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Sample records for por lutzomyia youngi

  1. New State Records for Lutzomyia shannoni and Lutzomyia vexator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    SHORT COMMUNICATIONS New State Records for Lutzomyia shannoni and Lutzomyia vexator LOGAN MINTER,1,2 BRIAN KOVACIC,1 DAVID M. CLABORN,3 PHILLIP...LAWYER,4 DAVID FLORIN,5 AND G. C. BROWN1 J. Med. Entomol. 46(4): 965Ð968 (2009) ABSTRACT Two species of phlebotomine sand ßies, Lutzomyia shannoni (Dyar...and Lutzomyia vexator (Coquillett), are reported for the Þrst time fromKentucky andOhio.L. vexator also is reported for the Þrst time from Tennessee

  2. Biomechanical Reconstructions and Selective Advantages of Neck Poses and Feeding Strategies of Sauropods with the Example of Mamenchisaurus youngi

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Andreas; Peng, Guangzhao; Sekiya, Toru; Ye, Yong; Wulf, Marco G.; Steuer, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    A very long neck is a characteristic feature of most sauropod dinosaurs. In the genus Mamenchisaurus, neck length is extreme, greater than 40 percent of total body length. However, the posture, utilization, and selective advantage of very long necks in sauropods are still controversial. An excellently preserved skeleton of Mamenchisaurus youngi, including a complete neck, provides an opportunity for a comprehensive biomechanical analysis of neck posture and mobility. The biomechanical evidence indicates that Mamenchisaurus youngi had a nearly straight, near horizontal neck posture and browsed at low or medium heights. The results differ from the findings for some other sauropod species, like Euhelopus, Diplodocus, and Giraffatitan (Brachiosaurus) that had been analyzed in previous studies with similar methods. The selective advantage of extreme neck length in sauropods is likely advantageous for different feeding strategies. PMID:24204557

  3. Lutzomyia longipalpis urbanisation and control

    PubMed Central

    Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Feliciangeli, María Dora; Quintana, María Gabriela; Afonso, Margarete Martins dos Santos; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Since the description of Lutzomyia longipalpis by Lutz and Neiva more than 100 years ago, much has been written in the scientific literature about this phlebotomine species. Soares and Turco (2003) and Lainson and Rangel (2005) have written extensive reviews focused on vector-host-parasite interactions and American visceral leishmaniasis ecology. However, during the last two decades, the success of Lu. longipalpis in colonising urban environments and its simultaneous geographical spreading have led to new theoretical and operational questions. Therefore, this review updates the general information about this species and notes the more challenging topics regarding the new scenario of urbanisation-spreading and its control in America. Here, we summarise the literature on these issues and the remaining unsolved questions, which pose recommendations for operational research. PMID:26517497

  4. Lutzomyia longipalpis urbanisation and control.

    PubMed

    Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Feliciangeli, María Dora; Quintana, María Gabriela; Afonso, Margarete Martins dos Santos; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2015-11-01

    Since the description of Lutzomyia longipalpis by Lutz and Neiva more than 100 years ago, much has been written in the scientific literature about this phlebotomine species. Soares and Turco (2003) and Lainson and Rangel (2005) have written extensive reviews focused on vector-host-parasite interactions and American visceral leishmaniasis ecology. However, during the last two decades, the success of Lu. longipalpis in colonising urban environments and its simultaneous geographical spreading have led to new theoretical and operational questions. Therefore, this review updates the general information about this species and notes the more challenging topics regarding the new scenario of urbanisation-spreading and its control in America. Here, we summarise the literature on these issues and the remaining unsolved questions, which pose recommendations for operational research.

  5. Assessment of the environmental impacts of ocean acidification (OA) and carbon capture and storage (CCS) leaks using the amphipod Hyale youngi.

    PubMed

    Goulding, T A; De Orte, M R; Szalaj, D; Basallote, M D; DelValls, T A; Cesar, A

    2017-03-18

    This study aims to ascertain the effects of CO2 induced water acidification and leaks from Carbon Capture and Storage activities on the South American amphipod Hyale youngi. A 10-day acute toxicity test was performed using sediments from two sites located inside the Santos Estuarine System. They were subjected to five pH treatments (8.1, 7.6, 7.0, 6.5, and 6.0). Metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni and Zn) and the metalloid As were analyzed to determine the influence of their acidification-related mobility on the amphipods mortality. The results showed that mortality becomes significant when compared to control in pH 6.5 in the Canal de Piaçaguera sediment (contaminated) and at pH 6.0 in Ilha das Palmas sediment (reference).

  6. Alternative Method for the Mass Rearing of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) cruzi (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a Laboratory Setting.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, E F; Fernandes, W S; Oshiro, E T; Oliveira, A G; Galati, E A B

    2015-09-01

    The understanding of the transmission dynamics of Leishmania spp. Ross as well as the epidemiology and spread of leishmaniasis is related to parasite-vector-host interactions. These interactions can be studied using specimens of a sand fly population reared in the laboratory, exposing individuals to experimental infection for the investigation of vector competence and parameters of the vectorial capacity of the species. The present study sought to describe an alternative method for the implantation of a Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) cruzi colony with wild specimens captured in the municipality of Corumbá, Brazil. With Method 1, engorged females were individualized for oviposition. The eggs were transferred to an acrylic petri dish with a layer of plaster on the bottom, on which food was placed after hatching of the first larvae. With Method 2, females were kept in groups for oviposition in containers, in which soil and food were placed on their bottom for the larvae. In addition, the exposure time of the larvae to light was reduced in comparison with Method 1. With Method 2, a significantly greater number of specimens of Lu. cruzi was obtained. The ratio between the number of emerged adults and the females followed for oviposition was 0.42 with Method 1 and 2.75 with Method 2. The optimization of the rearing conditions for Lu. cruzi will enable the establishment of a colony providing a sufficient number of specimens to develop experimental infection by Leishmania as well as vectorial competence and some parameters of the vectorial capacity of this sand fly.

  7. Seasonality of Lutzomyia fairtigi (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), a species endemic to Eastern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Molina, Jorge Alberto; Ortiz, Mario Iván; Guhl, Felipe

    2008-08-01

    The bionomics of sand flies (Diptera: Phlebotominae) was studied monthly for two consecutive years in alluvial gallery forests in the department of Casanare, Northeastern Colombia. A total of 2,365 specimens and 10 species were captured using CDC light traps and Shannon traps, and from diurnal resting places, and human landing collections. Lutzomyia fairtigi Martins (55%), Lutzomyia micropyga (Mangabeira) (20.9%), and Lutzomyia antunesi (Coutinho) (13.5%) were the predominant species in the region. Lutzomyia flaviscutellata and Lutzomyia panamensis, potential vectors of Leishmania in Colombia and neighboring countries, were also collected, but in low numbers. Lu. fairtigi is an endemic species to Colombia, and minimal data are available on its biology and distribution. The present study provides additional information about Lu. fairtigi, such as the diurnal activity displayed by females on cloudy days, the greater density during the rainy season (April to October), marked anthropophilia, and the presence of flagellates in the midgut of one female.

  8. Description of Lutzomyia velezi, a new species of phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Department of Antioquia, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Bejarano, Eduar Elías; Vivero, Rafael José; Uribe, Sandra

    2010-05-01

    The phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia velezi sp.nov. was described and illustrated from male specimens collected by light trap in the Reserva Natural Cañon del Río Claro in the Central Cordillera of the Colombian Andes. The new species belongs to the series sanguinaria of the subgenus Helcocyrtomyia, which is represented in Colombia by Lutzomyia cirrita, Lutzomyia hartmanni, Lutzomyia sanguinaria, Lutzomyia scorzai, Lutzomyia sp. of Pichindé and Lutzomyia tortura. The new species can be differentiated from others of the subgenus by the combination of the following characteristics: long antennal ascoids, reaching level of the papilla, coxite with a single basal seta and fifth palpomere longer than or equal to the sum of the lengths of the third and fourth palpomeres.

  9. Antissaliva Antibodies of Lutzomyia Longipalpis in area of Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Thiago Leite; Fernandes, Magda Freitas; Pontes, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury; Levay, Ana Paula Silva; Almeida da Cunha, Elenice Brandão; França, Adriana de Oliveira; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of antissaliva antibodies of Lutzomyia longipalpis in human hosts living in area of visceral leishmaniasis, located in the Center-West region of Brazil. The presence of antissaliva antibodies of L. longipalpis exhibited a strong correlation with the protection and development of antibodies against Leishmania sp. Of the 492 children studied, elevated antissaliva antibodies of L. longipalpis were detected in 38.4% of the participants. There was a higher percentage of positivity (64.7%) among children who exhibited anti-Leishmania sp. antibodies and among those who were positive in the delayed hypersensitivity test (34.8%).

  10. Leishmania infantum Genetic Diversity and Lutzomyia longipalpis Mitochondrial Haplotypes in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins; Gushi, Letícia Tsieme; Pires e Cruz, Maria do Socorro; Costa, Carlos Henrique Nery; Costa, Dorcas Lamounier; Lima Júnior, Manoel Sebastião da Costa; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Moraes Cavalheiros; Gutierrez de Oliveira, Alessandra; da Cunha Santos, Mirella Ferreira; Fonseca Camargo-Neves, Vera Lúcia; Fortaleza, Carlos Magno Castello Branco; Alonso, Diego Peres

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania infantum is the etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Americas with domestic dogs being its major reservoir hosts. The main VL vector is the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis, while other Lutzomyia species may play a role in disease transmission. Although the genetic structure of L. infantum populations has been widely evaluated, only a few studies have addressed this subject coupled to the genetic structure of the respective sandfly vectors. In this study, we analyzed the population structure of L. infantum in three major VL endemic areas in Brazil and associated it with Lutzomyia longipalpis geographic structure. PMID:27119085

  11. Multivariate morphometric discrimination among three species of Lutzomyia subgenus Micropygomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Cazorla, D; Acosta, M

    2003-11-01

    Canonical discriminant analysis accurately separated males of Lutzomyia yencanensis (n = 36) (Ortiz), Lutzomyia cayennensis cayennensis (n = 24) (Floch and Abonnenc) and Lutzomyia micropyga (n = 28) (Mangabeira). Only seven (length of head, interocular distance, wing vein delta, genital filaments, coxite, paramere, and lateral lobe) of 20 possible morphometric measurements were required for differentiation, with a highly significant canonical correlation. The discriminant equations provided a simple, fast, and widely available statistical tool to identify accurately unknown sand fly specimens as L. yencanensis, L. c. cayennensis, or L. micropyga.

  12. Leishmania infantum Genetic Diversity and Lutzomyia longipalpis Mitochondrial Haplotypes in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins; Gushi, Letícia Tsieme; Pires E Cruz, Maria do Socorro; Costa, Carlos Henrique Nery; Costa, Dorcas Lamounier; Lima Júnior, Manoel Sebastião da Costa; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Moraes Cavalheiros; Gutierrez de Oliveira, Alessandra; da Cunha Santos, Mirella Ferreira; Fonseca Camargo-Neves, Vera Lúcia; Fortaleza, Carlos Magno Castello Branco; Alonso, Diego Peres

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania infantum is the etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Americas with domestic dogs being its major reservoir hosts. The main VL vector is the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis, while other Lutzomyia species may play a role in disease transmission. Although the genetic structure of L. infantum populations has been widely evaluated, only a few studies have addressed this subject coupled to the genetic structure of the respective sandfly vectors. In this study, we analyzed the population structure of L. infantum in three major VL endemic areas in Brazil and associated it with Lutzomyia longipalpis geographic structure.

  13. Description of Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Peruvian Amazon Basin

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Roberto; Lopez, Victor; Cardenas, Roldan; Requena, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    A new species of sand fly, which we describe as Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., was collected in the northern Peruvian Amazon Basin. In this region of Peru, cutaneous leishmaniasis is transmitted primarily by anthropophilic sand flies; however, zoophilic sand flies of the subgenus Trichophoromyia may also be incriminated in disease transmission. Detection of Leishmania spp. in Lutzomyia auraensis Mangabeira captured in the southern Peruvian Amazon indicates the potential of this and other zoophilic sand flies for human disease transmission, particularly in areas undergoing urban development. Herein, we describe Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., and report new records of sand flies in Peru. PMID:26335468

  14. Description of Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Peruvian Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Roberto; Lopez, Victor; Cardenas, Roldan; Requena, Edwin

    2015-07-01

    A new species of sand fly, which we describe as Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., was collected in the northern Peruvian Amazon Basin. In this region of Peru, cutaneous leishmaniasis is transmitted primarily by anthropophilic sand flies; however, zoophilic sand flies of the subgenus Trichophoromyia may also be incriminated in disease transmission. Detection of Leishmania spp. in Lutzomyia auraensis Mangabeira captured in the southern Peruvian Amazon indicates the potential of this and other zoophilic sand flies for human disease transmission, particularly in areas undergoing urban development. Herein, we describe Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., and report new records of sand flies in Peru.

  15. Identification of bloodmeal sources of Lutzomyia spp. in Peru.

    PubMed

    Ogusuku, E; Perez, J E; Paz, L; Nieto, E; Monje, J; Guerra, H

    1994-06-01

    Bloodmeal sources of Lutzomyia spp. were determined, using the bloodmeal analysis precipitin test, in Chaute, Lima, Peru, an area endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis (uta). From April 1990 to May 1991, sandflies were sampled in and around the village houses, with CDC light traps and a Shannon trap with protected human bait, respectively. Overall, 1424 sandflies were collected engorged. In indoor collections, human blood (N = 275) was the most frequent bloodmeal found, followed by cow (171) and cat (152). The most frequent bloodmeals of the flies caught in the Shannon trap collections were from cow (31), man (23) and cat (23). Of the two predominant sandfly species in the area, Lutzomyia peruensis was more anthropophilic than Lu. verrucarum (chi 2 = 14.13, P < 0.001). The sandflies from Chaute appear to be opportunistic feeders; 16 different hosts were identified. There was evidence of bloodmeals from more than one host in each of 151 sandflies, including bloodmeals containing blood from an animal only present within the houses mixed with blood from animals only present in the corrals near the house. Some sandflies must therefore have flown from the corrals to the houses (or vice versa) to take the last bloodmeals before their capture.

  16. Diapause and quiescence in Lutzomyia diabolica (Diptera:Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Lawyer, P; Young, D

    1991-12-01

    Gravid, laboratory-reared Lutzomyia diabolica from Garner State Park, Texas, oviposited from May to December in an outdoor colony cage at Gainesville, Florida. Egg batches contained 100% fast-developing (nondiapause) eggs, a mixture of fast-developing and slow-developing (diapause) eggs, or 100% slow-developing eggs, depending on the time of year laid. The percent diapause eggs per batch increased from 0% in early October to 100% by December. These observations suggest that Lu. diabolica is a long-day species, depositing diapause eggs in response to shorter day length. Temperature may also modify the degree of diapause response by altering the calendar position of the critical day length. Termination of the winter diapause is probably temperature dependent. Quiescence was observed in 3rd and 4th stage larvae in both indoor and outdoor cultures and was usually associated with adverse conditions such as excessive moisture, extreme temperatures, or poor diet.

  17. The first record of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the Argentine northwest.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Andrea Gómez; Quintana, María Gabriela; Abril, Marcelo; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

    2013-12-01

    In 2004, the urban presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis was recorded for the first time in Formosa province. In 2006, the first autochthonous case of human urban visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was recorded in Misiones in the presence of the vector, along with some canine VL cases. After this first case, the vector began to spread primarily in northeast Argentina. Between 2008-2011, three human VL cases were reported in Salta province, but the presence of Lu. longipalpis was not recorded. Captures of Phlebotominae were made in Tartagal, Salta, in 2013, and the presence of Lu. longipalpis was first recorded in northwest Argentina at that time. Systematic sampling is recommended to observe the distribution and dispersion patterns of Lu. longipalpis and consider the risk of VL transmission in the region.

  18. The first record of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the Argentine northwest

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Andrea Gómez; Quintana, María Gabriela; Abril, Marcelo; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In 2004, the urban presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis was recorded for the first time in Formosa province. In 2006, the first autochthonous case of human urban visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was recorded in Misiones in the presence of the vector, along with some canine VL cases. After this first case, the vector began to spread primarily in northeast Argentina. Between 2008-2011, three human VL cases were reported in Salta province, but the presence of Lu. longipalpis was not recorded. Captures of Phlebotominae were made in Tartagal, Salta, in 2013, and the presence of Lu. longipalpis was first recorded in northwest Argentina at that time. Systematic sampling is recommended to observe the distribution and dispersion patterns of Lu. longipalpis and consider the risk of VL transmission in the region. PMID:24402160

  19. The seasonal abundance of phlebotomine sand flies, Lutzomyia species in Florida.

    PubMed

    Mann, Rajinder S; Kaufman, Phillip E

    2010-03-01

    The seasonality of phlebotomine sand flies was studied in Florida, utilizing colored light-emitting diode- and attractant-baited Mosquito Magnet MM-X traps from September 2006 to September 2008 at San Felasco Hammock Preserve State Park, Gainesville, FL. A total of 6,278 sand flies were collected from 314 actual nights and 1,692 total trap-nights, yielding 3.7 sand flies per trap-night. Lutzomyia shannoni was the predominant species, constituting 55% to 80% of the total sand fly populations collected during the studies. Both L. shannoni and L. vexator populations were highly seasonal and were moderately influenced by weather factors. Lutzomyia shannoni populations peaked in May and showed reduced activity during December, January, and February. This species was active throughout the year and showed positive and negative correlations with average monthly temperature and relative humidity, respectively. Lutzomyia vexator showed peak activity during August and October with an activity lull from December to March. This species showed a positive correlation with average monthly temperature. No correlations were observed with either species for average daily, weekly, or 1- to 8-wk-lagging precipitation, number of rainy days, wind speed, or lunar phases. Lutzomyia shannoni abundance was weakly correlated to L. vexator abundance. No other Lutzomyia spp. were collected during the study.

  20. Descriptions of the Immature Stages of Lutzomyia (Tricholateralis) cruciata (Coquillett) (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae).

    PubMed

    Montes de Oca-Aguilar, A C; Rebollar-Téllez, E A; Piermarini, P M; Ibáñez-Bernal, S

    2017-02-01

    The present study presents morphological and chaetotaxic descriptions of the immature stages of Lutzomyia (Tricholateralis) cruciata (Coquillett), a probable vector of leishmaniasis in Mexico. The egg exochorion is consistent with the species already known as Lu. (Tricholaterialis), but different from the Lu. cruciata egg of Chiapas, Mexico. The fourth instar larva of Lu. (Tricholateralis) cruciata possesses a novel antenna, combining morphological characteristics of categories 2 and 3 for neotropical sandflies. Differences between the chaetotaxy of first and fourth instar larvae of Lu. cruciata with those of Lu. (Lutzomyia) and Lu. (Tricholaterlis) are compared and discussed. This is the first time in which the chaetotaxy and morphology of pupa of a species belonging to Lutzomyia (Tricholateralis) sensu Galati have been described, and we recorded for the first time the anterior prothorax setae, which was previously only considered for Old World species.

  1. Molecular taxonomy of the two Leishmania vectors Lutzomyia umbratilis and Lutzomyia anduzei (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lutzomyia umbratilis (a probable species complex) is the main vector of Leishmania guyanensis in the northern region of Brazil. Lutzomyia anduzei has been implicated as a secondary vector of this parasite. These species are closely related and exhibit high morphological similarity in the adult stage; therefore, they have been wrongly identified, both in the past and in the present. This shows the need for employing integrated taxonomy. Methods With the aim of gathering information on the molecular taxonomy and evolutionary relationships of these two vectors, 118 sequences of 663 base pairs (barcode region of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I – COI) were generated from 72 L. umbratilis and 46 L. anduzei individuals captured, respectively, in six and five localities of the Brazilian Amazon. The efficiency of the barcode region to differentiate the L. umbratilis lineages I and II was also evaluated. The data were analyzed using the pairwise genetic distances matrix and the Neighbor-Joining (NJ) tree, both based on the Kimura Two Parameter (K2P) evolutionary model. Results The analyses resulted in 67 haplotypes: 32 for L. umbratilis and 35 for L. anduzei. The mean intra-specific genetic distance was 0.008 (0.002 to 0.010 for L. umbratilis; 0.008 to 0.014 for L. anduzei), whereas the mean interspecific genetic distance was 0.044 (0.041 to 0.046), supporting the barcoding gap. Between the L. umbratilis lineages I and II, it was 0.009 to 0.010. The NJ tree analysis strongly supported monophyletic clades for both L. umbratilis and L. anduzei, whereas the L. umbratilis lineages I and II formed two poorly supported monophyletic subclades. Conclusions The barcode region clearly separated the two species and may therefore constitute a valuable tool in the identification of the sand fly vectors of Leishmania in endemic leishmaniasis areas. However, the barcode region had not enough power to separate the two lineages of L. umbratilis, likely reflecting

  2. [Distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the Argentine Mesopotamia, 2010].

    PubMed

    Salomon, Oscar D; Fernandez, Maria S; Santini, María S; Saavedra, Silvina; Montiel, Natalia; Ramos, Marina A; Rosa, Juan R; Szelag, Enrique A; Martinez, Mariela F

    2011-01-01

    The first case of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Argentina was reported in 2006 in Posadas, Misiones. During the summer 2008-2009 Lutzomyia longipalpis, the VL vector, and canine VL cases were already spread along the province of Corrientes. In order to know the distribution of VL risk, systematic captures of the vector were performed between February and March 2010, in 18 areas of the provinces of Entre Ríos and Corrientes, and the city of Puerto Iguazú, Misiones, with a total of 313 traps/night. We confirmed the presence of Lu. longipalpis, for the first time in Chajarí (Entre Ríos), Alvear, La Cruz, Curuzú Cuatiá and Bella Vista (Corrientes), and Puerto Iguazú (Misiones). In Santo Tome and Monte Caseros (Corrientes), where the vector had been previously reported, traps with more samples were obtained with 830 and 126 Lu. Longipalpis trap/site/night respectively. These results show that the vector of urban VL continues spreading in the Argentine territory. Simultaneously, the spread of the parasite and the resulting human VL cases are associated with the dispersion of reservoirs, infected dogs, with or without clinical symptoms or signs, due to human transit.

  3. [Distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the Chaco region, Argentina, 2010].

    PubMed

    Salomón, Oscar D; Rosa, Juan R; Fabiani, Mariela; San Miguel, Silvia R; Szelag, Enrique A; Nepote, Marcelo; Parras, Matías A

    2011-01-01

    The appearance of the vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) Lutzomyia longipalpis in the province of Formosa in 2004 was associated with urban epidemic risk for the first time in Argentina. During 2006, vectors, canine and human cases of VL were reported in the province of Misiones, and in summer 2008-2009, in the province of Corrientes. In Santiago del Estero province in 2008, cases of human and canine VL were associated with secondary vectors. Therefore, with the aim to know the current distribution of VL risk in the Chaco region, systematic captures of the vector were performed between January and April 2010 in 30 localities of Formosa and Chaco, and in the city of Reconquista, province of Santa Fe (224 traps/night). Lu. longipalpis was reported for the first time in the cities of Resistencia and Puerto Antequera (Chaco). Clorinda and Puerto Pilcomayo (Formosa) are the localities where the traps with more individuals were obtained, 158 and 241 Lu. longipalpis trap / site / night respectively. These results showed that the vector of urban epidemic VL is still spreading in Argentina, and already reached the province of Chaco. Sporadic cases reported in the Chaco region, transmitted by secondary vectors as Lu. migonei would also increase due to intensified surveillance, and the dispersion of the parasite associated with the transit of asymptomatic or symptomatic infected dogs.

  4. Natural Leishmania infection of Lutzomyia spp. in Peru.

    PubMed

    Perez, J E; Ogusuku, E; Inga, R; Lopez, M; Monje, J; Paz, L; Nieto, E; Arevalo, J; Guerra, H

    1994-01-01

    Natural infection of Lutzomyia spp. with Leishmania was studied with the aid of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in Chaute, Lima, Perú, a locality endemic for Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (uta). The PCR, with primers specific for the L. braziliensis complex, was applied to sandfly pools. Sandflies were sampled from April 1990 to May 1991 with CDC light traps in homes, and from near homes with a Shannon trap using protected human bait. Lu. verrucarum (4 pools) and Lu. peruenis (2 pools) from the anthropophilic collections, and Lu. verrucarum (2 pools) from indoors were found to be infected with Leishmania. The majority of infected sandflies were recorded mainly in April 1991 (4 pools), coinciding with the highest sandfly densities and the maximum number of new cases of uta (7). Non-infected sandflies were found from May to October 1990 and January to March 1991. Thus, these 2 sandfly species play a role in the spread of leishmaniasis among humans and other animals in Chaute.

  5. Sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis in a Cutaneous leishmaniasis focus in central Colombia.

    PubMed

    López, Y; Osorio, L; Alvarez, G; Rojas, J; Jiménez, F; Gómez, C; Ferro, C

    1996-01-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis, 15 other species of the genus Lutzomyia, and one species of Brumptomyia were collected in an endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a river canyon 450 m above sea-level, in Rio Claro, Antioquia, Colombia. The presence of Lu. longipalpis is associated with the destruction of the primary forest and the development of new farmland and rural settlement in this region. The composition of species identified a different habitat for Lu. longipalpis in Colombia. Lu. yuilli and Lu. longipalpis were predominant (68.26%) followed by Lu. trapidoi, Lu. hartmani, Lu. triramula, Lu. panamensis, Lu. gomezi.

  6. Seasonal and nocturnal domiciliary human landing/biting behaviour of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) evansi and Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) panamensis (Diptera; Psychodidae) in a periurban area of a city on the Caribbean coast of eastern Venezuela (Barcelona; Anzoátegui State).

    PubMed

    González, R; De Sousa, L; Devera, R; Jorquera, A; Ledezma, E

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, in addition to American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), a significant number of cases of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) have been reported in periurban areas of Barcelona city (Anzoátegui State, Venezuela). We studied the bionomics of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) evansi and Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) panamensis, possible vectors of AVL and ACL, respectively, in El Rincón, a periurban village of that city. To evaluate the seasonal domiciliary landing/biting activity of sandflies on human bait, a house was chosen in El Rincón. Landing catches were carried out between 18:00 and 06:00, once a month for a year. The results show the presence of 2 species, Lu. (Lu.) evansi (89.9%) and Lu. (Psy.) panamensis (10.1%). Lu. evansi was most abundant in the months of October and July, associated with the bimodal cycle of annual rainfall in the area. Maximum landing/biting activity of Lu. evansi was observed at 24:00 and 03:00. These findings suggest that at this time of the year and at these hours there is heightened risk of the transmission of AVL. Lu. panamensis monthly abundance also shows a direct association with rainfall and maximum landing/biting activity was observed between 02:00 and 03:00. The lower domiciliary abundance of Lu. panamensis suggests its greater importance in the extradomiciliary transmission of ACL.

  7. Nocturnal activity rhythms of Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a transmission area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Nataly A; Andrade-Coelho, Cláudia A; Peixoto, Alexandre A; Rangel, Elizabeth F

    2005-11-01

    The phlebotomine sand flies Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia (Lutz & Neiva) and Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) whitmani (Coutinho & Antunes) are important vectors of Leishmania (Vianna) braziliensis, the etiological agent of American cutaneous leishmaniasis. In some areas, both species occur in sympatry, and their relative roles as vectors in these areas are not clear. We studied the nocturnal activity and biting rhythms of both species in Posse, a locality in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Our results show differences between the activity patterns of Lu. intermedia and Lu. whitmani that might be epidemiologically important. Although the activity profiles vary between seasons and microhabitats (peridomestic versus forest), the two species show marked differences in their tendencies to bite humans in the early morning (0400-0600 hours), with Lu. whitmani showing higher feeding rates than Lu. intermedia.

  8. [Diurnal biting activity and seasonal density of Lutzomyia (C) orestes (Diptera: Psychodidae)].

    PubMed

    Lugo Mendoza, J; Aldecoa Gilí, T; Miqueli Negrín, E; Luis Pelegrino, J

    1991-01-01

    Daily bite activity and season density of Lutzomyia (C) orestes were recorded by means of the human bait technique in the Don Martin Cave, west of Havana Province, during one year. A correlation matrix test was carried out between density, temperature, relative humidity and rainfall.

  9. Biology and distribution of Lutzomyia apache as it relates to VSV

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phlebotomine sand flies are vectors of bacteria, parasites, and viruses. Lutzomyia apache was incriminated as a vector of vesicular stomatitis viruses(VSV)due to overlapping ranges of the sand fly and outbreaks of VSV. I report on newly discovered populations of L. apache in Wyoming from Albany and ...

  10. Pathogens and bionomics of Lutzomyia apache (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Wyoming, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phlebotomine sand flies are vectors of bacteria, parasites, and viruses. Lutzomyia apache, a North American sand fly, was incriminated as a vector of vesicular stomatitis viruses (VSV) due to overlapping ranges of the sand fly and recent outbreaks of VSV. We report on the discovery of two population...

  11. Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) Apache Young and Perkins (Diptera: Psychodidae) feeds on reptiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phlebotomine sand flies are vectors of bacteria, parasites, and viruses. In the western USA a sand fly, Lutzomyia apache Young and Perkins, was initially associated with epizootics of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), because sand flies were trapped at sites of an outbreak. Additional studies indica...

  12. Description of Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) pabloi n. sp. and the female of L. howardi (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Mauricio; Burbano, María Elena; Young, David G

    2002-07-01

    A new Lutzomyia species in the subgenus Trichophoromyia, L. pabloi, is described and illustrated. A description of the previously unknown female of L. howardi Young is also presented. These specimens were captured in the Amazon region of Colombia.

  13. Seasonal variation and natural infection of Lutzomyia antunesi (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), an endemic species in the Orinoquia region of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Vásquez Trujillo, Adolfo; González Reina, Angélica E; Góngora Orjuela, Agustín; Prieto Suárez, Edgar; Palomares, Jairo Enrique; Buitrago Alvarez, Luz Stella

    2013-06-01

    Lutzomyia antunesi has been commonly reported in outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the Orinoquia region of Colombia. The bionomics of this species were studied in the municipality of Villavicencio (Meta, Colombia). Sandflies were captured over the course of one week per month for one year in intradomiciliary, peridomiciliary and extradomiciliary housing areas. The captures were performed from 06:00 pm-06:00 am using CDC light traps and the females were processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Leishmania spp. A total of 22,097 specimens and 19 species were captured of which Lu. antunesi (89%) and Lutzomyia walkeri (5%) were the most abundant. Other species recognised as anthropophilic (Lutzomyia panamensis, Lutzomyia gomezi, Lutzomyia flaviscutellata and Lutzomyia fairtigi) were present in very low abundance (< 2%). Natural infection with Leishmania spp was detected using PCR in Lu. antunesi, Lu. panamensis and Lu. flavicutellata, showing infection rates of 1%, 4.8% and 7.5%, respectively. The present paper provides information on various ecological aspects of Lu. antunesi. An analysis of seasonality shows that this species increases in abundance in the hottest months (December, January and February), directly correlating with the maximum temperature and inversely correlating with precipitation. The natural infection rate is associated with the peaks of highest abundance.

  14. Seasonal variation and natural infection of Lutzomyia antunesi (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), an endemic species in the Orinoquia region of Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, Adolfo Vásquez; Reina, Angélica E González; Orjuela, Agustín Góngora; Suárez, Edgar Prieto; Palomares, Jairo Enrique; Alvarez, Luz Stella Buitrago

    2013-01-01

    Lutzomyia antunesi has been commonly reported in outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the Orinoquia region of Colombia. The bionomics of this species were studied in the municipality of Villavicencio (Meta, Colombia). Sandflies were captured over the course of one week per month for one year in intradomiciliary, peridomiciliary and extradomiciliary housing areas. The captures were performed from 06:00 pm-06:00 am using CDC light traps and the females were processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Leishmania spp. A total of 22,097 specimens and 19 species were captured of which Lu. antunesi (89%) and Lutzomyia walkeri (5%) were the most abundant. Other species recognised as anthropophilic (Lutzomyia panamensis, Lutzomyia gomezi, Lutzomyia flaviscutellata and Lutzomyia fairtigi) were present in very low abundance (< 2%). Natural infection with Leishmania spp was detected using PCR in Lu. antunesi, Lu. panamensis and Lu. flavicutellata, showing infection rates of 1%, 4.8% and 7.5%, respectively. The present paper provides information on various ecological aspects of Lu. antunesi. An analysis of seasonality shows that this species increases in abundance in the hottest months (December, January and February), directly correlating with the maximum temperature and inversely correlating with precipitation. The natural infection rate is associated with the peaks of highest abundance. PMID:23828011

  15. Ecology of Lutzomyia longipalpis in an area of visceral leishmaniasis transmission in north-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Pietra Lemos; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; da Silva, Fernando José; Guimarães, Vanessa Cristina Fitipaldi Veloso; Gaudêncio, Kamila; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto

    2013-05-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a major public health issue in South America, where the disease is rapidly spreading. Changes in ecology and distribution of the principal vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis are among the factors accounting for the increasing incidence of the disease in this region. However, information about the ecology of L. longipalpis is still incipient, which may directly impair the implementation of effective control programs. Herein, the ecology of L. longipalpis was studied in a focus of visceral leishmaniasis in north-eastern Brazil. From August 2009 to August 2010, phlebotomine sand flies were monthly collected in four localities using CDC light traps (~37 per month) and a lantern-baited Shannon trap with mouth aspirators. A total of 24,226 phlebotomine sand flies were collected with light traps and 375 with mouth aspirators. The most abundant species was L. longipalpis, representing 97.9% of the specimens collected with light traps and 91.5% with the mouth aspirator. Other species (Lutzomyia evandroi, Lutzomyia lenti and Lutzomyia sallesi) were found in low numbers. Most phlebotomine sand flies (94.6%) were collected at chicken coops and corrals. No significant correlation was found between the monthly abundance of phlebotomine sand flies and the monthly averages of temperature, relative humidity or rainfall. However, interestingly enough, 82.4% of L. longipalpis specimens were collected in months when relative humidity surpassed 75%. This study points out that this vector is well adapted to live in different habitats and to different climate conditions. It also suggests that some north-eastern populations of L. longipalpis may be more xerotolerant than southern populations. Further studies to assess the relationship between microclimate and L. longipalpis density in different Brazilian regions are advised.

  16. Genetic divergence among Venezuelan populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).

    PubMed

    Arrivillaga, J; Rangel, Y; Oviedo, M; Feliciangeli, M D

    2000-05-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) is the primary vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Venezuela. An analysis of alleles at seven enzyme-encoding loci among four populations from different geographic and epidemiological regions revealed strong genetic substructuring. Isozyme analysis indicated that L. longipalpis in Venezuela is a complex of at least two subspecies. Possible differences in population size during their evolutionary histories, varying colonization histories and geological events may explain discrepancies in the patterns of variation observed at genetic markers between these four populations.

  17. Distribution of putative male sex pheromones among Lutzomyia sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Hamilton, J G C; Brazil, R P; Campbell-Lendrum, D; Davies, C R; Kelly, D W; Pessoa, F A C; de Queiroz, R G

    2002-01-01

    Male Lutzomyia longipalpis produce terpene sex pheromones in glandular tissue underlying the cuticle. The pheromones are transmitted to the surface via cuticle-lined ducts (measuring 0.25 microm in diameter), each of which reaches the surface in the centre of a papule (measuring 3-3.5 microm in diameter). Similar papules, in a range of shapes but all characterized by the presence of a central pore and absence of macroserae, occur in some other species of sandfly. The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution of sex pheromones in sandflies of the genus Lutzomyia that do and do not have the papules. The results indicate that sex pheromones are not widely distributed amongst male Lutzomyia spp. Male members of the genus can be subdivided into three groups: those that produce terpenes and have cuticular papules; those that do not produce terpenes but still have the associated papules; and those that have neither terpenes nor papules. The papules seen in the species that do not synthesise sex pheromones are presumably vestigial, non-functional structures. Such species may have stopped producing pheromone as the result of changes in the way in which the females found and selected mates or changing feeding preferences. A similar event has occurred in the Lepidoptera, where vestigial pheromone-secreting structures remain in some species which no longer produce pheromone. Lutzomyia lenti collected in southern Brazil produced a novel diterpene whereas male L. lenti from north-eastern Brazil did not, supporting suggestions by others that L. lenti is, like L. longipalpis, a species complex.

  18. Effect of Leishmania spp infection on the survival, life expectancy, fecundity and fertility of Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. and Lutzomyia pseudolongipalpis

    PubMed Central

    Agrela, Irma Fatima; Feliciangeli, Maria Dora

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of Leishmania spp infection on several population parameters of Lutzomyia longipalpis sensu lato andLutzomyia pseudolongipalpis, vectors of visceral leishmaniasis in Venezuela, under experimental conditions during the first post-feeding period. Females of both species were allowed to feed and engorge on a suspension of fresh washed human red blood cells in foetal calf serum. These blood cells were either non-infected or infected with one of the fourLeishmania spp strains and were offered through a chicken skin membrane. The longevity, life expectancy and the fecundity of uninfected flies were similar in both species, but the fertility was significantly lower in uninfected Lu. longipalpis females. In all cases, the infection of Lu. longipalpis and Lu. pseudolongipalpis by the Leishmania strains resulted in significant detrimental effects, which exerted a fitness cost expressed by reduced survival and life expectancy, as well as decreased fertility and fecundity compared with the control groups. Nevertheless, differences in these parameters were observed between these vector species depending on whether they were infected with the autochthonous Venezuelan Leishmania infantum strain (NESA) or the Brazilian reference strain (PP75). The experimental data obtained agree with field data on the natural infection of these vector species and the significance of this scenario is discussed. PMID:26132427

  19. [New findings on the geographic distribution of the verrucarum group (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Bejarano, Eduar Elías; Sierra, Diana; Vélez, Iván Darío

    2003-09-01

    The incrimination of sand flies belonging to verrucarum species group in the leishmaniasis transmission underscores the need for a detailed information on the geographical distribution of these species. The current listing adds 34 new records that extend significantly the knowledge of the geographical distribution of the verrucarum group in Colombia. The most important new records pertain to Lutzomyia spinicrassa in the tropical dry forest of the Atlantic coast, Lutzomyia ovallesi in the Orinoco and Amazon River watersheds regions of Colombia, and the sympatric occurrence of Lutzomyia spinicrassa and Lutzomyia quasitownsendi in the eastern chain of the Andes mountains. Additionally, the municipal and altitudinal distributions are compiled for 19 new species recorded for Colombia. The series townsendi of the verrucarum group generally restricted to premontane and lower montane zones based on distribution data on Lutzomyia longiflocosa, L. quasitownsendi, Lutzomyia sauroida, L. spinicrassa, Lutzomyia torvida, Lutzomyia townsendi and Lutzomyia youngi. The series verrucarum is distributed from the tropical lowland to the montane zones, and includes species with wide geographical range (Lutzomyia evansi, Lutzomyia columbiana, L. ovallesi, Lutzomyia nuneztovari, Lutzomyia nevesi), and species of highly endemic distribution (Lutzomyia andina, Lutzomyia disiuncta, Lutzomyia moralesi, Lutzomyia antioquiensis). Members of the series pia (Lutzomyia pia, Lutzomyia limafalcaoae) and the series serrana (Lutzomyia serrana) occur from the tropical lowlands to the lower montane zones. The altitudinal divergences may be intrinsically tied to speciation process, especially as it relates to the climatic and geologic events that have affected the flora and fauna of the Andean region.

  20. [Lutzomyia whitmani periurbanization in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Maranhão, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Leonardo, Francisco Santos; Rebêlo, José Manuel Macário

    2004-01-01

    An entomological survey was performed in the periurban area of the municipality of Dom Pedro in the state of Maranhão in 2000, in order to estimate the abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis, due to the occurrence of one suspect death caused by kala azar. However, it was surprisingly verified that 82.4% (2,440 specimens) from the total of 2,961 sand flies captured in the peridomicile were Lutzomyia whitmani. This association has indicated a new pattern for cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission (urban), as has been observed with regard to kala azar in the northeast of Brazil.

  1. Molecular identification of Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae) as a potential vector for Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Ana Caroline Moura; Melo, Luciana Magalhães; Magalhães, Rafaela Damasceno; de Moraes, Nélio Batista; de Souza Júnior, Antônio Domingos; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal

    2016-04-15

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum. This parasite is transmitted by the bite of a female sand fly. The most important sand fly species in VL transmission is Lutzomyia longipalpis. In Fortaleza, the capital of Ceará State, Brazil, the simultaneous occurrence of Lutzomyia migonei and L. longipalpis was detected in localities where VL transmission is observed. The purpose of this study was to determine conclusively if L. migonei can be found naturally infected with L. infantum in key focus in Fortaleza. Using a CDC traps we performed phlebotomine capture during one year. External morphological features and qPCR targeting species-specific gene sequences of Lutzomyia species were used to identify the female phlebotomine sand flies. The molecular identification of the Leishmania species was performed using qPCR targeting species-specific gene sequences of L. infantum and Leishmania braziliensis. The males L. migonei abundance was higher in the rainy season. Humidity and rainfall positively correlated with males L. migonei abundance, while temperature showed a negative correlation. The correlation between the density of L. migonei female with rainfall, relative air humidity, and temperature were not statistically significant. According to the molecular data produced by qPCR amplifications, three positive sand flies were identified as L. longipalpis, and one was identified as L. migonei. The infection rate was 0.35% and 0.18%, respectively. The parasite load was 32,492±2572 L. infantum in L. migonei while the L. longipalpis had parasite loads between 2,444,964.6±116,000 and 6,287,130±124,277. Our findings confirm L. migonei as a potential vector of VL in Fortaleza at a molecular level.

  2. [Preliminary check list of species from the genus Lutzomyia, França, 1924

    PubMed

    Rebêlo; Mendes; Costa; Cavaleiro

    1996-10-01

    This paper presents a preliminary check list of Lutzomyia species from Maranhão State. The information derives from data gathered in the scarce literature on the distribution patterns of neotropical phlebotomines. There are 40 species reported in the State. Most are Amazonian in their distribution, while others come from the savanna domain of Central Brazil or have a widespread distribution in the neotropics. This can be explained by Maranhão's transitional position between the North, Northeast, and Central South of the country. Of the species of sandflies reported, seven are currently considered vectors for cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases.

  3. Correlated morphologic and genetic diversity among Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) collections in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Arrivillaga, J C; Rangel, Y N; Oviedo, M; Feliciangeli, M D

    2000-06-01

    Diversity among Lutzomyia longipalpis populations in Venezuela was characterized using 2 methods: larval mouthpart morphology-morphometry and isoenzyme electrophoresis. Analysis of the results suggested the presence of 2 morpho-genotypes. The mentum, maxillary comb, mandibular ventral teeth, and adenylate kinase and hexokinase enzyme-encoding loci suggested that a population from the northwestern Coriano System (Curarigua) is a distinct lineage within the L. longipalpis complex. Three widely separated populations from the Llanos (savanna), Andes, and northcentral Coastal Cordillera showed no significant substructure. These studies provide morphologic markers that are congruent with genetic data and suggest that the morphologic markers may be used to characterize and differentiate populations within this species complex.

  4. Comparative vectorial efficiency of Lutzomyia evansi and Lu. longipalpis for transmitting Leishmania chagasi.

    PubMed

    Montoya-Lerma, J; Cadena, H; Oviedo, M; Ready, P D; Barazarte, R; Travi, B L; Lane, R P

    2003-01-01

    The infection rates and development of Leishmania chagasi in two sandfly species, Lutzomyia evansi and Lutzomyia longipalpis, were evaluated under natural and experimental conditions. Natural infection rates of Lu. evansi in San Andrés de Sotavento (Colombia) and Montañas de Peraza (Venezuela) (0.05 and 0.2%, respectively) were similar to those previously recorded for this species in Colombia and Venezuela and for Lu. longipalpis in many foci of American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL). Both sand fly species were able to support the development of two Colombian strains of L. chagasi experimentally acquired from dogs, hamsters or membrane feeders. However, the experimental infection rates and the sequence of parasite development in the guts of these sand flies revealed that parasite colonisation, differentiation, migration and attachment were more frequent and uniform in Lu. longipalpis than in Lu. evansi. This is consistent with a more recent association between L. chagasi and Lu. evansi, and these results might help to explain the irregularity of AVL outbreaks in foci where Lu. evansi has been reported as the sole vector.

  5. Assessing Insecticide Susceptibility of Laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis and Phlebotomus papatasi Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae)

    PubMed Central

    Denlinger, David S.; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Lawyer, Phillip G.; Black, William C.; Bernhardt, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical insecticides are effective for controlling Lutzomyia and Phlebotomus sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors of Leishmania parasites. However, repeated use of certain insecticides has led to tolerance and resistance. The objective of this study was to determine lethal concentrations (LCs) and lethal exposure times (LTs) to assess levels of susceptibility of laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Nieva) and Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) to 10 insecticides using a modified version of the World Health Organization (WHO) exposure kit assay and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassay. Sand flies were exposed to insecticides coated on the interior of 0.5-gallon and 1,000-ml glass bottles. Following exposure, the flies were allowed to recover for 24 h, after which mortality was recorded. From dose–response survival curves for L. longipalpis and P. papatasi generated with the QCal software, LCs causing 50, 90, and 95% mortality were determined for each insecticide. The LCs and LTs from this study will be useful as baseline reference points for future studies using the CDC bottle bioassays to assess insecticide susceptibility of sand fly populations in the field. There is a need for a larger repository of sand fly insecticide susceptibility data from the CDC bottle bioassays, including a range of LCs and LTs for more sand fly species with more insecticides. Such a repository would be a valuable tool for vector management. PMID:26336231

  6. Life history of the sand fly vector Lutzomyia cruciata in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Castillo, A; Serrano, A K; Mikery, O F; Pérez, J

    2015-12-01

    Lutzomyia cruciata Coquillet (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) is a potential vector of Leishmania sp.; its geographical distribution in Mexico is widespread, but its life history is unknown. The present study gives relevant information on the life cycle, morphology, survival and reproduction of Lu. cruciata observed over successive generations under laboratory conditions. Seven successive generations were produced. A total of 975 adults were obtained in a sexual proportion of 1.1 : 1 (female : male). Each Lu. cruciata female produced 20.7 eggs and 1.9 adults, approximately, with a proportion of eggs per female of 2.7% (first generation) and 21.3% (second generation). The life cycle of Lu. cruciata, from egg to adult, occurred in 52.7 ± 0.52 days. The largest percentage of mortality occurred during the egg stage (48.5%) and the first larval instar (26.5%), whereas in the pupal stage mortality was the lowest (9.1%). Lutzomyia cruciata exhibits sexual dimorphism based on size, which is exhibited as of the second larval instar, males being smaller than females. The maximum survival of females and males was 10 and 15 days, respectively. An overview of the immature stages of the species made with an electronic scanning microscope is included. This paper contributes basic information on aspects of Lu. cruciata that were previously unknown related to its life history.

  7. Population dynamics and biting rhythm of the anthropophilic sandfly Lutzomyia cruciata (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Southeast, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rebollar-Tellez, E A; Reyes-Villanueva, F; Fernandez-Salas, I; Andrade-Narvaez, F J

    1996-01-01

    Sandflies attracted by human bait were caught in an endemic focus of localized cutaneous leishmaniasis in the state of Campeche, Mexico. Catches were carried out monthly from February 1994 to January 1995 between 18:00 and 22:00 h. Lutzomyia cruciata was the only species caught. The highest population peak of Lu. cruciata was found in March with lesser peaks in February, December 1994, and January 1995. Maximum biting rate of Lu. cruciata was found between 18:00 and 19:00 h. The host-seeking females of Lu. cruciata were directly related to levels of humidity between 88 and 100%. Low and high temperature had a negative effect upon Lu. cruciata activity. The possible role of Lu. cruciata as vector of leishmaniasis in the state of Campeche, Mexico is discussed.

  8. The current status of the Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) species complex.

    PubMed

    Souza, Nataly A; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Araki, Alejandra S

    2017-03-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. is a complex of sibling species and is the principal vector of American visceral leishmaniasis. The present review summarises the diversity of efforts that have been undertaken to elucidate the number of unnamed species in this species complex and the phylogenetic relationships among them. A wide variety of evidence, including chemical, behavioral and molecular traits, suggests very recent speciation events and complex population structure in this group. Although significant advances have been achieved to date, differential vector capacity and the correlation between structure of parasite and vector populations have yet to be elucidated. Furthermore, increased knowledge about recent epidemiological changes, such as urbanisation, is essential for pursuing effective strategies for sandfly control in the New World.

  9. Description of the female of the Peruvian sand fly Lutzomyia reclusa (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Cáceres, Abraham G

    2011-03-01

    The female of the phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia reclusa Fernández & Rogers 1991 [= Pintomyia (Pifanomyia) reclusa (Fernández & Rogers) sensu Galati], is described for the first time, based on specimens collected in the Department of Cajamarca, in northern Peru. The female can be recognized from other species of the series pia, species group Verrucarum, by wing venation with beta shorter than half of alpha, labrum just shorter than head width but longer than flagellomere 1, palpomere 5 much longer than palpomere 3, arrangement of cibarial armature, and form of spermathecae and relative size of spermathecal ducts. Diagnostic characters and measurements of the male of Lu. reclusa are provided as well.

  10. Natural infection of Lutzomyia neivai with Leishmania spp. in northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Córdoba-Lanús, Elizabeth; De Grosso, Mercedes Lizarralde; Piñero, José Enrique; Valladares, Basilio; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

    2006-04-01

    The natural infection of Lutzomyia neivai with Leishmania in the endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in northwestern Argentina was analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-hybridization technique. Phlebotominae sand flies were captured in the provinces of Tucumán and Salta between 1999 and 2003. From a sample of 440 Lu. neivai females analysed for the detection of the Leishmania (Viannia) and Leishmania (Leishmania) subgenera, 9.1% of the samples resulted infected with a parasite of the subgenus Viannia and none with the Leishmania. This is the first report of naturally infected sand flies in Argentina besides the first report of infected Lu. neivai sensu strictu. Our results contributed to further incrimination of this specie as vector of leishmaniasis in the area and the identification of the main circulating parasite as belonging to the Leishmania (Viannia) subgenera.

  11. The current status of the Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) species complex

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Nataly A; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Araki, Alejandra S

    2017-01-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. is a complex of sibling species and is the principal vector of American visceral leishmaniasis. The present review summarises the diversity of efforts that have been undertaken to elucidate the number of unnamed species in this species complex and the phylogenetic relationships among them. A wide variety of evidence, including chemical, behavioral and molecular traits, suggests very recent speciation events and complex population structure in this group. Although significant advances have been achieved to date, differential vector capacity and the correlation between structure of parasite and vector populations have yet to be elucidated. Furthermore, increased knowledge about recent epidemiological changes, such as urbanisation, is essential for pursuing effective strategies for sandfly control in the New World. PMID:28225906

  12. Description of Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) tolimensis, a new species of phlebotomine sandfly (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Carrasquilla, María C; Munstermann, Leonard; Marín, Dairo; Ocampo, Clara; Ferro, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    A description is presented of Lutzomyia tolimensis sp. nov., a new species of the subgenus Helcocyrtomyia, series sanguinaria. It was collected in dwellings, peridomestic environment and in nearby forest patches located in the foothills of the Andean Central Cordillera, where in 2004–2006 occurred the largest epidemic ever recorded of leishmaniasis in Colombia. The male of this species is differentiated from other members of the series sanguinaria based on the following combination of characters: (i) base of coxite with 0–3 subequal setae, (ii) spines of gonostyle organized in positions 2.1.2, (iii) spines inserted on distal half of gonostyle and (iv) relationship of alar indices. The female is recognized principally by the following characters: (i) palpomere V longer than III, (ii) length of labro-epipharynx and (iii) relationship of the alar indices. PMID:23295748

  13. Immunity to Lutzomyia whitmani Saliva Protects against Experimental Leishmania braziliensis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Clarissa; Carvalho, Augusto M.; Mattos, Paulo S.; Cristal, Juqueline R.; Muniz, Aline C.; Miranda, José Carlos; Barral, Aldina

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous works showed that immunization with saliva from Lutzomyia intermedia, a vector of Leishmania braziliensis, does not protect against experimental infection. However, L. braziliensis is also transmitted by Lutzomyia whitmani, a sand fly species closely related to Lu. intermedia. Herein we describe the immune response following immunization with Lu. whitmani saliva and the outcome of this response after L. braziliensis infection. Methods and findings BALB/c mice immunized with Lu. whitmani saliva developed robust humoral and cellular immune responses, the latter characterized by an intense cellular infiltrate and production of IFN-γ and IL-10, by both CD4+ and CD8+ cells. Mice immunized as above and challenged with L. braziliensis plus Lu. whitmani saliva displayed significantly smaller lesions and parasite load at the challenge site. This protection was associated with a higher (p<0.05) IFN-γ production in response to SLA stimulation. Long-term persisting immunity was also detected in mice immunized with Lu. whitmani saliva. Furthermore, individuals residing in an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) presented antibody responses to Lu. whitmani saliva. However CL patients, with active lesions, displayed a lower humoral response to Lu. whitmani saliva compared to individuals with subclinical Leishmania infection. Conclusion Pre-exposure to Lu. whitmani saliva induces protection against L. braziliensis in a murine model. We also show that Lu. whitmani salivary proteins are immunogenic in naturally exposed individuals. Our results reinforce the importance of investigating the immunomodulatory effect of saliva from different species of closely related sand flies. PMID:27812113

  14. Hourly activity of Lutzomyia neivai in the endemic zone of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tucumán, Argentina: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Fuenzalida, Ana Denise; Quintana, María Gabriela; Salomón, Oscar Daniel; de Grosso, Mercedes Sara Lizarralde

    2011-08-01

    In the present work, the hourly activity of Lutzomyia neivai was studied in the southern part of the province of Tucumán, Argentina, in an area of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis during two months of higher activity. In addition, the variables that influenced the abundance of Lu. neivai were evaluated. A total of 1,146 individuals belonging to Lu. neivai (97%) and Lutzomyia migonei (3%) were captured. The hourly activity of Lu. neivai was mainly nocturnal, with a bimodal pattern in both months. In January, the variable that most influenced the abundance of Lu. neivai was the temperature, whereas in April, that variable was humidity. These results may contribute to the design of anti-vectorial control measures at a micro-focal scale.

  15. Male sex pheromones and the phylogeographic structure of the Lutzomyia longipalpis species complex (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Brazil and Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Watts, Phillip C; Hamilton, J Gordon C; Ward, Richard D; Noyes, Harry A; Souza, Nataly A; Kemp, Stephen J; Feliciangeli, M Dora; Brazil, Reginaldo; Maingon, Rhayza D C

    2005-10-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis, a sibling complex, is the main vector of Leishmania chagasi/infantum. Discriminating between siblings is important as they may differ in vectorial capacity. Lutzomyia longipalpis populations display distinct male sex pheromone chemotypes. We investigated the phylogeographic pattern of variation at microsatellite loci from 11 populations from Brazil and Venezuela related to their male pheromone. Temporal genetic differentiation was mostly not significant at the same site. Spatial genetic differentiation was, however, strong, although there was only a weak relationship between genetic differentiation and the geographic distance separating the samples (r2 < 0.10); geographic separation explained a much greater (54-97%) percentage of the genetic differences among populations when samples with the same pheromone type were analyzed separately. A cluster analysis showed five groups: Lu. cruzi (Brazil) and Lu. pseudolongipalpis (Venezuela) as separate species, two (mostly 9-methyl-germacrene-B) Venezuelan and Brazilian groups, and a very distinct cluster of Brazilian cembrene populations.

  16. Hourly activity of Lutzomyia ovallesi and L. gomezi (Diptera:Psychodidae), Vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northcentral Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Feliciangeli, M D

    1997-03-01

    The comparative hourly activity of Lutzomyia ovallesi (Ortiz) and L. gomezi (Nitzulescu), vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Miranda State, Venezuela, was studied between November and March during 1991-1994 using a Shannon trap with a fluorescent light. Female abundance of L. ovallesi increased from 1800 to 2000 hours, plateaued from 2000 to 2400 hours, then decreased progressively. L. gomezi always exhibited maximum activity between 1900 and 2000 hours, then declined abruptly. The importance of these activity patterns in Leishmania transmission is discussed.

  17. Colonization of Lutzomyia verrucarum and Lutzomyia longipalpis Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) by Bartonella bacilliformis, the Etiologic Agent of Carrión’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Battisti, James M.; Lawyer, Phillip G.; Minnick, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Bartonella bacilliformis is a pathogenic bacterium transmitted to humans presumably by bites of phlebotomine sand flies, infection with which results in a bi-phasic syndrome termed Carrión’s disease. After constructing a low-passage GFP-labeled strain of B. bacilliformis, we artificially infected Lutzomyia verrucarum and L. longipalpis populations, and subsequently monitored colonization of sand flies by fluorescence microscopy. Initially, colonization of the two fly species was indistinguishable, with bacteria exhibiting a high degree of motility, yet still confined to the abdominal midgut. After 48h, B. bacilliformis transitioned from bacillus-shape to a non-motile, small coccoid form and appeared to be digested along with the blood meal in both fly species. Differences in colonization patterns became evident at 72h when B. bacilliformis was observed at relatively high density outside the peritrophic membrane in the lumen of the midgut in L. verrucarum, but colonization of L. longipalpis was limited to the blood meal within the intra-peritrophic space of the abdominal midgut, and the majority of bacteria were digested along with the blood meal by day 7. The viability of B. bacilliformis in L. longipalpis was assessed by artificially infecting, homogenizing, and plating for determination of colony-forming units in individual flies over a 13-d time course. Bacteria remained viable at relatively high density for approximately seven days, suggesting that L. longipalpis could potentially serve as a vector. The capacity of L. longipalpis to transmit viable B. bacilliformis from infected to uninfected meals was analyzed via interrupted feeds. No viable bacteria were retrieved from uninfected blood meals in these experiments. This study provides significant information toward understanding colonization of sand flies by B. bacilliformis and also demonstrates the utility of L. longipalpis as a user-friendly, live-vector model system for studying this severely neglected

  18. Colonization of Lutzomyia verrucarum and Lutzomyia longipalpis Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) by Bartonella bacilliformis, the Etiologic Agent of Carrión's Disease.

    PubMed

    Battisti, James M; Lawyer, Phillip G; Minnick, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Bartonella bacilliformis is a pathogenic bacterium transmitted to humans presumably by bites of phlebotomine sand flies, infection with which results in a bi-phasic syndrome termed Carrión's disease. After constructing a low-passage GFP-labeled strain of B. bacilliformis, we artificially infected Lutzomyia verrucarum and L. longipalpis populations, and subsequently monitored colonization of sand flies by fluorescence microscopy. Initially, colonization of the two fly species was indistinguishable, with bacteria exhibiting a high degree of motility, yet still confined to the abdominal midgut. After 48 h, B. bacilliformis transitioned from bacillus-shape to a non-motile, small coccoid form and appeared to be digested along with the blood meal in both fly species. Differences in colonization patterns became evident at 72 h when B. bacilliformis was observed at relatively high density outside the peritrophic membrane in the lumen of the midgut in L. verrucarum, but colonization of L. longipalpis was limited to the blood meal within the intra-peritrophic space of the abdominal midgut, and the majority of bacteria were digested along with the blood meal by day 7. The viability of B. bacilliformis in L. longipalpis was assessed by artificially infecting, homogenizing, and plating for determination of colony-forming units in individual flies over a 13-d time course. Bacteria remained viable at relatively high density for approximately seven days, suggesting that L. longipalpis could potentially serve as a vector. The capacity of L. longipalpis to transmit viable B. bacilliformis from infected to uninfected meals was analyzed via interrupted feeds. No viable bacteria were retrieved from uninfected blood meals in these experiments. This study provides significant information toward understanding colonization of sand flies by B. bacilliformis and also demonstrates the utility of L. longipalpis as a user-friendly, live-vector model system for studying this severely neglected

  19. Phlebotomine fauna, natural infection rate and feeding habits of Lutzomyia cruzi in Jaciara, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brito, Veruska Nogueira de; Almeida, Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira de; Nakazato, Luciano; Duarte, Rosemere; Souza, Cladson de Oliveira; Sousa, Valéria Régia Franco

    2014-11-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is transmitted by the phlebotomine Lutzomyia longipalpis and in some midwestern regions by Lutzomyia cruzi. Studies of the phlebotomine fauna, feeding habits and natural infection rate by Leishmania contribute to increased understanding of the epidemiological chain of leishmaniases and their vectorial capacity. Collections were performed in Jaciara, state of Mato Grosso from 2010-2013, during which time 2,011 phlebotomines (23 species) were captured (68.70% Lu. cruzi and 20.52% Lutzomyia whitmani). Lu. cruzi females were identified by observing the shapes of the cibarium (a portion of the mouthpart) and spermatheca, from which samples were obtained for polymerase chain reaction to determine the rates of natural infection. Engorged phlebotomines were assessed to identify the blood-meal host by ELISA. A moderate correlation was discovered between the number of Lu. cruzi and the temperature and the minimum rate of infection was 6.10%. Twenty-two females were reactive to the antisera of bird (28%), dog (3.30%) and skunk (1.60%). We conclude that Lu. cruzi and Lu. whitmani have adapted to the urban environment in this region and that Lu. cruzi is the most likely vector of VL in Jaciara. Moreover, maintenance of Leishmania in the environment is likely aided by the presence of birds and domestic and synanthropic animals.

  20. Phlebotomine fauna, natural infection rate and feeding habits of Lutzomyia cruzi in Jaciara, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brito, Veruska Nogueira de; Almeida, Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira de; Nakazato, Luciano; Duarte, Rosemere; Souza, Cladson de Oliveira; Sousa, Valéria Régia Franco

    2014-10-14

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is transmitted by the phlebotomine Lutzomyia longipalpis and in some midwestern regions by Lutzomyia cruzi. Studies of the phlebotomine fauna, feeding habits and natural infection rate by Leishmania contribute to increased understanding of the epidemiological chain of leishmaniases and their vectorial capacity. Collections were performed in Jaciara, state of Mato Grosso from 2010-2013, during which time 2,011 phlebotomines (23 species) were captured (68.70% Lu. cruzi and 20.52% Lutzomyia whitmani). Lu. cruzi females were identified by observing the shapes of the cibarium (a portion of the mouthpart) and spermatheca, from which samples were obtained for polymerase chain reaction to determine the rates of natural infection. Engorged phlebotomines were assessed to identify the blood-meal host by ELISA. A moderate correlation was discovered between the number of Lu. cruzi and the temperature and the minimum rate of infection was 6.10%. Twenty-two females were reactive to the antisera of bird (28%), dog (3.30%) and skunk (1.60%). We conclude that Lu. cruzi and Lu. whitmani have adapted to the urban environment in this region and that Lu. cruzi is the most likely vector of VL in Jaciara. Moreover, maintenance of Leishmania in the environment is likely aided by the presence of birds and domestic and synanthropic animals.

  1. Phlebotomine fauna, natural infection rate and feeding habits of Lutzomyia cruzi in Jaciara, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Brito, Veruska Nogueira; de Almeida, Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira; Nakazato, Luciano; Duarte, Rosemere; Souza, Cladson de Oliveira; Sousa, Valéria Régia Franco

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is transmitted by the phlebotomine Lutzomyia longipalpis and in some midwestern regions by Lutzomyia cruzi. Studies of the phlebotomine fauna, feeding habits and natural infection rate by Leishmania contribute to increased understanding of the epidemiological chain of leishmaniases and their vectorial capacity. Collections were performed in Jaciara, state of Mato Grosso from 2010-2013, during which time 2,011 phlebotomines (23 species) were captured (68.70% Lu. cruzi and 20.52% Lutzomyia whitmani). Lu. cruzi females were identified by observing the shapes of the cibarium (a portion of the mouthpart) and spermatheca, from which samples were obtained for polymerase chain reaction to determine the rates of natural infection. Engorged phlebotomines were assessed to identify the blood-meal host by ELISA. A moderate correlation was discovered between the number of Lu. cruzi and the temperature and the minimum rate of infection was 6.10%. Twenty-two females were reactive to the antisera of bird (28%), dog (3.30%) and skunk (1.60%). We conclude that Lu. cruzi and Lu. whitmani have adapted to the urban environment in this region and that Lu. cruzi is the most likely vector of VL in Jaciara. Moreover, maintenance of Leishmania in the environment is likely aided by the presence of birds and domestic and synanthropic animals. PMID:25410993

  2. Association between Leishmania infantum DNA in the hair of dogs and their infectiousness to Lutzomyia longipalpis.

    PubMed

    de Sousa Gonçalves, Rafaela; Franke, Carlos R; Magalhães-Junior, Jairo T; Souza, Bárbara M P S; Solcà, Manuela S; Larangeira, Daniela F; Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria

    2016-12-15

    Diagnosis of infection with Leishmania infantum by DNA detection in the hair has been recently demonstrated in dogs and wild animals. Our objective was to investigate if polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in hair might be used to identify infectious dogs. Thus, we assessed the infectiousness to Lutzomyia longipalpis by xenodiagnosis in comparison with the detection of L. infantum DNA by PCR in the hair, and with serology for anti-Leishmania IgG by ELISA in 15 positive dogs for L. infantum infection. Eight healthy dogs were included as negative controls. Among the 15 infected dogs, 13 were found positive in the ELISA (87%), 12 were PCR positive in the hair (80%), and 10 were positive in xenodiagnosis (67%). Positivity in the hair was associated with positivity in spleen (p=0.0003), seropositivity for antibodies (p=0.0006) and parasite transmission to L. longipalpis (p=0.0028). Considering the benefits to animal welfare and feasibility of hair sampling method, studies in larger and more diverse populations of naturally infected dogs from endemic areas should be conducted to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of PCR using hair as a possible biomarker of infectiousness in dogs.

  3. The Gut Microbiome of the Vector Lutzomyia longipalpis Is Essential for Survival of Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Patrick H.; Bahr, Sarah M.; Serafim, Tiago D.; Ajami, Nadim J.; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Meneses, Claudio; Kirby, John R.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Kamhawi, Shaden

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The vector-borne disease leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania species protozoa, is transmitted to humans by phlebotomine sand flies. Development of Leishmania to infective metacyclic promastigotes in the insect gut, a process termed metacyclogenesis, is an essential prerequisite for transmission. Based on the hypothesis that vector gut microbiota influence the development of virulent parasites, we sequenced midgut microbiomes in the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis with or without Leishmania infantum infection. Sucrose-fed sand flies contained a highly diverse, stable midgut microbiome. Blood feeding caused a decrease in microbial richness that eventually recovered. However, bacterial richness progressively decreased in L. infantum-infected sand flies. Acetobacteraceae spp. became dominant and numbers of Pseudomonadaceae spp. diminished coordinately as the parasite underwent metacyclogenesis and parasite numbers increased. Importantly, antibiotic-mediated perturbation of the midgut microbiome rendered sand flies unable to support parasite growth and metacyclogenesis. Together, these data suggest that the sand fly midgut microbiome is a critical factor for Leishmania growth and differentiation to its infective state prior to disease transmission. PMID:28096483

  4. Feeding preferences of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae), the sand fly vector, for Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae).

    PubMed

    Macedo-Silva, Virgínia P; Martins, Daniella R A; De Queiroz, Paula Vivianne Souza; Pinheiro, Marcos Paulo G; Freire, Caio C M; Queiroz, José W; Dupnik, Kathryn M; Pearson, Richard D; Wilson, Mary E; Jeronimo, Selma M B; Ximenes, Maria De Fátima F M

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil, is spread mostly by the bite of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva). We trapped sand flies in endemic neighborhoods near Natal, Brazil, where cases of human and dog VL were documented. Amplification of species-specific cytochrome b (Cyt b) genes by polymerase chain reaction revealed that sand flies from rural and periurban areas harbored blood from different sources. The most common source ofbloodmeal was human, but blood from dog, chicken, and armadillo was also present. We tested the preference for a source of bloodmeal experimentally by feeding L. longipalpis F1 with blood from different animals. There were significant differences between the proportion of flies engorged and number of eggs laid among flies fed on different sources, varying from 8.4 to 19 (P < 0.0001). Blood from guinea pig or horse was best to support sand fly oviposition, but human blood also supported sand fly oviposition well. No sand flies fed on cats, and sand flies feeding on the opossum Monodelphis domestica Wagner produced no eggs. These data support the hypothesis that L. longipalpis is an eclectic feeder, and humans are an important source of blood for this sand fly species in periurban areas of Brazil.

  5. Seasonal abundance of Lutzomyia shannoni (Diptera: Psychodidae) on Ossabaw Island, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Brinson, F J; Hagan, D V; Comer, J A; Strohlein, D A

    1992-03-01

    Population dynamics of Lutzomyia shannoni were monitored from April 1986 through December 1987 on Ossabaw Island, Ga. Most (99%) of the 19,788 adult sand flies were collected in light traps supplemented with dry ice; less than or equal to 1% were aspirated from diurnal resting sites. Adult sand flies first appeared in April and were followed by peaks of abundance during May 1986, and May and July 1987. Numbers of adults captured fell rapidly in October and November 1986 and in September and October 1987. No specimens were collected in December 1986 or in March, November, and December 1987. Light trap catch was affected positively by mean nightly air temperature and negatively by rainfall 14 d before collection, but not by wind speed or moon phase. Vesicular stomatitis viral activity, as measured by antibodies in feral and domestic swine, roughly corresponded to the seasonal appearance of adult L. shannoni during 1986 and 1987. Significantly more adults (72%) were collected in light traps at ground level (0.5m) than at heights of 4 and 8m. Most resting adults were collected from dark, moist tree holes and cavities of various hardwoods.

  6. Life cycle and fecundity analysis of Lutzomyia shannoni (Dyar) (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Ferro, C; Cárdenas, E; Corredor, D; Morales, A; Munstermann, L E

    1998-01-01

    The life cycle of Lutzomyia shannoni (Dyar), was described for laboratory conditions with maximum daily temperature of 27-30 degree C, minimum daily temperatures of 22-27 degree C and relative humidity between 87-99%. Life cycle in each stage was as follows: egg 6-12 days (ave, 8.5 days); first stage larva 5-13 days (ave. 9.6 days); second stage larva 4-13 days (ave. 9.2 days); third stage larva 5-19 days (ave. 11.8 days); fourth stage larva 7-37 days (ave. 19.9 days); pupa 7-32 days (ave. 15.2 days). The life expectancy of adults ranged from 4 to 15 days (ave. 8.6 days). The entire egg to adult period ranged from 36 to 74 days (ave. 54.6 days). On average, each female oviposited 22.7 eggs; the average egg retention per female was 24.3 eggs.

  7. Seasonal abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) at an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Morrison, A C; Ferro, C; Pardo, R; Torres, M; Devlin, B; Wilson, M L; Tesh, R B

    1995-07-01

    Ecological studies on the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) were conducted during 1990-1993 in a small rural community in Colombia where American visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. Standardized weekly sand fly collections made from pigpens and natural resting sites displayed a bimodal annual abundance cycle, with a small peak occurring in October-November and a larger one in April-May. Time series analysis was employed to quantify the associations between sand fly abundance and weather factors (temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall). In addition to a prominent 6-mo cycle. Fourier analysis of the collection data demonstrated that the L. longipalpis population also exhibited a 5- to 8-wk cycle that may represent the length of larval development. Autoregressive moving average models were fit to weekly collection data and their residuals were regressed against rainfall, temperature, and relative humidity. A significant positive association between female L. longipalpis abundance and the relative humidity and rainfall recorded 3 wk earlier was found, indicating that these factors may be of value in predicting sand fly abundance. Additionally, these data indicated that L. longipalpis larvae may become quiescent during adverse conditions.

  8. Effect of abiotic factors on seasonal population dynamics of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ximenes, Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo; Castellón, Eloy G; De Souza, Maria de Fátima; Menezes, Alexandre A Lara; Queiroz, José Wilton; Macedo e Silva, Virgínia Penéllope; Jerônimo, Selma M B

    2006-09-01

    The resurgence of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil increases the need for studies to elucidate the spatial and temporal dynamics of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae), the vector of Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Sand flies were captured in peridomestic habitats biweekly for 3 yr. Cross-correlation tests and spectral analysis were used to analyze the simultaneous and lag-time correlations between Lu. longipalpis population densities and abiotic factors of temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity, and rainfall. Distinct seasonal patterns were observed for males and females, with intervals of 6 mo between population peaks for males and 12 mo for females. Peak female population densities lagged 3 mo behind the maximum annual temperature. Female population density was negatively correlated with relative humidity. An increase in average wind velocity was followed by a decrease in the number of females for 2 wk. Understanding the relationship between the seasonal population dynamics of Lu. longipalpis and abiotic factors will contribute to the design of better control measures to decrease transmission of L. infantum and consequently the incidence of leishmaniasis.

  9. Genetic variability among populations of Lutzomyia (Psathyromyia) shannoni (Dyar 1929) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, E; Munstermann, L E; Martínez, O; Corredor, D; Ferro, C

    2001-02-01

    Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to elucidate genetic variation at 13 isozyme loci among forest populations of Lutzomyia shannoni from three widely separated locations in Colombia: Palambí (Nariño Department), Cimitarra (Santander Department) and Chinácota (Norte de Santander Department). These samples were compared with a laboratory colony originating from the Magdalena Valley in Central Colombia. The mean heterozygosity ranged from 16 to 22%, with 2.1 to 2.6 alleles detected per locus. Nei's genetic distances among populations were low, ranging from 0.011 to 0.049. The estimated number of migrants (Nm=3.8) based on Wright's F-Statistic, F ST, indicated low levels of gene flow among Lu. shannoni forest populations. This low level of migration indicates that the spread of stomatitis virus occurs via infected host, not by infected insect. In the colony sample of 79 individuals, the Gpi locus was homozygotic (0.62/0.62) in all females and heterozygotic (0.62/0.72) in all males. Although this phenomenon is probably a consequence of colonization, it indicates that Gpi is linked to a sex determining locus.

  10. [Repellent activity of plant essential oils against bites of Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae)].

    PubMed

    Nieves, Elsa; Fernández Méndez, Janett; Lias, José; Rondón, Maritza; Briceño, Benito

    2010-12-01

    Natural repellents from plant extracts have demonstrated good efficacy against bites of some insect species. The present study evaluated the repellent effect of essential oils extracted from 8 plants species against bites of Lutzomyia migonei, the Leishmania vector. The essential oils were extracted by steam destillation in Clevenger chamber, from the following plants: Hyptis suaveolens, Pimenta racemosa, Piper marginatum, Monticalia imbricatifolia, Pseudognaphalium caeruleocanum, Espeletia shultzii, Plecthranthus amboinicus and Cinnamomun zeylanicum. Repellency tests were performed under laboratory conditions by the human hand method in cage assays, using female colonies of L. migonei. The more effective oils were tested at variable concentrations on different volunteers. The protection percentage and time were calculated. The results showed what oils of P. caeruleocanum and C. zeylanicum were the most effective. Although P. amboinicus oil also had repellent effect showed an irritant effect. The oils P. marginatum, H. suaveolens and P. racemosa showed no repellent effect, while the rest of oil extracts showed significant repellency in variable degrees. P. caeruleocanum and C. zeylanicum oils provided the 95% protection against bites of L. migonei for 3 h. The P. caeruleocanum oil showed the greatest protection time, with a mean over 4h and 3h at concentrations of 50% and 10% respectively. The results suggest that the P. caeruleocanum oil could represent a potential natural repellent against Leishmania vectors.

  11. Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva drives apoptosis and enhances parasite burden in neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Prates, Deboraci Brito; Araújo-Santos, Théo; Luz, Nívea Farias; Andrade, Bruno B; França-Costa, Jaqueline; Afonso, Lilian; Clarêncio, Jorge; Miranda, José Carlos; Bozza, Patrícia T; Dosreis, George A; Brodskyn, Cláudia; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Borges, Valéria Matos; Borges, Valéria de Matos; Barral, Aldina

    2011-09-01

    Neutrophils are considered the host's first line of defense against infections and have been implicated in the immunopathogenesis of Leishmaniasis. Leishmania parasites are inoculated alongside vectors' saliva, which is a rich source of pharmacologically active substances that interfere with host immune response. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that salivary components from Lutzomyia longipalpis, an important vector of visceral Leishmaniasis, enhance neutrophil apoptosis. Murine inflammatory peritoneal neutrophils cultured in the presence of SGS presented increased surface expression of FasL and underwent caspase-dependent and FasL-mediated apoptosis. This proapoptosis effect of SGS on neutrophils was abrogated by pretreatment with protease as well as preincubation with antisaliva antibodies. Furthermore, in the presence of Leishmania chagasi, SGS also increased apoptosis on neutrophils and increased PGE(2) release and decreased ROS production by neutrophils, while enhancing parasite viability inside these cells. The increased parasite burden was abrogated by treatment with z-VAD, a pan caspase inhibitor, and NS-398, a COX-2 inhibitor. In the presence of SGS, Leishmania-infected neutrophils produced higher levels of MCP-1 and attracted a high number of macrophages by chemotaxis in vitro assays. Both of these events were abrogated by pretreatment of neutrophils with bindarit, an inhibitor of CCL2/MCP-1 expression. Taken together, our data support the hypothesis that vector salivary proteins trigger caspase-dependent and FasL-mediated apoptosis, thereby favoring Leishmania survival inside neutrophils, which may represent an important mechanism for the establishment of Leishmania infection.

  12. Expression, purification, crystallization and crystallographic study of Lutzomyia longipalpis LJL143

    PubMed Central

    Kelleher, Alan; Liu, Zhuyun; Seid, Christopher A.; Zhan, Bin; Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected vector-borne disease with a global prevalence of over 12 million cases and 59 000 annual deaths. Transmission of the parasite requires salivary proteins, including LJL143 from the New World sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis. LJL143 is a known marker of sandfly exposure in zoonotic hosts. LJL143 was crystallized from soluble protein expressed using Pichia pastoris. X-ray data were collected to 2.6 Å resolution from ortho­rhombic crystals belonging to space group P212121, with average unit-cell parameters a = 57.39, b = 70.24, c = 79.58 Å. The crystals are predicted to have a monomer in the asymmetric unit, with an estimated solvent content of 48.5%. LJL143 has negligible homology to any reported structures, so the phases could not be determined by molecular replacement. All attempts at S-SAD failed and future studies include experimental phase determination using heavy-atom derivatives. PMID:26144240

  13. A comparison of molecular markers to detect Lutzomyia longipalpis naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum

    PubMed Central

    Freitas-Lidani, Kárita Cláudia; de Messias-Reason, Iara J; Ishikawa, Edna Aoba Y

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to detect natural infection by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in Lutzomyia longipalpis captured in Barcarena, state of Pará, Brazil, through the use of three primer sets. With this approach, it is unnecessary to previously dissect the sandfly specimens. DNA of 280 Lu. longipalpis female specimens were extracted from the whole insects. PCR primers for kinetoplast minicircle DNA (kDNA), the mini-exon gene and the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) gene of Leishmania were used, generating fragments of 400 bp, 780 bp and 603 bp, respectively. Infection by the parasite was found with the kDNA primer in 8.6% of the cases, with the mini-exon gene primer in 7.1% of the cases and with the SSU-rRNA gene primer in 5.3% of the cases. These data show the importance of polymerase chain reaction as a tool for investigating the molecular epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis by estimating the risk of disease transmission in endemic areas, with the kDNA primer representing the most reliable marker for the parasite. PMID:25004147

  14. Shifts in the ecological niche of Lutzomyia peruensis under climate change scenarios in Peru.

    PubMed

    Moo-Llanes, D A; Arque-Chunga, W; Carmona-Castro, O; Yañez-Arenas, C; Yañez-Trujillano, H H; Cheverría-Pacheco, L; Baak-Baak, C M; Cáceres, A G

    2017-02-02

    The Peruvian Andes presents a climate suitable for many species of sandfly that are known vectors of leishmaniasis or bartonellosis, including Lutzomyia peruensis (Diptera: Psychodidae), among others. In the present study, occurrences data for Lu. peruensis were compiled from several items in the scientific literature from Peru published between 1927 and 2015. Based on these data, ecological niche models were constructed to predict spatial distributions using three algorithms [Support vector machine (SVM), the Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Prediction (GARP) and Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt)]. In addition, the environmental requirements of Lu. peruensis and three niche characteristics were modelled in the context of future climate change scenarios: (a) potential changes in niche breadth; (b) shifts in the direction and magnitude of niche centroids, and (c) shifts in elevation range. The model identified areas that included environments suitable for Lu. peruensis in most regions of Peru (45.77%) and an average altitude of 3289 m a.s.l. Under climate change scenarios, a decrease in the distribution areas of Lu. peruensis was observed for all representative concentration pathways. However, the centroid of the species' ecological niche showed a northwest direction in all climate change scenarios. The information generated in this study may help health authorities responsible for the supervision of strategies to control leishmaniasis to coordinate, plan and implement appropriate strategies for each area of risk, taking into account the geographic distribution and potential dispersal of Lu. peruensis.

  15. Abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis in urban households as risk factor of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Vianna, Elisa Neves; Morais, Maria Helena Franco; de Almeida, Andréa Sobral; Sabroza, Paulo Chagastelles; Reis, Ilka Afonso; Dias, Edelberto Santos; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2016-01-01

    Urban occurrence of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is linked to households with characteristics conducive to the presence of sand flies. This study proposes an ad hoc classification of households according to the environmental characteristics of receptivity to phlebotominae and an entomological study to validate the proposal. Here we describe the phlebotominae population found in intra- and peridomiciliary environments and analyse the spatiotemporal distribution of the VL vector Lutzomyia longipalpis of households receptive to VL. In the region, 153 households were classified into levels of receptivity to VL followed by entomological surveys in 40 of those properties. Kruskal-Wallis verified the relationship between the households’ classification and sand fly abundance and Kernel analysis evaluated L. longipalpis spatial distribution: of the 740 sand flies were captured, 91% were L. longipalpis; 82% were found peridomiciliary whilst the remaining 18% were found intradomiciliary. No statistically significant association was found between sandflies and households levels. L. longipalpis counts were concentrated in areas of high vulnerability and some specific households were responsible for the persistence of the infestation. L. longipalpis prevails over other sand fly species for urban VL transmission. The entomological study may help target the surveillance and vector control strategies to domiciles initiating and/or maintaining VL outbreaks. PMID:27223866

  16. Expression, purification, crystallization and crystallographic study of Lutzomyia longipalpis LJL143

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, Alan; Liu, Zhuyun; Seid, Christopher A.; Zhan, Bin; Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.

    2015-06-27

    LJL143, a salivary protein from L. longipalpis, was produced using P. pastoris and crystallized in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. Leishmaniasis is a neglected vector-borne disease with a global prevalence of over 12 million cases and 59 000 annual deaths. Transmission of the parasite requires salivary proteins, including LJL143 from the New World sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis. LJL143 is a known marker of sandfly exposure in zoonotic hosts. LJL143 was crystallized from soluble protein expressed using Pichia pastoris. X-ray data were collected to 2.6 Å resolution from orthorhombic crystals belonging to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with average unit-cell parameters a = 57.39, b = 70.24, c = 79.58 Å. The crystals are predicted to have a monomer in the asymmetric unit, with an estimated solvent content of 48.5%. LJL143 has negligible homology to any reported structures, so the phases could not be determined by molecular replacement. All attempts at S-SAD failed and future studies include experimental phase determination using heavy-atom derivatives.

  17. Expression pattern of glycoside hydrolase genes in Lutzomyia longipalpis reveals key enzymes involved in larval digestion

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Caroline da Silva; Diaz-Albiter, Hector M.; Faria, Maiara do Valle; Sant'Anna, Maurício R. V.; Dillon, Rod J.; Genta, Fernando A.

    2014-01-01

    The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is the most important vector of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. Adults are phytophagous (males and females) or blood feeders (females only), and larvae feed on solid detritus. Digestion in sand fly larvae has scarcely been studied, but some glycosidase activities putatively involved in microorganism digestion were already described. Nevertheless, the molecular nature of these enzymes, as the corresponding genes and transcripts, were not explored yet. Catabolism of microbial carbohydrates in insects generally involves β-1,3-glucanases, chitinases, and digestive lysozymes. In this work, the transcripts of digestive β-1,3-glucanase and chitinases were identified in the L. longipalpis larvae throughout analysis of sequences and expression patterns of glycoside hydrolases families 16, 18, and 22. The activity of one i-type lysozyme was also registered. Interestingly, this lysozyme seems to play a role in immunity, rather than digestion. This is the first attempt to identify the molecular nature of sand fly larval digestive enzymes. PMID:25140153

  18. Leishmaniasis in Bolivia. I. Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) as the vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Los Yungas.

    PubMed

    Le Pont, F; Desjeux, P

    1985-01-01

    A relatively high leishmanial infection rate was found in the phlebotomine sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis collected from three villages of the Los Yungas region (Department of La Paz, Bolivia). 2,578 female sandflies were dissected. In three houses surveyed in Santa Barbara promastigote infection rates of Lu. longipalpis were 4.2, 2.2 and 3.2% respectively. Anatomical localization of the infection in the insect, and biochemical characterization of the strains indicate that the parasite belongs to the Leishmania donovani complex. The geographical area and the biotopes of Lu. longipalpis are discussed in relation to the vector-parasite relationship.

  19. Adulticide effect of Monticalia greenmaniana (Asteraceae) against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, José; Rojas, Janne; Rondón, Maritza; Nieves, Elsa

    2012-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is a public health problem that has been increasing year by year, with the further difficulty that an efficient control system is not available. Therefore, it is necessary to search for less contaminating and dangerous alternatives for controlling Leishmania transmitting sandflies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of Monticalia greenmaniana (Asteraceae) extracts and essential oil as an adulticide against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae) females, from a laboratory colony, in experimental conditions. Dry aerial parts of M. greenmaniana (Hieron) Jeffrey were used. Methanolic and aqueous extracts were prepared, and essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation. Adulticide tests in pots, adulticide tests in cages, and knocked-down effects were determined. The results obtained demonstrated that methanolic and aqueous extracts produced adulticide activity. The essential oil from M. greenmaniana was proved to be the most toxic against L. migonei, with a 95 % death rate at a concentration of 0.01 mg/ml during a 1-h exposure. The essential oil showed a DL50 = 0.0050 and DL98 = 0.0066 mg/ml. The methanolic extract was DL50 = 0.130 and DL98 = 1.016 mg/ml, and the aqueous extract, DL50 = 0.487 and DL98 10.924 mg/ml. The knocked-down effect for the M. greenmaniana oil showed a KDTL50 = 48.6 and KDTL98 = 90.1 min. It was concluded that the essential oil from M. greenmaniana showed a strong insecticide effect against L. migonei females, which encourages us to continue these studies in search for control alternatives against sandflies.

  20. First Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Wild Adult Male and Female Lutzomyia longipalpis, Vector of Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Christina B.; Santini, María Soledad; Pimenta, Paulo F. P.; Diambra, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease with a complex epidemiology and ecology. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is its most severe clinical form as it results in death if not treated. In Latin America VL is caused by the protist parasite Leishmania infantum (syn. chagasi) and transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis. This phlebotomine sand fly is only found in the New World, from Mexico to Argentina. However, due to deforestation, migration and urbanisation, among others, VL in Latin America is undergoing an evident geographic expansion as well as dramatic changes in its transmission patterns. In this context, the first VL outbreak was recently reported in Argentina, which has already caused 7 deaths and 83 reported cases. Insect vector transcriptomic analyses enable the identification of molecules involved in the insect's biology and vector-parasite interaction. Previous studies on laboratory reared Lu. longipalpis have provided a descriptive repertoire of gene expression in the whole insect, midgut, salivary gland and male reproductive organs. Nevertheless, the study of wild specimens would contribute a unique insight into the development of novel bioinsecticides. Given the recent VL outbreak in Argentina and the compelling need to develop appropriate control strategies, this study focused on wild male and female Lu. longipalpis from an Argentine endemic (Posadas, Misiones) and a Brazilian non-endemic (Lapinha Cave, Minas Gerais) VL location. In this study, total RNA was extracted from the sand flies, submitted to sequence independent amplification and high-throughput pyrosequencing. This is the first time an unbiased and comprehensive transcriptomic approach has been used to analyse an infectious disease vector in its natural environment. Transcripts identified in the sand flies showed characteristic profiles which correlated with the environment of origin and with taxa previously identified in these same specimens. Among these, various genes represented putative

  1. Phylogeography of the Lutzomyia gomezi (Diptera: Phlebotominae) on the Panama Isthmus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lutzomyia gomezi (Nitzulescu, 1931) is one of the main Leishmania (Vianna) panamensis vectors in Panama, and despite its medical significance, there are no population genetic studies regarding this species. In this study, we used the sequences of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b/start of NADH1 and the nuclear elongation gene α-1 in order to analyze genetic variation and phylogeographic structure of the Lu. gomezi populations. Methods A total of 86 Lu. gomezi individuals were captured in 38 locations where cutaneous leishmaniasis occurred. DNA was extracted with phenol/chloroform methods and amplification of genes was performed using PCR primers for mitochondrial and nuclear markers. Results We found a total of 37 and 26 haplotypes of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, high haplotype diversity (h) for all three populations were detected with both molecular markers. Nucleotide diversity (π) was estimated to be high for all three populations with the mitochondrial marker, which was opposite to the estimate with the nuclear marker. In the AMOVA Φst recorded moderate (mitochondrial) and small (nuclear) population structure with statistical significance among populations. The analysis of the fixation index (Fst) used to measure the differentiation of populations showed that with the exception of the population located in the region of Bocas del Toro, the other populations presented with minor genetic differentiation. The median-Joining network of the mitochondrial marker reveled three clusters and recorded four haplotypes exclusively of localities sampled from Western Panama, demonstrating strong divergence. We found demographic population expansion with Fu´s Fs neutrality test. In the analysis mismatch distribution was observed as a bimodal curve. Conclusion Lu. gomezi is a species with higher genetic pool or variability and mild population structure, due to possible capacity migration and local adaptation to environmental changes or colonization

  2. Distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis Chemotype Populations in São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Claudio; Colla-Jacques, Fernanda E.; Hamilton, James G. C.; Brazil, Reginaldo P.; Shaw, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Background American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) is an emerging disease in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Its geographical expansion and the increase in the number of human cases has been linked to dispersion of Lutzomyia longipalpis into urban areas. To produce more accurate risk maps we investigated the geographic distribution and routes of expansion of the disease as well as chemotype populations of the vector. Methodology/Principal Findings A database, containing the annual records of municipalities which had notified human and canine AVL cases as well as the presence of the vector, was compiled. The chemotypes of L. longipalpis populations from municipalities in different regions of São Paulo State were determined by Coupled Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry. From 1997 to June 2014, L. longipalpis has been reported in 166 municipalities, 148 of them in the Western region. A total of 106 municipalities were identified with transmission and 99 were located in the Western region, where all 2,204 autochthonous human cases occurred. Both the vector and the occurrence of human cases have expanded in a South-easterly direction, from the Western to central region, and from there, a further expansion to the North and the South. The (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B population of L. longipalpis is widely distributed in the Western region and the cembrene-1 population is restricted to the Eastern region. Conclusion/Significance The maps in the present study show that there are two distinct epidemiological patterns of AVL in São Paulo State and that the expansion of human and canine AVL cases through the Western region has followed the same dispersion route of only one of the two species of the L. longipalpis complex, (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B. Entomological vigilance based on the routes of dispersion and identification of the chemotype population could be used to identify at-risk areas and consequently define the priorities for control measures. PMID:25781320

  3. American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Panama: a historical review of entomological studies on anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species.

    PubMed

    Dutari, Larissa C; Loaiza, Jose R

    2014-05-11

    We review existing information on the epidemiology of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in Panama, with emphasis on the bionomics of anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species. Evidence from Panamanian studies suggests that there are six anthropophilic species in the country: Lutzomyia trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ylephiletor, Lu. sanguinaria and Lu. pessoana (Henceforth Lu. carrerai thula). In general, these taxa are abundant, widespread and feed opportunistically on their hosts, which make them potential transmitters of pathogens to a broad range of wildlife, domesticated animals and humans. Furthermore, nearly all man-biting species in Panama (with the exception of Lu. gomezi) expand demographically during the rainy season when transmission is likely higher due to elevated Leishmania infection rates in vector populations. Despite this, data on the distribution and prevalence of ACL suggest little influence of vector density on transmission intensity. Apart from Lu. trapidoi, anthropophilic species seem to be most active in the understory, but vertical stratification, as well as their opportunistic feeding behavior, could vary geographically. This in turn seems related to variation in host species composition and relative abundance across sites that have experienced different degrees of human alteration (e.g., deforestation) in leishmaniasis endemic regions of Panama.

  4. American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Panama: a historical review of entomological studies on anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We review existing information on the epidemiology of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in Panama, with emphasis on the bionomics of anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species. Evidence from Panamanian studies suggests that there are six anthropophilic species in the country: Lutzomyia trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ylephiletor, Lu. sanguinaria and Lu. pessoana (Henceforth Lu. carrerai thula). In general, these taxa are abundant, widespread and feed opportunistically on their hosts, which make them potential transmitters of pathogens to a broad range of wildlife, domesticated animals and humans. Furthermore, nearly all man-biting species in Panama (with the exception of Lu. gomezi) expand demographically during the rainy season when transmission is likely higher due to elevated Leishmania infection rates in vector populations. Despite this, data on the distribution and prevalence of ACL suggest little influence of vector density on transmission intensity. Apart from Lu. trapidoi, anthropophilic species seem to be most active in the understory, but vertical stratification, as well as their opportunistic feeding behavior, could vary geographically. This in turn seems related to variation in host species composition and relative abundance across sites that have experienced different degrees of human alteration (e.g., deforestation) in leishmaniasis endemic regions of Panama. PMID:24886629

  5. Effects of temperature and photoperiod on daily activity rhythms of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Insect vectors have been established as models in Chronobiology for many decades, and recent studies have demonstrated a close relationship between the circadian clock machinery, daily rhythms of activity and vectorial capacity. Lutzomyia longipalpis, the primary vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in the New World, is reported to have crepuscular/nocturnal activity in the wild. However, most of these studies applied hourly CDC trap captures, which is a good indicative of L. longipalpis behaviour, but has limited accuracy due to the inability to record the daily activity of a single insect during consecutive days. In addition, very little is known about the activity pattern of L. longipalpis under seasonal variations of average temperature and day length in controlled laboratory conditions. Methods We recorded the locomotor activity of L. longipalpis males under different artificial regimes of temperature and photoperiod. First, in order to test the effects of temperature on the activity, sandflies were submitted to regimes of light/dark cycles similar to the equinox photoperiod (LD 12:12) combined with different constant temperatures (20°C, 25°C and 30°C). In addition, we recorded sandfly locomotor activity under a mild constant temperature (25°C with different day length regimes: 8 hours, 12 hours and 16 hours). Results L. longipalpis exhibited more activity at night, initiating dusk-related activity (onset time) at higher rather than lower temperatures. In parallel, changes of photoperiod affected anticipation as well as all the patterns of activity (onset, peak and offset time). However, under LD 16:08, sandflies presented the earliest values of maximum peak and offset times, contrary to other regimes. Conclusions Herein, we showed that light and temperature modulate L. longipalpis behaviour under controlled laboratory conditions, suggesting that sandflies might use environmental information to sustain their crepuscular

  6. Structure of SALO, a leishmaniasis vaccine candidate from the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis

    PubMed Central

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.; Kelleher, Alan; Liu, Zhuyun; Pollet, Jeroen; Hudspeth, Elissa M.; Rezende, Wanderson C.; Groen, Mallory Jo; Seid, Christopher A.; Abdeladhim, Maha; Townsend, Shannon; de Castro, Waldione; Mendes-Sousa, Antonio; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J.; Zhan, Bin; Oliveira, Fabiano; Kamhawi, Shaden; Valenzuela, Jesus G.

    2017-01-01

    Background Immunity to the sand fly salivary protein SALO (Salivary Anticomplement of Lutzomyia longipalpis) protected hamsters against Leishmania infantum and L. braziliensis infection and, more recently, a vaccine combination of a genetically modified Leishmania with SALO conferred strong protection against L. donovani infection. Because of the importance of SALO as a potential component of a leishmaniasis vaccine, a plan to produce this recombinant protein for future scale manufacturing as well as knowledge of its structural characteristics are needed to move SALO forward for the clinical path. Methodology/Principal findings Recombinant SALO was expressed as a soluble secreted protein using Pichia pastoris, rSALO(P), with yields of 1g/L and >99% purity as assessed by SEC-MALS and SDS-PAGE. Unlike its native counterpart, rSALO(P) does not inhibit the classical pathway of complement; however, antibodies to rSALO(P) inhibit the anti-complement activity of sand fly salivary gland homogenate. Immunization with rSALO(P) produces a delayed type hypersensitivity response in C57BL/6 mice, suggesting rSALO(P) lacked anti-complement activity but retained its immunogenicity. The structure of rSALO(P) was solved by S-SAD at Cu-Kalpha to 1.94 Å and refined to Rfactor 17%. SALO is ~80% helical, has no appreciable structural similarities to any human protein, and has limited structural similarity in the C-terminus to members of insect odorant binding proteins. SALO has three predicted human CD4+ T cell epitopes on surface exposed helices. Conclusions/Significance The results indicate that SALO as expressed and purified from P. pastoris is suitable for further scale-up, manufacturing, and testing. SALO has a novel structure, is not similar to any human proteins, is immunogenic in rodents, and does not have the anti-complement activity observed in the native salivary protein which are all important attributes to move this vaccine candidate forward to the clinical path. PMID

  7. Characteristics of the biological cycle of Lutzomyia evandroi Costa Lima & Antunes, 1936 (Diptera: Psychodidae) under experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    de Melo Ximenes, M de F; Maciel, J C; Jerônimo, S M

    2001-08-01

    Lutzomyia evandroi Costa Lima and Antunes, 1936 is found in Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil, in areas of visceral and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis and follows the same geographic distribution of L. longipalpis. The biological cycle, oviposition, morphological and behavioral characteristics of the species were studied under experimental conditions. The average number of eggs per wild caught female varied from 21 to 50 eggs along the year, with a peak occurring between January and March and another in August, with oviposition lasting for 4 to 12 days. The mean larval phase was 24 days. Ovipositing rates were influenced by rainfall and temperature indexes, with an increase of eggs per oviposition at the beginning and at the end of the rainy season, and a decrease at the peak of the rainy season.

  8. Incipient colonisation of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the city of Resistencia, province of Chaco, Argentina (2010-2012).

    PubMed

    Szelag, Enrique Alejandro; Parras, Matías Ariel; Fabiani, Mariela; Rosa, Juan Ramón; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis was recorded for the first time in Argentina in 2004, in the province of Formosa. In the following years, the vector spread to the south and west in the country and was recorded in the province of Chaco in 2010. From November 2010-May 2012, captures of Phlebotominae were made in the city of Resistencia and its surroundings, to monitor the spread and possible colonisation of Lu. longipalpis in the province of Chaco. In this monitoring, Lu. longipalpis was absent in urban sampling sites and its presence was restricted to Barrio de los Pescadores. This suggests that the incipient colonisation observed in 2010 was not followed by continuous installation of vector populations and expansion of their spatial distribution as in other urban centres of Argentina.

  9. Genetic divergence in populations of Lutzomyia ayacuchensis, a vector of Andean-type cutaneous leishmaniasis, in Ecuador and Peru.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hirotomo; Cáceres, Abraham G; Gomez, Eduardo A; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Haplotype and gene network analyses were performed on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and cytochrome b gene sequences of Lutzomyia (Lu.) ayacuchensis populations from Andean areas of Ecuador and southern Peru where the sand fly species transmit Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana and Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana, respectively, and populations from the northern Peruvian Andes, for which transmission of Leishmania by Lu. ayacuchensis has not been reported. The haplotype analyses showed higher intrapopulation genetic divergence in northern Peruvian Andes populations and less divergence in the southern Peru and Ecuador populations, suggesting that a population bottleneck occurred in the latter populations, but not in former ones. Importantly, both haplotype and phylogenetic analyses showed that populations from Ecuador consisted of clearly distinct clusters from southern Peru, and the two populations were separated from those of northern Peru.

  10. Incipient colonisation of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the city of Resistencia, province of Chaco, Argentina (2010-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Szelag, Enrique Alejandro; Parras, Matías Ariel; Fabiani, Mariela; Rosa, Juan Ramón; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis was recorded for the first time in Argentina in 2004, in the province of Formosa. In the following years, the vector spread to the south and west in the country and was recorded in the province of Chaco in 2010. From November 2010-May 2012, captures of Phlebotominae were made in the city of Resistencia and its surroundings, to monitor the spread and possible colonisation of Lu. longipalpis in the province of Chaco. In this monitoring, Lu. longipalpis was absent in urban sampling sites and its presence was restricted to Barrio de los Pescadores. This suggests that the incipient colonisation observed in 2010 was not followed by continuous installation of vector populations and expansion of their spatial distribution as in other urban centres of Argentina. PMID:25075787

  11. Lutzomyia sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from middle and lower Putumayo Department, Colombia, with new records to the country.

    PubMed

    Barreto, M; Burbano, M E; Barreto, P

    2000-01-01

    A total of 4,840 phlebotomine sand flies from 54 localities in Putumayo department (=state), in the Colombian Amazon region, were collected in Shannon traps, CDC light traps, resting places and from human baits. At least 42 Lutzomyia species were registered for the first time to the department. Psychodopygus and Nyssomyia were the subgenera with the greatest number of taxa, the most common species being L. (N.) yuilli and L. (N.) pajoti. They were sympatric in a wide zone of Putumayo, indicating that they should be treated as full species (new status). Among the anthropophilic sand flies, L. gomezi and L. yuilli were found in intradomiciliar, peridomestic, urban or forest habitats. L. richardwardi, L. claustrei, L. nocticola and L. micropyga are reported for the first time in the Colombian Amazon basin. L. pajoti, L. sipani and L. yucumensis are new records for Colombia.

  12. Relationship between digestive enzymes and food habit of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) larvae: Characterization of carbohydrases and digestion of microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Moraes, C S; Lucena, S A; Moreira, B H S; Brazil, R P; Gontijo, N F; Genta, F A

    2012-08-01

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912) is the main vector of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. In spite of its medical importance and several studies concerning adult digestive physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, very few studies have been carried out to elucidate the digestion in sandfly larvae. Even the breeding sites and food sources of these animals in the field are largely uncharacterized. In this paper, we describe and characterize several carbohydrases from the gut of L. longipalpis larvae, and show that they are probably not acquired from food. The enzyme profile of this insect is consistent with the digestion of fungal and bacterial cells, which were proved to be ingested by larvae under laboratory conditions. In this respect, sandfly larvae might have a detritivore habit in nature, being able to exploit microorganisms usually encountered in the detritus as a food source.

  13. Toward an understanding of the biochemical and pharmacological complexity of the saliva of a hematophagous sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis

    PubMed Central

    Charlab, Rosane; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Rowton, Edgar D.; Ribeiro, José M. C.

    1999-01-01

    The saliva of blood-sucking arthropods contains powerful pharmacologically active substances and may be a vaccine target against some vector-borne diseases. Subtractive cloning combined with biochemical approaches was used to discover activities in the salivary glands of the hematophagous fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. Sequences of nine full-length cDNA clones were obtained, five of which are possibly associated with blood-meal acquisition, each having cDNA similarity to: (i) the bed bug Cimex lectularius apyrase, (ii) a 5′-nucleotidase/phosphodiesterase, (iii) a hyaluronidase, (iv) a protein containing a carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD), and (v) a RGD-containing peptide with no significant matches to known proteins in the blast databases. Following these findings, we observed that the salivary apyrase activity of L. longipalpis is indeed similar to that of Cimex apyrase in its metal requirements. The predicted isoelectric point of the putative apyrase matches the value found for Lutzomyia salivary apyrase. A 5′-nucleotidase, as well as hyaluronidase activity, was found in the salivary glands, and the CRD-containing cDNA matches the N-terminal sequence of the HPLC-purified salivary anticlotting protein. A cDNA similar to α-amylase was discovered and salivary enzymatic activity demonstrated for the first time in a blood-sucking arthropod. Full-length clones were also found coding for three proteins of unknown function matching, respectively, the N-terminal sequence of an abundant salivary protein, having similarity to the CAP superfamily of proteins and the Drosophila yellow protein. Finally, two partial sequences are reported that match possible housekeeping genes. Subtractive cloning will considerably enhance efforts to unravel the salivary pharmacopeia of blood-sucking arthropods. PMID:10611354

  14. Significance of bacteria in oviposition and larval development of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Microbial ecology of phlebotomine sand flies is not well understood although bacteria likely play an important role in the sand fly biology and vector capacity for Leishmania parasites. In this study, we assessed the significance of the microbial community of rabbit feces in oviposition and larval development of Lutzomyia longipalpis as well as bacterial colonization of the gut of freshly emerged flies. Methods Sterile (by autoclaving) and non-sterile (control) rabbit feces were used in the two-choice assay to determine their oviposition attractiveness to sand fly females. Bacteria were identified by amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene with universal eubacterial primers. Sterile, control (non-sterile), and sterilized and inoculated rabbit feces were used to assess the significance of bacteria in L. longipalpis development. Newly emerged adult flies were surface-sterilized and screened for the bacterial population size and diversity by the culturing approach. The digestive tract of L4 sterile and control larvae was incubated with Phalloidin to visualize muscle tissues and DAPI to visualize nuclei. Results Two-choice behavioural assays revealed a great preference of L. longipalpis to lay eggs on rabbit feces with an active complex bacterial community (control) (85.8 % of eggs) in comparison to that of sterile (autoclaved) rabbit feces (14.2 %). Bioassays demonstrated that L. longipalpis larvae can develop in sterile rabbit feces although development time to adult stage was greatly extended (47 days) and survival of larvae was significantly lower (77.8 %) compared to that of larvae developing in the control rabbit feces (32 days and 91.7 %). Larval survival on sterilized rabbit feces inoculated with the individual bacterial isolates originating from this substrate varied greatly depending on a bacterial strain. Rhizobium radiobacter supported larval development to adult stage into the greatest extent (39 days, 88.0 %) in

  15. Multiplex-PCR for detection of natural Leishmania infection in Lutzomyia spp. captured in an endemic region for cutaneous leishmaniasis in state of Sucre, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Jorquera, Alicia; González, Ricardo; Marchán-Marcano, Edgar; Oviedo, Milagros; Matos, Mercedes

    2005-02-01

    We studied the natural infection of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) sp. with Leishmania in endemic foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Paria peninsula, state of Sucre, Venezuela. Sand flies were collected between March 2001 and June 2003, using Shannon light-traps and human bait. Of the 1291 insects captured, only two species of phlebotomines were identified: L. ovallesi (82.75%) and L. gomezi (17.42%). A sample of the collected sand flies (51 pools of 2-12 individuals) were analyzed by using a multiplex-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of New Word Leishmaniaand Viannia subgenera. The results showed a total of 8 pools (15.68%) infected; of these, 7 were L. ovallesi naturally infected with L. braziliensis (2 pools) and L. mexicana (5 pools) and 1 pool of L. gomezi infected by L. braziliensis.

  16. Morphometric and Molecular Analyses of the Sand Fly Species Lutzomyia shannoni (Dyar 1929) (Diptera:Psychodidae:Phlebotiminae) Collected from Seven Different Geographical Areas in the Southeastern United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-05

    presumably the polysymptomatic dog had active lesions while the oligosymptomatic did not.) Lu. shannoni was found to have a lower capacity to acquire...found within Lu. shannoni having matching isoenzyme patterns to unidentified flagellates from a patient with mucosal lesions . Confirmation of Lu...178 – 182. Cardenas, E., and L. E. Munstermann, O. Martinez, D. Corredor , and C. Ferro. 2001. Genetic variability among populations of Lutzomyia

  17. Using Recombinant Proteins from Lutzomyia longipalpis Saliva to Estimate Human Vector Exposure in Visceral Leishmaniasis Endemic Areas

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Ana Paula; Andrade, Bruno Bezerril; Aquino, Dorlene; Entringer, Petter; Miranda, José Carlos; Alcantara, Ruan; Ruiz, Daniel; Soto, Manuel; Teixeira, Clarissa R.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; de Oliveira, Camila Indiani; Brodskyn, Cláudia Ida; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Barral, Aldina

    2010-01-01

    Background Leishmania is transmitted by female sand flies and deposited together with saliva, which contains a vast repertoire of pharmacologically active molecules that contribute to the establishment of the infection. The exposure to vector saliva induces an immune response against its components that can be used as a marker of exposure to the vector. Performing large-scale serological studies to detect vector exposure has been limited by the difficulty in obtaining sand fly saliva. Here, we validate the use of two sand fly salivary recombinant proteins as markers for vector exposure. Methodology/principal findings ELISA was used to screen human sera, collected in an area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis, against the salivary gland sonicate (SGS) or two recombinant proteins (rLJM11 and rLJM17) from Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva. Antibody levels before and after SGS seroconversion (n = 26) were compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank paired test. Human sera from an area endemic for VL which recognize Lu. longipalpis saliva in ELISA also recognize a combination of rLJM17 and rLJM11. We then extended the analysis to include 40 sera from individuals who were seropositive and 40 seronegative to Lu. longipalpis SGS. Each recombinant protein was able to detect anti-saliva seroconversion, whereas the two proteins combined increased the detection significantly. Additionally, we evaluated the specificity of the anti-Lu. longipalpis response by testing 40 sera positive to Lutzomyia intermedia SGS, and very limited (2/40) cross-reactivity was observed. Receiver-operator characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was used to identify the effectiveness of these proteins for the prediction of anti-SGS positivity. These ROC curves evidenced the superior performance of rLJM17+rLJM11. Predicted threshold levels were confirmed for rLJM17+rLJM11 using a large panel of 1,077 serum samples. Conclusion Our results show the possibility of substituting Lu. longipalpis SGS for two

  18. DNA barcode for the identification of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis plant feeding preferences in a tropical urban environment

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Leonardo H. G. de M.; Mesquita, Marcelo R.; Skrip, Laura; de Souza Freitas, Moisés T.; Silva, Vladimir C.; Kirstein, Oscar D.; Abassi, Ibrahim; Warburg, Alon; Balbino, Valdir de Q.; Costa, Carlos H. N.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the feeding behavior of hematophagous insects that require plant sugar to complete their life cycles. We studied plant feeding of Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies, known vectors of Leishmania infantum/chagasi parasites, in a Brazilian city endemic with visceral leishmaniasis. The DNA barcode technique was applied to identify plant food source of wild-caught L. longipalpis using specific primers for a locus from the chloroplast genome, ribulose diphosphate carboxylase. DNA from all trees or shrubs within a 100-meter radius from the trap were collected to build a barcode reference library. While plants from the Anacardiaceae and Meliaceae families were the most abundant at the sampling site (25.4% and 12.7% of the local plant population, respectively), DNA from these plant families was found in few flies; in contrast, despite its low abundance (2.9%), DNA from the Fabaceae family was detected in 94.7% of the sand flies. The proportion of sand flies testing positive for DNA from a given plant family was not significantly associated with abundance, distance from the trap, or average crown expansion of plants from that family. The data suggest that there may indeed be a feeding preference of L. longipalpis for plants in the Fabaceae family. PMID:27435430

  19. Nocturnal activity patterns of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) at an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Morrison, A C; Ferro, C; Pardo, R; Torres, M; Wilson, M L; Tesh, R B

    1995-09-01

    Nocturnal activity of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) was studied from August 1991 to July 1992 in a small rural community in Colombia where American visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. During 2 or 3 nights each month, sand flies were collected with hand-held aspirators each hour between 1730 and 0630 hours, from a pigpen and a cattle corral located 30 m apart. Host-seeking activity of L. longipalpis adults was characterized by 2 general patterns: (1) adult sand fly activity increased shortly after sunset and continued until just after sunrise, and (2) peak sand fly activity was greatest early in the evening (1830-2330 hours) and then declined steadily toward morning. Female L. longipalpis activity generally increased after 2030 hours, whereas that of males remained constant or declined as the evening progressed. There were seasonal differences in sand fly abundance between the 2 sites: peak abundance in the cattle corral occurred during hot, dry periods, whereas maximum abundance in the pigpen occurred when relative humidity was higher. Influence of relative humidity on activity varied with season. Sand fly activity tended to decrease at temperatures below 24 degrees C and increase in the presence of moonlight.

  20. Occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Phlebotominae) and canine visceral leishmaniasis in a rural area of Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Spada, Julio Cesar Pereira; Silva, Diogo Tiago da; Martins, Kennya Rozy Real; Rodas, Lílian Aparecida Colebrusco; Alves, Maria Luana; Faria, Glaucia Amorim; Buzutti, Marcelo Costa; Silva, Hélio Ricardo; Starke-Buzetti, Wilma Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis and also the canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in a rural area of Ilha Solteira, state of São Paulo. Blood samples were collected from 32 dogs from different rural properties (small farms) and were analyzed by ELISA and the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) in order to diagnose CVL. From these serological tests, 31.25% of the dogs were positive for CVL and these were distributed in 66.7% (8/12) of the rural properties, which were positive for L. longipalpis. CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) light traps were installed in 12 properties (one per property) and insects were caught on three consecutive days per month for one year. L. longipalpis was present on 100% of the rural properties visited, at least once during the twelve-month interval, totaling 64 males and 25 females. The insects were more numerous after the peak of the rain, but the association between prevalence of peridomestic vectors and the climatic data (precipitation, relative air humidity and temperature) and the occurrences of CVL among dogs on each rural property were not statistical significant (p <0.05). However, the occurrence of CVL cases in dogs and the presence of L. longipalpis indicate that more attention is necessairy for the control of this disease in the rural area studied.

  1. Occurrence of sibling species of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Venezuela: first evidence from reproductively isolated sympatric populations.

    PubMed

    Lampo, M; Torgerson, D; Márquez, L M; Rinaldi, M; García, C Z; Arab, A

    1999-12-01

    The delimitation of cryptic species within the main vector of the American visceral leishmaniasis, Lutzomyia longipalpis, remains a topic of controversy. An analysis of genetic variability based on 8 enzymatic loci revealed fixed differences in 2 diagnostic loci, adenylate kinase (Ak) and hexokinase (Hk), between sympatric and allopatric populations at 4 localities in Venezuela. The absence of heterozygotes for these 2 loci within 1 locality indicates, for the first time, the presence of 2 sympatric reproductively isolated populations or cryptic species within L. longipalpis. Significant differences were also detected between these cryptic species in the allele frequencies of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (Gpi) and malate dehydrogenase, decarboxylating (Me). One species showed mean heterozygosities that ranged between 6.6% and 6.7%, with 1.6-1.9 alleles detected per locus, while the other had mean heterozygosities that ranged from 4.3% to 6.3%, with 1.3-1.6 alleles per locus. Comparisons of isozyme profiles with published data suggests that 1 species is similar to the L. longipalpis described in Colombian and Brazilian populations, whereas the other has not been previously reported.

  2. Discovery of Markers of Exposure Specific to Bites of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the Vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Nicolas; Reynoso, David; Jochim, Ryan; Oliveira, Fabiano; Seitz, Amy; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin; Caldas, Arlene; de Souza, Ana Paula; Brodskyn, Cláudia I.; de Oliveira, Camila Indiani; Mendonca, Ivete; Costa, Carlos H. N.; Volf, Petr; Barral, Aldina; Kamhawi, Shaden; Valenzuela, Jesus G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Sand flies deliver Leishmania parasites to a host alongside salivary molecules that affect infection outcomes. Though some proteins are immunogenic and have potential as markers of vector exposure, their identity and vector specificity remain elusive. Methodology/Principal Findings We screened human, dog, and fox sera from endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis to identify potential markers of specific exposure to saliva of Lutzomyia longipalpis. Human and dog sera were further tested against additional sand fly species. Recombinant proteins of nine transcripts encoding secreted salivary molecules of Lu. longipalpis were produced, purified, and tested for antigenicity and specificity. Use of recombinant proteins corresponding to immunogenic molecules in Lu. longipalpis saliva identified LJM17 and LJM11 as potential markers of exposure. LJM17 was recognized by human, dog, and fox sera; LJM11 by humans and dogs. Notably, LJM17 and LJM11 were specifically recognized by humans exposed to Lu. longipalpis but not by individuals exposed to Lu. intermedia. Conclusions/Significance Salivary recombinant proteins are of value as markers of vector exposure. In humans, LJM17 and LJM11 emerged as potential markers of specific exposure to Lu. longipalpis, the vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi in Latin America. In dogs, LJM17, LJM11, LJL13, LJL23, and LJL143 emerged as potential markers of sand fly exposure. Testing these recombinant proteins in large scale studies will validate their usefulness as specific markers of Lu. longipalpis exposure in humans and of sand fly exposure in dogs. PMID:20351786

  3. Lutzomyia adiketis sp. n. (Diptera: Phlebotomidae), a vector of Paleoleishmania neotropicum sp. n. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) in Dominican amber

    PubMed Central

    Poinar, George

    2008-01-01

    Background Amber fossils can be used to trace the history of disease-vector associations because microorganisms are preserved "in situ" inside the alimentary tract and body cavity of blood-sucking insects. Results Lutzomyia adiketis sp. n. (Phlebotomidae: Diptera) is described from Dominican amber as a vector of Paleoleishmania neotropicum sp. n. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae). The fossil sand fly differs from all previously described extinct and extant members of the genus by the following combination of characters: Sc forked with the branches meeting the costa and radius veins; wing L/W value of 4.1; a δ value of 18; a ratio β/α value of 0.86, and the shape and size of the spatulate rods on the ninth sternite. The trypanosomatid is characterized by the structure of its promastigotes, amastigotes and paramastigotes and its transmission by an extinct species of sand fly. Conclusion Morphological characters show that the fossil sand fly is a new extinct species and that it is host to a digenetic species of trypanosomatid. This study provides the first fossil evidence that Neotropical sand flies were vectors of trypanosomatids in the mid-Tertiary (20–30 mya). PMID:18627624

  4. Transmissibility of Leishmania infantum from maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) to Lutzomyia longipalpis.

    PubMed

    Mol, Juliana P S; Soave, Semíramis A; Turchetti, Andréia P; Pinheiro, Guilherme R G; Pessanha, Angela T; Malta, Marcelo C C; Tinoco, Herlandes P; Figueiredo, Luiza A; Gontijo, Nelder F; Paixão, Tatiane A; Fujiwara, Ricardo T; Santos, Renato L

    2015-09-15

    Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum is the cause of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. The disease is transmitted mostly through the bite of the invertebrate vector, the phlebotomine Lutzomyia longipalpis in the New World. Although the domestic dog is considered the most important reservoir of the disease, other mammalian, including wildlife, are susceptible to infection. The goal of this study was to perform xenodiagnosis to evaluate the capacity of naturally infected maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) to transmit Leishmania infantum to female sand flies (L. longipalpis). Xenodiagnoses were performed in February and August, 2013, when 77.7% (three maned wolves and four bush dogs) or 100% of the animals were positive, respectively. However, parasite loads in the engorged sand flies was low (<200 promastigotes and <150.2 parasites/μg of DNA). No statistically significant differences were observed between the two species or the two time points (February and August). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that maned wolves (C. brachyurus) and bush dogs (S. venaticus) asymptomatically infected with L. infantum are capable of transmitting L. infantum to the invertebrate host L. longipalpis, although the parasite loads in engorged phlebotomines exposed to these animals were very low.

  5. Susceptibility of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) to selected insecticides in an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Mazzarri, M B; Feliciangeli, M D; Maroli, M; Hernandez, A; Bravo, A

    1997-12-01

    A field population of Lutzomyia longipalpis from La Rinconada, Lara State, an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Venezuela, was tested for susceptibility to organochlorine (DDT 2%), carbamate (propoxur 0.01%), organophosphate (malathion 2%, fenitrothion 1%, and pirimiphos methyl 1%), and pyrethroid (deltamethrin 0.06%, lambdacyhalothrin 0.06%, and permethrin 0.2%) insecticides. Susceptibility to the insecticides tested was evaluated in the field population of L. longipalpis and compared with a laboratory reference strain. The (LT95) to propoxur and malathion insecticides for the field population was lower than the LT95 for the laboratory reference strain, demonstrating high susceptibility to these compounds. A low level of resistance at LT50 (< 3-fold) was found for fenitrothion, pirimiphos methyl, and permethrin insecticides, but no resistance was detected at LT95. No significant resistance at the LT50 and LT95 was detected for the pyrethroids deltamethrin and lambdacyhalothrin. The susceptibility levels of L. longipalpis to the insecticides tested are discussed in view of a future control program against endophilic vectors of leishmaniases based on the use of pesticides.

  6. Spatial and temporal changes in Lutzomyia longipalpis abundance, a Leishmania infantum vector in an urban area in northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Fernández, María Soledad; Santini, María Soledad; Cavia, Regino; Sandoval, Adolfo Enrique; Pérez, Adriana Alicia; Acardi, Soraya; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to analyse changes in the spatial distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Posadas, an urban area located in northeastern Argentina. Data were obtained during the summer of 2007 and 2009 through two entomological surveys of peridomiciles distributed around the city. The abundance distribution pattern for 2009 was computed and compared with the previous pattern obtained in 2007, when the first human visceral leishmaniasis cases were reported in the city. Vector abundance was also examined in relation to micro and macrohabitat characteristics. In 2007 and 2009, Lu. longipalpis was distributed among 41.5% and 31% of the households in the study area, respectively. In both years, the abundance rates at most of the trapping sites were below 30 Lu. longipalpis per trap per night; however, for areas exhibiting 30-60 Lu. longipalpis and more than 60 Lu. longipalpis, the areas increased in both size and number from 2007-2009. Lu. longipalpis was more abundant in areas with a higher tree and bush cover (a macrohabitat characteristic) and in peridomiciles with accumulated unused material (a microhabitat characteristic). These results will help to prioritise and focus control efforts by defining which peridomiciles display a potentially high abundance of Lu. longipalpis.

  7. Analysis of the sex pheromone extract of individual male Lutzomyia longipalpis sandflies from six regions in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, J G C; Maingon, R D C; Alexander, B; Ward, R D; Brazil, R P

    2005-12-01

    Although the phlebotomine sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae) is generally accepted to be a species complex, it is unclear how many members there are, how they are related and which are the main vectors of leishmaniasis. The vectorial capacity of each sibling species is likely to differ, thus a means of identifying the most important vector species is of critical importance to the epidemiology and control of this debilitating disease in South and Central America. In Brazil four chemotypes have been distinguished by sex pheromone analysis. In this study the sex pheromone extracts of L. longipalpis from six regions of Brazil were analysed in detail. Samples included the sympatric 1-spot, 2-spot and intermediate spot morphotypes from Sobral, Ceará State. The results strongly suggest that members of the complex that produce different sex pheromones are reproductively isolated, thus strengthening the argument that the different chemotypes represent true sibling species. The study also found significant differences in morphology and the amounts of sex pheromone produced by members of each chemotype from different parts of Brazil, which suggests population substructuring that has not previously been recognized. Evidence of a fifth chemotype in Brazil is also presented.

  8. Distinct cellular migration induced by Leishmania infantum chagasi and saliva from Lutzomyia longipalpis in a hemorrhagic pool model.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Camila Oliveira; Coêlho, Zirlane C Branco; Chaves, Cristina de Souza; Teixeira, Clarissa Romero; Pompeu, Margarida M Lima; Teixeira, Maria Jania

    2014-01-01

    Recruitment of a specific cell population after Leishmania infection can influence the outcome of the disease. Cellular migration in response to Leishmania or vector saliva has been reported in air pouch model, however, cellular migration induced by Leishmania associated with host's blood and vector saliva in this model has not been described. Herein we investigated cellular migration into air pouch of hamster after stimulation with combination of L. chagasi and host's blood and Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva. Migration induced by saliva was 3-fold more than those induced by L. chagasi alone. Additionally, L. chagasi associated with blood and saliva induced significantly even more leukocytes into air pouch than Leishmania alone. L. chagasi recruited a diverse cell population; however, most of these cells seem to have not migrated to the inflammatory exudate, remaining in the pouch lining tissue. These results indicate that L. chagasi can reduce leukocyte accumulation to the initial site of infection, and when associated with vector saliva in the presence of blood components, increase the influx of more neutrophils than macrophages, suggesting that the parasite has developed a strategy to minimize the initial inflammatory response, allowing an unlimited progression within the host. This work reinforces the importance of studies on the salivary components of sand fly vectors of leishmaniasis in the transmission process and the establishment of the infection.

  9. Spatial and temporal changes in Lutzomyia longipalpis abundance, a Leishmania infantum vector in an urban area in northeastern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, María Soledad; Santini, María Soledad; Cavia, Regino; Sandoval, Adolfo Enrique; Pérez, Adriana Alicia; Acardi, Soraya; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse changes in the spatial distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Posadas, an urban area located in northeastern Argentina. Data were obtained during the summer of 2007 and 2009 through two entomological surveys of peridomiciles distributed around the city. The abundance distribution pattern for 2009 was computed and compared with the previous pattern obtained in 2007, when the first human visceral leishmaniasis cases were reported in the city. Vector abundance was also examined in relation to micro and macrohabitat characteristics. In 2007 and 2009, Lu. longipalpis was distributed among 41.5% and 31% of the households in the study area, respectively. In both years, the abundance rates at most of the trapping sites were below 30 Lu. longipalpis per trap per night; however, for areas exhibiting 30-60 Lu. longipalpis and more than 60 Lu. longipalpis, the areas increased in both size and number from 2007-2009. Lu. longipalpis was more abundant in areas with a higher tree and bush cover (a macrohabitat characteristic) and in peridomiciles with accumulated unused material (a microhabitat characteristic). These results will help to prioritise and focus control efforts by defining which peridomiciles display a potentially high abundance of Lu. longipalpis. PMID:24271040

  10. Leishmania amazonensis DNA in wild females of Lutzomyia cruzi (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Everton Falcão; Casaril, Aline Etelvina; Mateus, Nathália Lopes Fontoura; Murat, Paula Guerra; Fernandes, Wagner Souza; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2015-01-01

    Studies on natural infection by Leishmania spp of sandflies collected in endemic and nonendemic areas can provide important information on the distribution and intensity of the transmission of these parasites. This study sought to investigate the natural infection by Leishmaniain wild female sandflies. The specimens were caught in the city of Corumbá, state of Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil) between October 2012-March 2014, and dissected to investigate flagellates and/or submitted to molecular analysis to detect Leishmania DNA. A total of 1,164 females (77.56% of which were Lutzomyia cruzi) representing 11 species were investigated using molecular analysis; 126 specimens of Lu. cruziwere dissected and also submitted to molecular analysis. The infection rate based on the presence of Leishmania DNA considering all the sandfly species analysed was 0.69%; only Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis was identified in Lu. cruzi by the molecular analysis. The dissections were negative for flagellates. This is the first record of the presence of L. (L.) amazonensis DNA in Lu. cruzi, and the first record of this parasite in this area. These findings point to the need for further investigation into the possible role of this sandfly as vector of this parasite. PMID:26602870

  11. Identification of the sex pheromone of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Asunción, Paraguay

    PubMed Central

    Brazil, Reginaldo P; Caballero, Norath Natalia; Hamilton, James Gordon C

    2009-01-01

    The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of Leishmania (L.) infantum (Nicolle), the causative agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in the New World. Male Lu. longipalpis have secretory glands which produce sex pheromones in either abdominal tergites 4 or 3 and 4. These glands are sites of sex pheromone production and each pheromone type may represent true sibling species. In Latin America, apart from Lu. pseudolongipalpis Arrivillaga and Feliciangeli from Venezuela, populations of Lu. longipalpis s.l. can be identified by their male-produced sex pheromones: (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B, 3-methyl-α-himachalene and the two cembrenes, 1 and 2. In this study, we present the results of a coupled gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analysis of the pheromones of males Lu. longipalpis captured in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in Asunción, Paraguay. Our results show that Lu. longipalpis from this site produce (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B which has also been found in Lu. longipalpis from different areas of Brazil, Colombia and Central America. PMID:19883505

  12. Clinical cutaneous leishmaniasis rates are associated with household Lutzomyia gomezi, Lu. Panamensis, and Lu. trapidoi abundance in Trinidad de Las Minas, western Panama.

    PubMed

    Saldaña, Azael; Chaves, Luis F; Rigg, Chystrie A; Wald, Coridalia; Smucker, Joanne E; Calzada, Jose E

    2013-03-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) transmission patterns have been increasingly associated with domestic and peridomestic environments. Here, we present results from an epidemiological survey of 94 people from 24 households in Trinidad de Las Minas, western Panama. We studied the role of sand fly abundance, housing quality, peridomicile landscape matrix, and vegetation structure on shaping household clinical ACL rate patterns at Trinidad de Las Minas. We found that sand fly abundance was significantly associated with household clinical ACL rates, with a 6% rate increase for each additional Lutzomyia gomezi sand fly found inside a domicile.

  13. Clinical Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Rates Are Associated with Household Lutzomyia gomezi, Lu. Panamensis, and Lu. trapidoi Abundance in Trinidad de Las Minas, Western Panama

    PubMed Central

    Saldaña, Azael; Chaves, Luis F.; Rigg, Chystrie A.; Wald, Coridalia; Smucker, Joanne E.; Calzada, Jose E.

    2013-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) transmission patterns have been increasingly associated with domestic and peridomestic environments. Here, we present results from an epidemiological survey of 94 people from 24 households in Trinidad de Las Minas, western Panama. We studied the role of sand fly abundance, housing quality, peridomicile landscape matrix, and vegetation structure on shaping household clinical ACL rate patterns at Trinidad de Las Minas. We found that sand fly abundance was significantly associated with household clinical ACL rates, with a 6% rate increase for each additional Lutzomyia gomezi sand fly found inside a domicile. PMID:23339202

  14. Multilocus Analysis of Divergence and Introgression in Sympatric and Allopatric Sibling Species of the Lutzomyia longipalpis Complex in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Mazzoni, Camila J.; Souza, Nataly A.; Machado, Ricardo C.; Bruno, Rafaela V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Latin America, is a complex of sibling species. In Brazil, a number of very closely related sibling species have been revealed by the analyses of copulation songs, sex pheromones and molecular markers. However, the level of divergence and gene flow between the sibling species remains unclear. Brazilian populations of this vector can be divided in two main groups: one producing Burst-type songs and the Cembrene-1 pheromone and a second more diverse group producing various Pulse song subtypes and different pheromones. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed 21 nuclear loci in two pairs of Brazilian populations: two sympatric populations from the Sobral locality (1S and 2S) in northeastern Brazil and two allopatric populations from the Lapinha and Pancas localities in southeastern Brazil. Pancas and Sobral 2S are populations of the Burst/Cembrene-1 species while Lapinha and Sobral 1S are two putative incipient species producing the same pheromone and similar Pulse song subtypes. The multilocus analysis strongly suggests the occurrence of gene flow during the divergence between the sibling species, with different levels of introgression between loci. Moreover, this differential introgression is asymmetrical, with estimated gene flow being higher in the direction of the Burst/Cembrene-1 species. Conclusions/Significance The results indicate that introgressive hybridization has been a crucial phenomenon in shaping the genome of the L. longipalpis complex. This has possible epidemiological implications and is particularly interesting considering the potential for increased introgression caused by man-made environmental changes and the current trend of leishmaniasis urbanization in Brazil. PMID:24147172

  15. Experimental infection and transmission of Leishmania by Lutzomyia cruzi (Diptera: Psychodidae): Aspects of the ecology of parasite-vector interactions.

    PubMed

    Falcão de Oliveira, Everton; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; Fernandes, Wagner de Souza; Murat, Paula Guerra; Medeiros, Márcio José de; Souza, Alda Izabel; Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez de; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2017-02-01

    Several parameters should be addressed before incriminating a vector for Leishmania transmission. Those may include its ability to become infected by the same Leishmania species found in humans, the degree of attractiveness for reservoirs and humans and capacity to sustain parasite infection under laboratory conditions. This study evaluated the vectorial capacity of Lutzomyia cruzi for Leishmania infantum and gathered information on its ability to harbor L. amazonensis. Laboratory-reared Lu. cruzi were infected experimentally by feeding them on dogs infected naturally with L. infantum and hamsters infected with L. amazonensis. Sand fly attractiveness to dogs and humans was determined using wild caught insects. The expected daily survival of infected Lu. cruzi, the duration of the gonotrophic cycle, and the extrinsic incubation period were also investigated for both parasites. Vector competence was investigated for both Leishmania species. The mean proportion of female sand flies that fed on hosts was 0.40. For L. infantum and L. amazonensis, Lu. cruzi had experimental infection rates of 10.55% and 41.56%, respectively. The extrinsic incubation period was 3 days for both Leishmania species, regardless of the host. Survival expectancy of females infected with L. infantum and L. amazonensis after completing the gonotrophic cycle was 1.32 and 0.43, respectively. There was no association between L. infantum infection and sand fly longevity, but L. amazonensis-infected flies had significantly greater survival probabilities. Furthermore, egg-laying was significantly detrimental to survival. Lu. cruzi was found to be highly attracted to both dogs and humans. After a bloodmeal on experimentally infected hosts, both parasites were able to survive and develop late-stage infections in Lu. cruzi. However, transmission was demonstrated only for L. amazonensis-infected sand flies. In conclusion, Lu. cruzi fulfilled several of the requirements of vectorial capacity for L. infantum

  16. Host modulation by a parasite: how Leishmania infantum modifies the intestinal environment of Lutzomyia longipalpis to favor its development.

    PubMed

    Santos, Vania Cristina; Vale, Vladimir Fazito; Silva, Sydnei Magno; Nascimento, Alexandre Alves Sousa; Saab, Natalia Alvim Araujo; Soares, Rodrigo Pedro Pinto; Michalick, Marilene Suzan Marques; Araujo, Ricardo Nascimento; Pereira, Marcos Horacio; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo

    2014-01-01

    Some reports have described the interference of Leishmania on sand flies physiology, and such behavior most likely evolved to favor the development and transmission of the parasite. Most of these studies showed that Leishmania could modulate the level of proteases in the midgut after an infective blood meal, and decreased proteolytic activity is indeed beneficial for the development of promastigotes in the gut of sand flies. In the present study, we performed a detailed investigation of the intestinal pH in Lutzomyia longipalpis females naturally infected with Leishmania infantum and investigated the production of trypsin by these insects using different approaches. Our results allowed us to propose a mechanism by which these parasites interfere with the physiology of L. longipalpis to decrease the production of proteolytic enzymes. According to our hypothesis L. infantum promastigotes indirectly interfere with the production of trypsin by modulating the mechanism that controls the intestinal pH via the action of a yet non-identified substance released by promastigote forms inside the midgut. This substance is not an acid, whose action would be restrict on to release H+ to the medium, but is a substance that is able to interfere with midgut physiology through a mechanism involving pH control. According to our hypothesis, as the pH decreases, the proteolytic enzymes efficiency is also reduced, leading to a decline in the supply of amino acids to the enterocytes: this decline reduces the stimulus for protease production because it is regulated by the supply of amino acids, thus leading to a delay in digestion.

  17. Experimental infection and transmission of Leishmania by Lutzomyia cruzi (Diptera: Psychodidae): Aspects of the ecology of parasite-vector interactions

    PubMed Central

    Murat, Paula Guerra; de Medeiros, Márcio José; Souza, Alda Izabel; de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez

    2017-01-01

    Several parameters should be addressed before incriminating a vector for Leishmania transmission. Those may include its ability to become infected by the same Leishmania species found in humans, the degree of attractiveness for reservoirs and humans and capacity to sustain parasite infection under laboratory conditions. This study evaluated the vectorial capacity of Lutzomyia cruzi for Leishmania infantum and gathered information on its ability to harbor L. amazonensis. Laboratory-reared Lu. cruzi were infected experimentally by feeding them on dogs infected naturally with L. infantum and hamsters infected with L. amazonensis. Sand fly attractiveness to dogs and humans was determined using wild caught insects. The expected daily survival of infected Lu. cruzi, the duration of the gonotrophic cycle, and the extrinsic incubation period were also investigated for both parasites. Vector competence was investigated for both Leishmania species. The mean proportion of female sand flies that fed on hosts was 0.40. For L. infantum and L. amazonensis, Lu. cruzi had experimental infection rates of 10.55% and 41.56%, respectively. The extrinsic incubation period was 3 days for both Leishmania species, regardless of the host. Survival expectancy of females infected with L. infantum and L. amazonensis after completing the gonotrophic cycle was 1.32 and 0.43, respectively. There was no association between L. infantum infection and sand fly longevity, but L. amazonensis–infected flies had significantly greater survival probabilities. Furthermore, egg-laying was significantly detrimental to survival. Lu. cruzi was found to be highly attracted to both dogs and humans. After a bloodmeal on experimentally infected hosts, both parasites were able to survive and develop late-stage infections in Lu. cruzi. However, transmission was demonstrated only for L. amazonensis–infected sand flies. In conclusion, Lu. cruzi fulfilled several of the requirements of vectorial capacity for L

  18. Different Host Complement Systems and Their Interactions with Saliva from Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera, Psychodidae) and Leishmania infantum Promastigotes

    PubMed Central

    Mendes-Sousa, Antonio Ferreira; Nascimento, Alexandre Alves Sousa; Queiroz, Daniel Costa; Vale, Vladimir Fazito; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Araújo, Ricardo Nascimento; Pereira, Marcos Horácio; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo

    2013-01-01

    Background Lutzomyia longipalpis is the vector of Leishmania infantum in the New World, and its saliva inhibits classical and alternative human complement system pathways. This inhibition is important in protecting the insect´s midgut from damage by the complement. L. longipalpis is a promiscuous blood feeder and must be protected against its host’s complement. The objective of this study was to investigate the action of salivary complement inhibitors on the sera of different host species, such as dogs, guinea pigs, rats and chickens, at a pH of 7.4 (normal blood pH) and 8.15 (the midgut pH immediately after a blood meal). We also investigated the role of the chicken complement system in Leishmania clearance in the presence and absence of vector saliva. Results The saliva was capable of inhibiting classical pathways in dogs, guinea pigs and rats at both pHs. The alternative pathway was not inhibited except in dogs at a pH of 8.15. The chicken classical pathway was inhibited only by high concentrations of saliva and it was better inhibited by the midgut contents of sand flies. Neither the saliva nor the midgut contents had any effect on the avian alternative pathway. Fowl sera killed L. infantum promastigotes, even at a low concentration (2%), and the addition of L. longipalpis saliva did not protect the parasites. The high body temperature of chickens (40°C) had no effect on Leishmania viability during our assays. Conclusion Salivary inhibitors act in a species-specific manner. It is important to determine their effects in the natural hosts of Leishmania infantum because they act on canid and rodent complements but not on chickens (which do not harbour the parasite). Moreover, we concluded that the avian complement system is the probable mechanism through which chickens eliminate Leishmania and that their high body temperature does not influence this parasite. PMID:24255715

  19. Environmental Niche Modelling of Phlebotomine Sand Flies and Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Identifies Lutzomyia intermedia as the Main Vector Species in Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Meneguzzi, Viviane Coutinho; dos Santos, Claudiney Biral; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Fux, Blima; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by a protozoan of the genus Leishmania and is transmitted by sand flies. The state of Espírito Santo (ES), an endemic area in southeast Brazil, has shown a considerably high prevalence in recent decades. Environmental niche modelling (ENM) is a useful tool for predicting potential disease risk. In this study, ENM was applied to sand fly species and CL cases in ES to identify the principal vector and risk areas of the disease. Sand flies were collected in 466 rural localities between 1997 and 2013 using active and passive capture. Insects were identified to the species level, and the localities were georeferenced. Twenty-one bioclimatic variables were selected from WorldClim. Maxent was used to construct models projecting the potential distribution for five Lutzomyia species and CL cases. ENMTools was used to overlap the species and the CL case models. The Kruskal–Wallis test was performed, adopting a 5% significance level. Approximately 250,000 specimens were captured, belonging to 43 species. The area under the curve (AUC) was considered acceptable for all models. The slope was considered relevant to the construction of the models for all the species identified. The overlay test identified Lutzomyia intermedia as the main vector of CL in southeast Brazil. ENM tools enable an analysis of the association among environmental variables, vector distributions and CL cases, which can be used to support epidemiologic and entomological vigilance actions to control the expansion of CL in vulnerable areas. PMID:27783641

  20. Metagenomic Analysis of Taxa Associated with Lutzomyia longipalpis, Vector of Visceral Leishmaniasis, Using an Unbiased High-Throughput Approach

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Christina B.; Diambra, Luis A.; Rivera Pomar, Rolando V.

    2011-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is one of the most diverse and complex of all vector-borne diseases worldwide. It is caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania, obligate intramacrophage protists characterised by diversity and complexity. Its most severe form is visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a systemic disease that is fatal if left untreated. In Latin America VL is caused by Leishmania infantum chagasi and transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis. This phlebotomine sandfly is only found in the New World, from Mexico to Argentina. In South America, migration and urbanisation have largely contributed to the increase of VL as a public health problem. Moreover, the first VL outbreak was recently reported in Argentina, which has already caused 7 deaths and 83 reported cases. Methodology/Principal Findings An inventory of the microbiota associated with insect vectors, especially of wild specimens, would aid in the development of novel strategies for controlling insect vectors. Given the recent VL outbreak in Argentina and the compelling need to develop appropriate control strategies, this study focused on wild male and female Lu. longipalpis from an Argentine endemic (Posadas, Misiones) and a Brazilian non-endemic (Lapinha Cave, Minas Gerais) VL location. Previous studies on wild and laboratory reared female Lu. longipalpis have described gut bacteria using standard bacteriological methods. In this study, total RNA was extracted from the insects and submitted to high-throughput pyrosequencing. The analysis revealed the presence of sequences from bacteria, fungi, protist parasites, plants and metazoans. Conclusions/Significance This is the first time an unbiased and comprehensive metagenomic approach has been used to survey taxa associated with an infectious disease vector. The identification of gregarines suggested they are a possible efficient control method under natural conditions. Ongoing studies are determining the significance of the associated taxa found in this study in a

  1. Dispersal of Lutzomyia longipalpis and expansion of canine and human visceral leishmaniasis in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Agda Maria; Vieira, Carolina Portugal; Dibo, Margareth Regina; Guirado, Marluci Monteiro; Rodas, Lilian Aparecida Colebrusco; Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco

    2016-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a neglected disease, is a serious public health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the sensitivity of Lutzomyia longipalpis and canine VL (CVL) autochthony early detection and describe the spatial and temporal dispersal of vector and expansion of VL in a Brazilian state. We obtained data on the leishmaniasis vector and VL cases in São Paulo State (SP), Brazil, from the Division of Endemic Disease Control and from the Epidemiological Surveillance Center of the São Paulo State Department of Health. Data were analyzed for 645 municipalities and 63 microregions and presented as thematic and flow maps. Following the verified presence of L. longipalpis in Araçatuba in 1997, the first autochthonous cases of canine VL (CVL) (1998) and of human VL (HVL) (1999) in São Paulo were reported, both in Araçatuba. From 1997 to 2014, the urban presence of the leishmaniasis vector was verified in 167 (25.9%) municipalities with cases of CVL reported in 108 (16.7%) and cases of HVL in 84 (13%). The sensitivities for vector presence early detection in relation to the identification of CVL and HVL autochthony were, respectively, equal to 76.4 and 92.5%. The sensitivity for CVL autochthony early detection in relation to the HVL autochthony identification was 75.8%. Vector dispersal and expansion of CVL and HVL were from the northwest to the southeast of the state, primarily flanking the Marechal Rondon highway at a constant rate of progression of 10, seven, and six new municipalities affected per year, respectively. We concluded that the sensitivity for vector presence and CVL autochthony presented reasonable accuracy and most of the time the vector presence and, specially, the CVL and HVL autochthony were identified in the main cities of the microregions of SP. Vector dispersal and expansion of VL started in 1997 near the state border of SP with the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. It has advanced

  2. [Hourly frequency and seasonality of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) on São Luís Island, Maranhão, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Rebêlo, J M

    2001-01-01

    This article presents the hourly and seasonal distribution of the Lutzomyia longipalpis sand fly captured on São Luís Island, Maranhão State. A total of 11,200 specimens were captured during monthly use of CDC light traps indoors and in animal sheds, between 6:00 PM and 6:00 AM, in 1996 and 1997. The sand fly behaved as an annual species, with a high frequency year-round, while it was most abundant during the rainy season (57.2%) as compared to the dry season (42.8%). The highest frequencies during the rainy season occurred in January and April and in the dry season in July and November. The species was found all night long, mainly between 6:00 PM and 10:00 PM in animal sheds and between 8:00 PM and 2:00 AM indoors.

  3. Association of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) population density with climate variables in Montes Claros, an area of American visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Michalsky, Erika Monteiro; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; França-Silva, João Carlos; Rocha, Marilia Fonseca; Barata, Ricardo Andrade; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2009-12-01

    In the present paper, we evaluate the relationship between climate variables and population density of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Montes Claros, an area of active transmission of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in Brazil. Entomological captures were performed in 10 selected districts of the city, between September 2002-August 2003. A total of 773 specimens of L. longipalpiswere captured in the period and the population density could be associated with local climate variables (cumulative rainfall, average temperature and relative humidity) through a mathematical linear model with a determination coefficient (Rsqr) of 0.752. Although based on an oversimplified statistical analysis, as far as the vector is concerned, this approach showed to be potentially useful as a starting point to guide control measures for AVL in Montes Claros.

  4. Influence of altitude, latitude and season of collection (Bergmann's rule) on the dimensions of Lutzomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae).

    PubMed

    Marcondes, C B; Lozovei, A L; Falqueto, A; Brazil, R P; Galati, E; Aguiar, G; Souza, N

    1999-01-01

    The influence of altitude and latitude on some structure sizes of Lutzomyia intermedia was noted; several structures of insects collected in higher localities were greater, according to Bergmann's rule. This influence was more remarkable in two localities of the State of Espírito Santo, probably due to greater differences in altitude. Comparing insects from different latitudes, more differences were noted in comparisons of insects from low altitude localities than in those of material from higher altitudes. The small number of differences between insects collected in July and in December does not indicate a defined influence of season and temperature on the size of adults. The possible epidemiological implications of these variations are discussed.

  5. First Evidence of a Hybrid of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana DNA Detected from the Phlebotomine Sand Fly Lutzomyia tejadai in Peru.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hirotomo; Cáceres, Abraham G; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    The natural infection of sand flies by Leishmania was examined in the Department of Huanuco of Peru, where cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by a hybrid of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana is endemic. A total of 2,997 female sand flies were captured by CDC light traps and Shannon traps, of which 2,931 and 66 flies were identified as Lutzomyia tejadai and Lu fischeri, respectively. Using crude DNA extracted from individual sand flies as a template, Leishmania DNA was detected from one Lu. tejadai. The parasite species was identified as a hybrid of L. (V.) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana on the basis of cytochrome b and mannose phosphate isomerase gene analyses. The result suggested that Lu. tejadai is responsible for the transmission of the hybrid Leishmania circulating in this area.

  6. First Evidence of a Hybrid of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana DNA Detected from the Phlebotomine Sand Fly Lutzomyia tejadai in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    The natural infection of sand flies by Leishmania was examined in the Department of Huanuco of Peru, where cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by a hybrid of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana is endemic. A total of 2,997 female sand flies were captured by CDC light traps and Shannon traps, of which 2,931 and 66 flies were identified as Lutzomyia tejadai and Lu fischeri, respectively. Using crude DNA extracted from individual sand flies as a template, Leishmania DNA was detected from one Lu. tejadai. The parasite species was identified as a hybrid of L. (V.) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana on the basis of cytochrome b and mannose phosphate isomerase gene analyses. The result suggested that Lu. tejadai is responsible for the transmission of the hybrid Leishmania circulating in this area. PMID:26735142

  7. Blood meal identification and parasite detection in laboratory-fed and field-captured Lutzomyia longipalpis by PCR using FTA databasing paper

    PubMed Central

    Sant’Anna, Mauricio R.V.; Jones, Nathaniel G.; Hindley, Jonathan A.; Mendes-Sousa, Antonio F.; Dillon, Rod J.; Cavalcante, Reginaldo R.; Alexander, Bruce; Bates, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    The phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis takes blood from a variety of wild and domestic animals and transmits Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi, etiological agent of American visceral leishmaniasis. Blood meal identification in sand flies has depended largely on serological methods but a new protocol described here uses filter-based technology to stabilise and store blood meal DNA, allowing subsequent PCR identification of blood meal sources, as well as parasite detection, in blood-fed sand flies. This technique revealed that 53.6% of field-collected sand flies captured in the back yards of houses in Teresina (Brazil) had fed on chickens. The potential applications of this technique in epidemiological studies and strategic planning for leishmaniasis control programmes are discussed. PMID:18606150

  8. Identification of endotrypanum species from a sloth, a squirrel and Lutzomyia sandflies in ecuador by PCR amplification and sequencing of the mini-exon gene.

    PubMed

    Katakura, Ken; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Furuya, Masato; Uezato, Hiroshi; Nonaka, Shigeo; Okamoto, Munehiro; Gomez L, Eduardo A; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2003-05-01

    PCR amplification and nucleotide sequencing of the mini-exon gene revealed that four strains isolated from a sloth (Choloepus hoffmanni), a squirrel (Sciurus granatensis) and two sandflies (Lutzomyia hartmanni) in Ecuador were indistinguishable from Endotrypanum monterogeii. Another strain isolated from Lu. hartmanni showed the high sequence similarity to E. schaudinni. Since three of these strains have been previously identified as Leishmania (Viannia) equatorensis, the results demonstrate that L. (V.) equatorensis is genetically closely related to the genus Endotrypanum. The present study also indicates that Endotrypanum species are distributed in arboreal animals and sandflies in Ecuador, and that mini-exon gene amplification is useful for epidemiological studies of Leishmania and Endotrypanum in the New World.

  9. [First Report of Lutzomyia França in the department of Guainía, Amazonian Colombia, and of Brumptomyia mesai Sherlock (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the Colombian Caribbean Coast].

    PubMed

    Bejarano, Eduar E; Castro, Mirley; Pérez-Doria, Alveiro; Hernández-Oviedo, Ela; Vélez, Andrés; Vélez, Iván D

    2007-01-01

    This is the first record of the presence of the medically important genus Lutzomyia França in the Department of Guainía, Colombia. Sand flies were collected biting humans in the surroundings of the urban area of the Municipality of Inírida. Three Lutzomyia species were taxonomically identified as L. davisi (Root), L. olmeca bicolor Fairchild & Theodor, and L. antunesi (Coutinho). Additionally, Brumptomyia mesai Sherlock is cited for the first time in the Caribbean Coast of Colombia based on specimens collected with a modified CDC light trap in the Reserva Forestal Protectora Serranía de Coraza y Montes de María, Department of Sucre.

  10. Seasonal variation of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Fernandes, Carlos Eurico; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2008-01-01

    The seasonal distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis was studied in two forested and five domiciliary areas of the urban area of Campo Grande; MS, from December 2003 to November 2005. Weekly captures were carried out with CDC light traps positioned on ground and in the canopy inside a residual forest and on the edge (ground) of a woodland and in at least one of the following ecotopes in peridomiciles-a cultivated area, a chicken coop, a pigsty, a kennel, a goat and sheep shelter and an intradomicile. A total of 9519 sand flies were collected, 2666 during the first year and 6853 during the second. L. longipalpis was found throughout the 2-year period, presenting smaller peaks at intervals of 2-3 months and two greater peaks, the first in February and the second in April 2005, soon after periods of heavy rain. Only In one of the woodlands was a significant negative correlation (p<0.05) between the number of insects and temperature during the first year and the climatic factors (temperature, RHA and rain) was observed. In the domiciliary areas in four domiciles some positive correlations (p< or =0.05) occurred in relation to one or more climatic factors; however, the species shows a clear tendency to greater frequency (72%) in the rainy season than in the dry (28%). Thus, we recommend an intensification of the VL control measures applied in Campo Grande, MS, during the rainy season with a view to reducing the risk of the transmission of the disease.

  11. Monitoring of Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva, 1912 in an area of intense transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amóra, Sthenia Santos Albano; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; Dias, Edmilson de Castro; Feijó, Francisco Marlon Carneiro; Oliveira, Paula Gabriela Melo de; Peixoto, Gislayne Christianne Xavier; Alves, Nilza Dutra; Oliveira, Lorena Mayana Beserra de; Macedo, Iara Térsia Freitas

    2010-01-01

    Urban increase of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is associated with the adaptation of its vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis, to environments modified by humans. The present study reports the results of an entomological monitoring of L. longipalpis and the effect of environmental variables on its population density. Sandflies were captured in the municipality of Mossoró, State of Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil, from January 2005 to December 2006. Two CDC light traps were placed monthly for four consecutive nights in the peridomicile of selected households. Data analysis was based on the chi-square test and linear regression. A total of 2,087 sandflies were captured, 99.86% of which were L. longipalpis. A higher proportion of females were captured (p < 0.05). Monthly analysis of the variables temperature, relative humidity and rainfall did not show a significant influence on population density. However, there were seasonal differences: approximately 70% of sand flies were captured during the rainy season (p < 0.05). The predominant species, L. longipalpis, is present in substantial number, representing a public health risk. Therefore, because of higher prevalence during the rainy season, we recommend intensified VL control measures before and during this season to reduce the risk of disease transmission.

  12. Predicting the geographic distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) and visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Paulo Silva de; Sciamarelli, Alan; Batista, Paulo Mira; Ferreira, Ademar Dimas; Nascimento, João; Raizer, Josué; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2013-12-01

    To understand the geographic distribution of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil, both the climatic niches of Lutzomyia longipalpis and VL cases were analysed. Distributional data were obtained from 55 of the 79 counties of MS between 2003-2012. Ecological niche models (ENM) of Lu. longipalpis and VL cases were produced using the maximum entropy algorithm based on eight climatic variables. Lu. longipalpis showed a wide distribution in MS. The highest climatic suitability for Lu. longipalpis was observed in southern MS. Temperature seasonality and annual mean precipitation were the variables that most influenced these models. Two areas of high climatic suitability for the occurrence of VL cases were predicted: one near Aquidauana and another encompassing several municipalities in the southeast region of MS. As expected, a large overlap between the models for Lu. longipalpis and VL cases was detected. Northern and northwestern areas of MS were suitable for the occurrence of cases, but did not show high climatic suitability for Lu. longipalpis. ENM of vectors and human cases provided a greater understanding of the geographic distribution of VL in MS, which can be applied to the development of future surveillance strategies.

  13. Genetic differentiation in natural populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae) with different phenotypic spot patterns on tergites in males.

    PubMed

    Silva, M H; Nascimento, M D S B; Leonardo, F S; Rebêlo, J M M; Pereira, S R F

    2011-01-01

    Entomological surveys in the state of Maranhão have recorded morphologically distinct populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva). Some populations have one pair of spots (1S) on the fourth tergite, while others have two pairs (2S) on the third and fourth tergites of males. In the present study we investigated the degree of genetic polymorphism among four populations in the municipalities of Caxias, Codó and Raposa, in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, by using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) markers. A total of 35 loci were identified, of which 30 were polymorphic. The highest polymorphism was observed with primer OPA 4, which produced 11 different profiles. Genetic diversity was assessed using grouping methods that produced a dendrogram in which the genotypes could be clearly separated into two main clades according to the number of spots on the male abdominal tergites. One cluster contained the populations from Caxias and Codó, and the other was formed by the populations from Raposa and Codó. The results of our RAPD analysis showed a clear separation between the populations with one and two pairs of spots. The epidemiologic significance of this genetic differentiation should be investigated in future studies.

  14. Ayadualin, a novel RGD peptide with dual antihemostatic activities from the sand fly Lutzomyia ayacuchensis, a vector of Andean-type cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A; Fujita, Megumi; Ishimaru, Yuka; Uezato, Hiroshi; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2015-05-01

    Sequence analysis of the Lutzomyia (Lu.) ayacuchensis salivary gland cDNA library identified a short peptide containing an RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) sequence flanked by two cysteine residues in the C-terminal end as the most abundant transcript. In the present study, a recombinant protein of the RGD-containing peptide, designated ayadualin, was expressed in Escherichia coli and its activity was characterized. Ayadualin inhibited both collagen and ADP-induced platelet aggregations by interfering with the binding of integrin αIIbβ3 to fibrinogen. The RGD sequence and cysteine residues located on both sides of the RGD sequence were essential for the inhibitory action. Moreover, ayadualin efficiently inhibited the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway irrespective of the RGD sequence. Measuring the enzymatic activity of coagulation factors using chromogenic substrates revealed that ayadualin efficiently inhibited factor XIIa (FXIIa) activity in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, pre-incubation of ayadualin with FXII inhibited FXIIa activity, while activated FXIIa was not affected by ayadualin, indicating that ayadualin inhibits the activation of FXII, but not enzymatic activity of FXIIa. These results indicated that ayadualin plays an important role in the blood feeding of Lu. ayacuchensis by inhibiting host hemostasis via dual mechanisms.

  15. Genetic structure and divergence in populations of Lutzomyia cruciata, a phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vector of Leishmania mexicana in southeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pech-May, Angélica; Marina, Carlos F; Vázquez-Domínguez, Ella; Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A; Narváez-Zapata, José A; Moo-Llanes, David; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Ramsey, Janine M; Becker, Ingeborg

    2013-06-01

    The low dispersal capacity of sand flies could lead to population isolation due to geographic barriers, climate variation, or to population fragmentation associated with specific local habitats due to landscape modification. The phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia cruciata has a wide distribution throughout Mexico and is a vector of Leishmania mexicana in the southeast. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity, structure, and divergence within and among populations of Lu. cruciata in the state of Chiapas, and to infer the intra-specific phylogeny using the 3' end of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. We analyzed 62 sequences from four Lu. cruciata populations and found 26 haplotypes, high genetic differentiation and restricted gene flow among populations (Fst=0.416, Nm=0.701, p<0.001). The highest diversity values were recorded in populations from Loma Bonita and Guadalupe Miramar. Three lineages (100% bootstrap and 7% overall divergence) were identified using a maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis which showed high genetic divergence (17.2-22.7%). A minimum spanning haplotype network also supported separation into three lineages. Genetic structure and divergence within and among Lu. cruciata populations are hence affected by geographic heterogeneity and evolutionary background. Data obtained in the present study suggest that Lu. cruciata in the state of Chiapas consists of at least three lineages. Such findings may have implications for vector capacity and hence for vector control strategies.

  16. Interleukin 10–Dominant Immune Response and Increased Risk of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis After Natural Exposure to Lutzomyia intermedia Sand Flies

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Augusto M.; Cristal, Juqueline R.; Muniz, Aline C.; Carvalho, Lucas P.; Gomes, Regis; Miranda, José C.; Barral, Aldina; Carvalho, Edgar M.; de Oliveira, Camila I.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Leishmaniasis is caused by parasites transmitted to the vertebrate host by infected sand flies. During transmission, the vertebrate host is also inoculated with sand fly saliva, which exerts powerful immunomodulatory effects on the host's immune response. Methods. We conducted a prospective cohort analysis to characterize the human immune response to Lutzomyia intermedia saliva in 264 individuals, from an area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania braziliensis. Results. Antibodies were found in 150 individuals (56.8%); immunoglobulin G1 and G4 were the predominant subclasses. Recall responses to salivary gland sonicate showed elevated production of interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin 13, interferon γ, CXCL9, and CCL2 compared with controls. CD4+CD25+ T cells, including Foxp3+ cells, were the main source of IL-10. L. braziliensis replication was increased (P < .05) in macrophages cocultured with saliva-stimulated lymphocytes from exposed individuals and addition of anti–IL-10 reverted this effect. Positive correlation between antibody response to saliva and cellular response to Leishmania was not found. Importantly, individuals seropositive to saliva are 2.1 times more likely to develop CL (relative risk, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–4.2; P < .05). Conclusions. Exposure to L. intermedia sand flies skews the human immune response, facilitating L. braziliensis survival in vitro, and increases the risk of developing CL. PMID:25596303

  17. A Lectin from Dioclea violacea Interacts with Midgut Surface of Lutzomyia migonei, Unlike Its Homologues, Cratylia floribunda Lectin and Canavalia gladiata Lectin

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro Tínel, Juliana Montezuma Barbosa; Benevides, Melina Fechine Costa; Frutuoso, Mércia Sindeaux; Rocha, Camila Farias; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves; Pereira-Junior, Francisco Nascimento; Cajazeiras, João Batista; do Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Martins, Jorge Luiz; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; dos Santos, Ricardo Pires; Lima Pompeu, Margarida Maria

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease transmitted by phlebotomine sand fly. Susceptibility and refractoriness to Leishmania depend on the outcome of multiple interactions that take place within the sand fly gut. Promastigote attachment to sand fly midgut epithelium is essential to avoid being excreted together with the digested blood meal. Promastigote and gut sand fly surface glycans are important ligands in this attachment. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the interaction of three lectins isolated from leguminous seeds (Diocleinae subtribe), D-glucose and D-mannose-binding, with glycans on Lutzomyia migonei midgut. To study this interaction the lectins were labeled with FITC and a fluorescence assay was performed. The results showed that only Dioclea violacea lectin (DVL) was able to interact with midgut glycans, unlike Cratylia floribunda lectin (CFL) and Canavalia gladiata lectin (CGL). Furthermore, when DVL was blocked with D-mannose the interaction was inhibited. Differences of spatial arrangement of residues and volume of carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) may be the cause of the fine specificity of DVL for glycans in the surface on Lu. migonei midgut. The findings in this study showed the presence of glycans in the midgut with glucose/mannose residues in its composition and these residues may be important in interaction between Lu. migonei midgut and Leishmania. PMID:25431778

  18. Polymerase chain reaction-based assay for the detection and identification of sand fly gregarines in Lutzomyia longipalpis, a vector of visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Caligiuri, Lorena G; Acardi, Soraya A; Santini, María Soledad; Salomón, Oscar D; McCarthy, Christina B

    2014-06-01

    Gregarines that parasitise phlebotomine sand flies belong to the genus Psychodiella and, even though they are highly host-specific, only five species have been described to date. Their most outstanding features include the unique localisation of the oocysts in the accessory glands of the female host, which ensures contamination of the egg surface during oviposition, and the fact that they naturally parasitise the vectors of Leishmania, causal agent of leishmaniasis. The type species, Ps. chagasi, was first described in Lutzomyia longipalpis, vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), from Brazil. We recently reported Ps. chagasi sequences in Lu. longipalpis from Posadas (Misiones, Argentina), an endemic VL location where this gregarine had not been previously recorded. In order to analyse the incidence of Ps. chagasi infections in Lu. longipalpis from this location, the aim of this study was to develop a diagnostic assay for sand fly gregarine parasites in Lu. longipalpis. For this, we designed primers using the Ps. chagasi sequences we previously identified and performed an in vitro validation by PCR amplification of the original sand fly samples. Their specificity and sensitivity as diagnostic primers were subsequently confirmed by PCR reactions using total DNA extracted from naturally infected Lu. longipalpis from the same location (Posadas, Argentina).

  19. Entering and exiting behaviour of the phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia longiflocosa (Diptera: Psychodidae) in rural houses of the sub-Andean region of Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Raúl Hernando; Santamaría, Erika; Cabrera, Olga Lucia

    2016-01-01

    The present study identified the entering and exiting sites for Lutzomyia longiflocosa in rural houses of the sub-Andean region in Colombia. Entering sites were identified with sticky traps set up outside the bedrooms, around the eave openings, and with cage traps enclosing the slits in the doors and windows inside the bedrooms. Exiting sites were identified by releasing groups of females indoors. These females were blood fed and marked with fluorescent powders. Females were recaptured with the trap placement described above but set up on the opposite sides of the openings. In the entering experiment, a significantly higher number of females were captured in the sticky traps at the zone nearest the eave openings (n = 142) than those captured in the other zones of the trap (n = 52); similarly, a higher number of females were captured on the front side of the house (n = 105) than at the rear side (n = 37). Only two females were collected in the cage trap. In the exiting experiment, at the ceiling, the highest percentage (86.2%) of females was recaptured with sticky traps nearest the eave openings and on the front side of the house (70.0%). Seven females were collected in the cage trap. Lu. longiflocosa entered and exited houses primarily through the eave openings in a non-random pattern in relation to the sides of the house. PMID:27925019

  20. Distribution of Lutzomyia ayacuchensis, the vector of Andean-type cutaneous leishmaniasis, at different altitudes on the Andean slope of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Eduardo A; Kato, Hirotomo; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2014-09-01

    Distribution of the vector species is a major risk factor for the endemicity of leishmaniasis. In the present study, the vertical distribution of Lutzomyia (Lu.) ayacuchensis, the vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana in the Ecuadorian Andes, was surveyed at different altitudes (300-2500m above sea level) of the Andean slope. The vector species Lu. ayacuchensis was identified at an altitude of 650m and a higher areas, and higher distribution ratio of the species was observed at higher altitudes. In addition, high ratios of L. (L.) mexicana infection were detected in higher areas, but none in lower populations of sand flies. Since an association between sand fly populations and vector competence is suggested in Lu. ayacuchensis, haplotype analysis was performed on the species from different altitudes of the study areas; however, no apparent difference was observed among populations. These results suggested that Lu. ayacuchensis in Andean slope areas of Ecuador has the potential to transmit L. (L.) mexicana and spread leishmaniasis in these areas.

  1. Climatic factors and population density of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) in an urban endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in midwest Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Everton Falcão; dos Santos Fernandes, Carlos Eurico; Araújo e Silva, Elaine; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez

    2013-12-01

    The life cycle of vectors and the reservoirs that participate in the chain of infectious diseases have a strong relationship with the environmental dynamics of the ecosystems in which they live. Oscillations in population abundance and seasonality of insects can be explained by factors inherent in each region and time period. Therefore, knowledge of the relationship and influence of environmental factors on the population of Lutzomyia longipalpis is necessary because of the high incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil. This study evaluates the influence of abiotic variables on the population density and seasonal behavior of L. longipalpis in an urban endemic area of VL in Brazil. The sand fly captures were performed every two months between November, 2009 and November, 2010 in the peridomicile of 13 randomly selected residences. We captured 1,367 specimens of L. longipalpis, and the ratio of male/female flies was 2.86:1. The comparison of the total male specimens in the two seasons showed a statistical difference in the wet season, but there was no significant difference when considering the total females. With respect to climatic variables, a significant negative association was observed only with wind speed. During periods of high wind speeds, the population density of this vector decreased. The presence of L. longipalpis was found in all months of the study with bimodal behavior and population peaks during the wet season.

  2. Comparison of optical microscopy and quantitative polymerase chain reaction for estimating parasitaemia in patients with kala-azar and modelling infectiousness to the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Jailthon C; Zacarias, Danielle A; Silva, Vladimir C; Rolão, Nuno; Costa, Dorcas L; Costa, Carlos HN

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the only method for identifying infective hosts with Leishmania infantum to the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis is xenodiagnosis. More recently, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has been used to model human reservoir competence by assuming that detection of parasite DNA indicates the presence of viable parasites for infecting vectors. Since this assumption has not been proven, this study aimed to verify this hypothesis. The concentration of amastigotes in the peripheral blood of 30 patients with kala-azar was microscopically verified by leukoconcentration and was compared to qPCR estimates. Parasites were identified in 4.8 mL of peripheral blood from 67% of the patients, at a very low concentration (average 0.3 parasites/mL). However, qPCR showed 93% sensitivity and the estimated parasitaemia was over a thousand times greater, both in blood and plasma, with higher levels in plasma than in blood. Furthermore, the microscopic count of circulating parasites and the qPCR parasitaemia estimates were not mathematically compatible with the published proportions of infected sandflies in xenodiagnostic studies. These findings suggest that qPCR does not measure the concentration of circulating parasites, but rather measures DNA from other sites, and that blood might not be the main source of infection for vectors. PMID:27439033

  3. Cloning and characterization of a V-ATPase subunit C from the American visceral leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis modulated during development and blood ingestion.

    PubMed

    Ramalho-Ortigão, J M; Pitaluga, A N; Telleria, E L; Marques, C; Souza, A A; Traub-Cseko, Y M

    2007-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a serious tropical disease that affects approximately 500 thousand people worldwide every year. In the Americas, VL is caused by the parasite Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi mainly transmitted by the bite of the sand fly vector Lutzomyia longipalpis. Despite recent advances in the study of interaction between Leishmania and sand flies, very little is known about sand fly protein expression profiles. Understanding how the expression of proteins may be affected by blood feeding and/or presence of parasite in the vector's midgut might allow us to devise new strategies for controlling the spread of leishmaniasis. In this work, we report the characterization of a vacuolar ATPase subunit C from L. longipalpis by screening of a midgut cDNA library with a 220 bp fragment identified by means of differential display reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. The expression of the gene varies along insect development and is upregulated in males and bloodfed L. longipalpis, compared to unfed flies.

  4. Entering and exiting behaviour of the phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia longiflocosa (Diptera: Psychodidae) in rural houses of the sub-Andean region of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Raúl Hernando; Santamaría, Erika; Cabrera, Olga Lucia

    2017-01-01

    The present study identified the entering and exiting sites for Lutzomyia longiflocosa in rural houses of the sub-Andean region in Colombia. Entering sites were identified with sticky traps set up outside the bedrooms, around the eave openings, and with cage traps enclosing the slits in the doors and windows inside the bedrooms. Exiting sites were identified by releasing groups of females indoors. These females were blood fed and marked with fluorescent powders. Females were recaptured with the trap placement described above but set up on the opposite sides of the openings. In the entering experiment, a significantly higher number of females were captured in the sticky traps at the zone nearest the eave openings (n = 142) than those captured in the other zones of the trap (n = 52); similarly, a higher number of females were captured on the front side of the house (n = 105) than at the rear side (n = 37). Only two females were collected in the cage trap. In the exiting experiment, at the ceiling, the highest percentage (86.2%) of females was recaptured with sticky traps nearest the eave openings and on the front side of the house (70.0%). Seven females were collected in the cage trap. Lu. longiflocosa entered and exited houses primarily through the eave openings in a non-random pattern in relation to the sides of the house.

  5. Landscape associations of the sand fly, Lutzomyia (Heleocyrtomyia) apache (Diptera: Psychodidae), in the southwestern United States: a geographic information system analysis.

    PubMed

    Herrero, M V; Yarnell, W E; Schmidtmann, E T

    2004-12-01

    Landscape associations of the sand fly, Lutzomyia apache, Young and Perkins, in the southwestern U.S. were investigated by light/suction trap sampling and the development of a GIS-generated distribution map. In the mid-Rio Grande River valley, N.M., female and male L. apache were captured in updraft light/suction traps set in desert shrubland, irrigation levee, and bosque vegetation communities. Small numbers of flies were captured, but the presence of males and females in spatially separate and diverse plant communities at two locations suggest that L. apache are dispersed among available vegetation types. These data, along with 22 previously published collection site records, were used with a suite of physiographic features to characterize the biogeographic conditions suitable for L. apache. Suitable conditions encompass three life zones: the Rocky Mountain steppe province, the Colorado semi-plateau province, and the American semi-desert province, all within the dry domain region of the western U.S. The potential range of L. apache was then estimated based on elevation, mean and max - min temperature, precipitation, wet days, and relative humidity. The estimated range includes large contiguous areas in north-central Colorado, east-central New Mexico and west Texas, the lower mid-Rio Grande River valley, and southern Arizona, along with smaller, patchy, areas in northern Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah, and central Idaho. The spatial relationship between the estimated distribution of L. apache and the location of livestock exposed to vesicular stomatitis virus at the onset of recent outbreaks is presented.

  6. Ecological Niche Modelling Predicts Southward Expansion of Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) flaviscutellata (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), Vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in South America, under Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Bruno M.; Ready, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Vector borne diseases are susceptible to climate change because distributions and densities of many vectors are climate driven. The Amazon region is endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis and is predicted to be severely impacted by climate change. Recent records suggest that the distributions of Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) flaviscutellata and the parasite it transmits, Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, are expanding southward, possibly due to climate change, and sometimes associated with new human infection cases. We define the vector’s climatic niche and explore future projections under climate change scenarios. Vector occurrence records were compiled from the literature, museum collections and Brazilian Health Departments. Six bioclimatic variables were used as predictors in six ecological niche model algorithms (BIOCLIM, DOMAIN, MaxEnt, GARP, logistic regression and Random Forest). Projections for 2050 used 17 general circulation models in two greenhouse gas representative concentration pathways: “stabilization” and “high increase”. Ensemble models and consensus maps were produced by overlapping binary predictions. Final model outputs showed good performance and significance. The use of species absence data substantially improved model performance. Currently, L. flaviscutellata is widely distributed in the Amazon region, with records in the Atlantic Forest and savannah regions of Central Brazil. Future projections indicate expansion of the climatically suitable area for the vector in both scenarios, towards higher latitudes and elevations. L. flaviscutellata is likely to find increasingly suitable conditions for its expansion into areas where human population size and density are much larger than they are in its current locations. If environmental conditions change as predicted, the range of the vector is likely to expand to southeastern and central-southern Brazil, eastern Paraguay and further into the Amazonian areas of Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia and

  7. The protein LJM 111 from Lutzomyia longipalpis Salivary Gland Extract (SGE) accounts for the SGE-inhibitory effects upon inflammatory parameters in experimental arthritis model

    PubMed Central

    Grespan, Renata; Lemos, Henrique P.; Carregaro, Vanessa; Verri, Waldiceu A.; Souto, Fabricio O.; de Oliveira, Carlo J.F.; Teixeira, Clarissa; Ribeiro, José Marcos; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Cunha, Fernando Q.

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have pointed out the immunomodulatory properties of the Salivary Gland Extract (SGE) from Lutzomyia longipalpis. We aimed to identify the SGE component (s) responsible for its effect on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced neutrophil migration (NM) and to evaluate the effect of SGE and components in the antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) model. We tested the anti-arthritic activities of SGE and the recombinant LJM111 salivary protein (rLJM111) by measuring the mechanical hypernociception and the NM into synovial cavity. Furthermore, we measured IL-17, TNF-α and IFN-γ released by lymph nodes cells stimulated with mBSA or anti-CD3 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Additionally, we tested the effect of SGE and rLJM111 on co-stimulatory molecules expression (MHC-II and CD-86) by flow cytometry, TNF-α and IL-10 production (ELISA) of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) stimulated with LPS, chemotaxis and actin polymerization from neutrophils. Besides, the effect of SGE on CXCR2 and GRK-2 expression on neutrophils was investigated. We identified one plasmid expressing the protein LJM111 that prevented NM in OVA-challenged immunized mice. Furthermore, both SGE and rLJM111 inhibited NM and pain sensitivity in AIA and reduced IL-17, TNF-α and IFN-γ. SGE and rLJM111 also reduced MHC-II and CD-86 expression and TNF-α whereas increased IL-10 release by LPS-stimulated BMDCs. SGE, but not LJM 111, inhibited neutrophils chemotaxis and actin polymerization. Additionally, SGE reduced neutrophil CXCR2 expression and increased GRK-2. Thus, rLJM111 is partially responsible for SGE mechanisms by diminishing DC function and maturation but not chemoattraction of neutrophils. PMID:22366405

  8. BluePort: A Platform to Study the Eosinophilic Response of Mice to the Bite of a Vector of Leishmania Parasites, Lutzomyia longipalpis Sand Flies

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, J. Santiago; Toot-Zimmer, Amanda L.; Schultheiss, Patricia C.; Beaty, Barry J.; Titus, Richard G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Visceral Leishmaniasis is a serious human disease transmitted, in the New World, by Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies. Natural resistance to Leishmania transmission in residents of endemic areas has been attributed to the acquisition of immunity to sand fly salivary proteins. One theoretical way to accelerate the acquisition of this immunity is to increase the density of antigen-presenting cells at the sand fly bite site. Here we describe a novel tissue platform that can be used for this purpose. Methodology/Principal Findings BluePort is a well-vascularized and macrophage-rich compartment induced in the subcutaneous tissue of mice via injection of agarose beads covered with Cibacron blue. We describe the sequence of inflammatory events leading to its formation and how it can be used to study the dermal response to the bite of L. longipalpis sand flies. Results presented indicate that a shift in the inflammatory response, from neutrophilic to eosinophilic, is the main histopathological feature associated with the immunity acquired through repeated exposure to the bite of sand flies, and that the BluePort tissue compartment could be used to accelerate this process. In addition, changes observed inside the BluePort parenchyma indicate that it could be used to study complex immunobiological processes, and to develop ectopic secondary lymphoid structures. Conclusions/Significance Understanding the characteristics of the dermal response to the bite of sand flies is a critical element of strategies to control leishmaniasis using vaccines that target salivary proteins. Finding that dermal eosinophilia is such a prominent component of the anti-salivary immunity induced by repeated exposure to sand fly bites raises one important consideration: how to avoid the immunological conflict derived from a protective Th2-driven immunity directed to sand fly saliva with a protective Th1-driven immunity directed to the parasite. The BluePort platform is an ideal tool to

  9. Ecological Niche Modelling Predicts Southward Expansion of Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) flaviscutellata (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), Vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in South America, under Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Bruno M; Rangel, Elizabeth F; Ready, Paul D; Vale, Mariana M

    2015-01-01

    Vector borne diseases are susceptible to climate change because distributions and densities of many vectors are climate driven. The Amazon region is endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis and is predicted to be severely impacted by climate change. Recent records suggest that the distributions of Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) flaviscutellata and the parasite it transmits, Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, are expanding southward, possibly due to climate change, and sometimes associated with new human infection cases. We define the vector's climatic niche and explore future projections under climate change scenarios. Vector occurrence records were compiled from the literature, museum collections and Brazilian Health Departments. Six bioclimatic variables were used as predictors in six ecological niche model algorithms (BIOCLIM, DOMAIN, MaxEnt, GARP, logistic regression and Random Forest). Projections for 2050 used 17 general circulation models in two greenhouse gas representative concentration pathways: "stabilization" and "high increase". Ensemble models and consensus maps were produced by overlapping binary predictions. Final model outputs showed good performance and significance. The use of species absence data substantially improved model performance. Currently, L. flaviscutellata is widely distributed in the Amazon region, with records in the Atlantic Forest and savannah regions of Central Brazil. Future projections indicate expansion of the climatically suitable area for the vector in both scenarios, towards higher latitudes and elevations. L. flaviscutellata is likely to find increasingly suitable conditions for its expansion into areas where human population size and density are much larger than they are in its current locations. If environmental conditions change as predicted, the range of the vector is likely to expand to southeastern and central-southern Brazil, eastern Paraguay and further into the Amazonian areas of Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela

  10. The physiology of the midgut of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva 1912): pH in different physiological conditions and mechanisms involved in its control.

    PubMed

    Santos, Vânia C; Araujo, Ricardo N; Machado, Luciane A D; Pereira, Marcos H; Gontijo, Nelder F

    2008-09-01

    Nutrient digestion and absorption after blood feeding are important events for Lutzomyia longipalpis, which uses these nutrients to produce eggs. In this context, the pH inside the digestive tract is an important physiological feature as it can markedly influence the digestive process as well as interfere with Leishmania development in infected phlebotomines. It was described previously that unfed females have an acidic midgut (pH 6). In this study, the pH inside the midgut of blood-fed females was measured. The abdominal midgut (AM) pH varied from 8.15+/-0.31 in the first 10 h post-blood meal to 7.7+/-0.17 after 24 h. While the AM was alkaline during blood digestion, the pH in the thoracic midgut (TM) remained acidic (5.5-6.0). In agreement with these findings, the enzyme alpha-glucosidase, which has an optimum pH of 5.8, is mainly encountered in the acidic TM. The capacity of unfed females to maintain the acidic intestinal pH was also evaluated. Our results showed the presence of an efficient mechanism that maintains the pH almost constant at about 6 in the midgut, but not in the crop. This mechanism is promptly interrupted in the AM by blood ingestion. RT-PCR results indicated the presence of carbonic anhydrase in the midgut cells, which apparently is required to maintain the pH at 6 in the midgut of unfed females. Investigations on the phenomenon of alkalization observed after blood ingestion indicated that two mechanisms are involved: in addition to the alkalization promoted by CO2 volatilization there is a minor contribution from a second mechanism not yet characterized. Some inferences concerning Leishmania development and pH in the digestive tube are presented.

  11. Chicken blood provides a suitable meal for the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis and does not inhibit Leishmania development in the gut

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to address the role of chickens as bloodmeal sources for female Lutzomyia longipalpis and to test whether chicken blood is harmful to Leishmania parasite development within the sand flies. Bloodmeal ingestion, excretion of urate, reproduction, fecundity, as well as Leishmania infection and development were compared in sand flies fed on blood from chickens and different mammalian sources. Results Large differences in haemoglobin and protein concentrations in whole blood (dog>human>rabbit> chicken) did not correlate with differences in bloodmeal protein concentrations (dog = chicken>human>rabbit). This indicated that Lu. longipalpis were able to concentrate bloodmeals taken from different hosts using prediuresis and this was confirmed by direct observation. Sand flies fed on chickens or dogs produced significantly more eggs than those fed on human blood. Female Lu. longipalpis retained significantly more urate inside their bodies when fed on chicken blood compared to those fed on rabbit blood. However, when the amounts of urate excreted after feeding were measured, sand flies fed on rabbit blood excreted significantly more than those fed on chicken blood. There was no difference in female longevity after feeding on avian or mammalian blood. Sand flies infected via chicken blood produced Leishmania mexicana infections with a similar developmental pattern but higher overall parasite populations than sand flies infected via rabbit blood. Conclusions The results of this study help to define the role that chickens play in the epidemiology of leishmaniasis. The present study using a Lu. longipalpis/L. mexicana model indicates that chickens are suitable hosts to support a Lu. longipalpis population and that chicken blood is likely to support the development of transmissible Leishmania infections in Lu. longipalpis. PMID:20205803

  12. Lufaxin, a Novel Factor Xa Inhibitor from the Salivary Gland of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis, Blocks PAR2 Activation and Inhibits Inflammation and Thrombosis in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Nicolas; Assumpção, Teresa C. F.; Mizurini, Daniella M.; Gilmore, Dana; Dutra-Oliveira, Angélica; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Sá-Nunes, Anderson; Teixeira, Clarissa; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Monteiro, Robson Q.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Blood-sucking arthropods salivary glands (SGs) contain a remarkable diversity of antihemostatics. The aim of this study was to identify the unique salivary anticoagulant of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis, which remained elusive for decades. Methods and Results Several L. longipalpis salivary proteins were expressed in HEK293 cells and screened for inhibition of blood coagulation. A novel 32.4-kDa molecule, named Lufaxin, was identified as a slow, tight, non-competitive, and reversible inhibitor of Factor Xa (FXa). Notably, Lufaxin primary sequence does not share similarity to any physiological or salivary inhibitors of coagulation reported to date. Lufaxin is specific for FXa and does not interact with FX, DEGR- FXa, or 15 other enzymes. In addition, Lufaxin blocks prothrombinase and increases both PT and aPTT. Surface plasmon resonance experiments revealed that FXa binds Lufaxin with a KD ~3 nM, and isothermal titration calorimetry determined a stoichiometry of 1:1. Lufaxin also prevents PAR2 activation by FXa in the MDA-MB-231 cell line and abrogates edema formation triggered by injection of FXa in the paw of mice. Moreover, Lufaxin prevents FeCl3-induced carotid artery thrombus formation and prolongs aPTT ex vivo, implying that it works as an anticoagulant in vivo. Finally, SG of sandflies was found to inhibit FXa and to interact with the enzyme. Conclusion Lufaxin belongs to a novel family of slow-tight FXa inhibitors, which display antithrombotic and antiinflamatory activities. It is a useful tool to understand FXa structural features and its role in pro-hemostatic and pro-inflammatory events. PMID:22796577

  13. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-09-04

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

  14. Participation of heparin binding proteins from the surface of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis promastigotes in the adhesion of parasites to Lutzomyia longipalpis cells (Lulo) in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Leishmania (V.) braziliensis is a causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil. During the parasite life cycle, the promastigotes adhere to the gut of sandflies, to avoid being eliminated with the dejection. The Lulo cell line, derived from Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae), is a suitable in vitro study model to understand the features of parasite adhesion. Here, we analyze the role of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) from Lulo cells and proteins from the parasites in this event. Methods Flagellar (Ff) and membrane (Mf) fractions from promastigotes were obtained by differential centrifugation and the purity of fractions confirmed by western blot assays, using specific antibodies for cellular compartments. Heparin-binding proteins (HBP) were isolated from both fractions using a HiTrap-Heparin column. In addition, binding of promastigotes to Lulo cells or to a heparin-coated surface was assessed by inhibition assays or surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis. Results The success of promastigotes subcellular fractionation led to the obtainment of Ff and Mf proteins, both of which presented two main protein bands (65.0 and 55.0kDa) with affinity to heparin. The contribution of HBPs in the adherence of promastigotes to Lulo cells was assessed through competition assays, using HS or the purified HBPs fractions. All tested samples presented a measurable inhibition rate when compared to control adhesion rate (17 ± 2.0% of culture cells with adhered parasites): 30% (for HS 20μg/ml) and 16% (for HS 10μg/ml); HBP Mf (35.2% for 10μg/ml and 25.4% for 20μg/ml) and HBP Ff (10.0% for 10μg/ml and 31.4% for 20μg/ml). Additionally, to verify the presence of sulfated GAGs in Lulo cells surface and intracellular compartment, metabolic labeling with radioactive sulfate was performed, indicating the presence of an HS and chondroitin sulfate in both cell sections. The SPR analysis performed further confirmed the presence of GAGs ligands on L. (V

  15. Synthetic sex pheromone in a long-lasting lure attracts the visceral leishmaniasis vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis, for up to 12 weeks in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bray, Daniel P; Carter, Vicky; Alves, Graziella B; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Bandi, Krishna K; Hamilton, James G C

    2014-03-01

    Current control methodologies have not prevented the spread of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) across Brazil. Here, we describe the development of a new tool for controlling the sand fly vector of the disease: a long-lasting lure, which releases a synthetic male sex pheromone, attractive to both sexes of Lutzomyia longipalpis. This device could be used to improve the effectiveness of residual insecticide spraying as a means of sand fly control, attracting L. longipalpis to insecticide-treated animal houses, where they could be killed in potentially large numbers over a number of weeks. Different lure designs releasing the synthetic pheromone (±)-9-methylgermacrene-B (CAS 183158-38-5) were field-tested in Araçatuba, São Paulo (SP). Experiments compared numbers of sand flies caught overnight in experimental chicken sheds with pheromone lures, to numbers caught in control sheds without pheromone. Prototype lures, designed to last one night, were first used to confirm the attractiveness of the pheromone in SP, and shown to attract significantly more flies to test sheds than controls. Longer-lasting lures were tested when new, and at fortnightly intervals. Lures loaded with 1 mg of pheromone did not attract sand flies for more than two weeks. However, lures loaded with 10 mg of pheromone, with a releasing surface of 15 cm2 or 7.5 cm2, attracted female L. longipalpis for up to ten weeks, and males for up to twelve weeks. Approximately five times more sand flies were caught with 7.5 cm2 10 mg lures when first used than occurred naturally in non-experimental chicken resting sites. These results demonstrate that these lures are suitably long-lasting and attractive for use in sand fly control programmes in SP. To our knowledge, this is the first sex pheromone-based technology targeting an insect vector of a neglected human disease. Further studies should explore the general applicability of this approach for combating other insect-borne diseases.

  16. Expression of the mevalonate pathway enzymes in the Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) sex pheromone gland demonstrated by an integrated proteomic approach

    PubMed Central

    González-Caballero, Natalia; Rodríguez-Vega, Andrés; Dias-Lopes, Geovane; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Ribeiro, Jose M.C.; Carvalho, Paulo Costa; Valente, Richard H.; Brazil, Reginaldo P.; Cuervo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    In Latin America, Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum, which is the causal agent of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. This insect uses male-produced pheromones for mate recognition. Elucidation of pheromone biogenesis or its regulation may enable molecular strategies for mating disruption and, consequently, the vector's population management. Motivated by our recent results of the transcriptomic characterization of the L. longipalpis pheromone gland, we performed a proteomic analysis of this tissue combining SDS-PAGE, and mass spectrometry followed by an integrative data analysis. Considering that annotated genome sequences of this sand fly are not available, we designed an alternative workflow searching MS/MS data against two customized databases using three search engines: Mascot, OMSSA and ProLuCID. A total of 542 proteins were confidently characterized, 445 of them using a Uniref100-insect protein database, and 97 using a transcript translated database. In addition, use of PEAKS for de novo peptide sequencing of MS/MS data confirmed ∼90% identifications made with the combination of the three search engines. Our results include the identification of six of the seven enzymes of the mevalonate-pathway, plus the enzymes involved in sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis, all of which are proposed to be involved in pheromone production in L. longipalpis. Biological significance L. longipalpis is the main vector of the protozoan parasite L. infantum, which is the causal agent of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. One of the control measures of such disease is focused on vector population control. As this insect uses male-produced pheromones for mate recognition, the elucidation of pheromone biogenesis or its regulating process may enable molecular strategies for mating disruption and, consequently, this vector's population management. On this regard, in this manuscript we report expression evidence, at the protein level, of

  17. Detection of Leishmania infantum in naturally infected Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) and Canis familiaris in Misiones, Argentina: the first report of a PCR-RFLP and sequencing-based confirmation assay.

    PubMed

    Acardi, Soraya Alejandra; Liotta, Domingo Javier; Santini, María Soledad; Romagosa, Carlo Mariano; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

    2010-09-01

    In this study, a genotypification of Leishmania was performed using polimerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and sequencing techniques to identify species of Leishmania parasites in phlebotomine sand flies and dogs naturally infected. Between January-February of 2009, CDC light traps were used to collect insect samples from 13 capture sites in the municipality of Posadas, which is located in the province of Misiones of Argentina. Sand flies identified as Lutzomyia longipalpis were grouped into 28 separate pools for molecular biological analysis. Canine samples were taken from lymph node aspirates of two symptomatic stray animals that had been positively diagnosed with canine visceral leishmaniasis. One vector pool of 10 sand flies (1 out of the 28 pools tested) and both of the canine samples tested positively for Leishmania infantum by PCR and RFLP analysis. PCR products were confirmed by sequencing and showed a maximum identity with L. infantum. Given that infection was detected in one out of the 28 pools and that at least one infected insect was infected, it was possible to infer an infection rate at least of 0.47% for Lu. longipalpis among the analyzed samples. These results contribute to incriminate Lu. longipalpis as the vector of L. infantum in the municipality of Posadas, where cases of the disease in humans and dogs have been reported since 2005.

  18. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Gorasia, Dhana G.; Veith, Paul D.; Hanssen, Eric G.; Glew, Michelle D.; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32–36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  19. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System.

    PubMed

    Gorasia, Dhana G; Veith, Paul D; Hanssen, Eric G; Glew, Michelle D; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-08-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32-36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component.

  20. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Maxence S.; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS. PMID:27630829

  1. System design description for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster Skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    The primary purpose of the two 1,000 CFM Exhauster Skids, POR-007-SKID E and POR-008-SKID F, is to provide backup to the waste tank primary ventilation systems for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102, and the AY-102 annulus in the event of a failure during the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 and subsequent transfer of sluiced waste to 241-AY-102. This redundancy is required since both of the tank ventilation systems have been declared as Safety Class systems.

  2. Click-chemistry approach to study mycoloylated proteins: Evidence for PorB and PorC porins mycoloylation in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Issa, Hanane; Huc-Claustre, Emilie; Reddad, Thamila; Bonadé Bottino, Nolwenn; Tropis, Maryelle; Houssin, Christine; Daffé, Mamadou; Bayan, Nicolas; Dautin, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    Protein mycoloylation is a recently identified, new form of protein acylation. This post-translational modification consists in the covalent attachment of mycolic acids residues to serine. Mycolic acids are long chain, α-branched, β-hydroxylated fatty acids that are exclusively found in the cell envelope of Corynebacteriales, a bacterial order that includes important genera such as Mycobacterium, Nocardia or Corynebacterium. So far, only 3 mycoloylated proteins have been identified: PorA, PorH and ProtX from C. glutamicum. Whereas the identity and function of ProtX is unknown, PorH and PorA associate to form a membrane channel, the activity of which is dependent upon PorA mycoloylation. However, the exact role of mycoloylation and the generality of this phenomenon are still unknown. In particular, the identity of other mycoloylated proteins, if any, needs to be determined together with establishing whether such modification occurs in Corynebacteriales genera other than Corynebacterium. Here, we tested whether a metabolic labeling and click-chemistry approach could be used to detect mycoloylated proteins. Using a fatty acid alkyne analogue, we could indeed label PorA, PorH and ProtX and determine ProtX mycoloylation site. Importantly, we also show that two other porins from C. glutamicum, PorB and PorC are mycoloylated.

  3. Click-chemistry approach to study mycoloylated proteins: Evidence for PorB and PorC porins mycoloylation in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Hanane; Huc-Claustre, Emilie; Reddad, Thamila; Bonadé Bottino, Nolwenn; Tropis, Maryelle; Houssin, Christine; Daffé, Mamadou; Bayan, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Protein mycoloylation is a recently identified, new form of protein acylation. This post-translational modification consists in the covalent attachment of mycolic acids residues to serine. Mycolic acids are long chain, α-branched, β-hydroxylated fatty acids that are exclusively found in the cell envelope of Corynebacteriales, a bacterial order that includes important genera such as Mycobacterium, Nocardia or Corynebacterium. So far, only 3 mycoloylated proteins have been identified: PorA, PorH and ProtX from C. glutamicum. Whereas the identity and function of ProtX is unknown, PorH and PorA associate to form a membrane channel, the activity of which is dependent upon PorA mycoloylation. However, the exact role of mycoloylation and the generality of this phenomenon are still unknown. In particular, the identity of other mycoloylated proteins, if any, needs to be determined together with establishing whether such modification occurs in Corynebacteriales genera other than Corynebacterium. Here, we tested whether a metabolic labeling and click-chemistry approach could be used to detect mycoloylated proteins. Using a fatty acid alkyne analogue, we could indeed label PorA, PorH and ProtX and determine ProtX mycoloylation site. Importantly, we also show that two other porins from C. glutamicum, PorB and PorC are mycoloylated. PMID:28199365

  4. Por La Vida intervention model for cancer prevention in Latinas.

    PubMed

    Navarro, A M; Senn, K L; Kaplan, R M; McNicholas, L; Campo, M C; Roppe, B

    1995-01-01

    Our goal was to describe the development and implementation of an intervention on cancer prevention for Latinas in San Diego, Calif. Thirty-six lay community workers ("consejeras") were recruited and trained to conduct educational group sessions. Each consejera recruited approximately 14 peers from the community to participate in the program (total number = 512). Half of the consejeras were randomly assigned to a control group, in which they participated in an equally engaging program entitled "Community Living Skills." Implementation of the intervention was assessed by qualitative and quantitative methods. Preintervention and postintervention self-report information was obtained from project participants on access to health care services, cancer knowledge, preventive measures, and previous cancer-screening examinations. Base-line data suggest that lack of knowledge, costs of cancer-screening tests, and the lack of a regular health care provider are the major obstacles against obtaining cancer-screening tests. Predisposing factors, such as fear and embarrassment, also constitute barriers to getting regular cervical cancer screening. Preliminary analysis indicates that the Por La Vida intervention increases use of cancer-screening tests in comparison to a community living skills control group. Universal access to health care would remove some of the major financial barriers to cancer screening. The Por La Vida program attempts to overcome the substantial barriers by reaching out to low-income Latinas and by providing information regarding the availability, acceptability, and preventive nature of cancer-screening tests.

  5. Compton imaging with the PorGamRays spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judson, D. S.; Boston, A. J.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Cullen, D. M.; Hardie, A.; Harkness, L. J.; Jones, L. L.; Jones, M.; Lazarus, I.; Nolan, P. J.; Pucknell, V.; Rigby, S. V.; Seller, P.; Scraggs, D. P.; Simpson, J.; Slee, M.; Sweeney, A.; PorGamRays Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The PorGamRays project aims to develop a portable gamma-ray detection system with both spectroscopic and imaging capabilities. The system is designed around a stack of thin Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors. The imaging capability utilises the Compton camera principle. Each detector is segmented into 100 pixels which are read out through custom designed Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This device has potential applications in the security, decommissioning and medical fields. This work focuses on the near-field imaging performance of a lab-based demonstrator consisting of two pixelated CZT detectors, each of which is bonded to a NUCAM II ASIC. Measurements have been made with point 133Ba and 57Co sources located ˜35 mm from the surface of the scattering detector. Position resolution of ˜20 mm FWHM in the x and y planes is demonstrated.

  6. Gliding motility and Por secretion system genes are widespread among members of the phylum bacteroidetes.

    PubMed

    McBride, Mark J; Zhu, Yongtao

    2013-01-01

    The phylum Bacteroidetes is large and diverse, with rapid gliding motility and the ability to digest macromolecules associated with many genera and species. Recently, a novel protein secretion system, the Por secretion system (PorSS), was identified in two members of the phylum, the gliding bacterium Flavobacterium johnsoniae and the nonmotile oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. The components of the PorSS are not similar in sequence to those of other well-studied bacterial secretion systems. The F. johnsoniae PorSS genes are a subset of the gliding motility genes, suggesting a role for the secretion system in motility. The F. johnsoniae PorSS is needed for assembly of the gliding motility apparatus and for secretion of a chitinase, and the P. gingivalis PorSS is involved in secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors. Comparative analysis of 37 genomes of members of the phylum Bacteroidetes revealed the widespread occurrence of gliding motility genes and PorSS genes. Genes associated with other bacterial protein secretion systems were less common. The results suggest that gliding motility is more common than previously reported. Microscopic observations confirmed that organisms previously described as nonmotile, including Croceibacter atlanticus, "Gramella forsetii," Paludibacter propionicigenes, Riemerella anatipestifer, and Robiginitalea biformata, exhibit gliding motility. Three genes (gldA, gldF, and gldG) that encode an apparent ATP-binding cassette transporter required for F. johnsoniae gliding were absent from two related gliding bacteria, suggesting that the transporter may not be central to gliding motility.

  7. An investigation of exploitation versus exploration in GBEA optimization of PORS 15 and 16 Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Kaelynn

    2012-01-01

    It was hypothesized that the variations in time to solution are driven by the competing mechanisms of exploration and exploitation.This thesis explores this hypothesis by examining two contrasting problems that embody the hypothesized tradeoff between exploration and exploitation. Plus one recall store (PORS) is an optimization problem based on the idea of a simple calculator with four buttons: plus, one, store, and recall. Integer addition and store are classified as operations, and one and memory recall are classified as terminals. The goal is to arrange a fixed number of keystrokes in a way that maximizes the numerical result. PORS 15 (15 keystrokes) represents the subset of difficult PORS problems and PORS 16 (16 keystrokes) represents the subset of PORS problems that are easiest to optimize. The goal of this work is to examine the tradeoff between exploitation and exploration in graph based evolutionary algorithm (GBEA) optimization. To do this, computational experiments are used to examine how solutions evolve in PORS 15 and 16 problems when solved using GBEAs. The experiment is comprised of three components; the graphs and the population, the evolutionary algorithm rule set, and the example problems. The complete, hypercube, and cycle graphs were used for this experiment. A fixed population size was used.

  8. Crystallographic analysis of Neisseria meningitidis PorB extracellular loops potentially implicated in TLR2 recognition

    PubMed Central

    Kattner, Christof; Toussi, Deana; Zaucha, Jan; Wetzler, Lee M.; Rüppel, Nadine; Zachariae, Ulrich; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    Among all Neisseriae species, N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae are the only human pathogens, causative agents of bacterial meningitis and gonorrhoea, respectively. PorB, a pan-Neisseriae trimeric porin that mediates diffusive transport of essential molecules across the bacterial outer membrane, is also known to activate host innate immunity via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated signaling. The molecular mechanism of PorB binding to TLR2 is not known, but it has been hypothesized that electrostatic interactions contribute to ligand/receptor binding. Strain-specific sequence variability in the surface-exposed loops of PorB which are potentially implicated in TLR2 binding, may explain the difference in TLR2-mediated cell activation in vitro by PorB homologs from the commensal N. lactamica and the pathogen N. meningitidis. Here, we report a comparative structural analysis of PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup B strain 8765 (63% sequence homology with PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup W135) and a mutant in which amino acid substitutions in the extracellular loop 7 lead to significantly reduced TLR2-dependent activity in vitro. We observe that this mutation both alters the loop conformation and causes dramatic changes of electrostatic surface charge, both of which may affect TLR2 recognition and signalling. PMID:24361688

  9. Por Secretion System-Dependent Secretion and Glycosylation of Porphyromonas gingivalis Hemin-Binding Protein 35

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Mikio; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Kondo, Yoshio; Narita, Yuka; Kadowaki, Tomoko; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2011-01-01

    The anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen in severe forms of periodontal disease and refractory periapical perodontitis. We have recently found that P. gingivalis has a novel secretion system named the Por secretion system (PorSS), which is responsible for secretion of major extracellular proteinases, Arg-gingipains (Rgps) and Lys-gingipain. These proteinases contain conserved C-terminal domains (CTDs) in their C-termini. Hemin-binding protein 35 (HBP35), which is one of the outer membrane proteins of P. gingivalis and contributes to its haem utilization, also contains a CTD, suggesting that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS. In this study, immunoblot analysis of P. gingivalis mutants deficient in the PorSS or in the biosynthesis of anionic polysaccharide-lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) revealed that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS and is glycosylated with A-LPS. From deletion analysis with a GFP-CTD[HBP35] green fluorescent protein fusion, the C-terminal 22 amino acid residues of CTD[HBP35] were found to be required for cell surface translocation and glycosylation. The GFP-CTD fusion study also revealed that the CTDs of CPG70, peptidylarginine deiminase, P27 and RgpB play roles in PorSS-dependent translocation and glycosylation. However, CTD-region peptides were not found in samples of glycosylated HBP35 protein by peptide map fingerprinting analysis, and antibodies against CTD-regions peptides did not react with glycosylated HBP35 protein. These results suggest both that the CTD region functions as a recognition signal for the PorSS and that glycosylation of CTD proteins occurs after removal of the CTD region. Rabbits were used for making antisera against bacterial proteins in this study. PMID:21731719

  10. Molecular characterisation of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) isolates from different outbreaks in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Rivera-Benítez, J F; Blomström, A-L; Ramliden, M; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Ramírez-Mendoza, H; Berg, M

    2016-02-01

    Since the report of the initial outbreak of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) infection in pigs, only one full-length genome from 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been characterised. To investigate the overall genetic variation, full-length gene nucleotide sequences of current PorPV isolates were obtained from different clinical cases of infected swine. Genome organisation and sequence analysis of the encoded proteins (NP, P, F, M, HN and L) revealed high sequence conservation of the NP protein and the expression of the P and V proteins in all PorPV isolates. The V protein of one isolate displayed a mutation that has been implicated to antagonise the antiviral immune responses of the host. The M protein indicated a variation in a short region that could affect the electrostatic charge and the interaction with the membrane. One PorPV isolate recovered from the lungs showed a mutation at the cleavage site (HRKKR) of the F protein that could represent an important factor to determine the tissue tropism and pathogenicity of this virus. The HN protein showed high sequence identity through the years (up to 2013). Additionally, a number of sequence motifs of very high amino acid conservation among the PorPV isolates important for polymerase activity of the L protein have been identified. In summary, genetic comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that three different genetic variants of PorPV are currently spreading within the swine population, and a new generation of circulating virus with different characteristics has begun to emerge.

  11. In silico studies of outer membrane of Neisseria meningitidis por a: its expression and immunogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Behrouzi, Ava; Bouzari, Saeid; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Irani, Shiva

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a major causative agent of bacterial septicemia and meningitis in humans. Currently, there are no vaccines to prevent disease caused by strains of N.meningitidis serogroup B. The Class 1 Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) has been named porA which is a cation selective transmembrane protein of 45 KDa that forms trimeric pore in the meningococcal outer membrane. PorA from serogroup B N. meningitidis was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pBAD-gIIIA. Recombinant protein was expressed with arabinose and affinity purified by Ni-NTA agarose, SDS-PAGE and western blotting were performed for protein determination and verification. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified rPorA together with alum adjuvant. Serum antibody responses to serogroups B N.meningitidis were determined by ELISA. Serum IgG response significantly increased in the group immunized with rPorA together with alum adjuvant in comparison with control groups. These results suggest that rPorA can be a potential vaccine candidate for serogroup B N.meningitidis.

  12. In Silico Studies of Outer Membrane of Neisseria Meningitidis Por A: Its Expression and Immunogenic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Behrouzi, Ava; Bouzari, Saeid; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Irani, Shiva

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a major causative agent of bacterial septicemia and meningitis in humans. Currently, there are no vaccines to prevent disease caused by strains of N.meningitidis serogroup B. The Class 1 Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) has been named porA which is a cation selective transmembrane protein of 45 KDa that forms trimeric pore in the meningococcal outer membrane. PorA from serogroup B N. meningitidis was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pBAD-gIIIA. Recombinant protein was expressed with arabinose and affinity purified by Ni-NTA agarose, SDS-PAGE and western blotting were performed for protein determination and verification. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified rPorA together with alum adjuvant. Serum antibody responses to serogroups B N.meningitidis were determined by ELISA. Serum IgG response significantly increased in the group immunized with rPorA together with alum adjuvant in comparison with control groups. These results suggest that rPorA can be a potential vaccine candidate for serogroup B N.meningitidis. PMID:25317403

  13. PorA Represents the Major Cell Wall Channel of the Gram-Positive Bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Costa-Riu, Noelia; Burkovski, Andreas; Krämer, Reinhard; Benz, Roland

    2003-01-01

    The cell wall of the gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum contains a channel (porin) for the passage of hydrophilic solutes. The channel-forming polypeptide PorA is a 45-amino-acid acidic polypeptide with an excess of four negatively charged amino acids, which is encoded by the 138-bp gene porA. porA was deleted from the chromosome of C.glutamicum wild-type strain ATCC 13032 to obtain mutant ATCC 13032ΔporA. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that porA was deleted. Lipid bilayer experiments revealed that PorA was not present in the cell wall of the mutant strain. Searches within the known chromosome of C. glutamicum by using National Center for Biotechnology Information BLAST and reverse transcription-PCR showed that no other PorA-like protein is encoded on the chromosome or is expressed in the deletion strain. The porA deletion strain exhibited slower growth and longer growth times than the C. glutamicum wild-type strain. Experiments with different antibiotics revealed that the susceptibility of the mutant strain was much lower than that of the wild-type C. glutamicum strain. The results presented here suggest that PorA represents a major hydrophilic pathway through the cell wall and that C. glutamicum contains cell wall channels which are not related to PorA. PMID:12896997

  14. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant. PMID:25750999

  15. Variation in the Neisseria lactamica porin, and its relationship to meningococcal PorB.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Julia S; Callaghan, Martin J; Derrick, Jeremy P; Maiden, Martin C J

    2008-05-01

    One potential vaccine strategy in the fight against meningococcal disease involves the exploitation of outer-membrane components of Neisseria lactamica, a commensal bacterium closely related to the meningococcus, Neisseria meningitidis. Although N. lactamica shares many surface structures with the meningococcus, little is known about the antigenic diversity of this commensal bacterium or the antigenic relationships between N. lactamica and N. meningitidis. Here, the N. lactamica porin protein (Por) was examined and compared to the related PorB antigens of N. meningitidis, to investigate potential involvement in anti-meningococcal immunity. Relationships among porin sequences were determined using distance-based methods and F(ST), and maximum-likelihood analyses were used to compare the selection pressures acting on the encoded proteins. These analyses demonstrated that the N. lactamica porin was less diverse than meningococcal PorB and although it was subject to positive selection, this was not as strong as the positive selection pressures acting on the meningococcal porin. In addition, the N. lactamica porin gene sequences and the protein sequences of the loop regions predicted to be exposed to the human immune system were dissimilar to the corresponding sequences in the meningococcus. This suggests that N. lactamica Por, contrary to previous suggestions, may have limited involvement in the development of natural immunity to meningococcal disease and might not be effective as a meningococcal vaccine component.

  16. Studies on the Feeding Habits of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) Populations from Endemic Areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, Margarete Martins dos Santos; Duarte, Rosemere; Miranda, José Carlos; Caranha, Lindenbergh; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify potential blood feeding sources of L. (L.) longipalpis specimens from populations in Northeastern Brazil, endemic areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL) and its correlation with the transmission of L. (L.) i. chagasi. The ELISA technique was applied using bird, dog, goat, opossum, equine, feline, human, sheep, and rodent antisera to analyze 609 females, resulting in an overall positivity of 60%. In all municipalities, females showed higher positivity for bird followed by dog antiserum and sand fly specimens were also positive for equine, feline, human, sheep, goat, opossum, and rodent antisera. The finding for 17 combinations of two or three types of blood in some females corroborates the opportunistic habit of this sand fly species. The results demonstrating the association between L. (L.) longipalpis and opossum suggest the need for further evaluation of the real role of this synanthropic mammal in the eco-epidemiology of AVL. PMID:22315621

  17. Detección y estudio mediante Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser de radicales libres formados por Disociación Multifotónica Infrarroja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M.; Díaz, L.; Torresano, J. A.; Rubio, L.; Samoudi, B.

    Una de las principales aplicaciones actuales de los procesos de disociación multifotónica inducidos por radiación láser infrarroja (DMI) es la producción de radiales libres, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades cinéticas y espectroscópicas. La disociación de moléculas poliatómicas en el IR con láseres de CO2 tiene lugar desde la superficie de energía molecular mas baja y conduce generalmente a la formación de fragmentos en el estado electrónico fundamental, con diversos grados de excitación vibracional. En el Grupo de Procesos Multifotónicos del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia del C.S.I.C. hemos puesto a punto la técnica de Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser (LIF) para la detección y análisis en tiempo real de los fragmentos producidos en la DMI inducida mediante uno o dos campos láseres de diferentes longitudes de onda. Objetivos de nuestro trabajo han sido el estudio de los canales de disociación mayoritarios y de las especies transitoria producidas, así como de la distribución de energía interna con que éstas son generadas. En particular hemos detectado mediante LIF las especies: C2, CF, CH, SiH2, CF2, CH2, SiHCl, y CF3 a partir de la disociación de, entre otras, las siguientes moléculas: C2H3Br, C3F6, C4H8Si, C2H5ClSi y CH5ClSi. En este trabajo presentamos algunos de los resultados obtenidos mediante el estudio por LIF de estos radicales: estudio temporal de la señal LIF obtenida con determinación de tiempos de vida, espectros de excitación y fluorescencia, temperaturas vibracionales de formación, variación de la intensidad LIF con el tiempo de retraso entre los láseres de disociación y prueba, etc.

  18. Methodology for obtaining stakeholder assessments of obesity policy options in the PorGrow project.

    PubMed

    Stirling, A; Lobstein, T; Millstone, E

    2007-05-01

    The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project (PorGrow) study provided a unique opportunity to develop a large-scale application of a semi-quantitative technique for exploring interviewees' views on options to tackle obesity, using multi-criteria mapping. This 'heuristic' approach utilizes the advantages of a structured interviews framework by predefining a set of options for appraisal, while leaving interviewees free to select their own criteria for making their judgements. Additional information can be gleaned from the interview transcripts and related materials to set the appraisals in their policy context, and allowing interviewees to express their views on the options presented and their own appraisals. The PorGrow study team agreed a predefined set of 20 options for appraisal, and interviewed sets of stakeholders representing more than 20 aspects of policy development in each of the nine participating countries. The details of the methodology adopted are set out in this paper.

  19. Improved purification of native meningococcal porin PorB and studies on its structure/function.

    PubMed

    Massari, Paola; King, Carol A; MacLeod, Heather; Wetzler, Lee M

    2005-12-01

    The outer membrane protein PorB of Neisseria meningitidis is a pore-forming protein which has various effects on eukaryotic cells. It has been shown to (1) up-regulate the surface expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD86 and of MHC class II (which are TLR2/MyD88 dependent and related to the porin's immune-potentiating ability), (2) be involved in prevention of apoptosis by modulating the mitochondrial membrane potential, and (3) form pores in eukaryotic cells. As an outer membrane protein, its native trimeric form isolation is complicated by its insoluble nature, requiring the presence of detergent throughout the whole procedure, and by its tight association with other outer membrane components, such as neisserial LOS or lipoproteins. In this study, an improved chromatographic purification method to obtain an homogeneous product free of endotoxin and lipoprotein is described, without loss of any of the above-mentioned properties of the porin. Furthermore, we have investigated the requirement of the native trimeric structure for the porin's activity. Inactivation of functional PorB trimers into non-functional monomers was achieved by incubation on ice. Thus, routine long- and medium-term storage at low temperature may be a cause of porin inactivation.

  20. Diagnóstico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA

    PubMed Central

    González-Valcárcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un síndrome característico de evolución multifásica y diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro clínico típico, pero que inicialmente señaló otras etiologías. Discusión La afectación frecuente de pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagnósticas; las más frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiquiátricos y el síndrome neuroléptico maligno. Varios síndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pediátricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones autonómicas. La caracterización clínica e inmunológica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificación de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis. PMID:20964986

  1. Effect of SPM-based cleaning POR on EUV mask performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaehyuck; Lee, Han-shin; Yoon, Jinsang; Shimomura, Takeya; Friz, Alex; Montgomery, Cecilia; Ma, Andy; Goodwin, Frank; Kang, Daehyuk; Chung, Paul; Shin, Inkyun; Cho, H.

    2011-11-01

    EUV masks include many different layers of various materials rarely used in optical masks, and each layer of material has a particular role in enhancing the performance of EUV lithography. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how the mask quality and patterning performance can change during mask fabrication, EUV exposure, maintenance cleaning, shipping, or storage. The fact that a pellicle is not used to protect the mask surface in EUV lithography suggests that EUV masks may have to undergo more cleaning cycles during their lifetime. More frequent cleaning, combined with the adoption of new materials for EUV masks, necessitates that mask manufacturers closely examine the performance change of EUV masks during cleaning process. We have investigated EUV mask quality and patterning performance during 30 cycles of Samsung's EUV mask SPM-based cleaning and 20 cycles of SEMATECH ADT exposure. We have observed that the quality and patterning performance of EUV masks does not significantly change during these processes except mask pattern CD change. To resolve this issue, we have developed an acid-free cleaning POR and substantially improved EUV mask film loss compared to the SPM-based cleaning POR.

  2. Multiple active site residues are important for photochemical efficiency in the light-activated enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR).

    PubMed

    Menon, Binuraj R K; Hardman, Samantha J O; Scrutton, Nigel S; Heyes, Derren J

    2016-08-01

    Protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyzes the light-driven reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide), an essential, regulatory step in chlorophyll biosynthesis. The unique requirement of the enzyme for light has provided the opportunity to investigate how light energy can be harnessed to power biological catalysis and enzyme dynamics. Excited state interactions between the Pchlide molecule and the protein are known to drive the subsequent reaction chemistry. However, the structural features of POR and active site residues that are important for photochemistry and catalysis are currently unknown, because there is no crystal structure for POR. Here, we have used static and time-resolved spectroscopic measurements of a number of active site variants to study the role of a number of residues, which are located in the proposed NADPH/Pchlide binding site based on previous homology models, in the reaction mechanism of POR. Our findings, which are interpreted in the context of a new improved structural model, have identified several residues that are predicted to interact with the coenzyme or substrate. Several of the POR variants have a profound effect on the photochemistry, suggesting that multiple residues are important in stabilizing the excited state required for catalysis. Our work offers insight into how the POR active site geometry is finely tuned by multiple active site residues to support enzyme-mediated photochemistry and reduction of Pchlide, both of which are crucial to the existence of life on Earth.

  3. Intermitência alfvênica gerada por caos na atmosfera solar e no vento solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempel, E. L.; Chian, A. C.-L.; Macau, E. E. N.; Rosa, R. R.

    2003-08-01

    Dados medidos no vento solar rápido proveniente dos buracos coronais revelam que os plasmas no meio interplanetário são dominados por flutuações Alfvênicas, caracterizadas por uma alta correlação entre as variações do campo magnético e da velocidade do plasma. As flutuações exibem muitas características esperadas em turbulência magneto-hidrodinâmica totalmente desenvolvida, tais como intermitência e espectros contínuos. Contudo, os mecanismos responsáveis pela evolução de turbulência Alfvênica intermitente não são completamente compreendidos. Neste trabalho a teoria de caos é usada para explicar como sistemas Alfvênicos, modelados pela equação Schrödinger não-linear derivativa e pela equação Kuramoto-Sivashinsky, podem se tornar fortemente caóticos à medida em que parâmetros do plasma são variados. Pequenas perturbações no parâmetro de dissipação podem fazer com que o sistema mude bruscamente de um regime periódico, ou fracamente caótico, para um regime fortemente caótico. As séries temporais das flutuações do campo magnético nos regimes fortemente caóticos exibem comportamento intermitente, em que fases laminares ou fracamente caóticas são interrompidas por fortes estouros caóticos. É mostrado que o regime fortemente caótico é atingido quando as soluções periódicas ou fracamente caóticas globalmente estáveis interagem com soluções do sistema que são fortemente caóticas, mas globalmente instáveis. Estas soluções globalmente instáveis são conjuntos caóticos não-atrativos conhecidos como selas caóticas, e são responsáveis pelos fortes estouros nos regimes intermitentes. Selas caóticas têm sido detectadas experimentalmente em uma grande variedade de sistemas, sendo provável que elas desempenhem um papel importante na turbulência intermitente observada em plasmas espaciais.

  4. Reconstrução tridimensional de arcos magnéticos por tomografia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simões, P. J. A.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    Uma explosão solar é uma variação súbita do brilho que ocorre nas regiões ativas da atmosfera solar. Estas regiões são constituídas por um plasma magnetizado com intensa indução magnética e em cenários bem complexos como visto recentemente através de experimentos embarcados em satélites operando instrumentos em raios X moles e ultra-violeta distante. A energia magnética, que pode ser armazenada por um período de horas até dias em configurações magnéticas estressadas, é subitamente lançada na atmosfera solar e transferida para partículas como elétrons, prótons e núcleos pesados, que são acelerados e/ou aquecidos, produzindo radiação eletromagnética. A proposta final deste projeto é determinar as características espaciais de alta resolução da emissão e polarização girossincrotrônica de explosões solares em ambientes complexos de campos magnéticos. Os recentes resultados da emissão difusa em EUV apresentado pelos satélites TRACE e SOHO dos arcos magnéticos conectando as diferentes polaridades magnéticas sobre as regiões ativas possibilitam novas abordagens sobre o papel do campo magnético na emissão em rádio. Nesta etapa apresentamos os resultados da reconstrução da geometria tridimensional das linhas de força destes arcos utilizando técnicas tomográficas, a partir de imagens de alta resolução espacial obtidas pelo instrumento EIT (Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope), além da modelagem das induções magnéticas por um campo dipolar e as densidades de partículas aceleradas. Utilizamos para a reconstrução geométrica, imagens tomadas em vários ângulos dos arcos devido à rotacão solar. Com estes resultados, daremos continuidade ao projeto, com os cálculos da transferência radiativa nos modos ordinário e extraordinário de propagação da radiação girossincrotrônica de explosões solares.

  5. Geometry sensing through POR1 regulates Rac1 activity controlling early osteoblast differentiation in response to nanofiber diameter.

    PubMed

    Higgins, A M; Banik, B L; Brown, J L

    2015-02-01

    Bone grafting procedures in the United States rely heavily upon autografts and allografts, which are donor-dependent, cause donor site pain, and can transmit disease. Synthetic bone grafts can reduce these risks; however, synthetics lack the bone differentiating (osteoinductive) abilities of auto- and allografts. Achieving innate osteoinductive properties of synthetics through surface modifications is currently under investigation. This study focuses on nanofibers, with emphasis on how fiber diameter and the potential curvature sensor POR1 affect the activation of the signaling molecules Rac1 and Arf1, and leading to expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an osteoinductive marker. Diameters of 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 μm were compared against a flat control. The highest level of Rac1 activation was achieved on the smallest fibers (0.1 μm), a trend that was lost in POR1 knockdowns. This supports the hypothesis that on small nanofibers, POR1 favorably binds to highly curved cell membranes, which allows Rac1 to subsequently dissociate and activate. When the curvature is insufficient to bind POR1, POR1 binds to inactive Rac1 and competitively inhibits its activation. Arf1 activation followed an opposite trend, with the largest nanofibers exhibiting the highest activity. This trend reinforces the known interaction between Rac1 and Arf1 through the GIT-PIX complex, an Arf1 GAP and Rac1 GEF, respectively. Large, (1.0 μm), nanofibers demonstrated the highest ALP activity, indicating that ALP expression is inversely dependent on Rac1 activation. Knockdown of POR1 resulted in increased ALP activity across the substrates but without regard to the curvature sensing trend seen previously. Thus, POR1 senses curvature and increases Rac1 activity, which negatively regulates bone differentiation.

  6. Lutzomyia Longipalpis is a Species Complex: Genetic Divergence and Interspecific Hybrid Sterility Among Three Populations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    isolation among populations of a species lion people are considered at risk. and almost with low vagility can promote genetic divergence 200,000 cases occur...unstermann ILE. 1994- 1 nexpected geneticcon- 14. Lanzaro GC. Narang SK. Seawiight JA. 1990g. sequences of colonization and inbreeding : allo

  7. SALO, a novel classical pathway complement inhibitor from saliva of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Viviana P; Fazito Vale, Vladimir; Pangburn, Michael K; Abdeladhim, Maha; Mendes-Sousa, Antonio Ferreira; Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V; Rasouli, Manoochehr; Brandt, Elizabeth A; Meneses, Claudio; Lima, Kolyvan Ferreira; Nascimento Araújo, Ricardo; Pereira, Marcos Horácio; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Oliveira, Fabiano; Kamhawi, Shaden; Ribeiro, Jose M C; Gontijo, Nelder F; Collin, Nicolas; Valenzuela, Jesus G

    2016-01-13

    Blood-feeding insects inject potent salivary components including complement inhibitors into their host's skin to acquire a blood meal. Sand fly saliva was shown to inhibit the classical pathway of complement; however, the molecular identity of the inhibitor remains unknown. Here, we identified SALO as the classical pathway complement inhibitor. SALO, an 11 kDa protein, has no homology to proteins of any other organism apart from New World sand flies. rSALO anti-complement activity has the same chromatographic properties as the Lu. longipalpis salivary gland homogenate (SGH)counterparts and anti-rSALO antibodies blocked the classical pathway complement activity of rSALO and SGH. Both rSALO and SGH inhibited C4b deposition and cleavage of C4. rSALO, however, did not inhibit the protease activity of C1s nor the enzymatic activity of factor Xa, uPA, thrombin, kallikrein, trypsin and plasmin. Importantly, rSALO did not inhibit the alternative or the lectin pathway of complement. In conclusion our data shows that SALO is a specific classical pathway complement inhibitor present in the saliva of Lu. longipalpis. Importantly, due to its small size and specificity, SALO may offer a therapeutic alternative for complement classical pathway-mediated pathogenic effects in human diseases.

  8. Lutzomyia longipalpis Presence and Abundance Distribution at Different Micro-spatial Scales in an Urban Scenario.

    PubMed

    Santini, María Soledad; Utgés, María Eugenia; Berrozpe, Pablo; Manteca Acosta, Mariana; Casas, Natalia; Heuer, Paola; Salomón, O Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The principal objective of this study was to assess a modeling approach to Lu. longipalpis distribution in an urban scenario, discriminating micro-scale landscape variables at microhabitat and macrohabitat scales and the presence from the abundance of the vector. For this objective, we studied vectors and domestic reservoirs and evaluated different environmental variables simultaneously, so we constructed a set of 13 models to account for micro-habitats, macro-habitats and mixed-habitats. We captured a total of 853 sandflies, of which 98.35% were Lu. longipalpis. We sampled a total of 197 dogs; 177 of which were associated with households where insects were sampled. Positive rK39 dogs represented 16.75% of the total, of which 47% were asymptomatic. Distance to the border of the city and high to medium density vegetation cover ended to be the explanatory variables, all positive, for the presence of sandflies in the city. All variables in the abundance model ended to be explanatory, trees around the trap, distance to the stream and its quadratic, being the last one the only one with negative coefficient indicating that the maximum abundance was associated with medium values of distance to the stream. The spatial distribution of dogs infected with L. infantum showed a heterogeneous pattern throughout the city; however, we could not confirm an association of the distribution with the variables assessed. In relation to Lu. longipalpis distribution, the strategy to discriminate the micro-spatial scales at which the environmental variables were recorded allowed us to associate presence with macrohabitat variables and abundance with microhabitat and macrohabitat variables. Based on the variables associated with Lu. longipalpis, the model will be validated in other cities and environmental surveillance, and control interventions will be proposed and evaluated in the microscale level and integrated with socio-cultural approaches and programmatic and village (mesoscale) strategies.

  9. Genetic Structure of Lutzomyia longipalpis Populations in Mato Grosso Do Sul, Brazil, Based on Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Mirella F. C.; Ribolla, Paulo E. M.; Alonso, Diego P.; Andrade-Filho, José D.; Casaril, Aline E.; Ferreira, Alda M. T.; Fernandes, Carlos E. S.; Brazil, Reginaldo P.; Oliveira, Alessandra G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Lutzomyialongipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the major vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and thus plays a crucial role in the epidemiology of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). This vector is the best studied species of sand fly in the Neotropical region. Many studies claim that this vector is in fact a species complex; however there is still no consensus regarding the number of species that belong into this complex or the geographical distribution of sibling species. The aim of the present study was to analyze the genetic relationships within Lu. longipalpis populations in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected 30 Lu. longipalpis (15 females and 15 males) from five localities (Campo Grande, Três Lagoas, Aquidauana, Miranda and Bonito) and 30 Lu. Cruzi from Corumbá, totaling 180 sandflies from MS, and 30 Lu. longipalpis from Estrela de Alagoas, state of Alagoas (AL), Northeast Brazil. We show that eight previously described microsatellite loci were sufficient in distinguishing Lu. longipalpis from Lu. Cruzi, which is a closely related species, and in differentiating between Lu. longipalpis collected in MS versus Estrela de Alagoas. Analyses of the genotypes revealed introgression between sympatric Lu. longipalpis and Lu. Cruzi. Conclusions/Significance Our findings support the hypothesis of cryptic species within the Lu. longipalpis complex. Furthermore, our data revealed introgression between Lu. longipalpis and Lu. cruzi. This phenomenon should be further investigated to determine the level and incidence of hybridization between these two species. We also demonstrated that microsatellite markers are a powerful tool for differentiating sand fly populations and species. The present study has elucidated the population structure of Lu. longipalpis in MS and, by extension, the Neotropical Lu. longipalpis complex itself. PMID:24066129

  10. SALO, a novel classical pathway complement inhibitor from saliva of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Viviana P.; Fazito Vale, Vladimir; Pangburn, Michael K.; Abdeladhim, Maha; Ferreira Mendes-Sousa, Antonio; Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V.; Rasouli, Manoochehr; Brandt, Elizabeth A.; Meneses, Claudio; Lima, Kolyvan Ferreira; Nascimento Araújo, Ricardo; Horácio Pereira, Marcos; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Oliveira, Fabiano; Kamhawi, Shaden; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Gontijo, Nelder F.; Collin, Nicolas; Valenzuela, Jesus G.

    2016-01-01

    Blood-feeding insects inject potent salivary components including complement inhibitors into their host’s skin to acquire a blood meal. Sand fly saliva was shown to inhibit the classical pathway of complement; however, the molecular identity of the inhibitor remains unknown. Here, we identified SALO as the classical pathway complement inhibitor. SALO, an 11 kDa protein, has no homology to proteins of any other organism apart from New World sand flies. rSALO anti-complement activity has the same chromatographic properties as the Lu. longipalpis salivary gland homogenate (SGH)counterparts and anti-rSALO antibodies blocked the classical pathway complement activity of rSALO and SGH. Both rSALO and SGH inhibited C4b deposition and cleavage of C4. rSALO, however, did not inhibit the protease activity of C1s nor the enzymatic activity of factor Xa, uPA, thrombin, kallikrein, trypsin and plasmin. Importantly, rSALO did not inhibit the alternative or the lectin pathway of complement. In conclusion our data shows that SALO is a specific classical pathway complement inhibitor present in the saliva of Lu. longipalpis. Importantly, due to its small size and specificity, SALO may offer a therapeutic alternative for complement classical pathway-mediated pathogenic effects in human diseases. PMID:26758086

  11. Lutzomyia longipalpis Presence and Abundance Distribution at Different Micro-spatial Scales in an Urban Scenario

    PubMed Central

    Santini, María Soledad; Utgés, María Eugenia; Berrozpe, Pablo; Manteca Acosta, Mariana; Casas, Natalia; Heuer, Paola; Salomón, O. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The principal objective of this study was to assess a modeling approach to Lu. longipalpis distribution in an urban scenario, discriminating micro-scale landscape variables at microhabitat and macrohabitat scales and the presence from the abundance of the vector. For this objective, we studied vectors and domestic reservoirs and evaluated different environmental variables simultaneously, so we constructed a set of 13 models to account for micro-habitats, macro-habitats and mixed-habitats. We captured a total of 853 sandflies, of which 98.35% were Lu. longipalpis. We sampled a total of 197 dogs; 177 of which were associated with households where insects were sampled. Positive rK39 dogs represented 16.75% of the total, of which 47% were asymptomatic. Distance to the border of the city and high to medium density vegetation cover ended to be the explanatory variables, all positive, for the presence of sandflies in the city. All variables in the abundance model ended to be explanatory, trees around the trap, distance to the stream and its quadratic, being the last one the only one with negative coefficient indicating that the maximum abundance was associated with medium values of distance to the stream. The spatial distribution of dogs infected with L. infantum showed a heterogeneous pattern throughout the city; however, we could not confirm an association of the distribution with the variables assessed. In relation to Lu. longipalpis distribution, the strategy to discriminate the micro-spatial scales at which the environmental variables were recorded allowed us to associate presence with macrohabitat variables and abundance with microhabitat and macrohabitat variables. Based on the variables associated with Lu. longipalpis, the model will be validated in other cities and environmental surveillance, and control interventions will be proposed and evaluated in the microscale level and integrated with socio-cultural approaches and programmatic and village (mesoscale) strategies. PMID:26274318

  12. Bacterial Infection and Immune Responses in Lutzomyia longipalpis Sand Fly Larvae Midgut

    PubMed Central

    Heerman, Matthew; Weng, Ju-Lin; Hurwitz, Ivy; Durvasula, Ravi; Ramalho-Ortigao, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The midgut microbial community in insect vectors of disease is crucial for an effective immune response against infection with various human and animal pathogens. Depending on the aspects of their development, insects can acquire microbes present in soil, water, and plants. Sand flies are major vectors of leishmaniasis, and shown to harbor a wide variety of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Sand fly larval stages acquire microorganisms from the soil, and the abundance and distribution of these microorganisms may vary depending on the sand fly species or the breeding site. Here, we assess the distribution of two bacteria commonly found within the gut of sand flies, Pantoea agglomerans and Bacillus subtilis. We demonstrate that these bacteria are able to differentially infect the larval digestive tract, and regulate the immune response in sand fly larvae. Moreover, bacterial distribution, and likely the ability to colonize the gut, is driven, at least in part, by a gradient of pH present in the gut. PMID:26154607

  13. Using the PORS Problems to Examine Evolutionary Optimization of Multiscale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, Zachary; Molian, Vaelan; Bryden, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Nearly all systems of practical interest are composed of parts assembled across multiple scales. For example, an agrodynamic system is composed of flora and fauna on one scale; soil types, slope, and water runoff on another scale; and management practice and yield on another scale. Or consider an advanced coal-fired power plant: combustion and pollutant formation occurs on one scale, the plant components on another scale, and the overall performance of the power system is measured on another. In spite of this, there are few practical tools for the optimization of multiscale systems. This paper examines multiscale optimization of systems composed of discrete elements using the plus-one-recall-store (PORS) problem as a test case or study problem for multiscale systems. From this study, it is found that by recognizing the constraints and patterns present in discrete multiscale systems, the solution time can be significantly reduced and much more complex problems can be optimized.

  14. jPOR: An ImageJ macro to quantify total optical porosity from blue-stained thin sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, Clayton; Jerram, Dougal A.

    2011-11-01

    A fast and effective method has been developed to measure total optical porosity (TOP) of blue resin-impregnated thin sections. This utilises a macro file (jPOR.txt) for ImageJ, which can be used on digital photomicrographs of thin sections. The method requires no specialised scientific equipment and can be run entirely using free to download software. Digital images are acquired from blue resin-impregnated thin sections using a conventional film scanner in the present study, though the technique can be applied to any high resolution colour digital acquired by different means (e.g., flat bed scanning, digital capture). Images are preprocessed using a newly developed custom 8-bit palette and analysed for porosity in ImageJ using the simple to use jPOR macro. Our method rapidly calculates TOP for batches of images with or without the option of user adjustment. Results are compared with conventional methods (e.g., to point counting), and tested with several users to estimate any user variability. jPOR provided comparable results to more time-consuming point counting, but with significantly less "counting error" and less interoperator variability than published point counting studies. The jPOR macro has been integrated into a macro tool set that can be configured to be run on ImageJ start up.

  15. [Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD, students at Budapest and Prague Faculties of Medicine].

    PubMed

    Mydlík, M; Derzsiová, K

    2010-11-01

    Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD were contemporaries, both born in 1899, one in Zvolen, the other in Dombovar, at the time of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Prof. Por attended the Faculty of Medicine in Budapest from 1918 to 1920, and Prof. Klopstock studied at the same place between 1917 and 1919. From 1920 until graduation on 6th February 1926, Prof. Por continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. Prof. Klopstock had to interrupt his studies in Budapest due to pulmonary tuberculosis; he received treatment at Tatranske Matliare where he befriended Franz Kafka. Later, upon Kafka's encouragement, he changed institutions and continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, where he graduated the first great go. It is very likely that, during their studies in Budapest and Prague, both professors met repeatedly, even though their life paths later separated. Following his graduation, Prof. Por practiced as an internist in Prague, later in Slovakia, and from 1945 in Kosice. In 1961, he was awarded the title of university professor of internal medicine at the Faculty of Medicine, Pavol Jozef Safarik University in Kosice, where he practiced until his death in 1980. Prof. Klopstock continued his studies in Kiel and Berlin. After his graduation in 1933, he practiced in Berlin as a surgeon and in 1938 left for USA. In 1962, he was awarded the title of university professor of pulmonary surgery in NewYork, where he died in 1972.

  16. Unidas por la Vida (United for Life): implementing a culturally-tailored, community-based, family-oriented lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Dara H; Biegler, Kelly A; Peyreda, Margarita; Kilgore, David; Dow, Emily; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

    2013-01-01

    Unidas por la Vida, a behavioral weight-loss program, was developed for use among low-income, Mexican-American women with diabetes and their overweight/obese adult daughters. The program leverages community resources in a partnership between primary care and community-based organizations. This paper describes the program's implementation, lessons learned, and implications for sustainability.

  17. Global Microlending in Education Reform: Enseñá Por Argentina and the Neoliberalization of the Grassroots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the workings and underlying assumptions behind Enseñá por Argentina (Teach for Argentina), one specific program that takes part in the larger and expanding network of Teach for All, by thinking about the ways in which a global push for redefining teaching and teacher education encounters local characteristics and histories,…

  18. Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel

    Los generadores de calentamiento por induccion son puentes inversores con carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento por induccion: La corriente por la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido por la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar por debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, con la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control por variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la

  19. The amino acid sequence of Neisseria lactamica PorB surface-exposed loops influences Toll-like receptor 2-dependent cell activation.

    PubMed

    Toussi, Deana N; Carraway, Margaretha; Wetzler, Lee M; Lewis, Lisa A; Liu, Xiuping; Massari, Paola

    2012-10-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a major role in host mucosal and systemic defense mechanisms by recognizing a diverse array of conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). TLR2, with TLR1 and TLR6, recognizes structurally diverse bacterial products such as lipidated factors (lipoproteins and peptidoglycans) and nonlipidated proteins, i.e., bacterial porins. PorB is a pan-neisserial porin expressed regardless of organisms' pathogenicity. However, commensal Neisseria lactamica organisms and purified N. lactamica PorB (published elsewhere as Nlac PorB) induce TLR2-dependent proinflammatory responses of lower magnitude than N. meningitidis organisms and N. meningitidis PorB (published elsewhere as Nme PorB). Both PorB types bind to TLR2 in vitro but with different apparent specificities. The structural and molecular details of PorB-TLR2 interaction are only beginning to be unraveled and may be due to electrostatic attraction. PorB molecules have significant strain-specific sequence variability within surface-exposed regions (loops) putatively involved in TLR2 interaction. By constructing chimeric recombinant PorB loop mutants in which surface-exposed loop residues have been switched between N. lactamica PorB and N. meningitidis PorB, we identified residues in loop 5 and loop 7 that influence TLR2-dependent cell activation using HEK cells and BEAS-2B cells. These loops are not uniquely responsible for PorB interaction with TLR2, but NF-κB and MAP kinases signaling downstream of TLR2 recognition are likely influenced by a hypothetical "TLR2-binding signature" within the sequence of PorB surface-exposed loops. Consistent with the effect of purified PorB in vitro, a chimeric N. meningitidis strain expressing N. lactamica PorB induces lower levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) secretion than wild-type N. meningitidis, suggesting a role for PorB in induction of host cell activation by whole bacteria.

  20. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  1. Prevalencia y tamizaje del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad en Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicholas T.; Schuler, Jovita; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J.; Chavira, Denise; Bagnarello, Monica; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Resumen La investigación tuvo como propósito estimar la prevalencia del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH) en Costa Rica y determinar si la versión en español del cuestionario Swanson Nolan and Pelham Scale IV (SNAP-IV) es un instrumento de tamizaje útil en una población de niños y niñas escolares costarricenses. El instrumento fue entregado a padres y maestros de 425 niños entre 5 y 13 años de edad (promedio = 8.8). Todos fueron evaluados con el instrumento Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham Scale (SKAMP). Su diagnóstico fue confirmado con una entrevista clínica. La sensibilidad y la especificidad del SNAP-IV fueron evaluadas como predictores de criterios de diagnóstico según el DSM-IV. La prevalencia puntual en la muestra del TDAH fue del 5%. El tamizaje más preciso lo hizo el SNAP-IV completado por el maestro en un corte de 20%, con una sensibilidad de 96% y una especificidad de un 82%. La sensibilidad de los instrumentos completados por los padres fue más baja que aquella de los maestros. El SNAP-IV completado por las maestras con un corte aislando el 20% de los mayores puntajes categorizó correctamente a un 87% de los sujetos. PMID:22432094

  2. Racism in digital era: Development and initial validation of the Perceived Online Racism Scale (PORS v1.0).

    PubMed

    Keum, Brian TaeHyuk; Miller, Matthew J

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop the Perceived Online Racism Scale (PORS) to assess perceived online racist interpersonal interactions and exposure to online racist content among people of color. Items were developed through a multistage process involving a comprehensive literature review, focus-groups, qualitative data collection, and survey of online racism experiences. Based on a sample of 1,023 racial minority participants, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a 30-item bifactor model accounted by the general factor and the following 3 specific factors: (a) personal experience of racial cyber-aggression, (b) vicarious exposure to racial cyber-aggression, and (c) online-mediated exposure to racist reality. The PORS demonstrated measurement invariance across racial/ethnic groups in our sample. Internal reliability estimates for the total and subscale scores of the PORS were above .88 and the 4-week test-retest reliability was adequate. Limitations and future directions for research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Chlorophyll Synthesis in a Deetiolated (det340) Mutant of Arabidopsis without NADPH-Protochlorophyllide (PChlide) Oxidoreductase (POR) A and Photoactive PChlide-F655.

    PubMed Central

    Lebedev, N.; Van Cleve, B.; Armstrong, G.; Apel, K.

    1995-01-01

    Chlorophyll (Chl) synthesis in Arabidopsis is controlled by two light-dependent NADPH-protochlorophyllide (PChlide) oxidoreductases (PORs), one (POR A) that is active transiently in etiolated seedlings at the beginning of illumination and another (POR B) that also operates in green plants. The function of these two enzymes during the light-induced greening of dark-grown seedlings has been studied in the wild type and a deetiolated (det340) mutant of Arabidopsis. One of the consequences of the det mutation is that POR A is constitutively down-regulated, and therefore, synthesis of the POR A enzyme is shut off. When grown in the dark, the det340 mutant lacks POR A and the photoactive PChlide-F655 species but maintains the second PChlide reductase, POR B. Previously, photoactive PChlide-F655 has often been considered to be the only PChlide form that leads to Chl formation. Despite its deficiency in POR A and photoactive PChlide-F655, the det340 mutant is able to green when placed in the light. Chl accumulation, however, proceeds abnormally. At the beginning of illumination, seedlings of det340 mutants are extremely susceptible to photooxidative damage and accumulate Chl only at extremely low light intensities. They form core complexes of photosystems I and II but are almost completely devoid of light-harvesting structures. The results of this study demonstrate that in addition to the route of Chl synthesis that has been studied extensively in illuminated dark-grown wild-type plants, a second branch of Chl synthesis exists that is driven by POR B and does not require POR A. PMID:12242369

  4. The PorB porin from commensal Neisseria lactamica induces Th1 and Th2 immune responses to ovalbumin in mice and is a potential immune adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuping; Wetzler, Lee M; Massari, Paola

    2008-02-06

    Porins from pathogenic Neisseriae are among several bacterial products with immune adjuvant activity. Neisseria meningitidis (Nme) PorB, has been shown to induce immune cells activation in a TLR2-dependent manner and acts as a vaccine immune adjuvant. The PorB porin from Neisseria lactamica (Nlac), a common nasopharyngeal commensal, shares significant structural and functional similarities with Nme PorB. In this work we ask whether the immune adjuvant ability of porins from pathogenic Neisserial strains is a characteristic shared with porins from non-pathogenic Neisserial species or whether it is unique for bacterial products derived from microorganisms capable of inducing inflammation and disease. We evaluated the potential immune adjuvant effect of Nlac PorB in mice using ovalbumin (OVA) as a prototype antigen. Immunization with Nlac PorB/OVA induced high OVA-specific IgG and IgM titers compared to OVA alone, similar to other adjuvants such as Nme PorB and alum. High titers of IgG1 and IgG2b were detected as well as production of IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 and INF-gamma in response to Nlac PorB, consistent with induction of both a Th1-type and a Th2-type immune response. OVA-specific proliferation was also determined in splenocytes from Nlac PorB/OVA-immunized mice. In addition, B cell activation in vitro and cytokine production in response to Nlac PorB was found to be mediated by TLR2, in a similar manner to Nme PorB.

  5. CYP2C9*2 allele increases risk for hypoglycemia in POR*1/*1 type 2 diabetic patients treated with sulfonylureas.

    PubMed

    Ragia, G; Tavridou, A; Elens, L; Van Schaik, R H N; Manolopoulos, V G

    2014-01-01

    It is previously shown that carriers of the defective allele CYP2C9*3 that leads to impaired sulfonylurea metabolism are at increased sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycemia risk due to diminished drug metabolism, whereas no effect of CYP2C9*2 allele was found. Recently, a polymorphism in P450 oxidoreductase (POR) gene, assigned as POR*28 allele, was associated with increased CYP2C9 activity. The aim of this study was to assess i) the effect of POR*28 allele on sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycemia risk and ii) the association of CYP2C9*2 allele with hypoglycemia risk in non-carriers of POR*28 allele. The study group consisted of 176 patients with diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with sulfonylureas, of whom 92 patients had experienced at least one drug-associated hypoglycemic event (cases), while 84 had never experienced a hypoglycemic event (controls). POR*28 allele was detected by use of real-time TaqMan PCR. POR*28 allele was not associated with sulfonyl-urea-induced hypoglycemia. In POR*1/*1 patients, CYP2C9*1/*2 genotype was more common in cases than in controls (32.7 vs. 14.3%, p=0.041). In a model adjusted for age, BMI, duration of T2DM and renal function, and POR*1/*1 entered as a selection variable, CYP2C9*2 allele increased the hypoglycemia risk in response to sulfonylurea (odds ratio: 3.218, p=0.031). In conclusion, our results suggest that POR*28 allele is masking the association of CYP2C9*2 allele with sulfonyl-urea-induced hypoglycemia. Therefore, POR*28 allele is an important source of CYP2C9 activity variability and combined with CYP2C9 gene poly-morphisms may explain individual variability in the effect of sulfonylureas.

  6. Flavobacterium johnsoniae PorV is required for secretion of a subset of proteins targeted to the type IX secretion system.

    PubMed

    Kharade, Sampada S; McBride, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Flavobacterium johnsoniae exhibits gliding motility and digests many polysaccharides, including chitin. A novel protein secretion system, the type IX secretion system (T9SS), is required for gliding and chitin utilization. The T9SS secretes the cell surface motility adhesins SprB and RemA and the chitinase ChiA. Proteins involved in secretion by the T9SS include GldK, GldL, GldM, GldN, SprA, SprE, and SprT. Porphyromonas gingivalis has orthologs for each of these that are required for secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors by its T9SS. P. gingivalis porU and porV have also been linked to T9SS-mediated secretion, and F. johnsoniae has orthologs of these. Mutations in F. johnsoniae porU and porV were constructed to determine if they function in secretion. Cells of a porV deletion mutant were deficient in chitin utilization and failed to secrete ChiA. They were also deficient in secretion of the motility adhesin RemA but retained the ability to secrete SprB. SprB is involved in gliding motility and is needed for formation of spreading colonies on agar, and the porV mutant exhibited gliding motility and formed spreading colonies. However, the porV mutant was partially deficient in attachment to glass, apparently because of the absence of RemA and other adhesins on the cell surface. The porV mutant also appeared to be deficient in secretion of numerous other proteins that have carboxy-terminal domains associated with targeting to the T9SS. PorU was not required for secretion of ChiA, RemA, or SprB, indicating that it does not play an essential role in the F. johnsoniae T9SS.

  7. Structural and functional probing of PorZ, an essential bacterial surface component of the type-IX secretion system of human oral-microbiomic Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed Central

    Lasica, Anna M.; Goulas, Theodoros; Mizgalska, Danuta; Zhou, Xiaoyan; de Diego, Iñaki; Ksiazek, Mirosław; Madej, Mariusz; Guo, Yonghua; Guevara, Tibisay; Nowak, Magdalena; Potempa, Barbara; Goel, Apoorv; Sztukowska, Maryta; Prabhakar, Apurva T.; Bzowska, Monika; Widziolek, Magdalena; Thøgersen, Ida B.; Enghild, Jan J.; Simonian, Mary; Kulczyk, Arkadiusz W.; Nguyen, Ky-Anh; Potempa, Jan; Gomis-Rüth, F. Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a member of the human oral microbiome abundant in dysbiosis and implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontal (gum) disease. It employs a newly described type-IX secretion system (T9SS) for secretion of virulence factors. Cargo proteins destined for secretion through T9SS carry a recognition signal in the conserved C-terminal domain (CTD), which is removed by sortase PorU during translocation. Here, we identified a novel component of T9SS, PorZ, which is essential for surface exposure of PorU and posttranslational modification of T9SS cargo proteins. These include maturation of enzyme precursors, CTD removal and attachment of anionic lipopolysaccharide for anchorage in the outer membrane. The crystal structure of PorZ revealed two β-propeller domains and a C-terminal β-sandwich domain, which conforms to the canonical CTD architecture. We further documented that PorZ is itself transported to the cell surface via T9SS as a full-length protein with its CTD intact, independently of the presence or activity of PorU. Taken together, our results shed light on the architecture and possible function of a novel component of the T9SS. Knowledge of how T9SS operates will contribute to our understanding of protein secretion as part of host-microbiome interactions by dysbiotic members of the human oral cavity. PMID:27883039

  8. Influence of Various Polymorphic Variants of Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (POR) on Drug Metabolic Activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6

    PubMed Central

    Naranmandura, Hua; Zeng, Su; Chen, Shu Qing

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is known as the sole electron donor in the metabolism of drugs by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in human. However, little is known about the effect of polymorphic variants of POR on drug metabolic activities of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. In order to better understand the mechanism of the activity of CYPs affected by polymorphic variants of POR, six full-length mutants of POR (e.g., Y181D, A287P, K49N, A115V, S244C and G413S) were designed and then co-expressed with CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in the baculovirus-Sf9 insect cells to determine their kinetic parameters. Surprisingly, both mutants, Y181D and A287P in POR completely inhibited the CYP3A4 activity with testosterone, while the catalytic activity of CYP2B6 with bupropion was reduced to approximately ∼70% of wild-type activity by Y181D and A287P mutations. In addition, the mutant K49N of POR increased the CLint (Vmax/Km) of CYP3A4 up to more than 31% of wild-type, while it reduced the catalytic efficiency of CYP2B6 to 74% of wild-type. Moreover, CLint values of CYP3A4-POR (A115V, G413S) were increased up to 36% and 65% of wild-type respectively. However, there were no appreciable effects observed by the remaining two mutants of POR (i.e., A115V and G413S) on activities of CYP2B6. In conclusion, the extent to which the catalytic activities of CYP were altered did not only depend on the specific POR mutations but also on the isoforms of different CYP redox partners. Thereby, we proposed that the POR-mutant patients should be carefully monitored for the activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 on the prescribed medication. PMID:22719896

  9. Análise dos Conceitos Astronômicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

    2011-12-01

    A razão para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educação Básica (EB) não lidam com conceitos relacionados à astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didáticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como é de conhecimento geral a astronomia é um dos conteúdos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de São Paulo, mas é um fato, que vários pesquisadores apontam, a existência de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propósito de minimizar algumas dessas deficiências foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilização de questionários pré e pós pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extensão Universitária para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mauá, Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de São Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepções alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem após o curso, adotando-se como referência, para a análise dos resultados, os dicionários de Língua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopédico de Astronomia e Astronáutica (MOURĀO, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questões foram aplicadas antes e após o curso, assim pode-se verificar após a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar é composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstício, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrência das estações do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrência do equinócio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteróide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galáxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

  10. [Sandflies (Diptera, Psychodidae) from an endemic leishmaniasis area in the cerrado region of the State of Maranhão, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Rebêlo, J M; Leonardo, F S; Costa, J M; Pereira, Y N; Silva, F S

    1999-01-01

    This article presents a list of ten sandfly species from the genus Lutzomyia França, 1924 found in the counties of Aldeias Altas, Capinzal do Norte, Caxias, Codó, Coelho Neto, Timbiras, Timon and Tuntum in northeastern Maranhão, Brazil. Presence of sandflies was associated with cases of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Some 377 specimens were captured indoors with CDC light traps and 1491 specimens in the peridomicile. The species were: Lutzomyia cortelezii, Lutzomyia evandroi, Lutzomyia goiana, Lutzomyia intermedia, Lutzomyia lenti, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Lutzomyia longipennis, Lutzomyia squamiventris, Lutzomyia termitophila and Lutzomyia whitmani. The most abundant species was L. longipalpis (67. 4% and 70.2%) followed by L. whitmani (31.0% and 24.7%). L. longipalpis was captured both indoors and outdoors in all the months studied.

  11. Lutzomyia longipalpis spatial distribution and association with environmental variables in an urban focus of visceral leishmaniasis, Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Fernández, María Soledad; Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Cavia, Regino; Perez, Adriana Alicia; Acardi, Soraya A; Guccione, José Daniel

    2010-05-01

    This study describes the spatial distribution pattern of Lu. longipalpis abundance in Posadas-Garupá, Argentina, where four cases of human Visceral Leishmaniasis had been recorded. A total of 2428 Lu. longipalpis were captured in 42% of the 305 sites sampled with CDC light traps, its abundance shows spatial autocorrelation ranging up to 590 m (semivariogram model), with six downtown 'islands' of vector highest abundance (>or=60 individuals). A significant association between Lu. longipalpis and the presence of chickens was observed (odds ratio 3.26). The best stepwise multiple regression using Generalized Linear Models explained 31% of the deviance for Lu. longipalpis abundance, including as explanatory variables: (a) negatively: households with 'lack of building material and with economic deprivation', (b) positively: surface covered by trees and bushes at 50 meters of the house, and households without electrical lighting. In conclusion, Lu. longipalpis in a recent settled focus of visceral leishmaniasis was urbanized with a highly heterogeneous spatial distribution within the cities, with the vectors concentrated in limited 'islands' of high abundance, in the downtown relatively more affluent and dense populated areas, but also more heterogeneous with patches that had higher tree coverage and poor urban services. These results once validated will contribute to the control strategy design through risk maps, in order to prioritize areas for prevention and control, and setting the appropriate scale for intervention.

  12. "Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo por inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado con fibra de vidrio"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose

    Mould materials for injection moulding of polymers and polymer-matrix composites represent a relevant industrial economic sector due to the large quantity of pieces and components processed. The material selection for mould manufacturing, its composition and heat treatment, the hardening procedures and machining and finishing processes determine the service performance and life of the mould. In the first part of the present study, the relationship between the hardness and microstructure and the wear resistance of mould steels from large blocks has been studied by pin-on-disc tests, studying the main wear mechanisms. In order to determine the surface damage on mould steels under real injection conditions, different commercial steels have been studied by measuring the variation of surface roughness with the number of injected pieces with different reinforcement percentages and different mould geometries, by using optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy techniques. It was important to determine the variation of surface roughness of the moulded pieces with the number of injection operations. The materials used were polybutyleneterephthalate pure and reinforced with either 20% or 50% glass fibre. For the different mould designs, the evolution of the glass fibre orientation with injection flow has been determined by image analysis and related to roughness changes and surface damage, both of the composite parts and of the mould steel surface. Finally, the abrasion resistance of the composite parts has been studied by scratch tests as a function of the number of injected parts and of the scratch direction with respect to injection flow and glass fibre orientation. Los materiales para moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos representan un sector economicamente muy relevante debido al gran aumento del numero de componentes fabricados a partir de materiales polimericos obtenidos mediante moldeo por inyeccion. La seleccion del material para la

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the C-terminal fragment of PorM, a subunit of the Porphyromonas gingivalis type IX secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Stathopulos, Julien; Cambillau, Christian; Cascales, Eric; Roussel, Alain; Leone, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    PorM is a membrane protein involved in the assembly of the type IX secretion system (T9SS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major bacterial pathogen responsible for periodontal disease in humans. The periplasmic domain of PorM was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. A fragment of the purified protein was obtained by limited proteolysis. Crystals of this fragment belonged to the tetragonal space group P43212. Native and MAD data sets were recorded to 2.85 and 3.1 Å resolution, respectively, using synchrotron radiation. PMID:25615973

  14. Community-based education in nutrition and cancer: the Por La Vida Cuidándome curriculum.

    PubMed

    Navarro, A M; Rock, C L; McNicholas, L J; Senn, K L; Moreno, C

    2000-01-01

    The Por La Vida (PLV) intervention model relies on community lay health advisors trained to conduct education sessions among members of their existing social networks. PLV Cuidándome was funded by the NCI to develop, implement, and evaluate the PLV model with respect to nutrition and cancer prevention, as well as early detection of breast and cervical cancers. The target population is the Latino community, for which substantial barriers to health care access exist. This article presents the curriculum that guides the sessions and describes its development, which was based on semi-structured interviews with Latina lay-health community workers to explore relevant attitudes and behaviors. Also key to the process was the work of the educational materials committee, whose members offered community representation as well as expertise in nutritional sciences, educational technologies, and community-based health promotion interventions and research. The 12-session curriculum's goal was to increase both the variety and the quality of fruits and/or vegetables consumed. It included information about consumption of fiber and fat in the importance of balance between energy intake and physical activity. The program has been well received. An ongoing study examines how it enhances nutrition and cancer prevention.

  15. El proceso hacia la integracion de la equidad por genero al curriculo.(The Process of the Integration of Gender Equity in the Curriculum.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Bermudez, Carmen D.

    "El Proyecto Colaborativo de Equidad por Genero en la Educacion," or the Collaborative Project for Gender Equity in Education, was undertaken in Puerto Rico between 1990 and 1992 to study how to facilitate the integration of gender equity themes in the curriculum through the direct action of participating teachers. A study examined the…

  16. P(O)R2-directed Pd-catalyzed C-H functionalization of biaryl derivatives to synthesize chiral phosphorous ligands.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rong-Bin; Wang, Hong-Li; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Heng; Ma, Yan-Na; Yang, Shang-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Chiral phosphorus ligands have been widely used in transition metal-catalyzed asymmetric reactions. Herein, we report a new synthesis approach of chiral biaryls containing a phosphorus moiety using P(O)R2-directed Pd-catalyzed C-H activation; the functionalized products are produced with good enantioselectivity.

  17. Estimaciones de Prevalencia del VIH por Género y Grupo de Riesgo en Tijuana, México: 2006

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Hogg, Robert S.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Elder, John P.; Viani, Rolando M.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO Estimar la prevalencia del VIH en adultos de 15-49 años de edad en Tijuana, México - en la población general y en subgrupos de riesgo en el 2006. METODOS Se obtuvieron datos demográficos del censo Mexicano del 2005, y la prevalencia del VIH se obtuvo de la literatura. Se construyó un modelo de prevalencia del VIH para la población general y de acuerdo al género. El análisis de sensibilidad consistió en estimar errores estándar del promedio-ponderado de la prevalencia del VIH y tomar derivados parciales con respecto a cada parámetro. RESULTADOS La prevalencia del VIH es 0.54%(N = 4,347) (Rango: 0.22%–0.86%, (N = 1,750–6,944)). Esto sugiere que 0.85%(Rango: 0.39%–1.31%) de los hombres y 0.22%(Rango: 0.04%–0.40%) de las mujeres podrían ser VIH-positivos. Los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), las trabajadoras sexuales usuarias de drogas inyectables (MTS-UDI), MTS-noUDI, mujeres UDI, y los hombres UDI contribuyeron las proporciones más elevadas de personas infectadas por el VIH. CONCLUSIONES El número de adultos VIH-positivos entre subgrupos de riesgo en la población de Tijuana es considerable, marcando la necesidad de enforcar las intervenciones de prevención en sus necesidades específicas. El presente modelo estima que hasta 1 en cada 116 adultos podrían ser VIH-positivos. PMID:19685824

  18. Adjuvant effects elicited by novel oligosaccharide variants of detoxified meningococcal lipopolysaccharides on Neisseria meningitidis recombinant PorA protein: a comparison in mice.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Ojas H; Norheim, Gunnstein; Hoe, J Claire; Rollier, Christine S; Nagaputra, Jerry C; Makepeace, Katherine; Saleem, Muhammad; Chan, Hannah; Ferguson, David J P; Jones, Claire; Sadarangani, Manish; Hood, Derek W; Feavers, Ian; Derrick, Jeremy P; Pollard, Andrew J; Moxon, E Richard

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has adjuvant properties that can be exploited to assist vaccine immunogenicity. The modified penta-acylated LPS retains the adjuvant properties of hexa-acylated LPS but has a reduced toxicity profile. In this study we investigated whether two modified glycoform structures (LgtE and IcsB) of detoxified penta-acylated LPS exhibited differential adjuvant properties when formulated as native outer membrane vesicles (nOMVs) as compared to the previously described LgtB variant. Detoxified penta-acylated LPS was obtained by disruption of the lpxL1 gene (LpxL1 LPS), and three different glycoforms were obtained by disruption of the lgtB, lgtE or icsB genes respectively. Mice (mus musculus) were immunized with a recombinant PorA P1.7-2,4 (rPorA) protein co-administered with different nOMVs (containing a different PorA serosubtype P1.7,16), each of which expressed one of the three penta-acylated LPS glycoforms. All nOMVs induced IgG responses against the rPorA, but the nOMVs containing the penta-acylated LgtB-LpxL1 LPS glycoform induced significantly greater bactericidal activity compared to the other nOMVs or when the adjuvant was Alhydrogel. Compared to LgtE or IcsB LPS glycoforms, these data support the use of nOMVs containing detoxified, modified LgtB-LpxL1 LPS as a potential adjuvant for future meningococcal protein vaccines.

  19. Astronomy in the Classroom: Why? (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Clase: ¿Por Qué?) Astronomia na Sala de Aula: Por Quê?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daros Gama, Leandro; Bagdonas Henrique, Alexandre

    2010-07-01

    There are many discussions about the relevance of the topics covered in classes. One subject in particular is the focus of this essay: astronomy. In what sense and to what extent it would be worth to teach it in science or other kind of classes? In this paper we discuss some aspects of the advantages of dealing with this area of knowledge in schools, taking into account the epistemological and axiological dimensions of astronomy, in light of the vision of science as an intelligent dialogue with the world (Bachelard), in addition to the "problematization" knowledge of Paulo Freire. We propose that in fact the Astronomy does not need to be seen as just a new set of contents to be taught, but appears as a set of motivational contents for historical-philosophical discussions, and permit the discussion of concepts of other disciplines. Numerosas discusiones se están llevando a cabo acerca de la pertinencia de los temas tradicionalmente tratados en las clases. Uno de los temas, en particular, es el foco de este ensayo: la astronomía. ¿En qué sentido y en qué medida sería conveniente tratarla en clase, ya sea en clases de ciencias naturales, específicamente en las de astronomía o asignaturas afines? Elaboramos en este artículo algunos aspectos de las ventajas de tratar esta área del conocimiento en las escuelas, teniendo en cuenta las dimensiones epistemológica y axiológica de la astronomía, a la luz de la visión de la ciencia como un diálogo inteligente con el mundo (Bachelard), además de la propuesta del conocimiento "problematizador" de Paulo Freire. Proponemos que en realidad la astronomía no tiene por qué ser vista sólo como un nuevo conjunto de contenidos que se enseñan, sino que aparece como un conjunto de temas de motivación para el debate histórico-filosófico y para permitir la discusión de los conceptos típicos de otras disciplinas. Muitas discussões vêm acontecendo sobre a relevância dos temas abordados em sala de aula. Um tema, em

  20. Obtención de la curva de luz en la ocultación de 35 Sgr por Júpiter el 6 de marzo de 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolantonio, S.; Duffard, R.; Carranza, G.

    La ocultación de la estrella de quinta magnitud 35 Sgr por Júpiter, se produjo el 6 de Marzo de 1996 a las 13 hs. TU. El objetivo era medir el cambio del flujo de la estrella en el ingreso y egreso por el limbo del planeta. Con estos datos se pueden determinar parámetros físicos del planeta (radio, eccentricidad) y de su atmósfera (escala de altura, temperatura, densidad, presión) Para lograr ésto se programó la cámara CCD TH 7896 1024 x 1025 instalada en el telescopio de 1.54 m de Bosque Alegre con el objetivo de lograr 2 imágenes por segundo. De esta forma se obtuvieron 2100 imágenes de la inmersión y otras tantas de la emersión. Hubo que tener grandes precauciones para evitar la saturación del CCD ya que la observación se realizó de día. En este momento las imágenes se encuentran en el Department of Planetary Sciences, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, para su reducción.

  1. Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infección por el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables

    PubMed Central

    MATEU-GELABERT, P.; FRIEDMAN, S.; SANDOVAL, M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con éxito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) están infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar cómo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infección por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. Material y métodos Hemos utilizado el concepto de «desviación positiva» aplicado en otros campos de salud pública. Estudiamos las estrategias, prácticas y tácticas de prevención de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado heroína durante años. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este artículo incluyen el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infección por el VHC y sin infección por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protección y vigilancia. Resultados La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante períodos de involución (períodos donde hay un deterioro económico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infección: a) evitar «el mono» (síntomas de abstención) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) «llevarlo bien» para no convertirse en un junkie y así evitar la «muerte social» y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin

  2. A survey of homopteran species (Auchenorrhyncha) from coffee shrubs and poró and laurel trees in shaded coffee plantations, in Turrialba, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rojas, L; Godoy, C; Hanson, P; Hilje, L

    2001-01-01

    A survey of homopteran species (Auchenorryncha) was conducted in coffee plantations with no shade (C), and in those with shade of either poró (Erythrina poeppigiana) (CP) or poró plus laurel (Cordia alliodora) (CPL), in Turrialba, Costa Rica. A total of 130 species in ten families were collected, dominated by Cicadellidae (82 species). Species richness was highest in the CP system (88), followed by CPL (74) and C systems (60). Five most common species for all systems were Fusigonalia lativittata, Hebralebra nicaraguensis, Neocoelidia sp., Oliarus sp. and Clastoptera sp. Diversification of the coffee agroecosystem favors some species while limiting others, and have no effect on the majority of species. Thus, only F. lativittata, Neocoelidia sp. and Scaphytopius ca. latidens were well represented in all systems, but were more abundant in coffee shrubs. Additionally, the following were the dominant species in each system: Graphocephala sp. 1 (C), F. lativittata (CP) and H. nicaraguensis (CPL). Four species abundant on laurel trees, including H. nicaraguensis, appeared almost exclusively on these tree species. Species similarity was highest on the CP and CPL systems (51% of the species in common), followed by the C and CP (39%) and the C and CPL systems (38%). These findings show that even disturbed systems can harbor many insect species, so that they deserve attention from conservation advocates and biologists.

  3. A Fast Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Method for Sensitive and Specific Detection of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae porA Pseudogene

    PubMed Central

    Hjelmevoll, Stig Ove; Olsen, Merethe Elise; Sollid, Johanna U. Ericson; Haaheim, Håkon; Unemo, Magnus; Skogen, Vegard

    2006-01-01

    Ever since the advent of molecular methods, the diagnostics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been troubled by false negative and false positive results compared with culture. Commensal Neisseria species and Neisseria meningitidis are closely related to N. gonorrhoeae and may cross-react when using molecular tests comprising too-low specificity. We have devised a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), including an internal amplification control, that targets the N. gonorrhoeae porA pseudogene. DNA was automatically isolated on a BioRobot M48. Our subsequent PCR method amplified all of the different N. gonorrhoeae international reference strains (n = 34) and N. gonorrhoeae clinical isolates (n = 176) but not isolates of the 13 different nongonococcal Neisseria species (n = 68) that we tested. Furthermore, a panel of gram-negative bacterial (n = 18), gram-positive bacterial (n = 23), fungal (n = 1), and viral (n = 4) as well as human DNA did not amplify. The limit of detection was determined to be less than 7.5 genome equivalents/PCR reaction. In conclusion, the N. gonorrhoeae porA pseudogene real-time PCR developed in the present study is highly sensitive, specific, robust, rapid and reproducible, making it suitable for diagnosis of N. gonorrhoeae infection. PMID:17065426

  4. Prevalencia y factores de riesgo para infecciones del tracto urinario de inicio en la comunidad causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Victor M.; Maya, Juan J.; Correa, Adriana; Perenguez, Marcela; Muñoz, Juan S.; Motoa, Gabriel; Pallares, Christian J.; Rosso, Fernando; Matta, Lorena; Celis, Yamile; Garzon, Martha; Villegas, y María V.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción Las infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU) son frecuentes en la comunidad. Sin embargo, la información de aislamientos resistentes en este contexto es limitada en Latinoamérica. Este estudio tiene como objetivo determinar la prevalencia y los factores de riesgo asociados con ITU de inicio en la comunidad (ITU-IC) causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) en Colombia. Materiales y métodos Entre agosto y diciembre de 2011 se realizó un estudio de casos y controles en 3 instituciones de salud de tercer nivel en Colombia. Se invitó a participar a todos los pacientes admitidos a urgencias con diagnóstico probable de ITU-IC, y se les pidió una muestra de orina. En los aislamien-tos de E. coli se realizaron pruebas confirmatorias para BLEE, susceptibilidad antibiótica, caracterización molecular (PCR en tiempo real para genes bla, repetitive element palindromic PCR [rep-PCR], multilocus sequence typing [MLST] y factores de virulencia por PCR). Se obtuvo información clínica y epidemiológica, y posteriormente se realizó el análisis estadístico. Resultados De los 2.124 pacientes seleccionados, 629 tuvieron un urocultivo positivo, en 431 de estos se aisló E. coli, 54 fueron positivos para BLEE y 29 correspondieron a CTX-M-15. La mayoría de los aislamientos de E. coli productor de BLEE fueron sensibles a ertapenem, fosfomicina y amikacina. La ITU complicada se asoció fuertemente con infecciones por E. coli productor de BLEE (OR = 3,89; IC 95%: 1,10–13,89; p = 0,03). E. coli productor de CTX-M-15 mostró 10 electroferotipos diferentes; de estos, el 65% correspondieron al ST131. La mayoría de estos aislamientos tuvieron 8 de los 9 factores de virulencia analizados. Discusión E. coli portador del gen blaCTX-M-15 asociado al ST131 sigue siendo frecuente en Colombia. La presencia de ITU-IC complicada aumenta el riesgo de tener E. coli productor de BLEE, lo cual debe tenerse en cuenta para ofrecer

  5. Concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as de biologia y futuros maestros/as de Ciencia de escuela secundaria sobre la teoria de evolucion biologica por seleccion natural

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Ramos, Egda M.

    La teoria de evolucion biologica (TEB) por seleccion natural es uno de los conceptos unificadores mas importantes del curriculo de Biologia. En Puerto Rico se han hecho pocas investigaciones que abunden sobre las concepciones y concepciones alternativas (CA) que tienen los estudiantes universitarios/as de Biologia y los maestros/as de Ciencia del nivel secundario sobre esta teoria. La politica publica educativa actual establece mediante documentos normativos como los Estandares de contenido y Expectativas de grado del Programa de Ciencias [Puerto Rico Core Standards] la ensenanza de esta teoria. Sin embargo, no se encontraron preguntas sobre la seleccion natural en los ejercicios de practica provistos por el Departamento de Educacion para las pruebas estandarizadas lo cual puede influir para que no se ensene adecuadamente. Las preguntas de investigacion fueron 1. ¿Cuales son las concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as y de los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB? 2. ¿Cuales conceptos que seleccionan los estudiantes universitarios/as y los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB coinciden con lo aceptado como valido por la comunidad cientifica? y 3. ¿Como comparan las respuestas de la prueba original. v. Entendiendo el cambio biologico que mide concepciones y CA sobre la TEB por seleccion natural, con las de la traducida al idioma espanol? Se utilizo el metodo cuantitativo con un diseno de investigacion transversal por encuesta. La tecnica principal para recopilar los datos fue una prueba con doce items, que formo parte de un instrumento para el cual se recopilaron diversas fuentes de evidencia acerca de su validez. Las muestras estuvieron formadas por 69 estudiantes de Ciencias Naturales y por 16 estudiantes futuros maestros y maestras del nivel secundario de la UPR-RP. Se utilizaron estadisticas descriptivas, analisis de Ji cuadrado y se calcularon los coeficientes alfa de Cronbach y de Spearman

  6. Relación masa-radio para estrellas enanas blancas y la interpretación de recientes mediciones hechas por Hipparcos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panei, J. A.; Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Recientes mediciones de la masa y el radio hechas por Hipparcos de las estrellas enanas blancas 40 Eri B y Procyon B (Shipman, H. & Provencal, J. - ApJ. 1998, 494, 759), sugieren un núcleo compuesto de hierro para dichas estrellas, en lugar de carbono y oxígeno como predice la teoría standard de evolución estelar. Para interpretar estas observaciones, presentamos aquí, relaciones masa-radio para configuraciones degeneradas a temperatura finita para distintas composiciones químicas centrales. Para tal fin hemos calculado secuencias evolutivas de enanas blancas utilizando el código de evolución estelar, desarrollado en el Observatorio de La Plata. Dicho código resuelve las ecuaciones de estructura y evolución estelar mediante la técnica de relajación de Henyey, y esta basado en una descripción física muy detallada y actualizada.

  7. Bifurcación de las soluciones de vientos impulsados por radiación en estrellas Be: formación de líneas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curé, M.; Rial, D.; Cidale, L.; Venero, R.

    Se ha estudiado la topología de la ecuación hidrodinámica no-lineal que describe el perfil de velocidades de vientos impulsados por radiación en estrellas tempranas. Al aplicar este modelo a estrellas Be se encuentra que existen dos tipos De soluciones: la estándar, que describe el viento polar, y una nueva, que describe un viento más denso y lento y que explicaría el disco que se encuentra alrededor de estos objetos. Existe una región de transición en donde ambas soluciones coexisten (bifurcación}). Ambas soluciones satisfacen en esta región las mismas condiciones de borde. Para estas dos soluciones se han obtenido los perfiles de líneas de hidrógeno del visible y del IR, resolviendo el transporte de radiación en el ``comoving frame". Para la solución estándar, se obtienen perfiles con componentes en emisión, mientras que para la nueva solución se obtienen perfiles en absorción. Se comparan cualitativamente los resultados con las observaciones.

  8. Weight of ABCB1 and POR genes on oral tacrolimus exposure in CYP3A5 nonexpressor pediatric patients with stable kidney transplant.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Paulo, G N; Dapía García, I; Lubomirov, R; Borobia, A M; Alonso-Sánchez, N L; Espinosa, L; Carcas-Sansuán, A J

    2017-01-17

    Tacrolimus (TAC) is highly effective for the prevention of acute organ rejection. However, its clinical use may be challenging due to its large interindividual pharmacokinetic variability, which can be partially explained by genetic variations in TAC-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of genetic and clinical factors on TAC pharmacokinetic variability in 21 stable pediatric renal transplant patients. This study was nested in a previous Prograf to Advagraf conversion clinical trial. CYP3A5, ABCB1 and two POR genotypes were assessed by real-time PCR. The impact on TAC pharmacokinetics of individual genetic variants on CYP3A5 nonexpressors was evaluated by genetic score. Explicative models for TAC AUC0-24h, Cmax and Cmin after Advagraf were developed by linear regression. The built genetic scores explain 13.7 and 26.5% of the total AUC0-24h and Cmin total variability, respectively. Patients genetic information should be considered to monitorizate and predict TAC exposure.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 17 January 2017; doi:10.1038/tpj.2016.93.

  9. IgE Reactivity of Blue Swimmer Crab (Portunus pelagicus) Tropomyosin, Por p 1, and Other Allergens; Cross-Reactivity with Black Tiger Prawn and Effects of Heating

    PubMed Central

    Varese, Nirupama; Zubrinich, Celia; Lopata, Andreas L.; O'Hehir, Robyn E.; Rolland, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Shellfish allergy is a major cause of food-induced anaphylaxis, but the allergens are not well characterized. This study examined the effects of heating on blue swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) allergens in comparison with those of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) by testing reactivity with shellfish-allergic subjects' serum IgE. Cooked extracts of both species showed markedly increased IgE reactivity by ELISA and immunoblotting, and clinical relevance of IgE reactivity was confirmed by basophil activation tests. Inhibition IgE ELISA and immunoblotting demonstrated cross-reactivity between the crab and prawn extracts, predominantly due to tropomyosin, but crab-specific IgE-reactivity was also observed. The major blue swimmer crab allergen tropomyosin, Por p 1, was cloned and sequenced, showing strong homology with tropomyosin of other crustacean species but also sequence variation within known and predicted linear IgE epitopes. These findings will advance more reliable diagnosis and management of potentially severe food allergy due to crustaceans. PMID:23840718

  10. Orientation of Colonized Sand Flies Phlebotomus papatasi, P. duboscqi, and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) to Diverse Honeys Using a 3-chamber In-line Olfactometer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    unifloral honey odors were evaluated as a proxy for the natural floral odors that sand flies may use in orientation to floral sugar sources in the...high-throughput method has utility for evaluating a diversity of natural materials with unknown complex odor blends that can then be down-selected for...repellents, insecticide -treated clothing, or bednets), reservoir host control (e.g., rodent removal using rodenticides or by burrow plowing), or residual

  11. Identification of blood meal sources of Lutzomyia longipalpis using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the cytochrome B gene.

    PubMed

    Soares, Vítor Yamashiro Rocha; Silva, Jailthon Carlos da; Silva, Kleverton Ribeiro da; Pires e Cruz, Maria do Socorro; Santos, Marcos Pérsio Dantas; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins; Alonso, Diego Peres; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil; Costa, Dorcas Lamounier; Costa, Carlos Henrique Nery

    2014-06-01

    An analysis of the dietary content of haematophagous insects can provide important information about the transmission networks of certain zoonoses. The present study evaluated the potential of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome B (cytb) gene to differentiate between vertebrate species that were identified as possible sources of sandfly meals. The complete cytb gene sequences of 11 vertebrate species available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database were digested with Aci I, Alu I, Hae III and Rsa I restriction enzymes in silico using Restriction Mapper software. The cytb gene fragment (358 bp) was amplified from tissue samples of vertebrate species and the dietary contents of sandflies and digested with restriction enzymes. Vertebrate species presented a restriction fragment profile that differed from that of other species, with the exception of Canis familiaris and Cerdocyon thous. The 358 bp fragment was identified in 76 sandflies. Of these, 10 were evaluated using the restriction enzymes and the food sources were predicted for four: Homo sapiens (1), Bos taurus (1) and Equus caballus (2). Thus, the PCR-RFLP technique could be a potential method for identifying the food sources of arthropods. However, some points must be clarified regarding the applicability of the method, such as the extent of DNA degradation through intestinal digestion, the potential for multiple sources of blood meals and the need for greater knowledge regarding intraspecific variations in mtDNA.

  12. Identification of blood meal sources of Lutzomyia longipalpis using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the cytochrome B gene

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Vítor Yamashiro Rocha; da Silva, Jailthon Carlos; da Silva, Kleverton Ribeiro; Cruz, Maria do Socorro Pires e; Santos, Marcos Pérsio Dantas; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins; Alonso, Diego Peres; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil; Costa, Dorcas Lamounier; Costa, Carlos Henrique Nery

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of the dietary content of haematophagous insects can provide important information about the transmission networks of certain zoonoses. The present study evaluated the potential of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome B (cytb) gene to differentiate between vertebrate species that were identified as possible sources of sandfly meals. The complete cytb gene sequences of 11 vertebrate species available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database were digested with Aci I, Alu I, Hae III and Rsa I restriction enzymes in silico using Restriction Mapper software. The cytb gene fragment (358 bp) was amplified from tissue samples of vertebrate species and the dietary contents of sandflies and digested with restriction enzymes. Vertebrate species presented a restriction fragment profile that differed from that of other species, with the exception of Canis familiaris and Cerdocyon thous. The 358 bp fragment was identified in 76 sandflies. Of these, 10 were evaluated using the restriction enzymes and the food sources were predicted for four: Homo sapiens (1), Bos taurus (1) and Equus caballus (2). Thus, the PCR-RFLP technique could be a potential method for identifying the food sources of arthropods. However, some points must be clarified regarding the applicability of the method, such as the extent of DNA degradation through intestinal digestion, the potential for multiple sources of blood meals and the need for greater knowledge regarding intraspecific variations in mtDNA. PMID:24821056

  13. Guide to the Identification and Geographic Distribution of Lutzomyia Sand Flies in Mexico, the West Indies, Central and South America (Diptera:Psychodidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-31

    Brasil Ent. 33:455-463. Blancas, F. & A. Herrer. 1959-1960. Estudios s~bre Ia enfermedad de Carrion en el valle interandino del Mantaro. mI. Descripcion... tipo do capture de 64 espdcies idaitificadas. Rev. Ser. Exp. Siude Pub. 2:817-842. References Cited 807 Damasceno, R. G. & 0. R. Causey. 1944. Estudo...r6giones endtmicas leishmaniasis cutbnea del Paraguay. Rev. Med. Paraguay 2:12. Gonzalez, R. B. & 1. Garcia Avila. 1981. Estudio y distribucion de la

  14. Fuentes de variabilidad en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica multifocal asociada con la infección por Helicobacter pylori1

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Realpe, José Luis; Zarama, Guillermo; Piazuelo, MarÍa Blanca; Correa, Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del estómago y el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica disponibles para evaluación histopatológica son fuentes importantes de variación en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradación de la gastritis crónica. Objetivos Estimar la sensibilidad del número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica necesarios para establecer los diagnósticos de gastritis atrófica con metaplasia intestinal (MI), displasia y estado de infección por Helicobacter pylori. Además evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificación de estas lesiones precursoras del cáncer gástrico. Materiales y métodos En una cohorte de 6 años de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados por dos gastroenterólogos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa gástrica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un único patólogo hizo la interpretación histológica de las 5 biopsias y proporcionó un diagnóstico definitivo global que se utilizó como patrón de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa gástrica examinado condujo a un diagnóstico individual para cada biopsia que se comparó con el patrón de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evaluó en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento. Resultados La sensibilidad del diagnóstico de MI y displasia gástrica aumentó de manera significativa con el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados El sitio anatómico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagnóstico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logró alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa gástrica (95.9%) y fue independiente del sitio de obtención de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagnóstico de gastritis crónica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0.76-0.85). Las

  15. A UV-vis study of the effects of alcohols on formation and stability of Mn(por)(O)(OAc) complexes.

    PubMed

    Mohajer, Daryoush; Jahanbani, Maryam

    2012-06-01

    Interactions of three different (acetato) (tetraarylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(por) with tetra-n-butylammonium hydrogen monopersulfate (n-Bu(4)NHSO(5)), in the presence of excess tetra-n-butylammonium acetate (n-Bu(4)NOAc) and in the absence or presence of various alcohols (alcohols=CH(3)OH, C(2)H(5)OH, i-C(3)H(7)OH, t-C(4)H(9)OH) in CH(2)Cl(2), were monitored by their UV-vis spectral changes, under identical conditions, at room temperature. (Acetato) (tetrakispentafluorophenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(tpfpp)(OAc) and (acetato) (tetramesitylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(tmp)(OAc) produced their corresponding high valent Mn(tpfpp)(O)(OAc) and Mn(tmp)(O)(OAc) both in the absence or presence of alcohols. Whereas, (acetato) (tetraphenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(tpp)(OAc) only generated Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) in the presence of less bulky alcohols. In the absence of alcohols or in the presence of t-C(4)H(9)OH, the UV-vis spectra displayed a very weak sign of formation of Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) complex. It was observed that alcohols generally increased the rate of formation of Mn-oxo species in accordance with their acidity or hydrogen bonding strength, and enhanced the stability of Mn-oxo complexes, as their size increases. Attempts are made to explain these effects. A mechanistic scheme is also suggested for the decomposition of HSO(5)(-) to O(2) and HSO(4)(-), through the formation and dimerization of Mn-oxo species.

  16. A UV-vis study of the effects of alcohols on formation and stability of Mn(por)(O)(OAc) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohajer, Daryoush; Jahanbani, Maryam

    2012-06-01

    Interactions of three different (acetato) (tetraarylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(por) with tetra-n-butylammonium hydrogen monopersulfate (n-Bu4NHSO5), in the presence of excess tetra-n-butylammonium acetate (n-Bu4NOAc) and in the absence or presence of various alcohols (alcohols = CH3OH, C2H5OH, i-C3H7OH, t-C4H9OH) in CH2Cl2, were monitored by their UV-vis spectral changes, under identical conditions, at room temperature. (Acetato) (tetrakispentafluorophenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tpfpp)(OAc) and (acetato) (tetramesitylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tmp)(OAc) produced their corresponding high valent Mn(tpfpp)(O)(OAc) and Mn(tmp)(O)(OAc) both in the absence or presence of alcohols. Whereas, (acetato) (tetraphenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tpp)(OAc) only generated Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) in the presence of less bulky alcohols. In the absence of alcohols or in the presence of t-C4H9OH, the UV-vis spectra displayed a very weak sign of formation of Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) complex. It was observed that alcohols generally increased the rate of formation of Mn-oxo species in accordance with their acidity or hydrogen bonding strength, and enhanced the stability of Mn-oxo complexes, as their size increases. Attempts are made to explain these effects. A mechanistic scheme is also suggested for the decomposition of HSO5- to O2 and HSO4-, through the formation and dimerization of Mn-oxo species.

  17. Estudio teórico de la desorción de Na y K de SiO2 estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez Ariza, D.; López, N.; Illas, F.; Pacchioni, G.; Madey, T. E.

    Se ha estudiado el mecanismo de generación de sodio y potasio atómico a partir de muestras de SiO2 utilizando cálculos basados tanto en la teoría del funcional de la densidad como en métodos post-Hartree Fock, así como en el método de cluster para modelar el sólido. Como consecuencia del estudio se han propuesto distintos caminos posibles para la desorción, estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones, de sodio y potasio desde el óxido de silicio, proporcionando por lo tanto una explicación a la atmósfera tenue de sodio y potasio de La Luna.

  18. Long-term RNA persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) after an outbreak of a natural infection: the detection of viral mRNA in sentinel pigs suggests viral transmission.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Kennedy, S; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Berg, M; Moreno-López, J

    2014-08-08

    The persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) in five pigs that had survived an outbreak of a natural infection was determined. After the resolution of the outbreak, each animal was housed in an isolation pen together with one sentinel pig. Approximately every 2 months thereafter one group of animals was euthanized and tissue samples taken for virological and serological analysis. Infectious virus was not isolated from any samples; antibodies to PorPV-LPMV were detected in convalescent pigs by virus neutralisation test and blocking ELISA but not in sentinel pigs. PorPV-LPMV mRNA of the nucleoprotein (NP) and phosphoprotein (P) genes was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) in samples of trigeminal and optic nerves, cervical spinal cord, tonsils, salivary gland, lung and pancreas from convalescent pigs. mRNA was also detected in the midbrain, corpus callosum, or olfactory bulb in four out of five pigs by nRT-PCR, this result was confirmed by the sequencing of a 260bp PCR product of P gene region. The highest average viral copies/μg of total RNA occurred in the olfactory bulb and pancreas tissues of convalescent pigs and midbrain, tonsil and pancreas of sentinel pigs housed with the convalescent pigs. Satellitosis and gliosis of the midbrain, olfactory bulb, corpus callosum, medulla oblongata or choroid plexus were microscopically observed in four convalescent pigs. The control pig remained negative in all tests. The results indicate that PorPV-LPMV mRNA persists and induces a durable humoral immune response in pigs that have recovered from a natural infection. After a possible reactivation of the virus, it was transmitted to sentinel pigs in contact with the convalescent pigs.

  19. Comparación de resultados del método de clasificación de órbitas por análisis de frecuencias con el método de exponentes de Lyapunov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpintero, D. D.; Muzzio, J. C.; Wachlin, F. C.

    Hemos realizado extensas comparaciones del método de análisis de frecuencias con el de exponentes de Lyapunov. El primero resulta claramente superior por las siguientes razones: 1) permite distinguir distintos tipos de órbitas y no sólo si son regulares o caóticas 2) es mucho más veloz requiriendo mucho menos tiempo de cómputo. La concordancia de resultados es, en general, buena y se discuten algunas discrepancias.

  20. La inserción en el mercado laboral de los inmigrantes latinos en España y en los Estados Unidos: Diferencias por país de origen y estatus legal

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Phillip; Massey, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Resumen Este artículo compara los resultados económicos entre los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España y Estados Unidos. Detectamos un efecto de selección por el que la mayoría de los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España proceden de Sudamérica de un entorno de clases medias, mientras la mayoría de los inmigrantes que van a los Estados Unidos son centroamericanos de clase baja. Este efecto de selección explica las diferencias transnacionales en la probabilidad de empleo, logro ocupacional y salarios obtenidos. A pesar de las diferencias en los orígenes y las características de los latinoamericanos en ambos países, los factores demográficos, humanos y de capital social parecen operar de forma similar en ambos países; y cuando los modelos se estiman separadamente por estatus legal, descubrimos que los efectos se acentúan más entre los inmigrantes irregulares cuando se los compara con los regulares, especialmente en Estados Unidos. PMID:24532857

  1. Aquisição fonológica do português brasileiro por crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e surdas usuárias de implante coclear

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Carina Rebello; Finger, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Resumo O presente estudo investiga a aquisição fonológica do Português Brasileiro (PB) por 24 crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais, com acesso irrestrito à Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras), e por 6 crianças surdas que utilizam implante coclear (IC), com acesso restrito ou irrestrito à Libras. Para a avaliação do sistema fonológico das crianças em PB, foi utilizada a Parte A, Prova de Nomeação, do ABFW – Teste de Linguagem Infantil (ANDRADE et al. 2004). Os resultados revelaram que as crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e a criança surda usuária de IC com acesso irrestrito à Libras apresentaram processo de aquisição fonológica esperada (normal) para a sua faixa etária. Considera-se que a aquisição precoce e o acesso irrestrito à Libras podem ter sido determinantes para o desempenho dessas crianças no teste oral utilizado. PMID:25506105

  2. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía Por Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educação Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    We present the results obtained in a research on the comprehension of basic astronomical concepts, in which 561 students from fifth grade middle school to third grade high school of a public school of the city of Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) took part. A test with 20 multiple-choice questions was applied to indentify the most common conceptions expressed by the students. This test was elaborated based on the literature about misconceptions and covered the following topics: the day-night cycle; the time zones; the seasons of the year; the phases of the Moon; the movement of the Moon; the apparent movement of the Sun in the celestial sphere; the eclipses; the dimensions and distances in the Universe; the brightness of the stars and its observation from Earth. Though a small progress was verified in the proportion of scientifically acceptable answers when comparing the eighth grade of middle school to the fifth, and the third grade of high school to the first, there was an overall predominance of alternative conceptions regarding most of the explored subjects, which persisted up to the last year of secondary school. The comparison to data found in this research made in other socio-cultural contexts revealed, in many aspects, similar notions and difficulties revealed by the students. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre la comprensión de conceptos astronómicos básicos, en la cual participaron 561 estudiantes que cursaban entre el quinto grado de la enseñanza primaria y el tercer año de la enseñanza secundaria de una escuela pública de la ciudad de Foz do Iguaçu (Brasil). Se utilizó un test de 20 preguntas de opción múltiple para identificar las concepciones más comunes expresadas por los estudiantes. Este instrumento de recolección de datos se desarrolló en base a la literatura sobre las concepciones alternativas y trató los siguientes temas: el ciclo día-noche, los husos horarios, las estaciones del año, las fases de la Luna, el

  3. One-step purification and porin transport activity of the major outer membrane proteins P2 from Haemophilus influenzae, FomA from Fusobacterium nucleatum and PorB from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Kattner, Christof; Pfennig, Sabrina; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial porins are major outer membrane proteins that function as essential solute transporters between the bacteria and the extracellular environment. Structural features of porins are also recognized by eukaryotic cell receptors involved in innate and adaptive immunity. To better investigate the function of porins, proper refolding is necessary following purification from inclusion bodies [1, 2]. Using a single-step size exclusion chromatographic method, we have purified three major porins from pathogenic bacteria, the OmpP2 (P2) from Haemophilus influenzae, FomA from Fusobacterium nucleatum and PorB from Neisseria meningitidis, at high yield and report their unique solute transport activity with size exclusion limit. Furthermore, we have optimized their purification method and achieved improvement of their thermostability for facilitating functional and structural analyses.

  4. Sand fly fauna in Chapare, Bolivia: an endemic focus of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Marinely; Diaz, Mery; Espinoza, Jorge; Parrado, Rudy; Reithinger, Richard; García, Ana Lineth

    2012-09-01

    Data on the distribution and abundance of Lutzomyia spp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Bolivia is scarce. Sand flies from an area of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis endemicity in the Isiboro-Secure National Park in the Department of Cochabamba were captured and identified to species. In total, 945 sand flies (789 females and 156 males) belonging to 15 species were collected from the four collection points in two study villages in 2007. With 549 (58.1%) specimens, Lutzomyia shawi was the most abundant species, followed by Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) sp. (22.2%), Lutzomyia llanosmartinsi (8.3%), Lutzomyia antunesi (4.3%), and Lutzomyia olmeca (2.1%). Abundance and species composition varied between rainy and dry seasons, with 99.3% of all sand flies being collected outdoors. Because of species abundance and confirmed Leishmania infection in previous entomological collections, we believe Lu. shawi is the vector of L. (Viannia) braziliensis in Isiboro-Secure National Park.

  5. Leishmaniasis in Texas: Isolation of Leishmania mexicana from Neotoma Micropus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    leishmaniasis cases in Texas, 2) Lutzomyia anthophora, a sand fly which has transmitted Leishmania mexicana under laboratory conditions (Endris et al., 1984... temperatures > 37 C are all suggestive of L. mexicana. Isozyme characterization determined that the parasite isolated from N. micropus collected in Texas is L...Addis, 1945). Other vertebrates such as opossums, hispid cotton rats, and armadillos and other sand flies such as Lutzomyia diabolica and Lutzomyia texana

  6. Studies of Phlebotomine Sand Flies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-31

    submitted for publication. iii 7. Key Words: Sand fly Lutzomyia Phlebotominae Phlebotomus Leishmaniasis 1i Note: Copies of this report are filed with...5 II. Sand Flies of the Central Amazon of Brazil. 2. De- scription of Lutzomyia (Triehophoromyia) ruii n. sp. . 28 III. A New Phlebotomine Sand...previously unknown in the Republic. These are Brvmptomyia hamata, B. galindoi, Lutzomyia odax, L. ovallesi, L. carpenteri, L. shannoni, L. texana, L

  7. A Functional Transcriptomic Approach to Understanding the Sand Fly Vector Relationships to the Host and Leshmania Parasites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-07

    as a salivary constituent of Lutzomyia longipalpis and is not present in the saliva of Phlebotomus papatasi, P. argentipes, P. perniciosus and P...ariasi, leading to the false presumption that ADA is a Lutzomyia -specific enzyme. Two transcripts encoding for ADA were identified by the analysis of...TRANSCRIPTOME OF LUTZOMYIA LONGIPALPIS: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CDNA LIBRARIES FROM SUGAR-FED, BLOOD-FED, POST-DIGESTED AND LEISHMANIA INFANTUM CHAGASI

  8. Taxonomy and Biology of Phlebotomine Vectors of Human Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-31

    18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Neotropical Lutzomyia Holotypes 0 RA I...karyotyping and isozyme analysis and were found useful in evaluating variation. Holotypes of Lutzomyia stored in France and many other specimens were... Lutzomyia spp. in Colombia; 2) evaluating th ffects of oostatic hormone on female L. anthophora; and 3) studying the development of a new Leishmania sp. in

  9. [Sandflies (Diptera, psychodidae) in a secondary forest area in the Paco do Lumiar city, Maranhao, Brazil: a leishmaniasis transmission area].

    PubMed

    Barros, V L; Rebêlo, J M; Silva, F S

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyzes the wealth of species, relative abundance, seasonal fluctuation, and nocturnal activity of sandflies. The field survey was conducted in a "capoeira" (secondary forest) area in the county of Paço do Lumiar, Maranhão, where cutaneous and transmission of visceral leishmaniasis frequently occurs. Sandflies were captured by CDC-type light traps from 6:00 PM to 6:00 AM, once a month, from March 1997 to February 1998. A total of 489 specimens were collected (251 males and 238 females), distributed among 10 species: Lutzomyia antunesi (45.19%), Lutzomyia whitmani (29.4%), Lutzomyia longipalpis (7.56%), Lutzomyia sordelli (6.34%), Lutzomyia flaviscutellata (4.5%), Brumptomyia avellari (4.09%), Lutzomyia evandroi (1.85%), Lutzomyia umbratilis (0.61%), Lutzomyia corossoniensis (0.41%), and Lutzomyia trispinosa (0.41%). The sandflies were present year round, with higher abundance during the rainy season. They were present in all intervals studied, with the highest frequency between 12:00 PM and 1:00 AM (31%).

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis clinical isolates identified as tetracycline resistant do not exhibit resistance in vitro: whole-genome sequencing reveals a mutation in porB but no evidence for tetracycline resistance genes.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, C E; Seth-Smith, H M B; Van Der Pol, B; Harris, S R; Thomson, N R; Cutcliffe, L T; Clarke, I N

    2013-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide and the leading cause of preventable blindness in developing countries. Tetracycline is commonly the drug of choice for treating C. trachomatis infections, but cases of antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates have previously been reported. Here, we used antibiotic resistance assays and whole-genome sequencing to interrogate the hypothesis that two clinical isolates (IU824 and IU888) have acquired mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. Immunofluorescence staining was used to identify C. trachomatis inclusions in cell cultures grown in the presence of tetracycline; however, only antibiotic-free control cultures yielded the strong fluorescence associated with the presence of chlamydial inclusions. Infectivity was lost upon passage of harvested cultures grown in the presence of tetracycline into antibiotic-free medium, so we conclude that these isolates were phenotypically sensitive to tetracycline. Comparisons of the genome and plasmid sequences for the two isolates with tetracycline-sensitive strains did not identify regions of low sequence identity that could accommodate horizontally acquired resistance genes, and the tetracycline binding region of the 16S rRNA gene was identical to that of the sensitive control strains. The porB gene of strain IU824, however, was found to contain a premature stop codon not previously identified, which is noteworthy but unlikely to be related to tetracycline resistance. In conclusion, we found no evidence of tetracycline resistance in the two strains investigated, and it seems most likely that the small, aberrant inclusions previously identified resulted from the high chlamydial load used in the original antibiotic resistance assays.

  11. Characterization of invasive Neisseria meningitidis from Atlantic Canada, 2009 to 2013: With special reference to the nonpolysaccharide vaccine targets (PorA, factor H binding protein, Neisseria heparin-binding antigen and Neisseria adhesin A)

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Raymond SW; Law, Dennis KS; Gad, Rita R; Mailman, Tim; German, Gregory; Needle, Robert

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) has always been a major cause of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in Canada. With the successful implementation of a meningitis C conjugate vaccine, the majority of IMD in Canada is now caused by MenB. OBJECTIVE: To investigate IMD case isolates in Atlantic Canada from 2009 to 2013. Data were analyzed to determine the potential coverage of the newly licensed MenB vaccine. METHODS: Serogroup, serotype and serosubtype antigens were determined from IMD case isolates. Clonal analysis was performed using multilocus sequence typing. The protein-based vaccine antigen genes were sequenced and the predicted peptides were investigated. RESULTS: The majority of the IMD isolates were MenB (82.5%, 33 of 40) and, in particular, sequence type (ST)-154 B:4:P1.4 was responsible for 47.5% (19 of 40) of all IMD case isolates in Atlantic Canada. Isolates of this clone expressed the PorA antigen P1.4 and possessed the nhba genes encoding for Neisseria heparin-binding antigen peptide 2, which together matched exactly with two of the four components of the new four-component meningococcal B vaccine. Nineteen MenB isolates had two antigenic matches, another five MenB and one meningitis Y isolate had one antigenic match. This provided 75.8% (25 of 33) potential coverage for MenB, or a 62.5% (25 of 40) overall potential coverage for IMD. CONCLUSION: From 2009 to 2013, IMD in Atlantic Canada was mainly caused by MenB and, in particular, the B:4:P1.4 ST-154 clone, which accounted for 47.5% of all IMD case isolates. The new four-component meningococcal B vaccine appeared to offer adequate coverage against MenB in Atlantic Canada. PMID:26744586

  12. Eficacia de la detección sistemática de la gripe en las fronteras en los viajeros que llegan por vía aérea*

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Patricia C.; Jennings, Lance C.; Duncan, Alasdair R.; Brunton, Cheryl R.; Baker, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Se midieron los síntomas y la prevalencia de la gripe (también llamada influenza), así como la eficacia del mecanismo de detección sistemática basado en los síntomas y la temperatura para diagnosticar la gripe en viajeros internacionales que llegaban por vía aérea. Métodos. El presente estudio transversal recopiló datos de viajeros que llegaron al aeropuerto internacional de Christchurch (Nueva Zelandia) en el invierno del 2008 mediante un cuestionario de salud, medición de la temperatura y toma de muestras de las vías respiratorias. Resultados. De los viajeros, 15 976 (68%) entregaron los formularios completos. De ellos, 17% notificaron al menos un síntoma de gripe; los síntomas más comunes fueron rinorrea o congestión nasal (10%) y tos (8%). Se tomaron muestras de las vías respiratorias de 3 769 viajeros. La prevalencia estimada de la gripe fue de 1,1% (4% en las personas sintomáticas, 0,2% en las asintomáticas). La sensibilidad de los criterios de detección varió de 84% para “cualquier síntoma” a 3% para la fiebre de 37,8 °C o mayor. El valor predictivo positivo fue bajo para todos los criterios. Conclusiones. El método de detección sistemática en las fronteras mediante la autonotificación de síntomas y la toma de la temperatura presenta limitaciones para impedir que una gripe pandémica entre en un país. Basarse en criterios como “cualquier síntoma” o la tos haría que se investigara a varias personas no infectadas, mientras que algunas personas infectadas pasarían inadvertidas. Si se usaran criterios más específicos como la fiebre, la mayoría de las personas infectadas entrarían en el país a pesar del mecanismo de detección.

  13. Comparative Efficacy of Small Commercial Traps for the Capture of Adult Phlebotomus papatasi

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    temperature ranges from 20° C in September through April, to 30° C in May...might be due to an unsuitable heat pattern ( temperatures either too low or high) or because of an insufficient capture mechanism. The best...effective in the capture of Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia intermedia? An evaluation of synthetic human odor as an attractant

  14. Phlebotomine Vectors of Human Disease.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-30

    different. We refrain from naming this specimen until more material becomes available. 12. Lutzomyia olmeca bicolor Fairchild and Theodor 1971...Castillo (1958) and Arzube (1960). Lutzomyia olmeca bicolor is the suspected vector of Leishmania mexicana aristedesi among rodents and marsupials in

  15. Vectors of Leishmania braziliensis in the Petén, Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Rowton, E; de Mata, M; Rizzo, N; Navin, T; Porter, C

    1991-12-01

    During a 1-year study, 13 species of sand fly were collected in bite-landing collections on human attractants in Tikal, Guatemala. Using isoenzyme analysis, Leishmania braziliensis was identified among isolates from Lutzomyia ovallesi, Lu. panamensis, and Lu. ylephiletor. Lutzomyia ovallesi, Lu. shannoni, and Lu. cruciata were found with flagellates whose isoenzyme patterns matched unidentified flagellates isolated from a patient with mucosal lesions.

  16. Sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Parque do Sabiá complex, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Elisângela de Azevedo Silva; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Limongi, Jean Ezequiel; Paula, Márcia Beatriz Cardoso de

    2011-01-01

    Between April 2003 and May 2009 phlebotomine sandflies were collected in Parque do Sabiá complex, Uberlândia municipality, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, using CDC and Shannon traps. The objective was to associate the sandfly species captured to the risk of the transmission of leishmaniasis in the municipality. The 126 captured specimens belonging to six species of phlebotomine, among which Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) davisi (Root, 1934) predominated with 113 specimens (89.7%). The remaining captured species were Lutzomyia (Pintomyia) mamedei Oliveira, Afonso, Dias & Brazil, 1994 - five specimens (3.9%); Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) flaviscutellata (Mangabeira, 1942) - four specimens (3.2%); Lutzomyia lenti (Mangabeira, 1938) - two specimens (1.6%); Brumptomyia avellari (Costa Lima, 1932) - one specimen (0.8%); and Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho, 1939) - one specimen (0.8%). The collection of species that may be involved in the transmission of Leishmania reveals the need for continuous entomological surveillance.

  17. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and Leishmania infection in Gafanhoto Park, Divinópolis, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Margonari, C; Soares, R P; Andrade-Filho, J D; Xavier, D C; Saraiva, L; Fonseca, A L; Silva, R A; Oliveira, M E; Borges, E C; Sanguinette, C C; Melo, M N

    2010-11-01

    The potential of Gafanhoto Park as an American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) focus was evaluated by examination of sand fly vectors of the Leishmania parasite. This forest remnant is located in a periurban area of Divin6polis, Brazil, where autochthonous cases of ACL have been reported. Sand fly populations were monitored over a 2-yr period (2006-2008) by using light traps (HP and Shannon). During systematic collections with HP traps, 824 specimens in total (342 males and 482 females) of 21 species were captured. Most prevalent species were as follows: Brumptomyia brumpti (Larrouse), Lutzomyia aragaoi (Costa Lima), Lutzomyia lutziana (Costa Lima), Lutzomyia sordellii (Shannon & Del Ponte), and Lutzomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho). Using Shannon traps, 257 specimens representing 15 species were collected (159 females and 98 males), with a high prevalence of L. whitmani and Lutzomyia neivai (Pinto), both vectors of Leishmania braziliensis (Vianna). To ascertain the level of natural infection, a sample of females captured in Shannon traps was assayed for the presence of Leishmania by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, where 39% of insects were positive. The most infected species was L. whitmani (29 sand flies; 18.2%), followed by L. neivai (21; 13.2%), Lutzomyia christenseni (Young & Duncan) (five; 3.1%), Lutzomyia pessoai (Coutinho & Barreto) (three; 1.9%), L. aragaoi (one; 0.6%), Lutzomyia fischeri (Pinto) (one; 0.6%), Lutzomyia lenti (Mangabeira) (one; 0.6%), L. lutziana (one; 0.6%), and Lutzomyia monticula (Costa Lima) (one; 0.6%). The finding of potential and incriminated vectors naturally infected with Leishmania reinforces the need of epidemiologic surveillance in the area.

  18. Evidence for anthropophily in five species of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from northern Colombia, revealed by molecular identification of bloodmeals.

    PubMed

    Paternina, Luís E; Verbel-Vergara, Daniel; Romero-Ricardo, Luís; Pérez-Doria, Alveiro; Paternina-Gómez, Margaret; Martínez, Lily; Bejarano, Eduar E

    2016-01-01

    Identification of the bloodmeal sources of phlebotomine sand flies is fundamental to determining which species are anthropophilic and understanding the transmission of Leishmania parasites in natural epidemiological settings. The objective of this study was to identify sand fly bloodmeals in the mixed leishmaniasis focus of the department of Sucre, northern Colombia. In all 141 engorged female sand flies were analyzed, after being captured in intradomiciliary, peridomiciliary and extradomiciliary habitats with Shannon and CDC traps and by active searching in diurnal resting sites. Bloodmeals were identified by sequencing and analysis of a 358bp fragment of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome b (CYB) and a 330bp fragment of the nuclear gene prepronociceptin (PNOC). Using both genes 105 vertebrate bloodmeals were identified, with an efficiency of 72% for CYB but only 7% for PNOC. Ten species of vertebrates were identified as providing bloodmeal sources for 8 sand fly species: Homo sapiens (Lutzomyia evansi, Lutzomyia panamensis, Lutzomyia micropyga, Lutzomyia shannoni and Lutzomyia atroclavata), Equus caballus (L. evansi, L. panamensis and Lutzomyia cayennensis cayennensis), Equus asinus (L. evansi and L. panamensis), Bos taurus (L. evansi, L. panamensis and L. c. cayennensis), Tamandua mexicana (L. shannoni and Lutzomyia trinidadensis), Proechimys guyanensis (L. evansi, L. panamensis and L. c. cayennensis), Mabuya sp. (Lutzomyia micropyga), Anolissp. (L. micropyga), Sus scrofa (L. evansi and Lutzomyia gomezi) and Gallus gallus (L. evansi). Cattle, donkeys, humans and pigs were significantly more important than other animals (P=0.0001) as hosts of L. evansi, this being the most abundant sand fly species. The five Lutzomyia species in which blood samples of human origin were detected included L. micropyga and L. atroclavata, constituting the first evidence of anthropophily in both species.

  19. Spatial distribution and environmental factors associated to phlebotomine fauna in a border area of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mato Grosso do Sul has been undergoing a process of urbanization which results in loss of native vegetation. This withdrawal makes vectors of man and domestic animals closer, causing changes in the epidemiology of diseases such as American Visceral Leishmaniasis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the phlebotomine fauna and environmental issues related to the transmission of AVL in Ponta Porã, Mato Grosso do Sul, between 2009 and 2010. Methods Vegetation of the urban area was evaluated by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI). Results The results showed that the phlebotomine fauna of the city consists of five species, especially Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912), the vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum. Predominance of males was observed. The insects were captured in greater quantity in the intradomicile. Lu. longipalpis was the most frequent and abundant species, present throughout the year, with a peak population after the rainy season. Vectors can be found in high amounts in forest and disturbed environments. Conclusions The finding of Lu. longipalpis in regions with little vegetation and humidity suggests that the species is adapted to different sorts of environmental conditions, demonstrating its close association with man and the environment it inhabits. The tourist feature of Ponta Porã reinforces its epidemiological importance as a vulnerable city. The geographical location, bordering Paraguay through dry border, makes possible the existence of a corridor of vectors and infected dogs between the two countries. PMID:24898032

  20. Taxonomy and Biology of Phlebotomine Vectors of Human Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-30

    Report) IS. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on ,ever°o side If necessary and Identify by block n,mbor) Sand fly Lutzomyia Phlebotominae...ember, 1985, yielded 19 Lutzomyia species. The previously unknown females of Lu. pelloni and Lu. viannamartinsi were collected and an apparent new species...cv, :AN FIG~. ?fAIZAMP OF LimIA 10 A (-Mlc~lOj6C-𔃾i such exotic species are permitted. Lutzomyia vexator is presently being reared at the University

  1. Studies of Phlebotomine Sand Flies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-31

    Brazil. 2. Lutzomyia ( Trichophoromyia ) n. sp. Acta Amazonica (in press). 5 PERSONNEL SUPPORTED ON PROJECT D.G. Young, Ph.D., Assistant Research...Fly Lutzomyia Phlebo tominae Leishmaniasis 2. AssrN ACr (M.mA& am ree "mi N nFeey ad Identify by block number) The Technical Bulletin on the...Two other papers, based on field work near Manaus, Brazil in 1979, are in press. A proven vector of leishmania- sis, Lutzomyia wellcomei, and 39 other

  2. Por los Ninos (For the Children): Education of Undocumented Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Elena R.; Team, Linda B.

    Published as a special project of Texas IMPACT and the Texas Conference of Churches, this booklet outlines legal aspects of the education of undocumented children, lists moral and practical reasons for educating them, provides reasons for changing the Texas law which prohibits use of state funds for education of children who are not legally…

  3. La busqueda textual por computadora (Textual Search by Computer)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Ned J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the use of the computer program EDIT for textual searches to locate a certain programmed word or word root. In the examples explained here, the vocabulary search is performed on poetry and allows examination of the metaphorical and conceptual poetic atmosphere achieved through word use. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  4. Decade of Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez, Por Ahora

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    controversial expansion of control was seen with Venezuela’s state-owned oil company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. ( PDVSA ), which, to this day has been...grew in response corruption reports related to the siphoning off money from PDVSA . In 2002, pro-Hugo Chavez groups, ‘Chavistas,’ engaged in...protest.16 Within a few days, the counter-coup facilitated Chavez’s return to power but problems remained. PDVSA witnessed a devastating strike

  5. Sandfly (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) species diversity in an urban area of the municipality of Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Oscar Fernando Mikery; León, Julio Cesar Rojas; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo Alfonso; Vera, Alfredo Castillo

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring phlebotomine sandflies in urban areas is key for epidemiological studies in susceptible populations. This paper describes sandfly fauna that were present in an urban area of the municipality of Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico, and were captured with Shannon and CDC light traps. During February and March of 2014, 1,442 sandflies were captured, specifically Lutzomyia cruciata (Coquillet) (98.8%), Lutzomyia cayennensis cayennensis (Floch and Abonnenc) (0.8%), Lutzomyia chiapanensis (Dampf) (0.3%) and Lutzomyia atulapai (De León) (0.1%). Lu. cruciata was the most abundant and the most frequently trapped species. This is the first record of its remarkable ability to adapt to urban green areas. The three other species trapped represent new records of geographic distribution for the study region. These results indicate the need to establish measures for reducing both human contact with this vector and the risk of possible sites of infection. PMID:25742275

  6. Sandfly (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) species diversity in an urban area of the municipality of Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Oscar Fernando Mikery; León, Julio Cesar Rojas; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo Alfonso; Vera, Alfredo Castillo

    2015-02-01

    Monitoring phlebotomine sandflies in urban areas is key for epidemiological studies in susceptible populations. This paper describes sandfly fauna that were present in an urban area of the municipality of Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico, and were captured with Shannon and CDC light traps. During February and March of 2014, 1,442 sandflies were captured, specifically Lutzomyia cruciata (Coquillet) (98.8%), Lutzomyia cayennensis cayennensis (Floch and Abonnenc) (0.8%), Lutzomyia chiapanensis (Dampf) (0.3%) and Lutzomyia atulapai (De León) (0.1%). Lu. cruciata was the most abundant and the most frequently trapped species. This is the first record of its remarkable ability to adapt to urban green areas. The three other species trapped represent new records of geographic distribution for the study region. These results indicate the need to establish measures for reducing both human contact with this vector and the risk of possible sites of infection.

  7. Sandfly (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) species diversity in an urban area of the municipality of Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Oscar Fernando Mikery; León, Julio Cesar Rojas; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo Alfonso; Vera, Alfredo Castillo

    2015-02-03

    Monitoring phlebotomine sandflies in urban areas is key for epidemiological studies in susceptible populations. This paper describes sandfly fauna that were present in an urban area of the municipality of Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico, and were captured with Shannon and CDC light traps. During February and March of 2014, 1,442 sandflies were captured, specifically Lutzomyia cruciata (Coquillet) (98.8%), Lutzomyia cayennensis cayennensis (Floch and Abonnenc) (0.8%), Lutzomyia chiapanensis (Dampf) (0.3%) and Lutzomyia atulapai (De León) (0.1%). Lu. cruciata was the most abundant and the most frequently trapped species. This is the first record of its remarkable ability to adapt to urban green areas. The three other species trapped represent new records of geographic distribution for the study region. These results indicate the need to establish measures for reducing both human contact with this vector and the risk of possible sites of infection.

  8. World Reference Center for Arboviruses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-07

    G.B., Corn, J.L. and Nettles, V.F. Vesicular stomatitis virus Nev Jersey serotypes Growth in and transmission by Lutzomyia shannoni (Diptera...of the New Jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus in a suspected sand fly vector, Lutzomyia shannoni (Diptera: Psychodidae). Am. J. Trop. Med... Temperature - and humidity- dependent longevity of unfed adult Hyalomma truncatum (Acari: Ixodidae). J. Med. Ent. 30:467-471, 1993. Wilson, M.L

  9. Síndrome del Outlet Torácico: ¿Una Patología Siempre Quirúrgica? Análisis de una Serie de 31 Cirugías Realizadas por Vía Supraclavicular Serie clínica

    PubMed Central

    Socolovsky, Mariano; Di Masi, Gilda; Binaghi, Daniela; Campero, Álvaro; Páez, Miguel Domínguez; Dubrovsky, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El síndrome de outlet torácico es una compresión del plexo braquial que suscita polémica. Se clasifica en Outlet Torácico Verdadero o neurogénico (OTV) y Outlet Torácico Disputado o no neurogénico (OTD). El primero presenta síntomas motores en la mano, mientras que el segundo sólo síntomas sensitivos en el miembro superior. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los resultados obtenidos en una serie de 31 cirugías. Métodos: Se analizaron las cirugías de nervios efectuadas entre 2003-2012, tomando los diagnósticos de outlet torácico cuyo período de seguimiento post-operatorio mínimo fuera de 6 meses. Se buscaron los siguientes datos: edad, sexo, presencia de síntomas sensitivos y/o motores, clasificación, resultado de los estudios neurofisiológicos y de imágenes, resultado de la cirugía, complicaciones post-operatorias y recidivas. Resultados: Se incluyeron 31 cirugías realizadas en 30 pacientes, 9 OTV (8 mujeres) de 24.3 años, y 21 con OTD (18 mujeres) de 37.4 años de edad en promedio. Un 90% presentaron alteraciones neurofisiológicas preoperatorias, y 66,6% imagenológicas. En el intraoperatorio, el 100% de los OTV presentó una alteración anatómica relacionada con la sintomatología, hecho observado sólo en el 36.7% de los OTD operados. El 87,5% de los OTV mejoraron sensitivamente, mientras que 77,7% mejoraron la atrofia. Por el contrario, 45.4% de los OTD mejoraron permanentemente, 36.3% no tuvieron cambios, 13.6% mejoraron transitoriamente y 4.5% (un caso) empeoró. Las complicaciones post-operatorias fueron más frecuentes aunque transitorias en el grupo de OTV (3 casos sobre 9 operados, 33.3%) que en los OTD (3 casos sobre 22, un 13.6%). Conclusión: El OTV suele mayormente mejorar luego de la cirugía, igual que el OTD aunque en una proporción mucho menor. Estos hallazgos coinciden con otros reportes recientes de esta patología. PMID:25165614

  10. A Comparison Between PSRK and GERG-2004 Equation of State for Simulation of Non-Isothermal Compressible Natural Gases Mixed with Hydrogen in Pipelines / Porównanie równań stanu opracowanych według metody PSRK oraz GERG-2004 wykorzystanych do symulacji zachowania ściśliwych mieszanin gazu ziemnego i wodoru w rurociągach, w warunkach przepływów nie-izotermicznych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uilhoorn, Frits E.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, the GERG-2004 equation of state based on a multi-fluid approximation explicit in the reduced Helmholtz energy is compared with the predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong group contribution method. In the analysis, both equations of state are compared by simulating a non-isothermal transient flow of natural gas and mixed hydrogen-natural gas in pipelines. Besides the flow conditions also linepack-energy and energy consumption of the compressor station are computed. The gas flow is described by a set of partial differential equations resulting from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. A pipeline section of the Yamal-Europe gas pipeline on Polish territory has been selected for the case study. W artykule dokonano porównania wyników uzyskanych przy wykorzystaniu równania stanu GERG- 2004 opartego na jawnym przybliżeniu wyników dla wielu cieczy w oparciu o zredukowaną energię Helmhotza oraz wyników uzyskanych w oparciu o metodę Soave-Redlich Kwonga. Obydwa równania stanu porównano poprzez przeprowadzenie symulacji stanów przejściowych przepływów gazu ziemnego oraz mieszanin gazu ziemnego i wodoru w rurociągach w warunkach przepływów nie-izotermicznych. Oprócz warunków przepływu, określono energię w napełnionym układzie oraz zużycie energii przez stację kompresora. Przepływ gazu opisano zbiorem równań różniczkowych cząstkowych, wyprowadzonych w oparciu o prawa zachowania masy, pędu i energii. Jako studium przypadku wybrano fragment rurociągu jamalskiego (Yamal- Europa) przebiegającego przez terytorium Polski.

  11. IDENTIFICATION OF SANDFLIES (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) BLOOD MEALS IN AN ENDEMIC LEISHMANIASIS AREA IN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    TANURE, Aline; PEIXOTO, Jennifer Cunha; AFONSO, Margarete Martins dos Santos; DUARTE, Rosemere; PINHEIRO, Aimara da Costa; COELHO, Suedali Villas Bôas; BARATA, Ricardo Andrade

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this study was to identify blood meals of female sandflies captured in the municipality of Governador Valadares, an endemic area of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. From May 2011 to January 2012, captures were performed using HP light traps in four districts. There were 2,614 specimens (2,090 males and 524 females) captured; 97 engorged females were identified belonging to the species Lutzomyia longipalpis (82.1%) and Lutzomyia cortelezzii (17.9%). Considering simple and mixed feeding, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed a predominance of chicken blood (43.6%) in Lutzomyia longipalpis, showing the important role that chickens exert around the residential areas of Governador Valadares. This finding increases the chances of sandflies contact with other vertebrates and consequently the risk of leishmaniasis transmission. PMID:26422156

  12. Peridomiciliary Breeding Sites of Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an Endemic Area of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Vivaldo Pim; Ferreira, Adelson Luiz; Biral dos Santos, Claudiney; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Ferreira, Gabriel Eduardo Melim; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in areas modified by humans indicates that phlebotomine sand fly vectors breed close to human habitations. Potential peridomiciliary breeding sites of phlebotomines were sampled in an area of transmission of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in Southeastern Brazil. Three concentric circles rounding houses and domestic animal shelters, with radii of 20, 40, and 60 m, defined the area to be monitored using adult emergence traps. Of the 67 phlebotomines collected, Lutzomyia intermedia comprised 71.6%; Lutzomyia schreiberi, 20.9%; and Lutzomyia migonei, 4.5%. The predominance of L. intermedia, the main species suspected of transmitting L. (V.) braziliensis in Southeastern Brazil, indicates its participation in the domiciliary transmission of ACL, providing evidence that the domiciliary ACL transmission cycle might be maintained by phlebotomines that breed close to human habitations. This finding might also help in planning measures that would make the peridomiciliary environment less favorable for phlebotomine breeding sites. PMID:23091196

  13. Diversity and distribution of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a military area in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Luís Henrique Monteiro; Albuquerque, Maria Ivonei Carvalho; da Rocha, Liliane Coelho; Pinheiro, Francimeire Gomes; Franco, Antonia Maria Ramos

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the distribution, ecotopes and fauna diversity of sandflies captured in five training bases on a military reserve in Manaus, state of Amazonas (AM). A total of 10,762 specimens were collected, which were distributed among 58 species, with the highest number recorded at Base Instruction 1 (BI1). A higher rate of species richness was found at the Base Instruction Boina Rajada and low levels of diversity associated with a high abundance index with the clear dominance of Lutzomyia umbratilis, Lutzomyia ruii and Lutzomyia anduzei were found at BI1. The abundance of Lu. umbratilis raises the possibility of outbreaks of American cutaneous leishmaniasis by the main vector of the disease in AM. PMID:23903983

  14. See the World on the Internet: Tips for Parents of Young Readers--and "Surfers" = Vea el mundo por Internet: Ideas por padres de jovenes lectores y exploradores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jeanette

    Regardless of whether a parent has Internet access at home, it is essential that parents learn with their children and be aware of where their travels on the Internet are taking them. Many libraries have Internet workshops for parents or children or both. In the excitement of looking at sites, children may not even realize they are reading. Many…

  15. Enzyme Mini-Test for Field Identification of Leishmania Isolates from U.S. Military Personnel.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-15

    364 NWC LMA-G Man Keithly Brazil UISS150492, WR384, WR421 563 NWC LMA-G Lutzomyia Evans Brazil PH8, LV1O 561 NW LHH Coendou Evans Panama LV42 206 NWC... Lutzomyia UNK Brazil CLOO2A NWC LMM-P Man Tesh Colombia Sanchez, Y-JS CLOI3A NWC LBP Man Tesh Colombia Posado, Y-BP CLOOSA NWC LBP Man Tesh Colombia...Cell buffers 2-5 and reaction buffers B-G can be pre- packaged, sealed and stored at room temperature in- definitely. 2. Combine the buffer components

  16. Detection of Bartonella bacilliformis by Real-Time PCR in Naturally Infected Sand Flies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Probe/Primer Data and tested. Lutzomyia verrucarum sand flies were collected from an endemic focus of bartonellosis in and around Caraz, Ancash...14 Real-Time PCR………………………………………………………….15 Annealing Temperature and Primer Design …………………………….16 Probe Selection TaqMan® Probe...results by houses. Table 7. Field sample results. List of Figures Figure 1. Correlation of bartonellosis cases with Lutzomyia verrucarum

  17. The sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) of a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ilhéus, State of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, A C; Vilela, M L; Souza, N A; Andrade-Coelho, C A; Barbosa, A F; Firmo, A L; Rangel, E F

    1996-01-01

    The municipality of Ilhéus, State of Bahia, has a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis where entomological studies were carried out to determine the sand fly species and their habits. Lutzomyia migonei, L. sallesi, L. tupynambai, L. schreiberi, L. intermedia, L. whitmani, L. yuilli yuilli, L. fischeri, L. pessoai, L. shannoni and L. misionensis were identified. Lutzomyia whitmani was the predominant species. Specimens were collected indoors, at peridomestic sites, in the cocoa plantations and in other types of collections. Females fed readily on humans and were attracted to domestic animals. Our evidence suggests that L. whitmani is a probable vector.

  18. Ensenando El Espanol por Medio de Accion (Teaching Spanish through Action).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Bertha

    A teaching guide containing 102 elementary to intermediate level Spanish lessons is presented. The lessons are based on the Total Physical Response technique of second language teaching. They follow the stages of first language acquisition: listening, speaking, and reading. Each of the ten units contains a list of new vocabulary words, individual…

  19. Master equipment list 500 CFM portable exhauster POR-005 skid C

    SciTech Connect

    KRISKOVICH, J.R.

    1999-07-08

    The Master Equipment List (MEL) lists all the major components of the 500 cfm exhauster PORO5. The purpose of this Master Equipment List is to provide basic information and references to other documents for the listed components.

  20. Teaching Probability for Conceptual Change (La Ensenanza de la Probabilidad por Cambio Conceptual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Cesar Saenz

    1998-01-01

    Presents a theoretical proposal of a methodology for the teaching of probability theory. Discusses the importance of the epistemological approach of Lakatos and the perspective of the conceptual change. Discusses research using a proposed didactic method with Spanish high school students (N=6). Concludes that significant differences on all…

  1. Producao d Dijatos por Dupla Troca de Pomeron Exclusiva no Experimento D0

    SciTech Connect

    Murilo Santana Rangel

    2008-01-01

    The first search for exclusive diffractive dijet production with invariant mass ≳ 100 GeV in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider is performed. The set of data used is the Run IIa, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 30 pb-1 of p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV taken with the D0 detector. At 95% CL, an upper limit for the ratio between the number of diffractive exclusive events and the number of non diffractive events is set to be 7.5 x 10-6, excluding two of the three models proposed to explain this production.

  2. Abuso sexual por parte de los empleados del colegio (Sexual Misconduct by School Employees). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goorian, Brad

    This digest in Spanish defines sexual misconduct and offers guidelines that school boards and administrators can initiate to protect students from unwanted sexual behavior. The law recognizes two types of sexual misconduct: quid pro quo, when a school employee grants a student a favor in exchange for sexual gratification, and hostile environment,…

  3. El Titulo IX y La Discriminacion por Sexo (Title IX and Sex Discrimination).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance. This brochure outlines the responsibilities of education programs and activities covered by Title IX, the responsibilities of the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) in enforcing…

  4. Renovando la Esperanza por una Educacion sin Exclusiones (Rekindling the Hope for an Education without Exclusion).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revista Interamericana de Educacion de Adultos, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Articles in this issue, written in Spanish, focus on the following: current status and outlook of youth and adult education; opening statement of the 50th anniversary commemoration; regional framework for the education of youth and adults in Latin America and the Caribbean; interculturalism and the education of youth and adults; participation of…

  5. Pulsaciones excitadas por la quema de hidrógeno en enanas blancas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camisassa, M. E.; Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.

    2016-08-01

    Recent works show that low-mass white dwarfs derived from low-metallicity progenitors, in the absence of third dredge-up episodes during the asymptotic giant branch, are born with a hydrogen envelope thick enough to make stable hydrogen shell burning the most important energy source even at low luminosities. This extra source of energy delays the cooling times of these white dwarfs. Furthermore, in this type of stars some pulsational -modes could be excited by the epsilon mechanism due to the hydrogen shell burning. Motivated by these results, we decided to explore the pulsational properties of this type of stars, aimed at constraining hydrogen shell burning and the occurrence of third dredge-up during the AGB evolution of the progenitor stars. For this purpose, we have constructed nonadiabatic pulsation models of white dwarfs from low-metallicity progenitors with . Our calculations show that some modes are excited due to hydrogen shell burning.

  6. Microbicidas Metodo de Prevencion en VIH/SIDA Controlado por Mujeres.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Cindy; Torres, Viviana; Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian

    2009-03-01

    HIV/AIDS continues to expand throughout the world, and in recent times has had a severe impact on the number of women living with HIV. Access to methods of prevention for HIV/AIDS around the world is limited and for many women may not be feasible. Examples of such methods are sexual abstinence, which though recognized as an effective method of prevention is difficult for many women to achieve. Mutual fidelity is another option, but many women cannot control the sexual behavior of their partners. Finally, the male condom continues to be an available method of HIV prevention for sexually active people. However, in many places, gender inequality, social norms, and economic disparities severely limit women's capacity to negotiate the use of a condom with their partner. For this reason, an urgent need exists to develop a product for the prevention of HIV/AIDS that can be handled by women. Microbicides, products that can reduce HIV risk when applied intravaginally, hold promise for stopping the advance of HIV/AIDS, especially when considering that women can make their own decisions about whether to use them when other methods of prevention are not available. The objective of the current literature review was to understand the scientific advances related to microbicides in the prevention of HIV/AIDS in women through the analysis of available literature in this area. Interest in this topic emerged from the need to contribute to women's health and HIV/AIDS prevention. To achieve this review's objective, a search was carried out in multiple databases, including OVID, PUBMED, PROQUEST, and CINAHL, as well as published materials from organizations related to this area such as UNAIDS and CONASIDA, and literature available from the Internet. Upon completion of the literature review, it was concluded that microbicides are an effective method for preventing HIV/AIDS for women as well as their partners. Although they have a high level of acceptance among the female population, the majority of microbicides are still in clinical studies, requiring further evaluation for their safe use in humans. There are 3 microbicides in the final phases of clinical studies that will soon be available on the market. One of these was found to be 60% effective in protecting against the transmission of HIV and was used by women in 50% of their sexual activity, which resulted in avoiding approximately 2.5 million new HIV infections in men, women, and children over a 3-year period.

  7. Home before You Know It = De regres en casa en un dos por tres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida Health Communications, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The arrival of a newborn requires a great deal of adjustment. Intended for new and expectant parents, this booklet and companion video provide practical advice and hands-on demonstrations of the essentials of mother and baby care, from birth to the first visit to the pediatrician. The first part of the booklet, which comes in both English- and…

  8. El Libro de la Escritura por Pinguino Tinto (The Writing Book, by Inky Penguin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ron

    Presented completely in Spanish and intended for elementary level students, this book offers 12 writing ideas and several suggestions on how students can make a book using their writing. Each writing idea is presented with a brief description (addressed to the student), several examples of student writing, and a blank page on which to write.…

  9. Looking for a Job: Step by Step = Buscando Trabajo: Paso por Paso.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Patricia

    This bilingual document provides guidelines and learning activities to assist migrant workers in looking for a job. The document covers the following areas: (1) a checklist providing an overview of job search skills; (2) developing a fact sheet of personal information; (3) listing good work qualities; (4) identifying references and securing…

  10. Evolución de una protuberancia observada por el HASTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luoni, M. L.; Francile, C.

    Prominence eruptions are one of the most spectacular manifestations of solar activity; in addition to flares and coronal mass ejections. Both filaments and prominences are chromospheric material suspended in the corona by the magnetic field. Hence their importance as tracers of field ejections. Some parts of their magnetic structure are not well understood; especially with regard to the loss of stability. On 06 December 2010 the H-Alpha Telescope for Argentina (HASTA) observed a prominence in the eastern solar limb including when part of it was ejected. In this paper the evolution of the filament is analyzed; its structure before and after the eruption; determining parameters that characterize it from HASTA data. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  11. Microbicidas Metodo de Prevencion en VIH/SIDA Controlado por Mujeres

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Cindy; Torres, Viviana; Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS continues to expand throughout the world, and in recent times has had a severe impact on the number of women living with HIV. Access to methods of prevention for HIV/AIDS around the world is limited and for many women may not be feasible. Examples of such methods are sexual abstinence, which though recognized as an effective method of prevention is difficult for many women to achieve. Mutual fidelity is another option, but many women cannot control the sexual behavior of their partners. Finally, the male condom continues to be an available method of HIV prevention for sexually active people. However, in many places, gender inequality, social norms, and economic disparities severely limit women's capacity to negotiate the use of a condom with their partner. For this reason, an urgent need exists to develop a product for the prevention of HIV/AIDS that can be handled by women. Microbicides, products that can reduce HIV risk when applied intravaginally, hold promise for stopping the advance of HIV/AIDS, especially when considering that women can make their own decisions about whether to use them when other methods of prevention are not available. The objective of the current literature review was to understand the scientific advances related to microbicides in the prevention of HIV/AIDS in women through the analysis of available literature in this area. Interest in this topic emerged from the need to contribute to women's health and HIV/AIDS prevention. To achieve this review's objective, a search was carried out in multiple databases, including OVID, PUBMED, PROQUEST, and CINAHL, as well as published materials from organizations related to this area such as UNAIDS and CONASIDA, and literature available from the Internet. Upon completion of the literature review, it was concluded that microbicides are an effective method for preventing HIV/AIDS for women as well as their partners. Although they have a high level of acceptance among the female population, the majority of microbicides are still in clinical studies, requiring further evaluation for their safe use in humans. There are 3 microbicides in the final phases of clinical studies that will soon be available on the market. One of these was found to be 60% effective in protecting against the transmission of HIV and was used by women in 50% of their sexual activity, which resulted in avoiding approximately 2.5 million new HIV infections in men, women, and children over a 3-year period. PMID:28111528

  12. Enfermedad diarreica aguda por Escherichia coli patógenas en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G.

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Las cepas de E. coli patógenas intestinales son causas importantes de la enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA) en niños menores de 5 años en América Latina, África y Asia y están asociadas a alta mortalidad en niños en las comunidades más pobres de África y el Sudeste Asiático. Estudios sobre el papel de las E. coli patógenas intestinales en la EDA infantil en Colombia y otros países de América Latina son limitados debido a la carencia de ensayos para detección de estos patógenos en los laboratorios clínicos de centros de salud. Estudios recientes han reportado la detección de E. coli patógenas intestinales en Colombia, siendo la E. coli enterotoxigénica la cepa más frecuentemente asociada a diarrea en niños menores de 5 años. Otros patógenos detectados en estos pacientes incluyen las E. coli enteroagregativa, enteropatógena, productora de toxina Shiga, y de adherencia difusa. Con base en estudios que reportan la presencia de E. coli productora de toxina Shiga y E. coli enteroagregativa en carnes y vegetales en supermercados, se cree que productos alimentarios contaminados contribuyen a la transmisión de estos patógenos y a la infección del huésped susceptible. Más estudios son necesarios para evaluar los mecanismos de transmisión, el impacto en la epidemiologia de la EDA, y las pautas de manejo y prevención de estos patógenos que afectan la población pediátrica en Colombia. PMID:25491457

  13. PREJUICIO Y DISTANCIA SOCIAL HACIA PERSONAS HOMOSEXUALES POR PARTE DE JÓVENES UNIVERSITARIOS

    PubMed Central

    Fernández Rodríguez, María del C.; Squiabro, José Calderón

    2014-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con el propósito de explorar actitudes de rechazo y distancia social hacia las personas gays y lesbianas (GL) en 565 universitarios. Se utilizó una escala para medir Prejuicio y otra escala para medir Distancia Social. Los participantes reflejaron niveles moderados de prejuicio y distancia social (DS) hacia las personas gays y lesbianas. Los varones (M=104.5, DT= 27.47) mostraron significativamente más prejuicio que las mujeres (M=98.8, DT= 23.41). Los hombres (M=22.7, DT= 7.00) mostraron significativamente mayor DS que las mujeres (M=21.1, DT= 5.41). Las personas que asisten con regularidad a la iglesia mostraron más prejuicio y DS que los que no asisten. Se analiza importancia de incluir el tema de la diversidad sexual a través del currículo para desmontar prejuicios hacia la comunidad homosexual. PMID:25606066

  14. The Escuela Moderna Movement of Francisco Ferrer: "Por la Verdad y la Justicia."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Geoffrey C.

    1985-01-01

    The educational theory and practice of the Escuela Modern (Modern School) movement of the Spanish educator Francisco Ferrer, born in 1850, are discussed. Two fundamental tendencies of the movement are child-centered education and education in didactic terms. (RM)

  15. Luchando por una educacion: A Qualitative Understanding of Undocumented Latina/o College Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Elvia Lorena

    2013-01-01

    The current qualitative study explored the factors and resources that motivate undocumented Latino/a college students to persist in higher education. Through the data obtained from the four qualitative open-ended survey questions, a content analysis revealed specific codes, themes, and subthemes addressing the factors and resources that motivate…

  16. Language and La Academia, If English Works, Por Que Se Emplea Espanol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonz, Jon G.

    1978-01-01

    The dynamics of Mexican American nationalism reflected in the publications of the Academia de la Nueva Raza and in a 1971 work by Ricardo Sanchez are examined in this article. The connection between language and ideology is discussed in the context of Chicano nationalist writing. (GC)

  17. Phantom of RAMSES (POR): A new Milgromian dynamicsN-body code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüghausen, Fabian; Famaey, Benoit; Kroupa, Pavel

    2015-02-01

    Since its first formulation in 1983, Milgromian dynamics (MOND) has been very successful in predicting the gravitational potential of galaxies from the distribution of baryons alone, including general scaling relations and detailed rotation curves of large statistical samples of individual galaxies covering a large range of masses and sizes. Most predictions however rely on static models, and only a handful of N-body codes have been developed over the years to investigate the consequences of the Milgromian framework for the dynamics of complex evolving dynamical systems. In this work, we present a new Milgromian N-body code, which is a customized version of the RAMSES code (Teyssier 2002) and thus comes with all its features: it includes particles and gas dynamics, and importantly allows for high spatial resolution of complex systems due to the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) technique. It further allows the direct comparison between Milgromian simulations and standard Newtonian simulations with dark matter particles. We provide basic tests of this customized code and demonstrate its performance by presenting N-body computations of dark-matter-free spherical equilibrium models as well as dark-matter-free disk galaxies in Milgromian dynamics.

  18. The PorGrow project: overall cross-national results, comparisons and implications.

    PubMed

    Millstone, E; Lobstein, T

    2007-05-01

    European policymakers need more information on policy responses to obesity that stakeholders judge effective and acceptable. The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project gathered such intelligence by interviewing key stakeholder groups in nine countries. Interviews used an innovative multi-criteria mapping (MCM) methodology that gathers quantitative and qualitative information on the stakeholders' perceptions and judgements. Aggregating across all participants, a comprehensive portfolio of policy measures, integrated into a coherent programme, would be well-supported by broad coalitions of stakeholders. Those portfolios should include measures (i) to provide improved educations in schools and to the general adult population; (ii) measures to improve access to and incentives for physical activity; (iii) measures to improve information about both foods and physical activity and (iv) changes to the supply of and demand for foodstuffs. There was little support for fiscal measures and technological 'fixes'; they were judged ineffective and unacceptable. Significant differences were found across European regions, and across different stakeholder perspectives, but not across genders. There is a strong case for improved monitoring of body mass index levels, dietary habits and physical activity. An MCM study can effectively cover several countries, rather than being confined to just one, and generate both national and cross-national policy analyses and proposals.

  19. Evaluation of Propane Combustion Traps for the Collection of Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) in Southern Israel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Ceratopogonidae) biting midges (Cilek and Hallmon 2005, Cilek et al. 2003) in the U.S.; some Lutzomyia have been collaterally collected. To our...Ashbel 1951). Average daily temperature is 20° C from the end of September to Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public

  20. Species composition and seasonal abundance of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in coffee agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Jeanneth; Virgen, Armando; Rojas, Julio Cesar; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo Alfonso; Alfredo, Castillo; Infante, Francisco; Mikery, Oscar; Marina, Carlos Felix; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio

    2014-02-01

    The composition and seasonal occurrence of sandflies were investigated in coffee agroecosystems in the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico. Insect sampling was performed on three plantations located at different altitudes: Finca Guadalupe Zajú [1,000 m above sea level (a.s.l.)], Finca Argovia (613 m a.s.l.) and Teotihuacán del Valle (429 m a.s.l.). Sandflies were sampled monthly from August 2007-July 2008 using three sampling methods: Shannon traps, CDC miniature light traps and Disney traps. Sampling was conducted for 3 h during three consecutive nights, beginning at sunset. A total of 4,387 sandflies were collected during the course of the study: 2,718 individuals in Finca Guadalupe Zajú, 605 in Finca Argovia and 1,064 in Teotihuacán del Valle. The Shannon traps captured 94.3% of the total sandflies, while the CDC light traps and Disney traps captured 4.9% and 0.8%, respectively. More females than males were collected at all sites. While the number of sandflies captured was positively correlated with temperature and relative humidity, a negative correlation was observed between sandfly numbers and rainfall. Five species of sandflies were captured: Lutzomyia cruciata , Lutzomyia texana , Lutzomyia ovallesi , Lutzomyia cratifer / undulata and Brumptomyia sp. Lu. cruciata , constituting 98.8% of the total, was the most abundant species. None of the captured sandflies was infected with Leishmania spp.

  1. Field Evaluations of Topical Arthropod Repellents in North, Central, and South America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    demonstrated that these products are effective against both Old World and NewWorld Leishmania vectors, Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) and Lutzomyia ...Amazon River where the average temperature is 27C and yearly rainfall is 3.2 m. The population is predomi- nantly a mix of European and Amerindian

  2. Acetylcholinesterase mutations and organophosphate resistance in sand flies and mosquitoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leishmaniasis is an insect-borne disease caused by several protozoan species in the genus Leishmania, which are vectored by sand fly species in the genera Phlebotomus or Lutzomyia, depending on the sand fly species geographic range. Sand fly bites and leishmaniasis significantly impacted U.S. milita...

  3. Potential for Transovarial Transmission of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus in the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an insect transmitted rhabdovirus which causes economically devastating disease in cattle and horses in the western U.S. Important insect vectors identified thus far include Lutzomyia shannoni sand flies, Simulium vittatum black flies, and Culicoides sonorensis bi...

  4. Sandfly fauna of endemic leishmaniasis foci in Anzoátegui State, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    González, R; Jorquera, A; De Sousa, L; Ledezma, E; Devera, R

    2002-01-01

    A census of the sandfly fauna was undertaken in 1993-98 in 5 endemic leishmaniasis foci situated at different altitudes in Anzoátegui State, Venezuela. From the 17 species of Lutzomyia identified, we believe that Lu. ovallesi, Lu. panamensis and Lu. gomezi are the probable vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis, while Lu. evansi might transmit visceral leishmaniasis.

  5. Species composition and seasonal abundance of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in coffee agroecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Jeanneth; Virgen, Armando; Rojas, Julio Cesar; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo Alfonso; Alfredo, Castillo; Infante, Francisco; Mikery, Oscar; Marina, Carlos Felix; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The composition and seasonal occurrence of sandflies were investigated in coffee agroecosystems in the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico. Insect sampling was performed on three plantations located at different altitudes: Finca Guadalupe Zajú [1,000 m above sea level (a.s.l.)], Finca Argovia (613 m a.s.l.) and Teotihuacán del Valle (429 m a.s.l.). Sandflies were sampled monthly from August 2007-July 2008 using three sampling methods: Shannon traps, CDC miniature light traps and Disney traps. Sampling was conducted for 3 h during three consecutive nights, beginning at sunset. A total of 4,387 sandflies were collected during the course of the study: 2,718 individuals in Finca Guadalupe Zajú, 605 in Finca Argovia and 1,064 in Teotihuacán del Valle. The Shannon traps captured 94.3% of the total sandflies, while the CDC light traps and Disney traps captured 4.9% and 0.8%, respectively. More females than males were collected at all sites. While the number of sandflies captured was positively correlated with temperature and relative humidity, a negative correlation was observed between sandfly numbers and rainfall. Five species of sandflies were captured: Lutzomyia cruciata , Lutzomyia texana , Lutzomyia ovallesi , Lutzomyia cratifer / undulata and Brumptomyia sp. Lu. cruciata , constituting 98.8% of the total, was the most abundant species. None of the captured sandflies was infected with Leishmania spp. PMID:24271002

  6. Nycthemeral Rhythm of Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a Craggy Region, Transitioning Between the Wetland and the Plateau, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Infran, J O M; Souza, D A; Fernandes, W S; Casaril, A E; Eguchi, G U; Oshiro, E T; Fernandes, C E S; Paranhos Filho, A C; Oliveira, A G

    2016-09-29

    Recording the nycthemeral rhythm of sand flies allows the evaluation of the daily activity in different ecotypes, the period of greatest activity, and their degree of anthropophily. We investigated the fauna and the rhythm of sand fly activity in an ecotourism region in Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) state, Brazil. Sand flies were captured monthly, using a Shannon trap for 24 h periods between July 2012 and June 2014. We collected 1,815 sand flies, in which Lutzomyia whitmani (=Nyssomyia whitmani, sensu Galati) and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the most abundant species during the dry season, with activity from 5 p.m.-7 a.m. and 6 p.m.-5 a.m., respectively. Both species require particular attention as vectors of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in several regions of Brazil, including MS. However, Lutzomyia dispar was more anthropophilic, and was most active between January and March, from 5 p.m. to 5 a.m. Lutzomyia misionensis (=Pintomyia misionensis, sensu Galati) was present throughout both years, active from 4 p.m. to 5 a.m. Other species were active from 5 p.m. to 6 a.m. Due to intense tourism in the months that coincide with a high number of vectors for leishmaniases in Piraputanga, it is essential to determine vector-monitoring strategies in the area by investigating sand fly rhythm while not neglecting other periods of the year when the insects are present.

  7. Nycthemeral Rhythm of Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a Craggy Region, Transitioning Between the Wetland and the Plateau, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Infran, J O M; Souza, D A; Fernandes, W S; Casaril, A E; Eguchi, G U; Oshiro, E T; Fernandes, C E S; Paranhos Filho, A C; Oliveira, A G

    2017-01-01

    Recording the nycthemeral rhythm of sand flies allows the evaluation of the daily activity in different ecotypes, the period of greatest activity, and their degree of anthropophily. We investigated the fauna and the rhythm of sand fly activity in an ecotourism region in Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) state, Brazil. Sand flies were captured monthly, using a Shannon trap for 24 h periods between July 2012 and June 2014. We collected 1,815 sand flies, in which Lutzomyia whitmani (=Nyssomyia whitmani, sensu Galati) and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the most abundant species during the dry season, with activity from 5 p.m.-7 a.m. and 6 p.m.-5 a.m., respectively. Both species require particular attention as vectors of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in several regions of Brazil, including MS. However, Lutzomyia dispar was more anthropophilic, and was most active between January and March, from 5 p.m. to 5 a.m. Lutzomyia misionensis (=Pintomyia misionensis, sensu Galati) was present throughout both years, active from 4 p.m. to 5 a.m. Other species were active from 5 p.m. to 6 a.m. Due to intense tourism in the months that coincide with a high number of vectors for leishmaniases in Piraputanga, it is essential to determine vector-monitoring strategies in the area by investigating sand fly rhythm while not neglecting other periods of the year when the insects are present.

  8. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in urban rainforest fragments, Manaus -- Amazonas State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Liliane Coelho; de Freitas, Rui Alves; Franco, Antonia Maria Ramos

    2013-05-01

    The non-flooded upland rainforest fragment in the Federal University of Amazonas Campus is considered one of the world's largest urban tropical woodland areas and Brazil's second largest one in an urban setting. It is located in the city of Manaus, State of Amazonas at 03° 04' 34″ S, 59° 57' 30″ W, in an area covering nearly 800 hectares. Forty-one (41) sand fly species belonging to genus Lutzomyia were found attaining a total of 4662 specimens collected. Lutzomyia umbratilis was the dominant species at all heights, followed by Lutzomyia anduzei and Lutzomyia claustrei. The fauna alpha diversity index showed to be 6.4, which is not much lower than that reported for areas of continuous forest in this Amazonian region. This data provides additional evidence on Phlebotomine sand flies found to transmit Leishmania and other trypanosomatids to humans and other animals circulating in this area. This is the first study being reported on sand flies collected in an urban rainforest fragment in Amazonia.

  9. World Reference Center for Arboviruses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-08

    to identify a putative alphavirus contaminating a culture of feline leukemia virus. The vaccine virus is normally non-cytopathogenic, however the... stomatitis virus New Jersey serotype: Growth in and transmission by Lutzomyia shannoni (Dipterat Psychodidae). Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 42:483-490, 1990

  10. Man-biting sand fly species and natural infection with the Leishmania promastigote in leishmaniasis-endemic areas of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Eduardo A; Kato, Hirotomo; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2014-12-01

    A countrywide surveillance of sand flies was performed to obtain information on their geographical distribution and natural infection by Leishmania protozoa in Ecuador. A total of 18,119 sand flies were collected by human landing collections during 32 years from 1982 to 2014, and 29 species were recognized. The most prevalent 10 species were Lutzomyia gomezi, Lu. robusta, Lu. hartmanni, Lu. shannoni, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. maranonensis, Lu. ayacuchensis, Lu. tortura and Lu. yuilli yuilli, and their topographical and vertical distributions were identified. Among all the sand flies, only 197 (1.09%) flies of four Lutzomyia species, Lu. gomezi, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. tortura and Lu. ayacuchensis, were positive for Leishmania. Endotrypanum, a flagellate parasite not pathogenic to humans, were detected in five Lutzomyia species, Lu. robusta, Lu. hartmanni, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. panamensis and Lu. yuilli yuilli, suggesting wide vector-ranges of Endotrypanum species. These data on the genus Lutzomyia and their natural infections with Leishmania and Endotrypanum will be useful for transmission studies and surveillance of leishmaniasis.

  11. Autochthonous Outbreak and Expansion of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis, Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Satragno, Dinora; Faral-Tello, Paula; Canneva, Bruno; Verger, Lorenzo; Lozano, Alejandra; Vitale, Edgardo; Greif, Gonzalo; Soto, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    We report an outbreak of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Uruguay. Blood specimens from 11/45 dogs tested positive for Leishmania spp. Specimens of Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies were captured; typing revealed Leishmania infantum. Our findings document an expansion of visceral leishmaniasis to southern South America and risk for vectorborne transmission to humans. PMID:28221113

  12. Autochthonous Outbreak and Expansion of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Satragno, Dinora; Faral-Tello, Paula; Canneva, Bruno; Verger, Lorenzo; Lozano, Alejandra; Vitale, Edgardo; Greif, Gonzalo; Soto, Carlos; Robello, Carlos; Basmadjián, Yester

    2017-03-01

    We report an outbreak of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Uruguay. Blood specimens from 11/45 dogs tested positive for Leishmania spp. Specimens of Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies were captured; typing revealed Leishmania infantum. Our findings document an expansion of visceral leishmaniasis to southern South America and risk for vectorborne transmission to humans.

  13. Flagellate infections of Brazilian sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae): isolation in vitro and biochemical identification of Endotrypanum and Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Arias, J R; Miles, M A; Naiff, R D; Povoa, M M; de Freitas, R A; Biancardi, C B; Castellon, E G

    1985-11-01

    Flagellate infections were found in 1,063 of 18,895 sand flies collected in the states of Amazonas, Pará, Rondonia and Acre, Brazil. Infection rates were 13.4% (species group Shannoni); 7.5% (subgenus Nyssomyia); 6.7% (subgenus Lutzomyia series Cruciata); 0.5% (genus Psychodopygus) and 3.1% for other sand flies (various subgenera). Leishmania braziliensis guyanensis and L. mexicana amazonensis were isolated, respectively, from the known vectors, Lutzomyia umbratilis and L. flaviscutellata. Single stocks of L. braziliensis-like and L. mexicana-like organisms were isolated, respectively, from L. whitmani and L. yuilli. Thirty-eight flagellate stocks, isolated by direct culture from sand flies were characterized in detail by morphology in culture, behavior in hamsters and mice and by enzyme profiles. Sixteen stocks from Lutzomyia sp. (Shannoni group) were identified as Endotrypanum schaudinni; 8 stocks from Lutzomyia sp. (Shannoni group) were identified as Endotrypanum sp.; 7 stocks from Psychodopygus ayrozai and P. paraensis were identified as Leishmania sp. previously isolated from the armadillo, Dasypus novemcinctus; 2 stocks of Trypanosoma rangeli were isolated from recently fed Lutzomyia sp. (Shannoni group) sand flies; the remaining 5 stocks from L. umbratilis and L. yuilli could not be identified. Observations suggested that Shannoni group sand flies were the natural vectors of Endotrypanum. Leishmania sp. infections in the man-biting flies P. ayrozai and P. paraensis were restricted to the midgut and associated with recent bloodmeals. Unidentified flagellates in L. umbratilis and L. yuilli were distributed throughout the digestive tract with no trace of bloodmeals.

  14. Testing the hindlimb-strength hypothesis: non-aerial locomotion by Chiroptera is not constrained by the dimensions of the femur or tibia.

    PubMed

    Riskin, Daniel K; Bertram, John E A; Hermanson, John W

    2005-04-01

    In the evolution of flight bats appear to have suffered a trade-off; they have become poor crawlers relative to terrestrial mammals. Capable walking does occur in a few disparate taxa, including the vampire bats, but the vast majority of bats are able only to shuffle awkwardly along the ground, and the morphological bases of differences in crawling ability are not currently understood. One widely cited hypothesis suggests that the femora of most bats are too weak to withstand the compressive forces that occur during terrestrial locomotion, and that the vampire bats can walk because they possess more robust hindlimb skeletons. We tested a prediction of the hindlimb-strength hypothesis: that during locomotion, the forces produced by the hindlimbs of vampire bats should be larger than those produced by the legs of poorly crawling bats. Using force plates we compared the hindlimb forces produced by two species of vampire bats that walk well, Desmodus rotundus (N=8) and Diaemus youngi (N=2), to the hindlimb forces produced during over-ground shuffling by a similarly sized bat that is a poor walker (Pteronotus parnellii; N=6). Peak hindlimb forces produced by P. parnellii were larger (ANOVA; P<0.05; N=65) and more variable (93.5+/-36.6% body weight, mean +/- s.d.) than those of D. rotundus (69.3+/-8.1%) or D. youngi (75.0+/-6.2%). Interestingly, the vertical components of peak force were equivalent among species (P>0.6), indicating similar roles for support of body weight by the hindlimbs in the three species. We also used a simple engineering model of bending stress to evaluate the support capabilities of the hindlimb skeleton from the dimensions of 113 museum specimens in 50 species. We found that the hindlimb bones of vampires are not built to withstand larger forces than those of species that crawl poorly. Our results show that the legs of poorly crawling bats should be able to withstand the forces produced during coordinated crawling of the type used by the agile

  15. Que hay de nuevo acerca de la inmersion? Un Breve Recorrido por sus Fundamentos y por las Investigaciones Actuales (What's New in Immersion? A Brief Overview of Its Bases and Present-Day Research).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra, Josu

    This discussion briefly surveys the development of the immersion method of second language teaching, outlining the central program strategies and characteristics using Curtain's and Pesola's descriptions. An overview of recent research focuses on error correction and feedback studies as an example of pedagogical-methodological evolution in this…

  16. [Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Minas Gerais].

    PubMed

    Dias, Edelberto Santos; França-Silva, João Carlos; da Silva, Jaime Costa; Monteiro, Erika Michalsky; de Paula, Kenia Maria; Gonçalves, Caroline Macedo; Barata, Ricardo Andrade

    2007-01-01

    Between January and December 2000, systematic monthly capture of phlebotomine sandflies was undertaken by means of light traps of CDC type in Brejo do Mutambal, an endemic area for American cutaneous leishmaniasis located in the municipality of Varzelândia, State of Minas Gerais. Nineteen phlebotomine species were captured, totaling 6,756 specimens. The species correlated with ACL transmission were captured in low numbers, as follows: Lutzomyia intermedia (5.1%), L. migonei (0.4%) and L. whitmani (0.1%). Lutzomyia longipalpis was the predominant species captured (34.8%), thus also suggesting a risk of visceral leishmaniasis transmission. The proportion of sandflies captured in areas surrounding homes was 91.7 % while 8.3% were captured inside homes. The interference of climatic factors (temperature, relative air humidity and rainfall) on phlebotomine population dynamics was evaluated.

  17. FIRST CASE OF AUTOCHTHONOUS HUMAN VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN THE URBAN CENTER OF RIO DE JANEIRO: CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Guilherme Almeida Rosa; Boechat, Thiago de Oliveira; Ferry, Fernando Raphael de Almeida; Pinto, Jorge Francisco da Cunha; de Azevedo, Marcelo Costa Velho Mendes; Carvalho, Ricardo de Souza; Motta, Rogerio Neves; Veras, Mariana Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an anthropozoonosis that is caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, especially Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, and is transmitted to humans by the bite of sandflies of the genus Lutzomyia, such as Lutzomyia longipalpis. There are many reservoirs, including Canis familiaris. It is a chronic infectious disease with systemic involvement that is characterized by three phases: the initial period, the state period and the final period. The main symptoms are fever, malnutrition, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia. This article reports a case of a patient diagnosed with visceral leishmaniasis in the final period following autochthonous transmission in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro. The case reported here is considered by the Municipal Civil Defense and Health Surveillance of Rio de Janeiro to be the first instance of autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the urban area of this city. The patient was discharged and is undergoing a follow-up at the outpatient clinic, demonstrating clinical improvement. PMID:24553614

  18. [An updated checklist of Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) from the Colombian Andean coffee-growing region].

    PubMed

    Contreras-Gutiérrez, María Angélica; Vélez, Iván Darío; Porter, Charles; Uribe, Sandra Inés

    2014-01-01

    An updated list of phlebotomine sand flies species in coffee growing areas in the Colombian Andean region is presented. Fifty three species were reported from 12 departments. In addition, species distribution in the region was derived from specimens obtained during intensive field work in five departments, from previously published studies and from the taxonomic revision of specimens in the entomological collection of the Programa de Estudio y Control de Enfermedades Tropicales (PECET). The list includes the genera Brumptomyia (2 species), Lutzomyia (50 species) and Warileya (1 species). The updated list contains eleven new records in the region under study, including Lutzomyia panamensis , a species of medical importance not recorded previously in this zone. Eighteen of the species are considered to be anthropophilic, and many of them have been implicated in the transmission of leishmaniasis.

  19. Padres Trabajando por la Paz: a randomized trial of a parent education intervention to prevent violence among middle school children.

    PubMed

    Murray, N G; Kelder, S H; Parcel, G S; Frankowski, R; Orpinas, P

    1999-06-01

    This paper reports the results of a randomized trial to test the effectiveness of a theoretically derived intervention designed to increase parental monitoring among Hispanic parents of middle school students. Role model story newsletters developed through the process of Intervention Mapping were mailed to half of a subsample of parents whose children participated in Students for Peace, a comprehensive violence prevention program. The results indicated that parents in the experimental condition (N = 38) who had lower social norms for monitoring at baseline reported higher norms after the intervention than the parents in the control condition (N = 39) (P = 0.009). Children of parents in the experimental group reported slightly higher levels of monitoring at follow-up across baseline values, whereas control children who reported moderate to high levels of monitoring at pre-test reported lower levels at follow-up (P = 0.04). These newsletters are a population-based strategy for intervention with parents that show some promise for comprehensive school-based interventions for youth.

  20. Distribución superficial de impactos en Iapetus originada por el remanente de una colisión

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoppetti, F. A.; Leiva, A. M.; Briozzo, C. B.

    2015-08-01

    By means of Circular Restricted Three Body Problem Saturn--Iapetus, we analize potential impact distributions on the surface of Iapetus, originated from considering a low-energy population generated as remnants of a collisional event occurred in the past on the surface of this satellite. The results are analized in order to offer a new approach to explain the origin of the albedo dichotomy observed on Iapetus.

  1. Os Atores da Mobilizacao por Creches e Pre-Escolas Comunitarias (Mobilizing Agents for Nurseries and Infant Schools).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filgueiras, Cristina Almeida Cunha

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the role of community nurseries and preschools, within the context of Brazilian popular movements and social policy of the last 15 years. States that the experiences of these organizations reveal great complexity in terms of social, political, and pedagogic mobilization. Concludes that for all involved there are several levels of…

  2. Reconnaissance evaluation of Honduran geothermal sites. Una evaluacion por medio de reconocimiento de seis areas geotermicas en Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Eppler, D.; Fakundiny, R.; Ritchie, A.

    1986-12-01

    Six geothermal spring sites were selected on the basis of preliminary investigations conducted in Honduras over the last decade and were evaluated in terms of their development potential. Of the six, the Platanares and San Ignacio sites have high base temperatures and high surface fluid discharge rates and appear to have the best potential for further development as sources of electrical power. A third site, Azacualpa, has a high enough base temperature and discharge rate to be considered as a back-up, but the logistical problems involved in geophysical surveys make it less attractive than the two primary sites. Of the remaining three sites, Pavana may be a source of direct-use heat for local agricultural processing. Sambo Creek and El Olivar have either severe logistical problems that would impede further investigation and development or base temperatures and flow rates that are too low to warrant detailed investigation at this time.

  3. La trama celeste: por qué educar en astronomía. Una oportunidad de aprendizajes múltiples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, B.

    2016-08-01

    Astronomy education at all levels has been an issue addressed by the International Astronomical Union as part of its 2010--2020 plan. The content on astronomical topics are in the curriculum at primary and secondary levels worldwide. Being a cross-discipline, astronomy is also a science that allows to introduce students to the study of the nature in a non-confrontational way: no one is indifferent to their concepts and discoveries. The International Astronomical Union, through its Commission on Education and Development of Astronomy, has implemented, sponsored and carried out over the past five years two special programs, one about didactics of astronomy for teachers of middle level and another one for the transmission of astronomical topics for the disabled. In this presentation, achievements and impact of these programs are shared.

  4. Como ayudar a los padres a prevenir el envenenamiento por plomo (Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton

    Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. This Spanish-language Digest summarizes some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies…

  5. Relationship between hepatic phenotype and changes in gene expression in cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) null mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiu Jun; Chamberlain, Mark; Vassieva, Olga; Henderson, Colin J.; Wolf, C. Roland

    2005-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 reductase is the unique electron donor for microsomal cytochrome P450s; these enzymes play a major role in the metabolism of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. In mice with a liver-specific deletion of cytochrome P450 reductase, hepatic cytochrome P450 activity is ablated, with consequent changes in bile acid and lipid homoeostasis. In order to gain insights into the metabolic changes resulting from this phenotype, we have analysed changes in hepatic mRNA expression using microarray analysis and real-time PCR. In parallel with the perturbations in bile acid levels, changes in the expression of key enzymes involved in cholesterol and lipid homoeostasis were observed in hepatic cytochrome P450 reductase null mice. This was characterized by a reduced expression of Cyp7b1, and elevation of Cyp7a1 and Cyp8b1 expression. The levels of mRNAs for other cytochrome P450 genes, including Cyp2b10, Cyp2c29, Cyp3a11 and Cyp3a16, were increased, demonstrating that endogenous factors play a role in regulating the expression of these proteins and that the increases are due, at least in part, to altered levels of transcripts. In addition, levels of mRNAs encoding genes involved in glycolysis and lipid transport were also increased; the latter may provide an explanation for the increased hepatic lipid content observed in the hepatic null mice. Serum testosterone and oestradiol levels were lowered, accompanied by significantly decreased expression of Hsd3b2 (3β-hydroxy-Δ5-steroid dehydrogenase-2), Hsd3b5 (3β-hydroxy-Δ5-steroid dehydrogenase-5) and Hsd11b1 (11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1), key enzymes in steroid hormone metabolism. These microarray data provide important insights into the control of metabolic pathways by the cytochrome system. PMID:15717863

  6. Perfiles de densidad de galaxias 3-D y segregación por tipo espectral en grupos de galaxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, E.; Zandivarez, A.; Merchán, M. E.; Muriel, H.

    We have analysed the distribution of galaxies in groups identified in the largest redshift surveys available: the final release of the 2dF Galaxy Our work comprises the study of the galaxy density profiles and the fraction of galaxies per spectral type as a function of the group-centric distance. We have calculated the projected galaxy density profiles of groups using composite samples in order to increase the statistical significance of the results and we infer the 3-D galaxy density profiles using a deprojection method similar to the developed by Allen & Fabian. Special cares have been taken in order to avoid possible biases in the group identification and the construction of the projected galaxy density profile estimator due to the irregular sky coverage of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. We have adopted a generalized King profile to fit the obtained projected density profiles and use them to construct mock clusters and obtain the 3-D density profiles per spectral type. From the 3-D galaxy density profile we have estimated the 3-D fraction of galaxies per spectral type. Comparing with the fraction of galaxies computed using the projected profiles we observe a similar behavior of the galaxy spectral type segregation as the obtained by Domínguez et al. for groups in the early data release of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. As expected, the trends obtained for the 3-D galaxy fractions show steeper slopes.

  7. Monitoreo óptico de eta-Carina durante el pasaje por el periastro en 2014.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Lajús, E.; Salerno, N. E.; Scalia, M. C.; Ramos, X. S.; Giudici, F. N.; Gamen, R. C.

    2015-08-01

    We present the H light curves resulting from the 2013 and 2014 observing seasons of Car as well as its spectral evolution, including the latest ``event'' occurred in mid-2014. The direct CCD observations were made with the telescope ``VS Niemela'' the Observatory of La Plata, and spectroscopic observations were made with the telescope ``J. Sahade'' of Casleo, Argentina.

  8. Evaluacion de que consister y por que se lleva acabo? (Evaluation: What Does it Consist of, and for What Purpose?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    A guide is presented for the evaluation of the bilingual programs in the Austin, Texas, Independent School District. The reasons for an evaluation and a definition of program objectives and evaluation instruments are given. The program components, objectives and evaluation instruments for each grade level (K-4) are listed. The components involved…

  9. En otras palabras: Perfeccionamiento del espanol por medio de la traduccion (In Other Words: Perfecting Spanish Language Skills through Translation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, Patricia V.; Lunsford, Ernest J.

    This publication, written primarily in Spanish, is an activity book designed to teach Spanish through translation based on the theory that, in order to produce an acceptable translation, students must focus their attention on lexical and grammatical detail. The book combines incisive grammar explanations, relevant lexical information, and a wide…

  10. RCS MEDDH-288 (R1), Annual Progress Report, 1 July 1972 - 30 June 1973

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-07-01

    of which 4~ are anthropophilic, and have been implicated in the transmission of leishmaniasis. TIhe dominant species was Lutzomyia tranidoi which I...pupa) are exceptionally sensitive to extremes; of moisture and temperature . (3) The period of development is exceptionally long, usually 6 to 12 weeks...is not definitely knovn. It is believed that the low yield obtained in larva-positive cultures was due to adverse temperature and humidity conditions

  11. World Reference Center for Arboviruses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    AfriGa Liw Asia alia Amea mcrica Vector(s) African horsesickness 9 + + + Culicoides Bluetongue 23 + + + 3 5 + Culicoides Changuinola >12 12 Lutzomyia ...different temperatures after formalin fixation. An ETA was performed with cells immediately after fixation and with cells after 2 months’ storage at varying... temperatures . The dengue-1 MIAF titer on dengue virus-infected C6/36 cells was 1:6400 on fresh cells. The MIAF titer decreased greater than 32-fold

  12. In vitro Studies of Sandfly Fever Viruses and Their Potential Significance for Vaccine Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    separate isolations of Punta Toro virus were made in vero cells from pools of sandflies ( Lutzomyia species). Tesh’s work also demonstrated that, based on the...which are not demonstrable by pulse-chase methodology, and have been shown only by an analysis of temperature -sensitive mutants or in the presence of...a Precursor Polypeptide in a Temperature -Sensitive Mutant of Avian Sarcoma Virus. Virol., 75: 177-187. 34. Pringle, C.R., Enucleation as a Technique

  13. Acute Oral Toxicity of Methyl-N,N’-dihexylethylene diaminemonocarbamate (CHR4) in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    central line. The temperature and relative humidity of the animal rooms were constantly monitored and maintained at 220 to 270C and 27% to 54...diethylamides. J Org Chem 1954; 19:493-498. 2. Buescher MD, Rutledge LC, Wirtz RA, Glackin KB, Moussa MA. Laboratory tests of repellents against Lutzomyia ...Density: 0.87 g/ml Stability: Extremely stable at room temperature (information provided by source) Analytical Data/Purity: Infrared spectrophotometry was

  14. World Reference Center for Arboviruses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    temperature for several weeks without losing efficacy. Polyvalent alphavirus-specific monoclonal antibodies had an extremely wide spectrum among 15...Santander) are identical and that CoAr 170155 (isolated from a pool of male Lutzomyia longipalplis collected in Callejon, Tolima) is distinct...at -700C and vacuum-dried under dry nitrogen gas at various . , temperatures including 370 C. It should be feasible, therefore, to send coated plates

  15. Response of Phlebotomine Sand Flies to Light-Emitting Diode-Modified Light Traps in Southern Egypt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    over incandescent light bulbs include greatly reduced power consumption, cooler operating temperatures , extended operational life, less susceptibility...or two stories high and covered with thatch or brick roofs. Summers are very hot with daily temperatures typically ranging from 24 to 45 C; it seldom...light. Only one study has been performed on a New World sand fly ( Lutzomyia Iongipalpis) measuring spectral sensitivity with an electroretinogram

  16. Studies of Phlebotomine Sand Flies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    L. edentula, L. longipalpis, L. olmeca , L. ylephlletor and L. panamensis. The recent discovery of Leishmania brazillensis in Belize in humans suggests...transmitted to humans by L. olmeca olmeca and possibly L. crucla’a. A review of the Microps group of Lutzomyia was completed (Appendix II). This is a...1980. 2 ~,1 v, Finca el Zapote, Peten, light trap, 8-IX-1980. K Subgenus Myssomyia 16. L. edentula (de Leon). 18 17. L. olmeca olmeca (Vargas and Diaz

  17. Phlebotomid sandflies

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, D. J.

    1971-01-01

    The article presents a synthesis of present knowledge concerning sandflies of the family Phlebotomidae in relation to leishmaniasis. Over 500 species of Phlebotominae are known, most of which belong to the genera Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia in the Old World and Lutzomyia in the New World. Phlebotomus is the dominant genus in the palaearctic region, extending also into the other regions of the Old World where Sergentomyia is the principal genus. Sandflies are of little importance in temperate North America but in tropical America Lutzomyia is the main genus and is found over large areas. The distribution of sandflies largely determines the occurrence of leishmaniasis. Certain species of Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia transmit dermal leishmaniasis in large areas of the palaearctic and neotropical regions. Visceral leishmaniasis is transmitted by some species of Phlebotomus in much of the palaearctic region, except desert areas of North Africa, and in limited areas of Africa and India, and by a species of Lutzomyia in north-eastern Brazil. Sandflies are quite likely to bite man in the open country of much of the Old World; they tend however to be localized in distribution on account of their need for a suitable microhabitat (e.g., the burrow of the Central Asian large gerbil, which has been extensively studied in relation to dermal leishmaniasis). It is noted that the distribution of sandflies and leishmaniasis appears to be changing. A few species of sandfly are regarded as proved vectors of human leishmaniasis according to five criteria; other species which are the only man-biting sandflies in the area are probably vectors. Although it is not possible to make a clear-cut list of vectors, a table of some proved and suspected vectors is included. PMID:5316255

  18. Enzyme Mini-Test for Field Identification of Leishmania isolates from U.S. Military Personnel.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-15

    7I AD-A 71 3770 E2M MIN - TESI F? RI~Djj TIFCATION OF SM7 ir /1 U CLA SIF I S~AE N0 15AU8 A NS13- STAT IN, :Au 19 BW R MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST...Brazil LTB559, Corte de Pedro 610* NWC LBB Man UNK Manause 611* NWC ?? Lutzomyia UNK Brazil Y-JS* NWC ’LMV" Man Tesh Colombia Sanchez Y-BP* NWC LBP Man

  19. Pterosaur diversity and faunal turnover in Cretaceous terrestrial ecosystems in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolin; Kellner, Alexander W A; Zhou, Zhonghe; Campos, Diogenes de Almeida

    2005-10-06

    New specimens and an analysis of the Jehol pterosaur faunae of northeastern China show an unexpected diversity of flying reptile groups in terrestrial Cretaceous ecosystems. Here we report two new pterosaurs that are referred to European groups previously unknown in deposits of northeastern China. Feilongus youngi, from the Yixian Formation, is closely related to the Gallodactylidae and is distinguished by the presence of two independent sagittal crests and a protruding upper jaw. Nurhachius ignaciobritoi, from the Jiufotang Formation, has teeth formed by labiolingually compressed triangular crowns, only previously reported in Istiodactylus latidens from England. With these new discoveries, the Jehol pterosaurs show a wide range of groups including both primitive and derived forms that are not matched by any other deposit in the world. The discoveries also document the turnover of pterosaur faunae, with the primitive Anurognathidae and early archaeopterodactyloids being replaced by derived pterodactyloids. Furthermore, these deposits offer an opportunity to examine the interaction and competition between birds and pterosaurs--it indicates that the avian fauna during the Lower Cretaceous (and possibly most of the Mesozoic) dominated terrestrial, inland regions, whereas pterosaurs were more abundant in coastal areas.

  20. Keeping the blood flowing-plasminogen activator genes and feeding behavior in vampire bats.

    PubMed

    Tellgren-Roth, Asa; Dittmar, Katharina; Massey, Steven E; Kemi, Cecilia; Tellgren-Roth, Christian; Savolainen, Peter; Lyons, Leslie A; Liberles, David A

    2009-01-01

    The blood feeding vampire bats emerged from New World leaf-nosed bats that fed on fruit and insects. Plasminogen activator, a serine protease that regulates blood coagulation, is known to be expressed in the saliva of Desmodus rotundus (common vampire bat) and is thought to be a key enzyme for the emergence of blood feeding in vampire bats. To better understand the evolution of this biological function, we studied the plasminogen activator (PA) genes from all vampire bat species in light of their feeding transition to bird and subsequently mammalian blood. We include the rare species Diphylla ecaudata and Diaemus youngi, where plasminogen activator had not previously been studied and demonstrate that PA gene duplication observed in Desmodus is not essential to the vampire phenotype, but relates to the emergence of predominant mammalian blood feeding in this species. Plasminogen activator has evolved through gene duplication, domain loss, and sequence evolution leading to change in fibrin-specificity and susceptibility to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Before undertaking this study, only the four plasminogen activator isoforms from Desmodus were known. The evolution of vampire bat plasminogen activators can now be linked phylogenetically to the transition in feeding behavior among vampire bat species from bird to mammalian blood.

  1. A paradoxical mismatch of fecundity and recruitment in deep-sea opportunists: Cocculinid and pseudococculinid limpets colonizing vascular plant remains on the Bahamian Slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Craig M.; Emson, Roland H.; Rice, Mary E.; Tyler, Paul A.

    2013-08-01

    Between 1992 and 1994, palm fronds and bundles of fibrous material (rolled door mats of Chinese dragon grass) were deployed by submersible every 3 months at 520 m depth in the Tongue of the Ocean, Bahamas. Substrata were recovered after 3-month and 6-month exposure periods and searched intensively for invertebrate colonists. Recruitment surfaces were colonized during every exposure period by three species of cocculiniform limpets, Cocculina rathbuni, Cocculina emsoni, and Notocrater youngi. At least two species appeared in each season, but the relative numbers varied in a way that may indicate seasonal differences in reproduction. Gonad development could be observed through the transparent shell of C. rathbuni, which attained sexual maturity in less than 3 months and had a maximum instantaneous fecundity of 40 eggs. Growth rates (0.025-0.044 mm/day) were high when scaled to adult body size. We used current-meter data from the deployment site to calculate the fluxes of larvae that would be required to produce the measured levels of recruitment. Observed recruitment would require larval densities of hundreds of thousands to millions of larvae per km3. Nevertheless, it is remarkable that these snails are able to succeed with an opportunistic strategy given their low fecundity and lecithotrophic development.

  2. Chromosomal homologies among vampire bats revealed by chromosome painting (phyllostomidae, chiroptera).

    PubMed

    Sotero-Caio, C G; Pieczarka, J C; Nagamachi, C Y; Gomes, A J B; Lira, T C; O'Brien, P C M; Ferguson-Smith, M A; Souza, M J; Santos, N

    2011-01-01

    Substantial effort has been made to elucidate karyotypic evolution of phyllostomid bats, mostly through comparisons of G-banding patterns. However, due to the limited number of G-bands in respective karyotypes and to the similarity of non-homologous bands, an accurate evolutionary history of chromosome segments remains questionable. This is the case for vampire bats (Desmodontinae). Despite several proposed homologies, banding data have not yet provided a detailed understanding of the chromosomal changes within vampire genera. We examined karyotype differentiation of the 3 species within this subfamily using whole chromosomal probes from Phyllostomus hastatus (Phyllostominae) and Carollia brevicauda (Carolliinae). Painting probes of P. hastatus respectively detected 22, 21 and 23 conserved segments in Diphylla ecaudata, Diaemus youngi, and Desmodus rotundus karyotypes, whereas 27, 27 and 28 were respectively detectedwith C. brevicauda paints. Based on the evolutionary relationships proposed by morphological and molecular data, we present probable chromosomal synapomorphies for vampire bats and propose chromosomes that were present in the common ancestor of the 5 genera analyzed. Karyotype comparisons allowed us to relate a number of conserved chromosomal segments among the 5 species, providing a broader database for understanding karyotype evolution in the family.

  3. Descriptive ecology of bat flies (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea) associated with vampire bats (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in the cerrado of Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Ludmilla Moura de Souza; Antonini, Yasmine

    2011-03-01

    We studied the ectoparasitic bat flies of three phyllostomid vampire bat species. Bats were collected monthly from April 2004-March 2005 in caves within the Cafuringa Environmental Protection Area in the Federal District of Brazil. A total of 1,259 specimens from six species in the Streblidae family were collected from 332 bats. High host affinity from the sampled bat fly species and high prevalence of bat flies confirms the primary fly-host associations (Strebla wiedemanni, Trichobius parasiticus and Trichobius furmani with Desmodus, Trichobius diaemi and Strebla diaemi with Diaemus and T. furmani with Diphylla). Male flies outnumbered females in several associations. Some of the observed associations (e.g., Strebla mirabilis with Desmodus and S. mirabilis, Trichobius uniformis and S. wiedemanni with Diphylla) were inconclusive and the causes of the associations were unclear. There are several explanations for these associations, including (i) accidental contamination during sampling, (ii) simultaneous capture of several host species in the same net or (iii) genuine, but rare, ecological associations. Although various species of vampire bats share roosts, have similar feeding habits and are close phylogenetic relatives, they generally do not share ectoparasitic streblid bat flies. T. diaemi and S. diaemi associations with Diaemus youngi have not been previously reported in this region.

  4. Keeping the blood flowing—plasminogen activator genes and feeding behavior in vampire bats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellgren-Roth, Åsa; Dittmar, Katharina; Massey, Steven E.; Kemi, Cecilia; Tellgren-Roth, Christian; Savolainen, Peter; Lyons, Leslie A.; Liberles, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The blood feeding vampire bats emerged from New World leaf-nosed bats that fed on fruit and insects. Plasminogen activator, a serine protease that regulates blood coagulation, is known to be expressed in the saliva of Desmodus rotundus (common vampire bat) and is thought to be a key enzyme for the emergence of blood feeding in vampire bats. To better understand the evolution of this biological function, we studied the plasminogen activator (PA) genes from all vampire bat species in light of their feeding transition to bird and subsequently mammalian blood. We include the rare species Diphylla ecaudata and Diaemus youngi, where plasminogen activator had not previously been studied and demonstrate that PA gene duplication observed in Desmodus is not essential to the vampire phenotype, but relates to the emergence of predominant mammalian blood feeding in this species. Plasminogen activator has evolved through gene duplication, domain loss, and sequence evolution leading to change in fibrin-specificity and susceptibility to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Before undertaking this study, only the four plasminogen activator isoforms from Desmodus were known. The evolution of vampire bat plasminogen activators can now be linked phylogenetically to the transition in feeding behavior among vampire bat species from bird to mammalian blood.

  5. A comparative study of rabies virus isolates from hematophagous bats in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Castilho, Juliana G; Carnieli, Pedro; Oliveira, Rafael N; Fahl, Willian O; Cavalcante, Rosangela; Santana, Antonio A; Rosa, Wellington L G A; Carrieri, Maria L; Kotait, Ivanete

    2010-10-01

    The Brazilian chiropteran fauna consists of 167 species; of which, three are hematophagous: the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), the white-winged vampire bat (Diaemus youngi), and the hairy-legged vampire bat (Diphylla ecaudata). The aim of this study was to describe the isolation of Rabies virus from common and hairy-legged vampire bats and to report the first comparative antigenic and genetic studies of isolates from these bats. Antigenic and genetic typing of both isolates identified them as antigenic variant 3 (AgV3), the variant frequently isolated from common vampire bats. Phylogenetic analysis showed 99.3% identity between the isolates. This is the first time since 1934 that Rabies virus has been isolated from hairy-legged vampire bats in Brazil. Our analysis provides evidence that the existence of rabies-positive isolates from hairy-legged vampire bats may be the result of an interspecific rabies transmission event from common vampire bats and suggests that roost cohabitation may occur.

  6. An Integrated Approach Using Spatial Analysis to Study the Risk Factors for Leishmaniasis in Area of Recent Transmission.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Júlia Alves; Ferreira, Eduardo de Castro; Andrade-Filho, José Dilermando; de Sousa, Alessandra Mara; Morais, Mayron Henrique Gomes; Rocha, Ana Maria Sampaio; Machado-Coelho, George Luis Lins; Lima, Fernanda Pinheiro; Madureira, Ana Paula; Garcia, Tânia Cristina; Freitas, Christian Resende; Soares, Rodrigo Pedro; Margonari, Carina

    2015-01-01

    Some epidemiological aspects of leishmaniasis in the municipality of Formiga, Brazil, an important touristic site, were evaluated. Those included phlebotomine sand fly vectors, canine infection, and geoprocessing analysis for determining critical transmission areas. Sand flies (224 insects) belonging to ten different species were captured. The most captured species included Lutzomyia longipalpis (35.3%), Lutzomyia cortelezzii (33.5%), and Lutzomyia whitmani (18.3%). A significant correlation between sand fly densities and climatic conditions was detected. Serological diagnosis (DPP and ELISA) was performed in 570 dogs indicating a prevalence of 5.8%. After sequencing the main species circulating in the area were Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis. Spatial analysis demonstrated that vegetation and hydrography may be related to sand fly distribution and infected dogs. The municipality of Formiga has proven leishmaniasis vectors and infected dogs indicating the circulation of the parasite in the city. Correlation of those data with environmental and human cases has identified the critical areas for control interventions (south, northeast, and northwest). In conclusion, there is current transmission of visceral and canine human cases and the city is on the risk for the appearance of cutaneous cases.

  7. Ecological aspects of the Phlebotominae fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the Xakriabá Indigenous Reserve, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sand fly collections were performed to study ecological aspects of the Phlebotominae fauna of the Xakriabá Indigenous Reserve, an area with endemic cutaneous leishmaniasis, located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods The collections were performed in peridomicile areas and along trails previously selected for the study of wild and synanthropic Leishmania hosts. Differences in the distribution patterns of the sand fly species as well as in species richness and abundance between the different ecotopes were investigated during both rainy and dry seasons over the course of the study period. Results A total of 8,046 sand flies belonging to 11 genera and 28 species were collected. Lutzomyia longipalpis and Nyssomyia intermedia were the most abundant species in peridomicile areas, whereas Martinsmyia minasensis and Lutzomyia cavernicola were the most abundant species among the different trail ecotopes. Conclusion The different composition of the sand fly fauna observed in the peridomicile areas and in the trails during the study, reinforces the importance of sampled different areas in a phlebotomine fauna survey. The presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis and Ny. Intermedia most abundant in peridomicile can be important to Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis transmission in the Imbaúbas native village. PMID:24886717

  8. An Integrated Approach Using Spatial Analysis to Study the Risk Factors for Leishmaniasis in Area of Recent Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Júlia Alves; Ferreira, Eduardo de Castro; Andrade-Filho, José Dilermando; de Sousa, Alessandra Mara; Morais, Mayron Henrique Gomes; Rocha, Ana Maria Sampaio; Machado-Coelho, George Luis Lins; Lima, Fernanda Pinheiro; Madureira, Ana Paula; Garcia, Tânia Cristina; Freitas, Christian Resende; Soares, Rodrigo Pedro; Margonari, Carina

    2015-01-01

    Some epidemiological aspects of leishmaniasis in the municipality of Formiga, Brazil, an important touristic site, were evaluated. Those included phlebotomine sand fly vectors, canine infection, and geoprocessing analysis for determining critical transmission areas. Sand flies (224 insects) belonging to ten different species were captured. The most captured species included Lutzomyia longipalpis (35.3%), Lutzomyia cortelezzii (33.5%), and Lutzomyia whitmani (18.3%). A significant correlation between sand fly densities and climatic conditions was detected. Serological diagnosis (DPP and ELISA) was performed in 570 dogs indicating a prevalence of 5.8%. After sequencing the main species circulating in the area were Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis. Spatial analysis demonstrated that vegetation and hydrography may be related to sand fly distribution and infected dogs. The municipality of Formiga has proven leishmaniasis vectors and infected dogs indicating the circulation of the parasite in the city. Correlation of those data with environmental and human cases has identified the critical areas for control interventions (south, northeast, and northwest). In conclusion, there is current transmission of visceral and canine human cases and the city is on the risk for the appearance of cutaneous cases. PMID:26229961

  9. Experimental Infection of Dogs with Leishmania and Saliva as a Model to Study Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Dirceu Joaquim; Carvalho, Rayssa M. de Araujo; Abbehusen, Melissa; Teixeira, Clarissa; Pitombo, Maiana; Trigo, Joelma; Nascimento, Flávia; Amorim, Lucilene; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lucia; do Socorro Pires Cruz, Maria; Miranda, José Carlos; Fukutani, Kyoshi; de Oliveira, Camila I.; Barral, Aldina; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Brodskyn, Cláudia

    2013-01-01

    Background Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum, transmitted by the bite of Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies. Dogs are the main domestic reservoir of the parasite. The establishment of an experimental model that partially reproduces natural infection in dogs is very important to test vaccine candidates, mainly regarding those that use salivary proteins from the vector and new therapeutical approaches. Methodology/Principal Findings In this report, we describe an experimental infection in dogs, using intradermal injection of Leishmania infantum plus salivary gland homogenate (SGH) of Lutzomyia longipalpis. Thirty-five dogs were infected with 1×107 parasites combined with five pairs of Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary glands and followed for 450 days after infection and clinical, immunological and parasitological parameters were evaluated. Two hundred and ten days after infection we observed that 31,4% of dogs did not display detectable levels of anti-Leishmania antibodies but all presented different numbers of parasites in the lymph nodes. Animals with a positive xenodiagnosis had at least 3,35×105 parasites in their lymph nodes. An increase of IFN-γ and IL-10 levels was detected during infection. Twenty two percent of dogs developed symptoms of CVL during infection. Conclusion The infection model described here shows some degree of similarity when compared with naturally infected dogs opening new perspectives for the study of CVL using an experimental model that employs the combination of parasites and sand fly saliva both present during natural transmission. PMID:23577121

  10. Phlebotomine Sand Fly Fauna and Leishmania Infection in the Vicinity of the Serra do Cipó National Park, a Natural Brazilian Heritage Site

    PubMed Central

    Lana, Rosana Silva; Michalsky, Érika Monteiro; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; França-Silva, João Carlos; Lara-Silva, Fabiana de Oliveira; Lima, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha; Moreira de Avelar, Daniel; Martins, Juliana Cristina Dias; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2015-01-01

    In the New World, the leishmaniases are primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of Leishmania-infected Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae) phlebotomine sand flies. Any or both of two basic clinical forms of these diseases are endemic to several cities in Brazil—the American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) and the American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). The present study was conducted in the urban area of a small-sized Brazilian municipality (Jaboticatubas), in which three cases of AVL and nine of ACL have been reported in the last five years. Jaboticatubas is an important tourism hub, as it includes a major part of the Serra do Cipó National Park. Currently, no local data is available on the entomological fauna or circulating Leishmania. During the one-year period of this study, we captured 3,104 phlebotomine sand flies belonging to sixteen Lutzomyia species. In addition to identifying incriminated or suspected vectors of ACL with DNA of the etiological agent of AVL and vice versa, we also detected Leishmania DNA in unexpected Lutzomyia species. The expressive presence of vectors and natural Leishmania infection indicates favorable conditions for the spreading of leishmaniases in the vicinity of the Serra do Cipó National Park. PMID:25793193

  11. Nestedness patterns of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) species in a neotropical semi-arid environment.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Luis Fernando; Añez, Nestor

    2016-01-01

    A common pattern in neotropical Leishmania spp. transmission is the co-occurrence of several sand fly (SF) species at endemic foci. We collected 13 SF spp. by direct aspiration in natural resting places (NRP) and 10 SF spp. with Shannon traps (ST), totaling 15 spp. with both methods, at 6 locations within a semi-arid region with endemic visceral leishmaniasis transmission in Falcón State, Northwestern Venezuela. We used null model testing of species co-occurrence and nestedness metrics estimated with our field data to ask whether SF species composition was segregated/aggregated, and if aggregated whether there was nestedness, i.e., whether species composition across sampling locations could be described by ordered subsets of species from the most species rich location in a landscape. Results showed that SF species were aggregated (P<0.05), i.e., most species were present in species rich locations. Similarly, SF species were significantly nested (P<0.05). Differences in pairwise Sørensen and Simpson indices, estimated with the ST data and the combined ST and NRP data, were positively associated with the distance between sampling locations, suggesting that species nestedness might be partially shaped by dispersal limitation. Our data showed that three species of medical importance were common across the sampling locations: Lutzomyia gomezi, Lutzomyia panamensis and Lutzomyia evansi, suporting that vector species do not turnover in the studied setting.

  12. Sand fly population dynamics and cutaneous leishmaniasis among soldiers in an Atlantic forest remnant in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Sales, Kamila Gaudêncio da Silva; Miranda, Débora Elienai de Oliveira; da Silva, Fernando José; Figueredo, Luciana Aguiar; de Melo, Fábio Lopes; de Brito, Maria Edileuza Felinto; Andrade, Maria Sandra; Brandão-Filho, Sinval P

    2017-02-27

    Outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis are relatively common among soldiers involved in nocturnal activities in tropical forests. We investigated the population dynamics of sand flies in a military training camp located in a remnant of Atlantic rainforest in northeastern Brazil, where outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis have sporadically been described. From July 2012 to July 2014, light traps were monthly placed in 10 collection sites, being nine sites located near the forest edge and one near a horse stable. Light traps operated from 5:00 pm to 6:00 am, during four consecutive nights. Leishmania infection in sand flies was assessed using a fast real-time PCR assay. Cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis among soldiers were also investigated. In total, 24,606 sand flies belonging to 25 species were identified. Males (n = 12,683) predominated over females (n = 11,923). Sand flies were present during all months, being more numerous in March (n = 1,691) and April 2013 (n = 3,324). Lutzomyia choti (72.9%) was the most abundant species, followed by Lutzomyia longispina (13.8%), Lutzomyia complexa (5.3%), representing together >90% of the sand flies collected. Forty cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were recorded among soldiers from January 2012 to December 2014. Leishmania isolates were obtained from eight patients and were all characterized as Leishmania braziliensis. Soldiers and anyone overnighting in Atlantic rainforest remnants should adopt preventative measures such as the use of repellents on bare skin or clothes and insecticide-treated tents.

  13. Description of Laccomimus gen. n. and eleven new species from the Neotropical region (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Laccophilinae).

    PubMed

    Toledo, Mario; Michat, Mariano C

    2015-07-27

    A new genus of laccophiline diving beetles, Laccomimus gen. n., is here described on the basis of a large number of specimens from various collections formerly misidentified as members of the Neotropical genus Laccodytes Régimbart, 1895. Except for similar size, however, the new genus is not closely related to Laccodytes. Instead, it seems to be sister to the Oriental genus Laccosternus Brancucci, 1983, both sharing a similar body size and shape, characters of the female genital structures, and shape of the prosternal process. Twelve species are recognised within Laccomimus, all new to science except Laccomimus pumilio (LeConte, 1878) comb. n., the type species. The new species are: Laccomimus alvarengi sp. n., L. amazonas sp. n., L. bolivari sp. n., L. bordoni sp. n., L. distinctus sp. n., L. improvidus sp. n., L. malkini sp. n., L. spangleri sp. n., L. spinosus sp. n., L. variegatus sp. n., L. youngi sp. n. The distribution of the new genus includes most of the Neotropics, with one species, L. pumilio, reaching Florida, USA. Each taxon is described and illustrated and a key for their identification is provided. Laccomimus is a widespread and relatively common genus in tropical America, the species of which have a wide distributional range, except for a few confined to more restricted areas. In spite of this, Laccomimus is a very uniform genus in body shape, size and colouration, and in most cases identification of the species is possible only after examination of the male genitalia. A key to distinguish genera of the tribe Laccophilini is also presented.

  14. Adult Vampire Bats Produce Contact Calls When Isolated: Acoustic Variation by Species, Population, Colony, and Individual

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Gerald G.; Logsdon, Ryane; Arnold, Bryan D.; Menchaca, Angelica; Medellin, Rodrigo A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Bat pups produce individually distinct isolation calls to facilitate maternal recognition. Increasing evidence suggests that, in group-living bat species, adults often use similar calls to maintain contact. We investigated if isolated adults from all three species of the highly cooperative vampire bats (Phyllostomidae: Desmodontinae) would produce vocally distinct contact calls when physically isolated. Methods/Principal Findings We assessed variation in contact calls recorded from isolated captive and wild-caught adult common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus), white-winged vampire bats (Diaemus youngi) and hairy-legged vampire bats (Diphylla ecaudata). We compared species-typical contact call structure, and used information theory and permuted discriminate function analyses to examine call structure variation, and to determine if the individuality of contact calls is encoded by different call features across species and populations. We found that isolated adult vampire bats produce contact calls that vary by species, population, colony, and individual. However, much variation occurred within a single context and individual. We estimated signature information for captive Diaemus (same colony), captive Desmodus (same colony), and wild Desmodus (different colonies) at 3.21, 3.26, and 3.88 bits, respectively. Contact calls from a captive colony of Desmodus were less individually distinct than calls from wild-caught Desmodus from different colonies. Both the degree of individuality and parameters encoding individuality differed between the bats from a single captive colony and the wild-caught individuals from different groups. This result is consistent with, but not sufficient evidence of, vocal convergence in groups. Conclusion Our results show that adult vampire bats of all three species produce highly variable contact calls when isolated. Contact calls contain sufficient information for vocal discrimination, but also possess more intra-individual variation

  15. A comparative study of incisor procumbency and mandibular morphology in vampire bats.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jillian S; Nicolay, Christopher W; Williams, Susan H

    2010-07-01

    The three species of vampire bats (Phyllostomidae: Desmodontinae), Desmodus rotundus, Diaemus youngi, and Diphylla ecaudata, are the only mammals that obtain all nutrition from vertebrate blood (sanguinivory). Because of the unique challenges of this dietary niche, vampire bats possess a suite of behavioral, physiological, and morphological specializations. Morphological specializations include a dentition characterized by small, bladelike, non-occlusive cheek teeth, large canines, and extremely large, procumbent, sickle-shaped upper central incisors. The tips of these incisors rest in cuplike pits in the mandible behind the lower incisors (mandibular pits). Here, we use microCT scanning and high-resolution radiography to describe the morphology of the mandible and anterior dentition in vampire bats, focusing on the relationship between symphyseal fusion, mandibular pit size, incisor size, and procumbency. In Desmodus and Diaemus, highly procumbent upper incisors are associated with relatively small mandibular pits, an unfused mandibular symphysis with substantial bony interdigitations linking the dentaries, and a diastema between the lower central incisors that helps to facilitate the lapping of blood from a wound. In Diphylla, less procumbent upper incisors are associated with relatively large mandibular pits, a completely fused mandibular symphysis, and a continuous lower toothrow lacking a central diastema. We hypothesize that symphyseal morphology and the presence or absence of the diastema are associated with the angle of upper incisor procumbency and mandibular pit development, and that spatial constraints influence the morphology of the symphysis. Finally, this morphological variation suggests that Diphylla utilizes a different feeding strategy as compared to Desmodus and Diaemus, possibly resulting from the functional demands of specialization on avian, rather than mammalian, blood.

  16. Epidemiological aspects of vector, parasite, and domestic reservoir in areas of recent transmission and no reported human cases of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lara-Silva, Fabiana de Oliveira; Michalsky, Érika Monteiro; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; Fiuza, Vanessa de Oliveira Pires; Pessanha, José Eduardo Marques; Regina-Silva, Shara; de Avelar, Daniel Moreira; Silva, Maiara Alves; Lima, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha; da Costa, Ailton Junior Antunes; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2015-08-01

    About 97% of the human cases of the American visceral leishmaniasis (VL) occur in Brazil. In the last few years, the disease expanded to medium- and large-sized cities, in which surveillance and control actions have been intensified, in an effort to control VL spreading. Our two-year study was conducted in Belo Horizonte, the sixth most populous city in Brazil, which is endemic for VL. We focused in two particular districts of recent transmission of the disease, with no reported human cases and submitted to minor surveillance and control actions. Our aim was to draw an epidemiological profile of the local situation concerning Lutzomyia vector, Leishmania parasites, and the main domestic reservoirs (dogs). Lutzomyia longipalpis comprised 96.5% of the total phlebotomine sand flies captured and displayed an expressive minimal infection rate by Leishmania infantum (16.7%). Positive correlations were found between the population densities of L. longipalpis, rainfall and temperature. L. infantum was also detected in the cortelezzii complex and, for the first time, in Lutzomyia lloydi. Leishmania braziliensis, an etiological agent of the American cutaneous leishmaniasis, was also identified in L. longipalpis. Among the 1408 dogs serologically tested by standard enzyme-linked and fluorescence immune assays (ELISA/IFA) 3.6% were positive for VL. L. infantum DNA and Leishmania parasites were identified in 100% and 72.5% of the seropositive dogs, respectively. The co-positivity of other diagnostic tests for VL-Leishmania-nested PCR, imprint and myeloculture-was compared to the standard serology. Both symptomatic or asymptomatic dogs displayed an equal average number of positive diagnostic tests for VL. The districts studied display favorable conditions for the rapid spreading of human infection, in terms of L. longipalpis population density, and presence of L. infantum in both vector and main reservoir.

  17. Sand fly population dynamics and cutaneous leishmaniasis among soldiers in an Atlantic forest remnant in northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Kamila Gaudêncio da Silva; Miranda, Débora Elienai de Oliveira; da Silva, Fernando José; Figueredo, Luciana Aguiar; de Melo, Fábio Lopes; de Brito, Maria Edileuza Felinto; Andrade, Maria Sandra; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto

    2017-01-01

    Outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis are relatively common among soldiers involved in nocturnal activities in tropical forests. We investigated the population dynamics of sand flies in a military training camp located in a remnant of Atlantic rainforest in northeastern Brazil, where outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis have sporadically been described. From July 2012 to July 2014, light traps were monthly placed in 10 collection sites, being nine sites located near the forest edge and one near a sheep and goat stable. Light traps operated from 5:00 pm to 6:00 am, during four consecutive nights. Leishmania infection in sand flies was assessed using a fast real-time PCR assay. Cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis among soldiers were also investigated. In total, 24,606 sand flies belonging to 25 species were identified. Males (n = 12,683) predominated over females (n = 11,923). Sand flies were present during all months, being more numerous in March (n = 1,691) and April 2013 (n = 3,324). Lutzomyia choti (72.9%) was the most abundant species, followed by Lutzomyia longispina (13.8%), Lutzomyia complexa (5.3%), representing together >90% of the sand flies collected. Forty cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were recorded among soldiers from January 2012 to December 2014. Leishmania isolates were obtained from eight patients and were all characterized as Leishmania braziliensis. Soldiers and anyone overnighting in Atlantic rainforest remnants should adopt preventative measures such as the use of repellents on bare skin or clothes and insecticide-treated tents. PMID:28241005

  18. Breeding sites of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and efficiency of extraction techniques for immature stages in terra-firme forest in Amazonas State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Ronildo Baiatone; de Queiroz, Raul Guerra; Barrett, Toby Vincent

    2011-06-01

    Information on natural breeding sites of phlebotomine sand flies is scanty, due to the difficulties of isolation of immatures from the soil where they occur. The present study investigated breeding sites in several microhabitats in a "terra-firme" forest in Pitinga, Amazonas State, Brazil. Results on the efficacy of different extraction techniques used for isolating sand flies, and the temperature and the pH of the samples collected, are presented. Samples of soil and organic matter from different microhabitats, processed by floatation-sieving, direct examination, Berlese-Tullgren, and emergence cages, revealed, for the first time in Amazonas, breeding sites in five microhabitats (tree bases, unsheltered forest floor, soil from under fallen logs, soil from under roots, and palm-tree bases). Overall, 138 immatures and 29 newly emerged adults were recovered from these microhabitats. The abundance of immatures in samples close to tree bases was significantly higher than in more open sites not adjacent to tree bases. Floatation-sieving and direct examination were the most effective techniques for immature extraction and survival, respectively. Eleven species of the genus Lutzomyia s.l. were identified, with Lutzomyia monstruosa (Floch & Abonnenc) and Lutzomyia georgii Freitas & Barrett being the most abundant. Differences in the specific composition and relative abundance of the immature and adult sand flies on tree bases suggest that breeding sites may be distant from resting or aggregation sites of adults. The pH, which revealed a slightly acidic soil, as well as the temperature, did not show any significant correlation with the number of immature sand flies collected.

  19. Survey of Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an Environmentally Protected Area in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva Reis, Alanna; Marteleto Nunes Rugani, Jeronimo; Sampaio Pereira, Agnes Antônia; Rêgo, Felipe Dutra; Vianna Mariano da Rocha Lima, Ana Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Brazil is one of the most important endemic areas for leishmaniasis worldwide. Protected areas that are tourist attractions likely present an important risk of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Furthermore, with the geographical expansion of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), several studies have recorded the occurrence of its vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis, and cases of human and canine VL in such tourist areas. The Parque Estadual do Sumidouro is an environmentally protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado biome and in an important area endemic for leishmaniasis in the state of Minas Gerais. The purpose of this study was to monitor the sand fly fauna in areas of tourist activity in the park. Sampling was performed every month, from September 2011 to August 2013, using CDC light traps at six sites of differing environmental characteristics. Sampled specimens were identified following Galati (2003), and females were submitted to molecular techniques for the detection and identification of Leishmania DNA. A total of 4,675 sand fly specimens of 25 species belonging to nine genera were collected. The most abundant species were Micropygomyia quinquefer, Lutzomyia renei and Pintomyia pessoai, although only Pi. pessoai is implicated in the transmission of Leishmania braziliensis. The species accumulation curve reached saturation on the 16th sampling event. Species richness, diversity and evenness differed among the sampled areas. The seasonal curve was not determined by a single unique species, and no single species was the most abundant in all environments sampled. The main vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, Lutzomyia longipalpis, accounted for only 5.35% of the specimens collected. Proven or suspected vectors of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis were recorded, and one female of the cortellezzii complex tested positive for Le. braziliensis DNA. Even with a low infection rate (0.62%), these data indicate the circulation of the parasite and reinforce

  20. The effects of the porous buffer layer and doping with dysprosium on internal stresses in the GaInP:Dy/por-GaAs/GaAs(100) heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Seredin, P. V.; Gordienko, N. N.; Glotov, A. V.; Zhurbina, I. A.; Domashevskaya, E. P.; Arsent'ev, I. N. Shishkov, M. V.

    2009-08-15

    In structures with a porous buffer layer, residual internal stresses caused by a mismatch between the crystal-lattice parameters of the epitaxial GaInP alloy and the GaAs substrate are redistributed to the porous layer that acts as a buffer and is conducive to disappearance of internal stresses. Doping of the epitaxial layer with dysprosium exerts a similar effect on the internal stresses in the film-substrate structure.

  1. Communicating with Mexican Americans: Por Su Buena Salud = Communicando Con Mexico Americanos: For Their Good Health. Proceedings of the Conference (Houston, TX, September 13-14, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas J., Ed.; And Others

    The conference focused on the role of the Mexican American's cultural language, tradition, life style, health practices, and media utilization in the design of effective health education and information programs. Representing various local, state, and national health, education, and media organizations, the 108 participants attended sessions on…

  2. Unanswered Questions in Colombia's Foreign Language Education Policy (Preguntas por responder en la política educativa de lenguas extranjeras en Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonilla Carvajal, Camilo Andrés; Tejada-Sánchez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Following the trend of much of the Western, non-English speaking world, Colombia has tirelessly strived for spreading English education in an effort to augment economic benefits. This paper aims at providing a critical account of foreign language education policy in Colombia, with special attention to English. It outlines the impact of its…

  3. Ameiridae Boeck and Argestidae Por revisited, with establishment of Parameiropsidae, a new family of Harpacticoida (Crustacea, Copepoda) from deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corgosinho, P. H. C.; Martínez Arbizu, P.

    2010-09-01

    Four new species of Parameiropsis are described from Angola and Guinea Basins and the Arctic Laptev Sea. The male of Parameiropsis poseidonicus sp. n. differs from that of P. neptuni sp. n. and P. senckenbergi sp. n. in antennule segmentation, length of the proximal aesthetasc, length of the outermost seta of the antennary endopod, degree of reduction of the mouthparts, relative length of the inner spine of the basis of thoracopod 1, shape of the furca and body length. The female of P. amphitriteae sp. n. differs from previously described females of other species in the smaller exopod and endpod of thoracopod 1, reduced armature of thoracopods 1-6, length of the outer setae of exopods and endopods of thoracopods 2-4, and mandible exopod weakly developed and fused to the basis. Parameiropsis is redefined by the following autapomorphies: presence of aesthetasc on 3rd segment of female antennule; antenna strong, with endopod curved upwardly, and shape of the outermost (strongly ornamented) spine; triangular labrum; elongated corpus mandibularis, gnathobasis very long; basis of mandibular palp unarmed; elongated maxillule, with long and flexible setae on praecoxal arthrite; basis of the maxilla with strongly modified claw. To discuss the phylogenetic position of Parameiropsis, we revaluated the subfamilies of Ameiridae (viz. Ameirinae and Stenocopiinae) and the family Argestidae. Anoplosomella and Malacopsyllus revealed to be not closely related to Ameiridae and are transferred to Argestidae, sharing with other members of this family the morphology of the mandible gnathobasis, armature of maxilla and armature and length of the first segment of the antennule. Argestoides prehensilis does not show any of the characters that we consider autapomorphic for Argestidae. Instead, it shows many characters in common with several Ameiridae species. Parameiropsis does not have any character that could justify its inclusion within Ameiridae or even within Podogennonta. It also cannot be included satisfactorily within Argestidae nor Exanechentera. Therefore, we here propose a new family for Parameiropsis, with unclear relationships within Harpacticoida. After these taxonomic rearrangements, Ameiridae and Argestidae are considered monophyletic based on certain maxilla characters that we consider autapomorphic for each group. A key to the identification of the known species of Parameiropsis is added at the end.

  4. Diseño, Construcción Y Desarrollo De Un Sistema Limitado Por Difracción Para Telescopios Terrestres: Fastcam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Lopez, Roberto

    2013-02-01

    This work describes the concept, design, development, evolution and application of the FastCam instrument. FastCam is an image photometer for astronomy with image capture in a high-frequency range and diraction limited, in order to apply the Lucky Imaging technique to medium- and large-sized ( 1.5 to 4 m) telescopes. The Lucky Imaging technique allows, for ground-based telescopes, to achieve the resolution limit for astronomical images under suitable conditions. This work describes the atmospheric problems and the active and adaptive optics techniques to solve them, as well as the Lucky Imaging fundamentals. A description of the considerations to the project development and design parameters is performed. Then, the optical design and dierent adaptations to several telescopes will be revised. In a next step, some of the scientic results obtained thanks to this project are shown, both in position astronomy and complex structures in globular cluster and binary systems. Dierent designs arising from the basic idea and the instruments now in development that are expanding the system's capabilities and the technique are explained. Some other possible applications to other elds in which the image sharpness is necessary despite uctuations or instabilities of the observing system will be also pointed out: ophthalmology, video-control, etc.

  5. Un Programa de Espanol para Colegio Universitario: Esfuerzos por Lograr una Mejor Articulacion (A Spanish Program for Colleges and Universities: Efforts to Improve Articulation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latoja, Luis E.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a three-year plan for colleges and universities in which the Spanish program attempts to increase its course offerings and improve articulation within the institution. The program is designed to put into practice the goals of a regional collaborative project on articulation of which the university is an integral part. (six references)…

  6. "¿Por qué leemos esto en la clase de español?": The Politics of Teaching Literature in Spanglish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postma, Regan L.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses what is at stake in teaching works written in "Spanglish" in Spanish departments and what teaching such works might mean for students and the scholarly community at large. This article primarily comes out of the author's experiences teaching "Spanglish" works in Spanish courses at a major research…

  7. Library Safari: Tips for Parents of Young Readers and Explorers = De safari por la biblioteca: Consejos para padres de lectores y exploradores jovenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Aedin

    Visiting the library is a great way for parents to encourage their child's imagination and learning. It gives parents the opportunity to model good reading behavior and to show their child that they value books and reading. No matter how young the child is, a trip to the library can be an enjoyable outing for parents and their children. Most…

  8. Study of morphological characteristic of por-Si formed using metal-assisted chemical etching by BET-method and fractal geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyko, Anton N.; Pyatilova, Olga V.; Kalmykov, Rustam M.; Gaev, Dahir S.; Timoshenkov, Sergei P.; Gavrilov, Sergei A.

    2016-12-01

    Study of new materials and composites based on porous silicon is of great interest for electronics and microelectronics industry. Functional characteristics of structured layers are closely associated with their morphology properties and treatment conditions correspondently. In this work a porous silicon layers formed by metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) with the use of gas adsorption-desorption method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fractal geometry have been examined. Specific surface area given by multi-point BET method was about of 7 m2/g and 13 m2/g for n-Si and p-Si specimens correspondently. Surface fractal dimension Ds was estimated for p-type mesoporous silicon from BET results using Neimark's thermodynamic approach, the value is Ds=2.86. "Slit islands" Mandelbrot's algorithm was applied for analysis of SEM images and calculations of surface fractal dimension Ds, computation gives Ds = 2.52 for n-Si sample and Ds = 2.84 for p-Si sample. The study testified the fractal nature of porous layers formed by MACE and exhibits correlation between different methods of fractal dimension estimation. The results can be applied for improvement of methods of structured solids characterization.

  9. Realidades Suburbanas: Latinos en el Condado de Dakota. Una Investigacion Dirigida por HACER = Suburban Realities: Latinos in Dakota County. A Study Conducted by HACER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HACER: Hispanic Advocacy and Community Empowerment through Research, Minneapolis, MN.

    A research project was conducted between April and December of 1998 to learn about the experiences of the sizable numbers of Latinos who live in Dakota County (Minnesota). This diverse group was studied through examining existing demographic information, conducting interviews with 45 Latino and Anglo individuals, and conducting several focus…

  10. Efectos de Campos Magnéticos en las Tasas de Consumo de Madera por Coptotermes formosanus, la Termita Subterránea de Formosa.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty groups of 500 workers and 50 soldiers of Coptotermes formosanus were maintained in costume designed containers and fed with a piece of red oak wood (Quercus rubra). Twenty of these groups were exposed to permanent magnets with a flux of 800 G. Another 20 groups were exposed to a permanent mag...

  11. Comparacion de modelos de Educacion Sexual en el conocimiento y cambio de actitudes en practicas sexuales por alumnos de nivel superior en la region de Caguas, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

    In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of the Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD). In addition, it provides activities to increase the self-esteem, the communication and the decision making. This investigation had the intention to compare the SETM and the HBM in the increase of knowledge and change of attitudes of high risk of propagation of the STD using a validated questionnaire (Agency of the United States for the International-USAID Development), named "Endesa 2007" and, adapted to Puerto Rico by the Dra.Marta Collazo to a sample of students between the 17 and 19 years of 2 state schools of San Lorenzo, as a pretest, and, selected by convenience. Then, a 10 hours training was administered to half of the students using the SETM to STD and condom use lessons. The other half of the students received additional lessons using the HBM. Finally, both groups took the questionnaire again as a posttest. The sample of students, in average, did not reach the knowledge and basic levels of attitudes towards the STD in the pretest. This reflected 2 possible implications on the SETM. In first place, that the way in which the STD is implemented as part of the Sexual Education curriculum is inefficient. Secondly, the possibility that the acquired information or attitudes does not have permanence. Culminated the questionnaire, the HBM increase the knowledge of the STD in 0.41 points (average) over the SETM. There was not a significant difference between both models, in attitudes, implying that both models are equally effective. The findings suggests that the HBM is more effective increasing the knowledge on the STD, but equally effective than the SETM in attitude change for the Puerto Rican youth.

  12. The HoMBReS and HoMBReS Por un Cambio Interventions to Reduce HIV Disparities Among Immigrant Hispanic/Latino Men.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Leichliter, Jami S; Sun, Christina J; Bloom, Fred R

    2016-02-12

    Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are affected disproportionately by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); however, few effective evidence-based prevention interventions for this population exist. This report describes the Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (Men Maintaining Wellbeing and Healthy Relationships) (HoMBReS) intervention, which was developed by a community-based, participatory research partnership in North Carolina and initially implemented during 2005-2009. HoMBReS is an example of an effective intervention that uses lay health advisors (known as Navegantes [navigators]) in the context of existing social networks (i.e., recreational soccer teams) to promote consistent condom use and HIV and STD testing among Hispanic/Latino men. In 2012, HoMBReS was classified as a best-evidence community-level HIV prevention intervention (CDC. Compendium of evidence-based behavioral interventions and best practices for HIV prevention. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2015). The intervention has been implemented elsewhere, enhanced, and further evaluated in longitudinal intervention and implementation studies. HoMBReS has been adapted for other populations, including men who have sex with men and transgender persons. Additional evaluation has found that Navegantes continue in their roles as health advisors, opinion leaders, and community advocates after study support ends. Hispanic/Latino men's social networks can be leveraged to promote sexual health within the community by decreasing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanics/Latinos in the United States.

  13. The HoMBReS and HoMBReS Por un Cambio Interventions to Reduce HIV Disparities Among Immigrant Hispanic/Latino Men

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Sun, Christina J.; Bloom, Fred R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are affected disproportionately by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); however, few effective evidence-based prevention interventions for this population exist. This report describes the Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (Men Maintaining Wellbeing and Healthy Relationships) (HoMBReS) intervention, which was developed by a community-based, participatory research partnership in North Carolina and initially implemented during 2005–2009. HoMBReS is an example of an effective intervention that uses lay health advisors (known as Navegantes [navigators]) in the context of existing social networks (i.e., recreational soccer teams) to promote consistent condom use and HIV and STD testing among Hispanic/Latino men. In 2012, HoMBReS was classified as a best-evidence community-level HIV prevention intervention (CDC. Compendium of evidence-based behavioral interventions and best practices for HIV prevention. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2015). The intervention has been implemented elsewhere, enhanced, and further evaluated in longitudinal intervention and implementation studies. HoMBReS has been adapted for other populations, including men who have sex with men and transgender persons. Additional evaluation has found that Navegantes continue in their roles as health advisors, opinion leaders, and community advocates after study support ends. Hispanic/Latino men’s social networks can be leveraged to promote sexual health within the community by decreasing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanics/Latinos in the United States. PMID:26916740

  14. "Pig in a poke (gato por liebre)": the "mota" (Calophysus macropterus) fishery, molecular evidence of commercialization in Colombia and toxicological analyses.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Cristian; Cubillos, Juan Camilo; Gómez, Rigoberto; Trujillo, Fernando; Caballero, Susana

    2014-06-01

    Overfishing has affected the population abundance trends of many commercial fish species. In the Amazon, the fishery of a catfish commonly known as "mota" or "piracatinga" (Calophysus macropterus) has become an important economic activity in the region as this species has replaced a number of other overexploited great catfish species in the markets. Due to this high exploitation, ways in which to increase captures have been identified. One strategy is to use decomposing animal carcasses as bait. Such strategy has increased the hunting pressure on endangered species such as caimans and river dolphins. We investigated which catfish species are currently commercialized in Colombian fish markets using DNA barcoding, and measured mercury concentration in the tissues of fish molecularly identified as C. macropterus. We collected 86 fish samples in markets of four Colombian cities. Sixty-eight of these were identified molecularly as C.macropterus. The mercury concentration of 29 such samples was analyzed. Samples presented total Hg concentrations higher than the limit for human consumption established by the WHO (0.5 μg/g). These results are worrisome and suggest that (1) C. macropterus is a widely used fish species for human consumption in Colombia and (2) C. macropterus has high concentrations of total Hg, making its consumption a public health risk. Results presented here suggest that C. macropterus has replaced capaz in most Colombian markets. This fishery threatens wild species of river dolphins and caimans, and is also a public health risk given the high mercury levels we found in a subsample of these fishes.

  15. Comparacion de Modelos de Educacion Sexual en El Conocimiento y Cambio de Actitudes en Practicas Sexuales por Alumnos de Nivel Superior en La Region De Caguas, Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

    2012-01-01

    In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of…

  16. (2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-Octa­ethyl­por­phin­ato)(trifluoro­methane­sulfonato)iron(III)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Nan; Powell, Douglas R.; Richter-Addo, George B.

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, [Fe(CF3O3S)(C36H44N4)], is an iron(III) porphyrin complex with the trifluoro­methane­sulfonate anion as an axial ligand. The Fe atom is displaced by 0.219 (2) Å toward the trifluoro­methane­sulfonate anion from the 24-atom mean plane of the porphyrin, resulting in a distorted FeN4O square-based pyramidal geometry. One ethyl­ene group is disordered over two orientations in a 0.502 (6):0.498 (6) ratio. PMID:21580825

  17. The Department of Defense’s Transition of Program of Record (POR) Systems from Internet Protocol Version Four (IPv4) to Internet Protocol Version Six (IPv6)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Protocol IA Information Assurance IANA Internet Assigned Numbers Authority ICANN Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers ICE... ICANN ) is responsible for the global coordination of the Internet’s system of unique identifiers. Unique identifies include domain names like .org...or .museum, and country codes such as .UK .IE. Any new RIR shall, on recognition by ICANN receive an IPv6 allocation from the IANA. A RIR is

  18. Impact of Phlebotomine Sand Flies on U.S. Military Operations at Tallil Air Base, Iraq: 4. Detection and Identification of Leishmania Parasites in Sand Flies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    l ofAEbufferwas added, followed by incubation at room temperature for 5 min and centrifugion at 8,000 rpm for 1 min in a microcentrifuge. An...additional 50 l of AE buffer was added to the QIAamp Spin Column, followed by in- cubation at room temperature for 5 min and centri- fugion at 8,000 rpm for...FLIES 653 addition, DNA from three species of phlebotomine sand ßies Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva), P. papatasi, and Phlebotomus argentipes

  19. Genetic and Molecular Studies of the Phlebotomus Fever Group of Viruses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    1980: Cash et al., 1981), (2) isolated temperature sensitive (ts), conditional lethal, mutants of Punta--To-ro (PT) virus and categorized them by...virus stock, which gave 10 plaques at 35°C, gave none at 39.8 C. By high temperature passaging of the virus stgck and clonlpg at 39.8 C, stock of ICO...eastern Panama, Lutzomyia sanguinaria sandflies), PT Bayano (1976, also eastern Panama, sentinel hamster), PT Adamas (PT-ada, 1974, about 100 miles

  20. Potential for North American Mosquitoes to Transmit Rift Valley Fever Virus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    required to evaluate other potential vectors of RVFV in North America and to determine the role of other factors (e.g., environ- mental temperature ...fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 33:295-299. House JA, Turell MJ, Mebus CA. 1992. Rift Valley fever: present status and risk to the Western...Hyg 54:136-139. Turell MJ, Rossi CA, Bailey CL. 1985. Effect of extrinsic incubation temperature on the ability of Aedes taeniorhynchus and Cuiex pipiens to transmit Rift Valley fever virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 34:1211-1218.

  1. Disease Vector Ecology Profile: Bolivia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-12-01

    divided into three major regions: the western Altiplano or high plateau (average elevation 3,800 m and temperature 11°C/50° F), the Yungas, a series of...forested valleys on the eastern slopes of the Andean Altiplano (490-3,130 m elevation and average temperature 21°C/ 70° F), and the Llanos, or lowlands...mosquitoes. Leishmaniasis is a protozoan disease transmitted in the New World by species of Lutzomyia sand flies. Since sand flies have very

  2. Phlebotomus Fever Viruses in Panama.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    species have been Lutzomyia gomezi, Lu. panamensis, Lu sanguinaria, Lu. trapidoi and Lu. ylephilator. Less numerous has been Lu. olmeca . Blood fed...gomezi, 1 Lu. ylephila- lator and 1 Lu. olmeca ). These flies had fed on a viremic hamster shown to be circulating 2.6 x 103pfu/ml of PT virus. Virus was...originally fed on a hamster viremic with CHG virus. Punta Toro virus was recovered from a Lu. olmeca which origi- nally fed on a hamster viremic with PT

  3. Descriptions of the immature stages of Dampfomyia (Coromyia) beltrani (Vargas & Díaz-Nájera) (Diptera: Psychodidae), with notes on morphology and chaetotaxy nomenclature.

    PubMed

    De Oca-Aguilar, Ana Celia Montes; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio

    2014-11-25

    All immature stages of the phlebotomine sandfly Dampfomyia (Coromyia) beltrani (Vargas & Díaz-Nájera) [= Lutzomyia (Coromyia) beltrani, sensu Young & Duncan 1994] are described and illustrated based on reared specimens from founder females collected from the type-locality in Veracruz, Mexico. These represent the first description of egg, and the third of larva instars and pupa of a species of the subgenus Coromyia, only preceded by Da. vespertilionis (Fairchild & Hertig) and Da. isovespertilionis (Fairchild & Hertig). Some morphological nomenclature clarifications are suggested toward the standardization of immature descriptions, which, in turn, would allow detection of homologies for future integration of these developmental stages characters into a phylogenetic analyses.

  4. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) of Chiapas collected near the Guatemala border, with additions to the fauna of Mexico and a new subgenus name.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Muñoz, José; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A; Pech-May, Agelica; Marina, Carlos F

    2015-07-31

    Collections from four localities, two of the High Plateau and two of the Eastern Mountains Municipality of Chiapas, near the border with Guatemala, included 26 species with four new species records for Mexico: Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) hartmanni (Fairchild & Hertig, 1957), Dampfomyia (Coromyia) disneyi (Williams, 1987), Psychodopygus bispinosus (Fairchild & Hertig, 1951), and Psychodopygus corossoniensis (LePont & Pajot, 1978). These records represent an updated total of 50 species in Mexico, 48 of which are extant species and the remaining two fossils. The name Xiphopsathyromyia n. n. is proposed in substitution of Xiphomyia Artemiev, 1991, a homonym of Xiphomyia Townsend, 1917, a genus of Tachinidae (Diptera).

  5. Functional morphology of the midgut of a sandfly as compared to other hematophagous nematocera.

    PubMed

    Rudin, W; Hecker, H

    1982-01-01

    The midgut epithelium of female Lutzomyia longipalpis was investigated by means of electron microscopic morphometry before and during blood digestion. Ultrastructure and cytological changes of the stomach cells upon blood feeding were generally similar to the ones described for Phlebotomus longipes (Gemetchu, 1974) and for mosquitoes (Hecker, 1977). In addition, the quantitative composition of the cells resembled the one of mosquitoes in many respects. Despite some morphological differences in the functional gut cytology, it can be admitted that, in general, digestive processes may run similarly in the midguts of sandflies and mosquitoes.

  6. The phlebotomine sandflies of Venezuelan Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Feliciangeli, M D; Ramirez Perez, J; Ramirez, A

    1988-01-01

    Phlebotomine sandflies were surveyed in two ecologically contrasted areas, the northern moist and southern wet tropical forests, of the Territorio Federal Amazonas, Venezuela. Three new taxa and twenty-one new records were added to the previously known species list for Venezuelan sandflies, which now totals eighty species. Both sexes of Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) killicki sp.n., L. (Trichophoryomyia) bettinii sp.n., L. (Nyssomyia) olmeca reducta subsp.n. and and the females of L. bernalei Osorno et al., Brumptomyia pintoi Costa Lima and L. begonae (Ortiz & Torres) are described and illustrated.

  7. Horizontal stratification of the sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a transitional vegetation between caatinga and tropical rain forest, state of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias-Lima, Artur Gomes; Guedes, Maria Lenise Silva; Sherlock, Italo A

    2003-09-01

    A study about the horizontal stratification of the sand fly fauna in two distinct ecosystems, caatinga area, endemic for visceral leishmaniasis, and the tropical rain forest area, endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis, was performed in the state of Bahia, Brazil. Lutzomyia longipalpis was predominant in the caatinga, and following it came the species L. capixaba and L. oswaldoi. In the tropical rain forest other species were found, such as L. intermedia, L. migonei, L. whitmani, L. yuilli, L.fischeri, L. damascenoi, L. evandroi, L. monticola, and L. lenti. It was found that the geographical limits of the vector species of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis are clearly defined by the biological and phytogeographic characteristics.

  8. [Phlebotomine sandflies in Parque Nacional Cavernas do Peruaçu, Minas Gerais state, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Barata, Ricardo A; Antonini, Yasmine; Gonçalves, Caroline M; Costa, Daniela C; Dias, Edelberto S

    2008-01-01

    We surveyed the phlebotomine fauna in the Parque Nacional Cavernas do Peruaçu, Minas Gerais, Brazil, aiming to associate the presence of vector with the risk of leishmaniasis transmission. Field captures were performed with CDC light traps between February and March 2003. A total of 436 sand flies were captured, belonging to 14 species. The predominant species (28.7%) was Lutzomyia ischnacantha Martins, Souza e Falcão, followed by L. renei (27,06%) and L. cavernicola (13,07%). The finding of L. intermedia, a species that is incriminated as vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis, has to be taken into account.

  9. Species diversity and flagellate infections in the sand fly fauna near Porto Grande, State of Amapá, Brazil (Diptera: Psychodidae. Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae).

    PubMed

    Freitas, Rui A; Naiff, Roberto D; Barrett, Toby V

    2002-01-01

    Forty-six species of Lutzomyia and one species of Brumptomyia were identified among 20,008 sand flies collected in central Amapá. L. squamiventris maripaensis, L. infraspinosa, L. umbratilis, and L. ubiquitalis accounted for 66% of the specimens caught in light traps, and L. umbratilis was the commonest of the 16 species found on tree bases. Seven species of Lutzomyia including L. umbratilis were collected in a plantation of Caribbean pine. Sixty out of 511 female sand flies dissected were positive for flagellates. Among the sand flies from which Leishmania was isolated, promastigotes were observed in the salivary glands and foregut of 13 out of 21 females scored as having very heavy infections in the remainder of the gut, reinforcing the idea that salivary gland invasion may be part of the normal life cycle of Leishmania in nature. Salivary gland infections were detected in specimens of L. umbratilis, L. whitmani and L. spathotrichia. Parasites isolated from L. umbratilis, L. whitmani and also from one specimen of L. dendrophyla containing the remains of a bloodmeal, were compatible with Le. guyanensis by morphology and behaviour in hamsters.

  10. Sandflies in an urban area of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in midwest Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; Brilhante, Andreia Fernandes; Nunes, Vânia Lúcia Brandão; Cristaldo, Geucira; Lima Júnior, Manoel Sebastião Costa; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2016-01-01

    The phlebotomine fauna of Campo Grande city, capital of Mato Grosso do Sul state in Brazil, an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis, has been thoroughly investigated, but all the insect collections were undertaken with automatic light traps. The present study sought to investigate the fauna in this city using Shannon and Disney traps, having human beings and hamsters, respectively, as bait. Both types of traps were installed in forest fragment and peridomiciliary areas in the period from 2007 to 2009. The phlebotomine females were analyzed by PCR for Leishmania identification. Lutzomyia longipalpis was the only species collected in the peridomiciles and rendered a total of 574 specimens with a 5.2:1 male:female ratio. A total of eight species were attracted to the two traps (one of each type) installed in the forest fragment, including: Bichromomyia flaviscutellata, Evandromyia bourrouli, Evandromyia lenti, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Nyssomyia whitmani, Pintomyia christenseni, Psathyromyia bigeniculata, and Sciopemyia sordellii. A total of 143 specimens were collected, Bi. flaviscutellata accounting for 81% and Lu. longipalpis for 1.4% of them. In one female of Lu. longipalpis collected in a Disney trap installed in a peridomicile, Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum DNA was found, thus strengthening the hypothesis that the transmission of leishmaniasis is in fact occurring in the anthropic environment. PMID:27593433

  11. Sandflies (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) survey in an urban transmission area of visceral leishmaniasis, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amóra, Sthenia Santos Albano; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; Feijó, Francisco Marlon Carneiro; Oliveira, Paula Gabriela Melo de; Peixoto, Gislayne Christianne Xavier; Sousa, Raimundo Nonato de; Alves, Nilza Dutra; Oliveira, Lorena Mayana Beserra de; Macedo, Iara Térsia Freitas

    2010-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a major public health challenge in Brazil, especially in states where it is endemic. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of sand fly population density with environmental variables (temperature, rainfall and relative humidity) in urban areas of the city of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil. Sand flies were captured with Center Disease Control (CDC) traps installed monthly in the intra and peridomicile of three houses. Data analysis was based on the chi-square test and linear regression. A total of 7,347 sand flies were captured, being 93.85% Lutzomyia longipalpis and 6.15% Lutzomyia evandroi. Sand flies were more commonly found in the peridomicile and there was no difference between the number of males and females. The variables rainy season as well as relative humidity and rainfall, alone or together, did not have an effect on sand fly population density. However, high temperatures had a negative effect. The study of the behavior of sand flies in specific units of endemic areas can provide input to public health authorities for planning appropriate VL vector control measures.

  12. The sandfly fauna, anthropophily and the seasonal activities of Pintomyia spinicrassa (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northeastern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ovallos, Fredy Galvis; Silva, Yanis Ricardo Espinosa; Fernandez, Nelson; Gutierrez, Reynaldo; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Sandoval, Claudia Magaly

    2013-05-01

    This study was conducted to identify the sandfly fauna and the anthropophilic species in a coffee-growing area of Villanueva, Norte de Santander, Colombia, a focus of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, and to analyse the relationship between the most frequent species and rainfall, relative humidity and temperature, with the aim of contributing to epidemiological surveillance in the area. Sandfly collections were performed fortnightly between February 2006-September 2007 using automatic light traps, Shannon traps, protected human bait and aspiration in resting places. A total of 7,051 sandflies belonging to 12 species were captured. Pintomyia spinicrassa (95.7%) predominated. Pintomyia oresbia and Lutzomyia sp. of Pichinde were found in the state of Norte de Santander for the first time. Pi. spinicrassa, Pintomyia nuneztovari, Micropygomyia venezuelensis, Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) scorzai and Lu. (Helcocyrtomyia) sp. were captured on the protected human bait. A significant association between Pi. spinicrassa abundance and the total rainfall and the average temperature and humidity 10 days before the collection was observed. The dominance of Pi. spinicrassa, a recognised vector of Leishmania braziliensis, especially during the dry periods, indicates that the risk of parasite transmission may increase.

  13. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the municipality of Várzea Grande: an area of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Missawa, Nanci Akemi; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2007-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been naturally transmitted in periurban areas due to the emergence and reemergence of its vectors in such areas. Aimed to further knowledge on ecological aspects affecting the occurrence of phlebotomine sand flies in VL transmission areas in the municipality of Várzea Grande, state of Mato Grosso (MT), Brazil, sand fly captures were carried out. Monthly collections of sand flies were undertaken with CDC light-traps, which were left in both intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary areas of ten residences during four consecutive days between January 2004 and June 2006. Twenty-two species of genus Lutzomyia and one of Brumptomyia were captured. The most abundant species was Lutzomyia longipalpis (65.23%), followed by L. evandroi (16.26%), L. lenti (7.69%), L. whitmani (4.92%), L. sallesi (2.34%) and L. termitophila (1.32%). The highest density of the main VL vector, L. longipalpis, was found in peridomiciliary areas, mostly males. No significant correlation was found between environment (temperature, air relative humidity and rain fall) and phlebotomine density; although a slight increase in sand fly density has been observed in the period following rainfalls, particularly L. longipalpis. No correlation was observed between distribution and density of L. longipalpis, prevalence of human VL cases and the presence of serologically positive dogs. The presence of infected dogs, increased vector density, susceptibility rate and interruption of epidemiological surveillance may raise the risk of VL transmission to man in Várzea Grande.

  14. Relative abundances of sandfly species (Diptera: Phlebotominae) in two villages in the same area of Campeche, in southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rebollar-Téllez, E A; Tun-Ku, E; Manrique-Saide, P C; Andrade-Narvaez, F J

    2005-03-01

    Leishmania mexicana is the parasite causing most cases of human cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Mexico, where Lutzomyia olmeca olmeca and Lu. cruciata are the most probable vectors. In the present study, sandflies were collected during one transmission season (November 2001-March 2002) in the village of La Guadalupe and the nearby village of Dos Naciones, in the southern Mexican county of Calakmul. Using Shannon traps, Disney traps and CDC light traps, 5983 sandflies (Brumptomyia and Lutzomyia) were caught. In Dos Naciones the numbers of Lu. panamensis caught in Shannon or CDC traps outnumbered those of the other sandfly species. In La Guadalupe, in contrast, the most abundant species in the collections made with Shannon or CDC traps was Lu. cruciata , followed by Lu. olmeca olmeca and Lu. deleoni. In both locations, the numbers of sandflies attracted to Shannon traps peaked between 18.00 and 22.00 hours. Given the abundance of Lu. olmeca olmeca in the collections made with Shannon and Disney traps (it was the only species caught in the latter), this species is probably the primary vector of Le. mexicana in Calakmul county.

  15. Environmental factors associated with American cutaneous leishmaniasis in a new Andean focus in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Ocampo, C. B.; Ferro, M. C.; Cadena, H.; Gongora, R.; Pérez, M.; Valderrama-Ardila, C. H.; Quinnell, R. J.; Alexander, N.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the environmental and ecological factors associated with Leishmania transmission and vector abundance in Chaparral, Tolima-Colombia. METHODS First, we compared the ecological characteristics, abundance of phlebotomies and potential reservoir hosts in the peridomestic environment (100 m radius) of randomly selected houses, between two townships with high and low cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence. Second, we examined peridomestic correlates of phlebotomine abundance in all 43 houses in the higher risk township. RESULTS The high transmission township had higher coverage of forest (23% vs. 8.4%) and shade coffee (30.7% vs. 11%), and less coffee monoculture (16.8% vs. 26.2%) and pasture (6.3% vs. 12.3%), compared to the low transmission township. Lutzomyia were more abundant in the high transmission township 2.5 vs. 0.2/trap/night. Lutzomyia longiflocosa was the most common species in both townships: 1021/1450 (70%) and 39/80 (49%). Numbers of potential wild mammal reservoirs were small, although four species were found to be infected with Leishmania (Viannia) spp. In the high transmission township, the overall peridomiciliary capture rate of L. longiflocosa was 1.5/trap/night, and the abundance was higher in houses located nearer to forest (ρ = −0.30, P = 0.05). CONCLUSION The findings are consistent with a domestic transmission cycle with the phlebotomies dependent on dense vegetation near the house. PMID:22882595

  16. SAND FLIES (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE) IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF LEISHMANIASIS IN AQUIDAUANA MUNICIPALITY, PANTANAL OF MATO GROSSO DO SUL , BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Helen Rezende de; Santos, Mirella Ferreira da Cunha; Casaril, Aline Etelvina; Infran, Jucelei Oliveira de Moura; Ribeiro, Leticia Moraes; Fernandes, Carlos Eurico Dos Santos; Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez de

    2016-12-08

    The Aquidauana municipality is considered an endemic area of leishmaniasis and an important tourist site in Mato Grosso do Sul State. The aim of this study was to investigate the sand fly fauna in the city of Aquidauana. Captures were carried out twice a month, from April 2012 to March 2014 with automatic light traps and active aspiration, in the peridomicile and domicile of six residences. A total of 9,338 specimens were collected, 3,179 and 6,159 using light traps and active aspiration, respectively. The fauna consisted of: Brumptomyia brumpti, Evandromyia aldafalcaoae, Ev. evandroi, Ev. lenti, Ev. orcyi, Ev. sallesi, Ev. termitophila, Ev. walkeri, Lutzomyia longipalpis and Psathyromyia bigeniculata. The most abundant species captured was Lutzomyia longipalpis, present in all the ecotopes, predominantly in peridomicile areas, and mainly males. Leishmania DNA was not detected in the insects. It was observed the abundance of the sand fly fauna in the region, as well as the high frequency of Lu. longipalpis, the main vector of L. infantum. The results of this study show the need to increase the monitoring and more effective control measures. It is noteworthy that the studied region presents several activities related to tourism and recreation, increasing the risk of transmission of leishmaniasis to this particular human population.

  17. Ecological aspects of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from a cave of the speleological province of Bambuí, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Ramos, Mariana Campos das Neves Farah; Serra e Meira, Paula Cavalcante Lamy; Zenóbio, Ana Paula Lusardo de Almeida; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Sanguinette, Cristiani de Castilho; Saraiva, Lara; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2013-01-01

    Phlebotomines are invertebrate hosts of Leishmania genus species which are etiological agents of leishmaniases in humans and other mammals. Sandflies are often collected in entomological studies of caves both in the inner area and the adjacent environments. Caves are ecotypes clearly different from the external environment. Several caves have been opened to public visitation before any studies were performed and the places do not have scientific monitoring of the fauna, flora, geological and geographical characteristics. These events can lead to the loss of geological and biological information. Considering these aspects, this study aimed to describe the sand fly fauna, including the ecological features, in a limestone cave at the Speleological Province of Bambuí (Minas Gerais State, Brazil). A total of 8,354 specimens of sandflies belonging to 29 species were analyzed: Lutzomyia cavernicola (20%), Nyssomyia intermedia (15%), Martinsmyia oliveirai (13%), Evandromyia spelunca (12%), Evandromyia sallesi (11%), Migonemyia migonei (9%), Nyssomyia whitmani (9%), Sciopemyia sordellii (4%) and Lutzomyia longipalpis (2%). The others species represent 5% of the total. This manuscript presents data found on richness, diversity, evenness and seasonality, comparing the sand fly fauna trapped in the cave and its surroundings.

  18. Sandflies (Diptera, Psychodidae) from forest areas in Botucatu municipality, central western São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The study of the distribution and ecology of sandfly species is essential for epidemiological surveillance and estimation of the transmission risk of Leishmania spp. infection. Findings In the present study, sandflies were captured in native fragmented forest areas in Rubião Júnior district, Botucatu municipality, São Paulo state, Brazil, between September 2001 and January 2005. A minimum of two automatic light traps were installed per night from 6 pm to 8 am, in different months, resulting in approximately 900 collecting hours. During this period, 216 sandfly specimens of sixteen species were captured. Pintomyia monticola and Brumptomyia guimaraesi were the most abundant with 56 specimens (25.93%) captured per species, followed by Pintomyia fischeri 28 (12.96%) and Psathyromyia pascalei 18 (8.33%). Other captured species were Lutzomyia amarali, Sciopemyia sordellii, Psathyromyia aragaoi, Nyssomyia whitmani, Migonemyia migonei, Pintomyia bianchigalatiae, Pintomyia misionensis, Brumptomyia carvalheiroi, Brumptomyia cardosoi, Brumptomyia cunhai, Brumptomyia nitzulescui, Brumptomyia brumpti and Brumptomyia spp. represented by 58 (26.85%) specimens. Conclusions Although less frequently found, the presence of Pintomyia fischeri, Nyssomyia whitmani and Migonemyia migonei, known vectors of Leishmania braziliensis, indicates risk of American cutaneous leishmaniasis occurrence. Moreover, the absence of Lutzomyia longipalpis-the main vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi, which is the agent of American visceral leishmaniasis-suggests that there is no risk of introduction and establishment of this disease in the studied area. PMID:23849624

  19. Effect of environmental disturbance on the population of sandflies and leishmania transmission in an endemic area of Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Elsa; Oraá, Luzmary; Rondón, Yorfer; Sánchez, Mireya; Sánchez, Yetsenia; Rojas, Masyelly; Rondón, Maritza; Rujano, Maria; González, Nestor; Cazorla, Dalmiro

    2014-01-01

    The exploitation of new wilderness areas with crops is increasing and traditional crop substitution has been modified by new more productive crops. The results show the anthropogenic disturbance effect on the sandflies population and Leishmania transmission in endemic areas of Venezuela. Three agroecosystems with variable degrees of ecological disturbance, forest (conserved), cacao (fragmented), and orangery (disturbed), were selected. Four methods to sandfly capture were used; the specimens were identified and infected with Leishmania. Diversity, population structure, ANOVA, Tukey test, and simple correlation analysis were carried out. Shannon traps were able to capture 94.7% of the total sandflies, while CDC light traps, Sticky traps, and direct suction just captured 2.2%, 1.2%, and 0.9%, respectively. The results showed the effect of ecological disturbance degree on the composition of sandflies and population structure, revealing a dominance level increased but decreased on the diversity and richness of sandflies species in the greatest ecological disturbance area in relation to areas with less organic disturbance. Environments more disturbed cause adaptability of certain species such as Lutzomyia gomezi and Lutzomyia walkeri. These changes on the composition of sandflies population and structure emerging species could cause increasing of leishmaniasis transmission.

  20. SAND FLIES (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE) IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF LEISHMANIASIS IN AQUIDAUANA MUNICIPALITY, PANTANAL OF MATO GROSSO DO SUL , BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    de FIGUEIREDO, Helen Rezende; SANTOS, Mirella Ferreira da Cunha; CASARIL, Aline Etelvina; INFRAN, Jucelei Oliveira de Moura; RIBEIRO, Leticia Moraes; FERNANDES, Carlos Eurico dos Santos; de OLIVEIRA, Alessandra Gutierrez

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The Aquidauana municipality is considered an endemic area of leishmaniasis and an important tourist site in Mato Grosso do Sul State. The aim of this study was to investigate the sand fly fauna in the city of Aquidauana. Captures were carried out twice a month, from April 2012 to March 2014 with automatic light traps and active aspiration, in the peridomicile and domicile of six residences. A total of 9,338 specimens were collected, 3,179 and 6,159 using light traps and active aspiration, respectively. The fauna consisted of: Brumptomyia brumpti, Evandromyia aldafalcaoae, Ev. evandroi, Ev. lenti, Ev. orcyi, Ev. sallesi, Ev. termitophila, Ev. walkeri, Lutzomyia longipalpis and Psathyromyia bigeniculata. The most abundant species captured was Lutzomyia longipalpis, present in all the ecotopes, predominantly in peridomicile areas, and mainly males. Leishmania DNA was not detected in the insects. It was observed the abundance of the sand fly fauna in the region, as well as the high frequency of Lu. longipalpis, the main vector of L. infantum. The results of this study show the need to increase the monitoring and more effective control measures. It is noteworthy that the studied region presents several activities related to tourism and recreation, increasing the risk of transmission of leishmaniasis to this particular human population. PMID:27982353

  1. Ecological Aspects of Phlebotomine Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from a Cave of the Speleological Province of Bambuí, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Ramos, Mariana Campos das Neves Farah; Serra e Meira, Paula Cavalcante Lamy; Zenóbio, Ana Paula Lusardo de Almeida; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Sanguinette, Cristiani de Castilho; Saraiva, Lara; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2013-01-01

    Phlebotomines are invertebrate hosts of Leishmania genus species which are etiological agents of leishmaniases in humans and other mammals. Sandflies are often collected in entomological studies of caves both in the inner area and the adjacent environments. Caves are ecotypes clearly different from the external environment. Several caves have been opened to public visitation before any studies were performed and the places do not have scientific monitoring of the fauna, flora, geological and geographical characteristics. These events can lead to the loss of geological and biological information. Considering these aspects, this study aimed to describe the sand fly fauna, including the ecological features, in a limestone cave at the Speleological Province of Bambuí (Minas Gerais State, Brazil). A total of 8,354 specimens of sandflies belonging to 29 species were analyzed: Lutzomyia cavernicola (20%), Nyssomyia intermedia (15%), Martinsmyia oliveirai (13%), Evandromyia spelunca (12%), Evandromyia sallesi (11%), Migonemyia migonei (9%), Nyssomyia whitmani (9%), Sciopemyia sordellii (4%) and Lutzomyia longipalpis (2%). The others species represent 5% of the total. This manuscript presents data found on richness, diversity, evenness and seasonality, comparing the sand fly fauna trapped in the cave and its surroundings. PMID:24130847

  2. First human cases of Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi infection in Ecuador and identification of its suspected vector species.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hirotomo; Calvopiña, Manuel; Criollo, Hipatia; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2013-12-01

    Epidemiological surveillance of leishmaniasis was conducted in a northern Amazonian region of Ecuador, in which cutaneous leishmaniasis cases were recently reported. Sand flies were captured in the military training camp, and the natural infection of sand flies by Leishmania species was examined. Out of 334 female sand flies dissected, the natural infection by flagellates was microscopically detected in 3.9% of Lutzomyia yuilli yuilli and 3.7% of Lutzomyia tortura, and the parasite species were identified as Endotrypanum and Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi, respectively. After the sand fly surveillance, specimens from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients considered to have acquired the infection in the training camp area were obtained, and the infected parasite species were identified as L. (V.) naiffi. The present study reported first cases of CL caused by L. (V.) naiffi infection in Ecuador. In addition, a high ratio of infection of Lu. tortura by L. (V.) naiffi in the same area strongly suggested that Lu. tortura is responsible for the transmission of L. (V.) naiffi in this area.

  3. [Epidemiological characteristics of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic region of the State of Bahia. III. Phlebotomine fauna].

    PubMed

    Vexenat, J A; Barretto, A C; Cuba, C C; Marsden, P D

    1986-01-01

    The phlebotomine fauna is highly varied in Três Braços, an endemic area of american cutaneous leishmaniasis, situated in the cacao growing region in the southeast of Bahia State, Brazil. Thirty spécies of the Lutzomyia genus were identified in 13,535 specimens collected between 1976 and 1984. Lutzomyia whitmani was the dominant species accounting for 99% of flies in the peridomicile and 97.5% of those caught in homes. In the forest the predominant species were Lu. ayrozai and Lu. yuilli. Lu. whitmani accounted for only 1.0% of the specimens examined. Lu. flaviscutellata, the proven vector of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis, was also collected in small numbers. Lu. wellcomei, a known vector of L. braziliensis braziliensis in the Serra dos Carajás, Pará, Brazil was not encountered in the Três Braços region where the parasite causing human infections is usually L.b. braziliensis. Although we have not encountered a natural infection with leishmanial promastigotes in 1,832 females of the various species examined, we discuss the probability that Lu. whitmani is the vector of L.b. braziliensis in the region maintaining transmission in dogs and man.

  4. First report of Warileya rotundipennis (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia) in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Mabel; Ferro, Cristina; Rosales-Chilama, Mariana; Rubiano, Luisa; Delgado, Marcela; Cossio, Alexandra; Gómez, Maria Adelaida; Ocampo, Clara; Saravia, Nancy Gore

    2015-01-01

    The expansion of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis from sylvatic ecosystems into peri-urban and domestic settings has occurred as sand flies have adapted to anthropogenic environmental modifications. Assessment of the intradomiciliary presence of sand flies in households of the settlement “La Cabaña”, in the Department of Risaralda, Colombia, revealed an abundance of Warileya rotundipennis. This unexpected observation motivated further analyses to evaluate the participation of this species in the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Collections using CDC light traps were conducted during two consecutive nights in May and August 2011. The total of 667 sand flies collected were classified into five species: W. rotundipennis (n = 654; 98.05%), Nyssomyia trapidoi (n = 7; 1.04%); Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) hartmanni (n = 3; 0.44%); Lutzomyia lichyi (n = 2; 0.29%) and Psychodopygus panamensis (n = 1; 0.14%). The striking predominance of W. rotundipennis within households during both wet (May) and dry (August) seasons, anthropophilic behavior demonstrated by human blood in 95.23% (60/63) evaluable blood-engorged specimens, and natural infection (5/168–3%) with genetically similar parasites of the Leishmania (Viannia) subgenus observed in a patient in this community, support the involvement of W. rotundipennis in the domestic transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in “La Cabaña”. PMID:25917717

  5. Phlebotominae sand flies associated with a tegumentary leishmaniasis outbreak, Tucumán Province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Quintana, María Gabriela; Flores, Isolina; Andina, Ana María; Molina, Silvia; Montivero, Lucía; Rosales, Isabel

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of sand flies and cases of tegumentary leishmaniasis in the area surrounding JB Alberd city, and the proximities of Catamarca province were studied, after an increase of reported cases from JB Alberdi, Tucumán province, in 2003. Of 14 confirmed cases, 57% were females and 57% were less than 15 years old, suggesting peridomestic transmission. However, 86% of them lived close to the Marapa river forest gallery and related wooded areas. Over 1,013 sand flies were collected; Lutzomyia neivai (Pinto, 1926) was prevalent at all the sites (92.3%), while Lutzomyia migonei (França, 1920) (6.7%) and Lu. cortelezzii (Brèthes, 1923) (1%) were also found. The spatial distribution of Lu. neivai overlapped that of the cases, with higher abundance in microfocal hot spots close to the river in stable vegetated habitats or modified habitats with shadow and animal blood sources. The cumulative outcome of anthropic, ecological and climatic factors could have contributed to the onset of the outbreak.

  6. The sandfly fauna, anthropophily and the seasonal activities of Pintomyia spinicrassa (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northeastern Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Ovallos, Fredy Galvis; Silva, Yanis Ricardo Espinosa; Fernandez, Nelson; Gutierrez, Reynaldo; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Sandoval, Claudia Magaly

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the sandfly fauna and the anthropophilic species in a coffee-growing area of Villanueva, Norte de Santander, Colombia, a focus of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, and to analyse the relationship between the most frequent species and rainfall, relative humidity and temperature, with the aim of contributing to epidemiological surveillance in the area. Sandfly collections were performed fortnightly between February 2006-September 2007 using automatic light traps, Shannon traps, protected human bait and aspiration in resting places. A total of 7,051 sandflies belonging to 12 species were captured. Pintomyia spinicrassa (95.7%) predominated. Pintomyia oresbia and Lutzomyia sp. of Pichinde were found in the state of Norte de Santander for the first time. Pi. spinicrassa, Pintomyia nuneztovari, Micropygomyia venezuelensis, Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) scorzai and Lu. (Helcocyrtomyia) sp. were captured on the protected human bait. A significant association between Pi. spinicrassa abundance and the total rainfall and the average temperature and humidity 10 days before the collection was observed. The dominance of Pi. spinicrassa, a recognised vector of Leishmania braziliensis, especially during the dry periods, indicates that the risk of parasite transmission may increase. PMID:23778653

  7. Blood-meal identification in phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Valle Hermoso, a high prevalence zone for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Anaguano, David F; Ponce, Patricio; Baldeón, Manuel E; Santander, Stephanie; Cevallos, Varsovia

    2015-12-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia. In South America, cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in the majority of countries. There are no previous reports of phlebotomine sand fly host feeding sources in Ecuador. We identified blood meal sources for phlebotomine sand fly species in Valle Hermoso, a hyper endemic area for leishmaniasis in Ecuador. Phlebotomine sand fly collections were carried out during the dry and rainy seasons. PCR and multiplex PCR were performed from DNA extracted from the abdomens of blood-fed females to specifically identify the avian and mammalian blood meal sources. Avian-blood (77%), mammalian-blood (16%) and mixed avian-mammalian blood (7%) were found in the samples. At the species level, blood from chickens (35.5%), humans (2.8%), cows (2.8%) and dogs (1.9%) was specifically detected. Nyssomyia trapidoi was the most common species of Lutzomyia found that fed on birds. The present results may aid the development of effective strategies to control leishmaniasis in Ecuador.

  8. Influence of the lunar cycle on the activity of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Santos-De Marco, Tania; De Mello Gaia, Marília Carla; Peçanha Brazil, Reginaldo

    2002-06-01

    The influence of lunar phases on the activity of phlebotomine sand flies was evaluated in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The insects were collected by illuminated Shannon traps and Falcão light traps, between 1830 and 2230 h on 44 nights, divided between the dry and rainy seasons, and among each of the 4 lunar phases. A total of 888 sand flies was collected, belonging to 10 Lutzomyia species. The dominant species in both seasons of the year and in all lunar phases was Lutzomyia intermedia. A significant difference was found in the abundance of L. whitmani among lunar phases. No significant difference was found in frequency of sand flies collected among lunar phases. Females of L. intermedia initiated activity earlier during the crescent and full moon phases than during three-quarter and new phases. Based on the premise that sand flies would exhibit normal phototaxis in the absence of moonlight, activity should be unaffected under a new moon, whereas light reflected by the moon in its brightest phases (crescent and full) should shift the period of activity of the sand flies so that it does not coincide with the period in which the moon is visible, or should reduce attractiveness of light traps to the insects by providing less background contrast.

  9. Taxonomic Revision of Hispaniola Tiger Beetles in the Genus Brasiella Rivalier 1954 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelinae)

    PubMed Central

    Acciavatti, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The Brasiella tiger beetle fauna on Hispaniola, the second largest island of the Greater Antilles, has more species diversity than currently recognized as all populations previously have been assigned to the insular endemic Brasiella dominicana (Mandl). A comparative study of adult morphology, particularly male genitalic and female abdominal characters, for available Brasiella specimens from populations on Hispaniola, proposes eight additional new species also endemic to this island. Except for three sympatric species in the Sierra de Baoruco in southern Dominican Republic occurring in different habitats, all the Brasiella on Hispaniola appear to be allopatric. Most species occur in the major mountainous regions of Hispaniola. Two species, however, are known only from river floodplains in the southern coastal plain of the Dominican Republic. Brasiella dominicana (Mandl) and Brasiella ocoa, new species, occur along river floodplains emanating from the eastern end of the Cordillera Central in the Dominican Republic. Two new Brasiella species, Brasiella bellorum, and Brasiella philipi, occur in the Cordillera Central, Dominican Republic, the former species from central portions, and the latter species from north slopes of this mountain range, respectively. Three new Brasiella species, Brasiella rawlinsi, Brasiella iviei, and Brasiella youngi, are isolated in the Sierra de Baoruco, Dominican Republic, where each occupies a different habitat along an altitudinal gradient. The two new Brasiella species in Haiti are Brasiella darlingtoniana, in the Massif de la Selle, and Brasiella davidsoni, in the Massif de la Hotte. All nine Brasiella species on Hispaniola, along with Brasiella viridicollis (Dejean) and its two subspecies on Cuba, belong to the viridicollis species group of the genus Brasiella based on criteria presented in earlier published phylogenetic studies of Brazilian and West Indian tiger beetles. The subspecies Brasiella viridicollis fernandozayasi

  10. Leishmaniasis transmission in an ecotourism area: potential vectors in Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The south coast of Rio de Janeiro State, in Brazil, is endemic for cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases and is frequently visited by tourists from different parts of the world. Since the complex epidemiology of leishmaniases demands local studies, the goal of this study was to investigate the phlebotomine sand fly fauna and leishmaniases transmission in Ilha Grande, an ecotourism area of Angra dos Reis municipality. Methods Sand fly fauna was sampled in three monitoring stations using HP light traps in domiciles, peridomiciles and forests. Species abundance was evaluated by the Index of Species Abundance. A Leishmania natural infection survey was done using multiplex PCR and dot blot hybridization. Results During 15 consecutive months of sand fly monitoring, 1093 specimens from 16 species were captured. The potential leishmaniases vectors found were Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia, L. migonei, L. (N.) flaviscutellata, L. (Psychodopygus) ayrozai and L. (Lutzomyia) longipalpis. Five species were new records in Ilha Grande: L. (Sciopemyia) microps, L. termitophila, L. firmatoi, L. rupicola and L. (P.) ayrozai. Higher species richness was found inside forest areas, although potential leishmaniases vectors were present in deforested areas, peridomiciles and inside houses. Lutzomyia (N.) intermedia and L. migonei were the most abundant species. Females of L. migonei showed a high rate (10.3%) of natural infection by Leishmania (Viannia) sp., probably Leishmania (V.) braziliensis. Conclusions The detection of leishmaniases transmission and potential vectors in Ilha Grande is of public health concern, especially because tourists are frequently visiting the island. Besides reinforcing the epidemiological importance of L. (N.) intermedia in Rio de Janeiro State, the role of L. migonei in cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission is highlighted with its high rate of Leishmania natural infection. The finding of L. (L.) longipalpis confirmed the human autochthonous case

  11. Studies on the sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) in high-transmission areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Republic of Suriname

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are the vectors of Leishmania parasites, the causative agents of leishmaniasis. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an increasing public health problem in the Republic of Suriname and is mainly caused by Leishmania (Vianna) guyanensis, but L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (L.) amazonensis, and L. (V.) naiffi also infect humans. Transmission occurs predominantly in the forested hinterland of the country. Information regarding the potential vectors of leishmaniasis in Suriname is limited. This study aims to broaden the knowledge about vectors involved in the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Suriname. For this purpose, sand flies were characterized in various foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the country, the districts of Para, Brokopondo, and Sipaliwini. Methods Sand flies were collected in areas around mining plots and villages using CDC light traps in the period between February 2011 and March 2013. They were categorized by examination of the spermathecea (females) and the external genitalia (males). Results A total of 2,743 sand fly specimens belonging to 34 different species were captured, including four species (Lutzomyia aragaoi, Lu. ayrozai, Lu. damascenoi, and Lu. sordellii) that had never before been described for Suriname. Five percent of the catch comprised Lu. squamiventris sensu lato, one female of which was positive with L. (V.) braziliensis and was captured in a gold mining area in Brokopondo. Other sand fly species found positive for Leishmania parasites were Lu. trichopyga, Lu. ininii, and Lu. umbratilis, comprising 32, 8, and 4%, respectively, of the catch. These were captured at gold mining areas in Brokopondo and Sipaliwini, but the Leishmania parasites they had ingested could not be identified due to insufficient amounts of DNA. Conclusions The sand fly fauna in Suriname is highly diverse and comprises Lutzomyia species capable of transmitting Leishmania parasites. Four new Lutzomyia species have been found

  12. TECNOLOGÍAS DE INFORMACIÓN Y COMUNICACIÓN PARA LA PREVENCIÓN Y CONTROL DE LA INFECCIÓN POR EL VIH Y OTRAS ITS*

    PubMed Central

    Curioso, Walter H.; Blas, Magaly M.; Kurth, Ann E.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Avances tecnológicos innovadores como Internet, computadoras personales de bolsillo, teléfonos celulares y otros equipos son un arsenal en crecimiento en el esfuerzo de impedir y controlar el VIH y otras infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS). A pesar que existe una diversidad de tecnologías de información y comunicación en diferentes etapas de desarrollo para la prevención del VIH e ITS, la investigación en esta área se encuentra aún en crecimiento, y el impacto en la incidencia de enfermedad, las evaluaciones con diseños rigurosos y los estudios económicos todavía son muy limitados. Sin embargo, algunas de estas evidencias son prometedoras y poseen un gran potencial para su uso en nuestro medio. En este artículo hemos realizado una revisión sistemática de la literatura relacionada con el uso de la tecnología aplicada a la prevención y control del VIH e ITS. De ser usada apropiadamente, esta tecnología podría mejorar la vigilancia del VIH y otras ITS, diagnóstico, notificación de parejas, prevención, manejo clínico, y capacitación de profesionales de la salud. PMID:26339254

  13. About to Graduate from High School? Consider Career Education Opportunities. EdSource Student/Parent Guide = Estas por graduarte de la escuela preparatoria? Considera oportunidades para seguir tu educacion de carrera. EdSource guia de estudiantes y padres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EdSource, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Getting a sound education is important to a student's ability to make a good living in a field they will enjoy. For many students graduating from high school, that includes high quality career technical (or vocational) education tailored to a specific job. In California, such programs are available in a wide range of fields, from healthcare to the…

  14. VISIÓN GENERAL DE LA EVALUACIÓN DEL RIESGO EN SALUD INFANTIL EMPLEANDO UN ENFOQUE POR ETAPAS DE DESARROLLO (American translation is: Overview of a Life Stage Approach to Children's Health Risk Assessment)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  15. Ingestion Reiterada de Cuerpos Extranos. Forma Inusual de Presentacion del Sindrome de Munchausen por Poderes (Reiterated Ingestion of Foreign Bodies. Unusual Form of Presentation of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terreros, I. Gomez de; And Others

    1996-01-01

    An unusual case of Munchausen syndrome by proxy is reported. A mother with a psychiatric record of behavior disorders and family dysfunction perpetrated the ingestion of foreign bodies (for example, earrings, a screw, sewing needles) on a 10-month-old infant with a history of prematurity, repeated visits to emergency rooms, and nonjustified…

  16. Vistazos Intimos De Puebla; Una Compilacion De Informes Individuales Preparados Por Los Participantes Del Instituto De Verano (NDEA) (Close-ups on Puebla; A Compilation of Individual Reports Prepared by the Participants of the NDEA Summer Institute).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita State Univ., KS.

    The individual and committee reports on the sociology of Puebla, Mexico, which are collected here, were written by participants in an NDEA Summer Institute program of the University of Wichita, Kansas. The underlying motives of the program, described in the preface, were to provide participants with real language experience and a chance to…

  17. Guiandose por la Intrincada Senda de la Educacion Especial: Una Guia para Padres y Maestros. Tercera Edicion. (Negotiating the Special Education Maze: A Guide for Parents & Teachers. Third Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Winifred; Chitwood, Stephen; Hayden, Deidre

    Designed to assist Spanish-speaking parents and teachers in understanding special education procedures, this book describes the process for obtaining school services for children with disabilities. An introduction reviews six major provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that relate to children's rights to a free,…

  18. Fields without Borders: An Anthology of Documentary Writing and Photography by Student Action with Farmworkers' Interns = Campos sin Fronteras: Una Antologia de Obras Escritas y Fotografia por Estudiantes Internos de Accion Estudiantil con Trabajadores Agricolas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manly, Libby, Ed.; Okie, Alejandra, Ed.; Wiggins, Melinda, Ed.

    In this booklet, essays and poems, presented both in English and in Spanish, portray the feelings, conditions, and economic plight of migrant and seasonal farmworkers in North and South Carolina, often in their own words. A preface describes Student Action with Farmworkers summer internships in which college students spend 10 weeks working with…

  19. The Latinas' Guide to the Information Superhighway: A Bilingual Guide for Latinas by Latinas = Guia para Mujeres Latinas sobre la Supercarretera de la Informacion: Una Guia Bilingue para Latinas por medio de Latinas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MANA, A National Latina Organization, Washington, DC.

    This guide to the Internet is designed to give Latinas basic information on computers and the information superhighway. Written in both Spanish and English, the guide begins by defining the Internet and making some suggestions about acquiring access to a computer. Among the topics discussed are how to choose an Internet service provider, how to…

  20. John Tracy Clinic: Programa de Ensenanza por Correspondencia para Los Padres de Ninos Sordo-Ciegos de Edad Preescolar (John Tracy Clinic Correspondence Learning Program for Parents of Preschool Deaf-Blind Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thielman, Virginia B.; And Others

    Written in Spanish, the document contains a correspondence learning program for parents of deaf blind preschoolers. An introductory section gives preliminary instructions, an introduction to sign language, and a list of resources for deaf blind children. Twelve lessons follow with information on: the parent's role in teaching the child, visual…

  1. Engaging Foreign Language Learners in a Web 2.0-Mediated Collaborative Learning Process (Inclusión de estudiantes de lenguas extranjeras en procesos colaborativos de aprendizaje mediados por la web 2.0)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote Parra, Gabriel Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this action research was to explore the types of interactions that foreign language learners experience while using a wiki as a supporting tool for a face-to-face research course. This design allowed me to play a dual role: first, I studied my own classroom setting and students. Second, I implemented a pedagogical intervention based…

  2. Dermatitis causada por Hylesia metabus (Lepidoptera: Hemileucidae) en la región costera del Estado del Delta del Amacuro, Venezuela [Dermatitis caused by Hylesia metabus (Lepidoptera: Hemileucidae) in the costal region of the state of Delta Amacuro, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Acosta, A; Rubiano, H; Reyes, M; Fernández, C T

    1998-01-01

    2 cases of acute dermatitis caused by butterfly Hylesia metabus in an area that so far has not been considered as endemic for this species were presented. The dermatitis observed in these individuals may be described as very circumscribed, pruriginous, erythematous generalized protruding papules that may be compared with urticaria, and with a variable degree oedema. Monomorphic eruption consisting in small hard papules crowned by a little vesicle was also present. The lesions of these 2 patients evolved with intensely pruriginous papules for a week and after that they healed without dermatological sequelae.

  3. Less and Less for More and More. Economic Organization Booklet 1. Teacher's Edition=Menos y menos por mas y mas. Organizacion economica libro 1. Manual para El Maestro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Los Angeles. National Dissemination and Assessment Center.

    The booklet is part of a grade 10-12 social studies series produced for bilingual education. The series consists of six major thematic modules, with four to five booklets in each. The interdisciplinary modules are based on major ideas and are designed to help students understand some major human problems and make sound, responsive decisions to…

  4. Por Que Mami No Puede Cambiar una Goma? Tercer Modulo de una Serie para Maestros de Escuela Elemental. (Why Can't Mommy Change a Flat Tire? Third Module of a Series for Elementary School Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Carmen Eneida, Ed.; And Others

    This guide for teachers, in English and Spanish, examines the role parents play in the socialization of sex roles. A pre-test and post test are included to measure the user's awareness of sexual stereotyping. Five object lessons cover the following topics: (1) stereotypes which exist prior to a baby's birth; (2) behavioral standards on which…

  5. Proyecto de Ley por el Cual se Dicta el Estatuto General de Educacion y Pliego de Modificaciones Propuesto (Bill Establishing a General Statute for Education and Explanation of Proposed Modifications).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez Villa, Diego

    This document contains the 1971 Colombian education bill and suggested bill modifications. The bill states educational objectives and establishes the structure of the national education system, the organization for educational administration, financing procedures, regulations for educational personnel, and the means for implementing the…

  6. Por Que Rosa No Es Valiente? Cuarto Modulo de una Serie para Maestros de Escuela Elemental (Why Isn't Rosie Brave? Fourth Module of a Series for Elementary School Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Carmen Eneida, Ed.; And Others

    This guide in English and Spanish provides teachers with methods for identifying textbook bias and stereotyping. A pre-test and post-test designed to measure awareness of textbook stereotypes are included. Four object lessons discuss the function of repetition, cumulative effect, omission, and distortion in reinforcing stereotypes, especially…

  7. Viajando por la Carretera de la Educacion Especial: Una Guia para los Padres para Tener un Viaje Feliz y Seguro (Traveling the Special Education Highway: A Parent's Guide to a Safe and Happy Journey).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Maria, Karen

    Designed for Spanish-speaking parents, this brochure, written in Spanish, uses a car-trip analogy to describe special education services for students with disabilities. It addresses: (1) child find; (2) initial evaluation and eligibility determination; (3) categories of students who receive special education services and related services; (4)…

  8. [Seroprevalence, clinical and biochemical data of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania and phlebotominae sandfly fauna in an endemic area in São Luis Island, Maranhão State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Abreu-Silva, Ana Lúcia; Lima, Tiago B; De Macedo, Auricélio A; Moraes-Júnior, Felipe De Jesus; Dias, Elaine L; Batista, Zulmira Da S; Calabrese, Katia Da S; Moraes, Jorge Luiz P; Rebêlo, José Manuel M; Guerra, Rita Maria S N De C

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence, clinical and biochemical profile of Leishmania chagasi infection in dogs naturally infected and identify the phlebotominae fauna in an endemic area of São Luis Island. In this present study, 62 household mongrel dogs were sampled for antibodies anti-Leishmania. The seroprevalence was 51.61%. In the clinical evaluation, 36.68% dogs were symptomatic, 38.41% were oligosymptomatic and 26.13% were asymptomatic. The most frequent signs were onychogryphosis and lymphadenomegaly. In 29.41% animals were observed anemia. In the biochemical analysis hepatic function showed changes in relation to alaninoaminotransferase (ALT) and aspartato aminotransferase (AST). Urea values were higher than the references ones for canine specie. The following phlebotominae sandflies were identified: Lutzomyia longipalpis (86.9%), L. evandroi (9.6%), L. choti (2.1%), L. umbratilis (0.7%) e L. whitmani (0.7%).

  9. [Occurrence of sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in leishmaniasis foci in an ecotourism area around the Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Rebêlo, José Manuel Macário; Assunção Júnior, Antonildes Nascimento; Silva, Orleans; Moraes, Jorge Luiz Pinto

    2010-01-01

    The distribution and relative abundance of sand fly species were studied in the municipality of Barreirinhas, Maranhão State, Brazil, around the Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, from January to June 2005, August 2004, July 2005, and September/2008. A total of 6,658 specimens were captured. The most frequent species were Lutzomyia whitmani (46.6%), L. longipalpis (29.9%), L. evandroi (17.1%), and L. lenti (4.8%), while L. termitophila, L. flaviscutellata, L. migonei, L. infraspinosa, L. sordellii, L. wellcomei, L. antunesi, and L. trinidadensis represented 1.6%. The presence of Leishmania vector species explains the high detection rate for tegumentary leishmaniasis in 2000 (308.2), 2001 (310.9), 2002 (338.2), and 2005 (313.6) and active foci of human visceral leishmaniasis in the municipality of Barreirinhas.

  10. [Outbreak of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Canoa, Santo Amaro, Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Follador, I; Araujo, C; Cardoso, M A; Tavares-Neto, J; Barral, A; Miranda, J C; Bittencourt, A; Carvalho, E M

    1999-01-01

    An outbreak of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) was detected in the village of Canoa in 1993. A prospective observational study was outlined to determine the frequency rates and to clinically characterize the disease. A total of 555 people were followed up. There were 29 cases of ACL, 11 cases of probably previous ACL (scars) and 529 healthy individuals. Of these 529 individuals, 65 had a positive Montenegro reaction without any present or past evidence of leishmaniasis. The prevalence of ACL during the two years was 5.2% (29/555). The leishmania involved was Leishmania braziliensis and the vector, Lutzomyia intermedia. Evidence of infection was detected in dogs and horses. The high frequency of the disease among children under ten years, the similar sex distribution of cases and a component of familial aggregation suggest a peri- or intra-domiciliary transmission.

  11. [Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae) in area of transmission of american tegumentar leishmaniasis in the north coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Brito, Marylene; Casanova, Cláudio; Mascarini, Luciene Maura; Wanderley, Dalva Marli Valério; Corrêa, Fernando Motta de Azevedo

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen, 30 and 104 cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis were recorded respectively, in 1993, 1994 and 1995, in the coast region of São Paulo State. Aiming to characterize the fauna and seasonal and hourly distributions of the phlebotominic species, adult specimens were captured fortnightly between November/95 and December/96. CDC light traps were used as of dusk intradomiciliarly, peridomiciliarly and in the forest for 12 hours. From the same moment on but only during 6 hours Shannon traps were set in the peridomicile 100 meters from the house. Quarterly this trap was used for 12 hours. The population density fluctuation as well as the occurrence of intra and extradomiciliarly predominant species were observed. In the different traps used and environments investigated Lutzomyia intermedia was the most abundant species.

  12. Identification of Leishmania infantum in Puerto Iguazú, Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Lucrecia; Díaz, Ricardo; Torres, Pedro; Silva, Gustavo; Ramos, Marina; Fattore, Gladys; Deschutter, Enrique J; Bornay-Llinares, Fernando J

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) in Latin America is a growing public health problem. The urbanization of ZVL has been observed in different countries around the world, and there are a growing number of reports drawing attention to the emergence of this infection in new locations, as well as its increase in previously established areas of endemicity. In the city of Posadas, Misiones province, Northeastern Argentina, the transmission of ZVL associated with canines and Lutzomyia longipalpis was first reported in 2006. In the city of Puerto Iguazú, also in Misiones province, the first human case of ZVL was reported in February 2014. From 209 surveyed dogs, 15 (7.17%) were identified as positive by serological and/or parasitological methods. Amplification was observed in 14 samples and in all cases the species implicated was Leishmania infantum. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first molecular characterization of L. infantum from dogs in this area.

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF Leishmania infantum IN PUERTO IGUAZÚ, MISIONES, ARGENTINA

    PubMed Central

    ACOSTA, Lucrecia; DÍAZ, Ricardo; TORRES, Pedro; SILVA, Gustavo; RAMOS, Marina; FATTORE, Gladys; DESCHUTTER, Enrique J.; BORNAY-LLINARES, Fernando J.

    2015-01-01

     The emergence of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) in Latin America is a growing public health problem. The urbanization of ZVL has been observed in different countries around the world, and there are a growing number of reports drawing attention to the emergence of this infection in new locations, as well as its increase in previously established areas of endemicity. In the city of Posadas, Misiones province, Northeastern Argentina, the transmission of ZVL associated with canines and Lutzomyia longipalpis was first reported in 2006. In the city of Puerto Iguazú, also in Misiones province, the first human case of ZVL was reported in February 2014. From 209 surveyed dogs, 15 (7.17%) were identified as positive by serological and/or parasitological methods. Amplification was observed in 14 samples and in all cases the species implicated was Leishmania infantum. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first molecular characterization of L. infantum from dogs in this area. PMID:25923899

  14. Cutting Edge: Brazilian pemphigus foliaceus anti-desmoglein 1 autoantibodies cross-react with sand fly salivary LJM11 antigen.

    PubMed

    Qian, Ye; Jeong, Joseph S; Maldonado, Mike; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Gomes, Regis; Teixeira, Clarissa; Evangelista, Flor; Qaqish, Bahjat; Aoki, Valeria; Hans, Gunter; Rivitti, Evandro A; Eaton, Donald; Diaz, Luis A

    2012-08-15

    The environmental factors that contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases are largely unknown. Endemic pemphigus foliaceus in humans, known as Fogo Selvagem (FS) in Brazil, is mediated by pathogenic IgG4 autoantibodies against desmoglein 1 (Dsg1). Clusters of FS overlap with those of leishmaniasis, a disease transmitted by sand fly (Lutzomyia longipalpis) bites. In this study, we show that salivary Ags from the sand fly, and specifically the LJM11 salivary protein, are recognized by FS Abs. Anti-Dsg1 monoclonal autoantibodies derived from FS patients also cross-react with LJM11. Mice immunized with LJM11 generate anti-Dsg1 Abs. Thus, insect bites may deliver salivary Ags that initiate a cross-reactive IgG4 Ab response in genetically susceptible individuals and lead to subsequent FS. Our findings establish a clear relationship between an environmental, noninfectious Ag and the development of potentially pathogenic autoantibodies in an autoimmune disease.

  15. Evaluation of the fungus Beauveria bassiana as a potential biological control agent against phlebotomine sand flies in Colombian coffee plantations.

    PubMed

    Reithinger, R; Davies, C R; Cadena, H; Alexander, B

    1997-09-01

    In Colombia, the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) is widely used to control the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in coffee plantations. Recent studies suggested that this fungus is also pathogenic to several important vectors of disease, including Phlebotomus papatasi and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae). The present study evaluated the use of B. bassiana as a potential biological control agent against phlebotomine sand flies in Colombian coffee plantations. Histopathologic examination indicates that B. bassiana is unable to infect sand flies under natural conditions, although dead sand flies were shown to be readily infected. In addition, laboratory bioassays where flies were exposed to the fungus applied onto coffee plants (though not filter paper) showed lower mean survival times than the control.

  16. Distribution of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) of medical importance in Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana Lúcia Maria; Missawa, Nanci Akemi; Zeilhofer, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Intense environmental impacts, causing alterations of the natural habitats of fauna, including those of sandfly disease vectors are observed in Mato Grosso State, Central Brazil. Entomologic survey of phlebotomines was based on light trap and was carried out by entomological nucleus of the FUNASA and SES in the period between 1996 and 2001. Eighty eight species were identified, including the following sandflies with medical importance to leishmaniasis: Lutzomyia amazonensis, L. anduzei, L. antunesi, L. ayrozai, L. carrerai carrerai, L. complexa, L. cruzi, L. flaviscutellata, L. intermedia, L. longipalpis, L. migonei, L. paraensis, L. ubiquitalis, L. whitmani and L. yuilli yuilli. Most sandflies of medical importance occurred in the Amazon forest and savannah. L. longipalpis and L. cruzi had high densities in the savannah region. L. flaviscutellata is predominating in both the Amazon forest and the savannah region. L. whitmani and L. antunesi were sampled in the Amazon forest, savannah and marsh land.

  17. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) associated with changing patterns in the transmission of the human cutaneous leishmaniasis in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Fouque, Florence; Gaborit, Pascal; Issaly, Jean; Carinci, Romuald; Gantier, Jean-Charles; Ravel, Christophe; Dedet, Jean-Pierre

    2007-02-01

    Between March 2000 and December 2001 a survey of the sand flies (Diptera: Phlebotominae) of French Guiana was carried out during 14 nights of captures with CDC light-traps and Malaise traps, and resulted in the collection of 2245 individuals of 38 species. The most abundant species were Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) ininii Floch & Abonnenc, Lu.(Psychodopygus) squamiventris maripaensis Floch & Abonnenc, and Lu .(Nyssomyia) flaviscutellata Mangabeira. Half of the collected sand flies females were dissected under field conditions and five species were found harboring Leishmania-like parasites. The Leishmania (Kinetoplastidae: Trypanosomatidae) species were identified by molecular typing, and for the first time Lu. (Nys.) flaviscutellata was found harboring Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis and Lu. (Tri) ininii harboring unknown Leishmania. The first record for French Guiana of Lu. (Psy.) squamiventris maripaensis harboring L. (V.) naiffi, was also reported. The patterns of diversification of the human cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in French Guiana are discussed.

  18. [Distribution of vectors of visceral leishmaniasis in the Province of Corrientes, 2008].

    PubMed

    Salomón, Oscar D; Ramos, Ladys K; Quintana, María Gabriela; Acardi, Soraya A; Santini, María Soledad; Schneider, Adolfo

    2009-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a relevant parasitic disease in public health, produced by Leishmania infantum chagasi. Since the urbanization and emergence in Southern Brazil and Paraguay, the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis in Formosa, 2004, and the first human visceral leishmaniasis case in Misiones, 2006, have been reported in Argentina. Due to the reports of canine VL, a search of the vector in the Province of Corrientes, contiguous to Misiones, was performed during December 2008. Standarized trapping detected 376 Lu. longipalpis in Ituzaingó, Virasoro, Santo Tomé, Garruchos, Riachuelo, Corrientes and Monte Caseros localities. The risk of autochtonous vectorial transmission was then confirmed in the Province of Corrientes. The distribution of vectors in populated urban areas, with intense transit of canine reservoirs from localities with high transmission, and the existence of infected reservoirs, also implies epidemic risk.

  19. Photoperiod Differences in Sand Fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) Species Richness and Abundance in Caves in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campos, A M; Dos Santos, C L C; Stumpp, R; Da Silva, L H D; Maia, R A; Paglia, A P; Andrade Filho, J D

    2017-01-01

    Caves are unique habitats that are inhabited by a diverse and singular biota. Among these inhabitants are sand flies, which are of great epidemiological interest in the Neotropical region because they are vectors of Leishmania The period of activity of these insects is usually crepuscular and nocturnal, but there are reports of diurnal activity of sand flies in caves. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the periodicity of daily activity of sand flies in cave environments in the municipality of Pains, Minas Gerais. Sand flies were collected with light traps, which were operated for 5 consecutive days in the rainy season and in the dry season. Samples were collected every 12 h and separated between photophase and scotophase periods. In total, 1,777 sand flies of 23 species were collected. The most abundant species was Lutzomyia renei (Martins, Falcão, and Silva) (44%), followed by Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) (15%), Evandromyia edwardsi (Mangabeira) (11%), and Micropygomyia quinquefer (Costa Lima) (6%). The richness and abundance of total sand flies and the abundance of male and female sand flies in the aphotic zone of the caves did not differ between the photophase and scotophase, but differed between photoperiods at the entrance and at sites surrounding the caves. From our study of the daily activity of these insects in this ecotope, it will be possible to know which period of the day is of greatest risk of exposure of vertebrates who visit or live in these environments, including the human population.

  20. Diversity of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; De Vasconcelos, Fernanda Bernardes; Da Silva, Daniela Gonçalves; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade

    2011-07-01

    Leishmaniasis is a complex of zoonotic diseases that are endemic to many Brazilian states. They are transmitted to the vertebrates by the bite of the hematophagous female sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors. Despite the increasing occurrence of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in large urban centers, their transmission continues to occur primarily in a wild environment and may be associated with professional activities, ecotourism activities, or both. This study investigates the ecological parameters of the sand flies present in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil. During 2009, systematic collections of sand flies were made monthly using HP light traps installed at five sites, including three natural settings (a cave, riparian vegetation, and a rain forest), the tourist and researchers' accommodations, and a surrounding domestic livestock area. In total, 161 sand flies (seven species) were collected, the most abundant, particularly in the surrounding domestic livestock area, being Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) lloydi (Antunes, 1937). Furthermore, a previously unidentified Lutzomyia (Sciopemyia) sp. was prevalent in the cave environment. There are no existing records of the occurrence of leishmaniasis in Ibitipoca State Park; however, the some species of the subgenus Psychodopygus are known vectors of Leishmania spp in Brazil. Hence, the presence of a species of this genus in areas surrounding the park may represent a risk to ecotourism and the local inhabitants. Our study shows the importance of regular monitoring of the various areas used by humans to determine the distribution and spread of sand fly vectors for preventive management to forestall potential risk to health and consequent effect on ecotourists.

  1. Current and Future Niche of North and Central American Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Climate Change Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Moo-Llanes, David; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N.; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A.; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; González, Camila; Ramsey, Janine M.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological niche models are useful tools to infer potential spatial and temporal distributions in vector species and to measure epidemiological risk for infectious diseases such as the Leishmaniases. The ecological niche of 28 North and Central American sand fly species, including those with epidemiological relevance, can be used to analyze the vector's ecology and its association with transmission risk, and plan integrated regional vector surveillance and control programs. In this study, we model the environmental requirements of the principal North and Central American phlebotomine species and analyze three niche characteristics over future climate change scenarios: i) potential change in niche breadth, ii) direction and magnitude of niche centroid shifts, iii) shifts in elevation range. Niche identity between confirmed or incriminated Leishmania vector sand flies in Mexico, and human cases were analyzed. Niche models were constructed using sand fly occurrence datapoints from Canada, USA, Mexico, Guatemala and Belize. Nine non-correlated bioclimatic and four topographic data layers were used as niche components using GARP in OpenModeller. Both B2 and A2 climate change scenarios were used with two general circulation models for each scenario (CSIRO and HadCM3), for 2020, 2050 and 2080. There was an increase in niche breadth to 2080 in both scenarios for all species with the exception of Lutzomyia vexator. The principal direction of niche centroid displacement was to the northwest (64%), while the elevation range decreased greatest for tropical, and least for broad-range species. Lutzomyia cruciata is the only epidemiologically important species with high niche identity with that of Leishmania spp. in Mexico. Continued landscape modification in future climate change will provide an increased opportunity for the geographic expansion of NCA sand flys' ENM and human exposure to vectors of Leishmaniases. PMID:24069478

  2. The flagellar protein FLAG1/SMP1 is a candidate for Leishmania-sand fly interaction.

    PubMed

    Di-Blasi, Tatiana; Lobo, Amanda R; Nascimento, Luanda M; Córdova-Rojas, Jose L; Pestana, Karen; Marín-Villa, Marcel; Tempone, Antonio J; Telleria, Erich L; Ramalho-Ortigão, Marcelo; McMahon-Pratt, Diane; Traub-Csekö, Yara M

    2015-03-01

    Leishmaniasis is a serious problem that affects mostly poor countries. Various species of Leishmania are the agents of the disease, which take different clinical manifestations. The parasite is transmitted by sandflies, predominantly from the Phlebotomus genus in the Old World and Lutzomyia in the New World. During development in the gut, Leishmania must survive various challenges, which include avoiding being expelled with blood remnants after digestion. It is believed that attachment to the gut epithelium is a necessary step for vector infection, and molecules from parasites and sand flies have been implicated in this attachment. In previous work, monoclonal antibodies were produced against Leishmania. Among these an antibody was obtained against Leishmania braziliensis flagella, which blocked the attachment of Leishmania panamensis flagella to Phlebotomus papatasi guts. The protein recognized by this antibody was identified and named FLAG1, and the complete FLAG1 gene sequence was obtained. This protein was later independently identified as a small, myristoylated protein and called SMP1, so from now on it will be denominated FLAG1/SMP1. The FLAG1/SMP1 gene is expressed in all developmental stages of the parasite, but has higher expression in promastigotes. The anti-FLAG1/SMP1 antibody recognized the flagellum of all Leishmania species tested and generated the expected band by western blots. This antibody was used in attachment and infection blocking experiments. Using the New World vector Lutzomyia longipalpis and Leishmania infantum chagasi, no inhibition of attachment ex vivo or infection in vivo was seen. On the other hand, when the Old World vectors P. papatasi and Leishmania major were used, a significant decrease of both attachment and infection were seen in the presence of the antibody. We propose that FLAG1/SMP1 is involved in the attachment/infection of Leishmania in the strict vector P. papatasi and not the permissive vector L. longipalpis.

  3. Epidemiological aspects of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Iguazú falls area of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Salomón, Oscar D; Acardi, Soraya A; Liotta, Domingo J; Fernández, María S; Lestani, Eduardo; López, Deborah; Mastrángelo, Andrea V; Figueroa, Marianela; Fattore, Gladys

    2009-01-01

    Over the last three decades the incidence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) has increased sharply in Argentina and throughout the world. In the Iguazú Falls area, on the border between Brazil and Paraguay, the incidence of human ACL has risen since 2004. Most of the 36 cases of human ACL reported until 2005 have involved males over 15 years old (75%) infected during deforestation to establish individual farms. Captures carried out in primary forest, periurban areas, and deforested land sites yielded 18,438 sand flies belonging to 13 species; the most prevalent species were Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) whitmani (87.4%) and Lutzomyia (Mygonemyia.) migonei (7.6%). Cluster analysis was used to group traps according to species and abundance of sand flies. The group of traps located in recently deforested places, in pig and chicken dwellings of houses where ACL cases had been reported in the past, and at one house with an active ACL case, had the highest abundance of Lu. whitmani and Lu. whitmani+Lu. migonei as well as the highest ratio of Lu. whitmani/Lu. migonei. Leishmania sp. infections, both in Lu. whitmani, in Lu. quinquefer, and in smears from human cases were detected by DNA kinetoplast amplification using a generic PCR protocol. The risk of ACL outbreak in the Iguazú Falls area is still associated with economic and leisure activities in primary-secondary forest, including deforestation, rural settlements, fishing, hunting, and ecotourism. In addition, the risk of periurban transmission seems likely, and this is discussed within the framework of surveillance and prevention strategies.

  4. Sand Fly Fauna (Diptera, Pcychodidae, Phlebotominae) in Different Leishmaniasis-Endemic Areas of Ecuador, Surveyed Using a Newly Named Mini-Shannon Trap

    PubMed Central

    Hashiguchi, Kazue; Velez N., Lenin; Kato, Hirotomo; Criollo F., Hipatia; Romero A., Daniel; Gomez L., Eduardo; Martini R., Luiggi; Zambrano C., Flavio; Calvopina H., Manuel; Caceres G., Abraham; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    To study the sand fly fauna, surveys were performed at four different leishmaniasis-endemic sites in Ecuador from February 2013 to April 2014. A modified and simplified version of the conventional Shannon trap was named “mini-Shannon trap” and put to multiple uses at the different study sites in limited, forested and narrow spaces. The mini-Shannon, CDC light trap and protected human landing method were employed for sand fly collection. The species identification of sand flies was performed mainly based on the morphology of spermathecae and cibarium, after dissection of fresh samples. In this study, therefore, only female samples were used for analysis. A total of 1,480 female sand flies belonging to 25 Lutzomyia species were collected. The number of female sand flies collected was 417 (28.2%) using the mini-Shannon trap, 259 (17.5%) using the CDC light trap and 804 (54.3%) by human landing. The total number of sand flies per trap collected by the different methods was markedly affected by the study site, probably because of the various composition of species at each locality. Furthermore, as an additional study, the attraction of sand flies to mini-Shannon traps powered with LED white-light and LED black-light was investigated preliminarily, together with the CDC light trap and human landing. As a result, a total of 426 sand flies of nine Lutzomyia species, including seven man-biting and two non-biting species, were collected during three capture trials in May and June 2014 in an area endemic for leishmaniasis (La Ventura). The black-light proved relatively superior to the white-light with regard to capture numbers, but no significant statistical difference was observed between the two traps. PMID:25589880

  5. Sand fly fauna (Diptera, pcychodidae, phlebotominae) in different leishmaniasis-endemic areas of ecuador, surveyed using a newly named mini-shannon trap.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Kazue; Velez N, Lenin; Kato, Hirotomo; Criollo F, Hipatia; Romero A, Daniel; Gomez L, Eduardo; Martini R, Luiggi; Zambrano C, Flavio; Calvopina H, Manuel; Caceres G, Abraham; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2014-12-01

    To study the sand fly fauna, surveys were performed at four different leishmaniasis-endemic sites in Ecuador from February 2013 to April 2014. A modified and simplified version of the conventional Shannon trap was named "mini-Shannon trap" and put to multiple uses at the different study sites in limited, forested and narrow spaces. The mini-Shannon, CDC light trap and protected human landing method were employed for sand fly collection. The species identification of sand flies was performed mainly based on the morphology of spermathecae and cibarium, after dissection of fresh samples. In this study, therefore, only female samples were used for analysis. A total of 1,480 female sand flies belonging to 25 Lutzomyia species were collected. The number of female sand flies collected was 417 (28.2%) using the mini-Shannon trap, 259 (17.5%) using the CDC light trap and 804 (54.3%) by human landing. The total number of sand flies per trap collected by the different methods was markedly affected by the study site, probably because of the various composition of species at each locality. Furthermore, as an additional study, the attraction of sand flies to mini-Shannon traps powered with LED white-light and LED black-light was investigated preliminarily, together with the CDC light trap and human landing. As a result, a total of 426 sand flies of nine Lutzomyia species, including seven man-biting and two non-biting species, were collected during three capture trials in May and June 2014 in an area endemic for leishmaniasis (La Ventura). The black-light proved relatively superior to the white-light with regard to capture numbers, but no significant statistical difference was observed between the two traps.

  6. The Biting Midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Is Capable of Developing Late Stage Infections of Leishmania enriettii

    PubMed Central

    Seblova, Veronika; Sadlova, Jovana; Vojtkova, Barbora; Votypka, Jan; Carpenter, Simon; Bates, Paul Andrew; Volf, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite their importance in animal and human health, the epidemiology of species of the Leishmania enriettii complex remains poorly understood, including the identity of their biological vectors. Biting midges of the genus Forcipomyia (Lasiohelea) have been implicated in the transmission of a member of the L. enriettii complex in Australia, but the far larger and more widespread genus Culicoides has not been investigated for the potential to include vectors to date. Methodology/Principal Findings Females from colonies of the midges Culicoides nubeculosus Meigen and C. sonorensis Wirth & Jones and the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Nevia (Diptera: Psychodidae) were experimentally infected with two different species of Leishmania, originating from Australia (Leishmania sp. AM-2004) and Brazil (Leishmania enriettii). In addition, the infectivity of L. enriettii infections generated in guinea pigs and golden hamsters for Lu. longipalpis and C. sonorensis was tested by xenodiagnosis. Development of L. enriettii in Lu. longipalpis was relatively poor compared to other Leishmania species in this permissive vector. Culicoides nubeculosus was not susceptible to infection by parasites from the L. enriettii complex. In contrast, C. sonorensis developed late stage infections with colonization of the thoracic midgut and the stomodeal valve. In hamsters, experimental infection with L. enriettii led only to mild symptoms, while in guinea pigs L. enriettii grew aggressively, producing large, ulcerated, tumour-like lesions. A high proportion of C. sonorensis (up to 80%) feeding on the ears and nose of these guinea pigs became infected. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that L. enriettii can develop late stage infections in the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis. This midge was found to be susceptible to L. enriettii to a similar degree as Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of Leishmania infantum in South America. Our results support the hypothesis that some

  7. Comparative Field Evaluation of Different Traps for Collecting Adult Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an Endemic Area of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rojas, Jorge J; Arque-Chunga, Wilfredo; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A

    2016-06-01

    Phlebotominae are the vectors of Leishmania parasites. It is important to have available surveillance and collection methods for the sand fly vectors. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate and compare traps for the collection of sand fly species and to analyze trap catches along months and transects. Field evaluations over a year were conducted in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. A randomized-block design was implemented in study area with tropical rainforest vegetation. The study design utilized 4 transects with 11 trap types: 1) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light trap with incandescent bulb (CDC-I), 2) CDC light trap with blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) (CDC-B), 3) CDC light trap with white LEDs (CDC-W), 4) CDC light trap with red LEDs (CDC-R), 5) CDC light trap with green LEDs (CDC-G), 6) Disney trap, 7) Disney trap with white LEDs, 8) sticky panels, 9) sticky panels with white LEDs, 10) delta-like trap, and 11) delta-like trap with white LEDs. A total of 1,014 specimens of 13 species and 2 genera (Lutzomyia and Brumptomyia) were collected. There were significant differences in the mean number of sand flies caught with the 11 traps; CDC-I was (P  =  0.0000) more effective than the other traps. Other traps exhibited the following results: CDC-W (17.46%), CDC-B (15.68%), CDC-G (14.89%), and CDC-R (14.30%). The relative abundance of different species varied according to trap types used, and the CDC-I trap attracted more specimens of the known vectors of Leishmania spp., such as like Lutzomyia cruciata, Lu. shannoni, and Lu. ovallesi. Disney trap captured more specimens of Lu. olmeca olmeca. Based on abundance and number of species, CDC light traps and Disney traps appeared to be good candidates for use in vector surveillance programs in this endemic area of Mexico.

  8. Attraction of the cutaneous leishmaniasis vector Nyssomyia neivai (Diptera: Psychodidae) to host odour components in a wind tunnel

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Laboratory studies of host-seeking olfactory behaviour in sandflies have largely been restricted to the American visceral leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis. In comparison, almost nothing is known about the chemical ecology of related species, which transmit American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), due in part to difficulties in raising these insects in the laboratory. Understanding how ACL vectors locate their hosts will be essential to developing new vector control strategies to combat this debilitating disease. Methods This study examined host-odour seeking behaviour of the ACL vector Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto) (=Lutzomyia neivai) using a wind tunnel olfactometer. The primary aim was to determine whether field-collected female N. neivai would respond to host odours in the laboratory, thereby eliminating the need to maintain colonies of these insects for behavioural experiments. Responses to two key host odour components, 1-octen-3-ol and lactic acid, and a commercially-available mosquito lure (BG-Lure™) were assessed and compared relative to an air control. We also tested whether trials could be conducted outside of the normal evening activity period of N. neivai without impacting on fly behaviour, and whether the same flies could be used to assess baseline responses to air without affecting responses to octenol, thereby reducing the number of flies required for experiments. Results Octenol was found to both activate host-seeking behaviour and attract female N. neivai in the wind tunnel, while lactic acid elicited weaker responses of activation and attractiveness under identical conditions. The BG-Lure did not activate or attract N. neivai under test conditions. Further experiments showed that sandfly behaviour in the wind tunnel was not affected by time of day, such that experiments need not be restricted to nocturnal hours. Moreover, using the same flies to measure both baseline responses to air and attraction to test compounds did not affect

  9. Predicted altitudinal shifts and reduced spatial distribution of Leishmania infantum vector species under climate change scenarios in Colombia.

    PubMed

    González, Camila; Paz, Andrea; Ferro, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by the trypanosomatid parasite Leishmania infantum (=Leishmania chagasi), and is epidemiologically relevant due to its wide geographic distribution, the number of annual cases reported and the increase in its co-infection with HIV. Two vector species have been incriminated in the Americas: Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia evansi. In Colombia, L. longipalpis is distributed along the Magdalena River Valley while L. evansi is only found in the northern part of the Country. Regarding the epidemiology of the disease, in Colombia the incidence of VL has decreased over the last few years without any intervention being implemented. Additionally, changes in transmission cycles have been reported with urban transmission occurring in the Caribbean Coast. In Europe and North America climate change seems to be driving a latitudinal shift of leishmaniasis transmission. Here, we explored the spatial distribution of the two known vector species of L. infantum in Colombia and projected its future distribution into climate change scenarios to establish the expansion potential of the disease. An updated database including L. longipalpis and L. evansi collection records from Colombia was compiled. Ecological niche models were performed for each species using the Maxent software and 13 Worldclim bioclimatic coverages. Projections were made for the pessimistic CSIRO A2 scenario, which predicts the higher increase in temperature due to non-emission reduction, and the optimistic Hadley B2 Scenario predicting the minimum increase in temperature. The database contained 23 records for L. evansi and 39 records for L. longipalpis, distributed along the Magdalena River Valley and the Caribbean Coast, where the potential distribution areas of both species were also predicted by Maxent. Climate change projections showed a general overall reduction in the spatial distribution of the two vector species, promoting a shift in altitudinal distribution for L

  10. Spatial Distribution of Sand Fly Vectors and Eco-Epidemiology of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Transmission in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Cristina; López, Marla; Fuya, Patricia; Lugo, Ligia; Cordovez, Juan Manuel; González, Camila

    2015-01-01

    Background Leishmania is transmitted by Phlebotominae insects that maintain the enzootic cycle by circulating between sylvatic and domestic mammals; humans enter the cycles as accidental hosts due to the vector’s search for blood source. In Colombia, leishmaniasis is an endemic disease and 95% of all cases are cutaneous (CL), these cases have been reported in several regions of the country where the intervention of sylvatic areas by the introduction of agriculture seem to have an impact on the rearrangement of new transmission cycles. Our study aimed to update vector species distribution in the country and to analyze the relationship between vectors’ distribution, climate, land use and CL prevalence. Methods A database with geographic information was assembled, and ecological niche modeling was performed to explore the potential distribution of each of the 21 species of medical importance in Colombia, using thirteen bioclimatic variables, three topographic and three principal components derived from NDVI. Binary models for each species were obtained and related to both land use coverage, and a CL prevalence map with available epidemiological data. Finally, maps of species potential distribution were summed to define potential species richness in the country. Results In total, 673 single records were obtained with Lutzomyia gomezi, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Psychodopygus panamensis, Psathyromyia shannoni and Pintomyia evansi the species with the highest number of records. Eighteen species had significant models, considering the area under the curve and the jackknife results: L. gomezi and P. panamensis had the widest potential distribution. All sand fly species except for Nyssomyia antunesi are mainly distributed in regions with rates of prevalence between 0.33 to 101.35 cases per 100,000 inhabitants and 76% of collection data points fall into transformed ecosystems. Discussion Distribution ranges of sand flies with medical importance in Colombia correspond

  11. Mild Wind Series, Minute Steak Event

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-20

    AD-A286 599 _C *POR-6546’ IWT-65461 MILD WIND SERIES MINUTE STEAK EVENT PROJECT OFFICERS REPORT TECHNICAL DIRECTORS SUMMARY REPORT flELECTL...POR-6546 (2) POR-2039 (2) POR-6300 (2) POR-2725 (2) POR-6337 (2) POR-3000 (2) WT-561 (2) WT-601 (2) POR-6546 (WT-6546) MILD WIND SERIES MINUTE STEAK ...PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK. r lit ! ABSTRACT MINUTE STEAK was a Department of Defense Vertical Line of Sight (LOS) undergound It was detonated

  12. Por que no dejar a los estudiantes con habilidad superior comenzar la escuela en enero? Estudio de la Compactaction del Curriculum. Monografia Investigativa 94401 (Why Not Let High Ability Students Start School in January? The Curriculum Compacting Study. Research Monograph 94401).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Sally M.; And Others

    This report presents an executive summary, in Spanish, of a study which examined the effects of curriculum compacting, a curriculum modification technique for gifted and talented students. The study involved approximately 436 elementary teachers and 783 students in 27 school districts throughout the United States. The study was designed to…

  13. Selection and processing of the spatial enhanced multispectral Landsat TM images - comparison between the results from merged and source data. (Polish Title: Selekcja i przetwarzanie wzmocnionych przestrzennie obrazów wielospektralnych Landsat TM - porównanie wyników opartych o dane scalone i dane zródłowe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirowski, T.; Szczaciuk, G.

    2013-12-01

    The paper presents results of merging lower-resolution spectral data (Landsat, 30m) with panchromatic images of higher spatial resolution (IRS 5.8m). During the first stage of the research, thirty methods of merging satellite data (including their variants) have been tested. The first assessment was based on statistical measures covering spectral distortion and spatial enhancement of pansharpened images. The second assessment was based on the color composite factors essential for photo interpretation. Comparing both obtained ranks of methods revealed substantial differences in their assessed spectral distortion. On the other hand, there appeared similarities in the obtained values for the spatial enhancement of pansharpened images. The reasons of such discrepancies were defined. The research allowed appointing the HPF (High Pass Filter) and LCM (Local Correlation Modeling) methods as the best according to the tested factors. In the second part of the research, the applicability of the selected methods was tested. Information content of color composites was analyzed as well as tresholding and band ratioing. In the tests there were used images fused through five merging methods: HPF, LCM, IHS (Intensity, Hue, Saturation), PCA (Principal Components Analysis) and WMK (based on band ratioing and having specific photo interpretation features). The findings of the research suggest that none of the merging algorithms provide universal solution. Depending on the data processing technique used, the best results are based on images obtained from various integration methods. It means that the method ranks do not correspond with method applicability. Methods appointed as the best ones obtain poor results in some tests and methods which came low in the rank received high rank in some tests. If this conclusion becomes confirmed, it might be necessary to revise the assessment methods of merged images.

  14. Comparison of point clouds derived from aerial image matching with data from airborne laser scanning. (Polish Title: Porównanie wóaściwości chmury punktów wygenerowanej metodą dopasowania obrazów zdjęć lotniczych z danymi z lotniczego skanowania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominik, W.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the properties of point clouds derived from aerial image matching and to compare them with point clouds from airborne laser scanning. A set of aerial images acquired in years 2010-2013 over the city of Elblag were used for the analysis. Images were acquired with the use of three digital cameras: DMC II 230, DMC I and DigiCAM60 with a GSD varying from 4.5 cm to 15 cm. Eight sets of images that were used in the study were acquired at different stages of the growing season - from March to December. Two LiDAR point clouds were used for the comparison - one with a density of 1.3 p/m2 and a second with a density of 10 p/m2. Based on the input images point clouds were created with the use of the semi-global matching method. The properties of the obtained point clouds were analyzed in three ways: - by the comparison of the vertical accuracy of point clouds with reference to a terrain profile surveyed on bare ground with GPS-RTK method - by visual assessment of point cloud profiles generated both from SGM and LiDAR point clouds - by visual assessment of a digital surface model generated from a SGM point cloud with reference to a digital surface model generated from a LiDAR point cloud. The conducted studies allowed a number of observations about the quality of SGM point clouds to be formulated with respect to different factors. The main factors having influence on the quality of SGM point clouds are GSD and base/height ratio. The essential problem related to SGM point clouds are areas covered with vegetation where SGM point clouds are visibly worse in terms of both accuracy and the representation of terrain surface. It is difficult to expect that in these areas SGM point clouds could replace LiDAR point clouds. This leads to a general conclusion that SGM point clouds are less reliable, more unpredictable and are dependent on more factors than LiDAR point clouds. Nevertheless, SGM point clouds generated with appropriate parameters can have better accuracy than LiDAR point clouds and present more detailed information about the terrain surface.

  15. The Impact of Regional Differences on Elementary School Teachers' Attitudes towards Their Students' Use of Code Switching in a South Texas School District (El impacto de las diferencias regionales en las actitudes de docentes de primaria respecto a la alternancia de códigos por parte de los estudiantes en un distrito escolar del sur de Texas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nava Gómez, Guadalupe Nancy; García, Hilda

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on investigating whether the teachers' geographical distribution influences their attitudes towards their students' use of code switching. The study was guided by the following research question: Are there differences between teachers' opinions of the north elementary schools and teachers' opinions of the south elementary…

  16. Talking, Singing, Rhyming: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Hablar, cantar, recitar: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for…

  17. Exploring with Technology: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Exploremos con tecnologia: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides computer literacy…

  18. Reading with Children: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = La lectura con los ninos: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for…

  19. Words All around Us: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Palabras y palabras a nuestro alrededor: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for…

  20. Measurement of the branching ratio for the doubly cabibbo suppressed decay D++ K-K+K+; Medida da razao de ramificacao do Decaimento D++ K-K+K+ duplamente suprimido por cabibbo

    SciTech Connect

    Silva Carvalho, Hendly da

    1997-07-01

    In this thesis, we performed a study for the decay modes D++ K-K+K+ and D+s+ K-K+K+, using the data collected by the E791, a hadroproduction of charm experiment at Fermilab. The D++ K-K+K+ decay is doubly Cabibbo suppressed while the D+s+ K-K+K+ decay is singly Cabibbo suppressed. We found 11.6 +- 3.9 events in the D+ mass region and 8.9 +- 3.3 in the D+s mass region. The D++ K-K+K+ branching ratio is measured to be (3.7 +- 1.3 +- 0.6) x 10-4 while the D++ K-K+K+ branching ratio relative to D+s+ K-K+K+ is measured to be (4.2 +- 1.5 +- 0.6) x 10-2.

  1. Modèle numérique de terrain comme outil pour contrôler et mesurer l'érosion de ravinsModelos digitales de elevación como un instrumento para seguir y medir erosión por cárcavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, Harley D.; DeRose, Ronald C.

    This paper describes the use of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), constructed from sequential aerial photographs, as a tool for measuring gully erosion in a geomorphologically unstable environment. The technique is applied to a case study that examines erosion in 26 gullies in two study areas in the upper Waipaoa catchment, eastern North Island, New Zealand. Changes over two consecutive time periods, ranging in length from 14.0 years to 33.2 years, were studied at each site, drawing on available historical aerial photography. Several key aspects of the method used are described and discussed in detail, and recommendations are made for future application of DEMs for assessment of landscape change. DEM-measured gully degradation rates are directly proportional to the square root of the gully area.From this relationship it should be possible to rapidly estimate gully erosion at a catchment scale on the basis of gully areas alone. DEM-based measurement techniques, together with appropriate consideration for the sensitivity of the method, have significant cost and efficiency advantages over manual approaches to erosion measurements.

  2. A Visit to the Library: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Una visita a la biblioteca: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides suggestions for parents…

  3. Los Hispanos: Problemas y Oportunidades. Resumen de la Actual Situacion Demografica, Economica, Social y Politica de los Hispanos en los Estados Unidos y de las Iniciativas Tomadas por la Fundacion Ford Para Hacer Frente a las Necesidades de esta Poblacion en Aumento y Determinar sus Efectos Sobre la Sociedad Estadounidense. Documento de Trabajo de la Fundacion Ford, No. 436.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    The Hispanic population's growing impact on American society has caused the Ford Foundation to explore new Foundation initiatives. The 1980 census revealed 14.6 million Hispanics: 60% Mexican American; 14% Puerto Rican; 6% Cuban, and 20% Other. The Hispanic population in the United States is growing and is characterized by diversity; rapid growth…

  4. For a Child, Life is a Creative Adventure: Supporting Development and Learning through Art, Music, Movement, and Dialogue. A Guide for Parents and Professionals. = Para los ninos, la vida es una aventura creativa: Como estimular el desarrollo y el aprendizaje por medio de las artes visuales, la musica, el movimiento y el dialogo. Guia para padres de familia y profesionales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elena

    Recognizing that creativity facilitates children's learning and development, the Head Start Program Performance Standards require Head Start programs to include opportunities for creative self-expression. This guide with accompanying videotape, both in English- and Spanish- language versions, encourages and assists adults to support children's…

  5. Palabras del Secretario de Educacion Publica en la reunion anual de directores de education federal e inspectores generales en los estados que se rigen por el calendario "A". (Address by the Minister of Education at the Annual Meeting of Directors of Federal Education and Inspectors General in Calendar "A" States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanez, Agustin

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a speech by the Mexican Minister of Education at an annual educators meeting. The Minister dealt with the administration and quality of education, the role of the directors and the duties towards them of the inspectors, and the main features of the reform of national…

  6. Mitigation of Disagreement in Peer Review among L2 Learners and Native Speakers in a College Writing Class (Mitigación del Impacto de las Opiniones de Desacuerdo en el Proceso de Revisión por Pares entre Estudiantes de una Segunda Lengua y Hablantes Nativos en una Clase de Escritura a Nivel Universitario)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christoffersen, Katherine O'Donnell

    2015-01-01

    Peer review is now a commonplace practice in process-oriented writing instruction. A crucial aspect of peer review is assessing another classmate's work, which encompasses the act of disagreement. Given its prevalence in the classroom, it is necessary to analyze how L2 learners mitigate disagreement in the context of peer review with other L2…

  7. Art and Writing: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Arte y escritura: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for…

  8. Lo que los educadores necesitan saber sobre...El agrupamiento por habilidad [y] La compactacion del curriculum [y] Los alumnos dotados y el aprendizaje cooperativo [y] La actividad tutoral. Guias practica (What Educators Need To Know about...Ability Grouping [and] Curriculum Compacting [and] Gifted Students and Cooperative Learning [and] Mentoring. Practitioners' Guides).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegle, Del, Ed.

    These four pamphlets in Spanish offer guidelines supported by theory-driven quality research that is problem-based, practice-relevant, and consumer-oriented. Each pamphlet has a section summarizing research from the literature or topic notes as well as implications for the classroom. The first guide offers principles for teachers concerning the…

  9. Evaluation de la qualité de modèles numériques de terrain dérivés par interférométrieEvaluación de la calidad de modelos digitales de elevación derivados por interferometría

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gens, Rüdiger

    One of the most important uses of SAR interferometry is in the generation of digital elevation models (DEMs). However, a standard procedure for quality estimation of DEMs does not exist. This paper proposes a method of quality estimation using an adapted Monte Carlo simulation, which has the advantage that it could be used in areas where appropriate reference DEMs are not available. This paper also addresses interferometric processing, with special emphasis on the influence of the input parameters. Practical implementation of the proposed technique is shown on a data set from Lower Saxony in Germany. The error map generated, which is a measure of the quality of the DEM, is also presented. For further analysis of the critical aspects of quality, a reference DEM has also been used.

  10. Análise de Associação por Todo o Genoma para Identificar Locos Relacionados ao Lucro Líquido, à Vida Produtiva e ao Escore de Células Somáticas na raça Jersey1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genome scan was conducted in the US Jersey population to identify QTL affecting net merit, productive life, and somatic cell score. Data used at this study were DHI records from the national database of the Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory, USDA (Beltsville, MD). DNA was acquired for 2,380 a...

  11. Análisis clínico y epidemiológico de los accidentes por mordeduras de serpientes del género Bothrops en Venezuela [A clinical and epidemiological analysis of accidental bites by snakes of the genus Bothrops in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Acosta, A; Uzcategui, W; Azuaje, R; Aguilar, I; Girón, M E

    2000-01-01

    Clinical register of 60 patients bitten by Bothrops snake who assisted at Leopoldo Manrique Hospital and the Institute of Tropical Medicine (HLM-IMT) in Caracas during 1996-1997 were analysed. The accident was more frequent in males (45/75%). In 32 cases (53.3%) the snake was classified and 26 were Bothrops lanceolatus, 4 Bothrops venezuelensis and 2 Bothrops atrox. Anatomic regions more frequent bitten were superior members (40/66.6%): hands (36/60%), forearm (2/3.3%), elbow (1/1.6%) and arm (1/1.6%). On inferior members (20/33.3%): legs (6/10%), feet (10/16.7%), ankle (2/3.3%), and the hip (2:3.3%). The most frequent clinical manifestations in moderate and severe cases (33 patient) were pain (100%), oedema (98%), ecchymosis (76%), blisters (20%), necrosis (12%), abscess (6%) bleeding (19%), heart failure (1/1.6%), renal failure (1/1.6%). The blood clotting was evaluated in 60 (100%) cases and it was altered in 33 (55%) patients. No deaths were recorded.

  12. Control of phlebotomine sandflies.

    PubMed

    Alexander, B; Maroli, M

    2003-03-01

    Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) transmit many zoonotic diseases (arboviruses, bartonelloses and especially leishmaniases) of importance to human health in at least 80 countries. Measures used to control adult sandflies (Lutzomyia and Phlebotomus) include the use of insecticides (mostly pyrethroids) for residual spraying of dwellings and animal shelters, space-spraying, insecticide-treated nets, impregnated dog-collars and personal protection through application of repellents/insecticides to skin or fabrics. Because the breeding-sites of sandflies are generally unknown, control measures that act specifically against immatures are not feasible, although the effectiveness of a few biological and chemical agents has been demonstrated in laboratory evaluations. Reports of insecticide-resistance refer to only three sandfly species (P. papatasi, P. argentipes and S. shorttii) against DDT in one country (India), although there are reports of DDT-tolerance in several countries. Current knowledge of sandfly susceptibility to various insecticides is summarized. Constraints and advantages of different compounds, formulations and delivery methods for sandfly control under different environmental conditions are discussed.

  13. The effect of temperature on Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) development in sand flies.

    PubMed

    Hlavacova, J; Votypka, J; Volf, P

    2013-09-01

    The spread of leishmaniasis to areas where it was previously considered nonendemic has been recently found in the New and Old Worlds, and climate changes are suspected as a crucial factor responsible for this spread. Ambient temperature is known to significantly affect the metabolism of sand flies and their developmental times, but little is known about the effect of temperature on the Leishmania life cycle in vectors. This study assesses the effect of temperature on the development of two closely related New World Viannia species, Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania peruviana, in the permissive vector Lutzomyia longipalpis, and on the development of New and Old World Leishmania infantum in its natural vectors Lu. longipalpis and Phlebotomus perniciosus, respectively. The mountain species L. peruviana developed well in sand fly females kept at 20 degrees C, whereas at 26 degrees C, most infections were lost during the defecation ofbloodmeal remains; this suggests an adaptation to the slower metabolism of sand flies living at lower ambient temperature. On the contrary, L. infantum and L. braziliensis developed well at both temperatures tested; heavy late-stage infections were observed in a majority of sand fly females maintained at 20 degrees C as well 26 degrees C. Frequent fully developed infections of L. infantum and L. braziliensis at 20 degrees C suggest a certain risk of the spread of these two Leishmania species to higher latitudes and altitudes.

  14. Study on phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) fauna in Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Carina Margonari de; Pessanha, Jose Eduardo; Barata, Ricardo Andrade; Monteiro, Erika Michalsky; Costa, Daniela Carmargos; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2004-12-01

    A study on the phlebotomine sand fly fauna in Belo Horizonte city, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, was carried out. From April 2001 to March 2003, monthly systematic collections were performed in three houses from each of the nine regions of the city, using CDC light traps for four consecutive days. The traps were set into the houses and in peridomestic areas totaling 54 traps. A number of 3871 sand fly specimens of the genera Lutzomyia and Brumptomyia were collected. Sixty eight percent of the specimens were L. longipalpis and 16% L. whitmani, insect vectors of visceral and American cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively. Environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, and frequency of precipitation suggest that the number of insects increases after rainy periods. During the same period mentioned above, seasonal captures were carried out in parks and green areas of Belo Horizonte, using Shannon trap. A total of 579 phlebotomine sand flies were collected from which 398 (68.7%) were females with the predominance of L. whitmani and L. monticola. Those specimens were used for natural infection examination, by polymerase chain reaction. No Leishmania DNA was present in any of the specimens tested.

  15. Phlebotomine fauna in the urban area of Timóteo, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Cristian Ferreira; Quaresma, Patrícia Flávia; Andrade Filho, Jose Dilermando; Bevilacqua, Paula Dias

    2014-06-01

    This work is characterized by an entomological research and an investigation on whether seasonal behaviours can be associated to the phlebotomine fauna found in the urban area of Timóteo-MG - an endemic focus of tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL). The analysis of the seasonal behaviour of sand flies has taken into account the following climatic variables: rainfall, relative humidity and temperature. Automatic light traps were installed in households between 2009 and 2010. The sand fly species with the highest number captured was Lutzomyia whitmani (66.5%), a TL vector species, whose abundance has provided strong evidences that this species is the main vector of TL in the municipality of Timóteo, with its cycle of transmission developing in its urban area. Amongst the results observed in the analyses of seasonal behaviour, only temperature conveyed particular association between seasonal occurrence of sand flies and climate variables. The findings of this study may assist the local epidemiological surveillance agency in defining strategies and directing efforts for controlling these insects.

  16. Impact of LbSapSal Vaccine in Canine Immunological and Parasitological Features before and after Leishmania chagasi-Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Resende, Lucilene Aparecida; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Gama-Ker, Henrique; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; de Mendonça, Ludmila Zanandreis; Alves, Marina Luiza Rodrigues; da Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro

    2016-01-01

    Dogs represent the most important domestic reservoir of L. chagasi (syn. L. infantum). A vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) would be an important tool for decreasing the anxiety related to possible L. chagasi infection and for controlling human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Because the sand fly salivary proteins are potent immunogens obligatorily co-deposited during transmission of Leishmania parasites, their inclusion in an anti-Leishmania vaccine has been investigated in past decades. We investigated the immunogenicity of the “LbSapSal” vaccine (L. braziliensis antigens, saponin as adjuvant, and Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary gland extract) in dogs at baseline (T0), during the post-vaccination protocol (T3rd) and after early (T90) and late (T885) times following L. chagasi-challenge. Our major data indicated that immunization with “LbSapSal” is able to induce biomarkers characterized by enhanced amounts of type I (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-12, interferon [IFN]-γ) cytokines and reduction in type II cytokines (IL-4 and TGF-β), even after experimental challenge. The establishment of a prominent pro-inflammatory immune response after “LbSapSal” immunization supported the increased levels of nitric oxide production, favoring a reduction in spleen parasitism (78.9%) and indicating long-lasting protection against L. chagasi infection. In conclusion, these results confirmed the hypothesis that the “LbSapSal” vaccination is a potential tool to control the Leishmania chagasi infection. PMID:27556586

  17. Ecology of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Marcondes, C B; Santos-Neto, L G; Lozovei, A L

    2001-01-01

    The phlebotomine sandfly fauna of a primary forest reserve at Morretes (eastern Paraná State) was studied, using CDC-like light traps, one night per month, at canopy and ground level, between April 1995 and March 1996. A total of 3,106 insects were collected, identified as belonging to nine species. Lutzomyia ayrozai and Lu.geniculata were predominant, seven other species also being present. Monthly mean temperature, rainfall and the temperature of the collection night significantly influenced the numbers of Lu. ayrozai while the two first factors influenced the numbers of Lu. geniculata, besides the collected quantities of females of the two species. The influence of the factors on Lu. ayrozai numbers was more immediate than in those of Lu. geniculata. Numbers of both species and of the females of Lu. geniculata collected in different seasons, but not at the different heights, varied significantly. Differences between the behaviour of Lu. ayrozai in Morretes and in other regions could be attributed to environmental differences and/or to regional variations in the species, which could constitute species complexes. Hourly variations of collections were different in the species and seasons.

  18. Geographic distribution of phlebotomine sandfly species (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Central-West Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Paulo Silva de; Andrade, Andrey José de; Sciamarelli, Alan; Raizer, Josué; Menegatti, Jaqueline Aparecida; Hermes, Sandra Cristina Negreli Moreira; Carvalho, Maria do Socorro Laurentino de; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2015-06-01

    This study updates the geographic distributions of phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil and analyses the climatic factors associated with their occurrence. The data were obtained from the entomology services of the state departments of health in Central-West Brazil, scientific collections and a literature review of articles from 1962-2014. Ecological niche models were produced for sandfly species with more than 20 occurrences using the Maxent algorithm and eight climate variables. In all, 2,803 phlebotomine records for 127 species were analysed. Nyssomyia whitmani, Evandromyia lenti and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the species with the greatest number of records and were present in all the biomes in Central-West Brazil. The models, which were produced for 34 species, indicated that the Cerrado areas in the central and western regions of Central-West Brazil were climatically more suitable to sandflies. The variables with the greatest influence on the models were the temperature in the coldest months and the temperature seasonality. The results show that phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil have different geographical distribution patterns and that climate conditions in essentially the entire region favour the occurrence of at least one Leishmania vector species, highlighting the need to maintain or intensify vector control and surveillance strategies.

  19. [Study of sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) in the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, from 1999 to 2000].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Falcão, Alda Lima; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2003-01-01

    From February 1999 to February 2000, sand flies were captured weekly with CDC light traps at five sites in the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Traps were placed in 11 different ecotopes in the environment (ground level, tree canopies, and forest edge) and the peridomicile (chicken coops and banana trees). A total of 1,245 sand flies were captured, belonging to 28 species: 4 species from genus Brumptomyia Fran a & Parrot, 1921 and 24 from genus Lutzomyia Fran a, 1924. The species were: B. avellari, B. brumpti, B. galindoi, B. pintoi, L. aragaoi, L. bourrouli, L. campograndensis, L. cerradincola, L. christenseni, L. claustrei, L. cortelezzii, L. corumbaensis, L. cruzi, L. damascenoi, L. flaviscutellata, L. hermanlenti, L. lenti, L. longipalpis, L. longipennis, L. migonei, L. punctigeniculata, L. quinquefer, L. renei, L. shannoni, L. sordellii, L. teratodes, L. termitophila, and L. whitmani. L. longipalpis and L. cruzi, vectors of visceral leishmaniasis, and L. whitmani, L. flaviscutellata and L. migonei, vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis, were captured in the urban area. The most frequent species were L. termitophila, L. aragaoi, L. lenti, L. longipennis, and L. longipalpis.

  20. Variability Modeling of Rainfall, Deforestation, and Incidence of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis in Orán, Argentina, 1985–2007

    PubMed Central

    Rosales, Juan Carlos; Yang, Hyun Mo; Avila Blas, Orlando José

    2014-01-01

    American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is a disease transmitted to humans by the female sandflies of the genus Lutzomyia. Several factors are involved in the disease transmission cycle. In this work only rainfall and deforestation were considered to assess the variability in the incidence of ATL. In order to reach this goal, monthly recorded data of the incidence of ATL in Orán, Salta, Argentina, were used, in the period 1985–2007. The square root of the relative incidence of ATL and the corresponding variance were formulated as time series, and these data were smoothed by moving averages of 12 and 24 months, respectively. The same procedure was applied to the rainfall data. Typical months, which are April, August, and December, were found and allowed us to describe the dynamical behavior of ATL outbreaks. These results were tested at 95% confidence level. We concluded that the variability of rainfall would not be enough to justify the epidemic outbreaks of ATL in the period 1997–2000, but it consistently explains the situation observed in the years 2002 and 2004. Deforestation activities occurred in this region could explain epidemic peaks observed in both years and also during the entire time of observation except in 2005–2007. PMID:25580116

  1. Ecological interactions among phlebotomines (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an agroforestry environment of northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Marcos Paulo Gomes; Silva, José Hilário Tavares; Cavalcanti, Katrine Bezerra; de Azevedo, Paulo Roberto Medeiros; de Melo Ximenes, Maria de Fátima Freire

    2013-12-01

    Phlebotomine vectors transmit parasites and can cause visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or cutaneous leishmaniasis (TL). Phlebotomine females are hematophagous but need to ingest carbohydrates, possibly promoting the development of protozoan parasites in their digestive tract. The present study evaluated the species composition and abundance across several habitats in a metropolitan landscape, as well as associations among phlebotomines, plants, and local climatic parameters. Three consecutive monthly collections were carried out in an Atlantic Forest fragment, using CDC light traps in peridomestic areas and cashew, coconut, and mango tree. plantations. Eight species of phlebotomine were captured: Evandromyia evandroi, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Psathyromyia shannoni, Sciopemyia sordellii, Evandromyia walkeri, Psychodopygus wellcomei, Nyssomyia whitmani, and Nyssomyia intermedia, primarily from the forest environment. L. longipalpis was confirmed as a species adapted to anthropic environments, while P. wellcomei was shown to be predominately forest-dwelling. Phlebotomines exhibited diversified food consumption patterns in relation to carbohydrate sources. They fed on both native and exotic species of arboreal and shrubby vegetables and gramineous plants.

  2. PREVALENCE OF AMERICAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS AND LEISHMANIASES IN DOMESTIC DOGS IN A RURAL AREA OF THE MUNICIPALITY OF SÃO JOÃO DO PIAUÍ, PIAUÍ STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    PEREZ, Taliha Dias; FIGUEIREDO, Fabiano Borges; JUNIOR, Artur Augusto Mendes VELHO; SILVA, Valmir Laurentino; MADEIRA, Maria de Fátima; BRAZIL, Reginaldo Peçanha; COURA, José Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Chagas disease and the leishmaniases are endemic zoonoses of great importance to public health in the state of Piauí, Brazil. The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is a major reservoir, host of Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. in both urban and rural areas, playing an important role in the transmission of these parasites. The present study evaluated the prevalence of both infectious diseases in dogs of a rural area in the municipality of São João do Piauí, Piauí State. One hundred twenty-nine blood samples were collected for serological assessment: for the leishmaniases, 49 (38%) animals tested positive by the Dual-Path Platform technology (DPP), nine (6%) by the Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), and 19 (14.7%) by the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody test (IFA); while for American Trypanosomiasis, 36 (28%) dogs were reagent by ELISA and 21 by IFA. Of the 129 dogs sampled, 76 were submitted to xenodiagnosis, bone marrow aspiration and skin biopsy to perform parasitological tests whose results showed only one (2.3%) positive skin sample for Trypanosoma caninum and one positive xenodiagnosis for T. cruzi, both results confirmed by molecular assays. Three hundred triatomines of the species Triatoma brasiliensis and 552 phlebotomines - 509 (97%) of the species Lutzomyia longipalpis, were also captured. PMID:27828620

  3. Phlebotomine sandflies and the spreading of leishmaniases and other diseases of public health concern.

    PubMed

    Maroli, M; Feliciangeli, M D; Bichaud, L; Charrel, R N; Gradoni, L

    2013-06-01

    Phlebotomine sandflies transmit pathogens that affect humans and animals worldwide. We review the roles of phlebotomines in the spreading of leishmaniases, sandfly fever, summer meningitis, vesicular stomatitis, Chandipura virus encephalitis and Carrión's disease. Among over 800 species of sandfly recorded, 98 are proven or suspected vectors of human leishmaniases; these include 42 Phlebotomus species in the Old World and 56 Lutzomyia species in the New World (all: Diptera: Psychodidae). Based on incrimination criteria, we provide an updated list of proven or suspected vector species by endemic country where data are available. Increases in sandfly diffusion and density resulting from increases in breeding sites and blood sources, and the interruption of vector control activities contribute to the spreading of leishmaniasis in the settings of human migration, deforestation, urbanization and conflict. In addition, climatic changes can be expected to affect the density and dispersion of sandflies. Phlebovirus infections and diseases are present in large areas of the Old World, especially in the Mediterranean subregion, in which virus diversity has proven to be higher than initially suspected. Vesiculovirus diseases are important to livestock and humans in the southeastern U.S.A. and Latin America, and represent emerging human threats in parts of India. Carrión's disease, formerly restricted to regions of elevated altitude in Peru, Ecuador and Colombia, has shown recent expansion to non-endemic areas of the Amazon basin.

  4. [Epidemic outbreak of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Puerto Esperanza, Misiones, 1998].

    PubMed

    Salomón, O D; Sosa Estani, S; Monzani, A S; Studer, C

    2001-01-01

    The province of Misiones reported 205 leishmaniasis cases during 1998, 98% of them from the locality of Puerto Esperanza. The reports of Puerto Esperanza Hospital (January to September 1998) for leishmaniasis were analysed (n: 129). The mainly reported lesion was the single cutaneous ulcer (97.2%), localized in the inferior limbs (72.5%), without any mucosa involvement. The results are consistent with the knowledge from other Argentinean leishmaniasis foci due to Leishmania (V.) braziliensis. The difference in incidence among sexes was not significant, leishmaniasis was reported in all age groups, and it was susceptible to the conventional treatment. The main focus was located in Km 1 neighbourhood, the transmission peak was during April 1998. The Montenegro skin test among general population (n: 205) did not show reactivity among asymptomatic people. The prevalent Phlebotominae species were Lutzomyia intermedia (79.7%) and Lu. whitmani (10.9%), among the 577 individuals belonging to 8 species collected. The Phlebotominae were abundant in peridomestic habitats of Km 1 neighbourhood, close to human dwellings, in places associated with residual primary forest and secondary vegetation. The results are discussed in the frame of surveillance and possible control strategies.

  5. [Visceral leishmaniasis in Argentina. Cases notification and distribution of vectors (2006-2012)].

    PubMed

    Gould, Ignacio T; Perner, Mónica S; Santini, María S; Saavedra, Silvina B; Bezzi, Gisella; Maglianese, Mariana I; Antman, Julián G; Gutiérrez, Jorge A; Salomón, Oscar D

    2013-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a notifiable disease in Argentina. Every new case diagnosed must be reported to the National Health Surveillance System. In the period 2006-2012, a total of 103 cases have been notified in four provinces: Entre Rios, Santa Fe, Misiones and Santiago del Estero. Misiones has the largest amount of cases: a total of 80, detected in 15 towns from May 2006 to July 2012. The highest incidence is observed in children (less than 15 years of age). In 2004 the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis was detected for the first time in Formosa Province. Cases of human and canine VL, as well as the presence of the canine vector were reported in 2006 in the province of Misiones, and in 2008-2009 in the province of Corrientes. In Santiago del Estero cases of human and canine VL (2008) were possibly associated with secondary vectors. In 2010 Lu longipalpis was found in Entre Rios, showing its dispersal to the south. Between January and April 2011 a systematic search of the VL vector was carried out in 13 towns, in Entre Ríos, Santa Fe and Santiago del Estero Provinces (275 traps/night). The colonization of the vector Lu longipalpis was proved in Chajarí town (Entre Rios), but not in Santiago del Estero Province, where Migonemyia migonei appears as a putative LV vector.

  6. Efficacy of three attractant blends tested in combination with carbon dioxide against natural populations of mosquitoes and biting flies at the Lower Suwannee Wildlife Refuge.

    PubMed

    Kline, Daniel L; Bernier, Ulrich R; Hogsette, Jerome A

    2012-06-01

    Synthetic blends of chemicals identified previously from human skin emanations were evaluated against mosquito and biting fly populations at the Lower Suwannee Wildlife Refuge near Cedar Key, FL. Mosquito Magnet-Experimental traps were baited with the Red (400 ml acetone: 10 ml 1-hexen-3-ol:10 ml 1-octen-3-ol), Blue (400 ml acetone: 1 g/liter lactic acid:20 ml glycolic acid), or Green blend (400 ml acetone:1.5 g/liter lactic acid:20 ml dimethyl disulfide) plus CO2 or with CO2 alone (control). A relative index of efficacy was determined by dividing each mean blend trap catch by the mean control trap catch. Five mosquitoes (Aedes infirmatus, Ae. taeniorhynchus, Ae. triseriatus, Anopheles crucians, and Culex nigripalpus), 2 ceratopogonid (Culicoides floridensis and C. furens), and 1 tabanid (Diachlorus ferrugatus) and phlebotomine (Lutzomyia shannoni) species were trapped. The Red blend + CO2 treatment significantly increased collections of Ae. taeniorhynchus (3.4x), An. crucians (2.8X), total mosquitoes (2.7x), C. furens (17.6x), and L. shannoni (10.8x) compared with control traps. Traps baited with either the Blue or Green blends generally captured fewer insects than traps baited with the other 2 treatments. However, traps baited with the Green blend caught 7 x as many C. furens as the control traps. Responses clearly varied according to species; therefore, "one size does not fit all" when it comes to attractant blends.

  7. Epidemiological study on leishmaniasis in an area of environmental tourism and ecotourism, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Ana Rachel Oliveira de; Nunes, Vânia Lúcia Brandão; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; de Arruda, Carla Cardozo Pinto; Santos, Mirella Ferreira da Cunha; Rocca, Maria Elizabeth Gizi; Aquino, Ricardo Braga

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to carry out a serological survey of canine leishmaniasis and identify the phlebotomine fauna in the urban area of Bonito, Mato Grosso do Sul. The serological survey was conducted on a sample of 303 dogs, by means of the indirect immunofluorescence test. Phlebotomines were captured using automated light traps. The serological survey found that 30% of the dogs were seropositive, both from the center and from all districts of the town. A total of 2,772 specimens of phlebotomines were caught and the species most found was Lutzomyia longipalpis (90.4%), which corroborated its role as the vector of for canine visceral leishmaniasis in the region. Phlebotomines of the species Bichromomyia flaviscutellata (the main vector for Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis) and Nyssomyia whitmani (the vector for Leishmania (Viannia) brasiliensis) were also caught. The findings indicate the need for continuous epidemiological surveillance, with attention towards diminishing the vector breeding sites and the transmission of these diseases in that region.

  8. Assessing the importance of four sandfly species (Diptera: Psychodidae) as vectors of Leishmania mexicana in Campeche, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pech-May, A; Peraza-Herrera, G; Moo-Llanes, D A; Escobedo-Ortegón, J; Berzunza-Cruz, M; Becker-Fauser, I; Montes DE Oca-Aguilar, A C; Rebollar-Téllez, E A

    2016-09-01

    Localized cutaneous leishmaniasis represents a public health problem in many areas of Mexico, especially in the Yucatan Peninsula. An understanding of vector ecology and bionomics is of great importance in evaluations of the transmission dynamics of Leishmania parasites. A field study was conducted in the county of Calakmul, state of Campeche, during the period from November 2006 to March 2007. Phlebotomine sandfly vectors were sampled using Centers for Disease Control light traps, baited Disney traps and Shannon traps. A total of 3374 specimens were captured in the two villages of Once de Mayo (93.8%) and Arroyo Negro (6.1%). In Once de Mayo, the most abundant species were Psathyromyia shannoni, Lutzomyia cruciata, Bichromomyia olmeca olmeca and Psychodopygus panamensis (all: Diptera: Psychodidae). The Shannon trap was by far the most efficient method of collection. The infection rate, as determined by Leishmania mexicana-specific polymerase chain reaction, was 0.3% in Once de Mayo and infected sandflies included Psy. panamensis, B. o. olmeca and Psa. shannoni. There were significant differences in human biting rates across sandfly species and month of sampling. Ecological niche modelling analyses showed an overall overlap of 39.1% for the four species in the whole state of Campeche. In addition, the finding of nine vector-reservoir pairs indicates a potential interaction. The roles of the various sandfly vectors in Calakmul are discussed.

  9. Visceral leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: eco-epidemiological aspects and control.

    PubMed

    Marzochi, Mauro Celio de Almeida; Fagundes, Aline; Andrade, Moacir Vieira de; Souza, Marcos Barbosa de; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Mouta-Confort, Eliame; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira; Marzochi, Keyla Belizia Feldman

    2009-01-01

    From 1977 (index case) to 2006, 87 cases of visceral leishmaniasis were confirmed in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in periurban areas on the continental and coastal slopes of the Pedra Branca massif and the continental slopes of the Gericinó massif. The majority (65.5%) of the patients were more than five years old, predominantly males (61.5%), but without any difference between the sexes below the age of 14 years. The overall fatality rate was 10.4%. Two cases of visceral leishmaniasis/human immunodeficiency virus coinfection were detected. Leishmania chagasi was isolated from human and canine cases. The associations between the presence of phlebotomines and human and canine migrations, disorderly occupation involving degradation of environmental preservation areas and poor socioeconomic conditions may have created a favorable setting for the establishment and propagation of the disease. Close epidemiological surveillance associated with traditional control measures and others (active case researches, land clearing and health education), reduced the incidence of human cases from 2.8 per 100,000 inhabitants in 1981 to less than 0.01 per 100,000 since 1997. The canine infection rates decreased from 4.6% in 1984 to 1.6% in 2008. Lutzomyia longipalpis was not detected in some locations where human and canine cases occurred. In the years 2007 and 2008, no new human cases were reported, but there is a persistent and worrisome residual canine seroprevalence.

  10. FIRST REPORT OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS CAUSED BY Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi IN AN URBAN AREA OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Antonio, Liliane de Fátima; Lyra, Janine Pontes de Miranda; Fagundes, Aline; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is an infectious disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, and transmitted by sandflies. In the state of Rio de Janeiro, almost all of the cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) are caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, while cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi. The resurgence of autochthonous VL cases in Rio de Janeiro is related to the geographic expansion of the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis and its ability to adapt to urban areas. We report the first case of leishmaniasis with exclusively cutaneous manifestations caused by L. (L.) infantum chagasi in an urban area of Rio de Janeiro. An eighty-one-year-old woman presented three pleomorphic skin lesions that were not associated with systemic symptoms or visceromegalies. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis identified L. (L.) infantum chagasi, but direct smear and PCR of bone narrow were negative for Leishmania sp. (suggesting exclusively cutaneous involvement). We discuss the different dermatological presentations of viscerotropic leishmaniasis of the New and Old World, and the clinical and epidemiological importance of the case. Etiologic diagnosis of ATL based upon exclusive clinical criteria may lead to incorrect conclusions. We should be aware of the constant changes in epidemiological patterns related to leishmaniases.

  11. PHLEBOTOMINE FAUNA (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE) IN AN AREA OF FISHING TOURISM IN CENTRAL-WESTERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    BRILHANTE, Andreia Fernandes; DORVAL, Maria Elizabeth Moraes Cavalheiros; GALATI, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; da ROCHA, Hilda Carlos; CRISTALDO, Geucira; NUNES, Vânia Lúcia Brandão

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify behavioral aspects of the sandfly fauna of a fishing tourism area in the municipality of Bonito (MS). Monthly captures were undertaken from December 2009 to November 2010, using automatic CDC type light traps, from 18h00 to 06h00, in a forested area, a savannah area, peridomiciles and animal shelters near peridomiciliary areas. Nyssomyia whitmani was the most frequent out of a total of 6,699 specimens collected, belonging to 16 species, followed by Psathyromyia bigeniculata and Lutzomyia longipalpis, found in all the environments investigated, though in their greatest numbers in the animal shelters. Ny. whitmani exhibited its highest frequencies during the dry months, coincident with the fishing season, when the risk of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis for tourists and inhabitants increases. Noteworthy was the finding of two species naturally infected by flagellates: Ny. whitmani and Pa. bigeniculata. The local population and visiting tourists should be warned of the threat posed by leishmaniasis and the health authorities alerted to the need for adopting environmental sanitary measures, especially regarding such animal shelters as they seem to provide favorable conditions to the proliferation, maintenance and breeding opportunities of phlebotomines. PMID:26200964

  12. Performance of light-emitting diode traps for collecting sand flies in entomological surveys in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Fernández, María Soledad; Martínez, Mariela Florencia; Pérez, Adriana Alicia; Santini, María Soledad; Gould, Ignacio Tomás; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

    2015-12-01

    The performance of two light-emitting diode traps with white and black light for capturing phlebotomine sand flies, developed by the Argentinean Leishmaniasis Research Network (REDILA-WL and REDILA-BL traps), were compared with the traditional CDC incandescent light trap. Entomological data were obtained from six sand fly surveys conducted in Argentina in different environments. Data analyses were conducted for the presence and the abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis, Migonemyia migonei, and Nyssomyia whitmani (106 sites). No differences were found in presence/absence among the three types of traps for all sand fly species (p>0.05). The collection mean of Lu. longipalpis from the REDILA-BL didn´t differ from the CDC trap means, nor were differences seen between the REDILA-WL and the CDC trap collection means (p>0.05), but collections were larger from the REDILA-BL trap compared to the REDILA-WL trap (p<0.05). For Mg. migonei and Ny. whitmani, no differences were found among the three types of traps in the number of individuals captured (p>0.05). These results suggest that both REDILA traps could be used as an alternative capture tool to the original CDC trap for surveillance of these species, and that the REDILA-BL will also allow a comparable estimation of the abundance of these flies to the CDC light trap captures. In addition, the REDILA-BL has better performance than the REDILA-WL, at least for Lu. longipalpis.

  13. Leishmaniasis in Colombia. I. Studies on the phlebotomine fauna associated with endemic foci in the Pacific Coast region.

    PubMed

    Travi, B L; Montoya, J; Solarte, Y; Lozano, L; Jaramillo, C

    1988-09-01

    Studies on the phlebotomine fauna related to the leishmaniasis endemic foci of the Colombian Pacific Coast were carried out in the municipalities of Tumaco and Buenaventura. In Inguapí del Guadual, Tumaco, Lutzomyia trapidoi and Lu. gomezi were the predominant anthropophilic species; Lu. panamensis and Lu. hartmanni were less frequent. In Bajo Calima, Buenaventura, Lu. trapidoi represented over 94% of the anthropophilic sandflies. Continuous sampling from 1800 to 0600 hours in Inguapí del Guadual demonstrated that Lu. trapidoi bites mainly at dusk and dawn whereas Lu. gomezi remains active throughout the night. In Inguapí del Guadual, promastigotes were found in 0.1% (2/2, 305) of Lu. trapidoi, 0.2% (3/140) of Lu. gomezi, and 0.2% (1/424) of Lu. panamensis samples collected. In Bajo Calima, 1.9% (8/429) of Lu. trapidoi were found to be infected. Leishmania braziliensis panamensis, the most common Leishmania subspecies in the human population of this endemic focus, was isolated from 1 Lu. trapidoi from Inguapí del Guadual. Parasitological and entomological findings suggest that Lu. trapidoi could be the main vector of Leishmania in these areas, although Lu. gomezi and Lu. panamensis were also predominant.

  14. New Insights Into the Transmissibility of Leishmania infantum From Dogs to Sand Flies: Experimental Vector-Transmission Reveals Persistent Parasite Depots at Bite Sites

    PubMed Central

    Aslan, Hamide; Oliveira, Fabiano; Meneses, Claudio; Castrovinci, Philip; Gomes, Regis; Teixeira, Clarissa; Derenge, Candace A.; Orandle, Marlene; Gradoni, Luigi; Oliva, Gaetano; Fischer, Laurent; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Kamhawi, Shaden

    2016-01-01

    Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a chronic fatal disease of dogs and a major source of human infection through propagation of parasites in vectors. Here, we infected 8 beagles through multiple experimental vector transmissions with Leishmania infantum–infected Lutzomyia longipalpis. CanL clinical signs varied, although live parasites were recovered from all dog spleens. Splenic parasite burdens correlated positively with Leishmania-specific interleukin 10 levels, negatively with Leishmania-specific interferon γ and interleukin 2 levels, and negatively with Leishmania skin test reactivity. A key finding was parasite persistence for 6 months in lesions observed at the bite sites in all dogs. These recrudesced following a second transmission performed at a distal site. Notably, sand flies efficiently acquired parasites after feeding on lesions at the primary bite site. In this study, controlled vector transmissions identify a potentially unappreciated role for skin at infectious bite sites in dogs with CanL, providing a new perspective regarding the mechanism of Leishmania transmissibility to vector sand flies. PMID:26768257

  15. Lipophosphoglycans from Leishmania amazonensis Strains Display Immunomodulatory Properties via TLR4 and Do Not Affect Sand Fly Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Paula M.; Assis, Rafael R.; Torrecilhas, Ana C.; Saraiva, Elvira M.; Pessoa, Natália L.; Campos, Marco A.; Marialva, Eric F.; Ríos-Velasquez, Cláudia M.; Pessoa, Felipe A.; Secundino, Nágila F.; Rugani, Jerônimo N.; Nieves, Elsa; Turco, Salvatore J.; Melo, Maria N.

    2016-01-01

    The immunomodulatory properties of lipophosphoglycans (LPG) from New World species of Leishmania have been assessed in Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis, the causative agents of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively. This glycoconjugate is highly polymorphic among species with variation in sugars that branch off the conserved Gal(β1,4)Man(α1)-PO4 backbone of repeat units. Here, the immunomodulatory activity of LPGs from Leishmania amazonensis, the causative agent of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, was evaluated in two strains from Brazil. One strain (PH8) was originally isolated from the sand fly and the other (Josefa) was isolated from a human case. The ability of purified LPGs from both strains was investigated during in vitro interaction with peritoneal murine macrophages and CHO cells and in vivo infection with Lutzomyia migonei. In peritoneal murine macrophages, the LPGs from both strains activated TLR4. Both LPGs equally activate MAPKs and the NF-κB inhibitor p-IκBα, but were not able to translocate NF-κB. In vivo experiments with sand flies showed that both stains were able to sustain infection in L. migonei. A preliminary biochemical analysis indicates intraspecies variation in the LPG sugar moieties. However, they did not result in different activation profiles of the innate immune system. Also those polymorphisms did not affect infectivity to the sand fly. PMID:27508930

  16. Canine visceral leishmaniasis in the metropolitan area of São Paulo: Pintomyia fischeri as potential vector of Leishmania infantum.

    PubMed

    Galvis-Ovallos, Fredy; da Silva, Mariana Dantas; Bispo, Giulia Baldaconi da Silva; de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez; Neto, José Rodriguez Gonçalves; Malafronte, Rosely Dos Santos; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2017-01-01

    American visceral leishmaniasis is a zoonosis caused by Leishmania infantum and transmitted mainly by Lutzomyia longipalpis. However, canine cases have been reported in the absence of this species in the Greater São Paulo region, where Pintomyia fischeri and Migonemyia migonei are the predominant species. This raises the suspicion that they could be acting as vectors. Therefore, this study sought to investigate specific vector capacity parameters of these species and to compare them with those of Lu. longipalpis s.l. Among these parameters the blood feeding rate, the survival, and the susceptibility to the development of Le. infantum were evaluated for the three species, and the attractiveness of dogs to Pi. fischeri and Mg. migonei was evaluated. The estimated interval between blood meals was shorter for Lu. longipalpis s.l, followed by Pi. fischeri and Mg. migonei. The infection rate with Le. infantum flagellates in Lu. longipalpis was 9.8%, in Pi. fischeri 4.8%, and in Mg. migonei nil. The respective infective life expectancies (days) of Lu. longipalpis, Mg. migonei, and Pi. fischeri were 2.4, 1.94, and 1.68. Both Pi. fischeri and Mg. migonei were captured in the kennel with a predominance (95%) of Pi. fischeri. Considering the great attractiveness of dogs to Pi. fischeri, its susceptibility to infection by Le. infantum, infective life expectancies, and predominance in Greater São Paulo, this study presents evidence of Pi. fischeri as a potential vector of this parasite in the region.

  17. Phlebotomine sandfly (Diptera: Psychodidae) diversity and their Leishmania DNA in a hot spot of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis human cases along the Brazilian border with Peru and Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Teles, Carolina Bioni Garcia; dos Santos, Ana Paula de Azevedo; Freitas, Rui Alves; de Oliveira, Arley Faria José; Ogawa, Guilherme Maerschner; Rodrigues, Moreno Souza; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we identified the phlebotomine sandfly vectors involved in the transmission of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil, which is located on the Brazil-Peru-Bolivia frontier. The genotyping of Leishmania in phlebotomines was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. A total of 6,850 sandflies comprising 67 species were captured by using CDC light traps in rural areas of the municipality. Three sandfly species were found in the state of Acre for the first time: Lutzomyia georgii, Lu. complexa and Lu. evangelistai. The predominant species was Lu. auraensis/Lu. ruifreitasi and Lu. davisi (total 59.27%). 32 of 368 pools were positive for the presence of Leishmania DNA (16 pools corresponding to Lu. davisi, and 16 corresponding to Lu. auraensis/Lu. ruifreitasi), with a minimal infection prevalence of 1.85% in Lu. davisi and 2.05% in Lu. auraensis/Lu. ruifreitasi. The Leishmania species found showed maximum identity with L. (Viannia) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis in both phlebotomine species. Based on these results and similar scenarios previously described along the Brazil/Peru/Bolivia tri-border, the studied area must take into consideration the possibility of Lu. davisi and Lu. auraensis/Lu. ruifreitasi as probable vectors of ACL in this municipality. PMID:27304023

  18. Leishmaniases in Ecuador: Comprehensive review and current status.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Velez, Lenin N; Villegas, Nancy V; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Gomez, Eduardo A L; Kato, Hirotomo

    2017-02-01

    This article reviews current knowledge about leishmaniases in Ecuador, proceeding from 1920, when the first human case was described, to the present, mainly focusing on the recent research events published. Regarding basic situations, it appears that 23 of Ecuador's 24 provinces have leishmaniasis-case reports. The disease is one of the mandatory notification infectious diseases in the country since 2005. All the 21,305 cases notified to the Ministry of Public Health, during the period from 2001 through 2014, were said to involve different clinical features of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) but not visceral (VL). Eight Leishmania species, L. (Viannia) guyanensis, L. (V.) panamensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (Leishmania) mexicana, L. (L.) amazonensis, L. (L.) major-like, L. (V.) naiffiand L. (V.) lainsoni were characterized. The last two species were most recently reported from the Ecuadorian Amazon regions. Of the 73 Ecuadorian Lutzomyia species (43 man-biting species) recorded, only four, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ayacuchensis, and Lu. tortura were incriminated as vectors of the Leishmania parasites. Current knowledge on the reservoir hosts of Leishmania in Ecuador is extremely poor. Recently, in Ecuador different kinds of molecular techniques were developed for diagnosis and mass screening of the disease, employing various materials derived from patients and sand fly vectors. These are PCR-RFLP, colorimetric FTA-LAMP etc. Brief comments and recommendations were also given, for future research and control of leishmaniases in Ecuador.

  19. Attractiveness of black Shannon trap for phlebotomines.

    PubMed

    Galati, E A; Nunes, V L; Dorval, M E; Cristaldo, G; Rocha, H C; Gonçalves-Andrade, R M; Naufel, G

    2001-07-01

    A white Shannon-type trap was used for captures of female sand flies in the search for natural infection with flagellates, however, due to its low productivity and as a large number of phlebotomines settled on the researchers' black clothes, we decided to compare the relative attractiveness of black and white Shannon-type traps for sand flies. Several pairs of black and white traps were placed side by side in front of caves in four areas in the Serra da Bodoquena, Bonito county, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, for a total of 12 observations and 44 h of capture. The experiment resulted in 889 phlebotomines captured, 801 on the black and 88 on the white trap, representing 13 species. The hourly Williams' means were 8.67 and 1.24, respectively, and the black/white ratio was 7.0:1.0. Lutzomyia almerioi, an anthropophilic species closely associated with caves, was predominant (89%). Only two other species, Nyssomyia whitmani and Psathyromyia punctigeniculata, also anthropophilic, were significantly attracted to the black rather than to the white trap (chi(2) test; p < or = 0.01). The difference between the diversity index of the two traps was not significant at level 0.05. The black trap in these circumstances was much more productive than the white, especially for anthropophilic species.

  20. Phlebotomine Vector Ecology in the Domestic Transmission of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Chaparral, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Cristina; Marín, Dairo; Góngora, Rafael; Carrasquilla, María C.; Trujillo, Jorge E.; Rueda, Norma K.; Marín, Jaime; Valderrama-Ardila, Carlos; Alexander, Neal; Pérez, Mauricio; Munstermann, Leonard E.; Ocampo, Clara B.

    2011-01-01

    Phlebotomine vector ecology was studied in the largest recorded outbreak of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia in 2004. In two rural townships that had experienced contrasting patterns of case incidence, this study evaluated phlebotomine species composition, seasonal abundance, nocturnal activity, blood source, prevalence of Leishmania infection, and species identification. CDC miniature light traps were used to trap the phlebotomines. Traps were set indoors, peridomestically, and in woodlands. Natural infection was determined in pools by polymerase chain reaction–Southern blot, and blood sources and species identification were determined by sequencing. Large differences were observed in population abundance between the two townships evaluated. Lutzomyia longiflocosa was the most abundant species (83.1%). Abundance was higher during months with lower precipitation. Nocturnal activity was associated with human domestic activity. Blood sources identified were mainly human (85%). A high prevalence of infection was found in L. longiflocosa indoors (2.7%) and the peridomestic setting (2.5%). L. longiflocosa was responsible for domestic transmission in Chaparral. PMID:22049038