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Sample records for por matriz maldi-tof-ms

  1. [Applications of MALDI-TOF-MS in clinical microbiology laboratory].

    PubMed

    Carbonnelle, Etienne; Nassif, Xavier

    2011-10-01

    For twenty years, mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as a particularly powerful tool for analysis and characterization of proteins in research. It is only recently that this technology, especially MALDI-TOF-MS (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-Of-Flight) has entered the field of routine microbiology. This method has proven to be reliable and safe for the identification of bacteria, yeasts, filamentous fungi and dermatophytes. MALDI-TOF-MS is a rapid, precise and cost-effective method for identification, compared to conventional phenotypic techniques or molecular biology. Its ability to analyse whole microorganisms with few sample preparation has greatly reduced the time to identification (1-2 min). Furthermore, this technology can be used to identify bacteria directly from clinical samples as blood culture bottles or urines. Future applications will be developed in order to provide direct information concerning virulence or resistance protein markers.

  2. The application of MALDI TOF MS in biopharmaceutical research.

    PubMed

    Kafka, Alexandra P; Kleffmann, Torsten; Rades, Thomas; McDowell, Arlene

    2011-09-30

    The development and quality assessment of modern biopharmaceuticals, particularly protein and peptide drugs, requires an array of analytical techniques to assess the integrity of the bioactive molecule during formulation and administration. Mass spectrometry is one of these methods and is particularly suitable for determining chemical modifications of protein and peptide drugs. The emphasis of this review is the identification of covalent interactions between protein and peptide bioactives with polymeric pharmaceutical formulations using mass spectrometry with the main focus on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) coupled tandem time-of-flight (TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The basics of MALDI TOF MS and collision-induced dissociation (CID)-based ion fragmentation will be explained and applications for qualitative characterization of protein and peptide drugs and their interactions with pharmaceutical polymers will be discussed using three case studies.

  3. MALDI-TOF MS of Trichoderma: A model system for the identification of microfungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This investigation aimed to assess whether MALDI-TOF MS analysis of proteomics could be applied to the study of Trichoderma, a fungal genus selected because it includes many species and is phylogenetically well defined. We also investigated whether MALDI-TOF MS analysis of proteomics would reveal ap...

  4. Identification of Dermatophyte Species after Implementation of the In-House MALDI-TOF MS Database

    PubMed Central

    Calderaro, Adriana; Motta, Federica; Montecchini, Sara; Gorrini, Chiara; Piccolo, Giovanna; Piergianni, Maddalena; Buttrini, Mirko; Medici, Maria Cristina; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina; Chezzi, Carlo; De Conto, Flora

    2014-01-01

    Despite that matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful tool in the clinical microbiology setting, few studies have till now focused on MALDI-TOF MS-based identification of dermatophytes. In this study, we analyze dermatophytes strains isolated from clinical samples by MALDI-TOF MS to supplement the reference database available in our laboratory. Twenty four dermatophytes (13 reference strains and 11 field isolated strains), identified by both conventional and molecular standard procedures, were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS, and the spectra obtained were used to supplement the available database, limited to a few species. To verify the robustness of the implemented database, 64 clinical isolates other than those used for the implementation were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The implementation allowed the identification of the species not included in the original database, reinforced the identification of the species already present and correctly identified those within the Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex previously classified as Trichophyton. tonsurans by MALDI-TOF MS. The dendrogram obtained by analyzing the proteic profiles of the different species of dermatophytes reflected their taxonomy, showing moreover, in some cases, a different clusterization between the spectra already present in the database and those newly added. In this study, MALDI-TOF MS proved to be a useful tool suitable for the identification of dermatophytes for diagnostic purpose. PMID:25216335

  5. Progress in proteomics for clinical microbiology: MALDI-TOF MS for microbial species identification and more.

    PubMed

    van Belkum, Alex; Chatellier, Sonia; Girard, Victoria; Pincus, David; Deol, Parampal; Dunne, Wm Michael

    2015-01-01

    Although classical proteomic approaches are still used regularly in routine clinical diagnostic procedures, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) MS has recently moved into diagnostic microbiology laboratories. MALDI-TOF MS is currently replacing phenotypic microbial identification. Many laboratories now use MALDI-TOF MS for its high efficiency, both from a diagnostic and a cost-per-analysis point of view. The US FDA has now cleared two of the commercially available systems for in vitro diagnostics. This will further spark development of MS applications in antimicrobial susceptibility testing and epidemiology. This review summarizes the state of affairs of MALDI-TOF MS in clinical microbiology; however, this is an active field of research subject to rapid evolution. We emphasize assessment of the clinical relevance and studies focusing on data obtained through comparative analyses of different MALDI-TOF MS instrumentation and multicenter validation studies. The future of MALDI-TOF MS, including antimicrobial susceptibility testing and epidemiological typing, is also highlighted.

  6. Application of MALDI-TOF MS for requalification of a Candida clinical isolates culture collection

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Neto, Reginaldo; Santos, Cledir; Lima, Nelson; Sampaio, Paula; Pais, Célia; Neves, Rejane P.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial culture collections underpin biotechnology applications and are important resources for clinical microbiology by supplying reference strains and/or performing microbial identifications as a service. Proteomic profiles by MALDI-TOF MS have been used for Candida spp. identification in clinical laboratories and demonstrated to be a fast and reliable technique for the routine identification of pathogenic yeasts. The main aim of this study was to apply MALDI-TOF MS combined with classical phenotypic and molecular approaches to identify Candida clinical isolates preserved from 1 up to 52 years in a Brazilian culture collection and assess its value for the identification of yeasts preserved in this type of collections. Forty Candida spp. clinical isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical analyses. Identifications were also performed by the new proteomic approach based on MALDI-TOF MS. Results demonstrated 15% discordance when compared with morphological and biochemical analyses. Discordant isolates were analysed by ITS sequencing, which confirmed the MALDI-TOF MS identifications and these strains were renamed in the culture collection catalogue. In conclusion, proteomic profiles by MALDI-TOF MS represents a rapid and reliable method for identifying clinical Candida species preserved in culture collections and may present clear benefits when compared with the performance of existing daily routine methods applied at health centres and hospitals. PMID:25242936

  7. [Utility of MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of anaerobic bacteria].

    PubMed

    Zárate, Mariela S; Romano, Vanesa; Nievas, Jimena; Smayevsky, Jorgelina

    2014-01-01

    The analysis by MALDI-TOF MS (Matrix-assited laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry) has become a reference method for the identification of microorganisms in Clinical Microbiology. However, data on some groups of microorganisms are still controversial. The aim of this study is to determine the utility of MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria. One-hundred and six anaerobic bacteria isolates were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS and by conventional biochemical tests. In those cases where identification by conventional methodology was not applicable or in the face of discordance between sequencing methodologies, 16 S rRNA gene sequence analysis was performed. The conventional method and MALDI-TOF MS agreed at genus and species level by 95.3 %. Concordance in gram-negative bacilli was 91.4% and 100% among gram-positive bacilli; there was also concordance both in the 8 isolates studied in gram-positive cocci and in the single gram-negative cocci included. The data obtained in this study demonstrate that MALDI-TOF MS offers the possibility of adequate identification of anaerobic bacteria.

  8. Application of MALDI-TOF MS for the Identification of Food Borne Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Pavlovic, Melanie; Huber, Ingrid; Konrad, Regina; Busch, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently emerged as a powerful tool for the routine identification of clinical isolates. MALDI-TOF MS based identification of bacteria has been shown to be more rapid, accurate and cost-efficient than conventional phenotypic techniques or molecular methods. Rapid and reliable identification of food-associated bacteria is also of crucial importance for food processing and product quality. This review is concerned with the applicability of MALDI-TOF MS for routine identification of foodborne bacteria taking the specific requirements of food microbiological laboratories and the food industry into account. The current state of knowledge including recent findings and new approaches are discussed. PMID:24358065

  9. [Evaluation of mass spectrometry: MALDI-TOF MS for fast and reliable yeast identification].

    PubMed

    Relloso, María S; Nievas, Jimena; Fares Taie, Santiago; Farquharson, Victoria; Mujica, María T; Romano, Vanesa; Zarate, Mariela S; Smayevsky, Jorgelina

    2015-01-01

    The matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry technique known as MALDI-TOF MS is a tool used for the identification of clinical pathogens by generating a protein spectrum that is unique for a given species. In this study we assessed the identification of clinical yeast isolates by MALDI-TOF MS in a university hospital from Argentina and compared two procedures for protein extraction: a rapid method and a procedure based on the manufacturer's recommendations. A short protein extraction procedure was applied in 100 isolates and the rate of correct identification at genus and species level was 98.0%. In addition, we analyzed 201 isolates, previously identified by conventional methods, using the methodology recommended by the manufacturer and there was 95.38% coincidence in the identification at species level. MALDI TOF MS showed to be a fast, simple and reliable tool for yeast identification.

  10. MALDI-TOF MS in clinical parasitology: applications, constraints and prospects.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Neelja; Kumar, Manish; Virdi, Jugsharan Singh

    2016-10-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is currently being used for rapid and reproducible identification of bacteria, viruses and fungi in clinical microbiological laboratories. However, some studies have also reported the use of MALDI-TOF MS for identification of parasites, like Leishmania, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Entamoeba, ticks and fleas. The present review collates all the information available on the use of this technique for parasites, in an effort to assess its applicability and the constraints for identification/diagnosis of parasites and diseases caused by them. Though MALDI-TOF MS-based identification of parasites is currently done by reference laboratories only, in future, this promising technology might surely replace/augment molecular methods in clinical parasitology laboratories. PMID:27387025

  11. MALDI-TOF MS in clinical parasitology: applications, constraints and prospects.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Neelja; Kumar, Manish; Virdi, Jugsharan Singh

    2016-10-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is currently being used for rapid and reproducible identification of bacteria, viruses and fungi in clinical microbiological laboratories. However, some studies have also reported the use of MALDI-TOF MS for identification of parasites, like Leishmania, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Entamoeba, ticks and fleas. The present review collates all the information available on the use of this technique for parasites, in an effort to assess its applicability and the constraints for identification/diagnosis of parasites and diseases caused by them. Though MALDI-TOF MS-based identification of parasites is currently done by reference laboratories only, in future, this promising technology might surely replace/augment molecular methods in clinical parasitology laboratories.

  12. [Identification of staphylococci directly from positive blood culture bottles by MALDI-TOF MS system].

    PubMed

    Kilic, Abdullah; Baysallar, Mehmet

    2014-07-01

    Bloodstream infections are substantial causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Staphylococcus species are the most commonly isolated microorganisms from blood cultures in clinical microbiology laboratories. MALDI-TOF MS (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time- of- Flight Mass Spectrometry) system allows the identification of microorganisms directly from positive blood culture bottles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the MALDI-TOF MS system for the identification of staphylococci directly from the positive blood culture bottles which revealed the presence of gram-positive cocci by staining. A total of 96 positive blood culture bottles that yielded gram-positive cocci by Gram stain were evaluated. These blood cultures were obtained from 69 patients between December 2013-February 2014. Conventional methods and BD Phoenix™ automated bacterial identification system (Becton Dickinson, USA) were used for routine identification. The strains were also identified by real-time Taqman PCR (qPCR) which was considered as the reference method. In MALDI-TOF MS method, MALDI Sepsityper™ Kit was used for the bacterial identification and all measurements were carried out by using Microflex LT instrument and FlexControl 3.0 software (Bruker Daltonics, USA). Of 96 culture bottles positive for gram-positive cocci, 90 were correctly identified as staphylococci at genus level with all the three study methods (qPCR, BD Phoenix, Bruker MALDI-TOF MS). The other six samples were identified as Enterococcus faecium (n= 4) and Streptococcus pyogenes (n= 2) by both Phoenix and the MALDI-TOF systems. Of the 90 samples, 87 were identified at the species level (15 S.aureus, 33 S.epidermidis, 29 S.hominis, 10 S.haemolyticus) and three at the genus level by the reference qPCR method. When comparing the results obtained by qPCR and Bruker MALDI-TOF MS, incompatibility was detected for three isolates. Those isolates were identified as S.hominis by qPCR, however two of them were

  13. [Identification of staphylococci directly from positive blood culture bottles by MALDI-TOF MS system].

    PubMed

    Kilic, Abdullah; Baysallar, Mehmet

    2014-07-01

    Bloodstream infections are substantial causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Staphylococcus species are the most commonly isolated microorganisms from blood cultures in clinical microbiology laboratories. MALDI-TOF MS (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time- of- Flight Mass Spectrometry) system allows the identification of microorganisms directly from positive blood culture bottles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the MALDI-TOF MS system for the identification of staphylococci directly from the positive blood culture bottles which revealed the presence of gram-positive cocci by staining. A total of 96 positive blood culture bottles that yielded gram-positive cocci by Gram stain were evaluated. These blood cultures were obtained from 69 patients between December 2013-February 2014. Conventional methods and BD Phoenix™ automated bacterial identification system (Becton Dickinson, USA) were used for routine identification. The strains were also identified by real-time Taqman PCR (qPCR) which was considered as the reference method. In MALDI-TOF MS method, MALDI Sepsityper™ Kit was used for the bacterial identification and all measurements were carried out by using Microflex LT instrument and FlexControl 3.0 software (Bruker Daltonics, USA). Of 96 culture bottles positive for gram-positive cocci, 90 were correctly identified as staphylococci at genus level with all the three study methods (qPCR, BD Phoenix, Bruker MALDI-TOF MS). The other six samples were identified as Enterococcus faecium (n= 4) and Streptococcus pyogenes (n= 2) by both Phoenix and the MALDI-TOF systems. Of the 90 samples, 87 were identified at the species level (15 S.aureus, 33 S.epidermidis, 29 S.hominis, 10 S.haemolyticus) and three at the genus level by the reference qPCR method. When comparing the results obtained by qPCR and Bruker MALDI-TOF MS, incompatibility was detected for three isolates. Those isolates were identified as S.hominis by qPCR, however two of them were

  14. MALDI-TOF MS Distinctly Differentiates Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae from Haemophilus haemolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huifang; Zhang, Yongchan; Gao, Yuan; Xu, Li; Lv, Jing; Wang, Yingtong; Zhang, Jianzhong; Shao, Zhujun

    2013-01-01

    Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Haemophilus haemolyticus exhibit different pathogenicities, but to date, there remains no definitive and reliable strategy for differentiating these strains. In this study, we evaluated matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) as a potential method for differentiating NTHi and H. haemolyticus. The phylogenetic analysis of concatenated 16S rRNA and recombinase A (recA) gene sequences, outer membrane protein P6 gene sequencing and single-gene PCR were used as reference methods. The original reference database (ORD, provided with the Biotyper software) and new reference database (NRD, extended with Chinese strains) were compared for the evaluation of MALDI-TOF MS. Through a search of the ORD, 76.9% of the NTHi (40/52) and none of the H. haemolyticus (0/20) strains were identified at the species level. However, all NTHi and H. haemolyticus strains used for identification were accurately recognized at the species level when searching the NRD. From the dendrogram clustering of the main spectra projections, the Chinese and foreign H. influenzae reference strains were categorized into two distinct groups, and H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus were also separated into two categories. Compared to the existing methods, MALDI-TOF MS has the advantage of integrating high throughput, accuracy and speed. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS is an excellent method for differentiating NTHi and H. haemolyticus. This method can be recommended for use in appropriately equipped laboratories. PMID:23457514

  15. Ellagitannin Composition of Blackberry As Determined by HPLC-ESI-MS and MALDI-TOF-MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apache blackberries (Rubus sp.) were evaluated by HPLC-MS and MALDI-TOF-MS to identify ellagitannins present in the flesh, torus (receptacle tissue), and seeds. Most ellagitannins were only present or detectable in seed tissues. Ellagitannins identified by HPLC-MS in the seeds included pedunculagi...

  16. MALDI-TOF MS in microbiological diagnostics-identification of microorganisms and beyond (mini review).

    PubMed

    Wieser, Andreas; Schneider, Lukas; Jung, Jette; Schubert, Sören

    2012-02-01

    Few developments in microbiological diagnostics have had such a rapid impact on species level identification of microorganisms as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Conventional differentiation methods rely on biochemical criteria and require additional pre-testing and lengthy incubation procedures. In comparison, MALDI-TOF MS can identify bacteria and yeast within minutes directly from colonies grown on culture plates. This radically new, methodically simple approach profoundly reduces the cost of consumables and time spent on diagnostics. The reliability and accuracy of the method have been demonstrated in numerous studies and different systems are already commercially available. Novel applications of the system besides microbial species level identification are also being explored. This includes identification of pathogens from positive blood cultures or directly from patient samples, such as urine. Currently, intriguing MALDI-TOF MS developments are being made regarding the phenotypic detection of certain antibiotic resistance mechanisms, e.g., β-lactamases and carbapenemases. This mini review provides an overview of the literature in the field and also includes our own data and experiences gathered from over 4 years of routine MALDI-TOF MS use in a university hospital's microbiological diagnostics facility.

  17. Identification of Algerian Field-Caught Phlebotomine Sand Fly Vectors by MALDI-TOF MS

    PubMed Central

    Lafri, Ismail; Almeras, Lionel; Bitam, Idir; Caputo, Aurelia; Yssouf, Amina; Forestier, Claire-Lise; Izri, Arezki; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background Phlebotomine sand flies are known to transmit Leishmania parasites, bacteria and viruses that affect humans and animals in many countries worldwide. Precise sand fly identification is essential to prevent phlebotomine-borne diseases. Over the past two decades, progress in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as an accurate tool for arthropod identification. The objective of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS as a tool for identifying field-caught phlebotomine. Methodology/Principal Findings Sand flies were captured in four sites in north Algeria. A subset was morphologically and genetically identified. Six species were found in these areas and a total of 28 stored frozen specimens were used for the creation of the reference spectrum database. The relevance of this original method for sand fly identification was validated by two successive blind tests including the morphological identification of 80 new specimens which were stored at -80°C, and 292 unknown specimens, including engorged specimens, which were preserved under different conditions. Intra-species reproducibility and inter-species specificity of the protein profiles were obtained, allowing us to distinguish specimens at the gender level. Querying of the sand fly database using the MS spectra from the blind test groups revealed concordant results between morphological and MALDI-TOF MS identification. However, MS identification results were less efficient for specimens which were engorged or stored in alcohol. Identification of 362 phlebotomine sand flies, captured at four Algerian sites, by MALDI-TOF MS, revealed that the subgenus Larroussius was predominant at all the study sites, except for in M’sila where P. (Phlebotomus) papatasi was the only sand fly species detected. Conclusion The present study highlights the application of MALDI-TOF MS for monitoring sand fly fauna captured in the field

  18. Enhancing plasma peptide MALDI-TOF-MS profiling by mesoporous silica assisted crystallization.

    PubMed

    Terracciano, Rosa; Casadonte, Francesca; Pasqua, Luigi; Candeloro, Patrizio; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Urbani, Andrea; Savino, Rocco

    2010-02-15

    Promising profiling techniques based on new material/solid phase extraction for capturing "molecular signatures" from body fluids are being coupled to MALDI-TOF-MS. Sample preparation significantly influences spectrum quality in this ionization method. Mesoporous silica beads (MSB), by the means of nano-sized porous channels with high surface area, enable harvesting of peptides from plasma and serum excluding large size proteins. We have investigated the morphology of a sample slurry, developed as a new tool for plasma peptides enrichment based on mesoporous materials. Our study highlights a correlation between crystals morphology and enhanced performances in MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. This is the first report which correlates the increase in signal intensity with crystal formation in samples preparations which make use of various kinds of slurries for the analysis of samples clinically relevant like human plasma.

  19. Identification of Disseminated Cryptococcosis Using MALDI-TOF MS and Clinical Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tarumoto, Norihito; Sakai, Jun; Kodana, Masahiro; Kawamura, Tohru; Ohno, Hideaki; Maesaki, Shigefumi

    2016-01-01

    Disseminated cryptococcosis is rare but can often become severe with a poor outcome. Given recent reports that matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analyser is useful for Cryptococcus species identification, it was applied retrospectively to past cases of disseminated cryptococcosis at our hospital over the past 10 years, and their clinical courses were reviewed. For each case, the retained Cryptococcus spp. were used for identification using both MALDI-TOF MS and genetic sequencing, as well as for drug susceptibility testing. A total of eight cases were found. Cryptococcus spp. were found in cerebrospinal fluid in 3 cases and blood in 5 cases; anti-HIV antibody was either negative or untested. MALDI-TOF MS identified Cryptococcus neoformans as the pathogen in all 8 cases, but genetic testing identified one of these as Cryptococcus curvatus. The outcome was death within 30 days in 5 of the total 8 cases and in 2 of the 3 cases in which C. neoformans was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid, despite regimens and dosages that followed IDSA Guidelines in all 3 cases. Drug susceptibility testing showed no drug resistance that would have affected the therapy. In conclusion, the outcomes were very poor in these drug-susceptible cases, despite treatment in full accordance with standard guidelines. This study confirmed the need to develop newer therapies as well as the high capability of MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of C. neoformans. Genetic testing, however, may be necessary if non-neoformans Cryptococcus is suspected. PMID:27581774

  20. Potential Pitfalls in MALDI-TOF MS Analysis of Abiotically Synthesized RNA Oligonucleotides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burcar, Bradley T.; Cassidy, Lauren M.; Moriarty, Elizabeth M.; Joshi, Prakash C.; Coari, Kristin M.; McGown, Linda B.

    2013-06-01

    Demonstration of the abiotic polymerization of ribonucleotides under conditions consistent with conditions that may have existed on the prebiotic Earth is an important goal in "RNA world" research. Recent reports of abiotic RNA polymerization with and without catalysis rely on techniques such as HPLC, gel electrophoresis, and MALDI-TOF MS to analyze the reaction products. It is essential to understand the limitations of these techniques in order to accurately interpret the results of these analyses. In particular, techniques that rely on mass for peak identification may not be able to distinguish between a single, linear RNA oligomer and stable aggregates of smaller linear and/or cyclic RNA molecules. In the case of MALDI-TOF MS, additional complications may arise from formation of salt adducts and MALDI matrix complexes. This is especially true for abiotic RNA polymerization reactions because the concentration of longer RNA chains can be quite low and RNA, as a polyelectrolyte, is highly susceptible to adduct formation and aggregation. Here we focus on MALDI-TOF MS analysis of abiotic polymerization products of imidazole-activated AMP in the presence and absence of montmorillonite clay as a catalyst. A low molecular weight oligonucleotide standard designed for use in MALDI-TOF MS and a 3'-5' polyadenosine monophosphate reference standard were also run for comparison and calibration. Clay-catalyzed reaction products of activated GMP and UMP were also examined. The results illustrate the ambiguities associated with assignment of m/z values in MALDI mass spectra and the need for accurate calibration of mass spectra and careful sample preparation to minimize the formation of adducts and other complications arising from the MALDI process.

  1. Assessment of heat treatment of dairy products by MALDI-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Meltretter, Jasmin; Birlouez-Aragon, Inès; Becker, Cord-Michael; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2009-12-01

    The formation of the Amadori product from lactose (protein lactosylation) is a major parameter to evaluate the quality of processed milk. Here, MALDI-TOF-MS was used for the relative quantification of lactose-adducts in heated milk. Milk was heated at a temperature of 70, 80, and 100 degrees C between 0 and 300 min, diluted, and subjected directly to MALDI-TOF-MS. The lactosylation rate of alpha-lactalbumin increased with increasing reaction temperature and time. The results correlated well with established markers for heat treatment of milk (concentration of total soluble protein, soluble alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin at pH 4.6, and fluorescence of advanced Maillard products and soluble tryptophan index; r=0.969-0.997). The method was also applied to examine commercially available dairy products. In severely heated products, protein pre-purification by immobilized metal affinity chromatography improved spectra quality. Relative quantification of protein lactosylation by MALDI-TOF-MS proved to be a very fast and reliable method to monitor early Maillard reaction during milk processing.

  2. Dehydrogenation and dehalogenation of amines in MALDI-TOF MS investigated by isotopic labeling.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chuanqing; Zhou, Yihan; Du, Zhijun; Bian, Zheng; Wang, Jianwei; Qiu, Xuepeng; Gao, Lianxun; Sun, Yuequan

    2013-12-01

    Secondary and tertiary amines have been reported to form [M-H](+) that correspond to dehydrogenation in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). In this investigation, we studied the dehydrogenation of amines in MALDI-TOF MS by isotopic labeling. Aliphatic amines were labeled with deuterium on the methylene of an N-benzyl group, which resulted in the formation of [M-D](+) and [M-H](+) ions by dedeuteration and dehydrogenation, respectively. This method revealed the proton that was removed. The spectra of most tertiary amines with an N-benzyl group showed high-intensity [M-D](+) and [M-H](+) ion peaks, whereas those of secondary amines showed low-intensity ion peaks. Ratios between the peak intensities of [M-D](+) and [M-H](+) greater than 1 suggested chemoselective dehydrogenation at the N-benzyl groups. The presence of an electron donor group on the N-benzyl groups enhanced the selectivity. The dehalogenation of amines with an N-(4-halobenzyl) group was also observed alongside dehydrogenation. The amino ions from dehalogenation can undergo second dehydrogenation. These results provide the first direct evidence about the position at which dehydrogenation of an amine occurs and the first example of dehalogenation of haloaromatic compounds in MALDI-TOF MS. These results should be helpful in the structural identification and elucidation of synthetic and natural molecules. PMID:24338887

  3. [Rapid Identification of Infectious Microorganisms in Clinical Samples by MALDI-TOF MS Analysis].

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Toyofumi

    2015-04-01

    Matrix-laser desorption ionization time-of flight/mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a powerful tool for the detection of target molecules in body fluids. Recently, the MALDI-TOF MS technique was applied for the rapid detection of protein profiles in cultured strains, and has rapid, simple, and universal advantages over the conventional technique. MALDI mass patterns were compared with the unique ribosomal 16S protein profiles of standard microorganism strains in a commercial database. Although this present MS technique has already been adopted as a routine method for the identification of general bacteria in the clinical laboratory field, there are still many problems to overcome regarding current challenges, necessitating the identification of more valuable species of microorganism. As the first step, we have begun the standardization of sample preparation to identify species causing infectious diseases by MALDI-TOF MS. In this special issue, we summarize the challenges in the modified preparation of clinical samples, such as blood, urine, and sputum, in our laboratory to rapidly diagnose severe infectious disease, and describe the current trends in clinical microbiology.

  4. Assessment of MALDI-TOF MS as Alternative Tool for Streptococcus suis Identification.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sancho, Marta; Vela, Ana Isabel; García-Seco, Teresa; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Domínguez, Lucas; Fernández-Garayzábal, José Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for identifying Streptococcus suis isolates obtained from pigs, wild animals, and humans was evaluated using a PCR-based identification assay as the gold standard. In addition, MALDI-TOF MS was compared with the commercial multi-tests Rapid ID 32 STREP system. From the 129 S. suis isolates included in the study and identified by the molecular method, only 31 isolates (24.03%) had score values ≥2.300 and 79 isolates (61.24%) gave score values between 2.299 and 2.000. After updating the currently available S. suis MALDI Biotyper database with the spectra of three additional clinical isolates of serotypes 2, 7, and 9, most isolates had statistically significant higher score values (mean score: 2.65) than those obtained using the original database (mean score: 2.182). Considering the results of the present study, we suggest using a less restrictive threshold score of ≥2.000 for reliable species identification of S. suis. According to this cut-off value, a total of 125 S. suis isolates (96.9%) were correctly identified using the updated database. These data indicate an excellent performance of MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of S. suis. PMID:26347858

  5. MALDI-TOF MS-based identification of black yeasts of the genus Exophiala.

    PubMed

    Özhak-Baysan, Betil; Öğünç, Dilara; Döğen, Aylin; Ilkit, Macit; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the applicability of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the identification of Exophiala species. The analysis included a total of 110 Exophiala isolates, including 15 CBS strains representing 4 species, Exophiala dermatitidis (61), E. phaeomuriformis (36), E. crusticola (9), and E. heteromorpha (4), that had been previously identified based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. We also compared the relative efficacies of Sabouraud glucose agar (SGA) and Columbia agar (CA) for use in MALDI-TOF MS. Remarkably, we obtained a log-score value ≥2.0 by using either SGA or CA for all 15 CBS strains, indicating species-level identification. The remaining 95 Exophiala strains were identified to the genus or species levels, with identification rates of 96.8% and 90.5%, using SGA or CA, respectively. Most of the E. dermatitidis (100% and 92.9%), E. phaeomuriformis (80.6% and 83.9%), E. crusticola (50% and 100%), and E. heteromorpha (100% and 100%) isolates were correctly identified using SGA or CA, respectively. Furthermore, 58.9% and 26.3% of the strains had log-score values of ≥2.0 by using SGA and CA, respectively. Our results indicate that MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid and reliable technique with high rates of correct taxonomic identification. PMID:25851261

  6. [Rapid Identification of Infectious Microorganisms in Clinical Samples by MALDI-TOF MS Analysis].

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Toyofumi

    2015-04-01

    Matrix-laser desorption ionization time-of flight/mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a powerful tool for the detection of target molecules in body fluids. Recently, the MALDI-TOF MS technique was applied for the rapid detection of protein profiles in cultured strains, and has rapid, simple, and universal advantages over the conventional technique. MALDI mass patterns were compared with the unique ribosomal 16S protein profiles of standard microorganism strains in a commercial database. Although this present MS technique has already been adopted as a routine method for the identification of general bacteria in the clinical laboratory field, there are still many problems to overcome regarding current challenges, necessitating the identification of more valuable species of microorganism. As the first step, we have begun the standardization of sample preparation to identify species causing infectious diseases by MALDI-TOF MS. In this special issue, we summarize the challenges in the modified preparation of clinical samples, such as blood, urine, and sputum, in our laboratory to rapidly diagnose severe infectious disease, and describe the current trends in clinical microbiology. PMID:26536780

  7. Assessment of MALDI-TOF MS as Alternative Tool for Streptococcus suis Identification

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Sancho, Marta; Vela, Ana Isabel; García-Seco, Teresa; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Domínguez, Lucas; Fernández-Garayzábal, José Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for identifying Streptococcus suis isolates obtained from pigs, wild animals, and humans was evaluated using a PCR-based identification assay as the gold standard. In addition, MALDI-TOF MS was compared with the commercial multi-tests Rapid ID 32 STREP system. From the 129 S. suis isolates included in the study and identified by the molecular method, only 31 isolates (24.03%) had score values ≥2.300 and 79 isolates (61.24%) gave score values between 2.299 and 2.000. After updating the currently available S. suis MALDI Biotyper database with the spectra of three additional clinical isolates of serotypes 2, 7, and 9, most isolates had statistically significant higher score values (mean score: 2.65) than those obtained using the original database (mean score: 2.182). Considering the results of the present study, we suggest using a less restrictive threshold score of ≥2.000 for reliable species identification of S. suis. According to this cut-off value, a total of 125 S. suis isolates (96.9%) were correctly identified using the updated database. These data indicate an excellent performance of MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of S. suis. PMID:26347858

  8. Rapid detection of carbapenemase activity: benefits and weaknesses of MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Mirande, C; Canard, I; Buffet Croix Blanche, S; Charrier, J-P; van Belkum, A; Welker, M; Chatellier, S

    2015-11-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has been introduced as an identification procedure for bacteria and fungi. The MALDI-TOF MS-based analysis of resistance to β-lactam antibiotics has been applied to detect hydrolysis of carbapenems by different bacterial strains. However, the detection of enzymatic carbapenem degradation by MALDI-TOF MS lacks well-standardized protocols and several methods and models of interpretation using different calculations of ratio-of-peak intensities have been described in the literature. Here, we used faropenem and ertapenem hydrolysis as model compounds. In an attempt to propose a universal protocol, the hydrolysis was regularly monitored during 24 h using well-characterized bacterial strains producing different types of carbapenemases (KPC, IMP, NDM, VIM, and OXA-48). Variable responses and different timing for detectable hydrolysis, depending on the enzyme produced, were observed. KPC degrades its template antibiotics very quickly (15 min for some KPC producers) compared to other types of enzymes (more than 90 min for other enzymes). Prior bacterial lysis was shown to be of no interest in the modulation or optimization of the hydrolytic kinetics. The adequate detection of carbapenem hydrolysis would, therefore, require several MALDI-TOF MS readouts for the timely detection of rapid hydrolysis without missing slow hydrolysis. This enzymatic constraint limits the implementation of a standard protocol in routine microbiology laboratories. PMID:26337432

  9. Unsuitability of MALDI-TOF MS to discriminate Acinetobacter baumannii clones under routine experimental conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Clara; Botelho, João; Grosso, Filipa; Silva, Liliana; Lopes, João; Peixe, Luísa

    2015-01-01

    MALDI-TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry) is now in the forefront for routine bacterial species identification methodologies, being its value for clonality assessment controversial. In this work we evaluated the potential of MALDI-TOF MS for assisting infection control by depicting Acinetobacter baumannii clones. Mass spectra of 58 A. baumannii clinical isolates belonging to the worldwide spread lineages (ST98, ST103, ST208, and ST218) isolated in our country, were obtained and analyzed with several chemometric tools (pseudo gel views, peakfind function, and partial least squares discriminant analysis). The clonal lineages were obtained using the “Oxford” scheme, belonging ST98, ST208, and ST218 to the international clone II and ST103 to an epidemic clonal lineage (SG5). Additionally, mass spectra of a highly diverse international collection of 38 isolates belonging to 22 sequence types (STs) were obtained for further comparisons. Pseudo gel views and direct peak pattern analysis did not allow the discrimination of A. baumannii isolates belonging to ST98, ST103, ST208, or ST218. Moreover, a partial least square discriminant analysis of the mass spectra considering two spectral ranges (2–20 kDa and 4–10 kDa) revealed a poor degree of discrimination with only 64.6 and 65.8% of correct ST assignments, respectively. Also, mass spectra of the international isolates (n = 38, 22STs) revealed a very congruent peak pattern among them as well as among the four lineages included in this work. Despite the increasing interest of MALDI-TOF MS for bacterial typing at different taxonomical levels, we demonstrated, using routine experimental conditions, the unsuitability of this methodology for A. baumannii clonal discrimination. PMID:26042113

  10. Development and evaluation of MALDI-TOF MS-based serotyping for Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Nakano, S; Matsumura, Y; Ito, Y; Fujisawa, T; Chang, B; Suga, S; Kato, K; Yunoki, T; Hotta, G; Noguchi, T; Yamamoto, M; Nagao, M; Takakura, S; Ohnishi, M; Ihara, T; Ichiyama, S

    2015-11-01

    Surveillance of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes is important for the successful implementation of vaccination strategies to prevent the spread of invasive pneumococcal diseases. The standard method of serotyping of pneumococcal isolates is the phenotypic Neufeld test, which is cost- and labor-intensive. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been implemented as a rapid, simple and inexpensive method for identifying species. We evaluated the performance of MALDI-TOF MS for serotyping ten major serotypes of S. pneumoniae in Japan (serotypes 3, 6B, 15A, 15C, 19A, 19 F, 23A, 24 F, 35B and 38) using the Biotyper and ClinProTools. After optimizing the settings, we validated their serotyping performance for serotypes 3, 15A and 19A using a separate set of isolates that were not used in the creation of the classification algorithms. A total of 574 isolates of S. pneumoniae collected from Japanese nationwide surveillance studies were included. Of these, 407 isolates belonged to the ten major serotypes. Biotyper and ClinProTools correctly identified 77.9 % and 84.0 %, respectively, of the ten major serotype isolates. The validation analysis included a total of 113 isolates of the serotypes 3, 15A and 19A isolates. Biotyper and ClinProTools correctly identified 85.0 % and 69.9 % of the validation cohort isolates, respectively. MALDI-TOF MS has the potential to discriminate the ten major S. pneumoniae serotypes prevalent in Japan. PMID:26282790

  11. Automated High-Throughput Permethylation for Glycosylation Analysis of Biologics Using MALDI-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Shubhakar, Archana; Kozak, Radoslaw P; Reiding, Karli R; Royle, Louise; Spencer, Daniel I R; Fernandes, Daryl L; Wuhrer, Manfred

    2016-09-01

    Monitoring glycoprotein therapeutics for changes in glycosylation throughout the drug's life cycle is vital, as glycans significantly modulate the stability, biological activity, serum half-life, safety, and immunogenicity. Biopharma companies are increasingly adopting Quality by Design (QbD) frameworks for measuring, optimizing, and controlling drug glycosylation. Permethylation of glycans prior to analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) is a valuable tool for glycan characterization and for screening of large numbers of samples in QbD drug realization. However, the existing protocols for manual permethylation and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) steps are labor intensive and are thus not practical for high-throughput (HT) studies. Here we present a glycan permethylation protocol, based on 96-well microplates, that has been developed into a kit suitable for HT work. The workflow is largely automated using a liquid handling robot and includes N-glycan release, enrichment of N-glycans, permethylation, and LLE. The kit has been validated according to industry analytical performance guidelines and applied to characterize biopharmaceutical samples, including IgG4 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO). The HT permethylation enabled glycan characterization and relative quantitation with minimal side reactions: the MALDI-TOF-MS profiles obtained were in good agreement with hydrophilic liquid interaction chromatography (HILIC) and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) data. Automated permethylation and extraction of 96 glycan samples was achieved in less than 5 h and automated data acquisition on MALDI-TOF-MS took on average less than 1 min per sample. This automated and HT glycan preparation and permethylation showed to be convenient, fast, and reliable and can be applied for drug glycan profiling and clinical glycan biomarker studies. PMID:27479043

  12. GEMMA and MALDI-TOF MS of reactive PEGs for pharmaceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Kemptner, Jasmin; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Siekmann, Juergen; Turecek, Peter L; Schwarz, Hans Peter; Allmaier, Günter

    2010-08-01

    One of the most prominent polymer group applied for drug conjugation is poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG). Since drug production is subjected to strict restrictions on the part of the FDA and EMEA, also PEG has to be characterized accurately. Particularly its molecular mass distribution (MMD) and polydispersity can result in unrequested inhomogeneous final products. Therefore evaluation of PEG before applying it to drug conjugation is essential. In this study a new analytical method for size and molecular mass determination based on electrophoretic mobility called GEMMA is used to characterize linear PEGs with two differing terminating functional groups. To confirm the data acquired by GEMMA a second, well-established method for molecular weight determination, MALDI-TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry), was applied. Utilizing these two analytical approaches four monomethoxylated PEG-succinimidyl succinate (mPEG-SS) derivatives were investigated in terms of polydispersity and MMD. Although based on differing principles, both analytical methods yield comparable results. All obtained MMD maxima for the mPEG-SS batches lie within the company stated specifications, MMD+/-10% (based on MALDI-TOF MS data). For mPEG-SS 2K a polydispersity of 1.02 and for mPEG-SS 5K, 10K and 20K a polydispersity of 1.01 were determined from GEMMA as well as from MALDI-TOF MS data and are in agreement with the company's data (based on GPC data), namely 1.05-1.10.

  13. MALDI-TOF MS profiling of annonaceous acetogenins in Annona muricata products for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Champy, Pierre; Guérineau, Vincent; Laprévote, Olivier

    2009-12-15

    Annonaceous acetogenins are proposed as environmental neurotoxicants consumed through medicinal and alimentary habits and responsible for atypical parkinsonian syndromes observed in tropical areas. Potential sources of exposure still have to be determined, as, to date, only a few batches of products for human consumption were searched for these compounds. To assess the presence of acetogenins, we propose a fast, sensitive and accurate method of screening, using MALDI-TOF MS, with minimal sample preparation. Development of the technique is discussed. Its application to leaves of herbal tea, pulp and bottled nectar of Annona muricata is presented.

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Polymer Additives with MALDI-TOF MS Using an Internal Standard Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzinger, Clemens; Gabriel, Stefan; Beißmann, Susanne; Buchberger, Wolfgang

    2012-06-01

    MALDI-TOF MS is used for the qualitative analysis of seven different polymer additives directly from the polymer without tedious sample pretreatment. Additionally, by using a solid sample preparation technique, which avoids the concentration gradient problems known to occur with dried droplets and by adding tetraphenylporphyrine as an internal standard to the matrix, it is possible to perform quantitative analysis of additives directly from the polymer sample. Calibration curves for Tinuvin 770, Tinuvin 622, Irganox 1024, Irganox 1010, Irgafos 168, and Chimassorb 944 are presented, showing coefficients of determination between 0.911 and 0.990.

  15. Quantitative analysis of polymer additives with MALDI-TOF MS using an internal standard approach.

    PubMed

    Schwarzinger, Clemens; Gabriel, Stefan; Beißmann, Susanne; Buchberger, Wolfgang

    2012-06-01

    MALDI-TOF MS is used for the qualitative analysis of seven different polymer additives directly from the polymer without tedious sample pretreatment. Additionally, by using a solid sample preparation technique, which avoids the concentration gradient problems known to occur with dried droplets and by adding tetraphenylporphyrine as an internal standard to the matrix, it is possible to perform quantitative analysis of additives directly from the polymer sample. Calibration curves for Tinuvin 770, Tinuvin 622, Irganox 1024, Irganox 1010, Irgafos 168, and Chimassorb 944 are presented, showing coefficients of determination between 0.911 and 0.990.

  16. Identification of Borrelia Species after Creation of an In-House MALDI-TOF MS Database

    PubMed Central

    Calderaro, Adriana; Gorrini, Chiara; Piccolo, Giovanna; Montecchini, Sara; Buttrini, Mirko; Rossi, Sabina; Piergianni, Maddalena; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina; De Conto, Flora; Chezzi, Carlo; Medici, Maria Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a multisystemic disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) complex transmitted to humans by Ixodes ticks. B. burgdorferi sl complex, currently comprising at least 19 genospecies, includes the main pathogenic species responsible for human disease in Europe: B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss), B. afzelii, and B. garinii. In this study, for the first time, MALDI-TOF MS was applied to Borrelia spp., supplementing the existing database, limited to the species B. burgdorferi ss, B. spielmanii and B. garinii, with the species B. afzelii, in order to enable the identification of all the species potentially implicated in LB in Europe. Moreover, we supplemented the database also with B. hermsii, which is the primary cause of tick-borne relapsing fever in western North America, B. japonica, circulating in Asia, and another reference strain of B. burgdorferi ss (B31 strain). The dendrogram obtained by analyzing the protein profiles of the different Borrelia species reflected Borrelia taxonomy, showing that all the species included in the Borrelia sl complex clustered in a unique branch, while Borrelia hermsii clustered separately. In conclusion, in this study MALDI-TOF MS proved a useful tool suitable for identification of Borrelia spp. both for diagnostic purpose and epidemiological surveillance. PMID:24533160

  17. New Insights for Diagnosis of Pineapple Fusariosis by MALDI-TOF MS Technique.

    PubMed

    Santos, Cledir; Ventura, José Aires; Lima, Nelson

    2016-08-01

    Fusarium is one of the most economically important fungal genus, since it includes many pathogenic species which cause a wide range of plant diseases. Morphological or molecular biology identification of Fusarium species is a limiting step in the fast diagnosis and treatment of plant disease caused by these fungi. Mass spectrometry by matrix-assisted laser/desorption ionisation-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF)-based fingerprinting approach was applied to the fungal growth monitoring and direct detection of strain Fusarium guttiforme E-480 inoculated in both pineapple cultivars Pérola and Imperial side shoots, that are susceptible and resistant, respectively, to this fungal strain. MALDI-TOF MS technique was capable to detect fungal molecular mass peaks in the susceptible pineapple stem side shoot tissue. It is assumed that these molecular masses are mainly constituted by ribosomal proteins. MALDI-TOF-based fingerprinting approach has herein been demonstrated to be sensitive and accurate for the direct detection of F. guttiforme E-480 molecular masses on both susceptible and resistant pineapple side stem free of any pre-treatment. According to the results obtained, the changing on molecular mass peaks of infected susceptible pineapple tissue together with the possibility of fungal molecular masses analysis into this pineapple tissue can be a good indication for an early diagnosis by MALDI-TOF MS of pineapple fusariosis. PMID:27117163

  18. Rapid first-line discrimination of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains using MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Østergaard, Claus; Hansen, Sanne G K; Møller, Jens K

    2015-12-01

    Fast and reliable discrimination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates is essential in identifying an outbreak. Molecular typing methods, such as S. aureus protein A (spa) typing, multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) are generally used for this purpose. These methods are all relatively time-consuming and not performed routinely in all laboratories. The aim of this study is to examine whether MALDI-TOF MS can be used as a fast, simple and easily implemented method for first-line discrimination of MRSA isolates. Mass spectra from 600 clinical MRSA isolates were included in the study, representing 89 spa types, associated with 16 different known clonal complexes. All spectra were obtained directly from colony material obtained from overnight cultures without prior protein extraction. We identified 43 useful discriminatory m/z-values (peaks) and used a concept of arranging these peaks into pairs or small clusters within a small mass range, allowing for quality control of the spectra obtained. Using this concept we could reproducibly characterise and arrange the isolates into 26 MALDI-TOF groups, which strongly correlated with spa types and clonal complexes. The results of this study clearly show that MALDI-TOF MS can be used for first-line discrimination of MRSA isolates, using a simple and fast method that is easy to implement as part of routine testing.

  19. Species differentiation within the Staphylococcus intermedius group using a refined MALDI-TOF MS database.

    PubMed

    Murugaiyan, J; Walther, B; Stamm, I; Abou-Elnaga, Y; Brueggemann-Schwarze, S; Vincze, S; Wieler, L H; Lübke-Becker, A; Semmler, T; Roesler, U

    2014-10-01

    Among coagulase-positive staphylococci of animal origin, the members of the Staphylococcus intermedius-group (SIG: S. intermedius, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Staphylococcus delphini) are important opportunistic pathogens in different animal hosts and occasionally in humans. However, the unambiguous species diagnosis of SIG is often challenging. Therefore, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) -based SIG-identification with Bruker Microflex LT in combination with Biotyper 3.0 software (Bruker Daltonics, Bremen, Germany) was evaluated using (i) the original database content and (ii) the database after extension with distinct hierarchical clustered reference spectra for 60 SIG. A convenience sample comprising 200 isolates was used to compare both database performances. As a result, 17 isolates initially diagnosed as S. intermedius with the current content of the Bruker database were identified as S. pseudintermedius by applying the in-house reference spectra extended version. Furthermore, a significant improvement (average rise of log score value: 0.24) of the SIG identification score values was achieved, emphasizing that further sequence-based refinement of the Bruker database content allows improvement of MALDI-TOF MS-based identification.

  20. New Insights for Diagnosis of Pineapple Fusariosis by MALDI-TOF MS Technique.

    PubMed

    Santos, Cledir; Ventura, José Aires; Lima, Nelson

    2016-08-01

    Fusarium is one of the most economically important fungal genus, since it includes many pathogenic species which cause a wide range of plant diseases. Morphological or molecular biology identification of Fusarium species is a limiting step in the fast diagnosis and treatment of plant disease caused by these fungi. Mass spectrometry by matrix-assisted laser/desorption ionisation-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF)-based fingerprinting approach was applied to the fungal growth monitoring and direct detection of strain Fusarium guttiforme E-480 inoculated in both pineapple cultivars Pérola and Imperial side shoots, that are susceptible and resistant, respectively, to this fungal strain. MALDI-TOF MS technique was capable to detect fungal molecular mass peaks in the susceptible pineapple stem side shoot tissue. It is assumed that these molecular masses are mainly constituted by ribosomal proteins. MALDI-TOF-based fingerprinting approach has herein been demonstrated to be sensitive and accurate for the direct detection of F. guttiforme E-480 molecular masses on both susceptible and resistant pineapple side stem free of any pre-treatment. According to the results obtained, the changing on molecular mass peaks of infected susceptible pineapple tissue together with the possibility of fungal molecular masses analysis into this pineapple tissue can be a good indication for an early diagnosis by MALDI-TOF MS of pineapple fusariosis.

  1. Assessment of Blood Contamination in Biological Fluids Using MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Laks, Katrina; Kirsipuu, Tiina; Dmitrijeva, Tuuli; Salumets, Andres; Palumaa, Peep

    2016-06-01

    Biological fluid sample collection often includes the risk of blood contamination that may alter the proteomic profile of biological fluid. In proteomics studies, exclusion of contaminated samples is usually based on visual inspection and counting of red blood cells in the sample; analysis of specific blood derived proteins is less used. To fill the gap, we developed a fast and sensitive method for ascertainment of blood contamination in crude biological fluids, based on specific blood-derived protein, hemoglobin detection by MALDI-TOF MS. The MALDI-TOF MS based method allows detection of trace hemoglobin with the detection limit of 0.12 nM. UV-spectrometry, which was used as reference method, was found to be less sensitive. The main advantages of the presented method are that it is fast, effective, sensitive, requires very small sample amount and can be applied for detection of blood contamination in various biological fluids collected for proteomics studies. Method applicability was tested on human cerebrospinal and follicular fluid, which proteomes generally do not contain hemoglobin, however, which possess high risk for blood contamination. Present method successfully detected the blood contamination in 12 % of cerebrospinal fluid and 24 % of follicular fluid samples. High percentage of contaminated samples accentuates the need for initial inspection of proteomic samples to avoid incorrect results from blood proteome overlap.

  2. Assessment of Blood Contamination in Biological Fluids Using MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Laks, Katrina; Kirsipuu, Tiina; Dmitrijeva, Tuuli; Salumets, Andres; Palumaa, Peep

    2016-06-01

    Biological fluid sample collection often includes the risk of blood contamination that may alter the proteomic profile of biological fluid. In proteomics studies, exclusion of contaminated samples is usually based on visual inspection and counting of red blood cells in the sample; analysis of specific blood derived proteins is less used. To fill the gap, we developed a fast and sensitive method for ascertainment of blood contamination in crude biological fluids, based on specific blood-derived protein, hemoglobin detection by MALDI-TOF MS. The MALDI-TOF MS based method allows detection of trace hemoglobin with the detection limit of 0.12 nM. UV-spectrometry, which was used as reference method, was found to be less sensitive. The main advantages of the presented method are that it is fast, effective, sensitive, requires very small sample amount and can be applied for detection of blood contamination in various biological fluids collected for proteomics studies. Method applicability was tested on human cerebrospinal and follicular fluid, which proteomes generally do not contain hemoglobin, however, which possess high risk for blood contamination. Present method successfully detected the blood contamination in 12 % of cerebrospinal fluid and 24 % of follicular fluid samples. High percentage of contaminated samples accentuates the need for initial inspection of proteomic samples to avoid incorrect results from blood proteome overlap. PMID:27023353

  3. Enhanced MALDI-TOF MS analysis of phosphopeptides using an optimized DHAP/DAHC matrix.

    PubMed

    Hou, Junjie; Xie, Zhensheng; Xue, Peng; Cui, Ziyou; Chen, Xiulan; Li, Jing; Cai, Tanxi; Wu, Peng; Yang, Fuquan

    2010-01-01

    Selecting an appropriate matrix solution is one of the most effective means of increasing the ionization efficiency of phosphopeptides in matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). In this study, we systematically assessed matrix combinations of 2, 6-dihydroxyacetophenone (DHAP) and diammonium hydrogen citrate (DAHC), and demonstrated that the low ratio DHAP/DAHC matrix was more effective in enhancing the ionization of phosphopeptides. Low femtomole level of phosphopeptides from the tryptic digests of alpha-casein and beta-casein was readily detected by MALDI-TOF-MS in both positive and negative ion mode without desalination or phosphopeptide enrichment. Compared with the DHB/PA matrix, the optimized DHAP/DAHC matrix yielded superior sample homogeneity and higher phosphopeptide measurement sensitivity, particularly when multiple phosphorylated peptides were assessed. Finally, the DHAP/DAHC matrix was applied to identify phosphorylation sites from alpha-casein and beta-casein and to characterize two phosphorylation sites from the human histone H1 treated with Cyclin-Dependent Kinase-1 (CDK1) by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS.

  4. Differentiation in MALDI-TOF MS and FTIR spectra between two pathovars of Xanthomonas oryzae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Mengyu; Li, Bin; Wang, Li; Tao, Zhongyun; Mao, Shengfeng; Wang, Yangli; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

    2014-12-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) strains are closely related phenotypically and genetically, which make it difficult to differentiate between the two pathovars based on phenotypic and DNA-based methods. In this study, a fast and accurate method was developed based on the differences in MALDI-TOF MS and FTIR spectra between the two pathovars. MALDI-TOF MS analysis revealed that 9 and 10 peaks are specific to Xoo and Xoc, respectively, which can be used as biomarkers to identify and differentiate the two closely related pathovars. Furthermore, FTIR analysis showed that there is a significant difference in both the band frequencies and absorption intensity of various functional groups between the two pathovars. In particular, the 6 peaks at 3433, 2867, 1273, 1065, 983 and 951 cm-1 were specific to the Xoo strains, while one peak at 1572 cm-1 was specific to the Xoc strains. Overall, this study gives the first attempt to identify and differentiate the two pathovars of X. oryzae based on mass and FTIR spectra, which will be helpful for the early detection and prevention of the two rice diseases caused by both X. oryzae pathovars.

  5. Fast detection of Piscirickettsia salmonis in Salmo salar serum through MALDI-TOF-MS profiling.

    PubMed

    Olate, Verónica R; Nachtigall, Fabiane M; Santos, Leonardo S; Soto, Alex; Araya, Macarena; Oyanedel, Sandra; Díaz, Verónica; Marchant, Vanessa; Rios-Momberg, Mauricio

    2016-03-01

    Piscirickettsia salmonis is a pathogenic bacteria known as the aetiological agent of the salmonid rickettsial syndrome and causes a high mortality in farmed salmonid fishes. Detection of P. salmonis in farmed fishes is based mainly on molecular biology and immunohistochemistry techniques. These techniques are in most of the cases expensive and time consuming. In the search of new alternatives to detect the presence of P. salmonis in salmonid fishes, this work proposed the use of MALDI-TOF-MS to compare serum protein profiles from Salmo salar fish, including experimentally infected and non-infected fishes using principal component analysis (PCA). Samples were obtained from a controlled bioassay where S. salar was challenged with P. salmonis in a cohabitation model and classified according to the presence or absence of the bacteria by real time PCR analysis. MALDI spectra of the fish serum samples showed differences in its serum protein composition. These differences were corroborated with PCA analysis. The results demonstrated that the use of both MALDI-TOF-MS and PCA represents a useful tool to discriminate the fish status through the analysis of salmonid serum samples. PMID:26956387

  6. CIEF and MALDI-TOF-MS methods for analyzing forms of the glycoprotein VEGF 165.

    PubMed

    Ongay, Sara; Puerta, Angel; Díez-Masa, Jose Carlos; Bergquist, Jonas; de Frutos, Mercedes

    2009-04-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is involved in different sicknesses (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and other). Out of the many components of the VEGF family, the A splice variant with 165 amino acids (VEGF(165)) is the main component. In spite of the potential as biomarker that this protein has, information about its physico-chemical characteristics is scarce. In this study CIEF and MALDI-TOF-MS methods for intact recombinant human VEGF(165) are developed and applied to analyze this glycoprotein expressed in glycosylating (Sf 21 insect cells) and non-glycosylating (Escherichia coli) systems. Different parameters influencing the CIEF separation were studied. The developed CIEF method allowed for the separation of up to seven peaks in the VEGF(165) expressed in insect cells and up to three in VEGF(165) expressed in E. coli. The use of the presented method permits the estimation of the apparent pI of the different forms of VEGF(165) expressed in insect cells to be in a range of 6.8-8.2. The three peaks with intermediate pI values are observed in the protein expressed in both systems, insect cells and E. coli. The MALDI-TOF-MS method enabled to a rapid partial characterization of VEGF(165) based on its MS fingerprint. MALDI-MS analysis of VEGF(165) expressed in insect cells shows the presence of, at least, four forms or groups of forms of VEGF(165) as a result of the different PTMs of the protein. According to the MALDI-MS analysis, VEGF(165) expressed in E. coli was produced as a very homogeneous protein, although the results suggest the existence of some PTMs in the protein. The patterns of VEGF(165) of both origins obtained by CIEF and MALDI-MS indicate the possibility of using these analytical methods to compare samples from people with different pathophysiological conditions. This work is thus a starting point to make possible the study of the role of the various forms of VEGF(165) as biomarkers. Finally, to the best of our knowledge, this is the

  7. Multiplex MALDI-TOF MS detection of mitochondrial variants in Brazilian patients with hereditary optic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Matilde da Silva-Costa, Sueli; Balieiro, Juliane Cristina; Fernandes, Marcela Scabello Amaral; Alves, Rogério Marins; Guerra, Andrea Trevas Maciel; Marcondes, Ana Maria; Sartorato, Edi Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrial disease characterized by bilateral vision loss. More than 95% of LHON cases are associated with one of the three main mtDNA mutations: G11778A, T14484C, and G3460A. The other 5% of cases are due to other rare mutations related to the disease. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and spectrum of LHON mtDNA mutations, including the haplogroup, in a cohort of Brazilian patients with optic neuropathy and to evaluate the usefulness of iPLEX Gold/matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technology in detecting LHON mutations. Methods We analyzed a total of 101 patients; 67 had a clinical diagnosis of LHON and 34 had optic neuropathy of unknown etiology. Direct sequencing and iPLEX Gold/MALDI-TOF MS were used to screen for the most common pathogenic point mutations in LHON, together with the rare mutations G3733A, C4171A, T10663C, G14459A, C14482G, A14495G, C14568T, and C14482A. Results We identified mutations in 36 patients, of whom 83.3% carried the G11778A mutation and 16.7% carried the T14484C mutation. In individuals with mutations, the haplogroups found were L1/L2, L3, C, R, U, D, and H. Rare mutations were not detected in any of the patients analyzed. Conclusions The frequencies of the main LHON mutations were similar to those previously reported for Latin America. A different frequency was found only for the A3460G mutation. The most frequent haplogroups identified were of African origin. The iPLEX Gold/MALDI-TOF MS technology proved to be highly accurate and efficient for screening mutations and identifying the haplogroups related to LHON. The MassArray platform, combined with other techniques, enabled definitive diagnosis of LHON in 36% (36/101) of the cases studied. PMID:27582625

  8. A MALDI-TOF MS study of oligomeric poly(m-phenyleneisophthalamide).

    PubMed

    Gies, Anthony P; Nonidez, William K; Ellison, Sparkle T; Ji, Haining; Mays, Jimmy W

    2005-02-01

    MALDI-TOF MS was used to study the end-group distribution of a series of poly(m-phenyleneisophthalamide) oligomers which were synthesized using various mole percent ratios of diamine to diacid chloride (90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 30:70, 20:80, and 10:90) to clarify results obtained in previous work published in this journal. Oligomers synthesized with excess diamine or excess diacid chloride were found to contain abundances of amine or carboxylate end groups, respectively, as expected. Oligomers synthesized with equal molar ratios of reactants produced cyclic species which were also found in a previous publication as an oligomer in commercially produced, high molecular mass Nomex. PMID:15679344

  9. A designed experiments approach to optimizing MALDI-TOF MS spectrum processing parameters enhances detection of antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter jejuni

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MALDI-TOF MS has been utilized as a reliable and rapid tool for microbial fingerprinting at the genus and species levels. Recently, there has been keen interest in using MALDI-TOF MS beyond the genus and species levels to rapidly identify antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria. The purpose of this...

  10. MALDI-TOF MS portrait of emetic and non-emetic Bacillus cereus group members.

    PubMed

    Fiedoruk, Krzysztof; Daniluk, Tamara; Fiodor, Angelika; Drewicka, Ewa; Buczynska, Katarzyna; Leszczynska, Katarzyna; Bideshi, Dennis Ken; Swiecicka, Izabela

    2016-08-01

    The number of foodborne intoxications caused by emetic Bacillus cereus isolates has increased significantly. As such, rapid and reliable methods to identify emetic strains appear to be clinically relevant. In this study, intact cell matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used to differentiate emetic and non-emetic bacilli. The phyloproteomic clustering of 34 B. cereus emetic and 88 non-emetic isolates classified as B. cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus weihenstephanensis, and Bacillus mycoides, showed (i) a clear separation of both groups at a similarity level of 43%, and (ii) a high relatedness among the emetic isolates (similarity of 78%). Specifically, 83 mass peak classes were recognized in the spectral window range between m/z 4000 and 12 000 that were tentatively assigned to 41 protein variants based on a bioinformatic approach. Mass variation between the emetic and the non-emetic subsets was recorded for 27 of them, including ten ribosomal subunit proteins, for which inter-strain polymorphism was confirmed by gene sequencing. Additional peaks were assigned to other proteins such as small acid soluble proteins, cold shock proteins and hypothetical proteins, e.g., carbohydrate kinase. Moreover, the results were supported by in silico analysis of the biomarkers in 259 members of B. cereus group, including Bacillus anthracis, based on their whole-genome sequences. In conclusion, the proteomic profiling by MALDI-TOF MS is a promising and rapid method for pre-screening B. cereus to identify medically relevant isolates and for epidemiologic purposes.

  11. Differentiation of Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus safensis Using MALDI-TOF-MS

    PubMed Central

    Branquinho, Raquel; Sousa, Clara; Lopes, João; Pintado, Manuela E.; Peixe, Luísa V.; Osório, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) despite being increasingly used as a method for microbial identification, still present limitations in which concerns the differentiation of closely related species. Bacillus pumillus and Bacillus safensis, are species of biotechnological and pharmaceutical significance, difficult to differentiate by conventional methodologies. In this study, using a well-characterized collection of B. pumillus and B. safensis isolates, we demonstrated the suitability of MALDI-TOF-MS combined with chemometrics to accurately and rapidly identify them. Moreover, characteristic species-specific ion masses were tentatively assigned, using UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and UniProtKB/TrEMBL databases and primary literature. Delineation of B. pumilus (ions at m/z 5271 and 6122) and B. safensis (ions at m/z 5288, 5568 and 6413) species were supported by a congruent characteristic protein pattern. Moreover, using a chemometric approach, the score plot created by partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA) of mass spectra demonstrated the presence of two individualized clusters, each one enclosing isolates belonging to a species-specific spectral group. The generated pool of species-specific proteins comprised mostly ribosomal and SASPs proteins. Therefore, in B. pumilus the specific ion at m/z 5271 was associated with a small acid-soluble spore protein (SASP O) or with 50S protein L35, whereas in B. safensis specific ions at m/z 5288 and 5568 were associated with SASP J and P, respectively, and an ion at m/z 6413 with 50S protein L32. Thus, the resulting unique protein profile combined with chemometric analysis, proved to be valuable tools for B. pumilus and B. safensis discrimination, allowing their reliable, reproducible and rapid identification. PMID:25314655

  12. Direct screening of herbal blends for new synthetic cannabinoids by MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Gottardo, Rossella; Chiarini, Anna; Dal Prà, Ilaria; Seri, Catia; Rimondo, Claudia; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Armato, Ubaldo; Tagliaro, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Since 2004, a number of herbal blends containing different synthetic compounds mimicking the pharmacological activity of cannabinoids and displaying a high toxicological potential have appeared in the market. Their availability is mainly based on the so-called "e-commerce", being sold as legal alternatives to cannabis and cannabis derivatives. Although highly selective, sensitive, accurate, and quantitative methods based on GC-MS and LC-MS are available, they lack simplicity, rapidity, versatility and throughput, which are required for product monitoring. In this context, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) offers a simple and rapid operation with high throughput. Thus, the aim of the present work was to develop a MALDI-TOF MS method for the rapid qualitative direct analysis of herbal blend preparations for synthetic cannabinoids to be used as front screening of confiscated clandestine preparations. The sample preparation was limited to herbal blend leaves finely grinding in a mortar and loading onto the MALDI plate followed by addition of 2 µl of the matrix/surfactant mixture [α-cyano-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid/cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)]. After drying, the sample plate was introduced into the ion source for analysis. MALDI-TOF conditions were as follows: mass spectra were analyzed in the range m/z 150-550 by averaging the data from 50 laser shots and using an accelerating voltage of 20 kV. The described method was successfully applied to the screening of 31 commercial herbal blends, previously analyzed by GC-MS. Among the samples analyzed, 21 contained synthetic cannabinoids (namely JWH-018, JWH-073, JWH-081, JWH-250, JWH-210, JWH-019, and AM-694). All the results were in agreement with GC-MS, which was used as the reference technique. PMID:22282100

  13. Characterization of immunoglobulins through analysis of N-glycopeptides by MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Emy; Buist, Marjorie; Roy, Rini; Gomes de Oliveira, Andrey Giovanni; Bodnar, Edward; Salama, Apolline; Soulillou, Jean-Paul; Perreault, Hélène

    2016-07-15

    The aim of this report is to emphasize the role, usefulness and power of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in the analysis of glycoforms of antibodies (Abs) through their proteolytic glycopeptides. Abs are complex biomolecules in which glycans hold determinant properties and thus need to be thoroughly characterized following Ab production by recombinant methods or Ab collection from human/animal serum or tissue. In spite of the great robustness of MALDI-TOF MS in terms of tolerance to impurities, the analysis of Abs and Ab components using this technique requires extensive sample preparation involving all or some of chromatography, solid phase extraction, enzymatic modification, and chemical derivatization. This report focuses on a monoclonal Ab produced in cell culture, as well as on a polyclonal human immunoglobulin (Ig) G obtained commercially and a polyclonal porcine IgG obtained from serum. A method is first provided to separate Ab protein chain components (light chains, heavy chains) by gel electrophoresis, which is useful for instance for protein-A eluates of Igs either from cell culture or biological samples. This allows for in-gel proteolytic digestion of the protein gel band(s) of choice for further MS characterization. Also discussed is the more conventional in-solution overnight digestion method used here with each of two proteolytic enzymes, i.e. trypsin and chymotrypsin. The overnight method is in turn compared with a much faster approach, that of digesting Abs with trypsin or chymotrypsin through the action of microwave heating. For method comparison, glycopeptides are fractionated from digestion mixtures using mostly C-18 cartridges for simplicity, although this enrichment procedure is also compared with other published procedures. The advantages of MALDI tandem mass spectrometry are highlighted for glycopeptide analysis, and lastly an esterification method applied to glycopeptides is

  14. Analysis of Bacterial Lipooligosaccharides by MALDI-TOF MS with Traveling Wave Ion Mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Nancy J.; John, Constance M.; Jarvis, Gary A.

    2016-07-01

    Lipooligosaccharides (LOS) are major microbial virulence factors displayed on the outer membrane of rough-type Gram-negative bacteria. These amphipathic glycolipids are comprised of two domains, a core oligosaccharide linked to a lipid A moiety. Isolated LOS samples are generally heterogeneous mixtures of glycoforms, with structural variability in both domains. Traditionally, the oligosaccharide and lipid A components of LOS have been analyzed separately following mild acid hydrolysis, although important acid-labile moieties can be cleaved. Recently, an improved method was introduced for analysis of intact LOS by MALDI-TOF MS using a thin layer matrix composed of 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone (THAP) and nitrocellulose. In addition to molecular ions, the spectra show in-source "prompt" fragments arising from regiospecific cleavage between the lipid A and oligosaccharide domains. Here, we demonstrate the use of traveling wave ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS) for IMS-MS and IMS-MS/MS analyses of intact LOS from Neisseria spp. ionized by MALDI. Using IMS, the singly charged prompt fragments for the oligosaccharide and lipid A domains of LOS were readily separated into resolved ion plumes, permitting the extraction of specific subspectra, which led to increased confidence in assigning compositions and improved detection of less abundant ions. Moreover, IMS separation of precursor ions prior to collision-induced dissociation (CID) generated time-aligned, clean MS/MS spectra devoid of fragments from interfering species. Incorporating IMS into the profiling of intact LOS by MALDI-TOF MS exploits the unique domain structure of the molecule and offers a new means of extracting more detailed information from the analysis.

  15. MALDI-TOF MS versus VITEK 2 ANC card for identification of anaerobic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Gu, Bing; Xia, Wenying; Fan, Kun; Mei, Yaning; Huang, Peijun; Pan, Shiyang

    2014-01-01

    Background Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is an accurate, rapid and inexpensive technique that has initiated a revolution in the clinical microbiology laboratory for identification of pathogens. The Vitek 2 anaerobe and Corynebacterium (ANC) identification card is a newly developed method for identification of corynebacteria and anaerobic species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the ANC card and MALDI-TOF MS techniques for identification of clinical anaerobic isolates. Methods Five reference strains and a total of 50 anaerobic bacteria clinical isolates comprising ten different genera and 14 species were identified and analyzed by the ANC card together with Vitek 2 identification system and Vitek MS together with version 2.0 database respectively. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used as reference method for accuracy in the identification. Results Vitek 2 ANC card and Vitek MS provided comparable results at species level for the five reference strains. Of 50 clinical strains, the Vitek MS provided identification for 46 strains (92%) to the species level, 47 (94%) to genus level, one (2%) low discrimination, two (4%) no identification and one (2%) misidentification. The Vitek 2 ANC card provided identification for 43 strains (86%) correct to the species level, 47 (94%) correct to the genus level, three (6%) low discrimination, three (6%) no identification and one (2%) misidentification. Conclusions Both Vitek MS and Vitek 2 ANC card can be used for accurate routine clinical anaerobe identification. Comparing to the Vitek 2 ANC card, Vitek MS is easier, faster and more economic for each test. The databases currently available for both systems should be updated and further developed to enhance performance. PMID:24822113

  16. Discrimination of intact mycobacteria at the strain level: a combined MALDI-TOF MS and biostatistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Hettick, Justin M; Kashon, Michael L; Slaven, James E; Ma, Yan; Simpson, Janet P; Siegel, Paul D; Mazurek, Gerald N; Weissman, David N

    2006-12-01

    New methodologies for surveillance and identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are required to stem the spread of disease worldwide. In addition, the ability to discriminate mycobacteria at the strain level may be important to contact or source case investigations. To this end, we are developing MALDI-TOF MS methods for the identification of M. tuberculosis in culture. In this report, we describe the application of MALDI-TOF MS, as well as statistical analysis including linear discriminant and random forest analysis, to 16 medically relevant strains from four species of mycobacteria, M. tuberculosis, M. avium, M. intracellulare, and M. kansasii. Although species discrimination can be accomplished on the basis of unique m/z values observed in the MS fingerprint spectrum, discrimination at the strain level is predicted on the relative abundance of shared m/z values among strains within a species. For the 16 mycobacterial strains investigated in the present study, it is possible to unambiguously identify strains within a species on the basis of MALDI-TOF MS data. The error rate for classification of individual strains using linear discriminant analysis was 0.053 using 37 m/z variables, whereas the error rate for classification of individual strains using random forest analysis was 0.023 using only 18 m/z variables. In addition, using random forest analysis of MALDI-TOF MS data, it was possible to correctly classify bacterial strains as either M. tuberculosis or non-tuberculous with 100% accuracy.

  17. Combination of selective enrichment and MALDI-TOF MS for rapid detection of Streptococcus agalactiae colonisation of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Ábrók, Marianna; Arcson, Ágnes; Lázár, Andrea; Urbán, Edit; Deák, Judit

    2015-07-01

    Sample preparation was optimized for MALDI-TOF MS directly from selective enrichment broth to detect Streptococcus agalactiae. The method was tested on 100 vaginal samples of pregnant women; positive and negative predictive values were 100 and 91%, respectively. If it indicates positivity, colonisation can be reported 18-24h after sample collection.

  18. ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy Highlights the Problem of Distinguishing Between Exophiala dermatitidis and E. phaeomuriformis Using MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Ergin, Çağrı; Gök, Yaşar; Bayğu, Yasemin; Gümral, Ramazan; Özhak-Baysan, Betil; Döğen, Aylin; Öğünç, Dilara; Ilkit, Macit; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba

    2016-02-01

    The present study compared two chemical-based methods, namely, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, to understand the misidentification of Exophiala dermatitidis and Exophiala phaeomuriformis. The study utilized 44 E. dermatitidis and 26 E. phaeomuriformis strains, which were partially treated with strong acids and bases for further evaluation. MALDI-TOF MS and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy data of the two Exophiala species were compared. Data groupings were observed for the chromic acid- and nitric acid-treated species when the black yeast sources were categorized as creosoted-oak sleepers, concrete sleepers, or dishwasher isolates. The MALDI-TOF MS data for the metalloenzyme-containing regions were consistent with the ATR-FTIR spectroscopy data. These results indicated that environmental isolates might contain metals not found in human isolates and might interfere with chemical-based identification methods. Therefore, MALDI-TOF MS reference libraries should be created for clinical strains and should exclude petroleum-associated environmental isolates. PMID:26373644

  19. Modeling bacteriophage amplification as a predictive tool for optimized MALDI-TOF MS-based bacterial detection.

    PubMed

    Cox, Christopher R; Rees, Jon C; Voorhees, Kent J

    2012-11-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a valuable tool for rapid bacterial detection and identification but is limited by the need for relatively high cell count samples, which have been grown under strictly controlled conditions. These requirements can be eliminated by the natural infection of a viable bacterial species of interest with a host-specific phage. This produces a rapid increase in phage protein concentrations in comparison to bacterial concentrations, which can in turn be exploited as a method for signal amplification during MALDI-TOF MS. One drawback to this approach is the requirement for repetitive, time-consuming sample preparation and analysis applied over the course of a phage infection to monitor phage concentrations as a function of time to determine the MALDI-TOF MS detection limit. To reduce the requirement for repeated preparation and analysis, a modified phage therapy model was investigated as a means for predicting the time during a given phage infection when a detectable signal would occur. The modified model used a series of three differential equations composed of predetermined experimental parameters including phage burst size and burst time to predict progeny phage concentrations as a function of time. Using Yersinia pestis with plague diagnostic phage φA1122 and Escherichia coli with phage MS2 as two separate, well-characterized model phage-host pairs, we conducted in silico modeling of the infection process and compared it with experimental infections monitored in real time by MALDI-TOF MS. Significant agreement between mathematically calculated phage growth curves and those experimentally obtained by MALDI-TOF MS was observed, thus verifying this method's utility for significant time and labor reduction.

  20. Detection and quantification of bacterial spoilage in milk and pork meat using MALDI-TOF-MS and multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, Nicoletta; Xu, Yun; Goodacre, Royston

    2012-07-17

    Microbiological safety is one of the cornerstones of quality control in the food industry. Identification and quantification of spoilage bacteria in pasteurized milk and meat in the food industry currently relies on accurate and sensitive yet time-consuming techniques which give retrospective values for microbial contamination. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), a proven technique in the field of protein and peptide identification and quantification, may be a valuable alternative approach for the rapid assessment of microbial spoilage. In this work we therefore developed MALDI-TOF-MS as a novel analytical approach for the assessment of food that when combined with chemometrics allows for the detection and quantification of milk and pork meat spoilage bacteria. To develop this approach, natural spoilage of pasteurized milk and raw pork meat samples incubated at 15 °C and at room temperature, respectively, was conducted. Samples were collected for MALDI-TOF-MS analysis (which took 4 min per sample) at regular time intervals throughout the spoilage process, with concurrent calculation and documentation of reference total viable counts using traditional microbiological methods (these took 2 days). Multivariate statistical techniques such as principal component discriminant function analysis, canonical correlation analysis, partial least-squares (PLS) regression, and kernel PLS (KPLS) were used to analyze the data. The results from MALDI-TOF-MS combined with PLS or KPLS gave excellent bacterial quantification results for both milk and meat spoilage, and typical root mean squared errors for prediction in test spectra were between 0.53 and 0.79 log unit. Overall these novel findings strongly indicate that MALDI-TOF-MS when combined with chemometric approaches would be a useful adjunct for routine use in the milk and meat industry as a fast and accurate viable bacterial detection and quantification method.

  1. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass-Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) Based Microbial Identifications: Challenges and Scopes for Microbial Ecologists

    PubMed Central

    Rahi, Praveen; Prakash, Om; Shouche, Yogesh S.

    2016-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) based biotyping is an emerging technique for high-throughput and rapid microbial identification. Due to its relatively higher accuracy, comprehensive database of clinically important microorganisms and low-cost compared to other microbial identification methods, MALDI-TOF MS has started replacing existing practices prevalent in clinical diagnosis. However, applicability of MALDI-TOF MS in the area of microbial ecology research is still limited mainly due to the lack of data on non-clinical microorganisms. Intense research activities on cultivation of microbial diversity by conventional as well as by innovative and high-throughput methods has substantially increased the number of microbial species known today. This important area of research is in urgent need of rapid and reliable method(s) for characterization and de-replication of microorganisms from various ecosystems. MALDI-TOF MS based characterization, in our opinion, appears to be the most suitable technique for such studies. Reliability of MALDI-TOF MS based identification method depends mainly on accuracy and width of reference databases, which need continuous expansion and improvement. In this review, we propose a common strategy to generate MALDI-TOF MS spectral database and advocated its sharing, and also discuss the role of MALDI-TOF MS based high-throughput microbial identification in microbial ecology studies.

  2. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass-Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) Based Microbial Identifications: Challenges and Scopes for Microbial Ecologists.

    PubMed

    Rahi, Praveen; Prakash, Om; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2016-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) based biotyping is an emerging technique for high-throughput and rapid microbial identification. Due to its relatively higher accuracy, comprehensive database of clinically important microorganisms and low-cost compared to other microbial identification methods, MALDI-TOF MS has started replacing existing practices prevalent in clinical diagnosis. However, applicability of MALDI-TOF MS in the area of microbial ecology research is still limited mainly due to the lack of data on non-clinical microorganisms. Intense research activities on cultivation of microbial diversity by conventional as well as by innovative and high-throughput methods has substantially increased the number of microbial species known today. This important area of research is in urgent need of rapid and reliable method(s) for characterization and de-replication of microorganisms from various ecosystems. MALDI-TOF MS based characterization, in our opinion, appears to be the most suitable technique for such studies. Reliability of MALDI-TOF MS based identification method depends mainly on accuracy and width of reference databases, which need continuous expansion and improvement. In this review, we propose a common strategy to generate MALDI-TOF MS spectral database and advocated its sharing, and also discuss the role of MALDI-TOF MS based high-throughput microbial identification in microbial ecology studies. PMID:27625644

  3. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass-Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) Based Microbial Identifications: Challenges and Scopes for Microbial Ecologists

    PubMed Central

    Rahi, Praveen; Prakash, Om; Shouche, Yogesh S.

    2016-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) based biotyping is an emerging technique for high-throughput and rapid microbial identification. Due to its relatively higher accuracy, comprehensive database of clinically important microorganisms and low-cost compared to other microbial identification methods, MALDI-TOF MS has started replacing existing practices prevalent in clinical diagnosis. However, applicability of MALDI-TOF MS in the area of microbial ecology research is still limited mainly due to the lack of data on non-clinical microorganisms. Intense research activities on cultivation of microbial diversity by conventional as well as by innovative and high-throughput methods has substantially increased the number of microbial species known today. This important area of research is in urgent need of rapid and reliable method(s) for characterization and de-replication of microorganisms from various ecosystems. MALDI-TOF MS based characterization, in our opinion, appears to be the most suitable technique for such studies. Reliability of MALDI-TOF MS based identification method depends mainly on accuracy and width of reference databases, which need continuous expansion and improvement. In this review, we propose a common strategy to generate MALDI-TOF MS spectral database and advocated its sharing, and also discuss the role of MALDI-TOF MS based high-throughput microbial identification in microbial ecology studies. PMID:27625644

  4. Quantification of proteins on gold nanoparticles by combining MALDI-TOF MS and proteolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Soomi; Yeo, Woon-Seok

    2012-04-01

    Protein-coated nanoparticles have been used in many studies, including those related to drug delivery, disease diagnosis, therapeutics, and bioassays. The number and density of proteins on the particles’ surface are important parameters that need to be calculable in most applications. While quantification methods for two-dimensional surface-bound proteins are commonly found, only a few methods for the quantification of proteins on three-dimensional surfaces such as nanoparticles have been reported. In this paper, we report on a new method of quantifying proteins on nanoparticles using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). In this method, the nanoparticle-bound proteins are digested by trypsin and the resulting peptide fragments are analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS after the addition of an isotope-labeled internal standard (IS) which has the same sequence as a reference peptide of the surface-bound protein. Comparing the mass intensities between the reference peptide and the IS allows the absolute quantification of proteins on nanoparticles, because they have the same molecular milieu. As a model system, gold nanoparticles were examined using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a coating protein. We believe that our strategy will be a useful tool that can provide researchers with quantitative information about the proteins on surfaces of three-dimensional materials.

  5. Structural analysis of glycoconjugates by on-target enzymatic digestion and MALDI-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Geyer, H; Schmitt, S; Wuhrer, M; Geyer, R

    1999-01-15

    Exoglycosidase digestion combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) has been demonstrated to be an effective method for the structural characterization of glycoconjugates and oligosaccharides in picomolar amounts. A sample preparation method is described, in which 6-aza-2-thiothymine (ATT) in water is used as matrix and enzymes are dialyzed before use against a low concentration of volatile buffer such as ammonium acetate. Under these conditions, a series of sequential on-target exoglycosidase treatments was carried out in one single analyte spot in the presence of ATT matrix. Subsequent mass spectrometric analysis of the resulting products yielded information on both the completeness of the reaction and structural features of the glycoconjugates such as monosaccharide sequence, branching pattern, and anomeric configurations of the corresponding glycosidic linkages. The results show that all exoglycosidases used retain their activity in the presence of ATT matrix. Hence, structural analysis of carbohydrates or mixtures thereof can be performed very fast, without intermediate desalting steps or sample splitting. This approach is illustrated by the analysis of underivatized glycans, oligosaccharide derivatives, glycopeptides, and glycolipids. Depending on the analyte, amounts of sample required could be limited to a few picomoles. PMID:9949734

  6. Photocleavable Peptide-Conjugated Magnetic Beads for Protein Kinase Assays by MALDI-TOF MS

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guangchang; Yan, Xiaoliang; Wu, Ding; Kron, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Peptides were immobilized onto superparamagnetic beads via photocleavable linkers. This enabled simple, rapid, and label-free protein kinase assays via MALDI-TOF MS detection of substrate peptide phosphorylation. Abltide, a model substrate for the Abl protein tyrosine kinase model, was coupled onto amine-terminated beads, incubated with ATP and recombinant c-Abl kinase, and released and further detected to determine phosphorylation. Abltide phosphorylation was found to depend significantly on the length and composition of linkers to the bead surface. Inserting a diblock spacer of poly(glycine) and poly(ethylene glycol) segments markedly enhanced phosphorylation. To validate the assay, the activity of two small-molecule kinase inhibitors, imatinib and dasatinib, which target the oncogenic mutant tyrosine kinase Bcr-Abl to treat chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), was tested. Examining inhibition of the purified c-Abl or Bcr-Abl in K562 CML cell extracts, IC50 values were determined to be consistent with the literature. This simple, label-free, MALDI-based protein kinase assay can be readily adapted to allow multiplexed assays of multiple peptide substrates and/or analysis of alternative post-translational modifications as a tool for drug discovery and clinical testing. PMID:20860375

  7. Wavelet-based adaptive denoising and baseline correction for MALDI TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyunjin; Sampat, Mehul P; Koomen, John M; Markey, Mia K

    2010-06-01

    Proteomic profiling by MALDI TOF mass spectrometry (MS) is an effective method for identifying biomarkers from human serum/plasma, but the process is complicated by the presence of noise in the spectra. In MALDI TOF MS, the major noise source is chemical noise, which is defined as the interference from matrix material and its clusters. Because chemical noise is nonstationary and nonwhite, wavelet-based denoising is more effective than conventional noise reduction schemes based on Fourier analysis. However, current wavelet-based denoising methods for mass spectrometry do not fully consider the characteristics of chemical noise. In this article, we propose new wavelet-based high-frequency noise reduction and baseline correction methods that were designed based on the discrete stationary wavelet transform. The high-frequency noise reduction algorithm adaptively estimates the time-varying threshold for each frequency subband from multiple realizations of chemical noise and removes noise from mass spectra of samples using the estimated thresholds. The baseline correction algorithm computes the monotonically decreasing baseline in the highest approximation of the wavelet domain. The experimental results demonstrate that our algorithms effectively remove artifacts in mass spectra that are due to chemical noise while preserving informative features as compared to commonly used denoising methods.

  8. Evaluation of the Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system for identification of Staphylococcus species.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenming; Sieradzki, Krzysztof; Albrecht, Valerie; McAllister, Sigrid; Lin, Wen; Stuchlik, Olga; Limbago, Brandi; Pohl, Jan; Kamile Rasheed, J

    2015-10-01

    The Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS (Biotyper) system, with a modified 30 minute formic acid extraction method, was evaluated by its ability to identify 216 clinical Staphylococcus isolates from the CDC reference collection comprising 23 species previously identified by conventional biochemical tests. 16S rDNA sequence analysis was used to resolve discrepancies. Of these, 209 (96.8%) isolates were correctly identified: 177 (84.7%) isolates had scores ≥2.0, while 32 (15.3%) had scores between 1.70 and 1.99. The Biotyper identification was inconsistent with the biochemical identification for seven (3.2%) isolates, but the Biotyper identifications were confirmed by 16S rDNA analysis. The distribution of low scores was strongly species-dependent, e.g. only 5% of Staphylococcus epidermidis and 4.8% of Staphylococcus aureus isolates scored below 2.0, while 100% of Staphylococcus cohnii, 75% of Staphylococcus sciuri, and 60% of Staphylococcus caprae produced low but accurate Biotyper scores. Our results demonstrate that the Biotyper can reliably identify Staphylococcus species with greater accuracy than conventional biochemicals. Broadening of the reference database by inclusion of additional examples of under-represented species could further optimize Biotyper results.

  9. Forward selection radial basis function networks applied to bacterial classification based on MALDI-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuoyong; Wang, Dan; Harrington, Peter de B; Voorhees, Kent J; Rees, Jon

    2004-06-17

    Forward selection improved radial basis function (RBF) network was applied to bacterial classification based on the data obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The classification of each bacterium cultured at different time was discussed and the effect of parameters of the RBF network was investigated. The new method involves forward selection to prevent overfitting and generalized cross-validation (GCV) was used as model selection criterion (MSC). The original data was compressed by using wavelet transformation to speed up the network training and reduce the number of variables of the original MS data. The data was normalized prior training and testing a network to define the area the neural network to be trained in, accelerate the training rate, and reduce the range the parameters to be selected in. The one-out-of-n method was used to split the data set of p samples into a training set of size p-1 and a test set of size 1. With the improved method, the classification correctness for the five bacteria discussed in the present paper are 87.5, 69.2, 80, 92.3, and 92.8%, respectively.

  10. A Novel Rapid MALDI-TOF-MS-Based Method for Measuring Urinary Globotriaosylceramide in Fabry Patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alharbi, Fahad J.; Geberhiwot, Tarekegn; Hughes, Derralynn A.; Ward, Douglas G.

    2016-04-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of α-galactosidase A, resulting in the accumulation of glycosphingolipids in various organs. Globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) and its isoforms and analogues have been identified and quantified as biomarkers of disease severity and treatment efficacy. The current study aimed to establish rapid methods for urinary Gb3 extraction and quantitation. Urine samples from 15 Fabry patients and 21 healthy control subjects were processed to extract Gb3 by mixing equal volumes of urine, methanol containing an internal standard, and chloroform followed by sonication and centrifugation. Thereafter, the lower phase was analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS and the relative peak areas of the internal standard and four major species of Gb3 determined. The results showed high reproducibility with intra- and inter-assay coefficients variation of 9.9% and 13.7%, respectively. The limit of detection was 0.15 ng/μL and the limit of quantitation was 0.30 ng/μL. Total urinary Gb3 levels in both genders of classic Fabry patients were significantly higher than in healthy controls (p < 0.0001). Gb3 levels in Fabry males were higher than in Fabry females (p = 0.08). We have established a novel assay for urinary total Gb3 that takes less than 15 min from start to finish.

  11. Quantification of proteins on gold nanoparticles by combining MALDI-TOF MS and proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Ju, Soomi; Yeo, Woon-Seok

    2012-04-01

    Protein-coated nanoparticles have been used in many studies, including those related to drug delivery, disease diagnosis, therapeutics, and bioassays. The number and density of proteins on the particles' surface are important parameters that need to be calculable in most applications. While quantification methods for two-dimensional surface-bound proteins are commonly found, only a few methods for the quantification of proteins on three-dimensional surfaces such as nanoparticles have been reported. In this paper, we report on a new method of quantifying proteins on nanoparticles using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). In this method, the nanoparticle-bound proteins are digested by trypsin and the resulting peptide fragments are analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS after the addition of an isotope-labeled internal standard (IS) which has the same sequence as a reference peptide of the surface-bound protein. Comparing the mass intensities between the reference peptide and the IS allows the absolute quantification of proteins on nanoparticles, because they have the same molecular milieu. As a model system, gold nanoparticles were examined using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a coating protein. We believe that our strategy will be a useful tool that can provide researchers with quantitative information about the proteins on surfaces of three-dimensional materials. PMID:22417878

  12. Quantitation of Alpha-Glucosidase Activity Using Fluorinated Carbohydrate Array and MALDI-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyojik; Chan, Allen L; LaVallo, Vincent; Cheng, Quan

    2016-02-01

    Quantitation of alpha-glucosidase (α-GD) activity is of significance to diagnosis of many diseases including Pompe disease and type II diabetes. We report here a new method to determine α-GD activity using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) in combination with carbohydrate microarray and affinity surface chemistry. Carbohydrate probes are synthesized for capture of the enzymatic reaction products and the adducts are loaded onto a fluorinated gold surface to generate an array, which is followed by characterization by MALDI-TOF-MS. The ratio of intensities is used to determine the level of activity of several enzymes. In addition, half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of acarbose and epigallocatechin gallate are also determined using this approach, and the results agree well with the reported values. This method is advantageous as compared to conventional colorimetric techniques that typically suffer matrix interference problems from samples. The use of the polyfluorinated surface has effectively suppressed the interference. PMID:26760440

  13. Evaluation of the Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system for identification of Staphylococcus species.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenming; Sieradzki, Krzysztof; Albrecht, Valerie; McAllister, Sigrid; Lin, Wen; Stuchlik, Olga; Limbago, Brandi; Pohl, Jan; Kamile Rasheed, J

    2015-10-01

    The Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS (Biotyper) system, with a modified 30 minute formic acid extraction method, was evaluated by its ability to identify 216 clinical Staphylococcus isolates from the CDC reference collection comprising 23 species previously identified by conventional biochemical tests. 16S rDNA sequence analysis was used to resolve discrepancies. Of these, 209 (96.8%) isolates were correctly identified: 177 (84.7%) isolates had scores ≥2.0, while 32 (15.3%) had scores between 1.70 and 1.99. The Biotyper identification was inconsistent with the biochemical identification for seven (3.2%) isolates, but the Biotyper identifications were confirmed by 16S rDNA analysis. The distribution of low scores was strongly species-dependent, e.g. only 5% of Staphylococcus epidermidis and 4.8% of Staphylococcus aureus isolates scored below 2.0, while 100% of Staphylococcus cohnii, 75% of Staphylococcus sciuri, and 60% of Staphylococcus caprae produced low but accurate Biotyper scores. Our results demonstrate that the Biotyper can reliably identify Staphylococcus species with greater accuracy than conventional biochemicals. Broadening of the reference database by inclusion of additional examples of under-represented species could further optimize Biotyper results. PMID:26183765

  14. Immunoaffinity sample purification and MALDI-TOF MS analysis of alpha-Solanine and alpha-chaconine in serum.

    PubMed

    Driedger, D R; Sporns, P

    2001-02-01

    A sample purification technique was developed for the detection of potato glycoalkaloids (GAs) in blood serum by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). GAs were extracted from spiked serum (5 mL) using a C(18) solid-phase extraction cartridge. The GAs were then selectively captured on antibody-coated agarose beads. The agarose beads were washed with water and the GAs eluted with 25 microL of methanol. MALDI-TOF MS was used to detect the GAs in the methanol eluent. Immunoaffinity sample purification of the GAs effectively reduced the signal suppression observed during the analysis of unpurified samples. alpha-Chaconine and alpha-solanine were detected in serum spiked with 1 ng/mL of each GA.

  15. Applications of MALDI-TOF MS to large-scale human mtDNA population-based studies.

    PubMed

    Cerezo, María; Cerný, Viktor; Carracedo, Angel; Salas, Antonio

    2009-11-01

    Analysis of the mitochondrial DNA variation in populations is commonly carried out in many fields of biomedical research. We propose the analysis of mitochondrial DNA coding region SNP (mtSNP) variation to a high level of phylogenetic resolution based on MALDI-TOF MS. The African phylogeny has been chosen to test the applicability of the technique but any other part of the worldwide phylogeny (or any other mtSNP panel) could be equally suitable for MALDI-TOF MS genotyping. SNP selection thus aimed to fully cover all the mtSNPs defining major and minor branches of the known African tree, including, macro-haplogroup L, and haplogroups M1, and U6. A total of 230 mtSNPs were finally selected. We used tests samples collected from two different African locations, namely, Mozambique and Chad Basin. Different internal genotyping controls and other indirect approaches (e.g. phylogenetic checking coupled with automatic sequencing) were used in order to evaluate the reproducibility of the technique, which resulted to be 100% using samples previously subjected to whole genome amplification. The advantages of the MALDI-TOF MS are also discussed in comparison with other popular methods such as minisequencing, highlighting its high-throughput nature, which is particularly suitable for case-control medical studies, forensic databasing or population and anthropological studies. PMID:19862743

  16. Efficient Analysis of Non-Polar Environmental Contaminants by MALDI-TOF MS with Graphene as Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Dong, Xiaoli; Cheng, Jinsheng; Li, Jinghong; Wang, Yinsheng

    2011-07-01

    In this Application Note, we describe, for the first time, the rapid analysis of hydrophobic compounds present in environmental contaminants, which includes polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and estrogen, by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) with the use of graphene as matrix. MALDI-TOF MS with conventional matrix has limitations in analyzing low-polarity compounds owing to their difficulty in ionization. We demonstrate that compared with conventional matrix, graphene displays higher desorption/ionization efficiencies for PAHs, and no fragment ions are observed. The method also holds potential in quantitative analysis. In addition, the ionization signal increases with the increasing number of benzene rings in the PAHs, suggesting that graphene binds to PAHs via π-π stacking interactions. Furthermore, graphene as adsorbent for solid-phase extraction of coronene from river water sample displays good performance with a detection limit of 10-7 M. This work provides a novel and convenient method for analyzing low-polarity environmental contaminants by MALDI-TOF MS.

  17. Whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS: a new tool to assess the multifaceted activation of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ouedraogo, Richard; Daumas, Aurélie; Ghigo, Eric; Capo, Christian; Mege, Jean-Louis; Textoris, Julien

    2012-10-22

    Whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS is routinely used to identify bacterial species in clinical samples. This technique has also proven to allow identification of intact mammalian cells, including macrophages. Here, we wondered whether this approach enabled the assessment human macrophages plasticity. The whole-cell MALDI-TOF spectra of macrophages stimulated with IFN-γ and IL-4, two inducers of M1 and M2 macrophage polarisation, consisted of peaks ranging from 2 to 12 kDa. The spectra of unstimulated and stimulated macrophages were clearly different. The fingerprints induced by the M1 agonists, IFN-γ, TNF, LPS and LPS+IFN-γ, and the M2 agonists, IL-4, TGF-β1 and IL-10, were specific and readily identifiable. Thus, whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS was able to characterise M1 and M2 macrophage subtypes. In addition, the fingerprints induced by extracellular (group B Streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus) or intracellular (BCG, Orientia tsutsugamushi, Coxiella burnetii) bacteria were bacterium-specific. The whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS fingerprints therefore revealed the multifaceted activation of human macrophages. This approach opened a new avenue of studies to assess the immune response in the clinical setting, by monitoring the various activation patterns of immune cells in pathological conditions.

  18. Fractional Factorial Design of MALDI-TOF-MS Sample Preparations for the Optimized Detection of Phospholipids and Acylglycerols.

    PubMed

    AlMasoud, Najla; Correa, Elon; Trivedi, Drupad K; Goodacre, Royston

    2016-06-21

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) has successfully been used for the analysis of high molecular weight compounds, such as proteins and nucleic acids. By contrast, analysis of low molecular weight compounds with this technique has been less successful due to interference from matrix peaks which have a similar mass to the target analyte(s). Recently, a variety of modified matrices and matrix additives have been used to overcome these limitations. An increased interest in lipid analysis arose from the feasibility of correlating these components with many diseases, e.g. atherosclerosis and metabolic dysfunctions. Lipids have a wide range of chemical properties making their analysis difficult with traditional methods. MALDI-TOF-MS shows excellent potential for sensitive and rapid analysis of lipids, and therefore this study focuses on computational-analytical optimization of the analysis of five lipids (4 phospholipids and 1 acylglycerol) in complex mixtures using MALDI-TOF-MS with fractional factorial design (FFD) and Pareto optimality. Five different experimental factors were investigated using FFD which reduced the number of experiments performed by identifying 720 key experiments from a total of 8064 possible analyses. Factors investigated included the following: matrices, matrix preparations, matrix additives, additive concentrations, and deposition methods. This led to a significant reduction in time and cost of sample analysis with near optimal conditions. We discovered that the key factors used to produce high quality spectra were the matrix and use of appropriate matrix additives. PMID:27228355

  19. GC-MS and MALDI-TOF MS profiling of sucrose esters from Nicotiana tabacum and N. rustica.

    PubMed

    Haliński, Łukasz P; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been applied for the first time to the analysis of the sucrose esters from the surface of Nicotiana L. leaves. The profiles obtained for the model plant N. tabacum were similar to those from the gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) analysis. The most reproducible results were obtained using a dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) matrix. The main advantage of this method is that crude plant extracts can be analysed without sample clean-up. GC-MS analysis of Aztec tobacco (N. rustica) extracts revealed the presence of three types of sucrose esters. All identified compounds had three C4-C8 acyl chains substituting the glucose moiety, while the fructose part of the molecule was substituted with 0, 1, or 2 acetyl groups. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of the sucrose ester fraction revealed the presence of compounds not eluting from a GC column. Combining the data from both GC-MS and MALDI-TOF MS experiments, we obtained a full sucrose ester profile, which is based on the molecular weight of the compounds and on the number of acyl chains in the molecule. PMID:23923618

  20. Proteomic approach based on MALDI-TOF MS to detect powdered milk in fresh cow's milk.

    PubMed

    Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Monopoli, Antonio; Loizzo, Pasqua; Faccia, Michele; Zambonin, Carlo

    2013-02-27

    Milk and cheese are expensive foodstuffs, and their consumption is spread among the population because of their high nutritional value; for this reason they are often subjected to adulterations. Among the common illegal practices, the addition of powdered derivatives seems very difficult to detect because the adulterant materials have almost the same chemical composition of liquid milk. However, the high temperatures (180-200 °C) used for milk powder production could imply the occurrence of some protein modifications (e.g., glycation, lactosylation, oxidation, deamidation, dehydration). The modified proteins or peptides could then be used as markers for the presence of powdered milk. In this work, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was employed to analyze tryptic digests relevant to samples of raw liquid (without heat treatment), commercial liquid, and powdered cow's milk. Samples were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE); differences among liquid and powder milk were detected at this stage and eventually confirmed by MALDI analysis of the in gel digested proteins. Some diagnostic peptides of powdered milk, attributed to modified whey proteins and/or caseins, were identified. Then, a faster procedure was optimized, consisting of the separation of caseins from milk whey and the subsequent in-solution digestion of the two fractions, with the advantage of obtaining almost the same information in a limited amount of time. Finally, analyses were carried out with the fast procedure on liquid milk samples adulterated with powdered milk at different percentages, and diagnostic peptides were detected down to 1% of adulteration level.

  1. Rapid Detection of K1 Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae by MALDI-TOF MS

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yonglu; Li, Jiaping; Gu, Danxia; Fang, Ying; Chan, Edward W.; Chen, Sheng; Zhang, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Hypervirulent strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP) are genetic variants of K. pneumoniae which can cause life-threatening community-acquired infection in healthy individuals. Currently, methods for efficient differentiation between classic K. pneumoniae (cKP) and hvKP strains are not available, often causing delay in diagnosis and treatment of hvKP infections. To address this issue, we devised a Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) approach for rapid identification of K1 hvKP strains. Four standard algorithms, genetic algorithm (GA), support vector machine (SVM), supervised neural network (SNN), and quick classifier (QC), were tested for their power to differentiate between K1 and non-K1 strains, among which SVM was the most reliable algorithm. Analysis of the receiver operating characteristic curves of the interest peaks generated by the SVM model was found to confer highly accurate detection sensitivity and specificity, consistently producing distinguishable profiles for K1 hvKP and non-K1 strains. Of the 43 K. pneumoniae modeling strains tested by this approach, all were correctly identified as K1 hvKP and non-K1 capsule type. Of the 20 non-K1 and 17 K1 hvKP validation isolates, the accuracy of K1 hvKP and non-K1 identification was 94.1 and 90.0%, respectively, according to the SVM model. In summary, the MALDI-TOF MS approach can be applied alongside the conventional genotyping techniques to provide rapid and accurate diagnosis, and hence prompt treatment of infections caused by hvKP. PMID:26733976

  2. Reducing time to identification of positive blood cultures with MALDI-TOF MS analysis after a 5-h subculture.

    PubMed

    Verroken, A; Defourny, L; Lechgar, L; Magnette, A; Delmée, M; Glupczynski, Y

    2015-02-01

    Speeding up the turn-around time of positive blood culture identifications is essential in order to optimize the treatment of septic patients. Several sample preparation techniques have been developed allowing direct matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identification of positive blood cultures. Yet, the hands-on time restrains their routine workflow. In this study, we evaluated an approach whereby MALDI-TOF MS identification without any additional steps was carried out on short subcultured colonies from positive blood bottles with the objective of allowing results reporting on the day of positivity detection. Over a 7-month period in 2012, positive blood cultures detected by 9 am with an automated system were inoculated onto a Columbia blood agar and processed after a 5-h incubation on a MALDI-TOF MicroFlex platform (Bruker Daltonik GmbH). Single-spotted colonies were covered with 1 μl formic acid and 1 μl matrix solution. The results were compared to the validated identification techniques. A total of 925 positive blood culture bottles (representing 470 bacteremic episodes) were included. Concordant identification was obtained in 727 (81.1 %) of the 896 monomicrobial blood cultures, with failure being mostly observed with anaerobes and yeasts. In 17 episodes of polymicrobic bacteremia, the identification of one of the two isolates was achieved in 24/29 (82.7 %) positive cultures. Routine implementation of MALDI-TOF MS identification on young positive blood subcultures provides correct results to the clinician in more than 80 % of the bacteremic episodes and allows access to identification results on the day of blood culture positivity detection, potentially accelerating the implementation of targeted clinical treatments.

  3. [Screening and identification of forensic molecular markers of injury using MALDI-TOF-MS imaging mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning-Guo; Chen, Yi-Jiu

    2014-10-01

    There are many deficiencies in forensic traumatic molecular markers detected by the techniques of traditional immunohistology and molecular biology, because these markers are isolated and obscure of the mechanism of interaction. The imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is more suitable for the forensic molecular markers using function of screening, analysis and graphical representation. In this paper, the techniques and the latest research in screening and identification of typical molecular markers by IMS based on matrix-assisted laser adsorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) are reviewed. And its application values in forensic injury are discussed.

  4. Direct identification of trypanosomatids by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (DIT MALDI-TOF MS).

    PubMed

    Avila, C C; Almeida, F G; Palmisano, G

    2016-08-01

    Accurate and rapid determination of trypanosomatids is essential in epidemiological surveillance and therapeutic studies. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been shown to be a useful and powerful technique to identify bacteria, fungi, metazoa and human intact cells with applications in clinical settings. Here, we developed and optimized a MALDI-TOF MS method to profile trypanosomatids. trypanosomatid cells were deposited on a MALDI target plate followed by addition of matrix solution. The plate was then subjected to MALDI-TOF MS measurement to create reference mass spectra library and unknown samples were identified by pattern matching using the BioTyper software tool. Several m/z peaks reproducibly and uniquely identified trypanosomatids species showing the potentials of direct identification of trypanosomatids by MALDI-TOF MS. Moreover, this method discriminated different life stages of Trypanosoma cruzi, epimastigote and bloodstream trypomastigote and Trypanosoma brucei, procyclic and bloodstream. T. cruzi Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) were also discriminated in three clades. However, it was not possible to achieve enough resolution and software-assisted identification at the strain level. Overall, this study shows the importance of MALDI-TOF MS for the direct identification of trypanosomatids and opens new avenues for mass spectrometry-based detection of parasites in biofluids. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27659938

  5. Establishing serological classification tree model in rheumatoid arthritis using combination of MALDI-TOF-MS and magnetic beads.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhang; Chaojun, Hu; Chuiwen, Deng; Xiaomei, Leng; Xin, Zhang; Yongzhe, Li; Fengchun, Zhang

    2015-02-01

    To establish a serological classification tree model for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), protein/peptide profiles of serum were detected by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) combined with weak cationic exchange (WCX) from Cohort 1, including 65 patients with RA and 41 healthy controls (HC). The samples were randomly divided into a training set and a test set. Twenty-four differentially expressed peaks (P < 0.05) were identified in the training set and 4 of them, namely m/z 3,939, 5,906, 8,146, and 8,569 were chosen to set up our model. This model exhibited a sensitivity of 100.0% and a specificity of 96.0% for differentiating RA patients from HC. The test set reproduced these high levels of sensitivity and specificity, which were 100.0 and 81.2%, respectively. Cohort 2, which include 228 RA patients, was used to further verify the classification efficiency of this model. It came out that 97.4% of them were classified as RA by this model. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF-MS combined with WCX magnetic beads was a powerful method for constructing a classification tree model for RA, and the model we established was useful in recognizing RA.

  6. A Study of the Variation in the Salivary Peptide Profiles of Young Healthy Adults Acquired Using MALDI-TOF MS

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Henk; Imangaliyev, Sultan; Tsivtsivadze, Evgeni; van der Weijden, Fridus; de Jong, Ad; Paauw, Armand; Crielaard, Wim; Keijser, Bart; Veerman, Enno

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional observational study was conducted to evaluate the inter-individual variation in the MALDI-TOF MS peptide profiles of unstimulated whole saliva in a population of 268 systemically healthy adults aged 18–30 yr (150 males and 118 females) with no apparent caries lesions or periodontal disease. Using Spectral Clustering, four subgroups of individuals were identified within the study population. These subgroups were delimited by the pattern of variation in 9 peaks detected in the 2–15 kDa m/z range. An Unsupervised Feature Selection algorithm showed that P-C peptide, a 44 residue-long salivary acidic proline-rich protein, and three of its fragments (Fr. 1–25, Fr. 15–35 and Fr. 15–44) play a central role in delimiting the subgroups. Significant differences were found in the salivary biochemistry of the subgroups with regard to lysozyme and chitinase, two enzymes that are part of the salivary innate defense system (p < 0.001). These results suggest that MALDI-TOF MS salivary peptide profiles may relate information on the underlying state of the oral ecosystem and may provide a useful reference for salivary disease biomarker discovery studies. PMID:27258023

  7. High throughput detection of tetracycline residues in milk using graphene or graphene oxide as MALDI-TOF MS matrix.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junyan; Liu, Yang; Gao, Mingxia; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2012-08-01

    In this work, a new pre-analysis method for tetracyclines (TCs) detection from the milk samples was established. As a good accomplishment for the existing accurate quantification strategies for TCs detection, the new pre-analysis method was demonstrated to be simple, sensitive, fast, cost effective, and high throughput, which would do a great favor to the routine quality pre-analysis of TCs from milk samples. Graphene or graphene oxide was utilized, for the first time, as a duel-platform to enrich and detect the TCs by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). All together, four TCs were chosen as models: tetracycline, oxytetracycline, demeclocycline, and chlortetracycline. Due to the excellent electronic, thermal, and mechanical properties, graphene and graphene oxide were successfully applied as matrices for MALDI-TOF MS with free background inference in low mass range. Meanwhile, graphene or graphene oxide has a large surface area and strong interaction force with the analytes. By taking the advantage of these features, TCs were effectively enriched with the limit of detection (LOD) as low as 2 nM. PMID:22644736

  8. High Throughput Detection of Tetracycline Residues in Milk Using Graphene or Graphene Oxide as MALDI-TOF MS Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junyan; Liu, Yang; Gao, Mingxia; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2012-08-01

    In this work, a new pre-analysis method for tetracyclines (TCs) detection from the milk samples was established. As a good accomplishment for the existing accurate quantification strategies for TCs detection, the new pre-analysis method was demonstrated to be simple, sensitive, fast, cost effective, and high throughput, which would do a great favor to the routine quality pre-analysis of TCs from milk samples. Graphene or graphene oxide was utilized, for the first time, as a duel-platform to enrich and detect the TCs by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). All together, four TCs were chosen as models: tetracycline, oxytetracycline, demeclocycline, and chlortetracycline. Due to the excellent electronic, thermal, and mechanical properties, graphene and graphene oxide were successfully applied as matrices for MALDI-TOF MS with free background inference in low mass range. Meanwhile, graphene or graphene oxide has a large surface area and strong interaction force with the analytes. By taking the advantage of these features, TCs were effectively enriched with the limit of detection (LOD) as low as 2 nM.

  9. A Study of the Variation in the Salivary Peptide Profiles of Young Healthy Adults Acquired Using MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Prodan, Andrei; Brand, Henk; Imangaliyev, Sultan; Tsivtsivadze, Evgeni; van der Weijden, Fridus; de Jong, Ad; Paauw, Armand; Crielaard, Wim; Keijser, Bart; Veerman, Enno

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional observational study was conducted to evaluate the inter-individual variation in the MALDI-TOF MS peptide profiles of unstimulated whole saliva in a population of 268 systemically healthy adults aged 18-30 yr (150 males and 118 females) with no apparent caries lesions or periodontal disease. Using Spectral Clustering, four subgroups of individuals were identified within the study population. These subgroups were delimited by the pattern of variation in 9 peaks detected in the 2-15 kDa m/z range. An Unsupervised Feature Selection algorithm showed that P-C peptide, a 44 residue-long salivary acidic proline-rich protein, and three of its fragments (Fr. 1-25, Fr. 15-35 and Fr. 15-44) play a central role in delimiting the subgroups. Significant differences were found in the salivary biochemistry of the subgroups with regard to lysozyme and chitinase, two enzymes that are part of the salivary innate defense system (p < 0.001). These results suggest that MALDI-TOF MS salivary peptide profiles may relate information on the underlying state of the oral ecosystem and may provide a useful reference for salivary disease biomarker discovery studies. PMID:27258023

  10. Detection of acid and hop shock induced responses in beer spoiling Lactobacillus brevis by MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Schurr, Benjamin C; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2015-04-01

    Due to the harsh environment, microorganisms encounter in beer, spoilage bacteria must be able to customise their metabolism and physiology in an order to master various kinds of perturbations. Proteomic approaches have been used to examine differences between various beer spoilage bacteria and between different stress conditions, such as acid and hop (Humulus lupulus) stress. However, these investigations cannot detect changes in low molecular weight (lmw) proteins (<150 amino acids). Therefore, for the first time, we herein present data from a proteomic study of lmw proteins for two Lactobacillus (L.) brevis strains exposed to acid stress or, respectively, two different qualities of hop induced stress. We used MALDI-TOF MS as analytical tool for the detection of lmw stress response proteins due to its high sensitivity and low throughput times. Comparing a hop-sensitive and a hop-tolerant strain, detection of the fatty acid biosynthesis-associated acyl carrier protein varied between different stress conditions and incubation times. The findings coincide with previous studies of our group regarding the fatty acid cell membrane composition of beer spoiling L. brevis. It is demonstrated that MALDI-TOF MS is a fast tool to detect and characterise stress situations in beer spoiling bacteria along the lmw sub-proteome.

  11. Peptidomic analysis of Chinese shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) hemolymph by magnetic bead-based MALDI-TOF MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Baojie; Liu, Mei; Jiang, Keyong; Zhang, Guofan; Wang, Lei

    2013-03-01

    Peptides in shrimp hemolymph play an important role in the innate immune response. Analysis of hemolymph will help to detect and identify potential novel biomarkers of microbial infection. We used magnetic bead-based purification (ClinProt system) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to characterize shrimp hemolymph peptides. Shrimp serum and plasma were used as the source of samples for comparative analysis, and it was found that serum was more suitable for shrimp hemolymph peptidomic analysis. To screen potential specific biomarkers in serum of immune-challenged shrimps, we applied magnetic bead-based MALDI-TOF MS to serum samples from 10 immune-challenged and 10 healthy shrimps. The spectra were analyzed using FlexAnalysis 3.0 and ClinProTools 2.1 software. Thirteen peptide peaks significantly different between the two groups were selected as candidate biomarkers of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-infection. The diagnostic model established by genetic algorithm using five of these peaks was able to discriminate LPS-challenged shrimps from healthy control shrimps with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 100%. Our approach in MALDITOF MS-based peptidomics is a powerful tool for screening bioactive peptides or biomarkers derived from hemolymph, and will help to enable a better understanding of the innate immune response of shrimps.

  12. The Use of MALDI-TOF-MS and In Silico Studies for Determination of Antimicrobial Peptides' Affinity to Bacterial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Santi M.; Migliolo, Ludovico; Franco, Octavio L.

    2012-11-01

    Several methods have been proposed for determining the binding affinity of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) to bacterial cells. Here the utilization of MALDI-TOF-MS was proposed as a reliable and efficient method for high throughput AMP screening. The major advantage of the technique consists of finding AMPs that are selective and specific to a wide range of Gram-negative and -positive bacteria, providing a simple reliable screening tool to determine the potential candidates for broad spectrum antimicrobial drugs. As a prototype, amp-1 and -2 were used, showing highest activity toward Gram-negative and -positive membranes respectively. In addition, in silico molecular docking studies with both peptides were carried out for the membranes. In silico results indicated that both peptides presented affinity for DPPG and DPPE phospholipids, constructed in order to emulate an in vivo membrane bilayer. As a result, amp-1 showed a higher complementary surface for Gram-negative while amp-2 showed higher affinity to Gram-positive membranes, corroborating MS analyses. In summary, results here obtained suggested that in vitro methodology using MALDI-TOF-MS in addition to theoretical studies may be able to improve AMP screening quality.

  13. Evaluation of Fructooligosaccharides and Inulins as Potentially Health Benefiting Food Ingredients by HPAEC-PED and MALDI-TOF MS

    PubMed Central

    Borromei, Chiara; Careri, Maria; Cavazza, Antonella; Corradini, Claudio; Elviri, Lisa; Mangia, Alessandro; Merusi, Cristiana

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the complementarity of high-performance anion exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed electrochemical detection (HPAEC-PED) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) to evaluate commercial available fructans (fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulins), having different degrees of polymerization (DP) which are usually employed by food industry as functional ingredients either for their prebiotic properties or as a fat replacer, giving a fat-like mouth feel and texture. The developed HPAEC-PED methods are able to analyze FOS (fructans with DP 3–10) and inulins (DP ranging from 3 to 80) with a good resolution and relatively short retention times to evaluate structural differences between fructooligosaccharide and inulins and the possible presence of inulooligosaccharides as well as of branching. To characterize FOS and inulin at different degrees of polymerization and to assure correct molecular assignment, MALDI-TOF MS analysis was also investigated. The 2,5-dihydroxy benzoic acid (2,5-DHB) was found to be the best matrix for FOS analysis as Actilight and Raftilose P95 products, while 3-aminoquinoline (3-AQ) seems to be the best matrix for inulin with higher DP. The applicability of the optimized methods to the identification and determination of FOS contained in a symbiotic milk as well as a type of inulin added as functional ingredient to a cooked ham is demonstrated. PMID:20140077

  14. Evaluation of Fructooligosaccharides and Inulins as Potentially Health Benefiting Food Ingredients by HPAEC-PED and MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Borromei, Chiara; Careri, Maria; Cavazza, Antonella; Corradini, Claudio; Elviri, Lisa; Mangia, Alessandro; Merusi, Cristiana

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the complementarity of high-performance anion exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed electrochemical detection (HPAEC-PED) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) to evaluate commercial available fructans (fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulins), having different degrees of polymerization (DP) which are usually employed by food industry as functional ingredients either for their prebiotic properties or as a fat replacer, giving a fat-like mouth feel and texture. The developed HPAEC-PED methods are able to analyze FOS (fructans with DP 3-10) and inulins (DP ranging from 3 to 80) with a good resolution and relatively short retention times to evaluate structural differences between fructooligosaccharide and inulins and the possible presence of inulooligosaccharides as well as of branching. To characterize FOS and inulin at different degrees of polymerization and to assure correct molecular assignment, MALDI-TOF MS analysis was also investigated. The 2,5-dihydroxy benzoic acid (2,5-DHB) was found to be the best matrix for FOS analysis as Actilight and Raftilose P95 products, while 3-aminoquinoline (3-AQ) seems to be the best matrix for inulin with higher DP. The applicability of the optimized methods to the identification and determination of FOS contained in a symbiotic milk as well as a type of inulin added as functional ingredient to a cooked ham is demonstrated.

  15. Polydopamine-coated magnetic nanoparticles for enrichment and direct detection of small molecule pollutants coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yu-rong; Zhang, Xiao-le; Zeng, Tao; Cao, Dong; Zhou, Zhen; Li, Wen-hui; Niu, Hongyun; Cai, Ya-qi

    2013-02-01

    Polydopamine-coated Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles (Fe(3)O(4)@PDA NPs) were synthesized and applied as matrix for the detection of pollutants by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The synthesis of Fe(3)O(4)@PDA NPs was accomplished in 30 min by in situ polymerization of dopamine without any toxic reagent. Using Fe(3)O(4)@PDA NPs as matrix of MALDI-TOF, eleven small molecule pollutants (molecular weight from 251.6 to 499.3), including Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), three perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and seven antibiotics, were successfully detected in either positive or negative reflection mode without background interference. Furthermore, the Fe(3)O(4)@PDA NPs can also enrich trace amounts of hydrophobic target, such as BaP, from solution to nanoparticles surface. Then the Fe(3)O(4)@PDA-BaP can be isolated through magnetic sedimentation step and directly spotted on the stainless steel plate for MALDI measurement. With Fe(3)O(4)@PDA NPs as adsorbent and matrix, we also realized the analysis of BaP in tap water and lake water samples. Thus, a magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE)-MALDI-TOF-MS method was established for the measurement of BaP. PMID:23301525

  16. MALDI-TOF MS and chemometric based identification of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex species.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Clara; Botelho, João; Silva, Liliana; Grosso, Filipa; Nemec, Alexandr; Lopes, João; Peixe, Luísa

    2014-07-01

    MALDI-TOF MS is becoming the technique of choice for rapid bacterial identification at species level in routine diagnostics. However, some drawbacks concerning the identification of closely related species such as those belonging to the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii (Acb) complex lead to high rates of misidentifications. In this work we successfully developed an approach that combines MALDI-TOF MS and chemometric tools to discriminate the six Acb complex species (A. baumannii, Acinetobacter nosocomialis, Acinetobacter pittii, A. calcoaceticus, genomic species "Close to 13TU" and genomic species "Between 1 and 3"). Mass spectra of 83 taxonomically well characterized clinical strains, reflecting the breadth of currently known phenetic diversity within the Acb complex, were achieved from intact cells and cell extracts and analyzed with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA). This combined approach lead to 100% of correct species identification using mass spectra obtained from intact cells. Moreover, it was possible to discriminate two Acb complex species (genomic species "Close to 13TU" and genomic species "Between 1 and 3") not included in the MALDI Biotyper database.

  17. Graphene based soft nanoreactors for facile "one-step" glycan enrichment and derivatization for MALDI-TOF-MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Bai, Haihong; Pan, Yiting; Tong, Wei; Zhang, Wanjun; Ren, Xiaojun; Tian, Fang; Peng, Bo; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yangjun; Deng, Yulin; Qin, Weijie; Qian, Xiaohong

    2013-12-15

    Protein glycosylation is involved in the control of many important biological processes and structural alterations of the N-linked glycans are correlated with various kinds of disease. High-throughput N-glycan profiling is a key technique for elucidating the functions of glycans in biological process and disease development as well as discovering new diagnostic biomarkers. However, the low abundance of glycans existing in living organism, the competition/suppression effect of other highly abundant biological molecules and the inherent lack of alkalinity and hydrophobicity of glycans leads to particularly poor detection sensitivity in MS analysis. Here, we demonstrated the first "one-step" approach for highly efficient glycan enrichment and derivatization using reduced graphene oxide as nanoreactors and 1-pyrenebutyric hydrazide for glycan capture and derivatization, which resulted in a 33-fold increase in the glycan detection sensitivity in MALDI-TOF-MS and the identification of 48N-glycoforms from human plasma.

  18. The Construction and Evaluation of Reference Spectra for the Identification of Human Pathogenic Microorganisms by MALDI-TOF MS

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Di; Ye, Changyun; Zhang, Huifang; Kan, Biao; Lu, Jingxing; Xu, Jianguo; Jiang, Xiugao; Zhao, Fei; You, Yuanhai; Yan, Xiaomei; Wang, Duochun; Hu, Yuan; Zhang, Maojun; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is an emerging technique for the rapid and high-throughput identification of microorganisms. There remains a dearth of studies in which a large number of pathogenic microorganisms from a particular country or region are utilized for systematic analyses. In this study, peptide mass reference spectra (PMRS) were constructed and evaluated from numerous human pathogens (a total of 1019 strains from 94 species), including enteric (46 species), respiratory (21 species), zoonotic (17 species), and nosocomial pathogens (10 species), using a MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper system (MBS). The PMRS for 380 strains of 52 species were new contributions to the original reference database (ORD). Compared with the ORD, the new reference database (NRD) allowed for 28.2% (from 71.5% to 99.7%) and 42.3% (from 51.3% to 93.6%) improvements in identification at the genus and species levels, respectively. Misidentification rates were 91.7% and 57.1% lower with the NRD than with the ORD for genus and species identification, respectively. Eight genera and 25 species were misidentified. For genera and species that are challenging to accurately identify, identification results must be manually determined and adjusted in accordance with the database parameters. Through augmentation, the MBS demonstrated a high identification accuracy and specificity for human pathogenic microorganisms. This study sought to provide theoretical guidance for using PMRS databases in various fields, such as clinical diagnosis and treatment, disease control, quality assurance, and food safety inspection. PMID:25181391

  19. MALDI-TOF-MS Platform for Integrated Proteomic and Peptidomic Profiling of Milk Samples Allows Rapid Detection of Food Adulterations.

    PubMed

    Sassi, Mauro; Arena, Simona; Scaloni, Andrea

    2015-07-15

    Adulteration of ovine, caprine, and buffalo milks with more common bovine material occurs for economic reasons and seasonal availability. Frauds are also associated with the use of powdered milk instead of declared, fresh material. In this context, various analytical methods have been adapted to dairy science applications with the aim to evaluate adulteration of milk samples, although time-consuming, suitable only for speciation or thermal treatment analysis, or useful for a specific fraud type. An integrated MALDI-TOF-MS platform for the combined peptidomic and proteomic profiling of milk samples is here presented, which allows rapid detection of illegal adulterations due to the addition of either nondeclared bovine material to water buffalo, goat, and ovine milks or of powdered bovine milk to the fresh counterpart. Peptide and protein markers of each animal milk were identified after direct analysis of a large number of diluted skimmed and/or enriched diluted skimmed filtrate samples. In parallel, markers of thermal treatment were characterized in different types of commercial milks. Principal components scores of ad hoc prepared species- or thermal treatment-associated adulterated milk samples were subjected to partial least-squares regression, permitting a fast accurate estimate of the fraud extents in test samples at either protein and peptide level. With respect to previous reports on MALDI-TOF-MS protein profiling methodologies for milk speciation, this study extends that approach to the analysis of the thermal treatment and introduces an independent, complementary peptide profiling measurement, which integrates protein data with additional information on peptides, validating final results and ultimately broadening the method applicability.

  20. The construction and evaluation of reference spectra for the identification of human pathogenic microorganisms by MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Di; Ye, Changyun; Zhang, Huifang; Kan, Biao; Lu, Jingxing; Xu, Jianguo; Jiang, Xiugao; Zhao, Fei; You, Yuanhai; Yan, Xiaomei; Wang, Duochun; Hu, Yuan; Zhang, Maojun; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is an emerging technique for the rapid and high-throughput identification of microorganisms. There remains a dearth of studies in which a large number of pathogenic microorganisms from a particular country or region are utilized for systematic analyses. In this study, peptide mass reference spectra (PMRS) were constructed and evaluated from numerous human pathogens (a total of 1019 strains from 94 species), including enteric (46 species), respiratory (21 species), zoonotic (17 species), and nosocomial pathogens (10 species), using a MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper system (MBS). The PMRS for 380 strains of 52 species were new contributions to the original reference database (ORD). Compared with the ORD, the new reference database (NRD) allowed for 28.2% (from 71.5% to 99.7%) and 42.3% (from 51.3% to 93.6%) improvements in identification at the genus and species levels, respectively. Misidentification rates were 91.7% and 57.1% lower with the NRD than with the ORD for genus and species identification, respectively. Eight genera and 25 species were misidentified. For genera and species that are challenging to accurately identify, identification results must be manually determined and adjusted in accordance with the database parameters. Through augmentation, the MBS demonstrated a high identification accuracy and specificity for human pathogenic microorganisms. This study sought to provide theoretical guidance for using PMRS databases in various fields, such as clinical diagnosis and treatment, disease control, quality assurance, and food safety inspection.

  1. Identification of different respiratory viruses, after a cell culture step, by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)

    PubMed Central

    Calderaro, Adriana; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina; Rodighiero, Isabella; Buttrini, Mirko; Montecchini, Sara; Vasile Simone, Rosita; Medici, Maria Cristina; Chezzi, Carlo; De Conto, Flora

    2016-01-01

    In this study matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), a reliable identification method for the diagnosis of bacterial and fungal infections, is presented as an innovative tool to investigate the protein profile of cell cultures infected by the most common viruses causing respiratory tract infections in humans. MALDI-TOF MS was applied to the identification of influenza A and B viruses, adenovirus C species, parainfluenza virus types 1, 2 and 3, respiratory syncytial virus, echovirus, cytomegalovirus and metapneumovirus. In this study MALDI-TOF MS was proposed as a model to be applied to the identification of cultivable respiratory viruses using cell culture as a viral proteins enrichment method to the proteome profiling of virus infected and uninfected cell cultures. The reference virus strains and 58 viruses identified from respiratory samples of subjects with respiratory diseases positive for one of the above mentioned viral agents by cell culture were used for the in vitro infection of suitable cell cultures. The isolated viral particles, concentrated by ultracentrifugation, were used for subsequent protein extraction and their spectra profiles were generated by MALDI-TOF MS analysis. The newly created library allowed us to discriminate between uninfected and respiratory virus infected cell cultures. PMID:27786297

  2. Comparative analysis of Gram's stain, PNA-FISH and Sepsityper with MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of yeast direct from positive blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Gorton, Rebecca L; Ramnarain, P; Barker, K; Stone, N; Rattenbury, S; McHugh, T D; Kibbler, C C

    2014-10-01

    Fungaemia diagnosis could be improved by reducing the time to identification of yeast from blood cultures. This study aimed to evaluate three rapid methods for the identification of yeast direct from blood cultures; Gram's stain analysis, the AdvanDX Peptide Nucleic Acid in Situ Hybridisation Yeast Traffic Light system (PNA-FISH YTL) and Bruker Sepsityper alongside matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Fifty blood cultures spiked with a known single yeast strain were analysed by blinded operators experienced in each method. Identifications were compared with MALDI-TOF MS CHROMagar Candida culture and ITS rRNA sequence-based identifications. On first attempt, success rates of 96% (48/50) and 76% (36/50) were achieved using PNA-FISH YTL and Gram's stain respectively. MALDI-TOF MS demonstrated a success rate of 56% (28/50) when applying manufacturer's species log score thresholds and 76% (38/50) using in-house parameters, including lowering the species log score threshold to >1.5. In conclusion, PNA-FISH YTL demonstrated a high success rate successfully identifying yeast commonly encountered in fungaemia. Sepsityper(™) with MALDI-TOF MS was accurate but increased sensitivity is required. Due to the misidentification of commonly encountered yeast Gram's stain analysis demonstrated limited utility in this setting.

  3. Analysis of Phospholipid Mixtures from Biological Tissues by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption and Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS): A Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eibisch, Mandy; Fuchs, Beate; Schiller, Jurgen; Sub, Rosmarie; Teuber, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is increasingly used to investigate the phospholipid (PL) compositions of tissues and body fluids, often without previous separation of the total mixture into the individual PL classes. Therefore, the questions of whether all PL classes are detectable…

  4. Classification of genus Pseudomonas by MALDI-TOF MS based on ribosomal protein coding in S10-spc-alpha operon at strain level.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Yudai; Teramoto, Kanae; Sato, Hiroaki; Yoshikawa, Hiromichi; Hosoda, Akifumi; Tamura, Hiroto

    2010-12-01

    We have proposed a rapid phylogenetic classification at the strain level by MALDI-TOF MS using ribosomal protein matching profiling. In this study, the S10-spc-alpha operon, encoding half of the ribosomal subunit proteins and highly conserved in eubacterial genomes, was selected for construction of the ribosomal protein database as biomarkers for bacterial identification by MALDI-TOF MS analysis to establish a more reliable phylogenetic classification. Our method revealed that the 14 reliable and reproducible ribosomal subunit proteins with less than m/z 15,000, except for L14, coded in the S10-spc-alpha operon were significantly useful biomarkers for bacterial classification at species and strain levels by MALDI-TOF MS analysis of genus Pseudomonas strains. The obtained phylogenetic tree was consisted with that based on genetic sequence (gyrB). Since S10-spc-alpha operons of genus Pseudomonas strains were sequenced using specific primers designed based on nucleotide sequences of genome-sequenced strains, the ribosomal subunit proteins encoded in S10-spc-alpha operon were suitable biomarkers for construction and correction of the database. MALDI-TOF MS analysis using these 14 selected ribosomal proteins is a rapid, efficient, and versatile bacterial identification method with the validation procedure for the obtained results.

  5. Polyphasic Approach Including MALDI-TOF MS/MS Analysis for Identification and Characterisation of Fusarium verticillioides in Brazilian Corn Kernels

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Susane; Porto Carneiro-Leão, Mariele; Ferreira de Oliveira, Benny; Souza-Motta, Cristina; Lima, Nelson; Santos, Cledir; Tinti de Oliveira, Neiva

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is considered one of the most important global sources of fumonisins contamination in food and feed. Corn is one of the main commodities produced in the Northeastern Region of Brazil. The present study investigated potential mycotoxigenic fungal strains belonging to the F. verticillioides species isolated from corn kernels in 3 different Regions of the Brazilian State of Pernambuco. A polyphasic approach including classical taxonomy, molecular biology, MALDI-TOF MS and MALDI-TOF MS/MS for the identification and characterisation of the F. verticillioides strains was used. Sixty F. verticillioides strains were isolated and successfully identified by classical morphology, proteomic profiles of MALDI-TOF MS, and by molecular biology using the species-specific primers VERT-1 and VERT-2. FUM1 gene was further detected for all the 60 F. verticillioides by using the primers VERTF-1 and VERTF-2 and through the amplification profiles of the ISSR regions using the primers (GTG)5 and (GACA)4. Results obtained from molecular analysis shown a low genetic variability among these isolates from the different geographical regions. All of the 60 F. verticillioides isolates assessed by MALDI-TOF MS/MS presented ion peaks with the molecular mass of the fumonisin B1 (721.83 g/mol) and B2 (705.83 g/mol). PMID:26927172

  6. Identification and classification of seafood-borne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria: 16S rRNA sequencing versus MALDI-TOF MS fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Böhme, Karola; Fernández-No, Inmaculada C; Pazos, Manuel; Gallardo, José M; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge; Cañas, Benito; Calo-Mata, Pilar

    2013-03-01

    The present study aims to compare two molecular technologies, 16S rRNA sequencing and MALDI-TOF MS, for bacterial species identification in seafood. With this aim, 70 reference strains from culture collections, including important seafood-borne pathogenic and spoilage bacterial species, and 50 strains isolated from commercial seafood products, were analysed by both techniques. Genomic analysis only identified the species of 50% of the isolated strains, proving to be particularly poor at identifying members of the Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera. In contrast, MALDI-TOF MS fingerprinting identified 76% of the strains at the species level. The mass spectral data were submitted to the SpectraBank database (http://www.spectrabank.org), making this information available to other researchers. Furthermore, cluster analysis of the peak mass lists was carried out with the web application SPECLUST and the calculated groupings were consistent with results determined by a phylogenetic approach that is based on the 16S rRNA sequences. However, the MALDI-TOF MS analysis demonstrated more discriminating potential that allowed for better classification, especially for the Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera. This is of importance with respect to the varying pathogenic and spoilage character at the intragenus and intraspecies level. In this sense, MALDI-TOF MS demonstrated to be a competent bacterial typing tool that extends phenotypic and genotypic approaches, allowing a more ample classification of bacterial strains.

  7. Rapid identification of bacteria from positive blood culture bottles by MALDI-TOF MS following short-term incubation on solid media.

    PubMed

    Altun, Osman; Botero-Kleiven, Silvia; Carlsson, Sarah; Ullberg, Måns; Özenci, Volkan

    2015-11-01

    Rapid identification of bacteria from blood cultures enables early initiation of appropriate antibiotic treatment in patients with bloodstream infections (BSI). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the use of matrix-associated laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) MS after a short incubation on solid media for rapid identification of bacteria from positive blood culture bottles. MALDI-TOF MS was performed after 2.5 and 5.5 h plate incubation of samples from positive blood cultures. Identification scores with values ≥ 1.7 were accepted as successful identification if the results were confirmed by conventional methods. Conventional methods included MALDI-TOF MS, Vitek 2, and diverse biochemical and agglutination tests after overnight culture. In total, 515 positive blood cultures with monomicrobial bacterial growth representing one blood culture per patient were included in the study. There were 229/515 (44.5%) and 286/515 (55.5%) blood culture bottles with Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) and Gram-positive bacteria (GPB), respectively. MALDI-TOF MS following short-term culture could accurately identify 300/515 (58.3%) isolates at 2.5 h, GNB being identified in greater proportion (180/229; 78.6%) than GPB (120/286; 42.0%). In an additional 124/515 bottles (24.1%), identification was successful at 5.5 h, leading to accurate identification of bacteria from 424/515 (82.3%) blood cultures after short-term culture. Interestingly, 11/24 of the isolated anaerobic bacteria could be identified after 5.5 h. The present study demonstrates, in a large number of clinical samples, that MALDI-TOF MS following short-term culture on solid medium is a reliable and rapid method for identification of bacteria from blood culture bottles with monomicrobial bacterial growth.

  8. Shortcomings of the Commercial MALDI-TOF MS Database and Use of MLSA as an Arbiter in the Identification of Nocardia Species.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Gema; de Dios Caballero, Juan; Garrido, Noelia; Valdezate, Sylvia; Cantón, Rafael; Sáez-Nieto, Juan A

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia species are difficult to identify, a consequence of the ever increasing number of species known and their homogeneous genetic characteristics. 16S rRNA analysis has been the gold standard for identifying these organisms, but proteomic techniques such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF MS) and housekeeping gene analysis, have also been explored. One hundred high (n = 25), intermediate (n = 20), and low (n = 55) prevalence (for Spain) Nocardia strains belonging to 30 species were identified via 16S rRNA and MALDI-TOF MS analysis. The manufacturer-provided database MALDI Biotyper library v4.0 (5.627 entries, Bruker Daltonik) was employed. In the high prevalence group (Nocardia farcinica, N. abscessus, N. cyriacigeorgica and N. nova), the 16S rRNA and MALDI-TOF MS methods provided the same identification for 76% of the strains examined. For the intermediate prevalence group (N. brasiliensis, N. carnea, N. otitidiscaviarum and N. transvalensis complex), this figure fell to 45%. In the low-prevalence group (22 species), these two methods were concordant only in six strains at the species level. Tetra-gene multi-locus sequencing analysis (MLSA) involving the concatemer gyrB-16S rRNA-hsp65-secA1 was used to arbitrate between discrepant identifications (n = 67). Overall, the MLSA confirmed the results provided at species level by 16S rRNA analysis in 34.3% of discrepancies, and those provided by MALDI-TOF MS in 13.4%. MALDI-TOF MS could be a strong candidate for the identification of Nocardia species, but only if its reference spectrum database improves, especially with respect to unusual, recently described species and species included in the described Nocardia complexes.

  9. Shortcomings of the Commercial MALDI-TOF MS Database and Use of MLSA as an Arbiter in the Identification of Nocardia Species

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Gema; de Dios Caballero, Juan; Garrido, Noelia; Valdezate, Sylvia; Cantón, Rafael; Sáez-Nieto, Juan A.

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia species are difficult to identify, a consequence of the ever increasing number of species known and their homogeneous genetic characteristics. 16S rRNA analysis has been the gold standard for identifying these organisms, but proteomic techniques such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF MS) and housekeeping gene analysis, have also been explored. One hundred high (n = 25), intermediate (n = 20), and low (n = 55) prevalence (for Spain) Nocardia strains belonging to 30 species were identified via 16S rRNA and MALDI-TOF MS analysis. The manufacturer-provided database MALDI Biotyper library v4.0 (5.627 entries, Bruker Daltonik) was employed. In the high prevalence group (Nocardia farcinica, N. abscessus, N. cyriacigeorgica and N. nova), the 16S rRNA and MALDI-TOF MS methods provided the same identification for 76% of the strains examined. For the intermediate prevalence group (N. brasiliensis, N. carnea, N. otitidiscaviarum and N. transvalensis complex), this figure fell to 45%. In the low-prevalence group (22 species), these two methods were concordant only in six strains at the species level. Tetra-gene multi-locus sequencing analysis (MLSA) involving the concatemer gyrB-16S rRNA-hsp65-secA1 was used to arbitrate between discrepant identifications (n = 67). Overall, the MLSA confirmed the results provided at species level by 16S rRNA analysis in 34.3% of discrepancies, and those provided by MALDI-TOF MS in 13.4%. MALDI-TOF MS could be a strong candidate for the identification of Nocardia species, but only if its reference spectrum database improves, especially with respect to unusual, recently described species and species included in the described Nocardia complexes. PMID:27148228

  10. Feasibility of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) networking in university hospitals in Brussels.

    PubMed

    Martiny, D; Cremagnani, P; Gaillard, A; Miendje Deyi, V Y; Mascart, G; Ebraert, A; Attalibi, S; Dediste, A; Vandenberg, O

    2014-05-01

    The mutualisation of analytical platforms might be used to address rising healthcare costs. Our study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of networking a unique matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system for common use in several university hospitals in Brussels, Belgium. During a one-month period, 1,055 successive bacterial isolates from the Brugmann University Hospital were identified on-site using conventional techniques; these same isolates were also identified using a MALDI-TOF MS system at the Porte de Hal Laboratory by sending target plates and identification projects via transportation and the INFECTIO_MALDI software (Infopartner, Nancy, France), respectively. The occurrence of transmission problems (<2 %) and human errors (<1 %) suggested that the system was sufficiently robust to be implemented in a network. With a median time-to-identification of 5 h and 11 min (78 min, min-max: 154-547), MALDI-TOF MS networking always provided a faster identification result than conventional techniques, except when chromogenic culture media and oxidase tests were used (p < 0.0001). However, the limited clinical benefits of the chromogenic culture media do not support their extra cost. Our financial analysis also suggested that MALDI-TOF MS networking could lead to substantial annual cost savings. MALDI-TOF MS networking presents many advantages, and few conventional techniques (optochin and oxidase tests) are required to ensure the same quality in patient care from the distant laboratory. Nevertheless, such networking should not be considered unless there is a reorganisation of workflow, efficient communication between teams, qualified technologists and a reliable IT department and helpdesk to manage potential connectivity problems.

  11. Development of soft extraction method for structural characterization of boreal forest soil proteins with MALDI-TOF/MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanerva, Sanna; Ketola, Raimo A.; Kitunen, Veikko; Smolander, Aino; Kotiaho, Tapio

    2010-05-01

    Nitrogen (N) is usually the nutrient restricting productivity in boreal forests. Forest soils contain a great amount of nitrogen, but only a small part of it is in mineral form. Most part of soil N is bound in the structures of different organic compounds such as proteins, peptides, amino acids and more stabilized, refractory compounds. Due to the fact that soil organic N has a very important role in soil nutrient cycling and in plant nutrition, there is a need for more detailed knowledge of its chemistry in soil. Conventional methods to extract and analyze soil organic N are usually very destructive for structures of higher molecular weight organic compounds, such as proteins. The aim of this study was to characterize proteins extracted from boreal forest soil by "soft" extraction methods in order to maintain their molecular structure. The organic layer (F) from birch forest floor containing 78% of organic matter was sieved, freeze dried, pulverized, and extracted with a citrate or phosphate buffer (pH 6 or 8). Sequential extraction with the citrate or phosphate buffer and an SDS buffer (pH 6.8), slightly modified from the method of Chen et al. (2009, Proteomics 9: 4970-4973), was also done. Proteins were purified from the soil extract by extraction with buffered phenol and precipitated with methanol + 0.1M ammonium acetate at -20°C. Characterization of proteins was performed with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization - time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) and the concentration of total proteins was measured using Bradford's method. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a positive control in the extractions and as a standard protein in Bradford's method. Our results showed that sequential extraction increased the amount of extracted proteins compared to the extractions without the SDS-buffer; however, it must be noted that the use of SDS-buffer very probably increased denaturization of proteins. Purification of proteins from crude soil extracts

  12. Interaction of giant extracellular Glossoscolex paulistus hemoglobin (HbGp) with ionic surfactants: a MALDI-TOF-MS study.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marilene Silva; Moreira, Leonardo Marmo; Tabak, Marcel

    2008-03-01

    The giant extracellular hemoglobin of Glossoscolex paulistus (HbGp) is constituted by approximately 144 subunits containing heme groups with molecular masses in the range of 16-19kDa forming a monomer (d) and a trimer (abc), and around 36 non-heme structures, named linkers (L). Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis was performed recently, to obtain directly information on the molecular masses of the different subunits from HbGp in the oxy-form. This technique demonstrated structural similarity between HbGp and the widely studied hemoglobin of Lumbricus terrestris (HbLt). Indeed, two major isoforms (d(1) and d(2)) of identical proportions with masses of 16,355+/-25 and 16,428+/-24Da, respectively, and two minor isoforms (d(3) and d(4)) with masses around 16.6kDa were detected for monomer d of HbGp. In the present work, the effects of anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cationic cethyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) on the oligomeric structure of HbGp have been studied by MALDI-TOF-MS in order to evaluate the interaction between ionic surfactants and HbGp. The data obtained with this technique show an effective interaction of cationic surfactant CTAC with the two isoforms of monomer d, d(1) and d(2), both in the whole protein as well as in the pure isolated monomer. The results show that up to 10 molecules of CTAC are bound to each isoform of the monomer. Differently, the mass spectra obtained for SDS-HbGp system showed that the addition of the anionic surfactant SDS does not originate any mass increment of the monomeric subunits, indicating that SDS-HbGp interaction is, probably, significantly less effective as compared to CTAC-HbGp one. The acid pI of the protein around 5.5 is, probably, responsible for this behavior. The results of this work suggest also some interaction of both surfactants with linker chains as well as with trimers, as judged from observed mass increments. Our data are consistent with a recent

  13. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of cellodextrins and xylo-oligosaccharides produced by hindgut homogenates of Reticulitermes santonensis.

    PubMed

    Brasseur, Catherine; Bauwens, Julien; Tarayre, Cédric; Mattéotti, Christel; Thonart, Philippe; Destain, Jacqueline; Francis, Frédéric; Haubruge, Eric; Portetelle, Daniel; Vandenbol, Micheline; Focant, Jean-François; De Pauw, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    Hindgut homogenates of the termite Reticulitermes santonensis were incubated with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), crystalline celluloses or xylan substrates. Hydrolysates were analyzed with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The method was first set up using acid hydrolysis analysis to characterize non-enzymatic profiles. Commercial enzymes of Trichoderma reesei or T. longibrachiatum were also tested to validate the enzymatic hydrolysis analysis. For CMC hydrolysis, data processing and visual display were optimized to obtain comprehensive profiles and allow rapid comparison and evaluation of enzymatic selectivity, according to the number of substituents of each hydrolysis product. Oligosaccharides with degrees of polymerization (DPs) ranging from three to 12 were measured from CMC and the enzymatic selectivity was demonstrated. Neutral and acidic xylo-oligosaccharides with DPs ranging from three to 11 were measured from xylan substrate. These results are of interest for lignocellulose biomass valorization and demonstrated the potential of termites and their symbiotic microbiota as a source of interesting enzymes for oligosaccharides production. PMID:24731986

  14. Cardiolipin fingerprinting of leukocytes by MALDI-TOF/MS as a screening tool for Barth syndrome[S

    PubMed Central

    Angelini, Roberto; Lobasso, Simona; Gorgoglione, Ruggiero; Bowron, Ann; Steward, Colin G.; Corcelli, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Barth syndrome (BTHS), an X-linked disease associated with cardioskeletal myopathy, neutropenia, and organic aciduria, is characterized by abnormalities of card­iolipin (CL) species in mitochondria. Diagnosis of the disease is often compromised by lack of rapid and widely available diagnostic laboratory tests. The present study describes a new method for BTHS screening based on MALDI-TOF/MS analysis of leukocyte lipids. This generates a “CL fingerprint” and allows quick and simple assay of the relative levels of CL and monolysocardiolipin species in leukocyte total lipid profiles. To validate the method, we used vector algebra to analyze the difference in lipid composition between controls (24 healthy donors) and patients (8 boys affected by BTHS) in the high-mass phospholipid range. The method of lipid analysis described represents an important additional tool for the diagnosis of BTHS and potentially enables therapeutic monitoring of drug targets, which have been shown to ameliorate abnormal CL profiles in cells. PMID:26144817

  15. NMR and MALDI-TOF MS based characterization of exopolysaccharides in anaerobic microbial aggregates from full-scale reactors.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Thomas, Ludivine; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid; Lens, Piet N L; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic granular sludge is composed of multispecies microbial aggregates embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Here we characterized the chemical fingerprint of the polysaccharide fraction of EPS in anaerobic granules obtained from full-scale reactors treating different types of wastewater. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals of the polysaccharide region from the granules were very complex, likely as a result of the diverse microbial population in the granules. Using nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), the (1)H NMR signals of reference polysaccharides (gellan, xanthan, alginate) and those of the anaerobic granules revealed that there were similarities between the polysaccharides extracted from granules and the reference polysaccharide alginate. Further analysis of the exopolysaccharides from anaerobic granules, and reference polysaccharides using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) revealed that exopolysaccharides from two of the anaerobic granular sludges studied exhibited spectra similar to that of alginate. The presence of sequences related to the synthesis of alginate was confirmed in the metagenomes of the granules. Collectively these results suggest that alginate-like exopolysaccharides are constituents of the EPS matrix in anaerobic granular sludge treating different industrial wastewater. This finding expands the engineered environments where alginate has been found as EPS constituent of microbial aggregates. PMID:26391984

  16. NMR and MALDI-TOF MS based characterization of exopolysaccharides in anaerobic microbial aggregates from full-scale reactors.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Thomas, Ludivine; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid; Lens, Piet N L; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2015-09-22

    Anaerobic granular sludge is composed of multispecies microbial aggregates embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Here we characterized the chemical fingerprint of the polysaccharide fraction of EPS in anaerobic granules obtained from full-scale reactors treating different types of wastewater. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals of the polysaccharide region from the granules were very complex, likely as a result of the diverse microbial population in the granules. Using nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), the (1)H NMR signals of reference polysaccharides (gellan, xanthan, alginate) and those of the anaerobic granules revealed that there were similarities between the polysaccharides extracted from granules and the reference polysaccharide alginate. Further analysis of the exopolysaccharides from anaerobic granules, and reference polysaccharides using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) revealed that exopolysaccharides from two of the anaerobic granular sludges studied exhibited spectra similar to that of alginate. The presence of sequences related to the synthesis of alginate was confirmed in the metagenomes of the granules. Collectively these results suggest that alginate-like exopolysaccharides are constituents of the EPS matrix in anaerobic granular sludge treating different industrial wastewater. This finding expands the engineered environments where alginate has been found as EPS constituent of microbial aggregates.

  17. Identification and growth dynamics of meat spoilage microorganisms in modified atmosphere packaged poultry meat by MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Höll, Linda; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2016-12-01

    Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) is widely used in food industry to extend the microbiological shelf-life of meat. Typically, poultry meat has been packaged in a CO2/N2 atmosphere (with residual low O2). Recently, some producers use high O2 MAP for poultry meat to empirically reach comparable shelf lifes. In this work, we compared spoilage microbiota of skinless chicken breast in high (80% O2, 20% CO2) and low O2 MAP (65% N2 and 35% CO2). Two batches of meat were incubated in each atmosphere for 14 days at 4 °C and 10 °C. Atmospheric composition of each pack and colony forming units (25 °C, 48 h, BHI agar) of poultry samples were determined at seven timepoints. Identification of spoilage organisms was carried out by MALDI-TOF MS. Brochothrix thermosphacta, Carnobacterium sp. and Pseudomonas sp. were the main organisms found after eight days at 4 °C and 10 °C in high O2 MAP. In low O2 MAP, the main spoilage microbiota was represented by species Hafnia alvei at 10 °C, and genera Carnobacterium sp., Serratia sp., and Yersinia sp. at 4 °C. High O2 MAP is suggested as preferential gas because were less detrimental and pathogens like Yersinia were not observed. PMID:27554149

  18. N-(1-naphthyl) ethylenediamine dinitrate: a new matrix for negative ion MALDI-TOF MS analysis of small molecules.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Chen, Suming; Xiong, Caiqiao; Ding, Xunlei; Wu, Chih-Che; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Xiong, Shaoxiang; Nie, Zongxiu

    2012-09-01

    An organic salt, N-(1-naphthyl) ethylenediamine dinitrate (NEDN), with rationally designed properties of a strong UV absorbing chromophore, hydrogen binding and nitrate anion donors, has been employed as a matrix to analyze small molecules (m/z < 1000) such as oligosaccharides, peptides, metabolites and explosives using negative ion matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Compared with conventional matrixes such as α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CCA) and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), NEDN provides a significant improvement in detection sensitivity and yields very few matrix-associated fragment and cluster ions interfering with MS analysis. For low-molecular-weight saccharides, the lowest detection limit achieved ranges from 500 amol to 5 pmol, depending on the molecular weight and the structure of the analytes. Additionally, the mass spectra in the lower mass range (m/z < 200) consist of only nitrate and nitric acid cluster ions, making the matrix particularly useful for structural identification of oligosaccharides by post-source decay (PSD) MALDI-MS. Such a characteristic is illustrated by using maltoheptaose as a model system. This work demonstrates that NEDN is a novel negative ion-mode matrix for MALDI-MS analysis of small molecules with nitrate anion attachment.

  19. N-(1-Naphthyl) Ethylenediamine Dinitrate: A New Matrix for Negative Ion MALDI-TOF MS Analysis of Small Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rui; Chen, Suming; Xiong, Caiqiao; Ding, Xunlei; Wu, Chih-Che; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Xiong, Shaoxiang; Nie, Zongxiu

    2012-09-01

    An organic salt, N-(1-naphthyl) ethylenediamine dinitrate (NEDN), with rationally designed properties of a strong UV absorbing chromophore, hydrogen binding and nitrate anion donors, has been employed as a matrix to analyze small molecules ( m/z < 1000) such as oligosaccharides, peptides, metabolites and explosives using negative ion matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Compared with conventional matrixes such as α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CCA) and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), NEDN provides a significant improvement in detection sensitivity and yields very few matrix-associated fragment and cluster ions interfering with MS analysis. For low-molecular-weight saccharides, the lowest detection limit achieved ranges from 500 amol to 5 pmol, depending on the molecular weight and the structure of the analytes. Additionally, the mass spectra in the lower mass range ( m/z < 200) consist of only nitrate and nitric acid cluster ions, making the matrix particularly useful for structural identification of oligosaccharides by post-source decay (PSD) MALDI-MS. Such a characteristic is illustrated by using maltoheptaose as a model system. This work demonstrates that NEDN is a novel negative ion-mode matrix for MALDI-MS analysis of small molecules with nitrate anion attachment.

  20. Identification and growth dynamics of meat spoilage microorganisms in modified atmosphere packaged poultry meat by MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Höll, Linda; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2016-12-01

    Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) is widely used in food industry to extend the microbiological shelf-life of meat. Typically, poultry meat has been packaged in a CO2/N2 atmosphere (with residual low O2). Recently, some producers use high O2 MAP for poultry meat to empirically reach comparable shelf lifes. In this work, we compared spoilage microbiota of skinless chicken breast in high (80% O2, 20% CO2) and low O2 MAP (65% N2 and 35% CO2). Two batches of meat were incubated in each atmosphere for 14 days at 4 °C and 10 °C. Atmospheric composition of each pack and colony forming units (25 °C, 48 h, BHI agar) of poultry samples were determined at seven timepoints. Identification of spoilage organisms was carried out by MALDI-TOF MS. Brochothrix thermosphacta, Carnobacterium sp. and Pseudomonas sp. were the main organisms found after eight days at 4 °C and 10 °C in high O2 MAP. In low O2 MAP, the main spoilage microbiota was represented by species Hafnia alvei at 10 °C, and genera Carnobacterium sp., Serratia sp., and Yersinia sp. at 4 °C. High O2 MAP is suggested as preferential gas because were less detrimental and pathogens like Yersinia were not observed.

  1. NMR and MALDI-TOF MS based characterization of exopolysaccharides in anaerobic microbial aggregates from full-scale reactors

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Thomas, Ludivine; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid; Lens, Piet N. L.; Saikaly, Pascal E.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic granular sludge is composed of multispecies microbial aggregates embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Here we characterized the chemical fingerprint of the polysaccharide fraction of EPS in anaerobic granules obtained from full-scale reactors treating different types of wastewater. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals of the polysaccharide region from the granules were very complex, likely as a result of the diverse microbial population in the granules. Using nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), the 1H NMR signals of reference polysaccharides (gellan, xanthan, alginate) and those of the anaerobic granules revealed that there were similarities between the polysaccharides extracted from granules and the reference polysaccharide alginate. Further analysis of the exopolysaccharides from anaerobic granules, and reference polysaccharides using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) revealed that exopolysaccharides from two of the anaerobic granular sludges studied exhibited spectra similar to that of alginate. The presence of sequences related to the synthesis of alginate was confirmed in the metagenomes of the granules. Collectively these results suggest that alginate-like exopolysaccharides are constituents of the EPS matrix in anaerobic granular sludge treating different industrial wastewater. This finding expands the engineered environments where alginate has been found as EPS constituent of microbial aggregates. PMID:26391984

  2. Outer Membrane Proteome Analysis of Indian Strain of Pasteurella multocida Serotype B:2 by MALDI-TOF/MS Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Prasannavadhana, A.; Kumar, Santosh; Thomas, Prasad; Sarangi, Laxmi Narayan; Gupta, Santosh Kumar; Priyadarshini, Adyasha; Nagaleekar, Viswas Konasagara; Singh, Vijendra Pal

    2014-01-01

    Identification of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) is important to understand the bacteria structure and function, host-pathogen interaction, development of novel vaccine candidates, and diagnostic antigens. But till now the key antigens of P. multocida B:2 isolate causing haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) in animals are not clearly defined. In this study, P52 strain of P. multocida serotype B:2 was grown in vitro under iron-rich and iron-limited condition. The OMPs were extracted by sarkosyl method followed by SDS-PAGE and the proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF/MS analysis. In total, 22 proteins were identified, of which 7 were observed exclusively under iron-limited condition. Most of the high molecular weight proteins (TbpA, HgbA, HgbB, HasR, IroA, and HemR) identified in this study were involved in iron acquisition. Some hypothetical proteins (HP-KCU-10206, HP and AAUPMB 08244, HP AAUPMB 21592, HP AAUPMB 19766, AAUPMB 11295) were observed for the first time in this study which could be unique to serotype B:2. Further functional in vivo study of the proteins identified are required to explore the utility of these proteins in developing diagnostics and vaccine against HS. PMID:25587569

  3. Improvement of MALDI-TOF MS profiling for the differentiation of species within the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex.

    PubMed

    Šedo, Ondrej; Nemec, Alexandr; Křížová, Lenka; Kačalová, Magdaléna; Zdráhal, Zbyněk

    2013-12-01

    MALDI-TOF MS is currently becoming the method of choice for rapid identification of bacterial species in routine diagnostics. Yet, this method suffers from the inability to differentiate reliably between some closely related bacterial species including those of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii (ACB) complex, namely A. baumannii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis. In the present study, we evaluated a protocol which was different from that used in the Bruker Daltonics identification system (MALDI BioTyper) to improve species identification using a taxonomically precisely defined set of 105 strains representing the four validly named species of the ACB complex. The novel protocol is based on the change in matrix composition from alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (saturated solution in water:acetonitrile:trifluoroacetic acid, 47.5:50:2.5, v/v) to ferulic acid (12.5mgml(-1) solution in water:acetonitrile:formic acid 50:33:17, v/v), while the other steps of sample processing remain unchanged. Compared to the standard protocol, the novel one extended the range of detected compounds towards higher molecular weight, produced signals with better mass resolution, and allowed the detection of species-specific signals. As a result, differentiation of A. nosocomialis and A. baumannii strains by cluster analysis was improved and 13 A. nosocomialis strains, assigned erroneously or ambiguously by using the standard protocol, were correctly identified.

  4. Identification and characterization of a new IgE-binding protein in mackerel ( Scomber japonicus) by MALDI-TOF-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bangping; Li, Zhenxing; Zheng, Lina; Liu, Yixuan; Lin, Hong

    2011-03-01

    As fish is one source of the `big eight' food allergens, the prevalence of fish allergy has increased over the past few years. In order to better understand fish allergy, it is necessary to identify fish allergens. Based on the sera from fish-allergenic patients, a 28 kDa protein from local mackerel ( Scomber japonicus), which has not been reported as a fish allergen, was found to be reactive with most of the patients' sera. The 28 kDa protein was analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry). Mascot search in NCBI database (Date: 08/07/2010) showed that the top protein matched, i.e. triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) from Xiphophorus maculatus and Poecilia reticulata, had a mowse (molecular weight search) score of 98. In addition, TPI from Epinephelus coioides also matched this mackerel protein with a mowse score of 96. Because TPI is considered as an allergen in other non-fish organisms, such as lychee, wheat, latex, archaeopotamobius ( Archaeopotamobius sibiriensis) and crangon ( Crangon crangon), we consider that it may also be an allergen in mackerel.

  5. Identification of metal-binding to proteins in seed samples using RF-HPLC-UV, GFAAS and MALDI-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Rigueira, Leila M B; Lana, Diogo A P D; Dos Santos, Daniel M; Pimenta, Adriano M; Augusti, Rodinei; Costa, Leticia M

    2016-11-15

    An extraction procedure using Tris-HCl buffer solution was employed in order to extract water-soluble proteins from seed samples of oat, wheat and soybean. Initially, the total protein concentration was determined by the Bradford method in each solution, after the extraction procedure. The soybean sample showed a higher concentration of total protein compared to the others. The protein extracts obtained were separated by reverse-phase chromatography (RP-HPLC-UV). The protein fractions were collected and analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI-TOF-MS) for determination of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn and identification of proteins, respectively. The combination of techniques such as RP-HPLC-UV, GFAAS and MALDI-TOF-MS allowed the identification of several proteins bound to metals present in the seed samples.

  6. Identification of metal-binding to proteins in seed samples using RF-HPLC-UV, GFAAS and MALDI-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Rigueira, Leila M B; Lana, Diogo A P D; Dos Santos, Daniel M; Pimenta, Adriano M; Augusti, Rodinei; Costa, Leticia M

    2016-11-15

    An extraction procedure using Tris-HCl buffer solution was employed in order to extract water-soluble proteins from seed samples of oat, wheat and soybean. Initially, the total protein concentration was determined by the Bradford method in each solution, after the extraction procedure. The soybean sample showed a higher concentration of total protein compared to the others. The protein extracts obtained were separated by reverse-phase chromatography (RP-HPLC-UV). The protein fractions were collected and analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI-TOF-MS) for determination of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn and identification of proteins, respectively. The combination of techniques such as RP-HPLC-UV, GFAAS and MALDI-TOF-MS allowed the identification of several proteins bound to metals present in the seed samples. PMID:27283712

  7. Comparison of MALDI-TOF MS, Housekeeping Gene Sequencing, and 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing for Identification of Aeromonas Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hee Bong; Yoon, Jihoon; Lee, Yangsoon; Kim, Myung Sook

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The genus Aeromonas is a pathogen that is well known to cause severe clinical illnesses, ranging from gastroenteritis to sepsis. Accurate identification of A. hydrophila, A. caviae, and A. veronii is important for the care of patients. However, species identification remains difficult using conventional methods. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of different methods of identifying Aeromonas at the species level: a biochemical method, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry-time of flight (MALDI-TOF MS), 16S rRNA sequencing, and housekeeping gene sequencing (gyrB, rpoB). Materials and Methods We analyzed 65 Aeromonas isolates recovered from patients at a university hospital in Korea between 1996 and 2012. The isolates were recovered from frozen states and tested using the following four methods: a conventional biochemical method, 16S rRNA sequencing, housekeeping gene sequencing with phylogenetic analysis, and MALDI-TOF MS. Results The conventional biochemical method and 16S rRNA sequencing identified Aeromonas at the genus level very accurately, although species level identification was unsatisfactory. MALDI-TOF MS system correctly identified 60 (92.3%) isolates at the species level and an additional four (6.2%) at the genus level. Overall, housekeeping gene sequencing with phylogenetic analysis was found to be the most accurate in identifying Aeromonas at the species level. Conclusion The most accurate method of identification of Aeromonas to species level is by housekeeping gene sequencing, although high cost and technical difficulty hinder its usage in clinical settings. An easy-to-use identification method is needed for clinical laboratories, for which MALDI-TOF MS could be a strong candidate. PMID:25684008

  8. MALDI-TOF MS performance compared to direct examination, culture, and 16S rDNA PCR for the rapid diagnosis of bone and joint infections.

    PubMed

    Lallemand, E; Coiffier, G; Arvieux, C; Brillet, E; Guggenbuhl, P; Jolivet-Gougeon, A

    2016-05-01

    The rapid identification of bacterial species involved in bone and joint infections (BJI) is an important element to optimize the diagnosis and care of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the rapid diagnosis of bone infections, directly on synovial fluid (SF) or on crushed osteoarticular samples (CS). From January to October 2013, we prospectively analyzed 111 osteoarticular samples (bone and joint samples, BJS) from 78 patients in care at the University Hospital of Rennes, France. The diagnosis procedure leading to the sample collection was linked to a suspicion of infection, inflammatory disease, arthritis, or for any bone or joint abnormalities. Standard bacteriological diagnosis and molecular biology analysis [16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing] were conducted. In addition, analysis by MALDI-TOF MS was performed directly on the osteoarticular samples, as soon as the amount allowed. Culture, which remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of BJI, has the highest sensitivity (85.9 %) and remains necessary to test antimicrobial susceptibility. The 16S rDNA PCR results were positive in the group with positive BJI (28.6 %) and negative in the group without infection. Direct examination remains insensitive (31.7 %) but more effective than MALDI-TOF MS directly on the sample (6.3 %). The specificity was 100 % in all cases, except for culture (74.5 %). Bacterial culture remains the gold standard, especially enrichment in blood bottles. Direct analysis of bone samples with MALDI-TOF MS is not useful, possibly due to the low inoculum of BJS. PMID:26942744

  9. Rapid Characterization of Microalgae and Microalgae Mixtures Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).

    PubMed

    Barbano, Duane; Diaz, Regina; Zhang, Lin; Sandrin, Todd; Gerken, Henri; Dempster, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Current molecular methods to characterize microalgae are time-intensive and expensive. Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) may represent a rapid and economical alternative approach. The objectives of this study were to determine whether MALDI-TOF MS can be used to: 1) differentiate microalgae at the species and strain levels and 2) characterize simple microalgal mixtures. A common protein extraction sample preparation method was used to facilitate rapid mass spectrometry-based analysis of 31 microalgae. Each yielded spectra containing between 6 and 56 peaks in the m/z 2,000 to 20,000 range. The taxonomic resolution of this approach appeared higher than that of 18S rDNA sequence analysis. For example, two strains of Scenedesmus acutus differed only by two 18S rDNA nucleotides, but yielded distinct MALDI-TOF mass spectra. Mixtures of two and three microalgae yielded relatively complex spectra that contained peaks associated with members of each mixture. Interestingly, though, mixture-specific peaks were observed at m/z 11,048 and 11,230. Our results suggest that MALDI-TOF MS affords rapid characterization of individual microalgae and simple microalgal mixtures.

  10. Rapid Characterization of Microalgae and Microalgae Mixtures Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)

    PubMed Central

    Barbano, Duane; Diaz, Regina; Zhang, Lin; Sandrin, Todd; Gerken, Henri; Dempster, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Current molecular methods to characterize microalgae are time-intensive and expensive. Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) may represent a rapid and economical alternative approach. The objectives of this study were to determine whether MALDI-TOF MS can be used to: 1) differentiate microalgae at the species and strain levels and 2) characterize simple microalgal mixtures. A common protein extraction sample preparation method was used to facilitate rapid mass spectrometry-based analysis of 31 microalgae. Each yielded spectra containing between 6 and 56 peaks in the m/z 2,000 to 20,000 range. The taxonomic resolution of this approach appeared higher than that of 18S rDNA sequence analysis. For example, two strains of Scenedesmus acutus differed only by two 18S rDNA nucleotides, but yielded distinct MALDI-TOF mass spectra. Mixtures of two and three microalgae yielded relatively complex spectra that contained peaks associated with members of each mixture. Interestingly, though, mixture-specific peaks were observed at m/z 11,048 and 11,230. Our results suggest that MALDI-TOF MS affords rapid characterization of individual microalgae and simple microalgal mixtures. PMID:26271045

  11. Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) Can Precisely Discriminate the Lineages of Listeria monocytogenes and Species of Listeria.

    PubMed

    Ojima-Kato, Teruyo; Yamamoto, Naomi; Takahashi, Hajime; Tamura, Hiroto

    2016-01-01

    The genetic lineages of Listeria monocytogenes and other species of the genus Listeria are correlated with pathogenesis in humans. Although matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has become a prevailing tool for rapid and reliable microbial identification, the precise discrimination of Listeria species and lineages remains a crucial issue in clinical settings and for food safety. In this study, we constructed an accurate and reliable MS database to discriminate the lineages of L. monocytogenes and the species of Listeria (L. monocytogenes, L. innocua, L. welshimeri, L. seeligeri, L. ivanovii, L. grayi, and L. rocourtiae) based on the S10-spc-alpha operon gene encoded ribosomal protein mass spectrum (S10-GERMS) proteotyping method, which relies on both genetic information (genomics) and observed MS peaks in MALDI-TOF MS (proteomics). The specific set of eight biomarkers (ribosomal proteins L24, L6, L18, L15, S11, S9, L31 type B, and S16) yielded characteristic MS patterns for the lineages of L. monocytogenes and the different species of Listeria, and led to the construction of a MS database that was successful in discriminating between these organisms in MALDI-TOF MS fingerprinting analysis followed by advanced proteotyping software Strain Solution analysis. We also confirmed the constructed database on the proteotyping software Strain Solution by using 23 Listeria strains collected from natural sources.

  12. Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) Can Precisely Discriminate the Lineages of Listeria monocytogenes and Species of Listeria

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Naomi; Takahashi, Hajime; Tamura, Hiroto

    2016-01-01

    The genetic lineages of Listeria monocytogenes and other species of the genus Listeria are correlated with pathogenesis in humans. Although matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has become a prevailing tool for rapid and reliable microbial identification, the precise discrimination of Listeria species and lineages remains a crucial issue in clinical settings and for food safety. In this study, we constructed an accurate and reliable MS database to discriminate the lineages of L. monocytogenes and the species of Listeria (L. monocytogenes, L. innocua, L. welshimeri, L. seeligeri, L. ivanovii, L. grayi, and L. rocourtiae) based on the S10-spc-alpha operon gene encoded ribosomal protein mass spectrum (S10-GERMS) proteotyping method, which relies on both genetic information (genomics) and observed MS peaks in MALDI-TOF MS (proteomics). The specific set of eight biomarkers (ribosomal proteins L24, L6, L18, L15, S11, S9, L31 type B, and S16) yielded characteristic MS patterns for the lineages of L. monocytogenes and the different species of Listeria, and led to the construction of a MS database that was successful in discriminating between these organisms in MALDI-TOF MS fingerprinting analysis followed by advanced proteotyping software Strain Solution analysis. We also confirmed the constructed database on the proteotyping software Strain Solution by using 23 Listeria strains collected from natural sources. PMID:27442502

  13. Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) Can Precisely Discriminate the Lineages of Listeria monocytogenes and Species of Listeria.

    PubMed

    Ojima-Kato, Teruyo; Yamamoto, Naomi; Takahashi, Hajime; Tamura, Hiroto

    2016-01-01

    The genetic lineages of Listeria monocytogenes and other species of the genus Listeria are correlated with pathogenesis in humans. Although matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has become a prevailing tool for rapid and reliable microbial identification, the precise discrimination of Listeria species and lineages remains a crucial issue in clinical settings and for food safety. In this study, we constructed an accurate and reliable MS database to discriminate the lineages of L. monocytogenes and the species of Listeria (L. monocytogenes, L. innocua, L. welshimeri, L. seeligeri, L. ivanovii, L. grayi, and L. rocourtiae) based on the S10-spc-alpha operon gene encoded ribosomal protein mass spectrum (S10-GERMS) proteotyping method, which relies on both genetic information (genomics) and observed MS peaks in MALDI-TOF MS (proteomics). The specific set of eight biomarkers (ribosomal proteins L24, L6, L18, L15, S11, S9, L31 type B, and S16) yielded characteristic MS patterns for the lineages of L. monocytogenes and the different species of Listeria, and led to the construction of a MS database that was successful in discriminating between these organisms in MALDI-TOF MS fingerprinting analysis followed by advanced proteotyping software Strain Solution analysis. We also confirmed the constructed database on the proteotyping software Strain Solution by using 23 Listeria strains collected from natural sources. PMID:27442502

  14. Identification and Characterization of Lipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis B1 Against Sapstain Fungus of Rubberwood Through MALDI-TOF-MS and RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Sajitha, K L; Dev, Suma Arun; Maria Florence, E J

    2016-07-01

    Bacillus subtilis is a potent biocontrol agent producing a wide array of antifungal lipopeptides for the inhibition of fungal growth. B. subtilis B1 isolated from market-available compost provided an efficient control of rubberwood sapstain fungus, Lasiodiplodia theobromae. The current study is aimed to identify and characterize the lipopeptides responsible for the biocontrol of rubberwood sapstain fungus by Bacillus subtilis B1. The bacterial whole-cell surface extract from the dual culture of B. subtilis B1 and sapstain fungus (L. theobromae) was analysed using MALDI-TOF-MS. The protonated as well as sodium, potassium adducts of homologues of iturin C, surfactin, bacillomycin D and fengycin A and B were identified and expression of the lipopeptide biosynthetic genes could be confirmed through RT-PCR. This is the first report of mycobacillin and trimethylsilyl derivative of bacilysin during antagonism through MALDI-TOF-MS. MALDI-TOF-MS with RT-PCR offered easy platforms to characterize the antifungal lipopeptides. The identification of antifungal lipopeptides can lead to the formulation of prospective biocontrol by-products which have wide-scale utility. PMID:27004481

  15. Proteomic profiling of renal allograft rejection in serum using magnetic bead-based sample fractionation and MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Sui, Weiguo; Huang, Liling; Dai, Yong; Chen, Jiejing; Yan, Qiang; Huang, He

    2010-12-01

    Proteomics is one of the emerging techniques for biomarker discovery. Biomarkers can be used for early noninvasive diagnosis and prognosis of diseases and treatment efficacy evaluation. In the present study, the well-established research systems of ClinProt Micro solution incorporated unique magnetic bead sample preparation technology, which, based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), have become very successful in bioinformatics due to its outstanding performance and reproducibility for discovery disease-related biomarker. We collected fasting blood samples from patients with biopsy-confirmed acute renal allograft rejection (n = 12), chronic rejection (n = 12), stable graft function (n = 12) and also from healthy volunteers (n = 13) to study serum peptidome patterns. Specimens were purified with magnetic bead-based weak cation exchange chromatography and analyzed with a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. The results indicated that 18 differential peptide peaks were selected as potential biomarkers of acute renal allograft rejection, and 6 differential peptide peaks were selected as potential biomarkers of chronic rejection. A Quick Classifier Algorithm was used to set up the classification models for acute and chronic renal allograft rejection. The algorithm models recognize 82.64% of acute rejection and 98.96% of chronic rejection episodes, respectively. We were able to identify serum protein fingerprints in small sample sizes of recipients with renal allograft rejection and establish the models for diagnosis of renal allograft rejection. This preliminary study demonstrated that proteomics is an emerging tool for early diagnosis of renal allograft rejection and helps us to better understand the pathogenesis of disease process.

  16. Comparison of MALDI-TOF MS and AFLP for strain typing of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Veenemans, J; Welker, M; van Belkum, A; Saccomani, M C; Girard, V; Pettersson, A; Verhulst, C; Kluytmans-Vandenbergh, M; Kluytmans, J

    2016-05-01

    Typing of bacterial isolates using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) potentially provides an efficient on-site method to monitor the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and rapidly detect outbreaks. We compared MALDI-MS typing results to those of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) in a collection of 52 ESBL-producing Escherichia coli, isolated in a Dutch nursing home with an on-going outbreak of ST131 E. coli. Specific MALDI types were defined based on spectral data from four replicate colony samples of isolates grown on Columbia agar using multivariate statistical procedures. Type-specific superspectra were computed for four E .coli MALDI-types and tested for the potential of rapid and automated typing. The effect of different incubation conditions on typing performance was tested by analysing five isolates incubated for 24 h and 48 h on five different media. Types defined based on MALDI spectra were largely in agreement with the AFLP results, although some MALDI types comprised of more than one AFLP type. In particular, isolates belonging to ST131 showed distinct mass patterns. The proportion of isolates correctly assigned was substantially lower for isolates incubated on Sabouraud-dextrose and Drigalski agars for 24 h, and for those incubated for 48 h (all media). Our results show that the identification of type-specific peaks potentially allows direct typing of isolates belonging to specific clonal lineages. Both incubation time and media affected type assignment, suggesting that there is a need for a careful standardization of incubation time and culturing conditions when developing MALDI-typing schemes for E. coli.

  17. Analyses of black fungi by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS): species-level identification of clinical isolates of Exophiala dermatitidis.

    PubMed

    Kondori, Nahid; Erhard, Marcel; Welinder-Olsson, Christina; Groenewald, Marizeth; Verkley, Gerard; Moore, Edward R B

    2015-01-01

    Conventional mycological identifications based on the recognition of morphological characteristics can be problematic. A relatively new methodology applicable for the identification of microorganisms is based on the exploitation of taxon- specific mass patterns recorded from abundant cell proteins directly from whole-cell preparations, using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). This study reports the application of MALDI-TOF MS for the differentiation and identifications of black yeasts, isolated from the respiratory tracts of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Initial phenotypic and DNA sequence-based analyses identified these isolates to be Exophiala dermatitidis. The type strains of E. dermatitidis (CBS 207.35(T)) and other species of Exophiala were included in the MALDI-TOF MS analyses to establish the references for comparing the mass spectra of the clinical isolates of Exophiala. MALDI-TOF MS analyses exhibited extremely close relationships among the clinical isolates and with the spectra generated from the type strain of E. dermatitidis. The relationships observed between the E. dermatitidis strains from the MALDI-TOF MS profiling analyses were supported by DNA sequence-based analyses of the rRNA ITS1 and ITS2 regions. These data demonstrated the applicability of MALDI-TOF MS as a reliable, rapid and cost-effective method for the identification of isolates of E. dermatitidis and other clinically relevant fungi and yeasts that typically are difficult to identify by conventional methods. PMID:25790495

  18. Analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus major clonal lineages by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingting; Ding, Jinya; Rao, Xiancai; Yu, Jingbo; Chu, Meiling; Ren, Wei; Wang, Lu; Xue, Wencheng

    2015-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important pathogen associated with nosocomial infections in many countries. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is one of the genetic typing methods used to type MRSA with a high discriminatory power, however, it is labor-intensive, timely, and costly. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) coupled with ClinProTools is a potential tool to discover biomarker peaks and to generate a classification model based on highly sophisticated mathematical algorithms to discriminate clonal lineages. We investigated the performance of MALDI-TOF MS for discriminating 154 MRSA-ST239, 72 MRSA-ST5, 30 MRSA-ST59, 14 MRSA-ST45, and 20 MRSA-OST (other clonal lineages). Our results indicate that the model construction and validation have good potency to discriminate ST45 from other lineages with a sensitivity and a specificity of both 100%, and a sensitivity of 95.80% and a specificity of 94.62% to identify ST239. For Biotyper classification, the sensitivity and specificity were more than of 90% for ST239, ST59 and ST45, whereas only 81.94% sensitivity for ST5. By single-peak analysis, the peaks m/z 4808 and 9614 can correctly discriminate ST45 a sensitivity and a specificity of both 100%; the peak m/z 6554 can also discriminate ST239 with a sensitivity of 91.9% and a specificity of 85.4%. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS coupled with ClinProTools has a high detection performance for MRSA typing with obvious advantages of being rapid, highly accurate, and being a low cost in comparison with MLST.

  19. Chemical derivatization combined with capillary LC or MALDI-TOF MS for trace determination of lipoic acid in cosmetics and integrated protein expression profiling in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Ju; Lin, Ying-Chi; Chen, Yen-Ling; Feng, Chia-Hsien

    2014-12-01

    Lipoic acid (LA) is an essential cofactor in mitochondrial enzymes and an ideal antioxidant in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Capillary liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detection (CapLC-UV) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) are two environmentally friendly methods for determining LA. In this study, a pre-column microwave-assisted derivatization with 4-bromomethyl-6,7-dimethoxycoumarin enhanced the UV absorbance of LA and was monitored at 345 nm by CapLC-UV. Gradient separation was performed using a reversed-phase C18 column with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid solution. The ionization of LA was increased, and the LA derivative was detected by MALDI-TOF MS at m/z 683 with an α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid matrix. The linear response ranged from 0.1 to 40 μM with a correlation coefficient of 0.999. The CapLC-UV and MALDI-TOF MS had detection limits of 5 and 4 fmol, respectively. These methods effectively detected LA in dietary supplements and cosmetics. Cellular proteomes of a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) irradiated with UV radiation were also compared with and without LA treatment. The cellular proteomes were identified by nanoultra performance LC with LTQ Orbitrap system after trypsin digestion. Protein identification was performed by simultaneous peptide sequencing and MASCOT search. The analysis revealed changes in several proteins, including CDC42, TPI1, HNRPA2B1, PRDX1, PTGES3 and MYL6.

  20. Rapid and reliable species identification of wild mushrooms by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Ryota; Yamada, Sayumi; Tu, Zhihao; Sugawara, Akiko; Suzuki, Kousuke; Hoshiba, Toshihiro; Eisaka, Sadao; Yamaguchi, Akihiro

    2016-08-31

    Mushrooms are a favourite natural food in many countries. However, some wild species cause food poisoning, sometimes lethal, due to misidentification caused by confusing fruiting bodies similar to those of edible species. The morphological inspection of mycelia, spores and fruiting bodies have been traditionally used for the identification of mushrooms. More recently, DNA sequencing analysis has been successfully applied to mushrooms and to many other species. This study focuses on a simpler and more rapid methodology for the identification of wild mushrooms via protein profiling based on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). A preliminary study using 6 commercially available cultivated mushrooms suggested that a more reproducible spectrum was obtained from a portion of the cap than from the stem of a fruiting body by the extraction of proteins with a formic acid-acetonitrile mixture (1 + 1). We used 157 wild mushroom-fruiting bodies collected in the centre of Hokkaido from June to November 2014. Sequencing analysis of a portion of the ribosomal RNA gene provided 134 identifications of mushrooms by genus or species, however 23 samples containing 10 unknown species that had lower concordance rate of the nucleotide sequences in a BLAST search (less than 97%) and 13 samples that had unidentifiable poor or mixed sequencing signals remained unknown. MALDI-TOF MS analysis yielded a reproducible spectrum (frequency of matching score ≥ 2.0 was ≥6 spectra from 12 spectra measurements) for 114 of 157 samples. Profiling scores that matched each other within the database gave correct species identification (with scores of ≥2.0) for 110 samples (96%). An in-house prepared database was constructed from 106 independent species, except for overlapping identifications. We used 48 wild mushrooms that were collected in autumn 2015 to validate the in-house database. As a result, 21 mushrooms were identified at the species level with

  1. Rapid and reliable species identification of wild mushrooms by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Ryota; Yamada, Sayumi; Tu, Zhihao; Sugawara, Akiko; Suzuki, Kousuke; Hoshiba, Toshihiro; Eisaka, Sadao; Yamaguchi, Akihiro

    2016-08-31

    Mushrooms are a favourite natural food in many countries. However, some wild species cause food poisoning, sometimes lethal, due to misidentification caused by confusing fruiting bodies similar to those of edible species. The morphological inspection of mycelia, spores and fruiting bodies have been traditionally used for the identification of mushrooms. More recently, DNA sequencing analysis has been successfully applied to mushrooms and to many other species. This study focuses on a simpler and more rapid methodology for the identification of wild mushrooms via protein profiling based on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). A preliminary study using 6 commercially available cultivated mushrooms suggested that a more reproducible spectrum was obtained from a portion of the cap than from the stem of a fruiting body by the extraction of proteins with a formic acid-acetonitrile mixture (1 + 1). We used 157 wild mushroom-fruiting bodies collected in the centre of Hokkaido from June to November 2014. Sequencing analysis of a portion of the ribosomal RNA gene provided 134 identifications of mushrooms by genus or species, however 23 samples containing 10 unknown species that had lower concordance rate of the nucleotide sequences in a BLAST search (less than 97%) and 13 samples that had unidentifiable poor or mixed sequencing signals remained unknown. MALDI-TOF MS analysis yielded a reproducible spectrum (frequency of matching score ≥ 2.0 was ≥6 spectra from 12 spectra measurements) for 114 of 157 samples. Profiling scores that matched each other within the database gave correct species identification (with scores of ≥2.0) for 110 samples (96%). An in-house prepared database was constructed from 106 independent species, except for overlapping identifications. We used 48 wild mushrooms that were collected in autumn 2015 to validate the in-house database. As a result, 21 mushrooms were identified at the species level with

  2. Quantification of serum apolipoproteins A-I and B-100 in clinical samples using an automated SISCAPA-MALDI-TOF-MS workflow.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Irene; Nouta, Jan; Razavi, Morteza; Yip, Richard; Bladergroen, Marco R; Romijn, Fred P H T M; Smit, Nico P M; Drews, Oliver; Paape, Rainer; Suckau, Detlev; Deelder, André M; van der Burgt, Yuri E M; Pearson, Terry W; Anderson, N Leigh; Cobbaert, Christa M

    2015-06-15

    A fully automated workflow was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of the cardiovascular disease risk markers apolipoproteins A-I (apoA-I) and B-100 (apoB-100) in clinical sera. By coupling of stable-isotope standards and capture by anti-peptide antibodies (SISCAPA) for enrichment of proteotypic peptides from serum digests to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS detection, the standardized platform enabled rapid, liquid chromatography-free quantification at a relatively high throughput of 96 samples in 12h. The average imprecision in normo- and triglyceridemic serum pools was 3.8% for apoA-I and 4.2% for apoB-100 (4 replicates over 5 days). If stored properly, the MALDI target containing enriched apoA-1 and apoB-100 peptides could be re-analyzed without any effect on bias or imprecision for at least 7 days after initial analysis. Validation of the workflow revealed excellent linearity for daily calibration with external, serum-based calibrators (R(2) of 0.984 for apoA-I and 0.976 for apoB-100 as average over five days), and absence of matrix effects or interference from triglycerides, protein content, hemolysates, or bilirubins. Quantification of apoA-I in 93 normo- and hypertriglyceridemic clinical sera showed good agreement with immunoturbidimetric analysis (slope = 1.01, R(2) = 0.95, mean bias = 4.0%). Measurement of apoB-100 in the same clinical sera using both methods, however, revealed several outliers in SISCAPA-MALDI-TOF-MS measurements, possibly as a result of the lower MALDI-TOF-MS signal intensity (slope = 1.09, R(2) = 0.91, mean bias = 2.0%). The combination of analytical performance, rapid cycle time and automation potential validate the SISCAPA-MALDI-TOF-MS platform as a valuable approach for standardized and high-throughput quantification of apoA-I and apoB-100 in large sample cohorts.

  3. Gram-Stain Plus MALDI-TOF MS (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry) for a Rapid Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Burillo, Almudena; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Belén; Ramiro, Ana; Cercenado, Emilia; Rodríguez-Créixems, Marta; Bouza, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Microbiological confirmation of a urinary tract infection (UTI) takes 24–48 h. In the meantime, patients are usually given empirical antibiotics, sometimes inappropriately. We assessed the feasibility of sequentially performing a Gram stain and MALDI-TOF MS mass spectrometry (MS) on urine samples to anticipate clinically useful information. In May-June 2012, we randomly selected 1000 urine samples from patients with suspected UTI. All were Gram stained and those yielding bacteria of a single morphotype were processed for MALDI-TOF MS. Our sequential algorithm was correlated with the standard semiquantitative urine culture result as follows: Match, the information provided was anticipative of culture result; Minor error, the information provided was partially anticipative of culture result; Major error, the information provided was incorrect, potentially leading to inappropriate changes in antimicrobial therapy. A positive culture was obtained in 242/1000 samples. The Gram stain revealed a single morphotype in 207 samples, which were subjected to MALDI-TOF MS. The diagnostic performance of the Gram stain was: sensitivity (Se) 81.3%, specificity (Sp) 93.2%, positive predictive value (PPV) 81.3%, negative predictive value (NPV) 93.2%, positive likelihood ratio (+LR) 11.91, negative likelihood ratio (−LR) 0.20 and accuracy 90.0% while that of MALDI-TOF MS was: Se 79.2%, Sp 73.5, +LR 2.99, −LR 0.28 and accuracy 78.3%. The use of both techniques provided information anticipative of the culture result in 82.7% of cases, information with minor errors in 13.4% and information with major errors in 3.9%. Results were available within 1 h. Our serial algorithm provided information that was consistent or showed minor errors for 96.1% of urine samples from patients with suspected UTI. The clinical impacts of this rapid UTI diagnosis strategy need to be assessed through indicators of adequacy of treatment such as a reduced time to appropriate empirical treatment or earlier

  4. Usefulness of CHROMagar Candida Medium, Biochemical Methods--API ID32C and VITEK 2 Compact and Two MALDI-TOF MS Systems for Candida spp. Identification.

    PubMed

    Stefaniuk, Elzbieta; Baraniak, Anna; Fortuna, Monika; Hryniewicz, Waleria

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare of the yeasts identification results obtained with two new systems using the MALDI-TOF MS technique with the ones obtained using the routine identification methods of Candida spp. in clinical microbiology laboratories. All 124 Candida spp. isolates were recovered from the routine examination of clinical specimens in microbiological laboratories and collected in the Centre of Quality Control in Microbiology in Warsaw (Poland). Our findings confirm the high agreement (98%) of fungal identification using the standard, biochemistry laboratory methods and mass spectrometry technique. PMID:27282002

  5. OmpU as a biomarker for rapid discrimination between toxigenic and epidemic Vibrio cholerae O1/O139 and non-epidemic Vibrio cholerae in a modified MALDI-TOF MS assay

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholera is an acute diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae. Outbreaks are caused by a genetically homogenous group of strains from serogroup O1 or O139 that are able to produce the cholera toxin. Rapid detection and identification of these epidemic strains is essential for an effective response to cholera outbreaks. Results The use of ferulic acid as a matrix in a new MALDI-TOF MS assay increased the measurable mass range of existing MALDI-TOF MS protocols for bacterial identification. The assay enabled rapid discrimination between epidemic V. cholerae O1/O139 strains and other less pathogenic V. cholerae strains. OmpU, an outer membrane protein whose amino acid sequence is highly conserved among epidemic strains of V. cholerae, appeared as a discriminatory marker in the novel MALDI-TOF MS assay. Conclusions The extended mass range of MALDI-TOF MS measurements obtained by using ferulic acid improved the screening for biomarkers in complex protein mixtures. Differences in the mass of abundant homologous proteins due to variation in amino acid sequences can rapidly be examined in multiple samples. Here, a rapid MALDI-TOF MS assay was developed that could discriminate between epidemic O1/O139 strains and other less pathogenic V. cholerae strains based on differences in mass of the OmpU protein. It appeared that the amino acid sequence of OmpU from epidemic V. cholerae O1/O139 strains is unique and highly conserved. PMID:24943244

  6. Rapid identification of microorganisms isolated from throat swab specimens of community-acquired pneumonia patients by two MALDI-TOF MS systems.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Di; Zhao, Fei; Lv, Min; Zhang, Huifang; Zhang, Yongchan; Huang, Hui; Su, Peng; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2012-08-01

    The rapid and reliable identification of pathogens is crucial for confirming infections concomitant with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), guiding antimicrobial therapy, and epidemiologic surveillance. In this study, 2 matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) systems coupled to the Biotyper or SARAMIS database were used to identify strains isolated from the throat swab samples of 70 CAP patients. The analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used as the reference method. A total of 212 suspicious colonies representing 12 genera and 30 species were identified. Of these, 99.1% (total 210/212 and 202/212 in Biotyper and 193/212 in SARAMIS) were successfully identified with 93.4% (total 198 /212 and 190/212 in Biotyper and 149/212 in SARAMIS) identified at the species level. The integrity and comprehensiveness of the databases are the main reason for the significant differences in the identification of isolates between the Biotyper and SARAMIS systems. As a rapid, economical, and high-throughput method, MALDI-TOF MS is an effective alternative identification method that can aid in the diagnosis and surveillance of CAP.

  7. Confirmation of Fructans biosynthesized in vitro from [1-13C]glucose in asparagus tissues using MALDI-TOF MS and ESI-MS.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takashi; Maeda, Tomoo; Grant, Suzanne; Grant, Gordon; Sporns, Peter

    2013-05-15

    Accumulation of Fructans was confirmed in asparagus tissues that had been cultured for 2 days on media supplemented with glucose. It is very common that Fructans are biosynthesized from sucrose. We hypothesized however that Fructans could also be biosynthesized from glucose. Stem tissues of in vitro-cultured asparagus were subcultured for 72 h on a medium containing 0.5M of [1-(13)C]glucose. A medium containing 0.5M of normal ((12)C) glucose was used as control. Carbohydrates were extracted from the tissues and analyzed using HPLC, MALDI-TOF MS and ESI-MS. HPLC results indicated that the accumulation of short-chain Fructans was similar in both (13)C-labelled and control samples. Short-chain Fructans of DP=3-7 were detected using MALDI-TOF MS. The molecular mass of each oligomer in the (13)C-labelled sample was higher than the mass of the natural sample by 1 m/z unit per sugar moiety. The results of ESI-MS on the HPLC fractions of neokestose and 1-kestose showed that these oligomers (DP=3) were biosynthesized from exogenous glucose added to the medium. We conclude that not only exogenous sucrose but glucose can induce Fructan biosynthesis; fructans of both inulin type and inulin neoseries are also biosynthesized from glucose accumulated in asparagus tissues; the glucose molecules (or its metabolic products) were incorporated into Fructans as structural monomers.

  8. Development of aptamer-conjugated magnetic graphene/gold nanoparticle hybrid nanocomposites for specific enrichment and rapid analysis of thrombin by MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ya; Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2014-11-01

    Simple, rapid and sensitive analysis of thrombin (a tumor biomarker) in complex samples is quite clinical relevant and essential for the development of disease diagnosis and pharmacotherapy. Herein, we developed a novel method based on aptamer-conjugated magnetic graphene/gold nanoparticles nanocomposites (MagG@Au) for specific enrichment and rapid analysis of thrombin in biological samples using MALDI-TOF-MS. At first, gold nanoparticles were compactly deposited on PDDA functionalized magnetic graphene through electrostatic interaction. Afterwards, aptamer was easily conjugated to gold nanoparticles via Au-S bond formation. The as-made aptamer-conjugated nanocomposites took advantage of the magnetism of magnetic graphene, the high affinity and specificity of aptamer, facilitating a high-efficient separation and enrichment of thrombin. More importantly, due to the large surface area of the hybrid substrate, the average coverage density of aptamer achieved 0.34 nmol/mg, which enhanced the thrombin binding capacity and the recovery of thrombin in real samples. In turn, the enriched thrombin attributed to the sensitive output of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry signal, 0.085 ng μL(-1) (2.36 nM) thrombin could be detected. This proposed method has a relatively wide linear relation ranging from 0.1 ng μL(-1) to 10 ng μL(-1), and satisfactory specificity. The proposed high-throughput method based on MALDI-TOF MS is expected to the application in the disease biomarker detection and clinical diagnosis. PMID:25127596

  9. Biomarker- and similarity coefficient-based approaches to bacterial mixture characterization using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Smart, Sonja; Sandrin, Todd R

    2015-01-01

    MALDI-TOF MS profiling has been shown to be a rapid and reliable method to characterize pure cultures of bacteria. Currently, there is keen interest in using this technique to identify bacteria in mixtures. Promising results have been reported with two- or three-isolate model systems using biomarker-based approaches. In this work, we applied MALDI-TOF MS-based methods to a more complex model mixture containing six bacteria. We employed: 1) a biomarker-based approach that has previously been shown to be useful in identification of individual bacteria in pure cultures and simple mixtures and 2) a similarity coefficient-based approach that is routinely and nearly exclusively applied to identification of individual bacteria in pure cultures. Both strategies were developed and evaluated using blind-coded mixtures. With regard to the biomarker-based approach, results showed that most peaks in mixture spectra could be assigned to those found in spectra of each component bacterium; however, peaks shared by two isolates as well as peaks that could not be assigned to any individual component isolate were observed. For two-isolate blind-coded samples, bacteria were correctly identified using both similarity coefficient- and biomarker-based strategies, while for blind-coded samples containing more than two isolates, bacteria were more effectively identified using a biomarker-based strategy. PMID:26537565

  10. Classification of the genus Bacillus based on MALDI-TOF MS analysis of ribosomal proteins coded in S10 and spc operons.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Yudai; Sato, Jun; Sato, Hiroaki; Hosoda, Akifumi; Tamura, Hiroto

    2011-05-25

    A rapid bacterial identification method by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) using ribosomal proteins coded in S10 and spc operons as biomarkers, named the S10-GERMS (the S10-spc-alpha operon gene encoded ribosomal protein mass spectrum) method, was applied for the genus Bacillus a Gram-positive bacterium. The S10-GERMS method could successfully distinguish the difference between B. subtilis subsp. subtilis NBRC 13719(T) and B. subtilis subsp. spizizenii NBRC 101239(T) because of the mass difference of 2 ribosomal subunit proteins, despite the difference of only 2 bases in the 16S rRNA gene between them. The 8 selected reliable and reproducible ribosomal subunit proteins without disturbance of S/N level on MALDI-TOF MS analysis, S10, S14, S19, L18, L22, L24, L29, and L30, coded in S10 and spc operons were significantly useful biomarkers for rapid bacterial classification at species and strain levels by the S10-GERMS method of genus Bacillus strains without purification of ribosomal proteins.

  11. Development of a Rapid and Accurate Identification Method for Citrobacter Species Isolated from Pork Products Using a Matrix-Assisted Laser-Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).

    PubMed

    Kwak, Hye-Lim; Han, Sun-Kyung; Park, Sunghoon; Park, Si Hong; Shim, Jae-Yong; Oh, Mihwa; Ricke, Steven C; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2015-09-01

    Previous detection methods for Citrobacter are considered time consuming and laborious. In this study, we have developed a rapid and accurate detection method for Citrobacter species in pork products, using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). A total of 35 Citrobacter strains were isolated from 30 pork products and identified by both MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA gene sequencing approaches. All isolates were identified to the species level by the MALDI-TOF MS, while 16S rRNA gene sequencing results could not discriminate them clearly. These results confirmed that MALDI-TOF MS is a more accurate and rapid detection method for the identification of Citrobacter species.

  12. A Designed Experiments Approach to Optimizing MALDI-TOF MS Spectrum Processing Parameters Enhances Detection of Antibiotic Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Penny, Christian; Grothendick, Beau; Zhang, Lin; Borror, Connie M.; Barbano, Duane; Cornelius, Angela J.; Gilpin, Brent J.; Fagerquist, Clifton K.; Zaragoza, William J.; Jay-Russell, Michele T.; Lastovica, Albert J.; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Cauchie, Henry-Michel; Sandrin, Todd R.

    2016-01-01

    MALDI-TOF MS has been utilized as a reliable and rapid tool for microbial fingerprinting at the genus and species levels. Recently, there has been keen interest in using MALDI-TOF MS beyond the genus and species levels to rapidly identify antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria. The purpose of this study was to enhance strain level resolution for Campylobacter jejuni through the optimization of spectrum processing parameters using a series of designed experiments. A collection of 172 strains of C. jejuni were collected from Luxembourg, New Zealand, North America, and South Africa, consisting of four groups of antibiotic resistant isolates. The groups included: (1) 65 strains resistant to cefoperazone (2) 26 resistant to cefoperazone and beta-lactams (3) 5 strains resistant to cefoperazone, beta-lactams, and tetracycline, and (4) 76 strains resistant to cefoperazone, teicoplanin, amphotericin, B and cephalothin. Initially, a model set of 16 strains (three biological replicates and three technical replicates per isolate, yielding a total of 144 spectra) of C. jejuni was subjected to each designed experiment to enhance detection of antibiotic resistance. The most optimal parameters were applied to the larger collection of 172 isolates (two biological replicates and three technical replicates per isolate, yielding a total of 1,031 spectra). We observed an increase in antibiotic resistance detection whenever either a curve based similarity coefficient (Pearson or ranked Pearson) was applied rather than a peak based (Dice) and/or the optimized preprocessing parameters were applied. Increases in antimicrobial resistance detection were scored using the jackknife maximum similarity technique following cluster analysis. From the first four groups of antibiotic resistant isolates, the optimized preprocessing parameters increased detection respective to the aforementioned groups by: (1) 5% (2) 9% (3) 10%, and (4) 2%. An additional second categorization was created from the

  13. A Designed Experiments Approach to Optimizing MALDI-TOF MS Spectrum Processing Parameters Enhances Detection of Antibiotic Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Penny, Christian; Grothendick, Beau; Zhang, Lin; Borror, Connie M; Barbano, Duane; Cornelius, Angela J; Gilpin, Brent J; Fagerquist, Clifton K; Zaragoza, William J; Jay-Russell, Michele T; Lastovica, Albert J; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Cauchie, Henry-Michel; Sandrin, Todd R

    2016-01-01

    MALDI-TOF MS has been utilized as a reliable and rapid tool for microbial fingerprinting at the genus and species levels. Recently, there has been keen interest in using MALDI-TOF MS beyond the genus and species levels to rapidly identify antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria. The purpose of this study was to enhance strain level resolution for Campylobacter jejuni through the optimization of spectrum processing parameters using a series of designed experiments. A collection of 172 strains of C. jejuni were collected from Luxembourg, New Zealand, North America, and South Africa, consisting of four groups of antibiotic resistant isolates. The groups included: (1) 65 strains resistant to cefoperazone (2) 26 resistant to cefoperazone and beta-lactams (3) 5 strains resistant to cefoperazone, beta-lactams, and tetracycline, and (4) 76 strains resistant to cefoperazone, teicoplanin, amphotericin, B and cephalothin. Initially, a model set of 16 strains (three biological replicates and three technical replicates per isolate, yielding a total of 144 spectra) of C. jejuni was subjected to each designed experiment to enhance detection of antibiotic resistance. The most optimal parameters were applied to the larger collection of 172 isolates (two biological replicates and three technical replicates per isolate, yielding a total of 1,031 spectra). We observed an increase in antibiotic resistance detection whenever either a curve based similarity coefficient (Pearson or ranked Pearson) was applied rather than a peak based (Dice) and/or the optimized preprocessing parameters were applied. Increases in antimicrobial resistance detection were scored using the jackknife maximum similarity technique following cluster analysis. From the first four groups of antibiotic resistant isolates, the optimized preprocessing parameters increased detection respective to the aforementioned groups by: (1) 5% (2) 9% (3) 10%, and (4) 2%. An additional second categorization was created from the

  14. A Designed Experiments Approach to Optimizing MALDI-TOF MS Spectrum Processing Parameters Enhances Detection of Antibiotic Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Penny, Christian; Grothendick, Beau; Zhang, Lin; Borror, Connie M; Barbano, Duane; Cornelius, Angela J; Gilpin, Brent J; Fagerquist, Clifton K; Zaragoza, William J; Jay-Russell, Michele T; Lastovica, Albert J; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Cauchie, Henry-Michel; Sandrin, Todd R

    2016-01-01

    MALDI-TOF MS has been utilized as a reliable and rapid tool for microbial fingerprinting at the genus and species levels. Recently, there has been keen interest in using MALDI-TOF MS beyond the genus and species levels to rapidly identify antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria. The purpose of this study was to enhance strain level resolution for Campylobacter jejuni through the optimization of spectrum processing parameters using a series of designed experiments. A collection of 172 strains of C. jejuni were collected from Luxembourg, New Zealand, North America, and South Africa, consisting of four groups of antibiotic resistant isolates. The groups included: (1) 65 strains resistant to cefoperazone (2) 26 resistant to cefoperazone and beta-lactams (3) 5 strains resistant to cefoperazone, beta-lactams, and tetracycline, and (4) 76 strains resistant to cefoperazone, teicoplanin, amphotericin, B and cephalothin. Initially, a model set of 16 strains (three biological replicates and three technical replicates per isolate, yielding a total of 144 spectra) of C. jejuni was subjected to each designed experiment to enhance detection of antibiotic resistance. The most optimal parameters were applied to the larger collection of 172 isolates (two biological replicates and three technical replicates per isolate, yielding a total of 1,031 spectra). We observed an increase in antibiotic resistance detection whenever either a curve based similarity coefficient (Pearson or ranked Pearson) was applied rather than a peak based (Dice) and/or the optimized preprocessing parameters were applied. Increases in antimicrobial resistance detection were scored using the jackknife maximum similarity technique following cluster analysis. From the first four groups of antibiotic resistant isolates, the optimized preprocessing parameters increased detection respective to the aforementioned groups by: (1) 5% (2) 9% (3) 10%, and (4) 2%. An additional second categorization was created from the

  15. High-throughput profiling of protein N-glycosylation by MALDI-TOF-MS employing linkage-specific sialic acid esterification.

    PubMed

    Reiding, Karli R; Blank, Dennis; Kuijper, Dennis M; Deelder, André M; Wuhrer, Manfred

    2014-06-17

    Protein glycosylation is an important post-translational modification associated, among others, with diseases and the efficacy of biopharmaceuticals. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-fight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) can be performed to study glycosylation in a high-throughput manner, but is hampered by the instability and ionization bias experienced by sialylated glycan species. Stabilization and neutralization of these sialic acids can be achieved by permethylation or by specific carboxyl group derivatization with the possibility of discrimination between α2,3- and α2,6-linked sialic acids. However, these methods typically require relatively pure glycan samples, show sensitivity to side reactions, and need harsh conditions or long reaction times. We established a rapid, robust and linkage-specific high-throughput method for sialic acid stabilization and MALDI-TOF-MS analysis, to allow direct modification of impure glycan-containing mixtures such as PNGase F-released human plasma N-glycome. Using a combination of carboxylic acid activators in ethanol achieved near-complete ethyl esterification of α2,6-linked sialic acids and lactonization of α2,3-linked variants, in short time using mild conditions. Glycans were recovered by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography solid phase extraction and analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS in reflectron positive mode with 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid as the matrix substance. Analysis of the human plasma N-glycome allowed high-throughput detection and relative quantitation of more than 100 distinct N-glycan compositions with varying sialic acid linkages. PMID:24831253

  16. Comparison of the Accuracy of Two Conventional Phenotypic Methods and Two MALDI-TOF MS Systems with That of DNA Sequencing Analysis for Correctly Identifying Clinically Encountered Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Qiao-Ting; Lee, Tai-Fen; Teng, Shih-Hua; Peng, Li-Yun; Chen, Ping-Hung; Teng, Lee-Jene; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the accuracy of species-level identification of two commercially available matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) systems (Bruker Biotyper and Vitek MS) and two conventional phenotypic methods (Phoenix 100 YBC and Vitek 2 Yeast ID) with that of rDNA gene sequencing analysis among 200 clinical isolates of commonly encountered yeasts. The correct identification rates of the 200 yeast isolates to species or complex (Candida parapsilosis complex, C. guilliermondii complex and C. rugosa complex) levels by the Bruker Biotyper, Vitek MS (using in vitro devices [IVD] database), Phoenix 100 YBC and Vitek 2 Yeast ID (Sabouraud's dextrose agar) systems were 92.5%, 79.5%, 89%, and 74%, respectively. An additional 72 isolates of C. parapsilosis complex and 18 from the above 200 isolates (30 in each of C. parapsilosis, C. metapsilosis, and C. orthopsilosis) were also evaluated separately. Bruker Biotyper system could accurately identify all C. parapsilosis complex to species level. Using Vitek 2 MS (IVD) system, all C. parapsilosis but none of C. metapsilosis, or C. orthopsilosis could be accurately identified. Among the 89 yeasts misidentified by the Vitek 2 MS (IVD) system, 39 (43.8%), including 27 C. orthopsilosis isolates, could be correctly identified Using the Vitek MS Plus SARAMIS database for research use only. This resulted in an increase in the rate of correct identification of all yeast isolates (87.5%) by Vitek 2 MS. The two species in C. guilliermondii complex (C. guilliermondii and C. fermentati) isolates were correctly identified by cluster analysis of spectra generated by the Bruker Biotyper system. Based on the results obtained in the current study, MALDI-TOF MS systems present a promising alternative for the routine identification of yeast species, including clinically commonly and rarely encountered yeast species and several species belonging to C. parapsilosis complex, C. guilliermondii complex

  17. The influence of incubation time, sample preparation and exposure to oxygen on the quality of the MALDI-TOF MS spectrum of anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Veloo, A C M; Elgersma, P E; Friedrich, A W; Nagy, E; van Winkelhoff, A J

    2014-12-01

    With matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), bacteria can be identified quickly and reliably. This accounts especially for anaerobic bacteria. Because growth rate and oxygen sensitivity differ among anaerobic bacteria, we aimed to study the influence of incubation time, exposure to oxygen and sample preparation on the quality of the spectrum using the Bruker system. Also, reproducibility and inter-examiner variability were determined. Twenty-six anaerobic species, representing 17 genera, were selected based on gram-stain characteristics, growth rate and colony morphology. Inter-examiner variation showed that experience in the preparation of the targets can be a significant variable. The influence of incubation time was determined between 24 and 96 h of incubation. Reliable species identification was obtained after 48 h of incubation for gram-negative anaerobes and after 72 h for gram-positive anaerobes. Exposure of the cultures to oxygen did not influence the results of the MALDI-TOF MS identifications of all tested gram-positive species. Fusobacterium necrophorum and Prevotella intermedia could not be identified after >24 h and 48 h of exposure to oxygen, respectively. Other tested gram-negative bacteria could be identified after 48 h of exposure to oxygen. Most of the tested species could be identified using the direct spotting method. Bifidobacterium longum and Finegoldia magna needed on-target extraction with 70% formic acid in order to obtain reliable species identification and Peptoniphilus ivorii a full extraction. Spectrum quality was influenced by the amount of bacteria spotted on the target, the homogeneity of the smear and the experience of the examiner.

  18. Characterization of the Lactobacillus casei group based on the profiling of ribosomal proteins coded in S10-spc-alpha operons as observed by MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroaki; Torimura, Masaki; Kitahara, Maki; Ohkuma, Moriya; Hotta, Yudai; Tamura, Hiroto

    2012-10-01

    The taxonomy of the members of the Lactobacillus casei group is complicated because of their phylogenetic similarity and controversial nomenclatural status. In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) of ribosomal proteins coded in the S10-spc-alpha operon, termed S10-GERMS, was applied in order to classify 33 sample strains belonging to the L. casei group. A total of 14 types of ribosomal protein genes coded in the operon were first sequenced from four type strains of the L. casei group (L. casei JCM 1134(T), L. paracasei subsp. paracasei JCM 8130(T), L. paracasei subsp. tolerans JCM 1171(T), and L. rhamnosus JCM 1136(T)) together with L. casei JCM 11302, which is the former type strain of 'L. zeae'. The theoretical masses of the 14 types of ribosomal proteins used as biomarkers were classified into five types and compiled into a ribosomal protein database. The observed ribosomal proteins of each strain, identified by MALDI-TOF MS, were categorized into types based on their masses, summarized as ribosomal protein profiles, and they were used to construct a phylogenetic tree. The 33 sample strains, together with seven genome-sequenced strains, could be classified into four major clusters, which coincided precisely with the taxa of the (sub)species within the L. casei group. Three "ancient" strains, identified as L. acidophilus and L. casei, were correctly re-identified as L. paracasei subsp. paracasei by S10-GERMS. S10-GERMS would thus appear to be a powerful tool for phylogenetic characterization, with considerable potential for management of culture collections.

  19. Discrimination of Escherichia coli O157, O26 and O111 from other serovars by MALDI-TOF MS based on the S10-GERMS method.

    PubMed

    Ojima-Kato, Teruyo; Yamamoto, Naomi; Suzuki, Mayumi; Fukunaga, Tomohiro; Tamura, Hiroto

    2014-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), causes a potentially life-threatening infection in humans worldwide. Serovar O157:H7, and to a lesser extent serovars O26 and O111, are the most commonly reported EHEC serovars responsible for a large number of outbreaks. We have established a rapid discrimination method for E. coli serovars O157, O26 and O111 from other E. coli serovars, based on the pattern matching of mass spectrometry (MS) differences and the presence/absence of biomarker proteins detected in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS (MALDI-TOF MS). Three biomarkers, ribosomal proteins S15 and L25, and acid stress chaperone HdeB, with MS m/z peaks at 10138.6/10166.6, 10676.4/10694.4 and 9066.2, respectively, were identified as effective biomarkers for O157 discrimination. To distinguish serovars O26 and O111 from the others, DNA-binding protein H-NS, with an MS peak at m/z 15409.4/15425.4 was identified. Sequence analysis of the O157 biomarkers revealed that amino acid changes: Q80R in S15, M50I in L25 and one mutation within the start codon ATG to ATA in the encoded HdeB protein, contributed to the specific peak pattern in O157. We demonstrated semi-automated pattern matching using these biomarkers and successfully discriminated total 57 O157 strains, 20 O26 strains and 6 O111 strains with 100% reliability by conventional MALDI-TOF MS analysis, regardless of the sample conditions. Our simple strategy, based on the S10-spc-alpha operon gene-encoded ribosomal protein mass spectrum (S10-GERMS) method, therefore allows for the rapid and reliable detection of this pathogen and may prove to be an invaluable tool both clinically and in the food industry.

  20. Identification of Enterobacteriaceae and detection of carbapenemases from positive blood cultures by combination of MALDI-TOF MS and Carba NP performed after four hour subculture in Mueller Hinton.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Javier; Rodríguez-Lucas, Carlos; Fernández-Suárez, Jonathan; Vazquez, Fernando; Rodicio, M Rosario

    2016-10-01

    A new protocol for Enterobacteriaceae identification and detection of carbapenemase-producing isolates from blood cultures by combining MALDI-TOF MS and the Carba NP test has been evaluated. Bacterial identification was correct in 129 of the 130 isolates tested while the Carba NP detected 28 out of the 29 carbapenemase producers.

  1. Rapid Discrimination of Haemophilus influenzae, H. parainfluenzae, and H. haemolyticus by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) and Two Matrix-Assisted Laser-Desorption-Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Frickmann, Hagen; Christner, Martin; Donat, Martina; Berger, Anja; Essig, Andreas; Podbielski, Andreas; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Poppert, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to considerable differences in pathogenicity, Haemophilus influenzae, H. parainfluenzae and H. haemolyticus have to be reliably discriminated in routine diagnostics. Retrospective analyses suggest frequent misidentifications of commensal H. haemolyticus as H. influenzae. In a multi-center approach, we assessed the suitability of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and matrix-assisted laser-desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for the identification of H. influenzae, H. parainfluenzae and H. haemolyticus to species level. Methodology A strain collection of 84 Haemophilus spp. comprising 50 H. influenzae, 25 H. parainfluenzae, 7 H. haemolyticus, and 2 H. parahaemolyticus including 77 clinical isolates was analyzed by FISH with newly designed DNA probes, and two different MALDI-TOF-MS systems (Bruker, Shimadzu) with and without prior formic acid extraction. Principal Findings Among the 84 Haemophilus strains analyzed, FISH led to 71 correct results (85%), 13 uninterpretable results (15%), and no misidentifications. Shimadzu MALDI-TOF-MS resulted in 59 correct identifications (70%), 19 uninterpretable results (23%), and 6 misidentifications (7%), using colony material applied directly. Bruker MALDI-TOF-MS with prior formic acid extraction led to 74 correct results (88%), 4 uninterpretable results (5%) and 6 misidentifications (7%). The Bruker MALDI-TOF-MS misidentifications could be resolved by the addition of a suitable H. haemolyticus reference spectrum to the system's database. In conclusion, no analyzed diagnostic procedure was free of errors. Diagnostic results have to be interpreted carefully and alternative tests should be applied in case of ambiguous test results on isolates from seriously ill patients. PMID:23646201

  2. Comparison of low molecular weight glutenin subunits identified by SDS-PAGE, 2-DE, MALDI-TOF-MS and PCR in common wheat

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) play a crucial role in determining end-use quality of common wheat by influencing the viscoelastic properties of dough. Four different methods - sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE, IEF × SDS-PAGE), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), were used to characterize the LMW-GS composition in 103 cultivars from 12 countries. Results At the Glu-A3 locus, all seven alleles could be reliably identified by 2-DE and PCR. However, the alleles Glu-A3e and Glu-A3d could not be routinely distinguished from Glu-A3f and Glu-A3g, respectively, based on SDS-PAGE, and the allele Glu-A3a could not be differentiated from Glu-A3c by MALDI-TOF-MS. At the Glu-B3 locus, alleles Glu-B3a, Glu-B3b, Glu-B3c, Glu-B3g, Glu-B3h and Glu-B3j could be clearly identified by all four methods, whereas Glu-B3ab, Glu-B3ac, Glu-B3ad could only be identified by the 2-DE method. At the Glu-D3 locus, allelic identification was problematic for the electrophoresis based methods and PCR. MALDI-TOF-MS has the potential to reliably identify the Glu-D3 alleles. Conclusions PCR is the simplest, most accurate, lowest cost, and therefore recommended method for identification of Glu-A3 and Glu-B3 alleles in breeding programs. A combination of methods was required to identify certain alleles, and would be especially useful when characterizing new alleles. A standard set of 30 cultivars for use in future studies was chosen to represent all LMW-GS allelic variants in the collection. Among them, Chinese Spring, Opata 85, Seri 82 and Pavon 76 were recommended as a core set for use in SDS-PAGE gels. Glu-D3c and Glu-D3e are the same allele. Two new alleles, namely, Glu-D3m in cultivar Darius, and Glu-D3n in Fengmai 27, were identified by 2-DE. Utilization of the suggested standard cultivar set, seed of

  3. A Side by Side Comparison of Bruker Biotyper and VITEK MS: Utility of MALDI-TOF MS Technology for Microorganism Identification in a Public Health Reference Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, Simon; Dufresne, Philippe J; Soualhine, Hafid; Domingo, Marc-Christian; Bekal, Sadjia; Lefebvre, Brigitte; Tremblay, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as a rapid, highly accurate, and cost-effective method for routine identification of a wide range of microorganisms. We carried out a side by side comparative evaluation of the performance of Bruker Biotyper versus VITEK MS for identification of a large and diverse collection of microorganisms. Most difficult and/or unusual microorganisms, as well as commonly encountered microorganisms were selected, including Gram-positive and negative bacteria, mycobacteria, actinomycetes, yeasts and filamentous fungi. Six hundred forty two strains representing 159 genera and 441 species from clinical specimens previously identified at the Laboratoire de santé publique du Québec (LSPQ) by reference methods were retrospectively chosen for the study. They included 254 Gram-positive bacteria, 167 Gram-negative bacteria, 109 mycobacteria and aerobic actinomycetes and 112 yeasts and moulds. MALDI-TOF MS analyses were performed on both systems according to the manufacturer's instructions. Of the 642 strains tested, the name of the genus and / or species of 572 strains were referenced in the Bruker database while 406 were present in the VITEK MS IVD database. The Biotyper correctly identified 494 (86.4%) of the strains, while the VITEK MS correctly identified 362 (92.3%) of the strains (excluding 14 mycobacteria that were not tested). Of the 70 strains not present in the Bruker database at the species level, the Biotyper correctly identified 10 (14.3%) to the genus level and 2 (2.9%) to the complex/group level. For 52 (74.2%) strains, we obtained no identification, and an incorrect identification was given for 6 (8.6%) strains. Of the 178 strains not present in the VITEK MS IVD database at the species level (excluding 71 untested mycobacteria and actinomycetes), the VITEK MS correctly identified 12 (6.8%) of the strains each to the genus and to the complex/group level. For 97 (54

  4. A Side by Side Comparison of Bruker Biotyper and VITEK MS: Utility of MALDI-TOF MS Technology for Microorganism Identification in a Public Health Reference Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Lévesque, Simon; Dufresne, Philippe J.; Soualhine, Hafid; Domingo, Marc-Christian; Bekal, Sadjia; Lefebvre, Brigitte; Tremblay, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as a rapid, highly accurate, and cost-effective method for routine identification of a wide range of microorganisms. We carried out a side by side comparative evaluation of the performance of Bruker Biotyper versus VITEK MS for identification of a large and diverse collection of microorganisms. Most difficult and/or unusual microorganisms, as well as commonly encountered microorganisms were selected, including Gram-positive and negative bacteria, mycobacteria, actinomycetes, yeasts and filamentous fungi. Six hundred forty two strains representing 159 genera and 441 species from clinical specimens previously identified at the Laboratoire de santé publique du Québec (LSPQ) by reference methods were retrospectively chosen for the study. They included 254 Gram-positive bacteria, 167 Gram-negative bacteria, 109 mycobacteria and aerobic actinomycetes and 112 yeasts and moulds. MALDI-TOF MS analyses were performed on both systems according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Of the 642 strains tested, the name of the genus and / or species of 572 strains were referenced in the Bruker database while 406 were present in the VITEK MS IVD database. The Biotyper correctly identified 494 (86.4%) of the strains, while the VITEK MS correctly identified 362 (92.3%) of the strains (excluding 14 mycobacteria that were not tested). Of the 70 strains not present in the Bruker database at the species level, the Biotyper correctly identified 10 (14.3%) to the genus level and 2 (2.9%) to the complex/group level. For 52 (74.2%) strains, we obtained no identification, and an incorrect identification was given for 6 (8.6%) strains. Of the 178 strains not present in the VITEK MS IVD database at the species level (excluding 71 untested mycobacteria and actinomycetes), the VITEK MS correctly identified 12 (6.8%) of the strains each to the genus and to the complex/group level. For 97

  5. Allelic variation of LMW-GS composition in Chinese wheat landraces of the Yangtze-River region detected by MALDI-TOF-MS

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yanchun; Yu, Zitong; Islam, Shahidul; Zhang, Yujuan; Wang, Xiaolong; Lei, Zhensheng; Yu, Kan; Sun, Dongfa; Ma, Wujun

    2016-01-01

    Low molecular weight glutenin subunits are important components of wheat storage proteins, which play an important role in determining end-use quality of common wheat. A newly established matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) procedure was used to analyze 478 landraces of bread wheat collected from the Yangtze-River region in China. Results indicated that 17 alleles at three loci: Glu-A3, Glu-B3 and Glu-D3 were identified, resulting in 87 different allele combinations. Of the 17 alleles detected at all the Glu-3 loci, five belonged to Glu-A3, seven to Glu-B3 and five to Glu-D3 locus. MALDI-TOF-MS indicated Glu-A3a/c was present in 72.8%, Glu-A3b in 8.4%, Glu-A3d in 8.4%, Glu-A3f in 5.2% and Glu-A3e in 3.6% lines. Seven types of alleles were identified at the Glu-B3 locus: Glu-B3d/i (25.5%), Glu-B3b (21.3%), Glu-B3c (16.9%), Glu-B3h (13.8%), Glu-B3f (8.4%), Glu-B3a (8.2%), and Glu-B3g (5.2%). Five types of Glu-D3 alleles were detected: Glu-D3a (58.4%), Glu-D3c (22.6%), Glu-D3d (15.5%), Glu-D3b (3.3%) and Glu-D3f (0.2%). Four new alleles that showed abnormal MALDI-TOF spectrum patterns were identified at the Glu-A3 and Glu-B3 loci. A detailed study is needed to further characterize these alleles and their potential usage for wheat improvement. PMID:27795690

  6. HPLC-UV, MALDI-TOF-MS and ESI-MS/MS Analysis of the Mechlorethamine DNA Crosslink at a Cytosine-Cytosine Mismatch Pair

    PubMed Central

    Rojsitthisak, Pornchai; Jongaroonngamsang, Nutthapon; Romero, Rebecca M.; Haworth, Ian S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mechlorethamine [ClCH2CH2N(CH3)CH2CH2Cl], a nitrogen mustard alkylating agent, has been proven to form a DNA interstrand crosslink at a cytosine-cytosine (C-C) mismatch pair using gel electrophoresis. However, the atomic connectivity of this unusual crosslink is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings HPLC-UV, MALDI-TOF-MS, and ESI-MS/MS were used to determine the atomic connectivity of the DNA C-C crosslink formed by mechlorethamine, MALDI-TOF-MS of the HPLC-purified reaction product of mechlorethamine with the DNA duplex d[CTCACACCGTGGTTC]•d[GAACCACCGTGTGAG] (underlined bases are a C-C mismatch pair) indicated formation of an interstrand crosslink at m/z 9222.088 [M−2H+Na]+. Following enzymatic digestion of the crosslinked duplex by snake venom phosphodiesterase and calf intestinal phosphatase, ESI-MS/MS indicated the presence of dC-mech-dC [mech = CH2CH2N(CH3)CH2CH2] at m/z 269.2 [M]2+ (expected m/z 269.6, exact mass 539.27) and its hydrolytic product dC-mech-OH at m/z 329.6 [M]+ (expected m/z 329.2). Fragmentation of dC-mech-dC gave product ions at m/z 294.3 and 236.9 [M]+, which are both due to loss of the 4-amino group of cytosine (as ammonia), in addition to dC and dC+HN(CH3)CH = CH2, respectively. The presence of m/z 269.2 [M]2+ and loss of ammonia exclude crosslink formation at cytosine N4 or O2 and indicate crosslinking through cytosine N3 with formation of two quaternary ammonium ions. Conclusions Our results provide an important addition to the literature, as the first example of the use of HPLC and MS for analysis of a DNA adduct at the N3 position of cytosine. PMID:21673963

  7. Clinical Impact of MALDI-TOF MS Identification and Rapid Susceptibility Testing on Adequate Antimicrobial Treatment in Sepsis with Positive Blood Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Verroken, Alexia; Defourny, Lydwine; le Polain de Waroux, Olivier; Belkhir, Leïla; Laterre, Pierre-François; Delmée, Michel; Glupczynski, Youri

    2016-01-01

    Shortening the turn-around time (TAT) of positive blood culture (BC) identification (ID) and susceptibility results is essential to optimize antimicrobial treatment in patients with sepsis. We aimed to evaluate the impact on antimicrobial prescription of a modified workflow of positive BCs providing ID and partial susceptibility results for Enterobacteriaceae (EB), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus on the day of BC positivity detection. This study was divided into a pre-intervention period (P0) with a standard BC workflow followed by 2 intervention periods (P1, P2) with an identical modified workflow. ID was performed with MALDI-TOF MS from blood, on early or on overnight subcultures. According to ID results, rapid phenotypic assays were realized to detect third generation cephalosporin resistant EB/P. aeruginosa or methicillin resistant S. aureus. Results were transmitted to the antimicrobial stewardship team for patient’s treatment revision. Times to ID, to susceptibility results and to optimal antimicrobial treatment (OAT) were compared across the three study periods. Overall, 134, 112 and 154 positive BC episodes in P0, P1 and P2 respectively were included in the analysis. Mean time to ID (28.3 hours in P0) was reduced by 65.3% in P1 (10.2 hours) and 61.8% in P2 (10.8 hours). Mean time to complete susceptibility results was reduced by 27.5% in P1 and 27% in P2, with results obtained after 32.4 and 32.6 hours compared to 44.7 hours in P0. Rapid tests allowed partial susceptibility results to be obtained after a mean time of 11.8 hours in P1 and 11.7 hours in P2. Mean time to OAT was decreased to 21.6 hours in P1 and to 17.9 hours in P2 compared to 36.1 hours in P0. Reducing TAT of positive BC with MALDI-TOF MS ID and rapid susceptibility testing accelerated prescription of targeted antimicrobial treatment thereby potentially improving the patients’ clinical outcome. PMID:27228001

  8. Preparation of C60-functionalized magnetic silica microspheres for the enrichment of low-concentration peptides and proteins for MALDI-TOF MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hemei; Qi, Dawei; Deng, Chunhui; Yang, Penyuan; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2009-01-01

    In this work, for the first time, a novel C60-functionalized magnetic silica microsphere (designated C60-f-MS) was synthesized by radical polymerization of C60 molecules on the surface of magnetic silica microspheres. The resulting C60-f-MS microsphere has magnetite core and thin C60 modified silica shell, which endow them with useful magnetic responsivity and surface affinity toward low-concentration peptides and proteins. As a result of their excellent magnetic property, the synthesized C60-f-MS microspheres can be easily separated from sample solution without ultracentrifuge. The C60-f-MS microspheres were successfully applied to the enrichment of low-concentration peptides in tryptic protein digest and human urine via a MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Moreover, they were demonstrated to have enrichment efficiency for low-concentration proteins. Due to the novel materials maintaining excellent magnetic properties and admirable adsorption, the process of enrichment and desalting is very fast (only 5 min), convenient and efficient. As it has been demonstrated in the study, newly developed fullerene-derivatized magnetic silica materials are superior to those already available in the market. The facile and low-cost synthesis as well as the convenient and efficient enrichment process of the novel C60-f-MS microspheres makes it a promising candidate for isolation of low-concentration peptides and proteins even in complex biological samples such as serum, plasma, and urine or cell lysate. PMID:19086100

  9. Atypical yeasts identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae by MALDI-TOF MS and gene sequencing are the main responsible of fermentation of chicha, a traditional beverage from Peru.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Juan Andrés; Miranda, Patricia; Flores-Félix, José David; Sánchez-Juanes, Fernando; Ageitos, José M; González-Buitrago, José Manuel; Velázquez, Encarna; Villa, Tomás G

    2013-12-01

    Chicha is a drink prepared in several Andean countries from Inca's times by maize fermentation. Currently this fermentation is carried out in familiar artesanal "chicherías" that make one of the most known types of chicha, the "chicha de jora". In this study we isolate and identify the yeasts mainly responsible of the fermentation process in this type of chicha in 10 traditional "chicherías" in Cusco region in Peru. We applied by first time MALDI-TOF MS analysis for the identification of yeast of non-clinic origin and the results showed that all of yeast strains isolated belong to the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These results agree with those obtained after the analysis of the D1/D2 and 5.8S-ITS regions. However the chicha strains have a phenotypic profile that differed in more than 40% as compared to that of current S. cerevisiae strains. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report concerning the yeasts involved in chicha fermentation.

  10. Epigenetic Activation of Antibacterial Property of an Endophytic Streptomyces coelicolor Strain AZRA 37 and Identification of the Induced Protein Using MALDI TOF MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jitendra; Sharma, Vijay K; Singh, Dheeraj K; Mishra, Ashish; Gond, Surendra K; Verma, Satish K; Kumar, Anuj; Kharwar, Ravindra Nath

    2016-01-01

    The endophytic Streptomyces coelicolor strain AZRA 37 was isolated from the surface sterilized root of Azadirachta indica A. Juss., commonly known as neem plant in India. Since only a few reports are available regarding epigenetic modulations of microbial entities, S. coelicolor was treated with different concentrations of 5-azacytidine for this purpose and evaluated for its antibacterial potential against five human pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila IMS/GN11, Enterococcus faecalis IMS/GN7, Salmonella typhi MTCC 3216, Shigella flexneri ATCC 12022 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923). The crude extract obtained from cultures treated with 25 μM concentration of 5-azacytidine, was found effective against all five pathogenic bacteria tested while the untreated control was only active against 3 pathogenic bacteria. HPLC analysis of crude compounds from treated cultures showed a greater number of compounds than that of the control. Extraction of whole cell protein and its SDS PAGE analysis showed an additional major protein band in 25 μM 5-azacytidine treated culture and MALDI TOF MS/MS analysis revealed that this protein belongs to the porin family. PMID:26844762

  11. MALDI-TOF MS and CD Spectral Analysis for Identification and Structure Prediction of a Purified, Novel, Organic Solvent Stable, Fibrinolytic Metalloprotease from Bacillus cereus B80

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Rajshree

    2015-01-01

    The ability to predict protein function from structure is becoming increasingly important; hence, elucidation and determination of protein structure become the major steps in proteomics. The present study was undertaken for identification of metalloprotease produced by Bacillus cereus B80 and recognition of characteristics that can be industrially exploited. The enzyme was purified in three steps combining precipitation and chromatographic methods resulting in 33.5% recovery with 13.1-fold purification of enzyme which was detected as a single band with a molecular mass of 26 kDa approximately in SDS-PAGE and zymogram. The MALDI-TOF MS showed that the enzyme exhibited 70–93% similarity with zinc metalloproteases from various strains Bacillus sp. specifically from Bacillus cereus group. The sequence alignment revealed the presence of zinc-binding region VVVHEMCHMV in the most conserved C terminus region. Secondary structure of the enzyme was obtained by CD spectra and I-TASSER. The enzyme kinetics revealed a Michaelis constant (Km) of 0.140 μmol/ml and Vmax of 2.11 μmol/min. The application studies showed that the enzyme was able to hydrolyze various proteins with highest affinity towards casein followed by BSA and gelatin. The enzyme exhibited strong fibrinolytic, collagenolytic, and gelatinolytic properties and stability in various organic solvents. PMID:25802851

  12. Selective Enrichment and MALDI-TOF MS Analysis of Small Molecule Compounds with Vicinal Diols by Boric Acid-Functionalized Graphene Oxide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Xiaoling; Ni, Yanli

    2015-08-01

    In this study, a 4-vinylphenylboronic acid-functionalized graphene oxide (GO) material was prepared via atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method and applied for the first time as a novel matrix for the selective enrichment and analysis of small-molecule compounds with vicinal diols, which have been the focus of intense research in the field of life science, by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in positive-ion mode. There are two main factors playing a decisive role in assisting laser D/I process comparing to some traditional matrices: (1) GO provides π-conjugated system by itself for laser absorption and energy transfer; (2) the modified 4-vinylphenylboronic acid can selectively capture small-molecule compounds with vicinal diols. The results demonstrate that the novel material has distinct advantages over previously reported matrices in enriching and assisting the highly efficient ionization of target molecules for mass spectrometry analysis. This work indicates a new application branch for graphene-based matrices and provides an alternative solution for small-molecules analysis.

  13. Selective Enrichment and MALDI-TOF MS Analysis of Small Molecule Compounds with Vicinal Diols by Boric Acid-Functionalized Graphene Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Xiaoling; Ni, Yanli

    2015-08-01

    In this study, a 4-vinylphenylboronic acid-functionalized graphene oxide (GO) material was prepared via atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method and applied for the first time as a novel matrix for the selective enrichment and analysis of small-molecule compounds with vicinal diols, which have been the focus of intense research in the field of life science, by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in positive-ion mode. There are two main factors playing a decisive role in assisting laser D/I process comparing to some traditional matrices: (1) GO provides π-conjugated system by itself for laser absorption and energy transfer; (2) the modified 4-vinylphenylboronic acid can selectively capture small-molecule compounds with vicinal diols. The results demonstrate that the novel material has distinct advantages over previously reported matrices in enriching and assisting the highly efficient ionization of target molecules for mass spectrometry analysis. This work indicates a new application branch for graphene-based matrices and provides an alternative solution for small-molecules analysis.

  14. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of ribosomal proteins coded in S10 and spc operons rapidly classified the Sphingomonadaceae as alkylphenol polyethoxylate-degrading bacteria from the environment.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Yudai; Sato, Hiroaki; Hosoda, Akifumi; Tamura, Hiroto

    2012-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) using ribosomal subunit proteins coded in the S10-spc-alpha operon as biomarkers was applied for the classification of the Sphingomonadaceae from the environment. To construct a ribosomal protein database, S10-spc-alpha operon of type strains of the Sphingomonadaceae and their related alkylphenol polyethoxylate (APEO(n) )-degrading bacteria were sequenced using specific primers designed based on nucleotide sequences of genome-sequenced strains. The observed MALDI mass spectra of intact cells were compared with the theoretical mass of the constructed ribosomal protein database. The nine selected biomarkers coded in the S10-spc-alpha operon, L18, L22, L24, L29, L30, S08, S14, S17, and S19, could successfully distinguish the Sphingopyxis terrae NBRC 15098(T) and APEO(n) -degrading bacteria strain BSN20, despite only one base difference in the 16S rRNA gene sequence. This method, named the S10-GERMS (S10-spc-alpha operon gene-encoded ribosomal protein mass spectrum) method, is a significantly useful tool for bacterial discrimination of the Sphingomonadaceae at the strain level and can detect and monitor the main APEO(n) -degrading bacteria in the environment.

  15. Proteomic study of serum using gel chromatography and MALDI-TOF MS reveals diagnostic biomarkers in male patients with liver-cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xin-Hua; Huang, He-Qing; Chen, Dong-Shi; Jin, Hong-Wei; Huang, Hui-Ying

    2007-03-01

    Human serum has been widely employed clinically for diagnosing various fatal diseases. However, the concentration of most proteins in human serum is too low to be directly measured using normal analytical methods. In order to obtain reliable analytical results from proteomic analysis of human serum, appropriate sample preparation is essential. A combined off-line analytical technique of gel chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been successfully established to separate proteins for MS analysis. Using these combined techniques, 176 mass signal peaks of proteins/peptides were found in 6 of 18 fractions from normal male serum (NMS) in the presence of buffer consisting of NH4HCO3 and acetonitrile. A simple gel chromatography column packed with Sephadex G-50 removed most signal-suppressing compounds such as salts and high abundance proteins (HAP). The molecular mass to charge (m/z) ratios of differential peptides revealed in serum of male patient with liver-cancer (LCMPS) compared to NMS were 5365, 5644 and 6462, and these peptides can be used as biomarkers to clinically diagnose liver-cancer. The simple and convenient chromatographic method described here is not only superior to recently described HPLC separation for MS analysis, but also reveals many novel and significant serum biomarkers for the clinical diagnosis of various diseases.

  16. Observations on the Inactivation Efficacy of a MALDI-TOF MS Chemical Extraction Method on Bacillus anthracis Vegetative Cells and Spores.

    PubMed

    Weller, Simon A; Stokes, Margaret G M; Lukaszewski, Roman A

    2015-01-01

    A chemical (ethanol; formic acid; acetonitrile) protein extraction method for the preparation of bacterial samples for matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identification was evaluated for its ability to inactivate bacterial species. Initial viability tests (with and without double filtration of the extract through 0.2 μM filters), indicated that the method could inactivate Escherichia coli MRE 162 and Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 35657, with or without filtration, but that filtration was required to exclude viable, avirulent, Bacillus anthracis UM23CL2 from extracts. Multiple, high stringency, viability experiments were then carried out on entire filtered extracts prepared from virulent B. anthracis Vollum vegetative cells and spores ranging in concentration from 10(6)-10(8) cfu per extract. B. anthracis was recovered in 3/18 vegetative cell extracts and 10/18 spore extracts. From vegetative cell extracts B. anthracis was only recovered from extracts that had undergone prolonged Luria (L)-broth (7 day) and L-agar plate (a further 7 days) incubations. We hypothesise that the recovery of B. anthracis in vegetative cell extracts is due to the escape of individual sub-lethally injured cells. We discuss our results in view of working practises in clinical laboratories and in the context of recent inadvertent releases of viable B. anthracis. PMID:26633884

  17. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis to characterize Candida clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Angeletti, Silvia; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Cella, Eleonora; Dicuonzo, Giordano; Crea, Francesca; Palazzotti, Bernardetta; Dedej, Etleva; Ciccozzi, Massimo; De Florio, Lucia

    2015-12-01

    Clinical Candida isolates from two different hospitals in Rome were identified and clustered by MALDI-TOF MS system and their origin and evolution estimated by Bayesian phylogenetic analysis. The different species of Candida were correctly identified and clustered separately, confirming the ability of these techniques to discriminate between different Candida species. Focusing MALDI-TOF analysis on a single Candida species, Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis strains clustered differently for hospital setting as well as for period of isolation than Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis isolates. The evolutionary rates of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis (1.93×10(-2) and 1.17×10(-2)substitutions/site/year, respectively) were in agreement with a higher rate of mutation of these species, even in a narrow period, than what was observed in C. glabrata and C. tropicalis strains (6.99×10(-4) and 7.52×10(-3)substitutions/site/year, respectively). C. albicans resulted as the species with the highest between and within clades genetic distance values in agreement with the temporal-related clustering found by MALDI-TOF and the high evolutionary rate 1.93×10(-2)substitutions/site/year.

  18. Epigenetic Activation of Antibacterial Property of an Endophytic Streptomyces coelicolor Strain AZRA 37 and Identification of the Induced Protein Using MALDI TOF MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Jitendra; Sharma, Vijay K.; Singh, Dheeraj K.; Mishra, Ashish; Gond, Surendra K.; Verma, Satish K.; Kumar, Anuj; Kharwar, Ravindra Nath

    2016-01-01

    The endophytic Streptomyces coelicolor strain AZRA 37 was isolated from the surface sterilized root of Azadirachta indica A. Juss., commonly known as neem plant in India. Since only a few reports are available regarding epigenetic modulations of microbial entities, S. coelicolor was treated with different concentrations of 5-azacytidine for this purpose and evaluated for its antibacterial potential against five human pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila IMS/GN11, Enterococcus faecalis IMS/GN7, Salmonella typhi MTCC 3216, Shigella flexneri ATCC 12022 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923). The crude extract obtained from cultures treated with 25 μM concentration of 5-azacytidine, was found effective against all five pathogenic bacteria tested while the untreated control was only active against 3 pathogenic bacteria. HPLC analysis of crude compounds from treated cultures showed a greater number of compounds than that of the control. Extraction of whole cell protein and its SDS PAGE analysis showed an additional major protein band in 25 μM 5-azacytidine treated culture and MALDI TOF MS/MS analysis revealed that this protein belongs to the porin family. PMID:26844762

  19. Proteome-based bacterial identification using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS): A revolutionary shift in clinical diagnostic microbiology.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Fumio

    2015-06-01

    Rapid and accurate identification of microorganisms, a prerequisite for appropriate patient care and infection control, is a critical function of any clinical microbiology laboratory. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a quick and reliable method for identification of microorganisms, including bacteria, yeast, molds, and mycobacteria. Indeed, there has been a revolutionary shift in clinical diagnostic microbiology. In the present review, the state of the art and advantages of MALDI-TOF MS-based bacterial identification are described. The potential of this innovative technology for use in strain typing and detection of antibiotic resistance is also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Medical Proteomics.

  20. The Performance of the Four Anaerobic Blood Culture Bottles BacT/ALERT-FN, -FN Plus, BACTEC-Plus and -Lytic in Detection of Anaerobic Bacteria and Identification by Direct MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Almuhayawi, Mohammed; Altun, Osman; Abdulmajeed, Adam Dilshad; Ullberg, Måns; Özenci, Volkan

    2015-01-01

    Detection and identification of anaerobic bacteria in blood cultures (BC) is a well-recognized challenge in clinical microbiology. We studied 100 clinical anaerobic BC isolates to evaluate the performance of BacT/ALERT-FN, -FN Plus (BioMérieux), BACTEC-Plus and -Lytic (Becton Dickinson BioSciences) BC bottles in detection and time to detection (TTD) of anaerobic bacteria. BACTEC Lytic had higher detection rate (94/100, 94%) than BacT/ALERT FN Plus (80/100, 80%) (p<0.01) in the studied material. There was no significant difference in detection of anaerobic bacteria among the remaining bottle types. The 67 anaerobic bacteria that signalled positive in all four bottle types were analyzed to compare the time to detection (TTD) and isolates were directly identified by MALDI-TOF MS. There was a significant difference in TTD among the four bottle types (p<0.0001). The shortest median TTD was 18 h in BACTEC Lytic followed by BacT/ALERT FN (23.5 h), BACTEC Plus (27 h) and finally BacT/ALERT FN Plus (38 h) bottles. In contrast, MALDI-TOF MS performed similarly in all bottle types with accurate identification in 51/67 (76%) BacT/ALERT FN, 51/67 (76%) BacT/ALERT FN Plus, 53/67 (79%) BACTEC Plus and 50/67 (75%) BACTEC Lytic bottles. In conclusion, BACTEC Lytic bottles have significantly better detection rates and shorter TTD compared to the three other bottle types. The anaerobic BC bottles are equally suitable for direct MALDI-TOF MS for rapid and reliable identification of common anaerobic bacteria. Further clinical studies are warranted to investigate the performance of anaerobic BC bottles in detection of anaerobic bacteria and identification by direct MALDI-TOF MS.

  1. Comparative evaluation of two matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) systems, Vitek MS and Microflex LT, for the identification of Gram-positive cocci routinely isolated in clinical microbiology laboratories.

    PubMed

    Lee, Miae; Chung, Hae-Sun; Moon, Hee-Won; Lee, Sun Hwa; Lee, Kyungwon

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the performance of two MALDI-TOF MS systems for the identification of clinically important Gram-positive cocci. Vitek MS and Microflex LT correctly identified 97.2% and 94.7%, respectively. Both systems offer reliable and rapid identification of clinically important Gram-positive cocci isolated in clinical laboratories, including staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci. Expanding the databases, especially of coagulase-negative staphylococci and viridans streptococci, would enhance performance.

  2. Direct identification of microorganisms from positive blood cultures using the lysis-filtration technique and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS): a multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Farina, Claudio; Arena, Fabio; Casprini, Patrizia; Cichero, Paola; Clementi, Massimo; Cosentino, Marina; Degl'Innocenti, Roberto; Giani, Tommaso; Luzzaro, Francesco; Mattei, Romano; Mauri, Carola; Nardone, Maria; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Serna Ortega, Paula Andrea; Vailati, Francesca

    2015-04-01

    Microbial identification from blood cultures is essential to institute optimal antibiotic therapy and improve survival possibilities. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been successfully applied to identify bacteria and yeasts from positive blood cultures broths. The aim of this multicentre study was to evaluate the reliability of the lysis-filtration technique associated with MALDI-TOF MS to directly identify microorganisms from 765 positive blood cultures collected in six Italian hospitals. Overall, 675/765 (78.1%) blood isolates were correctly identified at the species level, with significant differences between Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria (92.6%, and 69.8%, respectively). Some difficulties arise in identifying Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, yeasts and anaerobes. The lysis-filtration protocol is a suitable procedure in terms of performance in identifying microorganisms, but it is quite expensive and technically time-consuming since the time of filtration is not regular for all the samples. The application of the MALDI-TOF MS technique to the direct microbial identification from positive blood cultures is a very promising approach, even if more experience must be gained to minimize errors and costs. PMID:25938749

  3. Single-crystalline EuF3 hollow hexagonal microdisks: synthesis and application as a background-free matrix for MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of small molecules and polyethylene glycols.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiming; Geng, Zhirong; Shao, Dalin; Mei, Yuhua; Wang, Zhilin

    2009-09-15

    Single-crystalline EuF(3) hexagonal microdisks with hollow interior were fabricated to serve as a background-free matrix for analysis of small molecules and polyethylene glycols (PEGs) by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The long-lived excited state of europium ions can transfer energy to high-energy vibrations of organic molecules, which provides the potential technological application in MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of small molecules and PEGs. The efficiency of the hollow microdisks as a novel matrix of low molecular weight compounds was verified by analysis of small peptide, amino acid, organic compounds, and hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD). The advantage of this matrix in comparison with alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) was demonstrated by MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of an amino acid mixture and a peptide mixture. This matrix is successfully used for analysis of PEGs (PEG 2000, PEG 4000, PEG 8000, PEG 15000, and PEG 30000), suggesting a potential for monitoring reactions and for synthetic polymer quality control. The upper limit of detectable mass range was approximately 35,000 Da (PEG 30000). It is believed that this work will not only offer a new technique for high-speed analysis of small molecules and PEGs but also open a new field for applications of rare earth fluorides.

  4. Direct identification of microorganisms from positive blood cultures using the lysis-filtration technique and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS): a multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Farina, Claudio; Arena, Fabio; Casprini, Patrizia; Cichero, Paola; Clementi, Massimo; Cosentino, Marina; Degl'Innocenti, Roberto; Giani, Tommaso; Luzzaro, Francesco; Mattei, Romano; Mauri, Carola; Nardone, Maria; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Serna Ortega, Paula Andrea; Vailati, Francesca

    2015-04-01

    Microbial identification from blood cultures is essential to institute optimal antibiotic therapy and improve survival possibilities. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been successfully applied to identify bacteria and yeasts from positive blood cultures broths. The aim of this multicentre study was to evaluate the reliability of the lysis-filtration technique associated with MALDI-TOF MS to directly identify microorganisms from 765 positive blood cultures collected in six Italian hospitals. Overall, 675/765 (78.1%) blood isolates were correctly identified at the species level, with significant differences between Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria (92.6%, and 69.8%, respectively). Some difficulties arise in identifying Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, yeasts and anaerobes. The lysis-filtration protocol is a suitable procedure in terms of performance in identifying microorganisms, but it is quite expensive and technically time-consuming since the time of filtration is not regular for all the samples. The application of the MALDI-TOF MS technique to the direct microbial identification from positive blood cultures is a very promising approach, even if more experience must be gained to minimize errors and costs.

  5. Probing the 3-D Structure, Dynamics, and Stability of Bacterial Collagenase Collagen Binding Domain (apo- versus holo-) by Limited Proteolysis MALDI-TOF MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sides, Cynthia R.; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jackson O.; Philominathan, Sagaya Theresa Leena; Matsushita, Osamu; Sakon, Joshua

    2012-03-01

    Pairing limited proteolysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to probe clostridial collagenase collagen binding domain (CBD) reveals the solution dynamics and stability of the protein, as these factors are crucial to CBD effectiveness as a drug-delivery vehicle. MS analysis of proteolytic digests indicates initial cleavage sites, thereby specifying the less stable and highly accessible regions of CBD. Modulation of protein structure and stability upon metal binding is shown through MS analysis of calcium-bound and cobalt-bound CBD proteolytic digests. Previously determined X-ray crystal structures illustrate that calcium binding induces secondary structure transformation in the highly mobile N-terminal arm and increases protein stability. MS-based detection of exposed residues confirms protein flexibility, accentuates N-terminal dynamics, and demonstrates increased global protein stability exported by calcium binding. Additionally, apo- and calcium-bound CBD proteolysis sites correlate well with crystallographic B-factors, accessibility, and enzyme specificity. MS-observed cleavage sites with no clear correlations are explained either by crystal contacts of the X-ray crystal structures or by observed differences between Molecules A and B in the X-ray crystal structures. The study newly reveals the absence of the βA strand and thus the very dynamic N-terminal linker, as corroborated by the solution X-ray scattering results. Cobalt binding has a regional effect on the solution phase stability of CBD, as limited proteolysis data implies the capture of an intermediate-CBD solution structure when cobalt is bound.

  6. Biomarker Discovery and Redundancy Reduction towards Classification using a Multi-factorial MALDI-TOF MS T2DM Mouse Model Dataset

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetes like many diseases and biological processes is not mono-causal. On the one hand multi-factorial studies with complex experimental design are required for its comprehensive analysis. On the other hand, the data from these studies often include a substantial amount of redundancy such as proteins that are typically represented by a multitude of peptides. Coping simultaneously with both complexities (experimental and technological) makes data analysis a challenge for Bioinformatics. Results We present a comprehensive work-flow tailored for analyzing complex data including data from multi-factorial studies. The developed approach aims at revealing effects caused by a distinct combination of experimental factors, in our case genotype and diet. Applying the developed work-flow to the analysis of an established polygenic mouse model for diet-induced type 2 diabetes, we found peptides with significant fold changes exclusively for the combination of a particular strain and diet. Exploitation of redundancy enables the visualization of peptide correlation and provides a natural way of feature selection for classification and prediction. Classification based on the features selected using our approach performs similar to classifications based on more complex feature selection methods. Conclusions The combination of ANOVA and redundancy exploitation allows for identification of biomarker candidates in multi-dimensional MALDI-TOF MS profiling studies with complex experimental design. With respect to feature selection our method provides a fast and intuitive alternative to global optimization strategies with comparable performance. The method is implemented in R and the scripts are available by contacting the corresponding author. PMID:21554713

  7. Performance of mass spectrometric identification of bacteria and yeasts routinely isolated in a clinical microbiology laboratory using MALDI-TOF MS

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiping; Xi, Haiyan; Huang, Mei; Wang, Jie; Fan, Ming; Chen, Yong; Shao, Haifeng

    2014-01-01

    Background Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is an emerging technology newly applied to identifying bacterial and yeast strains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of the VITEK® MS system in the identification of bacteria and yeast strains routinely isolated from clinical samples. Methods We prospectively analyzed routine MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry identification in parallel with conventional phenotypic identification of bacteria and yeasts regardless of phylum or source of isolation. Discordant results were resolved with 16S rDNA or internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene sequencing. Colonies (a single deposit on a MALDI disposable target without any prior extraction step) were analyzed using the VITEK® MS system. Peptide spectra acquired by the system were compared with the VITEK® MS IVD database Version 2.0, and the identification scores were recorded. Results Of the 1,181 isolates (1,061 bacterial isolates and 120 yeast isolates) analyzed, 99.5% were correctly identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry; 95.7% identified to the species level, 3.6% identified to the genus level, and 0.3% identified within a range of species belonging to different genera. Conversely, 0.1% of isolates were misidentified and 0.4% were unidentified, partly because the species were not included in the database. Re-testing using a second deposit provided a successful identification for 0.5% of isolates unidentified with the first deposit. Our results show that the VITEK® MS system has exceptional performance in identifying bacteria and yeast by comparing acquired peptide spectra to those contained in its database. Conclusions MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry is a rapid, accurate, and relatively inexpensive method for bacterial and yeast identification. Our results demonstrate that the VITEK® MS system is a fast and reliable technique, and has the potential to replace conventional phenotypic

  8. MALDI-TOF MS as a Tool To Detect a Nosocomial Outbreak of Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase- and ArmA Methyltransferase-Producing Enterobacter cloacae Clinical Isolates in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Khennouchi, Nour Chems el Houda; Loucif, Lotfi; Boutefnouchet, Nafissa; Allag, Hamoudi; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2015-10-01

    Enterobacter cloacae is among the most important pathogens responsible for nosocomial infections and outbreaks. In this study, 77 Enterobacter isolates were collected: 27 isolates from Algerian hospitals (in Constantine, Annaba, and Skikda) and 50 isolates from Marseille, France. All strains were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method. PCR was used to detect extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-encoding, fluoroquinolone resistance-encoding, and aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme (AME) genes. Epidemiological typing was performed using MALDI-TOF MS with data mining approaches, along with multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Sixty-eight isolates (27 from Algeria, 41 from Marseille) were identified by MALDI-TOF MS as E. cloacae. Resistance to antibiotics in the Algerian isolates was significantly higher than that in the strains from Marseille, especially for beta-lactams and aminoglycosides. Eighteen of the 27 Algerian isolates and 11 of the 41 Marseille isolates possessed at least one ESBL-encoding gene: blaCTX-M and/or blaTEM. AME genes were detected in 20 of the 27 Algerian isolates and 8 of the 41 Marseille isolates [ant(2″)-Ia, aac(6')-Ib-cr, aadA1, aadA2, and armA]. Conjugation experiments showed that armA was carried on a transferable plasmid. MALDI-TOF typing showed three separate clusters according to the geographical distribution and species level. An MLST-based phylogenetic tree showed a clade of 14 E. cloacae isolates from a urology unit clustering together in the MALDI-TOF dendrogram, suggesting the occurrence of an outbreak in this unit. In conclusion, the ability of MALDI-TOF to biotype strains was confirmed, and surveillance measures should be implemented, especially for Algerian patients hospitalized in France.

  9. MALDI-TOF MS as a Tool To Detect a Nosocomial Outbreak of Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase- and ArmA Methyltransferase-Producing Enterobacter cloacae Clinical Isolates in Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Khennouchi, Nour Chems el Houda; Loucif, Lotfi; Boutefnouchet, Nafissa; Allag, Hamoudi

    2015-01-01

    Enterobacter cloacae is among the most important pathogens responsible for nosocomial infections and outbreaks. In this study, 77 Enterobacter isolates were collected: 27 isolates from Algerian hospitals (in Constantine, Annaba, and Skikda) and 50 isolates from Marseille, France. All strains were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method. PCR was used to detect extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-encoding, fluoroquinolone resistance-encoding, and aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme (AME) genes. Epidemiological typing was performed using MALDI-TOF MS with data mining approaches, along with multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Sixty-eight isolates (27 from Algeria, 41 from Marseille) were identified by MALDI-TOF MS as E. cloacae. Resistance to antibiotics in the Algerian isolates was significantly higher than that in the strains from Marseille, especially for beta-lactams and aminoglycosides. Eighteen of the 27 Algerian isolates and 11 of the 41 Marseille isolates possessed at least one ESBL-encoding gene: blaCTX-M and/or blaTEM. AME genes were detected in 20 of the 27 Algerian isolates and 8 of the 41 Marseille isolates [ant(2″)-Ia, aac(6′)-Ib-cr, aadA1, aadA2, and armA]. Conjugation experiments showed that armA was carried on a transferable plasmid. MALDI-TOF typing showed three separate clusters according to the geographical distribution and species level. An MLST-based phylogenetic tree showed a clade of 14 E. cloacae isolates from a urology unit clustering together in the MALDI-TOF dendrogram, suggesting the occurrence of an outbreak in this unit. In conclusion, the ability of MALDI-TOF to biotype strains was confirmed, and surveillance measures should be implemented, especially for Algerian patients hospitalized in France. PMID:26239991

  10. Evaluation of the Bruker Biotyper and VITEK MS MALDI-TOF MS systems for the identification of unusual and/or difficult-to-identify microorganisms isolated from clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    McElvania TeKippe, E; Burnham, C-A D

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the analytical performance characteristics of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the identification of unusual organisms. We evaluated the accuracy of two MALDI-TOF MS systems, bioMérieux VITEK MS (database v2.0) and Bruker Biotyper (software version 3.0), for the identification of the most difficult and/or unusual microorganisms isolated from clinical specimens. Our study included 174 bacterial isolates recovered from clinical cultures at Barnes-Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, MO, from 2009 to 2013, representing 50 genera and 52 species. MS identifications were compared to the identification reported by the reference laboratory. Discrepancies were resolved using molecular methods, including 16S rRNA gene sequencing and additional molecular methods. When performed, molecular methods were considered the gold standard. Of the 168 isolates resolved to the genus level, VITEK MS identified 145 (86.3 %), and of the 114 isolates resolved to the species level, 97 (85.1 %) were correctly identified. Bruker Biotyper identified 155 (92.3 %) of 168 isolates to the genus level and 97 (85.1 %) of 114 isolates to the species level. VITEK MS and Bruker Biotyper provided no identification for 17 (10.1 %) and 12 (7.1 %) organisms, respectively, and misidentified six (3.6 %) and one (0.6 %) isolate, respectively. Six isolates (3.6 %) were not resolvable to the genus level and were excluded from data analysis due to the lack of a gold standard for comparison. There was no significant difference in the number of organisms identified to the genus level, species level, unidentified, or misidentified by the two MALDI-TOF MS systems (p = 0.11, 1.0, 0.44, and 0.12, respectively).

  11. Functionalized quantum dots with dopamine dithiocarbamate as the matrix for the quantification of efavirenz in human plasma and as affinity probes for rapid identification of microwave tryptic digested proteins in MALDI-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Kailasa, Suresh Kumar; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2012-06-01

    Functionalized quantum dots with dopamine dithiocarbamate (QDs-DDTC) were utilized for the first time as an efficient material for the quantification of efavirenz in human plasma of HIV infected patients and rapid identification of microwave tryptic digest proteins (cytochrome c, lysozyme and BSA) by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The synthesized QDs-DDTC was characterized by using spectroscopic (UV-visible, FT-IR and (1)H NMR) and microscopic (SEM and TEM) techniques. Functionalized QDs-DDTC exhibited a high desorption/ionization efficiency for the rapid quantification of small molecules (efavirenz, tobramycin and aspartame) at low-mass region. QDs-DDTC has well ability to trap target species, and capable to transfer laser energy for efficient desorption/ionization of analytes with background-free detection. The use of QDs-DDTC as a matrix provided good linearity for the quantification of small molecules (R(2)=~0.9983), with good reproducibility (RSD<10%), in the analysis of efavirenz in the plasma of HIV infected patients by the standard addition method. We also demonstrated that the use of functionalized QDs-DDTC as affinity probes for the rapid identification of microwave tryptic digested proteins (cytochrome c, lysozyme and BSA) by MALDI-TOF-MS. QDs-DDTC-based MALDI-TOF-MS approach provides simplicity, rapidity, accuracy, and precision for the determination of efavirenz in human plasma of HIV infected patients and rapid identification of microwave tryptic digested proteins. This new material presents a marked advance in the development of matrix-free mass spectrometric methods for the rapid and precise quantitative determination of a variety of molecules. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics: The clinical link.

  12. A statistical design of experiments for optimizing the MALDI-TOF-MS sample preparation of polymers. An application in the assessment of the thermo-mechanical degradation mechanisms of poly (ethylene terephthalate).

    PubMed

    Badía, J D; Strömberg, E; Ribes-Greus, A; Karlsson, S

    2011-04-29

    The sample preparation procedure for MALDI-TOF MS of polymers is addressed in this study by the application of a statistical Design of Experiments (DoE). Industrial poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was chosen as model polymer. Different experimental settings (levels) for matrixes, analyte/matrix proportions and concentrations of cationization agent were considered. The quality parameters used for the analysis were signal-to-noise ratio and resolution. A closer inspection of the statistical results provided the study not only with the best combination of factors for the MALDI sample preparation, but also with a better understanding of the influence of the different factors, individually or in combination, to the signal. The application of DoE for the improvement of the MALDI measure of PET stated that the best combination of factors and levels was the following: matrix (dithranol), proportion analyte/matrix/cationization agent (1/15/1, V/V/V), and concentration of cationization agent (2 g L(-1)). In a second part, multiple processing by means of successive injection cycles was used to simulate the thermo-mechanical degradation effects on the oligomeric distribution of PET under mechanical recycling. The application of MALDI-TOF-MS showed that thermo-mechanical degradation primarily affected initially predominant cyclic species. Several degradation mechanisms were proposed, remarking intramolecular transesterification and hydrolysis. The ether links of the glycol unit in PET were shown to act as potential reaction sites, driving the main reactions of degradation.

  13. Simple analytical strategy for MALDI-TOF-MS and nanoUPLC-MS/MS: quantitating curcumin in food condiments and dietary supplements and screening of acrylamide-induced ROS protein indicators reduced by curcumin.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Shu; Hsieh, Tusty-Jiuan; Lu, Chi-Yu

    2015-05-01

    Curcumin is the major active ingredient of turmeric and is widely used as a preservative, flavouring and colouring agent. Curcumin is a potent substance with several functions, including antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiparasitic, antimutagenic, chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) has been used to analyse various molecules (including natural antioxidants). This study established an expeditious method that couples MALDI-TOF-MS with a simple dilution method to quantify curcumin in food condiments and dietary supplements. The linear range of curcumin detection ranged from 1 to 100 μg/mL. In further experiments, liver cells were treated with curcumin after exposure to acrylamide. Nano ultra performance liquid chromatographic system (nanoUPLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used to evaluate the potential proteins and protein modifications induced by acrylamide. The results indicate that curcumin reduces the effects of reactive oxygen species induced by acrylamide.

  14. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for detection and identification of albumin phosphylation by organophosphorus pesticides and G- and V-type nerve agents.

    PubMed

    John, Harald; Breyer, Felicitas; Thumfart, Jörg Oliver; Höchstetter, Hans; Thiermann, Horst

    2010-11-01

    Toxic organophosphorus compounds (OPC), e.g., pesticides and nerve agents (NA), are known to phosphylate distinct endogenous proteins in vivo and in vitro. OPC adducts of butyrylcholinesterase and albumin are considered to be valuable biomarkers for retrospective verification of OPC exposure. Therefore, we have detected and identified novel adducts of human serum albumin (HSA) by means of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Pure albumin and plasma were incubated with numerous pesticides and NA of the V- and G-type in different molar ratios. Samples were prepared either by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by in-gel enzymatic cleavage using endoproteinase Glu-C (Glu-C) or by combining highly albumin-selective affinity extraction with ultrafiltration followed by reduction, carbamidomethylation, and enzymatic cleavage (Glu-C) prior to MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Characteristic mass shifts for phosphylation revealed tyrosine adducts at Y(411) (Y(401)KFQNALLVRY(411)TKKVPQVSTPTLVE(425)), Y(148) and Y(150) (I(142)ARRHPY(148)FY(150)APE(153), single and double labeled), and Y(161) (L(154)LFFAKRY(161)KAAFTE(167)) produced by original NA (tabun, sarin, soman, cyclosarin, VX, Chinese VX, and Russian VX) as well as by chlorpyrifos-oxon, diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP), paraoxon-ethyl (POE), and profenofos. MALDI-MS/MS of the single-labeled I(142)-E(153) peptide demonstrated that Y(150) was phosphylated with preference to Y(148). Aged albumin adducts were not detected. The procedure described was reproducible and feasible for detection of adducts at the most reactive Y(411)-residue (S/N ≥ 3) when at least 1% of total albumin was labeled. This was achieved by incubating plasma with molar HSA/OPC ratios ranging from approximately 1:0.03 (all G-type NA, DFP, and POE) to 1:3 (V-type NA, profenofos). Relative signal intensity of the Y(411) adduct correlated well with the spotted relative

  15. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for detection and identification of albumin phosphylation by organophosphorus pesticides and G- and V-type nerve agents.

    PubMed

    John, Harald; Breyer, Felicitas; Thumfart, Jörg Oliver; Höchstetter, Hans; Thiermann, Horst

    2010-11-01

    Toxic organophosphorus compounds (OPC), e.g., pesticides and nerve agents (NA), are known to phosphylate distinct endogenous proteins in vivo and in vitro. OPC adducts of butyrylcholinesterase and albumin are considered to be valuable biomarkers for retrospective verification of OPC exposure. Therefore, we have detected and identified novel adducts of human serum albumin (HSA) by means of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Pure albumin and plasma were incubated with numerous pesticides and NA of the V- and G-type in different molar ratios. Samples were prepared either by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by in-gel enzymatic cleavage using endoproteinase Glu-C (Glu-C) or by combining highly albumin-selective affinity extraction with ultrafiltration followed by reduction, carbamidomethylation, and enzymatic cleavage (Glu-C) prior to MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Characteristic mass shifts for phosphylation revealed tyrosine adducts at Y(411) (Y(401)KFQNALLVRY(411)TKKVPQVSTPTLVE(425)), Y(148) and Y(150) (I(142)ARRHPY(148)FY(150)APE(153), single and double labeled), and Y(161) (L(154)LFFAKRY(161)KAAFTE(167)) produced by original NA (tabun, sarin, soman, cyclosarin, VX, Chinese VX, and Russian VX) as well as by chlorpyrifos-oxon, diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP), paraoxon-ethyl (POE), and profenofos. MALDI-MS/MS of the single-labeled I(142)-E(153) peptide demonstrated that Y(150) was phosphylated with preference to Y(148). Aged albumin adducts were not detected. The procedure described was reproducible and feasible for detection of adducts at the most reactive Y(411)-residue (S/N ≥ 3) when at least 1% of total albumin was labeled. This was achieved by incubating plasma with molar HSA/OPC ratios ranging from approximately 1:0.03 (all G-type NA, DFP, and POE) to 1:3 (V-type NA, profenofos). Relative signal intensity of the Y(411) adduct correlated well with the spotted relative

  16. Analysis of Wheat Prolamins, the Causative Agents of Celiac Sprue, Using Reversed Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS)

    PubMed Central

    Mejías, Jaime H.; Lu, Xiaoqiao; Osorio, Claudia; Ullman, Jeffrey L.; von Wettstein, Diter; Rustgi, Sachin

    2014-01-01

    Wheat prolamins, commonly known as “gluten”, are a complex mixture of 71–78 proteins, which constitute ~80% of the proteins in the wheat grains and supply 50% of the global dietary protein demand. Prolamins are also responsible for numerous gluten-induced disorders and determine the unique visco-elastic properties of the wheat dough. These properties necessitate the reliable determination of the prolamin composition in wheat grains and their derived products. Therefore, this study examined the impact of HPLC conditions, including column type, column temperature, flow rate, and the gradient of polar and non-polar solvents in the mobile phase, to improve the analytical resolution of prolamins. The following conditions were found optimal for analyses: column temperature 60 °C, flow rate 1.0 mL/min and an elution gradient of 20%–60% of 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid + acetonitrile in 60 min. For further improvement of resolution, gliadin and glutenin extracts were analyzed using MALDI-TOF-MS in combination with HPLC fractionation. Two semi-quantitative methods, densitometry of stained polyacrylamide gels and HPLC, were used to determine relative prolamin quantities and the correspondence between the methods was established. The combinatorial gluten analyses approach developed during the present study was used to analyze prolamin profiles of wheat transformants expressing DEMETER silencing artificial microRNA, and the results are discussed. PMID:24739977

  17. Lipidomic fingerprint of almonds (Prunus dulcis L. cv Nonpareil) using TiO₂ nanoparticle based matrix solid-phase dispersion and MALDI-TOF/MS and its potential in geographical origin verification.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qing; Dong, Wei; Yang, Mei; Li, Linqiu; Cheung, Hon-Yeung; Zhang, Zhifeng

    2013-08-14

    A matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) procedure with titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NP) as sorbent was developed for the selective extraction of phospholipids from almond samples, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) was employed for analysis. A remarkable increase in the signals of phospholipid accompanied by a decrease in those of triacylglycerols and diacylglycerols was observed in the relevant mass spectra. The proposed method was applied to five batches of almonds originating from four geographical areas, whereas principal component analysis (PCA) was utilized to normalize the relative amounts of the identified phospholipid species. The results indicated that the lipidomic fingerprint of almonds was successfully established by the negative ion mode spectrum, and the ratio of m/z 833.6 to 835.6 as well as m/z 821.6 could be introduced as potential markers for the differentiation of the tested almonds with different geographical origins. The whole method is of great promise for selective separation of phospholipids from nonphospholipids, especially the glycerides, and superior in fast screening and characterization of phospholipids in almond samples.

  18. Coumarin tags for analysis of peptides by MALDI-TOF MS and MS/MS. 2. Alexa Fluor 350 tag for increased peptide and protein Identification by LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Pashkova, Anna; Chen, Hsuan-Shen; Rejtar, Tomas; Zang, Xin; Giese, Roger; Andreev, Victor; Moskovets, Eugene; Karger, Barry L

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this study was the development of N-terminal tags to improve peptide identification using high-throughput MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Part 1 of the study was focused on the influence of derivatization on the intensities of MALDI-TOF MS signals of peptides. In part 2, various derivatization approaches for the improvement of peptide fragmentation efficiency in MALDI-TOF/TOF MS are explored. We demonstrate that permanent cation tags, while significantly improving signal intensity in the MS mode, lead to severe suppression of MS/MS fragmentation, making these tags unsuitable for high-throughput MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis. In the present work, it was found that labeling with Alexa Fluor 350, a coumarin tag containing a sulfo group, along with guanidation of epsilon-amino groups of Lys, could enhance unimolecular fragmentation of peptides with the formation of a high-intensity y-ion series, while the peptide intensities in the MS mode were not severely affected. LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis of tryptic peptides from the SCX fractions of an E. coli lysate revealed improved peptide scores, a doubling of the total number of peptides, and a 30% increase in the number of proteins identified, as a result of labeling. Furthermore, by combining the data from native and labeled samples, confidence in correct identification was increased, as many proteins were identified by different peptides in the native and labeled data sets. Additionally, derivatization was found not to impair chromatographic behavior of peptides. All these factors suggest that labeling with Alexa Fluor 350 is a promising approach to the high-throughput LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis of proteomic samples.

  19. Microorganism Identification Based On MALDI-TOF-MS Fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elssner, Thomas; Kostrzewa, Markus; Maier, Thomas; Kruppa, Gary

    Advances in MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry have enabled the ­development of a rapid, accurate and specific method for the identification of bacteria directly from colonies picked from culture plates, which we have named the MALDI Biotyper. The picked colonies are placed on a target plate, a drop of matrix solution is added, and a pattern of protein molecular weights and intensities, "the protein fingerprint" of the bacteria, is produced by the MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. The obtained protein mass fingerprint representing a molecular signature of the microorganism is then matched against a database containing a library of previously measured protein mass fingerprints, and scores for the match to every library entry are produced. An ID is obtained if a score is returned over a pre-set threshold. The sensitivity of the techniques is such that only approximately 104 bacterial cells are needed, meaning that an overnight culture is sufficient, and the results are obtained in minutes after culture. The improvement in time to result over biochemical methods, and the capability to perform a non-targeted identification of bacteria and spores, potentially makes this method suitable for use in the detect-to-treat timeframe in a bioterrorism event. In the case of white-powder samples, the infectious spore is present in sufficient quantity in the powder so that the MALDI Biotyper result can be obtained directly from the white powder, without the need for culture. While spores produce very different patterns from the vegetative colonies of the corresponding bacteria, this problem is overcome by simply including protein fingerprints of the spores in the library. Results on spores can be returned within minutes, making the method suitable for use in the "detect-to-protect" timeframe.

  20. MALDI-TOF MS to monitor the kinetics of phospholipase A2-digestion of oxidized phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Schröter, Jenny; Süß, Rosmarie; Schiller, Jürgen

    2016-07-15

    Free fatty acids (FFA) are released through phospholipase A2 (PLA2), which cleaves the fatty acyl residue at the sn-2 position of phospholipids (PL). During inflammatory diseases, reactive oxygen species (such as HOCl) lead to the formation of oxidatively modified PL (e.g., chlorohydrin generation). It is still widely unknown to which extent the oxidation of PL influences their digestibility by PLA2. Additionally, investigations on the impact of the position of the unsaturated fatty acyl residue (sn-1 versus sn-2 position) and modifications of the headgroup (for instance phosphatidylcholine (PC) versus phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)) are also lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study is the investigation of these aspects using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry to elucidate the PL/lysophospholipid (LPL) ratios as measures of the PLA2 digestibility. We will show that oxidative modifications of PL by HOCl have a considerable impact on the PLA2 digestibility, i.e., oxidation of the unsaturated fatty acyl residues leads to a reduced digestibility of both PC and PE. Besides, it will be shown that MALDI MS is a convenient and reliable tool to investigate the related changes.

  1. MALDI-TOF MS for quality control of high protein content sport supplements.

    PubMed

    De Ceglie, Cristina; Calvano, Cosima D; Zambonin, Carlo G

    2015-06-01

    High protein content sport nutritional supplements are found as powder products containing, as ingredients, amino acids and proteins with important nutritional values as milk, soy and egg proteins. An EU Food Supplements Directive (2002) requires that supplements should be safe, both in dosages and in purity. It is important, then, to develop rapid and sensitive methods to be employed for the quality control of these substances. In this work, we apply, for the first time, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry as a fast, reproducible and sensitive method for the quality control of sport nutritional supplements based on proteins. To this aim, several commercial egg- and/or milk-based powder products have been processed by in gel or in solution digestion and analyzed in comparison to pure standard products. This strategy allowed to assess the reliability of the indications on proteins (as caseins, whey proteins and ovalbumin) declared in the label of several sport nutritional supplements.

  2. Identification of Bacillus strains by MALDI TOF MS using geometric approach

    PubMed Central

    Starostin, Konstantin V.; Demidov, Evgeny A.; Bryanskaya, Alla V.; Efimov, Vadim M.; Rozanov, Alexey S.; Peltek, Sergey E.

    2015-01-01

    Microorganism identification by MALDI TOF mass-spectrometry is based on the comparison of the mass spectrum of the studied organism with those of reference strains. It is a rapid and reliable method. However, commercial databases and programs are mostly designed for identification of clinically important strains and can be used only for particular mass spectrometer models. The need for open platforms and reference databases is obvious. In this study we describe a geometric approach for microorganism identification by mass spectra and demonstrate its capabilities by analyzing 24 strains belonging to the Bacillus pumilus group. This method is based on representing mass spectra as points on a multidimensional space, which allows us to use geometric distances to compare the spectra. Delimitation of microorganisms performed by geometric approach correlates well with the results of molecular phylogenetic analysis and clustering using Biotyper 3.1. All three methods used allowed us to reliably divide the strains into two groups corresponding to closely related species, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus altitudinis. The method developed by us will be implemented in a Web interface designed for using open reference databases for microorganism identification. The data is available at http://www.bionet.nsc.ru/mbl/database/database.html. PMID:26592761

  3. AGING OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUUM OOCYSTS STUDIED BY MALDI-TOF MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a protozoan parasite, and it causes a potentially fatal gastrointestinal illness. This water borne pathogen has been the subject of several high profile disease outbreaks in the US and abroad. C. parvum presents challenges for both compliance monitorin...

  4. AGING OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM OOCYSTS STUDIED BY MALDI-TOF MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a protozoan parasite, and it causes a potentially fatal gastrointestinal illness. This water borne pathogen has been the subject of several high profile disease outbreaks in the US and abroad. C. parvum presents challenges for both compliance monitoring ...

  5. MALDI TOF MS: An Exobiology Surface-Science Approach for Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerakines, Perry A.; Wdowiak, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    If Europa is to be of primary exobiological interest, namely as a habitat for extant life, it is obvious that: (i) a hydrosphere must prevail beneath the cryosphere for a long time, (ii) internal energy sources must be present in a sufficient state of activity, and (iii) a reasonable technical means must be available for assessing if indeed life does exist in the hypothesized hydrosphere. This discussion focuses on technological issues, because the compounding evidence about Europa indicates that the first two are highly likely to be true. We present a consideration of time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (TOF MS) conducted in-situ on the cryosphere surface of Europa during a landed robotic mission. We assert that this is a reasonable technical means not only for exploring the composition of the cryosphere itself, but also for locating any biomolecular indicators of extant life brought to the surface through cryosphere activity. We also describe a MALDI (MAtrix Laser Desorption and Ionization) TOF MS system that we are constructing as a proof-of-concept prototype for conducting TOF MS measurements on Europa.

  6. Use of MALDI-TOF MS for Identification of Nontuberculous Mycobacterium Species Isolated from Clinical Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Mediavilla-Gradolph, María Concepción; De Toro-Peinado, Inmaculada; Bermúdez-Ruiz, María Pilar; García-Martínez, María de los Ángeles; Ortega-Torres, María; Montiel Quezel-Guerraz, Natalia; Palop-Borrás, Begoña

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the results obtained for identification by MALDI-TOF of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) isolated in clinical samples with those obtained by GenoType Mycobacterium CM/AS (common mycobacteria/additional species). A total of 66 Mycobacterium isolates from various clinical specimens (mainly respiratory) were tested in this study. They were identified using MALDI-TOF Bruker from strains isolated in Lowenstein, following the recommended protocol of heat inactivation and extraction, and were simultaneously analyzed through hybridization by GenoType Mycobacterium from liquid culture MGIT. Our results showed that identification by MALDI-TOF was correct in 98.4% (65/66) of NTM isolated in our clinical practice (M. avium, M. intracellulare, M. abscessus, M. chelonae, M. fortuitum, M. mucogenicum, M. kansasii, and M. scrofulaceum). MALDI-TOF was found to be an accurate, rapid, and cost-effective system for identification of mycobacteria species. PMID:26106617

  7. Identification of Bacillus strains by MALDI TOF MS using geometric approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starostin, Konstantin V.; Demidov, Evgeny A.; Bryanskaya, Alla V.; Efimov, Vadim M.; Rozanov, Alexey S.; Peltek, Sergey E.

    2015-11-01

    Microorganism identification by MALDI TOF mass-spectrometry is based on the comparison of the mass spectrum of the studied organism with those of reference strains. It is a rapid and reliable method. However, commercial databases and programs are mostly designed for identification of clinically important strains and can be used only for particular mass spectrometer models. The need for open platforms and reference databases is obvious. In this study we describe a geometric approach for microorganism identification by mass spectra and demonstrate its capabilities by analyzing 24 strains belonging to the Bacillus pumilus group. This method is based on representing mass spectra as points on a multidimensional space, which allows us to use geometric distances to compare the spectra. Delimitation of microorganisms performed by geometric approach correlates well with the results of molecular phylogenetic analysis and clustering using Biotyper 3.1. All three methods used allowed us to reliably divide the strains into two groups corresponding to closely related species, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus altitudinis. The method developed by us will be implemented in a Web interface designed for using open reference databases for microorganism identification. The data is available at http://www.bionet.nsc.ru/mbl/database/database.html.

  8. Identification of Bacillus strains by MALDI TOF MS using geometric approach.

    PubMed

    Starostin, Konstantin V; Demidov, Evgeny A; Bryanskaya, Alla V; Efimov, Vadim M; Rozanov, Alexey S; Peltek, Sergey E

    2015-01-01

    Microorganism identification by MALDI TOF mass-spectrometry is based on the comparison of the mass spectrum of the studied organism with those of reference strains. It is a rapid and reliable method. However, commercial databases and programs are mostly designed for identification of clinically important strains and can be used only for particular mass spectrometer models. The need for open platforms and reference databases is obvious. In this study we describe a geometric approach for microorganism identification by mass spectra and demonstrate its capabilities by analyzing 24 strains belonging to the Bacillus pumilus group. This method is based on representing mass spectra as points on a multidimensional space, which allows us to use geometric distances to compare the spectra. Delimitation of microorganisms performed by geometric approach correlates well with the results of molecular phylogenetic analysis and clustering using Biotyper 3.1. All three methods used allowed us to reliably divide the strains into two groups corresponding to closely related species, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus altitudinis. The method developed by us will be implemented in a Web interface designed for using open reference databases for microorganism identification. The data is available at http://www.bionet.nsc.ru/mbl/database/database.html.

  9. Analysis of Glossina palpalis gambiensis and Glossina tachinoides from two distant locations in Burkina Faso using MALDI TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Hoppenheit, Antje; Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan; Bauer, Burkhard; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Roesler, Uwe

    2014-02-01

    Riverine tsetse (Glossina) as Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank 1949 and Glossina tachinoides Westwood 1850 are the main vectors for African animal trypanosomoses in Burkina Faso. Vector control has been proven efficient in disease containment, but its success is endangered by the reinvasion of tsetse from neighbouring areas. Thus, identifying relic populations can enhance the success rate of vector control efforts. This is currently carried out through microsatellite analysis which is time-consuming and costly. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based analysis has become a routine method in microbial species identification. Owing to the rapidness and cost-effectiveness, this approach has been extended towards species identification of higher organisms such as tsetse. Following the recent experiences in distinguishing two genotypes of Prototheca spp., it is of interest to explore the validity of mass spectrometry for tsetse population differentiation. As a preliminary test, we submitted male and female G. palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides from Sideradougou and Folonzo, Burkina Faso (distance 60 km) to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation analysis. The wing samples were utilized for protein extraction and mass spectra in a broad mass to charge ratio (2,000-20,000 kDa) were obtained. Specific peaks appeared to represent species, sex and location. Then, a peak list was extracted, containing the peaks in mass-to-charge ratio by revealing their intensities as well. These lists were used to compute a spectral dendrogram and a principle component analysis which displayed the differences among the samples from the two different regions. The results indicate that this technique can be extended with additional tsetse species, ideally with supporting genomic data, to later assist in designing rational vector control strategies. PMID:24292542

  10. Proteomic profiling of occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis induced by trichloroethylene in serum based on MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Hong, Wen-Xu; Zhang, Yanfang; Huang, Peiwu; Yang, Xifei; Ren, Xiaohu; Huang, Haiyan; Liu, Jianjun

    2015-11-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) has long been well known as a major pollutant that affects both occupational and general environments. Occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis induced by TCE (OMLDT) is an autoimmune disease, which has become one of the critical occupational health issues in China. In this study, we analyzed 18 OMLDT patients and 29 professional TCE contact people on serum proteomic analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and ClinProTools bioinformatics software. The intensities of 35 protein/peptide peaks were significantly different between TCE contact controls and OMLDT patients. A pattern of six peaks (m/z 1,450.33, 1,866.16, 3,262.39, 4,109.55, 5,064.85 and 5,956.57) were selected to construct a diagnostic model to discriminate the OMLDT patients from controls with sensitivity and specificity of both 93.8 %. Our findings provide an alternative proteomic approach to differentiate the OMLDT patients from TCE contact workers with high sensitivity and high specificity, which will be of potential value in clinical diagnosis for occupational disease.

  11. Determining and characterizing hapten loads for carrier proteins by MALDI-TOF MS and MALDI-TOF/RTOF MS.

    PubMed

    Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Stephan, Christopher; Häubl, Georg; Allmaier, Günter; Krska, Rudolf; Cvak, Barbara

    2016-07-15

    The increasing number of bioconjugates used for bioanalytical purposes and in pharmaceutical industries has led to an increasing demand for robust quality control of products derived from covalently linking small molecules to proteins. Here we report, for the first time, a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF)-based method to determine the quantity and location of the hapten zearalenone (ZEN) introduced to the carrier protein conalbumin (Con). This bioconjugate is of special interest because of its application in lateral flow immunoassays commercially available for fast testing of food and feed for the presence of ZEN, a common contaminant of all major cereal grains worldwide. Mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of the intact protein turned out to be highly reproducible allowing for the determination of the average hapten load of the carrier protein. In that way an easy and fast method to screen for changes in ZEN load after bioconjugate synthesis was established. For a more detailed hapten load characterization, measurements at the peptide level were of importance. Systematic studies, implementing post-source decay (PSD) and high- and low-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID), showed characteristic fragmentation pattern for three model peptides carrying between one and three lysines (the primary target for the ZEN modification) besides other, less obvious modification sites (serine, arginine and the N-terminus). By this, indicative reporter ions (m/z 203 and 316) and neutral losses (Δm/z 373 and 317) for the ZEN modification in general, plus immonium ions (m/z 87, 142 and 159) for the lysine modification in particular were identified. Based on these findings, proteolytic peptides, tentatively assigned to be modified, were unequivocally confirmed to be affected by bioconjugation. For a protein carrying on average only 2-3 modifications per molecule 29 Lys out of 59 potential modifications sites were actually modified. Considerations taking the protein structure into account showed that the affected Lys were predominantly located on the protein's surface. PMID:27117873

  12. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy as a tool supporting optimization of MALDI-TOF MS analysis of polylactides.

    PubMed

    Sroka-Bartnicka, Anna; Olejniczak, Sebastian; Sochacki, Marek; Biela, Tadeusz; Potrzebowski, Marek J

    2009-01-01

    We report systematic structural studies of poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) employing matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. (13)C cross polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) NMR data for 1,8-dihydroxy-9-anthracenone (DT), 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), 2-(4-hydroxyphenylazo)-benzoic acid (HABA), and trans-3-indoleacrylic acid (IAA), four matrices commonly used in MALDI-TOF analysis of polymers, were analyzed to test the influence of crystallization conditions (solvent, inorganic salt) on sample morphology. (13)C principal elements of chemical shift tensor (CST) and line-shape analyses were employed to study of the nature of hydrogen bonding and to evaluate the crystallinity and amorphicity of the pure polymer. NMR parameters for PLLA were compared with data for polylactide crystallized with the four matrices under different conditions with the addition of two inorganic salts as cationization agents. This study revealed that the semicrystalline structure of the polymer does not change when it is embedded in the matrix. PMID:18926725

  13. High-sensitivity MALDI-TOF MS quantification of anthrax lethal toxin for diagnostics and evaluation of medical countermeasures.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Anne E; Gallegos-Candela, Maribel; Quinn, Conrad P; Woolfitt, Adrian R; Brumlow, Judith O; Isbell, Katherine; Hoffmaster, Alex R; Lins, Renato C; Barr, John R

    2015-04-01

    Inhalation anthrax has a rapid progression and high fatality rate. Pathology and death from inhalation of Bacillus anthracis spores are attributed to the actions of secreted protein toxins. Protective antigen (PA) binds and imports the catalytic component lethal factor (LF), a zinc endoprotease, and edema factor (EF), an adenylyl cyclase, into susceptible cells. PA-LF is termed lethal toxin (LTx) and PA-EF, edema toxin. As the universal transporter for both toxins, PA is an important target for vaccination and immunotherapeutic intervention. However, its quantification has been limited to methods of relatively low analytic sensitivity. Quantification of LTx may be more clinically relevant than LF or PA alone because LTx is the toxic form that acts on cells. A method was developed for LTx-specific quantification in plasma using anti-PA IgG magnetic immunoprecipitation of PA and quantification of LF activity that co-purified with PA. The method was fast (<4 h total time to detection), sensitive at 0.033 ng/mL LTx in plasma for the fast analysis (0.0075 ng/mL LTx in plasma for an 18 h reaction), precise (6.3-9.9% coefficient of variation), and accurate (0.1-12.7%error; n ≥ 25). Diagnostic sensitivity was 100% (n = 27 animal/clinical cases). Diagnostic specificity was 100% (n = 141). LTx was detected post-antibiotic treatment in 6/6 treated rhesus macaques and 3/3 clinical cases of inhalation anthrax and as long as 8 days post-treatment. Over the course of infection in two rhesus macaques, LTx was first detected at 0.101 and 0.237 ng/mL at 36 h post-exposure and increased to 1147 and 12,107 ng/mL in late-stage anthrax. This demonstrated the importance of LTx as a diagnostic and therapeutic target. This method provides a sensitive, accurate tool for anthrax toxin detection and evaluation of PA-directed therapeutics.

  14. Identification of a tachykinin-related neuropeptide from the honeybee brain using direct MALDI-TOF MS and its gene expression in worker, queen and drone heads.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, H; Yasuda, A; Yasuda-Kamatani, Y; Kubo, T; Nakajima, T

    2003-06-01

    Using a combination of MALDI-TOF and on-line capillary HPLC/Q-Tof mass spectroscopy, we identified and determined the amino acid sequence of a novel neuropeptide in the brain of the honeybee Apis mellifera L., termed AmTRP peptide (Apis mellifera tachykinin-related peptide), related to insect tachykinin. A cDNA for a prepro-protein (prepro-AmTRP) of AmTRP was isolated and determined to encode seven AmTRPs 1-7. Northern blot analysis indicated that the prepro-AmTRP gene is expressed differentially in the nurse bee, forager, queen and drone heads. Strong expression was detected in the queen and forager heads, while weak and almost no significant expression was detected in the nurse and drone heads, respectively. These results suggest that AmTRP peptide functions as a neuromodulator and/or hormone, associated with sex-specific or age/division of labour-selective behaviour and/or physiology of the honeybees.

  15. MALDI-TOF MS is more accurate than VITEK II ANC card and API Rapid ID 32 A system for the identification of Clostridium species.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Si Hyun; Park, Hyun-Jung; Park, Hae-Geun; Park, Dongchul; Song, Sae Am; Lee, Hee Joo; Yong, Dongeun; Choi, Jun Yong; Kook, Joong-Ki; Kim, Hye Ran; Shin, Jeong Hwan

    2016-08-01

    All 50 Clostridium difficile strains were definitely identified by Vitek2 system, Rapid ID 32A system, and MALDI-TOF. For 18 non-difficile Clostridium strains, the identification results were correct in 0, 2, and 17 strains by Vitek2, Rapid ID 32A, and MALDI-TOF, respectively. MALDI-TOF could be used as the primary tool for identification of Clostridium species.

  16. Phylogenomic and MALDI-TOF MS analysis of Streptococcus sinensis HKU4T reveals a distinct phylogenetic clade in the genus Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Teng, Jade L L; Huang, Yi; Tse, Herman; Chen, Jonathan H K; Tang, Ying; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2014-10-20

    Streptococcus sinensis is a recently discovered human pathogen isolated from blood cultures of patients with infective endocarditis. Its phylogenetic position, as well as those of its closely related species, remains inconclusive when single genes were used for phylogenetic analysis. For example, S. sinensis branched out from members of the anginosus, mitis, and sanguinis groups in the 16S ribosomal RNA gene phylogenetic tree, but it was clustered with members of the anginosus and sanguinis groups when groEL gene sequences used for analysis. In this study, we sequenced the draft genome of S. sinensis and used a polyphasic approach, including concatenated genes, whole genomes, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry to analyze the phylogeny of S. sinensis. The size of the S. sinensis draft genome is 2.06 Mb, with GC content of 42.2%. Phylogenetic analysis using 50 concatenated genes or whole genomes revealed that S. sinensis formed a distinct cluster with Streptococcus oligofermentans and Streptococcus cristatus, and these three streptococci were clustered with the "sanguinis group." As for phylogenetic analysis using hierarchical cluster analysis of the mass spectra of streptococci, S. sinensis also formed a distinct cluster with S. oligofermentans and S. cristatus, but these three streptococci were clustered with the "mitis group." On the basis of the findings, we propose a novel group, named "sinensis group," to include S. sinensis, S. oligofermentans, and S. cristatus, in the Streptococcus genus. Our study also illustrates the power of phylogenomic analyses for resolving ambiguities in bacterial taxonomy.

  17. Identification of a tachykinin-related neuropeptide from the honeybee brain using direct MALDI-TOF MS and its gene expression in worker, queen and drone heads.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, H; Yasuda, A; Yasuda-Kamatani, Y; Kubo, T; Nakajima, T

    2003-06-01

    Using a combination of MALDI-TOF and on-line capillary HPLC/Q-Tof mass spectroscopy, we identified and determined the amino acid sequence of a novel neuropeptide in the brain of the honeybee Apis mellifera L., termed AmTRP peptide (Apis mellifera tachykinin-related peptide), related to insect tachykinin. A cDNA for a prepro-protein (prepro-AmTRP) of AmTRP was isolated and determined to encode seven AmTRPs 1-7. Northern blot analysis indicated that the prepro-AmTRP gene is expressed differentially in the nurse bee, forager, queen and drone heads. Strong expression was detected in the queen and forager heads, while weak and almost no significant expression was detected in the nurse and drone heads, respectively. These results suggest that AmTRP peptide functions as a neuromodulator and/or hormone, associated with sex-specific or age/division of labour-selective behaviour and/or physiology of the honeybees. PMID:12752663

  18. Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis CBMDC3f with antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive foodborne pathogenic bacteria: UV-MALDI-TOF MS analysis of its bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Torres, M J; Petroselli, G; Daz, M; Erra-Balsells, R; Audisio, M C

    2015-06-01

    In this work a new Bacillus sp. strain, isolated from honey, was characterized phylogenetically. Its antibacterial activity against three relevant foodborne pathogenic bacteria was studied; the main bioactive metabolites were analyzed using ultraviolet matrix assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry (UV-MALDI MS). Bacillus CBMDC3f was phylogenetically characterized as Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis after rRNA analysis of the 16S subunit and the gyrA gene (access codes Genbank JX120508 and JX120516, respectively). Its antibacterial potential was evaluated against Listeria monocytogenes (9 strains), B. cereus (3 strains) and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213. Its cell suspension and cell-free supernatant (CFS) exerted significant anti-Listeria and anti-S. aureus activities, while the lipopeptides fraction (LF) also showed anti-B. cereus effect. The UV-MALDI-MS analysis revealed surfactin, iturin and fengycin in the CFS, whereas surfactin predominated in the LF. The CFS from CBMDC3f contained surfactin, iturin and fengycin with four, two and four homologues per family, respectively, whereas four surfactin, one iturin and one fengycin homologues were identified in the LF. For some surfactin homologues, their UV-MALDI-TOF/TOF (MS/MS; Laser Induced Decomposition method, LID) spectra were also obtained. Mass spectrometry analysis contributed with relevant information about the type of lipopeptides that Bacillus strains can synthesize. From our results, surfactin would be the main metabolite responsible for the antibacterial effect. PMID:25820813

  19. MALDI-TOF MS imaging of metabolites with a N-(1-naphthyl) ethylenediamine dihydrochloride matrix and its application to colorectal cancer liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianing; Qiu, Shulan; Chen, Suming; Xiong, Caiqiao; Liu, Huihui; Wang, Jiyun; Zhang, Ning; Hou, Jian; He, Qing; Nie, Zongxiu

    2015-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) is a label-free technique for identifying multiplex metabolites and determining both their distribution and relative abundance in situ. Our previous study showed that N-(1-naphthyl) ethylenediamine dihydrochloride (NEDC) could act as a matrix for laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-TOF MS) detection of oligosaccharides in solution. In the present study, NEDC-assisted LDI-TOF MSI yielded many more endogenous compound peaks between m/z 60 and m/z 1600 than 9-aminoacridine (9-AA). Our results show that NEDC-assisted LDI-TOF MSI is especially well-suited for examining distributions of glycerophospholipids (GPs) in addition to low molecular weight metabolites below m/z 400. Particularly, NEDC matrix allowed the LDI-TOF MSI of glucose in animal tissue. Furthermore, NEDC-assisted LDI-TOF MSI was applied to a mouse model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis. We revealed the distinct spatio-molecular signatures of many detected compounds in tumor or tumor-bearing liver, and we found that taurine, glucose, and some GPs decreased in tumor-bearing liver as the tumor developed in liver. Importantly, we also found a glucose gradient in metastatic tumor foci for the first time, which further confirms the energy competition between tumors and liver remnant due to the Warburg effect. Our results suggest that NEDC-assisted LDI MSI provides an in situ label-free analysis of multiple glycerophospholipids and low molecular weight metabolites (including glucose) with abundant peaks and high spatial resolution. This will allow future application to in situ definition of biomarkers, signaling pathways, and disease mechanisms. PMID:25474421

  20. Conservation of honey bee (Apis mellifera) sperm phospholipids during storage in the bee queen--a TLC/MALDI-TOF MS study.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Jakob; Zschörnig, Kristin; Onischke, Kristin; Fuchs, Beate; Schiller, Jürgen; Müller, Karin

    2013-02-01

    The honey bee (Apis mellifera) is characterized by a high degree of phenotypic plasticity of senescence-related processes, and has therefore become a model organism of gerontological research. Sperm of honey bee drones can remain fertile for several years within the storage organ of queens. The reason for this longevity is unknown, but the suppression of lipid peroxidation seems to play a decisive role. Here, we examined the questions of whether spermatheca- and in vitro-stored honey bee sperm are indeed resistant to lipid peroxidation, and whether the nature of sperm lipids could explain this resistance. The lipid composition of bee sperm was determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) combined with thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The positive ion mass spectra of drone sperm lipids are dominated by two glycerophosphocholine (GPC) species, although small amounts of sphingomyelins (SM) and glycerophosphoethanolamines (GPE) are also detectable after TLC. Alkyl/acyl and alkenyl/acyl compounds of GPC, and alkyl/acyl as well as diacyl compounds of GPE were detected containing oleyl, oleoyl, palmityl and palmitoyl as the most abundant residues. Assignments of all compounds have been additionally verified by enzymatic digestion and exposition to HCl. During incubation of sperm in the presence of air, characteristic lipid oxidation products such as lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) appear. Inside the spermatheca, however, sperm lipids are obviously protected from oxidation and their composition does not change, even if they are stored over years. Our data support the view that the membrane composition of honey bee sperm could help to explain the extraordinary longevity of these cells.

  1. Optimization of MALDI-TOF MS Detection for Enhanced Sensitivity of Affinity-Captured Proteins Spanning a 100 kDa Mass Range

    PubMed Central

    Gatlin-Bunai, Christine L.; Cazares, Lisa H.; Cooke, William E.; Semmes, Oliver J.; Malyarenko, Dariya I.

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of complex biological samples by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry has been generally limited to the detection of low-mass protein (or protein fragment) peaks. We have extended the mass range of MALDI-TOF high-sensitivity detection by an order of magnitude through the combined optimization of instrument parameters, data processing, and sample preparation procedures for affinity capture. WCX, C3, and IMAC magnetic beads were determined to be complementary and most favorable for broad mass range protein profiling. Key instrument parameters for extending mass range included adjustment of the ADC offset and preamplifier filter values of the TOF detector. Data processing was improved by a combination of constant and quadratic down-sampling, preceded by exponential baseline subtraction, to increase sensitivity of signal peaks. This enhancement in broad mass range detection of protein signals will be of direct benefit in MS expression profiling studies requiring full linear range mass detection. PMID:17918874

  2. Quantification of Cell-Penetrating Peptide Associated with Polymeric Nanoparticles Using Isobaric-Tagging and MALDI-TOF MS/MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Jasper Z. S.; Tucker, Ian G.; McDowell, Arlene

    2016-09-01

    High sensitivity quantification of the putative cell-penetrating peptide di-arginine-histidine (RRH) associated with poly (ethyl-cyanoacrylate) (PECA) nanoparticles was achieved without analyte separation, using a novel application of isobaric-tagging and high matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization coupled to time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Isobaric-tagging reaction equilibrium was reached after 5 min, with 90% or greater RRH peptide successfully isobaric-tagged after 60 min. The accuracy was greater than 90%, which indicates good reliability of using isobaric-tagged RRH as an internal standard for RRH quantification. The sample intra- and inter-spot coefficients of variations were less than 11%, which indicate good repeatability. The majority of RRH peptides in the nanoparticle formulation were physically associated with the nanoparticles (46.6%), whereas only a small fraction remained unassociated (13.7%). The unrecovered RRH peptide (~40%) was assumed to be covalently associated with PECA nanoparticles.

  3. Comparison of the Vitek MS and Bruker Microflex LT MALDI-TOF MS platforms for routine identification of commonly isolated bacteria and yeast in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Deak, Eszter; Charlton, Carmen L; Bobenchik, April M; Miller, Shelley A; Pollett, Simon; McHardy, Ian H; Wu, Max T; Garner, Omai B

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the diagnostic performance of Bruker's Microflex LT and bioMérieux's Vitek MS matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry systems. A total of 477 isolates were tested on both instruments. Discrepant results were resolved by sequencing. Overall, there was no statistically significant difference between the proportion of isolates correctly identified, miscalled or not called by each instrument. Although both systems were good at identifying yeast (66/69 to species level), the confidence level was high only to genus level for 30% of the isolates on the Bruker. Both systems performed with high accuracy when evaluated solely on Food and Drug Administration-approved organisms for each database. A user-based assessment of the 2 instruments revealed an overall preference for the Vitek MS instrument.

  4. Conjugated critical reagent characterization for ligand-binding assays: using MALDI-TOF-MS as an orthogonal tool to assess assay performance.

    PubMed

    Haulenbeek, Jonathan; Piccoli, Steven P

    2014-04-01

    Large-molecule biotherapeutics are forming an increasingly large percentage of emerging pharmaceutical pipelines. These molecules present specific challenges to the bioanalysts charged with measuring in vivo concentrations of the biotherapeutic. The challenges are typically met using ligand-binding assays in support of pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and immunogenicity assays. Ligand-binding assays employ complex biological molecules that specifically recognize the biotherapeutic for quantitation. Generally, a minimum of one of these critical reagents must be chemically modified to generate a signal that is measured in the assay. Once chemically modified it is necessary to characterize the reagent prior to use in an assay. The concentration, purity and molar incorporation ratio of chemical modification are key characteristics. This article presents mass spectral techniques for determining the molar incorporation ratio. Case studies are provided to demonstrate the time and cost savings that can be realized with timely and detailed characterization of critical reagents for ligand-binding assays.

  5. MALDI-TOF-MS reveals differential N-linked plasma- and IgG-glycosylation profiles between mothers and their newborns

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Bas C.; Bondt, Albert; Reiding, Karli R.; Scherjon, Sicco A.; Vidarsson, Gestur; Wuhrer, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    During pregnancy, the mother provides multiple nutrients and substances to the foetus, with maternal immunoglobulin G (IgG) being actively transported to the foetus. Newborns depend on maternal IgG for immune-protection in their first months. The glycosylation of IgG has been shown to influence its dynamics, e.g. receptor binding. While minor differences in IgG glycosylation have been found between IgG derived from maternal blood and umbilical cord blood (UC) of newborn children, the differential glycosylation of maternal and UC plasma has hitherto not been studied. Here, we studied the N-glycosylation of IgG and total plasma proteome of both maternal and UC plasma of 42 pairs of mothers and newborn children. A total of 37 N-glycans were quantified for IgG and 45 for the total plasma N-glycome (TPNG). The study showed slightly higher levels of galactosylation for UC IgG than maternal IgG, confirming previous results, as well as lower bisection and sialylation. Furthermore, the TPNG results showed lower values for galactosylation and sialylation, and higher values for fucosylation in the UC plasma. In conclusion, this study presents some novel insights into IgG glycosylation differences as well as the first broad overview of the differential plasma glycosylation between mothers and newborns. PMID:27666402

  6. A magnetite/oxidized carbon nanotube composite used as an adsorbent and a matrix of MALDI-TOF-MS for the determination of benzo[a]pyrene.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Shui; Wu, Jian-Hong; Xu, Li-Dan; Zhao, Qin; Luo, Yan-Bo; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2011-09-21

    A magnetite/oxidized carbon nanotube composite, Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2)/OCNT, was fabricated in a simple way, and it was successfully used as a magnetic solid-phase extraction sorbent and a significant matrix of the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) for the detection of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP).

  7. Quantification of Cell-Penetrating Peptide Associated with Polymeric Nanoparticles Using Isobaric-Tagging and MALDI-TOF MS/MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Jasper Z. S.; Tucker, Ian G.; McDowell, Arlene

    2016-11-01

    High sensitivity quantification of the putative cell-penetrating peptide di-arginine-histidine (RRH) associated with poly (ethyl-cyanoacrylate) (PECA) nanoparticles was achieved without analyte separation, using a novel application of isobaric-tagging and high matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization coupled to time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Isobaric-tagging reaction equilibrium was reached after 5 min, with 90% or greater RRH peptide successfully isobaric-tagged after 60 min. The accuracy was greater than 90%, which indicates good reliability of using isobaric-tagged RRH as an internal standard for RRH quantification. The sample intra- and inter-spot coefficients of variations were less than 11%, which indicate good repeatability. The majority of RRH peptides in the nanoparticle formulation were physically associated with the nanoparticles (46.6%), whereas only a small fraction remained unassociated (13.7%). The unrecovered RRH peptide (~40%) was assumed to be covalently associated with PECA nanoparticles.

  8. Tracing the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus on laboratory ants using physical preconcentration coupled ZnO nanoparticle assisted MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Judy; Wu, Hui-Fen; Lee, Chia-Hsun; Manikandan, Muthu

    2012-01-21

    Ants and humans coexist closely and for the most part happily. We consider ants to be harmless, small beings--we have no problem picking them out of our tea cups or sugar jars, throwing them away and continuing to consume the food. This paper is an eye-opener that these ants are not as harmless as they may seem. In particular, our relationship with those present in bacteria-rich environments (e.g. a microbiological lab) need to be reconsidered. From an analytical point of view we have applied the physical preconcentration coupled ZnO NPs assisted MALDI-MS (PP-MALDI-MS) as a novel and sensitive technique for detecting bacteria on the surface of a species of ant present in our laboratory. The preconcentration methods consist of simple techniques comprising of vortex combined with centrifugation or ultrasonication resulting in increasing sample concentration up to the MALDI-MS detection limit. ZnO NPs were used to further enhance the bacterial signals for culture free rapid analysis using MALDI-MS. The importance of a vortex-combined centrifugation approach, using a large number of samples (large number of ants) and decreasing the suspension volume and addition of sample to ZnO NPs (3.5g L(-1)) were found to be crucial prerequisites for increasing MALDI-MS detection of bacteria on ants. We were able to identify the pathogenic clinically important Staphylococcus aureus on the surface of the ants. The bacterial identification was validated using ClinPro 2.1.

  9. Enrichment and detection of molecules secreted by tumor cells using magnetic reversed-phase particles and LC-MALDI-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Peter, Jochen F; Otto, Angela M; Wolf, Bernhard

    2007-12-01

    Tumor cells change their genetic expression pattern as they progress to states of increasing malignancy. Investigations at the DNA and RNA level alone cannot provide all the information resulting after the translation and processing of the corresponding proteins, which is one reason for a poor correlation between mRNA and the respective protein abundance. In diagnostics, differentially expressed peptides or proteins are important markers for the early detection of cancer. Unfortunately, tumor cells secrete peptides and proteins in only very low amounts, making mass spectrometric determination very difficult. In this publication, methods have been developed for the effective enrichment and cleanup of substances secreted by cultivated cancer cells. To obviate peptides from fetal calf serum used in cell culture, a serum surrogate was developed, which maintained growth of the cancer cells. After the binding of substances from cell-culture supernatants to custom-made magnetic reversed-phase particles, the substances were eluted and separated by capillary high-performance liquid chromatography. Fractions were spotted directly on a MALDI target, and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric data acquisition was performed in automatic mode. This technology was used to detect substances secreted by two mammary carcinoma cell lines differing in their malignancy (MCF-7, MDA-MB 231). Unequivocal differences in the peptide secretion patterns were observed. In conclusion, this system allows the sensitive investigation of peptides secreted by cancer cells in culture and provides a valuable tool for the investigation of cancer cells in different states of malignancy.

  10. MALDI-TOF MS is more accurate than VITEK II ANC card and API Rapid ID 32 A system for the identification of Clostridium species.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Si Hyun; Park, Hyun-Jung; Park, Hae-Geun; Park, Dongchul; Song, Sae Am; Lee, Hee Joo; Yong, Dongeun; Choi, Jun Yong; Kook, Joong-Ki; Kim, Hye Ran; Shin, Jeong Hwan

    2016-08-01

    All 50 Clostridium difficile strains were definitely identified by Vitek2 system, Rapid ID 32A system, and MALDI-TOF. For 18 non-difficile Clostridium strains, the identification results were correct in 0, 2, and 17 strains by Vitek2, Rapid ID 32A, and MALDI-TOF, respectively. MALDI-TOF could be used as the primary tool for identification of Clostridium species. PMID:27296834

  11. Conservation of honey bee (Apis mellifera) sperm phospholipids during storage in the bee queen--a TLC/MALDI-TOF MS study.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Jakob; Zschörnig, Kristin; Onischke, Kristin; Fuchs, Beate; Schiller, Jürgen; Müller, Karin

    2013-02-01

    The honey bee (Apis mellifera) is characterized by a high degree of phenotypic plasticity of senescence-related processes, and has therefore become a model organism of gerontological research. Sperm of honey bee drones can remain fertile for several years within the storage organ of queens. The reason for this longevity is unknown, but the suppression of lipid peroxidation seems to play a decisive role. Here, we examined the questions of whether spermatheca- and in vitro-stored honey bee sperm are indeed resistant to lipid peroxidation, and whether the nature of sperm lipids could explain this resistance. The lipid composition of bee sperm was determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) combined with thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The positive ion mass spectra of drone sperm lipids are dominated by two glycerophosphocholine (GPC) species, although small amounts of sphingomyelins (SM) and glycerophosphoethanolamines (GPE) are also detectable after TLC. Alkyl/acyl and alkenyl/acyl compounds of GPC, and alkyl/acyl as well as diacyl compounds of GPE were detected containing oleyl, oleoyl, palmityl and palmitoyl as the most abundant residues. Assignments of all compounds have been additionally verified by enzymatic digestion and exposition to HCl. During incubation of sperm in the presence of air, characteristic lipid oxidation products such as lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) appear. Inside the spermatheca, however, sperm lipids are obviously protected from oxidation and their composition does not change, even if they are stored over years. Our data support the view that the membrane composition of honey bee sperm could help to explain the extraordinary longevity of these cells. PMID:23279974

  12. Identification of Low Molecular Weight Glutenin Alleles by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) in Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Aili; Liu, Li; Peng, Yanchun; Islam, Shahidul; Applebee, Marie; Appels, Rudi; Yan, Yueming; Ma, Wujun

    2015-01-01

    Low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) play an important role in determining dough properties and breadmaking quality. However, resolution of the currently used methodologies for analyzing LMW-GS is rather low which prevents an efficient use of genetic variations associated with these alleles in wheat breeding. The aim of the current study is to evaluate and develop a rapid, simple, and accurate method to differentiate LMW-GS alleles using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A set of standard single LMW-GS allele lines as well as a suite of well documented wheat cultivars were collected from France, CIMMYT, and Canada. Method development and optimization were focused on protein extraction procedures and MALDI-TOF instrument settings to generate reproducible diagnostic spectrum peak profiles for each of the known wheat LMW-GS allele. Results revealed a total of 48 unique allele combinations among the studied genotypes. Characteristic MALDI-TOF peak patterns were obtained for 17 common LMW-GS alleles, including 5 (b, a or c, d, e, f), 7 (a, b, c, d or i, f, g, h) and 5 (a, b, c, d, f) patterns or alleles for the Glu-A3, Glu-B3, and Glu-D3 loci, respectively. In addition, some reproducible MALDI-TOF peak patterns were also obtained that did not match with any known alleles. The results demonstrated a high resolution and throughput nature of MALDI-TOF technology in analyzing LMW-GS alleles, which is suitable for application in wheat breeding programs in processing a large number of wheat lines with high accuracy in limited time. It also suggested that the variation of LMW-GS alleles is more abundant than what has been defined by the current nomenclature system that is mainly based on SDS-PAGE system. The MALDI-TOF technology is useful to differentiate these variations. An international joint effort may be needed to assign allele symbols to these newly identified alleles and determine their effects on end-product quality attributes.

  13. Quantum dots laser desorption/ionization MS: multifunctional CdSe quantum dots as the matrix, concentrating probes and acceleration for microwave enzymatic digestion for peptide analysis and high resolution detection of proteins in a linear MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Shrivas, Kamlesh; Kailasa, Suresh Kumar; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2009-05-01

    We report the first use of functionalized cadmium selinide quantum dots (CdSe QDs) with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) as the matrix for the selective ionization of proteins with high resolution and rapid analysis of amino acids and peptides by using quantum dots laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (QDLDI-MS). The mercaptocarboxylic groups of CdSe QDs have been known to be an effective affinity probe to interact with the biomolecules at low abundance level. Using these QDs as the matrix, sensitivity of the method was greatly enhanced and the LOQ of peptides was found to be 100 pM with RSD <10%. The QDLDI-MS is capable for the selective ionization of insulin, lysozyme and myoglobin with high resolution, which is not observed with sinapic acid (SA) as the matrix. The QDLDI-MS technique offers many advantages for the analysis of amino acids, peptides and proteins with regard to simplicity, rapidity, sensitivity and the mass spectra were generated in the presence of signal suppressors such as urea and Trition X-100. In addition, the CdSe QDs have been successfully applied as preconcentrating probes for the analysis of digested peptides in lysozyme from chicken egg white by microwave-assisted enzymatic digestion. This indicates that the QDs are able to absorb radiation from microwave and their ability to trap peptides from microwave-digested lysozyme. These results demonstrate that the CdSe QDs are promising candidates for the selective ionization of the analytes with an accurate platform to the rapid screening of biomolecules. PMID:19391181

  14. Identification of Low Molecular Weight Glutenin Alleles by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) in Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Shahidul; Applebee, Marie; Appels, Rudi; Yan, Yueming; Ma, Wujun

    2015-01-01

    Low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) play an important role in determining dough properties and breadmaking quality. However, resolution of the currently used methodologies for analyzing LMW-GS is rather low which prevents an efficient use of genetic variations associated with these alleles in wheat breeding. The aim of the current study is to evaluate and develop a rapid, simple, and accurate method to differentiate LMW-GS alleles using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A set of standard single LMW-GS allele lines as well as a suite of well documented wheat cultivars were collected from France, CIMMYT, and Canada. Method development and optimization were focused on protein extraction procedures and MALDI-TOF instrument settings to generate reproducible diagnostic spectrum peak profiles for each of the known wheat LMW-GS allele. Results revealed a total of 48 unique allele combinations among the studied genotypes. Characteristic MALDI-TOF peak patterns were obtained for 17 common LMW-GS alleles, including 5 (b, a or c, d, e, f), 7 (a, b, c, d or i, f, g, h) and 5 (a, b, c, d, f) patterns or alleles for the Glu-A3, Glu-B3, and Glu-D3 loci, respectively. In addition, some reproducible MALDI-TOF peak patterns were also obtained that did not match with any known alleles. The results demonstrated a high resolution and throughput nature of MALDI-TOF technology in analyzing LMW-GS alleles, which is suitable for application in wheat breeding programs in processing a large number of wheat lines with high accuracy in limited time. It also suggested that the variation of LMW-GS alleles is more abundant than what has been defined by the current nomenclature system that is mainly based on SDS-PAGE system. The MALDI-TOF technology is useful to differentiate these variations. An international joint effort may be needed to assign allele symbols to these newly identified alleles and determine their effects on end-product quality attributes. PMID:26407296

  15. Antagonistic effects of Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens against Macrophomina phaseolina: SEM study of fungal changes and UV-MALDI-TOF MS analysis of their bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Torres, M J; Brandan, C Pérez; Petroselli, G; Erra-Balsells, R; Audisio, M C

    2016-01-01

    The antifungal effect of Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis PGPMori7 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens PGPBacCA1 was evaluated against Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. Cell suspension (CS), cell-free supernatant (CFS) and the lipopeptide fraction (LF) of PGPMori7 and PGPBacCA1 were screened against three different M. phaseolina strains. CS exhibited the highest inhibitory effect (around 50%) when compared to those of CFS and LF, regardless of the fungal strain studied. The synthesis of lipopeptides was studied by UV-MALDI TOF. Chemical analysis of Bacillus metabolite synthesis revealed that surfactin and iturin were mainly produced in liquid medium. Potential fengycin was also co-produced when both Bacillus were cultivated in solid medium. In co-culture assays, the bacterial colony-fungal mycelium interface at the inhibition zone was evaluated by both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-MALDI TOF, the former to determine the structural changes on M. phaseolina cells and the latter to identify the main bioactive molecules involved in the inhibitory effect. PGPBacCA1 produced surfactin, iturin and fengycin in the inhibition zone while PGPMori7 only produced these metabolites within its colony and not in the narrow inhibition zone. Interestingly, SEM revealed that PGPBacCA1 induced damage in M. phaseolina sclerotia, generating a fungicidal effect as no growth was observed when normal growth conditions were reestablished. In turn, PGPMori7 inhibited the growth of the Macrophomina mycelium without fungal injury, resulting only in a fungistatic activity. From these results, it was determined that the two bacilli significantly inhibited the growth of an important phytopathogenic fungus by at least two different mechanisms: lipopeptide synthesis and competition among microorganisms. PMID:26686611

  16. Antagonistic effects of Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens against Macrophomina phaseolina: SEM study of fungal changes and UV-MALDI-TOF MS analysis of their bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Torres, M J; Brandan, C Pérez; Petroselli, G; Erra-Balsells, R; Audisio, M C

    2016-01-01

    The antifungal effect of Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis PGPMori7 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens PGPBacCA1 was evaluated against Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. Cell suspension (CS), cell-free supernatant (CFS) and the lipopeptide fraction (LF) of PGPMori7 and PGPBacCA1 were screened against three different M. phaseolina strains. CS exhibited the highest inhibitory effect (around 50%) when compared to those of CFS and LF, regardless of the fungal strain studied. The synthesis of lipopeptides was studied by UV-MALDI TOF. Chemical analysis of Bacillus metabolite synthesis revealed that surfactin and iturin were mainly produced in liquid medium. Potential fengycin was also co-produced when both Bacillus were cultivated in solid medium. In co-culture assays, the bacterial colony-fungal mycelium interface at the inhibition zone was evaluated by both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-MALDI TOF, the former to determine the structural changes on M. phaseolina cells and the latter to identify the main bioactive molecules involved in the inhibitory effect. PGPBacCA1 produced surfactin, iturin and fengycin in the inhibition zone while PGPMori7 only produced these metabolites within its colony and not in the narrow inhibition zone. Interestingly, SEM revealed that PGPBacCA1 induced damage in M. phaseolina sclerotia, generating a fungicidal effect as no growth was observed when normal growth conditions were reestablished. In turn, PGPMori7 inhibited the growth of the Macrophomina mycelium without fungal injury, resulting only in a fungistatic activity. From these results, it was determined that the two bacilli significantly inhibited the growth of an important phytopathogenic fungus by at least two different mechanisms: lipopeptide synthesis and competition among microorganisms.

  17. Gordonia Species as Emerging Causes of Continuous-Ambulatory-Peritoneal-Dialysis-Related Peritonitis Identified by 16S rRNA and secA1 Gene Sequencing and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Jimmy Y. W.; Leung, Wai-Shing; Cheung, Ingrid; Chan, Jasper F. W.; Tse, Cindy W. S.; Lee, Rodney A.; Lau, Susanna K. P.

    2014-01-01

    We report here four cases of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis caused by three different species of Gordonia. The portal of entry was likely through Tenckhoff catheters. 16S rRNA and secA1 gene sequencing are so far the most reliable methods for the accurate identification of Gordonia species. PMID:25428146

  18. Fusobacterium nucleatum subspecies identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nie, Shuping; Tian, Baoyu; Wang, Xiaowei; Pincus, David H; Welker, Martin; Gilhuley, Kathleen; Lu, Xuedong; Han, Yiping W; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2015-04-01

    We explored the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for identification of Fusobacterium nucleatum subspecies. MALDI-TOF MS spectra of five F. nucleatum subspecies (animalis, fusiforme, nucleatum, polymorphum, and vincentii) were analyzed and divided into four distinct clusters, including subsp. animalis, nucleatum, polymorphum, and fusiforme/vincentii. MALDI-TOF MS with the modified SARAMIS database further correctly identified 28 of 34 F. nucleatum clinical isolates to the subspecies level.

  19. Advances in Identification of Clinical Yeast Isolates by Use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, Blake W.

    2013-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based identification is being adopted by clinical laboratories for routine identification of microorganisms. To date, the majority of studies have focused on the performance and optimization of MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of bacterial isolates. We review recent literature describing the use of MALDI-TOF MS for the routine identification of a variety of yeasts and yeast-like isolates. Specific topics include the effect of optimized or streamlined extraction methods, modified scoring thresholds, expanded reference libraries, and the possibility of conducting antifungal susceptibility testing using MALDI-TOF MS. PMID:23426924

  20. Insufficient Discriminatory Power of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Dendrograms to Determine the Clonality of Multi-Drug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates from an Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Rim, John Hoon; Hong, Sung Kuk; Park, Yongjung; Kim, MyungSook; D'Souza, Roshan; Park, Eun Suk; Yong, Dongeun; Lee, Kyungwon

    2015-01-01

    While pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is recognized as the gold standard method for clonality analysis, MALDI-TOF MS has recently been spotlighted as an alternative tool for species identification. Herein, we compared the dendrograms of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii isolates by using MALDI-TOF MS with those by using PFGE. We used direct colony and protein extraction methods for MALDI-TOF MS dendrograms. The isolates with identical PFGE patterns were grouped into different branches in MALDI-TOF MS dendrograms. Among the isolates that were classified as very close isolates in MALDI-TOF MS dendrogram, PFGE band patterns visually showed complete differences. We numeralized similarity among isolates by measuring distance levels. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient values were 0.449 and 0.297 between MALDI-TOF MS dendrogram using direct colony and protein extraction method versus PFGE, respectively. This study is the first paper focusing solely on the dendrogram function of MALDI-TOF MS compared with PFGE. Although MALDI-TOF MS is a promising tool to identify species in a rapid manner, our results showed that MALDI-TOF MS dendrograms could not substitute PFGE for MDR Acinetobacter baumannii clonality analysis. PMID:26101775

  1. Evaluation of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for species identification of nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed

    Almuzara, Marisa; Barberis, Claudia; Traglia, Germán; Famiglietti, Angela; Ramirez, Maria Soledad; Vay, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to identify 396 Nonfermenting Gram-Negative Bacilli clinical isolates was evaluated in comparison with conventional phenotypic tests and/or molecular methods. MALDI-TOF MS identified to species level 256 isolates and to genus or complex level 112 isolates. It identified 29 genera including uncommon species.

  2. Rapid identification of microorganisms from positive blood cultures by testing early growth on solid media using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Mark D; Weber, Carol J; Burnham, Carey-Ann D

    2016-06-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of a simple modification to MALDI-TOF MS for microorganism identification to accurately improve the turnaround time (TAT) for identification of Enterobacteriaceae recovered in blood cultures. Relative to standard MALDI-TOF MS procedures, we reduced TAT from 28.3 (n=90) to 21.2h (n=107).

  3. High-Throughput Identification of Bacteria and Yeast by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry in Conventional Medical Microbiology Laboratories ▿

    PubMed Central

    van Veen, S. Q.; Claas, E. C. J.; Kuijper, Ed J.

    2010-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is suitable for high-throughput and rapid diagnostics at low costs and can be considered an alternative for conventional biochemical and molecular identification systems in a conventional microbiological laboratory. First, we evaluated MALDI-TOF MS using 327 clinical isolates previously cultured from patient materials and identified by conventional techniques (Vitek-II, API, and biochemical tests). Discrepancies were analyzed by molecular analysis of the 16S genes. Of 327 isolates, 95.1% were identified correctly to genus level, and 85.6% were identified to species level by MALDI-TOF MS. Second, we performed a prospective validation study, including 980 clinical isolates of bacteria and yeasts. Overall performance of MALDI-TOF MS was significantly better than conventional biochemical systems for correct species identification (92.2% and 83.1%, respectively) and produced fewer incorrect genus identifications (0.1% and 1.6%, respectively). Correct species identification by MALDI-TOF MS was observed in 97.7% of Enterobacteriaceae, 92% of nonfermentative Gram-negative bacteria, 94.3% of staphylococci, 84.8% of streptococci, 84% of a miscellaneous group (mainly Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, and Kingella [HACEK]), and 85.2% of yeasts. MALDI-TOF MS had significantly better performance than conventional methods for species identification of staphylococci and genus identification of bacteria belonging to HACEK group. Misidentifications by MALDI-TOF MS were clearly associated with an absence of sufficient spectra from suitable reference strains in the MALDI-TOF MS database. We conclude that MALDI-TOF MS can be implemented easily for routine identification of bacteria (except for pneumococci and viridans streptococci) and yeasts in a medical microbiological laboratory. PMID:20053859

  4. High-throughput identification of bacteria and yeast by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry in conventional medical microbiology laboratories.

    PubMed

    van Veen, S Q; Claas, E C J; Kuijper, Ed J

    2010-03-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is suitable for high-throughput and rapid diagnostics at low costs and can be considered an alternative for conventional biochemical and molecular identification systems in a conventional microbiological laboratory. First, we evaluated MALDI-TOF MS using 327 clinical isolates previously cultured from patient materials and identified by conventional techniques (Vitek-II, API, and biochemical tests). Discrepancies were analyzed by molecular analysis of the 16S genes. Of 327 isolates, 95.1% were identified correctly to genus level, and 85.6% were identified to species level by MALDI-TOF MS. Second, we performed a prospective validation study, including 980 clinical isolates of bacteria and yeasts. Overall performance of MALDI-TOF MS was significantly better than conventional biochemical systems for correct species identification (92.2% and 83.1%, respectively) and produced fewer incorrect genus identifications (0.1% and 1.6%, respectively). Correct species identification by MALDI-TOF MS was observed in 97.7% of Enterobacteriaceae, 92% of nonfermentative Gram-negative bacteria, 94.3% of staphylococci, 84.8% of streptococci, 84% of a miscellaneous group (mainly Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, and Kingella [HACEK]), and 85.2% of yeasts. MALDI-TOF MS had significantly better performance than conventional methods for species identification of staphylococci and genus identification of bacteria belonging to HACEK group. Misidentifications by MALDI-TOF MS were clearly associated with an absence of sufficient spectra from suitable reference strains in the MALDI-TOF MS database. We conclude that MALDI-TOF MS can be implemented easily for routine identification of bacteria (except for pneumococci and viridans streptococci) and yeasts in a medical microbiological laboratory.

  5. Assessment of Reproducibility of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Bacterial and Yeast Identification

    PubMed Central

    Westblade, Lars F.; Garner, Omai B.; MacDonald, Karen; Bradford, Constance; Pincus, David H.; Mochon, A. Brian; Jennemann, Rebecca; Manji, Ryhana; Bythrow, Maureen; Lewinski, Michael A.; Burnham, Carey-Ann D.

    2015-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has revolutionized the identification of clinical bacterial and yeast isolates. However, data describing the reproducibility of MALDI-TOF MS for microbial identification are scarce. In this study, we show that MALDI-TOF MS-based microbial identification is highly reproducible and can tolerate numerous variables, including differences in testing environments, instruments, operators, reagent lots, and sample positioning patterns. Finally, we reveal that samples of bacterial and yeast isolates prepared for MALDI-TOF MS identification can be repeatedly analyzed without compromising organism identification. PMID:25926486

  6. Direct detection of the plant pathogens Burkholderia glumae, Burkholderia gladioli pv. gladioli, and Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. zeae in infected rice seedlings using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    The plant pathogens Burkholderia glumae, Burkholderia gladioli pv. gladioli, and Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. zeae were directly detected in extracts from infected rice seedlings by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). This method did not require culturing of the pathogens on artificial medium. In the MALDI-TOF MS analysis, peaks originating from bacteria were found in extracts from infected rice seedlings. The spectral peaks showed significantly high scores, in spite of minor differences in spectra. The spectral peaks originating from host plant tissues did not affect this direct MALDI-TOF MS analysis for the rapid identification of plant pathogens.

  7. Current status of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Kok, Jen; Chen, Sharon C A; Dwyer, Dominic E; Iredell, Jonathan R

    2013-01-01

    The integration of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) into many clinical microbiology laboratories has revolutionised routine pathogen identification. MALDI-TOF MS complements and has good potential to replace existing phenotypic identification methods. Results are available in a more clinically relevant timeframe, particularly in bacteraemic septic shock. Novel applications include strain typing and the detection of antimicrobial resistance, but these are not widely used. This review discusses the technical aspects, current applications, and limitations of MALDI-TOF MS.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of the first trimetallic nitride templated pyrrolidino endohedral metallofullerenes.

    PubMed

    Cai, Ting; Ge, Zhongxin; Iezzi, Erick B; Glass, Thomas E; Harich, Kim; Gibson, Harry W; Dorn, Harry C

    2005-07-28

    New pyrrolidino derivatives of both diamagnetic and paramagnetic trimetallic nitride templated endohedral metallofullerenes were synthesized by the Prato reaction, isolated and characterized by means of MALDI-TOF MS, NMR and UV-vis spectroscopies.

  9. Differentiation of Raoultella ornithinolytica/planticola and Klebsiella oxytoca clinical isolates by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Eefje; de Jong, Arjan S; Smidts-van den Berg, Nathalie; Rentenaar, Rob J

    2013-04-01

    Ninety-nine clinical isolates previously identified as Klebsiella oxytoca were evaluated using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Eight isolates were identified as Raoultella spp., being 5 Raoultella spp. and 3 K. oxytoca, by 16S rRNA sequencing. These isolates were correctly identified by applying the 10% differential rule for the MALDI-TOF MS score values. This approach might be useful to discriminate Raoultella species from K. oxytoca.

  10. Evaluation of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization−Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Identification of Mycobacterium species, Nocardia species, and Other Aerobic Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Buckwalter, S. P.; Olson, S. L.; Connelly, B. J.; Lucas, B. C.; Rodning, A. A.; Walchak, R. C.; Deml, S. M.; Wohlfiel, S. L.

    2015-01-01

    The value of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization−time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the identification of bacteria and yeasts is well documented in the literature. Its utility for the identification of mycobacteria and Nocardia spp. has also been reported in a limited scope. In this work, we report the specificity of MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of 162 Mycobacterium species and subspecies, 53 Nocardia species, and 13 genera (totaling 43 species) of other aerobic actinomycetes using both the MALDI-TOF MS manufacturer's supplied database(s) and a custom database generated in our laboratory. The performance of a simplified processing and extraction procedure was also evaluated, and, similar to the results in an earlier literature report, our viability studies confirmed the ability of this process to inactivate Mycobacterium tuberculosis prior to analysis. Following library construction and the specificity study, the performance of MALDI-TOF MS was directly compared with that of 16S rRNA gene sequencing for the evaluation of 297 mycobacteria isolates, 148 Nocardia species isolates, and 61 other aerobic actinomycetes isolates under routine clinical laboratory working conditions over a 6-month period. MALDI-TOF MS is a valuable tool for the identification of these groups of organisms. Limitations in the databases and in the ability of MALDI-TOF MS to rapidly identify slowly growing mycobacteria are discussed. PMID:26637381

  11. Real-time identification of bacteria and Candida species in positive blood culture broths by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ferroni, Agnès; Suarez, Stéphanie; Beretti, Jean-Luc; Dauphin, Brunhilde; Bille, Emmanuelle; Meyer, Julie; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; Alanio, Alexandre; Berche, Patrick; Nassif, Xavier

    2010-05-01

    Delays in the identification of microorganisms are a barrier to the establishment of adequate empirical antibiotic therapy of bacteremia. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) allows the identification of microorganisms directly from colonies within minutes. In this study, we have adapted and tested this technology for use with blood culture broths, thus allowing identification in less than 30 min once the blood culture is detected as positive. Our method is based on the selective recovery of bacteria by adding a detergent that solubilizes blood cells but not microbial membranes. Microorganisms are then extracted by centrifugation and analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS. This strategy was first tested by inoculating various bacterial and fungal species into negative blood culture bottles. We then tested positive patient blood or fluid samples grown in blood culture bottles, and the results obtained by MALDI-TOF-MS were compared with those obtained using conventional strategies. Three hundred twelve spiked bottles and 434 positive cultures from patients were analyzed. Among monomicrobial fluids, MALDI-TOF-MS allowed a reliable identification at the species, group, and genus/family level in 91%, 5%, and 2% of cases, respectively, in 20 min. In only 2% of these samples, MALDI-TOF MS did not yield any result. When blood cultures were multibacterial, identification was improved by using specific databases based on the Gram staining results. MALDI-TOF-MS is currently the fastest technique to accurately identify microorganisms grown in positive blood culture broths.

  12. Peptidylation for the determination of low-molecular-weight compounds by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tang, Feng; Cen, Si-Ying; He, Huan; Liu, Yi; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2016-05-23

    Determination of low-molecular-weight compounds by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) has been a great challenge in the analytical research field. Here we developed a universal peptide-based derivatization (peptidylation) strategy for the sensitive analysis of low-molecular-weight compounds by MALDI-TOF-MS. Upon peptidylation, the molecular weights of target analytes increase, thus avoiding serious matrix ion interference in the low-molecular-weight region in MALDI-TOF-MS. Since peptides typically exhibit good signal response during MALDI-TOF-MS analysis, peptidylation endows high detection sensitivities of low-molecular-weight analytes. As a proof-of-concept, we analyzed low-molecular-weight compounds of aldehydes and thiols by the developed peptidylation strategy. Our results showed that aldehydes and thiols can be readily determined upon peptidylation, thus realizing the sensitive and efficient determination of low-molecular-weight compounds by MALDI-TOF-MS. Moreover, target analytes also can be unambiguously detected in biological samples using the peptidylation strategy. The established peptidylation strategy is a universal strategy and can be extended to the sensitive analysis of various low-molecular-weight compounds by MALDI-TOF-MS, which may be potentially used in areas such as metabolomics.

  13. Evaluation of the Bruker Biotyper Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry System for Identification of Clinical and Environmental Isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei

    PubMed Central

    Wang, He; Chen, Ya-Lei; Teng, Shih-Hua; Xu, Zhi-Peng; Xu, Ying-Chun; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is not represented in the current version of Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system. A total of 66 isolates of B. pseudomallei, including 30 clinical isolates collected from National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH, n = 27) and Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH, n = 3), and 36 isolates of genetically confirmed strains, including 13 from clinical samples and 23 from environmental samples, collected from southern Taiwan were included in this study. All these isolates were identified by partial 16S rDNA gene sequencing analysis and the Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system. Among the 30 isolates initially identified as B. pseudomallei by conventional identification methods, one was identified as B. cepacia complex (NTUH) and three were identified as B. putida (PUMCH) by partial 16S rDNA gene sequencing analysis and Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system. The Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system misidentified 62 genetically confirmed B. pseudomallei isolates as B. thailandensis or Burkholderia species (score values, 1.803–2.063) when the currently available database (DB 5627) was used. However, using a newly created MALDI-TOF MS database (including B. pseudomallei NTUH-3 strain), all isolates were correctly identified as B. pseudomallei (score values >2.000, 100%). An additional 60 isolates of genetically confirmed B. cepacia complex and B. putida were also evaluated by the Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system using the newly created database and none of these isolates were identified as B. pseudomallei. MALDI-TOF MS is a versatile and robust tool for the rapid identification of B. pseudomallei using the enhanced database. PMID:27092108

  14. Development and Validation of an In-House Database for Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry-Based Yeast Identification Using a Fast Protein Extraction Procedure

    PubMed Central

    De Carolis, Elena; Vella, Antonietta; Vaccaro, Luisa; Torelli, Riccardo; Posteraro, Patrizia; Ricciardi, Walter; Posteraro, Brunella

    2014-01-01

    In recent studies evaluating the usefulness of the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based identification of yeasts for the routine diagnosis of fungal infections, preanalytical sample processing has emerged as a critical step for reliable MALDI-TOF MS outcomes, especially when the Bruker Daltonics Biotyper software was used. In addition, inadequate results often occurred due to discrepancies between the methods used for clinical testing and database construction. Therefore, we created an in-house MALDI-TOF MS library using the spectra from 156 reference and clinical yeast isolates (48 species in 11 genera), which were generated with a fast sample preparation procedure. After a retrospective validation study, our database was evaluated on 4,232 yeasts routinely isolated during a 6-month period and fast prepared for MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Thus, 4,209 (99.5%) of the isolates were successfully identified to the species level (with scores of ≥2.0), with 1,676 (39.6%) having scores of >2.3. For the remaining 23 (0.5%) isolates, no reliable identification (with scores of <1.7) was obtained. Interestingly, these isolates were almost always from species uniquely represented or not included in the database. As the MALDI-TOF MS results were, except for 23 isolates, validated without additional phenotypic or molecular tests, our proposed strategy can enhance the rapidity and accuracy of MALDI-TOF MS in identifying medically important yeast species. However, while continuous updating of our database will be necessary to enrich it with more strains/species of new and emerging yeasts, the present in-house MALDI-TOF MS library can be made publicly available for future multicenter studies. PMID:24554755

  15. Identification of Rare Pathogenic Bacteria in a Clinical Microbiology Laboratory: Impact of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Seng, Piseth; Abat, Cedric; Rolain, Jean Marc; Colson, Philippe; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Gouriet, Frédérique; Fournier, Pierre Edouard; Drancourt, Michel; La Scola, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    During the past 5 years, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful tool for routine identification in many clinical laboratories. We analyzed our 11-year experience in routine identification of clinical isolates (40 months using MALDI-TOF MS and 91 months using conventional phenotypic identification [CPI]). Among the 286,842 clonal isolates, 284,899 isolates of 459 species were identified. The remaining 1,951 isolates were misidentified and required confirmation using a second phenotypic identification for 670 isolates and using a molecular technique for 1,273 isolates of 339 species. MALDI-TOF MS annually identified 112 species, i.e., 36 species/10,000 isolates, compared to 44 species, i.e., 19 species/10,000 isolates, for CPI. Only 50 isolates required second phenotypic identifications during the MALDI-TOF MS period (i.e., 4.5 reidentifications/10,000 isolates) compared with 620 isolates during the CPI period (i.e., 35.2/10,000 isolates). We identified 128 bacterial species rarely reported as human pathogens, including 48 using phenotypic techniques (22 using CPI and 37 using MALDI-TOF MS). Another 75 rare species were identified using molecular methods. MALDI-TOF MS reduced the time required for identification by 55-fold and 169-fold and the cost by 5-fold and 96-fold compared with CPI and gene sequencing, respectively. MALDI-TOF MS was a powerful tool not only for routine bacterial identification but also for identification of rare bacterial species implicated in human infectious diseases. The ability to rapidly identify bacterial species rarely described as pathogens in specific clinical specimens will help us to study the clinical burden resulting from the emergence of these species as human pathogens, and MALDI-TOF MS may be considered an alternative to molecular methods in clinical laboratories. PMID:23637301

  16. Identification of rare pathogenic bacteria in a clinical microbiology laboratory: impact of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Seng, Piseth; Abat, Cedric; Rolain, Jean Marc; Colson, Philippe; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Gouriet, Frédérique; Fournier, Pierre Edouard; Drancourt, Michel; La Scola, Bernard; Raoult, Didier

    2013-07-01

    During the past 5 years, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful tool for routine identification in many clinical laboratories. We analyzed our 11-year experience in routine identification of clinical isolates (40 months using MALDI-TOF MS and 91 months using conventional phenotypic identification [CPI]). Among the 286,842 clonal isolates, 284,899 isolates of 459 species were identified. The remaining 1,951 isolates were misidentified and required confirmation using a second phenotypic identification for 670 isolates and using a molecular technique for 1,273 isolates of 339 species. MALDI-TOF MS annually identified 112 species, i.e., 36 species/10,000 isolates, compared to 44 species, i.e., 19 species/10,000 isolates, for CPI. Only 50 isolates required second phenotypic identifications during the MALDI-TOF MS period (i.e., 4.5 reidentifications/10,000 isolates) compared with 620 isolates during the CPI period (i.e., 35.2/10,000 isolates). We identified 128 bacterial species rarely reported as human pathogens, including 48 using phenotypic techniques (22 using CPI and 37 using MALDI-TOF MS). Another 75 rare species were identified using molecular methods. MALDI-TOF MS reduced the time required for identification by 55-fold and 169-fold and the cost by 5-fold and 96-fold compared with CPI and gene sequencing, respectively. MALDI-TOF MS was a powerful tool not only for routine bacterial identification but also for identification of rare bacterial species implicated in human infectious diseases. The ability to rapidly identify bacterial species rarely described as pathogens in specific clinical specimens will help us to study the clinical burden resulting from the emergence of these species as human pathogens, and MALDI-TOF MS may be considered an alternative to molecular methods in clinical laboratories.

  17. Comparison of phenotypic methods and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the identification of aero-tolerant Actinomyces spp. isolated from soft-tissue infections.

    PubMed

    Ng, L S Y; Sim, J H C; Eng, L C; Menon, S; Tan, T Y

    2012-08-01

    Aero-tolerant Actinomyces spp. are an under-recognised cause of cutaneous infections, in part because identification using conventional phenotypic methods is difficult and may be inaccurate. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a promising new technique for bacterial identification, but with limited data on the identification of aero-tolerant Actinomyces spp. This study evaluated the accuracy of a phenotypic biochemical kit, MALDI-TOF MS and genotypic identification methods for the identification of this problematic group of organisms. Thirty aero-tolerant Actinomyces spp. were isolated from soft-tissue infections over a 2-year period. Species identification was performed by 16 s rRNA sequencing and genotypic results were compared with results obtained by API Coryne and MALDI-TOF MS. There was poor agreement between API Coryne and genotypic identification, with only 33% of isolates correctly identified to the species level. MALDI-TOF MS correctly identified 97% of isolates to the species level, with 33% of identifications achieved with high confidence scores. MALDI-TOF MS is a promising new tool for the identification of aero-tolerant Actinomyces spp., but improvement of the database is required in order to increase the confidence level of identification.

  18. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry: a Fundamental Shift in the Routine Practice of Clinical Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Andrew E.; Kaleta, Erin J.; Arora, Amit

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Within the past decade, clinical microbiology laboratories experienced revolutionary changes in the way in which microorganisms are identified, moving away from slow, traditional microbial identification algorithms toward rapid molecular methods and mass spectrometry (MS). Historically, MS was clinically utilized as a high-complexity method adapted for protein-centered analysis of samples in chemistry and hematology laboratories. Today, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) MS is adapted for use in microbiology laboratories, where it serves as a paradigm-shifting, rapid, and robust method for accurate microbial identification. Multiple instrument platforms, marketed by well-established manufacturers, are beginning to displace automated phenotypic identification instruments and in some cases genetic sequence-based identification practices. This review summarizes the current position of MALDI-TOF MS in clinical research and in diagnostic clinical microbiology laboratories and serves as a primer to examine the “nuts and bolts” of MALDI-TOF MS, highlighting research associated with sample preparation, spectral analysis, and accuracy. Currently available MALDI-TOF MS hardware and software platforms that support the use of MALDI-TOF with direct and precultured specimens and integration of the technology into the laboratory workflow are also discussed. Finally, this review closes with a prospective view of the future of MALDI-TOF MS in the clinical microbiology laboratory to accelerate diagnosis and microbial identification to improve patient care. PMID:23824373

  19. Identification of clinically relevant Corynebacterium strains by Api Coryne, MALDI-TOF-mass spectrometry and molecular approaches.

    PubMed

    Alibi, S; Ferjani, A; Gaillot, O; Marzouk, M; Courcol, R; Boukadida, J

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) for the identification of 97 Corynebacterium clinical in comparison to identification strains by Api Coryne and MALDI-TOF-MS using 16S rRNA gene and hypervariable region of rpoB genes sequencing as a reference method. C. striatum was the predominant species isolated followed by C. amycolatum. There was an agreement between Api Coryne strips and MALDI-TOF-MS identification in 88.65% of cases. MALDI-TOF-MS was unable to differentiate C. aurimucosum from C. minutissimum and C. minutissimum from C. singulare but reliably identify 92 of 97 (94.84%) strains. Two strains remained incompletely identified to the species level by MALDI-TOF-MS and molecular approaches. They belonged to Cellulomonas and Pseudoclavibacter genus. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF-MS is a rapid and reliable method for the identification of Corynebacterium species. However, some limits have been noted and have to be resolved by the application of molecular methods.

  20. Utilization of matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for identification of infantile seborrheic dermatitis-causing Malassezia and incidence of culture-based cutaneous Malassezia microbiota of 1-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Mikachi; Umeda, Yoshiko; Yo, Ayaka; Yamaura, Mariko; Makimura, Koichi

    2014-02-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) has been utilized for identification of various microorganisms. Malassezia species, including Malassezia restricta, which is associated with seborrheic dermatitis, has been difficult to identify by traditional means. This study was performed to develop a system for identification of Malassezia species with MALDI-TOF-MS and to investigate the incidence and variety of cutaneous Malassezia microbiota of 1-month-old infants using this technique. A Malassezia species-specific MALDI-TOF-MS database was developed from eight standard strains, and the availability of this system was assessed using 54 clinical strains isolated from the skin of 1-month-old infants. Clinical isolates were cultured initially on CHROMagar Malassezia growth medium, and the 28S ribosomal DNA (D1/D2) sequence was analyzed for confirmatory identification. Using this database, we detected and analyzed Malassezia species in 68% and 44% of infants with and without infantile seborrheic dermatitis, respectively. The results of MALDI-TOF-MS analysis were consistent with those of rDNA sequencing identification (100% accuracy rate). To our knowledge, this is the first report of a MALDI-TOF-MS database for major skin pathogenic Malassezia species. This system is an easy, rapid and reliable method for identification of Malassezia. PMID:24387229

  1. Direct matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry improves appropriateness of antibiotic treatment of bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Vlek, Anne L M; Bonten, Marc J M; Boel, C H Edwin

    2012-01-01

    Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) allows the identification of microorganisms directly from positive blood culture broths. Use of the MALDI-TOF MS for rapid identification of microorganisms from blood culture broths can reduce the turnaround time to identification and may lead to earlier appropriate treatment of bacteremia. During February and April 2010, direct MALDI-TOF MS was routinely performed on all positive blood cultures. During December 2009 and March 2010 no direct MALDI-TOF MS was used. Information on antibiotic therapy was collected from the hospital and intensive care units' information systems from all positive blood cultures during the study period. In total, 253 episodes of bacteremia were included of which 89 during the intervention period and 164 during the control period. Direct performance of MALDI-TOF MS on positive blood culture broths reduced the time till species identification by 28.8-h and was associated with an 11.3% increase in the proportion of patients receiving appropriate antibiotic treatment 24 hours after blood culture positivity (64.0% in the control period versus 75.3% in the intervention period (p0.01)). Routine implementation of this technique increased the proportion of patients on adequate antimicrobial treatment within 24 hours.

  2. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry: a fundamental shift in the routine practice of clinical microbiology.

    PubMed

    Clark, Andrew E; Kaleta, Erin J; Arora, Amit; Wolk, Donna M

    2013-07-01

    Within the past decade, clinical microbiology laboratories experienced revolutionary changes in the way in which microorganisms are identified, moving away from slow, traditional microbial identification algorithms toward rapid molecular methods and mass spectrometry (MS). Historically, MS was clinically utilized as a high-complexity method adapted for protein-centered analysis of samples in chemistry and hematology laboratories. Today, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) MS is adapted for use in microbiology laboratories, where it serves as a paradigm-shifting, rapid, and robust method for accurate microbial identification. Multiple instrument platforms, marketed by well-established manufacturers, are beginning to displace automated phenotypic identification instruments and in some cases genetic sequence-based identification practices. This review summarizes the current position of MALDI-TOF MS in clinical research and in diagnostic clinical microbiology laboratories and serves as a primer to examine the "nuts and bolts" of MALDI-TOF MS, highlighting research associated with sample preparation, spectral analysis, and accuracy. Currently available MALDI-TOF MS hardware and software platforms that support the use of MALDI-TOF with direct and precultured specimens and integration of the technology into the laboratory workflow are also discussed. Finally, this review closes with a prospective view of the future of MALDI-TOF MS in the clinical microbiology laboratory to accelerate diagnosis and microbial identification to improve patient care.

  3. Development and optimization of a new MALDI-TOF protocol for identification of the Sporothrix species complex.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Santos, Cledir; Sampaio, Paula; Romeo, Orazio; Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Pais, Célia; Lima, Nelson; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2015-01-01

    Accurate species identification of the Sporothrix schenckii complex is essential, since identification based only on phenotypic characteristics is often inconclusive due to phenotypic variability within the species. We used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for species identification of 70 environmental and clinical isolates of the Sporothrix complex. A reference database was established for MALDI-TOF MS-based species identification according to minor adjustments in the manufacturer's guidelines. The MALDI-TOF MS clearly distinguished strains of Sporothrix brasiliensis, Sporothrix globosa, Sporothrix mexicana, S. schenckii, Sporothrix luriei and Sporothrix pallida, enabling identification of all isolates at the species level, as confirmed by partial calmodulin gene sequence analyses. The present methodology is simple, reliable, rapid and highly suitable for routine identification in clinical mycology laboratories and culture collections, particularly for updating and reclassifying of deposited Sporothrix isolates.

  4. Microbial Typing by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry: Do We Need Guidance for Data Interpretation?

    PubMed Central

    van Belkum, Alex; Goering, Richard V.; Girard, Victoria; Welker, Martin; Van Nuenen, Marc; Pincus, David H.; Arsac, Maud; Durand, Géraldine

    2014-01-01

    The integration of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in clinical microbiology has revolutionized species identification of bacteria, yeasts, and molds. However, beyond straightforward identification, the method has also been suggested to have the potential for subspecies-level or even type-level epidemiological analyses. This minireview explores MALDI-TOF MS-based typing, which has already been performed on many clinically relevant species. We discuss the limits of the method's resolution and we suggest interpretative criteria allowing valid comparison of strain-specific data. We conclude that guidelines for MALDI-TOF MS-based typing can be developed along the same lines as those used for the interpretation of data from pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). PMID:25056329

  5. MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry Discriminates Known Species and Marine Environmental Isolates of Pseudoalteromonas.

    PubMed

    Emami, Kaveh; Nelson, Andrew; Hack, Ethan; Zhang, Jinwei; Green, David H; Caldwell, Gary S; Mesbahi, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    The genus Pseudoalteromonas constitutes an ecologically significant group of marine Gammaproteobacteria with potential biotechnological value as producers of bioactive compounds and of enzymes. Understanding their roles in the environment and bioprospecting for novel products depend on efficient ways of identifying environmental isolates. Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) biotyping has promise as a rapid and reliable method of identifying and distinguishing between different types of bacteria, but has had relatively limited application to marine bacteria and has not been applied systematically to Pseudoalteromonas. Therefore, we constructed a MALDI-TOF MS database of 31 known Pseudoalteromonas species, to which new isolates can be compared by MALDI-TOF biotyping. The ability of MALDI-TOF MS to distinguish between species was scrutinized by comparison with 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The patterns of similarity given by the two approaches were broadly but not completely consistent. In general, the resolution of MALDI-TOF MS was greater than that of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The database was tested with 13 environmental Pseudoalteromonas isolates from UK waters. All of the test strains could be identified to genus level by MALDI-TOF MS biotyping, but most could not be definitely identified to species level. We conclude that several of these isolates, and possibly most, represent new species. Thus, further taxonomic investigation of Pseudoalteromonas is needed before MALDI-TOF MS biotyping can be used reliably for species identification. It is, however, a powerful tool for characterizing and distinguishing among environmental isolates and can make an important contribution to taxonomic studies.

  6. Direct Identification of Urinary Tract Pathogens from Urine Samples, Combining Urine Screening Methods and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Coello, Andreu; Fernández-Rivas, Gema; Rivaya, Belén; Hidalgo, Jessica; Quesada, María Dolores; Ausina, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTIs) is essential to avoid inadequate or unnecessary empirical antibiotic therapy. Microbiological confirmation takes 24 to 48 h. The use of screening methods, such as cytometry and automated microscopic analysis of urine sediment, allows the rapid prediction of negative samples. In addition, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a widely established technique in clinical microbiology laboratories used to identify microorganisms. We evaluated the ability of MALDI-TOF MS to identify microorganisms from direct urine samples and the predictive value of automated analyzers for the identification of microorganisms in urine by MALDI-TOF MS. A total of 451 urine samples from patients with suspected UTIs were first analyzed using the Sysmex UF-1000i flow cytometer, an automatic sediment analyzer with microscopy (SediMax), culture, and then processed by MALDI-TOF MS with a simple triple-centrifuged procedure to obtain a pellet that was washed and centrifuged and finally applied directly to the MALDI-TOF MS plate. The organisms in 336 samples were correctly identified, mainly those with Gram-negative bacteria (86.10%). No microorganisms were misidentified, and no Candida spp. were correctly identified. Regarding the data from autoanalyzers, the best bacteriuria cutoffs were 1,000 and 200 U/μl for UF-1000i and SediMax, respectively. It was concluded that the combination of a urine screening method and MALDI-TOF MS provided a reliable identification from urine samples, especially in those containing Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26818668

  7. Real-Time Identification of Bacteria and Candida Species in Positive Blood Culture Broths by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry▿

    PubMed Central

    Ferroni, Agnès; Suarez, Stéphanie; Beretti, Jean-Luc; Dauphin, Brunhilde; Bille, Emmanuelle; Meyer, Julie; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; Alanio, Alexandre; Berche, Patrick; Nassif, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Delays in the identification of microorganisms are a barrier to the establishment of adequate empirical antibiotic therapy of bacteremia. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) allows the identification of microorganisms directly from colonies within minutes. In this study, we have adapted and tested this technology for use with blood culture broths, thus allowing identification in less than 30 min once the blood culture is detected as positive. Our method is based on the selective recovery of bacteria by adding a detergent that solubilizes blood cells but not microbial membranes. Microorganisms are then extracted by centrifugation and analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS. This strategy was first tested by inoculating various bacterial and fungal species into negative blood culture bottles. We then tested positive patient blood or fluid samples grown in blood culture bottles, and the results obtained by MALDI-TOF-MS were compared with those obtained using conventional strategies. Three hundred twelve spiked bottles and 434 positive cultures from patients were analyzed. Among monomicrobial fluids, MALDI-TOF-MS allowed a reliable identification at the species, group, and genus/family level in 91%, 5%, and 2% of cases, respectively, in 20 min. In only 2% of these samples, MALDI-TOF MS did not yield any result. When blood cultures were multibacterial, identification was improved by using specific databases based on the Gram staining results. MALDI-TOF-MS is currently the fastest technique to accurately identify microorganisms grown in positive blood culture broths. PMID:20237092

  8. Identification and Subtyping of Clinically Relevant Human and Ruminant Mycoplasmas by Use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Renaudin, H.; Cauvin, E.; Del Prá Netto Machado, L.; Tricot, A.; Benoit, F.; Treilles, M.; Bébéar, C.

    2013-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) recently emerged as a technology for the identification of bacteria. In this study, we aimed to evaluate its applicability to human and ruminant mycoplasmal identification, which can be demanding and time-consuming when using phenotypic or molecular methods. In addition, MALDI-TOF MS was tested as a subtyping tool for certain species. A total of 29 main spectra (MSP) from 10 human and 13 ruminant mycoplasma (sub)species were included in a mycoplasma MSP database to complete the Bruker MALDI Biotyper database. After broth culture and protein extraction, MALDI-TOF MS was applied for the identification of 119 human and 143 ruminant clinical isolates that were previously identified by antigenic or molecular methods and for subcultures of 73 ruminant clinical specimens that potentially contained several mycoplasma species. MALDI-TOF MS resulted in accurate (sub)species-level identification with a score of ≥1.700 for 96% (251/262) of the isolates. The phylogenetically closest (sub)species were unequivocally distinguished. Although mixtures of the strains were reliably detected up to a certain cellular ratio, only the predominant species was identified from the cultures of polymicrobial clinical specimens. For typing purposes, MALDI-TOF MS proved to cluster Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma agalactiae isolates by their year of isolation and genome profiles, respectively, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolates by their adhesin P1 type. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective method for the routine identification of high-density growing mycoplasmal species and shows promising prospects for its capacity for strain typing. PMID:23903545

  9. Optimizing identification of clinically relevant Gram-positive organisms by use of the Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry system.

    PubMed

    McElvania Tekippe, Erin; Shuey, Sunni; Winkler, David W; Butler, Meghan A; Burnham, Carey-Ann D

    2013-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) can be used as a method for the rapid identification of microorganisms. This study evaluated the Bruker Biotyper (MALDI-TOF MS) system for the identification of clinically relevant Gram-positive organisms. We tested 239 aerobic Gram-positive organisms isolated from clinical specimens. We evaluated 4 direct-smear methods, including "heavy" (H) and "light" (L) smears, with and without a 1-μl direct formic acid (FA) overlay. The quality measure assigned to a MALDI-TOF MS identification is a numerical value or "score." We found that a heavy smear with a formic acid overlay (H+FA) produced optimal MALDI-TOF MS identification scores and the highest percentage of correctly identified organisms. Using a score of ≥2.0, we identified 183 of the 239 isolates (76.6%) to the genus level, and of the 181 isolates resolved to the species level, 141 isolates (77.9%) were correctly identified. To maximize the number of correct identifications while minimizing misidentifications, the data were analyzed using a score of ≥1.7 for genus- and species-level identification. Using this score, 220 of the 239 isolates (92.1%) were identified to the genus level, and of the 181 isolates resolved to the species level, 167 isolates (92.2%) could be assigned an accurate species identification. We also evaluated a subset of isolates for preanalytic factors that might influence MALDI-TOF MS identification. Frequent subcultures increased the number of unidentified isolates. Incubation temperatures and subcultures of the media did not alter the rate of identification. These data define the ideal bacterial preparation, identification score, and medium conditions for optimal identification of Gram-positive bacteria by use of MALDI-TOF MS.

  10. MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry Discriminates Known Species and Marine Environmental Isolates of Pseudoalteromonas

    PubMed Central

    Emami, Kaveh; Nelson, Andrew; Hack, Ethan; Zhang, Jinwei; Green, David H.; Caldwell, Gary S.; Mesbahi, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    The genus Pseudoalteromonas constitutes an ecologically significant group of marine Gammaproteobacteria with potential biotechnological value as producers of bioactive compounds and of enzymes. Understanding their roles in the environment and bioprospecting for novel products depend on efficient ways of identifying environmental isolates. Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) biotyping has promise as a rapid and reliable method of identifying and distinguishing between different types of bacteria, but has had relatively limited application to marine bacteria and has not been applied systematically to Pseudoalteromonas. Therefore, we constructed a MALDI-TOF MS database of 31 known Pseudoalteromonas species, to which new isolates can be compared by MALDI-TOF biotyping. The ability of MALDI-TOF MS to distinguish between species was scrutinized by comparison with 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The patterns of similarity given by the two approaches were broadly but not completely consistent. In general, the resolution of MALDI-TOF MS was greater than that of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The database was tested with 13 environmental Pseudoalteromonas isolates from UK waters. All of the test strains could be identified to genus level by MALDI-TOF MS biotyping, but most could not be definitely identified to species level. We conclude that several of these isolates, and possibly most, represent new species. Thus, further taxonomic investigation of Pseudoalteromonas is needed before MALDI-TOF MS biotyping can be used reliably for species identification. It is, however, a powerful tool for characterizing and distinguishing among environmental isolates and can make an important contribution to taxonomic studies. PMID:26903983

  11. Prospective evaluation of a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry system in a hospital clinical microbiology laboratory for identification of bacteria and yeasts: a bench-by-bench study for assessing the impact on time to identification and cost-effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Tan, K E; Ellis, B C; Lee, R; Stamper, P D; Zhang, S X; Carroll, K C

    2012-10-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been found to be an accurate, rapid, and inexpensive method for the identification of bacteria and yeasts. Previous evaluations have compared the accuracy, time to identification, and costs of the MALDI-TOF MS method against standard identification systems or commercial panels. In this prospective study, we compared a protocol incorporating MALDI-TOF MS (MALDI protocol) with the current standard identification protocols (standard protocol) to determine the performance in actual practice using a specimen-based, bench-by-bench approach. The potential impact on time to identification (TTI) and costs had MALDI-TOF MS been the first-line identification method was quantitated. The MALDI protocol includes supplementary tests, notably for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Shigella, and indications for repeat MALDI-TOF MS attempts, often not measured in previous studies. A total of 952 isolates (824 bacterial isolates and 128 yeast isolates) recovered from 2,214 specimens were assessed using the MALDI protocol. Compared with standard protocols, the MALDI protocol provided identifications 1.45 days earlier on average (P < 0.001). In our laboratory, we anticipate that the incorporation of the MALDI protocol can reduce reagent and labor costs of identification by $102,424 or 56.9% within 12 months. The model included the fixed annual costs of the MALDI-TOF MS, such as the cost of protein standards and instrument maintenance, and the annual prevalence of organisms encountered in our laboratory. This comprehensive cost analysis model can be generalized to other moderate- to high-volume laboratories.

  12. Direct Identification of Urinary Tract Pathogens from Urine Samples, Combining Urine Screening Methods and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Íñigo, Melania; Coello, Andreu; Fernández-Rivas, Gema; Rivaya, Belén; Hidalgo, Jessica; Quesada, María Dolores; Ausina, Vicente

    2016-04-01

    Early diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTIs) is essential to avoid inadequate or unnecessary empirical antibiotic therapy. Microbiological confirmation takes 24 to 48 h. The use of screening methods, such as cytometry and automated microscopic analysis of urine sediment, allows the rapid prediction of negative samples. In addition, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a widely established technique in clinical microbiology laboratories used to identify microorganisms. We evaluated the ability of MALDI-TOF MS to identify microorganisms from direct urine samples and the predictive value of automated analyzers for the identification of microorganisms in urine by MALDI-TOF MS. A total of 451 urine samples from patients with suspected UTIs were first analyzed using the Sysmex UF-1000iflow cytometer, an automatic sediment analyzer with microscopy (SediMax), culture, and then processed by MALDI-TOF MS with a simple triple-centrifuged procedure to obtain a pellet that was washed and centrifuged and finally applied directly to the MALDI-TOF MS plate. The organisms in 336 samples were correctly identified, mainly those with Gram-negative bacteria (86.10%). No microorganisms were misidentified, and noCandidaspp. were correctly identified. Regarding the data from autoanalyzers, the best bacteriuria cutoffs were 1,000 and 200 U/μl for UF-1000iand SediMax, respectively. It was concluded that the combination of a urine screening method and MALDI-TOF MS provided a reliable identification from urine samples, especially in those containing Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26818668

  13. MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry Discriminates Known Species and Marine Environmental Isolates of Pseudoalteromonas.

    PubMed

    Emami, Kaveh; Nelson, Andrew; Hack, Ethan; Zhang, Jinwei; Green, David H; Caldwell, Gary S; Mesbahi, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    The genus Pseudoalteromonas constitutes an ecologically significant group of marine Gammaproteobacteria with potential biotechnological value as producers of bioactive compounds and of enzymes. Understanding their roles in the environment and bioprospecting for novel products depend on efficient ways of identifying environmental isolates. Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) biotyping has promise as a rapid and reliable method of identifying and distinguishing between different types of bacteria, but has had relatively limited application to marine bacteria and has not been applied systematically to Pseudoalteromonas. Therefore, we constructed a MALDI-TOF MS database of 31 known Pseudoalteromonas species, to which new isolates can be compared by MALDI-TOF biotyping. The ability of MALDI-TOF MS to distinguish between species was scrutinized by comparison with 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The patterns of similarity given by the two approaches were broadly but not completely consistent. In general, the resolution of MALDI-TOF MS was greater than that of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The database was tested with 13 environmental Pseudoalteromonas isolates from UK waters. All of the test strains could be identified to genus level by MALDI-TOF MS biotyping, but most could not be definitely identified to species level. We conclude that several of these isolates, and possibly most, represent new species. Thus, further taxonomic investigation of Pseudoalteromonas is needed before MALDI-TOF MS biotyping can be used reliably for species identification. It is, however, a powerful tool for characterizing and distinguishing among environmental isolates and can make an important contribution to taxonomic studies. PMID:26903983

  14. The use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry in the identification of Francisella tularensis

    PubMed Central

    Karatuna, Onur; Çelebi, Bekir; Can, Simge; Akyar, Işın; Kiliç, Selçuk

    2016-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is the cause of the zoonotic disease tularemia and is classified among highly pathogenic bacteria (HPB) due to its low infection dose and potential for airborne transmission. In the case of HBP, there is a pressing need for rapid, accurate and reliable identification. Phenotypic identification of Francisella species is inappropriate for clinical microbiology laboratories because it is time-consuming, hazardous and subject to variable interpretation. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was recently evaluated as a useful tool for the rapid identification of a variety of microorganisms. In this study, we evaluated the use of MALDI-TOF MS for the rapid identification of Francisella tularensis and differentiation of its subspecies. Using national collection of Francisella isolates from the National Tularemia Reference Laboratory (Public Health Institution of Turkey, Ankara), a total of 75 clinical isolates were investigated by species and subspecies-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test and MALDI-TOF MS. All isolates were originally identified as F. tularensis subsp. holarctica according to region of difference 1 (RD1) subspecies-specific PCR results. For all isolates MALDI-TOF MS provided results in concordance with subspecies-specific PCR analysis. Although PCR-based methods are effective in identifying Francisella species, they are labor-intensive and take longer periods of time to obtain the results when compared with MALDI-TOF MS. MALDI-TOF MS appeared to be a rapid, reliable and cost-effective identification technique for Francisella spp. Shorter analysis time and low cost make this an appealing new option in microbiology laboratories. PMID:26773181

  15. [Application of mass spectrometry in mycology].

    PubMed

    Quiles Melero, Inmaculada; Peláez, Teresa; Rezusta López, Antonio; Garcia-Rodríguez, Julio

    2016-06-01

    MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight) mass spectrometry (MS) is becoming an essential tool in most microbiology laboratories. At present, by using a characteristic fungal profile obtained from whole cells or through simple extraction protocols, MALDI-TOF MS allows the identification of pathogenic fungi with a high performance potential. This methodology decreases the laboratory turnaround time, optimizing the detection of mycoses. This article describes the state-of-the-art of the use of MALDI-TOF MS for the detection of human clinical fungal pathogens in the laboratory and discusses the future applications of this technology, which will further improve routine mycological diagnosis.

  16. First Report of Wohlfahrtiimonas chitiniclastica Isolation from a Patient with Cellulitis in the United States

    PubMed Central

    de Dios, Angel; Jacob, Seby; Tayal, Amit; Fisher, Mark A.; Dingle, Tanis C.

    2015-01-01

    We report the first documented isolation of Wohlfahrtiimonas chitiniclastica from a human in the United States. Initially misidentified as Acinetobacter lwoffii by Vitek-2, the isolate was subsequently identified as W. chitiniclastica by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. While the clinical significance of the isolate in this case is unclear, it highlights the superior performance of MALDI-TOF MS for bacterial identification. PMID:26378273

  17. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry-Based Method for Discrimination between Molecular Types of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii

    PubMed Central

    Posteraro, Brunella; Vella, Antonietta; Cogliati, Massimo; De Carolis, Elena; Florio, Ada Rita; Posteraro, Patrizia; Tortorano, Anna Maria

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for Cryptococcus identification at the species and subspecies levels by using an in-house database of 25 reference cryptococcal spectra. Eighty-one out of the 82 Cryptococcus isolates (72 Cryptococcus neoformans and 10 Cryptococcus gattii) tested were correctly identified with respect to their molecular type designations. We showed that MALDI-TOF MS is a practicable alternative to conventional mycology or DNA-based methods. PMID:22573595

  18. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-09-04

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

  19. Quantitative matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Roder, Heinrich; Hunsucker, Stephen W.

    2008-01-01

    This review summarizes the essential characteristics of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF MS), especially as they relate to its applications in quantitative analysis. Approaches to quantification by MALDI-TOF MS are presented and published applications are critically reviewed. PMID:19106161

  20. Rapid and generic identification of influenza A and other respiratory viruses with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Majchrzykiewicz-Koehorst, Joanna A; Heikens, Esther; Trip, Hein; Hulst, Albert G; de Jong, Ad L; Viveen, Marco C; Sedee, Norbert J A; van der Plas, Jan; Coenjaerts, Frank E J; Paauw, Armand

    2015-03-01

    The rapid identification of existing and emerging respiratory viruses is crucial in combating outbreaks and epidemics. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a rapid and reliable identification method in bacterial diagnostics, but has not been used in virological diagnostics. Mass spectrometry systems have been investigated for the identification of respiratory viruses. However, sample preparation methods were laborious and time-consuming. In this study, a reliable and rapid sample preparation method was developed allowing identification of cultured respiratory viruses. Tenfold serial dilutions of ten cultures influenza A strains, mixed samples of influenza A virus with human metapneumovirus or respiratory syncytial virus, and reconstituted clinical samples were treated with the developed sample preparation method. Subsequently, peptides were subjected to MALDI-TOF MS and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The influenza A strains were identified to the subtype level within 3h with MALDI-TOF MS and 6h with LC-MS/MS, excluding the culturing time. The sensitivity of LC-MS/MS was higher compared to MALDI-TOF MS. In addition, LC-MS/MS was able to discriminate between two viruses in mixed samples and was able to identify virus from reconstituted clinical samples. The development of an improved and rapid sample preparation method allowed generic and rapid identification of cultured respiratory viruses by mass spectrometry.

  1. Unbiased Species-Level Identification of Clinical Isolates of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci: Does It Change the Perspective on Staphylococcus lugdunensis?

    PubMed Central

    Ball, David; Millar, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Unbiased species-level identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identified Staphylococcus lugdunensis to be a more commonly isolated CoNS in our laboratory than previously observed. It has also highlighted the possibility of vertical transmission. PMID:25339392

  2. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry-based identification of group A Streptococcus isolated from areas of the 2011 scarlet fever outbreak in china.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Di; You, Yuanhai; Bi, Zhenwang; Wang, Haibin; Zhang, Yongchan; Hu, Bin; Song, Yanyan; Zhang, Huifang; Kou, Zengqiang; Yan, Xiaomei; Zhang, Menghan; Jin, Lianmei; Jiang, Xihong; Su, Peng; Bi, Zhenqiang; Luo, Fengji; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2013-03-01

    There was a dramatic increase in scarlet fever cases in China from March to July 2011. Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is the only pathogen known to cause scarlet fever. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) coupled to Biotyper system was used for GAS identification in 2011. A local reference database (LRD) was constructed, evaluated and used to identify GAS isolates. The 75 GAS strains used to evaluate the LRD were all identified correctly. Of the 157 suspected β-hemolytic strains isolated from 298 throat swab samples, 127 (100%) and 120 (94.5%) of the isolates were identified as GAS by the MALDI-TOF MS system and the conventional bacitracin sensitivity test method, respectively. All 202 (100%) isolates were identified at the species level by searching the LRD, while 182 (90.1%) were identified by searching the original reference database (ORD). There were statistically significant differences with a high degree of credibility at species level (χ(2)=6.052, P<0.05 between the LRD and ORD). The test turnaround time was shortened 36-48h, and the cost of each sample is one-tenth of the cost of conventional methods. Establishing a domestic database is the most effective way to improve the identification efficiency using a MALDI-TOF MS system. MALDI-TOF MS is a viable alternative to conventional methods and may aid in the diagnosis and surveillance of GAS.

  3. Diversity of Clonostachys species assessed by molecular phylogenetics and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Lucas M; Moreira, Gláucia M; Ferreira, Douglas; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Pfenning, Ludwig H

    2014-12-01

    We assessed the species diversity among 45 strains of Clonostachys from different substrates and localities in Brazil using molecular phylogenetics, and compared the results with the phenotypic classification of strains obtained from matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Phylogenetic analyses were based on beta tubulin (Tub), ITS-LSU rDNA, and a combined Tub-ITS DNA dataset. MALDI-TOF MS analyses were performed using intact conidia and conidiophores of strains cultivated on oatmeal agar and 4% malt extract agar. Six known species were identified: Clonostachys byssicola, Clonostachys candelabrum, Clonostachys pseudochroleuca, Clonostachys rhizophaga, Clonostachys rogersoniana, and Clonostachys rosea. Two clades and two singleton lineages did not correspond to known species represented in the reference DNA dataset and were identified as Clonostachys sp. 1-4. Multivariate cluster analyses of MALDI-TOF MS data classified the strains into eight clusters and three singletons, corresponding to the ten identified species plus one additional cluster containing two strains of C. rogersoniana that split from the other co-specific strains. The consistent results of MALDI-TOF MS supported the identification of strains assigned to C. byssicola and C. pseudochroleuca, which did not form well supported clades in all phylogenetic analyses, but formed distinct clusters in the MALDI-TOF dendrograms. PMID:25457948

  4. Revisited distribution of nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Jacquier, H; Carbonnelle, E; Corvec, S; Illiaquer, M; Le Monnier, A; Bille, E; Zahar, J R; Beretti, J L; Jauréguy, F; Fihman, V; Tankovic, J; Cattoir, V

    2011-12-01

    Nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli (NF-GNB) are ubiquitous environmental opportunistic bacteria frequently misidentified by conventional phenotypic methods. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of NF-GNB species by 16 S rRNA gene sequencing (used as reference method) and to compare performances of biochemical tests and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). From nine French hospitals, 188 NF-GNB isolates (except P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii) were prospectively collected from 187 clinical samples between December 2008 and May 2009. By using the genotypic approach, 173 (92%) and 188 (100%) isolates were identified to the species and genus level, respectively. They covered 35 species and 20 genera, with a predominance of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Achromobacter xylosoxidans, and Pseudomonas putida group bacteria. Of the 173 species-level identified strains, concordant identification to the species-level was obtained for 75.1%, 83% and 88.9% of isolates with API 20 NE strip, the VITEK-2 (ID-GN card) system and MALDI-TOF-MS, respectively. By excluding S. maltophilia isolates accurately identified by the three methods, genus-level identification was much higher for MALDI-TOF-MS (92.9%), compared with API 20 NE and VITEK-2 (76.2% and 80.8%, respectively). In conclusion, MALDI-TOF-MS represents a rapid, inexpensive, and accurate tool for routine identification of NF-GNB in human clinical samples.

  5. Structural confirmation of novel oligosaccharides isolated from sugar beet molasses.

    PubMed

    Abe, Tatsuya; Kikuchi, Hiroto; Aritsuka, Tsutomu; Takata, Yusuke; Fukushi, Eri; Fukushi, Yukiharu; Kawabata, Jun; Ueno, Keiji; Onodera, Shuichi; Shiomi, Norio

    2016-07-01

    Eleven oligosaccharides were isolated from sugar beet molasses using carbon-Celite column chromatography and HPLC. The constituent sugars and linkage positions were determined using methylation analysis, MALDI-TOF-MS, and NMR measurements. The configurations of isolated oligosaccharides were confirmed based on detailed NMR analysis. Based on our results, three of the 11 oligosaccharides were novel. PMID:26920296

  6. Amino Acid Sequence Determination of Protein Biomarkers of Campylobacter upsaliensis and C. helveticus by 'Composite' Sequence Proteomic Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have identified the protein biomarkers observed in the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectra (MALDI-TOF-MS) of cell lysates of five different strains of Campylobacter upsaliensis and one strain of C. helveticus by proteomic techniques. Only one of these strains ...

  7. Identification of Lactobacillus from the saliva of adult patients with caries using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifei; Liu, Yingyi; Ma, Qingwei; Song, Yeqing; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has been presented as a superior method for the detection of microorganisms in body fluid samples (e.g., blood, saliva, pus, etc.) However, the performance of MALDI-TOF MS in routine identification of caries-related Lactobacillus isolates from saliva of adult patients with caries has not been determined. In the present study, we introduced a new MALDI-TOF MS system for identification of lactobacilli. Saliva samples were collected from 120 subjects with caries. Bacteria were isolated and cultured, and each isolate was identified by both 16S rRNA sequencing and MALDI-TOF MS. The identification results obtained by MALDI-TOF MS were concordant at the genus level with those of conventional 16S rRNA-based sequencing for 88.6% of lactobacilli (62/70) and 95.5% of non-lactobacilli (21/22). Up to 96 results could be obtained in parallel on a single MALDI target, suggesting that this is a reliable high-throughput approach for routine identification of lactobacilli. However, additional reference strains are necessary to increase the sensitivity and specificity of species-level identification.

  8. Identification of a variety of Staphylococcus species by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Damien; Leyssene, David; Chacornac, Jean Paul; Kostrzewa, Markus; Schmit, Pierre Olivier; Talon, Régine; Bonnet, Richard; Delmas, Julien

    2010-03-01

    Whole-cell fingerprinting by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in combination with a dedicated bioinformatic software tool (MALDI Biotyper 2.0) was used to identify 152 staphylococcal strains corresponding to 22 staphylococcal species. Spectra of the 152 isolates, previously identified at the species level using a sodA gene-based oligonucleotide array, were analyzed against the main spectra of 3,030 microorganisms. A total of 151 strains out of 152 (99.3%) were correctly identified at the species level; only one strain was identified at the genus level. The MALDI-TOF MS method revealed different clonal lineages of Staphylococcus epidermidis that were of either human or environmental origin, which suggests that the MALDI-TOF MS method could be useful in the profiling of staphylococcal strains. The topology of the dendrogram generated by the MALDI Biotyper 2.0 software from the spectra of 120 Staphylococcus reference strains (representing 36 species) was in general agreement with that inferred from the 16S rRNA gene-based analysis. Our findings indicate that the MALDI-TOF MS technology, associated with a broad-spectrum reference database, is an effective tool for the swift and reliable identification of Staphylococci.

  9. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry applied to identifying species of insect-pathogenic fungi from the Metarhizium anisopliae complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has proven to be a powerful tool for taxonomic resolution of microorganisms. In this proof-of-concept study, we assessed the effectiveness of this technique to track the current gene sequence-based phylogenet...

  10. Differentiation of vanA-positive Enterococcus faecium from vanA-negative E. faecium by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Satoshi; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Kato, Karin; Yunoki, Tomoyuki; Hotta, Go; Noguchi, Taro; Yamamoto, Masaki; Nagao, Miki; Ito, Yutaka; Takakura, Shunji; Ichiyama, Satoshi

    2014-09-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci are important nosocomial pathogens that require rapid and accurate detection for infection control. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) has begun to be used in many clinical laboratories because it is a rapid, simple and inexpensive method for identifying micro-organisms. In this study, the performance of MALDI-TOF/MS to differentiate vanA-positive Enterococcus faecium (VPEF) from vanA-negative E. faecium (VNEF) was evaluated. A total of 61 VPEF isolates collected during regional surveillance in Kyoto (Japan) and 71 VNEF isolates collected from bacteraemia patients were analysed using MALDI-TOF/MS with three ClinProTools models. All of the isolates were correctly identified as E. faecium using the MALDI Biotyper system. To discriminate between VPEF and VNEF, all three ClinProTools models yielded >90% recognition capability (basic sensitivity) and cross-validation (reliability of the models); the genetic algorithm model exhibited the highest performance (99.18% and 92.40%, respectively). The high detection performance of MALDI-TOF/MS for VPEF offers the potential for routine laboratory use. PMID:25104134

  11. Differentiation of vanA-positive Enterococcus faecium from vanA-negative E. faecium by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Satoshi; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Kato, Karin; Yunoki, Tomoyuki; Hotta, Go; Noguchi, Taro; Yamamoto, Masaki; Nagao, Miki; Ito, Yutaka; Takakura, Shunji; Ichiyama, Satoshi

    2014-09-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci are important nosocomial pathogens that require rapid and accurate detection for infection control. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) has begun to be used in many clinical laboratories because it is a rapid, simple and inexpensive method for identifying micro-organisms. In this study, the performance of MALDI-TOF/MS to differentiate vanA-positive Enterococcus faecium (VPEF) from vanA-negative E. faecium (VNEF) was evaluated. A total of 61 VPEF isolates collected during regional surveillance in Kyoto (Japan) and 71 VNEF isolates collected from bacteraemia patients were analysed using MALDI-TOF/MS with three ClinProTools models. All of the isolates were correctly identified as E. faecium using the MALDI Biotyper system. To discriminate between VPEF and VNEF, all three ClinProTools models yielded >90% recognition capability (basic sensitivity) and cross-validation (reliability of the models); the genetic algorithm model exhibited the highest performance (99.18% and 92.40%, respectively). The high detection performance of MALDI-TOF/MS for VPEF offers the potential for routine laboratory use.

  12. A SIMPLE AND RAPID MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION/IONIZATION TIME OF FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETRY METHOD TO SCREEN FISH PLASMA SAMPLES FOR ESTROGEN-RESPONSIVE BIOMARKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we describe and evaluate the performance of a simple and rapid mass spectral method for screening fish plasma for estrogen-responsive biomarkers using matrix assisted laster desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) couopled with a short...

  13. High throughput screening of genetic polymorphisms by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Corona, Giuseppe; Toffoli, Giuseppe

    2004-12-01

    In the post genomic era, the screening of many different genetic polymorphisms in large populations represents a major goal that will facilitate the understanding of individual genetic variability in the development of multi factor diseases and in drug response and toxicities. The increasing interest in these pathogenetic and pharmacogenomic studies by both academic and pharmaceutical industry researchers has increased the demand for broad genome association studies. This demand has produced a boom in the development of new and robust high throughput screening methods for genotype analysis. Matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) represents an emerging and powerful technique for DNA analysis because of its high speed, accuracy, no label requirement, and cost-effectiveness. So far, many MALDI-TOF MS approaches have been developed for rapid screening of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), variable sequences repeat, epigenotype analysis, quantitative allele studies, and for the discovery of new genetic polymorphisms. The more established methods are based on single base primer extension and minisequencing implemented with new chemical features to overcome the limitations associated with DNA analysis using MALDI-TOF MS. These new promising methods of genotyping include both photochemical and other different chemical and enzyme cleavage strategies that facilitate sample automation and MS analysis for both real-time genotyping and resequencing screening. In this review, we analyze and discuss in depth the advantages and the limitations of the more recent developments in MALDI-TOF MS analysis for large-scale genomic studies applications.

  14. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Lipopeptide from Bacillus Strains Isolated from Diverse Geographical Locations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been applied to characterize lipopeptide biomarkers from 54 different strains of Bacillis from most taxa within the B. subtilis - B. licheniformis clade, isolated from 7 different geographic locations on ...

  15. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the rapid identification of yeasts causing bloodstream infections.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, A K; Paul, S; Sood, P; Rudramurthy, S M; Rajbanshi, A; Jillwin, T J; Chakrabarti, A

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have systematically standardised and evaluated matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for identification of yeasts from bloodstream infections. This is rapidly becoming pertinent for early identification of yeasts and appropriate antifungal therapy. We used 354 yeast strains identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing for standardisation and 367 blind clinical strains for validation of our MALDI-TOF MS protocols. We also evaluated different sample preparation methods and found the on-plate formic acid extraction method as most cost- and time-efficient. The MALDI-TOF assay correctly identified 98.9% of PCR-sequenced yeasts. Novel main spectrum projections (MSP) were developed for Candida auris, C. viswanathii and Kodamaea ohmeri, which were missing from the Bruker MALDI-TOF MS database. Spectral cut-offs computed by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis showed 99.4% to 100% accuracy at a log score of ≥ 1.70 for C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. pelliculosa, C. orthopsilosis, C. albicans, C. rugosa, C. guilliermondii, C. lipolytica, C. metapsilosis, C. nivariensis. The differences in the species-specific scores of our standardisation and blind validation strains were not statistically significant, implying the optimal performance of our test protocol. The MSPs of the three new species also were validated. We conclude that MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid, accurate and reliable tool for identification of bloodstream yeasts. With proper standardisation, validation and regular database expansion, its efficiency can be further enhanced.

  16. Evidence of genotypic diversity among Candida auris isolates by multilocus sequence typing, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and amplified fragment length polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Prakash, A; Sharma, C; Singh, A; Kumar Singh, P; Kumar, A; Hagen, F; Govender, N P; Colombo, A L; Meis, J F; Chowdhary, A

    2016-03-01

    Candida auris is a multidrug-resistant nosocomial bloodstream pathogen that has been reported from Asian countries and South Africa. Herein, we studied the population structure and genetic relatedness among 104 global C. auris isolates from India, South Africa and Brazil using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). RPB1, RPB2 and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and D1/D2 regions of the ribosomal DNA were sequenced for MLST. Further, genetic variation and proteomic assessment was carried out using AFLP and MALDI-TOF MS, respectively. Both MLST and AFLP typing clearly demarcated two major clusters comprising Indian and Brazilian isolates. However, the South African isolates were randomly distributed, suggesting different genotypes. MALDI-TOF MS spectral profiling also revealed evidence of geographical clustering but did not correlate fully with the genotyping methods. Notably, overall the population structure of C. auris showed evidence of geographical clustering by all the three techniques analysed. Antifungal susceptibility testing by the CLSI microbroth dilution method revealed that fluconazole had limited activity against 87% of isolates (MIC90, 64 mg/L). Also, MIC90 of AMB was 4 mg/L. Candida auris is emerging as an important yeast pathogen globally and requires reproducible laboratory methods for identification and typing. Evaluation of MALDI-TOF MS as a typing method for this yeast is warranted.

  17. Identification of medically relevant species of arthroconidial yeasts by use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kolecka, Anna; Khayhan, Kantarawee; Groenewald, Marizeth; Theelen, Bart; Arabatzis, Michael; Velegraki, Aristea; Kostrzewa, Markus; Mares, Mihai; Taj-Aldeen, Saad J; Boekhout, Teun

    2013-08-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used for an extensive identification study of arthroconidial yeasts, using 85 reference strains from the CBS-KNAW yeast collection and 134 clinical isolates collected from medical centers in Qatar, Greece, and Romania. The test set included 72 strains of ascomycetous yeasts (Galactomyces, Geotrichum, Saprochaete, and Magnusiomyces spp.) and 147 strains of basidiomycetous yeasts (Trichosporon and Guehomyces spp.). With minimal preparation time, MALDI-TOF MS proved to be an excellent diagnostic tool that provided reliable identification of most (98%) of the tested strains to the species level, with good discriminatory power. The majority of strains were correctly identified at the species level with good scores (>2.0) and seven of the tested strains with log score values between 1.7 and 2.0. The MALDI-TOF MS results obtained were consistent with validated internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and/or large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA sequencing results. Expanding the mass spectrum database by increasing the number of reference strains for closely related species, including those of nonclinical origin, should enhance the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS-based diagnostic analysis of these arthroconidial fungi in medical and other laboratories.

  18. Unbiased species-level identification of clinical isolates of coagulase-negative Staphylococci: does it change the perspective on Staphylococcus lugdunensis?

    PubMed

    Elamin, Wael F; Ball, David; Millar, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Unbiased species-level identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identified Staphylococcus lugdunensis to be a more commonly isolated CoNS in our laboratory than previously observed. It has also highlighted the possibility of vertical transmission.

  19. Identification of Bacteria Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kedney, Mollie G.; Strunk, Kevin B.; Giaquinto, Lisa M.; Wagner, Jennifer A.; Pollack, Sidney; Patton, Walter A.

    2007-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS or simply MALDI) has become ubiquitous in the identification and analysis of biomacromolecules. As a technique that allows for the molecular weight determination of otherwise nonvolatile molecules, MALDI has had a profound impact in the molecular…

  20. Bacteriophage cell lysis of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli for top-down proteomic identification of Shiga toxin 1 & 2 using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-light mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RATIONALE: Analysis of bacteria by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) often relies upon sample preparation methods that result in cell lysis, e.g. bead-beating. However, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) can undergo bacteriophage...

  1. Identification of dermatophytes by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    de Respinis, Sophie; Tonolla, Mauro; Pranghofer, Sigrid; Petrini, Liliane; Petrini, Orlando; Bosshard, Philipp P

    2013-07-01

    In this study we evaluated the suitability of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the identification of dermatophytes in diagnostic laboratories. First, a spectral database was built with 108 reference strains belonging to 18 species of the anamorphic genera Epidermophyton, Microsporum and Trichophyton. All strains were well characterized by morphological criteria and ITS sequencing (gold standard). The dendrogram resulting from MALDI-TOF mass spectra was almost identical with the phylogenetic tree based on ITS sequencing. Subsequently, MALDI-TOF MS SuperSpectra were created for the identification of Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporium audouinii, M. canis, M. gypseum (teleomorph: Arthroderma gypseum), M. gypseum (teleomorph: A. incurvatum), M. persicolor, A. benhamiae (Tax. Entity 3 and Am-Eur. race), T. erinacei, T. interdigitale (anthropophilic and zoophilic populations), T. rubrum/T. violaceum, T. tonsurans and T. terrestre. Because T. rubrum and T. violaceum did not present enough mismatches, a SuperSpectrum covering both species was created, and differentiation between them was done by comparison of eight specific peptide masses. In the second part of this study, MALDI-TOF MS with the newly created SuperSpectra was tested using 141 clinical isolates representing nine species. Analyses were done with 3-day-old cultures. Results were compared to morphological identification and ITS sequencing; 135/141 (95.8%) strains were correctly identified by MALDI-TOF MS compared to 128/141 (90.8%) by morphology. Therefore, MALDI-TOF MS has proven to be a useful and rapid identification method for dermatophytes. PMID:23228046

  2. Implementation of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry in Routine Clinical Laboratories Improves Identification of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci and Reveals the Pathogenic Role of Staphylococcus lugdunensis

    PubMed Central

    Riegel, Philippe; Lavigne, Thierry; Lefebvre, Nicolas; Grandpré, Nicolas; Hansmann, Yves; Jaulhac, Benoit; Prévost, Gilles; Schramm, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for staphylococcal identification is now considered routine in laboratories compared with the conventional phenotypical methods previously used. We verified its microbiological relevance for identifying the main species of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) by randomly selecting 50 isolates. From 1 January 2007 to 31 August 2008, 12,479 staphylococci were isolated with phenotypic methods, of which 4,594 were identified as Staphylococcus aureus and 7,885 were coagulase negative staphylococci. Using MALDI-TOF MS from 1 January 2011 to 31 August 2012, 14,913 staphylococci were identified, with 5,066 as S. aureus and 9,847 as CoNS. MALDI-TOF MS allowed the identification of approximately 85% of the CoNS strains, whereas only 14% of the CoNS strains were identified to the species level with phenotypic methods because they were often considered contaminants. Furthermore, the use of MALDI-TOF MS revealed the occurrence of recently characterized Staphylococcus species, such as S. pettenkoferi, S. condimenti, and S. piscifermentans. Microbiological relevance analysis further revealed that some species displayed a high rate of microbiological significance, i.e., 40% of the S. lugdunensis strains included in the analysis were associated with infection risk. This retrospective microbiological study confirms the role of MALDI-TOF MS in clinical settings for the identification of staphylococci with clinical consequences. The species distribution reveals the occurrence of the recently identified species S. pettenkoferi and putative virulent species, including S. lugdunensis. PMID:25878345

  3. MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry: A Powerful Tool for Clinical Microbiology at Hôpital Principal de Dakar, Senegal (West Africa)

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Cheikh I.; Fall, Bécaye; Sambe-Ba, Bissoume; Diawara, Silman; Gueye, Mamadou W.; Mediannikov, Oleg; Sokhna, Cheikh; Faye, Ngor; Diemé, Yaya; Wade, Boubacar; Raoult, Didier; Fenollar, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Our team in Europe has developed the routine clinical laboratory identification of microorganisms by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). To evaluate the utility of MALDI-TOF MS in tropical Africa in collaboration with local teams, we installed an apparatus in the Hôpital Principal de Dakar (Senegal), performed routine identification of isolates, and confirmed or completed their identification in France. In the case of discordance or a lack of identification, molecular biology was performed. Overall, 153/191 (80.1%) and 174/191 (91.1%) isolates yielded an accurate and concordant identification for the species and genus, respectively, with the 2 different MALDI-TOF MSs in Dakar and Marseille. The 10 most common bacteria, representing 94.2% of all bacteria routinely identified in the laboratory in Dakar (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) were accurately identified with the MALDI-TOF MS in Dakar. The most frequent misidentification in Dakar was at the species level for Achromobacter xylosoxidans, which was inaccurately identified as Achromobacter denitrificans, and the bacteria absent from the database, such as Exiguobacterium aurientacum or Kytococcus schroeteri, could not be identified. A few difficulties were observed with MALDI-TOF MS for Bacillus sp. or oral streptococci. 16S rRNA sequencing identified a novel bacterium, “Necropsobacter massiliensis.” The robust identification of microorganisms by MALDI-TOF MS in Dakar and Marseille demonstrates that MALDI-TOF MS can be used as a first-line tool in clinical microbiology laboratories in tropical countries. PMID:26716681

  4. Rapid identification of microorganisms from positive blood cultures by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry subsequent to very short-term incubation on solid medium.

    PubMed

    Idelevich, E A; Schüle, I; Grünastel, B; Wüllenweber, J; Peters, G; Becker, K

    2014-10-01

    Rapid identification of the causative microorganism is important for appropriate antimicrobial therapy of bloodstream infections. Bacteria from positive blood culture (BC) bottles are not readily available for identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Lysis and centrifugation procedures suggested for direct MALDI-TOF MS from positive BCs without previous culture are associated with additional hands-on processing time and costs. Here, we describe an alternative approach applying MALDI-TOF MS from bacterial cultures incubated very briefly on solid medium. After plating of positive BC broth on Columbia blood agar (n = 165), MALDI-TOF MS was performed after 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12 and (for control) 24 h of incubation until reliable identification to the species level was achieved (score ≥2.0). Mean incubation time needed to achieve species-level identification was 5.9 and 2.0 h for Gram-positive aerobic cocci (GPC, n = 86) and Gram-negative aerobic rods (GNR, n = 42), respectively. Short agar cultures with incubation times ≤2, ≤4, ≤6, ≤8 and ≤12 h yielded species identification in 1.2%, 18.6%, 64.0%, 96.5%, 98.8% of GPC, and in 76.2%, 95.2%, 97.6%, 97.6%, 97.6% of GNR, respectively. Control species identification at 24 h was achieved in 100% of GPC and 97.6% of GNR. Ethanol/formic acid protein extraction performed for an additional 34 GPC isolates cultivated from positive BCs showed further reduction in time to species identification (3.1 h). MALDI-TOF MS using biomass subsequent to very short-term incubation on solid medium allows very early and reliable bacterial identification from positive BCs without additional time and cost expenditure.

  5. Use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry for identification of molds of the Fusarium genus.

    PubMed

    Triest, David; Stubbe, Dirk; De Cremer, Koen; Piérard, Denis; Normand, Anne-Cécile; Piarroux, Renaud; Detandt, Monique; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2015-02-01

    The rates of infection with Fusarium molds are increasing, and a diverse number of Fusarium spp. belonging to different species complexes can cause infection. Conventional species identification in the clinical laboratory is time-consuming and prone to errors. We therefore evaluated whether matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a useful alternative. The 289 Fusarium strains from the Belgian Coordinated Collections of Microorganisms (BCCM)/Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology Mycology (IHEM) culture collection with validated sequence-based identities and comprising 40 species were used in this study. An identification strategy was developed, applying a standardized MALDI-TOF MS assay and an in-house reference spectrum database. In vitro antifungal testing was performed to assess important differences in susceptibility between clinically relevant species/species complexes. We observed that no incorrect species complex identifications were made by MALDI-TOF MS, and 82.8% of the identifications were correct to the species level. This success rate was increased to 91% by lowering the cutoff for identification. Although the identification of the correct species complex member was not always guaranteed, antifungal susceptibility testing showed that discriminating between Fusarium species complexes can be important for treatment but is not necessarily required between members of a species complex. With this perspective, some Fusarium species complexes with closely related members can be considered as a whole, increasing the success rate of correct identifications to 97%. The application of our user-friendly MALDI-TOF MS identification approach resulted in a dramatic improvement in both time and accuracy compared to identification with the conventional method. A proof of principle of our MALDI-TOF MS approach in the clinical setting using recently isolated Fusarium strains demonstrated its validity.

  6. MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry: A Powerful Tool for Clinical Microbiology at Hôpital Principal de Dakar, Senegal (West Africa).

    PubMed

    Lo, Cheikh I; Fall, Bécaye; Sambe-Ba, Bissoume; Diawara, Silman; Gueye, Mamadou W; Mediannikov, Oleg; Sokhna, Cheikh; Faye, Ngor; Diemé, Yaya; Wade, Boubacar; Raoult, Didier; Fenollar, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Our team in Europe has developed the routine clinical laboratory identification of microorganisms by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). To evaluate the utility of MALDI-TOF MS in tropical Africa in collaboration with local teams, we installed an apparatus in the Hôpital Principal de Dakar (Senegal), performed routine identification of isolates, and confirmed or completed their identification in France. In the case of discordance or a lack of identification, molecular biology was performed. Overall, 153/191 (80.1%) and 174/191 (91.1%) isolates yielded an accurate and concordant identification for the species and genus, respectively, with the 2 different MALDI-TOF MSs in Dakar and Marseille. The 10 most common bacteria, representing 94.2% of all bacteria routinely identified in the laboratory in Dakar (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) were accurately identified with the MALDI-TOF MS in Dakar. The most frequent misidentification in Dakar was at the species level for Achromobacter xylosoxidans, which was inaccurately identified as Achromobacter denitrificans, and the bacteria absent from the database, such as Exiguobacterium aurientacum or Kytococcus schroeteri, could not be identified. A few difficulties were observed with MALDI-TOF MS for Bacillus sp. or oral streptococci. 16S rRNA sequencing identified a novel bacterium, "Necropsobacter massiliensis." The robust identification of microorganisms by MALDI-TOF MS in Dakar and Marseille demonstrates that MALDI-TOF MS can be used as a first-line tool in clinical microbiology laboratories in tropical countries.

  7. Use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Identification of Molds of the Fusarium Genus

    PubMed Central

    Stubbe, Dirk; De Cremer, Koen; Piérard, Denis; Normand, Anne-Cécile; Piarroux, Renaud; Detandt, Monique; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2014-01-01

    The rates of infection with Fusarium molds are increasing, and a diverse number of Fusarium spp. belonging to different species complexes can cause infection. Conventional species identification in the clinical laboratory is time-consuming and prone to errors. We therefore evaluated whether matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a useful alternative. The 289 Fusarium strains from the Belgian Coordinated Collections of Microorganisms (BCCM)/Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology Mycology (IHEM) culture collection with validated sequence-based identities and comprising 40 species were used in this study. An identification strategy was developed, applying a standardized MALDI-TOF MS assay and an in-house reference spectrum database. In vitro antifungal testing was performed to assess important differences in susceptibility between clinically relevant species/species complexes. We observed that no incorrect species complex identifications were made by MALDI-TOF MS, and 82.8% of the identifications were correct to the species level. This success rate was increased to 91% by lowering the cutoff for identification. Although the identification of the correct species complex member was not always guaranteed, antifungal susceptibility testing showed that discriminating between Fusarium species complexes can be important for treatment but is not necessarily required between members of a species complex. With this perspective, some Fusarium species complexes with closely related members can be considered as a whole, increasing the success rate of correct identifications to 97%. The application of our user-friendly MALDI-TOF MS identification approach resulted in a dramatic improvement in both time and accuracy compared to identification with the conventional method. A proof of principle of our MALDI-TOF MS approach in the clinical setting using recently isolated Fusarium strains demonstrated its validity. PMID:25411180

  8. Implementation of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry in Routine Clinical Laboratories Improves Identification of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci and Reveals the Pathogenic Role of Staphylococcus lugdunensis.

    PubMed

    Argemi, Xavier; Riegel, Philippe; Lavigne, Thierry; Lefebvre, Nicolas; Grandpré, Nicolas; Hansmann, Yves; Jaulhac, Benoit; Prévost, Gilles; Schramm, Frédéric

    2015-07-01

    The use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for staphylococcal identification is now considered routine in laboratories compared with the conventional phenotypical methods previously used. We verified its microbiological relevance for identifying the main species of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) by randomly selecting 50 isolates. From 1 January 2007 to 31 August 2008, 12,479 staphylococci were isolated with phenotypic methods, of which 4,594 were identified as Staphylococcus aureus and 7,885 were coagulase negative staphylococci. Using MALDI-TOF MS from 1 January 2011 to 31 August 2012, 14,913 staphylococci were identified, with 5,066 as S. aureus and 9,847 as CoNS. MALDI-TOF MS allowed the identification of approximately 85% of the CoNS strains, whereas only 14% of the CoNS strains were identified to the species level with phenotypic methods because they were often considered contaminants. Furthermore, the use of MALDI-TOF MS revealed the occurrence of recently characterized Staphylococcus species, such as S. pettenkoferi, S. condimenti, and S. piscifermentans. Microbiological relevance analysis further revealed that some species displayed a high rate of microbiological significance, i.e., 40% of the S. lugdunensis strains included in the analysis were associated with infection risk. This retrospective microbiological study confirms the role of MALDI-TOF MS in clinical settings for the identification of staphylococci with clinical consequences. The species distribution reveals the occurrence of the recently identified species S. pettenkoferi and putative virulent species, including S. lugdunensis.

  9. MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry: A Powerful Tool for Clinical Microbiology at Hôpital Principal de Dakar, Senegal (West Africa).

    PubMed

    Lo, Cheikh I; Fall, Bécaye; Sambe-Ba, Bissoume; Diawara, Silman; Gueye, Mamadou W; Mediannikov, Oleg; Sokhna, Cheikh; Faye, Ngor; Diemé, Yaya; Wade, Boubacar; Raoult, Didier; Fenollar, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Our team in Europe has developed the routine clinical laboratory identification of microorganisms by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). To evaluate the utility of MALDI-TOF MS in tropical Africa in collaboration with local teams, we installed an apparatus in the Hôpital Principal de Dakar (Senegal), performed routine identification of isolates, and confirmed or completed their identification in France. In the case of discordance or a lack of identification, molecular biology was performed. Overall, 153/191 (80.1%) and 174/191 (91.1%) isolates yielded an accurate and concordant identification for the species and genus, respectively, with the 2 different MALDI-TOF MSs in Dakar and Marseille. The 10 most common bacteria, representing 94.2% of all bacteria routinely identified in the laboratory in Dakar (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) were accurately identified with the MALDI-TOF MS in Dakar. The most frequent misidentification in Dakar was at the species level for Achromobacter xylosoxidans, which was inaccurately identified as Achromobacter denitrificans, and the bacteria absent from the database, such as Exiguobacterium aurientacum or Kytococcus schroeteri, could not be identified. A few difficulties were observed with MALDI-TOF MS for Bacillus sp. or oral streptococci. 16S rRNA sequencing identified a novel bacterium, "Necropsobacter massiliensis." The robust identification of microorganisms by MALDI-TOF MS in Dakar and Marseille demonstrates that MALDI-TOF MS can be used as a first-line tool in clinical microbiology laboratories in tropical countries. PMID:26716681

  10. Rapid identification and source-tracking of Listeria monocytogenes using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Snehal; Gulati, Vandana; Fox, Edward M; Karpe, Avinash; Beale, David J; Sevior, Danielle; Bhave, Mrinal; Palombo, Enzo A

    2015-06-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen responsible for the sometimes fatal disease listeriosis. Public health concerns and stringent regulations associated with the presence of this pathogen in food and food processing environments underline the need for rapid and reliable detection and subtyping techniques. In the current study, the application of matrix assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) as a single identification and source-tracking tool for a collection of L. monocytogenes isolates, obtained predominantly from dairy sources within Australia, was explored. The isolates were cultured on different growth media and analysed using MALDI-TOF MS at two incubation times (24 and 48 h). Whilst reliable genus-level identification was achieved from most media, identification at the species level was found to be dependent on culture conditions. Successful speciation was highest for isolates cultured on the chromogenic Agar Listeria Ottaviani Agosti agar (ALOA, 91% of isolates) and non-selective horse blood agar (HBA, 89%) for 24h. Chemometric statistical analysis of the MALDI-TOF MS data enabled source-tracking of L. monocytogenes isolates obtained from four different dairy sources. Strain-level discrimination was also observed to be influenced by culture conditions. In addition, t-test/analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to identify potential biomarker peaks that differentiated the isolates according to their source of isolation. Source-tracking using MALDI-TOF MS was compared and correlated with the gold standard pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) technique. The discriminatory index and the congruence between both techniques were compared using the Simpsons Diversity Index and adjusted Rand and Wallace coefficients. Overall, MALDI-TOF MS based source-tracking (using data obtained by culturing the isolates on HBA) and PFGE demonstrated good congruence with a Wallace coefficient of 0.71 and

  11. Rapid detection of porins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yan-Yan; Cai, Jia-Chang; Zhou, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Rong; Chen, Gong-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    The rapid and cost-efficient determination of carbapenem resistance is an important prerequisite for the choice of an adequate antibiotic therapy. A MALDI-TOF MS-based assay was set up to detect porins in the current study. A loss of the components of porin alone such as OmpK35/OmpK36 or together with the production of carbapenemases will augment the carbapenem resistance. Ten strains of Escherichia coli and eight strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae were conducted for both sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and MALDI-TOF MS analysis. MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis was then performed to verify the correspondence of proteins between SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF MS. The results indicated that the mass spectrum of ca. 35,000, 37,000, and 38,000-m/z peaks of E. coli ATCC 25922 corresponded to OmpA, OmpC, and OmpF with molecular weight of approximately ca. 38, 40, and 41 kDa in SDS-PAGE gel, respectively. The band of OmpC and OmpF porins were unable to be distinguished by SDS-PAGE, whereas it was easy to be differentiated by MALDI-TOF MS. As for K. pneumoniae isolates, the mass spectrum of ca. 36,000 and 38,600-m/z peaks was observed corresponding to OmpA and OmpK36 with molecular weight of approximately ca. 40 and 42 kDa in SDS-PAGE gel, respectively. Porin OmpK35 was not observed in the current SDS-PAGE, while a 37,000-m/z peak was found in K. pneumoniae ATCC 13883 and carbapenem-susceptible strains by MALDI-TOF MS which was presumed to be the characteristic peak of the OmpK35 porin. Compared with SDS-PAGE, MALDI-TOF MS is able to rapidly identify the porin-deficient strains within half an hour with better sensitivity, less cost, and is easier to operate and has less interference.

  12. Portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    This document provides storage requirements for 1,000 CFM portable exhausters POR-O07/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F. These requirements are presented in three parts: preparation for storage, storage maintenance and testing, and retrieval from storage. The exhauster component identification numbers listed in this document contain the prefix POR-007 or POR-008 depending on which exhauster is being used.

  13. Evaluation of the Bruker Biotyper Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry System for Identification of Blood Isolates of Vibrio Species

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Wern-Cherng; Jan, I-Shiow; Chen, Jong-Min; Teng, Shih-Hua; Teng, Lee-Jene; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Ko, Wen-Chien

    2015-01-01

    Among 56 blood isolates of Vibrio species identified by sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA and rpoB genes, the Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system correctly identified all isolates of Vibrio vulnificus (n = 20), V. parahaemolyticus (n = 2), and V. fluvialis (n = 1) but none of the isolates of serogroup non-O1/O139 (non-serogroup O1, non-O139) V. cholerae (n = 33) to the species level. All of these serogroup non-O1/O139 V. cholerae isolates were correctly identified using the newly created MALDI-TOF MS database. PMID:25740773

  14. Critical factors determining the quantification capability of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization- time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chia-Chen; Lai, Yin-Hung; Ou, Yu-Meng; Chang, Huan-Tsung; Wang, Yi-Sheng

    2016-10-28

    Quantitative analysis with mass spectrometry (MS) is important but challenging. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) coupled with time-of-flight (TOF) MS offers superior sensitivity, resolution and speed, but such techniques have numerous disadvantages that hinder quantitative analyses. This review summarizes essential obstacles to analyte quantification with MALDI-TOF MS, including the complex ionization mechanism of MALDI, sensitive characteristics of the applied electric fields and the mass-dependent detection efficiency of ion detectors. General quantitative ionization and desorption interpretations of ion production are described. Important instrument parameters and available methods of MALDI-TOF MS used for quantitative analysis are also reviewed.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'.

  15. Purification and characterization of a novel glycoprotein from Streptomyces sp. ZX01.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoqiang; Han, Lirong; Zhang, Guifeng; Zhang, Xing; Feng, Juntao

    2015-01-01

    A novel glycoprotein GP-1 with antiviral activity against plant virus was isolated from the fermentation broth of the actinomycete Streptomyces sp. ZX01. MALDI-TOF-MS proved that molecular weight of GP-1 approximately was 8.5 kDa. GP-1 was a heat-sensitive glycoprotein with decreasing antiviral activity after treated from 80 °C to 100 °C for 30 min. GP-1 contained 40.23% carbohydrate with N-linked and O-linked glycan. FT-IR and NMR spectra proved that GP-1 contained protein and carbohydrate portions with α-D-(1,6)-glucose residues. Circular dichroism revealed that GP-1 was a glycoprotein with a large unordered content. Moreover, protein sequencing was predicted by using MALDI-TOF-MS and Mascot search. These results suggested that glycoprotein GP-1 could be used as a novel natural antiviral agent in agricultural industry.

  16. Separation and identification of Musa acuminate Colla (banana) leaf proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; Qi, Y X; Zhang, H; Zhang, H Q; Pu, J J; Xie, Y X

    2013-12-19

    To establish a proteomic reference map of Musa acuminate Colla (banana) leaf, we separated and identified leaf proteins using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and mass spectrometry (MS). Tryptic digests of 44 spots were subjected to peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS. Three spots that were not identified by MALDI-TOF MS analysis were identified by searching against the NCBInr, SwissProt, and expressed sequence tag (EST) databases. We identified 41 unique proteins. The majority of the identified leaf proteins were found to be involved in energy metabolism. The results indicate that 2D-PAGE is a sensitive and powerful technique for the separation and identification of Musa leaf proteins. A summary of the identified proteins and their putative functions is discussed.

  17. Beer fingerprinting by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionisation-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Šedo, Ondrej; Márová, Ivana; Zdráhal, Zbyněk

    2012-11-15

    A method allowing parallel fingerprinting of proteins and maltooligosaccharides directly from untreated beer samples is presented. These two classes of compounds were detected by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionisation-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis of beer mixed with 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid solution. The maltooligosaccharide profiles acquired from the MALDI sample spot center were not found characteristic for beers of different source and technology. On the other hand, according to profiles containing protein signals acquired from crystals formed on the border of the MALDI sample spot, we were able to distinguish beer samples of the same brand produced by different breweries. The discriminatory abilities of the method were further examined on a set of 17 lager beers, where the fingerprints containing protein signals enabled resolution of majority of examined brands. We propose MALDI-TOF-MS profiling as a rapid tool for beer brewing technology process monitoring, quality control, and determination of beer authenticity.

  18. Foodborne Listeria monocytogenes: A Real Challenge in Quality Control.

    PubMed

    Pusztahelyi, Tünde; Szabó, Judit; Dombrádi, Zsuzsanna; Kovács, Szilvia; Pócsi, István

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen, and the detection and differentiation of this bacterium from the nonpathogenic Listeria species are of great importance to the food industry. Differentiation of Listeria species is very difficult, even with the sophisticated MALDI-TOF MS technique because of the close genetic relationship of the species and the usual gene transfer. The present paper emphasizes the difficulties of the differentiation through the standardized detection and confirmation according to ISO 11290-1:1996 and basic available L. monocytogenes detection methods and tests (such as API Listeria test, MALDI-TOF MS analysis, and hly gene PCR). With the increase of reports on the pathogenesis of atypical Listeria strains in humans, the significance of species level determination has become questionable, especially in food quality control, and the detection of pathogenic characteristics seems to be more relevant. PMID:27239376

  19. Further Studies on Arcanobacterium phocisimile: a Novel Species of Genus Arcanobacterium.

    PubMed

    Sammra, Osama; Balbutskaya, Anna; Hijazin, Muaz; Nagib, Samy; Alber, Jörg; Lämmler, Christoph; Abdulmawjood, Amir; Prenger-Berninghoff, Ellen; Timke, Markus; Kostrzewa, Markus; Siebert, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Arcanobacterium phocisimile, a newly described species with the type strain A. phocisimile 2698(T) isolated from a vaginal swab of a harbour seal and four additional A. phocisimile strains also isolated from four harbour seals could reliably be identified by phenotypic properties, by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and by sequencing the genomic targets 16S rDNA and 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region and the genes rpoB and gap. The A. phocisimile strains investigated in the present study were isolated together with several other bacterial species indicating that the pathogenic importance of A. phocisimile remains unclear. However, the detection of peptidic spectra by MALDI-TOF MS and the presented phenotypic and genotypic approach might help to identify A. phocisimile in future. PMID:26464945

  20. MALDI-TOF-mass spectrometry applications in clinical microbiology.

    PubMed

    Seng, Piseth; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Fournier, Pierre Edouard; La Scola, Bernard; Drancourt, Michel; Raoult, Didier

    2010-11-01

    MALDI-TOF-mass spectrometry (MS) has been successfully adapted for the routine identification of microorganisms in clinical microbiology laboratories in the past 10 years. This revolutionary technique allows for easier and faster diagnosis of human pathogens than conventional phenotypic and molecular identification methods, with unquestionable reliability and cost-effectiveness. This article will review the application of MALDI-TOF-MS tools in routine clinical diagnosis, including the identification of bacteria at the species, subspecies, strain and lineage levels, and the identification of bacterial toxins and antibiotic-resistance type. We will also discuss the application of MALDI-TOF-MS tools in the identification of Archaea, eukaryotes and viruses. Pathogenic identification from colony-cultured, blood-cultured, urine and environmental samples is also reviewed.

  1. The Effect of Culture Conditions on Microorganism Identification by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, Nancy B.; Wunschel, Sharon C.; Wunschel, David S.; Petersen, Catherine E.; Wahl, Karen L.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been used to identify bacteria based upon protein signatures. This research shows that while some different proteins are produced by vegetative bacteria when they are cultured in different growth media, positive identification with MALDI-TOF MS is still possible with the protocol established at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(11). A core set of small proteins remain constant under at least four different culture media conditions including minimal medium -M9, rich media - tryptic soy broth (TSB) or Luria-Bertani (LB) broth and blood agar plates such that analysis of the intact cells by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry allows for consistent identification.

  2. [Application of mass spectrometry in mycology].

    PubMed

    Quiles Melero, Inmaculada; Peláez, Teresa; Rezusta López, Antonio; Garcia-Rodríguez, Julio

    2016-06-01

    MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight) mass spectrometry (MS) is becoming an essential tool in most microbiology laboratories. At present, by using a characteristic fungal profile obtained from whole cells or through simple extraction protocols, MALDI-TOF MS allows the identification of pathogenic fungi with a high performance potential. This methodology decreases the laboratory turnaround time, optimizing the detection of mycoses. This article describes the state-of-the-art of the use of MALDI-TOF MS for the detection of human clinical fungal pathogens in the laboratory and discusses the future applications of this technology, which will further improve routine mycological diagnosis. PMID:27389289

  3. Critical factors determining the quantification capability of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization- time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chia-Chen; Lai, Yin-Hung; Ou, Yu-Meng; Chang, Huan-Tsung; Wang, Yi-Sheng

    2016-10-28

    Quantitative analysis with mass spectrometry (MS) is important but challenging. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) coupled with time-of-flight (TOF) MS offers superior sensitivity, resolution and speed, but such techniques have numerous disadvantages that hinder quantitative analyses. This review summarizes essential obstacles to analyte quantification with MALDI-TOF MS, including the complex ionization mechanism of MALDI, sensitive characteristics of the applied electric fields and the mass-dependent detection efficiency of ion detectors. General quantitative ionization and desorption interpretations of ion production are described. Important instrument parameters and available methods of MALDI-TOF MS used for quantitative analysis are also reviewed.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'. PMID:27644968

  4. Foodborne Listeria monocytogenes: A Real Challenge in Quality Control

    PubMed Central

    Pusztahelyi, Tünde; Szabó, Judit; Dombrádi, Zsuzsanna; Kovács, Szilvia; Pócsi, István

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen, and the detection and differentiation of this bacterium from the nonpathogenic Listeria species are of great importance to the food industry. Differentiation of Listeria species is very difficult, even with the sophisticated MALDI-TOF MS technique because of the close genetic relationship of the species and the usual gene transfer. The present paper emphasizes the difficulties of the differentiation through the standardized detection and confirmation according to ISO 11290-1:1996 and basic available L. monocytogenes detection methods and tests (such as API Listeria test, MALDI-TOF MS analysis, and hly gene PCR). With the increase of reports on the pathogenesis of atypical Listeria strains in humans, the significance of species level determination has become questionable, especially in food quality control, and the detection of pathogenic characteristics seems to be more relevant. PMID:27239376

  5. Analysis and Quantitation of Glycated Hemoglobin by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattan, Stephen J.; Parker, Kenneth C.; Vestal, Marvin L.; Yang, Jane Y.; Herold, David A.; Duncan, Mark W.

    2016-03-01

    Measurement of glycated hemoglobin is widely used for the diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes mellitus. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of patient samples is used to demonstrate a method for quantitation of total glycation on the β-subunit of hemoglobin. The approach is accurate and calibrated with commercially available reference materials. Measurements were linear (R2 > 0.99) across the clinically relevant range of 4% to 20% glycation with coefficients of variation of ≤ 2.5%. Additional and independent measurements of glycation of the α-subunit of hemoglobin are used to validate β-subunit glycation measurements and distinguish hemoglobin variants. Results obtained by MALDI-TOF MS were compared with those obtained in a clinical laboratory using validated HPLC methodology. MALDI-TOF MS sample preparation was minimal and analysis times were rapid making the method an attractive alternative to methodologies currently in practice.

  6. Rapid Detection of OXA-48-Producing Enterobacteriaceae by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Oviaño, Marina; Barba, Maria José; Fernández, Begoña; Ortega, Adriana; Aracil, Belén; Oteo, Jesús; Campos, José; Bou, Germán

    2016-03-01

    A rapid and sensitive (100%) matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) assay was developed to detect OXA-48-type producers, using 161 previously characterized clinical isolates. Ertapenem was monitored to detect carbapenem resistance, and temocillin was included in the assay as a marker for OXA-48-producers. Structural analysis of temocillin is described. Data are obtained within 60 min. PMID:26677247

  7. Actinomyces urogenitalis bacteremia and tubo-ovarian abscess after an in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedure.

    PubMed

    Van Hoecke, Frederik; Beuckelaers, Ellen; Lissens, Peter; Boudewijns, Michael

    2013-12-01

    We describe the first case of bacteremia due to Actinomyces urogenitalis. Bacteremia was secondary to a tubo-ovarian abscess following transvaginal oocyte retrieval. Identification was established by matrix-assisted desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A. urogenitalis should be considered as a potential causative agent of infection after gynecological procedures.

  8. Drone Transport of Microbes in Blood and Sputum Laboratory Specimens.

    PubMed

    Amukele, Timothy K; Street, Jeff; Carroll, Karen; Miller, Heather; Zhang, Sean X

    2016-10-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) could potentially be used to transport microbiological specimens. To examine the impact of UAVs on microbiological specimens, blood and sputum culture specimens were seeded with usual pathogens and flown in a UAV for 30 ± 2 min. Times to recovery, colony counts, morphologies, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based identifications of the flown and stationary specimens were similar for all microbes studied.

  9. Identification and Pathogenic Potential of Clinical Bacillus and Paenibacillus Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Celandroni, Francesco; Salvetti, Sara; Gueye, Sokhna Aissatou; Mazzantini, Diletta; Lupetti, Antonella; Senesi, Sonia; Ghelardi, Emilia

    2016-01-01

    The soil-related Bacillus and Paenibacillus species have increasingly been implicated in various human diseases. Nevertheless, their identification still poses problems in the clinical microbiology laboratory and, with the exception of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus, little is known on their pathogenicity for humans. In this study, we evaluated the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption—ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in the identification of clinical isolates of these genera and conducted genotypic and phenotypic analyses to highlight specific virulence properties. Seventy-five clinical isolates were subjected to biochemical and MALDI-TOF MS identification. 16S rDNA sequencing and supplemental tests were used to solve any discrepancies or failures in the identification results. MALDI-TOF MS significantly outperformed classical biochemical testing for correct species identification and no misidentification was obtained. One third of the collected strains belonged to the B. cereus species, but also Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis were isolated at high rate. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that all the B. cereus, B. licheniformis, B. simplex, B. mycoides, Paenibacillus glucanolyticus and Paenibacillus lautus isolates are resistant to penicillin. The evaluation of toxin/enzyme secretion, toxin-encoding genes, motility, and biofilm formation revealed that B. cereus displays the highest virulence potential. However, although generally considered nonpathogenic, most of the other species were shown to swim, swarm, produce biofilms, and secrete proteases that can have a role in bacterial virulence. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS appears useful for fast and accurate identification of Bacillus and Paenibacillus strains whose virulence properties make them of increasing clinical relevance. PMID:27031639

  10. Evaluation of the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry Bruker Biotyper for identification of Penicillium marneffei, Paecilomyces species, Fusarium solani, Rhizopus species, and Pseudallescheria boydii

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Sheng; Liu, Yen-Hung; Teng, Shih-Hua; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Hung, Chien-Ching; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Teng, Lee-Jene; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), the MALDI Bruker Biotyper system (microflex LT; Bruker Daltonik GmbH, Bremen, Germany), on the identification of 50 isolates of clinically encountered molds, including Penicillium marneffei (n = 28), Paecilomyces species (n = 12), Fusarium solani (n = 6), Rhizopus species (n = 3), and Pseudallescheria boydii (n = 1). The isolates were identified to species levels by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions using primers ITS1 and ITS4. None of the 28 genetically well characterized isolates of P. marneffei were identified as P. marneffei by MALDI-TOF MS, because P. marneffei was not present in either Bruker general library (DB 5627) or Bruker filamentous fungi library V1.0. However, the rate of accurate identification as P. marneffei (score value ≥ 2.000) was 85.7% based on newly created database from one P. marneffei strain (NTUH-3370) by MALDI Biotyper system. Sequencing analysis of these 22 non-P. marneffei isolates of molds revealed seven Paecilomyces variotii, six F. solani, four Paecilomyces lilacinus, and one each of Paecilomyces sinensis, Rhizopus arrhizus, R. oryzae, R. microspores, and P. boydii. Although all the seven P. variotii isolates, four of the six F. solani, two of the four P. lilacinus, and two of the three isolates of Rhizopus species, and the P. boydii isolate had concordant identification results between MALDI-TOF MS and sequencing analysis, the score values of these isolates were all of <1.700. This study indicated that the MALDI Bruker Biotyper is ineffective for identifying P. marneffei and other unusual molds because of the current database limitations. Therefore, it is necessary to continuously update the MALDI-TOF MS databases. PMID:26217315

  11. Comparison of peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization assays with culture-based matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry for the identification of bacteria and yeasts from blood cultures and cerebrospinal fluid cultures.

    PubMed

    Calderaro, A; Martinelli, M; Motta, F; Larini, S; Arcangeletti, M C; Medici, M C; Chezzi, C; De Conto, F

    2014-08-01

    Peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) is a molecular diagnostic tool for the rapid detection of pathogens directly from liquid media. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate PNA FISH assays in comparison with culture-based matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identification, as a reference method, for both blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures, during a 1-year investigation. On the basis of the Gram stain microscopy results, four different PNA FISH commercially available assays were used ('Staphylococcus aureus/CNS', 'Enterococcus faecalis/OE', 'GNR Traffic Light' and 'Yeasts Traffic Light' PNA FISH assays, AdvanDx). The four PNA FISH assays were applied to 956 positive blood cultures (921 for bacteria and 35 for yeasts) and 11 CSF cultures. Among the 921 blood samples positive for bacteria, PNA FISH gave concordant results with MALDI-TOF MS in 908/921 (98.64%) samples, showing an agreement of 99.4% in the case of monomicrobial infections. As regards yeasts, the PNA FISH assay showed a 100% agreement with the result obtained by MALDI-TOF MS. When PNA FISH assays were tested on the 11 CSF cultures, the results agreed with the reference method in all cases (100%). PNA FISH assays provided species identification at least one work-day before the MALDI-TOF MS culture-based identification. PNA FISH assays showed an excellent efficacy in the prompt identification of main pathogens, yielding a significant reduction in reporting time and leading to more appropriate patient management and therapy in cases of sepsis and severe infections.

  12. Clinical and microbiological features of a cystic fibrosis patient chronically colonized with Pandoraea sputorum identified by combining 16S rRNA sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Olmos, A; Morosini, M I; Lamas, A; García-Castillo, M; García-García, L; Cantón, R; Máiz, L

    2012-03-01

    Clonal isolates identified as various nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli over a 5-year period from sputum cultures of a 30-year-old cystic fibrosis patient were successfully reidentified as Pandoraea sputorum by combining 16S rRNA sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Decreased lung function improved after 1 year of azithromycin and inhaled 7%-hypertonic saline treatment. PMID:22170922

  13. Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fruit Pulp Processing Byproducts and Potential Probiotic Properties of Selected Lactobacillus Strains.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Estefânia F; Luciano, Winnie A; Xavier, Danilo E; da Costa, Whyara C A; de Sousa Oliveira, Kleber; Franco, Octávio L; de Morais Júnior, Marcos A; Lucena, Brígida T L; Picão, Renata C; Magnani, Marciane; Saarela, Maria; de Souza, Evandro L

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in byproducts of fruit (Malpighia glabra L., Mangifera indica L., Annona muricata L., and Fragaria vesca L.) pulp processing. Fifty strains of LAB were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and 16S rRNA gene sequence (16S rRNA) analysis. Species belonging to Lactobacillus genus were the predominant LAB in all fruit pulp processing byproducts. The average congruency between the MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA in LAB species identification reached 86%. Isolates of L. plantarum, L. brevis, L. pentosus, L. lactis and L. mesenteroides were identified with 100% congruency. MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis presented 86 and 100% efficiency of LAB species identification, respectively. Further, five selected Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis 59, L. pentosus 129, L. paracasei 108, L. plantarum 49, and L. fermentum 111) were evaluated for desirable probiotic-related properties and growth behavior on two different cultivation media. The exposure to pH 2.0 sharply decreased the counts of the different Lactobacillus strains after a 1 or 2 h incubation, while varied decreases were noted after 3 h of exposure to pH 3.0. Overall, the exposure to pH 5.0 and to bile salts (0.15, 0.30, and 1.00%) did not decrease the counts of the Lactobacillus strains. All tested Lactobacillus strains presented inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, and presented variable susceptibility to different antibiotics. The selected Lactobacillus strains presented satisfactory and reproducible growth behavior. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis revealed high efficiency and congruency for LAB species identification, and the selected Lactobacillus strains may be candidates for further investigation of novel probiotic strains.

  14. Comparison of the accuracy of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry with that of other commercial identification systems for identifying Staphylococcus saprophyticus in urine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tai-Fen; Lee, Hao; Chen, Chung-Ming; Du, Shin-Hei; Cheng, Ya-Chih; Hsu, Chen-Ching; Chung, Meng-Yu; Teng, Shih-Hua; Teng, Lee-Jene; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2013-05-01

    Among 30 urinary isolates of Staphylococcus saprophyticus identified by sequencing methods, the rate of accurate identification was 100% for Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), 86.7% for the Phoenix PID and Vitek 2 GP systems, 93.3% for the MicroScan GP33 system, and 46.7% for the BBL CHROMagar Orientation system.

  15. Identification and Pathogenic Potential of Clinical Bacillus and Paenibacillus Isolates.

    PubMed

    Celandroni, Francesco; Salvetti, Sara; Gueye, Sokhna Aissatou; Mazzantini, Diletta; Lupetti, Antonella; Senesi, Sonia; Ghelardi, Emilia

    2016-01-01

    The soil-related Bacillus and Paenibacillus species have increasingly been implicated in various human diseases. Nevertheless, their identification still poses problems in the clinical microbiology laboratory and, with the exception of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus, little is known on their pathogenicity for humans. In this study, we evaluated the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in the identification of clinical isolates of these genera and conducted genotypic and phenotypic analyses to highlight specific virulence properties. Seventy-five clinical isolates were subjected to biochemical and MALDI-TOF MS identification. 16S rDNA sequencing and supplemental tests were used to solve any discrepancies or failures in the identification results. MALDI-TOF MS significantly outperformed classical biochemical testing for correct species identification and no misidentification was obtained. One third of the collected strains belonged to the B. cereus species, but also Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis were isolated at high rate. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that all the B. cereus, B. licheniformis, B. simplex, B. mycoides, Paenibacillus glucanolyticus and Paenibacillus lautus isolates are resistant to penicillin. The evaluation of toxin/enzyme secretion, toxin-encoding genes, motility, and biofilm formation revealed that B. cereus displays the highest virulence potential. However, although generally considered nonpathogenic, most of the other species were shown to swim, swarm, produce biofilms, and secrete proteases that can have a role in bacterial virulence. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS appears useful for fast and accurate identification of Bacillus and Paenibacillus strains whose virulence properties make them of increasing clinical relevance. PMID:27031639

  16. Identification of beer-spoilage bacteria using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wieme, Anneleen D; Spitaels, Freek; Aerts, Maarten; De Bruyne, Katrien; Van Landschoot, Anita; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-08-18

    Applicability of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for identification of beer-spoilage bacteria was examined. To achieve this, an extensive identification database was constructed comprising more than 4200 mass spectra, including biological and technical replicates derived from 273 acetic acid bacteria (AAB) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), covering a total of 52 species, grown on at least three growth media. Sequence analysis of protein coding genes was used to verify aberrant MALDI-TOF MS identification results and confirmed the earlier misidentification of 34 AAB and LAB strains. In total, 348 isolates were collected from culture media inoculated with 14 spoiled beer and brewery samples. Peak-based numerical analysis of MALDI-TOF MS spectra allowed a straightforward species identification of 327 (94.0%) isolates. The remaining isolates clustered separately and were assigned through sequence analysis of protein coding genes either to species not known as beer-spoilage bacteria, and thus not present in the database, or to novel AAB species. An alternative, classifier-based approach for the identification of spoilage bacteria was evaluated by combining the identification results obtained through peak-based cluster analysis and sequence analysis of protein coding genes as a standard. In total, 263 out of 348 isolates (75.6%) were correctly identified at species level and 24 isolates (6.9%) were misidentified. In addition, the identification results of 50 isolates (14.4%) were considered unreliable, and 11 isolates (3.2%) could not be identified. The present study demonstrated that MALDI-TOF MS is well-suited for the rapid, high-throughput and accurate identification of bacteria isolated from spoiled beer and brewery samples, which makes the technique appropriate for routine microbial quality control in the brewing industry. PMID:24929682

  17. Chemical analysis of pharmaceuticals and explosives in fingermarks using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kaplan-Sandquist, Kimberly; LeBeau, Marc A; Miller, Mark L

    2014-02-01

    Chemical analysis of latent fingermarks, "touch chemistry," has the potential of providing intelligence or forensically relevant information. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF MS) was used as an analytical platform for obtaining mass spectra and chemical images of target drugs and explosives in fingermark residues following conventional fingerprint development methods and MALDI matrix processing. There were two main purposes of this research: (1) develop effective laboratory methods for detecting drugs and explosives in fingermark residues and (2) determine the feasibility of detecting drugs and explosives after casual contact with pills, powders, and residues. Further, synthetic latent print reference pads were evaluated as mimics of natural fingermark residue to determine if the pads could be used for method development and quality control. The results suggest that artificial amino acid and sebaceous oil residue pads are not suitable to adequately simulate natural fingermark chemistry for MALDI/TOF MS analysis. However, the pads were useful for designing experiments and setting instrumental parameters. Based on the natural fingermark residue experiments, handling whole or broken pills did not transfer sufficient quantities of drugs to allow for definitive detection. Transferring drugs or explosives in the form of powders and residues was successful for preparing analytes for detection after contact with fingers and deposition of fingermark residue. One downfall to handling powders was that the analyte particles were easily spread beyond the original fingermark during development. Analyte particles were confined in the original fingermark when using transfer residues. The MALDI/TOF MS was able to detect procaine, pseudoephedrine, TNT, and RDX from contact residue under laboratory conditions with the integration of conventional fingerprint development methods and MALDI matrix. MALDI/TOF MS is a nondestructive

  18. Identification of beer-spoilage bacteria using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wieme, Anneleen D; Spitaels, Freek; Aerts, Maarten; De Bruyne, Katrien; Van Landschoot, Anita; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-08-18

    Applicability of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for identification of beer-spoilage bacteria was examined. To achieve this, an extensive identification database was constructed comprising more than 4200 mass spectra, including biological and technical replicates derived from 273 acetic acid bacteria (AAB) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), covering a total of 52 species, grown on at least three growth media. Sequence analysis of protein coding genes was used to verify aberrant MALDI-TOF MS identification results and confirmed the earlier misidentification of 34 AAB and LAB strains. In total, 348 isolates were collected from culture media inoculated with 14 spoiled beer and brewery samples. Peak-based numerical analysis of MALDI-TOF MS spectra allowed a straightforward species identification of 327 (94.0%) isolates. The remaining isolates clustered separately and were assigned through sequence analysis of protein coding genes either to species not known as beer-spoilage bacteria, and thus not present in the database, or to novel AAB species. An alternative, classifier-based approach for the identification of spoilage bacteria was evaluated by combining the identification results obtained through peak-based cluster analysis and sequence analysis of protein coding genes as a standard. In total, 263 out of 348 isolates (75.6%) were correctly identified at species level and 24 isolates (6.9%) were misidentified. In addition, the identification results of 50 isolates (14.4%) were considered unreliable, and 11 isolates (3.2%) could not be identified. The present study demonstrated that MALDI-TOF MS is well-suited for the rapid, high-throughput and accurate identification of bacteria isolated from spoiled beer and brewery samples, which makes the technique appropriate for routine microbial quality control in the brewing industry.

  19. Clinical Characteristics, Laboratory Identification, and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of Yarrowia (Candida) lipolytica Isolates Causing Fungemia: a Multicenter, Prospective Surveillance Study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying; Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Wang, He; Guo, Dawen; Pan, Yuhong; Xiao, Yuling; Yue, Na; Chen, Jonathan Hon-Kwan; Lau, Susanna Kar-Pui; Xu, Yingchun; Woo, Patrick Chiu-Yat

    2015-11-01

    Our case series showed that uncomplicated Yarrowia lipolytica fungemia might be treated with catheter removal alone. The Vitek 2 YST identification (ID) card system, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and internal transcribed spacer and 25S nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) gene sequencing provided reliable identification. All isolates had low MICs to voriconazole, echinocandins, and amphotericin B.

  20. Microorganisms direct identification from blood culture by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, L; Sánchez-Juanes, F; Porras-Guerra, I; García-García, M I; García-Sánchez, J E; González-Buitrago, J M; Muñoz-Bellido, J L

    2011-04-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) allows a fast and reliable bacterial identification from culture plates. Direct analysis of clinical samples may increase its usefulness in samples in which a fast identification of microorganisms can guide empirical treatment, such as blood cultures (BC). Three hundred and thirty BC, reported as positive by the automated BC incubation device, were processed by conventional methods for BC processing, and by a fast method based on direct MALDI-TOF MS. Three hundred and eighteen of them yield growth on culture plates, and 12 were false positive. The MALDI-TOF MS-based method reported that no peaks were found, or the absence of a reliable identification profile, in all these false positive BC. No mixed cultures were found. Among these 318 BC, we isolated 61 Gram-negatives (GN), 239 Gram-positives (GP) and 18 fungi. Microorganism identifications in GN were coincident with conventional identification, at the species level, in 83.3% of BC and, at the genus level, in 96.6%. In GP, identifications were coincident with conventional identification in 31.8% of BC at the species level, and in 64.8% at the genus level. Fungaemia was not reliably detected by MALDI-TOF. In 18 BC positive for Candida species (eight C. albicans, nine C. parapsilosis and one C. tropicalis), no microorganisms were identified at the species level, and only one (5.6%) was detected at the genus level. The results of the present study show that this fast, MALDI-TOF MS-based method allows bacterial identification directly from presumptively positive BC in a short time (<30 min), with a high accuracy, especially when GN bacteria are involved.

  1. Identification of pathogenic microorganisms directly from positive blood vials by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nonnemann, Bettina; Tvede, Michael; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a promising and fast method for identifying fungi and bacteria directly from positive blood cultures. Various pre-treatment methods for MALDI-TOF MS identification have been reported for this purpose. In-house results for identification of bacterial colonies by MALDI-TOF MS using a cut-off score of 1.5 did not reduce the diagnostic accuracy compared with the recommended cut-off score of 1.8. A 3-month consecutive study of positive blood cultures was carried out in our laboratory to evaluate whether the Sepsityper™ Kit (Bruker Daltonics) with Biotyper 2.0 software could be used as a fast diagnostic tool for bacteria and fungi and whether a 1.5 cut-off score could improve species identification compared with the recommended score of 1.8. Two hundred and fifty-six positive blood vials from 210 patients and 19 blood vials spiked with fungi were examined. Using the cut-off score of 1.8, 81% Gram-negative bacteria were identified to the species level compared to 84% using a cut-off score of 1.5. For Gram-positive bacteria 44% were identified to the species level with a cut-off of 1.8 compared to 55% with the value of 1.5. The overall identification rate was 63% (cut-off 1.5) and 54% (cut-off 1.8). Seventy-seven per cent of fungal species were identified with both log scores. MALDI-TOF MS was in this study found to be a powerful tool in fast diagnosis of Gram-negative bacteria and fungi and to a lesser degree of Gram positives. Using 1.5 as cut-off score increased the diagnosis for both Gram-positives and -negatives bacteria.

  2. Use of the MALDI BioTyper system with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for rapid identification of microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Sogawa, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Masaharu; Sato, Kenichi; Segawa, Syunsuke; Ishii, Chisato; Miyabe, Akiko; Murata, Syota; Saito, Tomoko; Nomura, Fumio

    2011-06-01

    In a clinical diagnosis microbiology laboratory, the current method of identifying bacterial isolates is based mainly on phenotypic characteristics, for example growth pattern on different media, colony morphology, Gram stain, and various biochemical reactions. These techniques collectively enable great accuracy in identifying most bacterial isolates, but are costly and time-consuming. In our clinical microbiology laboratory, we prospectively assessed the ability of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to identify bacterial strains that were routinely isolated from clinical samples. Bacterial colonies obtained from a total of 468 strains of 92 bacterial species isolated at the Department of Clinical Laboratory at Chiba University were directly placed on target MALDI plates followed by addition of CHCA matrix solution. The plates were then subjected to MALDI-TOF MS measurement and the microorganisms were identified by pattern matching with the libraries in the BioTyper 2.0 software. Identification success at the species and genus levels was 91.7% (429/468) and 97.0% (454/468), respectively. MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid, simple, and high-throughput proteomic technique for identification of a variety of bacterial species. Because colony-to-colony differences and effects of culture duration on the results are minimal, it can be implemented in a conventional laboratory setting. Although for some pathogens, preanalytical processes should be refined, and the current database should be improved to obtain more accurate results, the MALDI-TOF MS based method performs, in general, as well as conventional methods and is a promising technology in clinical laboratories.

  3. Potential of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a rapid detection technique in plant pathology: identification of plant-associated microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Faheem; Babalola, Olubukola O; Tak, Hamid I

    2012-09-01

    Plant diseases caused by plant pathogens substantially reduce crop production every year, resulting in massive economic losses throughout the world. Accurate detection and identification of plant pathogens is fundamental to plant pathogen diagnostics and, thus, plant disease management. Diagnostics and disease-management strategies require techniques to enable simultaneous detection and quantification of a wide range of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms. Over the past decade, rapid development of matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) techniques for characterization of microorganisms has enabled substantially improved detection and identification of microorganisms. In the biological sciences, MALDI-TOF MS is used to analyze specific peptides or proteins directly desorbed from intact bacteria, fungal spores, nematodes, and other microorganisms. The ability to record biomarker ions, in a broad m/z range, which are unique to and representative of individual microorganisms, forms the basis of taxonomic identification of microorganisms by MALDI-TOF MS. Recent advances in mass spectrometry have initiated new research, i.e. analysis of more complex microbial communities. Such studies are just beginning but have great potential for elucidation not only of the interactions between microorganisms and their host plants but also those among different microbial taxa living in association with plants. There has been a recent effort by the mass spectrometry community to make data from large scale mass spectrometry experiments publicly available in the form of a centralized repository. Such a resource could enable the use of MALDI-TOF MS as a universal technique for detection of plant pathogens and non-pathogens. The effects of experimental conditions are sufficiently understood, reproducible spectra can be obtained from computational database search, and microorganisms can be rapidly characterized by genus, species

  4. [Rapid identification of microorganisms using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Sogawa, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Masaharu; Nomura, Fumio

    2013-01-01

    In a clinical diagnostic microbiology laboratory, the current method of identifying bacterial isolates is based mainly on phenotypic characteristics, such as the growth pattern on different media, colony morphology, Gram stain, and various biochemical reactions. These techniques collectively allow high-level accuracy in identifying most bacterial isolates, but they are costly and time-consuming. In our clinical microbiology laboratory, we prospectively assessed the ability of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to identify bacterial strains that were routinely isolated from clinical samples. Bacterial colonies obtained from a total of 468 strains of 92 bacterial species isolated at the Department of Clinical Laboratory at Chiba University were directly placed on target MALDI plates, followed by the addition of CHCA matrix solution. The plates were then subjected to MALDI-TOF MS measurement, and the microorganisms were identified by pattern matching by the libraries in the BioTyper 2.0 software. The identification rates at species and genus levels were 91.7% (429/468) and 97.0% (454/468), respectively. MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid, simple, and high-throughput proteomic technique for the identification of a variety of bacterial species. Since colony to colony differences and the effects of culture duration on the results are minimal, it can be implemented in a conventional laboratory setting. Although for some pathogens, the preanalytic processes should be refined and current database should be improved to obtain more accurate results, the MALDI-TOF MS-based method generally performs as well as the conventional methods and is a promising technology in clinical laboratories.

  5. Accuracy of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry for identification of clinical pathogenic fungi: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ling, Huazhi; Yuan, Zhijie; Shen, Jilu; Wang, Zhongxin; Xu, Yuanhong

    2014-07-01

    Fungal infections in the clinic have become increasingly serious. In many cases, the identification of clinically relevant fungi remains time-consuming and may also be unreliable. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS) is a newly developed diagnostic tool that is increasingly being employed to rapidly and accurately identify clinical pathogenic microorganisms. The present meta-analysis aimed to systematically evaluate the accuracy of MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of clinical pathogenic fungi. After a rigorous selection process, 33 articles, involving 38 trials and a total of 9,977 fungal isolates, were included in the meta-analysis. The random-effects pooled identification accuracy of MALDI-TOF MS increased from 0.955 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.939 to 0.969) at the species level to 0.977 (95% CI, 0.955 to 0.993) at the genus level (P < 0.001; χ(2) = 15.452). Subgroup analyses were performed at the species level for several categories, including strain, source of strain, system, system database, and modified outcomes, to calculate the accuracy and to investigate heterogeneity. These analyses revealed significant differences between the overall meta-analysis and some of the subanalyses. In parallel, significant differences in heterogeneity among different systems and among different methods for calculating the identification ratios were found by multivariate metaregression, but none of the factors, except for the moderator of outcome, was significantly associated with heterogeneity by univariate metaregression. In summary, the MALDI-TOF MS method is highly accurate for the identification of clinically pathogenic fungi; future studies should analyze the comprehensive capability of this technology for clinical diagnostic microbiology.

  6. Edwardsiella tarda sepsis in a live-stranded sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus).

    PubMed

    Cools, Piet; Haelters, Jan; Lopes dos Santos Santiago, Guido; Claeys, Geert; Boelens, Jerina; Leroux-Roels, Isabel; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Deschaght, Pieter

    2013-09-27

    Whale strandings remain poorly understood, although bacterial infections have been suggested to contribute. We isolated Edwardsiella tarda from the blood of a stranded sperm whale. The pathogen was identified with MALDI-TOF MS, confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and quantified in blood by qPCR. We report the first case of sepsis in a sperm whale. The zoonotic potential of E. tarda and the possible role of bacterial infections in the enigmatic strandings of cetaceans are discussed.

  7. Evaluation of the Bruker MALDI Biotyper for Identification of Gram-Positive Rods: Development of a Diagnostic Algorithm for the Clinical Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Bloemberg, Guido V.; Zbinden, Reinhard; Böttger, Erik C.; Hombach, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Reported matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identification rates of Gram-positive rods (GPR) are low compared to identification rates of Gram-positive cocci. In this study, three sample preparation methods were compared for MALDI-TOF MS identification of 190 well-characterized GPR strains: direct transfer, direct transfer-formic acid preparation, and ethanol-formic acid extraction. Using the interpretation criteria recommended by the manufacturer, identification rates were significantly higher for direct transfer-formic acid preparation and ethanol-formic acid extraction than for direct transfer. Reducing the species cutoff from 2.0 to 1.7 significantly increased species identification rates. In a subsequent prospective study, 215 clinical GPR isolates were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS, and the results were compared to those for identification using conventional methods, with discrepancies being resolved by 16S rRNA and rpoB gene analysis. Using the direct transfer-formic acid preparation and a species cutoff of 1.7, congruencies on the genus and species levels of 87.4% and 79.1%, respectively, were achieved. In addition, the rate of nonidentified isolates dropped from 12.1% to 5.6% when using an extended database, i.e., the Bruker database amended by reference spectra of the 190 GPR of the retrospective study. Our data demonstrate three ways to improve GPR identification by the Bruker MALDI Biotyper, (i) optimize sample preparation using formic acid, (ii) reduce cutoff scores for species identification, and (iii) expand the database. Based on our results, we suggest an identification algorithm for the clinical laboratory combining MALDI-TOF MS with nucleic acid sequencing. PMID:24452159

  8. Identification of Haemophilus influenzae Type b Isolates by Use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Månsson, Viktor; Kostrzewa, Markus; Nilson, Bo; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is, in contrast to non-type b H. influenzae, associated with severe invasive disease, such as meningitis and epiglottitis, in small children. To date, accurate H. influenzae capsule typing requires PCR, a time-consuming and cumbersome method. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) provides rapid bacterial diagnostics and is increasingly used in clinical microbiology laboratories. Here, MALDI-TOF MS was evaluated as a novel approach to separate Hib from other H. influenzae. PCR-verified Hib and non-Hib reference isolates were selected based on genetic and spectral characteristics. Mass spectra of reference isolates were acquired and used to generate different classification algorithms for Hib/non-Hib differentiation using both ClinProTools and the MALDI Biotyper software. A test series of mass spectra from 33 Hib and 77 non-Hib isolates, all characterized by PCR, was used to evaluate the algorithms. Several algorithms yielded good results, but the two best were a ClinProTools model based on 22 separating peaks and subtyping main spectra (MSPs) using MALDI Biotyper. The ClinProTools model had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 99%, and the results were 98% reproducible using a different MALDI-TOF MS instrument. The Biotyper subtyping MSPs had a sensitivity of 97%, a specificity of 100%, and 93% reproducibility. Our results suggest that it is possible to use MALDI-TOF MS to differentiate Hib from other H. influenzae. This is a promising method for rapidly identifying Hib in unvaccinated populations and for the screening and surveillance of Hib carriage in vaccinated populations. PMID:25926500

  9. Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fruit Pulp Processing Byproducts and Potential Probiotic Properties of Selected Lactobacillus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Estefânia F.; Luciano, Winnie A.; Xavier, Danilo E.; da Costa, Whyara C. A.; de Sousa Oliveira, Kleber; Franco, Octávio L.; de Morais Júnior, Marcos A.; Lucena, Brígida T. L.; Picão, Renata C.; Magnani, Marciane; Saarela, Maria; de Souza, Evandro L.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in byproducts of fruit (Malpighia glabra L., Mangifera indica L., Annona muricata L., and Fragaria vesca L.) pulp processing. Fifty strains of LAB were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and 16S rRNA gene sequence (16S rRNA) analysis. Species belonging to Lactobacillus genus were the predominant LAB in all fruit pulp processing byproducts. The average congruency between the MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA in LAB species identification reached 86%. Isolates of L. plantarum, L. brevis, L. pentosus, L. lactis and L. mesenteroides were identified with 100% congruency. MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis presented 86 and 100% efficiency of LAB species identification, respectively. Further, five selected Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis 59, L. pentosus 129, L. paracasei 108, L. plantarum 49, and L. fermentum 111) were evaluated for desirable probiotic-related properties and growth behavior on two different cultivation media. The exposure to pH 2.0 sharply decreased the counts of the different Lactobacillus strains after a 1 or 2 h incubation, while varied decreases were noted after 3 h of exposure to pH 3.0. Overall, the exposure to pH 5.0 and to bile salts (0.15, 0.30, and 1.00%) did not decrease the counts of the Lactobacillus strains. All tested Lactobacillus strains presented inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, and presented variable susceptibility to different antibiotics. The selected Lactobacillus strains presented satisfactory and reproducible growth behavior. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis revealed high efficiency and congruency for LAB species identification, and the selected Lactobacillus strains may be candidates for further investigation of novel probiotic strains.

  10. Clinical Characteristics, Laboratory Identification, and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of Yarrowia (Candida) lipolytica Isolates Causing Fungemia: a Multicenter, Prospective Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ying; Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Wang, He; Guo, Dawen; Pan, Yuhong; Xiao, Yuling; Yue, Na; Chen, Jonathan Hon-Kwan; Lau, Susanna Kar-Pui

    2015-01-01

    Our case series showed that uncomplicated Yarrowia lipolytica fungemia might be treated with catheter removal alone. The Vitek 2 YST identification (ID) card system, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and internal transcribed spacer and 25S nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) gene sequencing provided reliable identification. All isolates had low MICs to voriconazole, echinocandins, and amphotericin B. PMID:26311865

  11. Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fruit Pulp Processing Byproducts and Potential Probiotic Properties of Selected Lactobacillus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Estefânia F.; Luciano, Winnie A.; Xavier, Danilo E.; da Costa, Whyara C. A.; de Sousa Oliveira, Kleber; Franco, Octávio L.; de Morais Júnior, Marcos A.; Lucena, Brígida T. L.; Picão, Renata C.; Magnani, Marciane; Saarela, Maria; de Souza, Evandro L.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in byproducts of fruit (Malpighia glabra L., Mangifera indica L., Annona muricata L., and Fragaria vesca L.) pulp processing. Fifty strains of LAB were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and 16S rRNA gene sequence (16S rRNA) analysis. Species belonging to Lactobacillus genus were the predominant LAB in all fruit pulp processing byproducts. The average congruency between the MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA in LAB species identification reached 86%. Isolates of L. plantarum, L. brevis, L. pentosus, L. lactis and L. mesenteroides were identified with 100% congruency. MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis presented 86 and 100% efficiency of LAB species identification, respectively. Further, five selected Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis 59, L. pentosus 129, L. paracasei 108, L. plantarum 49, and L. fermentum 111) were evaluated for desirable probiotic-related properties and growth behavior on two different cultivation media. The exposure to pH 2.0 sharply decreased the counts of the different Lactobacillus strains after a 1 or 2 h incubation, while varied decreases were noted after 3 h of exposure to pH 3.0. Overall, the exposure to pH 5.0 and to bile salts (0.15, 0.30, and 1.00%) did not decrease the counts of the Lactobacillus strains. All tested Lactobacillus strains presented inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, and presented variable susceptibility to different antibiotics. The selected Lactobacillus strains presented satisfactory and reproducible growth behavior. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis revealed high efficiency and congruency for LAB species identification, and the selected Lactobacillus strains may be candidates for further investigation of novel probiotic strains. PMID:27625647

  12. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for the detection and differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar.

    PubMed

    Calderaro, Adriana; Piergianni, Maddalena; Buttrini, Mirko; Montecchini, Sara; Piccolo, Giovanna; Gorrini, Chiara; Rossi, Sabina; Chezzi, Carlo; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina; Medici, Maria Cristina; De Conto, Flora

    2015-01-01

    Detection of Entamoeba histolytica and its differentiation from Entamoeba dispar is an important goal of the clinical parasitology laboratory. The aim of this study was the identification and differentiation of E. histolytica and E. dispar by MALDI-TOF MS, in order to evaluate the application of this technique in routine diagnostic practice. MALDI-TOF MS was applied to 3 amebic reference strains and to 14 strains isolated from feces that had been differentiated by molecular methods in our laboratory. Protein extracts from cultures of these strains (axenic cultures for the 3 reference strains and monoxenic cultures for the 14 field isolates) were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS and the spectra obtained were analyzed by statistical software. Five peaks discriminating between E. histolytica and E. dispar reference strains were found by protein profile analysis: 2 peaks (8,246 and 8,303 Da) specific for E. histolytica and 3 (4,714; 5,541; 8,207 Da) for E. dispar. All clinical isolates except one showed the discriminating peaks expected for the appropriate species. For 2 fecal samples from which 2 strains (1 E. histolytica and 1 E. dispar) out of the 14 included in this study were isolated, the same discriminating peaks found in the corresponding isolated amebic strains were detected after only 12h (E. histolytica) and 24h (E. dispar) of incubation of the fecal samples in Robinson's medium without serum. Our study shows that MALDI-TOF MS can be used to discriminate between E. histolytica and E. dispar using in vitro xenic cultures and it also could have potential for the detection of these species in clinical samples.

  13. Identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by the Bruker Biotyper Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry System Is Improved by a Database Extension.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Valentijn A; van Dam, Alje P; Hananta, I Putu Yuda; Schuurman, Rob; Kusters, Johannes G; Rentenaar, Rob J

    2016-04-01

    Identification ofNeisseria gonorrhoeaeby the Bruker matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system may be affected by "B consistency categorization." A supplementary database of 17N. gonorrhoeaemain spectra was constructed. Twelve of 64N. gonorrhoeaeidentifications were categorized with B consistency, which disappeared using the supplementary database. Database extension did not result in misidentification ofNeisseria meningitidis. PMID:26763972

  14. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry and diagnostic testing for prosthetic joint infection in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Peel, Trisha N; Cole, Nicolynn C; Dylla, Brenda L; Patel, Robin

    2015-03-01

    Identification of pathogen(s) associated with prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is critical for patient management. Historically, many laboratories have not routinely identified organisms such as coagulase-negative staphylococci to the species level. The advent of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has enhanced clinical laboratory capacity for accurate species-level identification. The aim of this study was to describe the species-level identification of microorganisms isolated from periprosthetic tissue and fluid specimens using MALDI-TOF MS alongside other rapid identification tests in a clinical microbiology laboratory. Results of rapid identification of bacteria isolated from periprosthetic joint fluid and/or tissue specimens were correlated with clinical findings at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, between May 2012 and May 2013. There were 178 PJI and 82 aseptic failure (AF) cases analyzed, yielding 770 organisms (median, 3/subject; range, 1-19/subject). MALDI-TOF MS was employed for the identification of 455 organisms (59%) in 197 subjects (123 PJIs and 74 AFs), with 89% identified to the species level using this technique. Gram-positive bacteria accounted for 68% and 93% of isolates in PJI and AF, respectively. However, the profile of species associated with infection compared to specimen contamination differed. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus caprae were always associated with infection, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus lugdunensis were equally likely to be a pathogen or a contaminant, whereas the other coagulase-negative staphylococci were more frequently contaminants. Most streptococcal and Corynebacterium isolates were pathogens. The likelihood that an organism was a pathogen or contaminant differed with the prosthetic joint location, particularly in the case of Propionibacterium acnes. MALDI-TOF MS is a valuable tool for the identification of bacteria isolated from patients

  15. Rapid Detection of OXA-48-Producing Enterobacteriaceae by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Oviaño, Marina; Barba, Maria José; Fernández, Begoña; Ortega, Adriana; Aracil, Belén; Oteo, Jesús; Campos, José; Bou, Germán

    2016-03-01

    A rapid and sensitive (100%) matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) assay was developed to detect OXA-48-type producers, using 161 previously characterized clinical isolates. Ertapenem was monitored to detect carbapenem resistance, and temocillin was included in the assay as a marker for OXA-48-producers. Structural analysis of temocillin is described. Data are obtained within 60 min.

  16. Rapid Detection of OXA-48-Producing Enterobacteriaceae by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization−Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Oviaño, Marina; Barba, Maria José; Fernández, Begoña; Ortega, Adriana; Aracil, Belén; Oteo, Jesús; Campos, José

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive (100%) matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization−time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) assay was developed to detect OXA-48-type producers, using 161 previously characterized clinical isolates. Ertapenem was monitored to detect carbapenem resistance, and temocillin was included in the assay as a marker for OXA-48-producers. Structural analysis of temocillin is described. Data are obtained within 60 min. PMID:26677247

  17. Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fruit Pulp Processing Byproducts and Potential Probiotic Properties of Selected Lactobacillus Strains.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Estefânia F; Luciano, Winnie A; Xavier, Danilo E; da Costa, Whyara C A; de Sousa Oliveira, Kleber; Franco, Octávio L; de Morais Júnior, Marcos A; Lucena, Brígida T L; Picão, Renata C; Magnani, Marciane; Saarela, Maria; de Souza, Evandro L

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in byproducts of fruit (Malpighia glabra L., Mangifera indica L., Annona muricata L., and Fragaria vesca L.) pulp processing. Fifty strains of LAB were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and 16S rRNA gene sequence (16S rRNA) analysis. Species belonging to Lactobacillus genus were the predominant LAB in all fruit pulp processing byproducts. The average congruency between the MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA in LAB species identification reached 86%. Isolates of L. plantarum, L. brevis, L. pentosus, L. lactis and L. mesenteroides were identified with 100% congruency. MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis presented 86 and 100% efficiency of LAB species identification, respectively. Further, five selected Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis 59, L. pentosus 129, L. paracasei 108, L. plantarum 49, and L. fermentum 111) were evaluated for desirable probiotic-related properties and growth behavior on two different cultivation media. The exposure to pH 2.0 sharply decreased the counts of the different Lactobacillus strains after a 1 or 2 h incubation, while varied decreases were noted after 3 h of exposure to pH 3.0. Overall, the exposure to pH 5.0 and to bile salts (0.15, 0.30, and 1.00%) did not decrease the counts of the Lactobacillus strains. All tested Lactobacillus strains presented inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, and presented variable susceptibility to different antibiotics. The selected Lactobacillus strains presented satisfactory and reproducible growth behavior. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis revealed high efficiency and congruency for LAB species identification, and the selected Lactobacillus strains may be candidates for further investigation of novel probiotic strains. PMID:27625647

  18. Clinical characteristics of bacteraemia caused by Lactobacillus spp. and antimicrobial susceptibilities of the isolates at a medical centre in Taiwan, 2000-2014.

    PubMed

    Lee, Meng-Rui; Tsai, Chia-Jung; Liang, Sheng-Kai; Lin, Ching-Kai; Huang, Yu-Tsung; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2015-10-01

    The clinical characteristics of 89 patients with Lactobacillus bacteraemia treated at a university-affiliated hospital in northern Taiwan during 2000-2014 were retrospectively evaluated. Lactobacillus spp. were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). Antimicrobial susceptibilities of the isolates were determined by broth microdilution. The most commonly isolated species was Lactobacillus salivarius (n = 21), followed by Lactobacillus paracasei (n = 16) and Lactobacillus fermentum (n = 13). Excluding three isolates with lower 16S rRNA sequence similarity, MALDI-TOF/MS provided correct identification for 84.9% (73/86) of Lactobacillus isolates. Concordant identification was lowest for Lactobacillus casei (11%). The main infection foci were intra-abdominal infection (49%) and catheter-related bloodstream infection (17%). Only one-half of the patients received adequate antibiotic treatment during the bacteraemic episode. The majority of patients with Lactobacillus bacteraemia were immunocompromised. The 7-day and in-hospital mortality rates were 21% and 62%, respectively, and underlying malignancy was associated with a higher in-hospital mortality rate (odds ratio = 2.666). There were no significant differences in mortality (7-day, 14-day, 30-day and in-hospital) among patients with bacteraemia due to different Lactobacillus spp. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were highest for glycopeptides, cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones and were lowest for carbapenems and aminopenicillins. Lactobacillus bacteraemia was associated with a high mortality rate, and patient outcome was associated with underlying malignancy. MALDI-TOF/MS was able to accurately identify 84.9% of the Lactobacillus isolates, and L. salivarius was the predominant pathogen. The accuracy rate for identification of Lactobacillus spp. by MALDI-TOF/MS was lowest for L. casei.

  19. Clinical and microbiological features of a cystic fibrosis patient chronically colonized with Pandoraea sputorum identified by combining 16S rRNA sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Olmos, A; Morosini, M I; Lamas, A; García-Castillo, M; García-García, L; Cantón, R; Máiz, L

    2012-03-01

    Clonal isolates identified as various nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli over a 5-year period from sputum cultures of a 30-year-old cystic fibrosis patient were successfully reidentified as Pandoraea sputorum by combining 16S rRNA sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Decreased lung function improved after 1 year of azithromycin and inhaled 7%-hypertonic saline treatment.

  20. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for rapid identification of clinical fungal isolates based on ribosomal protein biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Panda, Ashutosh; Ghosh, Anup K; Mirdha, Bijay R; Xess, Immaculata; Paul, Saikat; Samantaray, Jyotish C; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Khalil, Shehla; Rastogi, Neha; Dabas, Yubhisha

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the identification of clinical fungal isolates (yeast and molds) by protein profiling using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). A total of 125 clinical fungal culture isolates (yeast and filamentous fungi) were collected. The test set included 88 yeast isolates (Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida guilliermondii, Candida kefyr, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida rugosa, Candida tropicalis and Cryptococcus neoformans) and 37 isolates of molds (Alternaria spp., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Cunninghamella spp., Histoplasma capsulatum, Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum nanum, Rhizomucor spp. and Trichophyton spp.). The correlation between MALDI TOF MS and conventional identification for all these 125 fungal isolates included in the study was 87.2% at the species level and 90.4% at the genus level. MALDI TOF MS results revealed that the correlation in yeast (n=88) identification was 100% both at the genus and species levels whereas, the correlation in mold (n=37) identification was more heterogeneous i.e. 10.81% isolates had correct identification up to the genus level, 56.7% isolates had correct identification both at the genus and species levels, whereas 32.42% isolates were deemed Not Reliable Identification (NRI). But, with the modification in sample preparation protocol for molds, there was a significant improvement in identification. 86.4% isolates had correct identification till the genus and species levels whereas, only 2.7% isolates had Not Reliable Identification. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that MALDI-TOF MS could be a possible alternative to conventional techniques both for the identification and differentiation of clinical fungal isolates. However, the main limitation of this technique is that MS identification could be more precise only if the reference spectrum of the fungal species is available in the

  1. Identification of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci from Bovine Intramammary Infection by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Juliano Leonel; Barreiro, Juliana Regina; Braga, Patrícia Aparecida de Campos; Prada e Silva, Luis Felipe; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira

    2014-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are among the main pathogens causing bovine intramammary infection (IMI) in many countries. However, one of the limitations related to the specific diagnosis of CoNS is the lack of an accurate, rapid, and convenient method that can differentiate the bacterial species comprising this group. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to accurately identify CoNS species in dairy cow IMI. In addition, the study aimed to determine the frequency of CoNS species causing bovine IMI. A total of 108 bacterial isolates were diagnosed as CoNS by microbiological cultures from two milk samples collected from 21 dairy herds; the first sample was collected at the cow level (i.e., 1,242 composite samples from all quarters), while the second sample was collected at the mammary quarter level (i.e., 1,140 mammary samples collected from 285 cows). After CoNS isolation was confirmed by microbiological culture for both samples, all CoNS isolates (n = 108) were genotypically differentiated by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of a partial groEL gene sequence and subjected to the MALDI-TOF MS identification procedure. MALDI-TOF MS correctly identified 103 (95.4%) of the CoNS isolates identified by PCR-RFLP at the species level. Eleven CoNS species isolated from bovine IMI were identified by PCR-RFLP, and the most prevalent species was Staphylococcus chromogenes (n = 80; 74.1%). In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS may be a reliable alternative method for differentiating CoNS species causing bovine IMI. PMID:24622096

  2. Identification and differentiation of food-related bacteria: A comparison of FTIR spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wenning, Mareike; Breitenwieser, Franziska; Konrad, Regina; Huber, Ingrid; Busch, Ulrich; Scherer, Siegfried

    2014-08-01

    The food industry requires easy, accurate, and cost-effective techniques for microbial identification to ensure safe products and identify microbial contaminations. In this work, FTIR spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry were assessed for their suitability and applicability for routine microbial diagnostics of food-related microorganisms by analyzing their robustness according to changes in incubation time and medium, identification accuracy and their ability to differentiate isolates down to the strain level. Changes in the protocol lead to a significantly impaired performance of FTIR spectroscopy, whereas they had only little effects on MALDI-TOF MS. Identification accuracy was tested using 174 food-related bacteria (93 species) from an in-house strain collection and 40 fresh isolates from routine food analyses. For MALDI-TOF MS, weaknesses in the identification of bacilli and pseudomonads were observed; FTIR spectroscopy had most difficulties in identifying pseudomonads and enterobacteria. In general, MALDI-TOF MS obtained better results (52-85% correct at species level), since the analysis of mainly ribosomal proteins is more robust and seems to be more reliable. FTIR spectroscopy suffers from the fact that it generates a whole-cell fingerprint and intraspecies diversity may lead to overlapping species borders which complicates identification. In the present study values between 56% and 67% correct species identification were obtained. On the opposite, this high sensitivity offers the opportunity of typing below the species level which was not possible using MALDI-TOF MS. Using fresh isolates from routine diagnostics, both techniques performed well with 88% (MALDI-TOF) and 75% (FTIR) correct identifications at species level, respectively. PMID:24878140

  3. Interlaboratory Comparison of Intact-Cell Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Results for Identification and Differentiation of Brucella spp.

    PubMed Central

    Karger, Axel; Melzer, Falk; Timke, Markus; Bettin, Barbara; Kostrzewa, Markus; Nöckler, Karsten; Hohmann, Angelika; Tomaso, Herbert; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2013-01-01

    Classical microbiological diagnosis of human brucellosis is time-consuming, hazardous, and subject to variable interpretation. Intact-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was evaluated for the routine identification of Brucella spp. Analysis of mass peak patterns allowed accurate identification to the genus level. However, statistical models based on peak intensities were needed for definite species differentiation. Interlaboratory comparison confirmed the reproducibility of the results. PMID:23850950

  4. MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry Enables a Comprehensive and Fast Analysis of Dynamics and Qualities of Stress Responses of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei F19

    PubMed Central

    Schott, Ann-Sophie; Behr, Jürgen; Quinn, Jennifer; Vogel, Rudi F.

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used as starter cultures in the manufacture of foods. Upon preparation, these cultures undergo various stresses resulting in losses of survival and fitness. In order to find conditions for the subsequent identification of proteomic biomarkers and their exploitation for preconditioning of strains, we subjected Lactobacillus (Lb.) paracasei subsp. paracasei TMW 1.1434 (F19) to different stress qualities (osmotic stress, oxidative stress, temperature stress, pH stress and starvation stress). We analysed the dynamics of its stress responses based on the expression of stress proteins using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS), which has so far been used for species identification. Exploiting the methodology of accumulating protein expression profiles by MALDI-TOF MS followed by the statistical evaluation with cluster analysis and discriminant analysis of principle components (DAPC), it was possible to monitor the expression of low molecular weight stress proteins, identify a specific time point when the expression of stress proteins reached its maximum, and statistically differentiate types of adaptive responses into groups. Above the specific result for F19 and its stress response, these results demonstrate the discriminatory power of MALDI-TOF MS to characterize even dynamics of stress responses of bacteria and enable a knowledge-based focus on the laborious identification of biomarkers and stress proteins. To our knowledge, the implementation of MALDI-TOF MS protein profiling for the fast and comprehensive analysis of various stress responses is new to the field of bacterial stress responses. Consequently, we generally propose MALDI-TOF MS as an easy and quick method to characterize responses of microbes to different environmental conditions, to focus efforts of more elaborate approaches on time points and dynamics of stress responses. PMID:27783652

  5. Clinical and Microbiological Features of a Cystic Fibrosis Patient Chronically Colonized with Pandoraea sputorum Identified by Combining 16S rRNA Sequencing and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Olmos, A.; Morosini, M. I.; Lamas, A.; García-Castillo, M.; García-García, L.; Máiz, L.

    2012-01-01

    Clonal isolates identified as various nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli over a 5-year period from sputum cultures of a 30-year-old cystic fibrosis patient were successfully reidentified as Pandoraea sputorum by combining 16S rRNA sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Decreased lung function improved after 1 year of azithromycin and inhaled 7%-hypertonic saline treatment. PMID:22170922

  6. Chemical analysis of pharmaceuticals and explosives in fingermarks using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kaplan-Sandquist, Kimberly; LeBeau, Marc A; Miller, Mark L

    2014-02-01

    Chemical analysis of latent fingermarks, "touch chemistry," has the potential of providing intelligence or forensically relevant information. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF MS) was used as an analytical platform for obtaining mass spectra and chemical images of target drugs and explosives in fingermark residues following conventional fingerprint development methods and MALDI matrix processing. There were two main purposes of this research: (1) develop effective laboratory methods for detecting drugs and explosives in fingermark residues and (2) determine the feasibility of detecting drugs and explosives after casual contact with pills, powders, and residues. Further, synthetic latent print reference pads were evaluated as mimics of natural fingermark residue to determine if the pads could be used for method development and quality control. The results suggest that artificial amino acid and sebaceous oil residue pads are not suitable to adequately simulate natural fingermark chemistry for MALDI/TOF MS analysis. However, the pads were useful for designing experiments and setting instrumental parameters. Based on the natural fingermark residue experiments, handling whole or broken pills did not transfer sufficient quantities of drugs to allow for definitive detection. Transferring drugs or explosives in the form of powders and residues was successful for preparing analytes for detection after contact with fingers and deposition of fingermark residue. One downfall to handling powders was that the analyte particles were easily spread beyond the original fingermark during development. Analyte particles were confined in the original fingermark when using transfer residues. The MALDI/TOF MS was able to detect procaine, pseudoephedrine, TNT, and RDX from contact residue under laboratory conditions with the integration of conventional fingerprint development methods and MALDI matrix. MALDI/TOF MS is a nondestructive

  7. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry and diagnostic testing for prosthetic joint infection in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Peel, Trisha N; Cole, Nicolynn C; Dylla, Brenda L; Patel, Robin

    2015-03-01

    Identification of pathogen(s) associated with prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is critical for patient management. Historically, many laboratories have not routinely identified organisms such as coagulase-negative staphylococci to the species level. The advent of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has enhanced clinical laboratory capacity for accurate species-level identification. The aim of this study was to describe the species-level identification of microorganisms isolated from periprosthetic tissue and fluid specimens using MALDI-TOF MS alongside other rapid identification tests in a clinical microbiology laboratory. Results of rapid identification of bacteria isolated from periprosthetic joint fluid and/or tissue specimens were correlated with clinical findings at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, between May 2012 and May 2013. There were 178 PJI and 82 aseptic failure (AF) cases analyzed, yielding 770 organisms (median, 3/subject; range, 1-19/subject). MALDI-TOF MS was employed for the identification of 455 organisms (59%) in 197 subjects (123 PJIs and 74 AFs), with 89% identified to the species level using this technique. Gram-positive bacteria accounted for 68% and 93% of isolates in PJI and AF, respectively. However, the profile of species associated with infection compared to specimen contamination differed. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus caprae were always associated with infection, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus lugdunensis were equally likely to be a pathogen or a contaminant, whereas the other coagulase-negative staphylococci were more frequently contaminants. Most streptococcal and Corynebacterium isolates were pathogens. The likelihood that an organism was a pathogen or contaminant differed with the prosthetic joint location, particularly in the case of Propionibacterium acnes. MALDI-TOF MS is a valuable tool for the identification of bacteria isolated from patients

  8. Identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by the Bruker Biotyper Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry System Is Improved by a Database Extension

    PubMed Central

    Schweitzer, Valentijn A.; van Dam, Alje P.; Hananta, I Putu Yuda; Schuurman, Rob; Kusters, Johannes G.

    2016-01-01

    Identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by the Bruker matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization−time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system may be affected by “B consistency categorization.” A supplementary database of 17 N. gonorrhoeae main spectra was constructed. Twelve of 64 N. gonorrhoeae identifications were categorized with B consistency, which disappeared using the supplementary database. Database extension did not result in misidentification of Neisseria meningitidis. PMID:26763972

  9. Determination of phospholipids in milk using a new phosphodiester stationary phase by liquid chromatography-matrix assisted desorption ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Walczak, Justyna; Pomastowski, Paweł; Bocian, Szymon; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2016-02-01

    A methodology employing high performance liquid chromatography coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry has been utilized to determine the quality of phospholipid classes. Home-made phosphoester chemically bonded stationary phase containing diol, phosphate and octadecyl groups (Diol-P-C18) has been employed in the separation of polar lipids from milk. Each phospholipid fraction was collected manually and identified by MALDI-TOF MS.

  10. Identification and Pathogenic Potential of Clinical Bacillus and Paenibacillus Isolates.

    PubMed

    Celandroni, Francesco; Salvetti, Sara; Gueye, Sokhna Aissatou; Mazzantini, Diletta; Lupetti, Antonella; Senesi, Sonia; Ghelardi, Emilia

    2016-01-01

    The soil-related Bacillus and Paenibacillus species have increasingly been implicated in various human diseases. Nevertheless, their identification still poses problems in the clinical microbiology laboratory and, with the exception of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus, little is known on their pathogenicity for humans. In this study, we evaluated the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in the identification of clinical isolates of these genera and conducted genotypic and phenotypic analyses to highlight specific virulence properties. Seventy-five clinical isolates were subjected to biochemical and MALDI-TOF MS identification. 16S rDNA sequencing and supplemental tests were used to solve any discrepancies or failures in the identification results. MALDI-TOF MS significantly outperformed classical biochemical testing for correct species identification and no misidentification was obtained. One third of the collected strains belonged to the B. cereus species, but also Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis were isolated at high rate. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that all the B. cereus, B. licheniformis, B. simplex, B. mycoides, Paenibacillus glucanolyticus and Paenibacillus lautus isolates are resistant to penicillin. The evaluation of toxin/enzyme secretion, toxin-encoding genes, motility, and biofilm formation revealed that B. cereus displays the highest virulence potential. However, although generally considered nonpathogenic, most of the other species were shown to swim, swarm, produce biofilms, and secrete proteases that can have a role in bacterial virulence. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS appears useful for fast and accurate identification of Bacillus and Paenibacillus strains whose virulence properties make them of increasing clinical relevance.

  11. Identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci from bovine intramammary infection by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tomazi, Tiago; Gonçalves, Juliano Leonel; Barreiro, Juliana Regina; de Campos Braga, Patrícia Aparecida; Prada e Silva, Luis Felipe; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; dos Santos, Marcos Veiga

    2014-05-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are among the main pathogens causing bovine intramammary infection (IMI) in many countries. However, one of the limitations related to the specific diagnosis of CoNS is the lack of an accurate, rapid, and convenient method that can differentiate the bacterial species comprising this group. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to accurately identify CoNS species in dairy cow IMI. In addition, the study aimed to determine the frequency of CoNS species causing bovine IMI. A total of 108 bacterial isolates were diagnosed as CoNS by microbiological cultures from two milk samples collected from 21 dairy herds; the first sample was collected at the cow level (i.e., 1,242 composite samples from all quarters), while the second sample was collected at the mammary quarter level (i.e., 1,140 mammary samples collected from 285 cows). After CoNS isolation was confirmed by microbiological culture for both samples, all CoNS isolates (n=108) were genotypically differentiated by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of a partial groEL gene sequence and subjected to the MALDI-TOF MS identification procedure. MALDI-TOF MS correctly identified 103 (95.4%) of the CoNS isolates identified by PCR-RFLP at the species level. Eleven CoNS species isolated from bovine IMI were identified by PCR-RFLP, and the most prevalent species was Staphylococcus chromogenes (n=80; 74.1%). In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS may be a reliable alternative method for differentiating CoNS species causing bovine IMI. PMID:24622096

  12. Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Walter L.; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ~40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ~60%, is found on ~28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (~8% of Asians and ~13% of Caucasians) at −152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ~30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically-relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21070833

  13. Detection of biomarkers of pathogenic Naegleria fowleri through mass spectrometry and proteomics.

    PubMed

    Moura, Hercules; Izquierdo, Fernando; Woolfitt, Adrian R; Wagner, Glauber; Pinto, Tatiana; del Aguila, Carmen; Barr, John R

    2015-01-01

    Emerging methods based on mass spectrometry (MS) can be used in the rapid identification of microorganisms. Thus far, these practical and rapidly evolving methods have mainly been applied to characterize prokaryotes. We applied matrix-assisted laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry MALDI-TOF MS in the analysis of whole cells of 18 N. fowleri isolates belonging to three genotypes. Fourteen originated from the cerebrospinal fluid or brain tissue of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis patients and four originated from water samples of hot springs, rivers, lakes or municipal water supplies. Whole Naegleria trophozoites grown in axenic cultures were washed and mixed with MALDI matrix. Mass spectra were acquired with a 4700 TOF-TOF instrument. MALDI-TOF MS yielded consistent patterns for all isolates examined. Using a combination of novel data processing methods for visual peak comparison, statistical analysis and proteomics database searching we were able to detect several biomarkers that can differentiate all species and isolates studied, along with common biomarkers for all N. fowleri isolates. Naegleria fowleri could be easily separated from other species within the genus Naegleria. A number of peaks detected were tentatively identified. MALDI-TOF MS fingerprinting is a rapid, reproducible, high-throughput alternative method for identifying Naegleria isolates. This method has potential for studying eukaryotic agents. PMID:25231600

  14. A Magnetic Bead-Based Protein Kinase Assay with Dual Detection Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guangchang; Sylvester, Juliesta E.; Wu, Ding; Veach, Darren R.; Kron, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    A novel magnetic bead-based protein kinase assay was developed using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and immuno-chemifluorescence as two independent detection techniques. Abltide substrate was immobilized onto magnetic beads via non-covalent biotin-streptavidin interactions. This non-covalent immobilization strategy facilitated peptide release and allowed MALDI-TOF MS analysis of substrate phosphorylation. The use of magnetic beads provided rapid sample handling and allowed secondary analysis by immuno-chemifluorescence to determine the degree of substrate phosphorylation. This dual detection technique was used to evaluate the inhibition of c-Abl kinase by imatinib and dasatinib. For each inhibitor, IC50 (half-maximal inhibitory concentration) values determined by these two different detection methods were consistent and close to values reported in the literature. The high-throughput potential of this new approach to kinase assays was preliminarily demonstrated by screening a chemical library consisting of 31 compounds against c-Abl kinase using a 96-well plate. In this proof-of-principle experiment, both MALDI-TOF MS and immuno-chemifluorescence were able to compare inhibitor potencies with consistent values. Dual detection may significantly enhance the reliability of chemical library screening and identify false positives and negatives. Formatted for 96-well plates and with high-throughput potential, this dual detection kinase assay may provide a rapid, reliable and inexpensive route to the discovery of small molecule drug leads. PMID:20807497

  15. Classification algorithm for subspecies identification within the Mycobacterium abscessus species, based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fangous, Marie-Sarah; Mougari, Faiza; Gouriou, Stéphanie; Calvez, Elodie; Raskine, Laurent; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Payan, Christopher; Héry-Arnaud, Geneviève

    2014-09-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus, as a species, has been increasingly implicated in respiratory infections, notably in cystic fibrosis patients. The species comprises 3 subspecies, which can be difficult to identify. Since they differ in antibiotic susceptibility and clinical relevance, developing a routine diagnostic tool discriminating Mycobacterium abscessus at the subspecies level is a real challenge. Forty-three Mycobacterium abscessus species isolates, previously identified by multilocus sequence typing, were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). A subspecies identification algorithm, based on five discriminating peaks, was drawn up and validated by blind identification of a further 49 strains, 94% of which (n = 46) were correctly identified. Two M. abscessus subsp. massiliense strains were misidentified as M. abscessus subsp. abscessus, and for 1 other strain identification failed. Inter- and intralaboratory reproducibility tests were conclusive. This study presents, for the first time, a classification algorithm for MALDI-TOF MS identification of the 3 M. abscessus subspecies. MALDI-TOF MS proved effective in discriminating within the M. abscessus species and might be easily integrated into the workflow of microbiology labs. PMID:25009048

  16. Use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry to identify vancomycin-resistant enterococci and investigate the epidemiology of an outbreak.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Paul M; Price, Gareth R; Schooneveldt, Jacqueline M; Schlebusch, Sanmarié; Tilse, Martyn H; Urbanski, Tess; Hamilton, Brett; Venter, Deon

    2012-09-01

    The control of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) has become an increasing burden on health care resources since their discovery over 20 years ago. Current techniques employed for their detection include time-consuming and laborious phenotypic methods or molecular methods requiring costly equipment and consumables and highly trained staff. An accurate, rapid diagnostic test has the ability to greatly reduce the spread of this organism, which has the ability to colonize patients for long periods, potentially even lifelong. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a technology with the ability to identify organisms in seconds and has shown promise in the identification of other forms of antimicrobial resistance in other organisms. Here we show that MALDI-TOF MS is capable of rapidly and accurately identifying vanB-positive Enterococcus faecium VRE from susceptible isolates. Internal validation of the optimal model generated produced a sensitivity of 92.4% and a specificity of 85.2%. Prospective validation results, following incorporation into the routine laboratory work flow, demonstrated a greater sensitivity and specificity at 96.7% and 98.1%, respectively. In addition, the utilization of MALDI-TOF MS to determine the relatedness of isolates contributing to an outbreak is also demonstrated.

  17. Comparison of the Bruker MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry system and conventional phenotypic methods for identification of Gram-positive rods.

    PubMed

    Barberis, Claudia; Almuzara, Marisa; Join-Lambert, Olivier; Ramírez, María Soledad; Famiglietti, Angela; Vay, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry (MS) method has emerged as a promising and a reliable tool for bacteria identification. In this study we compared Bruker MALDI-TOF MS and conventional phenotypic methods to identify a collection of 333 Gram-positive clinical isolates comprising 22 genera and 60 species. 16S rRNA sequencing was the reference molecular technique, and rpoB gene sequecing was used as a secondary gene target when 16Sr RNA did not allow species identification of Corynebacterium spp. We also investigate if score cut-offs values of ≥ 1,5 and ≥ 1,7 were accurate for genus and species-level identification using the Bruker system. Identification at species level was obtained for 92,49% of Gram-positive rods by MALDI-TOF MS compared to 85,89% by phenotypic method. Our data validates the score ≥ 1,5 for genus level and ≥ 1,7 for species-level identification in a large and diverse collection of Gram-positive rods. The present study has proved the accuracy of MALDI-TOF MS as an identification method in Gram-positive rods compared to currently used methods in routine laboratories.

  18. Comparison of the Bruker MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry System and Conventional Phenotypic Methods for Identification of Gram-Positive Rods

    PubMed Central

    Barberis, Claudia; Almuzara, Marisa; Join-Lambert, Olivier; Ramírez, María Soledad; Famiglietti, Angela; Vay, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry (MS) method has emerged as a promising and a reliable tool for bacteria identification. In this study we compared Bruker MALDI-TOF MS and conventional phenotypic methods to identify a collection of 333 Gram-positive clinical isolates comprising 22 genera and 60 species. 16S rRNA sequencing was the reference molecular technique, and rpoB gene sequecing was used as a secondary gene target when 16Sr RNA did not allow species identification of Corynebacterium spp. We also investigate if score cut-offs values of ≥1,5 and ≥1,7 were accurate for genus and species-level identification using the Bruker system. Identification at species level was obtained for 92,49% of Gram-positive rods by MALDI-TOF MS compared to 85,89% by phenotypic method. Our data validates the score ≥1,5 for genus level and ≥1,7 for species-level identification in a large and diverse collection of Gram-positive rods. The present study has proved the accuracy of MALDI-TOF MS as an identification method in Gram-positive rods compared to currently used methods in routine laboratories. PMID:25184254

  19. Evaluation of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and Sepsityper Kit™ for the direct identification of organisms from sterile body fluids in a Canadian pediatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Tadros, Manal; Petrich, Astrid

    2013-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) can be used to identify bacteria directly from positive blood and sterile fluid cultures. The authors evaluated a commercially available kit - the Sepsityper Kit (Bruker Daltonik, Germany) - and MALDI-TOF MS for the rapid identification of organisms from 80 flagged positive blood culture broths, of which 73 (91.2%) were blood culture specimens and seven (8.7%) were cerebrospinal fluid specimens, in comparison with conventional identification methods. Correct identification to the genus and species levels was obtained in 75 of 80 (93.8%) and 39 of 50 (78%) blood culture broths, respectively. Applying the blood culture analysis module, a newly developed software tool, improved the species identification of Gram-negative organisms from 94.7% to 100% and of Gram-positive organisms from 66.7% to 70%. MALDI-TOF MS is a promising tool for the direct identification of organisms cultured from sterile sites.

  20. Classification Algorithm for Subspecies Identification within the Mycobacterium abscessus Species, Based on Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Fangous, Marie-Sarah; Mougari, Faiza; Gouriou, Stéphanie; Calvez, Elodie; Raskine, Laurent; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Payan, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus, as a species, has been increasingly implicated in respiratory infections, notably in cystic fibrosis patients. The species comprises 3 subspecies, which can be difficult to identify. Since they differ in antibiotic susceptibility and clinical relevance, developing a routine diagnostic tool discriminating Mycobacterium abscessus at the subspecies level is a real challenge. Forty-three Mycobacterium abscessus species isolates, previously identified by multilocus sequence typing, were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). A subspecies identification algorithm, based on five discriminating peaks, was drawn up and validated by blind identification of a further 49 strains, 94% of which (n = 46) were correctly identified. Two M. abscessus subsp. massiliense strains were misidentified as M. abscessus subsp. abscessus, and for 1 other strain identification failed. Inter- and intralaboratory reproducibility tests were conclusive. This study presents, for the first time, a classification algorithm for MALDI-TOF MS identification of the 3 M. abscessus subspecies. MALDI-TOF MS proved effective in discriminating within the M. abscessus species and might be easily integrated into the workflow of microbiology labs. PMID:25009048

  1. Differentiation of Lactobacillus brevis strains using Matrix-Assisted-Laser-Desorption-Ionization-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry with respect to their beer spoilage potential.

    PubMed

    Kern, Carola C; Vogel, Rudi F; Behr, Jürgen

    2014-06-01

    Lactobacillus (L.) brevis is one of the most frequently encountered bacteria in beer-spoilage incidents. As the species Lactobacillus brevis comprises strains showing varying ability to grow in beer, ranging from growth in low hopped wheat to highly hopped pilsner beer, differentiation and classification of L. brevis with regard to their beer-spoiling ability is of vital interest for the brewing industry. Matrix-Assisted-Laser-Desorption-Ionization-Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been shown as a powerful tool for species and sub-species differentiation of bacterial isolates and is increasingly used for strain-level differentiation. Seventeen L. brevis strains, representative of different spoilage types, were characterized according to their tolerance to iso-alpha-acids and their growth in wheat-, lager- and pilsner beer. MALDI-TOF MS spectra were acquired to perform strain-level identification, cluster analysis and biomarker detection. Strain-level identification was achieved in 90% out of 204 spectra. Misidentification occurred nearly exclusively among strains belonging to the same spoilage type. Though spectra of strongly beer-spoiling strains showed remarkable similarity, no decisive single markers were detected to be present in all strains of one group. However, MALDI-TOF MS spectra can be reliably assigned to the corresponding strain and thus allow to track single strains and connect them to their physiological properties.

  2. Structural characterization of native high-methoxylated pectin using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Comparative use of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and nor-harmane as UV-MALDI matrices.

    PubMed

    Monge, María Eugenia; Negri, R Martín; Kolender, Adriana A; Erra-Balsells, Rosa

    2007-01-01

    The successful analysis by ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UV-MALDI-TOF MS) of native and hydrolyzed high-methoxylated pectin samples is described. In order to find the optimal conditions for UV-MALDI-TOF MS analysis several experimental variables were studied such as: different UV-MALDI matrices (nor-harmane, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid), sample preparation methods (mixture, sandwich), inorganic salt addition (doping salts, NaCl, KCl, NH(4)Cl), ion mode (positive, negative), linear and reflectron mode, etc. nor-Harmane has never been used as a UV-MALDI matrix for the analysis of pectins but its use avoids pre-treatment of the sample, such as an enzymatic digestion or an acid hydrolysis, and there is no need to add salts, making the analysis easier and faster. This study suggested an alternative way of analyzing native high-methoxylated pectins, with UV-MALDI-TOF MS, by using nor-harmane as the matrix in negative ion mode. The analysis by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of the native and hydrolyzed pectin is also briefly described.

  3. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry based identification of Edwardsiella ictaluri isolated from Vietnamese striped catfish (Pangasius hypothalamus)

    PubMed Central

    Nhu, Truong Quynh; Park, Seong Bin; Kim, Si Won; Lee, Jung Seok; Im, Se Pyeong; Lazarte, Jassy Mary S.; Seo, Jong Pyo; Lee, Woo-Jai; Kim, Jae Sung

    2016-01-01

    Edwardsiella (E.) ictaluri is a major bacterial pathogen that affects commercially farmed striped catfish (Pangasius hypothalamus) in Vietnam. In a previous study, 19 strains of E. ictaluri collected from striped catfish were biochemically identified with an API-20E system. Here, the same 19 strains were used to assess the ability of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS; applied using a MALDI Biotyper) to conduct rapid, easy and accurate identification of E. ictaluri. MALDI-TOF MS could directly detect the specific peptide patterns of cultured E. ictaluri colonies with high (> 2.0, indicating species-level identification) scores. MALDI Biotyper 3.0 software revealed that all of the strains examined in this study possessed highly similar peptide peak patterns. In addition, electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and subsequent immuno-blotting using a specific chicken antibody (IgY) against E. ictaluri revealed that the isolates had highly similar protein profiles and antigenic banding profiles. The results of this study suggest that E. ictaluri isolated from striped catfish in Vietnam have homologous protein compositions. This is important, because it indicates that MALDI-TOF MS analysis could potentially outperform the conventional methods of identifying E. ictaluri. PMID:26726022

  4. Performances and Reliability of Bruker Microflex LT and VITEK MS MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry Systems for the Identification of Clinical Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Bilecen, Kivanc; Yaman, Gorkem; Ciftci, Ugur; Laleli, Yahya Rauf

    2015-01-01

    In clinical microbiology laboratories, routine microbial identification is mostly performed using culture based methodologies requiring 24 to 72 hours from culturing to identification. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technology has been established as a cost effective, reliable, and faster alternative identification platform. In this study, we evaluated the reliability of the two available MALDI-TOF MS systems for their routine clinical level identification accuracy and efficiency in a clinical microbiology laboratory setting. A total of 1,341 routine phenotypically identified clinical bacterial and fungal isolates were selected and simultaneously analyzed using VITEK MS (bioMérieux, France) and Microflex LT (Bruker Diagnostics, Germany) MALDI-TOF MS systems. For any isolate that could not be identified with either of the systems and for any discordant result, 16S rDNA gene or ITS1/ITS2 sequencing was used. VITEK MS and Microflex LT correctly identified 1,303 (97.17%) and 1,298 (96.79%) isolates to the species level, respectively. In 114 (8.50%) isolates initial phenotypic identification was inaccurate. Both systems showed a similar identification efficiency and workflow robustness, and they were twice as more accurate compared to routine phenotypic identification in our sample pool. MALDITOF systems with their accuracy and robustness offer a good identification platform for routine clinical microbiology laboratories.

  5. Proteomics for routine identification of microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Welker, Martin

    2011-08-01

    The invention of MALDI-TOF-MS enormously contributed to the understanding of protein chemistry and cell biology. Without this technique proteomics would most likely not be the important discipline it is today. Besides 'true' proteomics, MALDI-TOF-MS was applied for the analysis of microorganisms for their taxonomic characterization from its beginning. This approach has since been developed as a diagnostic tool readily available for routine, high-throughput analysis of microbial isolates from clinical specimens by intact-cell mass spectrometry (ICMS), the direct analysis of whole bacterial cell without a preceding fractionation or separation by chromatography or electrophoresis. ICMS exploits the reproducibility of mass fingerprints for individual bacterial and fungal strains as well as the high similarity of mass fingerprints within a species. Comparison of mass spectral data to genomic sequences emphasized the validity of peak patterns as taxonomic markers. Supported by comprehensive databases, MALDI-TOF-MS-based identification has been widely accepted in clinical laboratories within only a few years.

  6. The Predicted Proteomic Network Associated with the Antiarthritic Action of Qingfu Guanjieshu in Collagen-II-Induced Arthritis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting Yu; Zhou, Hua; Wong, Yuen Fan; Wu, Pui Kei; Hsiao, Wen-Luan Wendy; Leung, Elaine Lai-Han; Liu, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Qingfu Guanjieshu (QFGJS) is an herbal preparation for treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Previous studies revealed that QFGJS significantly inhibited experimental arthritis and acute inflammation, accompanied by reduction of proinflammatory cytokines and elevation of anti-inflammatory cytokines. This study aims to identify the targeted proteins and predict the proteomic network associated with the drug action of QFGJS by using 2D gel and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS techniques. Thirty female Wistar rats were evenly grouped as normal and vehicle- and QFGJS-treated CIA rats. The antiarthritic effect of QFGJS was examined with a 19-day treatment course, and the knee synovial tissues of animals from each group were obtained for 2D gel and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS analysis. Results showed that QFGJS significantly ameliorated collagen II-induced arthritis when administrated at 2.8 g/kg body weight for 19 days. 2D gel image analysis revealed 89 differentially expressed proteins in the synovial tissues among the normal and vehicle- and QFGJS-treated CIA rats from over 1000 proteins of which 63 proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS analysis, and 32 proteins were included for classification of functions using Gene Ontology (GO) method. Finally, 14 proteins were analyzed using bioinformatics, and a predicted proteomic network related to the anti-arthritic effect of QFGJS was established, and Pgk1 plays a central role. PMID:23781264

  7. Characterisation of the aerobic bacterial flora of boid snakes: application of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Plenz, Bastian; Schmidt, Volker; Grosse-Herrenthey, Anke; Krüger, Monika; Pees, Michael

    2015-03-14

    The aim of this study was to identify aerobic bacterial isolates from the respiratory tract of boids with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). From 47 boid snakes, swabs from the oral cavity, tracheal wash samples and, in cases in which postmortem examination was performed, pulmonary tissue samples were taken. Each snake was classified as having inflammation of the respiratory tract and/or oral cavity, or without evidence of inflammation based on combination of clinical, cytological and histopathological findings. Samples collected from the respiratory tract and oral cavity were inoculated onto routine media and bacteria were cultured aerobically. All morphologically distinct individual colonies obtained were analysed using MALDI-TOF MS. Unidentified isolates detected in more than three snakes were selected for further 16S rDNA PCR and sequencing. Among all examined isolates (n=243), 49 per cent (n=119) could be sufficiently speciated using MALDI-TOF MS. Molecular biology revealed several bacterial species that have not been previously described in reptiles. With an average of 6.3 different isolates from the respiratory tract and/or oral cavity, boids with inflammatory disease harboured significantly more bacterial species than boids without inflammatory disease (average 2.8 isolates).

  8. Genetic, phenotypic and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based identification of anaerobic bacteria and determination of their antimicrobial susceptibility at a University Hospital in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yunoki, Tomoyuki; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Nakano, Satoshi; Kato, Karin; Hotta, Go; Noguchi, Taro; Yamamoto, Masaki; Nagao, Miki; Takakura, Shunji; Ichiyama, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    The accuracies of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and the phenotypic method using VITEK 2 were compared to the accuracy of 16S rRNA sequence analysis for the identification of 170 clinically isolated anaerobes. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was also evaluated. Genetic analysis identified 21 Gram-positive species in 14 genera and 29 Gram-negative species in 11 genera. The most frequently isolated genera were Prevotella spp. (n = 46), Bacteroides spp. (n = 25) and Clostridium spp. (n = 25). MALDI-TOF MS correctly identified more isolates compared with VITEK 2 at the species (80 vs. 58%, respectively; p < 0.01) and genus (85 vs. 71%, respectively; p < 0.01) levels. More than 90% of the isolates of the three major genera identified (Prevotella, Bacteroides, and Clostridium species other than Clostridium difficile) were susceptible to beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations, carbapenems, metronidazole and chloramphenicol. MALDI-TOF MS provided better identification results than VITEK2. Commonly used anti-anaerobic agents indicated that the isolates of the three most frequently identified anaerobic genera exhibited good antimicrobial susceptibility. PMID:26898667

  9. Mass spectrometry for direct identification of biosignatures and microorganisms in Earth analogs of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Descalzo, Laura; García-López, Eva; Maria Moreno, Ana; Alcazar, Alberto; Baquero, Fernando; Cid, Cristina

    2012-11-01

    Rover missions to Mars require portable instruments that use minimal power, require no sample preparation, and provide suitably diagnostic information to an Earth-based exploration team. In exploration of analog environments of Mars it is important to screen rapidly for the presence of biosignatures and microorganisms and especially to identify them accurately. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) has enormously contributed to the understanding of protein chemistry and cell biology. Without this technique proteomics would most likely not be the important discipline it is today. In this study, besides 'true' proteomics, MALDI-TOF-MS was applied for the analysis of microorganisms for their taxonomic characterization from its beginning. An approach was developed for direct analysis of whole bacterial cells without a preceding fractionation or separation by chromatography or electrophoresis on samples of bacteria from an Antarctic glacier. Supported by comprehensive databases, MALDI-TOF-MS-based identification could be widely accepted within only a few years for bacterial differentiation in Mars analogs and could be a technique of election for Mars exploration.

  10. Characterization of heat-labile toxin-subunit B from Escherichia coli by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sospedra, I; De Simone, C; Soriano, J M; Mañes, J; Ferranti, P; Ritieni, A

    2012-11-01

    The possibilities of characterizing the heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) by liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) were investigated. The B subunit from recombinant E. coli (expression in Pichia pastoris) can be detected by LC/ESI-MS expressed in P. pastoris and the charge envelope signals can be observed; LC/ESI-MS and MALDI-TOF-MS analysis allowed the acquisition of labile toxin subunit B (LTB) molecular weight and preliminary structural characterization of LTB toxin. MALDI-TOF analysis after reduction and alkylation of the protein evidenced the presence of one disulfide bond in the structure of the protein. Confirmatory analysis was carried out by detection of most of the tryptic fragments of the B subunit by MALDI-TOF-MS, obtaining total coverage of the protein sequence. Possible biovariations in the toxin can mostly be determined by sequencing, where an increase of molecular mass in the N-terminal side of the protein was identified. This modification may be due to an O-GlcNAc-1-phosphorylation. PMID:22921353

  11. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry: an emerging technology for microbial identification and diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Neelja; Kumar, Manish; Kanaujia, Pawan K.; Virdi, Jugsharan S.

    2015-01-01

    Currently microorganisms are best identified using 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA gene sequencing. However, in recent years matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as a potential tool for microbial identification and diagnosis. During the MALDI-TOF MS process, microbes are identified using either intact cells or cell extracts. The process is rapid, sensitive, and economical in terms of both labor and costs involved. The technology has been readily imbibed by microbiologists who have reported usage of MALDI-TOF MS for a number of purposes like, microbial identification and strain typing, epidemiological studies, detection of biological warfare agents, detection of water- and food-borne pathogens, detection of antibiotic resistance and detection of blood and urinary tract pathogens etc. The limitation of the technology is that identification of new isolates is possible only if the spectral database contains peptide mass fingerprints of the type strains of specific genera/species/subspecies/strains. This review provides an overview of the status and recent applications of mass spectrometry for microbial identification. It also explores the usefulness of this exciting new technology for diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, and fungi. PMID:26300860

  12. Biodegradation of various molecular weights of linear polyethylene glycol (PEG) in activated sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Hansmann, M.A.; Bookland, E.A.; Keough, T.W.; Larson, R.J.

    1995-12-31

    Linear polyethylene glycols (PEG) of various average molecular weights (PEG 1000, PEG 3400, PEG 8000, PEG 20000) were tested in a semi-continuous activated sludge test (SCAS), followed by a CO{sub 2} production test to determine which MWs are inherently biodegradable. Complete biodegradation was confirmed analytically using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS). The SCAS test estimates the removal of the test substance during wastewater treatment in activated sludge. SCAS removal, as measured by soluble organic carbon (SOC) was > 90% for the PEG 1000, PEG 3400, and PEG 8000, while PEG 20000 showed a SCAS removal of 28%. These results indicate that SCAS removal was largely due to degradation. The CO{sub 2} production test measures the mineralization of the test substance using activated sludge from the SCAS units as the inoculum. The CO{sub 2} test results show that PEG 1000, PEG 3400, and PEG 8000 are inherently biodegradable, with an average %TC02 > 80% by day 50 and remaining SOC < 10% as measured at day 50. Complete loss of material was confirmed by MALDI TOF MS. The PEG 20000 showed 40% TCO2 by day 50, with 50% SOC remaining. MALDI TOF MS confirmed the presence of parent material. Based on these results, PEGs of MW 8000 and less appear to be biodegradable.

  13. Mass Spectrometric Screening of Ovarian Cancer with Serum Glycans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Han; Park, Chang Won; Um, Dalho; Baek, Ki Hwang; Jo, Yohahn; An, Hyunjoo; Kim, Yangsun; Kim, Tae Jin

    2014-01-01

    Changes of glycosylation pattern in serum proteins have been linked to various diseases including cancer, suggesting possible development of novel biomarkers based on the glycomic analysis. In this study, N-linked glycans from human serum were quantitatively profiled by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) and compared between healthy controls and ovarian cancer patients. A training set consisting of 40 healthy controls and 40 ovarian cancer cases demonstrated an inverse correlation between P value of ANOVA and area under the curve (AUC) of each candidate biomarker peak from MALDI-TOF MS, providing standards for the classification. A multibiomarker panel composed of 15 MALDI-TOF MS peaks resulted in AUC of 0.89, 80~90% sensitivity, and 70~83% specificity in the training set. The performance of the biomarker panel was validated in a separate blind test set composed of 23 healthy controls and 37 ovarian cancer patients, leading to 81~84% sensitivity and 83% specificity with cut-off values determined by the training set. Sensitivity of CA-125, the most widely used ovarian cancer marker, was 74% in the training set and 78% in the test set, respectively. These results indicate that MALDI-TOF MS-mediated serum N-glycan analysis could provide critical information for the screening of ovarian cancer. PMID:24648610

  14. Detection of biomarkers of pathogenic Naegleria fowleri through mass spectrometry and proteomics.

    PubMed

    Moura, Hercules; Izquierdo, Fernando; Woolfitt, Adrian R; Wagner, Glauber; Pinto, Tatiana; del Aguila, Carmen; Barr, John R

    2015-01-01

    Emerging methods based on mass spectrometry (MS) can be used in the rapid identification of microorganisms. Thus far, these practical and rapidly evolving methods have mainly been applied to characterize prokaryotes. We applied matrix-assisted laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry MALDI-TOF MS in the analysis of whole cells of 18 N. fowleri isolates belonging to three genotypes. Fourteen originated from the cerebrospinal fluid or brain tissue of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis patients and four originated from water samples of hot springs, rivers, lakes or municipal water supplies. Whole Naegleria trophozoites grown in axenic cultures were washed and mixed with MALDI matrix. Mass spectra were acquired with a 4700 TOF-TOF instrument. MALDI-TOF MS yielded consistent patterns for all isolates examined. Using a combination of novel data processing methods for visual peak comparison, statistical analysis and proteomics database searching we were able to detect several biomarkers that can differentiate all species and isolates studied, along with common biomarkers for all N. fowleri isolates. Naegleria fowleri could be easily separated from other species within the genus Naegleria. A number of peaks detected were tentatively identified. MALDI-TOF MS fingerprinting is a rapid, reproducible, high-throughput alternative method for identifying Naegleria isolates. This method has potential for studying eukaryotic agents.

  15. Performances and Reliability of Bruker Microflex LT and VITEK MS MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry Systems for the Identification of Clinical Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Yaman, Gorkem; Ciftci, Ugur; Laleli, Yahya Rauf

    2015-01-01

    In clinical microbiology laboratories, routine microbial identification is mostly performed using culture based methodologies requiring 24 to 72 hours from culturing to identification. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technology has been established as a cost effective, reliable, and faster alternative identification platform. In this study, we evaluated the reliability of the two available MALDI-TOF MS systems for their routine clinical level identification accuracy and efficiency in a clinical microbiology laboratory setting. A total of 1,341 routine phenotypically identified clinical bacterial and fungal isolates were selected and simultaneously analyzed using VITEK MS (bioMérieux, France) and Microflex LT (Bruker Diagnostics, Germany) MALDI-TOF MS systems. For any isolate that could not be identified with either of the systems and for any discordant result, 16S rDNA gene or ITS1/ITS2 sequencing was used. VITEK MS and Microflex LT correctly identified 1,303 (97.17%) and 1,298 (96.79%) isolates to the species level, respectively. In 114 (8.50%) isolates initial phenotypic identification was inaccurate. Both systems showed a similar identification efficiency and workflow robustness, and they were twice as more accurate compared to routine phenotypic identification in our sample pool. MALDITOF systems with their accuracy and robustness offer a good identification platform for routine clinical microbiology laboratories. PMID:26793718

  16. Protein separation and characterization by np-RP-HPLC followed by intact MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and peptide mass mapping analyses.

    PubMed

    Dauly, Claire; Perlman, David H; Costello, Catherine E; McComb, Mark E

    2006-07-01

    Because of their complexity, the separation of intact proteins from complex mixtures is an important step to comparative proteomics and the identification and characterization of the proteins by mass spectrometry (MS). In the study reported, we evaluated the use of nonporous-reversed-phase (np-RP)-HPLC for intact protein separation prior to MS analyses. The separation system was characterized and compared to 1D-SDS-PAGE electrophoresis in terms of resolution and sensitivity. We demonstrate that np-RP-HPLC protein separation is highly reproducible and provides intact protein fractions which can be directly analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS for intact molecular weight determination. An in-well digestion protocol was developed, allowing for rapid protein identification by peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) and resulted in comparable or improved peptide recovery compared with in-gel digestion. The np-RP sensitivity of detection by UV absorbance at 214 nm for intact proteins was at the low ng level and the sensitivity of peptide analysis by MALDI-TOF-MS was in the 10-50 fmol level. A membrane protein fraction was characterized to demonstrate application of this methodology. Among the identified proteins, multiple forms of vimentin were observed. Overall, we demonstrate that np-RP-HPLC followed by MALDI-TOF-MS allows for rapid, sensitive, and reproducible protein fractionation and very specific protein characterization by integration of PMF analysis with MS intact molecular weight information.

  17. [A Case of Bacteremia Caused by Ochrobacterium intermedium].

    PubMed

    Hirai, Jun; Yamagishi, Yuka; Sakanashi, Daisuke; Koizumi, Yusuke; Suematsu, Hiroyuki; Mikamo, Hiroshige

    2016-03-01

    We report herein on a case of bacteremia caused by Ochrobactrum intermedium (O. intermedium) identified with biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). An 86-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with paralysis of the right side of the body and dysphagia. He was diagnosed as having a pontine infarction based on the brain MRI findings and was admitted to hospital to have anti-platelet therapy. Three days after admission, he had a fever. Although he had redness and swelling at the peripheral venous catheter insertion site, he was diagnosed as having aspiration pneumonia, since he had fine crackles on auscultation. Soon after taking two sets of blood cultures and removal of the peripheral venous catheter, sulbactam/ampicillin (SBT/ABPC) was administrated. Fifty three hours after incubation, gram-negative bacilli was detected from an aerobic bottle and identified as O. intermedium with MALDI-TOF MS (Bruker MS). Antimicrobial chemotherapy was changed to meropenem (MEPM). He was treated for a total of seven days, and recovered without relapse. Infection caused by O. intermedium has been very uncommon, however, O. intermedium has been recognized as an emerging pathogen in immunodeficient and immunocompetent patients. Since identification of Ochrobactrum species by biochemical methods could be difficult, MALDI-TOF MS might be helpful to clarify Ochrobactrum species just as in the present case. PMID:27197440

  18. Characterization and Comparison of Fumonisin B1-Protein Conjugates by Six Methods

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; He, Cheng-Hua; Zheng, Hao; Zhang, Hai-Bin

    2012-01-01

    In order to generate an antibody against a small hapten molecule, the hapten is cross-linked with carrier protein to make it immunogenic. In this study, the hapten (Fumonisin B1, FB1) was coupled to ovalbumin (OVA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), respectively by a short cross-linker reagent (glutaraldehyde, GA). To develop a technique for detecting the conjugation, the hapten-protein conjugates (FB1-OVA and FB1-BSA) were characterized thoroughly by ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), respectively. The molecular weights of FB1-BSA and FB1-OVA were 74,355.301 Da and 48,009.212 Da, respectively determined by the method of MALDI-TOF-MS. The molecular coupling ratios were 11 and 5 in FB1-BSA and FB1-OVA, respectively. In this experiment, MALDI-TOF-MS was selected as the most efficient method to evaluate the cross-linking effect and calculate the molecular coupling ratio. PMID:22312240

  19. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry: an emerging technology for microbial identification and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Neelja; Kumar, Manish; Kanaujia, Pawan K; Virdi, Jugsharan S

    2015-01-01

    Currently microorganisms are best identified using 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA gene sequencing. However, in recent years matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as a potential tool for microbial identification and diagnosis. During the MALDI-TOF MS process, microbes are identified using either intact cells or cell extracts. The process is rapid, sensitive, and economical in terms of both labor and costs involved. The technology has been readily imbibed by microbiologists who have reported usage of MALDI-TOF MS for a number of purposes like, microbial identification and strain typing, epidemiological studies, detection of biological warfare agents, detection of water- and food-borne pathogens, detection of antibiotic resistance and detection of blood and urinary tract pathogens etc. The limitation of the technology is that identification of new isolates is possible only if the spectral database contains peptide mass fingerprints of the type strains of specific genera/species/subspecies/strains. This review provides an overview of the status and recent applications of mass spectrometry for microbial identification. It also explores the usefulness of this exciting new technology for diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, and fungi. PMID:26300860

  20. Impact of rapid identification of Acinetobacter Baumannii via matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with antimicrobial stewardship in patients with pneumonia and/or bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Wenzler, Eric; Goff, Debra A; Mangino, Julie E; Reed, Erica E; Wehr, Allison; Bauer, Karri A

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the clinical and economic outcomes of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) with stewardship intervention in patients with Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) pneumonia and/or bacteremia. 66 patients were included in the pre-intervention group and 53 in the intervention group. The combination of AB identification via MALDI-TOF MS and ID PharmD intervention significantly reduced the median time to effective therapy compared to conventional identification without intervention [77.7 (95% CI: 73.1-84.8) to 36.6 (95% CI: 25.9-50.9) hours (P < 0.0001)]. Rapid organism identification along with ID PharmD intervention was also associated with a 19% increase in clinical cure (15% versus 34%, P = 0.016) and a decreased length of stay during antibiotic therapy (13 [8-18] versus 11 [7-15] days, P = 0.021). No difference in 14-day mortality was observed (20% versus 25%, P = 0.526). Median costs during infection were approximately $6500 less in the intervention group ($49,402 [35,307-86,566] versus $42,872 [26,966-74,506]; P = 0.243). AB identification via MALDI-TOF MS combined with stewardship intervention allows for timely, effective antimicrobial therapy and is associated with increased clinical cure.

  1. The ongoing revolution of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for microbiology reaches tropical Africa.

    PubMed

    Fall, Bécaye; Lo, Cheikh Ibrahima; Samb-Ba, Bissoume; Perrot, Nadine; Diawara, Silman; Gueye, Mamadou Wague; Sow, Kowry; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Mediannikov, Oleg; Sokhna, Cheikh; Diemé, Yaya; Chatellier, Sonia; Wade, Boubacar; Raoult, Didier; Fenollar, Florence

    2015-03-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) represents a revolution in routine pathogen identification in clinical microbiology laboratories. A MALDI-TOF MS was introduced to tropical Africa in the clinical microbiology laboratory of the Hôpital Principal de Dakar (Senegal) and used for routine pathogen identification. Using MS, 2,429 bacteria and fungi isolated from patients were directly assayed, leading to the identification of 2,082 bacteria (85.7%) and 206 fungi (8.5%) at the species level, 109 bacteria (4.5%) at the genus level, and 16 bacteria (0.75%) at the family level. Sixteen isolates remained unidentified (0.75%). Escherichia coli was the most prevalent species (25.8%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (14.8%), Streptococcus agalactiae (6.2%), Acinetobacter baumannii (6.1%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.9%), and Staphylococcus aureus (5.9%). MALDI-TOF MS has also enabled the detection of rare bacteria and fungi. MALDI-TOF MS is a powerful tool for the identification of bacterial and fungal species involved in infectious diseases in tropical Africa.

  2. Differentiation of Lactobacillus brevis strains using Matrix-Assisted-Laser-Desorption-Ionization-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry with respect to their beer spoilage potential.

    PubMed

    Kern, Carola C; Vogel, Rudi F; Behr, Jürgen

    2014-06-01

    Lactobacillus (L.) brevis is one of the most frequently encountered bacteria in beer-spoilage incidents. As the species Lactobacillus brevis comprises strains showing varying ability to grow in beer, ranging from growth in low hopped wheat to highly hopped pilsner beer, differentiation and classification of L. brevis with regard to their beer-spoiling ability is of vital interest for the brewing industry. Matrix-Assisted-Laser-Desorption-Ionization-Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been shown as a powerful tool for species and sub-species differentiation of bacterial isolates and is increasingly used for strain-level differentiation. Seventeen L. brevis strains, representative of different spoilage types, were characterized according to their tolerance to iso-alpha-acids and their growth in wheat-, lager- and pilsner beer. MALDI-TOF MS spectra were acquired to perform strain-level identification, cluster analysis and biomarker detection. Strain-level identification was achieved in 90% out of 204 spectra. Misidentification occurred nearly exclusively among strains belonging to the same spoilage type. Though spectra of strongly beer-spoiling strains showed remarkable similarity, no decisive single markers were detected to be present in all strains of one group. However, MALDI-TOF MS spectra can be reliably assigned to the corresponding strain and thus allow to track single strains and connect them to their physiological properties. PMID:24549193

  3. Species identification of strains belonging to genus Citrobacter using the biochemical method and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kolínská, Renáta; Spanělová, Petra; Dřevínek, Michal; Hrabák, Jaroslav; Zemličková, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Strains of genus Citrobacter (152 isolates from 1950 to 1988 deposited in the Czech National Collection of Type Cultures, Prague) were re-classified using biological and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) methods. One-hundred thirty-six strains (ca. 90 %) were identified to the species level using the biological method with evaluation by Farmer matrix. MALDI-TOF MS exhibited better identification capability, the data being more compact; the method was unambiguously successful in typing 145 (95 %) strains. Comparison of the results of identification by the two methods revealed differences (for 12 samples) in identified species which, considering all biochemical and/or MS characteristics, could be attributed to the natural variability of strains and close relation of the misidentified species (all of them belonged to the Citrobacter freundii complex). Taking into account all the above data, both methods can be considered reliable; however, the MALDI-TOF MS exhibits higher accuracy, efficiency, and rapidity.

  4. Using Vitek MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry to identify species belonging to the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex: a relevant alternative to molecular biology?

    PubMed

    Pailhoriès, Hélène; Daure, Sophie; Eveillard, Matthieu; Joly-Guillou, Marie-Laure; Kempf, Marie

    2015-10-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii belongs to the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex (Acb) containing 2 other pathogenic species: Acinetobacter pittii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis. Identification of these bacteria remains problematic despite the use of matrix-assisted laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Here, we enriched the SARAMIS™ database of the Vitek MS® plus mass spectrometer to improve the identification of species of the Acb complex. For each species, we incremented reference spectra. Then, a SuperSpectrum was created based on the selection of 40 specific masses. In a second step, we validated reference spectra and SuperSpectra with 100 isolates identified by rpoB gene sequencing. All the isolates were correctly identified by MALDI-TOF MS with the database we created as compared to the identifications obtained by rpoB sequencing. Our database enabled rapid and reliable identification of the pathogen species belonging to the Acb complex. Identification by MALDI-TOF MS with our database is a good alternative to molecular biology.

  5. Desigualdades por cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Información básica de las desigualdades en salud por cáncer en EE. UU., factores que contribuyen a la carga desproporcionada del cáncer en algunos grupos y ejemplos de desigualdades en incidencia y mortalidad entre ciertos grupos de la población.

  6. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Gorasia, Dhana G.; Veith, Paul D.; Hanssen, Eric G.; Glew, Michelle D.; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32–36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  7. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System.

    PubMed

    Gorasia, Dhana G; Veith, Paul D; Hanssen, Eric G; Glew, Michelle D; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-08-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32-36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  8. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System.

    PubMed

    Gorasia, Dhana G; Veith, Paul D; Hanssen, Eric G; Glew, Michelle D; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-08-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32-36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component.

  9. Comparison of identification systems for psychrotrophic bacteria isolated from raw bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Vithanage, Nuwan R; Yeager, Thomas R; Jadhav, Snehal R; Palombo, Enzo A; Datta, Nivedita

    2014-10-17

    Psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk produce heat-resistant extracellular proteases, resulting in spoilage and shelf-life reduction of ultrahigh temperature treated milk and milk products. Controlling of these spoilage microbes requires rapid and reliable identification systems for screening of raw milk. This study aimed to compare commercial bacterial identification systems with a genetic method (considered as the 'gold standard' method) for the identification of heat-resistant protease producing bacteria in raw milk. Five bacterial identification systems were compared based on typability, discrimination power (i.e. Simpson's Index of Diversity), reproducibility and speed of analysis. The accuracy of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, Biolog, MALDI-TOF MS, API, and Microbact for the identification of Gram negative bacilli at the species level was 100.0%, 86.8%, 63.2%, 60.5% and 57.9%, respectively. The Gram positive bacilli were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, Biolog, MALDI-TOF MS, and API with accuracies at the species level of 100.0%, 85.0%, 95.0% and 90.0%, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis discriminated Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas syringae, Hafnia alvei, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus licheniformis to the subspecies level. The Simpson's Index of Diversity scores were 0.966, 0.711, 0.496, 0.472, and 0.140, for 16S rRNA gene sequencing, Biolog, MALDI-TOF MS, API and Microbact, respectively. Limited reference profiles in the databases of Biolog, MALDI-TOF MS, API and Microbact systems reduced their accuracy in bacterial identification, compared to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The rapidity of each assay is in the following order; MALDI-TOF MS>16S rRNA gene sequencing>Biolog>Microbact>API. The reproducibility of the assays is in the order of 16S rRNA gene sequencing>API>Microbact>MALDI-TOF MS>Biolog. Thus, 16S rRNA gene sequencing appears to be the most reliable and robust system for the identification of dairy

  10. Risk factors for KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae: watch out for surgery.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Kesia Esther; Maciel, Wirlaine Glauce; Sacchi, Flávia Patussi Correia; Carvalhaes, Cecilia Godoy; Rodrigues-Costa, Fernanda; da Silva, Ana Carolina Ramos; Croda, Mariana Garcia; Negrão, Fábio Juliano; Croda, Julio; Gales, Ana Cristina; Simionatto, Simone

    2016-06-01

    This study describes the molecular characteristics and risk factors associated with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. Risk factors associated with KPC-producing K. pneumoniae strains were investigated in this case-control study from May 2011 to May 2013. Bacterial identification was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by broth microdilution. Carbapenemase production was assessed by both modified Hodge test (MHT) and ertapenem hydrolysis using MALDI-TOF MS. The presence of β-lactamase-encoding genes was evaluated by PCR and DNA sequencing. Alterations in genes encoding K. pneumoniae outer membrane proteins were analysed by PCR and DNA sequencing as well as SDS-PAGE. Genetic relatedness among strains was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. This study included 94 patients. Longer hospitalisation, mechanical ventilation, catheters, and previous surgery were associated with KPC-producing K. pneumoniae. Sixty-eight strains showed resistance to carbapenems. Carbapenemase production was detected by MHT in 67 K. pneumoniae strains and by MALDI-TOF MS in 57. The presence of the blaKPC-2 gene was identified in 57 strains. The blaKPC-2 gene was not found in 11 carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae; instead, the blaCTX-M-1-like, blaCTX-M-2-like, blaCTX-M-8 like, blaCTX-M-14-like and blaSHV- like genes associated with OmpK35 and OmpK36 alterations were observed. Thirty-three KPC-producing K. pneumoniae strains were clonally related, and patients infected with these strains had a higher mortality rate (78.78 %). Our results show that KPC-producing K. pneumoniae was associated with several healthcare-related risk factors, including recent surgery. PMID:27002853

  11. Advantages of Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry as a Rapid Diagnostic Tool for Identification of Yeasts and Mycobacteria in the Clinical Microbiological Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jonathan H. K.; Yam, Wing-Cheong; Ngan, Antonio H. Y.; Fung, Ami M. Y.; Woo, Wai-Lan; Yan, Mei-Kum; Choi, Garnet K. Y.; Ho, Pak-Leung; Cheng, Vincent C. C.

    2013-01-01

    Yeast and mycobacteria can cause infections in immunocompromised patients and normal hosts. The rapid identification of these organisms can significantly improve patient care. There has been an increasing number of studies on using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for rapid yeast and mycobacterial identifications. However, studies on direct comparisons between the Bruker Biotyper and bioMérieux Vitek MS systems for the identification of yeast and mycobacteria have been limited. This study compared the performance of the two systems in their identification of 98 yeast and 102 mycobacteria isolates. Among the 98 yeast isolates, both systems generated species-level identifications in >70% of the specimens, of which Candida albicans was the most commonly cultured species. At a genus-level identification, the Biotyper system identified more isolates than the Vitek MS system for Candida (75/78 [96.2%]versus 68/78 [87.2%], respectively; P = 0.0426) and non-Candida yeasts (18/20 [90.0%]versus 7/20 [35.0%], respectively; P = 0.0008). For mycobacterial identification, the Biotyper system generated reliable identifications for 89 (87.3%) and 64 (62.8%) clinical isolates at the genus and species levels, respectively, from solid culture media, whereas the Vitek MS system did not generate any reliable identification. The MS method differentiated 12/21 clinical species, despite the fact that no differentiation between Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium chelonae was found by using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. In summary, the MALDI-TOF MS method provides short turnaround times and a standardized working protocol for the identification of yeast and mycobacteria. Our study demonstrates that MALDI-TOF MS is suitable as a first-line test for the identification of yeast and mycobacteria in clinical laboratories. PMID:24048537

  12. Rapid Identification of the Foodborne Pathogen Trichinella spp. by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan; Neumann, Jennifer; Bahn, Peter; Reckinger, Sabine; Nöckler, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Human trichinellosis occurs through consumption of raw or inadequately processed meat or meat products containing larvae of the parasitic nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Currently, nine species and three genotypes are recognized, of which T. spiralis, T. britovi and T. pseudospiralis have the highest public health relevance. To date, the differentiation of the larvae to the species and genotype level is based primarily on molecular methods, which can be relatively time consuming and labor intensive. Due to its rapidness and ease of use a matrix assisted laser desorption / ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) reference spectra database using Trichinella strains of all known species and genotypes was created. A formicacid/acetonitrile protein extraction was carried out after pooling 10 larvae of each Trichinella species and genotype. Each sample was spotted 9 times using α-cyano 4-hydoxy cinnamic acid matrix and a MicroFlex LT mass spectrometer was used to acquire 3 spectra (m/z 2000 to 20000 Da) from each spot resulting in 27 spectra/species or genotype. Following the spectra quality assessment, Biotyper software was used to create a main spectra library (MSP) representing nine species and three genotypes of Trichinella. The evaluation of the spectra generated by MALDI-TOF MS revealed a classification which was comparable to the results obtained by molecular methods. Also, each Trichinella species utilized in this study was distinct and distinguishable with a high confidence level. Further, different conservation methods such as freezing and conservation in alcohol and the host species origin of the isolated larvae did not have a significant influence on the generated spectra. Therefore, the described MALDI-TOF MS can successfully be implemented for both genus and species level identification and represents a major step forward in the use of this technique in foodborne parasitology.

  13. Identification of Weissella species by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Meng-Rui; Tsai, Chia-Jung; Teng, Shih-Hua; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Although some Weissella species play beneficial roles in food fermentation and in probiotic products, others such as Weissella confusa are emerging Gram-positive pathogens in immunocompromised hosts. Weissella species are difficult to identify by conventional biochemical methods and commercial automated systems and are easily misidentified as Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is increasingly being used for bacterial identification. Little, however, is known about the effectiveness of MALDI-TOF MS in identifying clinical isolates of Weissella to the species level. In this study, we evaluated whether the MALDI-TOF MS Bruker Biotyper system could accurately identify a total of 20 W. confusa and 2 W. cibaria blood isolates that had been confirmed by 16s rRNA sequencing analysis. The MALDI-TOF Biotyper system yielded no reliable identification results based on the current reference spectra for the two species (all score values <1.7). New W. confusa spectra were created by randomly selecting 3 W. confusa isolates and external validation was performed by testing the remaining 17 W. confusa isolates using the new spectra. The new main spectra projection (MSP) yielded reliable score values of >2 for all isolates with the exception of one (score value, 1.963). Our results showed that the MSPs in the current database are not sufficient for correctly identifying W. confusa or W. cibaria. Further studies including more Weissella isolates are warranted to further validate the performance of MALDI-TOF in identifying Weissella species. PMID:26594208

  14. N-glycosylation of Colorectal Cancer Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Balog, Crina I. A.; Stavenhagen, Kathrin; Fung, Wesley L. J.; Koeleman, Carolien A.; McDonnell, Liam A.; Verhoeven, Aswin; Mesker, Wilma E.; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Deelder, André M.; Wuhrer, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide with an annual incidence of ∼1 million cases and an annual mortality rate of ∼655,000 individuals. There is an urgent need for identifying novel targets to develop more sensitive, reliable, and specific tests for early stage detection of colon cancer. Post-translational modifications are known to play an important role in cancer progression and immune surveillance of tumors. In the present study, we compared the N-glycan profiles from 13 colorectal cancer tumor tissues and corresponding control colon tissues. The N-glycans were enzymatically released, purified, and labeled with 2-aminobenzoic acid. Aliquots were profiled by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC-HPLC) with fluorescence detection and by negative mode MALDI-TOF-MS. Using partial least squares discriminant analysis to investigate the N-glycosylation changes in colorectal cancer, an excellent separation and prediction ability were observed for both HILIC-HPLC and MALDI-TOF-MS data. For structure elucidation, information from positive mode ESI-ion trap-MS/MS and negative mode MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS was combined. Among the features with a high separation power, structures containing a bisecting GlcNAc were found to be decreased in the tumor, whereas sulfated glycans, paucimannosidic glycans, and glycans containing a sialylated Lewis type epitope were shown to be increased in tumor tissues. In addition, core-fucosylated high mannose N-glycans were detected in tumor samples. In conclusion, the combination of HILIC and MALDI-TOF-MS profiling of N-glycans with multivariate statistical analysis demonstrated its potential for identifying N-glycosylation changes in colorectal cancer tissues and provided new leads that might be used as candidate biomarkers. PMID:22573871

  15. Detection of drugs in lifted cyanoacrylate-developed latent fingermarks using two laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometric methods.

    PubMed

    Sundar, Latha; Rowell, Frederick

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes a method for lifting cyanoacrylate (CNA)-developed latent fingermarks from a glass surface and the detection of five drugs in lifted marks from fingers that had been in contact with the drugs, using Surface Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (SALDI-TOF-MS) or Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation TOF-MS (MALDI-TOF-MS). Two drugs of abuse (cocaine and methadone) and three therapeutic drugs (aspirin, paracetamol and caffeine) were used as contact residues. Latent fingermarks spiked with the drugs were subjected to CNA fuming followed by dusting with ARRO SupraNano™ MS black magnetic powder (SALDI-TOF-MS) or 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) (MALDI-TOF-MS). The dusted mark was then exposed to solvent vapour before lifting with a commercial fingerprint lifting tape following established procedures. The presence of the drugs was then confirmed by direct analysis on the tape without further processing using SALDI- or MALDI-TOF-MS. The black magnetic fingerprint powder provided visual enhancement of the CNA-fingermark while no visual enhancement was observed for marks dusted with DHB powder. Similar [M + H](+) peaks for all the drug analytes were observed for both methods along with some sodium and potassium adducts for SALDI-MS and some major fragment ions but the SALDI signals were generally more intense. Simple exposure to acetone vapour of the CNA-developed marks enabled their effective transfer onto the tape which was crucial for subsequent MS detection of the analytes.

  16. In situ analysis of plant tissue underivatized carbohydrates and on-probe enzymatic degraded starch by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry by using carbon nanotubes as matrix.

    PubMed

    Gholipour, Yousef; Nonami, Hiroshi; Erra-Balsells, Rosa

    2008-12-15

    Underivatized carbohydrates of tulip bulb and leaf tissues were characterized in situ by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) by using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as matrix. Two sample preparation methods--(i) depositing CNTs on the fresh tissue slices placed on the probe and (ii) locating semitransparent tissues on a dried layer of CNTs on the probe--were examined. Furthermore, practicability of in situ starch analysis by MALDI-TOF MS was examined by detection of glucose originated from on-probe amyloglucosidase-catalyzed degradation of starch on the tissue surface. Besides, CNTs could efficiently desorb/ionize natural mono-, di-, and oligosaccharides extracted from tulip bulb tissues as well as glucose resulting from starch enzymatic degradation in vitro. These results were compared with those obtained by in situ MALDI-TOF MS analysis of similar tissues. Positive ion mode showed superior signal reproducibility. CNTs deposited under semitransparent tissue could also desorb/ionize neutral carbohydrates, leading to nearly complete elimination of matrix cluster signals but with an increase in tissue-originated signals. Furthermore, several experiments were carried out to compare the efficiency of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, nor-harmane, alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, and CNTs as matrices for MALDI of neutral carbohydrates from the intact plant tissue surface and for enzymatic tissue starch degradation; these results are discussed in brief. Among matrices studied, the lowest laser power was needed to acquire carbohydrate signals with high signal-to-noise ratio and resolution when CNTs were used.

  17. Accuracy of conventional identification methods used for Enterobacteriaceae isolates in three Nigerian hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Ogunlowo, Peter Oladejo; Olley, Mitsan; Springer, Burkhard; Allerberger, Franz; Ruppitsch, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Background Enterobacteriaceae are ubiquitously present in nature and can be found in the intestinal tract of humans and animals as commensal flora. Multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are increasingly reported and are a threat to public health implicating a need for accurate identification of the isolates to species level. In developing countries, identification of bacteria basically depends on conventional methods: culture and phenotypic methods that hamper the accurate identification of bacteria. In this study, matrix-assisted desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technique was compared to conventional identification techniques. Materials and Methods In total, 147 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were collected from March to May 2015 from three medical microbiology laboratories of hospitals in Edo state, Nigeria, after being tested according to the individual laboratories standard operating procedures. All isolates were stored at −20°C until tested centrally by MALDI-TOF MS. Results One hundred and forty five (98.6%) isolates had a MALDI Biotyper best score > or =2.0, indicating a secure genus and probable species identification; and 2(1.36%) isolates had a best score <2.0 indicating probable genus identification. Isolates with best scores of > or =2.0 comprised nine genera and 10 species, respectively. A total of 57.2% and 33.1% of isolates identified had agreement between MALDI-TOF MS and conventional techniques for identification at genus and species level, respectively, when analyzing bacteria with MALDI Biotyper best scores > or =2.0. Conclusion The results of our study show that the applied conventional identification techniques for Enterobacteriaceae in the investigated Nigerian hospitals are not very accurate. Use of state-of-the-art identification technologies for microorganisms is necessary to guarantee comparability of bacteriological results. PMID:27703855

  18. Candida palmioleophila: characterization of a previously overlooked pathogen and its unique susceptibility profile in comparison with five related species.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Rasmus H; Arendrup, Maiken C

    2011-02-01

    Candida palmioleophila has previously been misidentified as C. famata or C. guilliermondii. We have investigated traditional and modern identification methods for the identification of this and related species. Forty-one clinical isolates previously identified as C. famata or C. guilliermondii and 8 reference strains were included. Color development on CHROMagar, growth temperature ranges, micromorphologies, carbon assimilation (ID32C), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiles, and susceptibility profiles (mica- and anidulafungin and itra-, vori-, posa-, and fluconazole MICs were determined by EUCAST method EDef 7.1, and caspofungin MICs were determined by Etest) were determined, and results were compared to those of molecular identification (ITS1 and ITS2 sequencing). The following five different species were identified among the clinical isolates by sequencing, but no C. famata isolates were found: C. guilliermondii (22 isolates), C. palmioleophila (8 isolates), C. fermentati (6 isolates), C. lusitaniae (3 isolates), and C. intermedia (2 isolates). C. palmioleophila developed a distinct scintillating color of turquoise to rose, grew at 40°C, and failed to produce pseudohyphae within 14 days. The ID32C profile for 7/9 C. palmioleophila isolates was 5367352315, and all were unable to hydrolyze esculin (Esc). The six related species were well discriminated by MALDI-TOF MS. The susceptibility pattern for C. palmioleophila was unique, as the echinocandin MICs were low (range, 0.008 to 0.125 μg/ml) and fluconazole MICs were high (range, 8 to >16 μg/ml). Correct identification of C. palmioleophila is important due to its unique susceptibility profile. Identification is possible yet laborious with conventional techniques, whereas MALDI-TOF MS easily separated the related species.

  19. Identification of fungal microorganisms by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chalupová, Jana; Raus, Martin; Sedlářová, Michaela; Sebela, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as a reliable tool for fast identification and classification of microorganisms. In this regard, it represents a strong challenge to microscopic and molecular biology methods. Nowadays, commercial MALDI systems are accessible for biological research work as well as for diagnostic applications in clinical medicine, biotechnology and industry. They are employed namely in bacterial biotyping but numerous experimental strategies have also been developed for the analysis of fungi, which is the topic of the present review. Members of many fungal genera such as Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium or Trichoderma and also various yeasts from clinical samples (e.g. Candida albicans) have been successfully identified by MALDI-TOF MS. However, there is no versatile method for fungi currently available even though the use of only a limited number of matrix compounds has been reported. Either intact cell/spore MALDI-TOF MS is chosen or an extraction of surface proteins is performed and then the resulting extract is measured. Biotrophic fungal phytopathogens can be identified via a direct acquisition of MALDI-TOF mass spectra e.g. from infected plant organs contaminated by fungal spores. Mass spectrometric peptide/protein profiles of fungi display peaks in the m/z region of 1000-20000, where a unique set of biomarker ions may appear facilitating a differentiation of samples at the level of genus, species or strain. This is done with the help of a processing software and spectral database of reference strains, which should preferably be constructed under the same standardized experimental conditions.

  20. Rapid identification of microorganisms by mass spectrometry: improved performance by incorporation of in-house spectral data into a commercial database.

    PubMed

    Sogawa, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Masaharu; Sato, Kenichi; Segawa, Syunsuke; Miyabe, Akiko; Murata, Syota; Saito, Tomoko; Nomura, Fumio

    2012-06-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is increasingly used as a microbial diagnostic method for species identification of pathogens. However, MALDI-TOF identification of bacteria at the species level remains unsatisfactory, with the major problem being an incomplete database that still needs refinement and expansion. Augmentation of the original MALDI BioTyper 2.0 (Bruker) database by incorporating mass spectra obtained in-house from clinical isolates may increase the identification rate at the species level. We conducted a prospective study to assess whether the augmented database can improve the performance of MALDI-TOF MS for routine identification of species. Cluster analyses revealed distinct differences in MS spectral profiles of clinical isolates obtained in our hospital and those of ATCC strains in the Bruker database. In the first part of the study, which was performed over 3 weeks, 259 bacterial isolates were subjected to analysis by MALDI-TOF MS, and MS spectra of 229 successfully identified isolates (49 species) were incorporated into the original database to give the augmented Bruker-Chiba database. In a second separate analysis, the concordance of identification of 498 clinical isolates of the 49 species with conventional methods was 87.1% (434/498) with the commercial Bruker database and 98.0% (488/498) using the Bruker-Chiba database. These results indicate that refinement of a commercial database can be achieved relatively easy and effectively by incorporating MS spectra of clinical isolates obtained in a clinical laboratory.

  1. Evaluation of three rapid diagnostic methods for direct identification of microorganisms in positive blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Raquel M; Bauerle, Elizabeth R; Fang, Ferric C; Butler-Wu, Susan M

    2014-07-01

    The identification of organisms from positive blood cultures generally takes several days. However, recently developed rapid diagnostic methods offer the potential for organism identification within only a few hours of blood culture positivity. In this study, we evaluated the performance of three commercial methods to rapidly identify organisms directly from positive blood cultures: QuickFISH (AdvanDx, Wolburn, MA), Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture (BC-GP; Nanosphere, Northbrook, IL), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) with Sepsityper processing (Bruker Daltonics, Billerica, MA). A total of 159 blood cultures (VersaTREK Trek Diagnostic Systems, Cleveland, OH) positive for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as yeast were analyzed with QuickFISH and MALDI-TOF MS. In all, 102 blood cultures were analyzed using the BC-GP assay. For monomicrobial cultures, we observed 98.0% concordance with routine methods for both QuickFISH (143/146) and the BC-GP assay (93/95). MALDI-TOF MS demonstrated 80.1% (117/146) and 87.7% (128/146) concordance with routine methods to the genus and species levels, respectively. None of the methods tested were capable of consistently identifying polymicrobial cultures in their entirety or reliably differentiating Streptococcus pneumoniae from viridans streptococci. Nevertheless, the methods evaluated in this study are convenient and accurate for the most commonly encountered pathogens and have the potential to dramatically reduce turnaround time for the provision of results to the treating physician.

  2. 3M™ Molecular detection system versus MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and molecular techniques for the identification of Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Salmonella spp. &Listeria spp.

    PubMed

    Loff, Marché; Mare, Louise; de Kwaadsteniet, Michele; Khan, Wesaal

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare standard selective plating, conventional PCR (16S rRNA and species specific primers), MALDI-TOF MS and the 3M™ Molecular Detection System for the routine detection of the pathogens Listeria, Salmonella and Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in wastewater and river water samples. MALDI-TOF MS was able to positively identify 20/21 (95%) of the E. coli isolates obtained at genus and species level, while 16S rRNA sequencing only correctly identified 6/21 (28%) as E. coli strains. None of the presumptive positive Listeria spp. and Salmonella spp. isolates obtained by culturing on selective media were positively identified by MALDI-TOF and 16S rRNA analysis. The species-specific E. coli 0157:H7 PCR described in this present study, was not able to detect any E. coli 0157:H7 strains in the wastewater and river water samples analysed. However, E. coli strains, Listeria spp., L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were detected using species specific PCR. Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Listeria spp. and Salmonella spp. were also sporadically detected throughout the sampling period in the wastewater and river water samples analysed by the 3M™ Molecular Detection System. MALDI-TOF MS, which is a simple, accurate and cost-effective detection method, efficiently identified the culturable organisms, while in the current study both species specific PCR (Listeria spp. and Salmonella spp.) and 3M™ Molecular Detection System could be utilised for the direct routine analysis of pathogens in water sources.

  3. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. PMID:27263029

  4. Rapid Identification of the Foodborne Pathogen Trichinella spp. by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan; Neumann, Jennifer; Bahn, Peter; Reckinger, Sabine; Nöckler, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Human trichinellosis occurs through consumption of raw or inadequately processed meat or meat products containing larvae of the parasitic nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Currently, nine species and three genotypes are recognized, of which T. spiralis, T. britovi and T. pseudospiralis have the highest public health relevance. To date, the differentiation of the larvae to the species and genotype level is based primarily on molecular methods, which can be relatively time consuming and labor intensive. Due to its rapidness and ease of use a matrix assisted laser desorption / ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) reference spectra database using Trichinella strains of all known species and genotypes was created. A formicacid/acetonitrile protein extraction was carried out after pooling 10 larvae of each Trichinella species and genotype. Each sample was spotted 9 times using α-cyano 4-hydoxy cinnamic acid matrix and a MicroFlex LT mass spectrometer was used to acquire 3 spectra (m/z 2000 to 20000 Da) from each spot resulting in 27 spectra/species or genotype. Following the spectra quality assessment, Biotyper software was used to create a main spectra library (MSP) representing nine species and three genotypes of Trichinella. The evaluation of the spectra generated by MALDI-TOF MS revealed a classification which was comparable to the results obtained by molecular methods. Also, each Trichinella species utilized in this study was distinct and distinguishable with a high confidence level. Further, different conservation methods such as freezing and conservation in alcohol and the host species origin of the isolated larvae did not have a significant influence on the generated spectra. Therefore, the described MALDI-TOF MS can successfully be implemented for both genus and species level identification and represents a major step forward in the use of this technique in foodborne parasitology. PMID:26999436

  5. Modified 16S-23S rRNA intergenic region restriction endonuclease analysis for species identification of Enterococcus strains isolated from pigs, compared with identification using classical methods and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nowakiewicz, Aneta; Ziółkowska, Grażyna; Zięba, Przemysław; Trościańczyk, Aleksandra; Banach, Tomasz; Kowalski, Cezary

    2015-03-01

    Fast and reliable identification of bacteria to at least the species level is currently the basis for correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment of infections. This is particularly important in the case of bacteria of the genus Enterococcus, whose resistance profile is often correlated with their species (e.g. resistance to vancomycin). In this study, we evaluated restriction endonuclease analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA gene intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region for species identification of Enterococcus. The utility of the method was compared with that of phenotypic methods [biochemical profile evaluation and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)]. Identification was based on 21 Enterococcus reference strains, of the species E. faecalis, E. faecium, E. hirae, E. durans, E. casseliflavus, E. gallinarum, E. avium, E. cecorum and E. columbae, and 47 Enterococcus field strains isolated from pigs. Restriction endonuclease analysis of the ITS-PCR product using HinfI, RsaI and MboI, in the order specified, enabled species differentiation of the Enterococcus reference and field strains, and in the case of the latter, the results of species identification were identical (47/47) to those obtained by MALDI-TOF MS. Moreover, as a result of digestion with MboI, a unique restriction profile was also obtained for the strains (3/3) identified by MALDI-TOF MS as E. thailandicus. In our opinion, restriction endonuclease analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA gene ITS region of Enterococcus may be a simple and relatively fast (less than 4 h) alternative method for identifying the species occurring most frequently in humans and animals.

  6. Identification of Acinetobacter Species Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Seri; Hong, Jun Sung; Kim, Jung Ok; Kim, Keon-Han; Lee, Woonhyoung; Bae, Il Kwon; Lee, Kyungwon

    2016-01-01

    Background Acinetobacter baumannii has a greater clinical impact and exhibits higher antimicrobial resistance rates than the non-baumannii Acinetobacter species. Therefore, the correct identification of Acinetobacter species is clinically important. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has recently become the method of choice for identifying bacterial species. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of MALDI-TOF MS (Bruker Daltonics GmbH, Germany) in combination with an improved database to identify various Acinetobacter species. Methods A total of 729 Acinetobacter clinical isolates were investigated, including 447 A. baumannii, 146 A. nosocomialis, 78 A. pittii, 18 A. ursingii, 9 A. bereziniae, 9 A. soli, 4 A. johnsonii, 4 A. radioresistens, 3 A. gyllenbergii, 3 A. haemolyticus, 2 A. lwoffii, 2 A. junii, 2 A. venetianus, and 2 A. genomospecies 14TU. After 212 isolates were tested with the default Bruker database, the profiles of 63 additional Acinetobacter strains were added to the default database, and 517 isolates from 32 hospitals were assayed for validation. All strains in this study were confirmed by rpoB sequencing. Results The addition of the 63 Acinetobacter strains' profiles to the default Bruker database increased the overall concordance rate between MALDI-TOF MS and rpoB sequencing from 69.8% (148/212) to 100.0% (517/517). Moreover, after library modification, all previously mismatched 64 Acinetobacter strains were correctly identified. Conclusions MALDI-TOF MS enables the prompt and accurate identification of clinically significant Acinetobacter species when used with the improved database. PMID:27139605

  7. Population structure of deep-sea chemolithoautotrophs: identification of phenotypic and genotypic correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mino, S.; Nakagawa, S.; Sawabe, T.; Miyazaki, J.; Makita, H.; Nunoura, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Takai, K.

    2012-12-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal fields are areas on the seafloor of high biological productivity fueled primarily by microbial chemosynthesis. Chemolithoautotrophic Epsilonproteobacteria and Persephonella with an ability to utilize inorganic substrates such as elemental sulfur and hydrogen are important members in wide range of temperature conditions in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. However, little is known about their population genetic structure such as intraspecific genetic diversity, distribution pattern, and phenotypic characteristics. Previously, using genetic approach based on multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA), we clarified that Epsilonproteobacteria Group A, B, F, and Persephonella populations were geographically separated, and Epsilonproteobacteria appeared to diverge by mutation rather than recombination. Contrary to genetic evidence for allopatric segregation in deep-sea chemoautotrophs, however, phenotypic evidence has never been found. In addition, analyzing such a phenotypic characteristic may lead to a better understanding of the interactions microbes have with their environment. In this study, we present a metabolomic approach based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to reveal phenotypic biogeographical discrimination. We demonstrated the whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS method on Epsilonproteobacteria and Persephonella populations. These chemoautotrophic strains used in this study were isolated from chimney structures, vent fluids, and hydrothermal sediments. These hydrothermal samples were collected from geographically separated hydrothermal areas of the South Mariana Trough, Okinawa Trough and Central Indian Ridge. Based on mass peaks (signal/noise >10) within the m/z range of 2000-14000, phenotypic analysis was carried out by cluster analysis. The result of phenotypic analysis was compared with the genotypic clusters. The whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS revealed that Persephonella population was identified to

  8. Risk factors for KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae: watch out for surgery.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Kesia Esther; Maciel, Wirlaine Glauce; Sacchi, Flávia Patussi Correia; Carvalhaes, Cecilia Godoy; Rodrigues-Costa, Fernanda; da Silva, Ana Carolina Ramos; Croda, Mariana Garcia; Negrão, Fábio Juliano; Croda, Julio; Gales, Ana Cristina; Simionatto, Simone

    2016-06-01

    This study describes the molecular characteristics and risk factors associated with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. Risk factors associated with KPC-producing K. pneumoniae strains were investigated in this case-control study from May 2011 to May 2013. Bacterial identification was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by broth microdilution. Carbapenemase production was assessed by both modified Hodge test (MHT) and ertapenem hydrolysis using MALDI-TOF MS. The presence of β-lactamase-encoding genes was evaluated by PCR and DNA sequencing. Alterations in genes encoding K. pneumoniae outer membrane proteins were analysed by PCR and DNA sequencing as well as SDS-PAGE. Genetic relatedness among strains was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. This study included 94 patients. Longer hospitalisation, mechanical ventilation, catheters, and previous surgery were associated with KPC-producing K. pneumoniae. Sixty-eight strains showed resistance to carbapenems. Carbapenemase production was detected by MHT in 67 K. pneumoniae strains and by MALDI-TOF MS in 57. The presence of the blaKPC-2 gene was identified in 57 strains. The blaKPC-2 gene was not found in 11 carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae; instead, the blaCTX-M-1-like, blaCTX-M-2-like, blaCTX-M-8 like, blaCTX-M-14-like and blaSHV- like genes associated with OmpK35 and OmpK36 alterations were observed. Thirty-three KPC-producing K. pneumoniae strains were clonally related, and patients infected with these strains had a higher mortality rate (78.78 %). Our results show that KPC-producing K. pneumoniae was associated with several healthcare-related risk factors, including recent surgery.

  9. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae contamination in the poultry house environment during erysipelas outbreaks in organic laying hen flocks.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Helena; Bagge, Elisabeth; Båverud, Viveca; Fellström, Claes; Jansson, Désirée S

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated organic laying hen farms for the presence of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in the house environment and from potential carriers (i.e. insects and mice) during ongoing erysipelas outbreaks, and compared the obtained isolates with those from laying hens. The samples were investigated by selective culture followed by species-specific polymerase chain reaction on cultures. E. rhusiopathiae was isolated from the spleen, jejunal contents, manure, dust and swabs from water nipples. Three more samples from the house environment tested positive by polymerase chain reaction compared with selective culture alone. Selected isolates were investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). One farm was represented by isolates from laying hens only, and one of these isolates differed in one PFGE band from the others. Different banding patterns were observed for isolates from laying hens and manure on one farm. On the remaining two farms, the isolates from the house environment and laying hens were identical but differed between farms. Outbreaks reoccurred in the next flock on two of the farms, and different PFGE types were isolated from consecutive flocks. Our results suggest an external source of infection, which would explain the previously reported increased risk of outbreaks in free-range flocks. Contaminated manure and dust may represent sources of transmission. For the isolates, MALDI-TOF MS and biochemical typing results were in agreement but, since the type strain of Erysipelothrix tonsillarum was typed as E. rhusiopathiae using MALDI-TOF MS, further studies into this method are needed.

  10. A nano-patterned self assembled monolayer (SAM) rutile titania cancer chip for rapid, low cost, highly sensitive, direct cancer analysis in MALDI-MS.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, M; Gopal, Judy; Hasan, Nazim; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2014-12-01

    We developed a cancer chip by nano-patterning a highly sensitive SAM titanium surface capable of capturing and sensing concentrations as low as 10 cancer cells/mL from the environment by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption and Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The current approach evades any form of pretreatment and sample preparation processes; it is time saving and does not require the (expensive) conventional MALDI target plate. The home made aluminium (Al) target holder cost, on which we loaded the cancer chips for MALDI-TOF MS analysis, is about 60 USD. While the conventional stainless steel MALDI target plate is more than 700 USD. The SAM surface was an effective platform leading to on-chip direct MALDI-MS detection of cancer cells. We compared the functionality of this chip with the unmodified titanium surfaces and thermally oxidized (TO) titanium surfaces. The lowest detectable concentration of the TO chip was 10(3) cells/mL, while the lowest detectable concentration of the control or unmodified titanium chips was 10(6) cells/mL. Compared to the control surface, the SAM cancer chip showed 100,000 times of enhanced sensitivity and compared with the TO chip, 1000 times of increased sensitivity. The high sensitivity of the SAM surfaces is attributed to the presence of the rutile SAM, surface roughness and surface wettability as confirmed by AFM, XRD, contact angle microscope and FE-SEM. This study opens a new avenue for the potent application of the SAM cancer chip for direct cancer diagnosis by MALDI-TOF MS in the near future.

  11. The occurrence of Legionella species other than Legionella pneumophila in clinical and environmental samples in Denmark identified by mip gene sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Svarrer, C W; Uldum, S A

    2012-10-01

    In Denmark, several laboratories use PCR as a routine diagnostic method for Legionnaires' disease, and almost all PCR-positive samples are investigated by culture. From 1993 to 2010, isolates of Legionella species other than Legionella pneumophila were obtained from respiratory samples from 33 patients, and from 1997 to 2010, 42 isolates of Legionella non-pneumophila species were obtained and saved from water samples from 39 different sites in Denmark. Macrophage infectivity potentiator gene (mip) sequencing was used as a reference method to identify the Legionella non-pneumophila species. Only one of the 75 isolates did not meet the acceptance criterion of a similarity of ≥98% to sequences in the database. The species distribution between clinical and environmental isolates varied. For the former, four species were detected, with Legionella bozemanae and Legionella micdadei predominating (both 44%). For the latter, eight species were detected, with Legionella anisa predominating (52%). The distribution among the Danish clinical isolates was different from the general distribution both in Europe and outside Europe, where L. bozemanae and Legionella longbeachae are the most commonly found clinical Legionella non-pneumophila species. The 75 isolates were also investigated by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS): 64 were correctly identified, with a score of ≥2.0; eight had a score of <2.0, but only two of these were wrongly identified; and three gave no results with MALDI-TOF MS. Both mip sequencing and MALDI-TOF MS are robust methods for Legionella species identification.

  12. Application of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for the detection of enterotoxins produced by pathogenic strains of the Bacillus cereus group.

    PubMed

    Tsilia, Varvara; Devreese, Bart; de Baenst, Ilse; Mesuere, Bart; Rajkovic, Andreja; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Van de Wiele, Tom; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2012-10-01

    Enterotoxins produced by different species of the Bacillus cereus group, such as cytotoxin K1 (CytK1) and non-haemolytic enterotoxin (NHE), have been associated with diarrhoeal food poisoning incidents. Detection of CytK1 is not possible with commercial assays while NHE is recognised by an immunological kit (TECRA) that does not specifically target this protein because it is based on polyclonal antibodies. It is evident that the lack of suitable tools for the study of enterotoxins hampers the possibilities for accurate hazard identification and characterisation in microbial food safety risk assessment. We applied matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) for the detection of CytK1 and NHE produced by pathogenic strains of the B. cereus group using protein digests from 1D gel electrophoresis. Secretion of CytK1 and two of the three components of NHE was confirmed in supernatants of different B. cereus cultures. For each protein, we introduce biomarkers that could be used for the screening of food poisoning or food/environmental isolates that can secrete enterotoxins. For example, tryptic peptides of 2,310.2 and 1,192.5 Da (calculated mass) can be indicators for CytK1 and NheA, respectively, although a simultaneous detection of other enterotoxin-specific peptides is recommended to assure the presence of a toxin in an unknown sample. Comparison of MALDI-TOF/MS with the TECRA kit showed that our methodological strategy performed well and it had the competitive advantage of specifically detecting NheA. Therefore, MALDI-TOF/MS can be successfully incorporated into risk assessment procedures in order to determine the involvement of strains of the B. cereus group in foodborne outbreaks, including the recently described cytK1 producing species, Bacillus cytotoxicus.

  13. Automated categorization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates into different clonal complexes by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Camoez, M; Sierra, J M; Dominguez, M A; Ferrer-Navarro, M; Vila, J; Roca, I

    2016-02-01

    Early identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) dominant clones involved in infection and initiation of adequate infection control measures are essential to limit MRSA spread and understand MRSA population dynamics. In this study we evaluated the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) for the automated discrimination of the major MRSA lineages (clonal complexes, CC) identified in our hospital during a 20-year period (1990-2009). A collection of 82 well-characterized MRSA isolates belonging to the four main CCs (CC5, CC8, CC22 and CC398) was split into a reference set (n = 36) and a validation set (n = 46) to generate pattern recognition models using the ClinProTools software for the identification of MALDI-TOF/MS biomarker peaks. The supervised neural network (SNN) model showed the best performance compared with two other models, with sensitivity and specificity values of 100% and 99.11%, respectively. Eleven peaks (m/z range: 3278-6592) with the highest separation power were identified and used to differentiate all four CCs. Validation of the SNN model using ClinProTools resulted in a positive predictive value (PPV) of 99.6%. The specific contribution of each peak to the model was used to generate subtyping reference signatures for automated subtyping using the BioTyper software, which successfully classified MRSA isolates into their corresponding CCs with a PPV of 98.9%. In conclusion, we find this novel automated MALDI-TOF/MS approach to be a promising, powerful and reliable tool for S. aureus typing. PMID:26482268

  14. Comparison of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry and Molecular Biology Techniques for Identification of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Biting Midges in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Fenollar, Florence; Fall, Becaye; Bassene, Hubert; Almeras, Lionel; Sambe-Ba, Bissoume; Perrot, Nadine; Chatellier, Sonia; Faye, Ngor; Parola, Philippe; Wade, Boubacar; Raoult, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides are implicated as vectors for a wide variety of pathogens. The morphological identification of these arthropods may be difficult because of a lack of detailed investigation of taxonomy for this species in Africa. However, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization−time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiling is efficient for arthropod identification at the species level. This study established a spectrum database of Culicoides spp. from Senegal using MALDI-TOF. Identification of Culicoides insects to the species level before mass spectrometry was performed on the basis of morphological characters. MALDI-TOF MS reference spectra were determined for 437 field-caught Culicoides of 10 species. The protein profiles of all tested Culicoides revealed several peaks with mass ranges of 2 to 20 kDa. In a validation study, 72 Culicoides specimens in the target species were correctly identified at the species level with a similarity of 95 to 99.9%. Four Culicoides protein profiles were misidentified. Nevertheless, six SuperSpectra (C. imicola, C. enderleini, C. oxystoma, C. kingi, C. magnus, and C. fulvithorax) were created. Abdomens of midges were used to amplify and sequence a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI). The results obtained using the MALDI-TOF MS method were consistent with the morphological identification and similar to the genetic identification. Protein profiling using MALDI-TOF is an efficient approach for the identification of Culicoides spp., and it is economically advantageous for approaches that require detailed and quantitative information of vector species that are collected in field. The database of African Culicoides MS spectra created is the first database in Africa. The COI sequences of five Culicoides species that were previously noncharacterized using molecular methods were deposited in GenBank. PMID:25411169

  15. Misidentification of Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus tamarii as Aspergillus flavus: characterization by internal transcribed spacer, β-Tubulin, and calmodulin gene sequencing, metabolic fingerprinting, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tam, Emily W T; Chen, Jonathan H K; Lau, Eunice C L; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Fung, Kitty S C; Lee, Kim-Chung; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2014-04-01

    Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus tamarii are Aspergillus species that phenotypically resemble Aspergillus flavus. In the last decade, a number of case reports have identified A. nomius and A. tamarii as causes of human infections. In this study, using an internal transcribed spacer, β-tubulin, and calmodulin gene sequencing, only 8 of 11 clinical isolates reported as A. flavus in our clinical microbiology laboratory by phenotypic methods were identified as A. flavus. The other three isolates were A. nomius (n = 2) or A. tamarii (n = 1). The results corresponded with those of metabolic fingerprinting, in which the A. flavus, A. nomius, and A. tamarii strains were separated into three clusters based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC MS) analysis. The first two patients with A. nomius infections had invasive aspergillosis and chronic cavitary and fibrosing pulmonary and pleural aspergillosis, respectively, whereas the third patient had A. tamarii colonization of the airway. Identification of the 11 clinical isolates and three reference strains by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) showed that only six of the nine strains of A. flavus were identified correctly. None of the strains of A. nomius and A. tamarii was correctly identified. β-Tubulin or the calmodulin gene should be the gene target of choice for identifying A. flavus, A. nomius, and A. tamarii. To improve the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS, the number of strains for each species in MALDI-TOF MS databases should be expanded to cover intraspecies variability.

  16. Rapid Species Diagnosis for Invasive Candidiasis Using Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Marinach-Patrice, Carine; Fekkar, Arnaud; Atanasova, Ralitsa; Gomes, Johanna; Djamdjian, Laura; Brossas, Jean-Yves; Meyer, Isabelle; Buffet, Pierre; Snounou, Georges; Datry, Annick; Hennequin, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Background Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF-MS) allows the identification of most bacteria and an increasing number of fungi. The potential for the highest clinical benefit of such methods would be in severe acute infections that require prompt treatment adapted to the infecting species. Our objective was to determine whether yeasts could be identified directly from a positive blood culture, avoiding the 1–3 days subculture step currently required before any therapeutic adjustments can be made. Methodology/Principal Findings Using human blood spiked with Candida albicans to simulate blood cultures, we optimized protocols to obtain MALDI TOF-MS fingerprints where signals from blood proteins are reduced. Simulated cultures elaborated using a set of 12 strains belonging to 6 different species were then tested. Quantifiable spectral differences in the 5000–7400 Da mass range allowed to discriminate between these species and to build a reference database. The validation of the method and the statistical approach to spectral analysis were conducted using individual simulated blood cultures of 36 additional strains (six for each species). Correct identification of the species of these strains was obtained. Conclusions/Significance Direct MALDI TOF-MS analysis of aliquots from positive blood cultures allowed rapid and accurate identification of the main Candida species, thus obviating the need for sub-culturing on specific media. Subsequent to this proof-of-principle demonstration, the method can be extended to other clinically relevant yeast species, and applied to an adequate number of clinical samples in order to establish its potential to improve antimicrobial management of patients with fungemia. PMID:20111603

  17. Metallomics studies of human blood serum from treated bipolar disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Sussulini, Alessandra; Kratzin, Hartmut; Jahn, Olaf; Banzato, Claudio E Muller; Arruda, Marco A Zezzi; Becker, Johanna Sabine

    2010-07-01

    In the present work, metallomics studies using biomolecular (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry, MALDI-TOF MS/MS) and elemental mass spectrometry (laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, LA-ICPMS) of human blood serum samples from bipolar disorder (BD) patients compared to controls were performed. The serum samples from three different groups: control (n = 25), BD patients treated with Li (n = 15), and BD patients not treated with Li (n = 10), were pooled according to their groups and separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE). Then, in order to determine the metals bound to the protein spots and search for differences among the studied groups, the 2-D gels were analyzed by LA-ICPMS in three distinct modes: bioimaging of metals in gel sections, line scan through the protein spots, and microlocal analysis of selected protein spots. MALDI-TOF MS/MS characterized 32 serum proteins, and they were associated with the metals previously detected. When comparing control and treated BD patient groups, a differentiation in terms of metals bound to proteins was possible to observe. The main metals bound to proteins found in all groups were Na, Mg, Zn, Ca, and Fe. Mn was only detected in the control group; Co was only observed in the control and BD patients treated with Li group. K and Ti were only found in the BD patient groups, and P was only observed in control and BD patients not treated with Li drugs. This exploratory work shows that the association of LA-ICPMS with MALDI-TOF MS/MS is a powerful strategy in metallomics studies applied to determine differences in metal-containing proteins, being able to play an important role on the discovery of potential markers for BD and its treatment with Li in serum samples.

  18. Candida palmioleophila: characterization of a previously overlooked pathogen and its unique susceptibility profile in comparison with five related species.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Rasmus H; Arendrup, Maiken C

    2011-02-01

    Candida palmioleophila has previously been misidentified as C. famata or C. guilliermondii. We have investigated traditional and modern identification methods for the identification of this and related species. Forty-one clinical isolates previously identified as C. famata or C. guilliermondii and 8 reference strains were included. Color development on CHROMagar, growth temperature ranges, micromorphologies, carbon assimilation (ID32C), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiles, and susceptibility profiles (mica- and anidulafungin and itra-, vori-, posa-, and fluconazole MICs were determined by EUCAST method EDef 7.1, and caspofungin MICs were determined by Etest) were determined, and results were compared to those of molecular identification (ITS1 and ITS2 sequencing). The following five different species were identified among the clinical isolates by sequencing, but no C. famata isolates were found: C. guilliermondii (22 isolates), C. palmioleophila (8 isolates), C. fermentati (6 isolates), C. lusitaniae (3 isolates), and C. intermedia (2 isolates). C. palmioleophila developed a distinct scintillating color of turquoise to rose, grew at 40°C, and failed to produce pseudohyphae within 14 days. The ID32C profile for 7/9 C. palmioleophila isolates was 5367352315, and all were unable to hydrolyze esculin (Esc). The six related species were well discriminated by MALDI-TOF MS. The susceptibility pattern for C. palmioleophila was unique, as the echinocandin MICs were low (range, 0.008 to 0.125 μg/ml) and fluconazole MICs were high (range, 8 to >16 μg/ml). Correct identification of C. palmioleophila is important due to its unique susceptibility profile. Identification is possible yet laborious with conventional techniques, whereas MALDI-TOF MS easily separated the related species. PMID:21147953

  19. Evaluation of Three Rapid Diagnostic Methods for Direct Identification of Microorganisms in Positive Blood Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Raquel M.; Bauerle, Elizabeth R.; Fang, Ferric C.

    2014-01-01

    The identification of organisms from positive blood cultures generally takes several days. However, recently developed rapid diagnostic methods offer the potential for organism identification within only a few hours of blood culture positivity. In this study, we evaluated the performance of three commercial methods to rapidly identify organisms directly from positive blood cultures: QuickFISH (AdvanDx, Wolburn, MA), Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture (BC-GP; Nanosphere, Northbrook, IL), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) with Sepsityper processing (Bruker Daltonics, Billerica, MA). A total of 159 blood cultures (VersaTREK Trek Diagnostic Systems, Cleveland, OH) positive for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as yeast were analyzed with QuickFISH and MALDI-TOF MS. In all, 102 blood cultures were analyzed using the BC-GP assay. For monomicrobial cultures, we observed 98.0% concordance with routine methods for both QuickFISH (143/146) and the BC-GP assay (93/95). MALDI-TOF MS demonstrated 80.1% (117/146) and 87.7% (128/146) concordance with routine methods to the genus and species levels, respectively. None of the methods tested were capable of consistently identifying polymicrobial cultures in their entirety or reliably differentiating Streptococcus pneumoniae from viridans streptococci. Nevertheless, the methods evaluated in this study are convenient and accurate for the most commonly encountered pathogens and have the potential to dramatically reduce turnaround time for the provision of results to the treating physician. PMID:24808235

  20. Misidentification of Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus tamarii as Aspergillus flavus: Characterization by Internal Transcribed Spacer, β-Tubulin, and Calmodulin Gene Sequencing, Metabolic Fingerprinting, and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Emily W. T.; Chen, Jonathan H. K.; Lau, Eunice C. L.; Ngan, Antonio H. Y.; Fung, Kitty S. C.; Lee, Kim-Chung; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus tamarii are Aspergillus species that phenotypically resemble Aspergillus flavus. In the last decade, a number of case reports have identified A. nomius and A. tamarii as causes of human infections. In this study, using an internal transcribed spacer, β-tubulin, and calmodulin gene sequencing, only 8 of 11 clinical isolates reported as A. flavus in our clinical microbiology laboratory by phenotypic methods were identified as A. flavus. The other three isolates were A. nomius (n = 2) or A. tamarii (n = 1). The results corresponded with those of metabolic fingerprinting, in which the A. flavus, A. nomius, and A. tamarii strains were separated into three clusters based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC MS) analysis. The first two patients with A. nomius infections had invasive aspergillosis and chronic cavitary and fibrosing pulmonary and pleural aspergillosis, respectively, whereas the third patient had A. tamarii colonization of the airway. Identification of the 11 clinical isolates and three reference strains by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) showed that only six of the nine strains of A. flavus were identified correctly. None of the strains of A. nomius and A. tamarii was correctly identified. β-Tubulin or the calmodulin gene should be the gene target of choice for identifying A. flavus, A. nomius, and A. tamarii. To improve the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS, the number of strains for each species in MALDI-TOF MS databases should be expanded to cover intraspecies variability. PMID:24452174

  1. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Maxence S.; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS. PMID:27630829

  2. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Maxence S; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS. PMID:27630829

  3. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Maxence S; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS.

  4. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Maxence S.; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS.

  5. Size distribution of native cytosolic proteins of Thermoplasma acidophilum.

    PubMed

    Sun, Na; Tamura, Noriko; Tamura, Tomohiro; Knispel, Roland Wilhelm; Hrabe, Thomas; Kofler, Christine; Nickell, Stephan; Nagy, István

    2009-07-01

    We used molecular sieve chromatography in combination with LC-MS/MS to identify protein complexes that can serve as templates in the template matching procedures of visual proteomics approaches. By this method the sample complexity was lowered sufficiently to identify 464 proteins and - on the basis of size distribution and bioinformatics analysis - 189 of them could be assigned as subunits of macromolecular complexes over the size of 300 kDa. From these we purified six stable complexes of Thermoplasma acidophilum whose size and subunit composition - analyzed by electron microscopy and MALDI-TOF-MS, respectively - verified the accuracy of our method.

  6. Rapid identification of Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei by intact cell Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation mass spectrometric typing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Burkholderia (B.) pseudomallei and B. mallei are genetically closely related species. B. pseudomallei causes melioidosis in humans and animals, whereas B. mallei is the causative agent of glanders in equines and rarely also in humans. Both agents have been classified by the CDC as priority category B biological agents. Rapid identification is crucial, because both agents are intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has the potential of rapid and reliable identification of pathogens, but is limited by the availability of a database containing validated reference spectra. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of MALDI-TOF MS for the rapid and reliable identification and differentiation of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei and to build up a reliable reference database for both organisms. Results A collection of ten B. pseudomallei and seventeen B. mallei strains was used to generate a library of reference spectra. Samples of both species could be identified by MALDI-TOF MS, if a dedicated subset of the reference spectra library was used. In comparison with samples representing B. mallei, higher genetic diversity among B. pseudomallei was reflected in the higher average Eucledian distances between the mass spectra and a broader range of identification score values obtained with commercial software for the identification of microorganisms. The type strain of B. pseudomallei (ATCC 23343) was isolated decades ago and is outstanding in the spectrum-based dendrograms probably due to massive methylations as indicated by two intensive series of mass increments of 14 Da specifically and reproducibly found in the spectra of this strain. Conclusions Handling of pathogens under BSL 3 conditions is dangerous and cumbersome but can be minimized by inactivation of bacteria with ethanol, subsequent protein extraction under BSL 1 conditions and MALDI-TOF MS analysis being faster than

  7. Nemopilema nomurai Jellyfish venom treatment leads to alterations in rat cardiomyocytes proteome.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Indu; Lee, Hyunkyoung; Pyo, Min-Jung; Heo, Yunwi; Bae, Seong Kyeong; Kwon, Young Chul; Yoon, Won Duk; Kang, Changkeun; Kim, Euikyung

    2015-12-01

    This data article restrains data associated to the Choudhary et al. [1]. Nemopilema nomurai Jellyfish venom (NnV) can lead to cardiac toxicity. Here we analyzed the effect of NnV on rat cardiomyocytes cell line H9c2 at the proteome level using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). This analysis resulted in 34 proteins with differential expression. Here we provide the dataset for the proteins with amplified or reduced level as compare to control. PMID:26702416

  8. Purification and characterization of a novel antimicrobial peptide from sheep reproductive tract.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Ku, Chaofeng; Bo, Xinwen; Wang, Xinhua

    2015-02-01

    A novel antimicrobial peptide, SRTAP-40 has been purified and characterized from sheep reproductive tract. The isolation procedure entailed acetic acid extraction, gel filtration chromatography, and HPLC. SRTAP-40 is composed of 40 amino acid residues with a MW of 4,820.47 Da from MALDI-TOF-MS. Its N-terminal sequence was AYVLDEPKP. SRTAP-40 cDNA was cloned by 3'-RACE. SRTAP-40 showed activity against E. coli Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sp. and, Candida albicans with MIC values of 12, 12, 24, 6 μg/ml, respectively. By BLAST search, SRTAP-40 had no significant similarity to any known peptide. PMID:25257597

  9. Arsenic resistance operon structure in Leptospirillum ferriphilum and proteomic response to arsenic stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Lin, Jianqun; Mi, Shuang; Lin, Jianqiang

    2010-12-01

    The response of Leptospirillum ferriphilum ML-04 to arsenic stress was analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Thirty-eight of 65 significantly differentially expressed arsenic response proteins were identified, and 25 of them have known functions. Three proteins are arsenic resistance system (ARS) member proteins. Two ars operons appear to be present in this strain. In addition to the ARS system, phosphate regulation and glutathione (GSH) synthesis appear involved in As[V] and As[III] tolerance, respectively. These findings provide information potentially useful for the genetic engineering of arsenic resistant organisms. PMID:20696570

  10. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PRIMARY AMINE ??- FUNCTIONALIZED POLYSTYRENE

    SciTech Connect

    Messman, Jamie M; Pickel, Deanna L; Uhrig, David; Mays, Jimmy

    2009-01-01

    We have examined the usefulness of high vacuum techniques to synthesize primary amine-terminated polystyrene. End-capping living polystyryl lithium with 1-(3-bromopropyl)-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1-aza-2,5-disilacyclopentane using an appropriate amount of THF as cosolvent affords quantitative end groups as evidenced by MALDI-TOF MS. Efforts are currently underway to determine the effectiveness of the end-capping reaction under various reaction conditions as well as to further characterize PS-NH2 using 13C NMR spectroscopy.

  11. Comparative analysis of barley leaf proteome as affected by drought stress.

    PubMed

    Ashoub, Ahmed; Beckhaus, Tobias; Berberich, Thomas; Karas, Michael; Brüggemann, Wolfgang

    2013-03-01

    The adaptive response of Egyptian barley land races to drought stress was analyzed using difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE). Physiological measurements and proteome alterations of accession number 15141, drought tolerant, and accession number 15163, drought sensitive, were compared. Differentially expressed proteins were subjected to MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. Alterations in proteins related to the energy balance and chaperons were the most characteristic features to explain the differences between the drought-tolerant and the drought-sensitive accessions. Further alterations in the levels of proteins involved in metabolism, transcription and protein synthesis are also indicated.

  12. Immobilized endoproteinase Glu-C to magnetic bead cellulose as a tool in proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Prikryl, Petr; Ticha, Marie; Kucerova, Zdenka

    2013-06-01

    Magnetic bead cellulose activated with divinyl sulfone was used for the immobilization of Staphylococcus aureus endoproteinase Glu-C (EC 3.4.21.19). The immobilized proteinase was characterized by increased thermostability, by decreased self-cleavage activity, and a possibility of repeated use. The prepared immobilized enzyme was applied for the proteolytic cleavage of α-casein and BSA under different conditions (different composition of buffers, different pH, and different time of digestion). The possibilities of the direct use of enzyme reaction products for MALDI TOF MS analysis were shown. PMID:23576383

  13. Characterization of Achromobacter Species in Cystic Fibrosis Patients: Comparison of blaOXA-114 PCR Amplification, Multilocus Sequence Typing, and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Elenice R. A.; Ferreira, Alex G.; Leão, Robson S.; Leite, Cassiana C. F.; Carvalho-Assef, Ana Paula; Albano, Rodolpho M.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular methodologies were used to identify 28 Achromobacter spp. from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) identified 17 Achromobacter xylosoxidans isolates (all blaOXA-114 positive), nine Achromobacter ruhlandii isolates (all blaOXA-114 positive), one Achromobacter dolens isolate, and one Achromobacter insuavis isolate. All less common species were misidentified as A. xylosoxidans by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Chronic colonization by clonally related A. ruhlandii isolates was demonstrated. PMID:26400790

  14. [Diagnostic and therapeutic approach of intraabdominal candidiasis].

    PubMed

    Montero, A; Gilsanz, F; Maseda, E

    2016-09-01

    Invasive fungal disease is associated to a high mortality rate on critical ill patients. In the last decades an important epidemiological shift has been described. Early diagnosis and treatment are related with a better prognosis. The key factors lie in a set of predictive scores that allow to identify patients that will benefit of early treatment, as well as using diagnosis techniques that are culture independent. New diagnosis approximations are being developed with promising results: in situ hybridisation using PNA-FISH probes, MALDI-TOF MS and rapid nucleic acids detection assays. The use of echinocandin is recommended as antifungal therapy on critical ill patients with candida peritonitis. PMID:27608315

  15. N-glycosylation analysis by HPAEC-PAD and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kandzia, Sebastian; Costa, Júlia

    2013-01-01

    Changes in protein glycosylation are a hallmark of most types of cancer including ovarian carcinoma. The structural elucidation of glycans is technically challenging and it requires complementary chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques among others. Here, we describe the profiling of N-glycans from glycoproteins of SKOV3 ovarian carcinoma cells by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Mass spectrometry as a complementary method enables precise mass determination of N-glycan mixtures thus corroborating data obtained from HPAEC-PAD mapping in conjunction with reference oligosaccharide structures.

  16. Phenotypical and Genotypical Properties of an Arcanobacterium pluranimalium Strain Isolated from a Juvenile Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).

    PubMed

    Risse, Karin; Schlez, Karen; Eisenberg, Tobias; Geiger, Christina; Balbutskaya, Anna; Sammra, Osama; Lämmler, Christoph; Abdulmawjood, Amir

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to characterize phenotypically and genotypically an Arcanobacterium pluranimalium strain (A. pluranimalium 4868) following necropsy from a juvenile giraffe. The species identity could be confirmed by phenotypical investigations and by MALDI-TOF MS analysis, by sequencing the 16S rDNA, pluranimaliumlysin encoding gene pla, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase encoding gene gap with sequence similarities to A. pluranimalium reference strain DSM 13483(T) of 99.2%, 89.9%, and 99.1%, respectively. To our knowledge, the present study is the first phenotypic and genotypic characterization of an A. pluranimalium strain isolated from a giraffe. PMID:26464930

  17. First Report of Mycobacterium canariasense Catheter-Related Bacteremia in the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Ladutko, Lynn; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A.; Vasireddy, Ravikiran; Vasireddy, Sruthi; Wallace, Richard J.; Jakubiec, Wesley; Brecher, Stephen; Campbell, Sheldon

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium canariasense is a recently described late-pigmenting, rapidly growing mycobacterium linked to bacteremia in patients with underlying malignant diseases. We report a case of M. canariasense infection in a patient from Massachusetts with underlying diffuse B cell lymphoma, which was identified both by multilocus sequence typing and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). To our knowledge, this is the first description after its original identification in Spain and the first report of this opportunistic pathogen in the Americas. PMID:24740075

  18. Rapid Identification of Positive Blood Cultures by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Using Prewarmed Agar Plates

    PubMed Central

    Bhatti, M. M.; Boonlayangoor, S.; Beavis, K. G.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes an inexpensive and straightforward method for identifying bacteria by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) directly from positive blood cultures using prewarmed agar plates. Different inoculation methods and incubation times were evaluated to determine the optimal conditions. The two methods using pelleted material from positive culture bottles performed best. In particular, the pellet streak method correctly identified 94% of the Gram negatives following 4 h of incubation and 98% of the Gram positives following 6 h of incubation. PMID:25232166

  19. Rapid identification of positive blood cultures by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry using prewarmed agar plates.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, M M; Boonlayangoor, S; Beavis, K G; Tesic, V

    2014-12-01

    This study describes an inexpensive and straightforward method for identifying bacteria by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) directly from positive blood cultures using prewarmed agar plates. Different inoculation methods and incubation times were evaluated to determine the optimal conditions. The two methods using pelleted material from positive culture bottles performed best. In particular, the pellet streak method correctly identified 94% of the Gram negatives following 4 h of incubation and 98% of the Gram positives following 6 h of incubation.

  20. Verification of a Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Method for Diagnostic Identification of High-Consequence Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Tracz, Dobryan M.; Antonation, Kym S.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the utility of a single matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry method for the identification of security-sensitive biological agents (risk group 3 bacterial pathogens). The goal was 2-fold: to verify a method for inclusion into our scope of accreditation, and to assess the biological safety of extractions. We developed our sample flow to include a tube-based chemical extraction, followed by filtration, before processing on MALDI-TOF MS instruments in a containment level 2 laboratory. PMID:26677252

  1. System design description for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster Skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    The primary purpose of the two 1,000 CFM Exhauster Skids, POR-007-SKID E and POR-008-SKID F, is to provide backup to the waste tank primary ventilation systems for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102, and the AY-102 annulus in the event of a failure during the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 and subsequent transfer of sluiced waste to 241-AY-102. This redundancy is required since both of the tank ventilation systems have been declared as Safety Class systems.

  2. Identification of Porphyromonas gingivalis proteins secreted by the Por secretion system.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Narita, Yuka; Shoji, Mikio; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis possesses a number of potential virulence factors for periodontopathogenicity. In particular, cysteine proteinases named gingipains are of interest given their abilities to degrade host proteins and process other virulence factors such as fimbriae. Gingipains are translocated on the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu by the Por secretion system (PorSS), which consists of a number of membrane or periplasmic proteins including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorO, PorP, PorQ, PorT, PorU, PorV (PG27, LptO), PorW and Sov. To identify proteins other than gingipains secreted by the PorSS, we compared the proteomes of P. gingivalis strains kgp rgpA rgpB (PorSS-proficient strain) and kgp rgpA rgpB porK (PorSS-deficient strain) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide-mass fingerprinting. Sixteen spots representing 10 different proteins were present in the particle-free culture supernatant of the PorSS-proficient strain but were absent or faint in that of the PorSS-deficient strain. These identified proteins possessed the C-terminal domains (CTDs), which had been suggested to form the CTD protein family. These results indicate that the PorSS is used for secretion of a number of proteins other than gingipains and that the CTDs of the proteins are associated with the PorSS-dependent secretion. PMID:23075153

  3. Identification of Porphyromonas gingivalis proteins secreted by the Por secretion system.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Narita, Yuka; Shoji, Mikio; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis possesses a number of potential virulence factors for periodontopathogenicity. In particular, cysteine proteinases named gingipains are of interest given their abilities to degrade host proteins and process other virulence factors such as fimbriae. Gingipains are translocated on the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu by the Por secretion system (PorSS), which consists of a number of membrane or periplasmic proteins including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorO, PorP, PorQ, PorT, PorU, PorV (PG27, LptO), PorW and Sov. To identify proteins other than gingipains secreted by the PorSS, we compared the proteomes of P. gingivalis strains kgp rgpA rgpB (PorSS-proficient strain) and kgp rgpA rgpB porK (PorSS-deficient strain) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide-mass fingerprinting. Sixteen spots representing 10 different proteins were present in the particle-free cultu