency ultrasound transducer applications since they produce large signal conduction losses at higher frequencies. Therefore, we propose a new limiter architecture utilizing power MOSFETs, which we call a power MOSFET-diode-based limiter. The performance of a power MOSFET-diode-based limiter was evaluated with respect to insertion loss (IL), total harmonic distortion (THD), and response time (RT). We compared these results with those of three other conventional limiter designs and showed that the power MOSFET-diode-based limiter offers the lowest IL (-1.33 dB) and fastest RT (0.10 µs) with the lowest suppressed output voltage (3.47 Vp-p) among all the limiters at 70 MHz. A pulse-echo test was performed to determine how the new limiter affected the sensitivity and bandwidth of the transducer. We found that the sensitivity and bandwidth of the transducer were 130% and 129% greater, respectively, when combined with the new power MOSFET-diode-based limiter versus the resistor-diode-based limiter. Therefore, these results demonstrate that the power MOSFET-diode-based limiter is capable of producing lower signal attenuation than the three conventional limiter designs at higher frequency operation.

  19. Verification of runaway migration in a massive disk

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Shengtai

    2009-01-01

    Runaway migration of a proto-planet was first proposed and observed by Masset and Papaloizou (2003). The semi-major axis of the proto-planet varies by 50% over just a few tens of orbits when runaway migration happens. More recent work by D'Angelo et al. (2005) solved the same problem with locally refined grid and found that the migration rate is sharply reduced and no runaway occurs when the grid cells surrounding the planet are refined enough. To verify these two seemly contradictory results, we independently perform high-resolution simulations, solving the same problem as Masset and Papaloizou (2003), with and without self-gravity. We find that the migration rate is highly dependent on the softening used in the gravitational force between thd disk and planet. When a small softening is used in a 2D massive disk, the mass of the circumplanetary disk (CPD) increases with time with enough resolution in the CPD region. It acts as the mass is continually accreted to the CPD, which cannot be settled down until after thousands of orbits. If the planet is held on a fixed orbit long enough, the mass of CPD will become so large that the condition for the runaway migration derived in Masset (2008) will not be satisfied, and hence the runaway migration will not be triggered. However, when a large softening is used, the mass of the CPD will begin to decrease after the initial increase stage. Our numerical results with and without disk-gravity confirm that the runaway migration indeed exists when the mass deficit is larger than the total mass of the planet and CPD. Our simulations results also show that the torque from the co-orbital region, in particular the planet's Hill sphere, is the main contributor to the runaway migration, and the CPD which is lagged behind by the planet becomes so asymmetric that it accelerates the migration.

  20. Immune response to 60-day head-down bed rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jinping; Guo, Aihua; Zhong, Ping; Zhang, Hongyu; Wu, Feng; Wan, Yumin; Bai, Yanqiang; Chen, Shanguang; Li, Yinghui

    Introduction: Exposure of humans to spaceflight has resulted in disregulation of the immune system. Head-down bed rest (HDBR) has been extensively used as an earth-bound analog to study physiologic effects mimicking those occurring in weightlessness during spaceflight. It is uncertain how a prolonged period of bed rest affect human immune responses. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 60-day HDBR on immune function and EB virus reactivation in seven male volunteers. Methods: There were seven healthy male volunteers who were subjected to HDBR for 60d. Immunological parameters including leukocyte subset distribution, lymphocyte proliferation to mitogens, secreted cytokine profiles and EB virus reactivation were monitored. Results: Total WBC conunts increased significantly 10d post-HDBR as compared with pre-HDBR. At the same time, the relative percentage of neutrophils was also higher than pre-HDBR but not significant. MFI of CD11b in neutrophils was reduced obviously at thd end of HDBR. T Lymphocyte proliferations to PHA reduced at HDBR 30, HDBR 60 and 10d post-HDBR while IL-2 production decreased significantly at the same time. IFN-and IL-4 production trended to decrease at HDBR 30 and HDBR 60. The relative percentage of T lymphocyte subset, B lymphocyte and NK cells were not altered. EBV EA (early antigen) were negative and EBV VCA titers had no changes through HDBR. Conclusion: The results indicate that several immunological parameters (mainly cellular immunity) are altered significantly by prolonged HDBR, and these changes were similar to those happened in spaceflight.

  1. The rejection of vibrations in adaptive optics systems using a DFT-based estimation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kania, Dariusz; Borkowski, Józef

    2016-04-01

    Adaptive optics systems are commonly used in many optical structures to reduce perturbations and to increase the system performance. The problem in such systems is undesirable vibrations due to some effects as shaking of the whole structure or the tracking process. This paper presents a frequency, amplitude and phase estimation method of a multifrequency signal that can be used to reject these vibrations in an adaptive method. The estimation method is based on using the FFT procedure. The undesirable signals are usually exponentially damped harmonic oscillations. The estimation error depends on several parameters and consists of a systematic component and a random component. The systematic error depends on the signal phase, the number of samples N in a measurement window, the value of CiR (number of signal periods in a measurement window), the THD value and the time window order H. The random error depends mainly on the variance of noise and the SNR value. This paper shows research on the sinusoidal signal phase and the estimation of exponentially damped sinusoids parameters. The shape of errors signals is periodical and it is associated with the signal period and with the sliding measurement window. For CiR=1.6 and the damping ratio 0.1% the error was in the order of 10-5 Hz/Hz, 10-4 V/V and 10-4 rad for the frequency, the amplitude and the phase estimation respectively. The information provided in this paper can be used to determine the approximate level of the efficiency of the vibrations elimination process before starting it.

  2. Enhanced antigen-presenting capacity of cultured Langerhans' cells is associated with markedly increased expression of Ia antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, S.; Caughman, S.W.; Sharrow, S.O.; Stephany, D.; Katz, S.I.

    1987-10-15

    Recent studies indicate that when epidermal Langerhans' cells (LC) are cultured for 2 to 3 days they, in comparison to freshly prepared LC, exhibit markedly enhanced ability to stimulate T cell proliferative responses in oxidative mitogenesis and in the mixed epidermal-leukocyte reaction. In this study, we determined whether cultured LC enhance antigen-specific T cell responses, and whether such enhanced stimulatory capacity correlates with the level of Ia antigen expressed on LC. We used C3H/He (Iak) epidermal cells as stimulators and, as responder cells, both the trinitrophenyl-specific clones D8 and SE4, which were assayed for (/sup 3/H)dThd incorporation, and the pigeon cytochrome c specific hybridoma 2C2, which was assayed for interleukin 2 production. Cultured LC induced 10 to 100 times greater proliferation or interleukin 2 production by responder cells than did freshly prepared LC. The intensity of I-Ak and I-Ek, expressed on cultured LC as assessed by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry, was found to be 10 to 36 times greater on a per cell basis than that on freshly prepared LC. Depletion of LC from fresh epidermal cell suspensions by anti-Iak and complement or treatment with 50 mJ/cm/sup 2/ medium range ultraviolet light or cycloheximide before culture abrogated both the increase in Ia expression and antigen-specific clonal proliferation. The results suggest that when LC are removed from their usual epidermal milieu, they express increased amounts of Ia and become more potent stimulators of T cell responses.

  3. Immunotherapeutic targeting of LIGHT/LTβR/HVEM pathway fully recapitulates the reduced cytotoxic phenotype of LIGHT-deficient T cells

    PubMed Central

    del Rio, Maria-Luisa; Fernandez-Renedo, Carlos; Chaloin, Olivier; Scheu, Stefanie; Pfeffer, Klaus; Shintani, Yasushi; Perez-Simon, Jose-Antonio; Schneider, Pascal; Rodriguez-Barbosa, Jose-Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)/TNF receptor (TNFR) superfamily members play essential roles in the development of the different phases of the immune response. Mouse LIGHT (TNFSF14) is a type II transmembrane protein with a C-terminus extracellular TNF homology domain (THD) that assembles in homotrimers and regulates the course of the immune responses by signaling through 2 receptors, the herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM, TNFSFR14) and the lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR, TNFSFR3). LIGHT is a membrane-bound protein transiently expressed on activated T cells, natural killer (NK) cells and immature dendritic cells that can be proteolytically cleaved by a metalloprotease and released to the extracellular milieu. The immunotherapeutic potential of LIGHT blockade was evaluated in vivo. Administration of an antagonist of LIGHT interaction with its receptors attenuated the course of graft-versus-host reaction and recapitulated the reduced cytotoxic activity of LIGHT-deficient T cells adoptively transferred into non-irradiated semiallogeneic recipients. The lack of LIGHT expression on donor T cells or blockade of LIGHT interaction with its receptors slowed down the rate of T cell proliferation and decreased the frequency of precursor alloreactive T cells, retarding T cell differentiation toward effector T cells. The blockade of LIGHT/LTβR/HVEM pathway was associated with delayed downregulation of interleukin-7Rα and delayed upregulation of inducible costimulatory molecule expression on donor alloreactive CD8 T cells that are typical features of impaired T cell differentiation. These results expose the relevance of LIGHT/LTβR/HVEM interaction for the potential therapeutic control of the allogeneic immune responses mediated by alloreactive CD8 T cells that can contribute to prolong allograft survival. PMID:26752542

  4. A validated stripping voltammetric procedure for quantification of the anti-hypertensive and benign prostatic hyperplasia drug terazosin in tablets and human serum.

    PubMed

    Ghoneim, M M; El Ries, M A; Hammam, E; Beltagi, A M

    2004-10-20

    The electrochemical behavior of terazosin at the hanging mercury drop electrode was studied in Britton-Robinson buffer (pH 2-11), acetate buffer (4.5-5.5), and in 0.1M solution of each of sodium sulfate, sodium nitrate, sodium perchlorate and potassium chloride as supporting electrolytes. The square-wave adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammogram of terazosin exhibited a single well-defined two-electron irreversible cathodic peak which may be attributed to the reduction of CO double bond of the drug molecule. A fully validated, simple, high sensitive, precise and inexpensive square-wave adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetric procedure was described for determination of terazosin in bulk form, tablets and human serum. A mean recovery for 1x10(-8)M terazosin in bulk form, following preconcentration onto the hanging mercury drop electrode for 60s at a -1.0V (versus Ag/AgCl/KCl(s)), of 99+/-0.7% (n=5) was obtained. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) of 1.5x10(-11) and 5x10(-11)M bulk terazosin were achieved, respectively. The proposed procedure was successfully applied to determination of the drug in its Itrin((R)) tablets and human serum samples. The achieved LOD and LOQ of the drug in human serum samples were 5.3x10(-11) and 1.8x10(-10)M THD, respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the drug in human plasma were estimated as: C(max)=77.5ngml(-1), t(max)=1.75h, AUC(0-t)=602.3nghml(-1), K(e)=0.088h(-1) and t(1/2)=11.32h) which are favorably compared with those reported in literature.

  5. Wave normal angles of whistler mode chorus rising and falling tones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taubenschuss, Ulrich; Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.; Santolík, Ondrej; Vaivads, Andris; Cully, Christopher M.; Contel, Olivier Le; Angelopoulos, Vassilis

    2014-12-01

    We present a study of wave normal angles (θk) of whistler mode chorus emission as observed by Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) during the year 2008. The three inner THEMIS satellites THA, THD, and THE usually orbit Earth close to the dipole magnetic equator (±20°), covering a large range of L shells from the plasmasphere out to the magnetopause. Waveform measurements of electric and magnetic fields enable a detailed polarization analysis of chorus below 4 kHz. When displayed in a frequency-θk histogram, four characteristic regions of occurrence are evident. They are separated by gaps at f/fc,e≈0.5 (f is the chorus frequency, fc,e is the local electron cyclotron frequency) and at θk˜40°. Below θk˜40°, the average value for θk is predominantly field aligned, but slightly increasing with frequency toward half of fc,e (θk up to 20°). Above half of fc,e, the average θk is again decreasing with frequency. Above θk˜40°, wave normal angles are usually close to the resonance cone angle. Furthermore, we present a detailed comparison of electric and magnetic fields of chorus rising and falling tones. Falling tones exhibit peaks in occurrence solely for θk>40° and are propagating close to the resonance cone angle. Nevertheless, when comparing rising tones to falling tones at θk>40°, the ratio of magnetic to electric field shows no significant differences. Thus, we conclude that falling tones are generated under similar conditions as rising tones, with common source regions close to the magnetic equatorial plane.

  6. A charge-coupled-device camera image analysis system for quantifying DNA distributions in agarose gels after pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Dewey, W.C.; Thompson, L.L.; Trinh, M.L.; Latz, D.L. |; Ward, J.F.

    1994-10-01

    A charge-coupled-device camera system was coupled to a personal computer and, with uniformity in illumination and detection (within 4-8%) along each lane, was used for quantifying the distribution of DNA molecules that migrate from the PFGE well (plug) into the lane at distances varying from 1 to 50 mm (with 0.5 mm/pixel). By using a specially designed transmission filter for transmitting 470-725 nm fluorescence from ethidium bromide-stained DNA while eliminating most of the fluorescence (<400 nm) from the agarose gel, and by using neutral density filters to prevent saturation of the camera, the fluorescence intensity is linearly related to the amount of DNA varying from {approximately} 0.03 {mu}g in a 3-mm-diameter cylindrical plug 5 mm long (equal to background) to {approximately} 4 {mu}g (where ethidium bromide staining saturates). The percentage DNA released from the plug and distribution in the lane (with 1-2 mm resolution) obtained by quantifying DNA fluorescence were not significantly different from the same data obtained by analysis of radioactivity of the same DNA labeled with [{sup 3}H]dThd. However, scattering of fluorescence from one lane into an adjacent lane 3 mm away and as far as 10 mm from the plug into the lane presented a problem. This problem was overcome by using a form with slots to cover every other lane when the images were obtained and either (1) cutting the lane from the plug and moving it 15 mm away or (2) imaging the intact gel and applying a correction for {approximately} 7% of the fluorescence from the plug tailing out {approximately} 10 mm beyond the first 1 mm in the lane. In addition, the following were required: (1) carefully controlled staining and destaining procedures, and (2) a low background that is obtained as an average uniform background in each lane 5 mm beyond where DNA migration stops. 31 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Differential regulation of duplicate light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsperger, Heather M.; Ford, Christopher J.; Miller, James S.; Cattolico, Rose Ann; Ianora, Adrianna

    2016-07-01

    Diatoms (Bacilliariophyceae) encode two light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (POR1 and POR2) that catalyze the penultimate step of chlorophyll biosynthesis in the light. Algae live in dynamic environments whose changing light levels induce photoacclimative metabolic shifts, including altered cellular chlorophyll levels. We hypothesized that the two POR proteins may be differentially adaptive under varying light conditions. Using the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as a test system, differences in POR protein abundance and por gene expression were examined when this organism was grown on an alternating light:dark cycles at different irradiances; exposed to continuous light; and challenged by a significant decrease in light availability. As a result, for cultures maintained on a 12h light: 12h dark photoperiod at 200μEm–2 s–1 (200L/D), both por genes were up-regulated during the light and down-regulated in the dark, though por1 transcript abundance rose and fell earlier than that of por2. Little concordance occurred between por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance. In contrast, por2 mRNA and POR2 protein abundances followed similar diurnal patterns. When 200L/D P. tricornutum cultures were transferred to continuous light (200L/L), the diurnal regulatory pattern of por1 mRNA abundance but not of por2 was disrupted, and POR1 but not POR2 protein abundance dropped steeply. Under 1200μEm–2 s–1 (1200L/D), both por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance displayed diurnal oscillations. A compromised diel por2 mRNA response under 1200L/D did not impact the oscillation in POR2 abundance. When cells grown at 1200L/D were then shifted to 50μEm–2 s–1 (50L/D), por1 and por2 mRNA levels decreased swiftly but briefly upon light reduction. Thereafter, POR1 but not POR2 protein levels rose significantly in

  8. Differential regulation of duplicate light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    DOE PAGES

    Hunsperger, Heather M.; Ford, Christopher J.; Miller, James S.; ...

    2016-07-01

    Diatoms (Bacilliariophyceae) encode two light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (POR1 and POR2) that catalyze the penultimate step of chlorophyll biosynthesis in the light. Algae live in dynamic environments whose changing light levels induce photoacclimative metabolic shifts, including altered cellular chlorophyll levels. We hypothesized that the two POR proteins may be differentially adaptive under varying light conditions. Using the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as a test system, differences in POR protein abundance and por gene expression were examined when this organism was grown on an alternating light:dark cycles at different irradiances; exposed to continuous light; and challenged by a significant decrease in light availability.more » As a result, for cultures maintained on a 12h light: 12h dark photoperiod at 200μEm–2 s–1 (200L/D), both por genes were up-regulated during the light and down-regulated in the dark, though por1 transcript abundance rose and fell earlier than that of por2. Little concordance occurred between por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance. In contrast, por2 mRNA and POR2 protein abundances followed similar diurnal patterns. When 200L/D P. tricornutum cultures were transferred to continuous light (200L/L), the diurnal regulatory pattern of por1 mRNA abundance but not of por2 was disrupted, and POR1 but not POR2 protein abundance dropped steeply. Under 1200μEm–2 s–1 (1200L/D), both por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance displayed diurnal oscillations. A compromised diel por2 mRNA response under 1200L/D did not impact the oscillation in POR2 abundance. When cells grown at 1200L/D were then shifted to 50μEm–2 s–1 (50L/D), por1 and por2 mRNA levels decreased swiftly but briefly upon light reduction. Thereafter, POR1 but not POR2 protein levels rose significantly in response to this light stepdown.« less

  9. Modulation of Energy Transfer into Sequential Electron Transfer upon Axial Coordination of Tetrathiafulvalene in an Aluminum(III) Porphyrin-Free-Base Porphyrin Dyad.

    PubMed

    Poddutoori, Prashanth K; Bregles, Lucas P; Lim, Gary N; Boland, Patricia; Kerr, Russ G; D'Souza, Francis

    2015-09-08

    Axially assembled aluminum(III) porphyrin based dyads and triads have been constructed to investigate the factors that govern the energy and electron transfer processes in a perpendicular direction to the porphyrin plane. In the aluminum(III) porphyrin-free-base porphyrin (AlPor-Ph-H2Por) dyad, the AlPor occupies the basal plane, while the free-base porphyrin (H2Por) with electron withdrawing groups resides in the axial position through a benzoate spacer. The NMR, UV-visible absorption, and steady-state fluorescence studies confirm that the coordination of pyridine appended tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) derivative (TTF-py or TTF-Ph-py) to the dyad in noncoordinating solvents afford vertically arranged supramolecular self-assembled triads (TTF-py→AlPor-Ph-H2Por and TTF-Ph-py→AlPor-Ph-H2Por). Time-resolved studies revealed that the AlPor in dyad and triads undergoes photoinduced energy and/or electron transfer processes. Interestingly, the energy and electron donating/accepting nature of AlPor can be modulated by changing the solvent polarity or by stimulating a new competing process using a TTF molecule. In modest polar solvents (dichloromethane and o-dichlorobenzene), excitation of AlPor leads singlet-singlet energy transfer from the excited singlet state of AlPor ((1)AlPor*) to H2Por with a moderate rate constant (k(EnT)) of 1.78 × 10(8) s(-1). In contrast, excitation of AlPor in the triad results in ultrafast electron transfer from TTF to (1)AlPor* with a rate constant (k(ET)) of 8.33 × 10(9)-1.25 × 10(10) s(-1), which outcompetes the energy transfer from (1)AlPor* to H2Por and yields the primary radical pair TTF(+•)-AlPor(-•)-H2Por. A subsequent electron shift to H2Por generates a spatially well-separated TTF(+•)-AlPor-H2Por(-•) radical pair.

  10. Monóxido de carbono

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La mayoria de los accidentes causados por envenenamiento por monoxido de carbono (CO) se producen en los hogares y estan relacionados a nuestras actividades diarias como cocinar y usar la calefaccion.

  11. Isolation of porphyran-degrading marine microorganisms from the surface of red alga, Porphyra yezoensis.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Takashi; Tsuge, Keisuke; Sumi, Toshihisa; Yoshiki, Masahiro; Tsuruta, Yumi; Abe, Shin-ichi; Nishino, Shiduo; Sanematsu, Seigo; Koganemaru, Kazuyoshi

    2006-04-01

    Marine microorganisms degrading porphyran (POR) were found on the surface of thalli of Porphyra yezoensis. Fifteen crude microorganism groups softened and liquefied the surface of agar-rich plate medium. Among these, 11 microorganism groups degraded porphyran that consisted of sulfated polysaccharide in Porphyra yezoensis. Following isolation, 7 POR-degradable microorganisms were isolated from the 11 POR-degradable microorganism groups.

  12. 78 FR 27954 - Frontseating Service Valves From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... DunAn did not have reviewable transactions during the POR. In addition, we preliminarily determine... potential shipments made by DunAn during the POR; CBP did not provide any evidence that contradicts DunAn's... determine that DunAn did not have any reviewable transactions during the POR. In addition, the...

  13. Autonomous Vehicle Panel 2011 Pacific Operations Science and Technology Conference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-16

    Transportable Robot System (MTRS) POR Multi- Mission Unmanned Ground Vehicle (MM- UGV) CDD Husky Mounted Detection System (HMDS) POR...Battlefield Extraction Assist Robot (BEAR) Initiative Squad Multi- purpose Equipment Transport (SMET) CDD Exoskeleton (XOS) CDD Autonomous Mobility...Appliqué System (AMAS) CDD M160 Light Flail POR 3 CPD To be released Ground Robotics Capability Sets (photos are notional representations

  14. Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase: Phylogeny, Regulation, and Catalytic Properties.

    PubMed

    Gabruk, Michal; Mysliwa-Kurdziel, Beata

    2015-09-01

    This Current Topic focuses on light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR, EC 1.3.1.33). POR catalyzes the penultimate reaction of chlorophyll biosynthesis, i.e., the light-triggered reduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide. In this reaction, the chlorin ring of the chlorophyll molecule is formed, which is crucial for photosynthesis. POR is one of very few enzymes that are driven by light; however, it is unique in the need for its substrate to absorb photons to induce the conformational changes in the enzyme, which are required for its catalytic activation. Moreover, the enzyme is also involved in the negative feedback of the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway and controls chlorophyll content via its light-dependent activity. Even though it has been almost 70 years since the first isolation of active POR complexes, our knowledge of them has markedly advanced in recent years. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge of POR, including the phylogenetic roots of POR, the mechanisms of the regulation of POR genes expression, the regulation of POR activity, the import of POR into plastids, the role of POR in PLB formation, and the molecular mechanism of protochlorophyllide reduction by POR. To the best of our knowledge, no previous review has compiled such a broad set of recent findings about POR.

  15. A comparison of edge detecting algorithms in magnetic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekinci, Yunus Levent

    2010-05-01

    Directional derivatives based algorithms and special filters are widely used for enhancing the magnetic anomalies of the causative sources. The edge-detecting algorithms effectively aids geologic interpretation and may also bring out the subtle details in the data without specifying prior information about the nature of the sources, thus some model parameters of the source body may be estimated via this way which may guide the inversion process. These techniques have the ability of exhibiting maxima over lateral magnetization contrasts if the source magnetization and the ambient field are directed vertically, and hence the edges and lateral outlines of the causative sources may be determined. In the interpretation of the magnetic data, in order to bring out fine details, the frequently used filters are vertical derivatives or downward continuation and the other forms of high-pass filters. Because the shallow bodies produce magnetic anomalies with maximum horizontal gradients located nearly over their edges contrasts if the source magnetization and ambient field are directed vertically, the most popular technique is the first order total horizontal derivatives. The abrupt changes in mass magnetization may be located in anomaly map by using total horizontal gradient technique. Many filters and algorithms based on the use of the directional derivatives of the potential field data have been developed and suggested to determine the source parameters such as locations of the lateral source boundaries. In this research, the efficiency of several edge detectors such as sobel filter (SED), analytic signal (AS), horizontal derivatives of theta map (THD), horizontal derivatives of tilt angle (TAHD) and normalized standard deviations (NSD) were compared. Tests were performed on theoretically calculated magnetic anomalies resulting from 3D prismatic bodies for different cases. Before the applications of edge detector algorithms to the produced data, reduction to the pole

  16. Destabilization of IncA and IncC plasmids by SGI1 and SGI2 type Salmonella genomic islands.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Christopher J; Hamidian, Mohammad; Ambrose, Stephanie J; Hall, Ruth M

    Both the Salmonella genomic islands (SGI) and the conjugative IncC plasmids are known to contribute substantially to the acquisition of resistance to multiple antibiotics, and plasmids in the A/C group are known to mobilize the Salmonella genomic island SGI1, which also carries multiple antibiotic resistance genes. Plasmid pRMH760 (IncC; A/C2) was shown to mobilize SGI1 variants SGI1-I, SGI1-F, SGI1-K and SGI2 from Salmonella enterica to Escherichia coli where it was integrated at the preferred location, at the end of the trmE (thdF) gene. The plasmid was transferred at a similar frequency. However, we observed that co-transfer of the SGI and the plasmid was rarer. In E. coli to E. coli transfer, the frequency of transfer of the IncC plasmid pRMH760 was at least 1000-fold lower when the donor carried SGI1-I or SGI1-K, indicating that the SGI suppresses transfer of the plasmid. In addition, pRMH760 was rapidly lost from both E. coli and S. enterica strains that also carried SGI1-I, SGI1-F or SGI2. However, plasmid loss was not seen when the SGI1 variant was SGI1-K, which lacks two segments of the SGI1 backbone. The complete sequence of the SGI1-I and SGI1-F were determined and SGI1-K also carries two single base substitutions relative to SGI1-I. The IncA (A/C1) plasmid RA1 was also shown to mobilize SGI2-A and though there are significant differences between the backbones of IncA and IncC plasmids, RA1 was also rapidly lost when SGI2-A was present in the same cell. We conclude that there are multiple interactions, both cooperative and antagonistic, between an IncA or IncC plasmid and the SGI1 and SGI2 family genomic islands.

  17. Modeling and control of distributed energy systems during transition between grid connected and standalone modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arafat, Md Nayeem

    Distributed generation systems (DGs) have been penetrating into our energy networks with the advancement in the renewable energy sources and energy storage elements. These systems can operate in synchronism with the utility grid referred to as the grid connected (GC) mode of operation, or work independently, referred to as the standalone (SA) mode of operation. There is a need to ensure continuous power flow during transition between GC and SA modes, referred to as the transition mode, in operating DGs. In this dissertation, efficient and effective transition control algorithms are developed for DGs operating either independently or collectively with other units. Three techniques are proposed in this dissertation to manage the proper transition operations. In the first technique, a new control algorithm is proposed for an independent DG which can operate in SA and GC modes. The proposed transition control algorithm ensures low total harmonic distortion (THD) and less voltage fluctuation during mode transitions compared to the other techniques. In the second technique, a transition control is suggested for a collective of DGs operating in a microgrid system architecture to improve the reliability of the system, reduce the cost, and provide better performance. In this technique, one of the DGs in a microgrid system, referred to as a dispatch unit , takes the additional responsibility of mode transitioning to ensure smooth transition and supply/demand balance in the microgrid. In the third technique, an alternative transition technique is proposed through hybridizing the current and droop controllers. The proposed hybrid transition control technique has higher reliability compared to the dispatch unit concept. During the GC mode, the proposed hybrid controller uses current control. During the SA mode, the hybrid controller uses droop control. During the transition mode, both of the controllers participate in formulating the inverter output voltage but with different

  18. A New Sandwich ELISA for Quantification of Thymidine Kinase 1 Protein Levels in Sera from Dogs with Different Malignancies Can Aid in Disease Management.

    PubMed

    Jagarlamudi, Kiran Kumar; Moreau, Laura; Westberg, Sara; Rönnberg, Henrik; Eriksson, Staffan

    2015-01-01

    Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) is a DNA precursor enzyme whose expression is closely correlated with cell proliferation and cell turnover. Sensitive serum TK1 activity assays have been used for monitoring and prognosis of hematological malignancies in both humans and dogs. Here we describe the development of a specific sandwich TK1-ELISA for the quantification of TK1 protein levels in sera from dogs with different malignancies. A combination of rabbit polyclonal anti-dog TK1 antibody and a mouse monoclonal anti-human TK1 antibody was used. Different concentrations of recombinant canine TK1 was used as standard. Clinical evaluation of the ELISA was done by using sera from 42 healthy dogs, 43 dogs with hematological tumors and 55 with solid tumors. An established [3H]-dThd phosphorylation assay was used to determine the TK1 activity levels in the same sera. The mean TK1 activities in dogs with hematological tumors were significantly higher than those found in healthy dogs. In agreement with earlier studies, no significant difference was observed in serum TK1 activities between healthy dogs and dogs with solid tumors. However, the mean TK1 protein levels determined by new TK1-ELISA were significantly higher not only in hematological tumors but also in solid tumors compared to healthy dogs (mean ± SD = 1.30 ± 1.16, 0.67 ± 0.55 and 0.27± 0.10 ng/mL, respectively). Moreover, TK1-ELISA had significantly higher ability to distinguish lymphoma cases from healthy based on receiver operating characteristic analyses (area under the curve, AUC, of 0.96) to that of the activity assay (AUC, 0.84). Furthermore, fluctuations in TK1 protein levels during the course of chemotherapy in dogs with lymphoma closely associated with clinical outcome. Overall, the TK1-ELISA showed significant linear correlation with the TK1 activity assay (rs = 0.6, p<0.0001). Thus, the new TK1-ELISA has sufficient sensitivity and specificity for routine clinical use in veterinary oncology.

  19. SVPWM Technique with Varying DC-Link Voltage for Common Mode Voltage Reduction in a Matrix Converter and Analytical Estimation of its Output Voltage Distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padhee, Varsha

    converter. This conceivably aids the sizing and design of output passive filters. An analytical estimation method has been presented to achieve this purpose for am IMC. Knowledge of the fundamental component in output voltage can be utilized to calculate its Total Harmonic Distortion (THD). The effectiveness of the proposed SVPWM algorithms and the analytical estimation technique is substantiated by simulations in MATLAB / Simulink and experiments on a laboratory prototype of the IMC. Proper comparison plots have been provided to contrast the performance of the proposed methods with the conventional SVPWM method. The behavior of output voltage distortion and CMV with variation in operating parameters like modulation index and output frequency has also been analyzed.

  20. Luminescence properties of lanthanide and ytterbium lanthanide titanate thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Per-Anders Fjellvåg, Helmer; Nilsen, Ola; Finstad, Terje G.

    2016-01-15

    Lanthanide based luminescent materials are highly suitable as down conversion materials in combination with a UV-absorbing host material. The authors have used TiO{sub 2} as the UV-absorbing host material and investigated the energy transfer between TiO{sub 2} and 11 different lanthanide ions, Ln{sup 3+} (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb) in thin films grown by atomic layer deposition. They have also investigated the possibility to improve the overall energy transfer from TiO{sub 2} to Yb{sup 3+} with a second Ln{sup 3+}, in order to enhance down conversion. The films were grown at a substrate temperature of 300 °C, using the Ln(thd){sub 3}/O{sub 3} (thd = 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedione) and TiCl{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O precursor pairs. The focus of the work is to explore the energy transfer from TiO{sub 2} to Ln{sup 3+} ions, and the energy transfer between Ln{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} ions, which could lead to efficient down conversion. The samples have been characterized by x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and photoluminescence. All films were amorphous as deposited, and the samples have been annealed at 600, 800, and 1000 °C in order to investigate the correlation between the crystallinity and luminescence. The lanthanum titanium oxide samples showed a weak and broad emission centered at 540 nm, which was absent in all the other samples, indicating energy transfer from TiO{sub 2} to Ln{sup 3+} in all other lanthanide samples. In the amorphous phase, all samples, apart from La, Tb, and Tm, showed a typical f-f emission when excited by a 325 nm HeCd laser. None of the samples showed any luminescence after annealing at 1000 °C due to the formation of Ln{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}. Samples containing Nd, Sm, and Eu show a change in emission spectrum when annealed at 800 °C compared to the as-deposited samples, indicating that the smaller lanthanides crystallize in a different manner than the larger

  1. Altered heme catabolism by heme oxygenase-1 caused by mutations in human NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Amit V.; Flueck, Christa E.; Mullis, Primus E.

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Mutations in POR identified from patients lead to reduced HO-1 activities. {yields} POR mutation Y181D affecting FMN binding results in total loss of HO-1 activity. {yields} POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F, lost 50-70% activity. {yields} Mutations in FAD binding domain, R457H, Y459H and V492E lost all HO-1 activity. {yields} POR polymorphisms P228L, R316W, G413S, A503V and G504R have normal activity. -- Abstract: Human heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) carries out heme catabolism supported by electrons supplied from the NADPH through NADPH P450 reductase (POR, CPR). Previously we have shown that mutations in human POR cause a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of mutations in POR on HO-1 activity. We used purified preparations of wild type and mutant human POR and in vitro reconstitution with purified HO-1 to measure heme degradation in a coupled assay using biliverdin reductase. Here we show that mutations in POR found in patients may reduce HO-1 activity, potentially influencing heme catabolism in individuals carrying mutant POR alleles. POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X had total loss of HO-1 activity, while POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 50-70% activity. The POR variants P228L, R316W and G413S, A503V and G504R identified as polymorphs had close to WT activity. Loss of HO-1 activity may result in increased oxidative neurotoxicity, anemia, growth retardation and iron deposition. Further examination of patients affected with POR deficiency will be required to assess the metabolic effects of reduced HO-1 activity in affected individuals.

  2. RNAi based simultaneous silencing of all forms of light-dependent NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase genes result in the accumulation of protochlorophyllide in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum).

    PubMed

    Talaat, Neveen B

    2013-10-01

    Conversion of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) into chlorophyllide (Chlide), a key step in chlorophyll biosynthesis, is mediated by a light-dependent NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR). POR exists in multiple isoforms that share high degree of homology. RNAi-mediated gene silencing approach was used to suppress the expression of POR genes in order to study its role in the Chls biosynthesis in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). The transgenic plants were devoid of chlorophyll pigments and resembled albino plants. Northern blot analysis confirmed the degradation of POR transcripts into 21-23 bp fragments. Pigment analysis showed the accumulation of various intermediate compounds of Chl biosynthesis pathway including Pchlide. However, no trace of chlorophyll was observed. As compared to wild type, POR-silenced plants accumulated larger (60%) amounts of Pchlide from its endogenous substrate. When leaf discs of WT and POR-silenced plants were treated with exogenous ALA both WT and POR-silenced plants accumulated large amounts of tetrapyrrolic intermediates demonstrating that Pchlide biosynthesis potential was not suppressed in POR-silenced plants. Upon illumination, WT plants photo-transformed large amounts of Pchlide to Chlide. However, POR-silenced plants almost completely failed to do so. Results demonstrate that the antisense approaches to drop expression of individual POR isoforms have provided valuable insights into the role of distinct PORs during greening. Moreover, data illustrate that the POR is the only enzyme that can convert the Pchlide to Chlide and there is no alternate enzyme that can substitute the POR in higher plants. Thus, this investigation describes ideal mechanism for the silencing of POR isozymes in tobacco.

  3. A two-component system regulates gene expression of the type IX secretion component proteins via an ECF sigma factor

    PubMed Central

    Kadowaki, Tomoko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Naito, Mariko; Sato, Keiko; Kikuchi, Yuichiro; Kondo, Yoshio; Shoji, Mikio; Nakayama, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes potent pathogenic proteases, gingipains, via the type IX secretion system (T9SS). This system comprises at least 11 components; however, the regulatory mechanism of their expression has not yet been elucidated. Here, we found that the PorY (PGN_2001)-PorX (PGN_1019)-SigP (PGN_0274) cascade is involved in the regulation of T9SS. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis revealed a direct interaction between a recombinant PorY (rPorY) and a recombinant PorX (rPorX). rPorY autophosphorylated and transferred a phosphoryl group to rPorX in the presence of Mn2+. These results demonstrate that PorX and PorY act as a response regulator and a histidine kinase, respectively, of a two component system (TCS), although they are separately encoded on the chromosome. T9SS component-encoding genes were down-regulated in a mutant deficient in a putative extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor, PGN_0274 (SigP), similar to the porX mutant. Electrophoretic gel shift assays showed that rSigP bound to the putative promoter regions of T9SS component-encoding genes. The SigP protein was lacking in the porX mutant. Co-immunoprecipitation and SPR analysis revealed the direct interaction between SigP and PorX. Together, these results indicate that the PorXY TCS regulates T9SS-mediated protein secretion via the SigP ECF sigma factor. PMID:26996145

  4. P450 oxidoreductase deficiency - a new form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Flück, Christa E; Pandey, Amit V; Huang, Ningwu; Agrawal, Vishal; Miller, Walter L

    2008-01-01

    Patients with adrenal insufficiency, genital anomalies and bony malformations resembling the Antley- Bixler syndrome (a craniosynostosis syndrome), are likely to have P450 oxidoreductase (POR) deficiency. Since our first report in 2004, about 26 recessive POR mutations have been identified in 50 patients. POR is the obligate electron donor to all microsomal (type II) P450 enzymes, including the steroidogenic enzymes CYP17A1, CYP21A2 and CYP19A1. POR deficiency may cause disordered sexual development manifested as genital undervirilization in 46,XY newborns as well as overvirilization in those who are 46,XX. This may be explained by impaired aromatization of fetal androgens which may also lead to maternal virilization and low urinary estriol levels during pregnancy. A role for the alternate 'backdoor' pathway of androgen biosynthesis, leading to dihydrotestosterone production bypassing androstenedione and testosterone, has been suggested in POR deficiency but remains unclear. POR variants may play an important role in drug metabolism, as most drugs are metabolized by hepatic microsomal P450 enzymes. However, functional assays studying the effects of specific POR mutations on steroidogenesis showed that several POR variants impaired CYP17A1, CYP21A2 and CYP19A1 activities to different degrees, indicating that each POR variant must be studied separately for each potential target P450 enzyme. Thus, the impact of POR mutations on drug metabolism by hepatic P450s requires further investigation.

  5. Efficient anti-tumor effect of photodynamic treatment with polymeric nanoparticles composed of polyethylene glycol and polylactic acid block copolymer encapsulating hydrophobic porphyrin derivative.

    PubMed

    Ogawara, Ken-ichi; Shiraishi, Taro; Araki, Tomoya; Watanabe, Taka-ichi; Ono, Tsutomu; Higaki, Kazutaka

    2016-01-20

    To develop potent and safer formulation of photosensitizer for cancer photodynamic therapy (PDT), we tried to formulate hydrophobic porphyrin derivative, photoprotoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester (PppIX-DME), into polymeric nanoparticles composed of polyethylene glycol and polylactic acid block copolymer (PN-Por). The mean particle size of PN-Por prepared was around 80nm and the zeta potential was determined to be weakly negative. In vitro phototoxicity study for PN-Por clearly indicated the significant phototoxicity of PN-Por for three types of tumor cells tested (Colon-26 carcinoma (C26), B16BL6 melanoma and Lewis lung cancer cells) in the PppIX-DME concentration-dependent fashion. Furthermore, it was suggested that the release of PppIX-DME from PN-Por would gradually occur to provide the sustained release of PppIX-DME. In vivo pharmacokinetics of PN-Por after intravenous administration was evaluated in C26 tumor-bearing mice, and PN-Por exhibited low affinity to the liver and spleen and was therefore retained in the blood circulation for a long time, leading to the efficient tumor disposition of PN-Por. Furthermore, significant and highly effective anti-tumor effect was confirmed in C26 tumor-bearing mice with the local light irradiation onto C26 tumor tissues after PN-Por injection. These findings indicate the potency of PN-Por for the development of more efficient PDT-based cancer treatments.

  6. Perceptions of risks to children's health from indoor air pollution and an investigation of respiratory illness symptoms from indoor heating with a woodburning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, J.S. III

    1986-01-01

    This study explores perceptions of risks to health (POR), risk taking behavior (RTB), and associated illness from the perspectives of medical anthropology and epidemiology. Specific objectives included investigation of the following: (1) general POR: (2) POR from indoor air pollution (IAP) and parental usage of IAP sources; (3) the relationship between POR and RTB; factors affecting POR and RTB; (4) the construction of risk domains; (5) sources of intracultural variation in POR, RTB, and the partitioning of risk domains; (6) patterns of indoor heating in central Michigan; and (7) respiratory illness symptoms (RIS) in children from exposure to indoor heating with a woodburning stove (WBS). POR and RTB were investigated in random and ethnographic samples, RIS in a random sample with an internal comparison group, and indoor heating in a random sample. Interview schedules were developed for each phase of inquiry. The instrument used to investigate POR and RTB includes both qualitative and quantitative scales for POR assessment. Findings of this study provide an ethnography of risk, an inferential analysis of POR/RTB, and a preliminary assessment of risks of RIS from heating with WBS.

  7. Patterns of coral disease across the Hawaiian Archipelago: Relating disease to environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aeby, G.S.; Williams, G.J.; Franklin, E.C.; Kenyon, J.; Cox, E.F.; Coles, S.; Work, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    In Hawaii, coral reefs occur across a gradient of biological (host abundance), climatic (sea surface temperature anomalies) and anthropogenic conditions from the human-impacted reefs of the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) to the pristine reefs of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Coral disease surveys were conducted at 142 sites from across the Archipelago and disease patterns examined. Twelve diseases were recorded from three coral genera (Porites, Montipora, Acropora) with Porites having the highest prevalence. Porites growth anomalies (PorGAs) were significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the MHI and Porites trematodiasis (PorTrm) was significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the NWHI. Porites tissue loss syndrome (PorTLS) was also important in driving regional differences but that relationship was less clear. These results highlight the importance of understanding disease ecology when interpreting patterns of disease occurrence. PorTrm is caused by a parasitic flatworm that utilizes multiple hosts during its life cycle (fish, mollusk and coral). All three hosts must be present for the disease to occur and higher host abundance leads to higher disease prevalence. Thus, a high prevalence of PorTrm on Hawaiian reefs would be an indicator of a healthy coral reef ecosystem. In contrast, the high occurrence of PorGAs within the MHI suggests that PorGAs are related, directly or indirectly, to some environmental co-factor associated with increased human population sizes. Focusing on the three indicator diseases (PorGAs, PorTrm, PorTLS) we used statistical modeling to examine the underlying associations between disease prevalence and 14 different predictor variables (biotic and abiotic). All three diseases showed positive associations with host abundance and negative associations with thermal stress. The association with human population density differed among disease states with PorGAs showing a positive and PorTrm showing

  8. 77 FR 58512 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... resulting benefit by POSCO's total free on board (f.o.b.) sales. See 19 CFR 351.525(b)(3). On this basis, we... attributable to the POR by Dongbu's total f.o.b. sales for the POR. On this basis, we determine a net... of exemptions by Dongbu's total f.o.b. sales for the POR. On this basis, we preliminarily...

  9. 75 FR 12206 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... pink shrimp (Penaeus notialis), southern rough shrimp (Trachypenaeus curvirostris), southern white... available, contemporaneous with the POR and exclusive of taxes and duties.\\11\\ As a general matter,...

  10. ESHRE consensus on the definition of 'poor response' to ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization: the Bologna criteria.

    PubMed

    Ferraretti, A P; La Marca, A; Fauser, B C J M; Tarlatzis, B; Nargund, G; Gianaroli, L

    2011-07-01

    The definition presented here represents the first realistic attempt by the scientific community to standardize the definition of poor ovarian response (POR) in a simple and reproducible manner. POR to ovarian stimulation usually indicates a reduction in follicular response, resulting in a reduced number of retrieved oocytes. It has been recognized that, in order to define the poor response in IVF, at least two of the following three features must be present: (i) advanced maternal age or any other risk factor for POR; (ii) a previous POR; and (iii) an abnormal ovarian reserve test (ORT). Two episodes of POR after maximal stimulation are sufficient to define a patient as poor responder in the absence of advanced maternal age or abnormal ORT. By definition, the term POR refers to the ovarian response, and therefore, one stimulated cycle is considered essential for the diagnosis of POR. However, patients of advanced age with an abnormal ORT may be classified as poor responders since both advanced age and an abnormal ORT may indicate reduced ovarian reserve and act as a surrogate of ovarian stimulation cycle outcome. In this case, the patients should be more properly defined as 'expected poor responder'. If this definition of POR is uniformly adapted as the 'minimal' criteria needed to select patients for future clinical trials, more homogeneous populations will be tested for any new protocols. Finally, by reducing bias caused by spurious POR definitions, it will be possible to compare results and to draw reliable conclusions.

  11. Characterisation and immune responses to meningococcal recombinant porin complexes incorporated into liposomes.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Sandra; Abel, Ana; Marzoa, Juan; Gorringe, Andrew; Criado, Teresa; Ferreirós, Carlos M

    2009-08-27

    We have analysed the structure of meningococcal outer membrane complexes and found that the main complexes are formed by different combinations of PorA and/or PorB molecules, associated to other proteins such as RmpM. In view of the growing knowledge of the importance of conformational epitopes in the immune responses to many pathogens, our aim in this study was to analyse the interactions of PorA and PorB by reconstitution of both recombinant porins into liposomes and determine the relevance of these interactions for the immune response. Recombinant PorA and PorB incorporated into liposomes associate forming complexes that are homomeric when only one of the porins is present, but heteromeric when both neisserial porins are present, mimicking those found previously in native outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). Association of PorA and PorB to form heterocomplexes modifies the immunogenicity of at least PorB, allowing the production of antibodies that recognise conformational epitopes, and produces new epitopes that react with a 50 kDa outer membrane protein not yet identified.

  12. [Financial expenses incurred by herniated disk in health professionals].

    PubMed

    Zonana-Nacach, Abraham; Moreno-Cazares, Marco Cesar; Gómez-Naranjo, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: las incapacidades prolongadas no sólo tienen un alto costo económico sino también repercusiones en la productividad debido a la ausencia del trabajador. Objetivo: evaluar el costo del subsidio pagado por el Instituto Mexicano Seguro Social (IMSS) a los trabajadores que incapacita por hernia de disco. Material y métodos: estudio observacional, descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo efectuado con trabajadores del IMSS a quienes se incapacita para no laborar por más de 14 días. El estudio se efectuó mediante la revisión de los registros asentados entre 2009-2011 de 1,070 trabajadores con incapacidad prolongada de los que 48 tuvieron diagnóstico de hernia de disco. Se cuantificaron los días totales de incapacidad, días subsidiados por incapacidad versus los días sugeridos por el consejero médico de incapacidades. Resultados: de los 48 pacientes con hernias de disco, 54% fueron cervicales y 65% recibieron tratamiento uirúrgico. Los días totales promedio de incapacidad por hernias de disco fueron 125 ± 84 y 24 (50%), respectivamente. De las que rebasaron las recomendadas por el consejero médico, 6 (26%) fueron por concordancia diagnóstica, 12 (52%) por diferimiento en el diagnóstico y 5 (22%) por dolor residual. El costo de las incapacidades laborales originadas por hernias de disco que rebasaron las sugeridas por el consejero médico fue de 683,026 pesos en comparación con 367,081 pesos que no rebasaron la recomendación de éste. Después de 12 meses de seguimiento, 9 casos (18.8%) seguían con incapacidad y 2 (4%) tuvieron pensión por invalidez. Conclusiones: el costo en subsidio por incapacidades a pacientes con hernia de disco se duplicó principalmente por diferimiento en el diagnóstico.

  13. Encapsulation of cobalt porphyrins in organically modified silica gel glasses and their nonlinear optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Chan; Huang, Li; Li, Wei; Chen, Wenzhe

    2017-01-01

    2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octaethyl-21H,23H-porphyrin Cobalt(II) (CoPor) was introduced into nanostructured organically modified silica (ORMOSIL) using a sol-gel technique. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis, and UV-Vis spectroscopy were performed to investigate the morphology, structure, thermal stability, and linear optical properties of the resulting gel glasses. The FT-IR spectrum and UV-Vis spectra strongly indicated the formation of a silica gel glass network and the successful encapsulation of CoPor in ORMOSIL silica gel glasses, respectively. The introduction of guest CoPor molecules induces silica to form more condensed surface characteristics, owing to the fact that CoPor can promote the hydrolysis and polycondensation procedure, and hence have better thermal stability as compared to blank silica gel glasses. Meanwhile, the dimerization phenomenon in a liquid matrix can be effectively suppressed in a silica solid-state matrix and is attributed to the `cage protection effect.' The nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of CoPor gel glasses were investigated using the open-aperture Z-scan technique at 532 nm. The NLO performance of CoPor-incorporated solid-state silica gel glasses has been improved in comparison with those dispersed in dimethylformamide solution. More significantly, the NLO properties of CoPor-doped ORMOSIL gel glasses can be controlled by adjusting the concentration of the CoPor molecules.

  14. [Pure neural leprosy. Diagnostic aspects of a clinical case].

    PubMed

    Pardal-Fernandez, J M; Ezsol-Lendvai, S; Rodriguez-Vazquez, M; Agudo-Mena, J L; Godes-Medrano, B

    2016-09-16

    Introduccion. La lepra es una enfermedad infecciosa causada por la bacteria Mycobacterium leprae. Presenta especial avidez por la piel y los troncos nerviosos, y, de hecho, ambos se afectan en la mayor parte de los infectados. Se trasmite por exposicion con enfermos y en ocasiones por reactivacion. Una posibilidad inhabitual es la lepra neural pura, caracterizada por neuropatia, pero sin lesiones en la piel. Se describe un paciente con lepra neural pura y se revisan los aspectos diagnosticos. Caso clinico. Varon de 40 años, inmigrante, diagnosticado y tratado de lepra 20 años antes. Acudio por parestesias y disestesias dolorosas en las manos y las piernas sin lesiones en la piel. Se demostro mononeuritis multiple aguda con principal afectacion de cubitales. La enfermedad, tipificada como tuberculoide paucibacilar, se trato y en pocas semanas la mejoria fue evidente. Conclusiones. En este caso de lepra neural pura por reactivacion, el diagnostico temprano permitio un rapido tratamiento. Es recomendable la evaluacion de la neuropatia integrada con criterios clinicos, electrofisiologicos y ecograficos. De este modo se consigue una alta sensibilidad y especialmente una precocidad en el diagnostico y la instauracion del tratamiento, y por consecuencia una mejor recuperacion funcional.

  15. Use of the Maximum Likelihood Method in the Analysis of Chamber Air Dives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    de probabilidad maxima para evaluar ci niesgo de enfermedad por des- t,- 1.WalersbyP. doeo (EPD) onimrinsd aaacnaire electivas. Sc optmz los...parametros -Medic Rcsearc dedsmodelos matemnaticos para predecir la EPD, hasta que se alcanzo el mejor critenio tute, 198 (medido por la probabilidad maxima

  16. Using MOMP typing as an epidemiological tool to investigate outbreaks caused by milkborne Campylobacter jejuni isolates in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe using major outer membrane protein (MOMP) typing as a screen to compare the C. jejuni porA gene sequences of clinical outbreak strains from human stool with the porA sequences of dairy farm strains isolated during two milkborne campylobacteriosis outbreak investigations in California. Th...

  17. Algunos Resumenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-03-01

    En una sesion especial celebrada en Ginebra el dia 26 de marzo el Consejo de la ESO aeepto por unanimidad a Italia y Suiza eomo nuevos estados miembros de la organizaeion. Una vez que los proeedimientos necesarios para la ratifieaeion por las Camaras de ambos pafses hayan sido eoneluldos eon exito, podrfan ellos ser asoeiados efectivamente a prineipios dei ario 1981.

  18. 77 FR 47593 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... Baosteel and Hunan Valin did not have reviewable transactions during the POR. Further, the Department preliminarily finds that because the other two respondents, Anshan and Liaoning, did not establish their... shipments of subject merchandise to the United States during the POR. In addition, CBP did not provide...

  19. 78 FR 29322 - Silicon Metal From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final No Shipments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... Jinneng''), did not have any reviewable transactions during the POR. We gave interested parties an..., we continue to find that Shanghai Jinneng did not have any reviewable transactions during the POR. \\1... Determination of No Shipments In the Preliminary Results, we preliminarily determined that Shanghai Jinneng...

  20. 76 FR 33204 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube From Turkey; Notice of Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 6627 (February 10, 2010) (``SSSS from Mexico... the cost changes and the sales prices during the POR. See SSSS from Mexico at Comment 6 and SSPC from... between Borusan's changing costs and sales prices during the POR. See id. See also SSSS from Mexico...

  1. 25 CFR 900.112 - What are construction phases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... project Program of Requirements (POR); (3) The design phase. The phase during which licensed design professional(s) using the POR as the basis for design of the project, prepare project plans, specifications, and other documents that are a part of the construction documents used to build the project....

  2. Aerodinámica y béisbol

    NASA Video Gallery

    La NASA es conocida por la astronáutica y los aviones, pero ¿también por el Active béisbol? A los investigadores de la NASA les gusta resolver problemas prácticoscomo cuán lejos llegará una bola b...

  3. Light-independent and light-dependent protochlorophyllide-reducing activities and two distinct NADPH-protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase polypeptides in mountain pine (Pinus mugo).

    PubMed

    Forreiter, C; Apel, K

    1993-01-01

    Lower plants and gymnosperms synthesize chlorophyll and develop photosynthetically competent chloroplasts even when grown in the dark. In cell-free extracts of pine (Pinus mugo, Turra, ssp. mugo) seedlings, light-independent and light-dependent protochlorophyllide-reducing activities are present. Two distinct NADPH-protochlorophyllide-oxidoreductase (POR) polypeptides can be detected immunologically with an antiserum raised against the POR of barley. The subcellular localization and amounts of the two POR polypeptides are differentially affected by light: one of them is predominantly present in prolamellar bodies of etiochloroplasts and its abundance rapidly declines once the pine seedlings are exposed to light; the other is found in thylakoid membranes and its amount does not change during illumination of dark-grown seedlings. Two types of cDNA sequences are identified that encode two distinct POR polypeptides in pine. The relevance of these POR polypeptides for the two chlorophyll biosynthetic pathways active in gymnosperms is discussed.

  4. The Hygiene Hypothesis and Breast Cancer a Novel Application of an Etiologic Theory for Allergies, Asthma, and Other Immune Disorders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    acerca de alergias . Por alergias , estamos hablando de los siguientes síntomas: nariz constipada, ojos lagrimosos, congestión o estornudos, ahogo o asma...anafiláctico o alérgico B. ¿A qué edad notó por primera vez esta alergia ? C. ¿A que edad tuvo por última vez una reacción alérgica a polvo casero...alérgico B. ¿A qué edad noto por primera vez esta alergia ? C. ¿A qué edad tuvo por última vez una reacción alérgica a [animal]? D. ¿Cuántos

  5. Full-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of four neurovirulent Mexican isolates of porcine rubulavirus.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Barrera, Ali A; Del Valle, Alberto; Montaño-Hirose, Juan A; Barrón, Blanca Lilia; Salinas-Trujano, Juana; Torres-Flores, Jesus

    2017-02-09

    We report the complete genome sequences of four neurovirulent isolates of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) from 2015 and one historical PorPV isolate from 1984 obtained by next-generation sequencing. A phylogenetic tree constructed using the individual sequences of the complete HN genes of the 2015 isolates and other historical sequences deposited in the GenBank database revealed that several recent neurovirulent isolates of PorPV (2008-2015) cluster together in a separate clade. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome sequences revealed that the neurovirulent strains of PorPV that circulated in Mexico during 2015 are genetically different from the PorPV strains that circulated during the 1980s.

  6. The Late Cretaceous I- and A-type granite association of southeast China: Implications for the origin and evolution of post-collisional extensional magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jiao-Long; Qiu, Jian-Sheng; Liu, Liang; Wang, Rui-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    We present new geochronological, mineralogical, and geochemical data for granitic plutons that crop out within the Zhoushan archipelago, northeastern coastal Zhejiang Province, in order to constrain their origin, and the genetic relationship between the I- and A-type granites. These granites can be divided into two groups: (1) the northern I-type Putuoshan (PTS) and Dadong'ao (DDA) plutons; and (2) the southern A-type Daqingshan (DQS), Taohuadao (THD), and Xiazhidao (XZD) plutons. Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating yielded ages of 98-96 Ma for the northern I-type plutons and 89-86 Ma for the southern A-type plutons. All of these granites are highly siliceous, K-rich, and have similar total alkali and total rare earth element (REE) abundances. However, there are also geochemical differences between the I-type and the A-type granites. The northern I-type alkali-feldspar granites are high-K calc-alkaline, metaluminous to mildly peraluminous, contain low concentrations of the high field strength elements (HFSE; e.g., Nb, Ta, Zr, and Hf), and have low Ga/Al ratios (2.04-2.44). In contrast, the southern A-type granites are peralkaline and F-rich, and have lower CaO and Al2O3 concentrations, and higher Fe2O3T and HFSE concentrations and Ga/Al ratios (3.25-3.86). Meanwhile, they have slightly higher heavy REE (HREE) concentrations, and are more depleted in Ba, Sr, P, Ti, and Eu than the northern I-type granites. Both the I- and A-type granites have homogeneous whole-rock Nd and highly variable zircon Hf isotopic compositions. Of note, the southern peralkaline A-type granites appear to have more radiogenic Nd and Hf isotope compositions than the northern I-type granites. The present data, together with the results of a previous study on mafic enclaves within the PTS pluton, suggest that the northern I-type alkali-feldspar granites were generated by mixing of mantle-derived material with crustal-derived magmas that formed by dehydration melting of mica-bearing basaltic rocks

  7. Cloning, expression and characterization of potential immunogenic recombinant hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of Porcine rubulavirus.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, Julieta Sandra; Rivera-Benítez, José Francisco; Hernández-Baumgarten, Eliseo; Hernández-Jaúregui, Pablo; Vega, Marco; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Berg, Mikael; Baule, Claudia

    2016-12-01

    Blue eye disease caused by Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) is an endemic viral infection of swine causing neurological and respiratory disease in piglets, and reproductive failure in sows and boars. The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein of PorPV is the most abundant component in the viral envelope and the main target of the immune response in infected animals. In this study, we expressed the HN-PorPV-recombinant (rHN-PorPV) protein in an Escherichia coli system and analyzed the immune responses in mice. The HN gene was cloned from the reference strain PorPV-La Piedad Michoacan Virus (GenBank accession number BK005918), into the pDual expression vector. The expressed protein was identified at a molecular weight of 61.7 kDa. Three-dimensional modeling showed that the main conformational and functional domains of the rHN-PorPV protein were preserved. The antigenicity of the expressed protein was confirmed by Western blot with a monoclonal antibody recognizing the HN, and by testing against serum samples from pigs experimentally infected with PorPV. The immunogenicity of the rHN-PorPV protein was tested by inoculation of BALB/c mice with AbISCO-100(®) as adjuvant. Analysis of the humoral immune responses in mice showed an increased level of specific antibodies 14 days after the first immunization, compared to the control group (P < 0.0005). The results show the ability of the rHN-PorPV protein to induce an antibody response in mice. Due to its immunogenic potential, the rHN-PorPV protein will be further evaluated in pig trials for its suitability for prevention and control of blue eye disease.

  8. Interannual variation and long-term trends in proportions of resident individuals in partially migratory birds.

    PubMed

    Meller, Kalle; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Hokkanen, Tatu; Rintala, Jukka; Piha, Markus; Lehikoinen, Aleksi

    2016-03-01

    Partial migration - a part of a population migrates and another part stays resident year-round on the breeding site - is probably the most common type of migration in the animal kingdom, yet it has only lately garnered more attention. Theoretical studies indicate that in partially migratory populations, the proportion of resident individuals (PoR) should increase in high latitudes in response to the warming climate, but empirical evidence exists for few species. We provide the first comprehensive overview of the environmental factors affecting PoR and the long-term trends in PoR by studying 27 common partially migratory bird species in Finland. The annual PoR values were calculated by dividing the winter bird abundance by the preceding breeding abundance. First, we analysed whether early-winter temperature, winter temperature year before or the abundance of tree seeds just before overwintering explains the interannual variation in PoR. Secondly, we analysed the trends in PoR between 1987 and 2011. Early-winter temperature explained the interannual variation in PoR in the waterbirds (waterfowl and gulls), most likely because the temperature affects the ice conditions and thereby the feeding opportunities for the waterbirds. In terrestrial species, the abundance of seeds was the best explanatory variable. Previous winter's temperature did not explain PoR in any species, and thus, we conclude that the variation in food availability caused the interannual variation in PoR. During the study period, PoR increased in waterbirds, but did not change in terrestrial birds. Partially migratory species living in physically contrasting habitats can differ in their annual and long-term population-level behavioural responses to warming climate, possibly because warm winter temperatures reduce ice cover and improve the feeding possibilities of waterbirds but do not directly regulate the food availability for terrestrial birds.

  9. [The two faces of veno-arteriolar reflex: cutaneous vasodilatation and vasoconstriction to raise and to lower the arm].

    PubMed

    Estanol-Vidal, B; Gutierrez-Manjarrez, F; Martinez-Memije, R; Senties-Madrid, H; Berenguer-Sanchez, M J; Magana-Zamora, L; Delgado-Garcia, G; Chiquete-Anaya, E

    2016-05-01

    Introduccion. El reflejo venoarteriolar (RVA) lo provoca un incremento en la presion venosa transmural al colocar una parte del cuerpo en el sentido de la aceleracion gravitatoria por debajo del corazon. Objetivo. Evaluar el RVA en sujetos sanos al levantar una parte del cuerpo por encima del corazon. Sujetos y metodos. En 16 sujetos sanos (20-65 años) se estudio el RVA mediante cambios en el flujo sanguineo de la piel con un fotopletismografo digital infrarrojo colocado en el pulpejo en sujetos sanos durante las siguientes condiciones: brazo derecho a la altura del corazon, brazo derecho 40 cm por debajo del corazon y brazo derecho 40 cm por encima del corazon. Las variables medidas fueron: amplitud del flujo sanguineo de la piel con el brazo a la altura del corazon (amplitud basal), porcentaje de disminucion del flujo sanguineo de la piel con el brazo por debajo del corazon y porcentaje de aumento del flujo sanguineo de la piel con el brazo por encima del corazon. Resultados. El porcentaje de vasoconstriccion con el brazo derecho por debajo del corazon fue del 35%, y el de vasodilatacion, del 50%. Conclusiones. La evaluacion del RVA con el brazo por debajo del corazon provoca vasoconstriccion, y la elevacion del brazo produce una importante vasodilatacion. La vasoconstriccion y la vasodilatacion se mantienen mientras la extremidad se mantenga por encima o por debajo del corazon. Este es un estudio potencialmente muy util y economico para estudiar la inervacion de la microcirculacion en diversas neuropatias perifericas de fibras delgadas y mixtas.

  10. Deletion of P399{sub E}401 in NADPH cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase results in partial mixed oxidase deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Flueck, Christa E.; Mallet, Delphine; Hofer, Gaby; Samara-Boustani, Dinane; Leger, Juliane; Polak, Michel; Morel, Yves; Pandey, Amit V.

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} Mutations in human POR cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia. {yields} We are reporting a novel 3 amino acid deletion mutation in POR P399{sub E}401del. {yields} POR mutation P399{sub E}401del decreased P450 activities by 60-85%. {yields} Impairment of steroid metabolism may be caused by multiple hits. {yields} Severity of aromatase inhibition is related to degree of in utero virilization. -- Abstract: P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the electron donor for all microsomal P450s including steroidogenic enzymes CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and CYP21A2. We found a novel POR mutation P399{sub E}401del in two unrelated Turkish patients with 46,XX disorder of sexual development. Recombinant POR proteins were produced in yeast and tested for their ability to support steroid metabolizing P450 activities. In comparison to wild-type POR, the P399{sub E}401del protein was found to decrease catalytic efficiency of 21-hydroxylation of progesterone by 68%, 17{alpha}-hydroxylation of progesterone by 76%, 17,20-lyase action on 17OH-pregnenolone by 69%, aromatization of androstenedione by 85% and cytochrome c reduction activity by 80%. Protein structure analysis of the three amino acid deletion P399{sub E}401 revealed reduced stability and flexibility of the mutant. In conclusion, P399{sub E}401del is a novel mutation in POR that provides valuable genotype-phenotype and structure-function correlation for mutations in a different region of POR compared to previous studies. Characterization of P399{sub E}401del provides further insight into specificity of different P450s for interaction with POR as well as nature of metabolic disruptions caused by more pronounced effect on specific P450s like CYP17A1 and aromatase.

  11. Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR) in the US ART Population: Diagnostic Trends Among 181,536 Cycles from the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcomes Reporting System (SART CORS)

    PubMed Central

    Devine, Kate; Mumford, Sunni L.; Wu, Mae; DeCherney, Alan H.; Hill, Micah J.; Propst, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate trends in DOR assignment in the SART CORS database and to evaluate its accuracy in predicting poor ovarian response (POR) as defined in ESHRE’s ‘Bologna Criteria’ (2011). Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Not applicable. Patients 181,536 fresh, autologous ART cycles reported to SART by US clinics in 2004 and 2011 (earliest and most recent available reporting years). Intervention(s) None. Main Outcome Measure(s) DOR assignment was the primary exposure. POR, defined as cycle cancellation for poor response or <4 oocytes retrieved following conventional gonadotropin stimulation (>149 IU FSH daily), was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were live birth and number of oocytes retrieved. DOR prevalence, power of DOR and FSH (POR, and live birth in POR cycles were also calculated. Results DOR prevalence increased from 19 to 26% from 2004 to 2011. Among cycles clinically assigned as DOR, incidence of POR decreased from 32 to 30%, and live birth improved from 15 to 17%. Comparing basal FSH ≥12 versus clinical assignment of DOR, basal FSH had a higher specificity (92.2% vs.81.6%) and PPV (38.3%vs.30.9%) for predicting POR. Live birth among POR cycles was 4%. Conclusions DOR diagnosis is increasing, and accuracy remains poor, despite the availability of additional diagnostic parameters such as antral follicle count and anti-mullerian hormone. POR entailed poor outcomes, but the majority of patients clinically assigned as DOR did not experience POR. Development and utilization of more accurate predictors of POR are needed to minimize patient distress resulting from over-diagnosis. PMID:26049057

  12. [Analysis of the causes leading to withdrawal of the treatment with triple antiviral therapy for hepatitis C patients].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Ramos, J; Lorente Fernández, L; Gil Gómez, I; Cueto Sola, M; Monte Boquet, E; Poveda Andrés, J L

    2014-05-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar las causas de suspensión de tratamientofrente a Hepatitis C que reciben triple terapia antiviral (peginterferon+ ribavirina + inhibidor de proteasa).Métodos: Estudio observacional retrospectivo de pacientes queiniciaron triple terapia antiviral entre enero 2012 - marzo 2013y suspendieron el tratamiento antes de completar el mismo.Resultados: De 156 pacientes que iniciaron triple terapia, 41interrumpieron el tratamiento: Diecinueve por toxicidad, siendodermatológica en siete pacientes (36,8%), intolerancia en seis(31,6%) y hematológica en cuatro (15,8%). Dieciséis pacientessuspendieron todo el tratamiento por ineficacia. El grupo depacientes con mayor porcentaje de fracasos por ineficacia fueronlos “no respondedores” (32,3%) mientras que el grupo depacientes “recidivantes” fueron el grupo con mayor porcentajede suspensiones por toxicidad (15,6%). Dos pacientes fallecierondurante el tratamiento por neumonía.Conclusiones: La triple terapia frente a VHC está asociada a unnúmero importante de fracasos terapéuticos tanto por toxicidadcomo por ineficacia.

  13. [Analysis of maternal deaths in Mexico occurred during 2009].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Dolci, Germán; Meljem-Moctezuma, José; Vicente-González, Esther; Venegas-Páez, Francisco Vicente; Villalba-Espinoza, Ignacio; Pérez-Cardoso, Ana Luisa; Barrón-Saldaña, Dante Adrián; Montesinos-Gómez, Gabriela; Aguirre Güemez, Ana Valeria; Novoa-Boldo, Alejandro; Mendoza-Larios, Laura Alejandra; López-González, Rosa; Mazón-González, Betania; Aguirre-Gas, Héctor Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: en 2011 ocurrieron 955 defunciones maternas en México, 49.9 por 100 000 nacidos vivos. La meta de la Organización Mundial de la Salud para 2015 es reducir la tasa a 22.5: 560 defunciones anuales. Métodos: estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo de 1257 muertes maternas ocurridas en México durante 2009, con una muestra representativa de 173 expedientes. Se calcularon frecuencias simples y porcentajes. Resultados: las muertes maternas ocurrieron por causas directas como preeclampsia-eclampsia, infección y hemorragia obstétrica secundaria a atonía uterina, acretismo placentario y placenta previa. Quince mujeres tuvieron complicaciones por abortos. Cuatro murieron por embarazo extrauterino debido a diagnóstico y tratamiento tardíos. Las causas indirectas de la muerte materna fueron neoplasias, sepsis abdominal, eventos vasculares, problemas metabólicos y cardiopatías. Veinticinco pacientes fallecieron por neumonía atípica y 11 por influenza A H1N1. Conclusiones: es factible disminuir la mortalidad materna mediante suficientes consultas prenatales de calidad y evitar embarazos con riesgo alto por los antecedentes obstétricos y los padecimientos asociados. La influenza A H1N1 interrumpió la tendencia descendente de la mortalidad materna.

  14. Epidemiology and neurological complications of infection by the Zika virus: a new emerging neurotropic virus.

    PubMed

    Carod-Artal, Francisco J

    2016-04-01

    Introduccion. El actual brote epidemico por virus Zika se inicio en 2015 y en la actualidad afecta a 31 paises y territorios en America. Se revisan los aspectos epidemiologicos y clinicos asociados con la infeccion por virus Zika. Desarrollo. Desde 2007, 55 paises de America, Asia, Africa y Oceania han detectado transmision local del virus. La actual epidemia ha afectado a casi 1,5 millones de personas en Brasil. El 80% de los casos son asintomaticos. La enfermedad por virus Zika cursa con fiebre, exantema maculopapular, artralgias y conjuntivitis no purulenta. Los sintomas suelen ser autolimitados y duran una semana. Se ha descrito un aumento de la incidencia de los casos de microcefalia, lesiones retinianas y sindrome de Guillain-Barre asociados con el virus Zika. El sindrome de Guillain-Barre asociado al Zika en la Polinesia es una variante axonal motora pura. El ARN del virus Zika se ha identificado en muestras de tejido cerebral, placenta y liquido amniotico de niños con microcefalia y en perdidas fetales de mujeres infectadas por Zika durante el embarazo. Se recomienda realizar la prueba de reaccion en cadena de la polimerasa mediante transcriptasa inversa para detectar ARN virico y pruebas serologicas (IgM ELISA y anticuerpos neutralizantes) para confirmar una infeccion por Zika. El diagnostico diferencial incluye la infeccion por virus dengue y chikungunya. Conclusiones. Existe un conocimiento limitado sobre los mecanismos patogenicos implicados y las consecuencias a largo plazo de la infeccion por virus Zika en adultos y recien nacidos.

  15. An ortholog of farA of Aspergillus nidulans is implicated in the transcriptional activation of genes involved in fatty acid utilization in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica

    SciTech Connect

    Poopanitpan, Napapol; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Fukuda, Ryouichi; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Akinori

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} POR1 is a Yarrowia lipolytica ortholog of farA involved in fatty acid response in A. nidulans. {yields} Deletion of POR1 caused growth defects on fatty acids. {yields} {Delta}por1 strain exhibited defects in the induction of genes involved in fatty acid utilization. -- Abstract: The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica effectively utilizes hydrophobic substrates such as fatty acids and n-alkanes. To identify a gene(s) regulating fatty acid utilization in Y. lipolytica, we first studied homologous genes to OAF1 and PIP2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but their disruption did not change growth on oleic acid at all. We next characterized a Y. lipolytica gene, POR1 (primary oleate regulator 1), an ortholog of farA encoding a transcriptional activator that regulates fatty acid utilization in Aspergillus nidulans. The deletion mutant of POR1 was defective in the growth on various fatty acids, but not on glucose, glycerol, or n-hexadecane. It exhibited slight defect on n-decane. The transcriptional induction of genes involved in {beta}-oxidation and peroxisome proliferation by oleate was distinctly diminished in the {Delta}por1 strains. These data suggest that POR1 encodes a transcriptional activator widely regulating fatty acid metabolism in Y. lipolytica.

  16. Arabidopsis light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A (PORA) is essential for normal plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Troy; Lima, Daniel; Mason, Mary E; Apel, Klaus; Armstrong, Gregory A

    2012-03-01

    During skotomorphogenesis in angiosperms, NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) forms an aggregate of photolabile NADPH-POR-protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) ternary complexes localized to the prolamellar bodies within etioplasts. During photomorphogenesis, POR catalyzes the light-dependent reduction of Pchlide a to chlorophyllide (Chlide) a, which is subsequently converted to chlorophyll (Chl). In Arabidopsis there are three structurally related POR genes, denoted PORA, PORB and PORC. The PORA and PORB proteins accumulate during skotomorphogenesis. During illumination, PORA is only transiently expressed, whereas PORB and PORC persist and are responsible for bulk Chl synthesis throughout plant development. Here we have tested whether PORA is important for skotomorphogenesis by assisting in etioplast development, and normal photomorphogenic development. Using reverse genetic approaches, we have identified the porA-1 null mutant, which contains an insertion of the maize Dissociation transposable element in the PORA gene. Additionally, we have characterized PORA RNAi lines. The porA-1 and PORA RNAi lines display severe photoautotrophic growth defects, which can be partially rescued on sucrose-supplemented growth media. Elimination of PORA during skotomorphogenesis results in reductions in the volume and frequency of prolamellar bodies, and in photoactive Pchlide conversion. The porA-1 mutant characterization thus establishes a quantitative requirement for PORA in etioplast development by demonstrating significant membrane ultrastructural and biochemical defects, in addition to suggesting PORA-specific functions in photomorphogenesis and plant development.

  17. Clinical, Genetic, and Enzymatic Characterization of P450 Oxidoreductase Deficiency in Four Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sahakitrungruang, Taninee; Huang, Ningwu; Tee, Meng Kian; Agrawal, Vishal; Russell, William E.; Crock, Patricia; Murphy, Nuala; Migeon, Claude J.; Miller, Walter L.

    2009-01-01

    Context: P450 oxidoreductase (POR) deficiency causes disordered steroidogenesis; severe mutations cause genital ambiguity in both sexes plus the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome, whereas mild mutations can cause adult infertility. Objective: We describe four patients with POR deficiency and identify and characterize the activities of their mutations. A 46,XY male with micropenis and two 46,XX female infants with genital ambiguity presented with skeletal malformations, and a 46,XX adolescent presented with primary amenorrhea, elevated 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, and low sex steroids. Methods: The coding regions of the POR gene were sequenced, and the identified mutations were recreated in human POR cDNA expression vectors lacking 27 N-terminal residues. POR and human P450c17 were expressed in bacteria. POR activity was measured by four assays: reduction of cytochrome c, oxidation of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, and support of the 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20 lyase activities of P450c17. Results: All four patients were compound heterozygotes for POR mutations, including five novel mutations: L577R, N185K, delE217, and frameshift mutations 1363delC and 697–698insGAAC. N185K and delE217 lacked measurable activity in the assays based on P450c17 but retained partial activity in the assays based on cytochrome c. As assessed by Vmax/Km, L577R supported 46% of 17α-hydroxylase activity but only 27% of 17,20 lyase activity. Computational modeling of these novel mutants revealed the structural basis for their reduced or absent activities. Conclusion: These patients illustrate the broad clinical spectrum of POR deficiency, including amenorrhea and infertility as the sole manifestation. POR assays based on P450c17 correlate well with hormonal and clinical phenotypes. PMID:19837910

  18. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Bersano Benavides, Gonzalo; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Tumi Figueroa, Ernesto Nayer; Urra Albornoz, Camilo; Sulla-Torres, Jose; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2016-03-25

    Objetivo: validar un cuestionario para medir la preocupación por la alimentación de los adolescentes, verificar la fiabilidad y desarrollar valores normativos en función de la edad, sexo y categoría. Metodología: se estudió a 3.121 (1.645 hombres y 1.476 mujeres) adolescentes de 11,0 a 18,9 años de cinco establecimientos municipales de la región del Maule, Chile. Se evaluó el peso, estatura y se calculó el índice de masa corporal. Se aplicó un cuestionario que mide la preocupación por la alimentación de adolescentes escolares. Se validó por análisis confirmatorio y la fiabilidad se determinó por consistencia interna. Resultados: el análisis factorial confirmó la presencia de cuatro factores (preocupación por la restricción de la comida, preocupación por el consumo de comida, preocupación por la forma de comer y preocupación por el peso corporal). Se eliminaron 5 preguntas que mostraron saturaciones inferiores a 0,39. El instrumento quedó conformado con 24 preguntas que explican 51,8% de la varianza. El alpha de Cronbach mostró valores entre 0,85 y 0,88. Se construyeron percentiles (p15, p50 y p85) a partir del método LMS para valorar la preocupación por la alimentación por categoría, edad y sexo. Conclusión: el instrumento desarrollado es válido y confiable y sirve para valorar el nivel de preocupación por la alimentación de adolescentes escolares. Además, las normas propuestas podrían servir a los profesionales del sistema educativo para llevar a cabo tareas de prevención con los jóvenes que evidencien bajos niveles de preocupación por su alimentación.

  19. Swinging Over the Water Hole

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    de una cuerda en el borde de un agujero de agua en x = 0, oscilando hacia arriba, y suelta la cuerda en algunos momentos, volando libremente por el...aire hasta que se sumerge en el agua en x = 0. Para pequeñas velocidades iniciales, el máximo rango de R se obtiene mediante la liberación de la...cuerda justo por debajo de su punto de inflexión y cayendo casi en línea recta hacia abajo en el agua desde el reposo. Por otra parte, como la velocidad

  20. Back Cover: NIH MedlinePlus Salud

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues NIH MedlinePlus Salud Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. ¡A su salud! Los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH, por ...

  1. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of selenomethionine-labelled progesterone 5beta-reductase from Digitalis lanata Ehrh.

    PubMed

    Egerer-Sieber, Claudia; Herl, Vanessa; Müller-Uri, Frieder; Kreis, Wolfgang; Muller, Yves A

    2006-03-01

    Progesterone 5beta-reductase (5beta-POR) catalyzes the reduction of progesterone to 5beta-pregnane-3,20-dione and is the first stereospecific enzyme in the putative biosynthetic pathway of Digitalis cardenolides. Selenomethionine-derivatized 5beta-POR from D. lanata was successfully overproduced and crystallized. The crystals belong to space group P4(3)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = 71.73, c = 186.64 A. A MAD data set collected at 2.7 A resolution allowed the identification of six out of eight possible Se-atom positions. A first inspection of the MAD-phased electron-density map shows that 5beta-POR is a Rossmann-type reductase and the quality of the map is such that it is anticipated that a complete atomic model of 5beta-POR will readily be built.

  2. Pharmacogenetics of P450 oxidoreductase: implications in drug metabolism and therapy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lei; Zhuo, Wei; He, Yi-Jing; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Fan, Lan

    2012-11-01

    The redox reaction of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP) is an important physiological and biochemical reaction in the human body, as it is involved in the oxidative metabolism of both endogenous and exogenous substrates. Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the only obligate electron donor for all of the hepatic microsomal CYP enzymes. It plays a crucial role in drug metabolism and treatment by not only acting as an electron donor involved in drug metabolism mediated by CYP enzymes but also by directly inducing the transformation of some antitumor precursors. Studies have found that the gene encoding human POR is highly polymorphic, which is of considerable clinical significance as it affects the metabolism and curative effects of clinically used drugs. This review aims to discuss the effect of POR and its genetic polymorphisms on drug metabolism and therapy, as well as the potential mechanisms of POR pharmacogenetics.

  3. Neural tube defects and drinking water disinfection by-products.

    PubMed

    Klotz, J B; Pyrch, L A

    1999-07-01

    We conducted a population-based case control study of neural tube defects and drinking water contaminants, specifically, disinfection by-products. We used public monitoring records concurrent with the first month of gestation to assess exposure. The prevalence odds ratios (PORs) for the highest tertile of total trihalomethanes compared with the lowest was 1.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.9-2.70). Surface water source was also associated with neural tube defects (POR = 1.5; 95% CI = 0.9-2.5). Sensitivity analyses restricted to isolated neural tube defect cases and mothers with known residence at conception yielded stronger associations [total trihalomethanes, POR = 2.1 (95% CI = 1.1-4.0); surface water, POR = 1.7 (95% CI = 0.9-3.2)]. Other major groups of disinfection by-products (haloacetic acids and haloacetonitriles) showed little relation to these defects.

  4. 75 FR 18788 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand: Preliminary Results and Rescission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ..., 2010) (SSSS from Mexico); see also Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Final Results of... cost changes and sales prices during the POR. See Preliminary Cost Calculation Memo. See, e.g.,...

  5. 75 FR 33578 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes from India: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... Review, 75 FR 6627 (February 10, 2010) (SSSS from Mexico), and accompanying Issues and Decision... between LMEL's changing costs and sales prices during the POR. See Cost Calculation Memo. See, e.g.,...

  6. Nuevos sistemas de frecuencia intermedia para el IAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalde, J. C.; Perilli, D.; Larrarte, J. J.

    Se presenta el diagrama en bloques de los nuevos sistemas de Frecuencia Intermedia para los dos radiómetros instalados en el IAR. Entre las características más importantes del sistema podemos mencionar la posibilidad de conectar cualquiera de las dos antenas a los ``backend" disponibles: analizador espectral de alta resolución (META II) de 0,05 Hz, autocorrelador de 1008 canales y contínuo. Se incorporan al sistema nuevos sintetizadores de frecuencia implementados con PLL y la moderna técnica de síntesis digital directa. Por último, el conjunto del sistema es susceptible de ser configurado por las computadoras de adquisición de datos, supervisadas por otra, que entrega el estado de funcionamiento actual y evita la selección de configuraciones incorrectas por parte del usuario.

  7. 77 FR 13547 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ...), southern brown shrimp (Penaeus subtilis), southern pink shrimp (Penaeus notialis), southern rough shrimp..., contemporaneous with the POR and exclusive of taxes and duties.\\23\\ As a general matter, the Department prefers...

  8. 76 FR 12054 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ...), southern brown shrimp (Penaeus subtilis), southern pink shrimp (Penaeus notialis), southern rough shrimp..., publicly available, contemporaneous with the POR and exclusive of taxes and duties.\\10\\ As a general...

  9. 76 FR 62776 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... Chemicals, Co., Ltd. (``Jiheng'') by-product offsets for chlorine, ammonia gas, hydrogen, and recovered... production of chlorine, ammonia gas, hydrogen, and sulfuric acid recovered during the POR. However,...

  10. Las características más fascinantes del nuevo Robot

    NASA Video Gallery

    impresionante es la palabra que describe perfectamente al nuevo robot Curiosity por su tamaño, sus instrumentos científicos y la manera en que la NASA planifica hacerlo aterrizar en Marte de forma ...

  11. 78 FR 72633 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From Spain: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... International Trade Administration Chlorinated Isocyanurates From Spain: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... chlorinated isocyanurates (chlorinated isos) from Spain.\\1\\ The period of review (``POR'') is June 1, 2011... notice. \\1\\ See Chlorinated Isocyanurates from Spain: Preliminary Results of the Antidumping...

  12. Light-harvesting ytterbium(III)-porphyrinate-BODIPY conjugates: synthesis, excitation-energy transfer, and two-photon-induced near-infrared-emission studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Zhu, Xunjin; Wong, Wai-Kwok; Tam, Hoi-Lam; Wong, Wai-Yeung

    2013-01-07

    Based on a donor-acceptor framework, several conjugates have been designed and prepared in which an electron-donor moiety, ytterbium(III) porphyrinate (YbPor), was linked through an ethynyl bridge to an electron-acceptor moiety, boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY). Photoluminescence studies demonstrated efficient energy transfer from the BODIPY moiety to the YbPor counterpart. When conjugated with the YbPor moiety, the BODIPY moiety served as an antenna to harvest the lower-energy visible light, subsequently transferring its energy to the YbPor counterpart, and, consequently, sensitizing the Yb(III) emission in the near-infrared (NIR) region with a quantum efficiency of up to 0.73% and a lifetime of around 40 μs. Moreover, these conjugates exhibited large two-photon-absorption cross-sections that ranged from 1048-2226 GM and strong two-photon-induced NIR emission.

  13. 78 FR 6297 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The period of review (``POR... Republic of Vietnam'' from Christian Marsh, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Antidumping and...

  14. Enzymatic product formation impairs both the chloroplast receptor- binding function as well as translocation competence of the NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase, a nuclear-encoded plastid precursor protein

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The key enzyme of chlorophyll biosynthesis in higher plants, the light- dependent NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR, EC 1.6.99.1), is a nuclear-encoded plastid protein. Its posttranslational transport into plastids of barley depends on the intraplastidic availability of one of its substrates, protochlorophyllide (PChlide). The precursor of POR (pPOR), synthesized from a corresponding full-length barley cDNA clone by coupling in vitro transcription and translation, is enzymatically active and converts PChlide to chlorophyllide (Chlide) in a light- and NADPH-dependent manner. Chlorophyllide formed catalytically remains tightly but noncovalently bound to the precursor protein and stabilizes a transport-incompetent conformation of pPOR. As shown by in vitro processing experiments, the chloroplast transit peptide in the Chlide-pPOR complex appears to be masked and thus is unable to physically interact with the outer plastid envelope membrane. In contrast, the chloroplast transit peptide in the naked pPOR (without its substrates and its product attached to it) and in the pPOR- substrate complexes, such as pPOR-PChlide or pPOR-PChlide-NADPH, seems to react independently of the mature region of the polypeptide, and thus is able to bind to the plastid envelope. When envelope-bound pPOR- PChlide-NADPH complexes were exposed to light during a short preincubation, the enzymatically produced Chlide slowed down the actual translocation step, giving rise to the sequential appearance of two partially processed translocation intermediates. However, ongoing translocation induced by feeding the chloroplasts delta-aminolevulinic acid, a precursor of PChlide, was able to override these two early blocks in translocation, suggesting that the plastid import machinery has a substantial capacity to denature a tightly folded, envelope-bound precursor protein. Together, our results show that pPOR with Chlide attached to it is impaired both in the ATP-dependent step of binding to a

  15. Brain abnormalities in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a review.

    PubMed

    Rubia, Katya; Alegría, Analucía A; Brinson, Helen

    2014-02-24

    Objetivo. Revisar los hallazgos de los estudios con resonancia magnetica en el trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH) infantil y adulto. Desarrollo. Dichos estudios han demostrado que el TDAH se caracteriza por la presencia de multiples anomalias de caracter estructural y funcional, primordialmente en los circuitos frontoestriatales, pero tambien en los circuitos frontoparietotemporales, frontocerebelares e, incluso, frontolimbicos. Los datos aportados por los estudios longitudinales de resonancia magnetica estructural demuestran que el TDAH se caracteriza por un retraso en la maduracion estructural del cerebro. Esta conclusion se ve reforzada por los indicios indirectos ofrecidos por los estudios de cortes transversales, que indican la existencia de una inmadurez sustancial tanto en la funcion cerebral como en los patrones de conectividad estructural y funcional, indicios que, sin embargo, estan pendientes de confirmar en estudios longitudinales. La alteracion funcional de la corteza prefrontal ventrolateral parece estar mas afectada en el TDAH que en otros trastornos pediatricos, y existen algunos indicios de anomalias distintivas en los ganglios basales. Un metaanalisis sobre los efectos de los estimulantes en la funcion cerebral demuestra que el mecanismo de accion agudo mas congruente de los farmacos psicoestimulantes consiste en el aumento de la activacion de la corteza prefrontal inferior y los ganglios basales. Los primeros intentos por utilizar los datos de los estudios de neuroimagen para elaborar clasificaciones diagnosticas individuales de los niños con TDAH a partir de tecnicas de reconocimiento de patrones han cosechado resultados alentadores, pero todavia deben ser replicados por mas centros y aparatos de resonancia magnetica. Conclusiones. Durante los ultimos 20 años, las tecnicas de neuroimagen han perfilado los biomarcadores del TDAH, pero es necesario que nuevos estudios descubran la utilidad clinica de esa informacion, como el

  16. Does Dietary Deoxynivalenol Modulate the Acute Phase Reaction in Endotoxaemic Pigs?--Lessons from Clinical Signs, White Blood Cell Counts, and TNF-Alpha.

    PubMed

    Tesch, Tanja; Bannert, Erik; Kluess, Jeannette; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Breves, Gerhard; Renner, Lydia; Kahlert, Stefan; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-12-23

    We studied the interaction between deoxynivalenol (DON)-feeding and a subsequent pre- and post-hepatic immune stimulus with the hypothesis that the liver differently mediates the acute phase reaction (APR) in pigs. Barrows (n = 44) were divided into a DON-(4.59 mg DON/kg feed) and a control-diet group, surgically equipped with permanent catheters pre- (V. portae hepatis) and post-hepatic (V. jugularis interna) and infused either with 0.9% NaCl or LPS (7.5 µg/kg BW). Thus, combination of diet (CON vs. DON) and infusion (CON vs. LPS, jugular vs. portal) created six groups: CON_CON(jug.)-CON(por.), CON_CON(jug.)-LPS(por.), CON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.), DON_CON(jug.)-CON(por.), DON_CON(jug.)-LPS(por.), DON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.). Blood samples were taken at -30, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150, 180 min relative to infusion and analyzed for leukocytes and TNF-alpha. Concurrently, clinical signs were scored and body temperature measured during the same period. LPS as such induced a dramatic rise in TNF-alpha (p < 0.001), hyperthermia (p < 0.01), and severe leukopenia (p < 0.001). In CON-fed pigs, an earlier return to physiological base levels was observed for the clinical complex, starting at 120 min post infusionem (p < 0.05) and persisting until 180 min. DON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.) resulted in a lower temperature rise (p = 0.08) compared to CON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.). In conclusion, APR resulting from a post-hepatic immune stimulus was altered by chronic DON-feeding.

  17. Conditional deletion of cytochrome p450 reductase in osteoprogenitor cells affects long bone and skull development in mice recapitulating antley-bixler syndrome: role of a redox enzyme in development.

    PubMed

    Panda, Satya P; Guntur, Anyonya R; Polusani, Srikanth R; Fajardo, Roberto J; Gakunga, Peter T; Roman, Linda J; Masters, Bettie Sue

    2013-01-01

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the primary electron donor for cytochromes P450, dehydrocholesterol reductase, heme oxygenase, and squalene monooxygenase. Human patients with specific mutations in POR exhibit severe developmental malformations including disordered steroidogenesis, sexual ambiguities and various bone defects, similar to those seen in patients with Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS). To probe the role of POR during bone development, we generated a conditional knockout mouse (CKO) by cross breeding Por (lox/lox) and Dermo1 Cre mice. CKO mice were smaller than their littermate controls and exhibited significant craniofacial and long bone abnormalities. Differential staining of the CKO mice skull bases shows premature fusion of the sphenooccipital and basioccipital-exoccipital synchondroses. Class III malocclusion was noted in adult knockout mice with an unusual overgrowth of the lower incisors. Shorter long bones were observed along with a reduction in the bone volume fraction, measured by microCT, in the Por-deleted mice compared to age- and sex-matched littermate controls. Concerted up- or down-regulation of proteins in the FGF signaling pathway observed by immunohistochemistry in the tibia samples of CKO mice compared to wild type controls shows a decrease in the FGF signaling pathway. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a mouse model that recapitulates both skull and long bone defects upon Por deletion, offering an approach to study the sequelae of POR mutations. This unique model demonstrates that P450 metabolism in bone itself is potentially important for proper bone development, and that an apparent link exists between the POR and FGF signaling pathways, begging the question of how an oxidation-reduction flavoprotein affects developmental and cellular signaling processes.

  18. Vehicle Systems Engineering and Integration Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-31

    procedural and subjective (see Program Managers Guide: A Modular Open Systems Approach to Acquisition Version 2, Open Systems Joint Task Force, http...a sensor pod for the Man- Transportable Robotic System (MTRS) PoR. The acquisition agent for the MTRS PoR is the Robotic System Joint Program...subjective (see Program Managers Guide: A Modular Open Systems Approach to Acquisition Version 2, Open Systems Joint Task Force, http://www.acq.osd.mil

  19. Vehicle Systems Engineering and Integration Activities - Phase 5

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-31

    A Modular Open Systems Approach to Acquisition Version 2, Open Systems Joint Task Force, http://www.acq.osd.mil/osjtf/pmguide.html, 2004...System (MTRS) PoR. The acquisition agent for the MTRS PoR is the Robotic System Joint Program Office (RS-JPO), under the TACOM Program Executive...Systems Approach to Acquisition Version 2, Open Systems Joint Task Force, http://www.acq.osd.mil/osjtf/pmguide.html, 2004). Systems engineering

  20. Phosphoethanolamine Residues on the Lipid A Moiety of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide Modulate Binding of Complement Inhibitors and Resistance to Complement Killing

    PubMed Central

    Shafer, William M.; Dutta Ray, Tathagat; Ram, Sanjay; Rice, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Loss of phosphoethanolamine (PEA) from the lipid A of gonococcal strain FA19 results in increased sensitivity to killing by the classical pathway of complement. Here we demonstrate that loss of PEA from lipid A diminishes binding of the complement regulatory protein C4b binding protein (C4BP) to the FA19 porin B (PorB), providing a molecular basis to explain the susceptibility of an lptA null strain of FA19 to killing by normal human serum (NHS). Loss of PEA from lipid A in three additional gonococcal strains that expressed diverse PorB molecules also resulted in decreased C4BP binding, increased deposition of C4b, and increased susceptibility to killing by NHS. Complementation of lptA null strains with lptA restored C4BP binding, decreased C4b deposition, and increased resistance to killing by NHS. These effects of lipid A PEA on C4BP binding to gonococcal PorB and serum resistance were simulated when gonococcal PorB was expressed in a meningococcal background. Loss of PEA from lipid A also affected binding of the alternative pathway regulator factor H (fH) to PorB of some strains. For instance, PorB molecules of lptA null mutants of strains 252 and 1291 bound less fH than those of their parent strains when lipooligosaccharide (LOS) was sialylated, whereas PorB molecules of lptA null mutants of strains FA1090 and 273 retained the ability to bind fH when LOS was sialylated. These data indicate that replacement of lipid A with PEA alters binding of C4BP and fH to PorB and contributes to the ability of gonococci to resist complement-mediated killing. PMID:23071134

  1. DoD LSI Transformation: Creating a Model-Based Acquisition Framework \\201MBAF\\202

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    Integrated Warfare Concept (IWC) • Mission centric approach to defining operational requirements • Using MBSE Need to interface POR MBSE to IWC MBSE 3...Background (cont) POR Workforce, Tools, Training Documents, Process, System Reqmts IWC LSI, SoS, Models Opera onal & Mission Reqmts SDEA 4 Problem...optimization and cross platform interoperability that provide traceability to mission level requirements. • Define and control system interfaces consistent

  2. JIATF-SWB: Building an Operational Bridge for the Southwest Border

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-12

    mexican_cartels_integr.htm. (accessed 20 March 2011). 4 Office of the President. “Obtener la base de datos de Fallecimientos ocurridos por presunta rivalidad...Obtener la base de datos de Fallecimientos ocurridos por presunta rivalidad delincuencial en el periodo diciembre 2006 a diciembre 2010... basing , technical, intelligence, and training support to JIATF-SWB. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Mexico, Southwest Border, USNORTHCOM, Interagency, 16

  3. Intelligence Professionalism in the Americas (profesionalismo de inteligencia en las americas)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-01

    inteligencia. Aspecto importante para el profesionalismo de la actividad de inteligencia: evitar su empleo indiscriminado en materia policial. Otro...consiste, fundamentalmente, en el empleo por parte de instituciones policiales dentro de la actividad policial de determinados métodos propios de la...Tam- bién, por extensión, a actividades delictivas complejas o cuyas características requerían del empleo de una importante capacidad de análisis

  4. [Cytomegalovirus: congenital infection and clinical presentation in infants with respiratory distress syndrome].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Contreras, Angélica; Lira, Rosalía; Soria-Rodríguez, Carmen; Hori-Oshima, Sawako; Maldonado-Rodríguez, Angélica; Rojas-Montes, Othón; Ayala-Figueroa, Rafael; Estrada-Guzmán, Julia; Álvarez-Muñoz, Ma Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: el síndrome de dificultad respiratoria (SDR) es una enfermedad común multifactorial que varía del 15 al 50 % en el recién nacido (RN), y la mortalidad es de 50 %. Puede estar asociado a infecciones bacterianas y virales, una de las más frecuentes: el citomegalovirus (CMV). En el periodo neonatal la incidencia de infección por CMV es de 0.4 a 2.5 % y la seroprevalencia de 50 a 75 %; se desconoce la incidencia de infección en los RN. El objetivo fue determinar la frecuencia de infección por CMV en recién nacidos con SDR e identificar factores de riesgo asociados a infección. Métodos: el DNA-CMV fue identificado en plasma por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) cuantitativa, y las variables maternas y neonatales que definieron el cuadro clínico fueron analizadas por regresión logística. Resultados: la frecuencia de infección por CMV en 197 RN con SDR fue de 8.6 % (IC 95 % 4.7-12.5). Las variables significativas en los RN fueron: neutropenia (p = 0.012), trombocitopenia (p = 0.021), piel marmórea (p = 0.03) y la variable materna significativa fue cervicovaginitis (p = 0.05). Conclusiones: se reporta por primera vez la frecuencia más alta de infección por CMV en RN con SDR y la asociación de varios factores de riesgo con la infección por CMV.

  5. Army Delivers Route Clearance Vehicle Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    the Husky Vehicle-Mount- ed Mine-Detection (VMMD) System, the Buffalo® Mine- Protected Clearance Vehicle (MPCV), the Panther Medium Mine-Protected...cord (POR) RCVs—the Husky, the Buf- falo, and the Panther . POR-configured Huskys, Buffalos, and Panthers have already been fielded in-theater—albeit...IED vehicle equipped with a distinctive hydraulic arm that inter- rogates suspected explosive hazards and clears them when necessary. The Panther

  6. [Therapeutic potential of bone marrow stem cells in cerebral infarction].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Cruz, Gilberto; Milián-Rodríguez, Lismary

    2015-05-16

    Introduccion. Las celulas madre constituyen una alternativa terapeutica que se encuentra en fase de experimentacion para el infarto cerebral. Objetivo. Mostrar la evidencia cientifica existente sobre el potencial terapeutico de las celulas madre de la medula osea en esta enfermedad. Desarrollo. El infarto cerebral representa el 80% de las enfermedades cerebrovasculares. La trombolisis constituye la unica terapia aprobada, pero, por su estrecha ventana terapeutica, solo se aplica a un bajo porcentaje de los pacientes. De manera alternativa, los tratamientos neurorrestauradores, como el de celulas madre, pueden aplicarse en periodos mas prolongados. Por esta razon se efectuo una busqueda bibliografica en PubMed con el empleo de las palabras clave 'stem cells', 'bone marrow derived mononuclear cells' y 'stroke'. Se encontraron evidencias de seguridad y eficacia de dichas celulas en diferentes momentos evolutivos del infarto cerebral. Se identificaron estudios que en clinica y preclinica las recolectaron por puncion medular y en sangre periferica, y las trasplantaron directamente en el area infartada o por via intravascular. El efecto terapeutico se relaciona con sus propiedades de plasticidad celular y liberacion de factores troficos. Conclusiones. El concentrado de celulas mononucleares autologas, obtenido en sangre periferica o por puncion de la medula osea, y trasplantado por via intravenosa, es una factible opcion metodologica que permitira rapidamente incrementar el numero de ensayos clinicos en diferentes etapas evolutivas del infarto cerebral. Esta terapia muestra seguridad y eficacia; sin embargo, deben ampliarse las evidencias que avalen su generalizacion en humanos.

  7. Lack of a surface layer in Tannerella forsythia mutants deficient in the type IX secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Narita, Yuka; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Shoji, Mikio; Nakane, Daisuke; Nagano, Keiji; Yoshimura, Fuminobu; Naito, Mariko

    2014-01-01

    Tannerella forsythia, a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium, is an important pathogen in periodontal disease. This bacterium possesses genes encoding all known components of the type IX secretion system (T9SS). T. forsythia mutants deficient in genes orthologous to the T9SS-encoding genes porK, porT and sov were constructed. All porK, porT and sov single mutants lacked the surface layer (S-layer) and expressed less-glycosylated versions of the S-layer glycoproteins TfsA and TfsB. In addition, these mutants exhibited decreased haemagglutination and increased biofilm formation. Comparison of the proteins secreted by the porK and WT strains revealed that the secretion of several proteins containing C-terminal domain (CTD)-like sequences is dependent on the porK gene. These results indicate that the T9SS is functional in T. forsythia and contributes to the translocation of CTD proteins to the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu. PMID:25023245

  8. In situ FT-IR and UV-vis spectroscopy of the low-temperature NO disproportionation mediated by solid state manganese(II) porphyrinates.

    PubMed

    Martirosyan, Garik G; Azizyan, Arsen S; Kurtikyan, Tigran S; Ford, Peter C

    2006-05-15

    The heterogeneous reaction between NO gas and sublimed layers of manganese(II) porphyrinato complexes Mn(Por) (Por = TPP (tetraphenylporphyrinato dianion), TMP (tetramesitylporphyrinato dianion), or TPP(d20) (perdeuterated tetraphenylporphyrinato dianion)) has been monitored by IR and optical spectroscopy over the temperature range of 77 K to room temperature. These manganese porphyrins promote NO disproportionation to NO2 species and N2O, and the reaction proceeds via several distinct stages. At 90 K, the principal species observed spectrally are the nitric oxide dimer, cis-ONNO, two manganese nitrosyls, the simple NO adduct Mn(Por)(NO), and another intermediate (1) that is apparently critical to the disproportionation mechanism. This key intermediate is formed prior to N2O evolution, and proposals regarding its likely structure are offered. When the system is warmed to 130 K, the disproportionation products, N2O and the O-coordinated nitrito complex Mn(Por)(NO)(ONO) (2), are formed. IR spectral changes show that, upon further warming to 200 K, 2 isomerizes into the N-bonded nitro linkage isomer Mn(Por)(NO)(NO2) (3). After it is warmed to room temperature, the latter species loses NO and converts to the known 5-coordinate nitrito complex Mn(Por)(ONO) (4).

  9. Lack of a surface layer in Tannerella forsythia mutants deficient in the type IX secretion system.

    PubMed

    Narita, Yuka; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Shoji, Mikio; Nakane, Daisuke; Nagano, Keiji; Yoshimura, Fuminobu; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2014-10-01

    Tannerella forsythia, a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium, is an important pathogen in periodontal disease. This bacterium possesses genes encoding all known components of the type IX secretion system (T9SS). T. forsythia mutants deficient in genes orthologous to the T9SS-encoding genes porK, porT and sov were constructed. All porK, porT and sov single mutants lacked the surface layer (S-layer) and expressed less-glycosylated versions of the S-layer glycoproteins TfsA and TfsB. In addition, these mutants exhibited decreased haemagglutination and increased biofilm formation. Comparison of the proteins secreted by the porK and WT strains revealed that the secretion of several proteins containing C-terminal domain (CTD)-like sequences is dependent on the porK gene. These results indicate that the T9SS is functional in T. forsythia and contributes to the translocation of CTD proteins to the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu.

  10. [Familial microepidemic of food-borne botulism in the Region of Madrid].

    PubMed

    Jalda, D; Junco, A; Alvarez-Moreno, M; Rodero, I; Carneado-Ruiz, J

    2016-07-01

    Introduccion. El botulismo es un sindrome causado por la toxina del bacilo Clostridium botulinum. La toxina actua bloqueando las terminaciones colinergicas presinapticas de la placa motora y del sistema nervioso parasimpatico, y ocasiona una paralisis flacida y un fallo parasimpatico. El modo mas habitual de adquisicion de la enfermedad es por ingesta de toxina preformada presente en las conservas caseras mal esterilizadas, aunque otros mecanismos son posibles. Su incidencia actual en Espana es muy baja. Casos clinicos. Se describen tres miembros convivientes de una familia que presentaron un cuadro de botulismo alimentario. Las manifestaciones clinicas iniciales mostraron predileccion por la paresia ocular y por sintomatologia disautonomica de escasa especificidad, y la agregacion familiar fue el indicio fundamental que sugirio el diagnostico. Posteriormente, los pacientes empeoraron y dos de ellos presentaron afectacion de la funcion respiratoria y precisaron ingreso prolongado en la unidad de cuidados intensivos. Los tres pacientes convalecieron y se recuperaron sin secuelas. Se consiguio detectar la toxina botulinica por bioensayo en los restos de alimentos, lo que confiere al caso la categoria diagnostica de confirmado. Conclusiones. La microepidemia familiar presentada constituye un caso de afectacion inicial predominantemente ocular y disautonomica. Asimismo, ilustra varios aspectos tipicos de la enfermedad: la sospecha diagnostica ante pacientes convivientes que acuden simultaneamente por clinica similar, las complicaciones caracteristicas del proceso y su tratamiento, el diagnostico de laboratorio y su historia natural hacia la resolucion.

  11. Arabidopsis light-dependent NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A (PORA) is essential for normal plant growth and development: an addendum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chanhong; Apel, Klaus

    2012-09-01

    Recently the porA-1 null mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana has been identified, which contains an insertion of the Dissociation (Ds) element in the PORA gene (Paddock et al. in Plant Mol Biol 78:447-460, 2012). Light-grown porA-1 seedlings suffer from a drastically reduced chlorophyll content and a developmental arrest beyond the cotyledon stage, suggesting that PORA is not only transiently involved in initiating chlorophyll synthesis during illumination of etiolated seedlings but is also essential for normal growth and plant development. Here we report the presence of a second Ds element in this porA-1 mutant line that inactivates the Speechless gene required for stomata formation. Similar to porA-1, speechless seedlings are severely impaired in their development. Our results suggest that the lack of stomata in porA-1 may contribute to the dwarfed phenotype of the mutant and thus emphasizes the need to re-address the proposed role of PORA during plant development by studying a porA mutant that retains its stomata formation.

  12. Effect of binge eating disorder on the outcomes of laparoscopic gastric bypass in the treatment of morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    García Díaz, Eduardo; Jerez Arzola, María Elena; Martín Folgueras, Tomás; Morcillo Herrera, Luis; Jiménez Sosa, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Los estudios previos sobre el efecto del trastorno por atracón en los resultados del tratamiento de la obesidad mediante bypass gástrico por vía laparoscópica (LGBP) son controvertidos. Faltan trabajos que comparen a pacientes con y sin trastorno por atracón según el sistema BAROS, que incluye: el porcentaje de sobrepeso perdido, la evolución de las comorbilidades, la calidad de vida y las complicaciones. Objetivo: Estudiar si el trastorno por atracón predispone a peores resultados tras el LGBP en los términos que definen el sistema BAROS. Métodos: En un estudio de cohortes con 45 obesos mórbidos intervenidos mediante LGBP, se identificó a los pacientes con trastorno por atracón prequirúrgico mediante el Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns- Revised y se valoró sus resultados según los parámetros incluidos en el sistema BAROS. Resultados: El 21,4% de los pacientes presentaban trastorno por atracón. La mediana de seguimiento postoperatorio fue 12 meses. Los pacientes con trastorno por atracón presentaron menor tasa de resolución de la hipertensión arterial (42,9% frente a 92,9%; p = 0,025) y mayor frecuencia de estenosis de la anastomosis gastroyeyunal (70% frente al 17,1%; p = 0,003) que los pacientes sin trastorno por atracón. No se encontraron diferencias entre los grupos con y sin trastorno por atracón respecto al porcentaje de sobrepeso perdido, calidad de vida y puntuación global BAROS. Conclusiones: Los obesos con trastorno por atracón presentan tras el LGBP menores tasas de resolución de la hipertensión arterial y se complican más frecuentemente con una estenosis de la anastomosis gastroyeyunal. La valoración BAROS, la pérdida de peso y la calidad de vida son equiparables a la de los pacientes sin trastornopor atracón.

  13. Five- and six-coordinate adducts of nitrosamines with ferric porphyrins: structural models for the Type II interactions of nitrosamines with ferric cytochrome P450.

    PubMed

    Xu, Nan; Goodrich, Lauren E; Lehnert, Nicolai; Powell, Douglas R; Richter-Addo, George B

    2010-05-17

    Nitrosamines are well-known for their toxic and carcinogenic properties. The metabolic activation of nitrosamines occurs via interaction with the heme-containing cytochrome P450 enzymes. We report the preparation and structural characterization of a number of nitrosamine adducts of synthetic iron porphyrins. The reactions of the cations [(por)Fe(THF)(2)]ClO(4) (por = TPP, TTP, OEP) with dialkylnitrosamines (R(2)NNO; R(2) = Me(2), Et(2), (cyclo-CH(2))(4), (cyclo-CH(2))(5), (PhCH(2))(2)) in toluene generate the six-coordinate high-spin (S = 5/2) [(por)Fe(ONNR(2))(2)]ClO(4) compounds and a five-coordinate intermediate-spin (S = 3/2) [(OEP)Fe(ONNMe(2))]ClO(4) derivative in 57-72% yields (TPP = 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrinato dianion, TTP = 5,10,15,20-tetra-p-tolylporphyrinato dianion, OEP = 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octaethylporphyrinato dianion). The N-O and N-N vibrations of the coordinated nitrosamine groups in [(por)Fe(ONNR(2))(2)]ClO(4) occur in the 1239-1271 cm(-1) range. Three of the six-coordinate [(por)Fe(ONNR(2))(2)]ClO(4) compounds and one five-coordinate [(OEP)Fe(ONNMe(2))]ClO(4) compound have been characterized by single crystal X-ray crystallography. All the nitrosamine ligands in these complexes bind to the ferric centers via a sole eta(1)-O binding mode. No arylnitrosamine adducts were obtained from the reactions of the precursor compounds [(por)Fe(THF)(2)]ClO(4) with three arylnitrosamines (Ph(2)NNO, Ph(Me)NNO, Ph(Et)NNO). However, prolonged exposure of [(por)Fe(THF)(2)]ClO(4) to these arylnitrosamines resulted in the formation of the known five-coordinate (por)Fe(NO) derivatives. The latter (por)Fe(NO) compounds were obtained more readily by the reactions of the three arylnitrosamines with the four-coordinate (por)Fe(II) precursors.

  14. [Experience in molecular diagnostic in hereditary neuropathies in a pediatric tertiary hospital].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ramos, Joaquín A; López-Laso, Eduardo; Camino-León, Rafael; Gascón-Jiménez, Francisco J; Jiménez-González, M Dolores

    2015-12-01

    Introduccion. La enfermedad de Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) es la neuropatia hereditaria sensitivomotora mas frecuente. Avances en el diagnostico molecular han incrementado las posibilidades diagnosticas de estos pacientes. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio retrospectivo de 36 casos pediatricos diagnosticados de CMT en un centro terciario en el periodo 2003-2015. Resultados. Se identificaron 16 pacientes con CMT1A por una duplicacion en PMP22; dos casos se diagnosticaron de neuropatia hereditaria con predisposicion a paralisis por presion, uno de ellos con una mutacion puntual en PMP22; un varon con un fenotipo leve desmielinizante se diagnostico de CMTX1 por mutacion en GJB1; un paciente con una hipotonia paralitica en el nacimiento y un patron axonal por mutacion en MFN2; un paciente de origen rumano se diagnostico de CMT4D por una mutacion en el gen NDRG1; una paciente con una atrofia muscular espinal congenita distal con neuropatia axonal leve asociada por mutacion en el gen TRPV4; tres niñas de una familia consanguinea de etnia gitana se diagnosticaron de CMT axonal con descargas neuromiotonicas por una mutacion en el gen HINT1; 12 pacientes no tienen diagnostico molecular actualmente, cuatro de ellos de etnia gitana. Conclusiones. CMT1A predomino en nuestra serie (44%), como corresponde a la bibliografia. Destacamos la descripcion de una paciente con una mutacion en TRPV4 recientemente descrita como causa de CMT2C y tres casos de una misma familia consanguinea gitana con la misma mutacion en el gen HINT1 recientemente publicada como causa de neuropatia axonal con neuromiotonia autosomica recesiva (AR-CMT2). El porcentaje de casos sin diagnostico molecular es similar al de grandes series europeas.

  15. Addressing Health Disparities among Men: Demographic, Behavioral and Clinical Characteristics of Men who have Sex with Men Living in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Colón-López, Vivian; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Rodríguez-Díaz, Carlos; Suárez, Erick L.; Pérez, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical characteristics associated with HIV among Men who have sex with Men (MSM) and men who have sex with women (MSW) in Puerto Rico. Data from a population-based cross-sectional study in PR (2005–2008) was analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study sample and bivariate analyses were performed to identify differences of sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical characteristics between MSM and MSW. Exact logistic regression models adjusting for age were constructed for each risk behavior associated to MSM in bivariate analysis. Of the 674 men interviewed, 6.1% (n=41) reported ever having sex with men. Age-adjusted logistic regression models indicated that MSM were significantly more likely than MSW to have first sexual intercourse before the age of 15 (POR=2.6; 95%CI= 1.3, 5.3) and have at least 10 lifetime sex partners (POR=2.8; 95%CI= 1.4,5.9). Also, MSM were significantly more likely to report lifetime use of marihuana (POR=2.7; 95%CI= 1.3,5.8), cocaine (POR=2.5; 95%CI= 1.2,5.0), amphetamines (POR=3.8; 95%CI= 1.4,9.2) and sedatives or tranquilizers (POR=3.3; 95%CI= 1.4,7.2). Also, MSM were 13 times more likely to be HIV seropositive as compared to MSW (POR=13.3; 95%CI=1.7,102.0). In this population-based sample of men living in Puerto Rico, self-reported same-sex behavior is strongly associated with HIV, and other behavioral factors associated with HIV. Future targeted research is still necessary for the development of intervention programs among MSM in Puerto Rico. PMID:24288521

  16. [Incidence and lethality of ischaemic stroke among people 60 years or older in the region of Tarragona (Spain), 2008-2011].

    PubMed

    Vila-Corcoles, Ángel; Satue-Gracia, Eva; Ochoa-Gondar, Olga; de Diego-Cabanes, Cinta; Vila-Rovira, Ángel; Blade, Jordi; Bobé, Francesc; Casanova, Raquel; Jariod, Manuel; Reig, Rosaura

    2014-12-01

    Introduccion. La informacion existente sobre la epidemiologia del ictus en nuestro pais es limitada. Este estudio analizo la incidencia y mortalidad por ictus isquemico en la poblacion general mayor de 60 años del area de Tarragona. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio de cohortes de base poblacional que incluyo a 27.204 personas de 60 o mas años adscritas a nueve areas basicas de salud en la comarca del Tarragones. Se realizo un seguimiento prospectivo durante tres años, en los que se seleccionaron todos los episodios de ictus isquemicos ocurridos entre los miembros de la cohorte desde el 1 de diciembre de 2008 hasta el 30 de noviembre de 2011. Se incluyeron exclusivamente episodios con diagnostico validado tras la revision de la historia clinica y se excluyeron aquellos casos sin confirmacion diagnostica por neuroimagen. Resultados. Se observo un total de 343 casos confirmados de ictus isquemico, lo cual supuso una incidencia de 453 episodios por 100.000 personas/año (intervalo de confianza del 95% = 408-504). La incidencia fue mayor en hombres que en mujeres (531 frente a 392 por 100.000 personas/año; p < 0,001) y aumento sustancialmente con la edad (195 frente a 517 y frente a 1.006 por 100.000 personas/año en 60-69, 70-79 y >= 80 años, respectivamente; p < 0,001). La incidencia fue mas de ocho veces superior entre las personas con antecedentes de ictus previo en comparacion con aquellas sin historia de ictus previo (2.962 frente a 340 por 100.000 personas/año; p < 0,001). El indice de letalidad global fue del 13%, y alcanzo el 21% entre las personas de 80 o mas años. Conclusiones. La morbimortalidad por ictus es considerable en nuestra poblacion. Medidas preventivas y tratamientos mas eficaces son imperativos.

  17. Prevalence of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Ospina, Maria B; Voaklander, Donald C; Stickland, Michael K; King, Malcolm; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Rowe, Brian H

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have considerable potential for inequities in diagnosis and treatment, thereby affecting vulnerable groups. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in asthma and COPD prevalence between adult Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, specialized databases and the grey literature up to October 2011 were searched to identify epidemiological studies comparing asthma and COPD prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal adult populations. Prevalence ORs (PORs) and 95% CIs were calculated in a random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Of 132 studies, eight contained relevant data. Aboriginal populations included Native Americans, Canadian Aboriginals, Australian Aboriginals and New Zealand Maori. Overall, Aboriginals were more likely to report having asthma than non-Aboriginals (POR 1.41 [95% CI 1.23 to 1.60]), particularly among Canadian Aboriginals (POR 1.80 [95% CI 1.68 to 1.93]), Native Americans (POR 1.41 [95% CI 1.13 to 1.76]) and Maori (POR 1.64 [95% CI 1.40 to 1.91]). Australian Aboriginals were less likely to report asthma (POR 0.49 [95% CI 0.28 to 0.86]). Sex differences in asthma prevalence between Aboriginals and their non-Aboriginal counterparts were not identified. One study compared COPD prevalence between Native and non-Native Americans, with similar rates in both groups (POR 1.08 [95% CI 0.81 to 1.44]). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in asthma prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations exist in a variety of countries. Studies comparing COPD prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations are scarce. Further investigation is needed to identify and account for factors associated with respiratory health inequalities among Aboriginal peoples. PMID:23248798

  18. [Quality care in an intensive therapy unit at private hospital].

    PubMed

    Tejeda-Miranda, Mauricio; Anthon-Mendez, Francisco Javier; Esponda-Prado, Juan Gerardo; Rendón-Macías, Mario Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: el objetivo es evaluar la calidad de la atención en una unidad de terapia intensiva con índices internacionales de calidad. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, en una unidad de cuidados intensivos de atención privada en México. Se analizan los indicadores de 2012 con un total de 446 pacientes hospitalizados. Los indicadores de calidad fueron acordes a recomendaciones internacionales. La gravedad fue determinada por la escala SAPS III. Resultados: el indicador de neumonías asociadas a ventilación se encontró por debajo del estándar recomendado (11.7 frente a 12 por mil); la bacteremia relacionada a catéter venoso central en rangos aceptados (5.7 frente a 4 por mil). Las acciones de profilaxis de úlceras, prevención de tromboembolia pulmonar y prevención de caídas en altas proporciones de cumplimiento (> 90, > 95 % y 0 caídas). Las tasas de extubación no programada y reintubaciones estuvieron por debajo de los indicadores (< 1 por mil días intubación y < 12 %). La mortalidad fue menor a la estimada por la gravedad. Conclusión: En esta terapia la implementación de acciones recomendadas a nivel internacional ha permitido mantener una adecuada calidad de atención. El esfuerzo a impactado no solo a los pacientes con condiciones agudas de ingreso, sino también a pacientes con alto riesgo de mortalidad.

  19. The crystal structure of progesterone 5beta-reductase from Digitalis lanata defines a novel class of short chain dehydrogenases/reductases.

    PubMed

    Thorn, Andrea; Egerer-Sieber, Claudia; Jäger, Christof M; Herl, Vanessa; Müller-Uri, Frieder; Kreis, Wolfgang; Muller, Yves A

    2008-06-20

    Progesterone 5beta-reductase (5beta-POR) catalyzes the stereospecific reduction of progesterone to 5beta-pregnane-3,20-dione and is a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of cardenolides in Digitalis (foxglove) plants. Sequence considerations suggested that 5beta-POR is a member of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) family of proteins but at the same time revealed that the sequence motifs that in standard SDRs contain the catalytically important residues are missing. Here we present crystal structures of 5beta-POR from Digitalis lanata in complex with NADP(+) at 2.3A and without cofactor bound at 2.4A resolution together with a model of a ternary complex consisting of 5beta-POR, NADP(+), and progesterone. Indeed, 5beta-POR displays the fold of an extended SDR. The architecture of the active site is, however, unprecedented because none of the standard catalytic residues are structurally conserved. A tyrosine (Tyr-179) and a lysine residue (Lys-147) are present in the active site, but they are displayed from novel positions and are part of novel sequence motifs. Mutating Tyr-179 to either alanine or phenylalanine completely abolishes the enzymatic activity. We propose that the distinct topology reflects the fact that 5beta-POR reduces a conjugated double bond in a steroid substrate via a 1-4 addition mechanism and that this requires a repositioning of the catalytically important residues. Our observation that the sequence motifs that line the active site are conserved in a number of bacterial and plant enzymes of yet unknown function leads us to the proposition that 5beta-POR defines a novel class of SDRs.

  20. The relationship between different spectral forms of the protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase complex and the structural organisation of prolamellar bodies isolated from Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Selstam, Eva; Brain, Anthony P R; Williams, W Patrick

    2011-05-01

    Incubation of prolamellar bodies (PLB) in high-salt media leads to changes in PLB structure and properties of their protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase-protochlorophyllide (POR-PChlide) complex. The paracrystalline organisation typical of PLB is disrupted and NADPH dissociates from photoconvertible POR-PChlide, with absorption maxima at 640 and 650 nm (POR-PChlide (640/650)), and a non-photoconvertible form, with absorption maxima at 635 nm (POR-PChlide (635)), is formed. These effects are strongly dependent on the valence of the cation of the perturbing salt, indicating that they involve surface double layers effects. They are also influenced by the nature of the anion and by high concentrations of non-electrolytes, suggesting the involvement of surface hydration effects. The structural changes are largely, if not entirely, independent of the presence of excess NADPH. Changes to the POR-PChlide complex, however, are strongly inhibited by excess NADPH suggesting that the two sets of changes may not be causally linked. As long as the disruption is not too great, the structural changes seen on incubation of PLB in high salt media lacking excess NADPH are reversed on removal of the high salt perturbation. This reversal is independent of the presence or absence of added NADPH. Reformation of photoconvertible POR-PChlide, however, requires the presence of NADPH. The reformation of paracrystalline PLB in the absence of NADPH strongly indicates that preservation of PLB structure, in isolated PLB preparations at least, is independent of the presence or absence of POR-PChlide (650).