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Sample records for por moraxella catarrhalis

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Moraxella catarrhalis Type Strain CCUG 353T.

    PubMed

    Jakobsson, Hedvig E; Salvà-Serra, Francisco; Thorell, Kaisa; Gonzales-Siles, Lucia; Boulund, Fredrik; Karlsson, Roger; Sikora, Per; Engstrand, Lars; Kristiansson, Erik; Moore, Edward R B

    2016-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a Gram-negative commensal and pathogenic bacterium found in the human respiratory tract. It is associated with otitis media and respiratory tract infections. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of M. catarrhalis type strain CCUG 353(T), composed of 18 contigs and a total size of 1.89 Mb. PMID:27313296

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Moraxella catarrhalis Type Strain CCUG 353T

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsson, Hedvig E.; Gonzales-Siles, Lucia; Boulund, Fredrik; Karlsson, Roger; Sikora, Per; Kristiansson, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a Gram-negative commensal and pathogenic bacterium found in the human respiratory tract. It is associated with otitis media and respiratory tract infections. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of M. catarrhalis type strain CCUG 353T, composed of 18 contigs and a total size of 1.89 Mb. PMID:27313296

  3. Comparison of restriction enzymes for pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing of Moraxella catarrhalis.

    PubMed

    Marti, Sara; Puig, Carmen; Domenech, Arnau; Liñares, Josefina; Ardanuy, Carmen

    2013-07-01

    NotI, the most prevalent restriction enzyme used for typing Moraxella catarrhalis, failed to digest genomic DNA from respiratory samples. An improved pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) methodology determined SpeI as the best choice for typing this bacterial species, with a good restriction of clinical samples and a good clustering correlation with NotI.

  4. Moraxella catarrhalis Expresses a Cardiolipin Synthase That Impacts Adherence to Human Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Buskirk, Sean W.

    2014-01-01

    The major phospholipid constituents of Moraxella catarrhalis membranes are phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and cardiolipin (CL). However, very little is known regarding the synthesis and function of these phospholipids in M. catarrhalis. In this study, we discovered that M. catarrhalis expresses a cardiolipin synthase (CLS), termed MclS, that is responsible for the synthesis of CL within the bacterium. The nucleotide sequence of mclS is highly conserved among M. catarrhalis isolates and is predicted to encode a protein with significant amino acid similarity to the recently characterized YmdC/ClsC protein of Escherichia coli. Isogenic mclS mutant strains were generated in M. catarrhalis isolates O35E, O12E, and McGHS1 and contained no observable levels of CL. Site-directed mutagenesis of a highly conserved HKD motif of MclS also resulted in a CL-deficient strain. Moraxella catarrhalis, which depends on adherence to epithelial cells for colonization of the human host, displays significantly reduced levels of adherence to HEp-2 and A549 cell lines in the mclS mutant strains compared to wild-type bacteria. The reduction in adherence appears to be attributed to the absence of CL. These findings mark the first instance in which a CLS has been related to a virulence-associated trait. PMID:24142255

  5. Respiratory syncytial virus promotes Moraxella catarrhalis-induced ascending experimental otitis media.

    PubMed

    Brockson, M Elizabeth; Novotny, Laura A; Jurcisek, Joseph A; McGillivary, Glen; Bowers, Martha R; Bakaletz, Lauren O

    2012-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) is a polymicrobial disease wherein prior or concurrent infection with an upper respiratory tract virus plays an essential role, predisposing the middle ear to bacterial invasion. In episodes of acute bacterial OM, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most commonly isolated virus and thus serves as an important co-pathogen. Of the predominant bacterial agents of OM, the pathogenesis of disease due to Moraxella catarrhalis is the least well understood. Rigorous study of M. catarrhalis in the context of OM has been significantly hindered by lack of an animal model. To bridge this gap, we assessed whether co-infection of chinchillas with M. catarrhalis and RSV would facilitate ascension of M. catarrhalis from the nasopharynx into the middle ear. Chinchillas were challenged intranasally with M. catarrhalis followed 48 hours later by intranasal challenge with RSV. Within 7 days, 100% of nasopharynges were colonized with M. catarrhalis and homogenates of middle ear mucosa were also culture-positive. Moreover, within the middle ear space, the mucosa exhibited hemorrhagic foci, and a small volume of serosanguinous effusion was present in one of six ears. To improve upon this model, and based on epidemiologic data, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) was included as an additional bacterial co-pathogen via intranasal administration four days before M. catarrhalis challenge. With this latter protocol, M. catarrhalis was cultured from the nasopharynx and middle ear homogenates of a maximum of 88% and 79% animals, respectively, for up to 17 days after intranasal challenge with M. catarrhalis. Additionally, hemorrhagic foci were observed in 79% of middle ears upon sacrifice. Thus, these data demonstrated that co-infection with RSV and NTHI predisposed to M. catarrhalis-induced ascending experimental OM. This model can be used both in studies of pathogenesis as well as to investigate strategies to prevent or treat OM due to M. catarrhalis.

  6. Development of a LacZ-based transcriptional reporter system for use with Moraxella catarrhalis.

    PubMed

    Evans, Amanda S; Pybus, Christine; Hansen, Eric J

    2013-03-01

    The lack of a transcriptional reporter system for use in Moraxella catarrhalis has hindered studies of gene regulation in this pathogen. PCR and recombinant DNA methods were used to insert a multicloning site (MCS) and promoterless full-length Escherichia coli lacZ gene, flanked by transcriptional terminators both immediately upstream and downstream, into the M. catarrhalis recombinant plasmid pWW115. Insertion into the MCS in the newly constructed plasmid pASE222 of M. catarrhalis promoter regions controlled by either a repressor (i.e., NsrR) or activator (i.e., PhoB) yielded transcriptional fusion constructs that were appropriately responsive to signal inputs dependent on the host strain genotype, as measured quantitatively by means of a Miller β-galactosidase assay. The transcriptional reporter plasmid pASE222 should prove to be a useful tool for rapid screening of factors affecting gene expression in M. catarrhalis. PMID:23219721

  7. In Vitro Activity of Delafloxacin Tested against Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Robert K; Rhomberg, Paul R; Huband, Michael D; Farrell, David J

    2016-10-01

    Delafloxacin, an investigational anionic fluoroquinolone, is active against a broad range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, 200 Streptococcus pneumoniae (plus 30 levofloxacin-resistant isolates), 200 Haemophilus influenzae, and 100 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates selected primarily from the United States (2014) were tested against delafloxacin and comparator agents. Delafloxacin was the most potent agent tested. MIC50 and MIC90 values against all S. pneumoniae isolates were 0.008 and 0.015 μg/ml. Delafloxacin susceptibility was not affected by β-lactamase status against H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis.

  8. Nutrient agar with sodium chloride supplementation for presumptive detection of Moraxella catarrhalis in clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Saito, Ryoichi; Chida, Toshio; Sano, Kazumitsu; Tsuchiya, Tatsuyuki; Okamura, Noboru

    2012-04-01

    We previously reported that Nissui nutrient agar (N medium) promoted the growth of Moraxella catarrhalis but not commensal Neisseria spp. In the present study, we examined which constituent of N medium was responsible for the selective growth of M. catarrhalis using 209 M. catarrhalis and 100 commensal Neisseria spp. clinical strains. We found that peptone, but not meat extract or agar of N medium, had growth-promoting or growth-inhibiting ability with respect to M. catarrhalis and commensal Neisseria spp. Thus, we investigated the amino acid content of N peptone and found it had higher concentrations of amino acids than other commercial peptone products. On varying the sodium chloride concentration of reconstituted N medium, we noted that the concentration was an important factor in bacterial growth differences. Varying the sodium chloride concentration of other commercial nutrient agars achieved similar results to those for N medium. This is, to our knowledge, the first study observing that sodium chloride concentration is responsible for difference in growth between the two organisms. We also successfully isolated colonies of M. catarrhalis from respiratory specimens on N medium, whereas the growth of commensal Neisseria spp. was inhibited, and by adding bovine hematin and β-NAD we were able to isolate Haemophilus influenzae colonies as efficiently as with a chocolate agar. In conclusion, nutrient agar can be used as a medium for the preferential isolation of M. catarrhalis from upper respiratory tract specimens.

  9. Moraxella catarrhalis Might Be More Common than Expected in Acute Otitis Media in Young Finnish Children.

    PubMed

    Sillanpää, Saara; Oikarinen, Sami; Sipilä, Markku; Kramna, Lenka; Rautiainen, Markus; Huhtala, Heini; Aittoniemi, Janne; Laranne, Jussi; Hyöty, Heikki; Cinek, Ondrej

    2016-09-01

    According to studies based on bacterial cultures of middle ear fluids, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis have been the most common pathogens in acute otitis media. However, bacterial culture can be affected by reduced viability or suboptimal growth of bacteria. PCR detects bacterial DNA from samples with greater sensitivity than culture. In the present study, we analyzed the middle ear pathogens with both conventional culture and semiquantitative real-time PCR in 90 middle ear fluid samples obtained from children aged 5 to 42 months during acute otitis media episodes. Samples were tested for the presence of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, Alloiococcus otitidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa One or more bacterial pathogens were detected in 42 (47%) samples with culture and in 69 (77%) samples with PCR. According to PCR analysis, M. catarrhalis results were positive in 42 (47%) samples, H. influenzae in 30 (33%), S. pneumoniae in 27 (30%), A. otitidis in 6 (6.7%), S. aureus in 5 (5.6%), and P. aeruginosa in 1 (1.1%). Multibacterial etiology was seen in 34 (38%) samples, and M. catarrhalis was detected in most (85%) of those cases. Fifteen signals for M. catarrhalis were strong, suggesting a highly probable etiological role of the pathogen. In conclusion, even though M. catarrhalis is often a part of mixed flora in acute otitis media, a considerable proportion of cases may be primarily attributable to this pathogen. PMID:27413187

  10. Moraxella catarrhalis Might Be More Common than Expected in Acute Otitis Media in Young Finnish Children.

    PubMed

    Sillanpää, Saara; Oikarinen, Sami; Sipilä, Markku; Kramna, Lenka; Rautiainen, Markus; Huhtala, Heini; Aittoniemi, Janne; Laranne, Jussi; Hyöty, Heikki; Cinek, Ondrej

    2016-09-01

    According to studies based on bacterial cultures of middle ear fluids, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis have been the most common pathogens in acute otitis media. However, bacterial culture can be affected by reduced viability or suboptimal growth of bacteria. PCR detects bacterial DNA from samples with greater sensitivity than culture. In the present study, we analyzed the middle ear pathogens with both conventional culture and semiquantitative real-time PCR in 90 middle ear fluid samples obtained from children aged 5 to 42 months during acute otitis media episodes. Samples were tested for the presence of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, Alloiococcus otitidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa One or more bacterial pathogens were detected in 42 (47%) samples with culture and in 69 (77%) samples with PCR. According to PCR analysis, M. catarrhalis results were positive in 42 (47%) samples, H. influenzae in 30 (33%), S. pneumoniae in 27 (30%), A. otitidis in 6 (6.7%), S. aureus in 5 (5.6%), and P. aeruginosa in 1 (1.1%). Multibacterial etiology was seen in 34 (38%) samples, and M. catarrhalis was detected in most (85%) of those cases. Fifteen signals for M. catarrhalis were strong, suggesting a highly probable etiological role of the pathogen. In conclusion, even though M. catarrhalis is often a part of mixed flora in acute otitis media, a considerable proportion of cases may be primarily attributable to this pathogen.

  11. Differential gene expression of Moraxella catarrhalis upon exposure to human serum

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Stefan P.W.; Bootsma, Hester J.

    2014-01-01

    The complement system is an important part of the innate defense against invading pathogens (Blom et al., 2009; [1]). The ability to resist complement-mediated killing is considered to be an important virulence trait for the human-restricted respiratory tract pathogen Moraxella catarrhalis, as most disease-associated M. catarrhalis isolates are complement-resistant (Wirth et al., 2007; [2]). Here we provide a detailed overview of the experimental methods that we have used to study the molecular basis of M. catarrhalis complement-resistance by transcriptome profiling of the bacterium upon exposure to 10% normal human serum (NHS), associated with the study of de Vries et al. published in Molecular Microbiology in 2014 [3]. PMID:26484117

  12. The macrophage response to bacteria. Modulation of macrophage functional activity by peptidoglycan from Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis.

    PubMed Central

    Keller, R; Gustafson, J E; Keist, R

    1992-01-01

    Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis organisms have been shown to be particularly efficient in inducing in a pure population of bone marrow-derived mononuclear phagocytes secretory and cellular activities. In the present study, the ability of peptidoglycan from this Gram-negative organism to trigger a macrophage response was compared with that elicited by peptidoglycan from Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The results show that the three peptidoglycans were similarly active in triggering the secretion of tumour necrosis factor and tumouricidal activity but differed considerably in their ability to induce the generation of nitrite in macrophages; in this respect, peptidoglycan from M. catarrhalis was particularly potent. The impressive capacity of M. catarrhalis peptidoglycan to induce in low concentration the secretion of tumour necrosis factor and nitrite and tumouricidal activity may, in addition to its lipopolysaccharide, contribute to the extraordinary potential of this organism to trigger the functional activities of macrophages. PMID:1516255

  13. Comprehensive Antigen Screening Identifies Moraxella catarrhalis Proteins That Induce Protection in a Mouse Pulmonary Clearance Model

    PubMed Central

    Verhaegh, Suzanne J. C.; Niebisch, Axel; Hanner, Markus; Selak, Sanja; Schüler, Wolfgang; Morfeldt, Eva; Hellberg, Christel; Nagy, Eszter; Lundberg, Urban; Hays, John P.; Meinke, Andreas; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is one of the three most common causative bacterial pathogens of otitis media, however no effective vaccine against M. catarrhalis has been developed so far. To identify M. catarrhalis vaccine candidate antigens, we used carefully selected sera from children with otitis media and healthy individuals to screen small-fragment genomic libraries that are expressed to display frame-selected peptides on a bacterial cell surface. This ANTIGENome technology led to the identification of 214 antigens, 23 of which were selected by in vitro or in vivo studies for additional characterization. Eight of the 23 candidates were tested in a Moraxella mouse pulmonary clearance model, and 3 of these antigens induced significantly faster bacterial clearance compared to adjuvant or to the previously characterized antigen OmpCD. The most significant protection data were obtained with the antigen MCR_1416 (Msp22), which was further investigated for its biological function by in vitro studies suggesting that Msp22 is a heme binding protein. This study comprises one of the most exhaustive studies to identify potential vaccine candidate antigens against the bacterial pathogen M. catarrhalis. PMID:23671716

  14. The Respiratory Pathogen Moraxella catarrhalis Targets Collagen for Maximal Adherence to Host Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Birendra; Alvarado-Kristensson, Maria; Johansson, Martin; Hallgren, Oskar; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Mörgelin, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Moraxella catarrhalis is a human respiratory pathogen that causes acute otitis media in children and is associated with exacerbations in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The first step in M. catarrhalis colonization is adherence to the mucosa, epithelial cells, and extracellular matrix (ECM). The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of M. catarrhalis interactions with collagens from various angles. Clinical isolates (n = 43) were tested for collagen binding, followed by a detailed analysis of protein-protein interactions using recombinantly expressed proteins. M. catarrhalis-dependent interactions with collagen produced by human lung fibroblasts and tracheal tissues were studied by utilizing confocal immunohistochemistry and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. A mouse smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) model was used to estimate the adherence of M. catarrhalis in vivo. We found that all M. catarrhalis clinical isolates tested adhered to fibrillar collagen types I, II, and III and network-forming collagens IV and VI. The trimeric autotransporter adhesins ubiquitous surface protein A2 (UspA2) and UspA2H were identified as major collagen-binding receptors. M. catarrhalis wild type adhered to human tracheal tissue and collagen-producing lung fibroblasts, whereas UspA2 and UspA2H deletion mutants did not. Moreover, in the COPD mouse model, bacteria devoid of UspA2 and UspA2H had a reduced level of adherence to the respiratory tract compared to the adherence of wild-type bacteria. Our data therefore suggest that the M. catarrhalis UspA2 and UspA2H-dependent interaction with collagens is highly critical for adherence in the host and, furthermore, may play an important role in the establishment of disease. PMID:27006460

  15. Molecular characterization of clinical isolates of Moraxella catarrhalis by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Theoga Raj, Christol James; Shankar, Esaki Muthu; Rothan, Hussin A; Rao, Usha Anand

    2014-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis, a less virulent microorganism that colonizes the upper respiratory tract, has recently been associated with lower respiratory disease, especially in HIV-positive immunocompromised individuals and children. Here, we correlated the DNA clustering pattern of 24 clinical isolates of M. catarrhalis for β-lactamase production and drug resistance, from different disease groups using three different arbitrarily selected primers, P1 (5'-TCACGATGCA-3'), P14 (5'-GATCAAGTCC-3') and P17 (5'-GATCTGACAC-3'). M. catarrhalis revealed three distinct banding patterns with primer P1, four with P14 and P17. 71% (n = 17) of the isolates revealed pattern 2 with primer P1, which discriminated majority (12/21) of the isolates grouped under the major branch of the dendrogram. The minor branch had only three isolates. Separation of M. catarrhalis into two subpopulations (major and minor clusters) with primer P1 is suggestive of diverse genetic lineage. A high level of concordance between RAPD and antibiotic profile was observed. Clustering of M. catarrhalis recovered from different disease groups reflect the identical clinical background or the common geographical/temporal factors. The presence or absence of β-lactamase in a cluster confirmed their single source of origin.

  16. Role of the Zinc Uptake ABC Transporter of Moraxella catarrhalis in Persistence in the Respiratory Tract

    PubMed Central

    Brauer, Aimee L.; Kirkham, Charmaine; Johnson, Antoinette; Koszelak-Rosenblum, Mary; Malkowski, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a human respiratory tract pathogen that causes otitis media in children and lower respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We have identified and characterized a zinc uptake ABC transporter that is present in all strains of M. catarrhalis tested. A mutant in which the znu gene cluster is knocked out shows markedly impaired growth compared to the wild type in medium that contains trace zinc; growth is restored to wild-type levels by supplementing medium with zinc but not with other divalent cations. Thermal-shift assays showed that the purified recombinant substrate binding protein ZnuA binds zinc but does not bind other divalent cations. Invasion assays with human respiratory epithelial cells demonstrated that the zinc ABC transporter of M. catarrhalis is critical for invasion of respiratory epithelial cells, an observation that is especially relevant because an intracellular reservoir of M. catarrhalis is present in the human respiratory tract and this reservoir is important for persistence. The znu knockout mutant showed marked impairment in its capacity to persist in the respiratory tract compared to the wild type in a mouse pulmonary clearance model. We conclude that the zinc uptake ABC transporter mediates uptake of zinc in environments with very low zinc concentrations and is critical for full virulence of M. catarrhalis in the respiratory tract in facilitating intracellular invasion of epithelial cells and persistence in the respiratory tract. PMID:23817618

  17. Characterization of the Molecular Interplay between Moraxella catarrhalis and Human Respiratory Tract Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Stefan P. W.; Eleveld, Marc J.; Hermans, Peter W. M.; Bootsma, Hester J.

    2013-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a mucosal pathogen that causes childhood otitis media and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults. During the course of infection, M. catarrhalis needs to adhere to epithelial cells of different host niches such as the nasopharynx and lungs, and consequently, efficient adhesion to epithelial cells is considered an important virulence trait of M. catarrhalis. By using Tn-seq, a genome-wide negative selection screenings technology, we identified 15 genes potentially required for adherence of M. catarrhalis BBH18 to pharyngeal epithelial Detroit 562 and lung epithelial A549 cells. Validation with directed deletion mutants confirmed the importance of aroA (3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyl-transferase), ecnAB (entericidin EcnAB), lgt1 (glucosyltransferase), and MCR_1483 (outer membrane lipoprotein) for cellular adherence, with ΔMCR_1483 being most severely attenuated in adherence to both cell lines. Expression profiling of M. catarrhalis BBH18 during adherence to Detroit 562 cells showed increased expression of 34 genes in cell-attached versus planktonic bacteria, among which ABC transporters for molybdate and sulfate, while reduced expression of 16 genes was observed. Notably, neither the newly identified genes affecting adhesion nor known adhesion genes were differentially expressed during adhesion, but appeared to be constitutively expressed at a high level. Profiling of the transcriptional response of Detroit 562 cells upon adherence of M. catarrhalis BBH18 showed induction of a panel of pro-inflammatory genes as well as genes involved in the prevention of damage of the epithelial barrier. In conclusion, this study provides new insight into the molecular interplay between M. catarrhalis and host epithelial cells during the process of adherence. PMID:23936538

  18. Conservation of Outer Membrane Protein E among Strains of Moraxella catarrhalis

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Timothy F.; Brauer, Aimee L.; Yuskiw, Norine; McNamara, Erin R.; Kirkham, Charmaine

    2001-01-01

    Outer membrane protein E (OMP E) is a 50-kDa protein of Moraxella catarrhalis which has several features that suggest that the protein may be an effective vaccine antigen. To assess the conservation of OMP E among strains of M. catarrhalis, 22 isolates were studied with eight monoclonal antibodies which recognize epitopes on different regions of the protein. Eighteen of 22 strains were reactive with all eight antibodies. The sequences of ompE from 16 strains of M. catarrhalis were determined, including the 4 strains which were nonreactive with selected monoclonal antibodies. Analysis of sequences indicate a high degree of conservation among strains, with sequence differences clustered in limited regions of the gene. To assess the stability of ompE during colonization of the human respiratory tract, the sequences of ompE of isolates collected from patients colonized with the same strain for 3 to 9 months were determined. The sequences remained unchanged. These results indicate that OMP E is highly conserved among strains of M. catarrhalis, and preliminary studies indicate that the gene which encodes OMP E remains stable during colonization of the human respiratory tract. PMID:11349016

  19. [THE PATHOGENIC POTENTIAL OF MORAXELLA CATARRHALIS AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS UNDER INFLAMMATORY PROCESSES OF UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACTS].

    PubMed

    Kraeva, L A; Burgasova, O A; Kunilova, E S; Petrova, I S; Tseneva, G Ya; Bespalova, G L

    2015-11-01

    The frequent isolation from biological material of Moraxella catarrhalis under bronchitis and pneumonia and Staphilococcus epidermidis under rhinitis and sinusitis requires profound investigation offactors ofpathogenicity ofthe mentioned microorganisms. The genetic and phenotypic markers of virulence of strains M. catarrhalis and S. epidermidis are examined. Their etiologic role in development of infection processes of respiratory tract and middle ear is determined The most of M catarrhalis strains isolated under bronchitis and pneumonia have gene mcaP responsiblefor production ofprotein McaP that provides adhesion to epithelium cell of host and lipolitic activity of bacteria. The strains isolated from patients with pneumonia had the most adhesive activity. The cluster of genes ICA with leading role of gene icaA is responsible for for availability offactors of intercellular adhesion in Staphilococci strains. In the clinical samples from patients with sinusitis this gene is detected 5 times more frequently than from healthy individuals. In phenotypic tests, expression of gene icaA in S. epidermidis isolated from patients is three times higher than in strains isolated from healthy individuals. To establish etiologic role of M. catarrhalis and S. epidermidis and to develop tactic of therapy of patients with bronchitis, pneumonia and sinusitis complex approach is needed, including detection of genetic and phenotypic markers of virulence in isolated microorganisms.

  20. [THE PATHOGENIC POTENTIAL OF MORAXELLA CATARRHALIS AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS UNDER INFLAMMATORY PROCESSES OF UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACTS].

    PubMed

    Kraeva, L A; Burgasova, O A; Kunilova, E S; Petrova, I S; Tseneva, G Ya; Bespalova, G L

    2015-11-01

    The frequent isolation from biological material of Moraxella catarrhalis under bronchitis and pneumonia and Staphilococcus epidermidis under rhinitis and sinusitis requires profound investigation offactors ofpathogenicity ofthe mentioned microorganisms. The genetic and phenotypic markers of virulence of strains M. catarrhalis and S. epidermidis are examined. Their etiologic role in development of infection processes of respiratory tract and middle ear is determined The most of M catarrhalis strains isolated under bronchitis and pneumonia have gene mcaP responsiblefor production ofprotein McaP that provides adhesion to epithelium cell of host and lipolitic activity of bacteria. The strains isolated from patients with pneumonia had the most adhesive activity. The cluster of genes ICA with leading role of gene icaA is responsible for for availability offactors of intercellular adhesion in Staphilococci strains. In the clinical samples from patients with sinusitis this gene is detected 5 times more frequently than from healthy individuals. In phenotypic tests, expression of gene icaA in S. epidermidis isolated from patients is three times higher than in strains isolated from healthy individuals. To establish etiologic role of M. catarrhalis and S. epidermidis and to develop tactic of therapy of patients with bronchitis, pneumonia and sinusitis complex approach is needed, including detection of genetic and phenotypic markers of virulence in isolated microorganisms. PMID:26999868

  1. Synthesis and characterization of lipooligosaccharide-based conjugates as vaccine candidates for Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis.

    PubMed

    Gu, X X; Chen, J; Barenkamp, S J; Robbins, J B; Tsai, C M; Lim, D J; Battey, J

    1998-05-01

    Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis is an important cause of otitis media and sinusitis in children and of lower respiratory tract infections in adults. Lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is a major surface antigen of the bacterium and elicits bactericidal antibodies. Treatment of the LOS from strain ATCC 25238 with anhydrous hydrazine reduced its toxicity 20,000-fold, as assayed in the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) test. The detoxified LOS (dLOS) was coupled to tetanus toxoid (TT) or high-molecular-weight proteins (HMP) from nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae through a linker of adipic acid dihydrazide to form dLOS-TT or dLOS-HMP. The molar ratios of dLOS to TT and HMP conjugates were 19:1 and 31:1, respectively. The antigenicity of the two conjugates was similar to that of the LOS, as determined by double immunodiffusion. Subcutaneous or intramuscular injection of both conjugates elicited a 50- to 100-fold rise in the geometric mean of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to the homologous LOS in mice after three injections and a 350- to 700-fold rise of anti-LOS IgG in rabbits after two injections. The immunogenicity of the conjugate was enhanced by formulation with monophosphoryl lipid A plus trehalose dimycolate. In rabbits, conjugate-induced antisera had complement-mediated bactericidal activity against the homologous strain and heterologous strains of M. catarrhalis. These results indicate that a detoxified LOS-protein conjugate is a candidate for immunization against M. catarrhalis diseases. PMID:9573066

  2. Moraxella catarrhalis uses a twin-arginine translocation system to secrete the β-lactamase BRO-2

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Moraxella catarrhalis is a human-specific gram-negative bacterium readily isolated from the respiratory tract of healthy individuals. The organism also causes significant health problems, including 15-20% of otitis media cases in children and ~10% of respiratory infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The lack of an efficacious vaccine, the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates, and high carriage rates reported in children are cause for concern. Virtually all Moraxella catarrhalis isolates are resistant to β-lactam antibiotics, which are generally the first antibiotics prescribed to treat otitis media in children. The enzymes responsible for this resistance, BRO-1 and BRO-2, are lipoproteins and the mechanism by which they are secreted to the periplasm of M. catarrhalis cells has not been described. Results Comparative genomic analyses identified M. catarrhalis gene products resembling the TatA, TatB, and TatC proteins of the well-characterized Twin Arginine Translocation (TAT) secretory apparatus. Mutations in the M. catarrhalis tatA, tatB and tatC genes revealed that the proteins are necessary for optimal growth and resistance to β-lactams. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to replace highly-conserved twin arginine residues in the predicted signal sequence of M. catarrhalis strain O35E BRO-2, which abolished resistance to the β-lactam antibiotic carbanecillin. Conclusions Moraxella catarrhalis possesses a TAT secretory apparatus, which plays a key role in growth of the organism and is necessary for secretion of BRO-2 into the periplasm where the enzyme can protect the peptidoglycan cell wall from the antimicrobial activity of β-lactam antibiotics. PMID:23782650

  3. Expression of the Oligopeptide Permease Operon of Moraxella catarrhalis Is Regulated by Temperature and Nutrient Availability

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Megan M.

    2015-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis causes otitis media in children and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults. Together, these two conditions contribute to enormous morbidity and mortality worldwide. The oligopeptide permease (opp) ABC transport system is a nutritional virulence factor important for the utilization of peptides. The substrate binding protein OppA, which binds peptides for uptake, is a potential vaccine antigen, but little was known about the regulation of gene expression. The five opp genes oppB, oppC, oppD, oppF, and oppA are in the same open reading frame. Sequence analysis predicted two promoters, one located upstream of oppB and one within the intergenic region between oppF and oppA. We have characterized the gene cluster as an operon with two functional promoters and show that cold shock at 26°C for ≤0.5 h and the presence of a peptide substrate increase gene transcript levels. Additionally, the putative promoter upstream of oppA contributes to the transcription of oppA but is not influenced by the same environmental cues as the promoter upstream of oppB. We conclude that temperature and nutrient availability contribute to the regulation of the Opp system, which is an important nutritional virulence factor in M. catarrhalis. PMID:26099587

  4. Substrate Binding Protein SBP2 of a Putative ABC Transporter as a Novel Vaccine Antigen of Moraxella catarrhalis

    PubMed Central

    Otsuka, Taketo; Kirkham, Charmaine; Johnson, Antoinette; Jones, Megan M.

    2014-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a common respiratory tract pathogen that causes otitis media in children and infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Since the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines with/without protein D of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, M. catarrhalis has become a high-priority pathogen in otitis media. For the development of antibacterial vaccines and therapies, substrate binding proteins of ATP-binding cassette transporters are important targets. In this study, we identified and characterized a substrate binding protein, SBP2, of M. catarrhalis. Among 30 clinical isolates tested, the sbp2 gene sequence was highly conserved. In 2 different analyses (whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometry), polyclonal antibodies raised to recombinant SBP2 demonstrated that SBP2 expresses epitopes on the bacterial surface of the wild type but not the sbp2 mutant. Mice immunized with recombinant SBP2 showed significantly enhanced clearance of M. catarrhalis from the lung compared to that in the control group at both 25-μg and 50-μg doses (P < 0.001). We conclude that SBP2 is a novel, attractive candidate as a vaccine antigen against M. catarrhalis. PMID:24914218

  5. ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporters of the Human Respiratory Tract Pathogen, Moraxella catarrhalis: Role in Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Timothy F; Brauer, Aimee L.; Johnson, Antoinette; Kirkham, Charmaine

    2016-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a human respiratory tract pathogen that causes otitis media (middle ear infections) in children and respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In view of the huge global burden of disease caused by M. catarrhalis, the development of vaccines to prevent these infections and better approaches to treatment have become priorities. In previous work, we used a genome mining approach that identified three substrate binding proteins (SBPs) of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters as promising candidate vaccine antigens. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive assessment of 19 SBPs of 15 ABC transporter systems in the M. catarrhalis genome by engineering knockout mutants and studying their role in assays that assess mechanisms of infection. The capacity of M. catarrhalis to survive and grow in the nutrient-limited and hostile environment of the human respiratory tract, including intracellular growth, account in part for its virulence. The results show that ABC transporters that mediate uptake of peptides, amino acids, cations and anions play important roles in pathogenesis by enabling M. catarrhalis to 1) grow in nutrient-limited conditions, 2) invade and survive in human respiratory epithelial cells and 3) persist in the lungs in a murine pulmonary clearance model. The knockout mutants of SBPs and ABC transporters showed different patterns of activity in the assay systems, supporting the conclusion that different SBPs and ABC transporters function at different stages in the pathogenesis of infection. These results indicate that ABC transporters are nutritional virulence factors, functioning to enable the survival of M catarrhalis in the diverse microenvironments of the respiratory tract. Based on the role of ABC transporters as virulence factors of M. catarrhalis, these molecules represent potential drug targets to eradicate the organism from the human respiratory tract. PMID:27391026

  6. ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporters of the Human Respiratory Tract Pathogen, Moraxella catarrhalis: Role in Virulence.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy F; Brauer, Aimee L; Johnson, Antoinette; Kirkham, Charmaine

    2016-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a human respiratory tract pathogen that causes otitis media (middle ear infections) in children and respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In view of the huge global burden of disease caused by M. catarrhalis, the development of vaccines to prevent these infections and better approaches to treatment have become priorities. In previous work, we used a genome mining approach that identified three substrate binding proteins (SBPs) of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters as promising candidate vaccine antigens. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive assessment of 19 SBPs of 15 ABC transporter systems in the M. catarrhalis genome by engineering knockout mutants and studying their role in assays that assess mechanisms of infection. The capacity of M. catarrhalis to survive and grow in the nutrient-limited and hostile environment of the human respiratory tract, including intracellular growth, account in part for its virulence. The results show that ABC transporters that mediate uptake of peptides, amino acids, cations and anions play important roles in pathogenesis by enabling M. catarrhalis to 1) grow in nutrient-limited conditions, 2) invade and survive in human respiratory epithelial cells and 3) persist in the lungs in a murine pulmonary clearance model. The knockout mutants of SBPs and ABC transporters showed different patterns of activity in the assay systems, supporting the conclusion that different SBPs and ABC transporters function at different stages in the pathogenesis of infection. These results indicate that ABC transporters are nutritional virulence factors, functioning to enable the survival of M catarrhalis in the diverse microenvironments of the respiratory tract. Based on the role of ABC transporters as virulence factors of M. catarrhalis, these molecules represent potential drug targets to eradicate the organism from the human respiratory tract. PMID:27391026

  7. Enhancement of Clearance of Bacteria from Murine Lungs by Immunization with Detoxified Lipooligosaccharide from Moraxella catarrhalis Conjugated to Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei-Gang; Chen, Jing; Battey, James F.; Gu, Xin-Xing

    2000-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis strain 25238 detoxified lipooligosaccharide (dLOS)-protein conjugates induced a significant rise of bactericidal anti-LOS antibodies in animals. This study reports the effect of active or passive immunization with the conjugates or their antiserum on pulmonary clearance of M. catarrhalis in an aerosol challenge mouse model. Mice were injected subcutaneously with dLOS-tetanus toxoid (dLOS-TT), dLOS–high-molecular-weight proteins (dLOS-HMP) from nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), or nonconjugated materials in Ribi adjuvant and then challenged with M. catarrhalis strain 25238 or O35E or NTHi strain 12. Immunization with dLOS-TT or dLOS-HMP generated a significant rise of serum anti-LOS immunoglobulin G and 68% and 35 to 41% reductions of bacteria in lungs compared with the control (P < 0.01) following challenge with homologous strain 25238 and heterologous strain O35E, respectively. Serum anti-LOS antibody levels correlated with its bactericidal titers against M. catarrhalis and bacterial CFU in lungs. Additionally, immunization with dLOS-HMP generated a 54% reduction of NTHi strain 12 compared with the control (P < 0.01). Passive immunization with a rabbit antiserum against dLOS-TT conferred a significant reduction of strain 25238 CFU in lungs in a dose- and time-dependent pattern compared with preimmune serum-treated mice. Kinetic examination of lung tissue sections demonstrated that antiserum-treated mice initiated and offset inflammatory responses more rapidly than preimmune serum-treated mice. These data indicate that LOS antibodies (whether active or passive) play a major role in the enhancement of pulmonary clearance of different test strains of M. catarrhalis in mice. In addition, dLOS-HMP is a potential candidate for a bivalent vaccine against M. catarrhalis and NTHi infections. PMID:10948114

  8. 1,2,3-Triazole pharmacophore-based benzofused nitrogen/sulfur heterocycles with potential anti-Moraxella catarrhalis activity.

    PubMed

    Maračić, Silvija; Kraljević, Tatjana Gazivoda; Paljetak, Hana Čipčić; Perić, Mihaela; Matijašić, Mario; Verbanac, Donatella; Cetina, Mario; Raić-Malić, Silvana

    2015-12-01

    Versatile 1,2,3-triazole pharmacophore-based benzofused heterocycles containing halogen-substituted aromatic (9-17 and 25-28), 7-substituted coumarin (18-23 and 29-30) or penciclovir-like subunit (31a,b-38a) were designed and synthesized to evaluate their antibacterial activities against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Hybridization approach using environmentally friendly Cu(I)-catalyzed click reaction under microwave irradiation was adopted in the synthesis of regioselective 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazole tethered heterocycles (9-23 and 25-30), while post-N-alkylation of NH-1,2,3-triazoles afforded both 2,4- (31a-38a) and 1,4-disubstituted (31b-33b, 35b-37b) 1,2,3-triazole regioisomers. The compounds 18-23 and 25-30 revealed fluorescence in the violet region of the visible spectrum with a strong influence of phenyl spacer in 25-30 on both wavelength and emission intensity. Fusion of selected subunits led to new hybrid architecture, benzothiazole-1,2,3-triazole-coumarin 29 that demonstrated extremely narrow spectrum activity towards fastidious Gram-negative bacteria Moraxella catarrhalis. Selected hybrid showed the potency against Moraxella catarrhalis (MIC⩽0.25μg/mL) comparable to that of reference antibiotic azithromycin, which suggested that further investigations are necessary to optimize this potential hit compound as a new anti-Moraxella catarrhalis agent. PMID:26578325

  9. Identification of an Outer Membrane Lipoprotein Involved in Nasopharyngeal Colonization by Moraxella catarrhalis in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Joslin, Stephanie N.; Pybus, Christine; Evans, Amanda S.; Lichaa, Flora; Brautigam, Chad A.

    2014-01-01

    Colonization of the human nasopharynx by Moraxella catarrhalis is presumed to involve attachment of this bacterium to the mucosa. DNA microarray analysis was used to determine whether attachment of M. catarrhalis to human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells in vitro affected gene expression in this bacterium. Attachment affected expression of at least 454 different genes, with 163 being upregulated and 291 being downregulated. Among the upregulated genes was one (ORF113) previously annotated as encoding a protein with some similarity to outer membrane protein A (OmpA). The protein encoded by ORF113 was predicted to have a signal peptidase II cleavage site, and globomycin inhibition experiments confirmed that this protein was indeed a lipoprotein. The ORF113 protein also contained a predicted peptidoglycan-binding domain in its C-terminal half. The use of mutant and recombinant M. catarrhalis strains confirmed that the ORF113 protein was present in outer membrane preparations, and this protein was also shown to be at least partially exposed on the bacterial cell surface. A mutant unable to produce the ORF113 protein showed little or no change in its growth rate in vitro, in its ability to attach to HBE cells in vitro, or in its autoagglutination characteristics, but it did exhibit a reduced ability to survive in the chinchilla nasopharynx. This is the first report of a lipoprotein essential to the ability of M. catarrhalis to persist in an animal model. PMID:24643539

  10. Differential Virulence Gene Expression of Group A Streptococcus Serotype M3 in Response to Co-Culture with Moraxella catarrhalis

    PubMed Central

    Verhaegh, Suzanne J. C.; Flores, Anthony R.; van Belkum, Alex; Musser, James M.; Hays, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus, GAS) and Moraxella catarrhalis are important colonizers and (opportunistic) pathogens of the human respiratory tract. However, current knowledge regarding colonization and pathogenic potential of these two pathogens is based on work involving single bacterial species, even though the interplay between respiratory bacterial species is increasingly important in niche occupation and the development of disease. Therefore, to further define and understand polymicrobial species interactions, we investigated whether gene expression (and hence virulence potential) of GAS would be affected upon co-culture with M. catarrhalis. For co-culture experiments, GAS and M. catarrhalis were cultured in Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with 0.2% yeast extract (THY) at 37°C with 5% CO2 aeration. Each strain was grown in triplicate so that triplicate experiments could be performed. Bacterial RNA was isolated, cDNA synthesized, and microarray transcriptome expression analysis performed. We observed significantly increased (≥4-fold) expression for genes playing a role in GAS virulence such as hyaluronan synthase (hasA), streptococcal mitogenic exotoxin Z (smeZ) and IgG endopeptidase (ideS). In contrast, significantly decreased (≥4-fold) expression was observed in genes involved in energy metabolism and in 12 conserved GAS two-component regulatory systems. This study provides the first evidence that M. catarrhalis increases GAS virulence gene expression during co-culture, and again shows the importance of polymicrobial infections in directing bacterial virulence. PMID:23626831

  11. Role of the Oligopeptide Permease ABC Transporter of Moraxella catarrhalis in Nutrient Acquisition and Persistence in the Respiratory Tract

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Megan M.; Johnson, Antoinette; Koszelak-Rosenblum, Mary; Kirkham, Charmaine; Brauer, Aimee L.; Malkowski, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a strict human pathogen that causes otitis media in children and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults, resulting in significant worldwide morbidity and mortality. M. catarrhalis has a growth requirement for arginine; thus, acquiring arginine is important for fitness and survival. M. catarrhalis has a putative oligopeptide permease ABC transport operon (opp) consisting of five genes (oppB, oppC, oppD, oppF, and oppA), encoding two permeases, two ATPases, and a substrate binding protein. Thermal shift assays showed that the purified recombinant substrate binding protein OppA binds to peptides 3 to 16 amino acid residues in length regardless of the amino acid composition. A mutant in which the oppBCDFA gene cluster is knocked out showed impaired growth in minimal medium where the only source of arginine came from a peptide 5 to 10 amino acid residues in length. Whether methylated arginine supports growth of M. catarrhalis is important in understanding fitness in the respiratory tract because methylated arginine is abundant in host tissues. No growth of wild-type M. catarrhalis was observed in minimal medium in which arginine was present only in methylated form, indicating that the bacterium requires l-arginine. An oppA knockout mutant showed marked impairment in its capacity to persist in the respiratory tract compared to the wild type in a mouse pulmonary clearance model. We conclude that the Opp system mediates both uptake of peptides and fitness in the respiratory tract. PMID:25156736

  12. Pili play an important role in enhancing the bacterial clearance from the middle ear in a mouse model of acute otitis media with Moraxella catarrhalis.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Toshiaki; Hirano, Takashi; Kodama, Satoru; Mitsui, Marcelo Takahiro; Ahmed, Kamruddin; Nishizono, Akira; Suzuki, Masashi

    2013-03-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a Gram-negative aerobic diplococcus that is currently the third most frequent cause of bacterial acute otitis media (AOM) in children. In this study, we developed an experimental murine AOM model by inoculating M. catarrhalis in the middle ear bulla and studied the local response to this inoculation, and modulation of its course by the pili of M. catarrhalis. The pili-positive and pili-negative M. catarrhalis showed differences in bacterial clearance and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the middle ear. Pili-negative M. catarrhalis induced a more delayed and prolonged immune response in the middle ear than that of pili-positive M. catarrhalis. TLR2, -4, -5 and -9 mRNA expression was upregulated in neutrophils that infiltrated the middle ear cavity during AOM caused by both pili-positive and pili-negative bacteria. TLR5 mRNA expression and TLR5 protein in the neutrophils were induced more robustly by pili-positive M. catarrhalis. This immune response is likely to be related to neutrophil function such as toll-like 5-dependent phagocytosis. Our results show that mice may provide a useful AOM model for studying the role of M. catarrhalis. Furthermore, we show that pili play an important role in enhancing M. catarrhalis clearance from the middle ear that is probably mediated through neutrophil-dependent TLR5 signaling.

  13. Comparative Genomic Analyses of the Moraxella catarrhalis Serosensitive and Seroresistant Lineages Demonstrate Their Independent Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Earl, Joshua P.; de Vries, Stefan P.W.; Ahmed, Azad; Powell, Evan; Schultz, Matthew P.; Hermans, Peter W.M.; Hill, Darryl J.; Zhou, Zhemin; Constantinidou, Crystala I.; Hu, Fen Z.; Bootsma, Hester J.; Ehrlich, Garth D.

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial species Moraxella catarrhalis has been hypothesized as being composed of two distinct lineages (referred to as the seroresistant [SR] and serosensitive [SS]) with separate evolutionary histories based on several molecular typing methods, whereas 16S ribotyping has suggested an additional split within the SS lineage. Previously, we characterized whole-genome sequences of 12 SR-lineage isolates, which revealed a relatively small supragenome when compared with other opportunistic nasopharyngeal pathogens, suggestive of a relatively short evolutionary history. Here, we performed whole-genome sequencing on 18 strains from both ribotypes of the SS lineage, an additional SR strain, as well as four previously identified highly divergent strains based on multilocus sequence typing analyses. All 35 strains were subjected to a battery of comparative genomic analyses which clearly show that there are three lineages—the SR, SS, and the divergent. The SR and SS lineages are closely related, but distinct from each other based on three different methods of comparison: Allelic differences observed among core genes; possession of lineage-specific sets of core and distributed genes; and by an alignment of concatenated core sequences irrespective of gene annotation. All these methods show that the SS lineage has much longer interstrain branches than the SR lineage indicating that this lineage has likely been evolving either longer or faster than the SR lineage. There is evidence of extensive horizontal gene transfer (HGT) within both of these lineages, and to a lesser degree between them. In particular, we identified very high rates of HGT between these two lineages for ß-lactamase genes. The four divergent strains are sui generis, being much more distantly related to both the SR and SS groups than these other two groups are to each other. Based on average nucleotide identities, gene content, GC content, and genome size, this group could be considered as a separate

  14. Identification of Alloiococcus otitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenzae in Children With Otitis Media With Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Farajzadah Sheikh, Ahmad; Saki, Nader; Roointan, Mitra; Ranjbar, Reza; Yadyad, Mohammad Jaafar; Kaydani, Abbas; Aslani, Sajad; Babaei, Mansoor; Goodarzi, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Based on many studies, otitis media with effusion (OME) is one of the major causes of childhood hearing loss, social malformation and medical costs. The pathogenesis still remains unclear, though it is known that this complication is closely related to bacterial infections. Alloiococcus otitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis are the most common bacterial pathogens isolated from middle ear effusions (MEEs). Objectives: Due to the prevalence of OME in children, we decided to investigate bacterial agents that cause diseases such as A. otitidis, H. influenzae, S. pneumonia and M. catarrhalis in these subjects. Patients and Methods: Forty-five children between one and 15 years of age were selected for this study. Seventy specimens were collected from MEE by myringotomy and inoculated in PBS buffer. Conventional culture and PCR methods were used for identification of bacterial agents. Results: The bacterial cultures in 8.6% of samples were positive by conventional culture, with A. otitidis, M. catarrhalis and S. pneumoniae present in 1.4%, 2.9% and 4.3% of samples, respectively. No H. influenzae was isolated. By the PCR method, A. otitidis was the most frequently isolated bacterium, found in 25.7% of samples, followed by S. pneumoniae, M. catarrhalis and H. influenzae, which were identified in 20%, 12% and 20% of samples, respectively. Overall, 55 out of 70 samples were positive by both the PCR and culture method. Conclusions: It can be concluded that A. otitidis was the major causative agent of MEE in children with OME. Therefore clinicians should be aware that bacterial infection plays an important role in the progression of acute otitis media to OME in children of our region. PMID:25861433

  15. Rapid assay of A2058T-mutated 23S rRNA allelic profiles associated with high-level macrolide resistance in Moraxella catarrhalis.

    PubMed

    Saito, Ryoichi; Kasai, Ayako; Ogihara, Shinji; Yamada, Kageto; Tao, Kazuyuki

    2015-09-01

    We report on a restriction fragment-length polymorphism (HpyCH4III) assay for profile analysis of 23S rRNA gene A2058T-mutated alleles associated with high-level macrolide resistance in Moraxella catarrhalis. Our assay results were supported by DNA sequencing analysis, allowed for simultaneous testing of many strains, and produced results from pure-cultured colonies within 4 h.

  16. The Vaccine Candidate Substrate Binding Protein SBP2 Plays a Key Role in Arginine Uptake, Which Is Required for Growth of Moraxella catarrhalis

    PubMed Central

    Otsuka, Taketo; Kirkham, Charmaine; Brauer, Aimee; Koszelak-Rosenblum, Mary; Malkowski, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is an exclusively human pathogen that is an important cause of otitis media in children and lower respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A vaccine to prevent M. catarrhalis infections would have an enormous global impact in reducing morbidity resulting from these infections. Substrate binding protein 2 (SBP2) of an ABC transporter system has recently been identified as a promising vaccine candidate antigen on the bacterial surface of M. catarrhalis. In this study, we showed that SBP1, -2, and -3 individually bind different basic amino acids with exquisite specificity. We engineered mutants that each expressed a single SBP from this gene cluster and showed in growth experiments that SBP1, -2, and -3 serve a nutritional function through acquisition of amino acids for the bacterium. SBP2 mediates uptake of arginine, a strict growth requirement of M. catarrhalis. Adherence and invasion assays demonstrated that SBP1 and SBP3 play a role in invasion of human respiratory epithelial cells, consistent with a nutritional role in intracellular survival in the human respiratory tract. This work demonstrates that the SBPs of an ABC transporter system function in the uptake of basic amino acids to support growth of M. catarrhalis. The critical role of SBP2 in arginine uptake may contribute to its potential as a vaccine antigen. PMID:26597985

  17. Activities of Faropenem, an Oral β-Lactam, against Recent U.S. Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis

    PubMed Central

    Critchley, Ian A.; Karlowsky, James A.; Draghi, Deborah C.; Jones, Mark E.; Thornsberry, Clyde; Murfitt, Kate; Sahm, Daniel F.

    2002-01-01

    The in vitro activities of faropenem and other antimicrobial agents were determined against 4,725 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates, 2,614 Haemophilus influenzae isolates, and 1,193 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates collected from 273 U.S. laboratories during 1999. Faropenem MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited were 0.008, 0.25, and 1 μg/ml for penicillin-susceptible, -intermediate, and -resistant S. pneumoniae strains, respectively; 0.5 and 1 μg/ml for β-lactamase-positive and -negative H. influenzae strains, respectively; and 0.12 and 0.5 μg/ml for β-lactamase-negative and -positive M. catarrhalis strains, respectively. Faropenem holds promise as an oral therapy for community-acquired respiratory tract infections. PMID:11796376

  18. Activities of faropenem, an oral beta-lactam, against recent U.S. isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis.

    PubMed

    Critchley, Ian A; Karlowsky, James A; Draghi, Deborah C; Jones, Mark E; Thornsberry, Clyde; Murfitt, Kate; Sahm, Daniel F

    2002-02-01

    The in vitro activities of faropenem and other antimicrobial agents were determined against 4,725 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates, 2,614 Haemophilus influenzae isolates, and 1,193 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates collected from 273 U.S. laboratories during 1999. Faropenem MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited were 0.008, 0.25, and 1 microg/ml for penicillin-susceptible, -intermediate, and -resistant S. pneumoniae strains, respectively; 0.5 and 1 microg/ml for beta-lactamase-positive and -negative H. influenzae strains, respectively; and 0.12 and 0.5 microg/ml for beta-lactamase-negative and -positive M. catarrhalis strains, respectively. Faropenem holds promise as an oral therapy for community-acquired respiratory tract infections. PMID:11796376

  19. Prevalence and molecular analysis of macrolide-resistant Moraxella catarrhalis clinical isolates in Japan, following emergence of the highly macrolide-resistant strain NSH1 in 2011.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Ayako; Ogihara, Shinji; Yamada, Kageto; Tanimichi, Yumiko; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Saito, Ryoichi

    2015-07-01

    Although Moraxella catarrhalis is known to be susceptible to macrolides, highly macrolide-resistant M. catarrhalis isolates have recently been reported in Japan and China. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of macrolide-resistant M. catarrhalis isolates in Tokyo and Chiba, Japan, and studied the mechanisms underlying their resistance. Specifically, we determined the susceptibility of 593 clinical isolates (collected between December 2011 and May 2014) to erythromycin, using the disk diffusion method. For isolates with erythromycin resistance, we identified the MICs of seven antimicrobial agents, including macrolides, and used PFGE to analyse the clonal spread. We also performed sequencing analysis to investigate macrolide-resistance targets. Thirteen isolates (2.2 %) were found to be resistant to erythromycin, showing a high MIC90 to erythromycin, clarithromycin, clindamycin and azithromycin. However, those isolates, in addition to 156 randomly selected erythromycin-susceptible strains, were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefixime and levofloxacin. The 13 highly macrolide-resistant isolates were classified into 10 clades and harboured three or four A2058T-mutated 23S rRNA alleles. Three highly macrolide-resistant isolates also exhibited mutations in ribosomal proteins L4 (V27A and R161C) and L22 (K68T). To the best of our knowledge, we have demonstrated for the first time that, whilst the prevalence of macrolide-resistant M. catarrhalis isolates is low in clinical settings in Japan, genetically diverse isolates with high-level macrolide resistance due to the acquisition of an A2058T mutation in the 23S rRNA have already spread. Our study therefore lays the basis for epidemiological studies of macrolide-resistant M. catarrhalis clinical isolates.

  20. Comparative analysis of the humoral immune response to Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae surface antigens in children suffering from recurrent acute otitis media and chronic otitis media with effusion.

    PubMed

    Verhaegh, Suzanne J C; Stol, Kim; de Vogel, Corné P; Riesbeck, Kristian; Lafontaine, Eric R; Murphy, Timothy F; van Belkum, Alex; Hermans, Peter W M; Hays, John P

    2012-06-01

    A prospective clinical cohort study was established to investigate the humoral immune response in middle ear fluids (MEF) and serum against bacterial surface proteins in children suffering from recurrent acute otitis media (rAOM) and chronic otitis media with effusion (COME), using Luminex xMAP technology. The association between the humoral immune response and the presence of Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae in the nasopharynx and middle ear was also studied. The levels of antigen-specific IgG, IgA, and IgM showed extensive interindividual variation. No significant differences in anti-M. catarrhalis and anti-S. pneumoniae serum and MEF median fluorescence intensity (MFI) values (anti-M. catarrhalis and antipneumococcal IgG levels) were observed between the rAOM or COME groups for all antigens tested. No significant differences were observed for M. catarrhalis and S. pneumoniae colonization and serum IgG levels against the Moraxella and pneumococcal antigens. Similar to the antibody response in serum, no significant differences in IgG, IgA, and IgM levels in MEF were observed for all M. catarrhalis and S. pneumoniae antigens between OM M. catarrhalis- or S. pneumoniae-positive and OM M. catarrhalis- or S. pneumonia-negative children suffering from either rAOM or COME. Finally, results indicated a strong correlation between antigen-specific serum and MEF IgG levels. We observed no significant in vivo expressed anti-M. catarrhalis or anti-S. pneumoniae humoral immune responses using a range of putative vaccine candidate proteins. Other factors, such as Eustachian tube dysfunction, viral load, and genetic and environmental factors, may play a more important role in the pathogenesis of OM and in particular in the development of rAOM or COME.

  1. Antimicrobial Resistance in Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis Respiratory Tract Isolates: Results of the Canadian Respiratory Organism Susceptibility Study, 1997 to 2002

    PubMed Central

    Zhanel, George G.; Palatnick, Lorraine; Nichol, Kimberly A.; Low, Don E.; Hoban, Daryl J.

    2003-01-01

    A total of 7,566 unique patient isolates of Haemophilus influenzae and 2,314 unique patient isolates of Moraxella catarrhalis were collected between October 1997 and June 2002 from 25 medical centers in 9 of the 10 Canadian provinces. Among the 7,566 H. influenzae isolates, 22.5% produced β-lactamase, while 92.4% of the 2,314 M. catarrhalis isolates produced β-lactamase. The incidence of β-lactamase-producing H. influenzae isolates decreased significantly over the 5-year study period, from 24.2% in 1997-1998 to 18.6% in 2001-2002 (P < 0.01). The incidence of β-lactamase-producing M. catarrhalis isolates did not change over the study period. The overall rates of resistance to amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanate for H. influenzae were 19.3 and 0.1%, respectively. The rank order of cephalosporin activity based on the MICs at which 90% of isolates were inhibited (MIC90s) was cefotaxime > cefixime > cefuroxime > cefprozil > cefaclor. On the basis of the MICs, azithromycin was more active than clarithromycin (14-OH clarithromycin was not tested); however, on the basis of the NCCLS breakpoints, resistance rates were 2.1 and 1.6%, respectively. Rates of resistance to other agents were as follows: doxycycline, 1.5%; trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 14.2%; and chloramphenicol, 0.2%. All fluoroquinolones tested, including the investigational fluoroquinolones BMS284756 (garenoxacin) and ABT-492, displayed potent activities against H. influenzae, with MIC90s of ≤0.03 μg/ml. The MIC90s of the investigational ketolides telithromycin and ABT-773 were 2 and 4 μg/ml, respectively, and the MIC90 of the investigational glycylcycline GAR-936 (tigecycline) was 4 μg/ml. Among the M. catarrhalis isolates tested, the resistance rates derived by using the NCCLS breakpoint criteria for H. influenzae were <1% for all antibiotics tested except trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (1.5%). In summary, the incidence of β-lactamase-positive H. influenzae strains in Canada is decreasing (18

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolated from community-acquired respiratory tract infections in China: Results from the CARTIPS Antimicrobial Surveillance Program.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yawei; Zhang, Feifei; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Chunjiang; Wang, Zhanwei; Cao, Bin; Du, Yan; Feng, Xianju; Hu, Yunjian; Hu, Bijie; Ji, Ping; Liu, Zhiyong; Liu, Yong; Liao, Wanzhen; Lu, Juan; Sun, Hongli; Wang, Zhongxin; Xu, Xiuli; Xu, Xuesong; Yang, Qing; Yu, Yunsong; Zhang, Rong; Zhuo, Chao

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolates causing adult community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTIs) in China. A multicentre resistance surveillance study (CARTIPS) investigating 1046 clinical isolates from 19 hospitals in China was conducted from 2013 to 2014. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoints of oral penicillin, the percentages of penicillin-resistant, penicillin-intermediate and penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae were 44.1%, 13.7%, and 42.2%, respectively. The rates of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae ranged from 27.9% to 72.2% in different cities, with the highest rate in Nanchang. Macrolides, including azithromycin, clarithromycin and erythromycin, showed the lowest activities against S. pneumoniae isolates, with resistance rates of 90.5%, 92.2% and 93.0%, respectively. However, 98% of these strains were susceptible to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin. For H. influenzae isolates, most of the antimicrobials agents exhibited good activities. However, ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole showed relatively lower activity against H. influenzae, with resistance rates of 35.0% and 54.4%, respectively. β-lactamase production rates amongst H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis were 31.0% and 87.1%, respectively. In addition, a total of 15 β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains identified in this study were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefaclor and cefuroxime. Most of the antimicrobial agents showed excellent activity against M. catarrhalis, with susceptibility rates of >90%. The results from the current study confirmed the regional variations in antimicrobial susceptibility of major CARTI pathogens and provided some choices for the treatment of these organisms. Continuous national surveillance of the epidemiology of CARTIs is strongly warranted in China. PMID:27436464

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolated from community-acquired respiratory tract infections in China: Results from the CARTIPS Antimicrobial Surveillance Program.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yawei; Zhang, Feifei; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Chunjiang; Wang, Zhanwei; Cao, Bin; Du, Yan; Feng, Xianju; Hu, Yunjian; Hu, Bijie; Ji, Ping; Liu, Zhiyong; Liu, Yong; Liao, Wanzhen; Lu, Juan; Sun, Hongli; Wang, Zhongxin; Xu, Xiuli; Xu, Xuesong; Yang, Qing; Yu, Yunsong; Zhang, Rong; Zhuo, Chao

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolates causing adult community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTIs) in China. A multicentre resistance surveillance study (CARTIPS) investigating 1046 clinical isolates from 19 hospitals in China was conducted from 2013 to 2014. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoints of oral penicillin, the percentages of penicillin-resistant, penicillin-intermediate and penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae were 44.1%, 13.7%, and 42.2%, respectively. The rates of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae ranged from 27.9% to 72.2% in different cities, with the highest rate in Nanchang. Macrolides, including azithromycin, clarithromycin and erythromycin, showed the lowest activities against S. pneumoniae isolates, with resistance rates of 90.5%, 92.2% and 93.0%, respectively. However, 98% of these strains were susceptible to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin. For H. influenzae isolates, most of the antimicrobials agents exhibited good activities. However, ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole showed relatively lower activity against H. influenzae, with resistance rates of 35.0% and 54.4%, respectively. β-lactamase production rates amongst H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis were 31.0% and 87.1%, respectively. In addition, a total of 15 β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains identified in this study were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefaclor and cefuroxime. Most of the antimicrobial agents showed excellent activity against M. catarrhalis, with susceptibility rates of >90%. The results from the current study confirmed the regional variations in antimicrobial susceptibility of major CARTI pathogens and provided some choices for the treatment of these organisms. Continuous national surveillance of the epidemiology of CARTIs is strongly warranted in China.

  4. Use of next generation sequence to investigate potential novel macrolide resistance mechanisms in a population of Moraxella catarrhalis isolates

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ya-Li; Li, Dong-Fang; Xu, He-Ping; Xiao, Meng; Cheng, Jing-Wei; Zhang, Li; Xu, Zhi-Peng; Chen, Xin-Xin; Zhang, Ge; Kudinha, Timothy; Kong, Fanrong; Gong, Yan-Ping; Wang, Xin-Ying; Zhang, Yin-Xin; Wu, Hong-Long; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Although previous studies have confirmed that 23S rRNA gene mutation could be responsible for most of macrolide resistance in M. catarrhalis, a recent study suggested otherwise. Next generation sequence based comparative genomics has revolutionized the mining of potential novel drug resistant mechanisms. In this study, two pairs of resistant and susceptible M. catarrhalis isolates with different multilocus sequence types, were investigated for potential differential genes or informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The identified genes and SNPs were evaluated in 188 clinical isolates. From initially 12 selected differential genes and 12 informative SNPs, 10 differential genes (mboIA, mcbC, mcbI, mboIB, MCR_1794, MCR_1795, lgt2B/C, dpnI, mcbB, and mcbA) and 6 SNPs (C619T of rumA, T140C of rplF, G643A of MCR_0020, T270G of MCR_1465, C1348A of copB, and G238A of rrmA) were identified as possibly linked to macrolide resistance in M. catarrhalis. Most of the identified differential genes and SNPs are related to methylation of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) or DNA, especially MCR_0020 and rrmA. Further studies are needed to determine the function and/or evolution process, of the identified genes or SNPs, to establish whether some novel or combined mechanisms are truly involved in M. catarrhalis macrolide resistance mechanism. PMID:27774989

  5. A fusion protein derived from Moraxella catarrhalis and Neisseria meningitidis aimed for immune modulation of human B cells

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Oindrilla; Singh, Birendra; Bayrak, Burcu; Jonsson, Ann-Beth; Mörgelin, Matthias; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Moraxella IgD-binding protein (MID) is a well characterized trimeric autotransporter that specifically targets the IgD of B cells. We fused the membrane anchor of the meningococcal autotransporter NhhA with the IgD-binding region of MID (aa 962–1200) to create a chimeric protein designated as NID. The aim was to use this specific targeting to provide a better vaccine candidate against meningococci, in particular serogroup B by enhancing the immunogenicity of NhhA. NID was thereafter recombinantly expressed in E. coli. The NID-expressing E. coli bound to peripheral B lymphocytes that resulted in cellular activation. Furthermore, we also successfully expressed NID on outer membrane vesicles, nanoparticles that are commonly used in meningococcal vaccines. This study thus highlights the applicability of the menigococcal-Moraxella fusion protein NID to be used for specific targeting of vaccine components to the IgD B cell receptor. PMID:26042357

  6. Deciphering the genetic basis of Moraxella catarrhalis complement resistance: a critical role for the disulphide bond formation system.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Stefan P W; Rademakers, Rob J A; van der Gaast-de Jongh, Christa E; Eleveld, Marc J; Hermans, Peter W M; Bootsma, Hester J

    2014-02-01

    The complement system is an important innate defence mechanism, and the ability to resist complement-mediated killing is considered a key virulence trait of the respiratory tract pathogen M. catarrhalis. We studied the molecular basis of complement resistance by transcriptional profiling and Tn-seq, a genome-wide negative-selection screenings technology. Exposure of M. catarrhalis to human serum resulted in increased expression of 84 genes and reduced expression of 134 genes, among which genes encoding ABC transporter systems and surface proteins UspA1 and McaP. By subjecting a ∼ 15 800 transposon mutant library to serum, mutants of 53 genes were negatively selected, including the key complement-resistance factor uspA2H. Validation with directed mutants confirmed Tn-seq phenotypes of uspA2H and 11 newly identified genes, with mutants of MCR_0424, olpA, MCR_1483, and dsbB most severely attenuated. Detailed analysis showed that both components of the disulphide bond formation (DSB) system, DsbB and DsbA, were required for complement-resistance in multiple isolates, and fulfil a critical role in evasion of IgG-dependent classical pathway-mediated killing. Lipooligosaccharide (LOS) structure and membrane stability were severely affected in ΔdsbA strains, suggesting a pivotal role for the DSB system in LOS structure safeguarding and membrane stability maintenance.

  7. The incidence of Streptococcus pneumoniae otitis media is affected by the polymicrobial environment particularly Moraxella catarrhalis in a mouse nasal colonisation model.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Ajay; McGrath, John; Cripps, Allan W; Kyd, Jennelle M

    2009-04-01

    Otitis media (OM) is a highly prevalent paediatric disease with both bacterial and viral triggers of infection. This study has investigated how combinations of bacteria associated with nasal colonisation and the occurrence and absence of viral infection (Sendai virus) induce OM in a mouse nasal colonisation model. The respiratory virus significantly contributed to bacterial OM for all bacterial combinations (p<0.001). Streptococcus pneumoniae consistently dominated as the causative bacterium of OM and when co-infected with S. pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis more significantly affected pneumococcal OM than did non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (p<0.001) by increasing the incidence rate, infection bacterial load and duration of infection. Nitric oxide levels in the middle ear, an indicator of inflammation, peaked at day 3 in single bacterium groups, but at day 1 in mixed bacterial groups and was produced in all bacteria inoculated groups even in the absence of viable bacterial recovery. Phagocytic cells were recruited rapidly to the ear following nasal inoculation but over time their numbers did not correlate with persistence of bacterial infection. The study has shown that the composition of bacteria in the nasal cavity and respiratory viral infection significantly affected the OM incidence rate, duration of infection and bacterial load (severity).

  8. Ligand-bound structures of 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate phosphatase from Moraxella catarrhalis reveal a water channel connecting to the active site for the second step of catalysis.

    PubMed

    Dhindwal, Sonali; Priyadarshini, Priyanka; Patil, Dipak N; Tapas, Satya; Kumar, Pramod; Tomar, Shailly; Kumar, Pravindra

    2015-02-01

    KdsC, the third enzyme of the 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (KDO) biosynthetic pathway, catalyzes a substrate-specific reaction to hydrolyze 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate to generate a molecule of KDO and phosphate. KdsC is a phosphatase that belongs to the C0 subfamily of the HAD superfamily. To understand the molecular basis for the substrate specificity of this tetrameric enzyme, the crystal structures of KdsC from Moraxella catarrhalis (Mc-KdsC) with several combinations of ligands, namely metal ion, citrate and products, were determined. Various transition states of the enzyme have been captured in these crystal forms. The ligand-free and ligand-bound crystal forms reveal that the binding of ligands does not cause any specific conformational changes in the active site. However, the electron-density maps clearly showed that the conformation of KDO as a substrate is different from the conformation adopted by KDO when it binds as a cleaved product. Furthermore, structural evidence for the existence of an intersubunit tunnel has been reported for the first time in the C0 subfamily of enzymes. A role for this tunnel in transferring water molecules from the interior of the tetrameric structure to the active-site cleft has been proposed. At the active site, water molecules are required for the formation of a water bridge that participates as a proton shuttle during the second step of the two-step phosphoryl-transfer reaction. In addition, as the KDO biosynthesis pathway is a potential antibacterial target, pharmacophore-based virtual screening was employed to identify inhibitor molecules for the Mc-KdsC enzyme.

  9. Ligand-bound structures of 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate phosphatase from Moraxella catarrhalis reveal a water channel connecting to the active site for the second step of catalysis.

    PubMed

    Dhindwal, Sonali; Priyadarshini, Priyanka; Patil, Dipak N; Tapas, Satya; Kumar, Pramod; Tomar, Shailly; Kumar, Pravindra

    2015-02-01

    KdsC, the third enzyme of the 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (KDO) biosynthetic pathway, catalyzes a substrate-specific reaction to hydrolyze 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate to generate a molecule of KDO and phosphate. KdsC is a phosphatase that belongs to the C0 subfamily of the HAD superfamily. To understand the molecular basis for the substrate specificity of this tetrameric enzyme, the crystal structures of KdsC from Moraxella catarrhalis (Mc-KdsC) with several combinations of ligands, namely metal ion, citrate and products, were determined. Various transition states of the enzyme have been captured in these crystal forms. The ligand-free and ligand-bound crystal forms reveal that the binding of ligands does not cause any specific conformational changes in the active site. However, the electron-density maps clearly showed that the conformation of KDO as a substrate is different from the conformation adopted by KDO when it binds as a cleaved product. Furthermore, structural evidence for the existence of an intersubunit tunnel has been reported for the first time in the C0 subfamily of enzymes. A role for this tunnel in transferring water molecules from the interior of the tetrameric structure to the active-site cleft has been proposed. At the active site, water molecules are required for the formation of a water bridge that participates as a proton shuttle during the second step of the two-step phosphoryl-transfer reaction. In addition, as the KDO biosynthesis pathway is a potential antibacterial target, pharmacophore-based virtual screening was employed to identify inhibitor molecules for the Mc-KdsC enzyme. PMID:25664734

  10. Moraxella Catarrhalis: A Common Cause of Childhood Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  11. Branhamella catarrhalis: an organism gaining respect as a pathogen.

    PubMed Central

    Catlin, B W

    1990-01-01

    Branhamella catarrhalis was formerly regarded as a common, essentially harmless inhabitant of the pharynx. This misapprehension was caused, in part, by confusion with another pharyngeal resident, Neisseria cinerea. The two organisms can now be differentiated by the positive reactions of B. catarrhalis in tests for nitrate reduction and hydrolysis of tributyrin and DNase. B. catarrhalis is currently recognized as the third most frequent cause of acute otitis media and acute sinusitis in young children. It often causes acute exacerbations of chronic bronchopulmonary disease in older or immunocompromised adults and is incriminated occasionally in meningitis, endocarditis, bacteremia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and urogenital infections. Virulence-associated factors, such as pili, capsules, outer membrane vesicles, iron acquisition proteins, histamine-synthesizing ability, resistance to the bactericidal action of normal human serum, and binding to the C1q complement component, have been identified in some strains. beta-Lactamase producing strains, first detected in 1976, have risen to approximately 75% worldwide. Thus far, however, practically all American strains of B. catarrhalis remain susceptible to alternative antibiotics. A possible selective advantage of recent isolates is their reportedly heightened tendency for adherence to oropharyngeal cells from patients with chronic bronchopulmonary disease. Images PMID:2121328

  12. Moraxella pluranimalium sp. nov., isolated from animal specimens.

    PubMed

    Vela, A I; Arroyo, E; Aragón, V; Sánchez-Porro, C; Latre, M V; Cerdà-Cuéllar, M; Ventosa, A; Domínguez, L; Fernández-Garayzábal, J F

    2009-04-01

    Four unusual Gram-negative, catalase-positive, oxidase-positive, coccus-shaped bacteria isolated from one sheep and three pigs were characterized using phenotypic and molecular genetic methods. On the basis of cellular morphology and biochemical criteria, the isolates were tentatively assigned to the genus Moraxella, although the organisms did not appear to correspond to any recognized species. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies demonstrated that the isolates represent a novel subline within the genus Moraxella. The most closely related species in phylogenetic terms was Moraxella cuniculi, with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 97.9 % to the type strain CCUG 2154(T), although the DNA-DNA relatedness value was only 29 %. The novel isolates were readily distinguished from all recognized Moraxella species by means of physiological and biochemical tests. On the basis of molecular genetic and phenotypic evidence, therefore, the four isolates represent a novel species of the genus Moraxella, for which the name Moraxella pluranimalium sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 248-01(T) (=CECT 7295(T) =CCUG 54913(T)).

  13. Differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis

    PubMed Central

    Maboni, Grazieli; Gressler, Leticia T.; Espindola, Julia P.; Schwab, Marcelo; Tasca, Caiane; Potter, Luciana; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis. Thirty-two strains of Moraxella spp. isolated from cattle and sheep with infectious keratoconjunctivitis were tested via broth microdilution method to determine their susceptibility to ampicillin, cefoperazone, ceftiofur, cloxacillin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, gentamicin, neomycin, oxytetracycline and penicillin. The results demonstrated that Moraxella spp. strains could be considered sensitive for most of the antimicrobials tested in this study, but differences between the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of these three Moraxella species were found. M. bovis might differ from other species due to the higher MIC and MBC values it presented. PMID:26273272

  14. Genetic transformation assays for identification of strains of Moraxella urethralis.

    PubMed Central

    Juni, E

    1977-01-01

    Studies of 31 strains of Moraxella urethralis have shown that 20 of them are competent for genetic transformation. This finding has led to the development of transformation assays for identification of newly isolated strains of this organism. Crude deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples from all strains of M. urethralis readily transform auxotrophic mutants of competent strains to prototrophy, whereas DNA samples from unrelated bacteria such as Acinetobacter, Moraxella, and Neisseria species uniformly fail to elicit positive transformation of mutant tester strains. One of the competent strains of M. urethralis investigated is a naturally occurring mutant defective in its ability to utilize citrate as a carbon and energy source. DNA samples from 29 of the 30 remaining strains of utilization; the one nonreacting strain is citrate negative and probably possesses the same genetic lesion as the citrate-negative mutant. Three organisms originally identified as strains of M. urethralis, because of their phenotypic properties, are probably incorrectly designated, since DNA samples from these strains failed to transform any of the tester mutant strains used in the present study. The transformation assay for M. urethralis is very simple and can be performed readily in a clinical laboratory. The entire procedure can be carried out in less than 24 h. Images PMID:845247

  15. Report of a case of bronchopneumonia associated with Moraxella bovis isolation in a chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica).

    PubMed

    Lavin, S; Lastras, M E; Marco, I; Cabañes, F X

    2000-04-01

    A case of fibrinopurulent bronchopneumonia associated with Moraxella bovis infection in a chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) is described. The animal, a 4-month-old female, was referred by the staff warden of the National Game Reserve of Freser-Setcases (Catalonia, north-eastern Spain). The animal was in good general condition and was found 4 h before death. On necropsy the lungs were congested and oedematous, with haemorrhagic areas in the cranial and middle lobes. The microscopic lesions were those of a fibrinopurulent bronchopneumonia. Microbiological study of the samples obtained showed numerous small beta-haemolytic colonies in pure culture, identified as Moraxella (Moraxella) bovis.

  16. Antibiotic sensitivity of an Argentine strain collection of Moraxella bovis.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, G; Piscitelli, H; Perez-Monti, H; Stobbs, L A

    2000-01-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibility of 88 isolates of Moraxella bovis of Argentine origin was evaluated for 12 antimicrobials by broth microdilution procedures. The isolates had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC90) of < or = 0.06 microg/mL to enrofloxacin; < or = 0.12 microg/mL to ceftiofur; < or = 0.25 microg/mL to ampicillin; < or = 0.5 microg/mL to florfenicol and gentamicin; < or = 1.0 microg/mL to tilmicosin, erythromycin, and oxytetracycline; < or = 4.0 microg/mL to tylosin; < or = 8.0 microg/mL to spectinomycin; < or = 0.25/4.75 microg/mL to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole; and > or = 32 microg/mL to lincomycin. Modal MIC values for these antimicrobials were as follows: enrofloxacin, 0.03 microg/mL; ceftiofur, 0.06 pg/mL; ampicillin, 0.25 microg/mL; florfenicol, gentamicin, erythromycin, and oxytetracycline, 0.5 microg/mL; tilmicosin, 1.0 microg/mL; tylosin and spectinomycin, 4.0 microg/mL; lincomycin and erythromycin, 16 microg/mL; and trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole, < or = 0.25/4.75 microg/mL. These data show that all antimicrobials except lincomycin have MICs suggestive of sensitivity in vitro, though confirmation of clinical efficacy can only be properly assessed based on pharmacologic and/or clinical data to support the MIC values. PMID:19757583

  17. Moraxella Species Are Primarily Responsible for Generating Malodor in Laundry

    PubMed Central

    Mitani, Asako; Niwano, Yu; Takeuchi, Kohei; Tanaka, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Noriko; Kawamura, Yoshiaki; Hitomi, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Many people in Japan often detect an unpleasant odor generated from laundry that is hung to dry indoors or when using their already-dried laundry. Such an odor is often described as a “wet-and-dirty-dustcloth-like malodor” or an “acidic or sweaty odor.” In this study, we isolated the major microorganisms associated with such a malodor, the major component of which has been identified as 4-methyl-3-hexenoic acid (4M3H). The isolates were identified as Moraxella osloensis by morphological observation and biochemical and phylogenetic tree analyses. M. osloensis has the potential to generate 4M3H in laundry. The bacterium is known to cause opportunistic infections but has never been known to generate a malodor in clothes. We found that M. osloensis exists at a high frequency in various living environments, particularly in laundry in Japan. The bacterium showed a high tolerance to desiccation and UV light irradiation, providing one of the possible reasons why they survive in laundry during and even after drying. PMID:22367080

  18. Simple Genetic Transformation Assay for Rapid Diagnosis of Moraxella osloensis

    PubMed Central

    Juni, Elliot

    1974-01-01

    A genetic transformation assay for unequivocal identification of strains of Moraxella osloensis is described. In this assay a stable tryptophan auxotroph is transformed to prototrophy by deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples from other strains of M. osloensis but not by DNA samples from unrelated bacteria. The test is simple to perform and definitive results can be obtained in less than 24 h. The procedure, which is suitable for routine diagnosis in a clinical laboratory, involves a rapid method for preparation of crude transforming DNA from small quantities of bacterial cells and permits simultaneous examination of large numbers of isolated cultures. The assay was shown to correctly identify 27 strains previously classified as M. osloensis. Forty-five other gram-negative, oxidase-positive, nonmotile coccobacilli, which might be confused with M. osloensis unless subject to more extensive testing, were shown to be unrelated genetically to M. osloensis. The transformation assay clearly distinguishes M. osloensis from Acinetobacter. Although most strains of M. osloensis are nonfastidious, being able to grow in a mineral medium supplemented with a single organic carbon source, one of the strains tested was only able to grow on fairly complex media and could not be transformed to grow on simple media. Inability to alkalize Simmons citrate agar was shown not to be characteristic of all strains of M. osloensis. Images PMID:4589126

  19. Transcriptional regulation of type 4 pilin genes and the site-specific recombinase gene, piv, in Moraxella lacunata and Moraxella bovis.

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, D W; Glasgow, A C

    1997-01-01

    Moraxella lacunata and Moraxella bovis use type 4 pili to adhere to epithelial tissues of the cornea and conjunctiva. Primer extension analyses were used to map the transcriptional start sites for the genes encoding the major pilin subunits (tfpQ/I) and the DNA invertase (piv), which determines pilin type expression. tfpQ/I transcription starts at a sigma54-dependent promoter (tfpQ/Ip2) and, under certain growth conditions, this transcription is accompanied by weaker upstream transcription that starts at a potential sigma70-dependent promoter (tfpQ/Ip1). piv is expressed in both M. lacunata and M. bovis from a putative sigma70-dependent promoter (pivp) under all conditions assayed. Sigma54-dependent promoters require activators in order to initiate transcription; therefore, it is likely that tfpQ/Ip2 is also regulated by an activator in Moraxella. Primer extension assays with RNA isolated from Escherichia coli containing the subcloned pilin inversion region from M. lacunata showed that pivp is used for the expression of piv; however, tfpQ/Ip2 is not used for the transcription of tfpQ/I. Transcription from tfpQ/Ip2 was activated in E. coli when the sensor (PilS) and response regulator (PilR) proteins of type 4 pilin transcription in Pseudomonas aeruginosa were expressed from a plasmid. These results suggest that the expression of the type 4 pilin in M. lacunata and M. bovis is regulated not only by a site-specific DNA inversion system but also by a regulatory system which is functionally analogous to the PilS-PilR two-component system of P. aeruginosa. PMID:9393693

  20. Purification and properties of formate dehydrogenase from Moraxella sp. strain C-1.

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Y; Sekigawa, T; Inukai, H; Nakazawa, A

    1988-01-01

    NAD+-dependent formate dehydrogenase was screened in various bacterial strains. Facultative methanol-utilizing bacteria isolated from soil samples, acclimated to a medium containing methanol and formate at pH 9.5, were classified as members of the genus Moraxella. From a crude extract of Moraxella sp. strain C-1, formate dehydrogenase was purified to homogeneity, as judged by disc gel electrophoresis. The enzyme has an isoelectric point of 3.9 and a molecular weight of approximately 98,000. The enzyme is composed of two identical subunits with molecular weights of about 48,000. The apparent Km values for sodium formate and NAD+ were calculated to be 13 mM and 0.068 mM, respectively. Images PMID:3384805

  1. Septic Arthritis Due to Moraxella osloensis in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Wren, Melissa A; Caskey, John R; Liu, David X; Embers, Monica E

    2013-01-01

    A 5.5-y-old Chinese-origin female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented for bilateral hindlimb lameness. The primate had been group-reared in an SPF breeding colony and was seronegative for Macacine herpesvirus 1, SIV, simian retrovirus type D, and simian T-lymphotropic virus. The macaque's previous medical history included multiple occasions of swelling in the left tarsus, and trauma to the right arm and bilateral hands. In addition, the macaque had experienced osteomyelitis of the left distal tibia and rupture of the right cranial cruciate ligament that had been surgically repaired. Abnormal physical examination findings on presentation included a thin body condition, mild dehydration, and bilaterally swollen stifles that were warm to the touch, with the right stifle more severely affected. Mild instability in the left stifle was noted, and decreased range of motion and muscle atrophy were present bilaterally. Hematologic findings included marked neutrophilia and lymphopenia and moderate anemia. Arthrocentesis and culture of joint fluid revealed Moraxella-like organisms. Treatment with enrofloxacin was initiated empirically and subsequently switched to cephalexin, which over time alleviated the joint swelling and inflammation. Definitive diagnosis of Moraxella osloensis septic arthritis was made through isolation of the organism and sequencing of the 16S rDNA region. To our knowledge, this report is the first description of Moraxella osloensis septic arthritis in a rhesus macaque. PMID:24326229

  2. Septic arthritis due to moraxella osloensis in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Wren, Melissa A; Caskey, John R; Liu, David X; Embers, Monica E

    2013-01-01

    A 5.5-y-old Chinese-origin female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented for bilateral hindlimb lameness. The primate had been group-reared in an SPF breeding colony and was seronegative for Macacine herpesvirus 1, SIV, simian retrovirus type D, and simian T-lymphotropic virus. The macaque's previous medical history included multiple occasions of swelling in the left tarsus, and trauma to the right arm and bilateral hands. In addition, the macaque had experienced osteomyelitis of the left distal tibia and rupture of the right cranial cruciate ligament that had been surgically repaired. Abnormal physical examination findings on presentation included a thin body condition, mild dehydration, and bilaterally swollen stifles that were warm to the touch, with the right stifle more severely affected. Mild instability in the left stifle was noted, and decreased range of motion and muscle atrophy were present bilaterally. Hematologic findings included marked neutrophilia and lymphopenia and moderate anemia. Arthrocentesis and culture of joint fluid revealed Moraxella-like organisms. Treatment with enrofloxacin was initiated empirically and subsequently switched to cephalexin, which over time alleviated the joint swelling and inflammation. Definitive diagnosis of Moraxella osloensis septic arthritis was made through isolation of the organism and sequencing of the 16S rDNA region. To our knowledge, this report is the first description of Moraxella osloensis septic arthritis in a rhesus macaque.

  3. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of selected antimicrobial agents for Moraxella bovoculi associated with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Angelos, John A; Ball, Louise M; Byrne, Barbara A

    2011-05-01

    Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) has been associated with ocular infections by Moraxella bovis, the established etiologic agent of IBK, and more recently, Moraxella bovoculi, a recently described species of Moraxella. To assist in designing rational treatment regimens for M. bovoculi infections associated with IBK, the in vitro susceptibilities of 57 M. bovoculi field isolates cultured from eyes of cattle with IBK in California from 2002 through 2007 were determined. The minimum inhibitory concentration required to inhibit the growth of 90% of organisms (MIC(90)) of the following 18 antibiotics tested in the present study were: danofloxacin and enrofloxacin: ≤0.12 µg/ml; ampicillin and ceftiofur: ≤0.25 µg/ml; penicillin: 0.25 µg/ml; gentamicin: ≤1 µg/ml; chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, and tiamulin: 1 µg/ml; florfenicol: 0.5 µg/ml; trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole: ≤2/38 µg/ml; clindamycin: 2 µg/ml; neomycin and tilmicosin: ≤4 µg/ml; tulathromycin: 4 µg/ml; spectinomycin and tylosin: 16 µg/ml; and sulfadimethoxine: >256 µg/ml. The low MIC(90) of these M. bovoculi isolates suggests that commonly used antibiotics for treatment of IBK associated with M. bovis should also be effective against M. bovoculi. PMID:21908289

  4. Combined genetic transformation and nutritional assay for identification of Moraxella nonliquefaciens.

    PubMed Central

    Juni, E; Heym, G A; Maurer, M J; Miller, M L

    1987-01-01

    A combined genetic transformation and nutritional assay is described that permits definitive identification of clinically isolated strains of Moraxella nonliquefaciens. Crude DNA preparations of strains of various Moraxella species were used to transform nutritional mutants of a stably competent strain of M. nonliquefaciens for ability to grow on a defined medium (Mn-B). DNA samples from 24 independently isolated strains of M. nonliquefaciens all resulted in massive (4+) transformation of each of two mutant assay strains. DNA samples from strains of M. bovis and M. lacunata frequently gave weak (1+) transformation of one of the mutant assay strains (Mn64) but almost always failed to transform another assay strain (Mn136). DNA samples from eight other Moraxella species failed completely to transform either of the mutant assay strains. When streaked on the defined medium used for the transformation assay (Mn-B), 23 of the 24 strains of M. nonliquefaciens grew well, but all strains of M. bovis and M. lacunata failed to grow on this medium. Images PMID:3654942

  5. Characterization of pilin genes from seven serologically defined prototype strains of Moraxella bovis.

    PubMed Central

    Atwell, J L; Tennent, J M; Lepper, A W; Elleman, T C

    1994-01-01

    Numerous field isolates of Moraxella bovis have previously been classified by serological techniques into seven serogroups, each defined by homologous cross-reaction with antisera prepared against purified pili of a single prototype strain. The gene encoding pilin from each of the prototype strains has been characterized by nucleotide sequence determination. The coding sequences show extensive homology (70 to 80%) while the proximal downstream sequences show a dichotomy into nonhomologous sets. The pilin genes of three more strains were also characterized. The presence of an additional, partial pilin gene in each prototype strain was confirmed by Southern blot analysis, and the partial pilin genes from two strains of one serogroup were characterized by sequence determination. Features of the pilin gene sequences are considered in relation to pilin gene inversion and the serological variants of strains which may arise from gene inversion events. Images PMID:8051000

  6. Isolation, purification and spectrometric analysis of PSP toxins from moraxella sp., a bacterium associated with a toxic dinoflagellate

    SciTech Connect

    Boyce, S.D.; Doucette, G.J.

    1994-12-31

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is a seafood intoxication syndrome caused by the injestion of shellfish contaminated with toxins produced by algae known as dinoflagellates. The PSP toxins, saxitoxin and its derivatives, act to block voltage-dependent sodium channels and can cause paralysis and even death at higher doses. It is well documented that bacteria coexist with many harmful or toxic algal species, though the exact nature of the association in relation to toxin production is unknown. Recently, the bacterium Moraxella sp. was isolated from the PSP toxin producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense. Through HPLC analysis and saxitoxin receptor binding assays performed on crude bacterial extracts, it appears that Moraxella sp. is capable of producing saxitoxin and several of its derivatives. However, physical confirmation (e.g. mass spectrometry) of these results is still needed.

  7. The subgenus names Moraxella and Branhamella (in the genus Moraxella) are not in accordance with the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria and are therefore not validly published: Supplementary information to Opinion 83. Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Tindall, B J

    2014-10-01

    The publication of Opinion 83, which dealt with the valid publication of the subgenus names Moraxella and Branhamella (in the genus Moraxella), has highlighted a problem relating to the absence of descriptions associated with these names at the time they were effectively published. This calls into question whether the ruling outlined in Opinion 83, that these names should have qualified for inclusion on the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names, and their inclusion on Validation List 15 are not in accordance with Rule 27 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria governing the valid publication of a name. The subgenus names Moraxella and Branhamella (in the genus Moraxella) are not to be considered to be included on the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names, nor are they to be considered to be validly published by inclusion on Validation List 15.

  8. Atomic Resolution Crystal Structure of NAD+-Dependent Formate Dehydrogenase from Bacterium Moraxella sp. C-1

    PubMed Central

    Shabalin, I.G.; Polyakov, K.M.; Tishkov, V.I.

    2009-01-01

    The crystal structure of the ternary complex of NAD+-dependent formate dehydrogenase from the methylotrophic bacterium Moraxella sp. C-1 with the cofactor (NAD+) and the inhibitor (azide ion) was established at 1.1 A resolution. The complex mimics the structure of the transition state of the enzymatic reaction. The structure was refined with anisotropic displacitalicents parameters for non-hydrogen atoms to a R factor of 13.4%. Most of the nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon atoms were distinguished based on the analysis of the titalicperature factors and electron density peaks, with the result that side-chain rotamers of histidine residues and most of asparagine and glutamine residues were unambiguously determined. A comparative analysis of the structure of the ternary complex determined at the atomic resolution and the structure of this complex at 1.95 A resolution was performed. In the atomic resolution structure, the covalent bonds in the nicotinamide group are somewhat changed in agreitalicent with the results of quantum mechanical calculations, providing evidence that the cofactor acquires a bipolar form in the transition state of the enzymatic reaction. PMID:22649619

  9. Sequence analysis of the inversion region containing the pilin genes of Moraxella bovis.

    PubMed

    Fulks, K A; Marrs, C F; Stevens, S P; Green, M R

    1990-01-01

    Moraxella bovis EPP63 is able to produce two antigenically distinct pili called Q and I pili (previously called beta and alpha pili). Hybridization studies have shown that the transition between the types is due to inversion of a 2.1-kilobase segment of chromosomal DNA. We present the sequence of a 4.1-kilobase region of cloned DNA spanning the entire inversion region in orientation 1 (Q pilin expressed). Comparison of this sequence with the sequence of the polymerase chain reaction-amplified genomic DNA from orientation 2 (I pilin expressed) allows the site-specific region of recombination to be localized to a 26-base-pair region in which sequence similarity to the left inverted repeat of the Salmonella typhimurium hin system was previously noted. In addition, 50% sequence similarity was seen in a 60-base-pair segment of our sequence to the recombinational enhancer of bacteriophage P1, an inversion system related to the hin system of S. typhimurium. Finally, two open reading frames representing potential genes were identified.

  10. The pathophysiological effects of Moraxella bovis toxins on cattle, mice and guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Pugh, G W; Hughes, D E; Schulz, V D

    1973-01-01

    In three experiments, cattle, mice and guinea pigs were inoculated with viable cultures of Moraxella bovis or fractions of this organism. Fractions were obtained by disruption of cells with a fractionator at 20,000 pounds per square inch, and separating the cell wall and cell sap fractions by differential centrifugation. Cell sap fractions were further separated by ultra-centrifugation, heating and precipitation with (NH(4))(2) SO(4). Different fractions induced different pathophysiological manifestations. The cell wall fractions caused localized lesions (necrosis) at the site of injection, and emphysema and congestion of the lungs. Cell sap fractions induced a "shock syndrome," as well as hemorrhage and inflammation of the intestines, hemorrhage and congestion of lymph nodes, liver, adrenal and spleen. Cell sap also induced conjunctivitis in mice and guinea pigs, and periocular edema, myosis, ocular pruritus and lacrimation in cattle. The authors suggest that M. bovis probably produces endotoxins and exotoxins as well as possibly a specific oculopathic substance, but more definitive work is needed to confirm this. They caution that consideration of these toxins should be made in any application of M. bovis for vaccines or other immunological studies.

  11. Association of Moraxella ovis with keratoconjunctivitis in mule deer and moose in Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Dubay, S A; Williams, E S; Mills, K; Boerger-Fields, A M

    2000-04-01

    Six cases of infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and moose (Alces alces) in Wyoming (USA) were investigated during fall and winter of 1995 and 1996. Excessive lacrimation, mucopurulent conjunctivitis, keratitis, and corneal opacity were observed in mule deer. Moose had severe mucopurulent conjunctivitis, keratitis, and corneal ulceration. Hemolytic, non-piliated Moraxella ovis was isolated from two mule deer and two moose. We attempted to reproduce IKC in three mule deer fawns using an isolate of M. ovis from a clinically affected mule deer. These fawns did not develop clinical signs of infection and the bacterium was not reisolated from inoculated deer. Inoculated deer may not have developed clinical signs because deer were not exposed to ultraviolet light or mechanical insult before inoculation. In addition, the isolate used for inoculation may have lost virulence factors through passage, or M. ovis may not have been the primary pathogen responsible for clinical disease in the natural cases of IKC we investigated. The etiology of IKC in free-ranging wild ruminants remains poorly understood.

  12. Large genomic differences between Moraxella bovoculi isolates acquired from the eyes of cattle with conjunctivitis versus the deep nasopharynx of asymptomatic cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moraxella bovoculi is a recently described bacterium that is associated with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or "pinkeye" in cattle. In this study, closed circularized genomes were generated for seven M. bovoculi isolates: three that originated from the eyes of clinical IBK bovine case...

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Moraxella osloensis Strain KMC41, a Producer of 4-Methyl-3-Hexenoic Acid, a Major Malodor Compound in Laundry.

    PubMed

    Goto, Takatsugu; Hirakawa, Hideki; Morita, Yuji; Tomida, Junko; Sato, Jun; Matsumura, Yuta; Mitani, Asako; Niwano, Yu; Takeuchi, Kohei; Kubota, Hiromi; Kawamura, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of Moraxella osloensis strain KMC41, isolated from laundry with malodor. The KMC41 genome comprises a 2,445,556-bp chromosome and three plasmids. A fatty acid desaturase and at least four β-oxidation-related genes putatively associated with 4-methyl-3-hexenoic acid generation were detected in the KMC41 chromosome. PMID:27445387

  14. Amino acid sequence homology between Piv, an essential protein in site-specific DNA inversion in Moraxella lacunata, and transposases of an unusual family of insertion elements.

    PubMed Central

    Lenich, A G; Glasgow, A C

    1994-01-01

    Deletion analysis of the subcloned DNA inversion region of Moraxella lacunata indicates that Piv is the only M. lacunata-encoded factor required for site-specific inversion of the tfpQ/tfpI pilin segment. The predicted amino acid sequence of Piv shows significant homology solely with the transposases/integrases of a family of insertion sequence elements, suggesting that Piv is a novel site-specific recombinase. Images PMID:8021196

  15. Development of the radiation-resistant strain of Moraxella osloensis and effect of penicillin G on its growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sangyong; Yun, Hyejeong; Joe, Minho; Kim, Dongho

    2009-07-01

    A series of repeated exposures to γ-radiation with intervening outgrowth of survivors was used to develop radioresistant cultures of Moraxella osloensis that have been recognized as potential pathogenic microorganism. The D10 value of the radiation-resistant strain, 5.903±0.006 kGy, was increased by four-fold compared to the parent wild-type strain, 1.637±0.004 kGy. Since most strains of M. osloensis are sensitive to penicillin, we have surveyed the sensitivity of radiation-resistant strain to this antibiotic. When the optical density was monitored after the addition of penicillin G, the radioresistant strain appeared to be more resistant to only a low concentration of penicillin G (0.5 U/ml) than the parent strain. Interestingly, however, there was no apparent difference in the number of viable cells between both strains. Scanning electron microscope data showed that the resistance cells were generally larger than the parent cells, suggesting that this increase in size may cause a higher optical density of radioresistant cells. In conclusion, radiation mutation does not affect the penicillin resistance of M. osloensis.

  16. Fermentation products of solvent tolerant marine bacterium Moraxella spp. MB1 and its biotechnological applications in salicylic acid bioconversion.

    PubMed

    Wahidullah, Solimabi; Naik, Deepak N; Devi, Prabha

    2013-01-01

    As part of a proactive approach to environmental protection, emerging issues with potential impact on the environment is the subject of ongoing investigation. One emerging area of environmental research concerns pharmaceuticals like salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of various analgesics including aspirin. It is a common component of sewage effluent and also an intermediate in the degradation pathway of various aromatic compounds which are introduced in the marine environment as pollutants. In this study, biotransformation products of salicylic acid by seaweed, Bryopsis plumosa, associated marine bacterium, Moraxella spp. MB1, have been investigated. Phenol, conjugates of phenol and hydroxy cinnamic acid derivatives (coumaroyl, caffeoyl, feruloyl and trihydroxy cinnamyl) with salicylic acid (3-8) were identified as the bioconversion products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. These results show that the microorganism do not degrade phenolic acid but catalyses oxygen dependent transformations without ring cleavage. The degradation of salicylic acid is known to proceed either via gentisic acid pathway or catechol pathway but this is the first report of biotransformation of salicylic acid into cinnamates, without ring cleavage. Besides cinnamic acid derivatives (9-12), metabolites produced by the bacterium include antimicrobial indole (13) and β-carbolines, norharman (14), harman (15) and methyl derivative (16), which are beneficial to the host and the environment. PMID:24391802

  17. Fermentation products of solvent tolerant marine bacterium Moraxella spp. MB1 and its biotechnological applications in salicylic acid bioconversion.

    PubMed

    Wahidullah, Solimabi; Naik, Deepak N; Devi, Prabha

    2013-01-01

    As part of a proactive approach to environmental protection, emerging issues with potential impact on the environment is the subject of ongoing investigation. One emerging area of environmental research concerns pharmaceuticals like salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of various analgesics including aspirin. It is a common component of sewage effluent and also an intermediate in the degradation pathway of various aromatic compounds which are introduced in the marine environment as pollutants. In this study, biotransformation products of salicylic acid by seaweed, Bryopsis plumosa, associated marine bacterium, Moraxella spp. MB1, have been investigated. Phenol, conjugates of phenol and hydroxy cinnamic acid derivatives (coumaroyl, caffeoyl, feruloyl and trihydroxy cinnamyl) with salicylic acid (3-8) were identified as the bioconversion products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. These results show that the microorganism do not degrade phenolic acid but catalyses oxygen dependent transformations without ring cleavage. The degradation of salicylic acid is known to proceed either via gentisic acid pathway or catechol pathway but this is the first report of biotransformation of salicylic acid into cinnamates, without ring cleavage. Besides cinnamic acid derivatives (9-12), metabolites produced by the bacterium include antimicrobial indole (13) and β-carbolines, norharman (14), harman (15) and methyl derivative (16), which are beneficial to the host and the environment.

  18. Fermentation Products of Solvent Tolerant Marine Bacterium Moraxella spp. MB1 and Its Biotechnological Applications in Salicylic Acid Bioconversion

    PubMed Central

    Wahidullah, Solimabi; Naik, Deepak N.; Devi, Prabha

    2013-01-01

    As part of a proactive approach to environmental protection, emerging issues with potential impact on the environment is the subject of ongoing investigation. One emerging area of environmental research concerns pharmaceuticals like salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of various analgesics including aspirin. It is a common component of sewage effluent and also an intermediate in the degradation pathway of various aromatic compounds which are introduced in the marine environment as pollutants. In this study, biotransformation products of salicylic acid by seaweed, Bryopsis plumosa, associated marine bacterium, Moraxella spp. MB1, have been investigated. Phenol, conjugates of phenol and hydroxy cinnamic acid derivatives (coumaroyl, caffeoyl, feruloyl and trihydroxy cinnamyl) with salicylic acid (3–8) were identified as the bioconversion products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. These results show that the microorganism do not degrade phenolic acid but catalyses oxygen dependent transformations without ring cleavage. The degradation of salicylic acid is known to proceed either via gentisic acid pathway or catechol pathway but this is the first report of biotransformation of salicylic acid into cinnamates, without ring cleavage. Besides cinnamic acid derivatives (9–12), metabolites produced by the bacterium include antimicrobial indole (13) and β-carbolines, norharman (14), harman (15) and methyl derivative (16), which are beneficial to the host and the environment. PMID:24391802

  19. Assessment of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J killing of Moraxella bovis in an in vitro model of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Boileau, Mélanie J; Clinkenbeard, Kenneth D; Iandolo, John J

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the potential of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J as an alternative non-chemotherapeutic treatment of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). To accomplish this, various parameters of B. bacteriovorus predation of Moraxella bovis were determined in vitro. Initial passage of B. bacteriovorus using M. bovis as prey required 10 d for active cultures to develop compared with 2 d for culture on normal Escherichia coli prey; however by the 5th passage, time to active predatory morphology was reduced to 2 d. This high passage B. bacteriovorus culture [1 × 10(10) plaque forming units (PFU)/mL] killed 76% of M. bovis [1 × 10(7) colony forming units (CFU)/mL] present in suspension broth in a 4 h assay. The minimal level of M. bovis supporting B. bacteriovorus predation was 1 × 10(4) CFU/mL. To assess the ability of B. bacteriovorus to kill M. bovis on an epithelial surface mimicking IBK, an in vitro assay with Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells inoculated with 4 × 10(7) CFU/mL M. bovis was used. Treatment with a B. bacteriovorus suspension (1.6 × 10(11) PFU/mL) decreased adherence of M. bovis to MDBK cells by 6-fold at 12 h of treatment, as well as decreased the number of unattached M. bovis cells by 1.4-fold. This study demonstrates that B. bacteriovorus has potential as an effective biological control of M. bovis at levels likely present in IBK-infected corneal epithelia and ocular secretions.

  20. Moraxella lacunata infection associated with septicemia, endocarditis, and bilateral septic arthritis in a patient undergoing hemodialysis: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Asami; Yamanaka, Katsuo; Hayashi, Hiroki; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi

    2014-01-01

    We report the first case of both endocarditis and bilateral septic arthritis in a patient caused by Moraxella lacunata and successful management of the infection with antimicrobial therapy. The route of entry leading to bacteremia may have been the oral cavity given the poor oral hygiene of the patient as evidenced by bleeding gums. We hypothesize that the bacteremia led to septic arthritis and mitral valve infective endocarditis. In this case report, we also review the literature on M. lacunata infections and conclude that this organism should be considered in bilateral septic arthritis in a patient with underlying heart abnormalities and/or with renal failure.

  1. Large genomic differences between Moraxella bovoculi isolates acquired from the eyes of cattle with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis versus the deep nasopharynx of asymptomatic cattle.

    PubMed

    Dickey, Aaron M; Loy, John D; Bono, James L; Smith, Timothy P L; Apley, Mike D; Lubbers, Brian V; DeDonder, Keith D; Capik, Sarah F; Larson, Robert L; White, Brad J; Blom, Jochen; Chitko-McKown, Carol G; Clawson, Michael L

    2016-02-13

    Moraxella bovoculi is a recently described bacterium that is associated with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or "pinkeye" in cattle. In this study, closed circularized genomes were generated for seven M. bovoculi isolates: three that originated from the eyes of clinical IBK bovine cases and four from the deep nasopharynx of asymptomatic cattle. Isolates that originated from the eyes of IBK cases profoundly differed from those that originated from the nasopharynx of asymptomatic cattle in genome structure, gene content and polymorphism diversity and consequently placed into two distinct phylogenetic groups. These results suggest that there are genetically distinct strains of M. bovoculi that may not associate with IBK.

  2. Development of real-time PCR assays for the detection of Moraxella macacae associated with bloody nose syndrome in rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) macaques

    PubMed Central

    Whitehouse, Chris A.; Chase, Kitty; Embers, Monica E.; Kulesh, David A.; Ladner, Jason T.; Palacios, Gustavo F.; Minogue, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Moraxella macacae is a recently described bacterial pathogen that causes epistaxis or so-called bloody nose syndrome in captive macaques. The aim of this study was to develop specific molecular diagnostic assays for M. macacae and to determine their performance characteristics. Methods We developed six real-time PCR assays on the Roche LightCycler. The accuracy, precision, selectivity, and limit of detection (LOD) were determined for each assay, in addition to further validation by testing nasal swabs from macaques presenting with epistaxis at the Tulane National Primate Research Center. Results All assays exhibited 100% specificity and were highly sensitive with an LOD of 10 fg for chromosomal assays and 1 fg for the plasmid assay. Testing of nasal swabs from 10 symptomatic macaques confirmed the presence of M. macacae in these animals. Conclusions We developed several accurate, sensitive, and species-specific real-time PCR assays for the detection of M. macacae in captive macaques. PMID:26365904

  3. Gene organization and primary structure of human hormone-sensitive lipase: possible significance of a sequence homology with a lipase of Moraxella TA144, an antarctic bacterium.

    PubMed Central

    Langin, D; Laurell, H; Holst, L S; Belfrage, P; Holm, C

    1993-01-01

    The human hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) gene encodes a 786-aa polypeptide (85.5 kDa). It is composed of nine exons spanning approximately 11 kb, with exons 2-5 clustered in a 1.1-kb region. The putative catalytic site (Ser423) and a possible lipid-binding region in the C-terminal part are encoded by exons 6 and 9, respectively. Exon 8 encodes the phosphorylation site (Ser551) that controls cAMP-mediated activity and a second site (Ser553) that is phosphorylated by 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase. Human HSL showed 83% identity with the rat enzyme and contained a 12-aa deletion immediately upstream of the phosphorylation sites with an unknown effect on the activity control. Besides the catalytic site motif (Gly-Xaa-Ser-Xaa-Gly) found in most lipases, HSL shows no homology with other known lipases or proteins, except for a recently reported unexpected homology between the region surrounding its catalytic site and that of the lipase 2 of Moraxella TA144, an antarctic psychrotrophic bacterium. The gene of lipase 2, which catalyses lipolysis below 4 degrees C, was absent in the genomic DNA of five other Moraxella strains living at 37 degrees C. The lipase 2-like sequence in HSL may reflect an evolutionarily conserved cold adaptability that might be of critical survival value when low-temperature-mobilized endogenous lipids are the primary energy source (e.g., in poikilotherms or hibernators). The finding that HSL at 10 degrees C retained 3- to 5-fold more of its 37 degrees C catalytic activity than lipoprotein lipase or carboxyl ester lipase is consistent with this hypothesis. Images Fig. 5 PMID:8506334

  4. Differentiation of Moraxella nonliquefaciens, M. lacunata, and M. bovis by using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and hybridization with pilin-specific DNA probes.

    PubMed Central

    Tønjum, T; Caugant, D A; Bøvre, K

    1992-01-01

    Genetic relationships among strains of Moraxella nonliquefaciens, M. lacunata, and M. bovis were studied by using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and DNA-DNA hybridization. The 74 isolates analyzed for electrophoretic variation at 12 enzyme loci were assigned to 59 multilocus genotypes. The multilocus genotypes were grouped in four major clusters, one representing strains of M. nonliquefaciens, two representing strains of M. lacunata, and one comprising strains of M. bovis and the single strain of M. equi analyzed. DNA-DNA hybridization with total genomic probes also revealed four major distinctive entities that corresponded to those identified by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. The two distinct clusters recognized among the M. lacunata strains apparently corresponded to the species previously designated M. lacunata and M. liquefaciens. Distinction of the four entities was improved by hybridization with polymerase chain reaction products of nonconserved parts of pilin genes as DNA probes. With these polymerase chain reaction probes, new isolates of M. nonliquefaciens, M. lacunata, M. liquefaciens, and M. bovis can be identified easily by hybridization. PMID:1452691

  5. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-09-04

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

  6. Activity of Faropenem against Middle Ear Fluid Pathogens from Children with Acute Otitis Media in Costa Rica and Israel▿

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Kimberley Clawson; Dagan, Ron; Arguedas, Adriano; Leibovitz, Eugene; Wang, Elaine; Echols, Roger M.; Janjic, Nebojsa; Critchley, Ian A.

    2007-01-01

    Faropenem was tested against 1,188 middle ear fluid pathogens from children in Israel and Costa Rica. Against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, faropenem was the most active β-lactam, with activity that was similar to or greater than of the other oral antimicrobial classes studied. Faropenem was also active against Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pyogenes. PMID:17387157

  7. Activity of faropenem against middle ear fluid pathogens from children with acute otitis media in Costa Rica and Israel.

    PubMed

    Stone, Kimberley Clawson; Dagan, Ron; Arguedas, Adriano; Leibovitz, Eugene; Wang, Elaine; Echols, Roger M; Janjic, Nebojsa; Critchley, Ian A

    2007-06-01

    Faropenem was tested against 1,188 middle ear fluid pathogens from children in Israel and Costa Rica. Against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, faropenem was the most active beta-lactam, with activity that was similar to or greater than of the other oral antimicrobial classes studied. Faropenem was also active against Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pyogenes. PMID:17387157

  8. Haemophilus influenzae isolates survive for up to 20 years at -70 °C in skim milk tryptone glucose glycerol broth (STGGB) if thawing is avoided during re-culture.

    PubMed

    Hare, K M; Smith-Vaughan, H C; Beissbarth, J; Leach, A J

    2015-12-01

    Haemophilus influenzae remains a major cause of disease worldwide requiring continued study. Recently, isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis, but not H. influenzae, were reported to survive long-term ultra-freeze storage in STGGB. We show that nontypeable H. influenzae isolates survive for up to 20 years when thawing is avoided.

  9. Swab transport in Amies gel followed by frozen storage in skim milk tryptone glucose glycerol broth (STGGB) for studies of respiratory bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Hare, Kim M; Stubbs, Elizabeth; Beissbarth, Jemima; Morris, Peter Stanley; Leach, Amanda J

    2010-06-01

    Nasopharyngeal carriage studies are needed to monitor changes in important bacterial pathogens in response to vaccination and antibiotics. Commercial swab transport followed by transfer to skim milk tryptone glucose glycerol broth for frozen storage is an option for studies of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis.

  10. When co-colonizing the nasopharynx haemophilus influenzae predominates over Streptococcus pneumoniae except serotype 19A strains to cause acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingfu; Casey, Janet R; Chang, Arthur; Pichichero, Michael E

    2012-06-01

    Of 368 acute otitis media (AOM) cases among 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate-vaccinated children, 43.5% were colonized by multiple otopathogens in the nasopharynx but only 7.1% experienced polymicrobial AOM. When co-colonization occurred, Haemophilus influenzae predominated over all Streptococcus pneumoniae strains except 19A strains to cause AOM. Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae both predominated over Moraxella catarrhalis to cause AOM.

  11. Portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    This document provides storage requirements for 1,000 CFM portable exhausters POR-O07/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F. These requirements are presented in three parts: preparation for storage, storage maintenance and testing, and retrieval from storage. The exhauster component identification numbers listed in this document contain the prefix POR-007 or POR-008 depending on which exhauster is being used.

  12. Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Walter L.; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ~40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ~60%, is found on ~28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (~8% of Asians and ~13% of Caucasians) at −152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ~30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically-relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21070833

  13. Desigualdades por cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Información básica de las desigualdades en salud por cáncer en EE. UU., factores que contribuyen a la carga desproporcionada del cáncer en algunos grupos y ejemplos de desigualdades en incidencia y mortalidad entre ciertos grupos de la población.

  14. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Gorasia, Dhana G.; Veith, Paul D.; Hanssen, Eric G.; Glew, Michelle D.; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32–36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  15. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System.

    PubMed

    Gorasia, Dhana G; Veith, Paul D; Hanssen, Eric G; Glew, Michelle D; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-08-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32-36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  16. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System.

    PubMed

    Gorasia, Dhana G; Veith, Paul D; Hanssen, Eric G; Glew, Michelle D; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-08-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32-36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component.

  17. The in vitro effects of faropenem on lower respiratory tract pathogens isolated in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Walsh, F; Amyes, A K B; Amyes, S G B

    2003-06-01

    Faropenem is a new oral penem with a structure different from current beta-lactams including carbapenems. The susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis to faropenem, a macrolide, a beta-lactam, a beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combination and two fluoroquinolones was investigated. S. pneumoniae was the most susceptible of the three species to faropenem. The MIC(90)s of faropenem against M. catarrhalis and H. influenzae were 0.5 and 1 mg/l, respectively. They were similar to amoxiclav (MIC (90)s of 0.25 and 0.5 mg/l). The quinolones showed strong activity against H. influenzae. A cluster analysis of the activities of amoxycillin and faropenem demonstrated a direct relationship between the two antimicrobial agent's activities and resistance profiles against both S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae. PMID:12791474

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility of community-acquired lower respiratory tract bacterial pathogens isolated in the UK during the 1995-1996 cold season.

    PubMed

    Felmingham, D; Robbins, M J; Tesfaslasie, Y; Harding, I; Shrimpton, S; Grüneberg, R N

    1998-03-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibility of 1078 isolates of Haemophilus influenzae, 348 Streptococcus pneumoniae and 258 Moraxella catarrhalis was determined. Overall 15.1% of H. influenzae produced beta-lactamase; 98.8% were susceptible to co-amoxiclav, 85.8% to cefaclor, 96% to clarithromycin and 100% to ciprofloxacin. The majority (94.2%) of M. catarrhalis produced beta-lactamase. The overall prevalence of low-level penicillin resistance (MIC = 0.12-1 mg/L) amongst isolates of S. pneumoniae was 3.4% and that of high-level resistance (MIC > or = 2 mg/L) was 3.7%. Most (96.3%) of the isolates of S. pneumoniae were susceptible to amoxycillin (MIC < or = 0.5 mg/L), 96% to cefaclor (MIC < or = 8 mg/L), 90.7% to clarithromycin (MIC < or = 0.25 mg/L) and 89% to ciprofloxacin (MIC < or = 1 mg/L). PMID:9578171

  19. Vaccine prevention of acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, D P; Hoberman, A

    2001-07-01

    The incidence of acute otitis media (AOM) in infants and young children has increased dramatically in recent years in the United States. AOM often follows upper respiratory tract infections due to pathogens such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza virus, and parainfluenza virus (PIV). These viruses cause eustachian tube dysfunction that is critical to the pathogenesis of AOM. Vaccines against these viruses would likely reduce the incidence of AOM. In three previous studies, influenza virus vaccines reduced the incidence of AOM by 30% to 36%. Vaccines to prevent infections with RSV and PIV type 3 are undergoing clinical testing at this time. Streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), and Moraxella catarrhalis are the three most common AOM pathogens. Heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is effective in preventing invasive disease and AOM caused by serotypes contained in the vaccine. Vaccine candidates for NTHi and M. catarrhalis are under development.

  20. Individual use of antibiotics and prevalence of beta-lactamase production among bacterial pathogens from middle ear fluid.

    PubMed

    Thrane, N; Olesen, C; Sørensen, H T; Schønheyder, H C

    2001-02-01

    Prescription data and clinical laboratory data were analysed to assess the influence of previous antibiotic therapy on the prevalence of beta-lactamase in isolates of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis from primary specimens of middle ear fluid from 2129 children aged 0-5 years. The prevalence of beta-lactamase-positive H. influenzae was 6.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 3.5-9.8%] in children who received antibiotics 5-90 days before isolation of the organism compared with 7.0% (95% CI: 3.9-10.2%) in those who did not. The prevalence of beta-lactamase-positive M. catarrhalis was 90.9% (95% CI: 84.0-97.8%) in children who received antibiotics compared with 86.7% (95% CI: 79.0-94.4%) in those who did not.

  1. In vitro evaluation of the antibacterial activity of beta-triketones admixed to Melaleuca oils.

    PubMed

    Christoph, F; Kaulfers, P M; Stahl-Biskup, E

    2001-11-01

    The in vitro antibacterial properties of mixtures of Australian tea tree oil and niaouli oil after adding the beta-triketone complex isolated from manuka oil were tested. MIC and MBC values for four different bacteria were determined applying the broth dilution method. Both Melaleuca oil mixtures showed good antimicrobial effects against Staphylococcus aureus and Moraxella catarrhalis, exceeding the effectiveness of myrtol, which is well established in the treatment of acute and chronic bronchitis and sinusitis. The death kinetics of S. aureus were determined to draw subtle comparisons between the mixtures. The kill rate data indicated that both Melaleuca oil mixtures achieved a complete kill within 240 min.

  2. Pharmacodynamic properties of faropenem demonstrated by studies of time-kill kinetics and postantibiotic effect.

    PubMed

    Boswell, F J; Andrews, J M; Wise, R

    1997-03-01

    The pharmacodynamic properties of faropenem, a new oral penem antibiotic, were investigated by studying time-kill kinetics and postantibiotic effect. Time-kill kinetics were employed against strains of Bacteroides fragilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pyogenes. The postantibiotic effects of faropenem were studied using strains of E. coli, S. aureus, H. influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The time-kill kinetic data demonstrated that faropenem has bactericidal activity. Faropenem exhibited a significant postantibiotic effect against all strains except H. influenzae. PMID:9096193

  3. Acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Gretchen

    2014-03-01

    One in 4 children will have at least 1 episode of acute otitis media (AOM) by age 10 years. AOM results from infection of fluid that has become trapped in the middle ear. The bacteria that most often cause AOM are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Differentiating AOM from otitis media with effusion (OME) is a critical skill for physicians, as accurate diagnosis will guide appropriate treatment of these conditions. Although fluid is present in the middle ear in both conditions, the fluid is not infected in OME as is seen in AOM patients. PMID:24439877

  4. Acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Gretchen

    2014-03-01

    One in 4 children will have at least 1 episode of acute otitis media (AOM) by age 10 years. AOM results from infection of fluid that has become trapped in the middle ear. The bacteria that most often cause AOM are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Differentiating AOM from otitis media with effusion (OME) is a critical skill for physicians, as accurate diagnosis will guide appropriate treatment of these conditions. Although fluid is present in the middle ear in both conditions, the fluid is not infected in OME as is seen in AOM patients.

  5. Evaluation of pyrrolidonyl arylamidase for the identification of nonfermenting Gram-negative rods.

    PubMed

    Bombicino, Karina A; Almuzara, Marisa N; Famiglietti, Angela M R; Vay, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the activity of pyrrolidonyl arylamidase (PYR) for the differentiation and identification of nonfermenting gram negative rods (NFGNR), 293 isolates were tested. A 24 h culture of each test organism was prepared. From this a 108-109 cfu/mL suspension was added to 0.25 mL of sterile physiologic solution. A PYR disk was then added and the test was incubated for 30 minutes at 35-37 degrees C, at environmental atmosphere. Reading was done by adding 1 drop of cinnamaldehyde reagent. Strains of Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter haemolyticus, Alcaligenes faecalis, Bergeyella zoohelcum, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Bordetella hinzii, Brevundimonas diminuta, Brevundimonas vesicularis, Brucella ovis, Brucella spp., Brucella suis, Burkholderia cepacia complex, Moraxella catarrhalis, Moraxella lacunata, Moraxella nonliquefaciens, Moraxella osloensis, Oligella ureolytica, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Pseudomonas mendocina, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas Vb3, Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were PYR negative. On the other hand Achromobacter piechaudii, Achromobacter denitrificans, Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Burkholderia gladioli, Chryseobacterium gleum-indologenes, Comamonas testosroni, Cupriavidus pauculus, Delftia acidovorans, Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, Myroides spp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Ralstonia pickettii, Rhizobium radiobacter, Shewanella spp., Sphingobacterium multivorum, Sphingobacterium spiritivorum, and Weeksella virosa were PYR positive. Finally, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Roseomonas spp., and Sphingomonas paucimobilis-parapaucimobilis were PYR variable. PYR testing should be considered as a useful tool to facilitate the identification of NFGNR.

  6. Evaluation of pyrrolidonyl arylamidase for the identification of nonfermenting Gram-negative rods.

    PubMed

    Bombicino, Karina A; Almuzara, Marisa N; Famiglietti, Angela M R; Vay, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the activity of pyrrolidonyl arylamidase (PYR) for the differentiation and identification of nonfermenting gram negative rods (NFGNR), 293 isolates were tested. A 24 h culture of each test organism was prepared. From this a 108-109 cfu/mL suspension was added to 0.25 mL of sterile physiologic solution. A PYR disk was then added and the test was incubated for 30 minutes at 35-37 degrees C, at environmental atmosphere. Reading was done by adding 1 drop of cinnamaldehyde reagent. Strains of Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter haemolyticus, Alcaligenes faecalis, Bergeyella zoohelcum, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Bordetella hinzii, Brevundimonas diminuta, Brevundimonas vesicularis, Brucella ovis, Brucella spp., Brucella suis, Burkholderia cepacia complex, Moraxella catarrhalis, Moraxella lacunata, Moraxella nonliquefaciens, Moraxella osloensis, Oligella ureolytica, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Pseudomonas mendocina, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas Vb3, Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were PYR negative. On the other hand Achromobacter piechaudii, Achromobacter denitrificans, Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Burkholderia gladioli, Chryseobacterium gleum-indologenes, Comamonas testosroni, Cupriavidus pauculus, Delftia acidovorans, Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, Myroides spp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Ralstonia pickettii, Rhizobium radiobacter, Shewanella spp., Sphingobacterium multivorum, Sphingobacterium spiritivorum, and Weeksella virosa were PYR positive. Finally, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Roseomonas spp., and Sphingomonas paucimobilis-parapaucimobilis were PYR variable. PYR testing should be considered as a useful tool to facilitate the identification of NFGNR. PMID:16822636

  7. [Identification of microorganisms related to chronic rhinosinusitis in adult patients with variable common immunodeficiency].

    PubMed

    Angulo-Pérez, Gabriela; Vivar-Acevedo, Eulalio; Herrera-Sánchez, Diana Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Antecedentes: la prevalencia de rinosinusitis crónica en pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable (IDCV) es de 52%. Los pacientes con esta enfermedad tienen mayor frecuencia de rinosinusitis crónica, enfermedad inflamatoria que afecta a la mucosa de uno o más senos paranasales y la cavidad nasal. Objetivo: identificar los microorganismos de secreción del meato medio obtenida por endoscopia asociados con rinosinusitis crónica en pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable (IDCV). Material y método: estudio descriptivo, transversal, que incluyó a pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable, de quienes se obtuvo una muestra vía endoscópica de secreción del meato medio de ambas fosas nasales, que se envió a cultivo para bacterias aerobias, anaerobias y hongos. Se obtuvo consentimiento informado de todos los pacientes. Resultados: se estudiaron 29 pacientes: 18 mujeres y 11 hombres, con edad promedio de 40±13 años. Los resultados obtenidos fueron: 2 muestras de pacientes no tuvieron desarrollo microbiano, 24 tuvieron desarrollo de bacterias aerobias, en 3 casos hubo crecimiento fúngico sin desarrollo de bacterias anaerobias. Conclusiones: nuestros resultados muestran que los microorganismos asociados con rinosinusitis crónica en pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable más comunes son: Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus, Sphingomonas paucimobilis y Citrobacter koseri; los agentes micóticos asociados fueron: Candida albicans y Aspergillus fumigatus.

  8. [Prevalence of sensitization to fungi in patients with respiratory allergy].

    PubMed

    González-Díaz, Sandra Nora; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Ibarra-Chávez, Jesús Arturo; Elizondo-Villarreal, Bárbara; Rivero-Arias, Dulce María; Salinas-Díaz, María Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Antecedentes: la prevalencia de rinosinusitis crónica en pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable (IDCV) es de 52%. Los pacientes con esta enfermedad tienen mayor frecuencia de rinosinusitis crónica, enfermedad inflamatoria que afecta a la mucosa de uno o más senos paranasales y la cavidad nasal. Objetivo: identificar los microorganismos de secreción del meato medio obtenida por endoscopia asociados con rinosinusitis crónica en pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable (IDCV). Material y método: estudio descriptivo, transversal, que incluyó a pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable, de quienes se obtuvo una muestra vía endoscópica de secreción del meato medio de ambas fosas nasales, que se envió a cultivo para bacterias aerobias, anaerobias y hongos. Se obtuvo consentimiento informado de todos los pacientes. Resultados: se estudiaron 29 pacientes: 18 mujeres y 11 hombres, con edad promedio de 40±13 años. Los resultados obtenidos fueron: 2 muestras de pacientes no tuvieron desarrollo microbiano, 24 tuvieron desarrollo de bacterias aerobias, en 3 casos hubo crecimiento fúngico sin desarrollo de bacterias anaerobias. Conclusiones: nuestros resultados muestran que los microorganismos asociados con rinosinusitis crónica en pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable más comunes son: Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus, Sphingomonas paucimobilis y Citrobacter koseri; los agentes micóticos asociados fueron: Candida albicans y Aspergillus fumigatus.

  9. [Prevalence of sensitization to allergens in school children with asthma residents from Guadalajara metropolitan area].

    PubMed

    Alcalá-Padilla, Guadalupe; Bedolla-Barajas, Martín; Kestler-Gramajo, Amanda; Valdez-López, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Antecedentes: la prevalencia de rinosinusitis crónica en pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable (IDCV) es de 52%. Los pacientes con esta enfermedad tienen mayor frecuencia de rinosinusitis crónica, enfermedad inflamatoria que afecta a la mucosa de uno o más senos paranasales y la cavidad nasal. Objetivo: identificar los microorganismos de secreción del meato medio obtenida por endoscopia asociados con rinosinusitis crónica en pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable (IDCV). Material y método: estudio descriptivo, transversal, que incluyó a pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable, de quienes se obtuvo una muestra vía endoscópica de secreción del meato medio de ambas fosas nasales, que se envió a cultivo para bacterias aerobias, anaerobias y hongos. Se obtuvo consentimiento informado de todos los pacientes. Resultados: se estudiaron 29 pacientes: 18 mujeres y 11 hombres, con edad promedio de 40±13 años. Los resultados obtenidos fueron: 2 muestras de pacientes no tuvieron desarrollo microbiano, 24 tuvieron desarrollo de bacterias aerobias, en 3 casos hubo crecimiento fúngico sin desarrollo de bacterias anaerobias. Conclusiones: nuestros resultados muestran que los microorganismos asociados con rinosinusitis crónica en pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable más comunes son: Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus, Sphingomonas paucimobilis y Citrobacter koseri; los agentes micóticos asociados fueron: Candida albicans y Aspergillus fumigatus.

  10. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Maxence S.; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS. PMID:27630829

  11. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Maxence S; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS. PMID:27630829

  12. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Maxence S; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS.

  13. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Maxence S.; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS.

  14. System design description for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster Skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    The primary purpose of the two 1,000 CFM Exhauster Skids, POR-007-SKID E and POR-008-SKID F, is to provide backup to the waste tank primary ventilation systems for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102, and the AY-102 annulus in the event of a failure during the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 and subsequent transfer of sluiced waste to 241-AY-102. This redundancy is required since both of the tank ventilation systems have been declared as Safety Class systems.

  15. Identification of Porphyromonas gingivalis proteins secreted by the Por secretion system.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Narita, Yuka; Shoji, Mikio; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis possesses a number of potential virulence factors for periodontopathogenicity. In particular, cysteine proteinases named gingipains are of interest given their abilities to degrade host proteins and process other virulence factors such as fimbriae. Gingipains are translocated on the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu by the Por secretion system (PorSS), which consists of a number of membrane or periplasmic proteins including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorO, PorP, PorQ, PorT, PorU, PorV (PG27, LptO), PorW and Sov. To identify proteins other than gingipains secreted by the PorSS, we compared the proteomes of P. gingivalis strains kgp rgpA rgpB (PorSS-proficient strain) and kgp rgpA rgpB porK (PorSS-deficient strain) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide-mass fingerprinting. Sixteen spots representing 10 different proteins were present in the particle-free culture supernatant of the PorSS-proficient strain but were absent or faint in that of the PorSS-deficient strain. These identified proteins possessed the C-terminal domains (CTDs), which had been suggested to form the CTD protein family. These results indicate that the PorSS is used for secretion of a number of proteins other than gingipains and that the CTDs of the proteins are associated with the PorSS-dependent secretion. PMID:23075153

  16. Identification of Porphyromonas gingivalis proteins secreted by the Por secretion system.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Narita, Yuka; Shoji, Mikio; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis possesses a number of potential virulence factors for periodontopathogenicity. In particular, cysteine proteinases named gingipains are of interest given their abilities to degrade host proteins and process other virulence factors such as fimbriae. Gingipains are translocated on the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu by the Por secretion system (PorSS), which consists of a number of membrane or periplasmic proteins including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorO, PorP, PorQ, PorT, PorU, PorV (PG27, LptO), PorW and Sov. To identify proteins other than gingipains secreted by the PorSS, we compared the proteomes of P. gingivalis strains kgp rgpA rgpB (PorSS-proficient strain) and kgp rgpA rgpB porK (PorSS-deficient strain) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide-mass fingerprinting. Sixteen spots representing 10 different proteins were present in the particle-free culture supernatant of the PorSS-proficient strain but were absent or faint in that of the PorSS-deficient strain. These identified proteins possessed the C-terminal domains (CTDs), which had been suggested to form the CTD protein family. These results indicate that the PorSS is used for secretion of a number of proteins other than gingipains and that the CTDs of the proteins are associated with the PorSS-dependent secretion.

  17. Disminuyen en los Estados Unidos las infecciones por VPH.

    Cancer.gov

    La infección por los tipos del virus del papiloma humano (VPH) en el blanco de la vacuna cuadrivalente se redujo en casi dos tercios en las adolescentes desde que se recomendó la vacunación en los Estados Unidos.

  18. Centros oncológicos designados por el NCI

    Cancer.gov

    El programa de centros oncológicos designados por el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) reconoce a los centros de todo el país que cumplen con rigurosos criterios para participar en proyectos avanzados de primer nivel para la investigación multidisciplinaria del cáncer.

  19. Se evitaron casi 800 000 muertes por descenso del tabaquismo

    Cancer.gov

    Programas y estrategias de control del tabaco del siglo XX fueron responsables de la prevención de más de 795 000 muertes por cáncer de pulmón en Estados Unidos de 1975 al 2000. Si todo el tabaquismo en este país hubiera cesado después de la publicación d

  20. Neisseria meningitidis Lacking the Major Porins PorA and PorB Is Viable and Modulates Apoptosis and the Oxidative Burst of Neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Peak, Ian R; Chen, Adrienne; Jen, Freda E-C; Jennings, Courtney; Schulz, Benjamin L; Saunders, Nigel J; Khan, Arshad; Seifert, H Steven; Jennings, Michael P

    2016-08-01

    The bacterial pathogen Neisseria meningitidis expresses two major outer-membrane porins. PorA expression is subject to phase-variation (high frequency, random, on-off switching), and both PorA and PorB are antigenically variable between strains. PorA expression is variable and not correlated with meningococcal colonisation or invasive disease, whereas all naturally-occurring strains express PorB suggesting strong selection for expression. We have generated N. meningitidis strains lacking expression of both major porins, demonstrating that they are dispensable for bacterial growth in vitro. The porAB mutant strain has an exponential growth rate similar to the parental strain, as do the single porA or porB mutants, but the porAB mutant strain does not reach the same cell density in stationary phase. Proteomic analysis suggests that the double mutant strain exhibits compensatory expression changes in proteins associated with cellular redox state, energy/nutrient metabolism, and membrane stability. On solid media, there is obvious growth impairment that is rescued by addition of blood or serum from mammalian species, particularly heme. These porin mutants are not impaired in their capacity to inhibit both staurosporine-induced apoptosis and a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced oxidative burst in human neutrophils suggesting that the porins are not the only bacterial factors that can modulate these processes in host cells.

  1. Compton imaging with the PorGamRays spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judson, D. S.; Boston, A. J.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Cullen, D. M.; Hardie, A.; Harkness, L. J.; Jones, L. L.; Jones, M.; Lazarus, I.; Nolan, P. J.; Pucknell, V.; Rigby, S. V.; Seller, P.; Scraggs, D. P.; Simpson, J.; Slee, M.; Sweeney, A.; PorGamRays Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The PorGamRays project aims to develop a portable gamma-ray detection system with both spectroscopic and imaging capabilities. The system is designed around a stack of thin Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors. The imaging capability utilises the Compton camera principle. Each detector is segmented into 100 pixels which are read out through custom designed Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This device has potential applications in the security, decommissioning and medical fields. This work focuses on the near-field imaging performance of a lab-based demonstrator consisting of two pixelated CZT detectors, each of which is bonded to a NUCAM II ASIC. Measurements have been made with point 133Ba and 57Co sources located ˜35 mm from the surface of the scattering detector. Position resolution of ˜20 mm FWHM in the x and y planes is demonstrated.

  2. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E

    SciTech Connect

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-07-24

    This document describes Acceptance Testing performed on Portable Exhauster POR-007/Skid E. It includes measurements of bearing vibration levels, pressure decay testing, programmable logic controller interlocks, high vacuum, flow and pressure control functional testing. The purpose of Acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-0490, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.

  3. Typing and surface charges of the variable loop regions of PorB from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Stefanelli, Paola; Neri, Arianna; Tanabe, Mikio; Fazio, Cecilia; Massari, Paola

    2016-06-01

    PorB is a pan-Neisserial major outer membrane protein with a trimeric β-barrel structure. Each monomer presents eight periplasmic turns and eight surface exposed loop regions with sequence variability. PorB induces activation of host cell responses via a TLR2-dependent mechanism likely mediated by electrostatic interactions between TLR2 and PorB surface exposed loops. Variability in the loop amino acid sequence is known to influence cell responses to PorB in vitro, particularly for the residues in L5 and L7. In this work, the sequence of the porB gene and the electrostatic surface charges of PorB from 35 invasive meningococcal isolates belonging to the main clonal complexes identified in Italy and from five carriage genomes available on the website http://pubmlst.org/neisseria/ were examined. Analysis of the porB encoding regions from the invasive meningococci has identified four new alleles and a potential association between porB alleles, serogroup, and clonal complexes. Through computer-based modeling and analysis of the electrostatic surface charges of PorB from these strains, loop charge segregation between PorB from invasive serogroups B and C was observed. Specifically, loops 1, 4, and 7 were negatively charged and L2 and L8 were mostly neutral in serogroup B isolates, while an overall homogeneous positive surface charge was present in PorB from invasive serogroup C strains. A higher PorB sequence variability was observed among carriage genomes, and a general prevalence of negative loop surface charges. The surface charge differences in PorB from serogroups B and C invasive and carriage strains may, in part, influence the outcomes of Neisseriae interactions with host cells. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(6):488-495, 2016. PMID:27156582

  4. Typing and surface charges of the variable loop regions of PorB from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Stefanelli, Paola; Neri, Arianna; Tanabe, Mikio; Fazio, Cecilia; Massari, Paola

    2016-06-01

    PorB is a pan-Neisserial major outer membrane protein with a trimeric β-barrel structure. Each monomer presents eight periplasmic turns and eight surface exposed loop regions with sequence variability. PorB induces activation of host cell responses via a TLR2-dependent mechanism likely mediated by electrostatic interactions between TLR2 and PorB surface exposed loops. Variability in the loop amino acid sequence is known to influence cell responses to PorB in vitro, particularly for the residues in L5 and L7. In this work, the sequence of the porB gene and the electrostatic surface charges of PorB from 35 invasive meningococcal isolates belonging to the main clonal complexes identified in Italy and from five carriage genomes available on the website http://pubmlst.org/neisseria/ were examined. Analysis of the porB encoding regions from the invasive meningococci has identified four new alleles and a potential association between porB alleles, serogroup, and clonal complexes. Through computer-based modeling and analysis of the electrostatic surface charges of PorB from these strains, loop charge segregation between PorB from invasive serogroups B and C was observed. Specifically, loops 1, 4, and 7 were negatively charged and L2 and L8 were mostly neutral in serogroup B isolates, while an overall homogeneous positive surface charge was present in PorB from invasive serogroup C strains. A higher PorB sequence variability was observed among carriage genomes, and a general prevalence of negative loop surface charges. The surface charge differences in PorB from serogroups B and C invasive and carriage strains may, in part, influence the outcomes of Neisseriae interactions with host cells. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(6):488-495, 2016.

  5. VDAC and the bacterial porin PorB of Neisseria gonorrhoeae share mitochondrial import pathways.

    PubMed

    Müller, Anne; Rassow, Joachim; Grimm, Jan; Machuy, Nikolaus; Meyer, Thomas F; Rudel, Thomas

    2002-04-15

    The human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae induces host cell apoptosis during infection by delivering the outer membrane protein PorB to the host cell's mitochondria. PorB is a pore-forming beta-barrel protein sharing several features with the mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), which is involved in the regulation of apoptosis. Here we show that PorB of pathogenic Neisseria species produced by host cells is efficiently targeted to mitochondria. Imported PorB resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane and forms multimers with similar sizes as in the outer bacterial membrane. The mitochondria completely lose their membrane potential, a characteristic previously observed in cells infected with gonococci or treated with purified PorB. Closely related bacterial porins of non-pathogenic Neisseria mucosa or Escherichia coli remain in the cytosol. Import of PorB into mitochondria in vivo is independent of a linear signal sequence. Insertion of PorB into the mitochondrial outer membrane in vitro depends on the activity of Tom5, Tom20 and Tom40, but is independent of Tom70. Our data show that human VDAC and bacterial PorB are imported into mitochondria by a similar mechanism. PMID:11953311

  6. Influenza A virus--induced acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Buchman, C A; Doyle, W J; Skoner, D P; Post, J C; Alper, C M; Seroky, J T; Anderson, K; Preston, R A; Hayden, F G; Fireman, P

    1995-11-01

    To better understand the significance of viral upper respiratory tract infections in the pathogenesis of acute otitis media (OM), 27 adults underwent intranasal inoculation with influenza A virus. Monitoring consisted of antibody titer determination, tympanometry, and otoscopy. Microbiologic analysis consisted of cultures and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection for influenza A virus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. All subjects became infected with the challenge virus. By day 4, 16 (59%) developed middle ear pressures of -100 mm H2O or below and 4 (25%) of them developed OM. One subject (4%) developed purulent OM requiring myringotomy for pain relief. Middle ear effusion cultures were negative. PCR analysis of that subject's middle ear effusion and nasal washes were positive for influenza A virus and S. pneumoniae. These findings support a causal role for viral upper respiratory tract infections in the pathogenesis of OM, possibly mediated by middle ear underpressures and viral and bacterial middle ear infection.

  7. Synthesis and antibacterial evaluation of novel 4″-glycyl linked quinolyl-azithromycins with potent activity against macrolide-resistant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Pavlović, Dražen; Mutak, Stjepan

    2016-03-15

    A new azithromycin-based series of antibacterial macrolones is reported, which features the use of a 4″-ester linked glycin for tethering the quinolone side chain to the macrolide scaffold. Among the analogs prepared, compounds 9e and 22f with a quinolon-6-yl moiety were found to have potent and well-balanced activity against clinically important respiratory tract pathogens, including erythromycin-susceptible and MLSB resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Haemophilus influenzae. In addition, potential lead compounds 9e and 22f demonstrated outstanding levels of activity against Moraxella catarrhalis and inducibly MLSB resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The best member of this series 22f rivals or exceeds, in potency, some of the most active ketolide antibacterial agents known today, such as telithromycin and cethromycin. PMID:26860929

  8. [In vitro activity of faropenem against beta-lactamase producing clinical isolates].

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, T; Matsuzaki, K; Koyama, H; Saika, T; Hasegawa, M; Kobayashi, I

    2000-03-01

    Each 20 strains of beta-lactamase producing methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis, and Bacteroides fragilis group were used as the test strains. Drug susceptibility of these strains to faropenem (FRPM), cefdinir, cefditoren, cefcapene, cefteram, cefaclor, and ampicillin was determined by an agar dilution method according to the NCCLS guideline M100-S9. beta-Lactamase activity of the test strains was determined by a spectrophotometric method. In the present study, FRPM was highly active against beta-lactamase-producing strains, and no close correlation was found between the MICs of FRPM for the test strains and their beta-lactamase activities. These results suggest that FRPM has potential in successful application for the treatment of infectious diseases with various types of bacterial pathogens including beta-lactamase producing strains. PMID:10834149

  9. Development of a test system for rapid differentiation of Neisseria and Haemophilus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Eriquez, L A; Hodinka, N E

    1983-01-01

    A qualitative micromethod (IDS Rapid NH system) employing conventional and single-substrate enzyme tests was developed for the biochemical characterization of Neisseria spp., Haemophilus spp., and other gram-negative species. A total of over 140 dehydrated, miniaturized biochemical tests were investigated for their ability to distinguish species. Computer-assisted test selection and pair separation analysis of the data allowed the selection of 11 4-h tests that would identify Haemophilus and Neisseria spp. implicated as etiological agents as well as differentiate them from other Neisseria spp., Moraxella spp., Branhamella catarrhalis, Centers for Disease Control M groups, and Kingella spp. The final test configuration included modified glucose, sucrose, galactosidase, nitrate, phosphatase, resazurin reduction, and two arylamidase tests. In addition, indole, urea, and ornithine decarboxylase tests were included to biochemically type strains of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae. PMID:6358247

  10. In Vitro Activity of Gepotidacin, a Novel Triazaacenaphthylene Bacterial Topoisomerase Inhibitor, against a Broad Spectrum of Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Bouchillon, S. K.; Hackel, M.; Miller, L. A.; Scangarella-Oman, N. E.; Jakielaszek, C.; Sahm, D. F.

    2016-01-01

    Gepotidacin inhibits bacterial DNA replication through a mode different from that of fluoroquinolones. Gepotidacin and comparators were tested by broth and agar dilution against clinical isolates. The in vitro activities of gepotidacin were comparable against methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA, respectively) isolates (MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml). The gepotidacin MIC90s were as follows (in micrograms per milliliter) for the indicated bacteria: Streptococcus pyogenes, 0.25; Escherichia coli, 2; Moraxella catarrhalis, ≤0.06; Streptococcus pneumoniae (0.25), Haemophilus influenzae, 1; Clostridium perfringens, 0.5; and Shigella spp., 1, including levofloxacin-resistant subsets. Gepotidacin warrants further investigation for clinical development. PMID:26729499

  11. Staphylococcus aureus: is it a pathogen of acute bacterial sinusitis in children and adults?

    PubMed

    Wald, Ellen R

    2012-03-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis are the etiologic agents of acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS). Staphylococcus aureus has been an uncommon cause of ABS despite its frequent occupancy within the anterior nares. A quantitative culture of a maxillary sinus aspirate is the gold standard for determining etiology of ABS. Cultures of the middle meatus cannot be used as a surrogate for a maxillary sinus aspirate in children with ABS, although they may be used in adults if interpretation is confined to usual sinus pathogens. Recent studies highlighting S. aureus as a major pathogen in ABS should be interpreted cautiously. Most isolates in recent pediatric studies were derived from cultures of the middle meatus. The range of reported results for the incidence of S. aureus as a cause of ABS in adults is similar to the results reported for staphylococcal colonization of the middle meatus in healthy adults.

  12. [Cefditoren pivoxil: A new oral cephalosporin for skin, soft tissue and respiratory tract infections].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martin, J; Romá, E; Salavert, M; Doménech, L; Poveda, J L

    2006-09-01

    Cefditoren pivoxil, a new-third generation cephalosporin antibiotic that has recently been granted approval in Spain, shows important activity over a large part of the pathogens causing skin, soft tissue and respiratory tract infections, including Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Cefditoren has also been shown to be stable against hydrolysis by many common beta-lactamases. Data from in vitro studies and clinical trials show this antibiotic as an oral formulation with an intrinsic activity against Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae equivalent to that of other third-generation cephalosporins administered via parenteral, like cefotaxime or ceftriaxone, thereby placing its maximal benefits mainly in the treatment of ambulatory infections. This paper reviews the main characteristics of cefditoren pivoxil (spectrum of activity, chemical structure, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects and clinical efficacy) and attempts to find its place in current antibiotic therapeutics.

  13. Synthesis and antibacterial evaluation of novel 4″-glycyl linked quinolyl-azithromycins with potent activity against macrolide-resistant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Pavlović, Dražen; Mutak, Stjepan

    2016-03-15

    A new azithromycin-based series of antibacterial macrolones is reported, which features the use of a 4″-ester linked glycin for tethering the quinolone side chain to the macrolide scaffold. Among the analogs prepared, compounds 9e and 22f with a quinolon-6-yl moiety were found to have potent and well-balanced activity against clinically important respiratory tract pathogens, including erythromycin-susceptible and MLSB resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Haemophilus influenzae. In addition, potential lead compounds 9e and 22f demonstrated outstanding levels of activity against Moraxella catarrhalis and inducibly MLSB resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The best member of this series 22f rivals or exceeds, in potency, some of the most active ketolide antibacterial agents known today, such as telithromycin and cethromycin.

  14. Vaccines for Patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Dolores; Barroso, Judith; Garcia, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung disease characterized by chronic obstruction of lung airflow limitation. This disease is currently the fourth higher cause of death in the world, and it is predicted to be the third by the year 2020. Patients with COPD are frequently exposed to Human Rhinovirus, Respiratory Syncytial and Influenza Virus, as well as to Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. These infectious agents are responsible for exacerbations increasing morbidity and mortality in COPD patients. Prevention of infectious exacerbations by vaccination would improve quality of life and patient survival. A literature search: "vaccination of COPD patients" was performed using Medline, the Cochrane Library and other Non-Indexed Citations for this review. This article presents a brief overview of the different studies found, on the new patents, and the future strategies on the field.

  15. Volatile organic compounds generated by cultures of bacteria and viruses associated with respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Abd El Qader, Amir; Lieberman, David; Shemer Avni, Yonat; Svobodin, Natali; Lazarovitch, Tsilia; Sagi, Orli; Zeiri, Yehuda

    2015-12-01

    Respiratory infections (RI) can be viral or bacterial in origin. In either case, the invasion of the pathogen results in production and release of various volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The present study examines the VOCs released from cultures of five viruses (influenza A, influenza B, adenovirus, respiratory syncitial virus and parainfluenza 1 virus), three bacteria (Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae and Legionella pneumophila) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolated colonies. Our results demonstrate the involvement of inflammation-induced VOCs. Two significant VOCs were identified as associated with infectious bacterial activity, heptane and methylcyclohexane. These two VOCs have been linked in previous studies to oxidative stress effects. In order to distinguish between bacterial and viral positive cultures, we performed principal component analysis including peak identity (retention time) and VOC concentration (i.e. area under the peak) revealing 1-hexanol and 1-heptadecene to be good predictors.

  16. P450 (Cytochrome) Oxidoreductase Gene (POR) Common Variant (POR*28) Significantly Alters CYP2C9 Activity in Swedish, But Not in Korean Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Fazleen H M; Aklillu, Eleni

    2015-12-01

    CYP2C9 enzyme contributes to the metabolism of several pharmaceuticals and xenobiotics and yet displays large person-to-person and interethnic variation. Understanding the mechanisms of CYP2C9 variation is thus of immense importance for personalized medicine and rational therapeutics. A genetic variant of P450 (cytochrome) oxidoreductase (POR), a CYP450 redox partner, is reported to influence CYP2C9 metabolic activity in vitro. We investigated the impact of a common variant, POR*28, on CYP2C9 metabolic activity in humans. 148 healthy Swedish and 146 healthy Korean volunteers were genotyped for known CYP2C9 defective variant alleles (CYP2C9*2, *3). The CYP2C9 phenotype was determined using a single oral dose of 50 mg losartan. Excluding oral contraceptive (OC) users and carriers of 2C9*2 and *3 alleles, 117 Korean and 65 Swedish were genotyped for POR*5, *13 and *28 using Taqman assays. The urinary losartan to its metabolite E-3174 metabolic ratio (MR) was used as an index of CYP2C9 metabolic activity. The allele frequency of the POR*28 variant allele in Swedes and Koreans was 29% and 44%, respectively. POR*5 and *13 were absent in both study populations. Considering the CYP2C9*1/*1 genotypes only, the CYP2C9 metabolic activity was 1.40-fold higher in carriers of POR*28 allele than non-carriers among Swedes (p = 0.02). By contrast, no influence of the POR*28 on CYP2C9 activity was found in Koreans (p = 0.68). The multivariate analysis showed that ethnicity, POR genotype, and smoking were strong predictors of CYP2C9 MR (p < 0.05). This is the first report to implicate the importance of POR*28 genetic variation for CYP2C9 metabolic activity in humans. These findings contribute to current efforts for global personalized medicine and using medicines by taking into account pharmacogenetic and phenotypic variations. PMID:26669712

  17. Photodynamic therapy with water-soluble phtalocyanines against bacterial biofilms in teeth root canals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gergova, Raina; Georgieva, Tzvetelina; Angelov, Ivan; Mantareva, Vanya; Valkanov, Serjoga; Mitov, Ivan; Dimitrov, Slavcho

    2012-06-01

    The study presents the PDT with metal phthalocyanines on biofilms grown in root canals of ten representatives of the Gram-positive and the Gram-negative bacterial species and a fungus Candida albicans which cause aqute teeth infections in root canals.. The extracted human single-root teeth infected for 48 h with microorganisms in conditions to form biofilms of the above pathogens were PDT treated. The stage of biofilm formation and PDT effect of the samples of the teeth were determined by the scaning electron microscopy and with standard microbial tests. The PDT treating procedure included 10 min incubation with the respected phthalocyanine and irradiated with 660 nm Diode laser for 10 min. The most strongly antibacterial activity was achieved with zinc(II) phthalocyanine (ZnPc) against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Moraxella catarrhalis. The other Gram-negative bacteria and Candida albicans were 10-100 times more resistant than the Gram-positive species. The Gram-negative Moraxella catarrhalis and Acinetobacter baumannii were more sensitive than the enterobacteria, but eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in biofilm was insignificant. The influence of the stage of biofilm formation and the initial conditions (bacterial density, photosensitizer concentration and energy fluence of radiation) to the obtained level of inactivation of biofilms was investigated. The PDT with ZnPc photosensitizers show a powerful antimicrobial activity against the most frequent pathogens in endodontic infections and this method for inactivation of pathogens may be used with sucsses for treatment of the bacterial biofilms in the root canals.

  18. [Nasopharyngeal and middle ear flora in children with acute otitis media].

    PubMed

    Zielnik-Jurkiewicz, Beata; Kolczyńska, Magdalena

    2005-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal flora can be a reservoir of bacteria caused acute otitis media in children. The aim of the study was to identify microorganisms and antimicrobial susceptibilities of pathogens from the nasopharynx and middle ear of children with acute otitis media. The study comprised 128 children ages 1 year to 14 years with diagnosed of acute otitis media with purulent discharge. The nasopharyngeal and middle ear samples were collected at the same time. Agar, chocolate, blood and Chapman plates were inoculated for isolation of bacteria. The plates were incubated at 37 degrees C and examined at 24 hours. The susceptibility of bacteria was determined by disk diffusion technique containing concentration gradients for following antibiotics: penicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefaclor, cefprozil, cefuroxime, erythromycin, azithromycin, clindamycin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. 196 organisms from nasopharynx and 325 organisms from middle ear were isolated. Most frequent cultured bacteria were: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis--75.6% in nasopharynx and 77.8% in middle ear. We observed statistically significant (p < 0.01) increased of Moraxella catarrhalis in specimens from the middle ear than from nasopharynx. Most of the organisms were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanate--83.2% of bacteria from nasopharynx and 81.8% of bacteria from middle ear. Most organisms were resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole--60.7% of bacteria from nasopharynx and 62.6% of bacteria from middle ear. Penicillin resistance was observed in 25.0% of bacteria from nasopharynx and 25.6% of bacteria from middle ear. The correlation in resistance of bacteria between trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin (r = 0.4886) and between trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and penicillin (r = 0.5027) was observed. Nasopharyngeal and middle ear flora in children with acute otitis media is similar. In that case susceptibility of

  19. [Bacterial flora in children with recurrent acute otitis media].

    PubMed

    Zielnik-Jurkiewicz, Beata; Kolczyńska, Magdalena

    2005-02-01

    The aim of the study was to identify microorganisms and antimicrobial susceptibilities of pathogens from middle ear in children with recurrent acute otitis media and acute otitis media. The study comprised 83 children--42 with recurrent acute otitis media and 41 with acute otitis emdia classified for paracentesis. Agar, chocolate, blood and Chapman plates were inoculated for isolation of bacteria. The plates were incubated at 37 degrees C and examined at 24 hours. The susceptibility of bacteria was determined by disk diffusion technique containing concentration gradients for following antibiotics: penicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefaclor, cefprozil, cefuroxime, erythromycin, azithromycin, clinadamycin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. 217 organisms from middle ear in children with recurrent acute otitis media and 131 organisms from middle ear in children with acute otitis media were isolated. Most frequent cultured bacteria were: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis--71.4% in recurrent acute otitis media and 47.3% in acute otitis media. We observed statistically significant (p < 0.05) increased of Moraxella catarrhalis in specimens from the middle ear in children with recurrent acute otitis media older than 2 years. The best susceptibility was observed to amoxicillin/clavulanate (79.7% of bacteria in children with recurrent acute otitis media and 83.2% of bacteria in children with acute otitis media). The most of organisms presented resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole--65.9% of bacteria in children with recurrent acute otitis media and 62.6% of bacteria in children with acute otitis media. Our investigation showed that resistance to bacteria increase in children with recurrent acute otitis media, most frequent appear in children older than 2 years and depend on number of episodes of acute otitis media and day care.

  20. Ulcerative blepharitis and conjunctivitis in adult dairy cows and association with Moraxella bovoculi.

    PubMed

    Galvão, Klibs N; Angelos, John A

    2010-04-01

    Nine lactating dairy cows were evaluated because of eye lesions. Examination revealed mild to severe ulceration of the lower and/or upper eyelids, mild to severe swelling surrounding affected eyes, and profuse lacrimation. Lesions typically affected 1 eye, and involved the eyelid skin and conjunctiva. Oxytetracycline treatment led to cure within 2 wk.

  1. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans Phage POR1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PAE1

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, Zoe A.; Seviour, Robert J.; Tucci, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We report the genome sequences of two double-stranded DNA siphoviruses, POR1 infective for Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and PAE1 infective for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The phage POR1 genome showed no nucleotide sequence homology to any other DNA phage sequence in the GenBank database, while phage PAE1 displayed synteny to P. aeruginosa phages M6, MP1412, and YuA. PMID:27313312

  2. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans Phage POR1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PAE1.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Zoe A; Seviour, Robert J; Tucci, Joseph; Petrovski, Steve

    2016-06-16

    We report the genome sequences of two double-stranded DNA siphoviruses, POR1 infective for Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and PAE1 infective for Pseudomonas aeruginosa The phage POR1 genome showed no nucleotide sequence homology to any other DNA phage sequence in the GenBank database, while phage PAE1 displayed synteny to P. aeruginosa phages M6, MP1412, and YuA.

  3. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans Phage POR1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PAE1.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Zoe A; Seviour, Robert J; Tucci, Joseph; Petrovski, Steve

    2016-01-01

    We report the genome sequences of two double-stranded DNA siphoviruses, POR1 infective for Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and PAE1 infective for Pseudomonas aeruginosa The phage POR1 genome showed no nucleotide sequence homology to any other DNA phage sequence in the GenBank database, while phage PAE1 displayed synteny to P. aeruginosa phages M6, MP1412, and YuA. PMID:27313312

  4. [Efficacy and safety of clavulanic acid/amoxicillin (1: 14) dry syrup in the treatment of children with acute bacterial rhinosinusitis].

    PubMed

    Sugita, Rinya; Yamamoto, Shuichi; Motoyama, Hidekatsu; Yarita, Masao

    2015-06-01

    To demonstrate clinical value of clavulanic acid/amoxicillin (CVA/AMPC) 1:14 combination dry syrup for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS), the efficacy and safety were evaluated in a multicenter, open-label, uncontrolled study in 27 children with ABRS. The proportion of subjects who were 'cured' at the test of cure as the primary endpoint was 88.5%. In subjects with a major pathogenic bacteria at baseline (i.e., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis) bacterial eradication was achieved in ≥ 80% of the subjects with the exception of β-lactamase non-producing ampicillin resistant H. influenzae: BLNAR and β-lactamase producing ampicillin resistant H. influenzae: BLPAR (β-lactamase producing amoxicillin/clavulanic acid resistant H. influenzae: BLPACR). The MIC of CVA/AMPC (1:14) was not higher than 4 μg/mL for all pathogens except one strain each of BLNAR and BLPAR (BLPACR). Drug-related adverse events were reported in 19% of patients (5/27 patients). All of the reported drug-related adverse events were classified as gastrointestinal disorders that have been commonly reported with antibacterial drugs. These results indicate that CVA/AMPC (1:14) was clinically useful for the treatment of ABRS and is also suggested that was effective especially for the treatment of ABRS in children caused by beta-lactamase-producing bacteria including M. catarrhalis.

  5. Population density profiles of nasopharyngeal carriage of 5 bacterial species in pre-school children measured using quantitative PCR offer potential insights into the dynamics of transmission

    PubMed Central

    Thors, Valtyr; Morales-Aza, Begonia; Pidwill, Grace; Vipond, Ian; Muir, Peter; Finn, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial vaccines can reduce carriage rates. Colonization is usually a binary endpoint. Real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) can quantify bacterial DNA in mucosal samples over a wide range. Using culture and single-gene species-specific qPCRs for Streptococcus pneumoniae (lytA), Streptococcus pyogenes (ntpC), Moraxella catarrhalis (ompJ), Haemophilus influenzae (hdp) and Staphylococcus aureus (nuc) and standard curves against log-phase reference strain broth cultures we described frequency and peak density distributions of carriage in nasopharyngeal swabs from 161 healthy 2–4 y old children collected into STGG broth. In general, detection by qPCR and culture was consistent. Discordance mostly occurred at lower detection thresholds of both methods, although PCR assays for S. pyogenes and S. aureus were less sensitive. Density varied across 5-7 orders of magnitude for the 5 species with the abundant species skewed toward high values (modes: S. pneumoniae log3-4, M. catarrhalis & H. influenzae log4-5 CFU/ml broth). Wide ranges of bacterial DNA concentrations in healthy children carrying these bacteria could mean that different individuals at different times vary greatly in infectiousness. Understanding the host, microbial and environmental determinants of colonization density will permit more accurate prediction of vaccine effectiveness. PMID:26367344

  6. In Vitro Activity of AZD0914, a Novel Bacterial DNA Gyrase/Topoisomerase IV Inhibitor, against Clinically Relevant Gram-Positive and Fastidious Gram-Negative Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Huband, Michael D.; Hackel, Meredith; de Jonge, Boudewijn L. M.; Sahm, Daniel F.; Bradford, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    AZD0914, a new spiropyrimidinetrione bacterial DNA gyrase inhibitor with a novel mode of inhibition, has activity against bacterial species commonly cultured from patient infection specimens, including fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates. This study assessed the in vitro activity of AZD0914 against key Gram-positive and fastidious Gram-negative clinical isolates collected globally in 2013. AZD0914 demonstrated potent activity, with MIC90s for AZD0914 of 0.25 mg/liter against Staphylococcus aureus (n = 11,680), coagulase-negative staphylococci (n = 1,923), streptococci (n = 4,380), and Moraxella catarrhalis (n = 145), 0.5 mg/liter against Staphylococcus lugdunensis (n = 120) and Haemophilus influenzae (n = 352), 1 mg/liter against Enterococcus faecalis (n = 1,241), and 2 mg/liter against Haemophilus parainfluenzae (n = 70). The activity against Enterococcus faecium was more limited (MIC90, 8 mg/liter). The spectrum and potency of AZD0914 included fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates in each species group, including methicillin-resistant staphylococci, penicillin-resistant streptococci, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, β-lactamase-producing Haemophilus spp., and M. catarrhalis. Based on these in vitro findings, AZD0914 warrants further investigation for its utility against a variety of Gram-positive and fastidious Gram-negative bacterial species. PMID:26195518

  7. Activity of the antiseptic polyhexanide against gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fabry, Werner Hugo Karl; Kock, Hans-Jürgen; Vahlensieck, Winfried

    2014-04-01

    The activity of the antiseptic polyhexanide was tested against 250 gram-negative clinical isolates, that is, 50 isolates each of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Haemophilus influenzae. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined by using a serial broth microdilution technique according to DIN 58940. Time-kill studies were performed for reference stains E. coli ATCC 25922, K. pneumoniae ATCC 4352, P. aeruginosa ATCC 15442, M. catarrhalis ATCC 43617, and H. influenzae ATCC 49247. All tested isolates had MICs and MBCs within a range of 1-32 mg/L and were regarded as susceptible to polyhexanide. The highest values were found for P. aeruginosa and H. influenzae with MICs and MBCs of 32 mg/L. Addition of up to 4% albumin to the test medium did not change MICs and MBCs. Time-kill studies of the reference strains showed reduction rates from 3 log10 colony forming units (CFU)/ml to more than 5 log10 CFU/ml for 200 and 400 mg/L polyhexanide within 5-30 min. Testing of polyhexanide in combination with antibiotics showed indifference with amoxicillin, cefotaxime, imipenem, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin; no antagonism was found. As no resistance and no antagonism with antibiotics were detected, polyhexanide is regarded as suitable agent for topical eradication of gram-negative bacteria.

  8. [Consensus guidelines for the management of upper respiratory tract infections].

    PubMed

    Lopardo, Gustavo; Calmaggi, Aníbal; Clara, Liliana; Levy Hara, Gabriel; Mykietiuk, Analía; Pryluka, Daniel; Ruvinsky, Silvina; Vujacich, Claudia; Yahni, Diego; Bogdanowicz, Elizabeth; Klein, Manuel; López Furst, María J; Pensotti, Claudia; Rial, María J; Scapellato, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections are the most common source of antibiotic prescriptions. Acute pharyngitis is caused mainly by viruses, viral cases can be distinguished from acute streptococcal pharyngitis using Centor clinical epidemiological criteria, by rapid antigen tests or throat culture. Treatment of choice for streptococcal infection is penicillin V given in two daily doses. In children, acute otitis media (AOM) is the infection for which antibiotics are most often prescribed. Predominant causative pathogens include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae non-type b and Moraxella catarrhalis. Diagnosis is based on history, physical examination and otoscopic exam. Antibiotic treatment should be initiated promptly in all children<2 years of age, and in older children presenting bilateral AOM, otorrhoea, co-morbidities or severe illness. In Argentina, amoxicillin is the drug of choice given the low penicillin resistance rates for S. pneumoniae. In children who fail amoxicillin therapy, amoxicillin/clavulanate provides better coverage against beta-lactamase producing H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis. Rhinosinusitis is caused mainly by viruses, secondary bacterial complication occurs in less than 5% of cases. Diagnosis is based on physical examination and additional studies are not usually required. Acute bacterial sinusitis is caused by the same pathogens that cause AOM and amoxicillin is the drug of choice. PMID:23241293

  9. [Consensus guidelines for the management of upper respiratory tract infections].

    PubMed

    Lopardo, Gustavo; Calmaggi, Aníbal; Clara, Liliana; Levy Hara, Gabriel; Mykietiuk, Analía; Pryluka, Daniel; Ruvinsky, Silvina; Vujacich, Claudia; Yahni, Diego; Bogdanowicz, Elizabeth; Klein, Manuel; López Furst, María J; Pensotti, Claudia; Rial, María J; Scapellato, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections are the most common source of antibiotic prescriptions. Acute pharyngitis is caused mainly by viruses, viral cases can be distinguished from acute streptococcal pharyngitis using Centor clinical epidemiological criteria, by rapid antigen tests or throat culture. Treatment of choice for streptococcal infection is penicillin V given in two daily doses. In children, acute otitis media (AOM) is the infection for which antibiotics are most often prescribed. Predominant causative pathogens include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae non-type b and Moraxella catarrhalis. Diagnosis is based on history, physical examination and otoscopic exam. Antibiotic treatment should be initiated promptly in all children<2 years of age, and in older children presenting bilateral AOM, otorrhoea, co-morbidities or severe illness. In Argentina, amoxicillin is the drug of choice given the low penicillin resistance rates for S. pneumoniae. In children who fail amoxicillin therapy, amoxicillin/clavulanate provides better coverage against beta-lactamase producing H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis. Rhinosinusitis is caused mainly by viruses, secondary bacterial complication occurs in less than 5% of cases. Diagnosis is based on physical examination and additional studies are not usually required. Acute bacterial sinusitis is caused by the same pathogens that cause AOM and amoxicillin is the drug of choice.

  10. Update on the development and use of viral and bacterial vaccines for the prevention of acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, D P

    2001-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most frequent diagnosis in physician offices among children 1-4 years of age. Viruses that cause upper respiratory tract infections (i.e., respiratory syncytial virus [RSV], influenza virus, parainfluenza virus [PIV], and others) play an important role in the development of AOM. Prevention of infections with these viral pathogens likely would reduce the incidence of AOM. In three previous studies, influenza virus vaccines showed 30-36% efficacy against the development of AOM. Vaccines to prevent infections with RSV and PIV type 3 are undergoing clinical testing at this time. The three major bacterial pathogens causing AOM are Streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), and Moraxella catarrhalis. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, licensed in the United States in 2000, was shown in two pivotal trials to reduce the incidence of all causes of AOM by 6%, pneumococcal AOM by 34%, and pneumococcal AOM caused by serotypes contained in the vaccine by 57%. Currently, vaccines against NTHi and M. catarrhalis are under development.

  11. Five-year prospective study of paediatric acute otitis media in Rochester, NY: modelling analysis of the risk of pneumococcal colonization in the nasopharynx and infection.

    PubMed

    Friedel, V; Zilora, S; Bogaard, D; Casey, J R; Pichichero, M E

    2014-10-01

    During a 5-year prospective study of nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization and acute otitis media (AOM) infections in children during the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) era (July 2006-June 2011) we studied risk factors for NP colonization and AOM. NP samples were collected at ages 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24, and 30 months during well-child visits. Additionally, NP and middle ear fluid (MEF) samples were collected at onset of every AOM episode. From 1825 visits (n = 464 children), 5301 NP and 570 MEF samples were collected and analysed for potential otopathogens. Daycare attendance, NP colonization by Moraxella catarrhalis, and siblings aged <5 years increased the risk of Streptococcus pneumoniae NP colonization. NP colonization with S. pneumoniae, M. catarrhalis, or Haemophilus influenzae and a family history of OM increased the risk of AOM. Risk factors that increase the risk of pneumococcal AOM will be important to reassess as we move into a new 13-valent PCV era, especially co-colonization with other potential otopathogens.

  12. Analysis of adult otitis media: polymerase chain reaction versus culture for bacteria and viruses.

    PubMed

    Liederman, E M; Post, J C; Aul, J J; Sirko, D A; White, G J; Buchman, C A; Ehrlich, G D

    1998-01-01

    Recent studies using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have identified bacterial and viral genomic sequences in culture-negative pediatric middle ear effusions. To evaluate this technique in adults, 19 effusions were analyzed to compare bacterial and viral culture and PCR detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and adenovirus. Effusions from 4 subjects positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were analyzed by PCR for HIV virus. Three of 19 effusions were culture-positive for bacteria, and 0 of 19 for viruses. Fifteen of 19 effusions were PCR-positive for bacterial genomic sequences, and 0 of 19 for adenovirus. Thirteen of 15 PCR-positive specimens demonstrated S pneumoniae, 5 of 15 H influenzae, and 0 of 13 M catarrhalis. All 4 effusions from HIV-positive subjects were PCR-positive for HIV. No effusion was culture-positive and PCR-negative. These results confirm that culture-negative middle ear effusions contain genomic sequences from bacterial pathogens. Finding of HIV RNA and DNA in effusion from HIV-positives suggests replicating virus in this fluid.

  13. Population density profiles of nasopharyngeal carriage of 5 bacterial species in pre-school children measured using quantitative PCR offer potential insights into the dynamics of transmission.

    PubMed

    Thors, Valtyr; Morales-Aza, Begonia; Pidwill, Grace; Vipond, Ian; Muir, Peter; Finn, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial vaccines can reduce carriage rates. Colonization is usually a binary endpoint. Real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) can quantify bacterial DNA in mucosal samples over a wide range. Using culture and single-gene species-specific qPCRs for Streptococcus pneumoniae (lytA), Streptococcus pyogenes (ntpC), Moraxella catarrhalis (ompJ), Haemophilus influenzae (hdp) and Staphylococcus aureus (nuc) and standard curves against log-phase reference strain broth cultures we described frequency and peak density distributions of carriage in nasopharyngeal swabs from 161 healthy 2-4 y old children collected into STGG broth. In general, detection by qPCR and culture was consistent. Discordance mostly occurred at lower detection thresholds of both methods, although PCR assays for S. pyogenes and S. aureus were less sensitive. Density varied across 5-7 orders of magnitude for the 5 species with the abundant species skewed toward high values (modes: S. pneumoniae log3-4, M. catarrhalis & H. influenzae log4-5 CFU/ml broth). Wide ranges of bacterial DNA concentrations in healthy children carrying these bacteria could mean that different individuals at different times vary greatly in infectiousness. Understanding the host, microbial and environmental determinants of colonization density will permit more accurate prediction of vaccine effectiveness.

  14. In Vitro Activity of AZD0914, a Novel Bacterial DNA Gyrase/Topoisomerase IV Inhibitor, against Clinically Relevant Gram-Positive and Fastidious Gram-Negative Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Biedenbach, Douglas J; Huband, Michael D; Hackel, Meredith; de Jonge, Boudewijn L M; Sahm, Daniel F; Bradford, Patricia A

    2015-10-01

    AZD0914, a new spiropyrimidinetrione bacterial DNA gyrase inhibitor with a novel mode of inhibition, has activity against bacterial species commonly cultured from patient infection specimens, including fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates. This study assessed the in vitro activity of AZD0914 against key Gram-positive and fastidious Gram-negative clinical isolates collected globally in 2013. AZD0914 demonstrated potent activity, with MIC90s for AZD0914 of 0.25 mg/liter against Staphylococcus aureus (n = 11,680), coagulase-negative staphylococci (n = 1,923), streptococci (n = 4,380), and Moraxella catarrhalis (n = 145), 0.5 mg/liter against Staphylococcus lugdunensis (n = 120) and Haemophilus influenzae (n = 352), 1 mg/liter against Enterococcus faecalis (n = 1,241), and 2 mg/liter against Haemophilus parainfluenzae (n = 70). The activity against Enterococcus faecium was more limited (MIC90, 8 mg/liter). The spectrum and potency of AZD0914 included fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates in each species group, including methicillin-resistant staphylococci, penicillin-resistant streptococci, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, β-lactamase-producing Haemophilus spp., and M. catarrhalis. Based on these in vitro findings, AZD0914 warrants further investigation for its utility against a variety of Gram-positive and fastidious Gram-negative bacterial species.

  15. An investigation of exploitation versus exploration in GBEA optimization of PORS 15 and 16 Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Kaelynn

    2012-01-01

    It was hypothesized that the variations in time to solution are driven by the competing mechanisms of exploration and exploitation.This thesis explores this hypothesis by examining two contrasting problems that embody the hypothesized tradeoff between exploration and exploitation. Plus one recall store (PORS) is an optimization problem based on the idea of a simple calculator with four buttons: plus, one, store, and recall. Integer addition and store are classified as operations, and one and memory recall are classified as terminals. The goal is to arrange a fixed number of keystrokes in a way that maximizes the numerical result. PORS 15 (15 keystrokes) represents the subset of difficult PORS problems and PORS 16 (16 keystrokes) represents the subset of PORS problems that are easiest to optimize. The goal of this work is to examine the tradeoff between exploitation and exploration in graph based evolutionary algorithm (GBEA) optimization. To do this, computational experiments are used to examine how solutions evolve in PORS 15 and 16 problems when solved using GBEAs. The experiment is comprised of three components; the graphs and the population, the evolutionary algorithm rule set, and the example problems. The complete, hypercube, and cycle graphs were used for this experiment. A fixed population size was used.

  16. Crystallographic analysis of Neisseria meningitidis PorB extracellular loops potentially implicated in TLR2 recognition.

    PubMed

    Kattner, Christof; Toussi, Deana N; Zaucha, Jan; Wetzler, Lee M; Rüppel, Nadine; Zachariae, Ulrich; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio

    2014-03-01

    Among all Neisseriae species, Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are the only human pathogens, causative agents of bacterial meningitis and gonorrhoea, respectively. PorB, a pan-Neisseriae trimeric porin that mediates diffusive transport of essential molecules across the bacterial outer membrane, is also known to activate host innate immunity via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated signaling. The molecular mechanism of PorB binding to TLR2 is not known, but it has been hypothesized that electrostatic interactions contribute to ligand/receptor binding. Strain-specific sequence variability in the surface-exposed loops of PorB which are potentially implicated in TLR2 binding, may explain the difference in TLR2-mediated cell activation in vitro by PorB homologs from the commensal Neisseriae lactamica and the pathogen N. meningitidis. Here, we report a comparative structural analysis of PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup B strain 8765 (63% sequence homology with PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup W135) and a mutant in which amino acid substitutions in the extracellular loop 7 lead to significantly reduced TLR2-dependent activity in vitro. We observe that this mutation both alters the loop conformation and causes dramatic changes of electrostatic surface charge, both of which may affect TLR2 recognition and signaling. PMID:24361688

  17. Structural basis for solute transport, nucleotide regulation, and immunological recognition of Neisseria meningitidis PorB

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, Mikio; Nimigean, Crina M.; Iverson, T.M.

    2010-06-25

    PorB is the second most prevalent outer membrane protein in Neisseria meningitidis. PorB is required for neisserial pathogenesis and can elicit a Toll-like receptor mediated host immune response. Here, the x-ray crystal structure of PorB has been determined to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution. Structural analysis and cocrystallization studies identify three putative solute translocation pathways through the channel pore: One pathway transports anions nonselectively, one transports cations nonselectively, and one facilitates the specific uptake of sugars. During infection, PorB likely binds host mitochondrial ATP, and cocrystallization with the ATP analog AMP-PNP suggests that binding of nucleotides regulates these translocation pathways both by partial occlusion of the pore and by restricting the motion of a putative voltage gating loop. PorB is located on the surface of N. meningitidis and can be recognized by receptors of the host innate immune system. Features of PorB suggest that Toll-like receptor mediated recognition outer membrane proteins may be initiated with a nonspecific electrostatic attraction.

  18. Pharmacodynamics of ceftriaxone and cefixime against community-acquired respiratory tract pathogens.

    PubMed

    Owens, R C; Tessier, P; Nightingale, C H; Ambrose, P G; Quintiliani, R; Nicolau, D P

    2001-06-01

    Over the last decade or so there has been a growing interest in routes of antimicrobial administration other than by the conventional intravenous route for institutionalized patients and for some outpatients. Both oral (PO) and intramuscular (IM) routes of administration are less costly than giving antimicrobial agents by vein (IV). In addition, fewer complications such as catheter-related sepsis and phlebitis are associated with non-IV routes of administration. Furthermore, a reduced-dosage, reduced-volume IM administration of ceftriaxone may provide a tolerable route of administration and equivalent bactericidal activities compared with higher dose IV ceftriaxone. The purpose of this study was to determine the time that the drug concentration remained in excess of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (T > MIC) and the duration of bactericidal activities of ceftriaxone one gram administered IV, ceftriaxone 250 mg given IM and cefixime 400 mg given orally against clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis in adult volunteers. Single doses of each agent were administered and serum concentrations were collected over the standard dosing period of 24 h for all study regimens. Ceftriaxone, regardless of route of administration and dose, resulted in bactericidal activities and T > MIC for 100% of the dosing period for S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis. Cefixime maintained at least 50% T > MIC and bactericidal activity against both isolates each of H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis. Against both isolates of S. pneumoniae, cefixime achieved T > MIC for at least 50% of the dosing period, but did not maintain bactericidal activity. Reduced dose ceftriaxone given IM seems to be a viable alternative to ceftriaxone IV if the pathogen, susceptibility and infection site are known. Based on T > MIC exceeding 50% of the dosing interval, cefixime would be considered an effective alternative to IV therapy

  19. Identification of Neisseria spp., Haemophilus spp., and other fastidious gram-negative bacteria with the MicroScan Haemophilus-Neisseria identification panel.

    PubMed Central

    Janda, W M; Bradna, J J; Ruther, P

    1989-01-01

    The Haemophilus-Neisseria identification (HNID) panel (American MicroScan, Sacramento, Calif.) is a 4-h microdilution format system for identification of Haemophilus and Neisseria spp., Branhamella (Moraxella) catarrhalis, and Gardnerella vaginalis. The HNID panel was evaluated by using 423 clinical isolates and stock strains of these organisms, and HNID identifications were compared with those obtained by conventional methods. In addition, 32 isolates representing six genera not included in the HNID data base were tested to determine whether these organisms would produce unique biotype numbers for possible inclusion in the data base. The HNID panel correctly identified 95.3% of 86 Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains, 96% of 25 G. vaginalis strains, and 100% of 28 Neisseria lactamica strains and 48 B. catarrhalis strains. Only 64.7% of 68 Neisseria meningitidis isolates were identified correctly owing to false-negative or equivocal carbohydrate and/or aminopeptidase reactions. Among the Haemophilus spp., 98.8% of 83 H. influenzae strains, 97.1% of 34 H. parainfluenzae strains, and 80% of 15 H. aphrophilus and H. paraphrophilus strains were correctly identified. Eight strains of Neisseria cinerea, a species not included in the data base, produced profiles identical with those for B. catarrhalis and N. gonorrhoeae. Isolates of other species not included in the data base, including Eikenella corrodens, Kingella spp., and Cardiobacterium hominis, produced unique biochemical reaction patterns on the panel. Modification of interpretative criteria for certain tests, expansion of the data base to include other species, and suggestions for additional confirmatory tests will increase the accuracy and utility of the HNID panel. PMID:2501351

  20. Upper respiratory tract microbial communities, acute otitis media pathogens, and antibiotic use in healthy and sick children.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Melinda M; Laufer, Alison S; Gent, Janneane F; Kong, Yong; Fennie, Kristopher P; Metlay, Joshua P

    2012-09-01

    The composition of the upper respiratory tract microbial community may influence the risk for colonization by the acute otitis media (AOM) pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. We used culture-independent methods to describe upper respiratory tract microbial communities in healthy children and children with upper respiratory tract infection with and without concurrent AOM. Nasal swabs and data were collected in a cross-sectional study of 240 children between 6 months and 3 years of age. Swabs were cultured for S. pneumoniae, and real-time PCR was used to identify S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis. The V1-V2 16S rRNA gene regions were sequenced using 454 pyrosequencing. Microbial communities were described using a taxon-based approach. Colonization by S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis was associated with lower levels of diversity in upper respiratory tract flora. We identified commensal taxa that were negatively associated with colonization by each AOM bacterial pathogen and with AOM. The balance of these relationships differed according to the colonizing AOM pathogen and history of antibiotic use. Children with antibiotic use in the past 6 months and a greater abundance of taxa, including Lactococcus and Propionibacterium, were less likely to have AOM than healthy children (odds ratio [OR], 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25 to 0.85). Children with no antibiotic use in the past 6 months, a low abundance of Streptococcus and Haemophilus, and a high abundance of Corynebacterium and Dolosigranulum were less likely to have AOM (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.83). An increased understanding of polymicrobial interactions will facilitate the development of effective AOM prevention strategies.

  1. Bacterial otitis media: current vaccine development strategies.

    PubMed

    Cripps, Allan W; Kyd, Jennelle

    2003-02-01

    Otitis media is the most common reason for children less than 5 years of age to visit a medical practitioner. Whilst the disease rarely results in death, there is significant associated morbidity. The most common complication is loss of hearing at a critical stage of the development of speech, language and cognitive abilities in children. The cause and pathogenesis of otitis media is multifactorial. Among the contributing factors, the single most important are viral and bacterial infections. Infection with respiratory syncytial virus, influenza viruses, para-influenza viruses, enteroviruses and adenovirus are most commonly associated with acute and chronic otitis media. Streptococcus pneumoniae, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis are the most commonly isolated bacteria from the middle ears of children with otitis media. Treatment of otitis media has largely relied on the administration of antimicrobials and surgical intervention. However, attention has recently focused on the development of a vaccine. For a vaccine to be effective against bacterial otitis media, it must, at the very least, contain antigens that induce a protective immune response in the middle ear against the three most common infecting bacteria. Whilst over the past decade there has been significant progress in the development of vaccines against invasive S. pneumoniae disease, these vaccines are less efficacious for otitis media. The search for candidate vaccine antigens for non-typeable H. influenzae are well advanced whilst less progress has been made for M. catarrhalis. No human studies have been conducted for non-typeable H. influenzae or M. catarrhalis and the concept of a tribacterial vaccine remains to be tested in animal models. Only when vaccine antigens are determined and an understanding of the immune responses induced in the middle ear by infection and immunization is gained will the formulation of a tribacterial vaccine against otitis media be possible.

  2. Effects of Vaccination with 10-Valent Pneumococcal Non-Typeable Haemophilus influenza Protein D Conjugate Vaccine (PHiD-CV) on the Nasopharyngeal Microbiome of Kenyan Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Feazel, Leah M.; Santorico, Stephanie A.; Robertson, Charles E.; Bashraheil, Mahfudh; Scott, J. Anthony G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines reduce the prevalence of vaccine serotypes carried in the nasopharynx. Because this could alter carriage of other potential pathogens, we assessed the nasopharyngeal microbiome of children who had been vaccinated with 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein-D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV). Methods Profiles of the nasopharyngeal microbiota of 60 children aged 12-59 months, who had been randomized to receive 2 doses of PHiD-CV (n=30) or Hepatitis A vaccine (n=30) 60 days apart, were constructed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing of swab specimens collected before vaccination and 180 days after dose 1. Results Prior to vaccination, Moraxella catarrhalis (median of 12.3% of sequences/subject), Streptococcus pneumoniae (4.4%) and Corynebacterium spp. (5.6%) were the most abundant nasopharyngeal bacterial species. Vaccination with PHiD-CV did not significantly alter the species composition, abundance, or prevalence of known pathogens. Distinct microbiomes were identified based on the abundances of Streptococcus, Moraxella, and Haemophilus species. These microbiomes shifted in composition over the study period and were independent of age, sex, school attendance, antibiotic exposure, and vaccination. Conclusions Vaccination of children with two doses of PHiD-CV did not significantly alter the nasopharyngeal microbiome. This suggests limited replacement carriage with pathogens other than non-vaccine strains of S. pneumoniae. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01028326 PMID:26083474

  3. Por Secretion System-Dependent Secretion and Glycosylation of Porphyromonas gingivalis Hemin-Binding Protein 35

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Mikio; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Kondo, Yoshio; Narita, Yuka; Kadowaki, Tomoko; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2011-01-01

    The anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen in severe forms of periodontal disease and refractory periapical perodontitis. We have recently found that P. gingivalis has a novel secretion system named the Por secretion system (PorSS), which is responsible for secretion of major extracellular proteinases, Arg-gingipains (Rgps) and Lys-gingipain. These proteinases contain conserved C-terminal domains (CTDs) in their C-termini. Hemin-binding protein 35 (HBP35), which is one of the outer membrane proteins of P. gingivalis and contributes to its haem utilization, also contains a CTD, suggesting that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS. In this study, immunoblot analysis of P. gingivalis mutants deficient in the PorSS or in the biosynthesis of anionic polysaccharide-lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) revealed that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS and is glycosylated with A-LPS. From deletion analysis with a GFP-CTD[HBP35] green fluorescent protein fusion, the C-terminal 22 amino acid residues of CTD[HBP35] were found to be required for cell surface translocation and glycosylation. The GFP-CTD fusion study also revealed that the CTDs of CPG70, peptidylarginine deiminase, P27 and RgpB play roles in PorSS-dependent translocation and glycosylation. However, CTD-region peptides were not found in samples of glycosylated HBP35 protein by peptide map fingerprinting analysis, and antibodies against CTD-regions peptides did not react with glycosylated HBP35 protein. These results suggest both that the CTD region functions as a recognition signal for the PorSS and that glycosylation of CTD proteins occurs after removal of the CTD region. Rabbits were used for making antisera against bacterial proteins in this study. PMID:21731719

  4. Molecular characterisation of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) isolates from different outbreaks in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Rivera-Benítez, J F; Blomström, A-L; Ramliden, M; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Ramírez-Mendoza, H; Berg, M

    2016-02-01

    Since the report of the initial outbreak of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) infection in pigs, only one full-length genome from 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been characterised. To investigate the overall genetic variation, full-length gene nucleotide sequences of current PorPV isolates were obtained from different clinical cases of infected swine. Genome organisation and sequence analysis of the encoded proteins (NP, P, F, M, HN and L) revealed high sequence conservation of the NP protein and the expression of the P and V proteins in all PorPV isolates. The V protein of one isolate displayed a mutation that has been implicated to antagonise the antiviral immune responses of the host. The M protein indicated a variation in a short region that could affect the electrostatic charge and the interaction with the membrane. One PorPV isolate recovered from the lungs showed a mutation at the cleavage site (HRKKR) of the F protein that could represent an important factor to determine the tissue tropism and pathogenicity of this virus. The HN protein showed high sequence identity through the years (up to 2013). Additionally, a number of sequence motifs of very high amino acid conservation among the PorPV isolates important for polymerase activity of the L protein have been identified. In summary, genetic comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that three different genetic variants of PorPV are currently spreading within the swine population, and a new generation of circulating virus with different characteristics has begun to emerge.

  5. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant. PMID:25750999

  6. Informe a la Nación de mortalidad por cáncer sigue bajando

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, de 1975 a 2009, indica que los índices generales de mortalidad por cáncer siguen bajando en los Estados Unidos en hombres y mujeres, entre todos los grupos raciales y étnicos principales y para todo

  7. Structure and function of the PorB porin from disseminating Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Zeth, Kornelius; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera; Faulstich, Michaela; Fraunholz, Martin; Hurwitz, Robert; Kepp, Oliver; Rudel, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria contains a large number of channel-forming proteins, porins, for the uptake of small nutrient molecules. Neisseria gonorrhoeae PorBIA (PorB of serotype A) are associated with disseminating diseases and mediate a rapid bacterial invasion into host cells in a phosphate-sensitive manner. To gain insights into this structure-function relationship we analysed PorBIA by X-ray crystallography in the presence of phosphate and ATP. The structure of PorBIA in the complex solved at a resolution of 3.3 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm) displays a surplus of positive charges inside the channel. ATP ligand-binding in the channel is co-ordinated by the positively charged residues of the channel interior. These residues ligate the aromatic, sugar and pyrophosphate moieties of the ligand. Two phosphate ions were observed in the structure, one of which clamped by two arginine residues (Arg92 and Arg124) localized at the extraplasmic channel exit. A short β-bulge in β2-strand together with the long L3 loop narrow the barrel diameter significantly and further support substrate specificity through hydrogen bond interactions. Interestingly the structure also comprised a small peptide as a remnant of a periplasmic protein which physically links porin molecules to the peptidoglycan network. To test the importance of Arg92 on bacterial invasion the residue was mutated. In vivo assays of bacteria carrying a R92S mutation confirmed the importance of this residue for host-cell invasion. Furthermore systematic sequence and structure comparisons of PorBIA from Neisseriaceae indicated Arg92 to be unique in disseminating N. gonorrhoeae thereby possibly distinguishing invasion-promoting porins from other neisserial porins.

  8. Long-term impact of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination on nasopharyngeal carriage in children previously vaccinated with various pneumococcal conjugate vaccine regimes.

    PubMed

    Boelsen, Laura K; Dunne, Eileen M; Lamb, Karen E; Bright, Kathryn; Cheung, Yin Bun; Tikoduadua, Lisi; Russell, Fiona M; Mulholland, E Kim; Licciardi, Paul V; Satzke, Catherine

    2015-10-13

    Previously, the Fiji Pneumococcal Project (FiPP) evaluated reduced dose immunization schedules that incorporated pneumococcal protein conjugate and/or polysaccharide vaccine (PCV7 and 23vPPV, respectively). Immune hyporesponsiveness was observed in children vaccinated with 23vPPV at 12 months of age compared with children who did not receive 23vPPV. Here we assess the long-term impact of 23vPPV vaccination on nasopharyngeal carriage rates and densities of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus and Moraxella catarrhalis. Nasopharyngeal swabs (n=194) were obtained from healthy children who participated in FiPP (now aged 5-7 years). S. pneumoniae were isolated and identified by standard culture-based methods, and serotyped using latex agglutination and the Quellung reaction. Carriage rates and densities of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, S. aureus and M. catarrhalis were determined using real-time quantitative PCR. There were no differences in the rate or density of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae or M. catarrhalis carriage by PCV7 dose or 23vPPV vaccination in the vaccinated participants overall. However, differences were observed between the two main ethnic groups: Fijian children of Indian descent (Indo-Fijian) were less likely to carry S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis, and there was evidence of a higher carriage rate of S. aureus compared with indigenous Fijian (iTaukei) children. Polysaccharide vaccination appeared to have effects that varied between ethnic groups, with 23vPPV vaccination associated with a higher carriage rate of S. aureus in iTaukei children, while there was a lower carriage rate of S. pneumoniae associated with 23vPPV vaccination in Indo-Fijian children. Overall, polysaccharide vaccination had no long-term impact on pneumococcal carriage, but may have impacted on S. aureus carriage and have varying effects in ethnic groups, suggesting current WHO vaccine schedule recommendations against the use of 23v

  9. Detección y estudio mediante Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser de radicales libres formados por Disociación Multifotónica Infrarroja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M.; Díaz, L.; Torresano, J. A.; Rubio, L.; Samoudi, B.

    Una de las principales aplicaciones actuales de los procesos de disociación multifotónica inducidos por radiación láser infrarroja (DMI) es la producción de radiales libres, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades cinéticas y espectroscópicas. La disociación de moléculas poliatómicas en el IR con láseres de CO2 tiene lugar desde la superficie de energía molecular mas baja y conduce generalmente a la formación de fragmentos en el estado electrónico fundamental, con diversos grados de excitación vibracional. En el Grupo de Procesos Multifotónicos del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia del C.S.I.C. hemos puesto a punto la técnica de Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser (LIF) para la detección y análisis en tiempo real de los fragmentos producidos en la DMI inducida mediante uno o dos campos láseres de diferentes longitudes de onda. Objetivos de nuestro trabajo han sido el estudio de los canales de disociación mayoritarios y de las especies transitoria producidas, así como de la distribución de energía interna con que éstas son generadas. En particular hemos detectado mediante LIF las especies: C2, CF, CH, SiH2, CF2, CH2, SiHCl, y CF3 a partir de la disociación de, entre otras, las siguientes moléculas: C2H3Br, C3F6, C4H8Si, C2H5ClSi y CH5ClSi. En este trabajo presentamos algunos de los resultados obtenidos mediante el estudio por LIF de estos radicales: estudio temporal de la señal LIF obtenida con determinación de tiempos de vida, espectros de excitación y fluorescencia, temperaturas vibracionales de formación, variación de la intensidad LIF con el tiempo de retraso entre los láseres de disociación y prueba, etc.

  10. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-005 skid C

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-06-27

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-005 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  11. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-006 skid D

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-07-29

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-006 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  12. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-004 skid B

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-05-06

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-004 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  13. Expression, purification and preliminary X-ray analysis of the Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorB

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, Mikio; Iverson, Tina M.

    2010-01-28

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorB was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified from inclusion bodies by denaturation in urea followed by refolding in buffered LDAO on a size-exclusion column. PorB has been crystallized in three different crystal forms: C222, R32 and P6{sub 3}. The C222 crystal form may contain either one or two PorB monomers in the asymmetric unit, while both the R32 and P6{sub 3} crystal forms contained one PorB monomer in the asymmetric unit. Of the three, the P6{sub 3} crystal form had the best diffraction quality, yielding data extending to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution.

  14. Effect of SPM-based cleaning POR on EUV mask performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaehyuck; Lee, Han-shin; Yoon, Jinsang; Shimomura, Takeya; Friz, Alex; Montgomery, Cecilia; Ma, Andy; Goodwin, Frank; Kang, Daehyuk; Chung, Paul; Shin, Inkyun; Cho, H.

    2011-11-01

    EUV masks include many different layers of various materials rarely used in optical masks, and each layer of material has a particular role in enhancing the performance of EUV lithography. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how the mask quality and patterning performance can change during mask fabrication, EUV exposure, maintenance cleaning, shipping, or storage. The fact that a pellicle is not used to protect the mask surface in EUV lithography suggests that EUV masks may have to undergo more cleaning cycles during their lifetime. More frequent cleaning, combined with the adoption of new materials for EUV masks, necessitates that mask manufacturers closely examine the performance change of EUV masks during cleaning process. We have investigated EUV mask quality and patterning performance during 30 cycles of Samsung's EUV mask SPM-based cleaning and 20 cycles of SEMATECH ADT exposure. We have observed that the quality and patterning performance of EUV masks does not significantly change during these processes except mask pattern CD change. To resolve this issue, we have developed an acid-free cleaning POR and substantially improved EUV mask film loss compared to the SPM-based cleaning POR.

  15. Diagnóstico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA

    PubMed Central

    González-Valcárcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un síndrome característico de evolución multifásica y diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro clínico típico, pero que inicialmente señaló otras etiologías. Discusión La afectación frecuente de pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagnósticas; las más frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiquiátricos y el síndrome neuroléptico maligno. Varios síndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pediátricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones autonómicas. La caracterización clínica e inmunológica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificación de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis. PMID:20964986

  16. Substrate-specific modulation of CYP3A4 activity by genetic variants of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR)

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Vishal; Choi, Ji Ha; Giacomini, Kathleen M.; Miller, Walter L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives CYP3A4 receives electrons from P450 oxidoreductase (POR) to metabolize about 50% of clinically used drugs. There is substantial inter-individual variation in CYP3A4 catalytic activity that is not explained by CYP3A4 genetic variants. CYP3A4 is flexible and distensible, permitting it to accommodate substrates varying in shape and size. To elucidate mechanisms of variability in CYP3A4 catalysis, we examined the effects of genetic variants of POR, and explored the possibility that substrate-induced conformational changes in CYP3A4 differentially affect the ability of POR variants to support catalysis. Methods We expressed human CYP3A4 and four POR variants (Q153R, A287P, R457H, A503V) in bacteria, reconstituted them in vitro and measured the Michaelis constant and maximum velocity with testosterone, midazolam, quinidine and erythromycin as substrates. Results POR A287P and R457H had low activity with all substrates; Q153R had 76–94% of wild type (WT) activity with midazolam and erythromycin, but 129–150% activity with testosterone and quinidine. The A503V polymorphism reduced CYP3A4 activity to 61–77% of wild type with testosterone and midazolam, but had nearly wild type activity with quinidine and erythromycin. Conclusion POR variants affect CYP3A4 activities. The impact of a POR variant on catalysis by CYP3A4 is substrate-specific, probably due to substrate-induced conformational changes in CYP3A4. PMID:20697309

  17. Reconstrução tridimensional de arcos magnéticos por tomografia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simões, P. J. A.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    Uma explosão solar é uma variação súbita do brilho que ocorre nas regiões ativas da atmosfera solar. Estas regiões são constituídas por um plasma magnetizado com intensa indução magnética e em cenários bem complexos como visto recentemente através de experimentos embarcados em satélites operando instrumentos em raios X moles e ultra-violeta distante. A energia magnética, que pode ser armazenada por um período de horas até dias em configurações magnéticas estressadas, é subitamente lançada na atmosfera solar e transferida para partículas como elétrons, prótons e núcleos pesados, que são acelerados e/ou aquecidos, produzindo radiação eletromagnética. A proposta final deste projeto é determinar as características espaciais de alta resolução da emissão e polarização girossincrotrônica de explosões solares em ambientes complexos de campos magnéticos. Os recentes resultados da emissão difusa em EUV apresentado pelos satélites TRACE e SOHO dos arcos magnéticos conectando as diferentes polaridades magnéticas sobre as regiões ativas possibilitam novas abordagens sobre o papel do campo magnético na emissão em rádio. Nesta etapa apresentamos os resultados da reconstrução da geometria tridimensional das linhas de força destes arcos utilizando técnicas tomográficas, a partir de imagens de alta resolução espacial obtidas pelo instrumento EIT (Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope), além da modelagem das induções magnéticas por um campo dipolar e as densidades de partículas aceleradas. Utilizamos para a reconstrução geométrica, imagens tomadas em vários ângulos dos arcos devido à rotacão solar. Com estes resultados, daremos continuidade ao projeto, com os cálculos da transferência radiativa nos modos ordinário e extraordinário de propagação da radiação girossincrotrônica de explosões solares.

  18. Using the PORS Problems to Examine Evolutionary Optimization of Multiscale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, Zachary; Molian, Vaelan; Bryden, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Nearly all systems of practical interest are composed of parts assembled across multiple scales. For example, an agrodynamic system is composed of flora and fauna on one scale; soil types, slope, and water runoff on another scale; and management practice and yield on another scale. Or consider an advanced coal-fired power plant: combustion and pollutant formation occurs on one scale, the plant components on another scale, and the overall performance of the power system is measured on another. In spite of this, there are few practical tools for the optimization of multiscale systems. This paper examines multiscale optimization of systems composed of discrete elements using the plus-one-recall-store (PORS) problem as a test case or study problem for multiscale systems. From this study, it is found that by recognizing the constraints and patterns present in discrete multiscale systems, the solution time can be significantly reduced and much more complex problems can be optimized.

  19. Development of 4H-pyridopyrimidines: a class of selective bacterial protein synthesis inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We have identified a series of compounds that inhibit protein synthesis in bacteria. Initial IC50's in aminoacylation/translation (A/T) assays ranged from 3 to14 μM. This series of compounds are variations on a 5,6,7,8-tetrahydropyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-4-ol scaffold (e.g., 4H-pyridopyrimidine). Methods Greater than 80 analogs were prepared to investigate the structure-activity relationship (SAR). Structural modifications included changes in the central ring and substituent modifications in its periphery focusing on the 2- and 6-positions. An A/T system was used to determine IC50 values for activity of the analogs in biochemical assays. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined for each analog against cultures of Enterococcus faecalis, Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli tolC mutants and E. coli modified with PMBN. Results Modifications to the 2-(pyridin-2-yl) ring resulted in complete inactivation of the compounds. However, certain modifications at the 6-position resulted in increased antimicrobial potency. The optimized compounds inhibited the growth of E. faecalis, M. catarrhalis, H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, S. aureus, E. coli tolC, mutants and E. coli modified with PMBN with MIC values of 4, ≤ 0.12, 1, 2, 4, 1, 1 μg/ml, respectively. IC50 values in biochemical assay were reduced to mid-nanomolar range. Conclusion 4H-pyridopyrimidine analogs demonstrate broad-spectrum inhibition of bacterial growth and modification of the compounds establishes SAR. PMID:22373064

  20. Effects of the 10-Valent Pneumococcal Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D–Conjugate Vaccine on Nasopharyngeal Bacterial Colonization in Young Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    van den Bergh, Menno R.; Spijkerman, Judith; Swinnen, Kristien M.; François, Nancy A.; Pascal, Thierry G.; Borys, Dorota; Schuerman, Lode; IJzerman, Ed P. F.; Bruin, Jacob P.; van der Ende, Arie; Veenhoven, Reinier H.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. This study evaluated the effects of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D–conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) on nasopharyngeal bacterial colonization compared with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM) in young children. Methods. A randomized controlled trial in the Netherlands, initiated 2 years after 7vCRM introduction, was conducted between 1 April 2008 and 1 December 2010. Infants (N = 780) received either PHiD-CV or 7vCRM (2:1) at 2, 3, 4, and 11–13 months of age. Nasopharyngeal samples taken at 5, 11, 14, 18, and 24 months of age were cultured to detect Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Polymerase chain reaction assays quantified H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae and confirmed H. influenzae as nontypeable (NTHi). Primary outcome measure was vaccine efficacy (VE) against NTHi colonization. Results. In both groups, NTHi colonization increased with age from 33% in 5-month-olds to 65% in 24-month-olds. Three months postbooster, VE against colonization was 0.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], −21.8% to 18.4%) and VE against acquisition 10.9% (95% CI, −31.3% to 38.9%). At each sampling moment, no differences between groups in either NTHi prevalence or H. influenzae density were detected. Streptococcus pneumoniae (range, 39%–57%), M. catarrhalis (range, 63%­–69%), and S. aureus (range, 9%–30%) colonization patterns were similar between groups. Conclusions. PHiD-CV had no differential effect on nasopharyngeal NTHi colonization or H. influenzae density in healthy Dutch children up to 2 years of age, implying that herd effects for NTHi are not to be expected. Other bacterial colonization patterns were also similar. Clinical Trials Registration NCT00652951. PMID:23118268

  1. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling of antibacterial activity of cefpodoxime and cefixime in in vitro kinetic models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Rand, Kenneth H; Obermann, Bernd; Derendorf, Hartmut

    2005-02-01

    The bacterial time-kill curves of cefpodoxime and cefixime against four bacterial strains (Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae/penicillin sensitive and S. pneumoniae/penicillin intermediate) were compared in in vitro infection models in which various human pharmacokinetic profiles of unbound antibiotic were simulated. This approach offers more detailed information than the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) does about the time course of antibacterial efficacy of an antibiotic. A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model based on unbound antibiotic concentrations at the site of infection, and a sigmoid Emax-relationship with EC50 as the antibiotic concentration necessary to produce 50% of the maximum effect, effectively described the antimicrobial efficacy of both cefpodoxime and cefixime. The EC50 values of cefpodoxime and cefixime were consistent with their respective MIC values. Both antibiotics had similar high potency against H. influenzae (EC50: 0.04 mg/L) and M. catarrhalis (EC50: 0.12 mg/L), while the potency of cefpodoxime against S. pneumoniae strains was about 10-fold higher than that of cefixime (EC50s/sensitive strain: 0.02 mg/L versus 0.27 mg/L; EC50s/intermediate strain: 0.09 mg/L versus 0.69 mg/L). Applications of this model and unbound tissue PK profiles obtained from a previous clinical study performed in our group, showed that cefpodoxime has higher bacteriological potency than cefixime against S. pneumoniae. Simulations based on this model allow the comparison of antibacterial efficacy of different antibiotics and dosing regimens.

  2. Effect of protein binding on the in vitro activity and pharmacodynamics of faropenem.

    PubMed

    Boswell, F J; Ashby, J P; Andrews, J M; Wise, R

    2002-10-01

    The influence of protein binding upon different aspects of the in vitro activity of faropenem on recently isolated Staphylococcus aureus and respiratory pathogens was determined. The protein binding of faropenem was investigated in inactivated human serum and albumin by ultrafiltration. The effect of the presence of inactivated human serum and albumin on the in vitro activity of faropenem and amoxicillin was established and the influence of protein binding on the pharmacodynamic properties of faropenem and amoxicillin was compared. The protein binding of faropenem was 96% and 95% in pooled inactivated human serum and 99% and 98% in 45 mg/L human albumin, at 8 and 25 mg/L, respectively. The presence of inactivated human serum (20% and 70%) increased the mean faropenem MICs by two dilution steps and albumin increased the mean faropenem MICs by three dilution steps. The mean amoxicillin MICs were less affected than faropenem by the presence of either inactivated human serum or albumin. Faropenem and amoxicillin exhibited similar time-dependent kinetics. Faropenem was bacteriostatic on Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae and group A streptococci, and bactericidal for Streptococcus pneumoniae (after 4 h with concentrations equivalent to 5 x and 10 x MIC) in Iso-Sensitest broth. In 70% inactivated human serum faropenem was slowly bactericidal against M. catarrhalis, H. influenzae (one strain) and S. pneumoniae (one strain) but not group A streptococci and the other S. pneumoniae strain. A significant inoculum effect was observed with all strains except S. pneumoniae. Both faropenem and amoxicillin appeared more active in 70% inactivated human serum than in Iso-Sensitest broth. PMID:12356797

  3. Common Cell Shape Evolution of Two Nasopharyngeal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Veyrier, Frédéric J.; Biais, Nicolas; Morales, Pablo; Belkacem, Nouria; Guilhen, Cyril; Ranjeva, Sylvia; Sismeiro, Odile; Péhau-Arnaudet, Gérard; Rocha, Eduardo P.; Werts, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory infectious diseases are the third cause of worldwide death. The nasopharynx is the portal of entry and the ecological niche of many microorganisms, of which some are pathogenic to humans, such as Neisseria meningitidis and Moraxella catarrhalis. These microbes possess several surface structures that interact with the actors of the innate immune system. In our attempt to understand the past evolution of these bacteria and their adaption to the nasopharynx, we first studied differences in cell wall structure, one of the strongest immune-modulators. We were able to show that a modification of peptidoglycan (PG) composition (increased proportion of pentapeptides) and a cell shape change from rod to cocci had been selected for along the past evolution of N. meningitidis. Using genomic comparison across species, we correlated the emergence of the new cell shape (cocci) with the deletion, from the genome of N. meningitidis ancestor, of only one gene: yacF. Moreover, the reconstruction of this genetic deletion in a bacterium harboring the ancestral version of the locus together with the analysis of the PG structure, suggest that this gene is coordinating the transition from cell elongation to cell division. Accompanying the loss of yacF, the elongation machinery was also lost by several of the descendants leading to the change in the PG structure observed in N. meningitidis. Finally, the same evolution was observed for the ancestor of M. catarrhalis. This suggests a strong selection of these genetic events during the colonization of the nasopharynx. This selection may have been forced by the requirement of evolving permissive interaction with the immune system, the need to reduce the cellular surface exposed to immune attacks without reducing the intracellular storage capacity, or the necessity to better compete for adhesion to target cells. PMID:26162030

  4. Bacterial and Respiratory Viral Interactions in the Etiology of Acute Otitis Media in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected South African Children

    PubMed Central

    Govender, Niresha; Dayal, Kishen; Devadiga, Raghavendra; Van Dyke, Melissa K.; van Niekerk, Nadia; Cutland, Clare Louise; Adrian, Peter V.; Nunes, Marta C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bacteria and respiratory viruses are implicated in the pathogenesis of acute otitis media (AOM); however, data from low–middle income countries are sparse. We investigated the etiology of AOM in HIV-infected (HIV+), HIV-uninfected (HIV−) and HIV-exposed clinically asymptomatic for HIV-infection (HEU) South African children. Methods: Children ≥3 months to <5 years of age with AOM were enrolled between May 2009 and April 2010 (NCT01031082). Middle ear fluid samples were cultured for bacteria; antibacterial susceptibility was done and serotyping undertaken for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were analyzed for respiratory viruses using immunofluorescence assay and polymerase chain reaction. Results: Of 260 AOM episodes (HIV+:15; HIV−:182; HEU:63), bacteria were found in 54.6%, including Haemophilus influenzae (30.8%), 98.8% of which were nontypeable, and Streptococcus pneumoniae (20.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (15.8%), Moraxella catarrhalis (5.0%) and Streptococcus pyogenes (1.5%). Nonsusceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae to penicillin was 64.2%. Respiratory viruses were detected in 74.2% of cases. Human rhinovirus was most frequently detected (37.7%), followed by adenovirus (14.2%) and human bocavirus (11.5%) overall and irrespective of HIV status. Respiratory viruses were identified concurrently with S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis (76.9–78.8%) and Staphylococcus aureus (63.4%) cultured from middle ear fluid, as well as in 72.0% of episodes negative for any bacteria. Conclusion: The study suggests that respiratory viruses and pathogenic bacteria play an important role in the development of AOM in children. A similar spectrum of pathogens was observed independently of HIV status. Vaccines targeting both nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and S. pneumoniae may have a broad impact on AOM in South Africa. PMID:25923426

  5. Bacterial-resistance among outpatients of county hospitals in China: significant geographic distinctions and minor differences between central cities.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yonghong; Wei, Zeqing; Shen, Ping; Ji, Jinru; Sun, Ziyong; Yu, Hua; Zhang, Tiantuo; Ji, Ping; Ni, Yuxing; Hu, Zhidong; Chu, Yunzhuo; Li, Lanjuan

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey antibacterial resistance in outpatients of Chinese county hospitals. A total of 31 county hospitals were selected and samples continuously collected from August 2010 to August 2011. Drug sensitivity testing was conducted in a central laboratory. A total of 2946 unique isolates were collected, including 634 strains of Escherichia coli, 606 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 476 Staphylococcus aureus, 308 Streptococcus pneumoniae, and 160 Haemophilus influenzae. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases were detected in E. coli (42.3% strains), K. pneumoniae (31.7%), and Proteus mirabilis (39.0%). Ciprofloxacin-resistance was detected in 51.0% of E. coli strains. Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were sensitive to most antibacterial agents. Less than 8.0% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were resistant to carbapenem. For S. aureus strains, 15.3% were resistant to methicillin, and some strains of S. pneumoniae showed resistance to penicillin (1.6%), ceftriaxone (13.0%), and erythromycin (96.4%). β-lactamase was produced by 96.5% of Moraxella catarrhalis strains, and 36.2% of H. influenzae isolates were resistant to ampicillin. Azithromycin-resistant H. influenzae, imipenem-resistant but meropenem-sensitive Proteus, and ceftriaxone- and carbapenem non-sensitive M. catarrhalis were recorded. In conclusion, cephalosporin- and quinolone-resistant strains of E. coli and Klebsiella pneumonia and macrolide-resistant Gram-positive cocci were relatively prominent in county hospitals. The antibacterial resistance profiles of isolates from different geographical locations varied significantly, with proportions in county hospitals lower than those in their tertiary counterparts in the central cities, although the difference is diminishing.

  6. Comparative analysis of the antibacterial activity of a novel peptide deformylase inhibitor, GSK1322322.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, Karen; Hackel, Meredith; Hightower, Sarah; Hoban, Daryl; Bouchillon, Samuel; Qin, Donghui; Aubart, Kelly; Zalacain, Magdalena; Butler, Deborah

    2013-05-01

    GSK1322322 is a novel peptide deformylase (PDF) inhibitor being developed for the intravenous and oral treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections and hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia. The activity of GSK1322322 was tested against a global collection of clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae (n = 2,370), Moraxella catarrhalis (n = 115), Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 947), Streptococcus pyogenes (n = 617), and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 940), including strains resistant to one or more marketed antibiotics. GSK1322322 had an MIC(90) of 1 μg/ml against M. catarrhalis and 4 μg/ml against H. influenzae, with 88.8% of β-lactamase-positive strains showing growth inhibition at that concentration. All S. pneumoniae strains were inhibited by ≤ 4 μg/ml of GSK1322322, with an MIC(90) of 2 μg/ml. Pre-existing resistance mechanisms did not affect its potency, as evidenced by the MIC(90) of 1 μg/ml for penicillin, levofloxacin, and macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae. GSK1322322 was very potent against S. pyogenes strains, with an MIC(90) of 0.5 μg/ml, irrespective of their macrolide resistance phenotype. This PDF inhibitor was also active against S. aureus strains regardless of their susceptibility to methicillin, macrolides, or levofloxacin, with an MIC(90) of 4 μg/ml in all cases. Time-kill studies showed that GSK1322322 had bactericidal activity against S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, S. pyogenes, and S. aureus, demonstrating a ≥ 3-log(10) decrease in the number of CFU/ml at 4× MIC within 24 h in 29 of the 33 strains tested. Given the antibacterial potency demonstrated against this panel of organisms, GSK1322322 represents a valuable alternative therapy for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by drug-resistant pathogens.

  7. Multistep Resistance Development Studies of Ceftaroline in Gram-Positive and -Negative Bacteria▿

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Catherine; McGhee, Pamela; Appelbaum, Peter C.; Kosowska-Shick, Klaudia

    2011-01-01

    Ceftaroline, the active component of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, is a novel broad-spectrum cephalosporin with bactericidal activity against Gram-positive and -negative isolates. This study evaluated the potential for ceftaroline and comparator antibiotics to select for clones of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis with elevated MICs. S. pneumoniae and S. pyogenes isolates in the present study were highly susceptible to ceftaroline (MIC range, 0.004 to 0.25 μg/ml). No streptococcal strains yielded ceftaroline clones with increased MICs (defined as an increase in MIC of >4-fold) after 50 daily passages. Ceftaroline MICs for H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis were 0.06 to 2 μg/ml for four strains and 8 μg/ml for a β-lactamase-positive, efflux-positive H. influenzae with a mutation in L22. One H. influenzae clone with an increased ceftaroline MIC (quinolone-resistant, β-lactamase-positive) was recovered after 20 days. The ceftaroline MIC for this isolate increased 16-fold, from 0.06 to 1 μg/ml. MICs for S. aureus ranged from 0.25 to 1 μg/ml. No S. aureus isolates tested with ceftaroline had clones with increased MIC (>4-fold) after 50 passages. Two E. faecalis isolates tested had ceftaroline MICs increased from 1 to 8 μg/ml after 38 days and from 4 to 32 μg/ml after 41 days, respectively. The parental ceftaroline MIC for the one K. pneumoniae extended-spectrum β-lactamase-negative isolate tested was 0.5 μg/ml and did not change after 50 daily passages. PMID:21343467

  8. Multicenter trial of cefpodoxime proxetil vs. amoxicillin-clavulanate in acute lower respiratory tract infections in childhood. International Study Group.

    PubMed

    Klein, M

    1995-04-01

    Acute lower respiratory tract infections in children are a worldwide public health problem, with an estimated 4 million potentially preventable deaths every year. Until recently, penicillin and related drugs were the treatment of choice for empiric therapy of paediatric lower respiratory tract infections. However, concerns over the emergence of penicillin-resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae and beta-lactamase-producing strains of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis have led physicians to turn increasingly towards alternatives, such as the third generation cephalosporins. The oral extended spectrum cephalosporin cefpodoxime proxetil is highly active against the bacterial pathogens commonly associated with childhood lower respiratory tract infections. In order to evaluate its clinical efficacy in children with acute febrile lower respiratory tract infections, an international, multicenter, comparative, randomized open study was conducted in children ages 3 months to 11.5 years. Of 348 cases enrolled, 234 were randomized to cefpodoxime proxetil (8 mg/kg/day twice daily) and 114 to amoxicilin/clavanulate (amoxicillin 40 mg/kg/day 3 times a day). The duration of treatment was 10 days. Pretreatment diagnosis was pneumonia in 292 patients, bronchiolitis in 19 patients and acute bronchitis in 37 patients. Pathogens isolated from 59 cases included H. influenzae (47.5%), S. pneumoniae (23.7%), M. catarrhalis (11.9%) and Haemophilus parainfluenzae (6.8%). Clinical efficacy was evaluable in 278 children at the end of treatment when 95.2% of patients in the cefpodoxime proxetil group and 96.7% of patients in the amoxicillin/clavanulate group showed a satisfactory clinical response (cured or improved). The improvement was sustained at the follow-up visit, 10 to 20 days after completion of treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. [Utility of prolonged incubation and terminal subcultures of blood cultures from immunocompromised patients].

    PubMed

    Soloaga, R; Procopio, A; Manganello, S; Ivanovic, V; Romay, N; Pirosanto, Y; Fernández, A; Zudiker, R; Echeverría, A; Nagel, C; del Castillo, M; López, E; Gutfraind, Z; Tokumoto, M; Guelfand, L

    2001-01-01

    The value of blind terminal subcultures (7 and 30 days) and prolonged incubation (30 days) of blood cultures from immunosuppressed patients was analyzed in the Fundación Favaloro, the Fundación para la Lucha contra las Enfermedades Neurológicas de la Infancia and the Hospital de Niños Ricardo Gutiérrez. A total of 2707 blood cultures and 369 patients were included (transplantation of solid organs 154, oncohematologic disorders 106 and solid tumors 109). Bact-Alert bottles were incubated at 35 degrees C for 30 days in the Bact-Alert System. Bottles with positive signals were routinely removed, and aliquots of the broth were Gram stained and subcultured aerobically in chocolate agar and Sabouraud agar. A total of 136 bacteremic episodes were obtained. The positivization time of blood cultures was 81.6% at 24 h, 93.3% at 48 h, 94.5% at 72 h and 97.7% within 7 days. Only 3 (2.2%) episodes were positive by blind terminal subcultures and 1 (0.75%) by prolonged incubation (14 days). The median time and range of positivization in hours were 13.8 and 2.2-168, respectively. The microorganisms isolated were coagulase negative staphylococci (n = 24), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 22), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 21), Escherichia coli (n = 18), Acinetobacter spp (n = 9), Candida spp (n = 8), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 6), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 5), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n = 5), Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella spp and Capnocytophaga sputigena (n = 2), Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus faecium, Citrobacter diversus, Candida albicans, Klebsiella oxytoca, Chryseomonas luteola, Serratia marcescens, Abiotrophia spp, Campylobacter jejuni, Moraxella catarrhalis, Moraxella urethralis, Neisseria sicca, beta hemolytic group G streptococci, Rhodococcus equi, Micrococcus spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Streptococcus mitis (n = 1). In our experience, blind terminal subcultures and prolonged incubation of blood cultures from immunosuppressed patients are unnecessary and

  10. Rescue of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (Por) mouse mutants reveals functions in vasculogenesis, brain and limb patterning linked to retinoic acid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ribes, Vanessa; Otto, Diana M E; Dickmann, Leslie; Schmidt, Katy; Schuhbaur, Brigitte; Henderson, Colin; Blomhoff, Rune; Wolf, C Roland; Tickle, Cheryll; Dollé, Pascal

    2007-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) acts as an electron donor for all cytochrome P450 enzymes. Knockout mouse Por(-/-) mutants, which are early embryonic (E9.5) lethal, have been found to have overall elevated retinoic acid (RA) levels, leading to the idea that POR early developmental function is mainly linked to the activity of the CYP26 RA-metabolizing enzymes (Otto et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 23, 6103-6116). By crossing Por mutants with a RA-reporter lacZ transgene, we show that Por(-/-) embryos exhibit both elevated and ectopic RA signaling activity e.g. in cephalic and caudal tissues. Two strategies were used to functionally demonstrate that decreasing retinoid levels can reverse Por(-/-) phenotypic defects, (i) by culturing Por(-/-) embryos in defined serum-free medium, and (ii) by generating compound mutants defective in RA synthesis due to haploinsufficiency of the retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Raldh2) gene. Both approaches clearly improved the Por(-/-) early phenotype, the latter allowing mutants to be recovered up until E13.5. Abnormal brain patterning, with posteriorization of hindbrain cell fates and defective mid- and forebrain development and vascular defects were rescued in E9.5 Por(-/-) embryos. E13.5 Por(-/-); Raldh2(+/-) embryos exhibited abdominal/caudal and limb defects that strikingly phenocopy those of Cyp26a1(-/-) and Cyp26b1(-/-) mutants, respectively. Por(-/-); Raldh2(+/-) limb buds were truncated and proximalized and the anterior-posterior patterning system was not established. Thus, POR function is indispensable for the proper regulation of RA levels and tissue distribution not only during early embryonic development but also in later morphogenesis and molecular patterning of the brain, abdominal/caudal region and limbs. PMID:17126317

  11. Global Microlending in Education Reform: Enseñá Por Argentina and the Neoliberalization of the Grassroots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the workings and underlying assumptions behind Enseñá por Argentina (Teach for Argentina), one specific program that takes part in the larger and expanding network of Teach for All, by thinking about the ways in which a global push for redefining teaching and teacher education encounters local characteristics and histories,…

  12. [Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD, students at Budapest and Prague Faculties of Medicine].

    PubMed

    Mydlík, M; Derzsiová, K

    2010-11-01

    Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD were contemporaries, both born in 1899, one in Zvolen, the other in Dombovar, at the time of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Prof. Por attended the Faculty of Medicine in Budapest from 1918 to 1920, and Prof. Klopstock studied at the same place between 1917 and 1919. From 1920 until graduation on 6th February 1926, Prof. Por continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. Prof. Klopstock had to interrupt his studies in Budapest due to pulmonary tuberculosis; he received treatment at Tatranske Matliare where he befriended Franz Kafka. Later, upon Kafka's encouragement, he changed institutions and continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, where he graduated the first great go. It is very likely that, during their studies in Budapest and Prague, both professors met repeatedly, even though their life paths later separated. Following his graduation, Prof. Por practiced as an internist in Prague, later in Slovakia, and from 1945 in Kosice. In 1961, he was awarded the title of university professor of internal medicine at the Faculty of Medicine, Pavol Jozef Safarik University in Kosice, where he practiced until his death in 1980. Prof. Klopstock continued his studies in Kiel and Berlin. After his graduation in 1933, he practiced in Berlin as a surgeon and in 1938 left for USA. In 1962, he was awarded the title of university professor of pulmonary surgery in NewYork, where he died in 1972.

  13. Sequence evolution of the porB gene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis: evidence of positive Darwinian selection.

    PubMed

    Smith, N H; Maynard Smith, J; Spratt, B G

    1995-05-01

    Protein 1 (PI) is a major porin of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis and is encoded by a single locus, porB. Alleles of the porB locus of N. gonorrhoeae are assigned to two homology groups, PI(A) and PI(B), on the basis of immunological and structural similarity. In a like manner, alleles of the porB locus of the closely related bacterium, N. meningitidis, are allocated into class 2 and class 3 homology groups. An individual strain of N. gonorrhoeae or N. meningitidis expresses either one or other of these porin homology groups but never both, and the antigenic reactions of these highly diverse outer membrane proteins form part of the N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis serotyping schemes. A comparison of the number of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions per site between the two most divergent alleles of each of these four groups of porB alleles shows that PI(A) alleles have accumulated significantly more nonsynonymous substitutions per site than synonymous substitutions. In contrast the distribution of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions between alleles of class 2 and class 3 porins are not significantly different from random. We localize the regions of the PI(A) alleles with an excess of amino acid changes to the surface-exposed loops of these outer membrane proteins and suggest that positive Darwinian selection for diversity, driven by the human immune system, can most easily explain the allelic polymorphism and the pattern of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions.

  14. Functional Expression of the PorAH Channel from Corynebacterium glutamicum in Cell-free Expression Systems

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Parthasarathi; Demange, Pascal; Saurel, Olivier; Tropis, Marielle; Daffé, Mamadou; Dötsch, Volker; Ghazi, Alexandre; Bernhard, Frank; Milon, Alain

    2011-01-01

    PorA and PorH are two small membrane proteins from the outer membrane of Corynebacterium glutamicum, which have been shown to form heteromeric ion channels and to be post-translationally modified by mycolic acids. Any structural details of the channel could not be analyzed so far due to tremendous difficulties in the production of sufficient amounts of protein samples. Cell-free (CF) expression is a new and remarkably successful strategy for the production of membrane proteins for which toxicity, membrane targeting, and degradation are key issues. In addition, reaction conditions can easily be modified to modulate the quality of synthesized protein samples. We developed an efficient CF expression strategy to produce the channel subunits devoid of post-translational modifications. 15N-labeled PorA and PorH samples were furthermore characterized by NMR and gave well resolved spectra, opening the way for structural studies. The comparison of ion channel activities of CF-expressed proteins with channels isolated from C. glutamicum gave clear insights on the influence of the mycolic acid modification of the two subunits on their functional properties. PMID:21799011

  15. jPOR: An ImageJ macro to quantify total optical porosity from blue-stained thin sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, Clayton; Jerram, Dougal A.

    2011-11-01

    A fast and effective method has been developed to measure total optical porosity (TOP) of blue resin-impregnated thin sections. This utilises a macro file (jPOR.txt) for ImageJ, which can be used on digital photomicrographs of thin sections. The method requires no specialised scientific equipment and can be run entirely using free to download software. Digital images are acquired from blue resin-impregnated thin sections using a conventional film scanner in the present study, though the technique can be applied to any high resolution colour digital acquired by different means (e.g., flat bed scanning, digital capture). Images are preprocessed using a newly developed custom 8-bit palette and analysed for porosity in ImageJ using the simple to use jPOR macro. Our method rapidly calculates TOP for batches of images with or without the option of user adjustment. Results are compared with conventional methods (e.g., to point counting), and tested with several users to estimate any user variability. jPOR provided comparable results to more time-consuming point counting, but with significantly less "counting error" and less interoperator variability than published point counting studies. The jPOR macro has been integrated into a macro tool set that can be configured to be run on ImageJ start up.

  16. Functional POR A503V is associated with the risk of bladder cancer in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xue; Ma, Gaoxiang; Li, Shushu; Wang, Meilin; Liu, Nian; Ma, Lan; Zhang, Zhan; Chu, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Human cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) plays important roles in the metabolism of exogenous carcinogens and endogenous sterol hormones. However, few studies have explored the association between POR variants and the risk of bladder cancer. In this study, we first sequenced all 16 POR exons among 50 randomly selected controls, and found three variants, rs1135612, rs1057868 (A503V) and rs2228104, which were then assessed the relation to risk of bladder cancer in a case-control study of 1,050 bladder cancer cases and 1,404 cancer-free controls in a Chinese population. People with A503V TT genotype have a decreased risk of bladder cancer in a recessive model (TT vs. CC/CT, OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.57–0.93), which was more pronounced among elderly male, non-smoking, subjects. Especially, A503V TT genotype showed a protective effect in the invasive tumor stage. Functional analysis revealed that A503V activity decreased in cytochrome c reduction (50.5 units/mg vs. 135.4 units/mg), mitomycin C clearance (38.3% vs. 96.8%), and mitomycin C-induced colony formation (78.0 vs 34.3 colonies per dish). The results suggested that POR A503V might decrease the risk of bladder cancer by reducing its metabolic activity, and should be a potential biomarker for predicting the susceptibility to human bladder cancer. PMID:26123203

  17. Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel

    Los generadores de calentamiento por induccion son puentes inversores con carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento por induccion: La corriente por la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido por la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar por debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, con la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control por variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la

  18. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  19. [Antibacterial activity for clinical isolates from pediatric patients of clavulanic acid/amoxicillin (1: 14) -outcomes of special drug use investigation on antibacterial activity (annual changes)].

    PubMed

    Ishida, Atsuko; Hasegawa, Naomi; Okano, Hideyuki; Hara, Terufumi; Yoshida, Pascal

    2013-06-01

    As a special drug use investigation, we monitored and assessed trends in antibacterial activity of clavulanic acid/amoxicillin (1:14) (hereafter, "CVA/AMPC (1:14)") and other antimicrobial agents for clinical isolates from pediatric patients with otitis media or respiratory, skin, and urinary tract infections. Against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis isolated and identified from otorrhea, epipharynx and rhinorrhea of pediatric patients with otitis media, the MIC90s of CVA/AMPC (1:14) in five years between 2006-2010 were 1 microg/mL for S. pneumoniae and 8 microg/mL for H. influenzae and 0.25-0.5microg/mL for M catarrhalis. The changes of MIC90s of CVA/AMPC (1:14) for penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP) and beta-lactamase non-producing H. influenzae were two times, and no decrease in drug susceptibility was found in the period of the present investigation. In addition, the MIC changes of other antimicrobial agents for these three organisms were approximately two to four times as well. Against organisms isolated and identified from pus, sputum, pharynx, skin and urine of pediatric patients with respiratory, skin, and urinary tract infections, the MIC90s of CVA/AMPC (1:14) in four years between 2008-2011 were 1 microg/mL for S. pneumoniae, < or =0.06microg/mL for penicillin susceptible S. pneumoniae (PSSP) without any change, 0.5-1 microg/mL for penicillin intermediate resistant S. pneumoniae (PISP) with a twofold change and 1 microg/mL for PRSP with no change. The MIC90s of CVA/AMPC (1:14) were 2-8 microg/mL for S. aureus with a fourfold change, 2 microg/mL for methicillin-sensitive S. aureus without any change, 4-8 microg/mL for H. influenzae with a twofold change. Against beta-lactamase non-producing H. influenzae, MIC90s of CVA/AMPC (1:14) were 1 microg/mL for beta-lactamase negative ampicillin susceptible (BLNAS), 8 microg/mL for beta-lactamase negative ampicillin resistant (BLNAR), showing no change. Neither

  20. National and Regional Assessment of Antimicrobial Resistance among Community-Acquired Respiratory Tract Pathogens Identified in a 2005-2006 U.S. Faropenem Surveillance Study▿

    PubMed Central

    Critchley, Ian A.; Brown, Steven D.; Traczewski, Maria M.; Tillotson, Glenn S.; Janjic, Nebojsa

    2007-01-01

    Surveillance studies conducted in the United States over the last decade have revealed increasing resistance among community-acquired respiratory pathogens, especially Streptococcus pneumoniae, that may limit future options for empirical therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the scope and magnitude of the problem at the national and regional levels during the 2005-2006 respiratory season (the season when community-acquired respiratory pathogens are prevalent) in the United States. Also, since faropenem is an oral penem being developed for the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections, another study objective was to provide baseline data to benchmark changes in the susceptibility of U.S. respiratory pathogens to the drug in the future. The in vitro activities of faropenem and other agents were determined against 1,543 S. pneumoniae isolates, 978 Haemophilus influenzae isolates, and 489 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates collected from 104 U.S. laboratories across six geographic regions during the 2005-2006 respiratory season. Among S. pneumoniae isolates, the rates of resistance to penicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and cefdinir were 16, 6.4, and 19.2%, respectively. The least effective agents were trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) and azithromycin, with resistance rates of 23.5 and 34%, respectively. Penicillin resistance rates for S. pneumoniae varied by region (from 8.7 to 22.5%), as did multidrug resistance rates for S. pneumoniae (from 8.8 to 24.9%). Resistance to β-lactams, azithromycin, and SXT was higher among S. pneumoniae isolates from children than those from adults. β-Lactamase production rates among H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis isolates were 27.4 and 91.6%, respectively. Faropenem MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited were 0.5 μg/ml for S. pneumoniae, 1 μg/ml for H. influenzae, and 0.5 μg/ml for M. catarrhalis, suggesting that faropenem shows promise as a treatment option for respiratory infections caused

  1. National and regional assessment of antimicrobial resistance among community-acquired respiratory tract pathogens identified in a 2005-2006 U.S. Faropenem surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Critchley, Ian A; Brown, Steven D; Traczewski, Maria M; Tillotson, Glenn S; Janjic, Nebojsa

    2007-12-01

    Surveillance studies conducted in the United States over the last decade have revealed increasing resistance among community-acquired respiratory pathogens, especially Streptococcus pneumoniae, that may limit future options for empirical therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the scope and magnitude of the problem at the national and regional levels during the 2005-2006 respiratory season (the season when community-acquired respiratory pathogens are prevalent) in the United States. Also, since faropenem is an oral penem being developed for the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections, another study objective was to provide baseline data to benchmark changes in the susceptibility of U.S. respiratory pathogens to the drug in the future. The in vitro activities of faropenem and other agents were determined against 1,543 S. pneumoniae isolates, 978 Haemophilus influenzae isolates, and 489 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates collected from 104 U.S. laboratories across six geographic regions during the 2005-2006 respiratory season. Among S. pneumoniae isolates, the rates of resistance to penicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and cefdinir were 16, 6.4, and 19.2%, respectively. The least effective agents were trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) and azithromycin, with resistance rates of 23.5 and 34%, respectively. Penicillin resistance rates for S. pneumoniae varied by region (from 8.7 to 22.5%), as did multidrug resistance rates for S. pneumoniae (from 8.8 to 24.9%). Resistance to beta-lactams, azithromycin, and SXT was higher among S. pneumoniae isolates from children than those from adults. beta-Lactamase production rates among H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis isolates were 27.4 and 91.6%, respectively. Faropenem MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited were 0.5 mug/ml for S. pneumoniae, 1 mug/ml for H. influenzae, and 0.5 mug/ml for M. catarrhalis, suggesting that faropenem shows promise as a treatment option for respiratory infections

  2. Susceptibility patterns of bacterial isolates from hospitalised patients with respiratory tract infections (MOXIAKTIV Study).

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Enno; Dalhoff, Axel; Korfmann, Gisela

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine: (i) the prevalence of resistance in current clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Klebsiella pneumoniae; (ii) the prevalence of production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and methicillin resistance in S. aureus; and (iii) regional differences in the prevalence of ESBL production and clonality of K. pneumoniae isolates. Pathogens causing respiratory tract infections in hospitalised patients were prospectively collected from all over Germany. Drugs tested by Etest included moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefuroxime, clarithromycin and penicillin G. ESBL production by K. pneumoniae was determined using cefotaxime/ceftazidime +/- clavulanic acid. Deutsches Institut für Normung (German Institute for Standardisation)/European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (DIN/EUCAST) breakpoints were used where applicable. Overall, 1859 pathogens were analysed. For all species tested the fluoroquinolones achieved the highest overall susceptibility rate (92.8%) compared with clarithromycin (60.5%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (85.7%) and cefuroxime (89.6%). From 438 K. pneumoniae isolates, 13.0% produced an ESBL. The ESBL prevalence was 38.8% in Eastern Germany with a trend towards clonality in some centres, but ranged from 4.7% to 7.1% in Southern, Northern and Western Germany. Among the methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates, 10.1% were moxifloxacin- and levofloxacin-resistant. Of the S. pneumoniae isolates, 99.3% were moxifloxacin- and levofloxacin-susceptible, 93.9% were penicillin G-susceptible and 85.7% were clarithromycin-susceptible. With a MIC90 value (minimal inhibitory concentration for 90% of the isolates) of 0.19 mg/L, moxifloxacin was more potent than levofloxacin (MIC90 = 1 mg/L) against S. pneumoniae. Haemophilus influenzae and M. catarrhalis were almost 100% susceptible to the

  3. Prevalencia y tamizaje del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad en Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicholas T.; Schuler, Jovita; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J.; Chavira, Denise; Bagnarello, Monica; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Resumen La investigación tuvo como propósito estimar la prevalencia del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH) en Costa Rica y determinar si la versión en español del cuestionario Swanson Nolan and Pelham Scale IV (SNAP-IV) es un instrumento de tamizaje útil en una población de niños y niñas escolares costarricenses. El instrumento fue entregado a padres y maestros de 425 niños entre 5 y 13 años de edad (promedio = 8.8). Todos fueron evaluados con el instrumento Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham Scale (SKAMP). Su diagnóstico fue confirmado con una entrevista clínica. La sensibilidad y la especificidad del SNAP-IV fueron evaluadas como predictores de criterios de diagnóstico según el DSM-IV. La prevalencia puntual en la muestra del TDAH fue del 5%. El tamizaje más preciso lo hizo el SNAP-IV completado por el maestro en un corte de 20%, con una sensibilidad de 96% y una especificidad de un 82%. La sensibilidad de los instrumentos completados por los padres fue más baja que aquella de los maestros. El SNAP-IV completado por las maestras con un corte aislando el 20% de los mayores puntajes categorizó correctamente a un 87% de los sujetos. PMID:22432094

  4. Discovery and Analysis of 4H-Pyridopyrimidines, a Class of Selective Bacterial Protein Synthesis Inhibitors▿

    PubMed Central

    Ribble, Wendy; Hill, Walter E.; Ochsner, Urs A.; Jarvis, Thale C.; Guiles, Joseph W.; Janjic, Nebojsa; Bullard, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial protein synthesis is the target for numerous natural and synthetic antibacterial agents. We have developed a poly(U) mRNA-directed aminoacylation/translation protein synthesis system composed of phenyl-tRNA synthetases, ribosomes, and ribosomal factors from Escherichia coli. This system, utilizing purified components, has been used for high-throughput screening of a small-molecule chemical library. We have identified a series of compounds that inhibit protein synthesis with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) ranging from 3 to 14 μM. This series of compounds all contained the same central scaffold composed of tetrahydropyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-4-ol (e.g., 4H-pyridopyrimidine). All analogs contained an ortho pyridine ring attached to the central scaffold in the 2 position and either a five- or a six-member ring tethered to the 6-methylene nitrogen atom of the central scaffold. These compounds inhibited the growth of E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis, with MICs ranging from 0.25 to 32 μg/ml. Macromolecular synthesis (MMS) assays with E. coli and S. aureus confirmed that antibacterial activity resulted from specific inhibition of protein synthesis. Assays were developed for the steps performed by each component of the system in order to ascertain the target of the compounds, and the ribosome was found to be the site of inhibition. PMID:20696870

  5. Discovery and analysis of 4H-pyridopyrimidines, a class of selective bacterial protein synthesis inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ribble, Wendy; Hill, Walter E; Ochsner, Urs A; Jarvis, Thale C; Guiles, Joseph W; Janjic, Nebojsa; Bullard, James M

    2010-11-01

    Bacterial protein synthesis is the target for numerous natural and synthetic antibacterial agents. We have developed a poly(U) mRNA-directed aminoacylation/translation protein synthesis system composed of phenyl-tRNA synthetases, ribosomes, and ribosomal factors from Escherichia coli. This system, utilizing purified components, has been used for high-throughput screening of a small-molecule chemical library. We have identified a series of compounds that inhibit protein synthesis with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) ranging from 3 to 14 μM. This series of compounds all contained the same central scaffold composed of tetrahydropyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-4-ol (e.g., 4H-pyridopyrimidine). All analogs contained an ortho pyridine ring attached to the central scaffold in the 2 position and either a five- or a six-member ring tethered to the 6-methylene nitrogen atom of the central scaffold. These compounds inhibited the growth of E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis, with MICs ranging from 0.25 to 32 μg/ml. Macromolecular synthesis (MMS) assays with E. coli and S. aureus confirmed that antibacterial activity resulted from specific inhibition of protein synthesis. Assays were developed for the steps performed by each component of the system in order to ascertain the target of the compounds, and the ribosome was found to be the site of inhibition.

  6. Bacterial pathogens of otitis media and sinusitis: detection in the nasopharynx with selective agar media.

    PubMed

    Dudley, S; Ashe, K; Winther, B; Hendley, J O

    2001-11-01

    Carriage rates for the bacterial pathogens associated with otitis media (Streptococcus pneumoniae [SP], Hemophilus influenzae [HI], and Moraxella catarrhalis [MC]) are of interest. Culture on three selective agars was compared with culture on two standard agars to determine the more accurate method for detection of these species in the nasopharynx of healthy children. Weekly samples were obtained in winter from 18 healthy children (ages 1 through 9 years) as part of a longitudinal study. A 0.1-mL sample of 116 nasopharyngeal aspirate/washes was inoculated onto each of five agars. Two were standard (sheep blood and chocolate), and three were selective (blood with gentamicin for SP; chocolate with vancomycin, bacitracin, and clindamycin for HI; blood with amphotericin B, vancomycin, trimethoprim, and acetazolamide for MC). One technician read the standard plates and another the selective; both were blinded to the results of the other. SP was found in 44% of samples with selective agar versus 25% with standard agar; HI was found in 31% with selective versus 9% with standard; MC was found in 56% with selective versus 37% with standard. Overall, 80% of samples had one or more pathogens detected with selective agars as compared with 58% with standard agars (P =.0004). Selective agars were more accurate than standard agars for detecting otitis pathogens in the nasopharynx, where they are a common part of normal flora in healthy children.

  7. The in vitro effects of cetyltrimethylammonium naproxenate on oral and pharyngeal microorganisms of various ecological niches.

    PubMed

    Pilloni, A P; Buttini, G; Giordano, B; Iovene, M R; di Salvo, R; Buommino, E; Tufano, M A

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility to cetyltrimethylammonium naproxenate for various aerobic and anaerobic micro-organisms responsible for oral and pharyngeal diseases by assessing the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) or minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) and by determining kill-times. The MICs of cetyltrimethylammonium naproxenate for 46 tested strains (25 reference strains and 21 clinical isolates) ranged from 8 to 500 micrograms/ml. The MIC was found to be 31.25 micrograms/ml for 36% of the reference strains. Even lower MIC values (15.63 micrograms/ml) were observed for some anaerobic strains, for Haemophilus influenzae and for Candida tropicalis. MIC and MBC values corresponded for the majority of strains tested while the MFC for C. tropicalis and C. albicans was much higher. Only 9.5% of the clinical isolates gave a MIC value of 31.25 micrograms/ml. Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus showed MIC at 62.5 micrograms/ml. The MIC and MBC values among the isolates were comparable, while the MFC value for the yeasts was greater. A concentration of 125 micrograms/ml of cetyltrimethylammonium naproxenate inhibited the growth of all bacteria, except Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonaceae, and yeasts. Cetyltrimethylammonium naproxenate shows very rapid kill-time for S. sanguis (0"), and rapid (15") for S. pyogenes, S. dysgalactiae and S. mutans and for Moraxella catarrhalis, while a longer kill-time was necessary for the other microbes tested.

  8. Identification of bacteria causing acute otitis media using Raman microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, Oscar D.; Wakeman, Catherine A.; Skaar, Eric P.; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2016-03-01

    Otitis media (OM) is the leading cause of acute physician visits and prescription of antibiotics for children. Current standard techniques to diagnose acute otitis media (AOM) are limited by their ability to probe only changes in symptoms of the bacterial infection that cause AOM. Furthermore, they are not able to detect the presence of or identify bacteria causing AOM, which is important for diagnosis and proper antibiotic treatment. Our goal is to detect the presence of and identify the pathogens involved in causing AOM based on their biochemical profile using Raman spectroscopy (RS). An inVia confocal Raman microscope (Renishaw) at 785 nm was used to detect bacteria causing AOM in vitro. The three main bacteria that cause AOM, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae were cultured in chocolate agar and Mueller-Hinton agar to determine which agar type would minimize Raman signal from the growth agar. Preliminary results identified specific Raman spectral features characteristic of S. pneumoniae. RS has the potential to accurately diagnose AOM, which will help in identifying the antibiotic that will be most beneficial for the patient and ultimately decrease the course of infection.

  9. Microbiology of chronic rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Brook, I

    2016-07-01

    Most sinus infections are viral and only a small percentage develop bacterial infection. Rhino-, influenza, and para-influenza viruses are the most frequent viral causes of sinusitis. The most common bacterial isolates from children and adult patients with community-acquired acute bacterial sinusitis are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pyogenes. Staphylococcus aureus and anaerobic organisms (Prevotella and Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, and Peptostreptococcus spp.) are the commonest isolates in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Aerobic and anaerobic beta lactamase-producing bacteria (BLPB) were recovered from over a third of these patients. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) accounted for over 60 % of S. aureus isolates. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other aerobic and facultative Gram-negative rods are frequently recovered in nosocomial sinusitis, the immunocompromised host, individuals with human immunodeficiency virus infection, and in cystic fibrosis. The CRS infection evolves the formation of a biofilm that might play a significant role in the pathogenesis and persistence of CRS. The microbiology of sinusitis is influenced by previous antimicrobial therapy, vaccinations, and the presence of normal flora capable of interfering with the growth of pathogens. Recognition of the unique microbiology of CRS and their antimicrobial susceptibility is of great importance when selecting antimicrobial therapy. PMID:27086363

  10. The antimicrobial activity of fruits from some cultivar varieties of Rubus idaeus and Rubus occidentalis.

    PubMed

    Krauze-Baranowska, M; Majdan, M; Hałasa, R; Głód, D; Kula, M; Fecka, I; Orzeł, A

    2014-10-01

    Raspberries, derived from different cultivar varieties, are a popular ingredient of everyday diet, and their biological activity is a point of interest for researchers. The ethanol-water extracts from four varieties of red (Rubus idaeus'Ljulin', 'Veten', 'Poranna Rosa') and black (Rubus occidentalis'Litacz') raspberries were evaluated in the range of their antimicrobial properties as well as phenolic content - sanguiin H-6, free ellagic acid and anthocyanins. The antimicrobial assay was performed with the use of fifteen strains of bacteria, both Gram-negative and Gram-positive. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts varied and depended on the analysed strain of bacteria and cultivar variety, with the exception of Helicobacter pylori, towards which the extracts displayed the same growth inhibiting activity. Two human pathogens Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Moraxella catarrhalis proved to be the most sensitive to raspberry extracts. Contrary to the extracts, sanguiin H-6 and ellagic acid were only active against eight and nine bacterial strains, respectively. The determined MIC and MBC values of both compounds were several times lower than the tested extracts. The highest sensitivity of Corynebacterium diphtheriae to extracts from both black and red raspberries may be due to its sensitivity to sanguiin H-6 and ellagic acid.

  11. Bronchiectasis: a bacteriological profile

    PubMed Central

    Bopaka, Régis Gothard; El Khattabi, Wiam; Janah, Hind; Jabri, Hasna; Afif, Hicham

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of bronchiectasis can involve a combination of many environmental factors, including infection. The aim of our work is to determine the bacteriological profile of bronchiectasis. This is a retrospective study of 100 patients hospitalized in between January 2010 and July 2013. The average age was 48 years with a 58% female predominance. Symptomatology was by a bronchial syndrome in 90% of cases. Bacteriological examination was able to isolate the microbe in 35% of cases. In our study it was through the examination of sputum cytology in 27% of cases, through the examination of liquid bronchial aspiration in 5% of cases, and through direct examination of sputum in search of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 3% of cases. Microbes isolated were: Streptococcus pneumonia in 11 cases; Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 10 cases, Klebsiella pneumonia and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 3 cases each; Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter spp, Serratia marcescens, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus in one case each. Through this work, the authors highlight that Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the most commonly- identified microbes in their patients. It is necessary to have a full bacterial examination and to repeat it regularly over the course of the bronchiectasis. PMID:27047618

  12. Ceftaroline: a comprehensive update.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Darpan; Rathi, Sudeep; Jain, Ankit

    2011-05-01

    Ceftaroline is a novel broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic currently under US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) review for a new drug application (NDA), filed by Cerexa, Inc. (a wholly owned subsidiary of Forest Laboratories), for the treatment of complicated skin and skin-structure infections (cSSSIs) and community-associated pneumonia (CAP). The antibiotic acts by binding to penicillin-binding proteins in bacteria, consistent with other β-lactams. The antimicrobial spectrum of ceftaroline ranges from aerobic and anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria, including drug-resistant isolates of staphylococci, i.e. heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA), vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA), to anaerobic Gram-negative pathogens such as Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenzae (including β-lactamase-positive strains), as well as bacteria with multiple resistance phenotypes. Ceftaroline fosamil is the prodrug that is rapidly dephosphorylated by in vivo plasma phosphatases to the active drug ceftaroline, which follows a two-compartmental pharmacokinetic model and is eliminated primarily by renal excretion, with a plasma half-life of ca. 2.5 h. Ceftaroline is well tolerated, which is consistent with its good safety profile similar to other cephalosporins in clinical trials. Thus, it would be a promising drug to fight multidrug-resistant superbugs such as S. aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae for the treatment of cSSSIs and CAP.

  13. Moxifloxacin in the management of exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and COPD

    PubMed Central

    Miravitlles, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Bacteria are isolated in more than 50% of exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (CB) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The most prevalent respiratory pathogens include Gram-positive (Streptococcus pneumoniae) and Gram-negative (Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis) microorganims. Moxifloxacin is a fourth-generation fluoroquinolone that has been shown to be effective against respiratory pathogens, including atypicals and those resistant to most common antibiotics. The bioavailability and half-life of moxifloxacin provides potent bactericidal effects at a dose of 400 mg once daily. Among the fluoroquinolones, the ratio of the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) to minimal inhibitory concentration of moxifloxacin is the highest against S. pneumoniae. Moxifloxacin has demonstrated better eradication in exacerbations of CB and COPD compared with standard therapy, in particular, with macrolides. Patients treated with moxifloxacin showed a prolonged time to the next exacerbation and observational studies suggest that moxifloxacin induces a faster release of symptoms of exacerbation. Some guidelines recommend the use of moxifloxacin as first-line therapy in bacterial exacerbations in patients with moderate to severe COPD and in patients with mild COPD with risk factors. The current article reviews the use of moxifloxacin in bacterial exacerbations of CB and COPD. PMID:18229559

  14. Restriction-Modification systems interplay causes avoidance of GATC site in prokaryotic genomes.

    PubMed

    Ershova, Anna; Rusinov, Ivan; Vasiliev, Mikhail; Spirin, Sergey; Karyagina, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Palindromes are frequently underrepresented in prokaryotic genomes. Palindromic 5[Formula: see text]-GATC-3[Formula: see text] site is a recognition site of different Restriction-Modification (R-M) systems, as well as solitary methyltransferase Dam. Classical GATC-specific R-M systems methylate GATC and cleave unmethylated GATC. On the contrary, methyl-directed Type II restriction endonucleases cleave methylated GATC. Methylation of GATC by Dam methyltransferase is involved in the regulation of different cellular processes. The diversity of functions of GATC-recognizing proteins makes GATC sequence a good model for studying the reasons of palindrome avoidance in prokaryotic genomes. In this work, the influence of R-M systems and solitary proteins on the GATC site avoidance is described by a mathematical model. GATC avoidance is strongly associated with the presence of alternate (methyl-directed or classical Type II R-M system) genes in different strains of the same species, as we have shown for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Eubacterium rectale, and Moraxella catarrhalis. We hypothesize that GATC avoidance can result from a DNA exchange between strains with different methylation status of GATC site within the process of natural transformation. If this hypothesis is correct, the GATC avoidance is a sign of a DNA exchange between bacteria with different methylation status in a mixed population.

  15. Comparing the anterior nare bacterial community of two discrete human populations using Illumina amplicon sequencing.

    PubMed

    Camarinha-Silva, Amélia; Jáuregui, Ruy; Chaves-Moreno, Diego; Oxley, Andrew P A; Schaumburg, Frieder; Becker, Karsten; Wos-Oxley, Melissa L; Pieper, Dietmar H

    2014-09-01

    The anterior nares are an important reservoir for opportunistic pathogens and commensal microorganisms. A barcoded Illumina paired-end sequencing method targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA V1-2 hypervariable region was developed to compare the bacterial diversity of the anterior nares across distinct human populations (volunteers from Germany vs a Babongo Pygmy tribe, Africa). Of the 251 phylotypes detected, 231 could be classified to the genus level and 109 to the species level, including the unambiguous identification of the ubiquitous Staphylococcus aureus and Moraxella catarrhalis. The global bacterial community of both adult populations revealed that they shared 85% of the phylotypes, suggesting that our global bacterial communities have likely been with us for thousands of years. Of the 34 phylotypes unique to the non-westernized population, most were related to members within the suborder Micrococcineae. There was an even more overwelming distinction between children and adults of the same population, suggesting a progression of a childhood community of high-diversity comprising species of Moraxellaceae and Streptococcaceae to an adult community of lower diversity comprising species of Propionibacteriaceae, Clostridiales Incertae Sedis XI, Corynebacteriaceae and Staphylococcaceae. Thus, age was a stronger factor for accounting for differing bacterial assemblages than the origin of the human population sampled.

  16. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma-associated Proteobacteria, but not commensal Prevotella spp., promote Toll-like receptor 2-independent lung inflammation and pathology.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Jeppe M; Musavian, Hanieh S; Butt, Tariq M; Ingvorsen, Camilla; Thysen, Anna H; Brix, Susanne

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies of healthy human airways have revealed colonization by a distinct commensal bacterial microbiota containing Gram-negative Prevotella spp. However, the immunological properties of these bacteria in the respiratory system remain unknown. Here we compare the innate respiratory immune response to three Gram-negative commensal Prevotella strains (Prevotella melaninogenica, Prevotella nanceiensis and Prevotella salivae) and three Gram-negative pathogenic Proteobacteria known to colonize lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma (Haemophilus influenzae B, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis). The commensal Prevotella spp. and pathogenic Proteobacteria were found to exhibit intrinsic differences in innate inflammatory capacities on murine lung cells in vitro. In vivo in mice, non-typeable H. influenzae induced severe Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-independent COPD-like inflammation characterized by predominant airway neutrophilia, expression of a neutrophilic cytokine/chemokine profile in lung tissue, and lung immunopathology. In comparison, P. nanceiensis induced a diminished neutrophilic airway inflammation and no detectable lung pathology. Interestingly, the inflammatory airway response to the Gram-negative bacteria P. nanceiensis was completely TLR2-dependent. These findings demonstrate weak inflammatory properties of Gram-negative airway commensal Prevotella spp. that may make colonization by these bacteria tolerable by the respiratory immune system.

  17. Identification and characterization of the bacterial etiology of clinically problematic acute otitis media after tympanocentesis or spontaneous otorrhea in German children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute Otitis Media (AOM) is an important and common disease of childhood. Bacteria isolated from cases of clinically problematic AOM in German children were identified and characterized. Methods In a prospective non-interventional study in German children between 3 months and less than 60 months of age with Ear, Nose and Throat Specialist –confirmed AOM, middle ear fluid was obtained by tympanocentesis (when clinically indicated) or by careful sampling of otorrhea through/at an existing perforation. Results In 100 children with severe AOM, Haemophilus influenzae was identified in 21% (18/21, 85.7% were non-typeable [NTHi]), Streptococcus pneumoniae in 10%, S. pyogenes in 13% and Moraxella catarrhalis in 1%. H. influenzae was the most frequently identified pathogen in children from 12 months of age. H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae were equally prevalent in children aged 3–11 months, but S. pyogenes was most frequently isolated in this age group. NTHi AOM disease appeared prevalent in all ages. Conclusions NTHi, S. pneumoniae and S. pyogenes are implicated as important causes of complicated AOM in children in Germany. NTHi disease appears prevalent in all ages. The impact of vaccination to prevent NTHi and S. pneumoniae AOM may be substantial in this population and is worth investigating. PMID:23167692

  18. [Antimicrobial spectrum of ceftaroline. In vitro activity against methicillin-resistant staphylococci].

    PubMed

    Cercenado, Emilia; Morosini, María Isabel

    2014-03-01

    Because of the increase in bacterial resistance, there is a need for new antimicrobial agents. In particular, Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent cause of severe infections and has an extraordinary capacity to develop antibiotic multiresistance, including resistance to glycopeptides, linezolid, and daptomycin. Although the incidence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) seems to have stabilized in the last few years, its wide dissemination in healthcare settings and in the community is a cause of concern. Ceftaroline is a new broad-spectrum cephalosporin with bactericidal activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA and multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. In addition, this drug is active against staphylococci showing resistance to glycopeptides, linezolid, and daptomycin. The ceftaroline MIC90 against MRSA ranges from 0.5-2mg/L and that against methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci is 0.5mg/L. Ceftaroline has also good activity against respiratory pathogens including Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. Although this drug is active against Enterobacteriaceae, it does not retain activity when these isolates produce extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, carbapenemases or hyperproduce AmpC. Ceftaroline is not active against nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli. Ceftaroline is an interesting addition to the therapeutic armamentarium against MRSA and constitutes an important option for the treatment of polymicrobial infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive microorganisms.

  19. Antibacterial, antioxidant and hypoglycaemic effects of Thymus capitatus (L.) Hoffmanns. et Link leaves' fractions.

    PubMed

    Iauk, Liliana; Acquaviva, Rosaria; Mastrojeni, Silvana; Amodeo, Andrea; Pugliese, Michela; Ragusa, Monica; Loizzo, Monica R; Menichini, Francesco; Tundis, Rosa

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the bioactivity of the methanol fraction (MF) and n-hexane fraction (HF) of Thymus capitatus leaves in relation to their constituents analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The effects of T. capitatus on the growth of pathogenic bacteria associated with respiratory diseases (13 gram-positive and 4 gram-negative) were determined using a microdilution method. The MF was particularly effective on Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), ferric-reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene bleaching assays. A strong activity using β-carotene bleaching test was observed with the MF (IC50 of 0.7 μg/mL after 30 min of incubation). In the hypoglycaemic test, a selective α-amylase inhibitory activity was detected with the HF begging the most active (IC50 of 422.5 μg/mL). T. capitatus may represent a source of natural bioactive compounds. PMID:25032744

  20. Otopathogens Detected in Middle Ear Fluid Obtained during Tympanostomy Tube Insertion: Contrasting Purulent and Non-Purulent Effusions

    PubMed Central

    Holder, Robert C.; Kirse, Daniel J.; Evans, Adele K.; Whigham, Amy S.; Peters, Timothy R.; Poehling, Katherine A.; Swords, William E.; Reid, Sean D.

    2015-01-01

    Otitis media is a prominent disease among children. Previous literature indicates that otitis media is a polymicrobial disease, with Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Alloiococcus otitidis and Moraxella catarrhalis being the most commonly associated bacterial pathogens. Recent literature suggests that introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines has had an effect on the etiology of otitis media. Using a multiplex PCR procedure, we sought to investigate the presence of the aforementioned bacterial pathogens in middle ear fluid collected from children undergoing routine tympanostomy tube placement at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center during the period between January 2011 and March 2014. In purulent effusions, one or more bacterial organisms were detected in ~90% of samples. Most often the presence of H. influenzae alone was detected in purulent effusions (32%; 10 of 31). In non-purulent effusions, the most prevalent organism detected was A. otitidis (26%; 63 of 245). Half of the non-purulent effusions had none of these otopathogens detected. In purulent and non-purulent effusions, the overall presence of S. pneumoniae was lower (19%; 6 of 31, and 4%; 9 of 245, respectively) than that of the other pathogens being identified. The ratio of the percentage of each otopathogen identified in purulent vs. non-purulent effusions was >1 for the classic otopathogens but not for A. otitidis. PMID:26039250

  1. Diagnosis and management of acute otitis media in the urgent care setting.

    PubMed

    McCracken, George H

    2002-04-01

    The prevalence of otitis media is increasing, which affects health care resource utilization across all segments, including the urgent care setting. One of the greatest challenges in the management of acute otitis media (AOM) is the effective treatment of cases caused by pathogens that are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Whereas the production of beta-lactamases among strains of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis is an important consideration for antimicrobial therapy, the high prevalence of resistance to penicillin and other classes of antibiotics among strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae represents a greater clinical concern. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently convened the Drug Resistant S. pneumoniae Therapeutic Working Group to develop evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of AOM in an era of prevalent resistance. The recommendations from this group included amoxicillin as the preferred first-line drug because of the demonstrated activity against penicillin-intermediate and -resistant strains of S. pneumoniae, using higher dosages of up to 90 mg/kg per day in certain settings. For patients in whom initial treatment is unsuccessful after 3 days, the recommended agents included high-dose amoxicillin-clavulanate (for activity against beta-lactamase-producing pathogens), clindamycin, cefuroxime axetil, or 1 to 3 doses of intramuscular ceftriaxone. The principles set forth in these guidelines can assist the therapeutic decisionmaking process for practitioners in the urgent care setting.

  2. Antiadhesive and antibiofilm activity of hyaluronic acid against bacteria responsible for respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Drago, Lorenzo; Cappelletti, Laura; De Vecchi, Elena; Pignataro, Lorenzo; Torretta, Sara; Mattina, Roberto

    2014-10-01

    To address the problem of limited efficacy of existing antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial biofilm, it is necessary to find alternative remedies. One candidate could be hyaluronic acid; this study therefore aimed to evaluate the in vitro antiadhesive and antibiofilm activity of hyaluronic acid toward bacterial species commonly isolated from respiratory infections. Interference exerted on bacterial adhesion was evaluated by using Hep-2 cells, while the antibiofilm activity was assessed by means of spectrophotometry after incubation of biofilm with hyaluronic acid and staining with crystal violet. Our data suggest that hyaluronic acid is able to interfere with bacterial adhesion to a cellular substrate in a concentration-dependent manner, being notably active when assessed as pure substance. Moreover, we found that Staphylococcus aureus biofilm was more sensitive to the action of hyaluronic acid than biofilm produced by Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. In conclusion, hyaluronic acid is characterized by notable antiadhesive properties, while it shows a moderate activity against bacterial biofilm. As bacterial adhesion to oral cells is the first step for colonization, these results further sustain the role of hyaluronic acid in prevention of respiratory infections. PMID:24698341

  3. Otitis media in a population of black American and white American infants, 0-2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Casselbrant, M L; Mandel, E M; Kurs-Lasky, M; Rockette, H E; Bluestone, C D

    1995-08-01

    To determine the incidence of otitis media (OM) and the bacteriology of acute otitis media (AOM) in a clinic population of young children in Pittsburgh, 138 black infants and 60 white infants were followed from birth to 2 years of age, examined at monthly intervals and whenever an upper respiratory tract infection (URI) or OM intervened. By 24 months of age the cumulative incidence of episodes of AOM was 43% and 42%, and of episodes of middle-ear effusion (MEE) was 86% and 85% in black and white infants, respectively. The average rate of episodes of AOM was 0.41 and 0.39 and of episodes of MEE was 1.68 and 1.70 in black and white infants, respectively. Tympanocentesis was performed for episodes of AOM and the following organisms were isolated from black and white infants, respectively: Streptococcus pneumoniae 43% and 43% of episodes; Moraxella catarrhalis 24% and 24%; non-typable Haemophilus influenzae 18% and 24%; and Haemophilus influenzae type b 5% and 0%. In both black and white infants first born children had less ear disease. We found no difference in the incidence of otitis media during the first 2 years of life between black and white infants. PMID:7558637

  4. In vitro activity and spectrum of LY333328, a novel glycopeptide derivative.

    PubMed

    Jones, R N; Barrett, M S; Erwin, M E

    1997-02-01

    Reference methods were used to determine the potency of LY333328, a semisynthetic glycopeptide derivative with a key N-alkylation substitution, against 833 strains (393 gram-positive strains and representative gram-negative bacilli) with various defined resistance mechanisms. The MICs at which 90% of the isolates are inhibited (MIC90S) (in micrograms per milliliter) of LY333328 and the percentages of strains at < or = 8 micrograms/ml were as follows: for oxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, 2 and 100%, and for oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 4 and 100%; for oxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus epidermis, 4 and 100%, and for oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 8 and 96%; for Streptococcus serogroups A, B, C, and G, 0.25 to 1 and 100%; for Streptococcus pneumoniae < or = 0.015 to 0.06 and 100%; for Enterococcus faecalis, 2 and 100%; and for vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecium, 0.25 and 100%, and for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, 4 and 100%. LY333328 was not active (MIC50, > or = 16 micrograms/ml) against more than 400 representative strains of Enterobacteriaceae, pseudomonads, Acinetobacter spp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, pathogenic Neisseria spp., and anaerobic gram-negative bacilli. Gram-positive anaerobes were LY333328 susceptible (MICs, < or = 2 micrograms/ml). Test methods and conditions may have affected MICs of LY333328, with most (species variation) agar dilution MICs being greater than the broth microdilution MICs. PMID:9021216

  5. Tuberculosis of bones and joints: diagnostic approaches.

    PubMed

    Mousa, H A

    1998-01-01

    Mycobacterial and routine aerobic and anaerobic cultures were made prospectively from 22 patients with bone and/or joint tuberculosis. Mycobacteria were found on direct smear in 6 patients (27.3%), on culture in 14 (63.6%) and on histological section in 5 (22.7%). In one patient routine culture at operation revealed growth of Nocardia asteroides and Moraxella catarrhalis in addition to a positive culture of mycobacteria. Routine sinus culture showed growth of Staphylococcus epidermis in 3 out of 8 patients with draining sinuses. Thus, isolation of avirulent pyogenic bacteria from an operative or sinus specimen does not exclude the possibility of tuberculosis. Mycobacteria can often be identified from sinus-track culture in patients in whom operative culture, histopathological and clinical examination have failed to confirm the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Tuberculosis should be suspected if there are pus cells without pyogenic bacteria on direct smear, if there is no growth of any pyogenic bacteria or if there is growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis alone on routine aerobic and anaerobic sinus cultures. PMID:9795812

  6. In vitro activity of gemifloxacin against recent clinical isolates of bacteria in Korea.

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Dong Eun; Cheong, Hee-Jin; Kim, Yang Soo; Park, Yeon Joon; Kim, Woo-Joo; Woo, Jun Hee; Lee, Kyung Won; Kang, Moon Won; Choo, Youn-Sung

    2002-01-01

    Gemifloxacin is an enhanced-affinity fluoroquinolone with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. In Korea, resistant bacteria are relatively more prevalent than in other industrialized countries. In this study, we studied the in vitro activities of gemifloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and other commonly used antimicrobial agents against 1,689 bacterial strains isolated at four Korean university hospitals during 1999-2000. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using the agar dilution method of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Gemifloxacin had the lowest MICs for the respiratory pathogens: 90% of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Haemophilus influenzae were inhibited by 0.06, 0.03, and 0.03 mg/L, respectively. Gemifloxacin was more active than the other fluoroquinolones against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, streptococci, and Enterococcus faecalis. The MIC90s of gemifloxacin for Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus vulgaris, and non-typhoidal Salmonella spp. were 0.25, 1.0, and 0.12 mg/L, respectively, while those for other Gram-negative bacilli were 4-64 mg/L. In conclusion, gemifloxacin was the most active among the comparative agents against Gram-positive species, including respiratory pathogens isolated in Korea. PMID:12482994

  7. Bacterial Infection in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in 2000: a State-of-the-Art Review

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Sanjay; Murphy, Timothy F.

    2001-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States. The precise role of bacterial infection in the course and pathogenesis of COPD has been a source of controversy for decades. Chronic bacterial colonization of the lower airways contributes to airway inflammation; more research is needed to test the hypothesis that this bacterial colonization accelerates the progressive decline in lung function seen in COPD (the vicious circle hypothesis). The course of COPD is characterized by intermittent exacerbations of the disease. Studies of samples obtained by bronchoscopy with the protected specimen brush, analysis of the human immune response with appropriate immunoassays, and antibiotic trials reveal that approximately half of exacerbations are caused by bacteria. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the most common causes of exacerbations, while Chlamydia pneumoniae causes a small proportion. The role of Haemophilus parainfluenzae and gram-negative bacilli remains to be established. Recent progress in studies of the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis of infection in the human respiratory tract and in vaccine development guided by such studies promises to lead to novel ways to treat and prevent bacterial infections in COPD. PMID:11292642

  8. Novel ureas and thioureas of 15-membered azalides with antibacterial activity against key respiratory pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bukvić Krajacić, Mirjana; Novak, Predrag; Dumić, Miljenko; Cindrić, Mario; Paljetak, Hana Cipcić; Kujundzić, Nedjeljko

    2009-09-01

    The new ureas and thioureas of 15-membered azalides, N''-substituted 9a-(N'-carbamoyl-gamma-aminopropyl) (4), 9a-(N'-thiocarbamoyl-gamma-aminopropyl) (6), 9a-[N'-(beta-cyanoethyl)-N'-(carbamoyl-gamma-aminopropyl)] (8) and 9a-[N'-(beta-cyanoethyl)-N'-(thiocarbamoyl-gamma-aminopropyl)] (10) of 9-deoxo-9-dihydro-9a-aza-9a-homoerythromycin A (2), were synthesized and structurally characterized by NMR and IR spectroscopic methods and mass spectrometry. The new compounds were evaluated in vitro against a panel of erythromycin susceptible and erythromycin-resistant gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains. These compounds displayed an excellent overall antibacterial in vitro activity against erythromycin sensitive gram-positive strains, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and good against negative strains, Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenzae. In addition, several ureas with naphthyl substituents (4f, 4g, 4h) showed better activity in comparison to azithromycin against inducible resistant S. pyogenes. Ureas with naphthyl substituents 4g, 4h and thiourea 8h displayed moderate activity against constitutively resistant S. pneumoniae.

  9. In search of a candidate pathogen for giant cell arteritis: sequencing based characterization of the giant cell arteritis microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Ami S.; Manzo, Veronica E.; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Duke, Fujiko; Cai, Diana; Bienfang, Don C.; Padera, Robert F.; Meyerson, Matthew; Docken, William P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the microbiome of the temporal artery in patients with giant cell arteritis and (2) to apply an unbiased and comprehensive shotgun sequencing-based approach to determine if there is an enrichment of candidate pathogens in affected tissues. Methods We performed unbiased DNA sequencing of 17 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded temporal artery biopsy specimens collected at a single institution over a period of four years. Twelve cases fulfilled clinical and histopathological criteria for GCA. Five cases served as controls. Using PathSeq software, human sequences were computationally subtracted and the remaining non-human sequences taxonomically classified using a comprehensive microbial sequence database. The relative abundance of microbes was inferred based on read counts assigned to each organism. Comparison of the microbial diversity in cases versus controls was carried out using hierarchical clustering and linear discriminant analysis effect size. Results Propionibacterium acnes and Escherichia coli were the most abundant microorganisms in 16 of the 17 samples and Moraxella catarrhalis was the most abundant organism in one control. Pathogens previously described to be correlated with GCA were not differentially abundant in cases, compared to controls. There was not a significant burden of likely pathogenic viruses. Conclusion DNA sequencing of temporal artery biopsies from GCA cases and controls showed no evidence of previously identified candidate GCA pathogens. A single pathogen was not clearly and consistently associated with GCA in this case series. PMID:24644069

  10. [Usefulness and limit of Gram staining smear examination].

    PubMed

    Nagata, Kuniaki; Mino, Hirotoshi; Yoshida, Shunsuke

    2010-05-01

    Gram staining is one of the most simple and inexpensive methods for the rapid diagnosis of bacterial and fungal infections. It yields results much faster than culture, and provides important data for the patient's treatment and prognosis. However, a difference exists in the quality and quantity of information yielded by Gram staining smears based on the experience and knowledge of those conducting the tests. Therefore, a risk of misdiagnosis based on the information obtained from Gram staining smears is also present. The Gram staining conditions and morphology of bacteria sometimes change due to antimicrobial therapy. Species of Gram-negative rods sometimes become filamentous and pleomorphic. Gram-positive bacteria may become gram variable (change in staining condition) after antimicrobial therapy. Even bacteria that are easy to mis-identify exist, because the morphology of bacteria may be similar. Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive diplococcus, forming Gram-positive clustered cocci in specimens from blood culture bottles, resembling Streptococcus pneumoniae. Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative diplococcus in sputum, resembling Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis. Pasteurella multocida is a small-sized, Gram-negative short rod in the sputum, resembling Haemophilus influenzae. Prevotella intermedia is a small-sized, Gram-negative short rod in sputum, resembling Haemophilus influenzae. Capnocytophaga sp. is a Gram-negative fusiform (thin needle shape) rod present in clinical specimens, resembling Fusobacterium nucleatum.

  11. [Acute otitis media in children].

    PubMed

    Grzegorowski, Michał; Szydłowski, Jarosław

    2005-09-01

    Acute otitis media (A.O.M.) occurs mainly in children. The first peak of this disease appears between 6-18 month of life, and the second between 4-7 year of age. The younger age at which the first A.O.M. incidence is noted, the higher probability of its recurrence. In Poland 65% of children up to the 2 year of age suffer from otitis media once, and 30% more than three times. The portal of infection in a.o.m. comprises: (1) Eustachian tube (2) Blood vessels (3) External auditory meatus with perforated tympanic membrane. In ca. 30% of a.o.m. the causative agents are viruses, while in 70% the disease is due to bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae in 30-40%, Haemophilus influenzae ca. 20%, Moraxella catarrhalis 10-15%). A.O.M. is diagnosed basing on history, but mainly using otoscopic examination. Regarding different ear anatomy in infants, otoscopic examination may cause many difficulties. In A.O.M. due to possible dehiscence in tegmen tympani or antri may occur meningismus, and dehiscence in the facial nerve canal can occur facial nerve paresis. The treatment of choice is tympanocentesis and administration of amoxycillin in the dose of 40 mg/kg b.w. daily. After recovery, the examination of upper respiratory tract patency should be performed and following that the evaluation of the ear should be continued.

  12. Otitis media: viruses, bacteria, biofilms and vaccines.

    PubMed

    Massa, Helen M; Cripps, Allan W; Lehmann, Deborah

    2009-11-01

    Otitis media typically presents as either acute otitis media (AOM), with symptoms including fever, otalgia, otorrhoea or irritability and short duration; or as otitis media with effusion (OME), which is often asymptomatic and characterised by accumulation of fluid in the middle ear. Diagnostic certainty of otitis media is challenging, given the young age of patients and variability of symptoms. Otitis media predominantly occurs as coincident to viral upper respiratory tract infections and/or bacterial infections. Common viruses that cause upper respiratory tract infection are frequently associated with AOM and new-onset OME. These include respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, adenovirus, parainfluenza and coronavirus. Predominant bacteria that cause otitis media are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae. Antibiotic therapy does not significantly benefit most patients with AOM, but long-term prophylactic antibiotic therapy can reduce the risk of otitis media recurrence among children at high risk. In Australia, 84% of AOM is treated with antibiotic therapy, which contributes to development of antibiotic resistance. Vaccine development is a key future direction for reducing the world burden of otitis media, but requires polymicrobial formulation and ongoing monitoring and modification to ensure sustained reduction in disease burden.

  13. Detection of respiratory pathogens in pediatric acute otitis media by PCR and comparison of findings in the middle ear and nasopharynx.

    PubMed

    Yatsyshina, Svetlana; Mayanskiy, Nikolay; Shipulina, Olga; Kulichenko, Tatiana; Alyabieva, Natalia; Katosova, Lyubovj; Lazareva, Anna; Skachkova, Tatyana; Elkina, Maria; Matosova, Svetlana; Shipulin, German

    2016-05-01

    We conducted a series of polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) in order to detect bacteria (7 species) and viruses (17 species) in middle ear fluid (MEF) and nasopharynx (Nph) of children with acute otitis media (AOM; n=179). Bacterial and viral nucleic acids were detected in MEF of 78.8% and 14.5% patients, respectively. The prevalence was as follows: Streptococcus pneumoniae, 70.4%; Haemophilus influenzae, 17.9%; Staphylococcus aureus, 16.8%; Streptococcus pyogenes, 12.3%; Moraxella catarrhalis, 9.5%; rhinovirus, 9.5%; and adenovirus, 3.4%. The overall rate of PCR-positive specimens for bacterial pathogens was 2.6 times higher, compared to culture results. The rate of PCR-positive results and the distribution of pathogens in the Nph were similar to those in the MEF. Nph PCR results had variable positive predictive values and high negative predictive values in predicting MEF findings. Our results indicate that Nph PCR could be a practical tool for examining respiratory pathogens in children with acute infections.

  14. Prospects for a vaccine against otitis media.

    PubMed

    Cripps, Allan W; Otczyk, Diana C

    2006-08-01

    Otitis media is a major cause of morbidity in 80% of all children less than 3 years of age and often goes undiagnosed in the general population. There is evidence to suggest that the incidence of otitis media is increasing. The major cause of otitis media is infection of the middle ear with microbes from the nasopharynx. The anatomical orientation of the eustachian tube, in association with a number of risk factors, predisposes infants and young children to the infection. Bacteria are responsible for approximately 70% of cases of acute otitis media, with Streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis predominating as the causative agents. The respiratory viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, parainfluenza and influenza, account for 30% of acute otitis media cases. Over the past decade, there has been a profound increase in the reported resistance to antibiotics, which, with increased disease burden, has focussed attention on vaccine development for otitis media. A polymicrobial formulation containing antigens from all major pathogens would have the greatest potential to deliver a sustained reduction in the disease burden globally. The disappointing outcomes for otitis media seen with the polysaccharide pneumococcal conjugate vaccine have raised major challenges for the vaccination strategy. Clearly, more knowledge is required concerning immune mechanisms in the middle ear, as well as vaccine formulations containing antigens that are more representative of the polymicrobial nature of the disease. Antigens that have been extensively tested in animal models are now available for testing in human subjects.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of CS-940, a new trifluorinated quinolone.

    PubMed Central

    Biedenbach, D J; Sutton, L D; Jones, R N

    1995-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of CS-940, a new trifluorinated quinolone drug, was tested against 761 clinical isolates. CS-940 activity against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae was most similar to that of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin, with a large range of MICs inhibiting 90% of isolates tested (MIC90S) of 0.015 to 16 micrograms/ml (median MIC90, 0.06 micrograms/ml). CS-940 had greater activity than ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin when they were tested against Acinetobacter spp. (MIC90S, 0.03 micrograms/ml) and Stenotrophomonas (Xanthomonas) maltophilia (MIC90S, 2 micrograms/ml). CS-940 demonstrated a high degree of potency against Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Neisseria spp. (MIC90S, < or = 0.06 micrograms/ml). CS-940 was two- to eightfold more active than ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin against oxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. CS-940 was also very active against Streptococcus spp. and enterococci, for which MIC90S were < or = 2 micrograms/ml; for Enterococcus faecium, however, the MIC90 was 4 micrograms/ml. CS-940 was generally less active than a comparison investigational fluoroquinolone, clinafloxacin. This compound appears promising by in vitro test analysis and warrants further in vivo trials. PMID:8619590

  16. The bacteriology of lower respiratory infections in Papua New Guinean and Australian indigenous children.

    PubMed

    Hare, Kim M; Smith-Vaughan, Heidi C; Leach, Amanda J

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous children in Australia and children in Papua New Guinea (PNG) share a high burden of respiratory disease. In PNG the focus has been on pneumonia as a major cause of mortality. While pneumonia incidence remains high in Australian Indigenous children, improved access to better health care has resulted in reduced mortality. However, severe and recurrent pneumonia are risk factors for chronic suppurative lung disease or bronchiectasis in Australian Indigenous children. Bronchiectasis is associated with significant morbidity, and early death in adulthood. This paper includes an outline of the disease manifestations of acute and chronic lower respiratory infections. The main bacterial pathogens involved in pneumonia, bronchiolitis, bronchitis and bronchiectasis have been determined. Capsular organisms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b are more often implicated in acute infections, while chronic infections are frequently associated with nontypeable (noncapsular) H. influenzae. Moraxella catarrhalis is more often isolated from very young children. Possible reasons for the high burden of respiratory disease in Papua New Guinean children and Australian Indigenous (primarily Aboriginal) children include early and dense colonization with multiple species and strains of respiratory pathogens. There is a role for vaccines in preventing lower respiratory infection.

  17. Viability of respiratory pathogens cultured from nasopharyngeal swabs stored for up to 12 years at -70°C in skim milk tryptone glucose glycerol broth.

    PubMed

    Hare, Kim M; Smith-Vaughan, Heidi C; Leach, Amanda J

    2011-09-01

    Nasopharyngeal carriage studies are needed to monitor changes in important bacterial pathogens in response to vaccination and antibiotics. The ability to store original specimens frozen in skim milk tryptone glucose glycerol broth (STGGB) allows additional studies to be conducted without the need for further expensive field collection. Although sub-cultured isolates remain viable in this medium for many years, limited data are available to indicate viability of relatively low numbers of organisms present in nasopharyngeal specimens stored frozen over long periods of time. We conducted several studies whereby swabs stored in STGGB at -70°C for up to 12 years were thawed and aliquots cultured. Recovery of Streptococcus pneumoniae (72% positive from 269 swabs), Haemophilus influenzae (62% from 214) and Moraxella catarrhalis (81% from 162) was not significantly different from the original cultures: 69% (Risk Difference [RD] 3.0, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] -4.7, 10.7), 66% (RD -4.7, 95% CI -13.8, 4.4) and 78% (RD 3.1, 95% CI -5.7, 11.9) positive respectively. There was no trend in recovery from swabs stored for increasing lengths of time. We conclude that studies which rely on the viability of these respiratory pathogens can be conducted using original swabs stored at -70°C for at least 12 years.

  18. Development and laboratory evaluation of a real-time PCR assay for detecting viruses and bacteria of relevance for community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Edin, Alicia; Granholm, Susanne; Koskiniemi, Satu; Allard, Annika; Sjöstedt, Anders; Johansson, Anders

    2015-05-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia may present with similar clinical symptoms, regardless of viral or bacterial cause. Diagnostic assays are needed to rapidly discriminate between causes, because this will guide decisions on appropriate treatment. Therefore, a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay with duplex reactions targeting eight bacteria and six viruses was developed. Technical performance was examined with linear plasmids. Upper and lower respiratory tract specimens were used to compare the qPCR assay with standard microbiological methods. The limit of detection was 5 to 20 DNA template copies with approximately 1000-fold differences in concentrations of the two competing templates. SDs for positive controls were <5%. The use of the qPCR assay resulted in 113 positive identifications in 94 respiratory specimens compared with 38 by using standard diagnostics. Diagnostic accuracy of the qPCR assay varied between 60% positive agreement with standard tests for Streptococcus pneumoniae and 100% for Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Negative percentage of agreement was >95% for M. pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, respiratory syncytial virus, and influenza A virus; whereas it was only 56% for Haemophilus influenzae. Multiple microbial agents were identified in 19 of 44 sputum and 19 of 50 nasopharynx specimens. We conclude that in parallel qPCR detection of the targeted respiratory bacteria and viruses is feasible. The results indicate good technical performance of the assay in clinical specimens.

  19. Pneumonia in the elderly. Special considerations in a special population.

    PubMed

    McCue, J D

    1993-10-01

    Bacterial infections of the lower respiratory tract in the elderly may not be as atypical in presentation as traditional wisdom once held. Recent studies indicate that more than one in three elderly patients have fever, cough, and leukocytosis; nevertheless, some elderly patients present with none of the features typically associated with pneumonia. An important and consistent clinical difference between younger and older patients is the broader range of bacterial respiratory pathogens found in the elderly, including gram-negative bacilli such as Haemophilus influenzae, Proteus mirabilis, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Little is gained by the initial use of narrow-spectrum antibiotic therapy, and much may be lost. Parenteral third-generation cephalosporins and oral fluoroquinolones are active against the major pathogens and can be used for empirical broad-spectrum therapy. Recent trials indicate that results are equally good with agents of either type. Perhaps a third of elderly patients with pneumonia do not require or benefit from hospitalization. The availability of excellent new broad-spectrum oral antimicrobial agents makes treatment at home or in a nursing home an attractive way to avoid the costs and many complications of hospitalization for acute care of these frail patients.

  20. The POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype is associated with high tacrolimus concentrations in early post-renal transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shu; Chen, Rong-xin; Li, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xue-ding; Fu, Qian; Chen, Ling-yan; Liu, Xiao-man; Huang, Hong-bing; Huang, Min; Wang, Chang-xi; Li, Jia-li

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the only flavoprotein that donates electrons to all microsomal P450 enzymes (CYP), and several POR SNPs have been shown to be important contributors to altered CYP activity or CYP-mediated drug metabolism. In this study we examined the association between 6 POR SNPs and tacrolimus concentrations in Chinese renal transplant recipients. Methods: A total of 154 renal transplant recipients were enrolled. Genotyping of CYP3A5*3 and 6 POR SNPs was performed. All patients received a triple immunosuppressive regimen comprising tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone. Dose-adjusted tacrolimus trough concentrations were obtained on d 7 (C0D7/D) after transplantation when steady-state concentration of tacrolimus was achieved (dosage had been unchanged for more than 3 d). Results: Tacrolimus C0D7/D in CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype carriers was 1.62- and 2.72-fold higher than those in CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype non-carriers and CYP3A5*1 carriers (220.17±48.09 vs 135.69±6.86 and 80.84±5.27 ng/mL/mg/kg, respectively, P<0.0001). Of CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868-rs2868177GC-GT diplotype carriers, 85.71% exceeded the upper limit of the target range (8 ng/mL), which was also significantly higher compared with the latter two groups (14.29% and 0.00%, respectively, P<0.0001). The CYP3A5*3 and POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype explained 31.7% and 5.7%, respectively, of the inter-individual variability of tacrolimus C0D7/D, whereas the POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype could explain 10.9% of the inter-individual variability of tacrolimus C0D7/D in CYP3A5 non-expressers. Conclusion: The CYP3A5*3 and POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype accounted for the inter-individual variation of tacrolimus C0D7/D. Genotyping of POR rs1057868–rs2868177 diplotypes would help to differentiate initial tacrolimus dose requirements and to achieve early target C0 ranges in Chinese

  1. Targeting of Neisserial PorB to the mitochondrial outer membrane: an insight on the evolution of β-barrel protein assembly machines.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jhih-Hang; Davies, John K; Lithgow, Trevor; Strugnell, Richard A; Gabriel, Kipros

    2011-11-01

    Mitochondria originated from Gram-negative bacteria through endosymbiosis. In modern day mitochondria, the Sorting and Assembly Machinery (SAM) is responsible for eukaryotic β-barrel protein assembly in the mitochondrial outer membrane. The SAM is the functional equivalent of the β-barrel assembly machinery found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. In this study we examined the import pathway of a pathogenic bacterial protein, PorB, which is targeted from pathogenic Neisseria to the host mitochondria. We have developed a new method for measurement of PorB assembly into mitochondria that relies on the mobility shift exhibited by bacterial β-barrel proteins once folded and separated under semi-native electrophoretic conditions. We show that PorB is targeted to the outer mitochondrial membrane with a dependence on the intermembrane space shuttling chaperones and the core component of the SAM, Sam50, which is a functional homologue of BamA that is required for PorB assembly in bacteria. The peripheral subunits of the SAM, Sam35 and Sam37, which are essential for eukaryotic β-barrel protein assembly but do not have distinguishable functional homologues in bacteria, are not required for PorB assembly in eukaryotes. This shows that PorB uses an evolutionary conserved 'bacterial like' mechanism to infiltrate the host mitochondrial outer membrane. PMID:22032638

  2. Influence of Various Polymorphic Variants of Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (POR) on Drug Metabolic Activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6

    PubMed Central

    Naranmandura, Hua; Zeng, Su; Chen, Shu Qing

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is known as the sole electron donor in the metabolism of drugs by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in human. However, little is known about the effect of polymorphic variants of POR on drug metabolic activities of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. In order to better understand the mechanism of the activity of CYPs affected by polymorphic variants of POR, six full-length mutants of POR (e.g., Y181D, A287P, K49N, A115V, S244C and G413S) were designed and then co-expressed with CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in the baculovirus-Sf9 insect cells to determine their kinetic parameters. Surprisingly, both mutants, Y181D and A287P in POR completely inhibited the CYP3A4 activity with testosterone, while the catalytic activity of CYP2B6 with bupropion was reduced to approximately ∼70% of wild-type activity by Y181D and A287P mutations. In addition, the mutant K49N of POR increased the CLint (Vmax/Km) of CYP3A4 up to more than 31% of wild-type, while it reduced the catalytic efficiency of CYP2B6 to 74% of wild-type. Moreover, CLint values of CYP3A4-POR (A115V, G413S) were increased up to 36% and 65% of wild-type respectively. However, there were no appreciable effects observed by the remaining two mutants of POR (i.e., A115V and G413S) on activities of CYP2B6. In conclusion, the extent to which the catalytic activities of CYP were altered did not only depend on the specific POR mutations but also on the isoforms of different CYP redox partners. Thereby, we proposed that the POR-mutant patients should be carefully monitored for the activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 on the prescribed medication. PMID:22719896

  3. Análise dos Conceitos Astronômicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

    2011-12-01

    A razão para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educação Básica (EB) não lidam com conceitos relacionados à astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didáticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como é de conhecimento geral a astronomia é um dos conteúdos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de São Paulo, mas é um fato, que vários pesquisadores apontam, a existência de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propósito de minimizar algumas dessas deficiências foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilização de questionários pré e pós pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extensão Universitária para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mauá, Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de São Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepções alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem após o curso, adotando-se como referência, para a análise dos resultados, os dicionários de Língua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopédico de Astronomia e Astronáutica (MOURĀO, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questões foram aplicadas antes e após o curso, assim pode-se verificar após a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar é composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstício, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrência das estações do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrência do equinócio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteróide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galáxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

  4. Population genetics of the porB gene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: different dynamics in different homology groups.

    PubMed

    Posada, D; Crandall, K A; Nguyen, M; Demma, J C; Viscidi, R P

    2000-03-01

    The porB locus codes for the major outer membrane protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Alleles of this locus have been assigned to two homology groups based on close sequence and immunological relationships and are designated as either PIA or PIB. Several population parameters were estimated and compared among these two groups using a data set of 22 PIA sequences and 91 PIB sequences obtained from diverse geographic localities and from time periods spanning approximately 50 years. Recombination appears to be extensive in the porB gene. While the recombination rates are similar for the PIA and PIB sequences, the relative contribution of recombination to genetic diversity is higher for the PIA sequences. Alleles belonging to the PIB group show greater genetic diversity than do those in the PIA group. Although phylogenetic analysis did not reveal temporal or geographic clustering of sequences, estimates of gene flow and the fixation index suggested that PIB sequences exhibit population substructure based on geographic locality. Selection acts in these homology groups in a different way. While positive Darwinian selection is the dominant force driving the evolution of the PIA sequences, purifying selection operates also on the PIB sequences. These differences may be attributable to the greater propensity of PIA strains, as compared with PIB strains, to cause disseminated gonococcal infection, which would expose the former to intense selection pressure from the host immune system. The molecular evolution of Neisseria gonorrhoeae seems to be driven by the simultaneous action of selection and recombination, but under different rates and selection pressures for the PIA and PIB homology groups.

  5. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity in UK infants of a novel meningococcal vesicle vaccine containing multiple class 1 (PorA) outer membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, K; Morris, R; Rümke, H; Fox, A; Borrow, R; Begg, N; Richmond, P; Poolman, J

    1999-06-01

    The development of effective vaccines against serogroup B meningococci is of great public health importance. We assessed a novel genetically engineered vaccine containing six meningococcal class 1 (PorA) outer membrane proteins representing 80% of prevalent strains in the UK. 103 infants were given the meningococcal vaccine at ages 2, 3 and 4 months with routine infant immunisations, with a fourth dose at 12-18 months. The vaccine was well tolerated. Three doses evoked good immune responses to two of six meningococcal strains expressing PorA proteins contained in the vaccine. Following a fourth dose, larger bactericidal responses to all six strains were observed, suggesting that the initial course had primed memory lymphocytes and revaccination stimulated a booster response. This hexavalent PorA meningococcal vaccine was safe and evoked encouraging immune responses in infants. Vaccines of this type warrant further development and evaluation. PMID:10418910

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the C-terminal fragment of PorM, a subunit of the Porphyromonas gingivalis type IX secretion system.

    PubMed

    Stathopulos, Julien; Cambillau, Christian; Cascales, Eric; Roussel, Alain; Leone, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    PorM is a membrane protein involved in the assembly of the type IX secretion system (T9SS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major bacterial pathogen responsible for periodontal disease in humans. The periplasmic domain of PorM was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. A fragment of the purified protein was obtained by limited proteolysis. Crystals of this fragment belonged to the tetragonal space group P4(3)2(1)2. Native and MAD data sets were recorded to 2.85 and 3.1 Å resolution, respectively, using synchrotron radiation. PMID:25615973

  7. "Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo por inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado con fibra de vidrio"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose

    Mould materials for injection moulding of polymers and polymer-matrix composites represent a relevant industrial economic sector due to the large quantity of pieces and components processed. The material selection for mould manufacturing, its composition and heat treatment, the hardening procedures and machining and finishing processes determine the service performance and life of the mould. In the first part of the present study, the relationship between the hardness and microstructure and the wear resistance of mould steels from large blocks has been studied by pin-on-disc tests, studying the main wear mechanisms. In order to determine the surface damage on mould steels under real injection conditions, different commercial steels have been studied by measuring the variation of surface roughness with the number of injected pieces with different reinforcement percentages and different mould geometries, by using optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy techniques. It was important to determine the variation of surface roughness of the moulded pieces with the number of injection operations. The materials used were polybutyleneterephthalate pure and reinforced with either 20% or 50% glass fibre. For the different mould designs, the evolution of the glass fibre orientation with injection flow has been determined by image analysis and related to roughness changes and surface damage, both of the composite parts and of the mould steel surface. Finally, the abrasion resistance of the composite parts has been studied by scratch tests as a function of the number of injected parts and of the scratch direction with respect to injection flow and glass fibre orientation. Los materiales para moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos representan un sector economicamente muy relevante debido al gran aumento del numero de componentes fabricados a partir de materiales polimericos obtenidos mediante moldeo por inyeccion. La seleccion del material para la

  8. Palivizumab outcomes registry data from Spain: Infección Respiratoria Infantil por Virus Respiratorio Sincitial (IRIS) Study Group.

    PubMed

    Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier

    2003-02-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory illness in children <2 years of age. Severe RSV infection requiring hospitalization is linked to gestational age, chronic cardiopulmonary conditions and immunosuppression. The Infección Respiratoria Infantil por Virus Respiratorio Sincitial (IRIS) Study group in Spain conducted two pivotal epidemiologic studies establishing that serious RSV illness among premature infants was responsible for high rehospitalization rates (approximately 13%). RSV lower respiratory tract illness also correlated with prolonged hospital stay and more intensive care unit admissions. In Europe recent availability of palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody to RSV, is a major therapeutic advancement directed against prevention of lower respiratory tract infection secondary to this viral pathogen. To ensure proper and optimal usage of palivizumab, the IRIS group, in conjunction with the Spanish Neonatology Group, developed prophylaxis guidelines for neonates. Palivizumab prophylaxis is strongly recommended in premature infants < or =28 weeks gestation or those affected with chronic lung disease. Additionally, palivizumab is recommended for infants with a gestational age of 29 to 32 weeks, without evidence of chronic lung disease and who are <6 months old at the onset of the RSV season. It was thought that slightly older premature infants (33 to 35 weeks gestational age) should be assessed on an individual basis to determine whether prophylaxis is warranted. The IRIS Study Group is currently determining the effectiveness of these recommendations by measuring the incidence of RSV-related hospital admissions in infants born at < or =32 weeks gestational age who are receiving palivizumab prophylaxis.

  9. Double-locus sequence typing using porA and peb1A for epidemiological studies of Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Monir U; Dunn, Louise; Valcanis, Mary; Hogg, Geoff; Ivanova, Elena P

    2014-03-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Bacterial typing schemes play an important role in epidemiological investigations to trace the source and route of transmission of the infectious agent by identifying outbreak and differentiating among sporadic infections. In this study, a double-locus sequence typing (DLST) scheme for C. jejuni based on concatenated partial sequences of porA and peb1A genes is proposed. The DLST scheme was validated using 50 clinical and environmental C. jejuni strains isolated from human (C5, H, H15-H19), chicken (CH1-CH15), water (W2-W17), and ovine samples (OV1-OV6). The scheme was found to be highly discriminatory (discrimination index [DI]=0.964) and epidemiologically concordant based on C. jejuni strains studied. The DLST showed discriminatory power above 0.95 and excellent congruence to multilocus sequence typing and can be recommended as a rapid and low-cost typing scheme for epidemiological investigation of C. jejuni. It is suggested that the DLST scheme is suitable for identification of outbreak strains and differentiation of the sporadic infection strains.

  10. Saturating mutagenesis of an essential gene: a majority of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae major outer membrane porin (PorB) is mutable.

    PubMed

    Chen, Adrienne; Seifert, H Steven

    2014-02-01

    The major outer membrane porin (PorB) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an essential protein that mediates ion exchange between the organism and its environment and also plays multiple roles in human host pathogenesis. To facilitate structure-function studies of porin's multiple roles, we performed saturating mutagenesis at the porB locus and used deep sequencing to identify essential versus mutable residues. Random mutations in porB were generated in a plasmid vector, and mutant gene pools were transformed into N. gonorrhoeae to select for alleles that maintained bacterial viability. Deep sequencing of the input plasmid pools and the output N. gonorrhoeae genomic DNA pools identified mutations present in each, and the mutations in both pools were compared to determine which changes could be tolerated by the organism. We examined the mutability of 328 amino acids in the mature PorB protein and found that 308 of them were likely to be mutable and that 20 amino acids were likely to be nonmutable. A subset of these predictions was validated experimentally. This approach to identifying essential amino acids in a protein of interest introduces an additional application for next-generation sequencing technology and provides a template for future studies of both porin and other essential bacterial genes.

  11. Informe a la nación indica que los índices de muertes por cáncer siguen bajando

    Cancer.gov

    Los índices de mortalidad por todos los cánceres combinados para hombres, mujeres y niños siguieron bajando en Estados Unidos entre 2004 y 2008, según el Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer de 1975 a 2008. El índice general de diagnóstico

  12. El proceso hacia la integracion de la equidad por genero al curriculo.(The Process of the Integration of Gender Equity in the Curriculum.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Bermudez, Carmen D.

    "El Proyecto Colaborativo de Equidad por Genero en la Educacion," or the Collaborative Project for Gender Equity in Education, was undertaken in Puerto Rico between 1990 and 1992 to study how to facilitate the integration of gender equity themes in the curriculum through the direct action of participating teachers. A study examined the attitudes…

  13. Cell Growth Defect Factor1/CHAPERONE-LIKE PROTEIN OF POR1 Plays a Role in Stabilization of Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Yong; Lee, Ho-Seok; Song, Ji-Young; Jung, Young Jun; Reinbothe, Steffen; Park, Youn-Il; Lee, Sang Yeol; Pai, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Angiosperms require light for chlorophyll biosynthesis because one reaction in the pathway, the reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide, is catalyzed by the light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR). Here, we report that Cell growth defect factor1 (Cdf1), renamed here as CHAPERONE-LIKE PROTEIN OF POR1 (CPP1), an essential protein for chloroplast development, plays a role in the regulation of POR stability and function. Cdf1/CPP1 contains a J-like domain and three transmembrane domains, is localized in the thylakoid and envelope membranes, and interacts with POR isoforms in chloroplasts. CPP1 can stabilize POR proteins with its holdase chaperone activity. CPP1 deficiency results in diminished POR protein accumulation and defective chlorophyll synthesis, leading to photobleaching and growth inhibition of plants under light conditions. CPP1 depletion also causes reduced POR accumulation in etioplasts of dark-grown plants and as a result impairs the formation of prolamellar bodies, which subsequently affects chloroplast biogenesis upon illumination. Furthermore, in cyanobacteria, the CPP1 homolog critically regulates POR accumulation and chlorophyll synthesis under high-light conditions, in which the dark-operative Pchlide oxidoreductase is repressed by its oxygen sensitivity. These findings and the ubiquitous presence of CPP1 in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms suggest the conserved nature of CPP1 function in the regulation of POR. PMID:24151298

  14. AMPEROMETRIC MICROBIAL BIOSENSOR FOR DIRECT DETERMINATION OF ORGANOPHOSPHATE NERVE AGENTS USING RECOMBINANT MORAXELLA SP. WITH SURFACE EXPRESSED ORGANOPHOSPHORUS HYDROLASE. (R828160)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  15. Estimaciones de Prevalencia del VIH por Género y Grupo de Riesgo en Tijuana, México: 2006

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Hogg, Robert S.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Elder, John P.; Viani, Rolando M.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO Estimar la prevalencia del VIH en adultos de 15-49 años de edad en Tijuana, México - en la población general y en subgrupos de riesgo en el 2006. METODOS Se obtuvieron datos demográficos del censo Mexicano del 2005, y la prevalencia del VIH se obtuvo de la literatura. Se construyó un modelo de prevalencia del VIH para la población general y de acuerdo al género. El análisis de sensibilidad consistió en estimar errores estándar del promedio-ponderado de la prevalencia del VIH y tomar derivados parciales con respecto a cada parámetro. RESULTADOS La prevalencia del VIH es 0.54%(N = 4,347) (Rango: 0.22%–0.86%, (N = 1,750–6,944)). Esto sugiere que 0.85%(Rango: 0.39%–1.31%) de los hombres y 0.22%(Rango: 0.04%–0.40%) de las mujeres podrían ser VIH-positivos. Los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), las trabajadoras sexuales usuarias de drogas inyectables (MTS-UDI), MTS-noUDI, mujeres UDI, y los hombres UDI contribuyeron las proporciones más elevadas de personas infectadas por el VIH. CONCLUSIONES El número de adultos VIH-positivos entre subgrupos de riesgo en la población de Tijuana es considerable, marcando la necesidad de enforcar las intervenciones de prevención en sus necesidades específicas. El presente modelo estima que hasta 1 en cada 116 adultos podrían ser VIH-positivos. PMID:19685824

  16. [Post-marketing surveillance of antibacterial activities of cefozopran against various clinical isolates--II. Gram-negative bacteria].

    PubMed

    Igari, Jun; Oguri, Toyoko; Hiramatsu, Nobuyoshi; Akiyama, Kazumitsu; Koyama, Tsuneo

    2002-02-01

    As a post-marketing surveillance, the in vitro antibacterial activities of cefozopran (CZOP), an agent of cephems, against various clinical isolates were yearly evaluated and compared with those of other cephems, oxacephems, penicillins, monobactams, and carbapenems. Changes in CZOP susceptibility for the bacteria were also evaluated with the bacterial resistance ratio calculated with the breakpoint MIC. Twenty-five species (3,362 strains) of Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from the clinical materials annually collected from 1996 to 2000, and consisted of Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis (n = 136), Haemophilus influenzae (n = 289), Escherichia coli (n = 276), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 192), Klebsiella oxytoca (n = 157), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 189), Enterobacter aerogenes (n = 93), Serratia marcescens (n = 172), Serratia liquefaciens (n = 24), Citrobacter freundii (n = 177), Citrobacter koseri (n = 70), Proteus mirabilis (n = 113), Proteus vulgaris (n = 89), Morganella morganii (n = 116), Providencia spp. (n = 41), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 290), Pseudomonas fluorescens (n = 56), Pseudomonas putida (n = 63), Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 146), Acinetobacter lwoffii (n = 34), Burkholderia cepacia (n = 101), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n = 169), Bacteroides fragilis group (n = 196), and Prevotella/Porphyromonas (n = 173). An antibacterial activity of CZOP against E. coli, K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, and S. marcescens was potent and consistent with or more preferable than the study results obtained until the new drug application approval. MIC90 of CZOP against M.(B.) catarrhalis, C. koseri, and P. aeruginosa was not considerably changed and consistent with the study results obtained until the new drug application approval. MIC90 of CZOP against E. cloacae, E. aerogenes, and P. mirabilis increased year by year. The increase in MIC90 of CZOP against E. aerogenes and P. mirabilis, however, was not considered to be an obvious decline in susceptibility. In

  17. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of faropenem daloxate and cefuroxime axetil for the treatment of acute bacterial maxillary sinusitis in adults.

    PubMed

    Siegert, Ralf; Berg, Olof; Gehanno, Pierre; Leiberman, Alberto; Martinkenas, Jonas Laimutis; Nikolaidis, Paul; Arvis, Pierre; Alefelder, Melody; Reimnitz, Peter

    2003-04-01

    In this multicentre, multinational, comparative, double-blind clinical trial, outpatients with both clinical signs and symptoms and radiographic evidence of acute sinusitis were randomly assigned to receive for 7 days either a twice-daily oral regimen of faropenem daloxate (300 mg) or a twice daily oral regimen of cefuroxime axetil (250 mg). Among 452 patients considered valid for clinical efficacy, faropenem daloxate treatment was found to be statistically equivalent to cefuroxime axetil (89.0% vs. 88.4%-95% CI=-5.2%; +6.4%) at the 7-16 days post-therapy assessment. At 28-35 days post-therapy, the continued clinical cure rate in the faropenem daloxate group was 92.6% and that for the cefuroxime axetil group was 94.9% (95% CI: -6.8%; +1.2%). A total of 148 organisms was obtained in 136 microbiologically valid patients (30.1%). The predominant causative organisms were Streptococcus pneumoniae (47.1%), Haemophilus influenzae (30.1%), Staphylococcus aureus (14.7%) and Moraxella catarrhalis (8.8%). The bacteriological success rate at the 7-16 days post-therapy evaluation was similar in both treatment groups: 91.5% and 90.8% in the faropenem daloxate and cefuroxime axetil groups, respectively (95% CI=-9.2%; +9.5%). Eradication or presumed eradication was detected for 97.3% and 96.3% of S. pneumoniae, 85.0% and 90.5% of H. influenzae, 88.9% and 90.9% of S. aureus and 100.0% and 83.3% of M. catarrhalis in faropenem daloxate and cefuroxime axetil recipients, respectively. At least one drug-related event was reported by 9.5% of the faropenem daloxate-treated patients and by 10.3% of those who received cefuroxime axetil. The most frequently reported drug-related events were diarrhoea (2.2% versus 2.9%), nausea/vomiting (1.5% vs. 0.7%), abdominal pain (0.7% vs 1.5%) and skin reactions (1.5% vs. 1.1%). Overall, faropenem daloxate was at least as effective clinically and bacteriologically as cefuroxime axetil and was well tolerated. PMID:12709801

  18. Longitudinal Nasopharyngeal Carriage and Antibiotic Resistance of Respiratory Bacteria in Indigenous Australian and Alaska Native Children with Bronchiectasis

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Kim M.; Singleton, Rosalyn J.; Grimwood, Keith; Valery, Patricia C.; Cheng, Allen C.; Morris, Peter S.; Leach, Amanda J.; Smith-Vaughan, Heidi C.; Chatfield, Mark; Redding, Greg; Reasonover, Alisa L.; McCallum, Gabrielle B.; Chikoyak, Lori; McDonald, Malcolm I.; Brown, Ngiare; Torzillo, Paul J.; Chang, Anne B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Indigenous children in Australia and Alaska have very high rates of chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD)/bronchiectasis. Antibiotics, including frequent or long-term azithromycin in Australia and short-term beta-lactam therapy in both countries, are often prescribed to treat these patients. In the Bronchiectasis Observational Study we examined over several years the nasopharyngeal carriage and antibiotic resistance of respiratory bacteria in these two PCV7-vaccinated populations. Methods Indigenous children aged 0.5–8.9 years with CSLD/bronchiectasis from remote Australia (n = 79) and Alaska (n = 41) were enrolled in a prospective cohort study during 2004–8. At scheduled study visits until 2010 antibiotic use in the preceding 2-weeks was recorded and nasopharyngeal swabs collected for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Analysis of respiratory bacterial carriage and antibiotic resistance was by baseline and final swabs, and total swabs by year. Results Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage changed little over time. In contrast, carriage of Haemophilus influenzae declined and Staphylococcus aureus increased (from 0% in 2005–6 to 23% in 2010 in Alaskan children); these changes were associated with increasing age. Moraxella catarrhalis carriage declined significantly in Australian, but not Alaskan, children (from 64% in 2004–6 to 11% in 2010). While beta-lactam antibiotic use was similar in the two cohorts, Australian children received more azithromycin. Macrolide resistance was significantly higher in Australian compared to Alaskan children, while H. influenzae beta-lactam resistance was higher in Alaskan children. Azithromycin use coincided significantly with reduced carriage of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis, but increased carriage of S. aureus and macrolide-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae and S. aureus (proportion of carriers and all swabs), in a ‘cumulative dose-response’ relationship. Conclusions

  19. Etiological characteristics of chlamydia trachoma conjunctivitis of Primary Boarding School students in the Qinghai Tibetan area.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Lu, Xinxin; Hu, Ailian; Zhang, Mingxin; Li, Xue; Deng, Shijing; Wang, Ningli

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the etiological characteristics of Chlamydia trachomatis conjunctivitis among resident students at primary schools in the Qinghai Tibetan area in order to understand the distribution of C. trachomatis and other pathogenic microorganisms, to detect the isolation rate of infectious pathogens, and to provide an evidence for further targeted efforts in the prevent of sporadic trachoma efforts. From two primary schools in Qinghai Province, ocular samples from 35 students who were clinically diagnosed as trachoma cases and 60 normal controls were obtained by swabbing their upper eyelids and lower conjunctival sacs. Samples were preserved at 4°C and airlifted to Beijing Tongren Hospital within 24 h. Real- time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to screen for C. trachomatis, and nested PCR was used to amplify a fragment of the ompA gene for serotype confirmation. Bacterial cultivation and sensitivity tests were conducted based on the 2015 version of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus were screened by RT-PCR. Among the 35 students with trachoma, 8 came from the Jianshetang Primary School and 27 came from the Central Primary School. Two novel C. trachomatis B serotypes (GenBank accession numbers KU737520 and KU737521) were detected based on a sequence analysis of the ompA gene. Single C. trachomatis infections accounted for 42.86% (9/21) of the cases, and infections with multiple bacteria, particularly Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, accounted for the remaining 57.14% (12/21). Of the 14 C. trachomatis-negative samples, one was positive for adenoviral infection (serotype D) and 13 were positive for bacterial infections (H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, S. pneumoniae, S. aureus, streptococci other than S. pneumoniae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Corynebacterium, and

  20. Etiology and antibacterial susceptibility pattern of community-acquired bacterial ocular infections in a tertiary eye care hospital in south India

    PubMed Central

    Bharathi, M Jayahar; Ramakrishnan, R; Shivakumar, C; Meenakshi, R; Lionalraj, D

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To identify the etiology, incidence and prevalence of ocular bacterial infections, and to assess the in vitro susceptibility of these ocular bacterial isolates to commonly used antibiotics. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of consecutive samples submitted for microbiological evaluation from patients who were clinically diagnosed with ocular infections and were treated at a tertiary eye care referral center in South India between January 2002 and December 2007. Results: A total of 4417 ocular samples was submitted for microbiological evaluation, of which 2599 (58.8%) had bacterial growth, 456 (10.3%) had fungal growth, 15 (0.34%) had acanthamoebic growth, 14 (0.32%) had mixed microbial growth and the remaining 1333 (30.2%) had negative growth. The rate of culture-positivity was found to be 88% (P < 0.001) in eyelids’ infection, 70% in conjunctival, 69% in lacrimal apparatus, 67.4% in corneal, 51.6% in intraocular tissues, 42.9% in orbital and 39.2% in scleral infections. The most common bacterial species isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (26.69%) followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (22.14%). Sta. aureus was more prevalent more in eyelid infections (51.22%; P = 0.001) coagulase-negative staphylococci in endophthalmitis (53.1%; P = 0.001), Str. pneumoniae in lacrimal apparatus and corneal infections (64.19%; P = 0.001), Corynebacterium species in blepharitis and conjunctivitis (71%; P = 0.001), Pseudomonas aeruginosa in keratitis and dacryocystitis (66.5%; P = 0.001), Haemophilus species in dacryocystitis and conjunctivitis (66.7%; P = 0.001), Moraxella lacunata in blepharitis (54.17%; P = 0.001) and Moraxella catarrhalis in dacryocystitis (63.83%; P = 0.001). The largest number of gram-positive isolates was susceptible to moxifloxacin (98.7%) and vancomycin (97.9%), and gram-negative isolates to amikacin (93.5%) and gatifloxacin (92.7%). Conclusions: Gram-positive cocci were the most frequent bacteria isolated from ocular infections and were

  1. Los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón siguen en descenso y contribuyen a la continua reducc

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer (1975 a 2010), mostró un descenso más acelerado que en años anteriores de los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón. También contiene una sección especial que destaca los efectos significativos

  2. La doctora Amelie Ramírez y la investigación de desigualdades de salud por cáncer en la comunidad la

    Cancer.gov

    La doctora Ramírez es la investigadora principal de Redes en Acción, un centro del programa de redes comunitarias subvencionado por el NCI que se propone reducir la incidencia del cáncer en la comunidad latina a través de una red nacional de grupos comunitarios, investigadores, agencias de salud gubernamentales y la población en general.

  3. Binding of complement factor H to PorB3 and NspA enhances resistance of Neisseria meningitidis to anti-factor H binding protein bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Giuntini, Serena; Pajon, Rolando; Ram, Sanjay; Granoff, Dan M

    2015-04-01

    Among 25 serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis clinical isolates, we identified four (16%) with high factor H binding protein (FHbp) expression that were resistant to complement-mediated bactericidal activity of sera from mice immunized with recombinant FHbp vaccines. Two of the four isolates had evidence of human FH-dependent complement downregulation independent of FHbp. Since alternative complement pathway recruitment is critical for anti-FHbp bactericidal activity, we hypothesized that in these two isolates binding of FH to ligands other than FHbp contributes to anti-FHbp bactericidal resistance. Knocking out NspA, a known meningococcal FH ligand, converted both resistant isolates to anti-FHbp susceptible isolates. The addition of a nonbactericidal anti-NspA monoclonal antibody to the bactericidal reaction also increased anti-FHbp bactericidal activity. To identify a role for FH ligands other than NspA or FHbp in resistance, we created double NspA/FHbp knockout mutants. Mutants from both resistant isolates bound 10-fold more recombinant human FH domains 6 and 7 fused to Fc than double knockout mutants prepared from two sensitive meningococcal isolates. In light of recent studies showing functional FH-PorB2 interactions, we hypothesized that PorB3 from the resistant isolates recruited FH. Allelic exchange of porB3 from a resistant isolate to a sensitive isolate increased resistance of the sensitive isolate to anti-FHbp bactericidal activity (and vice versa). Thus, some PorB3 variants functionally bind human FH, which in the presence of NspA enhances anti-FHbp resistance. Combining anti-NspA antibodies with anti-FHbp antibodies can overcome resistance. Meningococcal vaccines that target both NspA and FHbp are likely to confer greater protection than either antigen alone.

  4. Obtención de la curva de luz en la ocultación de 35 Sgr por Júpiter el 6 de marzo de 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolantonio, S.; Duffard, R.; Carranza, G.

    La ocultación de la estrella de quinta magnitud 35 Sgr por Júpiter, se produjo el 6 de Marzo de 1996 a las 13 hs. TU. El objetivo era medir el cambio del flujo de la estrella en el ingreso y egreso por el limbo del planeta. Con estos datos se pueden determinar parámetros físicos del planeta (radio, eccentricidad) y de su atmósfera (escala de altura, temperatura, densidad, presión) Para lograr ésto se programó la cámara CCD TH 7896 1024 x 1025 instalada en el telescopio de 1.54 m de Bosque Alegre con el objetivo de lograr 2 imágenes por segundo. De esta forma se obtuvieron 2100 imágenes de la inmersión y otras tantas de la emersión. Hubo que tener grandes precauciones para evitar la saturación del CCD ya que la observación se realizó de día. En este momento las imágenes se encuentran en el Department of Planetary Sciences, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, para su reducción.

  5. Immunogenicity studies with a genetically engineered hexavalent PorA and a wild-type meningococcal group B outer membrane vesicle vaccine in infant cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rouppe van der Voort, E; Schuller, M; Holst, J; de Vries, P; van der Ley, P; van den Dobbelsteen, G; Poolman, J

    2000-01-31

    The immunogenicity of two meningococcal outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines, namely the Norwegian wild-type OMV vaccine and the Dutch hexavalent PorA OMV vaccine, were examined in infant cynomolgus monkeys. For the first time, a wild-type- and a recombinant OMV vaccine were compared. Furthermore, the induction of memory and the persistence of circulating antibodies were measured. The Norwegian vaccine contained all four classes of major outer membrane proteins (OMP) and wild-type L3/L8 lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The Dutch vaccine consisted for 90% of class 1 OMPs, had low expression of class 4 and 5 OMP, and GalE LPS. Three infant monkeys were immunised with a human dose at the age of 1.5, 2.5 and 4.5 months. Two monkeys of each group received a fourth dose at the age of 11 months. In ELISA, both OMV vaccines were immunogenic and induced booster responses, particularly after the fourth immunisation. The Norwegian vaccine mostly induced sero-subtype P1.7,16 specific serum bactericidal antibodies (SBA), although some other SBA were induced as well. The antibody responses against P1.7,16, induced by the Norwegian vaccine, were generally higher than for the Dutch vaccine. However, the Dutch vaccine induced PorA specific SBA against all six sero-subtypes included in the vaccine showing differences in the magnitude of SBA responses to the various PorAs. PMID:10618530

  6. Astronomy in the Classroom: Why? (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Clase: ¿Por Qué?) Astronomia na Sala de Aula: Por Quê?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daros Gama, Leandro; Bagdonas Henrique, Alexandre

    2010-07-01

    There are many discussions about the relevance of the topics covered in classes. One subject in particular is the focus of this essay: astronomy. In what sense and to what extent it would be worth to teach it in science or other kind of classes? In this paper we discuss some aspects of the advantages of dealing with this area of knowledge in schools, taking into account the epistemological and axiological dimensions of astronomy, in light of the vision of science as an intelligent dialogue with the world (Bachelard), in addition to the "problematization" knowledge of Paulo Freire. We propose that in fact the Astronomy does not need to be seen as just a new set of contents to be taught, but appears as a set of motivational contents for historical-philosophical discussions, and permit the discussion of concepts of other disciplines. Numerosas discusiones se están llevando a cabo acerca de la pertinencia de los temas tradicionalmente tratados en las clases. Uno de los temas, en particular, es el foco de este ensayo: la astronomía. ¿En qué sentido y en qué medida sería conveniente tratarla en clase, ya sea en clases de ciencias naturales, específicamente en las de astronomía o asignaturas afines? Elaboramos en este artículo algunos aspectos de las ventajas de tratar esta área del conocimiento en las escuelas, teniendo en cuenta las dimensiones epistemológica y axiológica de la astronomía, a la luz de la visión de la ciencia como un diálogo inteligente con el mundo (Bachelard), además de la propuesta del conocimiento "problematizador" de Paulo Freire. Proponemos que en realidad la astronomía no tiene por qué ser vista sólo como un nuevo conjunto de contenidos que se enseñan, sino que aparece como un conjunto de temas de motivación para el debate histórico-filosófico y para permitir la discusión de los conceptos típicos de otras disciplinas. Muitas discussões vêm acontecendo sobre a relevância dos temas abordados em sala de aula. Um tema, em

  7. Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infección por el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables

    PubMed Central

    MATEU-GELABERT, P.; FRIEDMAN, S.; SANDOVAL, M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con éxito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) están infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar cómo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infección por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. Material y métodos Hemos utilizado el concepto de «desviación positiva» aplicado en otros campos de salud pública. Estudiamos las estrategias, prácticas y tácticas de prevención de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado heroína durante años. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este artículo incluyen el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infección por el VHC y sin infección por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protección y vigilancia. Resultados La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante períodos de involución (períodos donde hay un deterioro económico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infección: a) evitar «el mono» (síntomas de abstención) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) «llevarlo bien» para no convertirse en un junkie y así evitar la «muerte social» y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin

  8. Evaluation of an Automated System for Reading and Interpreting Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Fastidious Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Idelevich, Evgeny A.; Becker, Karsten; Schmitz, Janne; Knaack, Dennis; Peters, Georg; Köck, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Results of disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing depend on individual visual reading of inhibition zone diameters. Therefore, automated reading using camera systems might represent a useful tool for standardization. In this study, the ADAGIO automated system (Bio-Rad) was evaluated for reading disk diffusion tests of fastidious bacteria. 144 clinical isolates (68 β-haemolytic streptococci, 28 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 18 viridans group streptococci, 13 Haemophilus influenzae, 7 Moraxella catarrhalis, and 10 Campylobacter jejuni) were tested on Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 5% defibrinated horse blood and 20 mg/L β-NAD (MH-F, Oxoid) according to EUCAST. Plates were read manually with a ruler and automatically using the ADAGIO system. Inhibition zone diameters, indicated by the automated system, were visually controlled and adjusted, if necessary. Among 1548 isolate-antibiotic combinations, comparison of automated vs. manual reading yielded categorical agreement (CA) without visual adjustment of the automatically determined zone diameters in 81.4%. In 20% (309 of 1548) of tests it was deemed necessary to adjust the automatically determined zone diameter after visual control. After adjustment, CA was 94.8%; very major errors (false susceptible interpretation), major errors (false resistant interpretation) and minor errors (false categorization involving intermediate result), calculated according to the ISO 20776–2 guideline, accounted to 13.7% (13 of 95 resistant results), 3.3% (47 of 1424 susceptible results) and 1.4% (21 of 1548 total results), respectively, compared to manual reading. The ADAGIO system allowed for automated reading of disk diffusion testing in fastidious bacteria and, after visual validation of the automated results, yielded good categorical agreement with manual reading. PMID:27391898

  9. Nationwide surveillance of bacterial respiratory pathogens conducted by the surveillance committee of Japanese Society of Chemotherapy, the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases, and the Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology in 2010: General view of the pathogens' antibacterial susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, Katsunori; Kadota, Junichi; Aoki, Nobuki; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Masaki; Yagisawa, Morimasa; Oguri, Toyoko; Sato, Junko; Ogasawara, Kazuhiko; Wakamura, Tomotaro; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Watanabe, Akira; Iwata, Satoshi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Hanaki, Hideaki; Ohsaki, Yoshinobu; Watari, Tomohisa; Toyoshima, Eri; Takeuchi, Kenichi; Shiokoshi, Mayumi; Takeda, Hiroaki; Miki, Makoto; Kumagai, Toshio; Nakanowatari, Susumu; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Utagawa, Mutsuko; Nishiya, Hajime; Kawakami, Sayoko; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Takasaki, Jin; Mezaki, Kazuhisa; Konosaki, Hisami; Aoki, Yasuko; Yamamoto, Yumiko; Shoji, Michi; Goto, Hajime; Saraya, Takeshi; Kurai, Daisuke; Okazaki, Mitsuhiro; Niki, Yoshihito; Yoshida, Koichiro; Kawana, Akihiko; Saionji, Katsu; Fujikura, Yuji; Miyazawa, Naoki; Kudo, Makoto; Sato, Yoshimi; Yamamoto, Masaki; Yoshida, Takashi; Nakamura, Masahiko; Tsukada, Hiroki; Imai, Yumiko; Tsukada, Ayami; Kawasaki, Satoshi; Honma, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Toshinobu; Ban, Nobuyoshi; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Sawamura, Haruki; Miyara, Takayuki; Toda, Hirofumi; Sato, Kaori; Nakamura, Tadahiro; Fujikawa, Yasunori; Mitsuno, Noriko; Mikasa, Keiichi; Kasahara, Kei; Sano, Reiko; Sugimoto, Keisuke; Asari, Seishi; Nishi, Isao; Toyokawa, Masahiro; Miyashita, Naoyuki; Koguchi, Yutaka; Kusano, Nobuchika; Mihara, Eiichirou; Kuwabara, Masao; Watanabe, Yaeko; Kawasaki, Yuji; Takeda, Kenichi; Tokuyasu, Hirokazu; Masui, Kayoko; Negayama, Kiyoshi; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Aoki, Yosuke; Fukuoka, Mami; Magarifuchi, Hiroki; Nagasawa, Zenzo; Suga, Moritaka; Muranaka, Hiroyuki; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Honda, Junichi; Fujita, Masaki

    2015-06-01

    The nationwide surveillance on antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial respiratory pathogens from patients in Japan, was conducted by Japanese Society of Chemotherapy, Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases and Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology in 2010. The isolates were collected from clinical specimens obtained from well-diagnosed adult patients with respiratory tract infections during the period from January and April 2010 by three societies. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted at the central reference laboratory according to the method recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institutes using maximum 45 antibacterial agents. Susceptibility testing was evaluable with 954 strains (206 Staphylococcus aureus, 189 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 4 Streptococcus pyogenes, 182 Haemophilus influenzae, 74 Moraxella catarrhalis, 139 Klebsiella pneumoniae and 160 Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Ratio of methicillin-resistant S. aureus was as high as 50.5%, and those of penicillin-intermediate and -resistant S. pneumoniae were 1.1% and 0.0%, respectively. Among H. influenzae, 17.6% of them were found to be β-lactamase-non-producing ampicillin (ABPC)-intermediately resistant, 33.5% to be β-lactamase-non-producing ABPC-resistant and 11.0% to be β-lactamase-producing ABPC-resistant strains. Extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae and multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa with metallo β-lactamase were 2.9% and 0.6%, respectively. Continuous national surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility of respiratory pathogens is crucial in order to monitor changing patterns of susceptibility and to be able to update treatment recommendations on a regular basis. PMID:25817352

  10. Development of two real-time multiplex PCR assays for the detection and quantification of eight key bacterial pathogens in lower respiratory tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Gadsby, N.J.; McHugh, M.P.; Russell, C.D.; Mark, H.; Conway Morris, A.; Laurenson, I.F.; Hill, A.T.; Templeton, K.E.

    2015-01-01

    The frequent lack of a positive and timely microbiological diagnosis in patients with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is an important obstacle to antimicrobial stewardship. Patients are typically prescribed broad-spectrum empirical antibiotics while microbiology results are awaited, but, because these are often slow, negative, or inconclusive, de-escalation to narrow-spectrum agents rarely occurs in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate two multiplex real-time PCR assays for the sensitive detection and accurate quantification of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Moraxella catarrhalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii. We found that all eight bacterial targets could be reliably quantified from sputum specimens down to a concentration of 100 CFUs/reaction (8333 CFUs/mL). Furthermore, all 249 positive control isolates were correctly detected with our assay, demonstrating effectiveness on both reference strains and local clinical isolates. The specificity was 98% on a panel of nearly 100 negative control isolates. Bacterial load was quantified accurately when three bacterial targets were present in mixtures of varying concentrations, mimicking likely clinical scenarios in LRTI. Concordance with culture was 100% for culture-positive sputum specimens, and 90% for bronchoalveolar lavage fluid specimens, and additional culture-negative bacterial infections were detected and quantified. In conclusion, a quantitative molecular test for eight key bacterial causes of LRTI has the potential to provide a more sensitive decision-making tool, closer to the time-point of patient admission than current standard methods. This should facilitate de-escalation from broad-spectrum to narrow-spectrum antibiotics, substantially improving patient management and supporting efforts to curtail inappropriate antibiotic use. PMID:25980353

  11. In Vitro and In Vivo Profiles of ACH-702, an Isothiazoloquinolone, against Bacterial Pathogens▿

    PubMed Central

    Pucci, Michael J.; Podos, Steven D.; Thanassi, Jane A.; Leggio, Melissa J.; Bradbury, Barton J.; Deshpande, Milind

    2011-01-01

    ACH-702, a novel isothiazoloquinolone (ITQ), was assessed for antibacterial activity against a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative clinical isolates and found to possess broad-spectrum activity, especially against antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive strains, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). For Gram-negative bacteria, ACH-702 showed exceptional potency against Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and a Neisseria sp. but was less active against members of the Enterobacteriaceae. Good antibacterial activity was also evident against several anaerobes as well as Legionella pneumophila and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Excellent bactericidal activity was observed for ACH-702 against several bacterial pathogens in time-kill assays, and postantibiotic effects (PAEs) of >1 h were evident with both laboratory and clinical strains of staphylococci at 10× MIC and similar in most cases to those observed for moxifloxacin at the same MIC multiple. In vivo efficacy was demonstrated against S. aureus with murine sepsis and thigh infection models, with decreases in the number of CFU/thigh equal to or greater than those observed after vancomycin treatment. Macromolecular synthesis assays showed specific dose-dependent inhibition of DNA replication in staphylococci, and biochemical analyses indicated potent dual inhibition of two essential DNA replication enzymes: DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Additional biological data in support of an effective dual targeting mechanism of action include the following: low MIC values (≤0.25 μg/ml) against staphylococcal strains with single mutations in both gyrA and grlA (parC), retention of good antibacterial activity (MICs of ≤0.5 μg/ml) against staphylococcal strains with two mutations in both gyrA and grlA, and low frequencies for the selection of higher-level resistance (<10−10). These promising initial data support further study of isothiazoloquinolones as potential clinical candidates. PMID

  12. High detection rates of nucleic acids of a wide range of respiratory viruses in the nasopharynx and the middle ear of children with a history of recurrent acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Wiertsema, Selma P; Chidlow, Glenys R; Kirkham, Lea-Ann S; Corscadden, Karli J; Mowe, Eva N; Vijayasekaran, Shyan; Coates, Harvey L; Harnett, Gerald B; Richmond, Peter C

    2011-11-01

    Both bacteria and viruses play a role in the development of acute otitis media, however, the importance of specific viruses is unclear. In this study molecular methods were used to determine the presence of nucleic acids of human rhinoviruses (HRV; types A, B, and C), respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV; types A and B), bocavirus (HBoV), adenovirus, enterovirus, coronaviruses (229E, HKU1, NL63, and OC43), influenza viruses (types A, B, and C), parainfluenza viruses (types 1, 2, 3, 4A, and 4B), human metapneumovirus, and polyomaviruses (KI and WU) in the nasopharynx of children between 6 and 36 months of age either with (n = 180) or without (n = 66) a history of recurrent acute otitis media and in 238 middle ear effusion samples collected from 143 children with recurrent acute otitis media. The co-detection of these viruses with Streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis was analyzed. HRV (58.3% vs. 42.4%), HBoV (52.2% vs. 19.7%), polyomaviruses (36.1% vs. 15.2%), parainfluenza viruses (29.4% vs. 9.1%), adenovirus (25.0% vs. 6.1%), and RSV (27.8% vs. 9.1%) were detected significantly more often in the nasopharynx of children with a history of recurrent acute otitis media compared to healthy children. HRV was predominant in the middle ear and detected in middle ear effusion of 46% of children. Since respiratory viruses were detected frequently in the nasopharynx of both children with and without a history of recurrent acute otitis media, the etiological role of specific viruses in recurrent acute otitis media remains uncertain, however, anti-viral therapies may be beneficial in future treatment and prevention strategies for acute otitis media.

  13. Structures of Staphylococcus aureus peptide deformylase in complex with two classes of new inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Jae; Lee, Seung-Jae; Lee, Seung Kyu; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Lee, Hyung Ho; Kim, Kyeong Kyu; Lee, Bong Jin; Lee, Byung Il; Suh, Se Won

    2012-07-01

    Peptide deformylase (PDF) catalyzes the removal of the formyl group from the N-terminal methionine residue in newly synthesized polypeptides, which is an essential process in bacteria. Four new inhibitors of PDF that belong to two different classes, hydroxamate/pseudopeptide compounds [PMT387 (7a) and PMT497] and reverse-hydroxamate/nonpeptide compounds [PMT1039 (15e) and PMT1067], have been developed. These compounds inhibited the growth of several pathogens involved in respiratory-tract infections, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenzae, and leading nosocomial pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the range 0.1-0.8 mg ml(-1). Interestingly, the reverse-hydroxamate/nonpeptide compounds showed a 250-fold higher antimicrobial activity towards S. aureus, although the four compounds showed similar K(i) values against S. aureus PDF enzymes, with K(i) values in the 11-85 nM range. To provide a structural basis for the discovery of additional PDF inhibitors, the crystal structures of S. aureus PDF in complex with the four inhibitors were determined at resolutions of 1.90-2.30 Å. The inhibitor-bound structures displayed distinct deviations depending on the inhibitor class. The distance between the Zn(2+) ion and the carbonyl O atom of the hydroxamate inhibitors (or the hydroxyl O atom of the reverse-hydroxamate inhibitors) appears to be correlated to S. aureus inhibition activity. The structural information reported in this study should aid in the discovery of new PDF inhibitors that can be used as novel antibacterial drugs. PMID:22751663

  14. Aminomethyl Spectinomycins as Novel Therapeutics for Drug Resistant Respiratory Tract and Sexually Transmitted Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Madhura, Dora B.; Shcherbakov, Dimitri; Zheng, Zhong; Liu, Jiuyu; Abdelrahman, Yasser M.; Singh, Aman P.; Duscha, Stefan; Rathi, Chetan; Lee, Robin B.; Belland, Robert J.; Meibohm, Bernd; Rosch, Jason W.; Böttger, Erik C.; Lee, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    The antibiotic spectinomycin is a potent inhibitor of bacterial protein synthesis with a unique mechanism of action and an excellent safety index, but it lacks antibacterial activity against most clinically important pathogens. A novel series of N-benzyl substituted 3'-(R)- 3'-aminomethyl-3'-hydroxy spectinomycins was developed based on a computational analysis of the aminomethyl spectinomycin binding site and structure guided synthesis. These compounds had ribosomal inhibition values comparable to spectinomycin but showed increased potency against common respiratory tract pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Legionella pneumophila, and Moraxella catarrhalis as well as the sexually transmitted bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Non-ribosome binding 3'-(S) isomers of the leads demonstrated weak inhibitory activity in in vitro protein translation assays and poor antibacterial activity, indicating that the antibacterial activity of the series remains on target. In addition to improved antibacterial potency, compounds also demonstrated no mammalian cytotoxicity, improved microsomal stability, and favorable pharmacokinetic properties in rats. The lead compound from the series, compound 1, exhibited excellent chemical stability, which was superior to spectinomycin and had no significant interaction with a panel of human receptors and drug metabolism enzymes suggesting low potential for adverse reactions or drug-drug interactions in vivo. Compound 1 was active in vitro against a panel of penicillin, macrolide, and cephalosporin resistant S. pneumoniae clinical isolates and cured mice of fatal pneumococcal pneumonia and sepsis at a dose of 5 mg/kg. Together, these studies indicate N-benzyl aminomethyl spectinomycins possess suitable properties for further development as novel antibacterial agents to treat drug resistant respiratory tract and sexually transmitted bacterial infections. PMID:25995221

  15. The in-vitro activity of faropenem, a novel oral penem.

    PubMed

    Woodcock, J M; Andrews, J M; Brenwald, N P; Ashby, J P; Wise, R

    1997-01-01

    The in-vitro activity of faropenem, a novel oral penem, was studied in comparison with other beta-lactam antimicrobials against 711 recent clinical isolates including Gram-negative, Gram-positive and anaerobic bacteria. MIC data showed that faropenem was active against most members of the Enterobacteriaceae (MICs < or = 4 mg/L), with reduced activity against Serratia spp. (MIC90 = 32 mg/L). In common with its comparators, faropenem had weak activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (MIC > 128 mg/L). Faropenem was active against staphylococci, although for MRSA MICs were raised (MIC90 = 2 mg/L) compared with those for MSSA (MIC90 = 0.12 mg/L). Faropenem was also found to be active against streptococci, Neisseria spp., Enterococcus faecalis and beta-lactamase-producing and non-producing strains of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. Of the anaerobic bacteria studied, faropenem was most active against peptostreptococci and Clostridium perfringens (MIC90 < or = 1 mg/L) and Bacteroides fragilis (MIC90 = 4 mg/L). An increase in inoculum from 10(4) to 10(6) cfu raised faropenem MICs for Morganella morganii from 0.06-1 mg/L to 2-4 mg/L and for MRSA from 0.25-2 mg/L to 8 mg/L (a similar increase was not observed for MSSA). The MICs of faropenem were not affected by the presence of either 20% or 70% (v/v) serum. MICs for faropenem to 11 well characterized beta-lactamase producers were similar to those of non-producers. In hydrolysis studies, faropenem was shown to be highly stable to a number of beta-lactamases, including TEM-1, SHV-1, the extended spectrum beta-lactamases, TEM-3 and TEM-9, and the beta-lactamase produced by Staphylococcus aureus (NCTC 11561). PMID:9044026

  16. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of amidine derivatives of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene as novel antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Stolić, Ivana; Čipčić Paljetak, Hana; Perić, Mihaela; Matijašić, Mario; Stepanić, Višnja; Verbanac, Donatella; Bajić, Miroslav

    2015-01-27

    Current antibacterial chemotherapeutics are facing an alarming increase in bacterial resistance pressuring the search for novel agents that would expand the available therapeutic arsenal against resistant bacterial pathogens. In line with these efforts, a series of 9 amidine derivatives of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene were synthesized and, together with 18 previously synthesized analogs, evaluated for their relative DNA binding affinity, in vitro antibacterial activities and preliminary in vitro safety profile. Encouraging antibacterial activity of several subclasses of tested amidine derivatives against Gram-positive (including resistant MRSA, MRSE, VRE strains) and Gram-negative bacterial strains was observed. The bis-phenyl derivatives were the most antibacterially active, while compound 19 from bis-benzimidazole class exhibited the widest spectrum of activity (with MIC of 4, 2, 0.5 and ≤0.25 μg/ml against laboratory strains of Staphyloccocus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Moraxella catarrhalis, respectively and 4-32 μg/ml against clinical isolates of sensitive and resistant S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecium) and also demonstrated the strongest DNA binding affinity (ΔTm of 15.4 °C). Asymmetrically designed compounds and carboxamide-amidines were, in general, less active. Molecular docking indicated that the shape of the 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene derivatives and their ability to form multiple electrostatic and hydrogen bonds with DNA, corresponds to the binding modes of other minor-groove binders. Herein reported results encourage further investigation of this class of compounds as novel antibacterial DNA binding agents.

  17. Novel Carbapenem Antibiotics for Parenteral and Oral Applications: In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of 2-Aryl Carbapenems and Their Pharmacokinetics in Laboratory Animals

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Koichi; Hatano, Kazuo; Nakai, Toru; Terashita, Shigeyuki; Matsumoto, Masahiro; Eriguchi, Yoshiro; Eguchi, Ken; Shimizudani, Takeshi; Sato, Kimihiko; Kanazawa, Katsunori; Sunagawa, Makoto; Ueda, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    SM-295291 and SM-369926 are new parenteral 2-aryl carbapenems with strong activity against major causative pathogens of community-acquired infections such as methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae (including penicillin-resistant strains), Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae (including β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant strains), and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (including ciprofloxacin-resistant strains), with MIC90s of ≤1 μg/ml. Unlike tebipenem (MIC50, 8 μg/ml), SM-295291 and SM-369926 had no activity against hospital pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC50, ≥128 μg/ml). The bactericidal activities of SM-295291 and SM-369926 against penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae and β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae were equal or superior to that of tebipenem and greater than that of cefditoren. The therapeutic efficacies of intravenous administrations of SM-295291 and SM-369926 against experimentally induced infections in mice caused by penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae and β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae were equal or superior to that of tebipenem and greater than that of cefditoren, respectively, reflecting their in vitro activities. SM-295291 and SM-369926 showed intravenous pharmacokinetics similar to those of meropenem in terms of half-life in monkeys (0.4 h) and were stable against human dehydropeptidase I. SM-368589 and SM-375769, which are medoxomil esters of SM-295291 and SM-369926, respectively, showed good oral bioavailability in rats, dogs, and monkeys (4.2 to 62.3%). Thus, 2-aryl carbapenems are promising candidates that show an ideal broad spectrum for the treatment of community-acquired infections, including infections caused by penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae and β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae, have low selective pressure on antipseudomonal carbapenem

  18. Summary of Ceftaroline Activity against Pathogens in the United States, 2010: Report from the Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation (AWARE) Surveillance Program

    PubMed Central

    Sader, Helio S.; Farrell, David J.; Jones, Ronald N.

    2012-01-01

    The Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation (AWARE) surveillance program is a sentinel resistance monitoring system designed to track the activity of ceftaroline and comparator agents. In the United States, a total of 8,434 isolates were collected during the 2010 surveillance program from 65 medical centers distributed across the nine census regions (5 to 10 medical centers per region). All organisms were isolated from documented infections, including 3,055 (36.2%) bloodstream infections, 2,282 (27.1%) respiratory tract infections, 1,965 (23.3%) acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, 665 (7.9%) urinary tract infections, and 467 (5.5%) miscellaneous other infection sites. Ceftaroline was the most potent β-lactam agent tested against staphylococci. The MIC90 values were 1 μg/ml for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; 98.4% susceptible) and 0.5 μg/ml for methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Ceftaroline was 16- to 32-fold more potent than ceftriaxone against methicillin-susceptible staphylococcal strains. All staphylococcus isolates (S. aureus and CoNS) were inhibited at ceftaroline MIC values of ≤2 μg/ml. Ceftaroline also displayed potent activity against streptococci (MIC90, 0.015 μg/ml for beta-hemolytic streptococci; MIC90, 0.25 μg/ml for penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae). Potent activity was also shown against Gram-negative pathogens (Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis). Furthermore, wild-type strains of Enterobacteriaceae (non-extended-spectrum β-lactamase [ESBL]-producing strains and non-AmpC-hyperproducing strains) were often susceptible to ceftaroline. Continued monitoring through surveillance networks will allow for the assessment of the evolution of resistance as this new cephalosporin is used more broadly to provide clinicians with up-to-date information to assist in antibiotic stewardship and therapeutic decision making

  19. Nasopharyngeal carriage and macrolide resistance in Indigenous children with bronchiectasis randomized to long-term azithromycin or placebo.

    PubMed

    Hare, K M; Grimwood, K; Chang, A B; Chatfield, M D; Valery, P C; Leach, A J; Smith-Vaughan, H C; Morris, P S; Byrnes, C A; Torzillo, P J; Cheng, A C

    2015-11-01

    Although long-term azithromycin decreases exacerbation frequency in bronchiectasis, increased macrolide resistance is concerning. We investigated macrolide resistance determinants in a secondary analysis of a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Indigenous Australian children living in remote regions and urban New Zealand Māori and Pacific Islander children with bronchiectasis were randomized to weekly azithromycin (30 mg/kg) or placebo for up to 24 months and followed post-intervention for up to 12 months. Nurses administered and recorded medications given and collected nasopharyngeal swabs 3-6 monthly for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis was significantly lower in azithromycin compared to placebo groups, while macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus carriage was significantly higher. Australian children, compared to New Zealand children, had higher carriage overall, significantly higher carriage of macrolide-resistant bacteria at baseline (16/38 versus 2/40 children) and during the intervention (69/152 versus 22/239 swabs), and lower mean adherence to study medication (63 % versus 92 %). Adherence ≥70 % (versus <70 %) in the Australian azithromycin group was associated with lower carriage of any pathogen [odds ratio (OR) 0.19, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.07-0.53] and fewer macrolide-resistant pathogens (OR 0.34, 95 % CI 0.14-0.81). Post-intervention (median 6 months), macrolide resistance in S. pneumoniae declined significantly in the azithromycin group, from 79 % (11/14) to 7 % (1/14) of positive swabs, but S. aureus strains remained 100 % macrolide resistant. Azithromycin treatment, the Australian remote setting, and adherence <70 % were significant independent determinants of macrolide resistance in children with bronchiectasis. Adherence to treatment may limit macrolide resistance by suppressing carriage.

  20. Bacteriological findings and antimicrobial resistance in odontogenic and non-odontogenic chronic maxillary sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Puglisi, Salvatore; Privitera, Salvatore; Maiolino, Luigi; Serra, Agostino; Garotta, Matteo; Blandino, Giovanna; Speciale, Annamaria

    2011-09-01

    The main objectives of this study were to estimate the frequency of chronic maxillary sinusitis of dental origin, and to evaluate the microbiology of odontogenic and non-odontogenic chronic maxillary sinusitis. Aspirates from 59 patients with chronic maxillary sinusitis (47 non-odontogenic, 12 odontogenic), collected during a 3-year period, were microbiologically processed for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Moreover, antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated in the isolated bacteria. In this study, 20 % of chronic maxillary sinusitis cases were associated with a dental origin, and sinus lift procedures were the main aetiological factor. Our microbiological findings showed that all specimens from chronic maxillary sinusitis were polymicrobial. Sixty aerobes and 75 anaerobes were recovered from the 47 cases of non-odontogenic sinusitis (2.9 bacteria per specimen); 15 aerobes and 25 anaerobes were isolated from the 12 patients with odontogenic sinusitis (3.3 bacteria per specimen). The predominant aerobes were Staphylococcus aureus (27) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (16), while the more frequent anaerobes were Peptostreptococcus species (31) and Prevotella species (30). Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis were absent in sinusitis associated with a dental origin. Overall, 22 % of Staphylococcus aureus isolates were oxacillin-resistant, and 75 % of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were penicillin-resistant and/or erythromycin-resistant; 21 % of anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria were penicillin-resistant, and 44 % of anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria were β-lactamase-positive. Vancomycin and quinopristin-dalfopristin had the highest in vitro activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus species, respectively; amoxicillin-clavulanate and cefotaxime showed the highest in vitro activity against aerobic Gram-negative bacteria; and moxifloxacin, metronidazole and clindamycin were the most active against anaerobic bacteria.

  1. Ertapenem: a new carbapenem.

    PubMed

    Odenholt, I

    2001-06-01

    Ertapenem is a new 1-beta-methyl carbapenem, stable to dehydropeptidase, which binds preferable to penicillin-binding proteins (PBP) 2 and 3. Ertapenem has a broad antibacterial spectrum with MIC90 values < 0.5 mg/l for penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Serratia spp., Proteus spp., Clostridium perfringens, Fusobacterium spp. Peptostreptococcus spp. and anaerobic Streptococcus spp. Ertapenem exhibits a bactericidal mode of action as shown by time-killing curves and exhibits a short PAE of 1.4 - 2.6 h against the Gram-positive strains but no PAE against Gram-negative strains. In an infection model in mice, it has been shown that ertapenem and imipenem were highly efficacious at a level of 2 mg/kg in bacterial clearance in comparison to ceftriaxone, cefepime, ceftazidime, cefazolin, cefonicid, cefotaxime and meropenem. In comparison to other available carbapenems, ertapenem has a long half-life of 4.5 h and is developed as a single daily dose carbapenem. The protein binding is dose-dependent and is estimated to 94% at concentrations under 100 mg/l and approximately 85% at 300 mg/l. Cmax after a dose of 1 g in healthy volunteers has been estimated to 190 mg/l. Given the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic data, it may be predicted that ertapenem will have an effect on most Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus spp. and Acinetobacter spp. For pathogens with a MIC of 0.5 mg/l, the estimated T > MIC will be 50% (of 24 h) and for pathogens with a MIC of 1 mg/l 31%. For anaerobic bacteria with MIC values between 1-2 mg/l, the T > MIC may not be sufficient for bacterial eradication. However, clinical trials have to confirm this hypothesis.

  2. Development of two real-time multiplex PCR assays for the detection and quantification of eight key bacterial pathogens in lower respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Gadsby, N J; McHugh, M P; Russell, C D; Mark, H; Conway Morris, A; Laurenson, I F; Hill, A T; Templeton, K E

    2015-08-01

    The frequent lack of a positive and timely microbiological diagnosis in patients with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is an important obstacle to antimicrobial stewardship. Patients are typically prescribed broad-spectrum empirical antibiotics while microbiology results are awaited, but, because these are often slow, negative, or inconclusive, de-escalation to narrow-spectrum agents rarely occurs in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate two multiplex real-time PCR assays for the sensitive detection and accurate quantification of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Moraxella catarrhalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii. We found that all eight bacterial targets could be reliably quantified from sputum specimens down to a concentration of 100 CFUs/reaction (8333 CFUs/mL). Furthermore, all 249 positive control isolates were correctly detected with our assay, demonstrating effectiveness on both reference strains and local clinical isolates. The specificity was 98% on a panel of nearly 100 negative control isolates. Bacterial load was quantified accurately when three bacterial targets were present in mixtures of varying concentrations, mimicking likely clinical scenarios in LRTI. Concordance with culture was 100% for culture-positive sputum specimens, and 90% for bronchoalveolar lavage fluid specimens, and additional culture-negative bacterial infections were detected and quantified. In conclusion, a quantitative molecular test for eight key bacterial causes of LRTI has the potential to provide a more sensitive decision-making tool, closer to the time-point of patient admission than current standard methods. This should facilitate de-escalation from broad-spectrum to narrow-spectrum antibiotics, substantially improving patient management and supporting efforts to curtail inappropriate antibiotic use. PMID:25980353

  3. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of BO-2727, a new carbapenem.

    PubMed Central

    Asahi, Y; Miyazaki, S; Yamaguchi, K

    1995-01-01

    BO-2727, a new injectable carbapenem, was evaluated for its in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities in comparison with those of biapenem, meropenem, imipenem, cefpirome, and ceftazidime. BO-2727 had activity comparable to that of imipenem against methicillin-susceptible staphylococci and streptococci, with MICs at which 90% of strains tested (MIC90s) are inhibited being equal to 0.5 microgram/ml or less. Against methicillin-resistant staphylococci, BO-2727 was the most active among the antibiotics tested, with MIC90s ranging from 4 to 8 micrograms/ml. BO-2727 was highly active against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis, with MIC90s ranging from 0.006 to 2 micrograms/ml. BO-2727 was also highly active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (imipenem-susceptible strains), for which the MIC90 was 2 micrograms/ml, which was lower than those of imipenem, cefpirome, and ceftazidime and comparable to those of biapenem and meropenem. Differences in activity between BO-2727 and the other carbapenems against imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa were particularly striking (MIC90, 8 micrograms/ml). Furthermore, BO-2727 displayed a high degree of activity against many of the ceftazidime-, ciprofloxacin-, and/or gentamicin-resistant isolates of P. aeruginosa. The in vivo efficacy of BO-2727 against experimental septicemia caused by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa, reflected its potent in vitro activity and high levels in plasma. PMID:7625784

  4. The human milk protein-lipid complex HAMLET sensitizes bacterial pathogens to traditional antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Marks, Laura R; Clementi, Emily A; Hakansson, Anders P

    2012-01-01

    The fight against antibiotic resistance is one of the most significant challenges to public health of our time. The inevitable development of resistance following the introduction of novel antibiotics has led to an urgent need for the development of new antibacterial drugs with new mechanisms of action that are not susceptible to existing resistance mechanisms. One such compound is HAMLET, a natural complex from human milk that kills Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) using a mechanism different from common antibiotics and is immune to resistance-development. In this study we show that sublethal concentrations of HAMLET potentiate the effect of common antibiotics (penicillins, macrolides, and aminoglycosides) against pneumococci. Using MIC assays and short-time killing assays we dramatically reduced the concentrations of antibiotics needed to kill pneumococci, especially for antibiotic-resistant strains that in the presence of HAMLET fell into the clinically sensitive range. Using a biofilm model in vitro and nasopharyngeal colonization in vivo, a combination of HAMLET and antibiotics completely eradicated both biofilms and colonization in mice of both antibiotic-sensitive and resistant strains, something each agent alone was unable to do. HAMLET-potentiation of antibiotics was partially due to increased accessibility of antibiotics to the bacteria, but relied more on calcium import and kinase activation, the same activation pathway HAMLET uses when killing pneumococci by itself. Finally, the sensitizing effect was not confined to species sensitive to HAMLET. The HAMLET-resistant respiratory species Acinetobacter baumanii and Moraxella catarrhalis were all sensitized to various classes of antibiotics in the presence of HAMLET, activating the same mechanism as in pneumococci. Combined these results suggest the presence of a conserved HAMLET-activated pathway that circumvents antibiotic resistance in bacteria. The ability to activate this pathway may extend

  5. Aminomethyl spectinomycins as therapeutics for drug-resistant respiratory tract and sexually transmitted bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, David F; Waidyarachchi, Samanthi L; Madhura, Dora B; Shcherbakov, Dimitri; Zheng, Zhong; Liu, Jiuyu; Abdelrahman, Yasser M; Singh, Aman P; Duscha, Stefan; Rathi, Chetan; Lee, Robin B; Belland, Robert J; Meibohm, Bernd; Rosch, Jason W; Böttger, Erik C; Lee, Richard E

    2015-05-20

    The antibiotic spectinomycin is a potent inhibitor of bacterial protein synthesis with a unique mechanism of action and an excellent safety index, but it lacks antibacterial activity against most clinically important pathogens. A series of N-benzyl-substituted 3'-(R)-3'-aminomethyl-3'-hydroxy spectinomycins was developed on the basis of a computational analysis of the aminomethyl spectinomycin binding site and structure-guided synthesis. These compounds had ribosomal inhibition values comparable to spectinomycin but showed increased potency against the common respiratory tract pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Legionella pneumophila, and Moraxella catarrhalis, as well as the sexually transmitted bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Non-ribosome-binding 3'-(S) isomers of the lead compounds demonstrated weak inhibitory activity in in vitro protein translation assays and poor antibacterial activity, indicating that the antibacterial activity of the series remains on target against the ribosome. Compounds also demonstrated no mammalian cytotoxicity, improved microsomal stability, and favorable pharmacokinetic properties in rats. The lead compound from the series exhibited excellent chemical stability superior to spectinomycin; no interaction with a panel of human receptors and drug metabolism enzymes, suggesting low potential for adverse reactions or drug-drug interactions in vivo; activity in vitro against a panel of penicillin-, macrolide-, and cephalosporin-resistant S. pneumoniae clinical isolates; and the ability to cure mice of fatal pneumococcal pneumonia and sepsis at a dose of 5 mg/kg. Together, these studies indicate that N-benzyl aminomethyl spectinomycins are suitable for further development to treat drug-resistant respiratory tract and sexually transmitted bacterial infections. PMID:25995221

  6. Novel carbapenem antibiotics for parenteral and oral applications: in vitro and in vivo activities of 2-aryl carbapenems and their pharmacokinetics in laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Koichi; Takemoto, Koji; Hatano, Kazuo; Nakai, Toru; Terashita, Shigeyuki; Matsumoto, Masahiro; Eriguchi, Yoshiro; Eguchi, Ken; Shimizudani, Takeshi; Sato, Kimihiko; Kanazawa, Katsunori; Sunagawa, Makoto; Ueda, Yutaka

    2013-02-01

    SM-295291 and SM-369926 are new parenteral 2-aryl carbapenems with strong activity against major causative pathogens of community-acquired infections such as methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae (including penicillin-resistant strains), Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae (including β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant strains), and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (including ciprofloxacin-resistant strains), with MIC(90)s of ≤ 1 μg/ml. Unlike tebipenem (MIC(50), 8 μg/ml), SM-295291 and SM-369926 had no activity against hospital pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC(50), ≥ 128 μg/ml). The bactericidal activities of SM-295291 and SM-369926 against penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae and β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae were equal or superior to that of tebipenem and greater than that of cefditoren. The therapeutic efficacies of intravenous administrations of SM-295291 and SM-369926 against experimentally induced infections in mice caused by penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae and β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae were equal or superior to that of tebipenem and greater than that of cefditoren, respectively, reflecting their in vitro activities. SM-295291 and SM-369926 showed intravenous pharmacokinetics similar to those of meropenem in terms of half-life in monkeys (0.4 h) and were stable against human dehydropeptidase I. SM-368589 and SM-375769, which are medoxomil esters of SM-295291 and SM-369926, respectively, showed good oral bioavailability in rats, dogs, and monkeys (4.2 to 62.3%). Thus, 2-aryl carbapenems are promising candidates that show an ideal broad spectrum for the treatment of community-acquired infections, including infections caused by penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae and β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae, have low selective pressure on antipseudomonal

  7. The Neisseria meningitidis ZnuD Zinc Receptor Contributes to Interactions with Epithelial Cells and Supports Heme Utilization when Expressed in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pradeep; Sannigrahi, Soma

    2012-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis employs redundant heme acquisition mechanisms, including TonB receptor-dependent and receptor-independent uptakes. The TonB-dependent zinc receptor ZnuD shares significant sequence similarity to HumA, a heme receptor of Moraxella catarrhalis, and contains conserved motifs found in many heme utilization proteins. We present data showing that, when expressed in Escherichia coli, ZnuD allowed heme capture on the cell surface and supported the heme-dependent growth of an E. coli hemA strain. Heme agarose captured ZnuD in enriched outer membrane fractions, and this binding was inhibited by excess free heme, supporting ZnuD's specific interaction with heme. However, no heme utilization defect was detected in the meningococcal znuD mutant, likely due to unknown redundant TonB-independent heme uptake mechanisms. Meningococcal replication within epithelial cells requires a functional TonB, and we found that both the znuD and tonB mutants were defective not only in survival within epithelial cells but also in adherence to and invasion of epithelial cells. Ectopic complementation rescued these phenotypes. Interestingly, while znuD expression was repressed by Zur with zinc as a cofactor, it also was induced by iron in a Zur-independent manner. A specific interaction of meningococcal Fur protein with the znuD promoter was demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Thus, the meningococcal ZnuD receptor likely participates in both zinc and heme acquisition, is regulated by both Zur and Fur, and is important for meningococcal interaction with epithelial cells. PMID:22083713

  8. Nationwide surveillance of bacterial respiratory pathogens conducted by the surveillance committee of Japanese Society of Chemotherapy, the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases, and the Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology in 2010: General view of the pathogens' antibacterial susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, Katsunori; Kadota, Junichi; Aoki, Nobuki; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Masaki; Yagisawa, Morimasa; Oguri, Toyoko; Sato, Junko; Ogasawara, Kazuhiko; Wakamura, Tomotaro; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Watanabe, Akira; Iwata, Satoshi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Hanaki, Hideaki; Ohsaki, Yoshinobu; Watari, Tomohisa; Toyoshima, Eri; Takeuchi, Kenichi; Shiokoshi, Mayumi; Takeda, Hiroaki; Miki, Makoto; Kumagai, Toshio; Nakanowatari, Susumu; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Utagawa, Mutsuko; Nishiya, Hajime; Kawakami, Sayoko; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Takasaki, Jin; Mezaki, Kazuhisa; Konosaki, Hisami; Aoki, Yasuko; Yamamoto, Yumiko; Shoji, Michi; Goto, Hajime; Saraya, Takeshi; Kurai, Daisuke; Okazaki, Mitsuhiro; Niki, Yoshihito; Yoshida, Koichiro; Kawana, Akihiko; Saionji, Katsu; Fujikura, Yuji; Miyazawa, Naoki; Kudo, Makoto; Sato, Yoshimi; Yamamoto, Masaki; Yoshida, Takashi; Nakamura, Masahiko; Tsukada, Hiroki; Imai, Yumiko; Tsukada, Ayami; Kawasaki, Satoshi; Honma, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Toshinobu; Ban, Nobuyoshi; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Sawamura, Haruki; Miyara, Takayuki; Toda, Hirofumi; Sato, Kaori; Nakamura, Tadahiro; Fujikawa, Yasunori; Mitsuno, Noriko; Mikasa, Keiichi; Kasahara, Kei; Sano, Reiko; Sugimoto, Keisuke; Asari, Seishi; Nishi, Isao; Toyokawa, Masahiro; Miyashita, Naoyuki; Koguchi, Yutaka; Kusano, Nobuchika; Mihara, Eiichirou; Kuwabara, Masao; Watanabe, Yaeko; Kawasaki, Yuji; Takeda, Kenichi; Tokuyasu, Hirokazu; Masui, Kayoko; Negayama, Kiyoshi; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Aoki, Yosuke; Fukuoka, Mami; Magarifuchi, Hiroki; Nagasawa, Zenzo; Suga, Moritaka; Muranaka, Hiroyuki; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Honda, Junichi; Fujita, Masaki

    2015-06-01

    The nationwide surveillance on antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial respiratory pathogens from patients in Japan, was conducted by Japanese Society of Chemotherapy, Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases and Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology in 2010. The isolates were collected from clinical specimens obtained from well-diagnosed adult patients with respiratory tract infections during the period from January and April 2010 by three societies. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted at the central reference laboratory according to the method recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institutes using maximum 45 antibacterial agents. Susceptibility testing was evaluable with 954 strains (206 Staphylococcus aureus, 189 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 4 Streptococcus pyogenes, 182 Haemophilus influenzae, 74 Moraxella catarrhalis, 139 Klebsiella pneumoniae and 160 Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Ratio of methicillin-resistant S. aureus was as high as 50.5%, and those of penicillin-intermediate and -resistant S. pneumoniae were 1.1% and 0.0%, respectively. Among H. influenzae, 17.6% of them were found to be β-lactamase-non-producing ampicillin (ABPC)-intermediately resistant, 33.5% to be β-lactamase-non-producing ABPC-resistant and 11.0% to be β-lactamase-producing ABPC-resistant strains. Extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae and multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa with metallo β-lactamase were 2.9% and 0.6%, respectively. Continuous national surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility of respiratory pathogens is crucial in order to monitor changing patterns of susceptibility and to be able to update treatment recommendations on a regular basis.

  9. [Comparison of culture and real-time PCR methods in the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in acute otitis media effusion specimens].

    PubMed

    Eser, Ozgen Köseoğlu; Alp, Sehnaz; Ergin, Alper; Ipçi, Kaan; Alp, Alpaslan; Gür, Deniz; Hasçelik, Gülşen

    2012-10-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae are the major etiologic agents of acute otitis media. This study was aimed to compare the detection rate of S.pneumoniae and H.influenzae by culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction (Rt-PCR) in the middle ear effusions of patients diagnosed as acute otitis media. A total of 60 middle ear effusion samples collected from children with acute otitis media were included in the study. The samples were inoculated and incubated in BACTEC Ped Plus blood culture bottles and BACTEC 9120 system (BD Diagnostic Systems, MD), respectively, and the isolates were identified by conventional methods. For the molecular diagnosis of H.influenzae and S.pneumoniae, ply pneumolysin gene and HIB capsule region, respectively were amplified by Rt-PCR (LightCycler, Roche Diagnostics, Germany). H.influenzae and S.pneumoniae were isolated from 5 (8.3%) and 3 (5%) of the patient samples with conventional culture methods, respectively. In addition in 11.6% of the samples other microorganisms (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus sanguinis, Moraxella catarrhalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans) were also isolated. On the other hand H.influenzae and S.pneumoniae were detected in 38 (63.3%) and 24 (40%) of the samples with Rt-PCR, respectively. There was about eight fold increase in the detection frequency of H.influenzae and S.pneumoniae with Rt-PCR compared to culture methods. When culture was accepted as the gold standard method, the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of Rt-PCR in the detection of H.influenzae and S.pneumoniae were estimated as 80%, 51% and 98.2%, respectively. As a result, Rt-PCR was shown to be a sensitive method and could be preferred for the rapid diagnosis of H.influenzae and S.pneumoniae in the etiological diagnosis of acute otitis media, especially in culture negative cases.

  10. Predominant Bacteria Detected from the Middle Ear Fluid of Children Experiencing Otitis Media: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Chinh C.; Massa, Helen M.; Thornton, Ruth B.; Cripps, Allan W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Otitis media (OM) is amongst the most common childhood diseases and is associated with multiple microbial pathogens within the middle ear. Global and temporal monitoring of predominant bacterial pathogens is important to inform new treatment strategies, vaccine development and to monitor the impact of vaccine implementation to improve progress toward global OM prevention. Methods A systematic review of published reports of microbiology of acute otitis media (AOM) and otitis media with effusion (OME) from January, 1970 to August 2014, was performed using PubMed databases. Results This review confirmed that Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, remain the predominant bacterial pathogens, with S. pneumoniae the predominant bacterium in the majority reports from AOM patients. In contrast, H. influenzae was the predominant bacterium for patients experiencing chronic OME, recurrent AOM and AOM with treatment failure. This result was consistent, even where improved detection sensitivity from the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) rather than bacterial culture was conducted. On average, PCR analyses increased the frequency of detection of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae 3.2 fold compared to culture, whilst Moraxella catarrhalis was 4.5 times more frequently identified by PCR. Molecular methods can also improve monitoring of regional changes in the serotypes and identification frequency of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae over time or after vaccine implementation, such as after introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Conclusions Globally, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae remain the predominant otopathogens associated with OM as identified through bacterial culture; however, molecular methods continue to improve the frequency and accuracy of detection of individual serotypes. Ongoing monitoring with appropriate detection methods for OM pathogens can support development of improved vaccines to provide protection from the

  11. Viral-bacterial interactions and risk of acute otitis media complicating upper respiratory tract infection.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Melinda M; Gent, Janneane F; Pyles, Richard B; Miller, Aaron L; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Chonmaitree, Tasnee

    2011-11-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common complication of upper respiratory tract infection whose pathogenesis involves both viruses and bacteria. We examined risks of acute otitis media associated with specific combinations of respiratory viruses and acute otitis media bacterial pathogens. Data were from a prospective study of children ages 6 to 36 months and included viral and bacterial culture and quantitative PCR for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human bocavirus, and human metapneumovirus. Repeated-measure logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between specific viruses, bacteria, and the risk of acute otitis media complicating upper respiratory tract infection. In unadjusted analyses of data from 194 children, adenovirus, bocavirus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis were significantly associated with AOM (P < 0.05 by χ(2) test). Children with high respiratory syncytial virus loads (≥3.16 × 10(7) copies/ml) experienced increased acute otitis media risk. Higher viral loads of bocavirus and metapneumovirus were not significantly associated with acute otitis media. In adjusted models controlling for the presence of key viruses, bacteria, and acute otitis media risk factors, acute otitis media risk was independently associated with high RSV viral load with Streptococcus pneumoniae (odds ratio [OR], 4.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.90 and 10.19) and Haemophilus influenzae (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.38 and 3.02). The risk was higher for the presence of bocavirus and H. influenzae together (OR, 3.61; 95% CI, 1.90 and 6.86). Acute otitis media risk differs by the specific viruses and bacteria involved. Acute otitis media prevention efforts should consider methods for reducing infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus, bocavirus, and adenovirus in addition to acute otitis media bacterial pathogens.

  12. Impact of recent antibiotics on nasopharyngeal carriage and lower airway infection in Indigenous Australian children with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Hare, K M; Leach, A J; Morris, P S; Smith-Vaughan, H; Torzillo, P; Bauert, P; Cheng, A C; McDonald, M I; Brown, N; Chang, A B; Grimwood, K

    2012-10-01

    Indigenous Australian children have increased rates of bronchiectasis. Despite a lack of high-level evidence on effectiveness and antibiotic resistance, these children often receive long-term antibiotics. In this study, we determined the impact of recent macrolide (primarily azithromycin) and β-lactam antibiotic use on nasopharyngeal colonisation, lower airway infection (>10(4) CFU/mL of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid culture) and antibiotic resistance in non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolates from 104 Indigenous children with radiographically confirmed bronchiectasis. Recent antibiotic use was associated with significantly reduced nasopharyngeal carriage, especially of S. pneumoniae in 39 children who received macrolides [odds ratio (OR)=0.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.63] and 26 children who received β-lactams (OR=0.07, 95% CI 0.01-0.32), but had no significant effect on lower airway infection involving any of the three pathogens. Children given macrolides were significantly more likely to carry (OR=4.58, 95% CI 1.14-21.7) and be infected by (OR=8.13, 95% CI 1.47-81.3) azithromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae. Children who received β-lactam antibiotics may be more likely to have lower airway infection with β-lactamase-positive ampicillin-resistant NTHi (OR=4.40, 95% CI 0.85-23.9). The risk of lower airway infection by antibiotic-resistant pathogens in children receiving antibiotics is of concern. Clinical trials to determine the overall benefit of long-term antibiotic therapy are underway.

  13. Development of two real-time multiplex PCR assays for the detection and quantification of eight key bacterial pathogens in lower respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Gadsby, N J; McHugh, M P; Russell, C D; Mark, H; Conway Morris, A; Laurenson, I F; Hill, A T; Templeton, K E

    2015-08-01

    The frequent lack of a positive and timely microbiological diagnosis in patients with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is an important obstacle to antimicrobial stewardship. Patients are typically prescribed broad-spectrum empirical antibiotics while microbiology results are awaited, but, because these are often slow, negative, or inconclusive, de-escalation to narrow-spectrum agents rarely occurs in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate two multiplex real-time PCR assays for the sensitive detection and accurate quantification of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Moraxella catarrhalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii. We found that all eight bacterial targets could be reliably quantified from sputum specimens down to a concentration of 100 CFUs/reaction (8333 CFUs/mL). Furthermore, all 249 positive control isolates were correctly detected with our assay, demonstrating effectiveness on both reference strains and local clinical isolates. The specificity was 98% on a panel of nearly 100 negative control isolates. Bacterial load was quantified accurately when three bacterial targets were present in mixtures of varying concentrations, mimicking likely clinical scenarios in LRTI. Concordance with culture was 100% for culture-positive sputum specimens, and 90% for bronchoalveolar lavage fluid specimens, and additional culture-negative bacterial infections were detected and quantified. In conclusion, a quantitative molecular test for eight key bacterial causes of LRTI has the potential to provide a more sensitive decision-making tool, closer to the time-point of patient admission than current standard methods. This should facilitate de-escalation from broad-spectrum to narrow-spectrum antibiotics, substantially improving patient management and supporting efforts to curtail inappropriate antibiotic use.

  14. Is antimicrobial resistance also subject to globalization?

    PubMed

    Schito, G C

    2002-01-01

    In recent years one of the more alarming aspects of clinical microbiology has been the dramatic increase in the incidence of resistance to antibacterial agents among pathogens causing nosocomial as well as community-acquired infections. There are profound geographic differences in the incidence of resistance among pathogens of the respiratory tract, only some of which can be explained by the local use of antibiotics. A high percentage of Moraxella catarrhalis strains produce beta-lactamase and are thus resistant to many beta-lactam antibiotics. In contrast, beta-lactamase production among strains of Haemophilus influenzae rarely reaches more than 30% around the world. Methicillin-resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is a common and increasing problem in hospitals but its extent varies both locally and nationally. Resistance is usually associated with the local spread of resistant strains. High standards of hygiene in hospitals can prevent the spread of such strains but once established they can be difficult to eradicate. Although Streptococcus pyogenes remains highly susceptible to penicillins, even after many decades of their use, resistance to macrolides has occurred. This resistance can rise and fall. Although the increase of macrolide resistance in S. pyogenes can often be associated with an increase in the use of these drugs, this is not always so. In some cases it has been shown to be caused by the spread of one or more resistant clones. Eradication of these clones can reduce the level of resistance markedly. Resistance to both macrolides and penicillins among strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae is seen world-wide but is highly variable from country to country. Local habits of drug usage may play a part. In Italy, for example, there is preference for the use of parenteral third-generation cephalosporins for some severe infections and there is a corresponding low level of penicillin-resistance among pneumococci.

  15. In vitro evaluation of the comprehensive antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Curtisia dentata (Burm.f) C.A. Sm: toxicological effect on the Human embryonic kidney (HEK293) and Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Fadipe, VO; Mongalo, NI; Opoku, AR

    2015-01-01

    Curtisia dentata is used in African traditional medicine to treat variety of infections. C. dentata leaves were collected from Buffelskloof Nature Reserve, South Africa. The ethanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and acetone extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial activity using micro dilution assay against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycoplasma hominis, Candida albicans and some clinical isolates of Moraxella catarrhalis, Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from HIV patient. Acetone extract exhibited lowest MIC of 0.01 mg/ml against Candida albicans compared to other extracts. Besides lupeol, betulinic acid and ursolic acid, β-sitosterol was isolated for the first time from C. dentata leaves and exhibited antimicrobial activity with MIC values ranging from 0.20 to 6.25 mg/ml. Furthermore, the ethanol extract and the four isolated compounds revealed microbicidal effect, with MIC index of less than 4. Ethanol extract revealed the best total activity of 2400 ml/g against Mycoplasma hominis. Cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds was further investigated against the Human embryonic kidney (HEK293) and Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines using the MTT assay. Ursolic acid exhibited the lowest LD50 of 122.4 µg/ml against HEK293 cell line while lupeol exhibited LD50 of 278.8 and 289.4 µg/ml against HEK293 and HepG2 respectively. Lupeol exhibited low selectivity index. Ethyl acetate and acetone extracts were further investigated for antioxidant activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The acetone extract exhibited potent inhibition of DPPH compared to ethyl acetate extract. The findings of the current work validate the use of the plant species in the treatment of various human infections. PMID:27065768

  16. Antimicrobial activity of DU-6681a, a parent compound of novel oral carbapenem DZ-2640.

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, M; Hohmura, M; Nishi, T; Sato, K; Hayakawa, I

    1997-01-01

    The in vitro antibacterial activity of DU-6681a, a parent compound of DZ-2640, against gram-positive and -negative bacteria was compared with those of penems and cephalosporins currently available. MICs at which 90% of the isolates are inhibited (MIC90s) of the compound for clinical isolates of methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, including methicillin-susceptible and -resistant strains, were 0.10, 25, and 12.5 microg/ml, respectively. DU-6681a inhibited the growth of all strains of Streptococcus pyogenes and of penicillin-susceptible and -insusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae at 0.006, 0.025, and 0.20 microg/ml, respectively, and MIC90s of the compound were 6.25 and >100 microg/ml for Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, respectively. MIC90s of DU-6681a were 0.20, 0.10, and 0.025 microg/ml for Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, respectively. For Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the MIC50 and MIC90 of DU-6681a were 25 and 50 microg/ml, respectively. DU-6681a activity was not affected by different media, varied inoculum size (10(4) to 10(7) CFU), or the addition of human serum but was decreased under acidic conditions against gram-negative bacteria, under alkaline conditions against gram-positive bacteria, and in human urine, as was the activity of the other antibiotics tested. The frequency of spontaneous resistance to DU-6681a was less than or equal to those of the reference compounds. Time-kill curve studies demonstrated the bactericidal action of DU-6681a against S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and H. influenzae. PMID:9174181

  17. In Vitro Interaction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with Human Middle Ear Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Rahul; Grati, M’hamed; Gerring, Robert; Blackwelder, Patricia; Yan, Denise; Li, Jian-Dong; Liu, Xue Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Background Otitis media (OM) is an inflammation of the middle ear which can be acute or chronic. Acute OM is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading cause of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM). CSOM is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the middle ear characterized by infection and discharge. The survivors often suffer from hearing loss and neurological sequelae. However, no information is available regarding the interaction of P. aeruginosa with human middle ear epithelial cells (HMEECs). Methodology and Findings In the present investigation, we demonstrate that P. aeruginosa is able to enter and survive inside HMEECs via an uptake mechanism that is dependent on microtubule and actin microfilaments. The actin microfilament disrupting agent as well as microtubule inhibitors exhibited significant decrease in invasion of HMEECs by P. aeruginosa. Confocal microscopy demonstrated F-actin condensation associated with bacterial entry. This recruitment of F-actin was transient and returned to normal distribution after bacterial internalization. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of bacteria on the surface of HMEECs, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the internalization of P. aeruginosa located in the plasma membrane-bound vacuoles. We observed a significant decrease in cell invasion of OprF mutant compared to the wild-type strain. P. aeruginosa induced cytotoxicity, as demonstrated by the determination of lactate dehydrogenase levels in culture supernatants of infected HMEECs and by a fluorescent dye-based assay. Interestingly, OprF mutant showed little cell damage compared to wild-type P. aeruginosa. Conclusions and Significance This study deciphered the key events in the interaction of P. aeruginosa with HMEECs in vitro and highlighted the role of bacterial outer membrane protein, OprF, in this process. Understanding the molecular mechanisms in

  18. The Human Milk Protein-Lipid Complex HAMLET Sensitizes Bacterial Pathogens to Traditional Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Laura R.; Clementi, Emily A.; Hakansson, Anders P.

    2012-01-01

    The fight against antibiotic resistance is one of the most significant challenges to public health of our time. The inevitable development of resistance following the introduction of novel antibiotics has led to an urgent need for the development of new antibacterial drugs with new mechanisms of action that are not susceptible to existing resistance mechanisms. One such compound is HAMLET, a natural complex from human milk that kills Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) using a mechanism different from common antibiotics and is immune to resistance-development. In this study we show that sublethal concentrations of HAMLET potentiate the effect of common antibiotics (penicillins, macrolides, and aminoglycosides) against pneumococci. Using MIC assays and short-time killing assays we dramatically reduced the concentrations of antibiotics needed to kill pneumococci, especially for antibiotic-resistant strains that in the presence of HAMLET fell into the clinically sensitive range. Using a biofilm model in vitro and nasopharyngeal colonization in vivo, a combination of HAMLET and antibiotics completely eradicated both biofilms and colonization in mice of both antibiotic-sensitive and resistant strains, something each agent alone was unable to do. HAMLET-potentiation of antibiotics was partially due to increased accessibility of antibiotics to the bacteria, but relied more on calcium import and kinase activation, the same activation pathway HAMLET uses when killing pneumococci by itself. Finally, the sensitizing effect was not confined to species sensitive to HAMLET. The HAMLET-resistant respiratory species Acinetobacter baumanii and Moraxella catarrhalis were all sensitized to various classes of antibiotics in the presence of HAMLET, activating the same mechanism as in pneumococci. Combined these results suggest the presence of a conserved HAMLET-activated pathway that circumvents antibiotic resistance in bacteria. The ability to activate this pathway may extend

  19. A Fast Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Method for Sensitive and Specific Detection of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae porA Pseudogene

    PubMed Central

    Hjelmevoll, Stig Ove; Olsen, Merethe Elise; Sollid, Johanna U. Ericson; Haaheim, Håkon; Unemo, Magnus; Skogen, Vegard

    2006-01-01

    Ever since the advent of molecular methods, the diagnostics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been troubled by false negative and false positive results compared with culture. Commensal Neisseria species and Neisseria meningitidis are closely related to N. gonorrhoeae and may cross-react when using molecular tests comprising too-low specificity. We have devised a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), including an internal amplification control, that targets the N. gonorrhoeae porA pseudogene. DNA was automatically isolated on a BioRobot M48. Our subsequent PCR method amplified all of the different N. gonorrhoeae international reference strains (n = 34) and N. gonorrhoeae clinical isolates (n = 176) but not isolates of the 13 different nongonococcal Neisseria species (n = 68) that we tested. Furthermore, a panel of gram-negative bacterial (n = 18), gram-positive bacterial (n = 23), fungal (n = 1), and viral (n = 4) as well as human DNA did not amplify. The limit of detection was determined to be less than 7.5 genome equivalents/PCR reaction. In conclusion, the N. gonorrhoeae porA pseudogene real-time PCR developed in the present study is highly sensitive, specific, robust, rapid and reproducible, making it suitable for diagnosis of N. gonorrhoeae infection. PMID:17065426

  20. Prevalencia y factores de riesgo para infecciones del tracto urinario de inicio en la comunidad causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Victor M.; Maya, Juan J.; Correa, Adriana; Perenguez, Marcela; Muñoz, Juan S.; Motoa, Gabriel; Pallares, Christian J.; Rosso, Fernando; Matta, Lorena; Celis, Yamile; Garzon, Martha; Villegas, y María V.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción Las infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU) son frecuentes en la comunidad. Sin embargo, la información de aislamientos resistentes en este contexto es limitada en Latinoamérica. Este estudio tiene como objetivo determinar la prevalencia y los factores de riesgo asociados con ITU de inicio en la comunidad (ITU-IC) causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) en Colombia. Materiales y métodos Entre agosto y diciembre de 2011 se realizó un estudio de casos y controles en 3 instituciones de salud de tercer nivel en Colombia. Se invitó a participar a todos los pacientes admitidos a urgencias con diagnóstico probable de ITU-IC, y se les pidió una muestra de orina. En los aislamien-tos de E. coli se realizaron pruebas confirmatorias para BLEE, susceptibilidad antibiótica, caracterización molecular (PCR en tiempo real para genes bla, repetitive element palindromic PCR [rep-PCR], multilocus sequence typing [MLST] y factores de virulencia por PCR). Se obtuvo información clínica y epidemiológica, y posteriormente se realizó el análisis estadístico. Resultados De los 2.124 pacientes seleccionados, 629 tuvieron un urocultivo positivo, en 431 de estos se aisló E. coli, 54 fueron positivos para BLEE y 29 correspondieron a CTX-M-15. La mayoría de los aislamientos de E. coli productor de BLEE fueron sensibles a ertapenem, fosfomicina y amikacina. La ITU complicada se asoció fuertemente con infecciones por E. coli productor de BLEE (OR = 3,89; IC 95%: 1,10–13,89; p = 0,03). E. coli productor de CTX-M-15 mostró 10 electroferotipos diferentes; de estos, el 65% correspondieron al ST131. La mayoría de estos aislamientos tuvieron 8 de los 9 factores de virulencia analizados. Discusión E. coli portador del gen blaCTX-M-15 asociado al ST131 sigue siendo frecuente en Colombia. La presencia de ITU-IC complicada aumenta el riesgo de tener E. coli productor de BLEE, lo cual debe tenerse en cuenta para ofrecer

  1. Neisserial porin (PorB) causes rapid calcium influx in target cells and induces apoptosis by the activation of cysteine proteases.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, A; Günther, D; Düx, F; Naumann, M; Meyer, T F; Rudel, T

    1999-01-01

    The porin (PorB) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an intriguing bacterial factor owing to its ability to translocate from the outer bacterial membrane into host cell membranes where it modulates the infection process. Here we report on the induction of programmed cell death after prolonged infection of epithelial cells with pathogenic Neisseria species. The underlying mechanism we propose includes translocation of the porin, a transient increase in cytosolic Ca2+ and subsequent activation of the Ca2+ dependent protease calpain as well as proteases of the caspase family. Blocking the porin channel by ATP eliminates the Ca2+ signal and also abolishes its pro-apoptotic function. The neisserial porins share structural and functional homologies with the mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channels (VDAC). The neisserial porin may be an analogue or precursor of the ancient permeability transition pore, the putative central regulator of apoptosis. PMID:9889191

  2. Four-month outbreak of invasive meningococcal disease caused by a rare serogroup B strain, identified through the use of molecular PorA subtyping, England, 2013.

    PubMed

    Chatt, C; Gajraj, R; Hawker, J; Neal, K; Tahir, M; Lawrence, M; Gray, S J; Lucidarme, J; Carr, A D; Clark, S A; Fowler, T

    2014-01-01

    Molecular PorA subtyping provides information that increasingly requires the adaptation of standard public health approaches to outbreak management. We report an outbreak of a rare subtype of meningococcal infection not previously identified in the United Kingdom (UK). The outbreak occurred in the Warwickshire area in England between February and June 2013. Molecular subtyping allowed the identification of additional cases, prompting an enhanced public health response that included efforts to identify potential social networks that might benefit from chemoprophylaxis. It also prompted swabbing to define nasopharyngeal carriage in the focal nursery and helped explain the unusual epidemiological pattern. Without subtyping to identify a link, the additional cases would have been managed as sporadic cases in accordance with current UK guidance. PMID:25394258

  3. Concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as de biologia y futuros maestros/as de Ciencia de escuela secundaria sobre la teoria de evolucion biologica por seleccion natural

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Ramos, Egda M.

    La teoria de evolucion biologica (TEB) por seleccion natural es uno de los conceptos unificadores mas importantes del curriculo de Biologia. En Puerto Rico se han hecho pocas investigaciones que abunden sobre las concepciones y concepciones alternativas (CA) que tienen los estudiantes universitarios/as de Biologia y los maestros/as de Ciencia del nivel secundario sobre esta teoria. La politica publica educativa actual establece mediante documentos normativos como los Estandares de contenido y Expectativas de grado del Programa de Ciencias [Puerto Rico Core Standards] la ensenanza de esta teoria. Sin embargo, no se encontraron preguntas sobre la seleccion natural en los ejercicios de practica provistos por el Departamento de Educacion para las pruebas estandarizadas lo cual puede influir para que no se ensene adecuadamente. Las preguntas de investigacion fueron 1. ¿Cuales son las concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as y de los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB? 2. ¿Cuales conceptos que seleccionan los estudiantes universitarios/as y los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB coinciden con lo aceptado como valido por la comunidad cientifica? y 3. ¿Como comparan las respuestas de la prueba original. v. Entendiendo el cambio biologico que mide concepciones y CA sobre la TEB por seleccion natural, con las de la traducida al idioma espanol? Se utilizo el metodo cuantitativo con un diseno de investigacion transversal por encuesta. La tecnica principal para recopilar los datos fue una prueba con doce items, que formo parte de un instrumento para el cual se recopilaron diversas fuentes de evidencia acerca de su validez. Las muestras estuvieron formadas por 69 estudiantes de Ciencias Naturales y por 16 estudiantes futuros maestros y maestras del nivel secundario de la UPR-RP. Se utilizaron estadisticas descriptivas, analisis de Ji cuadrado y se calcularon los coeficientes alfa de Cronbach y de Spearman

  4. Population genetics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a high-prevalence community using a hypervariable outer membrane porB and 13 slowly evolving housekeeping genes.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Viscidi, Raphael P; Demma, James C; Zenilman, Jonathan; Crandall, Keith A

    2005-09-01

    Baltimore, Md., is an urban community with a high prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Due to partially protective immune responses, introduction of new strains from other host populations, and exposure of N. gonorrhoeae to antibiotics, the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the circulating strains can fluctuate over time. Understanding the overall genetic diversity and population structure of N. gonorrhoeae is essential for informing public health interventions to eliminate this pathogen. We studied gonococci population genetics in Baltimore by analyzing a hypervariable and strongly selected outer membrane porB gene and 13 slowly evolving and presumably neutral housekeeping genes (abcZ, adk, aroE, fumC, gdh, glnA, gnd, pdhC, pgm, pilA, ppk, pyrD, and serC) in 204 isolates collected in 1991, 1996, and 2001 from male and female patients of two public sexually transmitted diseases clinics. Genetic diversity (), recombination (C), growth (g), population structure, and adaptive selection under codon-substitution and amino acid property models were estimated and compared between these two gene classes. Estimates of the F(ST) fixation index and the chi(2) test of sequence absolute frequencies revealed significant temporal substructuring for both gene types. Baltimore's N. gonorrhoeae populations have increased since 1991 as indicated by consistent positive values of g. Female patients showed similar or lower levels of and C than male patients. Within the MLST housekeeping genes, levels of and C ranged from 0.001-0.013 and 0.000-0.018, respectively. Overall recombination seems to be the dominant force driving evolution in these populations. All loci showed amino acid sites and physicochemical properties under adaptive (or positive-destabilizing) selection, rejecting the generally assumed hypothesis of stabilizing selection for these MLST genes. Within the porB gene, protein I B showed higher and C values than protein I A. Directional positive selection possibly

  5. Bifurcación de las soluciones de vientos impulsados por radiación en estrellas Be: formación de líneas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curé, M.; Rial, D.; Cidale, L.; Venero, R.

    Se ha estudiado la topología de la ecuación hidrodinámica no-lineal que describe el perfil de velocidades de vientos impulsados por radiación en estrellas tempranas. Al aplicar este modelo a estrellas Be se encuentra que existen dos tipos De soluciones: la estándar, que describe el viento polar, y una nueva, que describe un viento más denso y lento y que explicaría el disco que se encuentra alrededor de estos objetos. Existe una región de transición en donde ambas soluciones coexisten (bifurcación}). Ambas soluciones satisfacen en esta región las mismas condiciones de borde. Para estas dos soluciones se han obtenido los perfiles de líneas de hidrógeno del visible y del IR, resolviendo el transporte de radiación en el ``comoving frame". Para la solución estándar, se obtienen perfiles con componentes en emisión, mientras que para la nueva solución se obtienen perfiles en absorción. Se comparan cualitativamente los resultados con las observaciones.

  6. Relación masa-radio para estrellas enanas blancas y la interpretación de recientes mediciones hechas por Hipparcos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panei, J. A.; Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Recientes mediciones de la masa y el radio hechas por Hipparcos de las estrellas enanas blancas 40 Eri B y Procyon B (Shipman, H. & Provencal, J. - ApJ. 1998, 494, 759), sugieren un núcleo compuesto de hierro para dichas estrellas, en lugar de carbono y oxígeno como predice la teoría standard de evolución estelar. Para interpretar estas observaciones, presentamos aquí, relaciones masa-radio para configuraciones degeneradas a temperatura finita para distintas composiciones químicas centrales. Para tal fin hemos calculado secuencias evolutivas de enanas blancas utilizando el código de evolución estelar, desarrollado en el Observatorio de La Plata. Dicho código resuelve las ecuaciones de estructura y evolución estelar mediante la técnica de relajación de Henyey, y esta basado en una descripción física muy detallada y actualizada.

  7. Population pharmacokinetic approach to evaluate the effect of CYP2D6, CYP3A, ABCB1, POR and NR1I2 genotypes on donepezil clearance

    PubMed Central

    Noetzli, Muriel; Guidi, Monia; Ebbing, Karsten; Eyer, Stephan; Wilhelm, Laurence; Michon, Agnès; Thomazic, Valérie; Stancu, Ioana; Alnawaqil, Abdel-Messieh; Bula, Christophe; Zumbach, Serge; Gaillard, Michel; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; von Gunten, Armin; Csajka, Chantal; Eap, Chin B

    2014-01-01

    Aims A large interindividual variability in plasma concentrations has been reported in patients treated with donepezil, the most frequently prescribed antidementia drug. We aimed to evaluate clinical and genetic factors influencing donepezil disposition in a patient population recruited from a naturalistic setting. Methods A population pharmacokinetic study was performed including data from 129 older patients treated with donepezil. The patients were genotyped for common polymorphisms in the metabolic enzymes CYP2D6 and CYP3A, in the electron transferring protein POR and the nuclear factor NR1I2 involved in CYP activity and expression, and in the drug transporter ABCB1. Results The average donepezil clearance was 7.3 l h−1 with a 30% interindividual variability. Gender markedly influenced donepezil clearance (P < 0.01). Functional alleles of CYP2D6 were identified as unique significant genetic covariate for donepezil clearance (P < 0.01), with poor metabolizers and ultrarapid metabolizers demonstrating, respectively, a 32% slower and a 67% faster donepezil elimination compared with extensive metabolizers. Conclusion The pharmacokinetic parameters of donepezil were well described by the developed population model. Functional alleles of CYP2D6 significantly contributed to the variability in donepezil disposition in the patient population and should be further investigated in the context of individual dose optimization to improve clinical outcome and tolerability of the treatment. PMID:24433464

  8. Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with reduced susceptibility to cefixime and ceftriaxone: association with genetic polymorphisms in penA, mtrR, porB1b, and ponA.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Robert; Fredlund, Hans; Nicholas, Robert; Unemo, Magnus

    2007-06-01

    The recent emergence and transmission of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with reduced susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins such as cefixime and ceftriaxone have been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation of different polymorphisms in the penA, mtrR, porB1b (penB), and ponA genes of N. gonorrhoeae with reduced susceptibility to cefixime and ceftriaxone. Eighteen gonococcal isolates with reduced cefixime and ceftriaxone susceptibility (Cef(i)) and two susceptible isolates were characterized using serovar determination, antibiograms, N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST), and sequencing of penA, mtrR, porB1b, and ponA alleles. For the Cef(i) isolates (n = 18), the MICs of cefixime and ceftriaxone ranged between 0.032 to 0.38 mug/ml and 0.064 to 0.125 mug/ml, respectively. These isolates were assigned five different serovars and six divergent NG-MAST sequence types. Eleven isolates (61%) with higher MICs of cefixime and ceftriaxone contained a nearly identical penA mosaic allele and previously described polymorphisms in mtrR (a single nucleotide [A] deletion in the promoter), penB (mutations in porB1b encoding loop 3 of PorB1b), and ponA (ponA1 polymorphism). The remaining seven Cef(i) isolates (39%), which had somewhat lower MICs of cefixime and ceftriaxone, contained an aspartic acid insertion (Asp-345a) in PBP 2 in conjunction with alterations of 4 to 10 amino acid residues in the C-terminal region of the transpeptidase domain of penA. In conclusion, an unambiguous association between penA mosaic alleles, in conjunction with genetic polymorphisms in mtrR, porB1b, and ponA, and greater reduced susceptibility to cefixime and ceftriaxone was identified.

  9. Fuentes de variabilidad en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica multifocal asociada con la infección por Helicobacter pylori1

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Realpe, José Luis; Zarama, Guillermo; Piazuelo, MarÍa Blanca; Correa, Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del estómago y el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica disponibles para evaluación histopatológica son fuentes importantes de variación en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradación de la gastritis crónica. Objetivos Estimar la sensibilidad del número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica necesarios para establecer los diagnósticos de gastritis atrófica con metaplasia intestinal (MI), displasia y estado de infección por Helicobacter pylori. Además evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificación de estas lesiones precursoras del cáncer gástrico. Materiales y métodos En una cohorte de 6 años de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados por dos gastroenterólogos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa gástrica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un único patólogo hizo la interpretación histológica de las 5 biopsias y proporcionó un diagnóstico definitivo global que se utilizó como patrón de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa gástrica examinado condujo a un diagnóstico individual para cada biopsia que se comparó con el patrón de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evaluó en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento. Resultados La sensibilidad del diagnóstico de MI y displasia gástrica aumentó de manera significativa con el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados El sitio anatómico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagnóstico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logró alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa gástrica (95.9%) y fue independiente del sitio de obtención de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagnóstico de gastritis crónica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0.76-0.85). Las

  10. Estudio teórico de la desorción de Na y K de SiO2 estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez Ariza, D.; López, N.; Illas, F.; Pacchioni, G.; Madey, T. E.

    Se ha estudiado el mecanismo de generación de sodio y potasio atómico a partir de muestras de SiO2 utilizando cálculos basados tanto en la teoría del funcional de la densidad como en métodos post-Hartree Fock, así como en el método de cluster para modelar el sólido. Como consecuencia del estudio se han propuesto distintos caminos posibles para la desorción, estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones, de sodio y potasio desde el óxido de silicio, proporcionando por lo tanto una explicación a la atmósfera tenue de sodio y potasio de La Luna.

  11. Long-term RNA persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) after an outbreak of a natural infection: the detection of viral mRNA in sentinel pigs suggests viral transmission.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Kennedy, S; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Berg, M; Moreno-López, J

    2014-08-01

    The persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) in five pigs that had survived an outbreak of a natural infection was determined. After the resolution of the outbreak, each animal was housed in an isolation pen together with one sentinel pig. Approximately every 2 months thereafter one group of animals was euthanized and tissue samples taken for virological and serological analysis. Infectious virus was not isolated from any samples; antibodies to PorPV-LPMV were detected in convalescent pigs by virus neutralisation test and blocking ELISA but not in sentinel pigs. PorPV-LPMV mRNA of the nucleoprotein (NP) and phosphoprotein (P) genes was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) in samples of trigeminal and optic nerves, cervical spinal cord, tonsils, salivary gland, lung and pancreas from convalescent pigs. mRNA was also detected in the midbrain, corpus callosum, or olfactory bulb in four out of five pigs by nRT-PCR, this result was confirmed by the sequencing of a 260bp PCR product of P gene region. The highest average viral copies/μg of total RNA occurred in the olfactory bulb and pancreas tissues of convalescent pigs and midbrain, tonsil and pancreas of sentinel pigs housed with the convalescent pigs. Satellitosis and gliosis of the midbrain, olfactory bulb, corpus callosum, medulla oblongata or choroid plexus were microscopically observed in four convalescent pigs. The control pig remained negative in all tests. The results indicate that PorPV-LPMV mRNA persists and induces a durable humoral immune response in pigs that have recovered from a natural infection. After a possible reactivation of the virus, it was transmitted to sentinel pigs in contact with the convalescent pigs.

  12. Population Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Garenoxacin in Patients with Community-Acquired Respiratory Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Van Wart, Scott; Phillips, Luann; Ludwig, Elizabeth A.; Russo, Rene; Gajjar, Diptee A.; Bello, Akintunde; Ambrose, Paul G.; Costanzo, Christopher; Grasela, Thaddeus H.; Echols, Roger; Grasela, Dennis M.

    2004-01-01

    Garenoxacin (T-3811ME, BMS-284756) is a novel, broad-spectrum des-F(6) quinolone currently under study for the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections. This analysis assessed garenoxacin population pharmacokinetics and exposure-response relationships for safety (adverse effects [AE]) and antimicrobial activity (clinical cure and bacteriologic eradication of Streptococcus pneumoniae and the grouping of Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis). Data were obtained from three phase II clinical trials of garenoxacin administered orally as 400 mg once daily for 5 to 10 days for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, and sinusitis. Samples were taken from each patient before drug administration, 2 h following administration of the first dose, and on the day 3 to 5 visit. Individual Bayesian estimates of the fu (fraction unbound), the Cmax, and the fu for the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (fu AUC0-24) were calculated as measurements of drug exposure by using an ex vivo assessment of average protein binding. Regression analysis was performed to examine the following relationships: treatment-emergent AE incidence and AUC0-24, Cmax, or patient factors; clinical response or bacterial eradication and drug exposure (fu Cmax/MIC, fu AUC0-24/MIC, and other exposure covariates); or disease and patient factors. Garenoxacin pharmacokinetics were described by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. Clearance was dependent on creatinine clearance, ideal body weight, age, obesity, and concomitant use of pseudoephedrine. The volume of distribution was dependent on weight and gender. Patients with mild or moderate renal dysfunction had, on average, approximately a 16 or 26% decrease in clearance, respectively, compared to patients of the same gender and obesity classification with normal renal function. AE occurrence was not

  13. [Susceptibilities of bacteria isolated from patients with lower respiratory infectious diseases to antibacterial agents (2011)].

    PubMed

    Goto, Hajime; Iwasaki, Mitsuhiro

    2015-04-01

    From October 2011 to September 2012, we collected the specimen from 316 patients with lower respiratory tract infections in 16 institutions in Japan, and investigated the susceptibilities of isolated bacteria to various antibacterial agents and patients' characteristics. All of 357 strains that were isolated from specimen (mainly from sputum) and assumed to be bacteria causing in infection, were examined. The isolated bacteria were: Staphylococcus aureus 51, Streptococcus pneumoniae 73, Haemophilus influenzae 88, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (non-mucoid) 34, P. aeruginosa (mucoid) 9, Klebsiella pneumoniae 21, and Moraxella catarrhalis 33. Of 51 S. aureus strains, those with 2 μg/mL or less of MIC of oxacillin (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus: MSSA) and those with 4 μg/mL or more of MIC of oxacillin (methicillin-resistant S. aureus: MRSA) were 31 (60.8%) and 20 (39.2%) strains, respectively. Against MSSA, imipenem had the most potent antibacterial activity and inhibited the growth of all strains at 0.063 μg/mL or less. Against MRSA, vancomycin showed the potent activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 1 μg/mL. Linezolid also showed the great activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 2 μg/mL. Carbapenems and penems showed the most potent activities against S. pneumoniae and panipenem inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.125 μg/mL. Imipenem and faropenem also had a preferable activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.5 and 1 μg/mL, respectively. In contrast, there were high-resistant strains (MIC: > 128 μg/mL) for erythromycin (53.4%) and clindamycin (3 5.6%). Against H. influenzae, levofloxacin showed the most potent activity and its MIC90 was 0.063 μg/mL or less. Ciprofloxacin showed the most potent activity against P. aeruginosa (mucoid) and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 2 μg/mL or less. Against the non-mucoid type of P. aeruginosa, tobramycin had the most potent activity and its MIC90 was 2

  14. [Susceptibilities of bacteria isolated from patients with lower respiratory infectious diseases to antibacterial agents (2009)].

    PubMed

    Goto, Hajime; Kumagai, Shigeru

    2015-02-01

    From October 2009 to September 2010, we collected the specimen from 432 patients with lower respiratory tract infections in 16 institutions in Japan, and investigated the susceptibilities of isolated bacteria to various antibacterial agents and patients' characteristics. All of 479 strains that were isolated from specimen (mainly from sputum) and assumed to be bacteria causing in infection, were examined. The isolated bacteria were: Staphylococcus aureus 90, Streptococcus pneumoniae 74, Haemophilus influenzae 82, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (non-mucoid) 60, P. aeruginosa (mucoid) 31, Klebsiella pneumoniae 41, and Moraxella catarrhalis 34. Of 90 S. aureus strains, those with 2 μg/mL or less of MIC of oxacillin (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus: MSSA) and those with 4 μg/mL or more of MIC of oxacillin (methicillin-resistant S. aureus: MRSA) were 43 (47.8%) and 47 (52.2%) strains, respectively. Against MSSA, imipenem had the most potent antibacterial activity and inhibited the growth of all strains at 0.063 μg/mL or less. Against MRSA, vancomycin and arbekacin showed the potent activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 2 and 4 μg/mL, respectively. Linezolid also showed the great activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 2 μg/mL. Carbapenems and penems showed the most potent activities against S. pneumoniae and panipenem inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.125 μg/mL. Imipenem and faropenem also had a preferable activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.25 and 0.5 μg/mL, respectively. In contrast, there were high-resistant strains (MIC: > 128 μg/mL) for erythromycin (51.4%) and clindamycin (35.1%). Against H. influenzae, levofloxacin showed the most potent activity and its MIC90 was 0.063 μg/mL or less. Meropenem showed the most potent activity against P. aeruginosa (mucoid) and its MIC90 was 1 μg/mL. Against the non-mucoid type of P. aeruginosa, tobramycin had the most potent activity and its MIC90 was 2

  15. [Susceptibilities of bacteria isolated from patients with lower respiratory infectious diseases to antibacterial agents (2010)].

    PubMed

    Goto, Hajime; Iwasaki, Mitsuhiro

    2015-04-01

    From October 2010 to September 2011, we collected the specimen from 361 patients with lower respiratory tract infections in 16 institutions in Japan, and investigated the susceptibilities of isolated bacteria to various antibacterial agents and patients' characteristics. All of 399 strains that were isolated from specimen (mainly from sputum) and assumed to be bacteria causing in infection, were examined. The isolated bacteria were: Staphylococcus aureus 70, Streptococcus pneumoniae 65, Haemophilus influenzae 72, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (non-mucoid) 47, P. aeruginosa (mucoid) 14, Klebsiella pneumoniae 30, and Moraxella catarrhalis 39. Of 70 S. aureus strains, those with 2 μg/mL or less of MIC of oxacillin (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus: MSSA) and those with 4 μg/mL or more of MIC of oxacillin (methicillin-resistant S. aureus: MRSA) were 45 (64.3%) and 25 (35.7%) strains, respectively. Against MSSA, imipenem had the most potent antibacterial activity and inhibited the growth of all strains at 0.063 μg/mL or less. Against MRSA, vancomycin and arbekacin showed the potent activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 2 μg/mL. Linezolid also showed the great activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 2 μg/mL. Carbapenems and penems showed the most potent activities against S. pneumoniae and panipenem inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.125 μg/mL. Imipenem and faropenem also had a preferable activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.5 and 1 μg/mL, respectively. In contrast, there were high-resistant strains (MIC: > 128 μg/mL) for erythromycin (44.6%) and clindamycin (24.6%). Against H. influenzae, levofloxacin showed the most potent activity and its MIC90 was 0.063 μg/mL or less. Meropenem showed the most potent activity against P. aeruginosa (mucoid) and its MIC90 was 0.5 μg/mL. Against the non-mucoid type of P. aeruginosa, tobramycin had the most potent activity and its MIC90 was 2 μg/mL. Against K

  16. [Susceptibilities of bacteria isolated from patients with lower respiratory infectious diseases to antibiotics (2006)].

    PubMed

    Goto, Hajime; Takeda, Hideki; Kawai, Shin; Suwabe, Akira; Watanabe, Suguru; Okazaki, Mitsuhiro; Ashino, Yugo; Shimada, Kaoru; Aoki, Nobuki; Sato, Tetsuo; Honma, Yasuo; Mori, Takeshi; Kudo, Kouichiro; Sugiyama, Haruhito; Kondo, Shigemi; Tanaka, Tsukasa; Kido, Kenji; Yoshimura, Kunihiko; Oguri, Toyoko; Yamamoto, Makoto; Nakamori, Yoshitaka; Inoue, Hiroshi; Yamauchi, Kohei; Sumitomo, Midori; Endo, Shigeatsu; Nakadate, Toshihide; Oka, Mikio; Kobashi, Yoshihiro; Saita, Naoki; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Kondou, Akira; Matsuda, Junichi; Nakano, Michiko; Kohno, Shigeru; Oikawa, Satoru

    2013-12-01

    From October 2006 to September 2007, we collected the specimen from 356 patients with lower respiratory tract infections in 14 institutions in Japan, and investigated the susceptibilities of isolated bacteria to various antibacterial agents and patients' characteristics. Of 414 strains that were isolated from specimen (mainly from sputum) and assumed to be bacteria causing in infection, 407 strains were examined. The isolated bacteria were: Staphylococcus aureus 64, Streptococcus pneumoniae 96, Haemophilus influenzae 87, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (non-mucoid) 52, P. aeruginosa (mucoid) 11, Klebsiella pneumoniae 20, and Moraxella catarrhalis 44. Of 64 S. aureus strains, those with 2 microg/ml or less of MIC of oxacillin (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus: MSSA) and those with 4 microg/ml or more of MIC of oxacillin (methicillin-resistant S. aureus: MRSA) were 27 (42.2%) and 37 (57.8%) strains, respectively. Against MSSA, imipenem had the most potent antibacterial activity and inhibited the growth of all strains at 0.063 microg/ml or less. Against MRSA, vancomycin and linezolid showed the most potent activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 1 microg/ml. Carbapenems showed the most potent activities against S. pneumoniae and in particular, panipenem inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.063 microg/ml or less. Imipenem and faropenem also had a preferable activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.125 and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively. In contrast, there were high-resistant strains (MIC: over 128 microg/ml) for erythromycin (45.8%) and clindamycin (20.8%). Against H. influenzae, levofloxacin showed the most potent activity and its MIC90 was 0.063 microg/ml or less. Meropenem showed the most potent activity against P. aeruginosa (mucoid) and its MIC90 was 0.5 microg/ml. Against P. aeruginosa (non-mucoid), tobramycin had the most potent activity and its MIC90 was 2 microg/ml. Against K. pneumoniae, cefozopran was the most potent activity

  17. [Susceptibilities of bacteria isolated from patients with lower respiratory infectious diseases to antibacterial agents (2008)].

    PubMed

    Goto, Hajime; Iwasaki, Mitsuhiro

    2015-02-01

    From October 2008 to September 2009, we collected the specimen from 374 patients with lower respiratory tract infections in 15 institutions in Japan, and investigated the susceptibilities of isolated bacteria to various antibacterial agents and patients' characteristics. Of 423 strains that were isolated from specimen (mainly from sputum) and assumed to be bacteria causing in infection, 421 strains were examined. The isolated bacteria were: Staphylococcus aureus 78, Streptococcus pneumoniae 78, Haemophilus influenzae 89, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (non-mucoid) 61, P. aeruginosa (mucoid) 19, Klebsiella pneumoniae 28, and Moraxella catarrhalis 32. Of 78 S. aureus strains, those with 2 μg/mL or less of MIC of oxacillin (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus: MSSA) and those with 4 μg/mL or more of MIC of oxacillin (methicillin-resistant S. aureus: MRSA) were 34 (43.6%) and 44 (56.4%) strains, respectively. Against MSSA, imipenem had the most potent antibacterial activity and inhibited the growth of all strains at 0.063 μg/mL or less. Against MRSA vancomycin and arbekacin showed the potent activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 1 and 2 μg/mL, respectively. Linezolid also showed the great activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 1 μg/mL. Carbapenems and penems showed the most potent activities against S. pneumoniae and panipenem inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.125 μg/mL. Imipenem and faropenem also had a preferable activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.25 and 1 μg/mL, respectively. In contrast, there were high-resistant strains (MIC: > 128 μg/mL) for erythromycin (43.6%) and clindamycin (19.2%). Against H. influenzae, levofloxacin showed the most potent activity and its MIC90 was 0.063 μg/mL or less. Tobramycin showed the most potent activity against P. aeruginosa (mucoid) and its MIC90 was 2 μg/mL. Against the non-mucoid type of P. aeruginosa, tobramycin and ciprofloxacin had the most potent activity

  18. [Susceptibilities of bacteria isolated from patients with lower respiratory infectious diseases to antibacterial agents (2007)].

    PubMed

    Goto, Hajime; Iwasaki, Mitsuhiro

    2015-02-01

    From October 2007 to September 2008, we collected the specimen from 362 patients with lower respiratory tract infections in 14 institutions in Japan, and investigated the susceptibilities of isolated bacteria to various antibacterial agents and patients' characteristics. Of 413 strains that were isolated from specimen (mainly from sputum) and assumed to be bacteria causing in infection, 412 strains were examined. The isolated bacteria were: Staphylococcus aureus 65, Streptococcus pneumoniae 90, Haemophilus influenzae 88, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (non-mucoid) 53, P. aeruginosa (mucoid) 13, Klebsiella pneumoniae 19, and Moraxella catarrhalis 41. Of 65 S. aureus strains, those with 2 μg/mL or less of MIC of oxacillin (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus: MSSA) and those with 4 μg/mL or more of MIC of oxacillin (methicillin-resistant S. aureus: MRSA) were 38 (58.5%) and 27 (41.5%) strains, respectively. Against MSSA, imipenem had the most potent antibacterial activity and inhibited the growth of all strains at 0.063 μg/mL or less. Against MRSA, vancomycin and arbekacin showed the most potent activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 2 μg/mL. Linezolid also showed the same activity as them. Carbapenems and penems showed the most potent activities against S. pneumoniae and in particular, panipenem inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.063 μg/mL or less. Imipenem and faropenem also had a preferable activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.25 and 1 μg/mL, respectively. In contrast, there were high-resistant strains (MIC: over 128 μg/mL) for erythromycin (38.2%) and clindamycin (18.0%). Against H. influenzae, levofloxacin showed the most potent activity and its MIC90 was 0.063 μg/mL or less. Meropenem showed the most potent activity against P. aeruginosa (mucoid) and its MIC90 was 0.5 μg/mL. Against P. aeruginosa (non-mucoid), tobramycin had the most potent activity and its MIC90 was 2 μg/mL. Against K. pneumoniae, cefozopran had

  19. [Susceptibilities of bacteria isolated from patients with lower respiratory infectious diseases to antibiotics (2005)].

    PubMed

    Goto, Hajime; Takeda, Hideki; Kawai, Shin; Watanabe, Suguru; Okazaki, Mitsuhiro; Shimada, Kaoru; Nakano, Kunio; Yokouchi, Hiroshi; Mori, Takeshi; Igari, Jun; Oguri, Toyoko; Yamamoto, Makoto; Kudo, Kolichiro; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Tsukasa; Yoshimura, Kunihiko; Kawabata, Masaaki; Nakamori, Yoshitaka; Sumitomo, Midori; Inoue, Hiroshi; Nakadate, Toshihide; Suwabe, Akira; Ashino, Yugo; Aoki, Nobuki; Honma, Yasuo; Suzuki, Yasutoshi; Karasawa, Yasuo; Oka, Mikio; Kobashi, Yoshihiro; Kohno, Shigeru; Hirakata, Yoichi; Kondou, Akira; Matsuda, Junichi; Nakano, Michiko; Oikawa, Satoru

    2008-08-01

    From October 2005 to September 2006, we collected the specimen from 366 patients with lower respiratory tract infections in 12 institutions in Japan, and investigated the susceptibilities of isolated bacteria to various antibacterial agents and patients' characteristics. Of 411 strains that were isolated from specimen (mainly from sputum) and assumed to be bacteria causing in infection, 406 strains were examined. The isolated bacteria were: Staphylococcus aureus 70, Streptococcus pneumoniae 85, Haemophilus influenzae 78, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (non-mucoid) 46, P. aeruginosa (mucoid) 14, Klebsiella pneumoniae 21, and Moraxella subgenus Branhamella catarrhalis 40. Of 70 S. aureus strains, those with 2 microg/ml or less of MIC of oxacillin (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus: MSSA) and those with 4 microg/ml or more of MIC of oxacillin (methicillin-resistant S. aureus: MRSA) were 38 (54.3%) and 32 (45.7%) strains, respectively. Against MSSA, imipenem had the most potent antibacterial activity and inhibited the growth of 37 strains (97.4%) at 0.063 microg/ml or less. Against MRSA, arbekacin and vancomycin showed the most potent activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 1 microg/ml. Carbapenems showed the most potent activities against S. pneumoniae and in particular, panipenem inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.063 microg/ml or less. Faropenem also had a preferable activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.25 microg/ml. In contrast, there were high-resistant strains (MIC: over 128 microg/ml) for erythromycin (38.1%) and clindamycin (22.6%). Against H. influenzae, levofloxacin showed the most potent activity and its MIC90 was 0.063 microg/ml or less. Meropenem showed the most potent activity against P. aeruginosa (mucoid) and its MIC90 was 0.5 microg/ml. Against P. aeruginosa (non-mucoid), arbekacin had the most potent activity and its MIC90 was 8 microg/ml. Against K. pneumoniae, cefozopran was the most potent activity and

  20. [Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of cefditoren pivoxil fine granules for pediatric use in pediatric patients with acute otitis media].

    PubMed

    Kawamata, Saori; Yamada, Hitoshi; Sato, Yoshikazu; Sasagawa, Yuji; Iwama, Yasuhiro; Matumoto, Masato

    2010-06-01

    A Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Acute Otitis Media in Children, in view of the causative organisms of the disease and their drug susceptibility, was issued in March 2006. In the guideline, cefditoren pivoxil (CDTR-PI, Meiact MS fine granules 10% for pediatric use) is recommended as an oral cephem antibiotic for the treatment of the disease. To collect information on the appropriate use of the drug in the clinical setting after issuance of the guideline, we conducted a specific postmarketing study of CDTR-PI in pediatric patients with acute otitis media. With this study, 2144 patients were enrolled in 305 medical institutions. Of them, 2006 and 1958 patients were chosen for safety and efficacy analysis, respectively. The incidence of adverse drug reactions was 1.79% (36/2006 patients). No unexpected or serious adverse drug reactions were reported by this study. The most common adverse drug reaction was diarrhea, which was reported in 26 cases (1.30%). The symptom resolved or subsided during CDTR-PI therapy or after discontinuation or completion of the therapy in all cases. The incidence of diarrhea in patients treated with CDTR-PI at 1.5- to 2-fold the usual dose was 2.70%, which was slightly higher than the usual dose, but that in patients more than 2-fold the usual dose was 1.92% which was not higher than 1.5- to 2-fold the usual dose. The incidence of diarrhea itself was not substantially high. Concerning the clinical efficacy of CDTR-PI, the response rate was 93.5% (1831/1958 patients). Among 1217 strains from whom 832 patients were detected as causative organisms at baseline bacteriological examination, the response rate by causative organism was 89.7% for Streptococcus pneumoniae, 90.3% for Haemophilus influenzae, and 92.2% for Moraxella catarrhalis. Among documented eradication of 577 strains with 427 patients, the bacterial eradication rate by causative organism was 83.3% for S. pneumoniae, 87.1% for H. influenzae, and 88

  1. Comparación de resultados del método de clasificación de órbitas por análisis de frecuencias con el método de exponentes de Lyapunov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpintero, D. D.; Muzzio, J. C.; Wachlin, F. C.

    Hemos realizado extensas comparaciones del método de análisis de frecuencias con el de exponentes de Lyapunov. El primero resulta claramente superior por las siguientes razones: 1) permite distinguir distintos tipos de órbitas y no sólo si son regulares o caóticas 2) es mucho más veloz requiriendo mucho menos tiempo de cómputo. La concordancia de resultados es, en general, buena y se discuten algunas discrepancias.

  2. BSAC standardized disc susceptibility testing method (version 8).

    PubMed

    Andrews, J M

    2009-09-01

    azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin and telithromycin (Table 15); clarithromycin and erythromycin MIC and zone diameter BPs for Moraxella catarrhalis (Table 16); azithromycin MIC BPs for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Table 17); chloramphenicol and rifampicin MIC BPs for Neisseria meningitidis (Table 18); azithromycin MIC BPs for Haemophilus influenzae (Table 19); MIC BPs for metronidazole for Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Clostridium perfringens (Tables 23-25, respectively); susceptibility testing of Listeria spp. (Appendix 3); the acceptable range for ATCC 25923 to a 10 microg tobramycin disc (Table 26).

  3. [In vitro susceptibilities to levofloxacin and various antibacterial agents of 12,919 clinical isolates obtained from 72 centers in 2007].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Keizo; Ohno, Akira; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Iwata, Morihiro; Kanda, Makoto; Akizawa, Kouji; Shimizu, Chikara; Kon, Shinichirou; Nakamura, Kastushi; Matsuda, Keiko; Tominaga, Makoto; Nakagawa, Takuo; Sugita, Akihiro; Ito, Tatsumi; Kato, Jun; Suwabe, Akira; Yamahata, Kumiko; Kawamura, Chizuko; Tashiro, Hiromi; Horiuchi, Hiroko; Katayama, Yosei; Kondou, Shigemi; Misawa, Shigeki; Murata, Misturu; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Okamoto, Hideyuki; Yamazaki, Kenichiro; Okada, Motoi; Haruki, Kosuke; Kanno, Harushige; Aihara, Masanori; Maesaki, Shigefumi; Hashikita, Giichi; Miyajima, Eiji; Sumitomo, Midori; Saito, Takefumi; Yamane, Nobuo; Kawashima, Chieko; Akiyama, Takahisa; Ieiri, Tamio; Yamamoto, Yoshitaka; Okamoto, Yuki; Okabe, Hidetoshi; Moro, Kunihiko; Shigeta, Masayo; Yoshida, Haruyoshi; Yamashita, Masanobu; Hida, Yukio; Takubo, Takayuki; Kusakabe, Tadashi; Masaki, Hiroya; Heijyou, Hitoshi; Nakaya, Hideo; Kawahara, Kunimitsu; Sano, Reiko; Matsuo, Syuji; Kono, Hisashi; Yuzuki, Yosuke; Ikeda, Norio; Idomuki, Masayo; Soma, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Go; Kinoshita, Syohiro; Kawano, Seiji; Oka, Mikio; Kusano, Nobuchika; Kang, Dongchon; Ono, Junko; Yasujima, Minoru; Miki, Makoto; Hayashi, Masato; Okubo, Syunji; Toyoshima, Syunkou; Kaku, Mitsuo; Sekine, Imao; Shiotani, Joji; Horiuchi, Hajime; Tazawa, Yoko; Yoneyama, Akiko; Kumasaka, Kazunari; Koike, Kazuhiko; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Ozaki, Yukio; Uchida, Takashi; Murakami, Masami; Inuzuka, Kazuhisa; Gonda, Hideo; Yamaguchi, Ikuo; fujimoto, Yoshinori; Iriyama, Junji; Asano, Yuko; Genma, Hitoshi; Maekawa, Masato; Yoshimura, Hitoshi; Nakatani, Kaname; Baba, Hisashi; Ichiyama, Satoshi; Fujita, Shinichi; Kuwabara, Masao; Okazaki, Toshiro; Fujiwara, Hiromitsu; Ota, Hiromi; Nagai, Astushi; Fujita, Jun; Negayama, Kiyoshi; Sugiura, Tetsuro; Kamioka, Mikio; Murase, Mitsuharu; Yamane, Nobuhisa; Nakasone, Isamu; Okayama, Akihiko; Aoki, Yosuke; Kusaba, Koji; Nakashima, Yukari; Miyanohara, Hiroaki; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Saikawa, Tetsunori; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Matsuda, Junichi; Kohno, Shigeru; Mashiba, Koichi

    2009-08-01

    We have reported in this journal in vitro susceptibilities of clinical isolates to antibiotics every year since 1992. In this paper, we report the results of an analysis of in vitro susceptibilities of 12,919 clinical isolates from 72 centers in Japan to selected antibiotics in 2007 compared with the results from previous years. The common respiratory pathogens, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenzae maintained a high susceptibility to fluoroquinolones (FQs). The resistance of S. pyogenes to macrolides has been increasing every year and this was especially clear this year. Most strains of Enterobacteriaceae except for Escherichia coli showed a high susceptibility to FQs. Almost 30% of E. coli strains were resistant to FQs and the resistance increased further this year. FQs resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was approximately 95% with the exception of 45% for sitafloxacin (STFX). FQs resistance of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) was low at about 10%. FQs resistance of methicillin-resistant coagulase negative Staphylococci (MRCNS) was higher than that of methicillin-susceptible coagulase negative Staphylococci (MSCNS), but it was lower than that of MRSA. However, FQs resistance of MSCNS was higher than that of MSSA. FQs resistance of Enterococcus faecalis was 22.5% to 29.6%, while that of Enterococcusfaecium was more than 85% except for STFX (58.3%). In clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa derived from urinary tract infections, FQs resistance was 21-27%, which was higher than that of P. aeruginosa from respiratory tract infections at 13-21%, which was the same trend as in past years. Multidrug resistant strains accounted for 5.6% in the urinary tract and 1.8% in the respiratory tract. Acinetobacter spp. showed high susceptibility to FQs. The carbapenem resistant strains, which present a problem at present, accounted for 2.7%. Neisseria gonorrhoeae showed high

  4. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of GV129606, a new broad-spectrum trinem.

    PubMed Central

    Di Modugno, E; Broggio, R; Erbetti, I; Lowther, J

    1997-01-01

    GV129606 is a new parenteral trinem antibiotic belonging to the beta-lactam class. It combines broad-spectrum activity (against gram-negative and -positive bacteria, aerobes and anaerobes), with high potency and resistance to beta-lactamases. Comparative in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities were determined for GV129606 against more than 400 recent clinical isolates (aerobes, including beta-lactamase producers, and anaerobes), using representative antibacterial agents (meropenem, piperacillin, ceftazidime, cefpirome, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin for aerobes and metronidazole, cefoxitin, piperacillin, and clindamycin for anaerobes). Against methicillin-susceptible staphylococci and streptococci, GV129606 and meropenem were the most active of the drugs tested. GV129606 showed an MIC for 90% of strains tested (MIC90) ranging from < or =0.015 to 0.06 microg/ml against methicillin-susceptible staphylococci and Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus agalactiae. Against penicillin-susceptible and -resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates, GV129606, meropenem, and cefpirome showed MIC90s of < or =0.015 and 1 microg/ml, respectively. Meropenem was the most active compound against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae with MIC90s of < or =0.5 microg/ml. Against these species, GV129606 possessed activity superior to those of piperacillin, ceftazidime, cefpirome, and gentamicin, with MIC90s of < or =8 microg/ml, but its activity was two- to sixfold less than that of ciprofloxacin (with the exception of Proteus rettgeri and Providencia stuartii). Haemophilus spp., Moraxella catarrhalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were also included in the spectrum of GV129606. GV129606 showed good antianaerobe activity, similar to metronidazole. It was stable against all clinically relevant beta-lactamases (similar to meropenem). The in vitro activity was confirmed in vivo against septicemia infections induced in mice by selected

  5. [Susceptibility of clinically-isolated bacteria strains to respiratory quinolones and evaluation of antimicrobial agent efficacy by Monte Carlo simulation].

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Tadashi; Yamada, Yukiji; Kimura, Takeshi; Kodama, Mai; Fujitomo, Yumiko; Masaki, Nakanishi; Toshiaki, Komori; Keisuke, Shikata; Fujita, Naohisa

    2016-02-01

    Respiratory quinolones (RQs) are broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents used for the treatment of a wide variety of community-acquired and nosocomial infections. However, bacterial resistance to quinolones has been on the increase. In this study, we investigated the predicted efficacy of RQs for various strains of 9 bacterial species clinically isolated at our university hospital using the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method based on pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics modeling. In addition, the influence of the patients' renal function on the efficacy of RQs was evaluated. We surveyed antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 9 bacterial species (n = number of strains) [Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 15), Streptococcus pyogenes (n = 14), Streptococcus agalactiae (n = 19), methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (n = 24), Escherichia coli (n = 35), Haemophilus influenzae (n = 17), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 14), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 31), and Moraxella catarrhalis (n = 11)] to 4 RQs [garenoxacin (GRNX), levofloxacin (LVFX), sitafloxacin (STFX), and moxifloxacin (MFLX)]. We found that compared with the other RQs, Gram-positive cocci was most resistant to LVFX, and that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC₉₀) values for S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, and MSSA were high (2, 16, > 16, and 8 µg/mL, respectively). In regard to Gram-negative rods, the susceptibility of E. coli to RQs was found to be decreased, with the MIC₉₀ values of GRNX, LVFX, STFX, and MFLX being > 16, 16, 1, and 16 µg/mL, respectively. MCS revealed that the target attainment rate of the area under the unbound concentration-time curve divided by the MIC₉₀ (ƒ · AUC/MIC ratio), against S. pneumoniae was 86.9-100%, but against E. coli was low (52.1-66.2%). The ƒ · AUC/MIC target attainment rate of LVFX against S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, and S. agalactiae tended to decrease due to increased creatinine clearance, and that of LVFX and STFX against MSSA also

  6. Diagnosis of atypical pathogens in patients hospitalized with community-acquired respiratory infection.

    PubMed

    Schneeberger, Peter M; Dorigo-Zetsma, J Wendeline; van der Zee, Anneke; van Bon, Marion; van Opstal, Jean-Louis

    2004-01-01

    The object of our study was to determine the proportion of atypical respiratory pathogens among patients hospitalized with a community-acquired respiratory infection. From September 1997 to May 1999, 159 patients (57% male, median age 55, range 1-88 y) admitted to 3 regional hospitals for a community acquired respiratory infection, were enrolled in the study. Microbiological diagnosis for the atypical pathogens Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila was performed with PCR on a throat swab, sputum and/or broncho alveolar lavage (BAL). In addition, Legionella species other than L. pneumophila (L. non-pneumophila species) were detected by PCR. Two serum samples were collected and processed for M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae serology. In total, 27 patients (17%) were diagnosed with an atypical pathogen. Infection with M. pneumoniae was detected in 19 patients (12%) (PCR positive n = 7), with C. pneumoniae in 5 patients (3%) (PCR positive n = 0) and with L. pneumophila in 4 patients (2.5%) (PCR positive n = 4). In 54 (34%) patients routine microbiological investigations revealed aetiological agents other than the 3 atypical pathogens, the most frequently diagnosed pathogens being Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 18), Haemophilus influenzae (n = 17), Gram-negative rods (n = 13), Moraxella catarrhalis (n = 6) and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 6). More than 1 pathogen was found in 13 patients. Atypical pathogens were found more often in the young age group (0-18 y), in contrast to bacterial pathogens that were found more often in the older age groups (> or = 65 y). Atypical pathogens were found less often in patients with a clinical presentation of atypical pneumonia. Legionella species other than L. pneumophila were found by PCR in 13 patients (8%), and in 6 patients in combination with another pathogen. An atypical pathogen (M. pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae or L. pneumophila) was found in 17% of the patients hospitalized with a community acquired

  7. Double-blind randomized study comparing the efficacies and safeties of a short (3-day) course of azithromycin and a 5-day course of amoxicillin in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis.

    PubMed Central

    Mertens, J C; van Barneveld, P W; Asin, H R; Ligtvoet, E; Visser, M R; Branger, T; Hoepelman, A I

    1992-01-01

    The efficacies and safeties of a three-dose regimen of azithromycin (500 mg once daily for 3 days) and a 15-dose regimen of amoxicillin (500 mg three times daily for 5 days) were compared in a double-blind manner in patients with an acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis. A total of 92% of patients suffered a type 1 exacerbation. Treatment success, defined as cure or major improvement, was achieved in all patients in the azithromycin group by day 5, compared with 23 (92%) of 25 patients in the amoxicillin group. On day 12, these data were 24 of 25 (96%) in the azithromycin group and 20 of 25 (80%) in the amoxicillin group (results were not significantly different). Several pathogens were isolated (MIC ranges [micrograms per milliliter] in parentheses): Haemophilus influenzae or Haemophilus parainfluenzae was isolated 23 times (azithromycin, less than or equal to 0.06 to 32; amoxicillin, 0.12 to 2); Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated from 11 patients (azithromcyin, less than or equal to 0.06 greater than 256; amoxicillin, less than or equal to 0.06 to 0.25); Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis was isolated from eight patients (azithromycin, less than or equal to 0.06; amoxicillin, less than or equal to 0.06 to 16); and other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from eight patients. One patient treated with azithromycin had Legionella pneumophila pneumonia, and another in that group had a significant rise in titer of antibody against influenza A virus. One patient treated with amoxicillin also had a significant rise in titer of antibody against influenza A virus. Microbiological response rates were comparable. One patient who received azithromycin developed abnormal liver function. Two patients treated with amoxicillin developed abnormal liver functions, one developed exanthema, and one treatment was stopped because of nausea. It is concluded that a three-dose (3-day) regimen of azithromycin is as effective clinically and microbiologically as a

  8. In vitro evaluation of BAL9141, a novel parenteral cephalosporin active against oxacillin-resistant staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ronald N; Deshpande, Lalitagauri M; Mutnick, Alan H; Biedenbach, Douglas J

    2002-12-01

    Community-acquired and nosocomial infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens continue to increase in prevalence and have become a serious problem in many parts of the world. BAL9141 is a member of the class of parenteral pyrrolidinone-3-ylidenemethyl cephalosporins, and has a broad spectrum of activity. In the current study, BAL9141 was tested against a large number (n = 2263) of recent isolates from various international surveillance programmes including 1097 Gram-positive strains. Susceptibility to (S) and activity of (mg/L) to BAL9141, based on proposed breakpoints (MIC50/MIC90/% S) were as follows: methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (0.5/0.5/100%), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (1/2/100%), methicillin-susceptible coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (0.12/0.25/100%), methicillin-resistant CoNS (MR-CoNS) (1/2/100%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (< or = 0.015/0.25/100%), viridans group streptococci (0.03/0.5/99%), beta-haemolytic streptococci (< or = 0.015/< or = 0.015/100%), Enterococcus faecalis (0.5/16/90%), Enterococcus faecium (>32/>32/22%), Haemophilus influenzae (0.06/0.06/100%), Moraxella catarrhalis (0.06/0.5/100%), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (0.03/0.06/100%) and Neisseria meningitidis (< or = 0.002/0.004/100%). BAL9141 susceptibility at < pr = 4 mg/L (100% S) surpassed that of ceftriaxone (CRO; 1% S) and quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q-D; 92% S) against MRSA and MR-CoNS (CRO 0.9% S; Q-D 94% S). All S. pneumoniae were inhibited by BAL9141 at < or = 1 mg/L compared with CRO (90% S) and levofloxacin (LVX; 98% S). Susceptibility rates for viridans group streptococci to BAL9141 (>98%) were also higher than to CRO (86%) and LVX (96%). BAL9141 demonstrated excellent activity against most species of wild-type enteric bacilli, with > or = 95% of isolates being susceptible; however, only modest activity was observed for BAL9141 against non-fermentative Gram-negative species and ESBL-producing Escherichia coli or Klebsiella

  9. [In vitro susceptibilities to levofloxacin and various antibacterial agents of 12,919 clinical isolates obtained from 72 centers in 2007].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Keizo; Ohno, Akira; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Iwata, Morihiro; Kanda, Makoto; Akizawa, Kouji; Shimizu, Chikara; Kon, Shinichirou; Nakamura, Kastushi; Matsuda, Keiko; Tominaga, Makoto; Nakagawa, Takuo; Sugita, Akihiro; Ito, Tatsumi; Kato, Jun; Suwabe, Akira; Yamahata, Kumiko; Kawamura, Chizuko; Tashiro, Hiromi; Horiuchi, Hiroko; Katayama, Yosei; Kondou, Shigemi; Misawa, Shigeki; Murata, Misturu; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Okamoto, Hideyuki; Yamazaki, Kenichiro; Okada, Motoi; Haruki, Kosuke; Kanno, Harushige; Aihara, Masanori; Maesaki, Shigefumi; Hashikita, Giichi; Miyajima, Eiji; Sumitomo, Midori; Saito, Takefumi; Yamane, Nobuo; Kawashima, Chieko; Akiyama, Takahisa; Ieiri, Tamio; Yamamoto, Yoshitaka; Okamoto, Yuki; Okabe, Hidetoshi; Moro, Kunihiko; Shigeta, Masayo; Yoshida, Haruyoshi; Yamashita, Masanobu; Hida, Yukio; Takubo, Takayuki; Kusakabe, Tadashi; Masaki, Hiroya; Heijyou, Hitoshi; Nakaya, Hideo; Kawahara, Kunimitsu; Sano, Reiko; Matsuo, Syuji; Kono, Hisashi; Yuzuki, Yosuke; Ikeda, Norio; Idomuki, Masayo; Soma, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Go; Kinoshita, Syohiro; Kawano, Seiji; Oka, Mikio; Kusano, Nobuchika; Kang, Dongchon; Ono, Junko; Yasujima, Minoru; Miki, Makoto; Hayashi, Masato; Okubo, Syunji; Toyoshima, Syunkou; Kaku, Mitsuo; Sekine, Imao; Shiotani, Joji; Horiuchi, Hajime; Tazawa, Yoko; Yoneyama, Akiko; Kumasaka, Kazunari; Koike, Kazuhiko; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Ozaki, Yukio; Uchida, Takashi; Murakami, Masami; Inuzuka, Kazuhisa; Gonda, Hideo; Yamaguchi, Ikuo; fujimoto, Yoshinori; Iriyama, Junji; Asano, Yuko; Genma, Hitoshi; Maekawa, Masato; Yoshimura, Hitoshi; Nakatani, Kaname; Baba, Hisashi; Ichiyama, Satoshi; Fujita, Shinichi; Kuwabara, Masao; Okazaki, Toshiro; Fujiwara, Hiromitsu; Ota, Hiromi; Nagai, Astushi; Fujita, Jun; Negayama, Kiyoshi; Sugiura, Tetsuro; Kamioka, Mikio; Murase, Mitsuharu; Yamane, Nobuhisa; Nakasone, Isamu; Okayama, Akihiko; Aoki, Yosuke; Kusaba, Koji; Nakashima, Yukari; Miyanohara, Hiroaki; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Saikawa, Tetsunori; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Matsuda, Junichi; Kohno, Shigeru; Mashiba, Koichi

    2009-08-01

    We have reported in this journal in vitro susceptibilities of clinical isolates to antibiotics every year since 1992. In this paper, we report the results of an analysis of in vitro susceptibilities of 12,919 clinical isolates from 72 centers in Japan to selected antibiotics in 2007 compared with the results from previous years. The common respiratory pathogens, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenzae maintained a high susceptibility to fluoroquinolones (FQs). The resistance of S. pyogenes to macrolides has been increasing every year and this was especially clear this year. Most strains of Enterobacteriaceae except for Escherichia coli showed a high susceptibility to FQs. Almost 30% of E. coli strains were resistant to FQs and the resistance increased further this year. FQs resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was approximately 95% with the exception of 45% for sitafloxacin (STFX). FQs resistance of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) was low at about 10%. FQs resistance of methicillin-resistant coagulase negative Staphylococci (MRCNS) was higher than that of methicillin-susceptible coagulase negative Staphylococci (MSCNS), but it was lower than that of MRSA. However, FQs resistance of MSCNS was higher than that of MSSA. FQs resistance of Enterococcus faecalis was 22.5% to 29.6%, while that of Enterococcusfaecium was more than 85% except for STFX (58.3%). In clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa derived from urinary tract infections, FQs resistance was 21-27%, which was higher than that of P. aeruginosa from respiratory tract infections at 13-21%, which was the same trend as in past years. Multidrug resistant strains accounted for 5.6% in the urinary tract and 1.8% in the respiratory tract. Acinetobacter spp. showed high susceptibility to FQs. The carbapenem resistant strains, which present a problem at present, accounted for 2.7%. Neisseria gonorrhoeae showed high

  10. Factors Affecting Staphylococcus aureus Colonization of the Nasopharynx in the First Six Months of Life

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Janak A; Alvarez-Fernandez, Pedro; Jennings, Kristofer; Loeffelholz, Michael; McCormick, David; Chonmaitree, Tasnee

    2015-01-01

    Background Staphylococcal aureus (SA) colonization in early infancy is common, but the pattern and factors affecting its acquisition and persistence in the first few months of life are not well studied. Objectives To study the rate of SA nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization at monthly intervals in the first six months of life, and its association with environmental and host factors, and other pathogenic NP bacteria. Methods Data from a prospective study were analyzed on bacterial cultures of 1765 NP swabs from 367 infants who were followed from birth to 6 months of age. Demographic, breastfeeding, cigarette smoke exposure and daycare attendance data were collected at each monthly visit. Results The rate of infants colonized with SA was highest at age 1 month (25%) and declined to lowest rate by age 6 months (12%). The proportion of SA strains that was methicillin-resistant (MRSA) was also highest at age 1 month and declined rapidly by age 4 months (18% vs 6%, P = 0.05). Colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP), nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (HI) and Moraxella catarrhalis (MC) increased at different rates up to age 6 months. Univariate analysis showed that SA colonization rate was significantly lower with increasing age, black race, day care attendance, and colonization with NTHI, MC and SP (P <0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that this effect was independently associated only with increasing age and MC colonization (P ≤0.05). Furthermore, the time to first acquisition of SA from one month of age onwards was significantly associated with day care attendance, and NTHI and MC colonization. None of the infants colonized with SA developed SA infections through age 6 months. Conclusions SA colonization of NP begins very early in life and declines quickly. MRSA has lower ability to maintain prolonged colonization status than methicillin-susceptible strains in the first 6 months of life. As the NP is colonized with other respiratory bacterial pathogens, the

  11. Ceftobiprole Activity against over 60,000 Clinical Bacterial Pathogens Isolated in Europe, Turkey, and Israel from 2005 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Flamm, Robert K.; Sader, Helio S.; Jones, Ronald N.

    2014-01-01

    Ceftobiprole medocaril is a newly approved drug in Europe for the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) (excluding patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia but including ventilated HAP patients) and community-acquired pneumonia in adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of ceftobiprole against prevalent Gram-positive and -negative pathogens isolated in Europe, Turkey, and Israel during 2005 through 2010. A total of 60,084 consecutive, nonduplicate isolates from a wide variety of infections were collected from 33 medical centers. Species identification was confirmed, and all isolates were susceptibility tested using reference broth microdilution methods. Ceftobiprole had high activity against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (100.0% susceptible), methicillin-susceptible coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), beta-hemolytic streptococci, and Streptococcus pneumoniae (99.3% susceptible), with MIC90 values of 0.25, 0.12, ≤0.06, and 0.5 μg/ml, respectively. Ceftobiprole was active against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (98.3% susceptible) and methicillin-resistant CoNS, having a MIC90 of 2 μg/ml. Ceftobiprole was active against Enterococcus faecalis (MIC50/90, 0.5/4 μg/ml) but not against most Enterococcus faecium isolates. Ceftobiprole was very potent against the majority of Enterobacteriaceae (87.3% susceptible), with >80% inhibited at ≤0.12 μg/ml. The potency of ceftobiprole against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC50/90, 2/>8 μg/ml; 64.6% at MIC values of ≤4 μg/ml) was similar to that of ceftazidime (MIC50/90, 2/>16 μg/ml; 75.4% susceptible), but limited activity was observed against Acinetobacter spp. and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. High activity was also observed against all Haemophilus influenzae (MIC90, ≤0.06 μg/ml) and Moraxella catarrhalis (MIC50/90, ≤0.06/0.25 μg/ml) isolates. Ceftobiprole demonstrated a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity against this

  12. HRM confirmation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in clinical specimens by G→A (position 857) mutation detection in the 16S rRNA gene before sequencing and after porA confirmation.

    PubMed

    Gurtler, Volker; Mayall, Barrie C; Wang, Jenny

    2012-05-01

    A total of 2273 specimens submitted to the Austin Hospital Pathology Service for Neisseria gonorrhoeae screening between September 1, 2009 and May 11, 2011 were used in this study. Specimens were simultaneously screened and confirmed with a previously published real time PCR assay for the opa gene (extra primers were included to increase sensitivity) and the porA gene respectively. The opa gene screen and initial porA gene confirmation yielded an N. gonorrhoeae positivity rate of 0.88% (20/2273) and 0.49% (11/2191) for specimens and patients respectively. A 16S rDNA High Resolution Melt confirmatory PCR was developed subsequently; this reduced the N. gonorrhoeae positivity rate to 0.35% (8/2273) and 0.27% (6/2191) for specimens and patients respectively (not altered by 16S sequencing). The higher rate of secondary confirmation (16S HRM) in patients compared with samples was due to the detection of species other than N. gonorrhoeae detected by the initial screening and confirmation test. This underlines the importance of performing the secondary confirmatory test that has been developed in this study.

  13. La inserción en el mercado laboral de los inmigrantes latinos en España y en los Estados Unidos: Diferencias por país de origen y estatus legal

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Phillip; Massey, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Resumen Este artículo compara los resultados económicos entre los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España y Estados Unidos. Detectamos un efecto de selección por el que la mayoría de los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España proceden de Sudamérica de un entorno de clases medias, mientras la mayoría de los inmigrantes que van a los Estados Unidos son centroamericanos de clase baja. Este efecto de selección explica las diferencias transnacionales en la probabilidad de empleo, logro ocupacional y salarios obtenidos. A pesar de las diferencias en los orígenes y las características de los latinoamericanos en ambos países, los factores demográficos, humanos y de capital social parecen operar de forma similar en ambos países; y cuando los modelos se estiman separadamente por estatus legal, descubrimos que los efectos se acentúan más entre los inmigrantes irregulares cuando se los compara con los regulares, especialmente en Estados Unidos. PMID:24532857

  14. Aquisição fonológica do português brasileiro por crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e surdas usuárias de implante coclear

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Carina Rebello; Finger, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Resumo O presente estudo investiga a aquisição fonológica do Português Brasileiro (PB) por 24 crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais, com acesso irrestrito à Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras), e por 6 crianças surdas que utilizam implante coclear (IC), com acesso restrito ou irrestrito à Libras. Para a avaliação do sistema fonológico das crianças em PB, foi utilizada a Parte A, Prova de Nomeação, do ABFW – Teste de Linguagem Infantil (ANDRADE et al. 2004). Os resultados revelaram que as crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e a criança surda usuária de IC com acesso irrestrito à Libras apresentaram processo de aquisição fonológica esperada (normal) para a sua faixa etária. Considera-se que a aquisição precoce e o acesso irrestrito à Libras podem ter sido determinantes para o desempenho dessas crianças no teste oral utilizado. PMID:25506105

  15. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía Por Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educação Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    We present the results obtained in a research on the comprehension of basic astronomical concepts, in which 561 students from fifth grade middle school to third grade high school of a public school of the city of Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) took part. A test with 20 multiple-choice questions was applied to indentify the most common conceptions expressed by the students. This test was elaborated based on the literature about misconceptions and covered the following topics: the day-night cycle; the time zones; the seasons of the year; the phases of the Moon; the movement of the Moon; the apparent movement of the Sun in the celestial sphere; the eclipses; the dimensions and distances in the Universe; the brightness of the stars and its observation from Earth. Though a small progress was verified in the proportion of scientifically acceptable answers when comparing the eighth grade of middle school to the fifth, and the third grade of high school to the first, there was an overall predominance of alternative conceptions regarding most of the explored subjects, which persisted up to the last year of secondary school. The comparison to data found in this research made in other socio-cultural contexts revealed, in many aspects, similar notions and difficulties revealed by the students. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre la comprensión de conceptos astronómicos básicos, en la cual participaron 561 estudiantes que cursaban entre el quinto grado de la enseñanza primaria y el tercer año de la enseñanza secundaria de una escuela pública de la ciudad de Foz do Iguaçu (Brasil). Se utilizó un test de 20 preguntas de opción múltiple para identificar las concepciones más comunes expresadas por los estudiantes. Este instrumento de recolección de datos se desarrolló en base a la literatura sobre las concepciones alternativas y trató los siguientes temas: el ciclo día-noche, los husos horarios, las estaciones del año, las fases de la Luna, el

  16. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía Por Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educação Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    We present the results obtained in a research on the comprehension of basic astronomical concepts, in which 561 students from fifth grade middle school to third grade high school of a public school of the city of Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) took part. A test with 20 multiple-choice questions was applied to indentify the most common conceptions expressed by the students. This test was elaborated based on the literature about misconceptions and covered the following topics: the day-night cycle; the time zones; the seasons of the year; the phases of the Moon; the movement of the Moon; the apparent movement of the Sun in the celestial sphere; the eclipses; the dimensions and distances in the Universe; the brightness of the stars and its observation from Earth. Though a small progress was verified in the proportion of scientifically acceptable answers when comparing the eighth grade of middle school to the fifth, and the third grade of high school to the first, there was an overall predominance of alternative conceptions regarding most of the explored subjects, which persisted up to the last year of secondary school. The comparison to data found in this research made in other socio-cultural contexts revealed, in many aspects, similar notions and difficulties revealed by the students. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre la comprensión de conceptos astronómicos básicos, en la cual participaron 561 estudiantes que cursaban entre el quinto grado de la enseñanza primaria y el tercer año de la enseñanza secundaria de una escuela pública de la ciudad de Foz do Iguaçu (Brasil). Se utilizó un test de 20 preguntas de opción múltiple para identificar las concepciones más comunes expresadas por los estudiantes. Este instrumento de recolección de datos se desarrolló en base a la literatura sobre las concepciones alternativas y trató los siguientes temas: el ciclo día-noche, los husos horarios, las estaciones del año, las fases de la Luna, el

  17. 21 CFR 522.2630 - Tulathromycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida... infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis associated with Moraxella bovis. For the treatment of bovine foot...

  18. 21 CFR 522.2630 - Tulathromycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida... infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis associated with Moraxella bovis. For the treatment of bovine foot...

  19. One-step purification and porin transport activity of the major outer membrane proteins P2 from Haemophilus influenzae, FomA from Fusobacterium nucleatum and PorB from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Kattner, Christof; Pfennig, Sabrina; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial porins are major outer membrane proteins that function as essential solute transporters between the bacteria and the extracellular environment. Structural features of porins are also recognized by eukaryotic cell receptors involved in innate and adaptive immunity. To better investigate the function of porins, proper refolding is necessary following purification from inclusion bodies [1, 2]. Using a single-step size exclusion chromatographic method, we have purified three major porins from pathogenic bacteria, the OmpP2 (P2) from Haemophilus influenzae, FomA from Fusobacterium nucleatum and PorB from Neisseria meningitidis, at high yield and report their unique solute transport activity with size exclusion limit. Furthermore, we have optimized their purification method and achieved improvement of their thermostability for facilitating functional and structural analyses.

  20. Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, porA, sequence type (ST), and genomic presence of IS1301 in group B meningococcal ST269 clonal complex isolates from England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Lucidarme, Jay; Comanducci, Maurizio; Findlow, Jamie; Gray, Stephen J; Kaczmarski, Edward B; Guiver, Malcolm; Kugelberg, Elisabeth; Vallely, Pamela J; Oster, Philipp; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Bambini, Stefania; Muzzi, Alessandro; Tang, Christoph M; Borrow, Ray

    2009-11-01

    Highly effective glycoconjugate vaccines exist against four of the five major pathogenic groups of meningococci: A, C, W-135, and Y. An equivalent vaccine against group B meningococci (menB) has remained elusive due to the poorly immunogenic capsular polysaccharide. A promising alternative, the investigational recombinant menB (rMenB)- outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine, contains fHBP, NHBA (previously GNA2132), NadA, and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccine. MenB currently accounts for 90% of meningococcal disease in England and Wales, where the multilocus sequence type (ST) 269 (ST269) clonal complex (cc269) has recently expanded to account for a third of menB cases. To assess the potential cc269 coverage of the rMenB-OMV vaccine, English and Welsh cc269 isolates from the past decade were genetically characterized with respect to fHBP, NHBA, and NadA. All of the isolates harbored fHbp and nhba alleles, while 98% of the cc269 isolates were devoid of nadA. Subvariant profiling of fHbp, nhba, and porA against STs revealed the presence of two broadly distinct and well-defined clusters of isolates, centered around ST269 and ST275, respectively. An additional molecular marker, insertion sequence IS1301, was found to be present in 100% and <2% of isolates of the respective clusters. On the basis of the genetic data, the potential rMenB-OMV coverage of cc269 in England and Wales is high (up to 100%) within both clusters. Expression studies and serum bactericidal antibody assays will serve to enhance predictions of coverage and will augment ongoing studies regarding the significance of IS1301 within the ST269 cluster.

  1. Eficacia de la detección sistemática de la gripe en las fronteras en los viajeros que llegan por vía aérea*

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Patricia C.; Jennings, Lance C.; Duncan, Alasdair R.; Brunton, Cheryl R.; Baker, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Se midieron los síntomas y la prevalencia de la gripe (también llamada influenza), así como la eficacia del mecanismo de detección sistemática basado en los síntomas y la temperatura para diagnosticar la gripe en viajeros internacionales que llegaban por vía aérea. Métodos. El presente estudio transversal recopiló datos de viajeros que llegaron al aeropuerto internacional de Christchurch (Nueva Zelandia) en el invierno del 2008 mediante un cuestionario de salud, medición de la temperatura y toma de muestras de las vías respiratorias. Resultados. De los viajeros, 15 976 (68%) entregaron los formularios completos. De ellos, 17% notificaron al menos un síntoma de gripe; los síntomas más comunes fueron rinorrea o congestión nasal (10%) y tos (8%). Se tomaron muestras de las vías respiratorias de 3 769 viajeros. La prevalencia estimada de la gripe fue de 1,1% (4% en las personas sintomáticas, 0,2% en las asintomáticas). La sensibilidad de los criterios de detección varió de 84% para “cualquier síntoma” a 3% para la fiebre de 37,8 °C o mayor. El valor predictivo positivo fue bajo para todos los criterios. Conclusiones. El método de detección sistemática en las fronteras mediante la autonotificación de síntomas y la toma de la temperatura presenta limitaciones para impedir que una gripe pandémica entre en un país. Basarse en criterios como “cualquier síntoma” o la tos haría que se investigara a varias personas no infectadas, mientras que algunas personas infectadas pasarían inadvertidas. Si se usaran criterios más específicos como la fiebre, la mayoría de las personas infectadas entrarían en el país a pesar del mecanismo de detección.

  2. Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibility in Barcelona: penA, ponA, mtrR, and porB mutations and NG-MAST sequence types associated with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins.

    PubMed

    Serra-Pladevall, J; Barberá, M J; Rodriguez, S; Bartolomé-Comas, R; Roig, G; Juvé, R; Andreu, A

    2016-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) in our area, to analyze the molecular mechanisms involved in cephalosporins resistance, and to undertake molecular typing of our NG strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using the Etest. The genes penA, mtrR, penB, and ponA were studied. Molecular typing was performed by N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing. Of 329 strains analyzed in 2013, none showed high-level cephalosporin resistance, but 8.2 % had resistance to cefixime [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) > 0.125 μg/mL] and 0.6 % to ceftriaxone (MIC > 0.125 μg/mL). Azithromycin resistance was documented in 4.3 % and ciprofloxacin resistance in 49.2 %. Among 48 strains with an MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL to cefixime, 58.3 % showed the penA mosaic pattern XXXIV, 98 % a Leu → Pro substitution at position 421 of the ponA gene, 100 % amino acid changes at positions 101 and 102 of the PorB1b porin, and 87.5 % of strains an adenine deletion in the promoter region of the MtrC-D-E efflux pump. A significant difference between strains with and without decreased cephalosporin susceptibility (MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL) was observed for these four genes. Of the 48 strains with an MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL to cefixime, 43.8 % belonged to the genogroup G1407 and 27.1 % belonged to the genogroup G2400. A significant association of G1407 with decreased susceptibility (MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL) and G2992 with susceptibility was found, and also between G1407 and mosaic pattern XXXIV and between G2400 and A501T substitution in penA. The NG resistance rate in our area is higher than the median of Europe. We have detected the emergence of G2400, which may be a source of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:27255221

  3. Construction and Functional Activities of Chimeric Mouse-Human Immunoglobulin G and Immunoglobulin M Antibodies against the Neisseria meningitidis PorA P1.7 and P1.16 Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Michaelsen, Terje E.; Ihle, Øistein; Beckstrøm, Karen Johanne; Herstad, Tove K.; Kolberg, Jan; Høiby, E. Arne; Aase, Audun

    2003-01-01

    We studied the in vitro protective activities of human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG3, and IgM antibodies against group B meningococci by constructing sets of chimeric mouse-human antibodies (chIgG1, chIgG3, and chIgM, respectively) with identical binding regions against the P1.7 and P1.16 epitopes on PorA. This was done by cloning the V genes of three mouse hybridoma antibodies and subsequently transfecting vectors containing the homologous heavy- and light-chain genes into NSO cells. Cell clones secreting intact human chIgG1, chIgG3, or chIgM antibodies originating from three parent mouse antibodies were isolated. The functional affinities appeared to be similar for all human isotypes and surprisingly also for the pentameric chIgM antibody. chIgG1 exhibited greater serum bactericidal activity (SBA) than chIgG3, while chIgG3 was more efficient in inducing a respiratory burst (RB) associated with opsonophagocytosis than chIgG1 was. On the other hand, chIgM exhibited SBA similar to that of chIgG1, but it exhibited much higher RB activity than chIgG3 and chIgG1 exhibited. The antibodies against the P1.16 epitope were more efficient in terms of SBA than the antibodies against the P1.7 epitope were; thus, 10- to 40-fold-lower concentrations of antibodies against P1.16 than of antibodies against P1.7 were needed to induce SBA. On the other hand, antibodies against these epitopes were equally effective in inducing RB. Our results revealed differences in the functional activities of human chIgG1, chIgG3, and chIgM antibodies against meningococci, which might influence their protective effects against meningococcal disease. PMID:14500492

  4. Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, porA, and sequence type in group B meningococcal case isolates collected in England and Wales during January 2008 and potential coverage of an investigational group B meningococcal vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lucidarme, Jay; Comanducci, Maurizio; Findlow, Jamie; Gray, Stephen J; Kaczmarski, Edward B; Guiver, Malcolm; Vallely, Pamela J; Oster, Philipp; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Bambini, Stefania; Muzzi, Alessandro; Borrow, Ray

    2010-06-01

    Invasive disease caused by meningococcal capsular groups A, C, W-135, and Y is now preventable by means of glycoconjugate vaccines that target their respective polysaccharide capsules. The capsule of group B meningococci (MenB) is poorly immunogenic and may induce autoimmunity. Vaccines based on the major immunodominant surface porin, PorA, are effective against clonal epidemics but, thus far, have a limited scope of coverage against the wider MenB population at large. In an alternative approach, the first-generation, investigational, recombinant MenB (rMenB) plus outer membrane vesicle (OMV) (rMenB-OMV) vaccine contains a number of relatively conserved surface proteins, fHBP, NHBA (previously GNA2132), and NadA, alongside PorA P1.4-containing OMVs from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccine. MenB currently accounts for approximately 90% of cases of meningococcal disease in England and Wales. To assess potential rMenB-OMV vaccine coverage of pathogenic MenB isolates within this region, all English and Welsh MenB case isolates from January 2008 (n = 87) were genetically characterized with respect to fHBP, NHBA, NadA, and PorA. Alleles for fHbp, nhba, and porA were identified in all of the isolates, of which 22% were also found to harbor nadA alleles. On the basis of genotypic data and predicted immunological cross-reactivity, the potential level of rMenB-OMV vaccine coverage in England and Wales ranges from 66% to 100%.

  5. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Versus Bacterial Culture in Detection of Organisms in Otitis Media with Effusion (OME) in Children.

    PubMed

    Aly, Balegh H; Hamad, Mostafa S; Mohey, Mervat; Amen, Sameh

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare between polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and bacterial culture in detection of Streptococcus Pneumonia and M. Catarrhalis in otitis media with effusion (OME) in children. Fifty patients having OME were included in this study between 2003 and 2008. Myringotomy and tympanostomy tube insertion were done in every patient and the middle ear effusion samples were aspirated. The samples were subjected to bacteriological study in the form of culture and molecular study in the form of PCR using JM201/202-204 primer probe set for both S. pneumonia and M. catarrhalis. The results of Bacterial cultures are as follows: five cases (10%) were culture positive for S. pneumonia. Six cases (12%) were culture positive for M. catarrhalis. Only one case (2%) showed positively for both S. pneumonia and M. catarrhalis. Polymerase chain reaction test shows that 18 cases (36%) were positive for S. pneumonia, 22 cases (44%) were positive for M. catarrhalis, 6 cases (12%) were positive for both organism and 4 cases (8%) were negative. The difference between the proportion of culture positive and PCR positive specimens for both organisms individually and collectively was significant (P < 0.001). From our study we can conclude that PCR is more accurate than bacterial culture in detection of organisms in middle ear fluid in OME and that M. catarrhalis plays a significant rule in OME as it is the sole organism identified more than the other one by PCR.

  6. [Surveillance of in vitro susceptibilities to levofloxacin and various antibacterial agents for 11,762 clinical isolates obtained from 69 centers in 2013].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Keizo; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Ohno, Akira; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Murakami, Hinako

    2016-02-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing has been conducted continuously as postmarketing surveillance of levofloxacin (LVFX) since 1994. The present survey was undertaken to investigate in vitro susceptibilities of bacteria to 33 selected antibacterial agents, focusing on fluoroquinolones (FQs), using 11,762 clinical isolates for 19 species collected from 69 centers during 2013 in Japan. The common respiratory pathogens Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Haemophilus influenzae continue to show a high susceptibility to FQs, while the percentage of macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae was markedly increased to around 80%. With H. influenzae, the percentage of β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant isolates had been increasing continuously from 2002, but no increase was observed from 2010 to 2013 (25.8% in 2002, 40.0% in 2004, 50.1% in 2007, 57.9% in 2010, and 57.1% in 2013). Most strains of Enterobacteriaceae showed a high susceptibility to FQs, but the isolation frequency of levofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli including intermediate resistance was 34.4%, showing a continuous increase. Another Enterobacteriaceae member, Klebsiella pneumoniae, showed low resistance to FQs in contrast with E. coli. Regarding methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the percentage of FQ-susceptible isolates was low at 15.8-18.0%, with the exception of 55.3% susceptibility to sitafloxacin. On the other hand, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates showed high susceptibility to FQs, at 87.0-99.3%. With Enterococcusfaecium, the percentage of FQ-susceptible isolates was 6.8-24.7%. The percentage of FQ-susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 83.4-89.3% among isolates derived from urinary tract infections (UTIs), while that from respiratory tract infections (RTIs) was 88.1-93.7%. This was summarized as susceptibility to FQs over 80% in both infections. A continuous decrease in FQ-resistant P. aeruginosa was noted, especially

  7. [In vitro susceptibilities to levofloxacin and various antibacterial agents of 12,866 clinical isolates obtained from 72 centers in 2010].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Keizo; Ohno, Akira; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Iwata, Morihiro

    2012-06-01

    Postmarketing surveillance of levofloxacin (LVFX) has been conducted continuously since 1992. The present survey was performed to investigate in vitro susceptibility of recent clinical isolates in Japan to 30 selected antibacterial agents, focusing on fluoroquinolones (FQs). The common respiratory pathogens Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Haemophilus influenzae continue to show a high susceptibility to FQs. In contrast, widely-prevailing resistance to macrolides was markedly noted among S pneumoniae and S. pyogenes. Regarding H. influenzae, the prevalence of beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant isolates has been increasing year by year (25.8% in 2002, 40.0% in 2004, 50.1% in 2007, and 57.9% in 2010). Enterobacteriaceae showed high susceptibility to FQs, however, prevalence of LVFX-resistant Escherichia coli, including intermediate resistance, was 29.3%, showing an increase over time. Nevertheless, the increase in the prevalence of LVFX-resistant E. coli isolates has slowed since 2007 (8.2% in 2000, 11.8% in 2002, 18.8% in 2004, 26.2% in 2007, and 29.3% in 2010), suggesting the influence of LVFX 500 mg tablets since its approval in 2009. Another Enterobacteriaceae member, Klebsiella pneumoniae, showed low resistance to FQs, in contrast with E. coli. In methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the percentage of FQ-susceptible isolates was low, at 51.6% for susceptibility to sitafloxacin, and at only around 10% for susceptibility to other FQs. However, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates were highly susceptible to FQs, with the percentage ranging from 88.5% to 99.1%. The prevalence of FQs-resistant isolates in methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci was higher than that in methicillin-susceptible coagulase-negative staphylococci, although it was lower than the prevalence of FQ-resistance in MRSA. The prevalence of FQs-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates derived from

  8. [The tonsils and adenoids as a site of infection and the cause of obstruction].

    PubMed

    Battistini, A; Siepe, F; Marvasi, R

    1998-01-01

    The failure to eradicate group A beta-hemolytic streptococci from the pharynx is partly due to a low compliance, but above all, an alteration of the oropharyngeal microbiological flora: reduction of alpha-haemolytic streptococci which inhibit group A beta-hemolytic streptococci and increase of microorganisms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis. These latter act indirectly destroying the beta-lactamic ring of penicillins. However, this obstacle is overcome by the use of antibiotics which do not contain beta-lactamic rings such as macrolides or associating amoxicillin with clavulanic acid or with new cephalosporins which are more resistant to beta lactamases. To restrict the diffusion of resistance to antibiotics, it is essential to limit their use diagnosing streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis more precisely, thanks to an improved use of micro-biological diagnostic tests and by a more extended use of tonsillectomy in recurrent tonsillitis (more than 6-7 in 1-2 years). Adenoiditis is closely related to the post nasal drip syndrome, to recurrent otitis media and to otitis media with effusion. All these situations could, therefore, represent an indication, although not well defined, for adenoidectomy. Nasopharyngeal obstruction due to adeno-tonsillar hypertrophy becomes critical during sleep when the hypotony of the upper airway muscles becomes additional to the anatomical obstruction. At this point the inspiratory effort required and the consequent decrease of intra airway pressure increase the pharyngeal obstruction suctioning the pharyngeal walls toward the median line. The resulting clinical picture is defined as sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) due to adenotonsillar hypertrophy (idiopathic), to be distinguished from SDB due to cranio-facial abnormalities or neuromuscular diseases. SDB includes both the more serious sleep apnea syndrome and the less severe upper airway respiratory resistance syndrome. A combination of

  9. New halide-centered discrete Ag(I)(8) cubic clusters containing diselenophosphate ligands, [Ag(8)(X)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)](6)](PF(6)) (X = Cl, Br; R = Et, Pr, (i)Pr): syntheses, structures, and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Liu, C W; Haia, Hsien-Chung; Hung, Chiu-Mine; Santra, Bidyut Kumar; Liaw, Ben-Jie; Lin, Zhenyang; Wang, Ju-Chun

    2004-07-12

    Six clusters Ag(8)(micro(8)-X)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)](6)(PF(6)) (R = Et, X = Cl, 1a, X = Br, 1b; R = Pr, X = Cl, 2a, X = Br, 2b; R = (i)Pr, X = Cl, 3a, X = Br, 3b) were isolated from the reaction of [Ag(CH(3)CN)(4)](PF(6)), NH(4)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)], and Bu(4)NX in a molar ratio of 4:3:1 in CH(2)X(2). Positive FAB mass spectra show m/z peaks at 2573.2 for 1a, 2617.3 for 1b, 2740.9 for 2a, 2786.9 for 2b, 2742.3 for 3a, and 2787.0 for 3b due to respective molecular cation, (M - PF(6))(+). (31)P NMR spectra of 1a-3b display a singlet at delta 82.3, 81.5, 82.9, 81.7, 76.3, and 75.8 ppm with a set of satellites (J(PSe) = 661, 664, 652, 652, 656, and 656 Hz, respectively). The X-ray structure (1a-2b) consists of a discrete cationic cluster in which eight silver ions are linked by six diselenophosphate ligands and a central micro(8)-Cl or micro(8)-Br ion with a noncoordinating PF(6)(-) anion. The shape of the molecule is a halide-centered distorted Ag(8) cubic cluster. The dsep ligand exhibits a tetrametallic tetraconnective (micro(2), micro(2)) coordination pattern, and each caps on a square face of the cube. Each silver atom of the cube is coordinated by three selenium atoms and the central chloride or bromide ion. Additionally, molecular orbital calculations at the B3LYP level of the density functional theory have been carried out to study the Ag-micro(8)-X (X = Cl, Br) interactions for cluster cations [Ag(8)(micro(8)-X)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)](6)](+). Calculations show very weak bonding interactions exist between micro(8)-X and Ag atoms of the cube. PMID:15236560

  10. La busqueda textual por computadora (Textual Search by Computer)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Ned J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the use of the computer program EDIT for textual searches to locate a certain programmed word or word root. In the examples explained here, the vocabulary search is performed on poetry and allows examination of the metaphorical and conceptual poetic atmosphere achieved through word use. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  11. Síndrome del Outlet Torácico: ¿Una Patología Siempre Quirúrgica? Análisis de una Serie de 31 Cirugías Realizadas por Vía Supraclavicular Serie clínica

    PubMed Central

    Socolovsky, Mariano; Di Masi, Gilda; Binaghi, Daniela; Campero, Álvaro; Páez, Miguel Domínguez; Dubrovsky, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El síndrome de outlet torácico es una compresión del plexo braquial que suscita polémica. Se clasifica en Outlet Torácico Verdadero o neurogénico (OTV) y Outlet Torácico Disputado o no neurogénico (OTD). El primero presenta síntomas motores en la mano, mientras que el segundo sólo síntomas sensitivos en el miembro superior. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los resultados obtenidos en una serie de 31 cirugías. Métodos: Se analizaron las cirugías de nervios efectuadas entre 2003-2012, tomando los diagnósticos de outlet torácico cuyo período de seguimiento post-operatorio mínimo fuera de 6 meses. Se buscaron los siguientes datos: edad, sexo, presencia de síntomas sensitivos y/o motores, clasificación, resultado de los estudios neurofisiológicos y de imágenes, resultado de la cirugía, complicaciones post-operatorias y recidivas. Resultados: Se incluyeron 31 cirugías realizadas en 30 pacientes, 9 OTV (8 mujeres) de 24.3 años, y 21 con OTD (18 mujeres) de 37.4 años de edad en promedio. Un 90% presentaron alteraciones neurofisiológicas preoperatorias, y 66,6% imagenológicas. En el intraoperatorio, el 100% de los OTV presentó una alteración anatómica relacionada con la sintomatología, hecho observado sólo en el 36.7% de los OTD operados. El 87,5% de los OTV mejoraron sensitivamente, mientras que 77,7% mejoraron la atrofia. Por el contrario, 45.4% de los OTD mejoraron permanentemente, 36.3% no tuvieron cambios, 13.6% mejoraron transitoriamente y 4.5% (un caso) empeoró. Las complicaciones post-operatorias fueron más frecuentes aunque transitorias en el grupo de OTV (3 casos sobre 9 operados, 33.3%) que en los OTD (3 casos sobre 22, un 13.6%). Conclusión: El OTV suele mayormente mejorar luego de la cirugía, igual que el OTD aunque en una proporción mucho menor. Estos hallazgos coinciden con otros reportes recientes de esta patología. PMID:25165614

  12. A Comparison Between PSRK and GERG-2004 Equation of State for Simulation of Non-Isothermal Compressible Natural Gases Mixed with Hydrogen in Pipelines / Porównanie równań stanu opracowanych według metody PSRK oraz GERG-2004 wykorzystanych do symulacji zachowania ściśliwych mieszanin gazu ziemnego i wodoru w rurociągach, w warunkach przepływów nie-izotermicznych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uilhoorn, Frits E.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, the GERG-2004 equation of state based on a multi-fluid approximation explicit in the reduced Helmholtz energy is compared with the predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong group contribution method. In the analysis, both equations of state are compared by simulating a non-isothermal transient flow of natural gas and mixed hydrogen-natural gas in pipelines. Besides the flow conditions also linepack-energy and energy consumption of the compressor station are computed. The gas flow is described by a set of partial differential equations resulting from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. A pipeline section of the Yamal-Europe gas pipeline on Polish territory has been selected for the case study. W artykule dokonano porównania wyników uzyskanych przy wykorzystaniu równania stanu GERG- 2004 opartego na jawnym przybliżeniu wyników dla wielu cieczy w oparciu o zredukowaną energię Helmhotza oraz wyników uzyskanych w oparciu o metodę Soave-Redlich Kwonga. Obydwa równania stanu porównano poprzez przeprowadzenie symulacji stanów przejściowych przepływów gazu ziemnego oraz mieszanin gazu ziemnego i wodoru w rurociągach w warunkach przepływów nie-izotermicznych. Oprócz warunków przepływu, określono energię w napełnionym układzie oraz zużycie energii przez stację kompresora. Przepływ gazu opisano zbiorem równań różniczkowych cząstkowych, wyprowadzonych w oparciu o prawa zachowania masy, pędu i energii. Jako studium przypadku wybrano fragment rurociągu jamalskiego (Yamal- Europa) przebiegającego przez terytorium Polski.

  13. See the World on the Internet: Tips for Parents of Young Readers--and "Surfers" = Vea el mundo por Internet: Ideas por padres de jovenes lectores y exploradores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jeanette

    Regardless of whether a parent has Internet access at home, it is essential that parents learn with their children and be aware of where their travels on the Internet are taking them. Many libraries have Internet workshops for parents or children or both. In the excitement of looking at sites, children may not even realize they are reading. Many…

  14. Verification and validation interim report for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    This Verification and Validation (V/V) interim report summarizes to date the results of the V/V tasks performed in each of the following life cycle phases: concept, requirements, design, implementation, test, installation and checkout, and operation and maintenance. At the end of the installation and checkout phase, the V/V final report will be issued. This interim report contains or references the following for each phase: Description of V/V tasks performed; Summary of task results; Summary of anomalies and resolution; Assessment of system quality; Recommendations.

  15. 21 CFR 524.1044e - Gentamicin spray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Conditions of use in cattle—(1) Amount. Hold the sprayer upright 3 to 6 inches from the affected eye, with the opening directed towards the eye, and pump once. Treat once daily for up to 3 days. (2... Moraxella bovis. (3) Limitations. Conditions other than bacterial infections of the bovine eye...

  16. 21 CFR 524.1044e - Gentamicin sulfate spray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is indicated for the treatment of pink eye in cattle... inches from the affected eye, with the opening directed towards the eye, and pumped once. It is advisable... eye and infectious keratoconjunctivitis caused by Moraxella bovis may produce similar signs....

  17. 21 CFR 524.1044e - Gentamicin sulfate spray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is indicated for the treatment of pink eye in cattle... inches from the affected eye, with the opening directed towards the eye, and pumped once. It is advisable... eye and infectious keratoconjunctivitis caused by Moraxella bovis may produce similar signs....

  18. El Titulo IX y La Discriminacion por Sexo (Title IX and Sex Discrimination).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance. This brochure outlines the responsibilities of education programs and activities covered by Title IX, the responsibilities of the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) in enforcing…

  19. Looking for a Job: Step by Step = Buscando Trabajo: Paso por Paso.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Patricia

    This bilingual document provides guidelines and learning activities to assist migrant workers in looking for a job. The document covers the following areas: (1) a checklist providing an overview of job search skills; (2) developing a fact sheet of personal information; (3) listing good work qualities; (4) identifying references and securing…

  20. Luchando por una educacion: A Qualitative Understanding of Undocumented Latina/o College Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Elvia Lorena

    2013-01-01

    The current qualitative study explored the factors and resources that motivate undocumented Latino/a college students to persist in higher education. Through the data obtained from the four qualitative open-ended survey questions, a content analysis revealed specific codes, themes, and subthemes addressing the factors and resources that motivate…

  1. Enfermedad diarreica aguda por Escherichia coli patógenas en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G.

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Las cepas de E. coli patógenas intestinales son causas importantes de la enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA) en niños menores de 5 años en América Latina, África y Asia y están asociadas a alta mortalidad en niños en las comunidades más pobres de África y el Sudeste Asiático. Estudios sobre el papel de las E. coli patógenas intestinales en la EDA infantil en Colombia y otros países de América Latina son limitados debido a la carencia de ensayos para detección de estos patógenos en los laboratorios clínicos de centros de salud. Estudios recientes han reportado la detección de E. coli patógenas intestinales en Colombia, siendo la E. coli enterotoxigénica la cepa más frecuentemente asociada a diarrea en niños menores de 5 años. Otros patógenos detectados en estos pacientes incluyen las E. coli enteroagregativa, enteropatógena, productora de toxina Shiga, y de adherencia difusa. Con base en estudios que reportan la presencia de E. coli productora de toxina Shiga y E. coli enteroagregativa en carnes y vegetales en supermercados, se cree que productos alimentarios contaminados contribuyen a la transmisión de estos patógenos y a la infección del huésped susceptible. Más estudios son necesarios para evaluar los mecanismos de transmisión, el impacto en la epidemiologia de la EDA, y las pautas de manejo y prevención de estos patógenos que afectan la población pediátrica en Colombia. PMID:25491457

  2. Producao d Dijatos por Dupla Troca de Pomeron Exclusiva no Experimento D0

    SciTech Connect

    Murilo Santana Rangel

    2008-01-01

    The first search for exclusive diffractive dijet production with invariant mass ≳ 100 GeV in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider is performed. The set of data used is the Run IIa, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 30 pb-1 of p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV taken with the D0 detector. At 95% CL, an upper limit for the ratio between the number of diffractive exclusive events and the number of non diffractive events is set to be 7.5 x 10-6, excluding two of the three models proposed to explain this production.

  3. Renovando la Esperanza por una Educacion sin Exclusiones (Rekindling the Hope for an Education without Exclusion).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revista Interamericana de Educacion de Adultos, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Articles in this issue, written in Spanish, focus on the following: current status and outlook of youth and adult education; opening statement of the 50th anniversary commemoration; regional framework for the education of youth and adults in Latin America and the Caribbean; interculturalism and the education of youth and adults; participation of…

  4. Incorporating the viewer's point of regard (POR) in gaze-contingent virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    1998-04-01

    Awareness of the viewer's gaze position in a virtual environment can lead to significant savings in scene processing if fine detail information is presented `just in time' only at locations corresponding to the participant's gaze, i.e., in a gaze-contingent manner. This paper describes the evolution of a gaze-contingent video display system, `gcv'. Gcv is a multithreaded, real-time program which displays digital video and simultaneously tracks a subject's eye movements. Treating the eye tracker as an ordinary positional sensor, gcv's architecture shares many similarities with contemporary virtual environment system designs. Performance of the present system is evaluated in terms of (1) eye tracker sampling latency and video transfer rates, and (2) measured eye tracker accuracy and slippage. The programming strategies developed for incorporating the viewer's point-of-regard are independent of proprietary eye tracking equipment and are applicable to general gaze- contingent virtual environment designs.

  5. Phantom of RAMSES (POR): A new Milgromian dynamicsN-body code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüghausen, Fabian; Famaey, Benoit; Kroupa, Pavel

    2015-02-01

    Since its first formulation in 1983, Milgromian dynamics (MOND) has been very successful in predicting the gravitational potential of galaxies from the distribution of baryons alone, including general scaling relations and detailed rotation curves of large statistical samples of individual galaxies covering a large range of masses and sizes. Most predictions however rely on static models, and only a handful of N-body codes have been developed over the years to investigate the consequences of the Milgromian framework for the dynamics of complex evolving dynamical systems. In this work, we present a new Milgromian N-body code, which is a customized version of the RAMSES code (Teyssier 2002) and thus comes with all its features: it includes particles and gas dynamics, and importantly allows for high spatial resolution of complex systems due to the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) technique. It further allows the direct comparison between Milgromian simulations and standard Newtonian simulations with dark matter particles. We provide basic tests of this customized code and demonstrate its performance by presenting N-body computations of dark-matter-free spherical equilibrium models as well as dark-matter-free disk galaxies in Milgromian dynamics.

  6. Pulsaciones excitadas por la quema de hidrógeno en enanas blancas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camisassa, M. E.; Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.

    2016-08-01

    Recent works show that low-mass white dwarfs derived from low-metallicity progenitors, in the absence of third dredge-up episodes during the asymptotic giant branch, are born with a hydrogen envelope thick enough to make stable hydrogen shell burning the most important energy source even at low luminosities. This extra source of energy delays the cooling times of these white dwarfs. Furthermore, in this type of stars some pulsational -modes could be excited by the epsilon mechanism due to the hydrogen shell burning. Motivated by these results, we decided to explore the pulsational properties of this type of stars, aimed at constraining hydrogen shell burning and the occurrence of third dredge-up during the AGB evolution of the progenitor stars. For this purpose, we have constructed nonadiabatic pulsation models of white dwarfs from low-metallicity progenitors with . Our calculations show that some modes are excited due to hydrogen shell burning.

  7. Home before You Know It = De regres en casa en un dos por tres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida Health Communications, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The arrival of a newborn requires a great deal of adjustment. Intended for new and expectant parents, this booklet and companion video provide practical advice and hands-on demonstrations of the essentials of mother and baby care, from birth to the first visit to the pediatrician. The first part of the booklet, which comes in both English- and…

  8. Language and La Academia, If English Works, Por Que Se Emplea Espanol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonz, Jon G.

    1978-01-01

    The dynamics of Mexican American nationalism reflected in the publications of the Academia de la Nueva Raza and in a 1971 work by Ricardo Sanchez are examined in this article. The connection between language and ideology is discussed in the context of Chicano nationalist writing. (GC)

  9. PREJUICIO Y DISTANCIA SOCIAL HACIA PERSONAS HOMOSEXUALES POR PARTE DE JÓVENES UNIVERSITARIOS

    PubMed Central

    Fernández Rodríguez, María del C.; Squiabro, José Calderón

    2014-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con el propósito de explorar actitudes de rechazo y distancia social hacia las personas gays y lesbianas (GL) en 565 universitarios. Se utilizó una escala para medir Prejuicio y otra escala para medir Distancia Social. Los participantes reflejaron niveles moderados de prejuicio y distancia social (DS) hacia las personas gays y lesbianas. Los varones (M=104.5, DT= 27.47) mostraron significativamente más prejuicio que las mujeres (M=98.8, DT= 23.41). Los hombres (M=22.7, DT= 7.00) mostraron significativamente mayor DS que las mujeres (M=21.1, DT= 5.41). Las personas que asisten con regularidad a la iglesia mostraron más prejuicio y DS que los que no asisten. Se analiza importancia de incluir el tema de la diversidad sexual a través del currículo para desmontar prejuicios hacia la comunidad homosexual. PMID:25606066

  10. Evolución de una protuberancia observada por el HASTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luoni, M. L.; Francile, C.

    Prominence eruptions are one of the most spectacular manifestations of solar activity; in addition to flares and coronal mass ejections. Both filaments and prominences are chromospheric material suspended in the corona by the magnetic field. Hence their importance as tracers of field ejections. Some parts of their magnetic structure are not well understood; especially with regard to the loss of stability. On 06 December 2010 the H-Alpha Telescope for Argentina (HASTA) observed a prominence in the eastern solar limb including when part of it was ejected. In this paper the evolution of the filament is analyzed; its structure before and after the eruption; determining parameters that characterize it from HASTA data. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  11. El Libro de la Escritura por Pinguino Tinto (The Writing Book, by Inky Penguin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ron

    Presented completely in Spanish and intended for elementary level students, this book offers 12 writing ideas and several suggestions on how students can make a book using their writing. Each writing idea is presented with a brief description (addressed to the student), several examples of student writing, and a blank page on which to write.…

  12. Teaching Probability for Conceptual Change (La Ensenanza de la Probabilidad por Cambio Conceptual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Cesar Saenz

    1998-01-01

    Presents a theoretical proposal of a methodology for the teaching of probability theory. Discusses the importance of the epistemological approach of Lakatos and the perspective of the conceptual change. Discusses research using a proposed didactic method with Spanish high school students (N=6). Concludes that significant differences on all…

  13. Master equipment list 500 CFM portable exhauster POR-005 skid C

    SciTech Connect

    KRISKOVICH, J.R.

    1999-07-08

    The Master Equipment List (MEL) lists all the major components of the 500 cfm exhauster PORO5. The purpose of this Master Equipment List is to provide basic information and references to other documents for the listed components.

  14. "Por Los Ojos De Madres": Latina Mothers' Understandings of College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Laura Jean; Martinez, Melissa Ann; Sáenz, Victor B.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, data from six focus groups with 30 Latina mothers in South Texas were analyzed utilizing a "funds of knowledge" approach to uncover their understandings of college readiness and their role in ensuring their children are college ready. Findings indicate that Latina mothers perceived college readiness in a holistic fashion,…

  15. Neuropatía periférica inducida por quimioterapia

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre un efecto secundario de la quimioterapia que causa dolor y malestar en las manos y los pies. También incluye información sobre los esfuerzos para mejorar las opciones de detección, tratamiento y prevención.

  16. Ensenando El Espanol por Medio de Accion (Teaching Spanish through Action).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Bertha

    A teaching guide containing 102 elementary to intermediate level Spanish lessons is presented. The lessons are based on the Total Physical Response technique of second language teaching. They follow the stages of first language acquisition: listening, speaking, and reading. Each of the ten units contains a list of new vocabulary words, individual…

  17. Production of UC-labeled gas in BACTEC Neisseria Differentiation kits by Neisseria cinerea

    SciTech Connect

    Boyce, J.M.; Mitchell, E.B. Jr.; Knapp, J.S.; Buttke, T.M.

    1985-09-01

    Six strains of Neisseria cinerea were tested in BACTEC Neisseria Differentiation kits (Johnston Laboratories, Inc., Towson, Md.), and all yielded positive glucose growth indices and negative maltose and fructose growth indices. These results were similar to those achieved with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. However, most of the N. cinerea isolates tested yielded 3-h glucose growth indices that were lower than those obtained with gonococci. UC-labeled gas was produced significantly faster by N. gonorrhoeae than by N. cinerea. Additional studies suggested that the UC-labeled gas produced by N. cinerea was carbon dioxide. N. cinerea strains were similar to Branhamella catarrhalis strains because both species failed to produce detectable acid from glucose, maltose, sucrose, fructose, and lactose in cysteine-tryptic agar media. However, in contrast to N. cinerea strains, B. catarrhalis strains did not metabolize glucose in BACTEC Neisseria Differentiation kits.

  18. Branhamella keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, W C

    1989-06-01

    A young male complained of monocular diplopia for over a year. Ophthalmic evaluation revealed gross corneal pannus in both eyes and clinical findings precipitated treatment for chronic chlamydial eye disease. The definitive pathogen isolated from both eyes was Branhamella catarrhalis. A cause of otitis media, sinusitis, and lower respiratory infections, Branhamella is a rare, opportunistic ocular pathogen which may be associated with meibomian gland dysfunction.

  19. 14C-[lignin]-lignocellulose biodegradation by bacteria isolated from polluted soil.

    PubMed

    Kumar, L; Rathore, V; Srivastava, H

    2001-06-01

    Four bacterial species [Branhamella catarrhalis (gram -ve), Brochothrix species (gram -ve), Micrococcus luteus (gram +ve) and Bacillus firmus (gram +ve)], isolated from the soil polluted with cane sugar factory effluents, were found capable of growing on solid media supplemented with indulin AT (a polymeric industrial lignin) as sole C source. All the four species could metabolize cinnamic acid (a non-hydroxylated phenylpropanoid) as sole carbon source with significant suppression on addition of readily metabolizable carbon source (glucose). However, Br. catarrhalis and Brochothrix sp. were capable of metabolizing ferulic acid, but could not do so on addition of glucose. Of the four species, Br. catarrhalis could evolve significant amount of 14CO2 from U-14C (lignin)-lignocellulose prepared from rice stalks (ca. 10% of the added radioactivity in 3 weeks), in addition to solubilization of another 11.7% radioactivity in culture filtrate. The other three species could not significantly evolve 14CO2, though a significant fraction of added 14C-lignin (6.1 to 11.2%) could be solubilized into culture filtrate, suggesting lack of ring-cleavage or other CO2 evolving mechanisms in these species.

  20. The infant airway microbiome in health and disease impacts later asthma development

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Shu Mei; Mok, Danny; Pham, Kym; Kusel, Merci; Serralha, Michael; Troy, Niamh; Holt, Barbara J.; Hales, Belinda J.; Walker, Michael L.; Hollams, Elysia; Bochkov, Yury A.; Grindle, Kristine; Johnston, Sebastian L.; Gern, James E.; Sly, Peter D.; Holt, Patrick G.; Holt, Kathryn E.; Inouye, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The nasopharynx (NP) is a reservoir for microbes associated with acute respiratory illnesses (ARI). The development of asthma is initiated during infancy, driven by airway inflammation associated with infections. Here, we report viral and bacterial community profiling of NP aspirates across a birth cohort, capturing all lower respiratory illnesses during their first year. Most infants were initially colonized with Staphylococcus or Corynebacterium before stable colonization with Alloiococcus or Moraxella, with transient incursions of Streptococcus, Moraxella or Haemophilus marking virus-associated ARIs. Our data identify the NP microbiome as a determinant for infection spread to the lower airways, severity of accompanying inflammatory symptoms, and risk for future asthma development. Early asymptomatic colonization with Streptococcus was a strong asthma predictor, and antibiotic usage disrupted asymptomatic colonization patterns. PMID:25865368

  1. Taxonomic Significance of Phenethyl Alcohol Production by Achromobacter Isolates from Fishery Sources1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, T. C.; Levin, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    The formation of phenethyl alcohol from L-phenylalanine and ethanol by achromobacter isolates of fishery origin was found to be taxonomically significant for such organisms. Phenylpyruvate, the direct oxidative deamination product of L-phenylalanine, was found to serve as an intermediate precursor to phenethyl alcohol formation. Among ten Acinetobacter isolates examined, none produced phenethyl alcohol. Among nine Moraxella isolates examined, one produced phenethyl alcohol. PMID:4422523

  2. Isolation and characterization by conventional methods and genetic transformation of Psychrobacter and Acinetobacter from fresh and spoiled meat, milk and cheese.

    PubMed

    Gennari, M; Parini, M; Volpon, D; Serio, M

    1992-01-01

    Of 126 samples of fresh and spoiled meat and dairy products, 40% were positive for the presence of Moraxella-like bacteria and 64% of Acinetobacter; 279 and 466 strains, respectively, were isolated and a part of these were tested by biochemical methods and DNA transformation assays. In some cases, the Moraxellaceae in the samples examined reached considerable quantitative levels, but their percentage in the microflora was generally low. Moraxella-like bacteria were predominant in fresh meat, Acinetobacter in spoiled meat and milk. Most acinetobacters belonged to biotype lwoffii (sensu lato) and all 90 strains tested were positive for DNA transformation with an auxotrophic Acinetobacter. Moraxella-like bacteria were identified as Psychrobacter immobilis in 96% of 103 transformation assays. Moraxellaceae show lipolytic activity but they are considered of low incidence in food spoilage. Only 3.7% of acinetobacters from dairy sources was able to produce ropy milk. Unlike strains from clinical isolates, psychrobacters and acinetobacters isolated from food often do not grow at 37 degrees C.

  3. Effect of crude extracts of selected actinomycetes on biofilm formation of A. schindleri, M. aci, and B. cereus.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Hafiz Ghulam Murtaza; Aftab, Usman; Sajid, Imran; Abbas, Zaigham; Sabri, Anjum Nasim

    2015-05-01

    Actinomycetes are well known group of gram positive bacteria for their potential to produce antibiotics. This study sought to assess the ability of the selected actinomycetes to control biofilm forming bacteria isolated from different dental plaque samples. On the basis of morphological differences three out of ten different dental plaque bacterial isolates were selected for further study. These isolates were biochemically and genetically characterized and were identified as Acinetobacter schinndleri, Moraxella aci, and Bacillus cereus. Antibiotic resistant profile was measured through disc diffusion method and found that all three isolates were moderately sensitive to ofloxacin and erythromycin and resistant to trimethoprim. Antibacterial activity of ten different Streptomyces strains was assessed through an agar plug and well diffusion method against three dental biofilm forming bacteria. Two Streptomyces strains named as S. erythrogriseus and S. labedae showed good antibacterial activity against Moraxella and Acinetobacter strains. Ability of the four active antibiotic producing strains to inhibit biofilm formation was assessed using microtiter biofilm detection assay. It was found that biofilm forming ability of Acinetobacter and Moraxella was inhibited by S. labedae an antibiotic producing strain, while S. macrosporeus can only inhibit biofilm formation by B. cereus.

  4. La trama celeste: por qué educar en astronomía. Una oportunidad de aprendizajes múltiples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, B.

    2016-08-01

    Astronomy education at all levels has been an issue addressed by the International Astronomical Union as part of its 2010--2020 plan. The content on astronomical topics are in the curriculum at primary and secondary levels worldwide. Being a cross-discipline, astronomy is also a science that allows to introduce students to the study of the nature in a non-confrontational way: no one is indifferent to their concepts and discoveries. The International Astronomical Union, through its Commission on Education and Development of Astronomy, has implemented, sponsored and carried out over the past five years two special programs, one about didactics of astronomy for teachers of middle level and another one for the transmission of astronomical topics for the disabled. In this presentation, achievements and impact of these programs are shared.

  5. Distribución superficial de impactos en Iapetus originada por el remanente de una colisión

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoppetti, F. A.; Leiva, A. M.; Briozzo, C. B.

    2015-08-01

    By means of Circular Restricted Three Body Problem Saturn--Iapetus, we analize potential impact distributions on the surface of Iapetus, originated from considering a low-energy population generated as remnants of a collisional event occurred in the past on the surface of this satellite. The results are analized in order to offer a new approach to explain the origin of the albedo dichotomy observed on Iapetus.

  6. Como ayudar a los padres a prevenir el envenenamiento por plomo (Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton

    Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. This Spanish-language Digest summarizes some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies…

  7. Reconnaissance evaluation of Honduran geothermal sites. Una evaluacion por medio de reconocimiento de seis areas geotermicas en Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Eppler, D.; Fakundiny, R.; Ritchie, A.

    1986-12-01

    Six geothermal spring sites were selected on the basis of preliminary investigations conducted in Honduras over the last decade and were evaluated in terms of their development potential. Of the six, the Platanares and San Ignacio sites have high base temperatures and high surface fluid discharge rates and appear to have the best potential for further development as sources of electrical power. A third site, Azacualpa, has a high enough base temperature and discharge rate to be considered as a back-up, but the logistical problems involved in geophysical surveys make it less attractive than the two primary sites. Of the remaining three sites, Pavana may be a source of direct-use heat for local agricultural processing. Sambo Creek and El Olivar have either severe logistical problems that would impede further investigation and development or base temperatures and flow rates that are too low to warrant detailed investigation at this time.

  8. En otras palabras: Perfeccionamiento del espanol por medio de la traduccion (In Other Words: Perfecting Spanish Language Skills through Translation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, Patricia V.; Lunsford, Ernest J.

    This publication, written primarily in Spanish, is an activity book designed to teach Spanish through translation based on the theory that, in order to produce an acceptable translation, students must focus their attention on lexical and grammatical detail. The book combines incisive grammar explanations, relevant lexical information, and a wide…

  9. Monitoreo óptico de eta-Carina durante el pasaje por el periastro en 2014.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Lajús, E.; Salerno, N. E.; Scalia, M. C.; Ramos, X. S.; Giudici, F. N.; Gamen, R. C.

    2015-08-01

    We present the H light curves resulting from the 2013 and 2014 observing seasons of Car as well as its spectral evolution, including the latest ``event'' occurred in mid-2014. The direct CCD observations were made with the telescope ``VS Niemela'' the Observatory of La Plata, and spectroscopic observations were made with the telescope ``J. Sahade'' of Casleo, Argentina.

  10. [How fastidious are the so-called non-fastidious neisseriae? (AUTHOR'S TRANSL)].

    PubMed

    Fahr, A M; Berger, U

    1975-01-01

    75 strains of all the so-called non-fastidious Neisseria species were examined for their ability to grow on blood and nutrient agar at temperatures between 22 degrees C and 45 degrees C. The result was that only Neisseria mucosa var. mucosa, N. catarrhalis, N. ovis and N. canis grow sufficiently on nutrient agar at 22 degrees C. N. lactamica has an even narrower range of of growth (30-37 degrees C) than meningococci. Therefore, the statement in Bergey's Mnaual that the saprophytic neisseriae can be separated from the pathogenic species by their minor needs for temperature and media should be corrected.

  11. Bacteriological Investigation of Infectious Keratoconjunctivitis in Norwegian Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Åkerstedt, J; Hofshagen, M

    2004-01-01

    Contagious keratoconjunctivitis is a rather common disease in Norwegian sheep. Since the knowledge of its aetiology is limited, the present study was performed to determine the microorganisms involved. Local veterinarians throughout the country collected conjunctival swabs from both sick (n = 43) and healthy (n = 42) sheep on 15 farms with outbreaks of ovine keratoconjunctivitis, and further from healthy sheep (n = 50) on 17 farms not showing any signs of conjunctival disease. All samples were cultivated for bacteria and mycoplasma. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from 3 cases (1%) in one single herd. Staphylococcus aureus (5%), Corynebacterium spp. (2%) and Escherichia coli (4%) were isolated only in herds with keratoconjunctivitis, but from both sick and healthy animals. Moraxella (Branhamella) ovis was isolated from 28% of sampled animals in affected herds and from 10% of sampled animals in healthy herds. The corresponding numbers for Moraxella spp. were 9%/12%, for Pseudomonas spp. 7%/8%, for Staphylococcus spp. 22%/22%, for Bacillus spp. 12%/14%, for Micrococcus spp. 6%/2% and for Streptococcus/Enterococcus spp. 2%/2%. Mycoplasma conjunctivae was isolated from 16 animals with keratoconjunctivitis (37%) and from 3 animals without clinical signs (7%) in farms with keratoconjunctivitis. In farms without clinical signs of keratoconjunctivitis, M. conjunctivae was isolated in 4 animals (8%). To our knowledge, this is the first time M. conjunctivae has been isolated in Norway. Other predisposing agents found were Moraxella (Branhamella) ovis and Listeria monocytogenes. The etiological importance of different microorganisms in ovine keratoconjunctivitis seems to vary; some are probably only present as secondary invaders. Other possible causes of ovine keratoconjunctivitis in Norway, such as Chlamydia psittaci, remain to be investigated. PMID:15535083

  12. BMY 28100, a new oral cephalosporin.

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, F; Pursiano, T A; Buck, R E; Tsai, Y H; Chisholm, D R; Misiek, M; Desiderio, J V; Kessler, R E

    1987-01-01

    BMY 28100, a new oral cephalosporin with a (Z)-propenyl side chain at the 3 position and a p-hydroxyphenylglycyl substituent at the 7 position, was evaluated in comparison with cefaclor and cephalexin and, when appropriate, ampicillin and vancomycin. In vitro, BMY 28100 was more active than the reference cephalosporins against streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Listeria monocytogenes, Haemophilus influenzae, Propionibacterium acnes, Clostridium perfringens, and Clostridium difficile. BMY 28100 was comparable to cefaclor and more active than cephalexin against Staphylococcus saprophyticus and ampicillin-susceptible strains of Branhamella catarrhalis; but against ampicillin-resistant strains of B. catarrhalis, BMY 28100 was comparable to cephalexin and more active than cefaclor. Against Neisseria gonorrhoeae, BMY 28100 was comparable to cephalexin, but less active than cefaclor. Members of the family Enterobacteriaceae overall were equally susceptible to BMY 28100 and cefaclor but were less susceptible to cephalexin. In human serum, BMY 28100 was 45% protein bound. After an oral dose to mice, 82% of the drug was recovered in urine. The oral therapeutic efficacy of BMY 28100 in systemically infected mice reflected its activity in vitro. PMID:3105449

  13. Pulmonary clearance and phagocytic cell response to normal pharyngeal flora.

    PubMed

    Onofrio, J M; Shulkin, A N; Heidbrink, P J; Toews, G B; Pierce, A K

    1981-02-01

    Because human lungs are repetitively inoculated with the normal bacterial flora of the pharynx, we determined the pulmonary clearance of representative species after aerosol inoculation of a murine model, and characterized the phagocytic cell response by bronchoalveolar lavage. Viable bacteria remaining in the lungs at 1, 2, and 4 h were: Streptococcus sanguis, 24%, 8%, and 1%; Streptococcus salivarius, 49%, 24%, and 5%; Neisseria catarrhalis, 69%, 49%, and 22%. Clearance of Streptococcus sanguis was associated with a twofold increase in alveolar macrophages (p less than 0.05); Streptococcus salivarius evoked a doubling of alveolar macrophages and a 20-fold rise in granulocytes (p less than 0.05); the response to Neisseria catarrhalis was a 400-fold increase in granulocytes (p less than 0.05). Thus, normal pharyngeal organisms are cleared rapidly from the lung by a dual phagocytic cell system. It is speculated that bacteria-phagocyte interaction allows the possibility of lung injury from proteolytic enzymes released from either set of phagocytes.

  14. Selective bactericidal activity of nanopatterned superhydrophobic cicada Psaltoda claripennis wing surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Jafar; Webb, Hayden K; Truong, Vi Khanh; Pogodin, Sergey; Baulin, Vladimir A; Watson, Gregory S; Watson, Jolanta A; Crawford, Russell J; Ivanova, Elena P

    2013-10-01

    The nanopattern on the surface of Clanger cicada (Psaltoda claripennis) wings represents the first example of a new class of biomaterials that can kill bacteria on contact based solely on its physical surface structure. As such, they provide a model for the development of novel functional surfaces that possess an increased resistance to bacterial contamination and infection. Their effectiveness against a wide spectrum of bacteria, however, is yet to be established. Here, the bactericidal properties of the wings were tested against several bacterial species, possessing a range of combinations of morphology and cell wall type. The tested species were primarily pathogens, and included Bacillus subtilis, Branhamella catarrhalis, Escherichia coli, Planococcus maritimus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Staphylococcus aureus. The wings were found to consistently kill Gram-negative cells (i.e., B. catarrhalis, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and P. fluorescens), while Gram-positive cells (B. subtilis, P. maritimus, and S. aureus) remained resistant. The morphology of the cells did not appear to play any role in determining cell susceptibility. The bactericidal activity of the wing was also found to be quite efficient; 6.1 ± 1.5 × 10(6) P. aeruginosa cells in suspension were inactivated per square centimeter of wing surface after 30-min incubation. These findings demonstrate the potential for the development of selective bactericidal surfaces incorporating cicada wing nanopatterns into the design.

  15. Hydroxylamine oxidation in heterotrophic nitrate-reducing soil bacteria and purification of a hydroxylamine-cytochrome c oxidoreductase from a Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed

    Wehrfritz, J; Carter, J P; Spiro, S; Richardson, D J

    1996-12-01

    Hydroxylamine oxidation was measured in four recently isolated heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Moraxella, Arthrobacter and Aeromonas. A hydroxylamine-cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity was detected in periplasmic fractions of the Pseudomonas and Aeromonas spp. and in total soluble fractions of the Arthrobacter sp. A monomeric 19-kDa non-haem iron hydroxylamine-cytochrome c oxidoreductase was purified from the Pseudomonas species and shown to be similar to hydroxylamine-cytochrome c oxidoreductase of Paracoccus denitrificans.

  16. Biodegradation of Tributyltin (TBT) by Extremophile Bacteria from Atacama Desert and Speciation of Tin By-products.

    PubMed

    Yáñez, Jorge; Riffo, Paula; Santander, Paola; Mansilla, Héctor D; Mondaca, María Angélica; Campos, Víctor; Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri

    2015-07-01

    Biodegradation of tributyltin (TBT) by four tin resistant Gram negative bacteria isolated from extremely contaminated river sediments in the Atacama Desert in Chile was studied. Moraxella osloensis showed the greatest resistance and degradation capability of TBT, producing less toxic by-products, such as dibutyltin (DBT) and inorganic tin. In 7 days, approximately 80 % of TBT degradation was achieved, generating close to 20 % of DBT as degradation product. The degradation rate constant (k) was 0.022 [day(-1)] and TBT half-life (t1/2) in culture was 4.3 days. Debutylation is stated a probable mechanism of TBT degradation. PMID:25975619

  17. Physical mapping of BK virus DNA with SacI, MboII, and AluI restriction endonucleases.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, R C; Wu, R

    1978-01-01

    A new restriction endonuclease, SacI from Streptomyces achromogenes cleaves BK virus (strain MM) DNA into 3 fragments, whereas MboII from Moraxella bovis and AluI from Arthrobacter luteus give 22 and 30 fragments, respectively. All these specific DNA fragments were ordered and mapped on the viral genome by two methods first, by the reciprocal digestion method using uniformly 32P-labeled DNA; and second, by the partial digestion technique using the single-end 32P-labeled DNA. This study, together with those reported earlier, defined the location of 90 cleavage sites on the BK virus DNA. Images PMID:215783

  18. Advanced Decontamination Technologies: Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eun Joo; Ahn, Dong U.

    Bacterial food-borne illnesses account for an estimated 76 million cases, 325,000 hospitalizations, and 5,000 deaths each year in the United States (CDCP, 2005), and 5,300 food-borne outbreaks in Europe resulted in 5,330 hospitalizations and 24 deaths in 2005 (Aymerich, Picouet, & Monfort, 2008). Major food-borne pathogens of concern include Escherichia coli O157:H7, Campylobacter jejuni/coli, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum/perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Aeromonas hydrophylia, and Bacillus cereu, and spoilage microorganisms include Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter/Moraxella, Aeromonas, Alteromonas putrefaciens, Lactobacillus, and Brochothrix thermosphecta (Mead et al., 1999).

  19. Influence of outdoor winter environment on the course of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis

    SciTech Connect

    Kopecky, K.E.; Pugh, G.W. Jr.; McDonald, T.J.

    1981-11-01

    The effect of environmental conditions on the onset, severity, and duration of Moraxella bovis infection and subsequent clinical disease was studied. Twelve calves were used; 6 were maintained under usual isolated experimental conditions (inside), and 6 were kept under normal feedlot conditions (outside) during the winter (-20 to +15 C). The cattle housed inside had a higher infection rate, a milder disease, and longer duration of infection than did the cattle kept out side. Seemingly, the stress of the cold weather caused a more severe disease of shorter duration.

  20. Wavelength of ultraviolet radiation that enhances onset of clinical infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis

    SciTech Connect

    Kopecky, K.E.; Pugh, G.W. Jr.; Hughes, D.E.

    1980-09-01

    Cellulose acetate filtered ultraviolet (uv) radiation and unfiltered uv radiation were used on calves that were subsequently challenge exposed with Moraxella bovis. The onset, course, and severity of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) were studied. Ten calves irradiated with unfiltered uv had the disease 1 to 2 days after M bovis challenge exposure. Ten calves irradiated with filtered uv and 10 calves not irradiated manifested IBK in a similar manner. Evidence is presented to support the contention that the wavelengths (around 270 nm) which are eliminated by cellulose acetate enhance the course of IBK. The effects on IBK of environmentally increased solar uv radiation is also discussed.

  1. Culturable Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) in Southern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Junaid; Sagheer, Mehwish; Tabassum, Nazneen; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Using morphological analysis and biochemical testing, here for the first time, we determined the culturable gut bacterial flora (aerobes and facultative anaerobes) in the venomous Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) from South Asia. The findings revealed that these snakes inhabit potentially pathogenic bacteria including Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella sp., Moraxella sp., Bacillus sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Providencia rettgeri. These findings are of concern, as injury from snake bite can result in wound infections and tissue necrosis leading to sepsis/necrotizing fasciitis and/or expose consumers of snake meat/medicine in the community to infections. PMID:25002979

  2. Biodegradation of Tributyltin (TBT) by Extremophile Bacteria from Atacama Desert and Speciation of Tin By-products.

    PubMed

    Yáñez, Jorge; Riffo, Paula; Santander, Paola; Mansilla, Héctor D; Mondaca, María Angélica; Campos, Víctor; Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri

    2015-07-01

    Biodegradation of tributyltin (TBT) by four tin resistant Gram negative bacteria isolated from extremely contaminated river sediments in the Atacama Desert in Chile was studied. Moraxella osloensis showed the greatest resistance and degradation capability of TBT, producing less toxic by-products, such as dibutyltin (DBT) and inorganic tin. In 7 days, approximately 80 % of TBT degradation was achieved, generating close to 20 % of DBT as degradation product. The degradation rate constant (k) was 0.022 [day(-1)] and TBT half-life (t1/2) in culture was 4.3 days. Debutylation is stated a probable mechanism of TBT degradation.

  3. Culturable Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) in Southern Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Junaid; Sagheer, Mehwish; Tabassum, Nazneen; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Using morphological analysis and biochemical testing, here for the first time, we determined the culturable gut bacterial flora (aerobes and facultative anaerobes) in the venomous Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) from South Asia. The findings revealed that these snakes inhabit potentially pathogenic bacteria including Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella sp., Moraxella sp., Bacillus sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Providencia rettgeri. These findings are of concern, as injury from snake bite can result in wound infections and tissue necrosis leading to sepsis/necrotizing fasciitis and/or expose consumers of snake meat/medicine in the community to infections. PMID:25002979

  4. "Pig in a poke (gato por liebre)": the "mota" (Calophysus macropterus) fishery, molecular evidence of commercialization in Colombia and toxicological analyses.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Cristian; Cubillos, Juan Camilo; Gómez, Rigoberto; Trujillo, Fernando; Caballero, Susana

    2014-06-01

    Overfishing has affected the population abundance trends of many commercial fish species. In the Amazon, the fishery of a catfish commonly known as "mota" or "piracatinga" (Calophysus macropterus) has become an important economic activity in the region as this species has replaced a number of other overexploited great catfish species in the markets. Due to this high exploitation, ways in which to increase captures have been identified. One strategy is to use decomposing animal carcasses as bait. Such strategy has increased the hunting pressure on endangered species such as caimans and river dolphins. We investigated which catfish species are currently commercialized in Colombian fish markets using DNA barcoding, and measured mercury concentration in the tissues of fish molecularly identified as C. macropterus. We collected 86 fish samples in markets of four Colombian cities. Sixty-eight of these were identified molecularly as C.macropterus. The mercury concentration of 29 such samples was analyzed. Samples presented total Hg concentrations higher than the limit for human consumption established by the WHO (0.5 μg/g). These results are worrisome and suggest that (1) C. macropterus is a widely used fish species for human consumption in Colombia and (2) C. macropterus has high concentrations of total Hg, making its consumption a public health risk. Results presented here suggest that C. macropterus has replaced capaz in most Colombian markets. This fishery threatens wild species of river dolphins and caimans, and is also a public health risk given the high mercury levels we found in a subsample of these fishes. PMID:24419666

  5. Comparacion de Modelos de Educacion Sexual en El Conocimiento y Cambio de Actitudes en Practicas Sexuales por Alumnos de Nivel Superior en La Region De Caguas, Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

    2012-01-01

    In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of…

  6. Realidades Suburbanas: Latinos en el Condado de Dakota. Una Investigacion Dirigida por HACER = Suburban Realities: Latinos in Dakota County. A Study Conducted by HACER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HACER: Hispanic Advocacy and Community Empowerment through Research, Minneapolis, MN.

    A research project was conducted between April and December of 1998 to learn about the experiences of the sizable numbers of Latinos who live in Dakota County (Minnesota). This diverse group was studied through examining existing demographic information, conducting interviews with 45 Latino and Anglo individuals, and conducting several focus…

  7. Vientos impulsados por radiación en supergigantes B en rotación: análisis de los regímenes de soluciones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venero, R. O. J.; Curé, M.; Cidale, L.

    2016-08-01

    The theory of radiation driven winds for rotating early-type stars gives three classes of hydrodynamic solutions. These are: the classical m-CAK solution or fast solution, the solution for fast rotators, and the solution for special ionization conditions along the wind structure. In this work we study the domains of every kind of solution in the and parameter space, where is the equatorial rotation speed in terms of the critical rotation velocity, and is the radiation force parameter that determines the ionization structure of the wind. This analysis is performed for different values of effective temperature corresponding to the spectral subtypes among B supergiants. We propose that the winds of B-type supergiants could change between the different velocity regimes, if small variations in the plasma ionization conditions take place. These variations could happen between two consecutive evolutionary stages of B supergiants or, in a short term, explaining the variability observed in the spectra of these stars.

  8. Comienza la construcción de instalación patrocinada por el NCI en Puerto Rico para realizar estudios

    Cancer.gov

    El gobierno de Puerto Rico ha destinado $196 millones de dólares para construir un hospital oncológico de 287 000 pies cuadrados en San Juan, que contará con 96 camas. El nuevo hospital es el primero en su clase en la región caribeña y en él se llevarán a

  9. Adolescentes que no habrían fumado pueden ser atraídos por los cigarrillos electrónicos

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo del blog Temas y relatos sobre un estudio reciente que sugiere que los adolescentes están usando cigarrillos electrónicos no solo como sustituto de cigarrillos convencionales sino cigarrillos electrónicos están atrayendo nuevos usuarios de tabaco

  10. The HoMBReS and HoMBReS Por un Cambio Interventions to Reduce HIV Disparities Among Immigrant Hispanic/Latino Men.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Leichliter, Jami S; Sun, Christina J; Bloom, Fred R

    2016-02-12

    Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are affected disproportionately by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); however, few effective evidence-based prevention interventions for this population exist. This report describes the Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (Men Maintaining Wellbeing and Healthy Relationships) (HoMBReS) intervention, which was developed by a community-based, participatory research partnership in North Carolina and initially implemented during 2005-2009. HoMBReS is an example of an effective intervention that uses lay health advisors (known as Navegantes [navigators]) in the context of existing social networks (i.e., recreational soccer teams) to promote consistent condom use and HIV and STD testing among Hispanic/Latino men. In 2012, HoMBReS was classified as a best-evidence community-level HIV prevention intervention (CDC. Compendium of evidence-based behavioral interventions and best practices for HIV prevention. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2015). The intervention has been implemented elsewhere, enhanced, and further evaluated in longitudinal intervention and implementation studies. HoMBReS has been adapted for other populations, including men who have sex with men and transgender persons. Additional evaluation has found that Navegantes continue in their roles as health advisors, opinion leaders, and community advocates after study support ends. Hispanic/Latino men's social networks can be leveraged to promote sexual health within the community by decreasing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanics/Latinos in the United States.

  11. "Pig in a poke (gato por liebre)": the "mota" (Calophysus macropterus) fishery, molecular evidence of commercialization in Colombia and toxicological analyses.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Cristian; Cubillos, Juan Camilo; Gómez, Rigoberto; Trujillo, Fernando; Caballero, Susana

    2014-06-01

    Overfishing has affected the population abundance trends of many commercial fish species. In the Amazon, the fishery of a catfish commonly known as "mota" or "piracatinga" (Calophysus macropterus) has become an important economic activity in the region as this species has replaced a number of other overexploited great catfish species in the markets. Due to this high exploitation, ways in which to increase captures have been identified. One strategy is to use decomposing animal carcasses as bait. Such strategy has increased the hunting pressure on endangered species such as caimans and river dolphins. We investigated which catfish species are currently commercialized in Colombian fish markets using DNA barcoding, and measured mercury concentration in the tissues of fish molecularly identified as C. macropterus. We collected 86 fish samples in markets of four Colombian cities. Sixty-eight of these were identified molecularly as C.macropterus. The mercury concentration of 29 such samples was analyzed. Samples presented total Hg concentrations higher than the limit for human consumption established by the WHO (0.5 μg/g). These results are worrisome and suggest that (1) C. macropterus is a widely used fish species for human consumption in Colombia and (2) C. macropterus has high concentrations of total Hg, making its consumption a public health risk. Results presented here suggest that C. macropterus has replaced capaz in most Colombian markets. This fishery threatens wild species of river dolphins and caimans, and is also a public health risk given the high mercury levels we found in a subsample of these fishes.

  12. Efectos de Campos Magnéticos en las Tasas de Consumo de Madera por Coptotermes formosanus, la Termita Subterránea de Formosa.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty groups of 500 workers and 50 soldiers of Coptotermes formosanus were maintained in costume designed containers and fed with a piece of red oak wood (Quercus rubra). Twenty of these groups were exposed to permanent magnets with a flux of 800 G. Another 20 groups were exposed to a permanent mag...

  13. Communicating with Mexican Americans: Por Su Buena Salud = Communicando Con Mexico Americanos: For Their Good Health. Proceedings of the Conference (Houston, TX, September 13-14, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas J., Ed.; And Others

    The conference focused on the role of the Mexican American's cultural language, tradition, life style, health practices, and media utilization in the design of effective health education and information programs. Representing various local, state, and national health, education, and media organizations, the 108 participants attended sessions on…

  14. Beneficios y riesgos de la terapia estrogénica en la menopausia varían por edad, de acuerdo con el e

    Cancer.gov

    Los datos de seguimiento a largo plazo del estudio Iniciativa para la Salud de la Mujer (WHI) proporcionan información nueva e importante sobre los posibles riesgos y beneficios de la terapia hormonal para tratar síntomas relacionadas con la menopausia.

  15. Unanswered Questions in Colombia's Foreign Language Education Policy (Preguntas por responder en la política educativa de lenguas extranjeras en Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonilla Carvajal, Camilo Andrés; Tejada-Sánchez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Following the trend of much of the Western, non-English speaking world, Colombia has tirelessly strived for spreading English education in an effort to augment economic benefits. This paper aims at providing a critical account of foreign language education policy in Colombia, with special attention to English. It outlines the impact of its…

  16. Comparacion de modelos de Educacion Sexual en el conocimiento y cambio de actitudes en practicas sexuales por alumnos de nivel superior en la region de Caguas, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

    In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of the Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD). In addition, it provides activities to increase the self-esteem, the communication and the decision making. This investigation had the intention to compare the SETM and the HBM in the increase of knowledge and change of attitudes of high risk of propagation of the STD using a validated questionnaire (Agency of the United States for the International-USAID Development), named "Endesa 2007" and, adapted to Puerto Rico by the Dra.Marta Collazo to a sample of students between the 17 and 19 years of 2 state schools of San Lorenzo, as a pretest, and, selected by convenience. Then, a 10 hours training was administered to half of the students using the SETM to STD and condom use lessons. The other half of the students received additional lessons using the HBM. Finally, both groups took the questionnaire again as a posttest. The sample of students, in average, did not reach the knowledge and basic levels of attitudes towards the STD in the pretest. This reflected 2 possible implications on the SETM. In first place, that the way in which the STD is implemented as part of the Sexual Education curriculum is inefficient. Secondly, the possibility that the acquired information or attitudes does not have permanence. Culminated the questionnaire, the HBM increase the knowledge of the STD in 0.41 points (average) over the SETM. There was not a significant difference between both models, in attitudes, implying that both models are equally effective. The findings suggests that the HBM is more effective increasing the knowledge on the STD, but equally effective than the SETM in attitude change for the Puerto Rican youth.

  17. Ameiridae Boeck and Argestidae Por revisited, with establishment of Parameiropsidae, a new family of Harpacticoida (Crustacea, Copepoda) from deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corgosinho, P. H. C.; Martínez Arbizu, P.

    2010-09-01

    Four new species of Parameiropsis are described from Angola and Guinea Basins and the Arctic Laptev Sea. The male of Parameiropsis poseidonicus sp. n. differs from that of P. neptuni sp. n. and P. senckenbergi sp. n. in antennule segmentation, length of the proximal aesthetasc, length of the outermost seta of the antennary endopod, degree of reduction of the mouthparts, relative length of the inner spine of the basis of thoracopod 1, shape of the furca and body length. The female of P. amphitriteae sp. n. differs from previously described females of other species in the smaller exopod and endpod of thoracopod 1, reduced armature of thoracopods 1-6, length of the outer setae of exopods and endopods of thoracopods 2-4, and mandible exopod weakly developed and fused to the basis. Parameiropsis is redefined by the following autapomorphies: presence of aesthetasc on 3rd segment of female antennule; antenna strong, with endopod curved upwardly, and shape of the outermost (strongly ornamented) spine; triangular labrum; elongated corpus mandibularis, gnathobasis very long; basis of mandibular palp unarmed; elongated maxillule, with long and flexible setae on praecoxal arthrite; basis of the maxilla with strongly modified claw. To discuss the phylogenetic position of Parameiropsis, we revaluated the subfamilies of Ameiridae (viz. Ameirinae and Stenocopiinae) and the family Argestidae. Anoplosomella and Malacopsyllus revealed to be not closely related to Ameiridae and are transferred to Argestidae, sharing with other members of this family the morphology of the mandible gnathobasis, armature of maxilla and armature and length of the first segment of the antennule. Argestoides prehensilis does not show any of the characters that we consider autapomorphic for Argestidae. Instead, it shows many characters in common with several Ameiridae species. Parameiropsis does not have any character that could justify its inclusion within Ameiridae or even within Podogennonta. It also cannot be included satisfactorily within Argestidae nor Exanechentera. Therefore, we here propose a new family for Parameiropsis, with unclear relationships within Harpacticoida. After these taxonomic rearrangements, Ameiridae and Argestidae are considered monophyletic based on certain maxilla characters that we consider autapomorphic for each group. A key to the identification of the known species of Parameiropsis is added at the end.

  18. The HoMBReS and HoMBReS Por un Cambio Interventions to Reduce HIV Disparities Among Immigrant Hispanic/Latino Men.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Leichliter, Jami S; Sun, Christina J; Bloom, Fred R

    2016-02-12

    Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are affected disproportionately by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); however, few effective evidence-based prevention interventions for this population exist. This report describes the Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (Men Maintaining Wellbeing and Healthy Relationships) (HoMBReS) intervention, which was developed by a community-based, participatory research partnership in North Carolina and initially implemented during 2005-2009. HoMBReS is an example of an effective intervention that uses lay health advisors (known as Navegantes [navigators]) in the context of existing social networks (i.e., recreational soccer teams) to promote consistent condom use and HIV and STD testing among Hispanic/Latino men. In 2012, HoMBReS was classified as a best-evidence community-level HIV prevention intervention (CDC. Compendium of evidence-based behavioral interventions and best practices for HIV prevention. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2015). The intervention has been implemented elsewhere, enhanced, and further evaluated in longitudinal intervention and implementation studies. HoMBReS has been adapted for other populations, including men who have sex with men and transgender persons. Additional evaluation has found that Navegantes continue in their roles as health advisors, opinion leaders, and community advocates after study support ends. Hispanic/Latino men's social networks can be leveraged to promote sexual health within the community by decreasing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanics/Latinos in the United States. PMID:26916740

  19. The effects of the porous buffer layer and doping with dysprosium on internal stresses in the GaInP:Dy/por-GaAs/GaAs(100) heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Seredin, P. V.; Gordienko, N. N.; Glotov, A. V.; Zhurbina, I. A.; Domashevskaya, E. P.; Arsent'ev, I. N. Shishkov, M. V.

    2009-08-15

    In structures with a porous buffer layer, residual internal stresses caused by a mismatch between the crystal-lattice parameters of the epitaxial GaInP alloy and the GaAs substrate are redistributed to the porous layer that acts as a buffer and is conducive to disappearance of internal stresses. Doping of the epitaxial layer with dysprosium exerts a similar effect on the internal stresses in the film-substrate structure.

  20. "¿Por qué leemos esto en la clase de español?": The Politics of Teaching Literature in Spanglish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postma, Regan L.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses what is at stake in teaching works written in "Spanglish" in Spanish departments and what teaching such works might mean for students and the scholarly community at large. This article primarily comes out of the author's experiences teaching "Spanglish" works in Spanish courses at a major research…

  1. Library Safari: Tips for Parents of Young Readers and Explorers = De safari por la biblioteca: Consejos para padres de lectores y exploradores jovenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Aedin

    Visiting the library is a great way for parents to encourage their child's imagination and learning. It gives parents the opportunity to model good reading behavior and to show their child that they value books and reading. No matter how young the child is, a trip to the library can be an enjoyable outing for parents and their children. Most…

  2. The upper respiratory tract microbiome and its potential role in bovine respiratory disease and otitis media

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Svetlana F.; Teixeira, Andre Gustavo V.; Higgins, Catherine H.; Lima, Fabio S.; Bicalho, Rodrigo C.

    2016-01-01

    The upper respiratory tract (URT) hosts a complex microbial community of commensal microorganisms and potential pathogens. Analyzing the composition and nature of the healthy URT microbiota and how it changes over time will contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of pneumonia and otitis. A longitudinal study was conducted including 174 Holstein calves that were divided in four groups: healthy calves, calves diagnosed with pneumonia, otitis or both diseases. Deep pharyngeal swabs were collected on days 3, 14, 28, and 35 of life, and next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene as well as quantitative PCR was performed. The URT of Holstein dairy calves aged 3 to 35 days revealed to host a highly diverse bacterial community. The relative abundances of the bacterial genera Mannheimia, Moraxella, and Mycoplasma were significantly higher in diseased versus healthy animals, and the total bacterial load of newborn calves at day 3 was higher for animals that developed pneumonia than for healthy animals. Our results corroborate the existing knowledge that species of Mannheimia and Mycoplasma are important pathogens in pneumonia and otitis. Furthermore, they suggest that species of Moraxella can potentially cause the same disorders (pneumonia and otitis), and that high neonatal bacterial load is a key contributor to the development of pneumonia. PMID:27363739

  3. Sequence divergence in two tandemly located pilin genes of Eikenella corrodens.

    PubMed Central

    Tønjum, T; Weir, S; Bøvre, K; Progulske-Fox, A; Marrs, C F

    1993-01-01

    Eikenella corrodens normally inhabits the human respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts but is frequently the cause of abscesses at various sites. Using the N-terminal portion of the Moraxella nonliquefaciens pilin gene as a hybridization probe, we cloned two tandemly located pilin genes of E. corrodens 31745, ecpC and ecpD, and expressed the two pilin genes separately in Escherichia coli. A comparison of the predicted amino acid sequences of E. corrodens 31745 EcpC and EcpD revealed considerable divergence between the sequences of these two pilins and even less similarity to EcpA and EcpB of E. corrodens type strain ATCC 23834. EcpC from E. corrodens 31745 displayed high degrees of homology to the pilins of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. EcpD from E. corrodens 31745 showed the highest homologies with the pilin of one of the three P. aeruginosa classes, whereas EcpA and EcpB of strain ATCC 23834 most closely resemble Moraxella bovis pilins. These findings raise interesting questions about potential genetic transfer between different bacterial species, as opposed to convergent evolution. Images PMID:8478080

  4. The nasopharyngeal microbiota of feedlot cattle

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Devin B.; Timsit, Edouard; Alexander, Trevor W.

    2015-01-01

    The bovine nasopharyngeal tract plays an important role in animal health and welfare by acting as a site for the carriage of pathogens causing bovine respiratory disease, a condition which results in significant morbidity and mortality in feedlot cattle. We characterized the bacterial nasopharyngeal microbiota in cattle at feedlot entry (day 0) and day 60 using 454 pyrosequencing. We also identified the most frequently isolated aerobic bacteria from nasopharyngeal swabs after plating onto three types of media. The cattle nasopharyngeal microbiota was composed primarily of Proteobacteria (68.9%) and Firmicutes (19.2%). At the genus-level, there was more inter-individual variability and a total of 55 genera were identified. The genera Pseudomonas (23.7%), Shewanella (23.5%), Acinetobacter (17.5%), and Carnobacterium (12.2%) were most prevalent at entry, while after 60 days in the feedlot, Staphylococcus (20.8%), Mycoplasma (14.9%), Mannheimia (10.4%), and Moraxella (9.4%) were dominant. The nasopharyngeal microbiota also became more homogenous after 60 days in the feedlot and differed in structure at day 0 and 60. Using culture-based methods, the most frequently isolated bacteria from nasopharyngeal swabs were Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Moraxella, Pasteurella, and Mannheimia. These results provide insight into the nasopharyngeal microbiota of cattle and demonstrate that specific changes take place during feedlot production. PMID:26497574

  5. Diagnostic value of interactions between members of the family Neisseriaceae and lectins.

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, R J; Nedjat-Haiem, F; Keller, K F; Frasch, C E

    1984-01-01

    The lectin slide agglutination test for Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been modified and improved. Results show that wheat germ agglutinin and soybean lectin agglutinate 100% (193 of 193 tested) of clinical isolates of N. gonorrhoeae. Lectin-reactive meningococci can be readily identified by the hydrolysis of gamma-glutamyl-beta-naphthylamide. Branhamella catarrhalis, Neisseria lactamica, Neisseria sicca, Neisseria subflava, Neisseria perflava, and meningococcal serogroups A, B, C, X, Y, and Z do not interfere with the positive identification of N. gonorrhoeae. The frequently encountered problem of autoagglutination of members of the family Neisseriaceae may be circumvented by a short treatment of cellular suspensions with DNase. Based on agglutination assays, the enzyme treatment did not result in a loss of wheat germ agglutinin receptors from the bacteria. The lectin agglutination test, coupled with the gamma-glutamyl aminopeptidase assay, is proposed as a rapid and accurate means of identifying clinical isolates of gonococci. PMID:6546936

  6. Automated counting of bacterial colony forming units on agar plates.

    PubMed

    Brugger, Silvio D; Baumberger, Christian; Jost, Marcel; Jenni, Werner; Brugger, Urs; Mühlemann, Kathrin

    2012-01-01

    Manual counting of bacterial colony forming units (CFUs) on agar plates is laborious and error-prone. We therefore implemented a colony counting system with a novel segmentation algorithm to discriminate bacterial colonies from blood and other agar plates.A colony counter hardware was designed and a novel segmentation algorithm was written in MATLAB. In brief, pre-processing with Top-Hat-filtering to obtain a uniform background was followed by the segmentation step, during which the colony images were extracted from the blood agar and individual colonies were separated. A Bayes classifier was then applied to count the final number of bacterial colonies as some of the colonies could still be concatenated to form larger groups. To assess accuracy and performance of the colony counter, we tested automated colony counting of different agar plates with known CFU numbers of S. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and M. catarrhalis and showed excellent performance.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates in south Sweden including a 13-year follow-up study of some respiratory tract pathogens.

    PubMed

    Forsgren, A; Walder, M

    1994-03-01

    The antibiotic susceptibility of consecutive isolates of the upper respiratory tract pathogens Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Branhamella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus, (100 strains of each species collected each year during March through April 1985, 1988 and 1992) to penicillin V, amoxycillin, cefaclor, cefuroxime, doxycycline, erythromycin, and cotrimoxazole was investigated by MIC determination on PDM and PDM II agar. The MICs of the upper respiratory isolates from 1992 supplemented with 100 isolates each of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus collected during 1992 were determined against the above antibiotics plus cefadroxil, cefpodoxime, roxithromycin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and BAY Y 3118. Beta-lactamase production was found in 10% of H. influenzae and 80-90% of S. aureus and B. catarrhalis in 1992. Among H. influenzae isolates, non-beta-lactamase-induced resistance to all beta-lactam antibiotics was first detected in 1988 and amounted to 3% of isolates in 1992. Decreased susceptibility of S. preumoniae to penicillin (> or = 0.12 mg/l), co-trimoxazole > or = 32 mg/l, doxycycline (> or = 2 ml/l) and erythromycin (> or = 1 mg/l) was detected in 11%, 7%, and 8%, respectively, in 1992, which is significantly higher than in previous years at the same laboratory. Decreased susceptibility of S. pyogenes to doxycycline and erythromycin was detected in 11% and 9% in 1992. The two most recently developed antibiotics, cefpodoxime and BAY Y 3118, showed high antibacterial activity. The study emphasizes the need to screen for resistance mechanisms such as beta-lactamase production and lowered penicillin affinity.

  8. Far from superficial: microbial diversity associated with the skin and mucus of fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cipriano, Rocco C.; Dove, Alistair; Cipriano, R.C.; Bruckner, A.W.; Shchelkunov, I.S.

    2011-01-01

    During horizontal or water-borne infection involving an obligate pathogen (e.g. – Aeromonas salmonicida, cause of furunculosis), the pathogen interacted with and influenced the microbial diversity of the dermal mucus of fish. Prior to infection, the prevalent bacterial flora cultured from juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) included Pseudomonas fluorescens, Comomonas terrigenia, Acinetobacter sp., Moraxella sp., Pseudomonas dimunita, Alcaligenes denitrificans, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, and Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Serratia liquefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, other motile Aeromonas spp., and Corynebacterium aquaticum. After A. salmonicida was initially detected in this population as an external mucus infection, Acinetobacter sp., Moraxella sp., C. terrigenia, P. fluorescens, and P. dimunita, Staphylococcus sp., and A. hydrophila, were also present in appreciable numbers. Within several weeks, however, the A. salmonicida infection amplified and composed 78% of the total flora in the mucus. Only P. dimunita (4%). P. fluorescens (2%), and C. terrigenia (1%) were cultured at that time and more than a third of these fish showed evidence of a systemic A. salmonicida infection within their kidneys. Eight weeks after oral oxytetracycline treatments, A. salmonicida was no longer isolated from the mucus or kidneys of any fish and glucose inert or other oxidative microbes (e.g., P. fluorescens, C. terrigenia, Acinetobacter sp., Moraxella sp.) were beginning to repopulate the external surface of the salmon in increasing frequency. Still present and composing fairly large percentages of the total flora were A. hydrophila, as well as Enterobacter sp., and P. putrefaciens. A normal microbial diversity was re-established as the fish recovered. In another investigation, reduced biological diversity was noted in the dermal mucus among smallmouth bass that were sampled from the Jackson River (Covington, VA). In these fish, A. hydrophila and P. putrefaciens were the two

  9. Microbial contamination of musical wind instruments.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Bonnie; Levy, Stuart

    2011-08-01

    Retrospective and prospective studies were used to assess the numbers, types and persistence of microbes that contaminate wind instruments. All previously played instruments (n = 20) harbored viable bacteria as well as mold and/or yeast. Reedinstruments consistently carried higher microbial loads than did flutes or trumpets. Instruments played within the previous three days bore typical mouth flora, while bacteria recovered after 72 h following play consisted of normal environmental flora. Prospective studies tested survival of potentially pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Moraxella, Escherichia coli and attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis) when applied to reeds or following simulated 'play' of a clarinet. All species survived for a maximum of 24-48 h on reeds, except Mycobacterium, which persisted through 13 days. In simulated play experiments, test bacteria could persist for up to five days. These findings support the establishment of guidelines for decontamination of wind instruments and for sharing or transfer of these instruments among players. PMID:21745020

  10. Identification, purification, and characterization of the type 4 fimbriae of Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed Central

    Ruffolo, C G; Tennent, J M; Michalski, W P; Adler, B

    1997-01-01

    The presence of fimbriae on Pasteurella multocida has been reported, but there have been no prior studies aimed at conclusively characterizing these structures. We now report on the identification and characterization of type 4 fimbriae on serogroup A, B, and D strains of P. multocida. Under microaerophilic conditions P. multocida showed an increased expression of the fimbriae, which were observed to form bundles. Fimbriae purified by high-performance reverse-phase liquid chromatography constituted a single 18-kDa subunit, the first 21 amino acids of which shared very high similarity with the N-terminal amino acid sequence of other type 4 fimbrial subunits. Antiserum against the P. multocida 18-kDa protein immunostained the type 4 fimbrial subunit of Moraxella bovis and Dichelobacter nodosus. Based on these observations we conclude that P. multocida possesses type 4 fimbriae and have designated the P. multocida fimbrial subunit PtfA. PMID:8975936

  11. Measles pneumonia in young adults. An analysis of 106 cases.

    PubMed

    Gremillion, D H; Crawford, G E

    1981-10-01

    Measles occurred in 3,220 Air Force recruits between January 1976 and July 1979 and was complicated by pneumonia in 106 cases (3.3 percent). Although no deaths occurred, the illness was characterized as clinically severe with high fever and prolonged hospitalization (mean, 14.5 days). Bacterial superinfection as documented by transtracheal aspiration occurred in 35 cases (30.3 percent) and was caused by Hemophilus influenzae (18), Hemophilus parainfluenzae (two), Neisseria meningitidis (nine), Streptococcus pneumoniae (three), Streptococcus pyogenes (two) and Moraxella kingae (one). Clinical evidence of bronchospasm was present in 18 patients (17 percent) and required bronchodilators in six. Other complications included liver function abnormalities (31 percent), otitis media (29 percent) and sinusitis (25 percent). Measles pneumonia in adolescents is clinically severe with a generally benign outcome.

  12. Microbial contamination of musical wind instruments.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Bonnie; Levy, Stuart

    2011-08-01

    Retrospective and prospective studies were used to assess the numbers, types and persistence of microbes that contaminate wind instruments. All previously played instruments (n = 20) harbored viable bacteria as well as mold and/or yeast. Reedinstruments consistently carried higher microbial loads than did flutes or trumpets. Instruments played within the previous three days bore typical mouth flora, while bacteria recovered after 72 h following play consisted of normal environmental flora. Prospective studies tested survival of potentially pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Moraxella, Escherichia coli and attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis) when applied to reeds or following simulated 'play' of a clarinet. All species survived for a maximum of 24-48 h on reeds, except Mycobacterium, which persisted through 13 days. In simulated play experiments, test bacteria could persist for up to five days. These findings support the establishment of guidelines for decontamination of wind instruments and for sharing or transfer of these instruments among players.

  13. Synthesis of 5-O-oligoglucosyl extended α-(2→4)-Kdo disaccharides corresponding to inner core fragments of Moraxellaceae lipopolysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Pokorny, Barbara; Kosma, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The heptose-deficient inner core of the lipopolysaccharide of several pathogenic strains of the Moraxellaceae family (Moraxella, Acinetobacter) and of Bartonella henselae, respectively, comprises an α-D-glucopyranose attached to position 5 of Kdo. In continuation of the synthesis of fragments of Acinetobacter haemolyticus LPS, the branched α-Glcp-(1→5)[α-Kdo-(2→4)]-α-Kdo trisaccharide motif was elaborated. The glycosylation of a suitably protected, α-(2→4)-interlinked Kdo-disaccharide was achieved in high yield and fair anomeric selectivity using a 4,6-O-benzylidene N-phenyltrifluoroacetimidate glucosyl donor. Subsequent regioselective reductive benzylidene opening afforded a trisaccharide acceptor, which was extended with β-D-glucopyranosyl and isomaltosyl residues. Global deprotection provided tri- to pentasaccharide structures corresponding to the inner core region of A. haemolyticus lipopolysaccharide. PMID:26795079

  14. Associated bacterial flora, growth, and toxicity of cultured benthic dinoflagellates Ostreopsis lenticularis and Gambierdiscus toxicus.

    PubMed

    Tosteson, T R; Ballantine, D L; Tosteson, C G; Hensley, V; Bardales, A T

    1989-01-01

    The growth, toxicity, and associated bacterial flora of 10 clonal cultures of the toxic benthic dinoflagellates Ostreopsis lenticularis and Gambierdiscus toxicus isolated from the coastal waters of southwest Puerto Rico have been examined. Clonal cultures of O. lenticularis grew more rapidly and at broader temperature ranges than those of G. toxicus. All five Ostreopsis clones were toxic, while only one of the five Gambierdiscus clones was poisonous. The degree of toxicity among poisonous clones was highly variable. The number of associated bacterial genera and their frequency of occurrence were quite variable among clones of both dinoflagellate genera. Bacterial isolates represented six genera (Nocardia, Pseudomonas, Vibrio, Aeromonas, Flavobacterium, and Moraxella) in addition to coryneform bacteria. Extracts of dinoflagellate-associated bacteria grown in pure culture were not toxic. Gambierdiscus clones were characterized by the frequent presence of Pseudomonas spp. (four of five clones) and the absence of coryneforms. In O. lenticularis, only one of five clones showed the presence of Pseudomonas spp., and Moraxella sp. was absent altogether. Detailed analyses of toxicity and associated microflora in a selected Ostreopsis clone, repeatedly cultivated (four times) over a period of 160 days, showed that peak cell toxicities developed in the late static and early negative culture growth phases. Peak Ostreopsis cell toxicities in the stationary phase of culture growth were correlated with significant increases in the percent total bacteria directly associated with these cells. Changes in the quantity of bacteria directly associated with microalgal cell surfaces and extracellular matrices during culture growth may be related to variability and degree of toxicity in these laboratory-cultured benthic dinoflagellates. PMID:2705766

  15. Guiandose por la Intrincada Senda de la Educacion Especial: Una Guia para Padres y Maestros. Tercera Edicion. (Negotiating the Special Education Maze: A Guide for Parents & Teachers. Third Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Winifred; Chitwood, Stephen; Hayden, Deidre

    Designed to assist Spanish-speaking parents and teachers in understanding special education procedures, this book describes the process for obtaining school services for children with disabilities. An introduction reviews six major provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that relate to children's rights to a free,…

  16. Viajando por la Carretera de la Educacion Especial: Una Guia para los Padres para Tener un Viaje Feliz y Seguro (Traveling the Special Education Highway: A Parent's Guide to a Safe and Happy Journey).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Maria, Karen

    Designed for Spanish-speaking parents, this brochure, written in Spanish, uses a car-trip analogy to describe special education services for students with disabilities. It addresses: (1) child find; (2) initial evaluation and eligibility determination; (3) categories of students who receive special education services and related services; (4)…

  17. Less and Less for More and More. Economic Organization Booklet 1. Teacher's Edition=Menos y menos por mas y mas. Organizacion economica libro 1. Manual para El Maestro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Los Angeles. National Dissemination and Assessment Center.

    The booklet is part of a grade 10-12 social studies series produced for bilingual education. The series consists of six major thematic modules, with four to five booklets in each. The interdisciplinary modules are based on major ideas and are designed to help students understand some major human problems and make sound, responsive decisions to…

  18. Ingestion Reiterada de Cuerpos Extranos. Forma Inusual de Presentacion del Sindrome de Munchausen por Poderes (Reiterated Ingestion of Foreign Bodies. Unusual Form of Presentation of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terreros, I. Gomez de; And Others

    1996-01-01

    An unusual case of Munchausen syndrome by proxy is reported. A mother with a psychiatric record of behavior disorders and family dysfunction perpetrated the ingestion of foreign bodies (for example, earrings, a screw, sewing needles) on a 10-month-old infant with a history of prematurity, repeated visits to emergency rooms, and nonjustified…

  19. About to Graduate from High School? Consider Career Education Opportunities. EdSource Student/Parent Guide = Estas por graduarte de la escuela preparatoria? Considera oportunidades para seguir tu educacion de carrera. EdSource guia de estudiantes y padres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EdSource, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Getting a sound education is important to a student's ability to make a good living in a field they will enjoy. For many students graduating from high school, that includes high quality career technical (or vocational) education tailored to a specific job. In California, such programs are available in a wide range of fields, from healthcare to the…

  20. Por Que Mami No Puede Cambiar una Goma? Tercer Modulo de una Serie para Maestros de Escuela Elemental. (Why Can't Mommy Change a Flat Tire? Third Module of a Series for Elementary School Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Carmen Eneida, Ed.; And Others

    This guide for teachers, in English and Spanish, examines the role parents play in the socialization of sex roles. A pre-test and post test are included to measure the user's awareness of sexual stereotyping. Five object lessons cover the following topics: (1) stereotypes which exist prior to a baby's birth; (2) behavioral standards on which…

  1. Por Que Rosa No Es Valiente? Cuarto Modulo de una Serie para Maestros de Escuela Elemental (Why Isn't Rosie Brave? Fourth Module of a Series for Elementary School Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Carmen Eneida, Ed.; And Others

    This guide in English and Spanish provides teachers with methods for identifying textbook bias and stereotyping. A pre-test and post-test designed to measure awareness of textbook stereotypes are included. Four object lessons discuss the function of repetition, cumulative effect, omission, and distortion in reinforcing stereotypes, especially…

  2. Vistazos Intimos De Puebla; Una Compilacion De Informes Individuales Preparados Por Los Participantes Del Instituto De Verano (NDEA) (Close-ups on Puebla; A Compilation of Individual Reports Prepared by the Participants of the NDEA Summer Institute).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita State Univ., KS.

    The individual and committee reports on the sociology of Puebla, Mexico, which are collected here, were written by participants in an NDEA Summer Institute program of the University of Wichita, Kansas. The underlying motives of the program, described in the preface, were to provide participants with real language experience and a chance to…

  3. Fields without Borders: An Anthology of Documentary Writing and Photography by Student Action with Farmworkers' Interns = Campos sin Fronteras: Una Antologia de Obras Escritas y Fotografia por Estudiantes Internos de Accion Estudiantil con Trabajadores Agricolas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manly, Libby, Ed.; Okie, Alejandra, Ed.; Wiggins, Melinda, Ed.

    In this booklet, essays and poems, presented both in English and in Spanish, portray the feelings, conditions, and economic plight of migrant and seasonal farmworkers in North and South Carolina, often in their own words. A preface describes Student Action with Farmworkers summer internships in which college students spend 10 weeks working with…

  4. The Latinas' Guide to the Information Superhighway: A Bilingual Guide for Latinas by Latinas = Guia para Mujeres Latinas sobre la Supercarretera de la Informacion: Una Guia Bilingue para Latinas por medio de Latinas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MANA, A National Latina Organization, Washington, DC.

    This guide to the Internet is designed to give Latinas basic information on computers and the information superhighway. Written in both Spanish and English, the guide begins by defining the Internet and making some suggestions about acquiring access to a computer. Among the topics discussed are how to choose an Internet service provider, how to…

  5. TECNOLOGÍAS DE INFORMACIÓN Y COMUNICACIÓN PARA LA PREVENCIÓN Y CONTROL DE LA INFECCIÓN POR EL VIH Y OTRAS ITS*

    PubMed Central

    Curioso, Walter H.; Blas, Magaly M.; Kurth, Ann E.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Avances tecnológicos innovadores como Internet, computadoras personales de bolsillo, teléfonos celulares y otros equipos son un arsenal en crecimiento en el esfuerzo de impedir y controlar el VIH y otras infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS). A pesar que existe una diversidad de tecnologías de información y comunicación en diferentes etapas de desarrollo para la prevención del VIH e ITS, la investigación en esta área se encuentra aún en crecimiento, y el impacto en la incidencia de enfermedad, las evaluaciones con diseños rigurosos y los estudios económicos todavía son muy limitados. Sin embargo, algunas de estas evidencias son prometedoras y poseen un gran potencial para su uso en nuestro medio. En este artículo hemos realizado una revisión sistemática de la literatura relacionada con el uso de la tecnología aplicada a la prevención y control del VIH e ITS. De ser usada apropiadamente, esta tecnología podría mejorar la vigilancia del VIH y otras ITS, diagnóstico, notificación de parejas, prevención, manejo clínico, y capacitación de profesionales de la salud. PMID:26339254

  6. Engaging Foreign Language Learners in a Web 2.0-Mediated Collaborative Learning Process (Inclusión de estudiantes de lenguas extranjeras en procesos colaborativos de aprendizaje mediados por la web 2.0)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote Parra, Gabriel Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this action research was to explore the types of interactions that foreign language learners experience while using a wiki as a supporting tool for a face-to-face research course. This design allowed me to play a dual role: first, I studied my own classroom setting and students. Second, I implemented a pedagogical intervention based…

  7. Encouraging Students to Enhance Their Listening Performance (Cómo animar a los estudiantes para que mejoren su desempeño en comprensión oral por sí mismos)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández-Ocampo, Sonia Patricia; Vargas, Sonia Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Spanish-speaking students constantly complain about the difficulty they have comprehending spoken English. It seems teachers do not often provide them with strategies to alleviate that. This article reports on a pedagogical experience carried out at a Colombian university to help pre-service teachers at an intermediate level of English to improve…

  8. John Tracy Clinic: Programa de Ensenanza por Correspondencia para Los Padres de Ninos Sordo-Ciegos de Edad Preescolar (John Tracy Clinic Correspondence Learning Program for Parents of Preschool Deaf-Blind Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thielman, Virginia B.; And Others

    Written in Spanish, the document contains a correspondence learning program for parents of deaf blind preschoolers. An introductory section gives preliminary instructions, an introduction to sign language, and a list of resources for deaf blind children. Twelve lessons follow with information on: the parent's role in teaching the child, visual…

  9. VISIÓN GENERAL DE LA EVALUACIÓN DEL RIESGO EN SALUD INFANTIL EMPLEANDO UN ENFOQUE POR ETAPAS DE DESARROLLO (American translation is: Overview of a Life Stage Approach to Children's Health Risk Assessment)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  10. Crystal structure of bis-(4-nitro-aniline-κN (1))(5,10,15,20-tetra-phenyl-por-phy-rin-ato-κ(4) N)cobalt(III) chloride di-chloro-methane monosolvate.

    PubMed

    Belghith, Yassine; Mansour, Anissa; Nasri, Habib

    2014-09-01

    The reaction of [Co(III)(TPP)Cl] (TPP is the dianion of 5,10,15,20-tetra-phenyl-porphyrin) with an excess of 4-nitro-aniline in di-chloro-methane leads to the title compound, [Co(III)(C44H28N4)(C6H6N2O2)2]Cl·CH2Cl2. The Co(III) ion lies on an inversion centre and is octa-hedrally coordinated by two N atoms of the NH2 groups of the two 4-nitro-aniline trans-axial ligands and four pyrrole N atoms of the porphyrin. The asymmetric unit contains one half of the [Co(III)(TPP)(4-nitro-aniline)2](+) ion complex, one chloride counter-ion (lying on a twofold rotation axis) and one half di-chloro-methane solvent mol-ecule, where the C atom lies on a twofold rotation axis. The average equatorial Co-N(pyrrole) distance (Co-Np) is 1.982 (2) Å and the axial Co-N(4-nitro-aniline) bond length is 2.006 (2) Å. The crystal packing is stabilized by an N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bond between the N atom of the amino group of the 4-nitro-aniline axial ligand and the chloride counter-ion. The supra-molecular architecture is further stabilized by weak C-H⋯π inter-actions. PMID:25309176

  11. Trans --> cis isomerization of trans-[(dppm)2Ru(H)(L)][BF4] (L = P(OR)3) complexes: preparation of cis-[(dppm)2Ru(eta2-H2)(L)][BF4]2.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Nisha; Jagirdar, Balaji R; Ranganathan, Anupama

    2003-01-13

    A series of new dicationic dihydrogen complexes of ruthenium of the type cis-[(dppm)(2)Ru(eta(2)-H(2))(L)][BF(4)](2) (dppm = Ph(2)PCH(2)PPh(2); L = P(OMe)(3), P(OEt)(3), PF(O(i)Pr)(2)) have been prepared by protonating the precursor hydride complexes cis-[(dppm)(2)Ru(H)(L)][BF(4)] (L = P(OMe)(3), P(OEt)(3), P(O(i)Pr)(3)) using HBF(4).Et(2)O. The cis-[(dppm)(2)Ru(H)(L)][BF(4)] complexes were obtained from the trans hydrides via an isomerization reaction that is acid-accelerated. This isomerization reaction gives mixtures of cis and trans hydride complexes, the ratios of which depend on the cone angles of the phosphite ligands: the greater the cone angle, the greater is the amount of the cis isomer. The eta(2)-H(2) ligand in the dihydrogen complexes is labile, and the loss of H(2) was found to be reversible. The protonation reactions of the starting hydrides with trans PMe(3) or PMe(2)Ph yield mixtures of the cis and the trans hydride complexes; further addition of the acid, however, give trans-[(dppm)(2)Ru(BF(4))Cl]. The roles of the bite angles of the dppm ligand as well as the steric and the electronic properties of the monodentate phosphorus ligands in this series of complexes are discussed. X-ray crystal structures of trans-[(dppm)(2)Ru(H)(P(OMe)(3))][BF(4)], cis-[(dppm)(2)Ru(H)(P(OMe)(3))][BF(4)], and cis-[(dppm)(2)Ru(H)(P(O(i)Pr)(3))][BF(4)] complexes have been determined. PMID:12513094

  12. Acute otitis media and respiratory virus infections.

    PubMed

    Ruuskanen, O; Arola, M; Putto-Laurila, A; Mertsola, J; Meurman, O; Viljanen, M K; Halonen, P

    1989-02-01

    We studied the association of acute otitis media with different respiratory virus infections in a pediatric department on the basis of epidemics between 1980 and 1985. Altogether 4524 cases of acute otitis media were diagnosed. The diagnosis was confirmed by tympanocentesis in 3332 ears. Respiratory virus infection was diagnosed during the same period in 989 patients by detecting viral antigen in nasopharyngeal mucus. There was a significant correlation between acute otitis media and respiratory virus epidemics, especially respiratory syncytial virus epidemics. There was no significant correlation between outbreaks of other respiratory viruses and acute otitis media. Acute otitis media was diagnosed in 57% of respiratory syncytial virus, 35% of influenza A virus, 33% of parainfluenza type 3 virus, 30% of adenovirus, 28% of parainfluenza type 1 virus, 18% of influenza B virus and 10% of parainfluenza type 2 virus infections. These observations show a clear association of respiratory virus infections with acute otitis media. In this study on hospitalized children Haemophilus influenzae strains were the most common bacteriologic pathogens in middle ear fluid, occurring in 19% of cases. Streptococcus pneumoniae was present in 16% and Branhamella catarrhalis in 7% of cases. There was no association between specific viruses and bacteria observed in this study.

  13. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of BO-1341, a new antipseudomonal cephalosporin.

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, S; Sanada, M; Matsuda, K; Hashizume, T; Asahi, Y; Ushijima, R; Ohtake, N; Tanaka, N

    1989-01-01

    BO-1341, a new antipseudomonal semisynthetic cephalosporin, was evaluated for in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities in comparison with ceftazidime, cefotaxime, and cefoperazone. The in vitro activity of BO-1341 was generally superior or comparable to the activities of the reference antibiotics against clinical isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae. BO-1341 was highly active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC for 90% of the strains tested, 1.56 micrograms/ml), Pseudomonas maltophilia (MIC for 50% of the strains tested, 1.56 micrograms/ml), and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (MIC for 90% of the strains tested, 3.13 micrograms/ml). Furthermore, BO-1341 was highly active against P. aeruginosa isolates resistant to the other antibiotics. Of 199 P. aeruginosa isolates tested, only 2 were resistant to BO-1341. These two strains were also resistant to ceftazidime, cefotaxime, and cefoperazone. Haemophilus influenzae, Branhamella catarrhalis, and nonenteric streptococci were also susceptible to BO-1341, but Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, and Bacteroides fragilis were not susceptible to the compound. The protective efficacy against experimental infections in mice caused by nine strains of gram-negative bacteria, including P. aeruginosa, reflected the potent in vitro activity. PMID:2510590

  14. Clinical evaluation of the Vitek Neisseria-Haemophilus Identification card.

    PubMed

    Janda, W M; Malloy, P J; Schreckenberger, P C

    1987-01-01

    A clinical evaluation of the Vitek Neisseria-Haemophilus Identification (NHI) card (Vitek Systems, Inc., Hazelwood, Mo.) was performed with 480 clinical isolates and stock strains of Neisseria spp., Haemophilus spp., and other fastidious microorganisms included in the data base of the system. Identifications obtained with the NHI card were compared with those determined by conventional methods. The card identified 83.2% of 244 Neisseria spp. and Branhamella catarrhalis, 54.9% of 164 Haemophilus spp., and 84.7% of 72 fastidious gram-negative species with no further testing required. Some isolates produced good confidence-marginal separation identifications, in which the correct identification was listed with one or two other possible identifications and extra tests were required and suggested. When isolates producing good confidence-marginal separation identifications were included, correct identifications of these organism groups increased to 97.1, 92.7, and 94.4%, respectively. Among the commonly isolated microorganisms, the NHI card identified 99.1% of 110 N. gonorrhoeae, 98.5% of 68 N. meningitidis, 93.9% of 98 H. influenzae, and 95.6% of 46 H. parainfluenzae strains. All of these organisms produced excellent to very good confidence level identifications except for H. influenzae biotypes II, III, and VII, for which hemolytic reactions were required for differentiation from H. haemolyticus. The NHI card reliably identified other fastidious gram-negative species, including H. aphrophilus, Eikenella corrodens, Gardnerella vaginalis, and Kingella denitrificans.

  15. Clinical evaluation of the Vitek Neisseria-Haemophilus Identification card.

    PubMed Central

    Janda, W M; Malloy, P J; Schreckenberger, P C

    1987-01-01

    A clinical evaluation of the Vitek Neisseria-Haemophilus Identification (NHI) card (Vitek Systems, Inc., Hazelwood, Mo.) was performed with 480 clinical isolates and stock strains of Neisseria spp., Haemophilus spp., and other fastidious microorganisms included in the data base of the system. Identifications obtained with the NHI card were compared with those determined by conventional methods. The card identified 83.2% of 244 Neisseria spp. and Branhamella catarrhalis, 54.9% of 164 Haemophilus spp., and 84.7% of 72 fastidious gram-negative species with no further testing required. Some isolates produced good confidence-marginal separation identifications, in which the correct identification was listed with one or two other possible identifications and extra tests were required and suggested. When isolates producing good confidence-marginal separation identifications were included, correct identifications of these organism groups increased to 97.1, 92.7, and 94.4%, respectively. Among the commonly isolated microorganisms, the NHI card identified 99.1% of 110 N. gonorrhoeae, 98.5% of 68 N. meningitidis, 93.9% of 98 H. influenzae, and 95.6% of 46 H. parainfluenzae strains. All of these organisms produced excellent to very good confidence level identifications except for H. influenzae biotypes II, III, and VII, for which hemolytic reactions were required for differentiation from H. haemolyticus. The NHI card reliably identified other fastidious gram-negative species, including H. aphrophilus, Eikenella corrodens, Gardnerella vaginalis, and Kingella denitrificans. PMID:3539996

  16. New consensus guidelines from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of infrequently isolated or fastidious bacteria.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, James H; Hindler, Janet F

    2007-01-15

    The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recently published a new laboratory guideline for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of infrequently encountered or fastidious bacteria not covered in previous CLSI publications. The organisms include Aeromonas species, Bacillus species, and Vibrio species that may cause infections following environmental exposure. Fastidious organisms that may cause endocarditis or medical device infections include Abiotrophia and Granulicatella species; coryneform bacteria; Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, and Kingella group gram-negative rods; and the instrinsically vancomycin-resistant gram-positive organisms Erysipelothrix, Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, and Pediococcus species. Organisms not previously covered in depth in CLSI guidelines include Branhamella catarrhalis, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Listeria species, and Pasteurella species. Clinically important drug resistance has been reported for each of these organisms. The guidelines provide recommendations for when it may be important to test these organisms, how standard methods may be easily adapted for testing, and appropriate interpretive criteria for results. Communication with infectious diseases clinicians prior to performing such testing is emphasized.

  17. [Acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and biofilm].

    PubMed

    Legnani, Delfino

    2009-07-01

    The lower respiratory tract of patients affected by COPD is constantly colonized by pathogenic microrganisms such as H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis and S. pneumoniae. Role of bacterial colonization of big and small airways in patients affected by COPD is still unclear but it is likely to play a role in directly or indirectly maintaining the vicious circle of infection/inflammation. Colonizer pathogens are capable to stimulate mucus production, to alter the ciliary function by inducing dyskinesia and stasis; in addition, they represent a strong stimulus for neutrophils to come in the airways, which release elastase that, in turn, inhibit the mucus-ciliary function. The same pathogens are responsible for epithelial damage and chronic inflammation, by releasing neutrophilic elastase, leading to the damage progression and obstruction. Recent studies have also shown that infection sustained by H. influenzae is not limited to bronchial mucosa, i.e. surface epithelial cells, but that the pathogen is capable to penetrate cells, so spreading the infection in sub-epithelial cellular layers. In addition, the ability to produce biofilm is another possible defence mechanism which allows them to grow and colonise. Such a mechanism could in part explain the lack of response to antimicrobials and contribute to stimulation of parenchymal inflammatory response, the cause of pathological-anatomic damage which occurs in COPD. The impossibility to eradicate chronic infection and bacterial exacerbations of COPD are likely the elements that promt and worsen obstruction, so determining the disease's progression. PMID:19696555

  18. Evolution of amoxicillin/clavulanate in the treatment of adults with acute bacterial rhinosinusitis and community-acquired pneumonia in response to antimicrobial-resistance patterns.

    PubMed

    File, Thomas M; Benninger, Michael S; Jacobs, Michael R

    2004-06-01

    Current treatment guidelines for community-acquired respiratory tract infections no longer depend solely on the characteristics of the patient and the clinical syndrome, but on those of the offending pathogen, including presence and level of antimicrobial resistance. The most common respiratory tract pathogens known to cause acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) include Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, especially b-lactum and macrolide resistance, among S pneumoniae and H influenzae has increased dramatically during the past 2 decades, diminishing the activity of many older antimicrobials against resistant organisms. A pharmacokinetically enhanced formulation of amoxicillin/clavulanate has been developed to fulfill the need for an oral b-lactam antimicrobial that achieves a greater time that the serum drug concentration exceeds the minimum inhibitory concentration (T > MIC) of antimicrobials against pathogens than conventional formulations to improve activity against S pneumoniae with reduced susceptibility to penicillin. The b-lactamase inhibitor clavulanate allows for coverage of b-lactamase-producing pathogens, such as H influenzae and M catarrhalis. This article reviews the rationale for, and evolution of, oral amoxicillin clavulanate for ABRS and CAP

  19. Serological classification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Tam, M R; Buchanan, T M; Sandström, E G; Holmes, K K; Knapp, J S; Siadak, A W; Nowinski, R C

    1982-01-01

    Hybrid cells producing monoclonal antibodies against antigens of Neisseria gonorrhoeae were obtained by the polyethylene glycol-mediated fusion of mouse myeloma cells and lymphocytes from mice immunized with gonococcal protein I or outer membrane proteins. From four fusions, 16 phenotypically stable, independently cloned hybrid cell lines were selected for continued study. Each of the cell lines produced a characteristically different monoclonal antibody which reacted in immunoprecipitation assays with a unique antigenic determinant on protein I of the outer membrane complex of the bacteria. In antibody binding, immunofluorescence, and coagglutination assays these antibodies each reacted with a restricted group of N. gonorrhoeae strains. None of the monoclonal antibodies reacted with 17 other different species of Neisseria or with Branhamella catarrhalis. When tested on 34 N. gonorrhoeae reference serotyping strains, the monoclonal antibodies demonstrated serological relationships between the strains which paralleled those observed with conventional polyvalent antisera. These antibodies now provide standardized reagents for the rapid and precise serological characterization of many strains of N. gonorrhoeae. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:6807844

  20. Analysis of cell division gene ftsZ (sulB) from gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Corton, J C; Ward, J E; Lutkenhaus, J

    1987-01-01

    The ftsZ (sulB) gene of Escherichia coli codes for a 40,000-dalton protein that carries out a key step in the cell division pathway. The presence of an ftsZ gene protein in other bacterial species was examined by a combination of Southern blot and Western blot analyses. Southern blot analysis of genomic restriction digests revealed that many bacteria, including species from six members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Agrobacterium tumefaciens, contained sequences which hybridized with an E. coli ftsZ probe. Genomic DNA from more distantly related bacteria, including Bacillus subtilis, Branhamella catarrhalis, Micrococcus luteus, and Staphylococcus aureus, did not hybridize under minimally stringent conditions. Western blot analysis, with anti-E. coli FtsZ antiserum, revealed that all bacterial species examined contained a major immunoreactive band. Several of the Enterobacteriaceae were transformed with a multicopy plasmid encoding the E. coli ftsZ gene. These transformed strains, Shigella sonnei, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter aerogenes, were shown to overproduce the FtsZ protein and to produce minicells. Analysis of [35S]methionine-labeled minicells revealed that the plasmid-encoded gene products were the major labeled species. This demonstrated that the E. coli ftsZ gene could function in other bacterial species to induce minicells and that these minicells could be used to analyze plasmid-endoced gene products. Images PMID:2432055

  1. Role of alveolar macrophages in innate immunity in neonates: evidence for selective lipopolysaccharide binding protein production by rat neonatal alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Lee, P T; Holt, P G; McWilliam, A S

    2000-11-01

    As the first line of defense against inhaled substances, alveolar macrophages (AM) play a crucial role in maintaining lung homeostasis. This is achieved via phagocytosis of foreign material and the secretion of a wide range of mediator molecules, including those involved in neutrophil recruitment. Neonates are known to manifest increased susceptibility to lung infections, and we hypothesize that this may be due in part to a deficiency in the function of AM. We report here that although recruitment of neutrophils into the respiratory tract of newborn animals in response to Moraxalla catarrhalis exposure is greatly delayed and diminished, AM from newborn animals have greater phagocytic capacity when compared with those from adult animals. Additionally, newborn AM respond normally to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) via production of a variety of chemokines, including macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, MIP-1beta, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, gro/ cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant, MIP-2, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. We have also demonstrated an LPS inducible expression of messenger RNA for LPS binding protein (LBP) in neonatal AM that was not observed in AM from adult animals or in peritoneal macrophages. We speculate that local production of LBP by AM may be a significant factor in the neonatal immunologic response to infections, providing a compensatory mechanism for the deficiency in specific neonatal immunity during this period of development when the newborn is being exposed to a range of potentially pathogenic materials for the first time.

  2. Broad spectrum antibacterial activity of a mixture of isothiocyanates from nasturtium (Tropaeoli majoris herba) and horseradish (Armoraciae rusticanae radix).

    PubMed

    Conrad, A; Biehler, D; Nobis, T; Richter, H; Engels, I; Biehler, K; Frank, U

    2013-02-01

    Isothiocyanates have been reported to exert antimicrobial activity. These compounds are found in a licensed native preparation of nasturtium (Tropaeoli majoris herba) and horseradish (Armoraciae rusticanae radix) which is used for treatment of upper respiratory and urinary tract infections. The aim of our investigation was to assess the antimicrobial activity of a mixture of the contained benzyl-, allyl-, and phenylethyl- isothiocyanates against clinically important bacterial and fungal pathogens including antimicrobial resistant isolates. Susceptibility testing was performed by agar-dilution technique. Isothiocyanates were mixed in proportions identical to the licensed drug. Minimum inhibitory- and minimum bactericidal concentrations were assessed. The Minimum inhibitory concentration90 was defined as the concentration which inhibited 90% of the microbial species tested. H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, S. marcescens, P. vulgaris, and Candida spp. were found to be highly susceptible, with minimum inhibitory concentration90 -values ranging between ≤0.0005% and 0.004% (v/v) of total ITC. Intermediate susceptibilities were observed for S. aureus, S. pyogenes, S. pneumoniae, K. pneumoniae, E. coli and P. aeruginosa, with Minimum inhibitory concentration90 -values ranging between 0.004% and 0.125% (v/v), but with elevated Minimum bactericidal concentrations90-values (2-7 dilution steps above Minimum inhibitory concentration90). Low susceptibilities were determined for viridans streptococci and enterococci. Interestingly, both resistant and non-resistant bacteria were similarly susceptible to the test preparation.

  3. A member of the cathelicidin family of antimicrobial peptides is produced in the upper airway of the chinchilla and its mRNA expression is altered by common viral and bacterial co-pathogens of otitis media.

    PubMed

    McGillivary, Glen; Ray, William C; Bevins, Charles L; Munson, Robert S; Bakaletz, Lauren O

    2007-03-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), a component of the innate immune system, play a major role in defense of mucosal surfaces against a wide spectrum of microorganisms such as viral and bacterial co-pathogens of the polymicrobial disease otitis media (OM). To further understand the role of AMPs in OM, we cloned a cDNA encoding a cathelicidin homolog (cCRAMP) from upper respiratory tract (URT) mucosae of the chinchilla, the predominant host used to model experimental OM. Recombinant cCRAMP exhibited alpha-helical secondary structure and killed the three main bacterial pathogens of OM. In situ hybridization showed cCRAMP mRNA production in epithelium of the chinchilla Eustachian tube and RT-PCR was used to amplify cCRAMP mRNA from several other tissues of the chinchilla URT. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of chinchilla middle ear epithelial cells (CMEEs) incubated with either viral (influenza A virus, adenovirus, or RSV) or bacterial (nontypeable H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, or S. pneumoniae) pathogens associated with OM demonstrated distinct microbe-specific patterns of altered expression. Collectively, these data showed that viruses and bacteria modulate AMP messages in the URT, which likely contributes to the disease course of OM.

  4. Comparison of the Prevalence of Common Bacterial Pathogens in the Oropharynx and Nasopharynx of Gambian Infants

    PubMed Central

    Odutola, Aderonke; Antonio, Martin; Owolabi, Olumuyiwa; Bojang, Abdoulie; Foster-Nyarko, Ebenezer; Donkor, Simon; Adetifa, Ifedayo; Taylor, Sylvia; Bottomley, Christian; Greenwood, Brian; Ota, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background CRM- based pneumococcal conjugate vaccines generally have little impact on the overall prevalence of pneumococcal carriage because of serotype replacement. In contrast, protein vaccines could substantially reduce the overall prevalence of pneumococcal carriage with potential microbiological and clinical consequences. Therefore, trials of pneumococcal protein vaccines need to evaluate their impact on carriage of other potentially pathogenic bacteria in addition to the pneumococcus. Methods As a prelude to a trial of an investigational pneumococcal vaccine containing pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugates and pneumococcal proteins, the prevalence of carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella species and Staphylococcus aureus in the nasopharynx of 1030 Gambian infants (median age 35 weeks) was determined. An oropharyngeal swab was obtained at the same time from the first 371 infants enrolled. Standard microbiological techniques were used to evaluate the bacterial flora of the pharynx and to compare that found in the oropharynx and in the nasopharynx. Results The overall pneumococcal carriage rate was high. Isolation rates of S. pneumoniae and Moraxella species were significantly higher using nasopharyngeal rather than oropharyngeal swabs (76.1% [95% CI 73.4%,78.7%] vs. 21.3% [95% CI 17.2%,25.8%] and 48.9% [95% CI 45.8%, 52.0%] vs. 20.5% % [95% CI 16.5%,25.0%] respectively). In contrast, S. aureus and H. influenzae were isolated more frequently from oropharyngeal than from nasopharyngeal swabs (65.0% [95% CI 59.9%, 69.8%] vs. 33.6% [95% CI 30.7%, 36.5%] and 31.8% [95% CI 16.5%, 25.0%] vs. 22.4% [95% CI 19.9%, 25.1%] respectively). No group A β haemolytic streptococci were isolated. Conclusion Collection of an oropharyngeal swab in addition to a nasopharyngeal swab will provide little additional information on the impact of a novel pneumococcal vaccine on pneumococcal carriage but it might provide additional, valuable information

  5. In vitro activity and beta-lactamase stability of LJC 10,627.

    PubMed Central

    Neu, H C; Gu, J W; Fang, W; Chin, N X

    1992-01-01

    The in vitro activity of LJC 10,627, a new carbapenem, was compared with those of imipenem, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and gentamicin. LJC 10,627 inhibited 90% of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter agglomerans, Enterobacter cloacae, Hafnia alvei, Citrobacter freundii, Citrobacter diversus, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii, Proteus rettgeri, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas cepacia, salmonellae, shigellae, aeromonas, and yersiniae at less than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml. Haemophilus influenzae was inhibited by 0.5 microgram/ml, and moraxellae were inhibited by 0.12 microgram/ml. LJC 10,627 was twofold more active than imipenem against aerobic gram-negative organisms and inhibited ceftazidime-, cefotaxime-, and gentamicin-resistant members of the genera Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, and Serratia at less than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml. Xanthomonas maltophilia strains were resistant to the drug. Imipenem was two- to fourfold more active than LJC 10,627 against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. LJC 10,627 did not inhibit most methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis strains. LJC 10,627 inhibited Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae at 0.06 and 0.12 microgram/ml, respectively. Bacteroides fragilis and other Bacteroides spp. were inhibited by 0.5 microgram of LJC 10,627 per ml. Serum (50%) did not affect the MICs. LJC 10,627 was not hydrolyzed by plasmid-mediated beta-lactamases of Bush types 2b, 2b', TEM-1, TEM-2, TEM-3, TEM-5, TEM-7, TEM-9, and SHV-1; the chromosomal beta-lactamases of Bush type 1; P-99; a Morganella enzyme; or a Citrobacter freundii enzyme. The Bush type 2c and 2d enzymes OXA-1, OXA-2, PSE-1, PSE-2, and PSE-4 did not hydrolyze LJC 10,627, nor did the beta-lactamases of Staphylococcus aureus, Moraxella spp., Bacteroides fragilis, and Proteus vulgaris. The beta-lactamase of Xanthomonas

  6. Diagnostics of neisseriaceae and moraxellaceae by ribosomal DNA sequencing: ribosomal differentiation of medical microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Harmsen, D; Singer, C; Rothgänger, J; Tønjum, T; de Hoog, G S; Shah, H; Albert, J; Frosch, M

    2001-03-01

    Fast and reliable identification of microbial isolates is a fundamental goal of clinical microbiology. However, in the case of some fastidious gram-negative bacterial species, classical phenotype identification based on either metabolic, enzymatic, or serological methods is difficult, time-consuming, and/or inadequate. 16S or 23S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) bacterial sequencing will most often result in accurate speciation of isolates. Therefore, the objective of this study was to find a hypervariable rDNA stretch, flanked by strongly conserved regions, which is suitable for molecular species identification of members of the Neisseriaceae and Moraxellaceae. The inter- and intrageneric relationships were investigated using comparative sequence analysis of PCR-amplified partial 16S and 23S rDNAs from a total of 94 strains. When compared to the type species of the genera Acinetobacter, Moraxella, and Neisseria, an average of 30 polymorphic positions was observed within the partial 16S rDNA investigated (corresponding to Escherichia coli positions 54 to 510) for each species and an average of 11 polymorphic positions was observed within the 202 nucleotides of the 23S rDNA gene (positions 1400 to 1600). Neisseria macacae and Neisseria mucosa subsp. mucosa (ATCC 19696) had identical 16S and 23S rDNA sequences. Species clusters were heterogeneous in both genes in the case of Acinetobacter lwoffii, Moraxella lacunata, and N. mucosa. Neisseria meningitidis isolates failed to cluster only in the 23S rDNA subset. Our data showed that the 16S rDNA region is more suitable than the partial 23S rDNA for the molecular diagnosis of Neisseriaceae and Moraxellaceae and that a reference database should include more than one strain of each species. All sequence chromatograms and taxonomic and disease-related information are available as part of our ribosomal differentiation of medical microorganisms (RIDOM) web-based service (http://www.ridom.hygiene.uni-wuerzburg.de/). Users can submit a

  7. A Pyrosequencing Investigation of Differences in the Feline Subgingival Microbiota in Health, Gingivitis and Mild Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Harris, Stephen; Croft, Julie; O'Flynn, Ciaran; Deusch, Oliver; Colyer, Alison; Allsopp, Judi; Milella, Lisa; Davis, Ian J

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is the most frequently diagnosed health problem in cats yet little is known about the bacterial species important for the disease. The objective of this study was to identify bacterial species associated with health, gingivitis or mild periodontitis (<25% attachment loss) in feline plaque. Knowledge of these species is a first step in understanding the potential for improving oral health of cats via dietary interventions that alter the proportions of influential species. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from 92 cats with healthy gingiva, gingivitis or mild periodontitis. Pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA from these plaque samples generated more than one million reads and identified a total of 267 operational taxonomic units after bioinformatic and statistical analysis. Porphyromonas was the most abundant genus in all gingival health categories, particularly in health along with Moraxella and Fusobacteria. The Peptostreptococcaceae were the most abundant family in gingivitis and mild periodontitis. Logistic regression analysis identified species from various genera that were significantly associated with health, gingivitis or mild periodontitis. The species identified were very similar to those observed in canine plaque in the corresponding health and disease states. Such similarities were not observed between cat and human at the bacterial species level but with disease progression similarities did emerge at the phylum level. This suggests that interventions targeted at human pathogenic species will not be effective for use in cats but there is more potential for commonalities in interventions for cats and dogs.

  8. A cross-sectional survey of bacterial species in plaque from client owned dogs with healthy gingiva, gingivitis or mild periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ian J; Wallis, Corrin; Deusch, Oliver; Colyer, Alison; Milella, Lisa; Loman, Nick; Harris, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal disease is the most widespread oral disease in dogs which if left untreated results in significant pain to the pet and loss of dentition. The objective of this study was to identify bacterial species in canine plaque that are significantly associated with health, gingivitis and mild periodontitis (<25% attachment loss). In this survey subgingival plaque samples were collected from 223 dogs with healthy gingiva, gingivitis and mild periodontitis with 72 to 77 samples per health status. DNA was extracted from the plaque samples and subjected to PCR amplification of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA. Pyrosequencing of the PCR amplicons identified a total of 274 operational taxonomic units after bioinformatic and statistical analysis. Porphyromonas was the most abundant genus in all disease stages, particularly in health along with Moraxella and Bergeyella. Peptostreptococcus, Actinomyces, and Peptostreptococcaceae were the most abundant genera in mild periodontitis. Logistic regression analysis identified species from each of these genera that were significantly associated with health, gingivitis or mild periodontitis. Principal component analysis showed distinct community profiles in health and disease. The species identified show some similarities with health and periodontal disease in humans but also major differences. In contrast to human, healthy canine plaque was found to be dominated by Gram negative bacterial species whereas Gram positive anaerobic species predominate in disease. The scale of this study surpasses previously published research and enhances our understanding of the bacterial species present in canine subgingival plaque and their associations with health and early periodontal disease.

  9. The Healthy Infant Nasal Transcriptome: A Benchmark Study

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chin-Yi; Qiu, Xing; Wang, Lu; Bhattacharya, Soumyaroop; Lofthus, Gerry; Corbett, Anthony; Holden-Wiltse, Jeanne; Grier, Alex; Tesini, Brenda; Gill, Steven R.; Falsey, Ann R.; Caserta, Mary T.; Walsh, Edward E.; Mariani, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Responses by resident cells are likely to play a key role in determining the severity of respiratory disease. However, sampling of the airways poses a significant challenge, particularly in infants and children. Here, we report a reliable method for obtaining nasal epithelial cell RNA from infants for genome-wide transcriptomic analysis, and describe baseline expression characteristics in an asymptomatic cohort. Nasal epithelial cells were collected by brushing of the inferior turbinates, and gene expression was interrogated by RNA-seq analysis. Reliable recovery of RNA occurred in the absence of adverse events. We observed high expression of epithelial cell markers and similarity to the transcriptome for intrapulmonary airway epithelial cells. We identified genes displaying low and high expression variability, both inherently, and in response to environmental exposures. The greatest gene expression differences in this asymptomatic cohort were associated with the presence of known pathogenic viruses and/or bacteria. Robust bacteria-associated gene expression patterns were significantly associated with the presence of Moraxella. In summary, we have developed a reliable method for interrogating the infant airway transcriptome by sampling the nasal epithelium. Our data demonstrates both the fidelity and feasibility of our methodology, and describes normal gene expression and variation within a healthy infant cohort. PMID:27658638

  10. [Normal microflora of the pharyngeal mucosa].

    PubMed

    Kolotilova, L V; Akishina, T M; Zargarian, O P; Lomnitskaia, V B; Pruzhniak, O V; Lutsik, T S

    1989-10-01

    Aerobic microflora of the throat mucosa was studied in 518 healthy persons aged 1 to 50 years. On the basis of the study results, criteria for estimating microbiocenoses of the upper respiratory tracts were defined. It was shown that the throat symbiotic flora included three groups of microorganisms playing different roles in the development of microbiocenosis. The indigenous group consisted of representatives of Streptococcus and Neisseria and was characterized by permanent (90-100 per cent) and intensive (3-8 lg CFU/ml) colonization, broad species spectrum, associations of 2-3 and more species and no significant influence of sociological, age and season factors. The representatives of the facultative group i.e. bacteria belonging to Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium and Haemophilus were less frequent (25-50 per cent). The intensity of their isolation was lower (1-4 lg CFU/ml) and their species spectrum was narrow. The microorganisms of the transitory group were characterized by low frequency (5-20 per cent) and insignificant contamination of the throat mucosa (1-2 lg CFU/ml). The nature of the colonization was monospecific. The group was more numerous by generic composition (Candida, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, Branhamella, Moraxella and Micrococcus). However, it was generally limited by one colonization type. The facultative and transitory groups were subject to age and season variation. They were also different in urban and rural populations.

  11. Crystal structure of MboIIA methyltransferase.

    SciTech Connect

    Osipiuk, J.; Walsh, M. A.; Joachimiak, A.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Gdansk; Medical Research Council France

    2003-09-15

    DNA methyltransferases (MTases) are sequence-specific enzymes which transfer a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) to the amino group of either cytosine or adenine within a recognized DNA sequence. Methylation of a base in a specific DNA sequence protects DNA from nucleolytic cleavage by restriction enzymes recognizing the same DNA sequence. We have determined at 1.74 {angstrom} resolution the crystal structure of a {beta}-class DNA MTase MboIIA (M {center_dot} MboIIA) from the bacterium Moraxella bovis, the smallest DNA MTase determined to date. M {center_dot} MboIIA methylates the 3' adenine of the pentanucleotide sequence 5'-GAAGA-3'. The protein crystallizes with two molecules in the asymmetric unit which we propose to resemble the dimer when M {center_dot} MboIIA is not bound to DNA. The overall structure of the enzyme closely resembles that of M {center_dot} RsrI. However, the cofactor-binding pocket in M {center_dot} MboIIA forms a closed structure which is in contrast to the open-form structures of other known MTases.

  12. Identification of airborne bacterial and fungal species in the clinical microbiology laboratory of a university teaching hospital employing ribosomal DNA (rDNA) PCR and gene sequencing techniques.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Yuriko; Walker, Jim; Loughrey, Anne; Millar, Cherie; Goldsmith, Colin; Rooney, Paul; Elborn, Stuart; Moore, John

    2009-06-01

    Universal or "broad-range" PCR-based ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was performed on a collection of 58 isolates (n = 30 bacteria + 28 fungi), originating from environmental air from several locations within a busy clinical microbiology laboratory, supporting a university teaching hospital. A total of 10 bacterial genera were identified including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative genera. Gram-positive organisms accounted for 27/30 (90%) of total bacterial species, consisting of seven genera and included (in descending order of frequency) Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Corynebacterium, Paenibacillus, Arthrobacter, Janibacter and Rothia. Gram-negative organisms were less frequently isolated 3/30 (10%) and comprised three genera, including Moraxella, Psychrobacter and Haloanella. Eight fungal genera were identified among the 28 fungal organisms isolated, including (in descending order of frequency) Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Thanatephorus, Absidia, Eurotium, Paraphaeosphaeria and Tritirachium, with Cladosporium accounting for 10/28 (35.7%) of the total fungal isolates. In conclusion, this study identified the presence of 10 bacterial and eight fungal genera in the air within the laboratory sampled. Although this reflected diversity of the microorganisms present, none of these organisms have been described previously as having an inhalational route of laboratory-acquired infection. Therefore, we believe that the species of organisms identified and the concentration levels of these airborne contaminants determined, do not pose a significant health and safety threat for immunocompotent laboratory personnel and visitors. PMID:20183192

  13. Microbiological safety of bottled mineral water in patients susceptible to infections.

    PubMed

    Oie, Shigeharu; Matsuzaka, Yuuki; Kiyonaga, Hiroko; Maeda, Kumiko; Kamiya, Akira

    2008-08-01

    We evaluated the microbiological safety of bottled mineral water products commercially available in Japan. Of 10 bottled mineral water products manufactured in Japan, no bacteria or fungi were detected in 9 (90%), but 1 (10%) contained 1.8x10(3) colony-forming units (cfu)/mL. Of 12 bottled mineral water products manufactured in the EU, 11 (91.7%) contained 23-3.5x10(4) cfu/mL. On the other hand, of 5 bottled mineral water products manufactured in North America, 2 (40%) contained 2.3x10(2)-2.5x10(3) cfu/mL. The detected microorganisms were glucose-nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli such as Brevundimonas vesicularis, Moraxella spp., and Burkholderia cepacia, but Pseudomonas aeruginosa was not detected in any product. For immunocompromised host patients being managed in ultra-clean rooms, the examined bottled mineral water products manufactured in Japan, except 1, were microbiologically safe.

  14. Microbial fouling of reverse-osmosis membranes used in advanced wastewater treatment technology: chemical, bacteriological, and ultrastructural analyses.

    PubMed Central

    Ridgway, H F; Kelly, A; Justice, C; Olson, B H

    1983-01-01

    Biofouling of reverse-osmosis membranes was investigated at an advanced wastewater treatment facility. Cellulose diacetate membranes operated for approximately 4,000 h became uniformly coated with a mucilaginous fouling layer. The fouling material was approximately 93% water by weight, and nearly 90% of the dehydrated residue was organic in composition. Calcium, phosphorous, sulfur, and chlorine were the major inorganic constituents detected. Protein and carbohydrate represented as much as 30 and 17%, respectively, of the dry weight of the biofilm. Bacteriological plate counts indicated up to 5.6 X 10(6) CFU/cm2 of membrane surface. Accumulation of [3H]glucose in the biofilm and measurement of ATP indicated that the fouling bacteria were metabolically active in situ. The genus Acinetobacter and the Flavobacterium-Moraxella group were the major generic groups associated with the feedwater surface of the membrane, whereas species of the generic groups Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas-Alcaligenes, and Bacillus-Lactobacillus predominated on the permeate water surface. Electron microscopy revealed that the biofilm on the feedwater surface of the membrane was 10 to 20 microns thick and was composed of several layers of compacted bacterial cells, many of which were partially or completely autolyzed. The bacteria were firmly attached to the membrane surface by an extensive network of extracellular polymeric fibrils. Polyester (Texlon) support fibers located on the permeate surface of the reverse osmosis membranes were sparsely colonized, suggesting bacterial regrowth in the product water collection system. Images PMID:6847180

  15. Polythene and plastic-degrading microbes in an Indian mangrove soil.

    PubMed

    Kathiresan, K

    2003-01-01

    Biodegradation of polythene bags and plastic cups was analyzed after 2, 4, 6, and 9 months of incubation in the mangrove soil. The biodegradation of polythene bags was significantly higher (up to 4.21% in 9 months) than that of plastic cups (up to 0.25% in 9 months). Microbial counts in the degrading materials were recorded up to 79.67 x 10(4) per gram for total heterotrophic bacteria, and up to 55.33 x 10(2) per gram for fungi. The microbial species found associated with the degrading materials were identified as five Gram positive and two Gram negative bacteria, and eight fungal species of Aspergillus. The species that were predominant were Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Micrococcus (Gram +ve), Moraxella, and Pseudomonas (Gram -ve) and two species of fungi (Aspergillus glaucus and A. niger). Efficacy of the microbial species in degradation of plastics and polythene was analyzed in shaker cultures. Among the bacteria, Pseudomonas species degraded 20.54% of polythene and 8.16% of plastics in one-month period. Among the fungal species, Aspergillus glaucus degraded 28.80% of polythene and 7.26% of plastics in one-month period. This work reveals that the mangrove soil is a good source of microbes capable of degrading polythene and plastics.

  16. Molecular analysis of bacterial isolates and total community DNA from kraft pulp mill effluent treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Fortin, N; Fulthorpe, R R; Allen, D G; Greer, C W

    1998-06-01

    Chloroaliphatics are major components of bleached kraft mill effluents. Gene probes and oligonucleotide primers were developed to monitor kraft pulp mill effluent treatment systems for the presence of key genes (dehalogenases) responsible for the dehalogenation of chloroaliphatic organics. The primers were used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of genomic DNA extracted from dehalogenating bacterial isolates and from total community DNA extracted from water and sediments of mill effluent treatment system. PCR amplification with oligonucleotide primers designed from dhlB, encoding the haloacid dehalogenase from Xanthobacter autotrophicus, revealed the presence of dehalogenase genes in both aerated lagoons and stabilization basins. Similarly, positive results were obtained with mmoX primers designed from the soluble methane monooxygenase gene of Methylococcus capsulatus Bath. The haloacetate dehalogenase encoding gene (dehH2) from Moraxella sp. was typically not detected in mill effluent treatment systems unless the biomass was selectively enriched. DNA sequence analysis of several PCR fragaments revealed significant similarity to known dehalogenase amd methane monooxygenase genes. The results indicated a broad distribution of known dehalogenation genes and bacteria with chloroorganic-degrading potential in the mill effluent treatment systems. PMID:9734304

  17. Globally dispersed mobile drug-resistance genes in Gram-negative bacterial isolates from patients with bloodstream infections in a US urban general hospital

    PubMed Central

    Adams-Sapper, S.; Sergeevna-Selezneva, J.; Tartof, S.; Raphael, E.; Diep, B. An; Perdreau-Remington, F.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile drug-resistance genes with identical nucleic acid sequences carried by multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strains that cause community-acquired infections are becomingly increasingly dispersed worldwide. Over a 2-year period, we analysed Gram-negative bacterial (GNB) pathogens from the blood of inpatients at an urban public hospital to determine what proportion of these isolates carried such globally dispersed drug-resistance genes. Of 376 GNB isolates, 167 (44 %) were Escherichia coli, 50 (13 %) were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 25 (7 %) were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 25 (7 %) were Proteus mirabilis and 20 (5 %) were Enterobacter cloacae; the remainder (24 %) comprised 26 different GNB species. Among E. coli isolates, class 1 integrons were detected in 64 (38 %). The most common integron gene cassette configuration was dfrA17-aadA5, found in 30 (25 %) of 119 drug-resistant E. coli isolates and in one isolate of Moraxella morganii. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes were found in 16 E. coli isolates (10 %). These genes with identical sequences were found in nearly 40 % of bloodstream E. coli isolates in the study hospital, as well as in a variety of bacterial species from clinical and non-clinical sources worldwide. Thus, a substantial proportion of bloodstream infections among hospitalized patients were caused by E. coli strains carrying drug-resistance genes that are dispersed globally in a wide variety of bacterial species. PMID:22493279

  18. Ecology of bacterial communities in the schistosomiasis vector snailBiomphalaria glabrata.

    PubMed

    Ducklow, H W; Clausen, K; Mitchell, R

    1981-09-01

    The internal colony-forming bacterial flora of the schistosome intermediate host snailBiomphalaria glabrata (Say) has been characterized in ca. 500 individual snails from Puerto Rico, Guadeloupe, and St. Lucia, and from laboratory aquaria. Freshly captured wild snails harbor 2-40×10(6) CFU·g(-1), and healthy aquarium snails harbor 4-16×10(7) CFU·g(-1), whereas moribund individuals have 4-10 times as many bacteria as healthy individuals from the same habitats.Pseudomonas spp. are the most common predominant bacteria in normal snails, whereasAcinetobacter, Aeromonas, andMoraxella spp. predominate in moribund snails. External bacterial populations in water appear to have little effect on the composition and size of the flora in any snail. In addition to normal (healthy) and moribund snails, a third group of snails has been distinguished on the basis of internal bacterial density and predominating genera. These "high-density" snails may have undergone stresses and may harbor opportunistic pathogens. The microfloras of wild and laboratory-reared snails can be altered and stimulated to increase in density by crowding the snails or treating them with antibiotics. PMID:24227500

  19. Antibiotic resistance patterns of gram-negative bacteria isolated from environmental sources.

    PubMed Central

    Kelch, W J; Lee, J S

    1978-01-01

    A total of 2,445 gram-negative bacteria belonging to fecal coliform, Pseudomonas, Moraxella, Acinetobacter, and Flavobacterium-Cytophaga groups were isolated from the rivers and bay of Tillamook, Oregon, and their resistances to chloramphenicol (25 microgram/ml), streptomycin (10 microgram/ml), ampicillin (10 microgram/ml), tetracycline (25 microgram/ml), chlortetracycline (25 microgram/ml), oxytetracycline (25 microgram/ml), neomycin (50 microgram/ml), nitrofurazone (12.5 microgram/ml), nalidixic acid (25 microgram/ml), kanamycin (25 microgram/ml), and penicillin G (10 IU/ml) were determined. Among fecal coliforms the bay isolates showed greater resistance to antibiotics than those from tributaries or surface runoff. No such well-defined difference was found among other bacterial groups. The antibiotic resistance patterns of gram-negative bacteria from different sources correlated well, perhaps indicating their common origin. The antibiotic resistance patterns of gram-negative bacteria of different general also correlated well, perhaps indicating that bacteria which share a common environment also share a common mode for developing antibiotic resistance. PMID:727777

  20. Granulocyte CEACAM3 is a phagocytic receptor of the innate immune system that mediates recognition and elimination of human-specific pathogens.

    PubMed

    Schmitter, Tim; Agerer, Franziska; Peterson, Lisa; Munzner, Petra; Hauck, Christof R

    2004-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) are used by several human pathogens to anchor themselves to or invade host cells. Interestingly, human granulocytes express a specific isoform, CEACAM3, that participates together with CEACAM1 and CEACAM6 in the recognition of CEACAM-binding microorganisms. Here we show that CEACAM3 can direct efficient, opsonin-independent phagocytosis of CEACAM-binding Neisseria, Moraxella, and Haemophilus species. CEACAM3- but not CEACAM6-mediated uptake is blocked by dominant-negative versions of the small GTPase Rac. Moreover, CEACAM3 engagement triggers membrane recruitment and increased GTP loading of Rac that are not observed upon bacterial binding to CEACAM6. Internalization and Rac stimulation are also inhibited by compromising the integrity of an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-like sequence in the cytoplasmic tail of CEACAM3 or by interference with Src family protein tyrosine kinases that phosphorylate CEACAM3. In contrast to interfering with CEACAM6, blockage of CEACAM3-mediated events reduces the ability of primary human granulocytes to internalize and eliminate CEACAM-binding bacteria, indicating an important role of CEACAM3 in the control of human-specific pathogens by the innate immune system.

  1. [Characterization of microbial population present in the edible seaweed, Monostroma undulatum, Wittrock].

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Adriana Alicia; Risso, Susana; Fajardo, María Angélica; Estevao Belchior, Silvia

    2004-09-01

    The microbiological quality of Monostroma undulatum, Wittrock from the Southern Argentinean coast, was studied for its application for human food. Also the diversity and function of the native bacterial population to this green seaweed was analyzed. Samples were collected in Puerto Deseado, province of Santa Cruz, Southern Argentina (47 degrees 45'L.S., 65 degrees 55'L.W). The samples were analyzed for the presence of psycotrophic heterotrophic bacteria, marine heterotrophic bacteria, low nutritional request bacteria (LNRB), marine low nutritional request bacteria (LNRB marine), Vibrio spp, total and thermotolerant colifom bacteria, anaerobic sulfite reducing bacteria, yeasts and moulds. The isolates were identified using standard techniques based on morphologic, physiologic and metabolic characteristics. Among the gram-negative bacteria isolated, the predominant genera belonged to Vibrio (20%), E. coli inactiva (18%), Flavobacterium (11%), Flexibacter (9%), Moraxella (9%), Alcaligenes/Pseudomonas group (9%), Aeromonas (2%), Acinetobacter (2%). Cotophaga (2%), Photobacterium (2%), Ps/Caulobacter/Alteromonas/Spirillum group (2), The main genus of gram-positive bacteria was Staphylococcus. Human pathogenic bacteria were not detected. Fecal contamination indicator bacteria were not isolated from fresh seaweed and seawater. These results showed an adequate microbiological quality of seaweed acceptable for human food. The bacterial population associated to Monostroma undulatum, consisted of gram-negative, marine and psycotrophic microorganisms, including vibrios and enterobacteria as their main components. Also the identified bacteria showed a great capacity to hydrolyze different substrates and so they might contribute to the balance of this marine ecosystem. PMID:15807211

  2. Back to basic: bio-burden on hands of health care personnel in tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Wong, J L; Siti Azrin, A H; Narizan, M I; Norliah, Y; Noraida, M; Amanina, A; Nabilah, I; Habsah, H; Siti Asma, H

    2014-09-01

    Hands of Health Care Personnel (HCP) are one of the most common vehicles for the transmission of infection. Microorganisms can survive well on the hands of HCP for a certain duration. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to bring awareness to HCP that their hands can actually be contaminated with many microorganisms. These microbes on the hands of HCP can potentially infect their patients if they do not comply with the proper hand hygiene practice. This cross-sectional study was conducted at a randomly selected Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and general ward in a hospital. Twenty five HCP from each ward were randomly selected and their hands were imprinted on blood culture plates. Microorganism growth were quantified and identified. Data were analyzed and presented as descriptive analysis. One hundred blood agar plates were processed and analyzed. Majority (71%) of the samples had more than 50 colony-forming units (CFU) and only 17% of the samples had less than 25 CFU. Microorganisms identified include Staphylococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp., Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., Moraxella, Delftiaacidovorans and fungi. All isolated microorganisms were antibiotic sensitive strain. This study showed that the hands of HCP were contaminated with many microorganisms. Therefore, it is imperative that HCP must practice proper hand hygiene when taking care of their patients in the wards.

  3. Predominant bacteria in an activated sludge reactor for the degradation of cutting fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, C.A.; Claus, G.W.; Taylor, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    For the first time, an activated sludge reactor, established for the degradation of cutting fluids, was examined for predominant bacteria. In addition, both total and viable numbers of bacteria in the reactor were determined so that the percentage of each predominant type in the total reactor population could be determined. Three samples were studied, and a total of 15 genera were detected. In each sample, the genus Pseudomonas and the genus Microcyclus were present in high numbers. Three other genera, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, and Corynebacterium, were also found in every sample but in lower numbers. In one sample, numerous appendage bacteria were present, and one of these, the genus Seliberia, was the most predominant organism in that sample. However, in the other two samples no appendage bacteria were detected. Six genera were found in this reactor which have not been previously reported in either cutting fluids in use or in other activated sludge systems. These genera were Aeromonas, Hyphomonas, Listeria, Microcyclus, Moraxella, and Spirosoma. None of the predominant bacterial belonged to groups of strict pathogens. 22 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  4. Transformation Assay for Identification of Psychrotrophic Achromobacters

    PubMed Central

    Juni, Elliot; Heym, Gloria A.

    1980-01-01

    The finding that many psychrotrophic, gram-negative, nonmotile, oxidase-positive coccobacilli (achromobacters) are competent for genetic transformation made possible the development of a transformation assay that permits recognition of genetically related strains. It has been demonstrated that 109 independently isolated achromobacters are genetically related since deoxyribonucleic acid samples from all of these organisms were able to transform a single competent auxotrophic strain to prototrophy. Genetically interacting bacteria included strains that lacked one or more of the characteristics typical for most achromobacters. An oxidase-negative mutant of one of these strains reacted positively in the transformation assay, unlike other oxidase-negative bacteria. Achromobacters were derived from fish, poultry, irradiated foods, seawater, and other sources. One strain previously classified as Micrococcus cryophilus has been shown to be related to the achromobacters. Two achromobacters had an optimum growth temperature of 35°C and behaved as typical mesophiles. The moraxellae and Acinetobacter were shown to be unrelated to the achromobacters by using the transformation assay. The ready demonstration of genetic relatedness provides a new basis for taxonomic grouping of the psychrotrophic achromobacters. Images PMID:16345673

  5. A longitudinal assessment of changes in bacterial community composition associated with the development of periodontal disease in dogs.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Corrin; Marshall, Mark; Colyer, Alison; O'Flynn, Ciaran; Deusch, Oliver; Harris, Stephen

    2015-12-31

    Periodontal disease is the most widespread oral disease in dogs. Whilst the involvement of bacteria in the aetiology of periodontitis is well established the role of individual species and their complex interactions with the host is not well understood. The objective of this research was therefore to perform a longitudinal study in dogs to identify the changes that occur in subgingival bacterial communities during the transition from mild gingivitis to the early stages of periodontitis (<25% attachment loss). Subgingival plaque samples were collected from individual teeth of 52 miniature schnauzer dogs every six weeks for up to 60 weeks. The microbial composition of plaque samples was determined using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA. A group of aerobic Gram negative species, including Bergeyella zoohelcum COT-186, Moraxella sp. COT-017, Pasteurellaceae sp. COT-080, and Neisseria shayeganii COT-090 decreased in proportion as teeth progressed to mild periodontitis. In contrast, there was less evidence that increases in the proportion of individual species were associated with the onset of periodontitis, although a number of species (particularly members of the Firmicutes) became more abundant as gingivitis severity increased. There were small increases in Shannon diversity, suggesting that plaque community membership remains relatively stable but that bacterial proportions change during progression into periodontitis. This is the first study to demonstrate the temporal dynamics of the canine oral microbiota; it showed that periodontitis results from a microbial succession predominantly characterised by a reduction of previously abundant, health associated taxa. PMID:26507828

  6. [Bacteriologic evaluation of middle ear fluid during the course of secretory otitis media in children].

    PubMed

    Wezyk, M T; Małafiej, E; Makowski, A; Woch, G

    2000-01-01

    Fluid collected from tympanic cavity during operation from 43 children with O.M.S. was subjected to bacteriological examination. After the collection, each sample was immediately applied to Bactec Peds Plus/F liquid medium from Becton Dickinson. The number of samples, where each genus and species of bacteria were found, was determined, as well as the number of samples where every two genus coexisted; also the pH genes, in which each genus was found were calculated. Obtained results showed that 22 species of bacteria, belonging to 6 genus lived in the samples. The most commonly occurring genus were Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Haemophilus; the most rare genus were Moraxella and Bacillus. The most common species were: Haemophilus influenzae (18.6% of samples), Staphylococcus aureus (14.0%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (11.6%), Staphylococcus warneri (9.3%) and Streptococcus oralis (7.0%). Streptococcus coexisted most frequently with Staphylococcus and Haemophilus; Staphylococcus--with Haemophilus and Bacillus; Haemophilus--with Streptococcus and Staphylococcus. The pH ranges for the three most often found genus were: for Staphylococcus--7.7-9, for Streptococcus--7.7-9.3 and for Haemophilus--8.2-8.8.

  7. Purification and partial characterization of a novel antibacterial agent (Bac1829) Produced by Staphylococcus aureus KSI1829.

    PubMed Central

    Crupper, S S; Iandolo, J J

    1996-01-01

    A novel antimicrobial agent from Staphylococcus aureus KSI1829, designated Bac1829, was purified by sequential steps of ammonium sulfate precipitation, Sephadex G-50 gel filtration chromatography, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Purified Bac1829 has a molecular mass of 6,418 +/- 2 Da. The peptide in heat stable, since full biological activity is retained after heating at 95 degrees C for 15 min, and it is destroyed by digestion with proteases. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed a high concentration of Ala and Gly residues, which respectively comprised 24 and 19% of the total amino acid content. Additionally, high levels of hydrophobic amino acids were present, accounting for the hydrophobic nature of Bac1829. Purified Bac1829 killed exponentially growing Corynebacterium renale in a dose-dependent manner by a bactericidal mode of action. A partial inhibitory spectrum analysis revealed that the following organisms were sensitive to the inhibitory activity of Bac1829: S. aureus RN4220, Streptococcus suis, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, C. renale, Corynebacterium diptheriae, Haemophilus parasuis, Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella bronchoseptica, Moraxella bovis, and Pasteurella multocida. PMID:8795206

  8. Assessing genetic structure, diversity of bacterial aerosol from aeration system in an oxidation ditch wastewater treatment plant by culture methods and bio-molecular tools.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Han, Yunping; Liu, Junxin

    2013-01-01

    Airborne bacteria emissions from oxidation ditch with rotating aeration brushes were investigated in a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Beijing, China. Microbial samples were collected at different distances from the rotating brushes, different heights above the water surface, and different operation state over a 3-month period (April, May, and June) in order to estimate the seasonal variation and site-related distribution characteristics of the microorganisms present. The concentration of bacterial aerosol was analyzed by culture methods, while their dominant species, genetic structure and diversity were assayed using bio-molecular tools. Results showed that total microbial concentrations were highest in June and lowest in April. The mechanical rotation caused remarkable variation in concentration and diversity of culturable airborne bacteria before and after the rotating brushes. The highest concentration was observed near the rotating brushes (931 ± 129-3,952 ± 730 CFU/m(3)), with concentration decreasing as distance and height increased. Bacterial community polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis indicated that diversity decreased gradually with increasing height above the water surface but remained relatively constant at the same height. All dominant bacteria identified by DNA sequence analysis belonged to Firmicutes. Pathogenic species such as Moraxella nonliquefaciens and Flavobacterium odoratum were isolated from the bioaerosols. Due to the serious health risks involved, exposure of sewage workers to airborne microorganisms caused by brush aerators should be monitored and controlled. PMID:22402990

  9. A Study on the Nature of Association between Demodex Mites and Bacteria Involved in Skin and Meibomian Gland Lesions of Demodectic Mange in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Samra, Mukhtar Taha; Shuaib, Yassir Adam

    2014-01-01

    The nature of association between Demodex mites and bacteria involved in bovine demodectic mange lesions and the normal flora inhabiting the skin of noninfected animals was investigated. Demodex bovis and D. ghanensis mites were isolated from the infected purulent material extracted from skin and meibomian gland lesions, respectively. The mites could not be demonstrated in skin brushings or impression smears from the eyes of noninfected cattle. Pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A)) and opportunistic organisms (Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Trueperella pyogenes) were isolated from skin lesions of demodectic mange, and Moraxella bovis and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from meibomian gland lesions. Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A) were isolated from skin brushings from noninfected cattle. The nature of association between Demodex mites and bacteria in demodectic mange lesions is synergistic and of equal significance. Pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria facilitated the establishment of Demodex mites in the lesions produced and provided an excellent microclimate for the mites to propagate and reproduce, resulting in severe and progressive disease. The “high-turnover” granulomatous reaction which characterized the histopathological changes proved that Demodex mites and associated bacteria were persistent and immunogenic. PMID:25177514

  10. A Pyrosequencing Investigation of Differences in the Feline Subgingival Microbiota in Health, Gingivitis and Mild Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Harris, Stephen; Croft, Julie; O'Flynn, Ciaran; Deusch, Oliver; Colyer, Alison; Allsopp, Judi; Milella, Lisa; Davis, Ian J

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is the most frequently diagnosed health problem in cats yet little is known about the bacterial species important for the disease. The objective of this study was to identify bacterial species associated with health, gingivitis or mild periodontitis (<25% attachment loss) in feline plaque. Knowledge of these species is a first step in understanding the potential for improving oral health of cats via dietary interventions that alter the proportions of influential species. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from 92 cats with healthy gingiva, gingivitis or mild periodontitis. Pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA from these plaque samples generated more than one million reads and identified a total of 267 operational taxonomic units after bioinformatic and statistical analysis. Porphyromonas was the most abundant genus in all gingival health categories, particularly in health along with Moraxella and Fusobacteria. The Peptostreptococcaceae were the most abundant family in gingivitis and mild periodontitis. Logistic regression analysis identified species from various genera that were significantly associated with health, gingivitis or mild periodontitis. The species identified were very similar to those observed in canine plaque in the corresponding health and disease states. Such similarities were not observed between cat and human at the bacterial species level but with disease progression similarities did emerge at the phylum level. This suggests that interventions targeted at human pathogenic species will not be effective for use in cats but there is more potential for commonalities in interventions for cats and dogs. PMID:26605793

  11. Structure of the Head of the Bartonella Adhesin BadA

    PubMed Central

    Szczesny, Pawel; Linke, Dirk; Ursinus, Astrid; Bär, Kerstin; Schwarz, Heinz; Riess, Tanja M.; Kempf, Volkhard A. J.; Lupas, Andrei N.; Martin, Jörg; Zeth, Kornelius

    2008-01-01

    Trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) are a major class of proteins by which pathogenic proteobacteria adhere to their hosts. Prominent examples include Yersinia YadA, Haemophilus Hia and Hsf, Moraxella UspA1 and A2, and Neisseria NadA. TAAs also occur in symbiotic and environmental species and presumably represent a general solution to the problem of adhesion in proteobacteria. The general structure of TAAs follows a head-stalk-anchor architecture, where the heads are the primary mediators of attachment and autoagglutination. In the major adhesin of Bartonella henselae, BadA, the head consists of three domains, the N-terminal of which shows strong sequence similarity to the head of Yersinia YadA. The two other domains were not recognizably similar to any protein of known structure. We therefore determined their crystal structure to a resolution of 1.1 Å. Both domains are β-prisms, the N-terminal one formed by interleaved, five-stranded β-meanders parallel to the trimer axis and the C-terminal one by five-stranded β-meanders orthogonal to the axis. Despite the absence of statistically significant sequence similarity, the two domains are structurally similar to domains from Haemophilus Hia, albeit in permuted order. Thus, the BadA head appears to be a chimera of domains seen in two other TAAs, YadA and Hia, highlighting the combinatorial evolutionary strategy taken by pathogens. PMID:18688279

  12. Culture-independent analysis of midgut microbiota in the arbovirus vector Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Campbell, Corey L; Mummey, Daniel L; Schmidtmann, Edward T; Wilson, William C

    2004-05-01

    Differences in midgut microbial communities inhabiting Culicoides spp., insect vectors of virus pathogens, may affect the variation observed in the ability of these biting midges to propagate arthropod-borne viruses. As a first step toward addressing this hypothesis, midgut bacterial communities were compared between Culicoides species expected to be efficient and inefficient vectors of virus pathogens. We used 16S rDNA sequence and restriction fragment information to provisionally identify 36 bacterial genera from guts of wild adult female biting midges, Culicoides sonorensis Wirth and Jones and Culicoides variipennis (Coquillet), from two geographical locations. Bacterial identification was made by sequence analysis of 16S rDNA fragments and by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rDNA fragments from adult guts. Of 36 bacterial genera identified, 12 had been previously identified in other insects: Comomonas, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Staphylococcus, Chryseobacterium, Moraxella, Acholeplasma, Flavobacterium, and Rickettsia, Significant differences in bacterial community composition were found between all three groups of wild adult females analyzed: live-trapped C. sonorensis, laboratory-emerged C. sonorensis, and laboratory-emerged C. variipennis.

  13. Effects of pipe materials on chlorine-resistant biofilm formation under long-term high chlorine level.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zebing; Wu, Chenguang; Zhong, Dan; Yuan, Yixing; Shan, Lili; Zhang, Jie

    2014-07-01

    Drinking water distribution systems are composed of various pipe materials and may harbor biofilms even in the continuous presence of disinfectants. Biofilms formation on five pipe materials (copper (Cu), polyethylene (PE), stainless steel (STS), cast iron (CI), and concrete-coated polycarbonate (CP)) within drinking water containing 1.20 mg/L free chlorine, was investigated by flow cytometry, heterotrophic plate counts, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis. Results showed that the biofilms formation varied in pipe materials. The biofilm formed on CP initially emerged the highest biomass in 12 days, but CI presented the significantly highest biomass after 28 days, and Cu showed the lowest bacterial numbers before 120 days, while STS expressed the lowest bacterial numbers after 159 days. In the biofilm community structure, Moraxella osloensis and Sphingomonas sp. were observed in all the pipe materials while Bacillus sp. was detected except in the CP pipe and Stenotrophomonas maltophila was found from three pipe materials (Cu, PE, and STS). Other bacteria were only found from one or two pipe materials. It is noteworthy that there are 11 opportunistic pathogens in the 17 classified bacterial strains. This research has afforded crucial information regarding the influence of pipe materials on chlorine-resistant biofilm formation.

  14. Efficacy of different dosage levels and administration routes of tilmicosin in a natural outbreak of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (pinkeye).

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Gustavo C; Piscitelli, Hernán G; Perez-Monti, Hernán; Stobbs, Larry A; Zimmermann, Alan G

    2002-01-01

    A total of 120 purebred Hereford cattle were selected from a herd on a ranch in Argentina that had a severe outbreak of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK, pinkeye) caused by Moraxella bovis. The animals were separated into six treatment groups: a nonmedicated control group, a group that received oxytetracycline at 300 mg injected intrapalpebrally, and four groups that received tilmicosin (Micotil, Elanco Animal Health, Indianapolis, IN; one group injected intrapalpebrally at 300 mg and three groups injected subcutaneously at 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg body weight, respectively). Animals were individually observed for resolution of lesions associated with IBK (ocular discharge, blepharospasin, and corneal lesions) every 7 days for 3 weeks. Corneal improvement was significantly better (P< or = .05) for all doses and for either route of injection for tilmicosin compared with no treatment or treatment with oxytetracycline. Tilmicosin given subcutaneously demonstrated a significant (P < or = .05) dose response for overall improvement (one or more score improved, none worsened). Tilmicosin given subcutaneously at 10 mg/kg was significantly more effective than tilmicosin at 2.5 mg/kg, oxytetracycline, and no treatment. Results for tilmicosin at 5 mg/kg were numerically better than no treatment, and tilmicosin at 10 mg/kg was numerically better than the drug given by intrapalpebral injection. Tilmicosin given by subcutaneous injection at 5 or 10 mg/kg was effective against IBK under the conditions of this study.

  15. Microbial flora of in-use, display eye shadow testers and bacterial challenges of unused eye shadows.

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, N L; Reinhardt, D J

    1981-01-01

    We surveyed 15 different brands of eye shadow on display for customer use in different retail stores for microbial contamination. This was the first reported microbial surveillance of in-use eye shadow display testers in retail establishments. Cultures were obtained at each retail store. Sterile dacron swabs were rolled and rubbed over the entire used surface of each shadow, and each inoculum was streaked onto the surfaces of blood agar plates. Of the 1,345 individual samples obtained, 67% were contaminated with one or more species of microorganisms representing the genera Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Corynebacterium, Acinetobacter, Bacillus, and Moraxella. We also purchased two different brands of water-miscible eye shadows in replicate unit containers. Each brand was challenged separately with a few hundred to several thousand colony-forming units of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. Both brands permitted growth of P. aeruginosa but not growth of S. aureus. A. calcoaceticus was inhibited after inoculation into one brand. With the other brand, the inoculum of Acinetobacter multiplied in one of the two different lots tested. This experimental challenge procedure can serve as a useful model system for studying the behavior of microbes in eye shadows and similar matrices. PMID:7283427

  16. Chlorine resistance patterns of bacteria from two drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed Central

    Ridgway, H F; Olson, B H

    1982-01-01

    The relative chlorine sensitivities of bacteria isolated from chlorinated and unchlorinated drinking water distribution systems were compared by two independent methods. One method measured the toxic effect of free chlorine on bacteria, whereas the other measured the effect of combined chlorine. Bacteria from the chlorinated system were more resistant to both the combined and free forms of chlorine than those from the unchlorinated system, suggesting that there may be selection for more chlorine-tolerant microorganisms in chlorinated waters. Bacteria retained on the surfaces of 2.0-microns Nuclepore membrane filters were significantly more resistant to free chlorine compared to the total microbial population recovered on 0.2-micron membrane filters, presumably because aggregated cells or bacteria attached to suspended particulate matter exhibit more resistance than unassociated microorganisms. In accordance with this hypothesis, scanning electron microscopy of suspended particulate matter from the water samples revealed the presence of attached bacteria. The most resistant microorganisms were able to survive a 2-min exposure to 10 mg of free chlorine per liter. These included gram-positive spore-forming bacilli, actinomycetes, and some micrococci. The most sensitive bacteria were readily killed by chlorine concentrations of 1.0 mg liter-1 or less, and included most gram-positive micrococci, Corynebacterium/Arthrobacter, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas/Alcaligenes, Flavobacterium/Moraxella, and Acinetobacter. Images PMID:7149722

  17. Culture-independent identification of bacteria associated with ovine 'broken mouth' periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Riggio, Marcello P; Jonsson, Nicholas; Bennett, David

    2013-10-25

    'Broken mouth' periodontitis (BMP) is a painful condition of sheep grazed on rough pasture and involves periodontal infection of the incisor teeth and progressive tooth loss. This can reduce the efficiency of grazing of sheep, which contributes to malnutrition, weight loss, systemic health problems, poor quality of life and early culling from flocks. Consequently, this condition is a major economic problem to sheep farmers. However, there are no treatment or control methods available. The aim of this study was to identify the bacteria associated with BMP and oral health in sheep. Swabs were collected from the gingival pockets of three sheep with BMP and from the gingival margin of three orally healthy (normal) sheep. Bacteria were identified using culture-independent (16S rRNA gene sequencing) methods. In the normal samples, 26 phylotypes were identified. The most prevalent species were Enterobacter hormaechei (21.3% of analysed clones) and Hafnia alvei (21.3%), with uncultured (4.4%) and novel (5.0%) phylotypes also being identified. For the BMP samples, 24 phylotypes were identified. The most prevalent species were Mannheimia ruminalis (28.4%) and Moraxella caprae (13.5%), with uncultured (2.6%) and novel (24.5%) phylotypes also being identified. In conclusion, a distinct microflora is associated with BMP and oral health in sheep and M. ruminalis may be involved in the aetiology of BMP. PMID:23928119

  18. Culture-independent identification of bacteria associated with ovine 'broken mouth' periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Riggio, Marcello P; Jonsson, Nicholas; Bennett, David

    2013-10-25

    'Broken mouth' periodontitis (BMP) is a painful condition of sheep grazed on rough pasture and involves periodontal infection of the incisor teeth and progressive tooth loss. This can reduce the efficiency of grazing of sheep, which contributes to malnutrition, weight loss, systemic health problems, poor quality of life and early culling from flocks. Consequently, this condition is a major economic problem to sheep farmers. However, there are no treatment or control methods available. The aim of this study was to identify the bacteria associated with BMP and oral health in sheep. Swabs were collected from the gingival pockets of three sheep with BMP and from the gingival margin of three orally healthy (normal) sheep. Bacteria were identified using culture-independent (16S rRNA gene sequencing) methods. In the normal samples, 26 phylotypes were identified. The most prevalent species were Enterobacter hormaechei (21.3% of analysed clones) and Hafnia alvei (21.3%), with uncultured (4.4%) and novel (5.0%) phylotypes also being identified. For the BMP samples, 24 phylotypes were identified. The most prevalent species were Mannheimia ruminalis (28.4%) and Moraxella caprae (13.5%), with uncultured (2.6%) and novel (24.5%) phylotypes also being identified. In conclusion, a distinct microflora is associated with BMP and oral health in sheep and M. ruminalis may be involved in the aetiology of BMP.

  19. Dental abnormalities in eight captive giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Y; Lin, W; Huang, S; Zhang, C; Pu, T; Ma, W; Lin, D

    2012-05-01

    Dental data from eight adult giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) (four females and four males) were collected at the Beijing Zoo from February 2009 to July 2010. Examination findings were recorded in dental charts. All the pandas had different degrees of tooth wear. Incisors, canines and second premolars had the most abnormalities. Five animals had caries; molars were the most affected. Chip fractures were found in seven teeth (incisor, canine and premolar) of five pandas; two had complicated fractures of their canines. Premolars and other teeth were missing in three pandas. Different degrees of dental plaque and calculus were found in all animals. Two pandas had mild gingivitis; the depth of periodontal pockets in all pandas was normal (0-2 mm). Five pandas had abnormal tooth mobility. Samples of dental plaque were collected for microbial culture. Two hundred and fifty-three bacterial strains belonging to 48 species of 23 genera were isolated. Streptococcus, Moraxella, Peptostreptococcus and Porphyromonas were the dominant genera. Further research with larger sample sizes of free-ranging and captive giant pandas will be required in order to demonstrate the absence of the premolar tooth, tooth fractures and the relatively low prevalence of periodontal disease in captive giant pandas.