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Sample records for por propionibacterium acnes

  1. Bacteriophages Infecting Propionibacterium acnes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Viruses specifically infecting bacteria, or bacteriophages, are the most common biological entity in the biosphere. As such, they greatly influence bacteria, both in terms of enhancing their virulence and in terms of killing them. Since the first identification of bacteriophages in the beginning of the 20th century, researchers have been fascinated by these microorganisms and their ability to eradicate bacteria. In this review, we will cover the history of the Propionibacterium acnes bacteriophage research and point out how bacteriophage research has been an important part of the research on P. acnes itself. We will further discuss recent findings from phage genome sequencing and the identification of phage sequence signatures in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). Finally, the potential to use P. acnes bacteriophages as a therapeutic strategy to combat P. acnes-associated diseases will be discussed. PMID:23691509

  2. Bacteriophages infecting Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Brüggemann, Holger; Lood, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Viruses specifically infecting bacteria, or bacteriophages, are the most common biological entity in the biosphere. As such, they greatly influence bacteria, both in terms of enhancing their virulence and in terms of killing them. Since the first identification of bacteriophages in the beginning of the 20th century, researchers have been fascinated by these microorganisms and their ability to eradicate bacteria. In this review, we will cover the history of the Propionibacterium acnes bacteriophage research and point out how bacteriophage research has been an important part of the research on P. acnes itself. We will further discuss recent findings from phage genome sequencing and the identification of phage sequence signatures in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). Finally, the potential to use P. acnes bacteriophages as a therapeutic strategy to combat P. acnes-associated diseases will be discussed.

  3. Propionibacterium acnes in the pathogenesis and immunotherapy of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei-Feng; Hsieh, Yao-Dung; Lin, Ya-Ching; Two, Aimee; Shu, Chih-Wen; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Acne vulgaris, a multi-factorial disease, is one of the most common skin diseases, affecting an estimated 80% of Americans at some point during their lives. The gram-positive and anaerobic Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) bacterium has been implicated in acne inflammation and pathogenesis. Therapies for acne vulgaris using antibiotics generally lack bacterial specificity, promote the generation of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, and cause adverse effects. Immunotherapy against P. acnes or its antigens (sialidase and CAMP factor) has been demonstrated to be effective in mice, attenuating P. acnes-induced inflammation; thus, this method may be applied to develop a potential vaccine targeting P. acnes for acne vulgaris treatment. This review summarizes reports describing the role of P. acnes in the pathogenesis of acne and various immunotherapy-based approaches targeting P. acnes, suggesting the potential effectiveness of immunotherapy for acne vulgaris as well as P. acnes-associated diseases.

  4. Propionibacterium acnes infections in shoulder surgery.

    PubMed

    Horneff, John G; Hsu, Jason E; Huffman, G Russell

    2014-10-01

    Perioperative shoulder infections involving Propionibacterium acnes can be difficult to identify in a patient who presents with little more than pain and stiffness in the postoperative period. Although indolent in its growth and presentation, infection of the shoulder with P acnes can have devastating effects, including failure of the surgical intervention. This article reviews the importance of a comprehensive physical, radiologic, and laboratory evaluation, and discusses appropriate preventive and treatment strategies for P acnes infections of the shoulder.

  5. Propionibacterium acnes: infection beyond the skin.

    PubMed

    Perry, Alexandra; Lambert, Peter

    2011-12-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a Gram-positive bacterium that forms part of the normal flora of the skin, oral cavity, large intestine, the conjunctiva and the external ear canal. Although primarily recognized for its role in acne, P. acnes is an opportunistic pathogen, causing a range of postoperative and device-related infections. These include infections of the bones and joints, mouth, eye and brain. Device-related infections include those of joint prostheses, shunts and prosthetic heart valves. P. acnes may play a role in other conditions, including inflammation of the prostate leading to cancer, SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, osteitis) syndrome, sarcoidosis and sciatica. If an active role in these conditions is established there are major implications for diagnosis, treatment and protection. Genome sequencing of the organism has provided an insight into the pathogenic potential and virulence of P. acnes.

  6. Propionibacterium acnes infection after shoulder surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kadler, Benjamin K.; Mehta, Saurabh S.; Funk, Lennard

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes has been implicated as a cause of infection following shoulder surgery, may occur up to 2 years after the index operation and has been shown to be responsible for up to 56% of shoulder infections after orthopedic implant. Male patients within the population undergoing shoulder surgery are particularly at risk, especially if their shoulder surgery involved prosthesis or was posttraumatic. P. acnes infection can be difficult to diagnose clinically and laboratory techniques require prolonged and specialized cultures. Usual inflammatory markers are not raised in infection with this low virulence organism. Delayed diagnosis with P. acnes infection can result in significant morbidity prior to prosthesis failure. Early diagnosis of P. acnes infection and appropriate treatment can improve clinical outcomes. It is important to be aware of P. acnes infection in shoulder surgery, to evaluate risk factors, to recognize the signs of P. acnes infection, and to promptly initiate treatment. The signs and symptoms of P. acnes infection are described and discussed. Data were collected from PubMed™, Web of Science, and the NICE Evidence Healthcare Databases - AMED (Ovid), BNI (Ovid), CINAHL (EBSCO), Embase (Ovid), HMIC: DH-Data and Kings Fund (Ovid), Medline (Ovid), and PsycINFO (Ovid). The search terms used were “P. acnes,” “infection,” “shoulder,” and “surgery.” In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the prevention and management of P. acnes infection following shoulder surgery. PMID:26622132

  7. Photodynamic-induced inactivation of Propionibacterium acnes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Karsten; Teschke, M.; Eick, Stephen G.; Pfister, W.; Meyer, Herbert; Halbhuber, Karl-Juergen

    1998-05-01

    We report on photodynamically induced inactivation of the skin bacterium Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) using endogenous as well as exogenous photosensitizers and red light sources. P. acnes is involved in the pathogenesis of the skin disease acne vulgaris. The skin bacterium is able to synthesize the metal-free fluorescent porphyrins protoporphyrin IX (PP) and coproporphyrin (CP) as shown by in situ spectrally-resolved detection of natural autofluorescence of human skin and bacteria colonies. These naturally occurring intracellular porphyrins act as efficient endogenous photosensitizers. Inactivation of P. acnes suspensions was achieved by irradiation with He-Ne laser light in the red spectral region (632.8 nm). We monitored the photodynamically-induced death of single bacteria using a fluorescent viability kit in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy. In addition, the photo-induced inactivation was calculated by CFU (colony forming units) determination. We found 633 nm-induced inactivation (60 mW, 0.12 cm2 exposure area, 1 hour irradiation) of 72% in the case of non-incubated bacteria based on the destructive effect of singlet oxygen produced by red light excited endogenous porphyrins and subsequent energy transfer to molecular oxygen. In order to achieve a nearly complete inactivation within one exposure procedure, the exogenous photosensitizer Methylene Blue (Mb) was added. Far red exposure of Mb-labeled bacteria using a krypton ion laser at 647 nm and 676 nm resulted in 99% inactivation.

  8. Properties of herbal extracts against Propionibacterium acnes for biomedical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Youn-Mook; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Yong Soo; Shin, Young Min; Jeong, Sung In; Jo, Sun-Young; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Park, Jong-seok; Nho, Young-Chang; Kim, Jong-Cheol; Kim, Seong-Jang; Shin, HeungSoo

    2012-10-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), one of the anaerobic bacterium, causes inflammatory acne. To find a novel medication for treating the inflammation caused by P. acnes, we investigated the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of several herbal extracts against P. acnes. The aqueous extracts from five dried herbs, Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Paeonia lactiflora Pallas., Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., were prepared and mixed. In this experiment, 1 mg/ml of the herbal extract mixture caused a decrease in the growth of P. acnes and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β and IL-6, in human monocytic THP-1 cells treated with heat-killed P. acnes. Therefore, this herbal extract mixture may possess both anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities against P. acnes and can be a novel therapeutic agent for treating inflammatory acne.

  9. In vitro LED and laser light photoinactivation of Propionibacterium acnes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchina, Elena S.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2008-06-01

    Acne is a genetic, hormonal disease characterized by overproduction of oil by the sebaceous glands, plugging of the sebaceous glands to form micro- and macro- comedons and, finally, action of skin bacteria on oil trapped underneath the skin to red inflammatory cystic lesions. It was shown, that Propionibacterium acnes, the bacteria responsible for acne, was rather subjected to action of red and infrared radiation. The effect of the given radiation amplified at this bacteria by various solutions of photosensitizes.

  10. Correlation between Propionibacterium acnes biotypes, lipase activity and rash degree in acne patients.

    PubMed

    Higaki, S; Kitagawa, T; Kagoura, M; Morohashi, M; Yamagishi, T

    2000-08-01

    We examined the possible correlation between biotypes of Propionibacterium acnes, lipase activity, and rash degree in acne patients. Among 5 P. acnes biotypes, P. acnes biotype 3 (B3) was the most common, followed by P. acnes biotypes 1, 2 and 4; P. acnes biotype 5 was not found. P. acnes B3 was isolated from more severe skin rashes than those of the other biotypes. Production of propionic acid (PA) and butyric acid (BA) by P. acnes B3 was higher than those by the other P. acnes biotypes. As the rash degree in acne patients was more severe, the production of PA and BA elevated. Although only a few P. acnes strains were examined in the present study, P. acnes B3 had the highest lipase activity and might have the greatest influence on skin rash in acne patients.

  11. Relationship between Propionibacterium acnes biotypes and Jumi-haidoku-to.

    PubMed

    Higaki, S; Kitagawa, T; Kagoura, M; Morohashi, M; Yamagishi, T

    2000-10-01

    We examined the relationship between Propionibacterium acnes biotypes and Jumi-haidoku-to (JHT). In all the P. acnes strains tested, the production of propionic acid (PA) and butyric acid (BA) was suppressed in a medium containing 1 mg/ml JHT compared with the control medium without JHT. There were no significant differences in the rates of decreased PA and BA production between P. acnes biotype 3 (B3) and the other biotypes or between isolates from mild skin rash and more severe skin rash. P. acnes B3 was the most commonly identified biotype. The clinical effects on acne due to the anti-P. acnes lipase activity of JHT did not seem to be influenced by the degree of acne rash or the P. acnes biotype.

  12. Deciphering the Intracellular Fate of Propionibacterium acnes in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Natalie; Mak, Tim N.; Shinohara, Debika Biswal; Sfanos, Karen S.; Meyer, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a Gram-positive bacterium that colonizes various niches of the human body, particularly the sebaceous follicles of the skin. Over the last years a role of this common skin bacterium as an opportunistic pathogen has been explored. Persistence of P. acnes in host tissue has been associated with chronic inflammation and disease development, for example, in prostate pathologies. This study investigated the intracellular fate of P. acnes in macrophages after phagocytosis. In a mouse model of P. acnes-induced chronic prostatic inflammation, the bacterium could be detected in prostate-infiltrating macrophages at 2 weeks postinfection. Further studies performed in the human macrophage cell line THP-1 revealed intracellular survival and persistence of P. acnes but no intracellular replication or escape from the host cell. Confocal analyses of phagosome acidification and maturation were performed. Acidification of P. acnes-containing phagosomes was observed at 6 h postinfection but then lost again, indicative of cytosolic escape of P. acnes or intraphagosomal pH neutralization. No colocalization with the lysosomal markers LAMP1 and cathepsin D was observed, implying that the P. acnes-containing phagosome does not fuse with lysosomes. Our findings give first insights into the intracellular fate of P. acnes; its persistency is likely to be important for the development of P. acnes-associated inflammatory diseases. PMID:23862148

  13. The Antimicrobial Activity of Liposomal Lauric Acids Against Propionibacterium acnes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Darren; Pornpattananangkul, Dissaya; Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Chan, Michael; Carson, Dennis; Huang, Chun-Ming; Zhang, Liangfang

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of lauric acid (LA) and its liposomal derivatives against Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), the bacterium that promotes inflammatory acne. First, the antimicrobial study of three free fatty acids (lauric acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid) demonstrated that LA gives the strongest bactericidal activity against P. acnes. However, a setback of using LA as a potential treatment for inflammatory acne is its poor water solubility. Then the LA was incorporated into a liposome formulation to aid its delivery to P. acnes. It's demonstrated that the antimicrobial activity of LA was not only well maintained in its liposomal derivatives but also enhanced at low LA concentration. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of LA-loaded liposomes (LipoLA) mainly depended on the LA loading concentration per single liposomes. Further study found that the LipoLA could fuse with the membranes of P. acnes and release the carried LA directly into the bacterial membranes, thereby killing the bacteria effectively. Since LA is a natural compound that is the main acid in coconut oil and also resides in human breast milk and liposomes have been successfully and widely applied as a drug delivery vehicle in the clinic, the LipoLA developed in this work holds great potential of becoming an innate, safe and effective therapeutic medication for acne vulgaris and other P. acnes associated diseases. PMID:19665786

  14. Effect of Garcinia mangostana on inflammation caused by Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Chomnawang, Mullika Traidej; Surassmo, Suvimol; Nukoolkarn, Veena S; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2007-09-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the activity of Thai medicinal plants on inflammation caused by Propionibacterium acnes in terms of free radical scavenging and cytokine reducing properties. P. acnes have been recognized as pus-forming bacteria triggering an inflammation in acne. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH scavenging and NBT reduction assay. The result showed that Garcinia mangostana possessed the most significant antioxidant activity and reduced reactive oxygen species production. Houttuynia cordata, Eupatorium odoratum, and Senna alata had a moderate antioxidant effect. In addition, Garcinia mangostana extracts could reduce the TNF-alpha production as determined by ELISA. Garcinia mangostana was highly effective in scavenging free radicals and was able to suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This study has identified the promising source of anti-inflammatory agent which could be useful in treatment of acne vulgaris.

  15. Neutrophil chemotaxis by Propionibacterium acnes lipase and its inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, W L; Shalita, A R; Suntharalingam, K; Fikrig, S M

    1982-01-01

    The chemoattraction of Propionibacterium acnes lipase for neutrophils and the effect of lipase inhibitor and two antibiotic agents on the chemotaxis were evaluated. Of the various fractions tested, partially purified lipase (fraction 2c) was the most active cytotaxin produced by P. acnes. Serum mediators were not required for the generation of chemotaxis by lipase in vitro. Diisopropyl phosphofluoridate at low concentration (10(-4) mM) completely inhibited lipase activity as well as polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis generated by lipase. Tetracycline hydrochloride and erythromycin base at concentrations of 10(-1) mM and 1 mM, respectively, caused 100% inhibition of PMN migration toward lipase or zymosan-activated serum. The inhibiting activity of the antibiotics was directed against cells independently of any effect on lipase. Chemotaxis by P. acnes lipase suggests a wider role for this enzyme in the inflammatory process and the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. Images PMID:7054130

  16. Propionibacterium acnes delayed infection following spinal surgery with instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Mhaidli, Hani H; Der-Boghossian, Asdghig H; Haidar, Rachid K

    2013-04-01

    Propionibacterium acnes detection in culture media was previously considered a contamination but recently its infectious role was discovered in post-spinal surgery infections. P. acnes might be introduced during surgery. Its diagnosis is based on non-specific clinical signs, image indications of infection, and the conclusive microbiological sign. Furthermore, its diagnosis is difficult because of slow growth rate and low virulence, delaying its presentation. Usually, the infection is manifested after a couple of months or years. Here, a 65-year-old man presented with drainage at the site of instrumented spinal surgery performed 13 years ago. P. acnes infection was confirmed by culture with extended incubation. Our review of the literature revealed only two other reported cases of delayed P. acnes infection presenting a decade following a spinal surgery with instrumentation. This article sheds light on such delayed infections and discusses their presentation and management.

  17. Histological Identification of Propionibacterium acnes in Nonpyogenic Degenerated Intervertebral Discs

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ye; Zhou, Zezhu; Jiao, Yucheng; Zheng, Yuehuan; Lin, Yazhou; Xiao, Jiaqi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. Low-virulence anaerobic bacteria, especially the Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), have been thought to be a new pathogeny for a series of disc diseases. However, until now, there has been no histological evidence to confirm this link. The purpose of this study was to confirm the presence of P. acnes in nonpyogenic intervertebral discs via histological observation. Method. Degenerated intervertebral discs were harvested from 76 patients with low back pain and/or sciatica but without any symptoms of discitis or spondylodiscitis. The samples were cultured under anaerobic conditions and then examined using 16S rDNA PCR to screen for P. acnes. Samples found to be positive for P. acnes were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and modified Brown-Brenn staining and observed under a microscope. Results. Here, 16 intervertebral discs were found to be positive for P. acnes via 16S rDNA PCR and the prevalence was 21.05% (16/76). Among them, 7 samples had visible microbes stained with HE and modified Brown-Brenn staining. Morphological examination showed the bacteria to be Gram-positive and rod-shaped, so they were considered P. acnes. Conclusion. P. acnes is capable of colonizing some degenerated intervertebral discs without causing discitis, and its presence could be further confirmed by histological evidence. Targeting these bacteria may be a promising therapy method for some disc diseases. PMID:28401158

  18. Rosmarinus officinalis extract suppresses Propionibacterium acnes-induced inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chuang, Lu-Te; Lien, Tsung-Jung; Liing, Yau-Rong; Chen, Wei-Yu; Tsai, Po-Jung

    2013-04-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in the progression of acne inflammation. The development of a new agent possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes is therefore of interest. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on P. acnes-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ethanolic rosemary extract (ERE) significantly suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in P. acnes-stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. In an in vivo mouse model, concomitant intradermal injection of ERE attenuated the P. acnes-induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. Since ERE suppressed the P. acnes-induced nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation and mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, the suppressive effect of ERE might be due, at least partially, to diminished NF-κB activation and TLR2-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, three major constituents of ERE, carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid, exerted different immumodulatory activities in vitro. In brief, rosmarinic acid significantly suppressed IL-8 production, while the other two compounds inhibited IL-1β production. Further study is needed to explore the role of bioactive compounds of rosemary in mitigation of P. acnes-induced inflammation.

  19. Propionibacterium acnes lacks the capability to proliferate in platelet concentrates.

    PubMed

    Störmer, M; Kleesiek, K; Dreier, J

    2008-04-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is considered to be one of the most frequent contaminants of platelet concentrates (PCs) when anaerobic culture-based detection methods are used. But Propionibacteria are often detected too late when blood products have already been transfused. Therefore, its transfusion relevance is still demanding clarification because studies of the outcome of patients transfused with P. acnes-contaminated PCs are still uncommon. In this study, we monitored clinical effects in patients after transfusion of PCs, which were detected too late in sterility testing. Furthermore, we assessed the bacterial proliferation of Propionibacterium species seeded into PCs to clarify their significance for platelet bacteria screening. In the look-back process, we followed the route of the putative contaminated PC units from storage to transfusion. In the in vitro study, PCs were inoculated with 1-100 colony-forming unit (CFU)/ml of clinical isolates of Propionibacteria (n = 10). Sampling was performed during 10-day aerobic storage at 22 degrees C. The presence of bacteria was assessed by plating culture and automated BacT/Alert culture system. Propionibacterium acnes shows slow or no growth under PC storage conditions. Clinical signs of adverse events after transfusion of potentially contaminated PC units were not reported. Propionibacteria do not proliferate under PC storage conditions and therefore may be missed or detected too late when blood products have already been transfused.

  20. Management of Propionibacterium acnes infection after shoulder surgery.

    PubMed

    Saper, David; Capiro, Nina; Ma, Richard; Li, Xinning

    2015-03-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is a gram-positive anaerobic bacillus commonly isolated from the flora of the face, chest, and axilla region. It has emerged as a major pathogen responsible for postoperative shoulder infections after both arthroscopy and arthroplasty procedures. Patients with P. acnes shoulder infection typically present with normal laboratory values (white blood cells (WBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP)) making diagnosis difficult. Several intraoperative tissue cultures should be obtained and cultured in both agar plate and broth in aerobic and anaerobic conditions for a minimum of 13 days to optimize the sensitivity and specificity to detect P. acnes. The utilization of intraoperative frozen sections to detect P. acnes infection is not reliable. Risk factors include male, cloudy synovial fluid, lucencies around the implant, and periprosthetic membrane formation. Managements include irrigation and debridement, single or two-staged revision, and intravenous antibiotics. Open biopsy prior to the final implantation (two-staged revision) may help detect persistent P. acnes infection. Penicillin and cephalosporins are effective against clinical P. acnes infection and biofilm in vitro. Combination antibiotic therapy with rifampin and daptomycin may further increase the clinical efficacy of treatment.

  1. Propionibacterium acnes Susceptibility and Correlation with Hemolytic Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Travis E.; Boyle, K. Keely; Duquin, Thomas R.; Crane, John K.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many studies have noted an increase in the number of recognized cases of invasive infections due to Propionibacterium acnes, especially after shoulder replacement surgery. The increase in the number of recognized cases of P. acnes, a nonspore-forming, anaerobic, Gram-positive organism, appears due to both an increase in the number of shoulder operations being performed and more specimens being sent for anaerobic cultures. Nevertheless, the optimal surgical and antibiotic management of P. acnes remains controversial. METHODS We tested the susceptibility of 106 P. acnes strains from sterile body sites collected at the Erie County Medical Center between 2012 and 2015, using Etest gradient antibiotic strips. RESULTS P. acnes is very susceptible to the penicillins and the first-generation cephalosporins. We noted an association between hemolytic phenotype on Brucella Blood Agar and clindamycin resistance. CONCLUSIONS Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of P. acnes should no longer just be confined to the research laboratory but expanded and incorporated into routine microbiological evaluation of P. acnes. This would improve patient care as well as help clarify the relationship between hemolysis and clindamycin resistance. PMID:27773990

  2. Prospects of Phage Application in the Treatment of Acne Caused by Propionibacterium acnes

    PubMed Central

    Jończyk-Matysiak, Ewa; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Żaczek, Maciej; Międzybrodzki, Ryszard; Letkiewicz, Sławomir; Łusiak-Szelchowska, Marzanna; Górski, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is associated with purulent skin infections, and it poses a global problem for both patients and doctors. Acne vulgaris (acne) remains a problem due to its chronic character and difficulty of treatment, as well as its large impact on patients' quality of life. Due to the chronic course of the disease, treatment is long lasting, and often ineffective. Currently there are data regarding isolation of P. acnes phages, and there have been numerous studies on phage killing of P. acnes, but no data are available on phage application specifically in acne treatment. In this review, we have summarized the current knowledge on the phages active against P. acnes described so far and their potential application in the treatment of acne associated with P. acnes. The treatment of acne with phages may be important in order to reduce the overuse of antibiotics, which are currently the main acne treatment. However, more detailed studies are first needed to understand phage functioning in the skin microbiome and the possibility to use phages to combat P. acnes. PMID:28228751

  3. Is Propionibacterium Acnes Associated with Hair Casts and Alopecia?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Etienne; Lee, Joyce Siong-See; Hee, Tan Hiok

    2012-01-01

    We report a series of four patients who presented with complaints of diffuse non-scarring alopecia. They had similar clinical features of alopecia, hyperseborrhea, and distinct keratinaceous hair casts that encircled the hair shafts. Propionibacterium acnes was isolated from two of the patients’ scalp, and Gram-positive, Giemsa-positive bacteria were seen in the hair follicles in the scalp biopsy of one of the patients. The patients’ symptoms did not respond to standard treatment for seborrheic dermatitis, but responded to a course of systemic antibiotics targeting P. acnes. We propose a role for P. acnes colonization of the terminal hair follicles in the pathogenesis of hair casts, and possibly diffuse non-scarring alopecia. Possible mechanisms of pathogenesis are discussed with a literature review. PMID:23180917

  4. Understanding the role of Propionibacterium acnes in acne vulgaris: The critical importance of skin sampling methodologies.

    PubMed

    Omer, Hélène; McDowell, Andrew; Alexeyev, Oleg A

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory skin condition classified by the Global Burden of Disease Study as the eighth most prevalent disease worldwide. The pathophysiology of the condition has been extensively studied, with an increase in sebum production, abnormal keratinization of the pilosebaceous follicle, and an inflammatory immune response all implicated in its etiology. One of the most disputed points, however, is the role of the gram-positive anaerobic bacterium Propionibacterium acnes in the development of acne, particularly when this organism is also found in normal sebaceous follicles of healthy skin. Against this background, we now describe the different sampling strategies that have been adopted for qualitative and quantitative study of P acnes within intact hair follicles of the skin and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of such methodologies for investigating the role of P acnes in the development of acne. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Antimicrobial Property of Lauric Acid Against Propionibacterium acnes: Its Therapeutic Potential for Inflammatory Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Kao, Mandy C.; Fang, Jia-You; Zouboulis, Christos C.; Zhang, Liangfang; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2009-01-01

    The strong bactericidal properties of lauric acid (C12:0), a middle chain-free fatty acid commonly found in natural products, have been shown in a number of studies. However, it has not been demonstrated whether lauric acid can be used for acne treatment as a natural antibiotic against Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), which promotes follicular inflammation (inflammatory acne). This study evaluated the antimicrobial property of lauric acid against P. acnes both in vitro and in vivo. Incubation of the skin bacteria P. acnes, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) with lauric acid yielded minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values against the bacterial growth over 15 times lower than those of benzoyl peroxide (BPO). The lower MIC values of lauric acid indicate stronger antimicrobial properties than that of BPO. The detected values of half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of lauric acid on P. acnes, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis growth indicate that P. acnes is the most sensitive to lauric acid among these bacteria. In addition, lauric acid did not induce cytotoxicity to human sebocytes. Notably, both intradermal injection and epicutaneous application of lauric acid effectively decreased the number of P. acnes colonized with mouse ears, thereby relieving P. acnes-induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. The obtained data highlight the potential of using lauric acid as an alternative treatment for antibiotic therapy of acne vulgaris. PMID:19387482

  6. Activity of an antimicrobial hydrocephalus shunt catheter against Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Bayston, Roger; Vera, Litza; Ashraf, Waheed

    2010-12-01

    Shunt infection is a major complication affecting approximately 10% of procedures. Propionibacterium acnes, an anaerobic skin bacterium, is increasingly recognized as a shunt pathogen, causing up to 14% of infections. Though susceptible to penicillin and cephalosporins, P. acnes shunt infections are not preventable by means of perioperative prophylaxis, due to poor cerebrospinal fluid penetration. Antimicrobial shunts with activity against staphylococci are available, but their activity against P. acnes is unknown, and the study was designed to determine this. Three methods of evaluation were used in order to determine the emergence of resistance when exposure is to high inocula for long periods, the time taken to kill 100% of the bacteria attached to the shunt, and the duration of activity under constant flow conditions with repeated bacterial challenge. Despite repeated exposure to high bacterial inocula over 70 days, no resistance was seen. The time taken to kill all attached bacteria, 96 h, was twice that taken to kill attached staphylococci. Nevertheless, under constant flow conditions with repeated challenges, the antimicrobial catheters resisted colonization by P. acnes for 56 days. Using tests that were designed to be clinically predictive when done together, the results suggest that the antimicrobial catheters will be able to prevent colonization of hydrocephalus shunts by P. acnes.

  7. Clinical Analysis of Propionibacterium acnes Infection After Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Nodzo, Scott R; Westrich, Geoffrey H; Henry, Michael W; Miller, Andy O

    2016-09-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a common cause of upper extremity arthroplasty infection and usually presents in an indolent subacute fashion. It is not well described how total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients infected with P acnes present. We retrospectively compared patients undergoing revision TKA for infection from P acnes and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcal aureus (MSSA) in our institutional infection database. Patients were classified as having a periprosthetic joint infection based on the Musculoskeletal Infection Society criteria and were excluded if they had a polymicrobial culture. Patient demographics, preoperative laboratory values, microbiology data, and synovial fluid white blood cell (WBC) counts were analyzed. Sixteen patients with a P acnes and 30 with an MSSA TKA periprosthetic joint infection were identified. Median erythrocyte sedimentation rate was significantly higher in the MSSA group compared to the P acnes group (56.0 mm/h; interquartile range [IQR], 44.3-72.9 vs 23.0 mm/h; IQR, 18.5-52.0; respectively, P = .03) as were C-reactive protein levels (5.9 mg/dL; IQR, 3.7-26.9 vs 2.0 mg/dL; IQR, 0.5-14.0; respectively, P = .04). WBC count, synovial fluid WBC, and percentage of synovial polymorphonuclear cells were similar between groups. Mean time to culture was 8.3 ± 2.0 days in the P acnes group and 1.8 ± 0.8 days in the MSSA group. P acnes TKA infections are associated with more acute inflammatory symptoms than typically appreciated, and long hold anaerobic cultures up to 14 days are necessary to accurately identify this organism as the causative agent of TKA periprosthetic infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Autophagy Induced by Intracellular Infection of Propionibacterium acnes

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Teruko; Furukawa, Asuka; Uchida, Keisuke; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Tamura, Tomoki; Sakonishi, Daisuke; Wada, Yuriko; Suzuki, Yoshimi; Ishige, Yuki; Minami, Junko; Akashi, Takumi

    2016-01-01

    Background Sarcoidosis is caused by Th1-type immune responses to unknown agents, and is linked to the infectious agent Propionibacterium acnes. Many strains of P. acnes isolated from sarcoid lesions cause intracellular infection and autophagy may contribute to the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis. We examined whether P. acnes induces autophagy. Methods Three cell lines from macrophages (Raw264.7), mesenchymal cells (MEF), and epithelial cells (HeLa) were infected by viable or heat-killed P. acnes (clinical isolate from sarcoid lymph node) at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 100 or 1000 for 1 h. Extracellular bacteria were killed by washing and culturing infected cells with antibiotics. Samples were examined by colony assay, electron-microscopy, and fluorescence-microscopy with anti-LC3 and anti-LAMP1 antibodies. Autophagy-deficient (Atg5-/-) MEF cells were also used. Results Small and large (≥5 μm in diameter) LC3-positive vacuoles containing few or many P. acnes cells (LC3-positive P. acnes) were frequently found in the three cell lines when infected by viable P. acnes at MOI 1000. LC3-positive large vacuoles were mostly LAMP1-positive. A few small LC3-positive/LAMP1-negative vacuoles were consistently observed in some infected cells for 24 h postinfection. The number of LC3-positive P. acnes was decreased at MOI 100 and completely abolished when heat-killed P. acnes was used. LC3-positive P. acnes was not found in autophagy-deficient Atg5-/- cells where the rate of infection was 25.3 and 17.6 times greater than that in wild-type Atg5+/+ cells at 48 h postinfection at MOI 100 and 1000, respectively. Electron-microscopic examination revealed bacterial cells surrounded mostly by a single-membrane including the large vacuoles and sometimes a double or multi-layered membrane, with occasional undigested bacterial cells in ruptured late endosomes or in the cytoplasm. Conclusion Autophagy was induced by intracellular P. acnes infection and contributed to intracellular

  9. Propionibacterium acnes strain populations in the human skin microbiome associated with acne.

    PubMed

    Fitz-Gibbon, Sorel; Tomida, Shuta; Chiu, Bor-Han; Nguyen, Lin; Du, Christine; Liu, Minghsun; Elashoff, David; Erfe, Marie C; Loncaric, Anya; Kim, Jenny; Modlin, Robert L; Miller, Jeff F; Sodergren, Erica; Craft, Noah; Weinstock, George M; Li, Huiying

    2013-09-01

    The human skin microbiome has important roles in skin health and disease. However, bacterial population structure and diversity at the strain level is poorly understood. We compared the skin microbiome at the strain level and genome level of Propionibacterium acnes, a dominant skin commensal, between 49 acne patients and 52 healthy individuals by sampling the pilosebaceous units on their noses. Metagenomic analysis demonstrated that although the relative abundances of P. acnes were similar, the strain population structures were significantly different in the two cohorts. Certain strains were highly associated with acne, and other strains were enriched in healthy skin. By sequencing 66 previously unreported P. acnes strains and comparing 71 P. acnes genomes, we identified potential genetic determinants of various P. acnes strains in association with acne or health. Our analysis suggests that acquired DNA sequences and bacterial immune elements may have roles in determining virulence properties of P. acnes strains, and some could be future targets for therapeutic interventions. This study demonstrates a previously unreported paradigm of commensal strain populations that could explain the pathogenesis of human diseases. It underscores the importance of strain-level analysis of the human microbiome to define the role of commensals in health and disease.

  10. Improving diagnostic criteria for Propionibacterium acnes osteomyelitis: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Asseray, Nathalie; Papin, Christophe; Touchais, Sophie; Bemer, Pascale; Lambert, Chantal; Boutoille, David; Tequi, Brigitte; Gouin, François; Raffi, François; Passuti, Norbert; Potel, Gilles

    2010-07-01

    The identification of Propionibacterium acnes in cultures of bone and joint samples is always difficult to interpret because of the ubiquity of this microorganism. The aim of this study was to propose a diagnostic strategy to distinguish infections from contaminations. This was a retrospective analysis of all patient charts of those patients with >or=1 deep samples culture-positive for P. acnes. Every criterion was tested for sensitivity, specificity, and positive likelihood ratio, and then the diagnostic probability of combinations of criteria was calculated. Among 65 patients, 52 (80%) were considered truly infected with P. acnes, a diagnosis based on a multidisciplinary process. The most valuable diagnostic criteria were: >or=2 positive deep samples, peri-operative findings (necrosis, hardware loosening, etc.), and >or=2 surgical procedures. However, no single criterion was sufficient to ascertain the diagnosis. The following combinations of criteria had a diagnostic probability of >90%: >or=2 positive cultures + 1 criterion among: peri-operative findings, local signs of infection, >or=2 previous operations, orthopaedic devices; 1 positive culture + 3 criteria among: peri-operative findings, local signs of infection, >or=2 previous surgical operations, orthopaedic devices, inflammatory syndrome. The diagnosis of P. acnes osteomyelitis was greatly improved by combining different criteria, allowing differentiation between infection and contamination.

  11. [Post-surgery cerebral abscess due to Propionibacterium acnes].

    PubMed

    Zárate, Mariela S; Yahni, Diego; Guevara, Martín; Smayevsky, Jorgelina

    2009-01-01

    Brain abscesses by Propioni-bacterium acnes are rare. The rapid identification of this pathogen is important in order to choice the appropriate antibiotic therapy. We describe the case of a patient with excision of a multiform glioblastoma who 9 months later presented a tumor recurrence. A subtotal tumor excision was made and implants chemotherapy were placed in the residual tumor. After one month of surgery the patient presented a brain abscess. A craniotomy for drainage was performed. P. acnes was isolated from the biopsy and from purulent material. Identification was made by conventional biochemical tests and by the API system 20 A. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) to clindamycin, penicillin, amoxicillin and metronidazole was determined. The values of MIC (microg/ml) obtained were: 0.250, 0.040, 0.023 and 256, respectively. The patient received cefepime and metronidazole intravenously during 30 days and completed treatment with oral clindamycin for 60 days, considering the possibility of adjacent bone involvement. Eight months after the drainage the patient had no evidence of infection or tumor recurrence. Although P. acnes is a rare cause of post-neurosurgical infection, it should be considered as a possible pathogen in postoperative brain abscesses.

  12. Risk factors for Propionibacterium acnes infection after neurosurgery: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Haruki, Yuto; Hagiya, Hideharu; Takahashi, Yu; Yoshida, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Yukiue, Tadato; Tsuboi, Nobushige; Sugiyama, Tetsuhiro

    2017-04-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is increasingly known as a causative organism for post-neurosurgical infection; however, no clinical studies have examined the risk factors associated with P. acnes infections. Clinical data obtained from 14 cases of P. acnes infection and 28 controls infected with other pathogens were analyzed. Craniotomy, malignancy, and prolonged duration of operation were significantly associated with the onset of P. acnes infection. No fatal cases were reported.

  13. Susceptibility profiles of Propionibacterium acnes isolated from patients with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Grech, Ioanna

    2014-03-01

    The wide prescription of antibiotics in patients with acne vulgaris has generated the concern of emergence of antibiotic-resistant Propionibacterium acnes. To study the susceptibility profiles of P. acnes isolated from patients with acne vulgaris, 90 isolates were isolated from sebum collected from lesions of 191 patients. Susceptibilities to amoxicillin, minocycline, erythromycin and clindamycin were studied by the Etest method. Thirty-four isolates (37.8%) were resistant to both erythromycin and clindamycin, whereas another four isolates (4.4%) were resistant to all four tested antimicrobials. All resistant isolates to any of the tested antimicrobials had very high minimum inhibitory concentrations (>256μg/mL). Among all analysed host factors, only history of oral treatment with macrolides and/or clindamycin within the last 2 years was independently associated with the acquisition of resistant P. acnes (odds ratio=5.573; P=0.001). The present results provide useful information to guide antimicrobial prescribing strategies in acne. Any information for past exposure to macrolides or clindamycin should suggest avoidance of prescription of these antibiotics. Tetracyclines and amoxicillin are the suggested solutions for these patients. In contrast, lack of history of exposure allows the safe prescription of macrolides and clindamycin. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Microorganisms inhabiting follicular contents of facial acne are not only Propionibacterium but also Malassezia spp.

    PubMed

    Akaza, Narifumi; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Numata, Shigeki; Yamada, Shunji; Yagami, Akiko; Nakata, Satoru; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2016-08-01

    To clarify the relationship between major cutaneous microorganisms (Propionibacterium, Staphylococcus and Malassezia spp.) and acne vulgaris (acne), we examined the microbiota quantitatively in the follicular contents of inflammatory acne and on the facial skin of patients with acne. Fifteen Japanese untreated acne outpatients were studied. The follicular contents from inflammatory acne lesions of the face were collected using a comedo extractor. The skin surface samples were obtained by the swab method from 10 cm(2) of facial skin. The microbiota was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction. The microbiota in follicular contents was similar to that on the skin surface, namely, there were large populations of Propionibacterium spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Malassezia spp. Moreover, the number of Malassezia spp. on the skin surface was correlated with that of inflammatory acne and that in follicular contents. This study clarified that there are large populations of Propionibacterium spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Malassezia spp. in follicular contents. These results suggest the possibility that not only Propionibacterium acnes but also other cutaneous resident microorganisms are related to acne. Particularly, we considered that Malassezia spp. is closely related.

  15. Association between Propionibacterium acnes and frozen shoulder: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, Tim D; Gallacher, Sian; Auckland, Cressida R; Kitson, Jeff; Smith, Chris D

    2014-01-01

    Background Frozen shoulder has not previously been shown to be associated with infection. The present study set out to confirm the null hypothesis that there is no relationship between infection and frozen shoulder using two modern scientific methods, extended culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bacterial nucleic acids. Methods A prospective cohort of 10 patients undergoing arthroscopic release for stage II idiopathic frozen shoulder had two biopsies of tissue taken from the affected shoulder joint capsule at the time of surgery, along with control biopsies of subdermal fat. The biopsies and controls were examined with extended culture and PCR for microbial nucleic acid. Results Eight of the 10 patients had positive findings on extended culture in their shoulder capsule and, in six of these, Propionibacterium acnes was present. Conclusions The findings mean that we must reject the null hypothesis that there is no relationship between infection and frozen shoulder. More studies are urgently needed to confirm or refute these findings. If they are confirmed, this could potentially lead to new and effective treatments for this common, painful and disabling condition. Could P. acnes be the Helicobacter of frozen shoulder? PMID:27582943

  16. A Honey Trap for the Treatment of Acne: Manipulating the Follicular Microenvironment to Control Propionibacterium acnes

    PubMed Central

    Eady, E. Anne; Layton, Alison M.; Cove, Jonathan H.

    2013-01-01

    Today, as 40 years ago, we still rely on a limited number of antibiotics and benzoyl peroxide to treat inflammatory acne. An alternative way of suppressing the growth of Propionibacterium acnes is to target the environment in which it thrives. We conjecture that P. acnes colonises a relatively “extreme” habitat especially in relation to the availability of water and possibly related factors such as ionic strength and osmolarity. We hypothesise that the limiting “nutrient” within pilosebaceous follicles is water since native sebum as secreted by the sebaceous gland contains none. An aqueous component must be available within colonised follicles, and water may be a major factor determining which follicles can sustain microbial populations. One way of preventing microbial growth is to reduce the water activity (a w) of this component with a biocompatible solute of very high water solubility. For the method to work effectively, the solute must be small, easily diffusible, and minimally soluble in sebaceous lipids. Xylose and sucrose, which fulfil these criteria, are nonfermentable by P. acnes and have been used to reduce water activity and hence bacterial colonisation of wounds. A new follicularly targeted topical treatment for acne based on this approach should be well tolerated and highly effective. PMID:23762853

  17. Correlation of Propionibacterium acnes Populations with the Presence of Triglycerides on Nonhuman Skin

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Guy F.; Ruggieri, Michael R.; McGinley, Kenneth J.

    1981-01-01

    The skins of mice, rats, rabbits, sheep, guinea pigs, and dogs were cultured for Propionibacterium acnes. Only the sebaceous regions (perianal gland) of guinea pigs harbored a significant P. acnes population. Analysis of the lipid from this region revealed a significant percentage of triglycerides, compounds lacking in the sebum of the other animals. PMID:7259157

  18. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Propionibacterium acnes Strains Isolated from Implant-Related Infections

    PubMed Central

    Aubin, Guillaume Ghislain; Kambarev, Stanimir; Guillouzouic, Aurélie; Lepelletier, Didier; Bémer, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes was previously described as a potential implant-related pathogen. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of four P. acnes strains, isolated from spine material, hip arthroplasty, and knee arthroplasty infections in France belonging to different sequence types (ST18, ST27, and ST36). PMID:27979946

  19. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Propionibacterium acnes Strains Isolated from Implant-Related Infections.

    PubMed

    Aubin, Guillaume Ghislain; Kambarev, Stanimir; Guillouzouic, Aurélie; Lepelletier, Didier; Bémer, Pascale; Corvec, Stéphane

    2016-12-15

    Propionibacterium acnes was previously described as a potential implant-related pathogen. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of four P. acnes strains, isolated from spine material, hip arthroplasty, and knee arthroplasty infections in France belonging to different sequence types (ST18, ST27, and ST36).

  20. Propionibacterium acnes, an emerging pathogen: from acne to implant-infections, from phylotype to resistance.

    PubMed

    Aubin, G G; Portillo, M E; Trampuz, A; Corvec, S

    2014-06-01

    Propionibacterium acnes colonizes the lipid-rich sebaceous glands of the skin. This preferential anaerobic bacterium is easily identified if cultures are prolonged. It is involved in the inflammation process of acne, but until recently, it was neglected in other clinical presentations. Despite a reported low virulence, the new genomic, transcriptomic, and phylogenetic studies have allowed better understanding of this pathogen's importance that causes many chronic and recurrent infections, including orthopedic and cardiac prosthetic, and breast or eye implant-infections. These infections, facilitated by the ability of P. acnes to produce a biofilm, require using anti-biofilm active antibiotics such as rifampicin. The antibiogram of P. acnes is not systematically performed in microbiology laboratories because of its susceptibility to a wide range of antibiotics. However, in the last 10 years, the rate of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has increased, especially for macrolides and tetracyclines. Recently, rpoB gene mutations conferring resistance to rifampicin have been also reported. Thus in case of a biofilm growth mode, the therapeutic strategy should be discussed, according to the resistance phylotype and phenotype so as to optimize the treatment of these severe infections.

  1. Nonunion After Clavicle Osteosynthesis: High Incidence of Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Gausden, Elizabeth B; Villa, Jordan; Warner, Stephen J; Redko, Mariya; Pearle, Andrew; Miller, Andy; Henry, Michael; Lorich, Dean G; Helfet, David L; Wellman, David S

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to review the etiology of clavicle nonunions after osteosynthesis and investigate the outcomes of a treatment with a single-stage revision. Retrospective case series. Orthopaedic specialty hospital. Twenty cases of nonunion after osteosynthesis of the clavicle were identified. The average age was 44 years (±13 years). In 9 cases, there was catastrophic implant failure that prompted the revision surgery. In the 18 cases in which cultures were taken, 15 of the 18 (83%) were treated as infections with a course of antibiotics. In 14 cases, the cultures were positive for Propionibacterium acnes. Fifteen patients were treated with a prolonged course of antibiotics. Eighteen patients had follow-up, and the average time to radiographic union was 22 weeks. There were no cases of nonunion after revision surgery. There is a high rate of positive cultures in cases of nonunion after osteosynthesis of the clavicle. This suggests the etiology of midshaft clavicle nonunions may result from a combination of suboptimal mechanical fixation and latent infection. Our treatment protocol of superior and anterior plating, interfragmentary fixation, bone grafting, and appropriate antimicrobial treatment of latent infections has resulted in 100% union rate. Prognostic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  2. Induction of proinflammatory cytokines by a soluble factor of Propionibacterium acnes: implications for chronic inflammatory acne.

    PubMed Central

    Vowels, B R; Yang, S; Leyden, J J

    1995-01-01

    Although many cytokines have been implicated in the development and persistence of inflammatory immune responses, it is unknown if any of these are important in inflammatory acne. This study investigated the production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-1 beta, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) by human monocytic cell lines, ThP-1 and U937, and by freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from acne patients. Both Propionibacterium acnes and supernatants obtained from 72-h P. acnes cultures could induce significant concentrations of IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-8 by both cell lines and by peripheral blood mononuclear cells as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. There was no significant difference between acne and non-acne subjects. Endotoxin quantification and addition of polymyxin B to assays indicated no lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contamination. P. acnes supernatant was fractionated into components with molecular weights of < 3,000, < 10,000, and < 30,000 and assayed for the ability to induce IL-8 and TNF production in ThP-1 cells. Nearly 90% of the original activity was found in the < 30,000-molecular-weight fraction, 50% was in the < 10,000-molecular-weight fraction, and only 15% remained in the < 3,000-molecular-weight fraction. The effluent from the < 3,000-molecular-weight fraction contained about 70% activity, indicating that the inducing factor was not retained in the membrane. Incubation of P. acnes supernatant with various concentrations of mutanolysin or lysozyme resulted in a loss of 60% of the original activity. The addition of jimson lectin, which binds peptidoglycan, resulted in a loss of 70% of the activity in a dose-response manner, whereas peanut lectin had little or no effect on the activity. Heating of the P. acnes supernatant to 65 degrees C also had no effect on the activity. Blocking of CD14, a receptor for both LPS and peptidoglycan, reduced cytokine production by > 50%, suggesting that

  3. Isolation of Propionibacterium acnes from a case of placentitis and abortion in a cow.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Jeremiah A; Bemis, David A; Bryant, Mary Jean; Kania, Stephen A; Abd-Eldaim, Mohamed; Newman, Shelley J

    2009-03-01

    On the basis of the scarcity of reports in the veterinary literature, it appears that Propionibacterium spp. are rarely associated with disease or isolated from cattle tissues. Recently, Propionibacterium spp. has been associated with multifocal abscessation in cattle. This report describes a case of necrosuppurative placentitis and abortion in an adult Holstein cow. Numerous colonies of small, pleomorphic, Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria were observed within the fibrin lattice associated with placental lesions and within the fetal atelectatic lung. Propionibacterium acnes was isolated in high numbers from the placenta, fetal lung, and stomach contents. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of placentitis associated with propionibacteria in a cow.

  4. Inhibition of Propionibacterium acnes by Bacteriocin-Like Inhibitory Substances (BLIS) Produced by Streptococcus Salivarius

    PubMed Central

    Bowe, Whitney P.; Filip, Jennifer C.; DiRienzo, Joseph M.; Volgina, Alla; Margolis, David J.

    2009-01-01

    We report the in vitro inhibition of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) by a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS-like substance) produced by Streptococcus salivarius (S. salivarius). Bacteriocins are proteinaceous substances produced by bacteria that are capable of inhibiting the growth of similar bacterial strains. Unlike classical antibiotics, they have a relatively narrow spectrum of killing activity, resulting in a reduction in the intensity of selection for resistance. These findings suggest that BLIS may potentially be used for its anti-P. acnes activity in the treatment of acne. PMID:17039652

  5. Contamination of K-Sol corneal storage medium with Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Sieck, E A; Enzenauer, R W; Cornell, F M; Butler, C

    1989-07-01

    K-Sol is a widely used corneal preservation medium. It has an excellent record for corneal storage and no previous report of contamination. During September 1988, on five of our K-Sol-stored donor rims Propionibacterium acnes grew. Cultures of unopened K-Sol also yielded P acnes. This report reviews previous contaminations of corneal storage media and the special characteristics of P acnes that enabled it to survive precautions taken against infection. The detection of P acnes was not obvious, and we emphasize the need for appropriate culturing of all donors, both aerobically and anaerobically, and close scrutiny of delayed inflammation in postoperative patients.

  6. The diversity and host interactions of Propionibacterium acnes bacteriophages on human skin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jared; Yan, Riceley; Zhong, Qiao; Ngo, Sam; Bangayan, Nathanael J; Nguyen, Lin; Lui, Timothy; Liu, Minghsun; Erfe, Marie C; Craft, Noah; Tomida, Shuta; Li, Huiying

    2015-09-01

    The viral population, including bacteriophages, is an important component of the human microbiota, yet is poorly understood. We aim to determine whether bacteriophages modulate the composition of the bacterial populations, thus potentially playing a role in health or disease. We investigated the diversity and host interactions of the bacteriophages of Propionibacterium acnes, a major human skin commensal implicated in acne pathogenesis. By sequencing 48 P. acnes phages isolated from acne patients and healthy individuals and by analyzing the P. acnes phage populations in healthy skin metagenomes, we revealed that P. acnes phage populations in the skin microbial community are often dominated by one strain. We also found phage strains shared among both related and unrelated individuals, suggesting that a pool of common phages exists in the human population and that transmission of phages may occur between individuals. To better understand the bacterium-phage interactions in the skin microbiota, we determined the outcomes of 74 genetically defined Propionibacterium strains challenged by 15 sequenced phages. Depending on the Propionibacterium lineage, phage infection can result in lysis, pseudolysogeny, or resistance. In type II P. acnes strains, we found that encoding matching clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat spacers is insufficient to confer phage resistance. Overall, our findings suggest that the prey-predator relationship between bacteria and phages may have a role in modulating the composition of the microbiota. Our study also suggests that the microbiome structure of an individual may be an important factor in the design of phage-based therapy.

  7. The diversity and host interactions of Propionibacterium acnes bacteriophages on human skin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jared; Yan, Riceley; Zhong, Qiao; Ngo, Sam; Bangayan, Nathanael J; Nguyen, Lin; Lui, Timothy; Liu, Minghsun; Erfe, Marie C; Craft, Noah; Tomida, Shuta; Li, Huiying

    2015-01-01

    The viral population, including bacteriophages, is an important component of the human microbiota, yet is poorly understood. We aim to determine whether bacteriophages modulate the composition of the bacterial populations, thus potentially playing a role in health or disease. We investigated the diversity and host interactions of the bacteriophages of Propionibacterium acnes, a major human skin commensal implicated in acne pathogenesis. By sequencing 48 P. acnes phages isolated from acne patients and healthy individuals and by analyzing the P. acnes phage populations in healthy skin metagenomes, we revealed that P. acnes phage populations in the skin microbial community are often dominated by one strain. We also found phage strains shared among both related and unrelated individuals, suggesting that a pool of common phages exists in the human population and that transmission of phages may occur between individuals. To better understand the bacterium–phage interactions in the skin microbiota, we determined the outcomes of 74 genetically defined Propionibacterium strains challenged by 15 sequenced phages. Depending on the Propionibacterium lineage, phage infection can result in lysis, pseudolysogeny, or resistance. In type II P. acnes strains, we found that encoding matching clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat spacers is insufficient to confer phage resistance. Overall, our findings suggest that the prey–predator relationship between bacteria and phages may have a role in modulating the composition of the microbiota. Our study also suggests that the microbiome structure of an individual may be an important factor in the design of phage-based therapy. PMID:25848871

  8. Isolation, purification, and properties of neuraminidase from Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    von Nicolai, H; Höffler, U; Zilliken, F

    1980-06-01

    Neuraminidase activity was discovered in 32 of 38 strains of Propionibacterium acnes. Enzyme production was studied in yeast extract bouillon of different pH containing various amounts of human milk as neuraminidase inductor. Enzyme activity was found in the bacterial sediments as well as in the culture filtrates. Since neither ultrasonic treatment nor lysozyme incubation of bacterial sediments did release reasonable amounts of enzyme, culture filtrates were used for enzyme preparation. Neuraminidase was isolated by 40% ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis, concentration and repeated gel chromatography on Sephadex G-100. The enzyme posesses a molecular weight of about 33 000 and a pH-optimum around 5.0. The Michaelis constants are 1.8 x 10(-3) M for alpha 2 leads to 3 linked N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) in II3NeuAc-Lac, 3.7 x 10(-3) M for the alpha 2 leads to 6 linkage in II6NeuAc-Lac, and 2.1 x 10(-3) M for the alpha 2 leads to 8 linkage of II3 (comes from 2 alpha NeuAc8)2-Lac, respectively. Among the different groups of naturally occurring NeuAc-containing substrates, i.e. oligosaccharides, glycolipids and glycoproteins, the enzyme exhibits its highest activity towards low molecular weight oligosaccharides. Activity is considerably lower on glycoproteins. Glycolipids (gangliosides) are only little attacked under conditions used in the test. However, there is no remarkable specificity towards one of the different linkage types of N-acetylneuraminic acid. In general, the enzyme reveals a specificity pattern similar to that found in other bacteria of low pathogenicity towards man.

  9. Antimicrobial Activity of Pomegranate and Green Tea Extract on Propionibacterium Acnes, Propionibacterium Granulosum, Staphylococcus Aureus and Staphylococcus Epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaoping; Summanen, Paula H; Downes, Julia; Corbett, Karen; Komoriya, Tomoe; Henning, Susanne M; Kim, Jenny; Finegold, Sydney M

    2015-06-01

    We used pomegranate extract (POMx), pomegranate juice (POM juice) and green tea extract (GT) to establish in vitro activities against bacteria implicated in the pathogenesis of acne. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 94 Propionibacterium acnes, Propionibacterium granulosum, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis strains were determined by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute-approved agar dilution technique. Total phenolics content of the phytochemicals was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method and the polyphenol composition by HPLC. Bacteria were identified by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. GT MIC of 400 μg/ml or less was obtained for 98% of the strains tested. 64% of P. acnes strains had POMx MICs at 50 μg/ml whereas 36% had MIC >400 μg/ml. POMx, POM juice, and GT showed inhibitory activity against all the P. granulosum strains at ≤100 μg/ml. POMx and GT inhibited all the S. aureus strains at 400 μg/ml or below, and POM juice had an MIC of 200 μg/ml against 17 S. aureus strains. POMx inhibited S. epidermidis strains at 25 μg/ml, whereas POM juice MICs were ≥200 μg/ml. The antibacterial properties of POMx and GT on the most common bacteria associated with the development and progression of acne suggest that these extracts may offer a better preventative/therapeutic regimen with fewer side effects than those currently available.

  10. Propionibacterium acnes induces an interleukin-17 response in acne vulgaris that is regulated by vitamin A and vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Agak, George W.; Qin, Min; Nobe, Jennifer; Kim, Myung-Hwa; Krutzik, Stephan R.; Tristan, Grogan R.; Elashoff, David; Garbán, Hermes J.; Kim, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common skin disorder affecting millions of people worldwide and inflammation resulting from the immune response targeting Propionibacterium acnes plays a significant role in its pathogenesis. In this study, we have demonstrated that P. acnes is a potent inducer of Th17 and Th1, but not Th2 responses in human PBMCs. P. acnes stimulated expression of key Th17-related genes, including IL-17A, RORα, RORc, IL-17RA and IL-17RC, and triggered IL-17 secretion from CD4+, but not CD8+ T cells. Supernatants from P. acnes-stimulated PBMCs were sufficient to promote the differentiation of naïve CD4+CD45RA T cells into Th17 cells. Furthermore, we found that the combination of IL-1β, IL-6 and TGF-β neutralizing antibodies completely inhibited P. acnes-induced IL-17 production. Importantly, we showed that IL-17-expressing cells were present in skin biopsies from acne patients but not from normal donors. Finally, vitamin A (all-trans retinoic acid) and vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) inhibited P. acnes-induced Th17 differentiation. Together, our data demonstrate that IL-17 is induced by P. acnes and expressed in acne lesions and that both vitamin A and vitamin D could be effective tools to modulate Th17-mediated diseases such as acne. PMID:23924903

  11. A Precision Microbiome Approach Using Sucrose for Selective Augmentation of Staphylococcus epidermidis Fermentation against Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhan; Kao, Ming-Shan; Yu, Jinghua; Huang, Stephen; Marito, Shinta; Gallo, Richard L; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-11-09

    Acne dysbiosis happens when there is a microbial imbalance of the over-growth of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) in the acne microbiome. In our previous study, we demonstrated that Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis, a probiotic skin bacterium) can exploit glycerol fermentation to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) which have antimicrobial activities to suppress the growth of P. acnes. Unlike glycerol, sucrose is chosen here as a selective fermentation initiator (SFI) that can specifically intensify the fermentation activity of S. epidermidis, but not P. acnes. A co-culture of P. acnes and fermenting S. epidermidis in the presence of sucrose significantly led to a reduction in the growth of P. acnes. The reduction was abolished when P. acnes was co-cultured with non-fermenting S. epidermidis. Results from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis revealed four SCFAs (acetic acid, butyric acid, lactic acid, and succinic acid) were detectable in the media of S. epidermidis sucrose fermentation. To validate the interference of S. epidermidis sucrose fermentation with P. acnes, mouse ears were injected with both P. acnes and S. epidermidis plus sucrose or phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The level of macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and the number of P. acnes in ears injected with two bacteria plus sucrose were considerably lower than those in ears injected with two bacteria plus PBS. Our results demonstrate a precision microbiome approach by using sucrose as a SFI for S. epidermidis, holding future potential as a novel modality to equilibrate dysbiotic acne.

  12. A Precision Microbiome Approach Using Sucrose for Selective Augmentation of Staphylococcus epidermidis Fermentation against Propionibacterium acnes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanhan; Kao, Ming-Shan; Yu, Jinghua; Huang, Stephen; Marito, Shinta; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Acne dysbiosis happens when there is a microbial imbalance of the over-growth of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) in the acne microbiome. In our previous study, we demonstrated that Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis, a probiotic skin bacterium) can exploit glycerol fermentation to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) which have antimicrobial activities to suppress the growth of P. acnes. Unlike glycerol, sucrose is chosen here as a selective fermentation initiator (SFI) that can specifically intensify the fermentation activity of S. epidermidis, but not P. acnes. A co-culture of P. acnes and fermenting S. epidermidis in the presence of sucrose significantly led to a reduction in the growth of P. acnes. The reduction was abolished when P. acnes was co-cultured with non-fermenting S. epidermidis. Results from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis revealed four SCFAs (acetic acid, butyric acid, lactic acid, and succinic acid) were detectable in the media of S. epidermidis sucrose fermentation. To validate the interference of S. epidermidis sucrose fermentation with P. acnes, mouse ears were injected with both P. acnes and S. epidermidis plus sucrose or phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The level of macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and the number of P. acnes in ears injected with two bacteria plus sucrose were considerably lower than those in ears injected with two bacteria plus PBS. Our results demonstrate a precision microbiome approach by using sucrose as a SFI for S. epidermidis, holding future potential as a novel modality to equilibrate dysbiotic acne. PMID:27834859

  13. Analysis of Complete Genomes of Propionibacterium acnes Reveals a Novel Plasmid and Increased Pseudogenes in an Acne Associated Strain

    PubMed Central

    Fitz-Gibbon, Sorel; Tomida, Shuta; Li, Huiying

    2013-01-01

    The human skin harbors a diverse community of bacteria, including the Gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium Propionibacterium acnes. P. acnes has historically been linked to the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris, a common skin disease affecting over 80% of all adolescents in the US. To gain insight into potential P. acnes pathogenic mechanisms, we previously sequenced the complete genome of a P. acnes strain HL096PA1 that is highly associated with acne. In this study, we compared its genome to the first published complete genome KPA171202. HL096PA1 harbors a linear plasmid, pIMPLE-HL096PA1. This is the first described P. acnes plasmid. We also observed a five-fold increase of pseudogenes in HL096PA1, several of which encode proteins in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. In addition, our analysis revealed a few island-like genomic regions that are unique to HL096PA1 and a large genomic inversion spanning the ribosomal operons. Together, these findings offer a basis for understanding P. acnes virulent properties, host adaptation mechanisms, and its potential role in acne pathogenesis at the strain level. Furthermore, the plasmid identified in HL096PA1 may potentially provide a new opportunity for P. acnes genetic manipulation and targeted therapy against specific disease-associated strains. PMID:23762865

  14. In vitro evaluation of bioactive potential of Bacillus methylotrophicus YML008 against Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Uk-Han; Nam, Eun Sook; Ahmad, Rather Irfan; Park, Yong-Ha

    2016-05-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common skin diseases that people experience during their lives. Thirteen rhizosphere isolates were screened against Propionibacterium acnes. The bacterium exhibited the highest activity against P. acnes was identified as Bacillus methylotrophicus YML008 by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Scanning electron microscopy was used to assess the changes in morphology of P. acnes. Preliminary studies on the antimicrobial substance demonstrated the hydrophilic nature of compound with MIC of 0.17mg/ml and MBC of 0.3mg/ml. The cytotoxic effect of the extract was least (80% survival) as compared to benzyperoxide (40% survival). These results suggest YML008 as a promising bioresource and may be useful as a lead bacterium to develop a new type of anti-acne skin care prep to cure or prevent acne. Further, mechanism of action and proper clinical trials may be promising for this research.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of an Erythromycin-Resistant Propionibacterium acnes Isolate Recovered from Folliculitis of the Scalp

    PubMed Central

    Aubin, Guillaume Ghislain; Kambarev, Stanimir; Guillouzouic, Aurélie; Khammari, Amir; Dréno, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Propionibacterium acnes is now well-known and recognized for its implication in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of an erythromycin-resistant P. acnes strain isolated from a case of folliculitis of the scalp belonging to phylotype IA1 and sequence type 18 (ST18). PMID:28126936

  16. Clonality and anatomic distribution on the skin of antibiotic resistant and sensitive Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Lomholt, Hans B; Kilian, Mogens

    2014-09-01

    Increasing antibiotic resistance in the population of Propionibacterium acnes is a major concern. Our aims were to examine the clonal relationships and anatomical distribution of resistant and sensitive P. acnes. A collection of 350 P. acnes isolates was therefore used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of tetracycline, erythro-mycin and clindamycin, multilocus sequence type, and the identity of genetic resistance markers. Two hitherto unknown resistance mutations were detected. Resistant P. acnes mainly belonged to clonal clusters in division I-1a frequently isolated from skin and associated with moderate to severe acne. All high-level tetracycline resistant strains were members of a single clone. Multiple isolates from distinct anatomic areas of surface skin and follicles of 2 acne patients revealed substantial clonal diversity between areas and co-existence of resistant and sensitive clones. Fifty-two percent of Danish acne patients and 43% of controls carried at least one resistant P. acnes strain, resistance to clindamycin being most frequent followed by tetracycline and erythromycin. Resistance to tetracycline was detected exclusively among isolates from acne patients. In conclusion, antibiotic resistance is associated with particular evolutionary clades of P. acnes and a substantial part is due to a single geographically widespread clone (ST3). Individuals carry a strikingly complex population of P. acnes with distinct virulence potential and antibiotic resistance.

  17. Exploring Valrubicin's Effect on Propionibacterium Acnes-Induced Skin Inflammation in Vitro and in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Rottboell, Louise; de Foenss, Sarah; Thomsen, Kenneth; Christiansen, Helle; Andersen, Stine M.; Dam, Tomas N.; Rosada, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Acne is a common skin disease involving colonization with Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), hyperproliferation of the follicular epithelium and inflammatory events. Valrubicin is a second-generation anthracycline, non-toxic upon contact, and available in a topical formulation. Valrubicin’s predecessor doxorubicin possesses antibacterial effects and previously we demonstrated that valrubicin inhibits keratinocyte proliferation and skin inflammation suggesting beneficial topical treatment of acne with valrubicin. This study aims to investigate valrubicin’s possible use in acne treatment by testing valrubicin’s antibacterial effects against P. acnes and P. acnes-induced skin inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Valrubicin was demonstrated not to possess antibacterial effects against P. acnes. Additionally, valrubicin was demonstrated not to reduce mRNA and protein expression levels of the inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in vitro in human keratinocytes co-cultured with P. acnes. Moreover, in vivo, valrubicin, applied both topically and intra-dermally, was not able to reduce signs of inflammation in mouse ears intra-dermally injected with P. acnes. Taken together, this study does not support beneficial antibacterial and anti inflammatory effects of topical valrubicin treatment of acne. PMID:26734122

  18. Acute infection with Propionibacterium acnes after a Latarjet coracoid transfer procedure: a case report.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Brandon J; Bhatia, Sanjeev; Biswas, Debdut; Verma, Nikhil N

    2016-06-01

    Coracoid transfer procedures are highly effective at improving glenohumeral stability in patients with recurrent shoulder instability; complication rates from this procedure are generally low. We present the first case in the literature of a Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) infection following a coracoid transfer. The case stresses the importance of proper antibiotic prophylaxis for patients undergoing Latarjet procedures, as well as the workup for a painful postoperative shoulder, and the need to maintain cultures from the shoulder for up to 21 days to isolate P. acnes.

  19. Solitary tentorial sarcoid granuloma associated with Propionibacterium acnes infection: case report.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Jiro; Nagai, Kenta; Ogasawara, Daisuke; Tanaka, Yujiro; Izawa, Hitoshi; Kohno, Michihiro; Uchida, Keisuke; Eishi, Yoshinobu

    2017-09-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease with unknown cause, which very rarely occurs exclusively in the central nervous system. The authors performed biopsy sampling of a mass that developed in the left tentorium cerebelli that appeared to be a malignant tumor. The mass was diagnosed as a sarcoid granuloma, which was confirmed with the onset of antibody reaction product against Propionibacterium acnes. Findings suggesting sarcoidosis to be an immune response to P. acnes infection have recently been reported, and they give insight for diagnosis and treatment of this disease. The authors report the possible first case that was confirmed with P. acnes infection in a meningeal lesion in solitary neurosarcoidosis.

  20. Propionibacterium acnes Bacteriophages Display Limited Genetic Diversity and Broad Killing Activity against Bacterial Skin Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Marinelli, Laura J.; Fitz-Gibbon, Sorel; Hayes, Clarmyra; Bowman, Charles; Inkeles, Megan; Loncaric, Anya; Russell, Daniel A.; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Cokus, Shawn; Pellegrini, Matteo; Kim, Jenny; Miller, Jeff F.; Hatfull, Graham F.; Modlin, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Investigation of the human microbiome has revealed diverse and complex microbial communities at distinct anatomic sites. The microbiome of the human sebaceous follicle provides a tractable model in which to study its dominant bacterial inhabitant, Propionibacterium acnes, which is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of the human disease acne. To explore the diversity of the bacteriophages that infect P. acnes, 11 P. acnes phages were isolated from the sebaceous follicles of donors with healthy skin or acne and their genomes were sequenced. Comparative genomic analysis of the P. acnes phage population, which spans a 30-year temporal period and a broad geographic range, reveals striking similarity in terms of genome length, percent GC content, nucleotide identity (>85%), and gene content. This was unexpected, given the far-ranging diversity observed in virtually all other phage populations. Although the P. acnes phages display a broad host range against clinical isolates of P. acnes, two bacterial isolates were resistant to many of these phages. Moreover, the patterns of phage resistance correlate closely with the presence of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat elements in the bacteria that target a specific subset of phages, conferring a system of prokaryotic innate immunity. The limited diversity of the P. acnes bacteriophages, which may relate to the unique evolutionary constraints imposed by the lipid-rich anaerobic environment in which their bacterial hosts reside, points to the potential utility of phage-based antimicrobial therapy for acne. PMID:23015740

  1. Etiologic aspect of sarcoidosis as an allergic endogenous infection caused by Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Eishi, Yoshinobu

    2013-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. Propionibacterium acnes is the only microorganism that has been isolated from sarcoid lesions. Many P. acnes have been detected in sarcoid lymph nodes using quantitative PCR and in sarcoid granulomas by in situ hybridization. P. acnes trigger factor protein causes a cellular immune response only in sarcoid patients and induces pulmonary granulomas in mice sensitized with the protein and adjuvant, but only those with latent P. acnes infection in their lungs. Eradication of P. acnes by antibiotics prevents the development of granulomas in this experimental model. Although P. acnes is the most common commensal bacterium in the lungs and lymph nodes, P. acnes-specific antibody detected the bacterium within sarcoid granulomas of these organs. P. acnes can cause latent infection in the lung and lymph node and persist in a cell-wall-deficient form. The dormant form is activated endogenously under certain conditions and proliferates at the site of latent infection. In patients with P. acnes hypersensitivity, granulomatous inflammation is triggered by intracellular proliferation of the bacterium. Proliferating bacteria may escape granulomatous isolation, spreading to other organs. Latent P. acnes infection in systemic organs can be reactivated by another triggering event, leading to systemic sarcoidosis.

  2. Experimental pulmonary granuloma mimicking sarcoidosis induced by Propionibacterium acnes in mice.

    PubMed

    Iio, Kouji; Iio, Tomoe Ueno; Okui, Yuhei; Ichikawa, Hirohisa; Tanimoto, Yasushi; Miyahara, Nobuaki; Kanehiro, Arihiko; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Nakata, Yasunari; Kataoka, Mikio

    2010-04-01

    Propionibacterium acnes has been implicated as an etiologic agent of sarcoidosis since the isolation of this bacterium from sarcoid lesions. We experimentally produced a murine pulmonary granuloma model using P. acnes with several features that simulate sarcoidosis. Mice were sensitized with heat-killed P. acnes and complete Freund's adjuvant and were subsequently challenged with heat-killed P. acnes at 2-week intervals. P. acnes-challenged mice developed epitheloid cell granulomas in the lungs. These mice showed a pulmonary immune response characterized by an increased number of T-lymphocytes, especially CD4+ cells, and the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid also increased. Furthermore, significant elevations in both angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) serum levels and antibody titers against P. acnes were observed. Mice sensitized with P. acnes without complete Freund's adjuvant were capable of forming pulmonary granulomas, which appeared to be caused by indigenous P. acnes. The genome of P. acnes was found in the lungs, BAL cells, hilar lymph nodes, liver, and spleen in non-sensitized mice, which were thought to be germ-free. These results suggest that the immune response against indigenous P. acnes may play an important role in the pathogenesis of granuloma formation in a murine model.

  3. Etiologic Aspect of Sarcoidosis as an Allergic Endogenous Infection Caused by Propionibacterium acnes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. Propionibacterium acnes is the only microorganism that has been isolated from sarcoid lesions. Many P. acnes have been detected in sarcoid lymph nodes using quantitative PCR and in sarcoid granulomas by in situ hybridization. P. acnes trigger factor protein causes a cellular immune response only in sarcoid patients and induces pulmonary granulomas in mice sensitized with the protein and adjuvant, but only those with latent P. acnes infection in their lungs. Eradication of P. acnes by antibiotics prevents the development of granulomas in this experimental model. Although P. acnes is the most common commensal bacterium in the lungs and lymph nodes, P. acnes-specific antibody detected the bacterium within sarcoid granulomas of these organs. P. acnes can cause latent infection in the lung and lymph node and persist in a cell-wall-deficient form. The dormant form is activated endogenously under certain conditions and proliferates at the site of latent infection. In patients with P. acnes hypersensitivity, granulomatous inflammation is triggered by intracellular proliferation of the bacterium. Proliferating bacteria may escape granulomatous isolation, spreading to other organs. Latent P. acnes infection in systemic organs can be reactivated by another triggering event, leading to systemic sarcoidosis. PMID:23844371

  4. Generation and characterization of chicken egg yolk antibodies against propionibacterium acnes for the prevention of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Selvan, Karthika; Sentila, R; Michael, A

    2012-01-01

    Antigen-specific antibody has been widely used for immunological analysis in the field of diagnosis as well as in pure scientific research, where the IgY antibodies can be raised against P acnes antigen. To produce IgY against Propionibacterium acnes, laying hens were immunized with P acnes (MTCC No: 1951) and subsequent booster injections were given. The antibodies produced were purified from the egg yolk of immunized chicken using the polyethylene glycol and ammonium sulfate precipitation method and, further, by Diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) cellulose ion-exchange column chromatography. The protein fraction of IgY was isolated from the egg yolk. The separation was rapid, and the success of each step was viewed on Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The reactivity of anti-P acnes was evaluated by the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test and the dot-immunoassay. With ELISA, the highest titter of 1:10000 was observed on the 150(th) day after vaccination. The results of dot-immunoassay suggested that anti-P acnes IgY developed a brown color as positive reaction, which showed the antigen-antibody binding even after a maximum dilution of 1/500. These results suggest that anti-acne IgY was produced and had strong specific antibody reactivity. The findings indicate that anti-acne IgY is worth utilizing as a preventive agent for acne vulgaris.

  5. Propionibacterium acnes bacteriophages display limited genetic diversity and broad killing activity against bacterial skin isolates.

    PubMed

    Marinelli, Laura J; Fitz-Gibbon, Sorel; Hayes, Clarmyra; Bowman, Charles; Inkeles, Megan; Loncaric, Anya; Russell, Daniel A; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Cokus, Shawn; Pellegrini, Matteo; Kim, Jenny; Miller, Jeff F; Hatfull, Graham F; Modlin, Robert L

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of the human microbiome has revealed diverse and complex microbial communities at distinct anatomic sites. The microbiome of the human sebaceous follicle provides a tractable model in which to study its dominant bacterial inhabitant, Propionibacterium acnes, which is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of the human disease acne. To explore the diversity of the bacteriophages that infect P. acnes, 11 P. acnes phages were isolated from the sebaceous follicles of donors with healthy skin or acne and their genomes were sequenced. Comparative genomic analysis of the P. acnes phage population, which spans a 30-year temporal period and a broad geographic range, reveals striking similarity in terms of genome length, percent GC content, nucleotide identity (>85%), and gene content. This was unexpected, given the far-ranging diversity observed in virtually all other phage populations. Although the P. acnes phages display a broad host range against clinical isolates of P. acnes, two bacterial isolates were resistant to many of these phages. Moreover, the patterns of phage resistance correlate closely with the presence of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat elements in the bacteria that target a specific subset of phages, conferring a system of prokaryotic innate immunity. The limited diversity of the P. acnes bacteriophages, which may relate to the unique evolutionary constraints imposed by the lipid-rich anaerobic environment in which their bacterial hosts reside, points to the potential utility of phage-based antimicrobial therapy for acne. Propionibacterium acnes is a dominant member of the skin microflora and has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of acne; however, little is known about the bacteriophages that coexist with and infect this bacterium. Here we present the novel genome sequences of 11 P. acnes phages, thereby substantially increasing the amount of available genomic information about this phage population

  6. Granulysin-Derived Peptides Demonstrate Antimicrobial and Anti-Inflammatory Effects Against Propionibacterium acnes

    PubMed Central

    McInturff, Jamie E.; Wang, Shyh-Jeun; Machleidt, Thomas; Lin, T. Richard; Oren, Ami; Hertz, Cheryl J.; Krutzik, Stephan R.; Hart, Scott; Zeh, Karin; Anderson, Daniel H.; Gallo, Richard L.; Modlin, Robert L.; Kim, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a key therapeutic target in acne, yet this bacterium has become resistant to standard antibiotic agents. We investigated whether the human antimicrobial protein granulysin is a potential candidate for the treatment of acne. Granulysin and synthetic granulysin-derived peptides possessing a helix–loop–helix motif killed P. acnes in vitro. Modification of a helix–loop–helix peptide, 31–50, by substitution of a tryptophan for the valine at amino acid 44 (peptide 31–50v44w) to increase its interaction with bacterial surfaces also increased its antimicrobial activity. Moreover, when synthesized with d- rather than l-type amino acids, this peptide (d-31– 50v44w) became less susceptible to degradation by proteases and more effective in killing P. acnes. Granulysin peptides were bactericidal, demonstrating an advantage over standard bacteriostatic antibiotics in their control of P. acnes. Moreover, peptide d-31–50v44w killed P. acnes in isolated human microcomedone preparations. Importantly, peptides 31–50, 31–50v44w, and d-31–50v44w also have potential anti-inflammatory effects, as demonstrated by suppression of P. acnes-stimulated cytokine release. Taken together, these data suggest that granulysin peptides may be useful as topical therapeutic agents, providing alternatives to current acne therapies. PMID:16098035

  7. Anti Propionibacterium acnes activity of rhodomyrtone, an effective compound from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. leaves.

    PubMed

    Saising, Jongkon; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan

    2012-08-01

    Propionibacterium acnes have been recognized as one of the main causative agents in pathogenesis of acne. Twenty one isolates of P. acnes isolated from acne lesions were screened for lipase and protease activity which are reported to be associated in acne and inflammation. Interestingly, all P. acnes isolates demonstrated lipase activity. Similarly, 90% of test P. acnes produced protease enzyme. Antibacterial activity of the ethanol extract of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. leaves and rhodomyrtone, its principle compound were tested against P. acnes using broth macrodilution method. The MIC(90) values of the ethanol extract and rhodomyrtone were 32 and 0.5 μg/mL, respectively. The numbers of the bacterial cells were reduced at least 99% after treatment with the ethanol extract and rhodomyrtone within 72 and 24 h, respectively. Cytotoxicity test of the extract and rhodomyrtone was performed on human normal fibroblast. The IC(50) values of the ethanol extract and rhodomyrtone were 476 and more than 200 μg/mL, approximately 15 and 400 folds higher than the MIC(90) values indicating that both substances were very low cytotoxic which could be applied as topical therapeutic anti-acne agents.

  8. Assessment of a new biological complex efficacy on dysseborrhea, inflammation, and Propionibacterium acnes proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Trompezinski, Sandra; Weber, Sophie; Cadars, Benoît; Larue, Florence; Ardiet, Nathalie; Chavagnac-Bonneville, Marlène; Sayag, Michèle; Jourdan, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Acne vulgaris is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit triggered by Propionibacterium acnes. A bakuchiol, Ginkgo biloba extract, and mannitol (BGM) complex has been developed to provide patients with acne with a specific dermocosmetic to be used adjunctively with conventional treatments. Objective The aim of these studies was to assess the antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative potential of BGM complex and its individual compounds as well as its impact on sebum composition. Methods The antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative potential of BGM complex and its compounds was assessed through in vitro, ex vivo, and clinical studies. The clinical benefit of BGM complex formulated in a cream was assessed in subjects prone to acne through sebum composition analysis and photometric assessments. Results Results from the studies showed that the BGM complex has significant antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative properties. At similar concentrations, bakuchiol has up to twice the antioxidative potential than vitamin E. In subjects, BGM complex regulated the sebum composition in acne patients by increasing the level of sapienic and linolenic acid and reducing the level of oleic acid. The reduced number of porphyrins on the skin surface showed that it is also effective against P. acnes. Conclusion BGM complex provides a complete adjunctive care in patients with acne by targeting etiopathogenic factors of acne: dysseborrhea, inflammation, and P. acnes proliferation. PMID:27621660

  9. Propionibacterium acnes biofilm is present in intervertebral discs of patients undergoing microdiscectomy.

    PubMed

    Capoor, Manu N; Ruzicka, Filip; Schmitz, Jonathan E; James, Garth A; Machackova, Tana; Jancalek, Radim; Smrcka, Martin; Lipina, Radim; Ahmed, Fahad S; Alamin, Todd F; Anand, Neel; Baird, John C; Bhatia, Nitin; Demir-Deviren, Sibel; Eastlack, Robert K; Fisher, Steve; Garfin, Steven R; Gogia, Jaspaul S; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Kuo, Calvin C; Lee, Yu-Po; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Michu, Elleni; Noskova, Hana; Raz, Assaf; Sana, Jiri; Shamie, A Nick; Stewart, Philip S; Stonemetz, Jerry L; Wang, Jeffrey C; Witham, Timothy F; Coscia, Michael F; Birkenmaier, Christof; Fischetti, Vincent A; Slaby, Ondrej

    2017-01-01

    In previous studies, Propionibacterium acnes was cultured from intervertebral disc tissue of ~25% of patients undergoing microdiscectomy, suggesting a possible link between chronic bacterial infection and disc degeneration. However, given the prominence of P. acnes as a skin commensal, such analyses often struggled to exclude the alternate possibility that these organisms represent perioperative microbiologic contamination. This investigation seeks to validate P. acnes prevalence in resected disc cultures, while providing microscopic evidence of P. acnes biofilm in the intervertebral discs. Specimens from 368 patients undergoing microdiscectomy for disc herniation were divided into several fragments, one being homogenized, subjected to quantitative anaerobic culture, and assessed for bacterial growth, and a second fragment frozen for additional analyses. Colonies were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and P. acnes phylotyping was conducted by multiplex PCR. For a sub-set of specimens, bacteria localization within the disc was assessed by microscopy using confocal laser scanning and FISH. Bacteria were cultured from 162 discs (44%), including 119 cases (32.3%) with P. acnes. In 89 cases, P. acnes was cultured exclusively; in 30 cases, it was isolated in combination with other bacteria (primarily coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp.) Among positive specimens, the median P. acnes bacterial burden was 350 CFU/g (12 - ~20,000 CFU/g). Thirty-eight P. acnes isolates were subjected to molecular sub-typing, identifying 4 of 6 defined phylogroups: IA1, IB, IC, and II. Eight culture-positive specimens were evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and revealed P. acnes in situ. Notably, these bacteria demonstrated a biofilm distribution within the disc matrix. P. acnes bacteria were more prevalent in males than females (39% vs. 23%, p = 0.0013). This study confirms that P. acnes is prevalent in herniated disc tissue. Moreover, it provides the first visual evidence of P

  10. Propionibacterium acnes biofilm is present in intervertebral discs of patients undergoing microdiscectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ruzicka, Filip; Schmitz, Jonathan E.; James, Garth A.; Machackova, Tana; Jancalek, Radim; Smrcka, Martin; Lipina, Radim; Ahmed, Fahad S.; Alamin, Todd F.; Anand, Neel; Baird, John C.; Bhatia, Nitin; Demir-Deviren, Sibel; Eastlack, Robert K.; Fisher, Steve; Garfin, Steven R.; Gogia, Jaspaul S.; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Kuo, Calvin C.; Lee, Yu-Po; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Michu, Elleni; Noskova, Hana; Raz, Assaf; Sana, Jiri; Shamie, A. Nick; Stewart, Philip S.; Stonemetz, Jerry L.; Wang, Jeffrey C.; Witham, Timothy F.; Coscia, Michael F.; Birkenmaier, Christof; Fischetti, Vincent A.; Slaby, Ondrej

    2017-01-01

    Background In previous studies, Propionibacterium acnes was cultured from intervertebral disc tissue of ~25% of patients undergoing microdiscectomy, suggesting a possible link between chronic bacterial infection and disc degeneration. However, given the prominence of P. acnes as a skin commensal, such analyses often struggled to exclude the alternate possibility that these organisms represent perioperative microbiologic contamination. This investigation seeks to validate P. acnes prevalence in resected disc cultures, while providing microscopic evidence of P. acnes biofilm in the intervertebral discs. Methods Specimens from 368 patients undergoing microdiscectomy for disc herniation were divided into several fragments, one being homogenized, subjected to quantitative anaerobic culture, and assessed for bacterial growth, and a second fragment frozen for additional analyses. Colonies were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and P. acnes phylotyping was conducted by multiplex PCR. For a sub-set of specimens, bacteria localization within the disc was assessed by microscopy using confocal laser scanning and FISH. Results Bacteria were cultured from 162 discs (44%), including 119 cases (32.3%) with P. acnes. In 89 cases, P. acnes was cultured exclusively; in 30 cases, it was isolated in combination with other bacteria (primarily coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp.) Among positive specimens, the median P. acnes bacterial burden was 350 CFU/g (12 - ~20,000 CFU/g). Thirty-eight P. acnes isolates were subjected to molecular sub-typing, identifying 4 of 6 defined phylogroups: IA1, IB, IC, and II. Eight culture-positive specimens were evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and revealed P. acnes in situ. Notably, these bacteria demonstrated a biofilm distribution within the disc matrix. P. acnes bacteria were more prevalent in males than females (39% vs. 23%, p = 0.0013). Conclusions This study confirms that P. acnes is prevalent in herniated disc tissue. Moreover, it

  11. Propionibacterium acnes-associated neurosarcoidosis: A case report with review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Eishi, Yoshinobu; Raza, Anwar; Rojas, Heather; Achiriloaie, Adina; De Los Reyes, Kenneth; Raghavan, Ravi

    2017-08-30

    A 56-year-old woman with a 3-year history of hydrocephalus and ventriculo-peritoneal shunt placement, presented with worsening altered level of consciousness for 2 days. Imaging studies showed severe ventriculomegaly involving the lateral and third ventricles with multiple septated cysts noted in the lateral ventricles predominantly near the frontal horns. Histopathologic examination of the excised brain lesion revealed choroid plexus tissue and adjacent cerebral parenchyma with several non-caseating granulomas. Granulomatous inflammation was also identified in mediastinal lymph nodes. By using specific monoclonal antibodies, Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) were detected in non-caseating granulomas of both the brain and mediastinal lymph nodes. No acid-fast bacilli or fungal elements were present. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of P. acnes in sarcoid granulomas of cerebral tissue, and it reinforces the possible link between P. acnes and sarcoidosis. © 2017 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  12. Accumulation of porphyrins in Propionibacterium acnes by 5-aminolevulinic acid and its esters.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Arisa; Hasunuma, Yuya; Kikuchi, Emii; Ishii, Takuya; Ishizuka, Masahiro; Tokuoka, Yoshikazu

    2017-09-01

    We have investigated the accumulation of porphyrins in Propionibacterium acnes (P.acnes) by 5-aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride (ALA) and its esters, ALA methyl ester hydrochloride (mALA), ALA octyl ester hydrochloride (oALA), and ALA benzyl ester hydrochloride (bALA). From the fluorescence spectra of porphyrins accumulated in P.acnes, the order of porphyrin accumulation is as follows: ALA≫mALA≈bALA>oALA (≈0). Moreover, the PDT efficacy is reduced in the order of ALA>mALA≈bALA>oALA (≈without additives). These results confirm that ALA is superior to ALA esters in accumulating porphyrins in P.acnes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A novel enzyme with antioxidant capacity produced by the ubiquitous skin colonizer Propionibacterium acnes

    PubMed Central

    Allhorn, Maria; Arve, Sabine; Brüggemann, Holger; Lood, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    The role of the skin microbiota in human health is poorly understood. Here, we identified and characterized a novel antioxidant enzyme produced by the skin microbiota, designated RoxP for radical oxygenase of Propionibacterium acnes. RoxP is uniquely produced by the predominant skin bacterium P. acnes, with no homologs in other bacteria; it is highly expressed and strongly secreted into culture supernatants. We show that RoxP binds heme, reduces free radicals, and can protect molecules from oxidation. Strikingly, RoxP is crucial for the survival of P. acnes in oxic conditions and for skin colonization of P. acnes ex vivo. Taken together, our study strongly suggests that RoxP facilitates P. acnes’ survival on human skin, and is an important beneficial factor for the host-commensal interaction. Thus, RoxP is the first described skin microbiota-derived mutualistic factor that potentially can be exploited for human skin protection. PMID:27805044

  14. Propionibacterium Acnes Brain Abscess in an Immunocompetent Man in the Absence of Prior Neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Odunukan, Olufunso W; Masannat, Fares; Baka, J Jeff

    2016-02-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a rare, but established, cause of intracranial abscesses. We describe a case of P. acnes brain abscess in an immunocompetent man without prior neurosurgery. A 49-year old man with mild psoriasis presented with a two-week history of gait changes, generalized weakness and a two-day history of headaches, aphasia and confusion. Imaging revealed a left thalamic mass and surgical biopsy suggested a pyogenic abscess. Cultures of biopsy samples of the abscess grew P. acnes alone. MRI and serial neurological exam showed marked clinical improvement with intravenous antibiotics. The significant reduction in the abscess was sustained on MRI obtained at six weeks after completion of antibiotic therapy. In conclusion, P. acnes must be considered as a differential diagnosis in individuals presenting with features suggestive of a brain abscess even in the absence of immunosuppression or previous neurosurgery.

  15. Pentobra: A potent antibiotic with multiple layers of selective antimicrobial mechanisms against Propionibacterium acnes

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Nathan W.; Agak, George W.; Deshayes, Stephanie; Yu, Yang; Blacker, Alyssa; Champer, Jackson; Xian, Wujing; Kasko, Andrea M.; Kim, Jenny; Wong, Gerard C. L.

    2015-01-01

    Although antibiotics are a common treatment for acne, the difficulties inherent to effective antimicrobial penetration in sebum and selective antimicrobial action in skin are compounded by increasing resistance of Propionibacterium acnes clinical isolates. To address these problems, we engineered Pentobra, a peptide-aminoglycoside molecule which has multiple mechanisms of antibacterial action, and investigated whether it can be a potential candidate for the treatment of acne. Pentobra combines the potent ribosomal activity of aminoglycosides with the bacteria-selective membrane-permeabilizing abilities of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Pentobra demonstrated potent and selective killing of P. acnes, but not against human skin cells in vitro. In direct comparison, Pentobra demonstrated bactericidal activity and drastically outperformed free tobramycin (by 5–7 logs) against multiple P. acnes clinical strains. Moreover, EM studies showed that Pentobra had robust membrane activity, as treatment with Pentobra killed P. acnes cells and caused leakage of intracellular contents. Pentobra may also have potential anti-inflammatory effects as demonstrated by suppression of some P. acnes-induced chemokines. Importantly, the killing activity was maintained in sebaceous environments as Pentobra was bactericidal against clinical isolates in comedones extracts isolated from human donors. Our work demonstrates that equipping aminoglycosides with selective membrane activity is a viable approach for developing antibiotics against P. acnes that are effective in cutaneous environments. PMID:25668237

  16. Specific humoral immune response induced by propionibacterium acnes can prevent Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Feng; Ma, Qiuyue; Lei, Liancheng; Huang, Jing; Ji, Qun; Zhai, Ruidong; Wang, Lei; Wang, Yu; Li, Linxi; Sun, Changjiang; Feng, Xin; Han, Wenyu

    2014-03-01

    Porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, has a major impact on economics, ecology, and animal welfare in the pig-rearing industry. Propionibacterium acnes, a facultative anaerobic Gram-positive corynebacterium, exists widely in normal healthy adult animals. We have shown previously that P. acnes can prevent A. pleuropneumoniae infections in mice and pigs. To elucidate the mechanism of this effect and to identify novel A. pleuropneumoniae vaccines, the role of anti-P. acnes antibodies in preventing infection was analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence and opsonophagocytosis assays in vitro. The role of the specific humoral immune response induced by P. acnes was confirmed in a B cell depletion mouse model. The survival rates of mice challenged with A. pleuropneumoniae exhibited a highly significant positive rank correlation with the levels of anti-P. acnes antibodies. The specific antibodies induced by P. acnes had the ability to combine with A. pleuropneumoniae and increase opsonization of A. pleuropneumoniae for phagocytosis. Furthermore, analysis in the murine B cell depletion model confirmed that the humoral immune response induced by P. acnes played an important role in resistance to A. pleuropneumoniae infection. In this study, we further elucidated the reasons that P. acnes can prevent A. pleuropneumoniae infection, which provides useful evidence for the development of heterologous vaccines for the control of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia.

  17. Propionibacterium Acnes Phylogenetic Type III is Associated with Progressive Macular Hypomelanosis

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Rolf L. W.; Scholz, Christian F. P.; Jensen, Anders; Brüggemann, Holger; Lomholt, Hans B.

    2017-01-01

    Progressive macular hypomelanosis (PMH) is a skin disorder that is characterized by hypopigmented macules and usually seen in young adults. The skin microbiota, in particular the bacterium Propionibacterium acnes, is suggested to play a role. Here, we compared the P. acnes population of 24 PMH lesions from eight patients with corresponding nonlesional skin of the patients and matching control samples from eight healthy individuals using an unbiased, culture-independent next-generation sequencing approach. We also compared the P. acnes population before and after treatment with a combination of lymecycline and benzoylperoxide. We found an association of one subtype of P. acnes, type III, with PMH. This type was predominant in all PMH lesions (73.9% of reads in average) but only detected as a minor proportion in matching control samples of healthy individuals (14.2% of reads in average). Strikingly, successful PMH treatment is able to alter the composition of the P. acnes population by substantially diminishing the proportion of P. acnes type III. Our study suggests that P. acnes type III may play a role in the formation of PMH. Furthermore, it sheds light on substantial differences in the P. acnes phylotype distribution between the upper and lower back and abdomen in healthy individuals. PMID:28386469

  18. Specific Humoral Immune Response Induced by Propionibacterium acnes Can Prevent Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Feng; Ma, Qiuyue; Huang, Jing; Ji, Qun; Zhai, Ruidong; Wang, Lei; Wang, Yu; Li, Linxi; Sun, Changjiang; Feng, Xin; Han, Wenyu

    2014-01-01

    Porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, has a major impact on economics, ecology, and animal welfare in the pig-rearing industry. Propionibacterium acnes, a facultative anaerobic Gram-positive corynebacterium, exists widely in normal healthy adult animals. We have shown previously that P. acnes can prevent A. pleuropneumoniae infections in mice and pigs. To elucidate the mechanism of this effect and to identify novel A. pleuropneumoniae vaccines, the role of anti-P. acnes antibodies in preventing infection was analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence and opsonophagocytosis assays in vitro. The role of the specific humoral immune response induced by P. acnes was confirmed in a B cell depletion mouse model. The survival rates of mice challenged with A. pleuropneumoniae exhibited a highly significant positive rank correlation with the levels of anti-P. acnes antibodies. The specific antibodies induced by P. acnes had the ability to combine with A. pleuropneumoniae and increase opsonization of A. pleuropneumoniae for phagocytosis. Furthermore, analysis in the murine B cell depletion model confirmed that the humoral immune response induced by P. acnes played an important role in resistance to A. pleuropneumoniae infection. In this study, we further elucidated the reasons that P. acnes can prevent A. pleuropneumoniae infection, which provides useful evidence for the development of heterologous vaccines for the control of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia. PMID:24429068

  19. Propionibacterium Acnes Phylogenetic Type III is Associated with Progressive Macular Hypomelanosis.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Rolf L W; Scholz, Christian F P; Jensen, Anders; Brüggemann, Holger; Lomholt, Hans B

    2017-03-01

    Progressive macular hypomelanosis (PMH) is a skin disorder that is characterized by hypopigmented macules and usually seen in young adults. The skin microbiota, in particular the bacterium Propionibacterium acnes, is suggested to play a role. Here, we compared the P. acnes population of 24 PMH lesions from eight patients with corresponding nonlesional skin of the patients and matching control samples from eight healthy individuals using an unbiased, culture-independent next-generation sequencing approach. We also compared the P. acnes population before and after treatment with a combination of lymecycline and benzoylperoxide. We found an association of one subtype of P. acnes, type III, with PMH. This type was predominant in all PMH lesions (73.9% of reads in average) but only detected as a minor proportion in matching control samples of healthy individuals (14.2% of reads in average). Strikingly, successful PMH treatment is able to alter the composition of the P. acnes population by substantially diminishing the proportion of P. acnes type III. Our study suggests that P. acnes type III may play a role in the formation of PMH. Furthermore, it sheds light on substantial differences in the P. acnes phylotype distribution between the upper and lower back and abdomen in healthy individuals.

  20. Delayed Propionibacterium acnes surgical site infections occur only in the presence of an implant

    PubMed Central

    Shiono, Yuta; Ishii, Ken; Nagai, Shigenori; Kakinuma, Hiroaki; Sasaki, Aya; Funao, Haruki; Kuramoto, Tetsuya; Yoshioka, Kenji; Ishihama, Hiroko; Isogai, Norihiro; Takeshima, Kenichiro; Tsuji, Takashi; Okada, Yasunori; Koyasu, Shigeo; Nakamura, Masaya; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Aizawa, Mamoru; Matsumoto, Morio

    2016-01-01

    Whether Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) causes surgical-site infections (SSI) after orthopedic surgery is controversial. We previously reported that we frequently find P. acnes in intraoperative specimens, yet none of the patients have clinically apparent infections. Here, we tracked P. acnes for 6 months in a mouse osteomyelitis model. We inoculated P. acnes with an implant into the mouse femur in the implant group; the control group was treated with the bacteria but no implant. We then observed over a 6-month period using optical imaging system. During the first 2 weeks, bacterial signals were detected in the femur in the both groups. The bacterial signal completely disappeared in the control group within 28 days. Interestingly, in the implant group, bacterial signals were still present 6 months after inoculation. Histological and scanning electron-microscope analyses confirmed that P. acnes was absent from the control group 6 months after inoculation, but in the implant group, the bacteria had survived in a biofilm around the implant. PCR analysis also identified P. acnes in the purulent effusion from the infected femurs in the implant group. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that P. acnes causes SSI only in the presence of an implant. PMID:27615686

  1. Regional variations in density of cutaneous propionibacteria: correlation of Propionibacterium acnes populations with sebaceous secretion.

    PubMed Central

    McGinley, K J; Webster, G F; Ruggieri, M R; Leyden, J J

    1980-01-01

    Cutaneous Propionibacterium acnes populations were quantitatively measured in 33 young adults and compared with the rate and composition of sebum secretion in nine skin regions. Bacteriological and lipid analyses were performed on the forehead, cheek, anterior chest, abdomen, lower back, volar forearm, upper inner arm, thigh, and calf. P. acnes populations in these sites correlated significantly with the total amount of lipid produced (r = 0.77) as well as with di- and triglycerides (r = 0.68), squalene and wax esters (r = 0.72), cholesterol and cholesterol esters (r = 0.67), and free fatty acids (r = 0.67). PMID:7276142

  2. Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes of Propionibacterium acnes Prosthetic Shoulder Infections in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Piggott, Damani A.; Higgins, Yvonne M.; Melia, Michael T.; Ellis, Brandon; Carroll, Karen C.; McFarland, Edward G.; Auwaerter, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) significantly complicate joint arthroplasties. Propionibacterium acnes is an increasingly recognized PJI pathogen, yet limited clinical and therapeutic data exist. We sought to examine characteristics of P. acnes shoulder PJIs and compare surgical and nonsurgical management outcomes. Methods. A retrospective analysis of P. acnes shoulder PJIs was conducted at an academic center in Baltimore, Maryland from 2000 to 2013. Results. Of 24 cases of P. acnes shoulder PJIs, 92% were diagnosed after extended culture implementation; 42% in the delayed and 46% in the late postsurgical period. Joint pain and diminished function were the predominant presenting clinical signs. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein elevations occurred in 47% and 44%, respectively. All tested isolates were susceptible to β-lactams, moxifloxacin, vancomycin, and rifampin. Clindamycin resistance was identified in 6%. Of the antibiotic-only treated cases, 67% had a favorable clinical outcome compared with 71% (P = 1.0) of cases with a combined antibiotic-surgical approach. Favorable outcome with and without rifampin therapy was 73% and 60% (P = .61), respectively. Conclusions. Propionibacterium acnes PJI diagnoses increased with extended culture. Inflammatory markers were elevated in a minority of cases. Isolates maintained broad antimicrobial susceptibility. Compared to combined antibiotic-surgical approaches, antibiotic-only approaches were similarly successful in selected cases. PMID:26933665

  3. Formulation of antiacne serum based on lime peel essential oil and in vitro antibacterial activity test against Propionibacterium acnes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitri, Noor; Fatimah, Ifat; Chabib, Lutfi; Fajarwati, Febi Indah

    2017-03-01

    Propionibacterium acnes are a normal bacterium in human skin but it can become primary pathogens that can cause inflammation on the skin. Research about new antibacterial compounds is important because resistance of bacteria acne to antibiotics. Some of Essential oils have antibacterial properties. Lime peel essential oil and patchouli essential oil have some terpenoids that act as antibacterial compounds such as Linalool and Seychellene. The purpose of this research was to formulate anti acne serum based on lime peel essential oil and patchouli oil and to determine the zone of inhibition against of Propionibacterium acnes. This study made 21 variations of formulation of anti acne serum, consisted of lime peel essential oil, patchouli oil and olive oil. Anti acne serum was evaluated i.e. in vitro antibacterial activity test against Propionibacterium acnes for 5 days, organoleptic, stability test, pH test, viscosity test and GC-MS analysis. Nine serum formulations had been selected, which based on their most favorite order. Those favorite serums had antibacterial inhibitory against Propionibacterium acnes between 20.80 - 26.12 mm, whereas control positive only 12.47 mm and control negative 5.78 mm. The most favorite serum with the best antibacterial activity was serum formula A. The composition of serum A consist of lime peel essential oil: patchouli oil: olive oil (11:1:18).

  4. Propionibacterium acnes: Time-to-Positivity in Standard Bacterial Culture From Different Anatomical Sites

    PubMed Central

    Abdulmassih, Rasha; Makadia, Jina; Como, James; Paulson, Michelle; Min, Zaw; Bhanot, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    Background Propionibacterium acnes infections are likely under-recognized and underreported. This is partly because of low clinical suspicion, perceived non-pathogenicity, or lack of adequate culture incubation time. We conducted a study to assess the optimal incubation period to recover P. acnes from specimens acquired during the workup of suspected clinical infections. Methods A 5-year retrospective chart review was conducted between January 2010 and December 2014 at a single tertiary-care hospital. All patient cases from which P. acnes was recovered were included for analysis. Source of infection, antibiotic use, and culture time-to-positivity (TTP) were recorded. Results Implanted devices comprised the single most common source of P. acnes infection. In the majority of cases, P. acnes was the only organism identified. The mean incubation TTP for all isolates was 5.73 days. Conclusions Standard 5-day culture incubation periods are insufficient to recover P. acnes. As a result, P. acnes is likely a much more common etiology of a variety of clinical infections than previously reported. PMID:27829959

  5. Inhibitory effect of chlorophyllin on the Propionibacterium acnes-induced chemokine expression.

    PubMed

    Kang, Mi-Sun; Kim, Jin-Hee; Shin, Boo-Ahn; Lee, Hyun-Chul; Kim, Youn-Shin; Lim, Hae-Soon; Oh, Jong-Suk

    2013-12-01

    Chlorophyllin (CHL), a chlorophyll-derivative, exhibits several beneficial properties, including antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. However, its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities against Propionibacterium acnes have not been described. The antibacterial activity of this compound was evaluated in vitro using the broth microdilution method. CHL had an inhibitory effect on the growth of P. acnes (MIC = 100 μM). In a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, CHL significantly decreased interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production in a dose-dependent manner, decreasing both mRNA and protein levels for these chemokines in THP-1 cells indicating the anti-inflammatory effects of it. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory properties of CHL in THP-1 cells stimulated by P. acnes, we used western blotting to analyze the effect of CHL on activation of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB. CHL inhibited P. acnes-induced IL-8 and MCP-1 production via blockade of NF-κB activation in THP-1 cells. Therefore, based on these results, we suggest that CHL is a useful agent to control the growth of P. acnes involved in acne inflammation and prevent acne.

  6. Propionibacterium acnes inhibits FOXM1 and induces cell cycle alterations in human primary prostate cells.

    PubMed

    Sayanjali, Behnam; Christensen, Gitte J M; Al-Zeer, Munir A; Mollenkopf, Hans-Joachim; Meyer, Thomas F; Brüggemann, Holger

    2016-11-01

    Propionibacterium acnes has been detected in diseased human prostate tissue, and cell culture experiments suggest that the bacterium can establish a low-grade inflammation. Here, we investigated its impact on human primary prostate epithelial cells. Microarray analysis confirmed the inflammation-inducing capability of P. acnes but also showed deregulation of genes involved in the cell cycle. qPCR experiments showed that viable P. acnes downregulates a master regulator of cell cycle progression, FOXM1. Flow cytometry experiments revealed that P. acnes increases the number of cells in S-phase. We tested the hypothesis that a P. acnes-produced berninamycin-like thiopeptide is responsible for this effect, since it is related to the FOXM1 inhibitor siomycin. The thiopeptide biosynthesis gene cluster was strongly expressed; it is present in subtype IB of P. acnes, but absent from type IA, which is most abundant on human skin. A knock-out mutant lacking the gene encoding the berninamycin-like peptide precursor was unable to downregulate FOXM1 and to halt the cell cycle. Our study reveals a novel host cell-interacting activity of P. acnes.

  7. Strain-Level Differences in Porphyrin Production and Regulation in Propionibacterium acnes Elucidate Disease Associations

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Tremylla; Kang, Dezhi; Barnard, Emma

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Propionibacterium acnes is an important skin commensal, but it is also considered a pathogenic factor in several diseases including acne vulgaris, the most common skin disease. While previous studies have revealed P. acnes strain-level differences in health and disease associations, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Recently, we demonstrated that vitamin B12 supplementation increases P. acnes production of porphyrins, a group of proinflammatory metabolites important in acne development (D. Kang, B. Shi, M. C. Erfe, N. Craft, and H. Li, Sci. Transl. Med. 7:293ra103, 2015, doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.aab2009). In this study, we compared the porphyrin production and regulation of multiple P. acnes strains. We revealed that acne-associated type IA-2 strains inherently produced significantly higher levels of porphyrins, which were further enhanced by vitamin B12 supplementation. On the other hand, health-associated type II strains produced low levels of porphyrins and did not respond to vitamin B12. Using a small-molecule substrate and inhibitor, we demonstrated that porphyrin biosynthesis was modulated at the metabolic level. We identified a repressor gene (deoR) of porphyrin biosynthesis that was carried in all health-associated type II strains, but not in acne-associated type IA-2 strains. The expression of deoR suggests additional regulation of porphyrin production at the transcriptional level in health-associated strains. Our findings provide one potential molecular mechanism for the different contributions of P. acnes strains to skin health and disease and support the role of vitamin B12 in acne pathogenesis. Our study emphasizes the importance of understanding the role of the commensal microbial community in health and disease at the strain level and suggests potential utility of health-associated P. acnes strains in acne treatment. IMPORTANCE Propionibacterium acnes is a dominant bacterium residing on skin, and it has been thought

  8. Inflammatory response of disc cells against Propionibacterium acnes depends on the presence of lumbar Modic changes.

    PubMed

    Dudli, Stefan; Miller, S; Demir-Deviren, S; Lotz, J C

    2017-09-07

    Intervertebral disc with Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is suggested to be an etiology of Modic type I changes in the adjacent bone marrow. However it is unknown if disc cells can respond to P. acnes and if bone marrow cells respond to bacterial and disc metabolites draining from infected discs. Human disc cells (n = 10) were co-cultured with 10- and 100-fold excess of P. acnes over disc cells for 3 h and 24 h. Lipopolysaccharide was used as positive control. Expression of IL1, IL6, IL8, and CCL2 by disc cells was quantified by quantitative PCR. Lipase activity was measured in culture supernatants (n = 6). Human vertebral bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMNCs) (n = 2) were cultured in conditioned media from disc cell/P. acnes co-cultures and expression of IL1, IL6, IL8, and CCL2 was measured after 24 h. All disc cells responded to lipopolysaccharide but only 6/10 responded to P. acnes with increased cytokine expression. Cytokine increase was time- but not P. acnes concentration-dependent. Disc cell responsiveness was associated with the presence of lumbar Modic changes in the donor. Lipase activity was increased independent of disc cell responsiveness. BMNCs responded with inflammatory activity only when cultured in supernatants from responsive disc cell lines. Disc cell responsiveness to P. acnes associates with the presence of lumbar Modic changes. Furthermore, bone marrow cells had an inflammatory response to the cocktail of disc cytokines and P. acnes metabolites. These data indicate that low virulent P. acnes infection of the disc is a potential exacerbating factor to Modic changes.

  9. Immunoproteomic Identification of In Vivo-Produced Propionibacterium acnes Proteins in a Rabbit Biofilm Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Achermann, Yvonne; Tran, Bao; Kang, Misun; Harro, Janette M.

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is well-known as a human skin commensal but can also act as an invasive pathogen causing implant-associated infections. In order to resolve these types of P. acnes infections, the implants must be removed, due to the presence of an established biofilm that is recalcitrant to antibiotic therapy. In order to identify those P. acnes proteins produced in vivo during a biofilm infection, we established a rabbit model of implant-associated infection with this pathogen. P. acnes biofilms were anaerobically grown on dextran beads that were then inoculated into the left tibias of rabbits. At 4 weeks postinoculation, P. acnes infection was confirmed by radiograph, histology, culture, and PCR. In vivo-produced and immunogenic P. acnes proteins were detected on Western blot using serum samples from rabbits infected with P. acnes after these bacterial proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Those proteins that bound host antibodies were then isolated and identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Radiographs and histology demonstrated a disruption in the normal bone architecture and adherent biofilm communities in those animals with confirmed infections. A total of 24 immunogenic proteins were identified; 13 of these proteins were upregulated in both planktonic and biofilm modes, including an ABC transporter protein. We successfully adapted a rabbit model of implant-associated infection for P. acnes to identify P. acnes proteins produced during a chronic biofilm-mediated infection. Further studies are needed to evaluate the potential of these proteins for either a diagnostic test or a vaccine to prevent biofilm infections caused by P. acnes. PMID:25694647

  10. Septic nonunions of lower limb long bones: don't neglect Propionibacterium acnes!

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Christophe; Dupond, Marc; Brisou, Patrick; Gaillard, Tiphaine

    2013-12-01

    We report 3 clinical cases of septic nonunions of lower limb long bones in which the pathogenicity of Propionibacterium acnes was retained after several weeks of poor outcome. The patients had fractures that were treated by internal fixation, without initially suspected infection. The diagnosis of delayed union coincided with the onset of treatment. Support was performed in 2 steps, allowing for the collection of several deep samples that were referred for microbiological analysis. Molecular techniques for microbiological investigation were performed on perioperative samples and were not contributive. The detection of P acnes, which was identified after several days of incubation, prompted us to consider the role of this bacterium. The presence of P acnes is regularly interpreted as contamination of samples during collection or handling in the laboratory. A multidisciplinary decision to make the diagnosis of surgical site infection with P acnes and specific antibiotic treatment for several months led to consolidation in all the patients. The ability of bacteria of the genus Propionibacterium to cause insidious surgical site infections should not be underestimated, and more extensive sample incubation is essential to diagnose such infections.

  11. Different pro-inflammatory and immunogenic potentials of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis: implications for chronic inflammatory acne.

    PubMed

    Białecka, Anna; Mak, Monika; Biedroń, Rafał; Bobek, Małgorzata; Kasprowicz, Andrzej; Marcinkiewicz, Janusz

    2005-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (PA) and Staphyloccocus epidermidis (SE) are two major bacterial strains isolated from acne lesions. Nevertheless, only PA seems to be implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory acne vulgaris. Evidence for this, however, remains indirect and the precise role of PA in inflammatory acne is still a matter for conjecture. The aim of this study was to compare some pro-inflammatory and adjuvant properties of PA and SE. To determine some of the pathogenic, immunostimulatory, and pro-inflammatory proper of PA and SE, two experimental models of inflammation were used. In vivo; chronic inflammation was induced by intradermal injection of living bacteria into the ear. In vitro; peritoneal macrophages elicited by the bacteria were examined for their ability to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and cytokines. PA, but not SE, evoked mild local inflammation of infected ears. Macrophages elicited with PA produced more tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin IL-12 than those induced with SE, while SE was a stronger inducer of IL-10 production. Both bacteria equally induced the generation of NO and ROS. In contrast, only PA showed adjuvant proper-ties. The results of these studies indicate that SE, in contrast to PA, does not exert pro-inflammatory properties. Thus it is unlikely that SE may be implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory acne vulgaris.

  12. Chronic prostatic infection and inflammation by Propionibacterium acnes in a rat prostate infection model.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Jan; Drott, Johanna Bergh; Laurantzon, Lovisa; Laurantzon, Oscar; Bergh, Anders; Elgh, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inflammation in the prostate, seen as infiltration of inflammatory cells into the prostate gland in histological samples, affects approximately half the male population without indication of prostate disease, and is almost ubiquitous in patients diagnosed with benign prostate hyperplasia and cancer. Several studies have demonstrated the gram-positive bacterium Propionibacterium acnes to be frequently present in prostate tissue from men suffering from prostate disease. P. acnes has been shown to be associated with histological inflammation in human prostatectomy specimens, and also to induce strong inflammatory response in prostate-derived tissue culture models. The present paper describes a rat model for assessment of the pathogenic potential of P. acnes in prostate. Prostate glands of Sprague Dawley rats (n = 98) were exposed via an abdominal incision and live P. acnes or, in control rats, saline were injected into the ventral and dorso-lateral lobes. Rats were sacrificed 5 days, 3 weeks, 3 months and 6 months post infection, and prostate tissue was analyzed for bacterial content and histological inflammation. Rat sera were assessed for levels of CRP and anti-P. acnes IgG. Live P. acnes could be recovered from the dorso-lateral lobes up to 3 months post infection, while the ventral lobes were cleared from bacteria at that time. In samples up to 3 months post infection, the dorso-lateral lobes exhibited intense focal inflammation. CRP and IgG levels were elevated throughout the span of the experiment, and reached maximum levels 3 weeks and 3 months post infection, respectively. We show that P. acnes have the potential to cause chronic infection in previously healthy prostate, and that the infection has potential to cause chronic histological inflammation in the infected tissue. The high prevalence of P. acnes in human prostate tissue calls for resolution of pathogenic details. The present rat model suggests that complications such as chronic

  13. Isolation of Propionibacterium acnes among the microbiota of primary endodontic infections with and without intraoral communication.

    PubMed

    Niazi, Sadia Ambreen; Al Kharusi, Hana Suleiman; Patel, Shanon; Bruce, Kenneth; Beighton, David; Foschi, Federico; Mannocci, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    The presence of opportunistic pathogens such as Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) may contribute to the endodontic pathology. The presence of P. acnes may be influenced by different endodontic conditions. The aims of the study were firstly, to identify P. acnes within the whole cultivable microbiota of primary endodontic infections, to investigate which P. acnes phylotypes predominate in such infections and secondly to determine if the presence of an "open" communication (e.g. a sinus) can be associated with the isolation of P. acnes from the root canal. The predominant cultivable microbiota of 15 primary endodontic lesions (7 without communication with the oral environment and 8 with an open communication) were identified using partial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequence analysis. The identification of the organism was determined by interrogating the Human Oral Microbiome Database. The P. acnes isolates were typed on the basis of the recA gene sequence comparison. A neighbor-joining tree was constructed using MEGA 4.1 with the inclusion of known recA sequences. There was no difference in the number of species identified from lesions without communication (5.86 ± 3.7) and those with communication (5.37 ± 3.6) (P > 0.05). PCR-based 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed P. acnes as the most prevalent isolate recovered from lesions with communication. recA gene sequencing revealed two phylogenetic lineages present in lesion with communication, with mainly type I (further split into type IA and type IB) and type II. The presence of P. acnes as opportunistic pathogens has been confirmed and may sustain the traits observed in specific clinical presentations. Clinical management of open lesions may require further disinfection to eliminate opportunistic bacteria.

  14. Nanocolloidal carriers of isotretinoin: antimicrobial activity against Propionibacterium acnes and dermatokinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Raza, Kaisar; Singh, Bhupinder; Singla, Saloni; Wadhwa, Sheetu; Garg, Babita; Chhibber, Sanjay; Katare, Om Prakash

    2013-05-06

    Acne, a common skin disease in teenagers, is caused by Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes). Isotretinoin (ITR) is though reported to have immense antiacne potential, yet there are hardly any reports vouching its antimicrobial activity. The present study, therefore, was undertaken to study the antimicrobial activity of ITR and evaluate the effect of its encasement in nanocarriers on its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The nanocarriers were also evaluated for the skin transport characteristics. MICs of pure drug and entrapped drug in nanolipid carriers (ITR-NLCs) and in solid lipid nanoparticles (ITR-SLNs) were determined by broth dilution method against clindamycin phosphate as the reference antibiotic. It was observed that ITR possessed marked antimicrobial activity against anaerobic pathogen, P. acnes. Nanocarriers loaded with ITR, that is, SLNs and NLCs, enhanced the antimicrobial activity even at lower concentrations vis-à-vis the drug alone and improved drug transport potential vis-à-vis the commercial gel. The unique findings could be the result of effective adhesion of ITR-loaded nanocarriers to the bacterial membranes and release of drug directly to the target. Besides establishing ITR as an antimicrobial agent against acne-causing bacteria, the current work ratifies immense potential of nanocolloidal carriers like SLNs and NLCs to treat acne in a more efficient manner.

  15. A Polycation Antimicrobial Peptide Mimic without Resistance Buildup against Propionibacterium Acnes.

    PubMed

    Nair, Sithara S; Zolotarskaya, Olga Y; Beckwith, Matthew J; Ohman, Dennis E; Wynne, Kenneth J

    2017-09-01

    A preliminary study is reported for a polycation antimicrobial peptide (AMP) mimic against Propionibacterium acnes, which is associated with acne vulgaris, a common skin condition. Antibiotics are commonly used against P. acnes but buildup of resistance is well-known. Worse, antibiotic regimens build up resistance for more sensitive bacteria such as Staphylococcus epidermidis. The polycation AMP mimic C12-50, 1, is chosen for the present study as it has been previously shown to have high antimicrobial effectiveness. This study reports that C12-50 is active against P. acnes (strain ATCC 6919) with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 6.3 µg mL(-1) . To monitor resistance build-up ten passages are conducted with C12-50 against P. acnes. The MIC remains constant with no resistance buildup. Parallel studies with erythromycin confirm previously reported resistance buildup. The results point to a promising pathway to applications for polycation AMP mimics against P. acnes. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Glycolic acid chemical peeling improves inflammatory acne eruptions through its inhibitory and bactericidal effects on Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Yuko; Hayashi, Nobukazu; Takeda, Mikiko; Ashikaga, Sayaka; Kawashima, Makoto

    2012-04-01

    Glycolic acid chemical peeling is effective for treating comedones, and some clinical data show that it also improves inflammatory eruptions. The purpose of this study was to identify the mechanism of glycolic acid chemical peeling to improve inflammatory acne. To assess growth inhibitory and bactericidal effects of glycolic acid on Propionibacterium acnes in vitro, we used an agar diffusion method and a time-kill method. To reveal bactericidal effects in vivo, we established an agar-attached method which correlated well with the ordinary swab-wash method, and we used the agar-attached method to compare the numbers of propionibacteria on the cheek treated with glycolic acid chemical peeling. Our results show that 30% glycolic acid (at pH 1.5, 3.5 and 5.5) formed growth inhibitory circles in the agar diffusion method, but the diameters of those circles were smaller than with 1% nadifloxacin lotion or 1% clindamycin gel. In the time-kill method, 30% glycolic acid (at pH 1.5 and 3.5) or 1% nadifloxacin lotion reduced the number of P. acnes to less than 100 CFU/mL within 5 min. In contrast, in 30% glycolic acid (at pH 5.5) or in 1% clindamycin gel, P. acnes survived for more than 4 h. Chemical peeling with 35% glycolic acid (at pH 1.2) decreased the number of propionibacteria on the cheeks of patients compared with untreated controls (P < 0.01). Our results demonstrate that glycolic acid has moderate growth inhibitory and bactericidal effects on P. acnes, and that chemical peeling with glycolic acid works on inflammatory acne via those effects.

  17. Propionibacterium acnes: from Commensal to Opportunistic Biofilm-Associated Implant Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Achermann, Yvonne; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Coenye, Tom

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Propionibacterium acnes is known primarily as a skin commensal. However, it can present as an opportunistic pathogen via bacterial seeding to cause invasive infections such as implant-associated infections. These infections have gained more attention due to improved diagnostic procedures, such as sonication of explanted foreign materials and prolonged cultivation time of up to 14 days for periprosthetic biopsy specimens, and improved molecular methods, such as broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR. Implantassociated infections caused by P. acnes are most often described for shoulder prosthetic joint infections as well as cerebrovascular shunt infections, fibrosis of breast implants, and infections of cardiovascular devices. P. acnes causes disease through a number of virulence factors, such as biofilm formation. P. acnes is highly susceptible to a wide range of antibiotics, including beta-lactams, quinolones, clindamycin, and rifampin, although resistance to clindamycin is increasing. Treatment requires a combination of surgery and a prolonged antibiotic treatment regimen to successfully eliminate the remaining bacteria. Most authors suggest a course of 3 to 6 months of antibiotic treatment, including 2 to 6 weeks of intravenous treatment with a beta-lactam. While recently reported data showed a good efficacy of rifampin against P. acnes biofilms, prospective, randomized, controlled studies are needed to confirm evidence for combination treatment with rifampin, as has been performed for staphylococcal implant-associated infections. PMID:24982315

  18. Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus lugdunensis cause pyogenic osteomyelitis in an intramedullary nail model in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Gahukamble, Abhay Deodas; McDowell, Andrew; Post, Virginia; Salavarrieta Varela, Julian; Rochford, Edward Thomas James; Richards, Robert Geoff; Patrick, Sheila; Moriarty, Thomas Fintan

    2014-05-01

    Propionibacterium acnes and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are opportunistic pathogens implicated in prosthetic joint and fracture fixation device-related infections. The purpose of this study was to determine whether P. acnes and the CoNS species Staphylococcus lugdunensis, isolated from an "aseptically failed" prosthetic hip joint and a united intramedullary nail-fixed tibial fracture, respectively, could cause osteomyelitis in an established implant-related osteomyelitis model in rabbits in the absence of wear debris from the implant material. The histological features of P. acnes infection in the in vivo rabbit model were consistent with localized pyogenic osteomyelitis, and a biofilm was present on all explanted intramedullary (IM) nails. The animals displayed no outward signs of infection, such as swelling, lameness, weight loss, or elevated white blood cell count. In contrast, infection with S. lugdunensis resulted in histological features consistent with both pyogenic osteomyelitis and septic arthritis, and all S. lugdunensis-infected animals displayed weight loss and an elevated white blood cell count despite biofilm detection in only two out of six rabbits. The differences in the histological and bacteriological profiles of the two species in this rabbit model of infection are reflective of their different clinical presentations: low-grade infection in the case of P. acnes and acute infection for S. lugdunensis. These results are especially important in light of the growing recognition of chronic P. acnes biofilm infections in prosthetic joint failure and nonunion of fracture fixations, which may be currently reported as "aseptic" failure.

  19. Propionibacterium acnes: from commensal to opportunistic biofilm-associated implant pathogen.

    PubMed

    Achermann, Yvonne; Goldstein, Ellie J C; Coenye, Tom; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2014-07-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is known primarily as a skin commensal. However, it can present as an opportunistic pathogen via bacterial seeding to cause invasive infections such as implant-associated infections. These infections have gained more attention due to improved diagnostic procedures, such as sonication of explanted foreign materials and prolonged cultivation time of up to 14 days for periprosthetic biopsy specimens, and improved molecular methods, such as broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR. Implant-associated infections caused by P. acnes are most often described for shoulder prosthetic joint infections as well as cerebrovascular shunt infections, fibrosis of breast implants, and infections of cardiovascular devices. P. acnes causes disease through a number of virulence factors, such as biofilm formation. P. acnes is highly susceptible to a wide range of antibiotics, including beta-lactams, quinolones, clindamycin, and rifampin, although resistance to clindamycin is increasing. Treatment requires a combination of surgery and a prolonged antibiotic treatment regimen to successfully eliminate the remaining bacteria. Most authors suggest a course of 3 to 6 months of antibiotic treatment, including 2 to 6 weeks of intravenous treatment with a beta-lactam. While recently reported data showed a good efficacy of rifampin against P. acnes biofilms, prospective, randomized, controlled studies are needed to confirm evidence for combination treatment with rifampin, as has been performed for staphylococcal implant-associated infections.

  20. Activity of an Antimicrobial Hydrocephalus Shunt Catheter against Propionibacterium acnes ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Bayston, Roger; Vera, Litza; Ashraf, Waheed

    2010-01-01

    Shunt infection is a major complication affecting approximately 10% of procedures. Propionibacterium acnes, an anaerobic skin bacterium, is increasingly recognized as a shunt pathogen, causing up to 14% of infections. Though susceptible to penicillin and cephalosporins, P. acnes shunt infections are not preventable by means of perioperative prophylaxis, due to poor cerebrospinal fluid penetration. Antimicrobial shunts with activity against staphylococci are available, but their activity against P. acnes is unknown, and the study was designed to determine this. Three methods of evaluation were used in order to determine the emergence of resistance when exposure is to high inocula for long periods, the time taken to kill 100% of the bacteria attached to the shunt, and the duration of activity under constant flow conditions with repeated bacterial challenge. Despite repeated exposure to high bacterial inocula over 70 days, no resistance was seen. The time taken to kill all attached bacteria, 96 h, was twice that taken to kill attached staphylococci. Nevertheless, under constant flow conditions with repeated challenges, the antimicrobial catheters resisted colonization by P. acnes for 56 days. Using tests that were designed to be clinically predictive when done together, the results suggest that the antimicrobial catheters will be able to prevent colonization of hydrocephalus shunts by P. acnes. PMID:20837763

  1. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil from Croton oblongifolius and its Antibacterial Activity against Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Athikomkulchai, Sirivan; Tadtong, Sarin; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri; Hongratanaworakit, Tapanee

    2015-08-01

    The essential oil of C. oblongifolius Roxb. stem bark was obtained by hydrodistillation. Chemical analysis by GC-MS identified 29 compounds. Terpinen-4-ol (17.8%) was a major component, together with α-guaiene (7.9%), E-caryophyllene (7.0%), myrcene (6.7%), (+)-cyclosativene (5.1%), sabinene (4.8%), aciphyllene (4.7%), pogostol (4.6%), gamma-terpinene (3.4%), α-muurolol (3.2%) and germecrene D (3.2%). The essential oil exhibited antibacterial activity against Propionibacterium acnes ATCC 6919 with an MIC of 0.125%, v/v.

  2. Yashada bhasma (Zinc calx) and Tankana (Borax) inhibit Propionibacterium acne and suppresses acne induced inflammation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sandeep Varma, R; Shamsia, S; Thiyagarajan, O S; Vidyashankar, S; Patki, P S

    2014-08-01

    Yashada bhasma (YB) and Tankana (TA) are well characterized minerals used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various skin ailments. Yashada bhasma and TA are a unique preparation of zinc and borax, respectively. The study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory effect of YB, TA and its combination (YBTA) on Propionibacterium acne growth and P. acne-induced inflammation. The minerals were tested for anti-P. acne activity by disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The effect of these minerals on P. acne induced TNF-α and IL-8 production and gene expression were studied in THP-1 cells. In vitro toxicity was tested on human keratinocytes (HaCaT) and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (NIH3T3) using MTT assay. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC values) for YB, TA and YBTA against P. acne were 0.1 ± 0.2, 1.9 ± 0.5 and 0.3 ± 0.5 mg mL(-1) , respectively. YB, TA and YBTA inhibited TNFα by 57.57%, 59.09% and 68.93% and IL-8 production by 48.76%, 47.92% and 51.13% in P. acne-stimulated THP-1 cells, respectively. The CTC50 values on HaCaT and NIH3T3 was 17.44 ± 0.5 and 16.37 ± 0.2 μg mL(-1) for YB, 1023.03 ± 4.0 and 1286.17 ± 4.4 μg mL(-1) for TA and 89.12 ± 2.3 and 111.58 ± 3.5 μg mL(-1) for YBTA, respectively. The present study revealed the inhibitory effect of YB, TA and YBTA on P. acne growth and inflammation. Clinical studies have suggested the anti-acne benefits of formulations containing YB and TA. The findings obtained from the present in vitro studies provide evidence to support the mechanism of anti-acne properties of YB and TA. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  3. [A comparison of biochemical and genetic classification of propionibacterium acnes strains isolated from skin lesions of patients with acne].

    PubMed

    Kasprowicz, Andrzej; Owczarek, Magdalena M; Miedzobrodzki, Jacek; Białecka, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is dominating group of resident bacteria in skin biocenosis. These bacteria participate in autosterilisation of skin with the process of decomposition of triglycerides into free fatty acids and by keeping the pH of skin on the level 5.5. When the process goes out of control the excess of fatty acids in sebaceous glands leads to necrosis and inflammation. Apart of the presence on the skin P acnes also are present in mucous membranes of intestinal tract, eyes, internal ears channels, and in upper respiratory tracts. Traditionally they are regarded as anaerobes, but they tolerate oxygen atmosphere and are resistant to phagocytosis, surviving even in macrophages. These bacteria produce a number of enzymes and proinflammatory factors activating monocytes, stimulating mitogenic activity of lymphocytes T. According to common opinion they are responsible for disease acne vulgaris, but there are also researchers claiming their low pathogenicity. The list of the P acnes related diseases is not short, some of these diseases may be facilitated by predisposing factors as surgery interventions, diagnostic, or cosmetic procedures. The aim of the study was to compare standard biochemical analysis of P acnes strains to genotypic typing basing on the results from MP-PCR analyses. Relations of hemolysis activity to biochemical types or genetic types were also analysed. The analysis of 66 P acnes strains isolated from skin lesions of patients with acne vulgaris was performed. A collection of the strains was analysed biochemically according to Pulverer, Sourek and Hoffler method modified by Kasprowicz, and typed genetically by MP-PCR method. Relations of biochemical and genetic types to beta-hemolysis of strains were studied. Dominating biochemical type was type number I grouping 79% of all isolates, and dominant genotype was A which was detected in 75% of all collected strains. Beta-hemolysis was a feature present in 34% of strains, more frequently in type I

  4. Cloning and sequencing of the hyaluronate lyase gene from Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Steiner, B; Romero-Steiner, S; Cruce, D; George, R

    1997-04-01

    The hyaluronate lyase (hyaluronidase) gene from Propionibacterium acnes was cloned and sequenced. The gene was isolated on an EcoRI-generated 3-kb piece of DNA. Expression was less in Escherichia coli than in P. acnes; in E. coli, active enzyme was only cell associated and not secreted. The gene is 2256-pb long and codes for a protein of 82 kDa. Amino terminal sequencing of the protein of the partially purified gene indicated the presence of a 32-amino-acid leader sequence. The leader sequence showed a membrane-spanning domain and all of the features usually associated with the leader for a secreted protein. The amino acid sequence is predicted to share homology with the hyaluronidase enzymes from Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Staphylococcus aureus. A potential hyaluronate-binding domain was identified and antibody against this domain was inhibitory to the enzyme.

  5. A peptide with a ProGln C terminus in the human saliva peptidome exerts bactericidal activity against Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Ming; Torpey, Justin W; Liu, Yu-Tseung; Chen, Yun-Ru; Williams, Katherine E; Komives, Elizabeth A; Gallo, Richard L

    2008-05-01

    Nine proline-rich peptides ending with a proline-glutamine C terminus in a salivary peptidome were sequenced by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight time of flight tandem mass spectrometry. A GPPPQGGRPQ peptide binds gram-positive Propionibacterium acnes and considerably inhibits bacterial growth. The peptide exhibiting innate immunity may be applied for treatment of various P. acnes-associated human diseases.

  6. Rhodomyrtone inhibits lipase production, biofilm formation, and disorganizes established biofilm in Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Wunnoo, Suttiwan; Saising, Jongkon; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan

    2017-02-01

    Virulence enzymes and biofilm a play crucial role in the pathogenesis of Propionibacterium acnes, a major causative agent of acne vulgaris. In the present study, the effects of rhodomyrtone, a pure compound identified from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. leaves extract against enzyme production and biofilm formation production by 5 clinical isolates and a reference strain were evaluated. The degree of hydrolysis by both lipase and protease enzymes significantly decreased upon treatment with the compound at 0.125-0.25 μg/mL (p < 0.05). Lipolytic zones significantly reduced in all isolates while decrease in proteolytic activities was found only in 50% of the isolates. Rhodomyrtone at 1/16MIC and 1/8MIC caused significant reduction in biofilm formation of the clinical isolates (p < 0.05). Percentage viability of P. acnes within mature biofilm upon treated with the compound at 4MIC and 8MIC ranged between 40% and 85%. Pronounced properties of rhodomyrtone suggest a path towards developing a novel anti-acne agent.

  7. Inhibition of Propionibacterium acnes lipase by extracts of Indian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Patil, V; Bandivadekar, A; Debjani, D

    2012-06-01

    Lipases play an important role in pathogenesis of acne by hydrolysing sebum triglycerides and releasing irritating free fatty acids in the pilosebaceous follicles. Lipase is a strong chemotactic and proinflammatory antigen. Therefore, lipase has generated a high interest as a pharmacological target for antiacne drugs. The aim of this study was to identify inhibitory effects of plant extracts on the lipase activity of Propionibacterium acnes. Colorimetric microassay was used to determine lipase activity. Extracts from Terminalia chebula and Embelia ribes showed lower IC(50) value (1 μg mL(-1) ) for lipase inhibition as compared to Vitex negundo and Picrorhiza kurroa (19 and 47 μg mL(-1) , respectively). The active component responsible for lipase inhibition was isolated. This study reports for the first time the novel antilipase activity of chebulagic acid (IC(50) : 60 μmol L(-1) ) with minimum inhibitory concentration value of 12.5 μg mL(-1) against P. acnes. The inhibitory potential of plant extracts was further confirmed by plate assay. The organism was grown in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of extracts from P. kurroa, V. negundo, T. chebula, E. ribes and antibiotics such as clindamycin and tetracycline. Extract from T. chebula showed significant inhibition of lipase activity and number of P. acnes.

  8. Propionibacterium acnes-induced hepatic granuloma formation is impaired in mice lacking tetraspanin CD9.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Hiroyuki; Tachibana, Isao; Takeda, Yoshito; Saito, Yoshiyuki; Tamura, Yoshio; He, Ping; Suzuki, Mayumi; Shima, Yoshihito; Yoneda, Tsutomu; Hoshino, Shigenori; Inoue, Koji; Kijima, Takashi; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro; Kumagai, Toru; Osaki, Tadashi; Eishi, Yoshinobu; Kawase, Ichiro

    2005-08-01

    The granuloma is a host defence response to persistent pathogenic irritants. In the process of granuloma formation, the activation, migration, and fusion of macrophages occur locally, but the mechanisms involved remain elusive. Tetraspanins regulate cell migration and fusion by organizing functional molecular complexes in membrane microdomains. Here we investigated the role of tetraspanin CD9 in hepatic granuloma formation. Immunostaining of the liver of untreated wild-type mice showed that CD9 was expressed by vascular endothelial cells and perivenular hepatocytes. When intrahepatic granulomas were induced by intravenous injection of Propionibacterium acnes, hepatocyte CD9 was extensively upregulated, while inflammatory cells constituting granulomas were mostly negative for CD9. Compared with wild-type littermates, CD9-knockout mice showed dissemination of Propionibacterium acnes and reduced number and size of granulomas after the injection. Moreover, production of granuloma-inducing cytokines, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma, was delayed and chemotactic activity for macrophages was suppressed in the liver of mutant mice. These results suggest that CD9 is one of the proteins that promotes granuloma formation in the liver. Copyright 2005 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland

  9. Investigation of antibacterial activity of rosemary essential oil against Propionibacterium acnes with atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yujie; Zu, Yuangang; Chen, Liyan; Efferth, Thomas; Liang, Huili; Liu, Zhiguo; Liu, Wei

    2007-10-01

    In the present study, the antibacterial activity of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. Labiatae) essential oil against Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) was observed with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) value of rosemary essential oil against P.acnes was 0.56 mg/mL. Significant changes in morphology and size of P. acnes were observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in response to essential oil treatment. The essential oil first attached to the surface of P. acnes at low concentration, the width and height of the bacterial body became larger, whereas the length did not change considerably. With increasing concentration of the essential oil, the bacterial bodies were severely damaged. The length, width and height were all reduced, when the concentration was increased up to 64xMIC, the length, width and height were reduced by 42.56%, 92.00% and 41.58%, respectively. Furthermore, treated bacteria lost their native shape, the cell wall desquamated, and the cytoplasm leaked out of the bacterial body, finally leading to bacterial death. With the increasing time at MIC, the bacteria length was reduced at 8 h, the width and height gradually became smaller, the shape of the cell became distorted, and finally led to cell wall damage and bacterial death at 8 h. In conclusion, the AFM investigation of morphology and size of P. ACNES treated with rosemary essential oil represents a powerful technique, which can generally be applied to reveal the biological changing mechanisms of bacteria induced by antibacterial agents at the nanometer level.

  10. Benzoyl peroxide and clindamycin topical skin preparation decreases Propionibacterium acnes colonization in shoulder arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dizay, Hailey H; Lau, Diana G; Nottage, Wesley M

    2017-07-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a gram-positive anaerobe that can lead to devastating postoperative shoulder infections. The objective of this study was to investigate whether a benzoyl peroxide and clindamycin preoperative skin preparation reduces the incidence of P. acnes colonization during shoulder arthroscopy. Sixty-five shoulder arthroscopy patients were prospectively enrolled. A skin culture specimen was taken at the preoperative visit from standard arthroscopic portal sites. Topical benzoyl peroxide 5% and clindamycin 1.2% (BPO/C) gel was applied to the shoulder every night before surgery. Skin culture was repeated in the operating room before preparation with chlorhexidine gluconate. Shoulder arthroscopy proceeded, with final culture specimens obtained from within the shoulder. P. acnes skin colonization remained similar to prior studies at 47.7% (31 of 65 patients.) With >1 application, BPO/C was 78.9% (15 of 19 patients) effective in eliminating P. acnes superficial colonization. With 1 application, it was 66.7% (8 of 12 patients) effective in eliminating superficial colonization. Deep colonization was reduced to 3.1% (2 of 65 patients) compared with previous studies of 15% to 20% (P = .006). BPO/C was 100% effective at decreasing deep colonization with >1 application. P. acnes skin colonization is high at arthroscopic shoulder portals, especially in men. Despite standard skin preparation and prophylactic antibiotics, the rate of joint inoculation is much higher than the rate of infection reported in the literature. BPO/C effectively reduces P. acnes colonization in shoulder arthroscopy. It should be considered for use before shoulder procedures with a time-related trend of >1 application. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A study on the characterization of Propionibacterium acnes isolated from ocular clinical specimens

    PubMed Central

    Sowmiya, Murali; Malathi, Jambulingam; Swarnali, Sen; Priya, Jeyavel Padma; Therese, Kulandai Lily; Madhavan, Hajib N.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: There are only a few reports available on characterization of Propionibacterium acnes isolated from various ocular clinical specimens. We undertook this study to evaluate the role of P. acnes in ocular infections and biofilm production, and also do the phylogenetic analysis of the bacilli. Methods: One hundred isolates of P. acnes collected prospectively from ocular clinical specimens at a tertiary care eye hospital between January 2010 and December 2011, were studied for their association with various ocular disease conditions. The isolates were also subjected to genotyping and phylogenetic analysis, and were also tested for their ability to produce biofilms. Results: Among preoperative conjunctival swabs, P. acnes was a probably significant pathogen in one case; a possibly significant pathogen in two cases. In other clinical conditions, 13 per cent isolates were probably significant pathogens and 38 per cent as possibly significant pathogens. The analysis of 16S rRNA gene revealed four different phylogenies whereas analysis of recA gene showed two phylogenies confirming that recA gene was more reliable than 16S rRNA with less sequence variation. Results of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) had 100 per cent concordance with phylogenetic results. No association was seen between P. acnes subtypes and biofilm production. Interpretation & conclusions: RecA gene phylogenetic studies revealed two different phylogenies. RFLP technique was found to be cost-effective with high sensitivity and specificity in phylogenetic analysis. No association between P. acnes subtypes and pathogenetic ability was observed. Biofilm producing isolates showed increased antibiotic resistance compared with non-biofilm producing isolates. PMID:26609036

  12. Determination of the Mutant Prevention Concentration and the Mutant Selection Window of Topical Antimicrobial Agents against Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Nakase, Keisuke; Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Toda, Yuta; Noguchi, Norihisa

    2017-01-01

    Determination of the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) and the mutant selection window (MSW) of antimicrobial agents used to treat pathogenic bacteria is important in order to apply effective antimicrobial therapies. Here, we determined the MPCs of the major topical antimicrobial agents against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus which cause skin infections and compared their MSWs. Among the MPCs of nadifloxacin and clindamycin, the clindamycin MPC was determined to be the lowest against P. acnes. In contrast, the nadifloxacin MPC was the lowest against S. aureus. Calculations based on the minimum inhibitory concentrations and MPCs showed that clindamycin has the lowest MSW against both P. acnes and S. aureus. Nadifloxacin MSWs were 4-fold higher against P. acnes than against S. aureus. It is more likely for P. acnes to acquire resistance to fluoroquinolones than S. aureus. Therefore, topical application of clindamycin contributes very little to the emergence of resistant P. acnes and S. aureus strains.

  13. TLR-2 Recognizes Propionibacterium acnes CAMP Factor 1 from Highly Inflammatory Strains

    PubMed Central

    Ollagnier, Guillaume; Désiré, Nathalie; Sayon, Sophie; Raingeaud, Jöel; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève; Calvez, Vincent; Khammari, Amir; Batteux, Frédéric; Dréno, Brigitte; Dupin, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Background Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is an anaerobic, Gram-positive bacteria encountered in inflammatory acne lesions, particularly in the pilosebaceous follicle. P. acnes triggers a strong immune response involving keratinocytes, sebocytes and monocytes, the target cells during acne development. Lipoteicoic acid and peptidoglycan induce the inflammatory reaction, but no P. acnes surface protein interacting with Toll-like receptors has been identified. P. acnes surface proteins have been extracted by lithium stripping and shown to induce CXCL8 production by keratinocytes. Methodology and principal findings Far-western blotting identified two surface proteins, of 24.5- and 27.5-kDa in size, specifically recognized by TLR2. These proteins were characterized, by LC-MS/MS, as CAMP factor 1 devoid of its signal peptide sequence, as shown by N-terminal sequencing. Purified CAMP factor 1 induces CXCL8 production by activating the CXCL8 gene promoter, triggering the synthesis of CXCL8 mRNA. Antibodies against TLR2 significantly decreased the CXCL8 response. For the 27 P. acnes strains used in this study, CAMP1-TLR2 binding intensity was modulated and appeared to be strong in type IB and II strains, which produced large amounts of CXCL8, whereas most of the type IA1 and IA2 strains presented little or no CAMP1-TLR2 binding and low levels of CXCL8 production. The nucleotide sequence of CAMP factor displays a major polymorphism, defining two distinct genetic groups corresponding to CAMP factor 1 with 14 amino-acid changes from strains phylotyped II with moderate and high levels of CAMP1-TLR2 binding activity, and CAMP factor 1 containing 0, 1 or 2 amino-acid changes from strains phylotyped IA1, IA2, or IB presenting no, weak or moderate CAMP1-TLR2 binding. Conclusions Our findings indicate that CAMP factor 1 may contribute to P. acnes virulence, by amplifying the inflammation reaction through direct interaction with TLR2. PMID:27902761

  14. Staphylococcus epidermidis in the human skin microbiome mediates fermentation to inhibit the growth of Propionibacterium acnes: implications of probiotics in acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhan; Kuo, Sherwin; Shu, Muya; Yu, Jinghua; Huang, Stephen; Dai, Ashley; Two, Aimee; Gallo, Richard L; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates that commensal microorganisms in the human skin microbiome help fight pathogens and maintain homeostasis of the microbiome. However, it is unclear how these microorganisms maintain biological balance when one of them overgrows. The overgrowth of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a commensal skin bacterium, has been associated with the progression of acne vulgaris. Our results demonstrate that skin microorganisms can mediate fermentation of glycerol, which is naturally produced in skin, to enhance their inhibitory effects on P. acnes growth. The skin microorganisms, most of which have been identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), in the microbiome of human fingerprints can ferment glycerol and create inhibition zones to repel a colony of overgrown P. acnes. Succinic acid, one of four short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) detected in fermented media by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, effectively inhibits the growth of P. acnes in vitro and in vivo. Both intralesional injection and topical application of succinic acid to P. acnes-induced lesions markedly suppress the P. acnes-induced inflammation in mice. We demonstrate for the first time that bacterial members in the skin microbiome can undergo fermentation to rein in the overgrowth of P. acnes. The concept of bacterial interference between P. acnes and S. epidermidis via fermentation can be applied to develop probiotics against acne vulgaris and other skin diseases. In addition, it will open up an entirely new area of study for the biological function of the skin microbiome in promoting human health.

  15. Staphylococcus epidermidis in the human skin microbiome mediates fermentation to inhibit the growth of Propionibacterium acnes: Implications of probiotics in acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanhan; Kuo, Sherwin; Shu, Muya; Yu, Jinghua; Huang, Stephen; Dai, Ashley; Two, Aimee; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates that commensal microorganisms in the human skin microbiome help fight pathogens and maintain homeostasis of the microbiome. However, it is unclear how these microorganisms maintain biological balance when one of them overgrows. The overgrowth of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a commensal skin bacterium, has been associated with the progression of acne vulgaris. Our results demonstrate that skin microorganisms can mediate fermentation of glycerol, which is naturally produced in skin, to enhance their inhibitory effects on P. acnes growth. The skin microorganisms, most of which have been identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), in the microbiome of human fingerprints can ferment glycerol and create inhibition zones to repel a colony of overgrown P. acnes. Succinic acid, one of four short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) detected in fermented media by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, effectively inhibits the growth of P. acnes in vitro and in vivo. Both intralesional injection and topical application of succinic acid to P. acnes-induced lesions markedly suppress the P. acnes-induced inflammation in mice. We demonstrate for the first time that bacterial members in the skin microbiome can undergo fermentation to rein in the overgrowth of P. acnes. The concept of bacterial interference between P. acnes and S. epidermidis via fermentation can be applied to develop probiotics against acne vulgaris and other skin diseases. In addition, it will open up an entirely new area of study for the biological function of the skin microbiome in promoting human health. PMID:24265031

  16. Immune discrepancies during in vitro granuloma formation in response to Cutibacterium (formerly Propionibacterium) acnes infection.

    PubMed

    Aubin, Guillaume Ghislain; Ada Da Silva, Grâce; Eishi, Yoshinobu; Jacqueline, Cédric; Altare, Frédéric; Corvec, Stéphane; Asehnoune, Karim

    2017-08-30

    Cutibacterium (formerly Propionibacterium) acnes is involved in chronic/low-grade pathologies such as sarcoidosis or prosthetic joint infection (PJI). In these diseases, granulomatous structures are frequently observed. In this study, we induced a physiological granulomatous reaction in response to different well-characterized clinical C. acnes isolates in order to investigate the cellular process during granuloma formation. Three C. acnes isolates selected according to their origin (PJI, sarcoidosis and acne) were typed by MLST. All C. acnes isolates generated granulomatous structures in our experimental conditions. The bacterial burden was better controlled by granulomas induced by the sarcoidosis C. acnes isolate. The PJI C. acnes isolate, belonging to CC36, promoted the recruitment of CD8(+) lymphocytes inside the granuloma. In contrast, the acne and sarcoidosis C. acnes isolates, belonging to phylotypes IA1/CC18 and IA2/CC28, respectively, generated a higher number of granulomas and promoted the recruitment of CD4(+) lymphocytes inside the granuloma. Our results provide new evidence supporting the role of C. acnes in the development of sarcoidosis and new explanations concerning the mechanisms underlying PJI due to C. acnes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Interaction of Cutibacterium ( formerly Propionibacterium) acnes with bone cells: a step toward understanding bone and joint infection development

    PubMed Central

    Aubin, Guillaume Ghislain; Baud’huin, Marc; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Brion, Régis; Gouin, François; Lepelletier, Didier; Jacqueline, Cédric; Heymann, Dominique; Asehnoune, Karim; Corvec, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Cutibacterium acnes (formerly Propionibacterium acnes) is recognized as a pathogen in foreign-body infections (arthroplasty or spinal instrumentation). To date, the direct impact of C. acnes on bone cells has never been explored. The clade of 11 C. acnes clinical isolates was determined by MLST. Human osteoblasts and osteoclasts were infected by live C. acnes. The whole genome sequence of six isolates of this collection was analyzed. CC36 C. acnes strains were significantly less internalized by osteoblasts and osteoclasts than CC18 and CC28 C. acnes strains (p ≤ 0.05). The CC18 C. acnes ATCC6919 isolate could survive intracellularly for at least 96 hours. C. acnes significantly decreased the resorption ability of osteoclasts with a major impact by the CC36 strain (p ≤ 0.05). Genome analysis revealed 27 genes possibly linked to these phenotypic behaviors. We showed a direct impact of C. acnes on bone cells, providing new explanations about the development of C. acnes foreign-body infections. PMID:28218305

  18. Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus lugdunensis Cause Pyogenic Osteomyelitis in an Intramedullary Nail Model in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Gahukamble, Abhay Deodas; McDowell, Andrew; Post, Virginia; Salavarrieta Varela, Julian; Rochford, Edward Thomas James; Richards, Robert Geoff; Patrick, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are opportunistic pathogens implicated in prosthetic joint and fracture fixation device-related infections. The purpose of this study was to determine whether P. acnes and the CoNS species Staphylococcus lugdunensis, isolated from an “aseptically failed” prosthetic hip joint and a united intramedullary nail-fixed tibial fracture, respectively, could cause osteomyelitis in an established implant-related osteomyelitis model in rabbits in the absence of wear debris from the implant material. The histological features of P. acnes infection in the in vivo rabbit model were consistent with localized pyogenic osteomyelitis, and a biofilm was present on all explanted intramedullary (IM) nails. The animals displayed no outward signs of infection, such as swelling, lameness, weight loss, or elevated white blood cell count. In contrast, infection with S. lugdunensis resulted in histological features consistent with both pyogenic osteomyelitis and septic arthritis, and all S. lugdunensis-infected animals displayed weight loss and an elevated white blood cell count despite biofilm detection in only two out of six rabbits. The differences in the histological and bacteriological profiles of the two species in this rabbit model of infection are reflective of their different clinical presentations: low-grade infection in the case of P. acnes and acute infection for S. lugdunensis. These results are especially important in light of the growing recognition of chronic P. acnes biofilm infections in prosthetic joint failure and nonunion of fracture fixations, which may be currently reported as “aseptic” failure. PMID:24599975

  19. Protective effects of radix Rosa laevigata against Propionibacterium acnes and lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    He, Rong-Rong; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Yao, Nan; Wang, Min; Dai, Yi; Gao, Hao; Yu, Yang; Kurihara, Hiroshi

    2009-05-01

    We investigated the effects of an extract of Radix Rosa laevigata (R. R. laevigata) on Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver injury. The plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was significantly elevated by an intravenous injection of heat-killed P. acnes at a dose of 0.4 mg/mouse and then with LPS at 0.1 microg/mouse after 5 d. However, the elevated ALT activity was significantly reduced by the administered of R. R. laevigata (125 and 500 mg/kg/d) for 7 d before the LPS injection. In addition, the extract treatment reduced the number of liver mononuclear cells (MNCs), and malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) contents, but improved the liver oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and mitochondrial membrane potential. Moreover, the chemical profile of R. R. laevigata was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the main peaks were identified as a series of polyphenol compounds which had been confirmed as the significantly active components by their anti-oxidative and NO inhibitory effects. These results suggest that the extract of R. R. laevigata offered good efficacy for preventing liver injury.

  20. CRISPR/cas Loci of Type II Propionibacterium acnes Confer Immunity against Acquisition of Mobile Elements Present in Type I P. acnes

    PubMed Central

    Brüggemann, Holger; Lomholt, Hans B.; Tettelin, Hervé; Kilian, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a skin commensal that occasionally acts as an opportunistic pathogen. The population structure of this species shows three main lineages (I–III). While type I strains are mainly associated with sebaceous follicles of human skin and inflammatory acne, types II and III strains are more often associated with deep tissue infections. We investigated the occurrence and distribution of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) in P. acnes, assessed their immunological memory, and addressed the question if such a system could account for type-specific properties of the species. A collection of 108 clinical isolates covering all known phylotypes of P. acnes was screened for the existence of CRISPR/cas loci. We found that CRISPR loci are restricted to type II P. acnes strains. Sequence analyses of the CRISPR spacers revealed that the system confers immunity to P. acnes-specific phages and to two mobile genetic elements. These elements are found almost exclusively in type I P. acnes strains. Genome sequencing of a type I P. acnes isolate revealed that one element, 54 kb in size, encodes a putative secretion/tight adherence (TAD) system. Thus, CRISPR/cas loci in P. acnes recorded the exposure of type II strains to mobile genetic elements of type I strains. The CRISPR/cas locus is deleted in type I strains, which conceivably accounts for their ability to horizontally acquire fitness or virulence traits and might indicate that type I strains constitute a younger subpopulation of P. acnes. PMID:22479553

  1. In vitro antimicrobial activity of benzoyl peroxide against Propionibacterium acnes assessed by a novel susceptibility testing method.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kazuaki; Ikeda, Fumiaki; Kanayama, Shoji; Nakajima, Akiko; Matsumoto, Tatsumi; Ishii, Ritsuko; Umehara, Masatoshi; Gotoh, Naomasa; Hayashi, Naoki; Iyoda, Takako; Matsuzaki, Kaoru; Matsumoto, Satoru; Kawashima, Makoto

    2016-06-01

    Benzoyl peroxide (BPO), a therapeutic agent for acne vulgaris, was assessed for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Propionibacterium acnes using a novel broth microdilution testing that improved BPO solubility. We searched for a suitable culture medium to measure the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of BPO against P. acnes and finally found the Gifu anaerobic medium (GAM) broth supplemented with 0.1(v/v)% glycerol and 2(v/v)% Tween 80, in which BPO dissolved up to 1250 μg/mL and P. acnes grew well. The MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of BPO against 44 clinical isolates of P. acnes collected from Japanese patients with acne vulgaris were determined by our testing method using the supplemented GAM broth. The MICs of BPO were 128 or 256 μg/mL against all isolates of P. acnes regardless of susceptibility to nadifloxacin or clindamycin. The MBCs of BPO were also 128 or 256 μg/mL against the same isolates. Moreover, BPO at the MIC showed a rapid bactericidal activity against P. acnes ATCC11827 in time-kill assay. In conclusion, we could develop a novel assay for the MIC and MBC determinations of BPO against P. acnes, which is reliable and reproducible as a broth microdilution testing and the present results suggest that BPO has a potent bactericidal activity against P. acnes.

  2. Post-operative spondylodiscitis due to Propionibacterium acnes: A case report.

    PubMed

    André, R; Sabeh, N

    2017-05-01

    Post-operative spondylodiscitis due to Propionibacterium acnes is rare, with only a few cases reported in the literature. In this article, we report the case of a 76-year-old patient who suffered from spondylodiscitis T12-L1 discovered after 1 month of pain and fever. Antibiotic treatment was administered for 6 weeks without revision surgery. Diagnosis remains incomplete, and preventive therapy against this infection is not well known. There is no link between immunosuppression and this infection. A cure has been reported in 98% of cases, but further investigation is still required for the establishment of treatment guidelines. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. Propionibacterium acnes prosthetic valve endocarditis with abscess formation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Endocarditis due to Propionibacterium acnes is a rare disease. Scant data on treatment of these infections is available and is based on case reports only. If the disease is complicated by abscess formation, surgical intervention combined with an antibiotic therapy might improve clinical outcome. In some cases, cardiac surgeons are reluctant to perform surgery, since they consider the intervention as high risk. Therefore, a conservative therapy is required, with little, if any evidence to choose the optimal antibiotic. We report the first case of a successfully treated patient with P. acnes prosthetic valve endocarditis without surgery. Case presentation We report the case of a 29-year-old patient with a prosthetic valve endocarditis and composite graft infection with abscess formation of the left ventricular outflow tract due to P. acnes. Since cardiac surgery was considered as high risk, the patient was treated intravenously with ceftriaxone 2 g qd and rifampin 600 mg bid for 7 weeks and was switched to an oral therapy with levofloxacin 500 mg bid and rifampin 600 mg bid for an additional 6 months. Two sets of blood cultures collected six weeks after completion of treatment remained negative. The patient is considered to be cured based on absence of clinical signs and symptoms, normal laboratory parameters, negative radiology scans and negative blood cultures, determined at site visits over two years after completion of treatment. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first successfully managed patient with P. acnes prosthetic valve endocarditis with abscess formation of the left ventricular outflow tract who was treated with antibiotics alone without a surgical intervention. A six month treatment with a rifampin and levofloxacin combination was chosen, based on the excellent activity against stationary-phase and adherent bacteria. PMID:24568204

  4. Propionibacterium acnes and lipopolysaccharide induce the expression of antimicrobial peptides and proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines in human sebocytes.

    PubMed

    Nagy, István; Pivarcsi, Andor; Kis, Kornélia; Koreck, Andrea; Bodai, László; McDowell, Andrew; Seltmann, Holger; Patrick, Sheila; Zouboulis, Christos C; Kemény, Lajos

    2006-07-01

    Acne is a common skin disorder of the pilosebaceous unit. In addition to genetic, hormonal and environmental factors, abnormal colonization by Propionibacterium acnes has been implicated in the occurrence of acne via the induction of inflammatory mediators. To gain more insight into the role that sebocytes play in the innate immune response of the skin, particularly in acne, we compared the antimicrobial peptide and proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine expression at mRNA and protein levels, as well as the viability and differentiation of SZ95 sebocytes in response to co-culture with representative isolates of P. acnes type IA and type IB as well as Escherichia coli-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We found that, in vitro, P. acnes type IA and IB isolates and LPS induced human beta-defensin-2 and proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine expression, and influenced sebocyte viability and differentiation. Our results provide evidence that sebocytes are capable of producing proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines and antimicrobial peptides, which may have a role in acne pathogenesis. Furthermore, since P. acnes types IA and IB differentially affect both the differentiation and viability of sebocytes, our data demonstrate that different strains of P. acnes vary in their capacity to stimulate an inflammatory response within the pilosebaceous follicle.

  5. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties of nostocionone isolated from Nostoc commune Vauch and its derivatives against Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Tomohiro; Tsuchida, Akihiro; Muramatsu, Yuji; Ninomiya, Masayuki; Ando, Masashi; Tsukamasa, Yasuyuki; Koketsu, Mamoru

    2014-06-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is the primary pathogenic agent responsible for acne vulgaris on the skin and hair follicles. Overgrowth of this bacterium inhibits growth and promotes follicular inflammation, with an associated increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine production. P. acnes has therefore been considered the main target for the prevention and medical treatment of acne vulgaris. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anti-P. acnes and anti-inflammatory properties of 6 compounds isolated from Nostoc commune. One of these compounds, nostocionone (Nost), and one of its derivatives, NostD3 [(1E,4E)-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-enyl)penta-1,4-dien-3-one], significantly inhibited P. acnes growth. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of Nost and NostD3 on heat-killed (hk) P. acnes-induced inflammation in macrophages. Both Nost and NostD3 suppressed hk P. acnes-induced nitric oxide (NO) production through the suppression of inducible NO synthase expression, following inactivation of nuclear factor kappa B. Taken together, our findings suggested that both Nost and NostD3 were promising agents for the treatment of acne vulgaris, and that NostD3 showed higher efficacy than Nost. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Suppression of Propionibacterium acnes Infection and the Associated Inflammatory Response by the Antimicrobial Peptide P5 in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Sunhyo; Han, Hyo Mi; Song, Peter I.

    2015-01-01

    The cutaneous inflammation associated with acne vulgaris is caused by the anaerobic bacterium Propionibacterium acnes through activation of the innate immune system in the skin. Current standard treatments for acne have limitations that include adverse effects and poor efficacy in many patients, making development of a more effective therapy highly desirable. In the present study, we demonstrate the protective effects of a novel customized α-helical cationic peptide, P5, against P. acnes-induced inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. Application of P5 significantly reduced expression of two inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and TNF-α in P. acnes-treated primary human keratinocytes, where P5 appeared to act in part by binding to bacterial lipoteichoic acid, thereby suppressing TLR2-to-NF-κB signaling. In addition, in a mouse model of acne vulgaris, P5 exerted both anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects against P. acnes, but exerted no cytotoxic effects against skin cells. These results demonstrate that P5, and perhaps other cationic antimicrobial peptides, offer the unique ability to reduce numbers P. acnes cells in the skin and to inhibit the inflammation they trigger. This suggests these peptides could potentially be used to effectively treat acne without adversely affecting the skin. PMID:26197393

  7. Efficacy of Red or Infrared Light-Emitting Diodes in a Mouse Model of Propionibacterium acnes-Induced Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyou Chae; Kim, Min Ji; Jang, Yong Hyun; Lee, Seok-Jong; Kim, Do Won

    2016-01-01

    Background Laser/light-based devices may provide an alternative to conventional acne therapeutics in some patients with nonresponsive acne. Objective We investigated the efficacy of red or infrared light-emitting diode (LED) devices in a mouse model of Propionibacterium acnes-induced inflammation through clinical examination and histopathological and immunohistochemical studies. Methods A human-derived Propionibacterium acnes suspension (109 colony-forming units /µl) was injected into the back of an HR-1 mouse. Then, a 28.9 J/cm2 650-nm red LED or 9.3 J/cm2 830-nm infrared LED was applied to the mouse with P. acnes-induced inflammation once daily for 2 weeks. Two weeks after treatment, histological findings with hematoxylin and eosin staining and expression levels of inflammatory biomarkers (integrin α6, neutrophils, interleukin [IL]-1β, and matrix metalloproteinase [MMP]-2/9) were evaluated in tissue specimens using immunohistochemical staining. Results Mice treated with red and infrared LED showed clinical improvement in inflammatory nodules compared to mice in the control group. Red LED was much more effective than infrared LED. Epidermal hyperplasia, comedone-like cysts, and integrin α6 expression improved to a similar extent in the red and infrared LED treatment groups and control group. Neutrophil, IL-1β, MMP-2, and MMP-9 expression after treatment with red and infrared LED decreased considerably compared to expression in the control group. Conclusion In a mouse model of P. acnes-induced inflammatory nodules, red and infrared LED devices may be an alternative to conventional acne therapies. In addition, a mouse model of P. acnes-induced inflammatory nodules is helpful for laboratory research of acne. PMID:27081265

  8. Efficacy of Red or Infrared Light-Emitting Diodes in a Mouse Model of Propionibacterium acnes-Induced Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Weon Ju; Lee, Kyou Chae; Kim, Min Ji; Jang, Yong Hyun; Lee, Seok-Jong; Kim, Do Won

    2016-04-01

    Laser/light-based devices may provide an alternative to conventional acne therapeutics in some patients with nonresponsive acne. We investigated the efficacy of red or infrared light-emitting diode (LED) devices in a mouse model of Propionibacterium acnes-induced inflammation through clinical examination and histopathological and immunohistochemical studies. A human-derived Propionibacterium acnes suspension (10(9) colony-forming units /µl) was injected into the back of an HR-1 mouse. Then, a 28.9 J/cm(2) 650-nm red LED or 9.3 J/cm(2) 830-nm infrared LED was applied to the mouse with P. acnes-induced inflammation once daily for 2 weeks. Two weeks after treatment, histological findings with hematoxylin and eosin staining and expression levels of inflammatory biomarkers (integrin α6, neutrophils, interleukin [IL]-1β, and matrix metalloproteinase [MMP]-2/9) were evaluated in tissue specimens using immunohistochemical staining. Mice treated with red and infrared LED showed clinical improvement in inflammatory nodules compared to mice in the control group. Red LED was much more effective than infrared LED. Epidermal hyperplasia, comedone-like cysts, and integrin α6 expression improved to a similar extent in the red and infrared LED treatment groups and control group. Neutrophil, IL-1β, MMP-2, and MMP-9 expression after treatment with red and infrared LED decreased considerably compared to expression in the control group. In a mouse model of P. acnes-induced inflammatory nodules, red and infrared LED devices may be an alternative to conventional acne therapies. In addition, a mouse model of P. acnes-induced inflammatory nodules is helpful for laboratory research of acne.

  9. Posterior lens capsule abscess due to Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis following extracapsular cataract extraction.

    PubMed Central

    Manners, R M; Canning, C R

    1991-01-01

    A case of posterior lens capsular abscess occurring many months after an extracapsular cataract extraction is presented. This was caused by a mixed infection involving Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The significance of Staph epidermidis after such a long postoperative period is uncertain, but the case shows features typical of secondary endophthalmitis due to P acnes, including a long delay in onset and a grumbling course not brought under control by medical treatment. It supports the theory that the nidus of infection is localised in the posterior lens capsule by showing development of a visible capsular abscess with associated vitreous involvement. The subsequent removal of the capsule and vitreous, despite leaving the intraocular lens in place, led to complete resolution of the inflammation. Both organisms have previously been found to be sequestered in the posterior lens capsule by histological and microbiological examination of excised capsular specimens. It is important to consider them as possible causative agents in the formation of a postoperative capsular abscess. Images PMID:1768656

  10. Association Between Lumbar Disc Degeneration and Propionibacterium acnes Infection: Clinical Research and Preliminary Exploration of Animal Experiment.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Dong, Zhe; Wu, Yongchao; Zeng, Ji; Zheng, Qixin; Xiao, Baojun; Cai, Xianyi; Xiao, Zhiyong

    2016-07-01

    Clinical research and animal experiment. To investigate whether lumbar disc degeneration is associated with Propionibacterium acnes (P acnes) infection. The hypothesis that herniated discs may be infected with P acnes by way of bacteremia is remarkable. This may bring a tremendous change in treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH). However, this hypothesis is still controversial. Since P acnes isolated may be related to contamination. Nucleus pulposus from 22 patients (30 discs) with lumbar disc herniation was collected during discectomy, following aerobic and anaerobic cultures for 10 days.Twenty-four rabbits were divided into four groups. After L3-L6 being exposed, an incision was made into the three discs in groups A and B. While in groups C and D, two random segments were operated. Six weeks later, 0.05 mL of 5 × 10 CFU/mL P acnes was inoculated into operated discs in group A and sterile physiological saline in group B. In group C, 0.2 mL of 5 × 10 CFU/mL P acnes was injected through ear vein. Sterile saline was used in group D. Six weeks later, MRI was performed. Then, nucleus pulposus and paraspinal muscles were harvested for aerobic and anaerobic cultures. Clinical research: Anaerobic cultures were positive in three cases: two coagulase-negative staphylococci, one particles chain bacterium. No P acnes was found. Staphylococcus epidermidis was isolated in one aerobic culture.Animal experiment: P acnes was found in 11 out of 18 (61%) discs in group A. There was no P acnes found in the other three groups. Degenerated discs were suitable for P acnes growth. This research did not find the evidence of the symptomatic degenerated lumbar discs infected with P acnes or that P acnes could infect the degenerated lumbar discs by way of bacteremia. N/A.

  11. Propionibacterium acnes: Disease-Causing Agent or Common Contaminant? Detection in Diverse Patient Samples by Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Friis-Nielsen, Jens; Vinner, Lasse; Hansen, Thomas Arn; Richter, Stine Raith; Fridholm, Helena; Herrera, Jose Alejandro Romero; Lund, Ole; Brunak, Søren; Izarzugaza, Jose M. G.; Mourier, Tobias; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2016-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is the most abundant bacterium on human skin, particularly in sebaceous areas. P. acnes is suggested to be an opportunistic pathogen involved in the development of diverse medical conditions but is also a proven contaminant of human clinical samples and surgical wounds. Its significance as a pathogen is consequently a matter of debate. In the present study, we investigated the presence of P. acnes DNA in 250 next-generation sequencing data sets generated from 180 samples of 20 different sample types, mostly of cancerous origin. The samples were subjected to either microbial enrichment, involving nuclease treatment to reduce the amount of host nucleic acids, or shotgun sequencing. We detected high proportions of P. acnes DNA in enriched samples, particularly skin tissue-derived and other tissue samples, with the levels being higher in enriched samples than in shotgun-sequenced samples. P. acnes reads were detected in most samples analyzed, though the proportions in most shotgun-sequenced samples were low. Our results show that P. acnes can be detected in practically all sample types when molecular methods, such as next-generation sequencing, are employed. The possibility of contamination from the patient or other sources, including laboratory reagents or environment, should therefore always be considered carefully when P. acnes is detected in clinical samples. We advocate that detection of P. acnes always be accompanied by experiments validating the association between this bacterium and any clinical condition. PMID:26818667

  12. Increased interferon-gamma, interleukin-12p40 and IL-8 production in Propionibacterium acnes-treated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patient with acne vulgaris: host response but not bacterial species is the determinant factor of the disease.

    PubMed

    Sugisaki, Hitomi; Yamanaka, Keiichi; Kakeda, Masato; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kaori; Watanabe, Kunitomo; Gabazza, Esteban C; Kurokawa, Ichiro; Mizutani, Hitoshi

    2009-07-01

    Acne vulgaris is a multifactorial inflammatory disease of the sebaceous follicles of the face and torso that frequently occurs in adolescence. Initially, acne starts as a non-inflammatory comedo. Subsequently, inflammatory reactions evolve to pustules, granulomas and cystic lesions. Many pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed including sebum excretion, obstruction of hair follicles, impaired keratinization of hair epithelium, bacterial overgrowth and immunological mechanisms; the role of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is particularly important. Facultative anaerobic gram-positive rods have been implicated in acne pathogenesis. However, the host immune response to P. acnes has not been as yet elucidated. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the importance of the immune response to P. acnes and the bacteriological factor in the pathogenesis of acne. P. acnes isolated from acne lesions and healthy volunteers skin were cultured. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from acne patients or healthy volunteers were stimulated with viable P. acnes, and cytokine production was evaluated using RT-PCR and ELISA. IFN-gamma, IL-12p40, and IL-8 mRNA and protein production were significantly increased in PBMC from acne patients compared to that from normal donors. However, different P. acnes species isolated from acne lesions or normal subjects showed no difference in cytokines production from acne patients and normal subjects PBMC. The inflammatory response of acne appears to be attributable to P. acnes-induced host immune response rather than P. acnes strains from normal skin or acne lesions.

  13. Identification of proteins of Propionibacterium acnes for use as vaccine candidates to prevent infection by the pig pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Li, Linxi; Sun, Changjiang; Yang, Feng; Yang, Shuxin; Feng, Xin; Gu, Jingmin; Han, Wenyu; Langford, Paul R; Lei, Liancheng

    2013-10-25

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of acute and chronic pleuroneumonia that is responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality in the pig industry. New improved vaccines that can protect against all serotypes and prevent colonization are required. In a previous study we showed that whole cells of Propionibacterium acnes protected pigs from A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 and 5 and, therefore, the basis for a promising heterologous vaccine. The aim of this study was to identify those protein antigens of P. acnes responsible for protection against A. pleuropneumoniae infection. Six P. acnes protein antigens that were recognized by sera raised against A. pleuropneumoniae were identified by 2-DE and immunoblotting. Recombinant versions of all P. acnes proteins gave partial protection (10-80%) against A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 and/or 5 infection in a mouse challenge model. The best protection (80% serotype 1; 60% serotype 5) was obtained using recombinant P. acnes single-stranded DNA-binding protein. In part, protection against A. pleuropneumoniae infection may be mediated by small peptide sequences present in P. acnes single-stranded DNA-binding protein that are cross-reactive with those present in the A. pleuropneumoniae-specific RTX toxin ApxIV and the zinc-binding protein ZnuA. The results suggest that P. acnes may be a useful vaccine to protect against different serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Multiplex Touchdown PCR for Rapid Typing of the Opportunistic Pathogen Propionibacterium acnes

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Emma; Nagy, István; Hunyadkürti, Judit; Patrick, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    The opportunistic human pathogen Propionibacterium acnes is composed of a number of distinct phylogroups, designated types IA1, IA2, IB, IC, II, and III, which vary in their production of putative virulence factors, their inflammatory potential, and their biochemical, aggregative, and morphological characteristics. Although multilocus sequence typing (MLST) currently represents the gold standard for unambiguous phylogroup classification and individual strain identification, it is a labor-intensive and time-consuming technique. As a consequence, we developed a multiplex touchdown PCR assay that in a single reaction can confirm the species identity and phylogeny of an isolate based on its pattern of reaction with six primer sets that target the 16S rRNA gene (all isolates), ATPase (types IA1, IA2, and IC), sodA (types IA2 and IB), atpD (type II), and recA (type III) housekeeping genes, as well as a Fic family toxin gene (type IC). When applied to 312 P. acnes isolates previously characterized by MLST and representing types IA1 (n = 145), IA2 (n = 20), IB (n = 65), IC (n = 7), II (n = 45), and III (n = 30), the multiplex displayed 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for detecting isolates within each targeted phylogroup. No cross-reactivity with isolates from other bacterial species was observed. This multiplex assay will provide researchers with a rapid, high-throughput, and technically undemanding typing method for epidemiological and phylogenetic investigations. It will facilitate studies investigating the association of lineages with various infections and clinical conditions, and it will serve as a prescreening tool to maximize the number of genetically diverse isolates selected for downstream higher-resolution sequence-based analyses. PMID:25631794

  15. Propionibacterium acnes, Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcus, and the “Biofilm-like” Intervertebral Disc

    PubMed Central

    Coscia, Michael F.; Denys, Gerald A.; Wack, Matthew F.

    2016-01-01

    Study Design. Patients scheduled for spinal surgery were screened prospectively for a microbial presence associated with intervertebral disc specimens. Inclusion was limited to patients requiring surgery for any of five conditions: study patients with cervical spine intervertebral herniation (IVH), lumbar spine IVH, lumbar spine discogenic pain, and control patients with idiopathic scoliosis/Scheurermann's kyphosis or trauma/neuromuscular deformity. Exclusion criteria included ongoing systemic infection, abnormal pre-operative white cell counts, documented or suspected spinal infection, or previous surgery to the involved disc. Objective. The aim of this study was to test for an association between the presence of a bacterial entity in operated discs and a diagnosis of pathologic disc disease. Summary of Background Data. An association has been described between microbial colonization and progressive intervertebral disc degeneration in 36 herniation patients undergoing microdiscectomies. A total of 19 patients had positive cultures on long-term incubation, with Propionibacterium acnes present in 84% of discs. Materials and Methods. Discs were harvested during surgery, using strict sterile technique. Each disc was divided, with half the sample sealed in a sterile, commercially prepared anaerobic culture transport container, and half fixed in formalin. Live specimens were cultured for bacteria at a university-affiliated laboratory in a blinded fashion. Fixed pathologic specimens were gram-stained and read by a board-certified pathologist. Results. A total of 169 intervertebral discs from 87 patients were evaluated (46 males, 41 females). Positive cultures were noted in 76 of 169 discs (45%), with 34 discs positive for P. acnes and 30 discs positive for Staphylococcus. No pathologic evidence was seen of microorganisms, acute or chronic inflammation, or infection. Pooling the IVH and discogenic pain patients and contrasting them with control patients showed a

  16. Multiplex touchdown PCR for rapid typing of the opportunistic pathogen Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Emma; Nagy, István; Hunyadkürti, Judit; Patrick, Sheila; McDowell, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The opportunistic human pathogen Propionibacterium acnes is composed of a number of distinct phylogroups, designated types IA1, IA2, IB, IC, II, and III, which vary in their production of putative virulence factors, their inflammatory potential, and their biochemical, aggregative, and morphological characteristics. Although multilocus sequence typing (MLST) currently represents the gold standard for unambiguous phylogroup classification and individual strain identification, it is a labor-intensive and time-consuming technique. As a consequence, we developed a multiplex touchdown PCR assay that in a single reaction can confirm the species identity and phylogeny of an isolate based on its pattern of reaction with six primer sets that target the 16S rRNA gene (all isolates), ATPase (types IA1, IA2, and IC), sodA (types IA2 and IB), atpD (type II), and recA (type III) housekeeping genes, as well as a Fic family toxin gene (type IC). When applied to 312 P. acnes isolates previously characterized by MLST and representing types IA1 (n=145), IA2 (n=20), IB (n=65), IC (n=7), II (n=45), and III (n=30), the multiplex displayed 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for detecting isolates within each targeted phylogroup. No cross-reactivity with isolates from other bacterial species was observed. This multiplex assay will provide researchers with a rapid, high-throughput, and technically undemanding typing method for epidemiological and phylogenetic investigations. It will facilitate studies investigating the association of lineages with various infections and clinical conditions, and it will serve as a prescreening tool to maximize the number of genetically diverse isolates selected for downstream higher-resolution sequence-based analyses.

  17. In-house SIRAS phasing of the polyunsaturated fatty-acid isomerase from Propionibacterium acnes

    SciTech Connect

    Liavonchanka, Alena; Hornung, Ellen; Feussner, Ivo; Rudolph, Markus

    2006-02-01

    Low iodide concentrations were sufficient to allow SAD and SIRAS phasing of cubic crystals of a novel fatty acid isomerase using Cu Kα radiation. The polyenoic fatty-acid isomerase from Propionibacterium acnes (PAI) catalyzes the double-bond isomerization of linoleic acid to conjugated linoleic acid, which is a dairy- or meat-derived fatty acid in the human diet. PAI was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity as a yellow-coloured protein. The nature of the bound cofactor was analyzed by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Single crystals of PAI were obtained in two crystal forms. Cubic shaped crystals belong to space group I2{sub 1}3, with a unit-cell parameter of 160.4 Å, and plate-like crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 133.7, b = 60.8, c = 72.2 Å, β = 115.8°. Both crystal forms contain one molecule per asymmetric unit and diffract to a resolution of better than 2.0 Å. Initial phases were obtained by SIRAS from in-house data from a cubic crystal that was soaked with an unusually low KI concentration of 0.25 M.

  18. Pulmonary fibrosis in a mouse model of sarcoid granulomatosis induced by booster challenge with Propionibacterium acnes

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Dingyuan; Huang, Xiaoxi; Geng, Jing; Dong, Run; Li, Shuhong; Liu, Zheng; Wang, Chen; Dai, Huaping

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) associated with chronic sarcoidosis remains poorly understood, and no experimental model is currently available for this condition. Previous studies have shown that Propionibacterium acnes (PA) was associated with sarcoidosis and induced granuloma formation in mice. Here, we investigated whether repeated challenge with PA induces persistent inflammation leading to sarcoidosis followed by PF in mice. Specifically, C57BL/6 mice were inoculated intraperitoneally and subjected to intratracheal challenge with PA, and then were booster-challenged with either PA or phosphate-buffered saline on day 28. Inflammation, granulomata, and features of fibrosis were evaluated every 7 days until day 70. Complete remission of lung granulomata was apparent on day 42 in the sarcoid-remission group. However, granulomata was present from days 21 to 70 in mice that received PA boosting. Inflammatory cell counts and Th1 cytokine levels in lung lavage fluids were elevated up to day 70. Furthermore, fibrotic changes in the lungs were observed around granulomatous and peribronchovascular regions after PA boosting. Taken together, these findings suggest that development of PF following sarcoidosis may result from continuous PA infection and inflammation. Repeated boosting with PA to induce PF might be a useful model for future studies of sarcoidosis-associated PF. PMID:27203210

  19. Flavones Isolated from Scutellariae radix Suppress Propionibacterium Acnes-Induced Cytokine Production In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Po-Jung; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Hsieh, Ming-Chi; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Wu, Wen-Huey

    2015-12-24

    Scutellariae radix, the root of Scutellaria baicalensis, has long been applied in traditional formulations and modern herbal medications. Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) in follicles can trigger inflammation and lead to the symptom of inflammatory acnes vulgaris. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of Scutellariae radix extract and purified components isolated from it on inflammation induced by P. acnes in vitro and in vivo. The results showed the ethyl acetate (EA) soluble fraction from the partition of crude ethanolic extract from Scutellariae radix inhibited P. acnes-induced interleukin IL-8 and IL-1β production in human monocytic THP-1 cells. Seven flavones were isolated from the EA fraction by repeated chromatographies, and identified as 5,7-dihydroxy-6-methoxyflavone (FL1, oroxylin), 5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone (FL2, wogonin), 5-hydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavone (FL3, 7-O-methylwogonin), 5,6'-dihydroxy-6,7,8,2'-tetramethoxy flavone (FL4, skullcapflavone II), 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone (FL5), 5,2',6'-trihydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavone (FL6, viscidulin II), and 5,7,2',5'-tetrahydroxy-8,6'-dimethoxyflavone (FL7, ganhuangenin). They all significantly suppressed P. acnes-induced IL-8 and IL-1β production in THP-1 cells, and FL2 exerted the strongest effect with half maximal inhibition (IC50) values of 8.7 and 4.9 μM, respectively. Concomitant intradermal injection of each of the seven flavones (20 μg) with P. acnes effectively attenuated P. acnes-induced ear swelling, and decreased the production of IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in ear homogenates. Our results suggested that all the seven flavones can be potential therapeutic agents against P. acnes-induced skin inflammation.

  20. Macrophages largely contribute to heterologous anti-Propionibacterium acnes antibody-mediated protection from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiuyue; Sun, Changjiang; Yang, Feng; Wang, Lei; Qin, Wanhai; Xia, Xiaojing; Feng, Xin; Du, Chongtao; Gu, Jingmin; Han, Wenyu; Lei, Liancheng

    2015-03-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of acute and chronic pleuropneumonia. Propionibacterium acnes is a facultative anaerobic gram-positive corynebacterium. We have previously found that anti-P. acnes antibodies can prevent A. pleuropneumoniae infections in mice. To investigate the role of macrophages in this process, affinity-purified anti-P. acnes IgG and anti-A. pleuropneumoniae IgG were used in opsonophagocytosis assays. Additionally, the efficacy of passive immunization with P. acnes serum against A. pleuropneumoniae was tested in macrophage-depleted mice. It was found that anti-P. acnes IgG had an effect similar to that of anti-A. pleuropneumoniae IgG (P > 0.05), which significantly promotes phagocytosis of A. pleuropneumoniae by macrophages (P < 0.01). It was also demonstrated that, after passive immunization with anti-P. acnes serum, macrophage-replete mice had the highest survival rate (90%), whereas the survival rate of macrophage-depleted mice was only 40% (P < 0.05). However, macrophage-depleted mice that had been passively immunized with naïve serum had the lowest survival rate (20%), this rate being lower than that of macrophage-replete mice that had been passively immunized with naïve serum. Overall, anti-P. acnes antibodies did not prevent A. pleuropneumoniae infection under conditions of macrophage depletion (P > 0.05). Furthermore, in mice that had been passively immunized with anti-P. acnes serum, macrophage depletion resulted in a greater A. pleuropneumoniae burden and more severe pathological features of pneumonia in lung tissues than occurred in macrophage-replete mice. It was concluded that macrophages are essential for the process by which anti-P. acnes antibody prevents A. pleuropneumoniae infection in mice.

  1. Physicochemical properties and anti-Propionibacterium acnes activity of film-forming solutions containing alpha-mangostin-rich extract.

    PubMed

    Asasutjarit, Rathapon; Larpmahawong, Papassara; Fuongfuchat, Asira; Sareedenchai, Vipaporn; Veeranondha, Sukitaya

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to study the effect of formulation compositions on physicochemical properties and anti-Propionibacterium acnes activity of film-forming solutions containing alpha-mangostin-rich extract (AM). Film-forming solution bases and film-forming solutions containing AM were prepared by using Eudragit RL PO or Klucel LF or combinations of them as film-forming polymers. Rheological properties, pH values of the solutions, and mechanical properties of the dry films were investigated. An optimized formulation was selected and evaluated for the film surface, in vitro AM release, an anti-P. acnes activity, and potential for being a skin irritant. It was found that mechanical properties of the dry films were affected by total polymer contents, ratios of Klucel LF/Eudragit RL PO, AM, and contents of triethyl citrate. The film-forming solutions containing AM had pH values around 7.0. Their flow curves exhibited Newtonian flow behaviors. The optimized formulation provided films possessing smooth and nonporous surfaces. These films showed greater anti-P. acnes activity than their base films without toxicity to skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, AM released from the film matrix obeyed Higuchi's equation. In conclusion, the film-forming solutions containing AM had potential for treatment of acne vulgaris caused by P. acnes. However, further in vivo study is necessary to determine their efficacy and safety for using in patients suffering from acne vulgaris.

  2. A Novel High-Resolution Single Locus Sequence Typing Scheme for Mixed Populations of Propionibacterium acnes In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Christian F. P.; Jensen, Anders; Lomholt, Hans B.; Brüggemann, Holger; Kilian, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium Propionibacterium acnes is a prevalent member of the normal skin microbiota of human adults. In addition to its suspected role in acne vulgaris it is involved in a variety of opportunistic infections. Multi-locus sequence-typing (MLST) schemes identified distinct phylotypes associated with health and disease. Being based on 8 to 9 house-keeping genes these MLST schemes have a high discriminatory power, but their application is time- and cost-intensive. Here we describe a single-locus sequence typing (SLST) scheme for P. acnes. The target locus was identified with a genome mining approach that took advantage of the availability of representative genome sequences of all known phylotypes of P. acnes. We applied this SLST on a collection of 188 P. acnes strains and demonstrated a resolution comparable to that of existing MLST schemes. Phylogenetic analysis applied to the SLST locus resulted in clustering patterns identical to a reference tree based on core genome sequences. We further demonstrate that SLST can be applied to detect multiple phylotypes in complex microbial communities by a metagenomic pyrosequencing approach. The described SLST strategy may be applied to any bacterial species with a basically clonal population structure to achieve easy typing and mapping of multiple phylotypes in complex microbiotas. The P. acnes SLST database can be found at http://medbac.dk/slst/pacnes. PMID:25111794

  3. Blue light for infectious diseases: Propionibacterium acnes, Helicobacter pylori, and beyond?

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Tianhong; Gupta, Asheesh; Murray, Clinton K.; Vrahas, Mark S.; Tegos, George P.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Blue light, particularly in the wavelength range of 405–470 nm, has attracted increasing attention due to its intrinsic antimicrobial effect without the addition of exogenous photosensitizers. In addition, it is commonly accepted that blue light is much less detrimental to mammalian cells than ultraviolet irradiation, which is another light-based antimicrobial approach being investigated. In this review, we discussed the blue light sensing systems in microbial cells, antimicrobial efficacy of blue light, the mechanism of antimicrobial effect of blue light, the effects of blue light on mammalian cells, and the effects of blue light on wound healing. It has been reported that blue light can regulate multi-cellular behavior involving cell-to-cell communication via blue light receptors in bacteria, and inhibit biofilm formation and subsequently potentiate light inactivation. At higher radiant exposures, blue light exhibits a broad-spectrum antimicrobial effect against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Blue light therapy is a clinically accepted approach for Propionibacterium acnes infections. Clinical trials have also been conducted to investigate the use of blue light for Helicobacter pylori stomach infections and have shown promising results. Studies on blue light inactivation of important wound pathogenic bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have also been reported. The mechanism of blue light inactivation of P. acnes, H. pylori, and some oral bacteria is the photo-excitation of intracellular porphyrins and the subsequent production of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species. Although it may be the case that the mechanism of blue light inactivation of wound pathogens (e.g., S. aureus, P. aeruginosa) is the same as that of P. acnes, this hypothesis has not been rigorously tested. Limited and discordant results have been reported regarding the effects of blue light on mammalian cells and wound healing. Under certain wavelengths

  4. Blue light for infectious diseases: Propionibacterium acnes, Helicobacter pylori, and beyond?

    PubMed

    Dai, Tianhong; Gupta, Asheesh; Murray, Clinton K; Vrahas, Mark S; Tegos, George P; Hamblin, Michael R

    2012-08-01

    Blue light, particularly in the wavelength range of 405-470 nm, has attracted increasing attention due to its intrinsic antimicrobial effect without the addition of exogenous photosensitizers. In addition, it is commonly accepted that blue light is much less detrimental to mammalian cells than ultraviolet irradiation, which is another light-based antimicrobial approach being investigated. In this review, we discussed the blue light sensing systems in microbial cells, antimicrobial efficacy of blue light, the mechanism of antimicrobial effect of blue light, the effects of blue light on mammalian cells, and the effects of blue light on wound healing. It has been reported that blue light can regulate multi-cellular behavior involving cell-to-cell communication via blue light receptors in bacteria, and inhibit biofilm formation and subsequently potentiate light inactivation. At higher radiant exposures, blue light exhibits a broad-spectrum antimicrobial effect against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Blue light therapy is a clinically accepted approach for Propionibacterium acnes infections. Clinical trials have also been conducted to investigate the use of blue light for Helicobacter pylori stomach infections and have shown promising results. Studies on blue light inactivation of important wound pathogenic bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have also been reported. The mechanism of blue light inactivation of P. acnes, H. pylori, and some oral bacteria is proved to be the photo-excitation of intracellular porphyrins and the subsequent production of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species. Although it may be the case that the mechanism of blue light inactivation of wound pathogens (e.g., S. aureus, P. aeruginosa) is the same as that of P. acnes, this hypothesis has not been rigorously tested. Limited and discordant results have been reported regarding the effects of blue light on mammalian cells and wound healing. Under certain

  5. Nicotinamide inhibits Propionibacterium acnes-induced IL-8 production in keratinocytes through the NF-kappaB and MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Grange, Philippe A; Raingeaud, Joël; Calvez, Vincent; Dupin, Nicolas

    2009-11-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) has been implicated in the inflammatory phase of acne vulgaris. It has been shown to activate interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion by interacting with Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) on the surface of keratinocytes. Nicotinamide has been shown to be an effective treatment for skin inflammation in various conditions, including acne vulgaris. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory properties of nicotinamide in keratinocytes stimulated by P. acnes. HaCaT cells and primary keratinocyte cell lines were stimulated by P. acnes in the presence of nicotinamide. IL-8 production was monitored by ELISA on the cell culture supernatant and by qRT-PCR on total RNA extract. A luciferase reporter system assay was used to assess nicotinamide activity with the IL-8 promoter in transfected keratinocytes. We used western blotting to analyze the effect of nicotinamide on activation of the NF-kappaB and MAPK pathways. Nicotinamide significantly decreased IL-8 production in a dose-dependent manner, decreasing both mRNA and protein levels for this chemokine in immortalized HaCaT cells and primary keratinocytes. P. acnes-induced IL-8 promoter activation seemed to be downregulated by nicotinamide, which inhibited IkappaB degradation and the phosphorylation of ERK and JNK MAP kinases. Our results indicate that nicotinamide inhibits IL-8 production through the NF-kappaB and MAPK pathways in an in vitro keratinocytes/P. acnes model of inflammation. Keratinocytes involved in the innate immune response may be a suitable target for treatment during the early phase of inflammation.

  6. Inhibition of sebum production and Propionibacterium acnes lipase activity by fullerenol, a novel polyhydroxylated fullerene: potential as a therapeutic reagent for acne.

    PubMed

    Inui, Shigeki; Aoshima, Hisae; Ito, Masayuki; Kobuko, Ken; Itami, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a major role in acne formation; this suggests that oxygen-radical scavengers could be potential therapeutic agents. Fullerenol C60(OH)44, a recently developed polyhydroxylated fullerene, is a spherical carbon molecule that has many hydroxyl groups capable of potent radical-scavenging activity. We have investigated its inhibitory effects in vitro on sebum production in hamster sebocytes and in Propionibacterium acnes lipase activity. Sebum production was significantly reduced by 1.5 microM of fullerenol in cells that had been irradiated with 10 mJ/cm2 UVB, although it was not altered in the non-irradiated cells, indicating that fullerene is a sebum suppressor for sebocytes under oxidative stress, such as that induced by UVB. It was also found that fullerenol has inhibitory activity against P. acnes lipase. These results suggest that fullerenol could be a beneficial skin care reagent for controlling acne vulgaris by suppressing sebum in the inflammatory response and by reducing P. acnes lipase activity.

  7. Multicenter cross-sectional observational study of antibiotic resistance and the genotypes of Propionibacterium acnes isolated from Chinese patients with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yukun; Hao, Fei; Wang, Weizhen; Lu, Yonghong; He, Li; Wang, Gang; Chen, Wenchieh

    2016-04-01

    Antibiotics are widely applied in management of acne vulgaris, which raises the issue of antibiotic resistance. Due to improper application and supervision of antibiotics, antibiotic resistance has become a serious problem in China. So, the efficacy of antimicrobial therapy in acne is unclear without an objective monitor of antibiotic resistance of Propionibacterium acnes. This cross-sectional, multicenter observational study is aimed at understanding the status of antibiotic resistance in P. acnes, investigating the measures of acne management in China and analyzing the genotypes of antibiotic-resistant strains of P. acnes. Altogether, 312 strains of P. acnes were collected from patients in five medical centers across central China after reviewing the corresponding medical history in detail. The samples underwent antibiotic susceptibility assays by agar dilution method with a total of 11 classes of antibiotics being tested. The antibiotic-resistant strains were screened and further analyzed by investigation of the genotypes regarding 23S rRNA, 16S rRNA and erm(X). The predominant resistance occurred in macrolides and lincomycin with an overall resistance rate of 47.8%. The resistance to tetracyclines was scarce with only two cases identified. The emergence of minimum inhibitory concentration elevation for tetracyclines is associated with its application history (P < 0.005). The genotypes of the reported macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance strains were also spotted in Chinese subjects while other resistance determinants may also exist. The tetracyclines have been proved to be vastly susceptible while macrolides and lincomycin face a serious resistance status in China. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  8. Temporomandibular Prosthetic Joint Infections Associated With Propionibacterium acnes: A Case Series, and a Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Khader, Ruba; Tingey, Joseph; Sewall, Steven

    2017-05-24

    The orthopedic literature has shown an increasing incidence of prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) associated with Propionibacterium acnes (P acnes). These infections present serious diagnostic and management challenges to the treating surgeons. In this review, the authors report on cases of P acnes-related temporomandibular joint (TMJ) PJIs that have been diagnosed and treated at their institution. After approval by the institutional review board, information was obtained through a retrospective chart review. Records were retrieved from clinic visits from January 1, 2010 through January 1, 2015 using appropriate International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes. Data extracted included patient demographics, prostheses details, prosthetic infection history, interventions, diagnostic procedures, and culture processing methods. Of the 7 patients who met the search criteria, 4 (1 with bilateral prostheses) had cultures positive for P acnes. For the 5 TMJ PJIs with cultures positive for P acnes, tissue cultures were obtained in the operating room and processed using mass spectrometry. Symptoms identified in these 4 patients were vague and included pain and intermittent swelling; clinical and radiographic findings were nonspecific. Treatment regimens included oral and parenteral antibiotics and operative interventions. In this case series, the authors report on the management of 4 cases of P acnes-related TMJ PJI. When patients with TMJ prostheses report vague symptoms of swelling and pain that do not fit the typical infection scenario, the surgeon should consider P acnes as a source of infection. Additional case series and retrospective reviews will be necessary before developing prospective trials that could aid in the prevention and management of this infection. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of Propionibacterium acnes in Intervertebral Discs of Patients Undergoing Lumbar Microdiscectomy: A Prospective Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Capoor, Manu N.; Ruzicka, Filip; Machackova, Tana; Jancalek, Radim; Smrcka, Martin; Schmitz, Jonathan E.; Hermanova, Marketa; Sana, Jiri; Michu, Elleni; Baird, John C.; Ahmed, Fahad S.; Maca, Karel; Lipina, Radim; Alamin, Todd F.; Coscia, Michael F.; Stonemetz, Jerry L.; Witham, Timothy; Ehrlich, Garth D.; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Birkenmaier, Christof; Fischetti, Vincent A.; Slaby, Ondrej

    2016-01-01

    Background The relationship between intervertebral disc degeneration and chronic infection by Propionibacterium acnes is controversial with contradictory evidence available in the literature. Previous studies investigating these relationships were under-powered and fraught with methodical differences; moreover, they have not taken into consideration P. acnes’ ability to form biofilms or attempted to quantitate the bioburden with regard to determining bacterial counts/genome equivalents as criteria to differentiate true infection from contamination. The aim of this prospective cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of P. acnes in patients undergoing lumbar disc microdiscectomy. Methods and Findings The sample consisted of 290 adult patients undergoing lumbar microdiscectomy for symptomatic lumbar disc herniation. An intraoperative biopsy and pre-operative clinical data were taken in all cases. One biopsy fragment was homogenized and used for quantitative anaerobic culture and a second was frozen and used for real-time PCR-based quantification of P. acnes genomes. P. acnes was identified in 115 cases (40%), coagulase-negative staphylococci in 31 cases (11%) and alpha-hemolytic streptococci in 8 cases (3%). P. acnes counts ranged from 100 to 9000 CFU/ml with a median of 400 CFU/ml. The prevalence of intervertebral discs with abundant P. acnes (≥ 1x103 CFU/ml) was 11% (39 cases). There was significant correlation between the bacterial counts obtained by culture and the number of P. acnes genomes detected by real-time PCR (r = 0.4363, p<0.0001). Conclusions In a large series of patients, the prevalence of discs with abundant P. acnes was 11%. We believe, disc tissue homogenization releases P. acnes from the biofilm so that they can then potentially be cultured, reducing the rate of false-negative cultures. Further, quantification study revealing significant bioburden based on both culture and real-time PCR minimize the likelihood that observed

  10. Acne.

    PubMed

    Whiting, D A

    1979-12-01

    The cause of acne is still obscure, but genetic predisposition, sebaceous overactivity, overgrowth of bacterial flora and exposure to comedogenic substances are all significant factors. Acne lesions occur mainly in sebaceous follicles, which are characterized by deep follicular canals and large sebaceous glands. The associated seborrhea is not due to a circulatory excess of androgens but may be caused by a local amplification of androgenic activity. This, in turn, may be due to large numbers of androgen receptors and a high concentration of enzymes such as 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, within the sebaceous gland itself. Hyperkeratosis of the retention type in the pilary infrainfundibulum obstructs the outflow of sebum and keratin flakes. This favors the proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes which may initiate inflammation in microcomedos and lead to formation of pustules, papules or nodules. Topical therapy with tretinoin, benzoyl peroxide and antibiotics such as clindamycin is widely used today. Oral tetracyclines and other chemotherapeutic agents remain necessary in severe cases.

  11. Acne

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, David A.

    1979-01-01

    The cause of acne is still obscure, but genetic predisposition, sebaceous overactivity, overgrowth of bacterial flora and exposure to comedogenic substances are all significant factors. Acne lesions occur mainly in sebaceous follicles, which are characterized by deep follicular canals and large sebaceous glands. The associated seborrhea is not due to a circulatory excess of androgens but may be caused by a local amplification of androgenic activity. This, in turn, may be due to large numbers of androgen receptors and a high concentration of enzymes such as 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, within the sebaceous gland itself. Hyperkeratosis of the retention type in the pilary infrainfundibulum obstructs the outflow of sebum and keratin flakes. This favors the proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes which may initiate inflammation in microcomedos and lead to formation of pustules, papules or nodules. Topical therapy with tretinoin, benzoyl peroxide and antibiotics such as clindamycin is widely used today. Oral tetracyclines and other chemotherapeutic agents remain necessary in severe cases. PMID:161830

  12. Reduced expression of dermcidin, a peptide active against propionibacterium acnes, in sweat of patients with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Toshiaki; Yoshino, Takashi; Fujimura, Takao; Arai, Satoru; Mukuno, Akira; Sato, Naoya; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2015-09-01

    Dermcidin (DCD), an antimicrobial peptide with a broad spectrum of activity against bacteria such as Propionibacterum acnes, is expressed constitutively in sweat in the absence of stimulation due to injury or inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between DCD expression and acne vulgaris associated with P. acnes. The antimicrobial activity of recombinant full-length DCD (50 μg/ml) was 97% against Escherichia coli and 100% against Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrobial activity against P. acnes ranged from 68% at 50 μg/ml DCD to 83% at 270 μg/ml DCD. DCD concentration in sweat from patients with acne vulgaris (median 9.8 μg/ml, range 6.9-95.3 μg/ml) was significantly lower than in healthy subjects (median 136.7 μg/ml, range 45.4-201.6 μg/ml) (p = 0.001). DCD demonstrated concentration-dependent, but partial, microbicidal activity against P. acnes. These results suggest that reduced DCD concentration in sweat in patients with inflammatory acne may permit proliferation of P. acnes in pilosebaceous units, resulting in progression of inflammatory acne.

  13. Emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Propionibacterium acnes caused by amino acid substitutions of DNA gyrase but not DNA topoisomerase IV.

    PubMed

    Nakase, Keisuke; Sakuma, Yui; Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Noguchi, Norihisa

    2016-12-01

    With the aim of elucidating the mechanisms of fluoroquinolones resistance in Propionibacterium acnes, we determined the susceptibility of fluoroquinolones in 211 isolates from patients with acne vulgaris. We identified five isolates (2.4%) with reduced susceptibility to nadifloxacin (minimum inhibitory concentration ≥ 4 μg/ml). Determination of the sequences of the DNA gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and DNA topoisomerase (parC and parE) genes showed the amino acid substitutions Ser101Leu and Asp105Gly of GyrA in four and one of the isolates, respectively. In vitro mutation experiments showed that low-level fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants with the Ser101Leu or Asp105Gly substitution in GyrA could be obtained from selection with ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. The pattern of substitution (Ser101Trp in GyrA) caused by nadifloxacin selection was different from that induced by the other fluoroquinolones. In the isolation of further high-level resistant mutants, acquisition of another amino acid substitution of GyrB in addition to those of GyrA was detected, but there were no substitutions of ParC and ParE. In addition, the mutant prevention concentration and mutation frequency of nadifloxacin were lowest among the tested fluoroquinolones. The growth of the Ser101Trp mutant was lower than that of the other mutants. Our findings suggest that the Ser101Trp mutant of P. acnes emerges rarely and disappears immediately, and the risk for the prevalence of fluoroquinolones-resistant P. acnes differs according to the GyrA mutation type. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate the mechanisms of resistance to fluoroquinolones in P. acnes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Wild bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser.) extract and its bioactive components suppress Propionibacterium acnes-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chin; Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Li, You-Yi; Wu, Wen-Huey; Huang, Ching-Jang; Tsai, Po-Jung

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of wild bitter melons (WBM; Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser.) on Propionibacterium acnes-induced inflammation and to identify the bioactive components. Our results showed that ethyl acetate (EA) extract of WBM fruit in vitro potently suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 levels in P. acnes-stimulated THP-1 cells. Furthermore, concomitant intradermal injection of WBM EA extract in mice effectively attenuated P. acnes-induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. To further investigate the bioactive components, we found that both saponifiable (S) and nonsaponifiable (NS) fractions of WBM EA extract significantly suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine and MMP-9 levels. Phytol and lutein, identified in the NS fraction, also inhibited cytokine production. Moreover, S and NS fractions of EA extract, phytol and lutein, activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α and β in the transactivation assay. Our results suggested that PPARα or PPARγ signalling may contribute, at least in part, to the anti-inflammatory activity of WBM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Propionibacterium acnes overabundance and natural killer group 2 member D system activation in corpus-dominant lymphocytic gastritis.

    PubMed

    Montalban-Arques, Ana; Wurm, Philipp; Trajanoski, Slave; Schauer, Silvia; Kienesberger, Sabine; Halwachs, Bettina; Högenauer, Christoph; Langner, Cord; Gorkiewicz, Gregor

    2016-12-01

    Corpus-dominant lymphocytic gastritis (LyG) is characterized by CD8(+) T-cell infiltration of the stomach epithelium by a so far uncharacterized mechanism. Although Helicobacter pylori is typically undetectable in LyG, patients respond to H. pylori antibiotic eradication therapy, suggesting a non-H. pylori microbial trigger for the disease. Comparative microbiota analysis of specimens from LyG, H. pylori gastritis and healthy controls precluded involvement of H. pylori in LyG but identified Propionibacterium acnes as a possible disease trigger. In addition, the natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) system and the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-15 are significantly upregulated in the gastric mucosa of LyG patients, and gastric epithelial cells respond to microbe-derived stimuli, including live P. acnes and the microbial products short-chain fatty acids, with induction of NKG2D ligands. In contrast, H. pylori infection does not activate or even repress NKG2D ligands. Together, our findings identify P. acnes as a possible causative agent for LyG, which is dependent on the NKG2D system and IL-15 activation. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  16. Strains of the Propionibacterium acnes type III lineage are associated with the skin condition progressive macular hypomelanosis

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Emma; Liu, Jared; Yankova, Eliza; Cavalcanti, Silvana M.; Magalhães, Marcelo; Li, Huiying; Patrick, Sheila; McDowell, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Progressive macular hypomelanosis (PMH) is a common skin disorder that causes hypopigmentation in a variety of skin types. Although the underlying aetiology of this condition is unclear, there is circumstantial evidence that links the skin bacterium Propionibacterium acnes to the condition. We now describe the first detailed population genetic analysis of P. acnes isolates recovered from paired lesional and non-lesional skin of PMH patients. Our results demonstrate a strong statistical association between strains from the type III phylogenetic lineage and PMH lesions (P = 0.0019), but not those representing other phylogroups, including those associated with acne (type IA1). We also demonstrate, based on in silico 16S rDNA analysis, that PMH isolates previously recovered from patients in Europe are also consistent with the type III lineage. Using comparative genome analysis, we identified multiple genomic regions that are specific for, or absent from, type III strains compared to other phylogroups. In the former case, these include open reading frames with putative functions in metabolism, transport and transcriptional regulation, as well as predicted proteins of unknown function. Further study of these genomic elements, along with transcriptional and functional analyses, may help to explain why type III strains are associated with PMH. PMID:27555369

  17. MALDI-TOF MS fingerprinting facilitates rapid discrimination of phylotypes I, II and III of Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Elisabeth; Urbán, Edit; Becker, Simone; Kostrzewa, Markus; Vörös, Andrea; Hunyadkürti, Judit; Nagy, István

    2013-04-01

    Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is widely used today for species determination of bacteria and fungi in routine microbiological laboratories, and can also be used for subtyping of bacteria, such as Bacteroides fragilis. Propionibacterium acnes is frequently referred to as an anaerobic skin commensal of relatively low pathogenicity. In addition to its accepted pathogenic role in acne, P. acnes is now emerging as an important opportunistic pathogen in many other clinical situations, including late-stage prosthetic joint infections, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, endophthalmitis, post-neurosurgical infections and possibly prostate cancer. At the population genetic level, P. acnes can be differentiated into a number of distinct phylogroups, known as types IA1, IA2, IB, IC, II and III, which may be associated with different types of infections and clinical conditions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate MS-based typing for resolution of these genetic groups after routine identification by MALDI-TOF MS (Bruker MALDI Biotyper). The software package ClinProTools 2.2 was used to analyze the protein based mass spectra of reference strains belonging to types IA, IB, IC, II and III. Phylogroup-specific peaks and peak shifts were then identified visually. In addition, peak variations between the different types of P. acnes were investigated by using FlexAnalysis 3.3 software (Bruker). A differentiating library was created, which was used to type further 48 clinical isolates of P. acnes. Typing data obtained by MALDI-TOF MS were then compared with the results from Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST). Most of the clinical isolates (n = 19) belonged to the type IA grouping according to MALDI-TOF MS. By MLST, all isolates were identified as type IA1. Twenty-one clinical isolates belonged to the type IB cluster based on both MALDI-TOF MS and MLST typing. Eight clinical isolates were identified as type II strains

  18. Comparative antimicrobial efficacy of Metapex, Metronidazole, BioPure MTAD, Aztreonam on Bacteroides fragilis and Propionibacterium acne

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Rajkumar; Dubey, Sandeep; Dhole, Tapan Kumar N; Boruah, Lalit C; Srivastava, Sanjeev

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the comparative antibacterial efficacy of Biopure MTAD, Metapex, Metronidazole, and Aztreonam against two obligate anerobic bacteria. Materials and Methods: Antimicrobial efficacy of selected medicaments against two obligate anaerobic bacteria Bacteroides fragilis and Propionibacterium acnes was done by Agar disc-diffusion method. Pre-sterilized Whatman paper discs, 6 mm in diameter and soaked with the test solution, were prepared and placed onto the previously seeded agar Petri plates. Each plate was incubated in anaerobic jar for anerobic environment at 37°C for 48 hours. A zone of inhibition was recorded for each plate and the results were analysed statistically. Saline and ethanol used as control group in this study. Results: Biopure MTAD, Metapex and Metronidazole were effective against all the selected microorganisms. Aztreonam was effective against Bacteroides fragilis. Saline and ethanol used as control were ineffective. Conclusions: Metronidazole showed the superior antibacterial property amongst the tested medicaments. PMID:23956535

  19. Rapid diagnosis of Propionibacterium acnes infection in patient with hyperpyrexia after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation by next-generation sequencing: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ye, Mingzhi; Wei, Wei; Yang, Zhikai; Li, Yingzhen; Cheng, Shaomin; Wang, Kang; Zhou, Tianliangwen; Sun, Jingmeng; Liu, Sha; Ni, Na; Jiang, Hui; Jiang, Hua

    2016-01-08

    The rapid determination of pathogenic agent is very important to clinician for guiding their clinical medication. However, current diagnostic methods are of limitation in many aspects, such as detecting range, time-consuming, specificity and sensitivity. In this report, we apply our new-developing pathogen detection method to clarify that Propionibacterium acnes is the causative agent of a two-year-old boy with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia presenting clinical symptoms including serious rash and hyperpyrexia while traditional clinical methods of diagnosis fail to detect the pathogenic agent and multiple antimicrobial drugs are almost ineffective Propionibacterium acnes is confirmed to be the infectious agent by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. After haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, a two-year-old boy with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia presented to a pediatrist in a medical facility with hyperpyrexia and red skin rash which later changed to black skin rash all over his body. Traditional diagnostic assays were unrevealing, and several routine antimicrobial treatments were ineffective, including the vancomycin, meropenem, tobramycin, cefepime and rifampin. In this case, pediatrist resorted to the next-generation sequencing technology for uncovering potential pathogens so as to direct their use of specific drugs against pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, based on the BGISEQ100 (Ion Proton System) which performed sequencing-by-synthesis, with electrochemical detection of synthesis, and each such reaction coupled to its own sensor, which are in turn organized into a massively parallel sensor array on a complementary metal-oxidesemiconductor chip, we detect and identify the potential pathogens. As a result, we detected a significantly higher abundance of skin bacteria Propionibacterium acnes in patient's blood than controls. It had been reported that patients infected by Propionibacterium acnes almost always had history of

  20. Efficacy of benzoyl peroxide (5.3%) emollient foam and benzoyl peroxide (8%) wash in reducing Propionibacterium acnes on the back.

    PubMed

    Leyden, James J

    2010-06-01

    Topical treatment of acne vulgaris on the back is challenging largely due to the extensive broad surface with difficult to reach areas. A "leave-on" foam is suited for application to the trunk due to ease of application and spreadability. Prior to this trial, no data on Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) reduction on the back has existed for any benzoyl peroxide (BP) formulations or other acne treatments. To evaluate the effectiveness of BP (5.3%) emollient foam and BP (8%) wash in reducing P. acnes levels on the back. Five-week open-label single-center study of 20 healthy subjects (> 18 years old), colonized with P. acnes on their backs (> 10,000 colonies per cm2). Subjects were treated once daily with BP (5.3%) foam for two weeks; no treatment in week 3, and BP (8%) wash once daily for two further weeks. Quantitative bacteriologic cultures obtained at baseline and weeks 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6. Nineteen evaluable patients. Total P. acnes counts were reduced by 1.9 log (one week) and 2.1 log (two weeks) with BP (5.3%) emollient foam. BP (8%) wash did not reduce P. acnes counts after two weeks. BP (5.3%) emollient foam was superior to BP (8%) wash in reducing P. acnes on the back. The lack of effect of BP (8%) wash is surprising in view of the demonstrated results on the face and warrants further study.

  1. The Formulation of Bacteriophage in a Semi Solid Preparation for Control of Propionibacterium acnes Growth

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Teagan L.; Petrovski, Steve; Dyson, Zoe A.; Seviour, Robert; Tucci, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Aims To isolate and characterise phage which could lyse P. acnes and to formulate the phage into a delivery form for potential application in topical treatment of acne infection. Methods and Results Using standard phage isolation techniques, ten phage capable of lysing P. acnes were isolated from human skin microflora. Their genomes showed high homology to previously reported P. acnes phage. These phage were formulated into cetomacrogol cream aqueous at a concentration of 2.5x108 PFU per gram, and shown to lyse underlying P. acnes cells grown as lawn cultures. These phage formulations remained active for at least 90 days when stored at four degrees Celsius in a light protected container. Conclusions P. acnes phage formulated into cetomacrogol cream aqueous will lyse surrounding and underlying P. acnes bacteria, and are effective for at least 90 days if stored appropriately. Significance and Impact of the Study There are few reports of phage formulation into semi solid preparations for application as phage therapy. The formulation method described here could potentially be applied topically to treat human acne infections. The potential exists for this model to be extended to other phage applied to treat other bacterial skin infections. PMID:26964063

  2. Evaluation of in vitro antimicrobial activity of Thai basil oils and their micro-emulsion formulas against Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Viyoch, J; Pisutthanan, N; Faikreua, A; Nupangta, K; Wangtorpol, K; Ngokkuen, J

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Thai basil oils and their micro-emulsions, on in vitro activity against Propionibacterium acnes. An agar disc diffusion method was employed for screening antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil), Ocimum sanctum L. (holy basil) and Ocimum americanum L. (hoary basil) against P. acnes. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the basil oils were determined using an agar dilution assay. The obtained results indicated that the MIC values of sweet basil and holy basil oils were 2.0% and 3.0% v/v, respectively, whereas hoary basil oil did not show activity against P. acnes at the highest concentration tested (5.0% v/v). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that methyl chavicol (93.0%) was the major compound in sweet basil oil, and eugenol (41.5%), gamma-caryophyllene (23.7%) and methyl eugenol (11.8%) were major compounds in holy basil oil. Hoary basil oil contained high amounts of geraniol (32.0%) and neral (27.2%) and small amounts of methyl chavicol (0.8%). The Oil-in-water (o/w) micro-emulsions of individual basil oils with concentrations corresponding to their MIC values were formulated. The stable o/w micro-emulsion system for basil oil consisted of 55.0% v/v water phase, 10.0% v/v oil phase (2.0 or 3.0% v/v sweet basil or 3.0% v/v holy basil oil plus 7.0% v/v isopropyl myristate), 29.2% v/v polysorbate 80 and 5.8% v/v 1,2-propylene glycol. Hydroxyethylcellulose at a concentration of 0.5% w/v was used as thickening agent. According to the disc diffusion assay, the formulations containing sweet basil oil exhibited higher activity against P. acnes than those containing holy basil oil, and the thickened formulations tended to give a lower activity against P. acnes than the non-thickened formulations. The prepared micro-emulsions were stable after being tested by a heat-cool cycling method for five cycles. These findings indicate the possibility to

  3. Plasma Pharmacokinetics of Polyphenols in a Traditional Japanese Medicine, Jumihaidokuto, Which Suppresses Propionibacterium acnes-Induced Dermatitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takashi; Matsubara, Yousuke; Mizuhara, Yasuharu; Sekiguchi, Kyoji; Koseki, Junichi; Tsuchiya, Kazuaki; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Junko; Kaneko, Atsushi; Maemura, Kazuya; Hattori, Tomohisa; Kase, Yoshio

    2015-09-30

    Most orally administered polyphenols are metabolized, with very little absorbed as aglycones and/or unchanged forms. Metabolic and pharmacokinetic studies are therefore necessary to understand the pharmacological mechanisms of polyphenols. Jumihaidokuto (JHT), a traditional Japanese medicine, has been used for treatment of skin diseases including inflammatory acne. Because JHT contains various types of bioactive polyphenols, our aim was to clarify the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of the polyphenols in JHT and identify active metabolites contributing to its antidermatitis effects. Orally administered JHT inhibited the increase in ear thickness in rats induced by intradermal injection of Propionibacterium acnes. Quantification by LC-MS/MS indicated that JHT contains various types of flavonoids and is also rich in hydrolysable tannins, such as 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl glucose. Pharmacokinetic and antioxidant analyses showed that some flavonoid conjugates, such as genistein 7-O-glucuronide and liquiritigenin 7-O-glucuronide, appeared in rat plasma and had an activity to inhibit hydrogen peroxide-dependent oxidation. Furthermore, 4-O-methylgallic acid, a metabolite of Gallic acid, appeared in rat plasma and inhibited the nitric oxide reaction. JHT has numerous polyphenols; it inhibited dermatitis probably via the antioxidant effect of its metabolites. Our study is beneficial for understanding in vivo actions of orally administered polyphenol drugs.

  4. Propionibacterium acnes Recovered from Atherosclerotic Human Carotid Arteries Undergoes Biofilm Dispersion and Releases Lipolytic and Proteolytic Enzymes in Response to Norepinephrine Challenge In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lanter, Bernard B.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, human atherosclerotic carotid arteries were examined following endarterectomy for the presence of the Gram-positive bacterium Propionibacterium acnes and its potential association with biofilm structures within the arterial wall. The P. acnes 16S rRNA gene was detectable in 4 of 15 carotid artery samples, and viable P. acnes was one among 10 different bacterial species recoverable in culture. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of 5 additional atherosclerotic carotid arteries demonstrated biofilm bacteria within all samples, with P. acnes detectable in 4 samples. We also demonstrated that laboratory-grown cultures of P. acnes biofilms were susceptible to induction of a biofilm dispersion response when challenged with physiologically relevant levels of norepinephrine in the presence of iron-bound transferrin or with free iron. The production and release of lipolytic and proteolytic extracellular enzymes by P. acnes were shown to increase in iron-induced dispersed biofilms, and these dispersion-induced P. acnes VP1 biofilms showed increased expression of mRNAs for the triacylglycerol lipases PPA2105 and PPA1796 and the hyaluronate lyase PPA380 compared to that in untreated biofilms. These results demonstrate that P. acnes can infect the carotid arteries of humans with atherosclerosis as a component of multispecies biofilms and that dispersion is inducible for this organism, at least in vitro, with physiologically relevant levels of norepinephrine resulting in the production and release of degradative enzymes. PMID:26216428

  5. Activities of ten essential oils towards Propionibacterium acnes and PC-3, A-549 and MCF-7 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zu, Yuangang; Yu, Huimin; Liang, Lu; Fu, Yujie; Efferth, Thomas; Liu, Xia; Wu, Nan

    2010-04-30

    Ten essential oils, namely, mint (Mentha spicata L., Lamiaceae), ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiberaceae), lemon (Citrus limon Burm.f., Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf., Rutaceae), jasmine (Jasminum grandiflora L., Oleaceae), lavender (Mill., Lamiaceae), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L., Compositae), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae), rose (Rosa damascena Mill., Rosaceae) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum N. Lauraceae) were tested for their antibacterial activities towards Propionibacterium acnes and in vitro toxicology against three human cancer cell lines. Thyme, cinnamon and rose essential oils exhibited the best antibacterial activities towards P. acnes, with inhibition diameters of 40 +/- 1.2 mm, 33.5 +/- 1.5 mm and 16.5 +/- 0.7 mm, and minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.016% (v/v), 0.016% (v/v) and 0.031% (v/v), respectively. Time-kill dynamic procedures showed that thyme, cinnamon, rose, and lavender essential oils exhibited the strongest bactericidal activities at a concentration of 0.25% (v/v), and P. acnes was completely killed after 5 min. The thyme essential oil exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity towards three human cancer cells. Its inhibition concentration 50% (IC(50)) values on PC-3, A549 and MCF-7 tumor cell lines were 0.010% (v/v), 0.011% (v/v) and 0.030% (v/v), respectively. The cytotoxicity of 10 essential oils on human prostate carcinoma cell (PC-3) was significantly stronger than on human lung carcinoma (A549) and human breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines.

  6. Glove Contamination during Endodontic Treatment Is One of the Sources of Nosocomial Endodontic Propionibacterium acnes Infections.

    PubMed

    Niazi, Sadia Ambreen; Vincer, Louise; Mannocci, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    The opportunistic Propionibacterium acnes recovered frequently from failed endodontic treatments might be the result of nosocomial endodontic infections. The study was aimed to determine if gloves worn by dentists could be one of the sources of these nosocomial infections and to investigate the P. acnes phylotypes involved. The cultivable microbiota of gloves (n = 8) at 4 time points (T1, immediately after wearing gloves; T2, after access cavity preparation; T3, after taking a working length/master cone radiograph; and T4, before sealing the cavity) were identified using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. recA gene sequencing of P. acnes isolates was done. The phylogenetic relationship was determined using MEGA 6 (http://www.megasoftware.net/fixedbugs.html; Megasoftware, Tempe, AZ). Data distributions were compared using the Fisher exact test; means were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test in SPSSPC (version 21; IBM, Armonk, NY). The quantitative viable counts at T4 (aerobically [2.93 ± 0.57], anaerobically [3.35 ± 0.43]) were greater (P < .001) than at T1 [(aerobically [0.48 ± 0.73], anaerobically [0.66 ± 0.86]) and T2 (aerobically [1.80 ± 0.54], anaerobically [2.41 ± 0.71]). Eighty cultivable bacterial taxa (5 phyla) were identified. The most prevalent ones were P. acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis (100%). recA gene sequencing (n = 88) revealed 2 phylogenetic lineages with type I split into type IA and type IB. Type II was prevalent on gloves. Contamination of the gloves was detected at the final stages of the treatment. P. acnes and S. epidermidis are the prevalent taxa on gloves and are opportunistic endodontic pathogens. Changing gloves frequently, after gaining access into the pulp space and also after taking the working length/master gutta-percha point radiographs, is likely to reduce the risk of root canal reinfection. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of benzoyl peroxide 9.8% emollient foam on reduction of Propionibacterium acnes on the back using a short contact therapy approach.

    PubMed

    Leyden, James J; Del Rosso, James Q

    2012-07-01

    Benzoyl peroxide (BP) exerts its therapeutic effect for acne vulgaris through reduction of Propionibacterium acnes. A 1.0 to 2.0 log reduction in P acnes has been demonstrated primarily on the face with use of "leave-on" BP formulations, but also with some BP cleansers. In addition to use for facial acne vulgaris, cleanser formulations of BP are commonly used for truncal acne vulgaris due to ease of use on a large body-surface area and to avoid bleaching of fabric. To date, evaluation of P acnes reduction on the trunk has not been well studied with BP formulations, especially with the use of recognized and standardized methods to accurately determine P acnes colony counts. A previous study demonstrated that a BP 8% cleanser did not reduce counts of P acnes on the back when subjects were instructed to apply the cleanser in the shower, allow it to dry for 20 seconds on the skin, and then rinse off the cleanser. Evaluation of specified time intervals between application on the back and rinsing with BP formulations would help to better define the necessary skin contact time associated with high reductions of P acnes (>90%), recognizing also the potential roles of BP concentration and vehicle. This 2 week study using quantitative bacteriologic cultures evaluates the effectiveness of BP 9.8% emollient foam in reducing P acnes levels on the back with 2 minutes of skin contact time and compares results with a BP 5.3% "leave-on" emollient foam formulation. Short contact therapy utilizing a 2 minute skin contact time with BP 9.8% emollient foam used once daily over a 2 week duration was highly effective in reducing the quantity of P acnes organisms on the back and provided comparable colony count reduction to "leave on" therapy using BP 5.3% emollient foam.

  8. The facial red fluorescence of ultraviolet photography: is this color due to Propionibacterium acnes or the unknown content of secreted sebum?

    PubMed

    Youn, Sang Woong; Kim, Jun Hyung; Lee, Jai Eun; Kim, Sun Ok; Park, Kyoung Chan

    2009-05-01

    Red fluorescence of the face induced by ultraviolet light is thought to be due to Propionibacterium acnes. However, recently there are reports correlating this red fluorescence with the amount of facial sebum secretion. This study was performed to investigate the relationship between the areas of facial red fluorescence with culture results of P. acnes and the amount of sebum secretion. Nineteen patients with acne were included. P. acnes cultures were done on specimens obtained from areas with red fluorescence. In addition, the amount of facial sebum secretion and the skin surface pH (SSPH) were measured. Correlation analysis of these parameters and the culture results were performed with the image analysis data from the red fluorescence of the face. P. acnes was cultured in 36.5% of cases. The correlation of the culture rate with the red fluorescence areas was not significant. After classifying the patients into high-sebum and low-sebum groups, there was a significant difference in the red fluorescence areas. In addition, the red fluorescence area correlated with the SSPH. The red fluorescence area showed a stronger correlation with sebum secretion than with the presence of P. acnes. This finding suggests that the red fluorescence is affected by sebum not just P. acnes.

  9. Acne

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Body Looking and feeling your best Acne Acne Whether you call them pimples, zits, or acne, ... treatments? What doesn’t cause acne? What causes acne? top Acne happens when your pores get clogged ...

  10. The Opportunistic Pathogen Propionibacterium acnes: Insights into Typing, Human Disease, Clonal Diversification and CAMP Factor Evolution

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Andrew; Nagy, István; Magyari, Márta; Barnard, Emma; Patrick, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    We previously described a Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) scheme based on eight genes that facilitates population genetic and evolutionary analysis of P. acnes. While MLST is a portable method for unambiguous typing of bacteria, it is expensive and labour intensive. Against this background, we now describe a refined version of this scheme based on two housekeeping (aroE; guaA) and two putative virulence (tly; camp2) genes (MLST4) that correctly predicted the phylogroup (IA1, IA2, IB, IC, II, III), clonal complex (CC) and sequence type (ST) (novel or described) status for 91% isolates (n = 372) via cross-referencing of the four gene allelic profiles to the full eight gene versions available in the MLST database (http://pubmlst.org/pacnes/). Even in the small number of cases where specific STs were not completely resolved, the MLST4 method still correctly determined phylogroup and CC membership. Examination of nucleotide changes within all the MLST loci provides evidence that point mutations generate new alleles approximately 1.5 times as frequently as recombination; although the latter still plays an important role in the bacterium's evolution. The secreted/cell-associated ‘virulence’ factors tly and camp2 show no clear evidence of episodic or pervasive positive selection and have diversified at a rate similar to housekeeping loci. The co-evolution of these genes with the core genome might also indicate a role in commensal/normal existence constraining their diversity and preventing their loss from the P. acnes population. The possibility that members of the expanded CAMP factor protein family, including camp2, may have been lost from other propionibacteria, but not P. acnes, would further argue for a possible role in niche/host adaption leading to their retention within the genome. These evolutionary insights may prove important for discussions surrounding camp2 as an immunotherapy target for acne, and the effect such treatments may have on commensal

  11. Nitric Oxide-Releasing Nanoparticles Prevent Propionibacterium acnes-Induced Inflammation by Both Clearing the Organism and Inhibiting Microbial Stimulation of the Innate Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Qin, Min; Landriscina, Angelo; Rosen, Jamie M; Wei, Gabrielle; Kao, Stephanie; Olcott, William; Agak, George W; Paz, Karin B; Bonventre, Josephine; Clendaniel, Alicea; Harper, Stacey; Adler, Brandon L; Krausz, Aimee E; Friedman, Joel M; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Kim, Jenny; Friedman, Adam J

    2015-11-01

    Propionibacterium acnes induction of IL-1 cytokines through the NLRP3 (NLR, nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptor) inflammasome was recently highlighted as a dominant etiological factor for acne vulgaris. Therefore, therapeutics targeting both the stimulus and the cascade would be ideal. Nitric oxide (NO), a potent biological messenger, has documented broad-spectrum antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties. To harness these characteristics to target acne, we used an established nanotechnology capable of generating/releasing NO over time (NO-np). P. acnes was found to be highly sensitive to all concentrations of NO-np tested, although human keratinocyte, monocyte, and embryonic zebra fish assays revealed no cytotoxicity. NO-np significantly suppressed IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-8, and IL-6 from human monocytes, and IL-8 and IL-6 from human keratinocytes, respectively. Importantly, silencing of NLRP3 expression by small interfering RNA did not limit NO-np inhibition of IL-1 β secretion from monocytes, and neither TNF-α nor IL-6 secretion, nor inhibition by NO-np was found to be dependent on this pathway. The observed mechanism by which NO-np impacts IL-1β secretion was through inhibition of caspase-1 and IL-1β gene expression. Together, these data suggest that NO-np can effectively prevent P. acnes-induced inflammation by both clearing the organism and inhibiting microbial stimulation of the innate immune response.

  12. Nitric Oxide Releasing Nanoparticles prevent Propionibacterium acnes induced inflammation by both clearing the organism and inhibiting microbial stimulation of the innate immune response

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Min; Landriscina, Angelo; Rosen, Jamie; Wei, Gabrielle; Kao, Stephanie; Olcott, William; Agak, George W.; Paz, Karin Blecher; Bonventre, Josephine; Clendaniel, Alicea; Harper, Stacey; Adler, Brandon; Krausz, Aimee; Friedman, Joel; Nosanchuk, Joshua; Kim, Jenny; Friedman, Adam J

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes induction of IL-1 cytokines through the NLRP3 inflammasome was recently highlighted as a dominant etiological factor for acne vulgaris. Therefore, therapeutics targeting both the stimulus and the cascade would be ideal. Nitric oxide (NO), a potent biological messenger, has documented broad-spectrum antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties. To harness these characteristics to target acne, we utilized an established nanotechnology capable of generating/releasing nitric oxide over time (NO-np). P. acnes was found to be highly sensitive to all concentrations of NO-np tested, though human keratinocyte, monocyte, and embryonic zebra fish assays revealed no cytotoxicity. NO-np significantly suppressed IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8 and IL-6 from human monocytes and IL-8 and IL-6 from human keratinocytes respectively. Importantly, silencing of NLRP3 expression by small interfering RNA did not limit NO-np inhibition of IL-1 β secretion from monocytes, and neither TNF-α, nor IL-6 secretion nor inhibition by NO-np was found to be dependent on this pathway. The observed mechanism by which NO-np impacts IL-1β secretion was through inhibition of caspase-1 and IL-1β gene expression. Together, these data suggest that NO-np can effectively prevent P. acnes induced inflammation by both clearing the organism and inhibiting microbial stimulation of the innate immune response. PMID:26172313

  13. A Case of Delayed-Onset Propionibacterium acnes Endophthalmitis after Cataract Surgery with Implantation of a Preloaded Intraocular Lens

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Yuki; Eguchi, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Tatsuro; Inoue, Masayuki; Mitamura, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To report a case of delayed-onset endophthalmitis after implantation of a preloaded intraocular lens (IOL) and examine the surgically removed IOL by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Case A 77-year-old female underwent uneventful phacoemulsification and aspiration with preloaded silicone IOL implantation. Since intraocular inflammation unexpectedly worsened 1 month after the surgery, she was referred to our hospital. Her visual acuity was hand motion in the left eye. Hypopyon and fibrin formation were observed in the anterior chamber. A diagnosis of postoperative delayed-onset endophthalmitis was made, and vitrectomy with anterior chamber wash-out was performed. As intraocular inflammation remained unchanged postoperatively, an additional surgery with IOL removal was performed. We cultivated the surgically removed samples of aqueous humor and vitreous fluid under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, performed 16S rDNA clone library analysis of these clinical samples, and examined the removed IOL by SEM. Result Inflammation subsided after the re-operation. Although cultures of aqueous and vitreous samples were negative, DNA of Propionibacterium acnes was detected in the aqueous humor. The SEM images showed that the rod bacteria and biofilm-like material formed on the tip of the IOL haptic. Conclusion Delayed-onset endophthalmitis may occur after uneventful implantation of a preloaded IOL. The SEM findings suggested that the tip of the preloaded IOL haptic might scratch bacteria which adhered to the tip of the injector nozzle when the IOL was inserted into the anterior chamber. In some cases with delayed-onset endophthalmitis, IOL removal is needed to eliminate the bacteria which adhere to the tip of the IOL haptic. PMID:23275791

  14. Treatment of Leishmania (Leishmania) Amazonensis-Infected Mice with a Combination of a Palladacycle Complex and Heat-Killed Propionibacterium acnes Triggers Protective Cellular Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Paladi, Carolina S.; da Silva, Danielle A. M.; Motta, Priscila D.; Garcia, Daniel M.; Teixeira, Daniela; Longo-Maugéri, Ieda M.; Katz, Simone; Barbiéri, Clara L.

    2017-01-01

    Palladacycle complex DPPE 1.2 was previously reported to inhibit the in vitro and in vivo infection by Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of DPPE 1.2, in association with heat-killed Propionibacterium acnes, on L. (L.) amazonensis infection in two mouse strains, BALB/c and C57BL/6, and to evaluate the immune responses of the treated animals. Foot lesions of L. (L.) amazonensis-infected mice were injected with DPPE 1.2 alone, or associated with P. acnes as an adjuvant. Analysis of T-cell populations in the treated mice and in untreated controls was performed by FACS. Detection of IFN-γ-secreting lymphocytes was carried out by an ELISPOT assay and active TGF-β was measured by means of a double-sandwich ELISA test. The treatment with DPPE 1.2 resulted in a significant reduction of foot lesion sizes and parasite burdens in both mouse strains, and the lowest parasite burden was found in mice treated with DPPE 1.2 plus P. acnes. Mice treated with DPPE 1.2 alone displayed a significant increase of TCD4+ and TCD8+ lymphocytes and IFN-γ secretion which were significantly higher in animals treated with DPPE 1.2 plus P. acnes. A significant reduction of active TGF-β was observed in mice treated with DPPE 1.2 alone or associated with P. acnes. Moreover, DPPE 1.2 associated to P. acnes was non-toxic to treated animals. The destruction of L. (L.) amazonensis by DPPE 1.2 was followed by host inflammatory responses which were exacerbated when the palladacycle complex was associated with P. acnes. PMID:28321209

  15. Treatment of Leishmania (Leishmania) Amazonensis-Infected Mice with a Combination of a Palladacycle Complex and Heat-Killed Propionibacterium acnes Triggers Protective Cellular Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Paladi, Carolina S; da Silva, Danielle A M; Motta, Priscila D; Garcia, Daniel M; Teixeira, Daniela; Longo-Maugéri, Ieda M; Katz, Simone; Barbiéri, Clara L

    2017-01-01

    Palladacycle complex DPPE 1.2 was previously reported to inhibit the in vitro and in vivo infection by Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of DPPE 1.2, in association with heat-killed Propionibacterium acnes, on L. (L.) amazonensis infection in two mouse strains, BALB/c and C57BL/6, and to evaluate the immune responses of the treated animals. Foot lesions of L. (L.) amazonensis-infected mice were injected with DPPE 1.2 alone, or associated with P. acnes as an adjuvant. Analysis of T-cell populations in the treated mice and in untreated controls was performed by FACS. Detection of IFN-γ-secreting lymphocytes was carried out by an ELISPOT assay and active TGF-β was measured by means of a double-sandwich ELISA test. The treatment with DPPE 1.2 resulted in a significant reduction of foot lesion sizes and parasite burdens in both mouse strains, and the lowest parasite burden was found in mice treated with DPPE 1.2 plus P. acnes. Mice treated with DPPE 1.2 alone displayed a significant increase of TCD4(+) and TCD8(+) lymphocytes and IFN-γ secretion which were significantly higher in animals treated with DPPE 1.2 plus P. acnes. A significant reduction of active TGF-β was observed in mice treated with DPPE 1.2 alone or associated with P. acnes. Moreover, DPPE 1.2 associated to P. acnes was non-toxic to treated animals. The destruction of L. (L.) amazonensis by DPPE 1.2 was followed by host inflammatory responses which were exacerbated when the palladacycle complex was associated with P. acnes.

  16. Fermentation of Propionibacterium acnes, a commensal bacterium in the human skin microbiome, as skin probiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Shu, Muya; Wang, Yanhan; Yu, Jinghua; Kuo, Sherwin; Coda, Alvin; Jiang, Yong; Gallo, Richard L; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial interference creates an ecological competition between commensal and pathogenic bacteria. Through fermentation of milk with gut-friendly bacteria, yogurt is an excellent aid to balance the bacteriological ecosystem in the human intestine. Here, we demonstrate that fermentation of glycerol with Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a skin commensal bacterium, can function as a skin probiotic for in vitro and in vivo growth suppression of USA300, the most prevalent community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA). We also promote the notion that inappropriate use of antibiotics may eliminate the skin commensals, making it more difficult to fight pathogen infection. This study warrants further investigation to better understand the role of fermentation of skin commensals in infectious disease and the importance of the human skin microbiome in skin health.

  17. Frequency of Propionibacterium acnes Infection in Prostate Glands with Negative Biopsy Results Is an Independent Risk Factor for Prostate Cancer in Patients with Increased Serum PSA Titers

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Takashi; Uchida, Keisuke; Sekine, Masaki; Nakajima, Yutaka; Furukawa, Asuka; Suzuki, Yoshimi; Kumagai, Jiro; Akashi, Takumi

    2017-01-01

    Background Propionibacterium acnes has recently been implicated as a cause of chronic prostatitis and this commensal bacterium may be linked to prostate carcinogenesis. The occurrence of intracellular P. acnes infection in prostate glands and the higher frequency of P. acnes-positive glands in radical prostatectomy specimens from patients with prostate cancer (PCa) than in those from patients without PCa led us to examine whether the P. acnes-positive gland frequency can be used to assess the risk for PCa in patients whose first prostate biopsy, performed due to an increased prostate-specific antigen (PSA) titer, was negative. Methods We retrospectively collected the first and last prostate biopsy samples from 44 patients that were diagnosed PCa within 4 years after the first negative biopsy and from 36 control patients with no PCa found in repeated biopsy for at least 3 years after the first biopsy. We evaluated P. acnes-positive gland frequency and P. acnes-positive macrophage number using enzyme-immunohistochemistry with a P. acnes-specific monoclonal antibody (PAL antibody). Results The frequency of P. acnes-positive glands was higher in PCa samples than in control samples in both first biopsy samples and in combined first and last biopsy samples (P < 0.001). A frequency greater than the threshold (18.5 and 17.7, respectively) obtained by each receiver operating characteristic curve was an independent risk factor for PCa (P = 0.003 and 0.001, respectively) with odds ratios (14.8 and 13.9, respectively) higher than those of serum PSA titers of patients just before each biopsy (4.6 and 2.3, respectively). The number of P. acnes-positive macrophages did not differ significantly between PCa and control samples. Conclusions These results suggested that the frequency of P. acnes-positive glands in the first negative prostate biopsy performed due to increased PSA titers can be supportive information for urologists in planning repeated biopsy or follow-up strategies

  18. Optimal Length of Cultivation Time for Isolation of Propionibacterium acnes in Suspected Bone and Joint Infections Is More than 7 Days.

    PubMed

    Bossard, Daniel A; Ledergerber, Bruno; Zingg, Patrick O; Gerber, Christian; Zinkernagel, Annelies S; Zbinden, Reinhard; Achermann, Yvonne

    2016-12-01

    Diagnosis of Propionibacterium acnes bone and joint infection is challenging due to the long cultivation time of up to 14 days. We retrospectively studied whether reducing the cultivation time to 7 days allows accurate diagnosis without losing sensitivity. We identified patients with at least one positive P. acnes sample between 2005 and 2015 and grouped them into "infection" and "no infection." An infection was defined when at least two samples from the same case were positive. Clinical and microbiological data, including time to positivity for different cultivation methods, were recorded. We found 70 cases of proven P. acnes infection with a significant faster median time to positivity of 6 days (range, 2 to 11 days) compared to 9 days in 47 cases with P. acnes identified as a contamination (P < 0.0001). In 15 of 70 (21.4%) patients with an infection, tissue samples were positive after day 7 and in 6 patients (8.6%) after day 10 when a blind subculture of the thioglycolate broth was performed. The highest sensitivity was detected for thioglycolate broth (66.3%) and the best positive predictive values for anaerobic agar plates (96.5%). A prolonged transportation time from the operating theater to the microbiological laboratory did not influence time to positivity of P. acnes growth. By reducing the cultivation time to 7 days, false-negative diagnoses would increase by 21.4%; thus, we recommend that biopsy specimens from bone and joint infections be cultivated to detect P. acnes for 10 days with a blind subculture at the end. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Optimal Length of Cultivation Time for Isolation of Propionibacterium acnes in Suspected Bone and Joint Infections Is More than 7 Days

    PubMed Central

    Bossard, Daniel A.; Ledergerber, Bruno; Zingg, Patrick O.; Gerber, Christian; Zinkernagel, Annelies S.; Zbinden, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of Propionibacterium acnes bone and joint infection is challenging due to the long cultivation time of up to 14 days. We retrospectively studied whether reducing the cultivation time to 7 days allows accurate diagnosis without losing sensitivity. We identified patients with at least one positive P. acnes sample between 2005 and 2015 and grouped them into “infection” and “no infection.” An infection was defined when at least two samples from the same case were positive. Clinical and microbiological data, including time to positivity for different cultivation methods, were recorded. We found 70 cases of proven P. acnes infection with a significant faster median time to positivity of 6 days (range, 2 to 11 days) compared to 9 days in 47 cases with P. acnes identified as a contamination (P < 0.0001). In 15 of 70 (21.4%) patients with an infection, tissue samples were positive after day 7 and in 6 patients (8.6%) after day 10 when a blind subculture of the thioglycolate broth was performed. The highest sensitivity was detected for thioglycolate broth (66.3%) and the best positive predictive values for anaerobic agar plates (96.5%). A prolonged transportation time from the operating theater to the microbiological laboratory did not influence time to positivity of P. acnes growth. By reducing the cultivation time to 7 days, false-negative diagnoses would increase by 21.4%; thus, we recommend that biopsy specimens from bone and joint infections be cultivated to detect P. acnes for 10 days with a blind subculture at the end. PMID:27733637

  20. Correlation between Phylogroups and Intracellular Proteomes of Propionibacterium acnes and Differences in the Protein Expression Profiles between Anaerobically and Aerobically Grown Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dekio, Itaru; Culak, Renata; Ball, Graham; Gharbia, Saheer; Shah, Haroun N.

    2013-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is one of the dominant commensals on the human skin and also an opportunistic pathogen in relation to acne, sarcoidosis, prostate cancer, and various infections. Recent investigations using housekeeping and virulence genes have revealed that the species consists of three major evolutionary clades (types I, II, and III). In order to investigate protein expression differences between these phylogroups, proteomic profiles of 21 strains of P. acnes were investigated. The proteins extracted from cells cultured under anaerobic and aerobic conditions were analysed using a SELDI-TOF mass spectrometer, high-resolution capillary gel electrophoresis, and LC-MS/ MS. The SELDI spectral profiles were visualised as a heat map and a dendrogram, which resulted in four proteomic groups. Strains belonging to type I were represented in the proteome Group A, while Group B contained type III strains. Groups C and D contained mixtures of types I and II. Each of these groups was not influenced by differences in culture conditions. Under anoxic growth conditions, a type IB strain yielded high expressions of some proteins, such as methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase and the Christie-Atkins-Munch-Petersen (CAMP) factor. The present study revealed good congruence between genomic and proteomic data suggesting that the microenvironment of each subtype may influence protein expression. PMID:23878795

  1. MIS416, a non-toxic microparticle adjuvant derived from Propionibacterium acnes comprising immunostimulatory muramyl dipeptide and bacterial DNA promotes cross-priming and Th1 immunity.

    PubMed

    Girvan, Rebecca C; Knight, Deborah A; O'Loughlin, Chris J; Hayman, Colin M; Hermans, Ian F; Webster, Gill A

    2011-01-10

    Propionibacterium acnes was modified using biochemical extraction methods generating a suspension of microparticles (MIS416) comprising a minimal cell wall skeleton rich in immunostimulatory crosslinked muramyl dipeptide repeats and native bacterial DNA fragments, each which have known adjuvant activity. In vitro studies demonstrated that MIS416 was readily internalized by human myeloid and plasmacytoid DC inducing cytokine secretion and cell activation/maturation. Vaccination studies in mice using OVA as a model antigen demonstrated that MIS416 acts as a Th1 adjuvant, promoting cross-priming of cytotoxic CD8(+) T cell responses and enhanced anti-tumour immunity. Covalent attachment of OVA to MIS416 enabling simultaneous delivery of antigen and adjuvant to the antigen presentation system resulted in a dose-sparing vaccine formulation. Preclinical GLP toxicology studies demonstrated that MIS416 has a favorable safety profile in mouse and rabbit supporting its use in human vaccine formulations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Susceptibility of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis to killing by MPO-halide system products. Implication for taurine bromamine as a new candidate for topical therapy in treating acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Marcinkiewicz, Janusz; Biedroń, Rafał; Białecka, Anna; Kasprowicz, Andrzej; Mak, Monika; Targosz, Marta

    2006-01-01

    Taurine chloramine (TauCl) and taurine bromamine (TauBr) are the main haloamines produced by activated neutrophils. TauCl exerts both anti-inflammatory and microbicidal activities. Clinical studies showed that TauCl may be useful as an antimicrobial agent in the local treatment of infections. Much less is known about TauBr. Circumstantial evidence suggests that Propionibacterium acnes (PA) has a role in the inflammation of acne. Available topical therapies include antimicrobial agents which reduce total PA numbers and anti-inflammatory agents which suppress activity of the cells present in acne inflammatory lesions. In this study the bactericidal activities of TauBr and TauCl against PA and Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE), as a control strain, were investigated. Moreover, the influence of these haloamines on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by activated neutrophils was also tested. TauBr and TauCl were prepared by reaction of taurine with HOBr and HOCl, respectively. The reaction was monitored by UV absorption spectra. The bactericidal activities of TauBr and TauCl were determined by the pourplate method. The generation of ROS by neutrophils was determined by luminol chemiluminescence assay. In our experimental set-up, TauBr showed stronger antibacterial activity than TauCl. Interestingly, PA was significantly more susceptible to TauBr than SE was. Moreover, TauBr at non-cytotoxic concentrations significantly reduced ROS generation by neutrophils. Since PA is considered to be an etiological agent in acne and ROS are closely correlated with the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin diseases, the reported data suggest that TauBr may be a good candidate for the topical therapy for acne vulgaris.

  3. Comparative In Vitro Activities of Retapamulin (SB-275833) against 141 Clinical Isolates of Propionibacterium spp., Including 117 P. acnes Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Warren, Yumi A.; Tyrrell, Kerin L.; Fernandez, Helen T.

    2006-01-01

    Using the NCCLS agar dilution method, we studied the in vitro activity of retapamulin (SB-275833) against 141 clinical isolates of Propionibacterium species, including seven multiresistant strains, and found retapamulin to be the most active agent among those tested with MICs of ≤1 μg/ml against all isolates. PMID:16377717

  4. Low-intensity LED (625 and 405 nm) and laser (805 nm) killing of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchina, Elena S.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2009-02-01

    In the present work we have investigated in vitro sensitivity of microorganisms P. acnes and S. epidermidis to action of red (625 nm and 405 nm) and infrared (805 nm) radiations in combination with photosensitizes Methylene Blue and Indocyanine Green.

  5. Acne

    MedlinePlus

    ... ones to see which helps. Products with benzoyl peroxide (say: BEN-zoil peh - ROK - side) or salicylic ( ... are usually pretty helpful for treating acne. Benzoyl peroxide kills the bacteria that can lead to acne ...

  6. Acne

    MedlinePlus

    Acne is a common skin disease that causes pimples. Pimples form when hair follicles under your skin ... neck, back, chest, and shoulders. Anyone can get acne, but it is common in teenagers and young ...

  7. Yeast cell surface display of linoleic acid isomerase from Propionibacterium acnes and its application for the production of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    He, Xihong; Shang, Jiling; Li, Fan; Liu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a family of geometric and positional isomers of linoleic acid, has many health-promoting properties. Different isomers of CLA may have very different physiological effects. In the current work, we explore the possibility to produce single isomer of CLA by using biocatalysis based on displayed biocatalysts on the yeast cell surfaces. A reporter system used to assess gene expression and protein distribution was established by combining the egfp gene to the N-terminus of Propionibacterium acnes pai gene encoding the linoleic isomerase onto vector pYD1. After induction of the yeast strains containing pYD1::egfp::pai with galactose, strong green fluorescence was observed on the surface of cells, demonstrating that the fusion protein was successfully displayed. Using the engineered strains as whole-cell biocatalyst, trans-10, cis-12 CLA was detected in the reaction mixture. To improve the biocatalytic potential of this system, the first 20 amino codons of pai were modified, and the catalytic reaction conditions were optimized. Optimization of the codon usage resulted in 35% increase of CLA production, and the maximum yield of CLA was observed within 20 H in the optimal conditions: pH 7.0, 4 mg/mL linoleic acid, 37 °C. The system established in the present work can guide the development of biocatalytic strategies to produce trans-10, cis-12 CLA single isomer. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Acne

    MedlinePlus

    ... There are many myths about what causes acne. Chocolate and greasy foods are often blamed, but there ... can lead to the development of scars or dark blotches. Shave Carefully Test both electric and safety ...

  9. Acne

    MedlinePlus

    ... with your doctor about your treatment plan. Can birth control pills help treat acne? For women who break out mainly around their menstrual cycle, some birth control pills can help. Research shows that these pills ...

  10. Antibiotic Resistance in Acne Treatment.

    PubMed

    Adler, Brandon L; Kornmehl, Heather; Armstrong, April W

    2017-08-01

    What is the evidence for antibiotic resistance in acne, and how does resistance affect treatment? Use of topical and systemic antibiotics for acne is associated with formation of resistance in Propionibacterium acnes and other bacteria, with clinical consequences. Guidelines recommend resistance reduction strategies including avoidance of antibiotic monotherapy, combination treatment with topical modalities, and limiting the duration of oral antibiotic use.

  11. Acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Williams, Hywel C; Dellavalle, Robert P; Garner, Sarah

    2012-01-28

    Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit resulting from androgen-induced increased sebum production, altered keratinisation, inflammation, and bacterial colonisation of hair follicles on the face, neck, chest, and back by Propionibacterium acnes. Although early colonisation with P acnes and family history might have important roles in the disease, exactly what triggers acne and how treatment affects the course of the disease remain unclear. Other factors such as diet have been implicated, but not proven. Facial scarring due to acne affects up to 20% of teenagers. Acne can persist into adulthood, with detrimental effects on self-esteem. There is no ideal treatment for acne, although a suitable regimen for reducing lesions can be found for most patients. Good quality evidence on comparative effectiveness of common topical and systemic acne therapies is scarce. Topical therapies including benzoyl peroxide, retinoids, and antibiotics when used in combination usually improve control of mild to moderate acne. Treatment with combined oral contraceptives can help women with acne. Patients with more severe inflammatory acne usually need oral antibiotics combined with topical benzoyl peroxide to decrease antibiotic-resistant organisms. Oral isotretinoin is the most effective therapy and is used early in severe disease, although its use is limited by teratogenicity and other side-effects. Availability, adverse effects, and cost, limit the use of photodynamic therapy. New research is needed into the therapeutic comparative effectiveness and safety of the many products available, and to better understand the natural history, subtypes, and triggers of acne. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Infections caused by Propionibacterium species.

    PubMed

    Brook, I; Frazier, E H

    1991-01-01

    Eight hundred and sixteen isolates of Propionibacterium species (725 of which were Propionibacterium acnes) were isolated from 3,971 specimens submitted for the identification of anaerobic bacteria over the course of 10 years. A total of 94 Propionibacterium isolates (12%) identified in 92 patients were considered to cause infection. The rest of the isolates were determined to be contaminants or of uncertain pathogenic significance. Significant infections caused by Propionibacterium species were associated with the blood in 15 patients, central nervous system in 11, lymph glands in 10, abscesses in eight, joints in seven, wounds in seven, cysts in six, and sinuses in five. Predisposing or underlying conditions were noted in 66 patients (70%). The most common conditions were the presence of foreign bodies (29 patients), diabetes (12), previous surgery (10), trauma (seven), malignancy (seven), immunodeficiency (seven), and steroid therapy (four). Antimicrobial therapy was administered to 83 patients; for 47 patients this therapy was given in conjunction with surgical drainage or correction. Surgical drainage alone was performed in nine patients. Five patients (5%) died. These data illustrate that although Propionibacterium species are rarely associated with infections, these organisms can occasionally cause serious infections.

  13. Epidemiology of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Bhate, K; Williams, H C

    2013-03-01

    Despite acne being an almost universal condition in younger people, relatively little is known about its epidemiology. We sought to review what is known about the distribution and causes of acne by conducting a systematic review of relevant epidemiological studies. We searched Medline and Embase to the end of November 2011. The role of Propionibacterium acnes in pathogenesis is unclear: antibiotics have a direct antimicrobial as well as an anti-inflammatory effect. Moderate-to-severe acne affects around 20% of young people and severity correlates with pubertal maturity. Acne may be presenting at a younger age because of earlier puberty. It is unclear if ethnicity is truly associated with acne. Black individuals are more prone to postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and specific subtypes such as 'pomade acne'. Acne persists into the 20s and 30s in around 64% and 43% of individuals, respectively. The heritability of acne is almost 80% in first-degree relatives. Acne occurs earlier and is more severe in those with a positive family history. Suicidal ideation is more common in those with severe compared with mild acne. In the U.S.A., the cost of acne is over 3 billion dollars per year in terms of treatment and loss of productivity. A systematic review in 2005 found no clear evidence of dietary components increasing acne risk. One small randomized controlled trial showed that low glycaemic index (GI) diets can lower acne severity. A possible association between dairy food intake and acne requires closer scrutiny. Natural sunlight or poor hygiene are not associated. The association between smoking and acne is probably due to confounding. Validated core outcomes in future studies will help in combining future evidence. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  14. Emerging drugs for acne.

    PubMed

    James, Kirk A; Burkhart, Craig N; Morrell, Dean S

    2009-12-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin disorder that affects most individuals at some point in their lives. It may result in significant morbidity, including cutaneous scarring and psychological impairment. Current treatments include topical retinoids, benzoyl peroxide, topical and systemic antibiotics, and systemic isotretinoin. There are growing concerns of rising antibiotic resistance, significant side effects of isotretinoin therapy, and lack of safe and effective treatment for pregnant females. Recent advances in the pathogenesis of acne have led to a greater understanding of the underlying inflammatory mechanisms and the role the Propionibacterium acnes and biofilms. This has led to the development of new therapeutic targets. This article reviews emerging treatments of acne, including topical picolinic acid, topical antibiotic dapsone, systemic zinc salts, oral antibiotic lymecycline, new formulations of and synergistic combinations of benzoyl peroxide, photodynamic therapy with topical photosensitizers and potential acne vaccines.

  15. Lymphocyte transformation in subjects with nodulo cystic acne.

    PubMed

    Puhvel, S M; Amirian, D; Weintraub, J; Reisner, R M

    1977-08-01

    Patients with severe nodulo-cystic acne are known to have elevated serum antibody levels and increased immediate hypersensitivity reactions to Propionibacterium acnes. This organism is the predominant bacterium in normal pilosebaceous follicles of human skin, and can be consistently isolated from pustular lesions in acne. Previously it had been observed that delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions to P. acnes were negative in patients with acne. The present study investigated the proliferative response of lymphocytes from patients with nodulo-cystic acne to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and P. acnes antigen stimulation. The response to PHA stimulation was within normal limits. The response to P. acnes antigen showed a significant increase over control values obtained by testing lymphocytes from acne-free subjects. Thus cell mediated immunity to P. acnes may be present in subjects with severe inflammatory acne. These findings raise the possibility that reactions to P. acnes may contribute to intensifying the inflammatory response in acne lesions.

  16. Propionibacterium namnetense sp. nov., isolated from a human bone infection.

    PubMed

    Aubin, Guillaume Ghislain; Bémer, Pascale; Kambarev, Stanimir; Patel, Nisha B; Lemenand, Olivier; Caillon, Jocelyne; Lawson, Paul A; Corvec, Stéphane

    2016-09-01

    A polyphasic taxonomic study was performed on two Gram-positive-staining, anaerobic, pleomorphic, rod-shaped strains isolated from human bone and tissue samples. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that the strains belong to a novel species within the genus Propionibacterium, most closely related to Propionibacterium acnes subsp. acnes and Propionibacterium acnes subsp. elongatum with similarity values of 98.4 % and 98.1 %, respectively. In addition, protein-coding genes for rpoB, recA and gyrB clearly separated the novel organism from all species and subspecies of the genus Propionibacterium. However, a DNA-DNA hybridization analysis between the novel organism and the type strain P. acnes ATCC 6919T revealed a value of only 61.1 %. Furthermore, whole genome analysis using the program OrthoANI gave a value of 88.5 %, which is significantly below the cut-off value of 95 % for species delineation. The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0. The DNA G+C content of the type strain was 59.7 mol%. When taken collectively, phenotypic, molecular genetic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic information demonstrate that the organism represents a distinct, albeit close relative of P. acnes On the basis of the results presented, the organism represents a novel member of the genus Propionibacterium for which the name Propionibacterium namnetense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NTS 31307302T (=DSM 29427T=CCUG 66358T).

  17. High incidence of periprosthetic joint infection with propionibacterium acnes after the use of a stemless shoulder prosthesis with metaphyseal screw fixation - a retrospective cohort study of 241 patients propionibacter infections after eclipse TSA.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Lisa; Hailer, Nils P; Rahme, Hans

    2017-05-19

    A stemless shoulder prosthesis with humeral metaphyseal screw fixation was introduced in order to save bone-stock and to facilitate reconstruction of biomechanics (Eclipse®). The aim of this study was to analyze whether the risk of infection is different with this implant compared to conventional shoulder prosthesis. Two hundred and forty-one patients (54.8% females) were operated with a shoulder arthroplasty and followed for median 2.0 (0.1-5.7) years. One hundred and two (42.3%) had received an Eclipse® prosthesis, the remaining patients were operated with other implants. There was an overrepresentation of males in the Eclipse® group (63.7% males) when compared with the control group (31.7% males). In the Eclipse® group 10 (9.8%) patients developed a periprosthetic joint infection, as opposed to 1 (0.7%) in the control group. The most common bacteria was Propionibacterium acnes. Unadjusted infection-free survival after 4 years was 88.8% (CI 82.5-95.7) for Eclipse® patients and 95.7% (CI 87.7-100.0) for controls (p = 0.002). After adjustment for age, gender, diagnosis, and type of shoulder prosthesis (total or hemi), the risk ratio for revision due to infection was 4.3 (CI 0.5-39.1) for patients with the Eclipse® prosthesis. Deep infections seem to be more common after the use of the metaphyseally fixed Eclipse® prosthesis than after conventional shoulder implants, but a predominance of male gender and younger age in the Eclipse group may have biased our findings. Future studies on larger cohorts and in vitro investigations on bacterial adherence and biofilm formation are needed. The study was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration. The local ethics board (Regionala Etikprövningsnämnden Stockholm) approved the study (Approval number 2015/1590-31, date of issue 2015-10-14). Retrospectively registered.

  18. Acne and Rosacea.

    PubMed

    Picardo, Mauro; Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Tan, Jerry

    2017-01-01

    Acne, one of the most common skin diseases, affects approximately 85% of the adolescent population, and occurs most prominently at skin sites with a high density of sebaceous glands such as the face, back, and chest. Although often considered a disease of teenagers, acne is occurring at an increasingly early age. Rosacea is a chronic facial inflammatory dermatosis characterized by flushing (or transient facial erythema), persistent central facial erythema, inflammatory papules/pustules, and telangiectasia. Both acne and rosacea have a multifactorial pathology that is incompletely understood. Increased sebum production, keratinocyte hyper-proliferation, inflammation, and altered bacterial colonization with Propionibacterium acnes are considered to be the underlying disease mechanisms in acne, while the multifactorial pathology of rosacea is thought to involve both vasoactive and neurocutaneous mechanisms. Several advances have taken place in the past decade in the research field of acne and rosacea, encompassing pathogenesis and epidemiology, as well as the development of new therapeutic interventions. In this article, we provide an overview of current perspectives on the pathogenesis and treatment of acne and rosacea, including a summary of findings from recent landmark pathophysiology studies considered to have important implications for future clinical practice. The advancement of our knowledge of the different pathways and regulatory mechanisms underlying acne and rosacea is thought to lead to further advances in the therapeutic pipeline for both conditions, ultimately providing a greater array of treatments to address gaps in current management practices.

  19. Pathogenesis of acne vulgaris: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Bhambri, Sanjay; Del Rosso, James Q; Bhambri, Avani

    2009-07-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common disorder seen in ambulatory dermatology practice. Acne causes significant morbidity and the direct costs associated with it exceed $2.2 billion per year in the United States (U.S.). The pathogenesis is multifactorial, and our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of acne lesions has improved with time. Follicular hyperkeratinization, sebum production, presence of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), inflammatory mediators, and androgens have been identified as key components of acne pathophysiology. Recent advances have been made in this area with the discovery of P. acnes interaction with Toll-like receptors (TLRs), vaccines targeting P. acnes or its components, antimicrobial peptides and the role of hormones.

  20. Pathogenesis of acne.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, M; Morohashi, M

    2001-03-01

    Acne vulgaris is a skin disorder of the sebaceous follicles that commonly occurs in adolescence and in young adulthood. The major pathogenic factors involved are hyperkeratinization, obstruction of sebaceous follicles resulting from abnormal keratinization of the infundibular epithelium, stimulation of sebaceous gland secretion by androgens, and microbial colonization of pilosebaceous units by Propionibacterium acnes, which promotes perifollicular inflammation. The clinical presentation of acne can range from a mild comedonal form to severe inflammatory cystic acne of the face, chest, and back. At the ultrastructural level, follicular keratinocytes in comedones can be seen to possess increased numbers of desmosomes and tonofilaments, which result in ductal hypercornification. The increased activity of sebaceous glands elicited by androgen causes proliferation of P. acnes, an anaerobe present within the retained sebum in the pilosebaceous ducts. The organism possesses a ribosome-rich cytoplasm and a relatively thick cell wall, and produces several biologically active mediators that may contribute to inflammation, for instance, by promoting leukocyte migration and follicular rupture. In inflamed lesions, numerous neutrophils and macrophages infiltrate around hair follicles and sometimes phagocytose P. acnes. To examine the participation of neurogenic factors in the pathogenesis of acne, we quantitatively assessed the effects of neuropeptides on the morphology of sebaceous glands in vitro using electron microscopy. Substance P, which can be elicited by stress, promoted the development of cytoplasmic organelles in sebaceous cells, stimulated sebaceous germinative cells, and induced significant increases in the area of sebaceous glands. It also increased the size of individual sebaceous cells and the number of sebum vacuoles for each differentiated sebaceous cell, all of which suggests that substance P promotes both the proliferation and the differentiation of sebaceous

  1. Isotretinoin and lymecycline treatments modify the skin microbiota in acne.

    PubMed

    Kelhälä, Hanna-Leena; Aho, Velma T E; Fyhrquist, Nanna; Pereira, Pedro A B; Kubin, Minna E; Paulin, Lars; Palatsi, Riitta; Auvinen, Petri; Tasanen, Kaisa; Lauerma, Antti

    2017-06-21

    Oral retinoids and tetracyclines have a major role in acne treatment. Here, we report for the first time the effect of isotretinoin and lymecycline therapy on the skin microbiota in cheek, back and armpit swab samples of acne vulgaris patients using 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene amplicon sequencing. Propionibacterium acnes was the most common in sebaceous areas of healthy and untreated acne skin and more abundant in back than cheek samples. Five taxa, including a Streptococcus taxon, differed significantly between the cheek samples of healthy controls and acne patients, and acne severity was positively correlated with the abundance of Propionibacterium. Both treatments reduced clinical acne grades and the abundance of Propionibacterium, while the abundance of several other taxa was significantly higher in treated cheek samples compared with untreated ones. Less variation was observed in back samples and none in armpit samples. There were no differences in alpha diversity between control and acne patients in any of the sampled skin areas, but the diversity of the microbiota on the cheek and the back was significantly increased after acne treatments. This study provides insight into the skin microbiota in acne and how it is modulated by systemic acne treatment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Inflammation and acne: putting the pieces together.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Alison; Huynh, Tu T

    2014-04-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin disease in which abnormal desquamation, excess sebum production, proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes, and production of proinflammatory mediators all contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. A review of the literature shows that our current understanding of acne pathogenesis continues to evolve. Recent data suggests that inflammatory mediators may play a more important role than previously realized; however, how these mediators work independently as well as together in acne lesion progression is not well understood. Several cell types and mediators involved in the pathology of acne are responsible for producing or exacerbating an inflammatory response. Here, we present an updated theoretical model of acne lesion progression that highlights the role inflammatory mediators may play throughout acne lesion development.

  3. Investigating the Stability of Benzoyl Peroxide in Over-the-Counter Acne Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittredge, Marina Canepa; Kittredge, Kevin W.; Sokol, Melissa S.; Sarquis, Arlyne M.; Sennet, Laura M.

    2008-01-01

    One of the most commonly used ingredients in over-the-counter acne treatments in cream, gel, and wash form is benzoyl peroxide. It is an anti-bacterial agent that kills the bacterium ("Propionibacterium acne") involved in the formation of acne. The formulation of these products is extremely difficult owing to the instability of benzoyl peroxide.…

  4. Investigating the Stability of Benzoyl Peroxide in Over-the-Counter Acne Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittredge, Marina Canepa; Kittredge, Kevin W.; Sokol, Melissa S.; Sarquis, Arlyne M.; Sennet, Laura M.

    2008-01-01

    One of the most commonly used ingredients in over-the-counter acne treatments in cream, gel, and wash form is benzoyl peroxide. It is an anti-bacterial agent that kills the bacterium ("Propionibacterium acne") involved in the formation of acne. The formulation of these products is extremely difficult owing to the instability of benzoyl peroxide.…

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Highly Rifampin-Resistant Propionibacterium namnetense NTS 31307302T Isolated from a Patient with a Bone Infection

    PubMed Central

    Aubin, Guillaume Ghislain; Kambarev, Stanimir; Bémer, Pascale; Lawson, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Propionibacterium namnetense was recently described as a potential bone pathogen, which is closely related to Propionibacterium acnes, a skin commensal microorganism. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the highly rifampin-resistant strain NTS 31307302T isolated from a patient with a tibia infection. PMID:27516511

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Highly Rifampin-Resistant Propionibacterium namnetense NTS 31307302T Isolated from a Patient with a Bone Infection.

    PubMed

    Aubin, Guillaume Ghislain; Kambarev, Stanimir; Bémer, Pascale; Lawson, Paul A; Corvec, Stéphane

    2016-08-11

    Propionibacterium namnetense was recently described as a potential bone pathogen, which is closely related to Propionibacterium acnes, a skin commensal microorganism. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the highly rifampin-resistant strain NTS 31307302(T) isolated from a patient with a tibia infection.

  7. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate improves acne in humans by modulating intracellular molecular targets and inhibiting P. acnes.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ji Young; Kwon, Hyuck Hoon; Min, Seong Uk; Thiboutot, Diane M; Suh, Dae Hun

    2013-02-01

    Acne vulgaris is a highly prevalent skin disorder characterized by hyperseborrhea, inflammation, and Propionibacterium acnes overgrowth. Only isotretinoin and hormonal therapy reduce sebum production. To identify a new drug candidate that modulates sebum, we examined the effects of EGCG, the major polyphenol in green tea, on human SEB-1 sebocytes and in patients with acne. In SEB-1 sebocytes, we found that EGCG reduced sebum by modulating the AMPK-SREBP-1 signaling pathway. EGCG also reduces inflammation by suppressing the NF-κB and AP-1 pathways. EGCG also induces cytotoxicity of SEB-1 sebocytes via apoptosis and decreases the viability of P. acnes, thus targeting almost all the pathogenic features of acne. Finally, and most importantly, EGCG significantly improved acne in an 8-week randomized, split-face, clinical trial, and was well tolerated. Our data provide a therapeutic rationale for the use of EGCG in acne.

  8. Acne and diet: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Rezaković, Saida; Bukvić Mokos, Zrinka; Basta-Juzbašić, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Acne is a common skin disorder characterized by follicular hyperkeratinization and obstruction of the pilosebaceous follicles, androgen stimulated sebum production, colonization of the follicles by Propionibacterium acne, and inflammation. A large number of epidemiological studies have shown a low incidence of acne in non-Western societies, suggesting that diet might be an important factor in acne pathogenesis, particularly in mediating inflammation, oxidative stress and androgen stimulation in the acne process. Consequently, it has been hypothesized that diet might have a preventive or therapeutic effect in this skin disorder. Since the majority of recent data have not been consistent, the aim of this article is to present current knowledge and scientific assumptions on the relationship between diet and acne.

  9. Genetic architecture of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Lichtenberger, Ramtin; Simpson, Michael A; Smith, Catherine; Barker, Jonathan; Navarini, Alexander A

    2017-06-07

    Acne vulgaris is a ubiquitary skin disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the pilosebaceous unit resulting from bacterial colonization of hair follicles by Propionibacterium acnes, androgen-induced increased sebum production, altered keratinization and inflammation. Here we review our current understanding of the genetic architecture of this intriguing disease and want to show rare and corresponding diseases like PCOS with acne vulgaris. We conducted a data research identifying genome-wide association studies (GWAS), candidate genes studies as case reports for acne vulgaris. Moreover, we included GWAS for the PCOS as it revealed shared genes with acne vulgaris. The data research revealed from different ethnic populations sixteen genes with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), two repeat polymorphisms, one gene mutation as five diseases associated with acne vulgaris. Moreover, the GWAS PCOS identified twenty-six SNPs from twenty-one susceptible loci. The genetic architecture is complex which has been revealed by GWAS. Further and larger studies in different populations are required to confirm or disprove results from candidate gene studies as well to identify signals that may overlap between different populations. Finally, studies on rare genetic variants in acne and associated diseases like PCOS may deepen our understanding of its pathogenesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Cosmeceuticals based on Rhealba(®) Oat plantlet extract for the treatment of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Fabbrocini, G; Saint Aroman, M

    2014-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that acne vulgaris begins as an inflammation in and around the sebaceous gland and alterations in the lipid content of sebum, which drive hyperproliferation and increased desquamation of keratinocytes within sebaceous follicles. This prevents sebum drainage, causing the formation of microcomedones, which spontaneously regress or become acne lesions when the pilosebaceous unit is further blocked by the accumulation of corneocytes. These conditions are favourable for the proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes, which further aggravates acne by enhancing abnormal desquamation, sebum production and inflammation. Also, skin fragility due to inflammation or irritation by anti-comedogenic agents can worsen the situation. Rhealba(®) Oat plantlet extract (Pierre Fabre Dermo Cosmetique) soothes and restores fragile skin in acne by reducing inflammation and inhibits bacterial adhesion of Propionibacterium acnes. Cosmeceuticals combining Rhealba(®) Oat plantlet extract and hydro-compensating actives, which are available with or without anti-comedogenic hydroxy acids, provide a balanced, multifaceted approach for acne patients.

  11. [Uncommon acne-associated syndromes and their significance in understanding the pathogenesis of acne].

    PubMed

    Hong, J-B; Prucha, H; Melnik, B; Ziai, M; Ring, J; Chen, W

    2013-04-01

    Acne is an intriguing model for the study of interactions between hormones, innate immunity, inflammation and wound healing (scarring). The manifestations and involvement of acne in different systemic diseases and some rare syndromes demonstrate its multifaceted nature. Synovitis-Acne-Pustulosis-Hyperostosis-Osteitis (SAPHO) and Pyogenic Arthritis-Pyoderma gangrenosum-Acne (PAPA) syndromes, both regarded as autoinflammatory diseases, highlight the attributes of inflammation in acne. While SAPHO syndrome can be used to explore the pathogenic role of Propionibacterium acnes in acne, PAPA syndrome and Apert syndrome can help understand the genetic influence on acne. The genetic defects in the gain-of-function of FGFR2 mutations in Apert syndrome and acne nevus of Munro lend further support to the hypothesis that the interaction of forkhead box class O (FoxOs)-mediated transcriptional regulation with androgen receptor transactivation and insulin/insulin like growth factor-1(IGF-1)-signaling is crucial in acne pathogenesis. Novel biologics, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blockers and IL-1 inhibitors, appear promising in opposing the inflammation associated with SAPHO and PAPA syndromes, but it remains to seen if they can also improve severe acne particularly in the long term.

  12. Benzoyl peroxide: enhancing antibiotic efficacy in acne management.

    PubMed

    Dutil, Maha

    2010-01-01

    Benzoyl peroxide is one of the most widely used topical agents for acne. It has potent antibacterial and mild anti-inflammatory and comedolytic effects. To treat mild to moderate acne, it can be used alone or in combination with topical antibiotics and topical retinoids. The combination of benzoyl peroxide with either erythromycin or clindamycin is synergistic and well-tolerated. In more severe acne, when oral antibiotics are required, benzoyl peroxide can contribute to suppressing the emergence of resistant strains of Propionibacterium acnes.

  13. Newer approaches in topical combination therapy for acne.

    PubMed

    Fu, Lisa W; Vender, Ronald B

    2011-10-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common chronic inflammatory cutaneous disease involving the pilosebaceous unit. Its pathophysiology is multifactorial and complex, including obstruction of the pilosebaceous unit due to increased sebum production, abnormal keratinization, proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), and inflammation. Topical agents are the most commonly used therapy for acne. First generation topicals mainly consist of single agent retinoids, benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and antibacterials that target comedones, P. acnes, and inflammation. Novel topical therapies include combination products with advanced vehicle formulations that target multiple acne pathophysiologies and offer simplified treatment regimes. For example, the combination of clindamycin and tretinoin in a unique vehicle formulation allows for progressive follicle penetration and decreased irritation, resulting in increased efficacy. Furthermore, adapalene or clindamycin with BPO combinations target comedones, inflammation, and P. acnes synergistically. These newer combination products have the potential to increase both efficacy and patient adherence when compared with single agent treatment.

  14. Photodynamic therapy in the management of acne: an update.

    PubMed

    Elsaie, Mohamed L; Choudhary, Sonal

    2010-09-01

    Acne, one of the most common dermatological diseases, is characterized by inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions that may progress to scars. Starting from pubertal age groups, it can affect adults in the age group 35-40 or more. The conventional therapies for treatment of acne are facing roadblocks because of the antibiotic resistance developing against Propionibacterium acnes. This has led to trying new therapies, of which photodynamic therapy (PDT) seems to be the one under intensive study. Promising results have been observed with PDT use in acne treatment, but it still has some more way to go to acquire the FDA approval for use in acne treatment. This is a review of the literature of use of PDT in treatment of acne, providing a starting point for dermatologists seeking to treat their patients with acne safely and effectively with this new method.

  15. [Proof of the effectiveness of a clotrimazole cream paste in acne vulgaris].

    PubMed

    Huber, H P; Nook, T

    1986-03-01

    The efficacy of Clotrimazol cream paste containing a penetration enhancer in the treatment of acne vulgaris was objectified by investigating the sebum composition. Following treatment over three and six weeks, the ratio of triglyceride to free fatty acid significantly increased, which indicated an effective reduction of the lipase activity of Propionibacterium acnes within the sebaceous follicle.

  16. [Acne tarda. Acne in adults].

    PubMed

    Jansen, T; Janßen, O E; Plewig, G

    2013-04-01

    Acne is one of the most common skin diseases in the general population, especially among adolescents. Acne tarda (adult acne) is defined as acne that develops (late-onset acne) or continues (persistent acne) after 25 years of age. The disease is more common in women. The clinical features are quite specific: inflammatory acne in the lower facial region or macrocomedones (microcysts) spread over the face. Involvement of the trunk is much more common in men. The etiology of acne tarda is still controversial, as cosmetics, drugs, smoking, stress, diet, and endocrine abnormalities have been implicated. Women with acne tarda and other symptoms of hyperandrogenism have a high probability of endocrine abnormalities such as polycystic ovary syndrome. Treatment is similar to that of acne in adolescence. Long-term treatment over years or decades may be required.

  17. [Induced acne].

    PubMed

    Humbert, Philippe

    2002-04-15

    Induced acne belongs to the clinical forms of acne. Some dermatoses present with acne-like patterns. They can be induced or perpetuated by non physiological factors. Among these factors, medicines must always be considered, taken either topically (dermocorticoids, sulfur, anti-acneic topics) or generally (androgens, oral corticoids, ACTH, anti-epileptics, anti-depressive drugs, anti-tuberculosis medications). Halogens (iodine, bromine) found in inhaled or orally taken pharmaceutical products, or associated with occupational contact, can also induce acne. Acne of exogenous origin has been described in some specific occupations, and are induced by exposure to chlorine, industrial oils, tar. Sun exposure, PUVA therapy and ionizing radiation are potentially acneigenous. Finally acne caused by cosmetics includes acne cosmetica, brilliantine and oily creams acne and detergent acne.

  18. Photodynamic therapy of acne vulgaris.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ershova, Ekaterina Y.; Karimova, Lubov N.; Kharnas, Sergey S.; Kuzmin, Sergey G.; Loschenov, Victor B.

    2003-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was tested for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Patients with acne were treated with ALA plus red light. Ten percent water solution of ALA was applied with 1,5-2 h occlusion and then 18-45 J/cm2 630 nm light was given. Bacterial endogenous porphyrins fluorescence also was used for acne therapy. Treatment control and diagnostics was realized by fluorescence spectra and fluorescence image. Light sources and diagnostic systems were used: semiconductor laser (λ=630 nm, Pmax=1W), (LPhT-630-01-BIOSPEC); LED system for PDT and diagnostics with fluorescent imager (λ=635 nm, P=2W, p=50 mW/cm2), (UFPh-630-01-BIOSPEC); high sensitivity CCD video camera with narrow-band wavelength filter (central wavelength 630 nm); laser electronic spectrum analyzer for fluorescent diagnostics and photodynamic therapy monitoring (LESA-01-BIOSPEC). Protoporphyrin IX (PP IX) and endogenous porphyrins concentrations were measured by fluorescence at wavelength, correspondingly, 700 nm and 650 nm. It was shown that topical ALA is converted into PP IX in hair follicles, sebaceous glands and acne scars. The amount of resulting PP IX is sufficient for effective PDT. There was good clinical response and considerable clearance of acne lesion. ALA-PDT also had good cosmetic effect in treatment acne scars. PDT with ALA and red light assist in opening corked pores, destroying Propionibacterium acnes and decreasing sebum secretion. PDT treatment associated with several adverse effects: oedema and/or erytema for 3-5 days after PDT, epidermal exfoliation from 5th to 10th day and slight pigmentation during 1 month after PDT. ALA-PDT is effective for acne and can be used despite several side effects.

  19. What's new in the physiopathology of acne?

    PubMed

    Suh, D H; Kwon, H H

    2015-07-01

    There are four central factors that contribute to acne physiopathology: the inflammatory response, colonization with Propionibacterium acnes, increased sebum production and hypercornification of the pilosebaceous duct. In addition, research in the areas of diet and nutrition, genetics and oxidative stress is also yielding some interesting insights into the development of acne. In this paper we review some of the most recent research and novel concepts revealed in this work, which has been published by researchers from diverse academic disciplines including dermatology, immunology, microbiology and endocrinology. We discuss the implications of their findings (particularly in terms of opportunities to develop new therapies), highlight interrelationships between these novel factors that could contribute to the pathology of acne, and indicate where gaps in our understanding still exist. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  20. Subantimicrobial dose doxycycline for acne and rosacea.

    PubMed

    Bikowski, Joseph B

    2003-01-01

    Acne vulgaris and rosacea present therapeutic challenges due to their chronicity, potential for disfigurement, and psychosocial impact. Although pathophysiologically distinct, both conditions have major inflammatory components. Consequently, topical and systemic antimicrobial agents are routinely prescribed for extended periods. Emergence of resistant strains of Propionibacterium acnes, adverse events, and compliance issues associated with chronic systemic tetracycline use have led to new treatment approaches. At subantimicrobial doses, tetracyclines reduce inflammation via anticollagenolytic, antimatrix-degrading metalloproteinase, and cytokine down-regulating properties. Subantimicrobial dose (SD) doxycycline (Periostat 20 mg) has clinical utility in periodontitis and has been investigated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in the treatment of moderate facial acne as well as in an open label study in the treatment of rosacea. The results of subantimicrobial dose doxycycline treatment in early trials support its benefits and further investigation in acne and rosacea.

  1. Acne Scars

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery Conditions Acne Scars Aging Hands Age Spots Aging Skin Birthmarks Burn Scars Cellulite Crow's Feet Droopy Eyelids ... Surgery Conditions Acne Scars Aging Hands Age Spots Aging Skin Birthmarks Burn Scars Cellulite Crow's Feet Droopy Eyelids ...

  2. Formulation and evaluation of herbal anti-acne moisturizer.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Arun; Shama, Shaik Neelufar; Joy, Jyothi Mulanjananiyil; Reddy, Bobbu Sravya; Roja, Chirra

    2012-10-01

    The moisture content present in human skin makes it look young and the use of moisturizer results in fastening the moisture with a surface film of oil. Acne vulgaris is one of the most commonly seen diseases among the youth. The present study is focused on the use of herbs as moisturizer for acne treatment. The anti-acne moisturizer was formulated from herbal crude extracts and investigated the physico-chemical parameters as well as antibacterial activity of the formulation. The study revealed that ethanol extract of Andrographis paniculata, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ocimum sanctum, Azadiracta indica and Green tea possessed the potential for inhibiting acne. It was observed that the optimal formula of anti-acne moisturizer was satisfactorily effective to control acne inducing bacteria i.e., Staphylococcus epidermis and Propionibacterium. The physico-chemical parameters of the formulation were also optimal with no signs of irritation.

  3. The Role of Inflammation in the Pathology of Acne

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The conventional perspective of acne pathogenesis holds that Propionibacterium acnes colonizes the duct of the sebaceous follicle, causing an innate immune response and the progression from a so-called noninflammatory comedo to an inflammatory papule, pustule, or nodule. However, this viewpoint has come under increasing scrutiny over the last decade, as evidence has emerged supporting a role for inflammation at all stages of acne lesion development, perhaps subclinically even before comedo formation. The immunochemical pathways underlying the initiation and propagation of the inflammation in acne are complex and still being elucidated, but may involve Propionibacterium acnes as well as several inflammatory mediators and their target receptors, including cytokines, defensins, peptidases, sebum lipids, and neuropeptides. This review presents evidence to support the notion that acne is primarily an inflammatory disease, challenging the current nomenclature of noninflammatory versus inflammatory acne lesions and suggesting that the nomenclature is outdated and incorrect. The evidence in support of acne as an inflammatory disease also has clinical implications, in that anti-inflammatory drugs used to treat the disease can be expected to exert effects against all lesion stages, albeit via distinct mechanisms of anti-inflammation. PMID:24062871

  4. Acne Management

    PubMed Central

    Kushniruk, William

    1973-01-01

    Acne, the most prevalent skin disorder of youth, requires the concomitant management of multiple factors. Clinical and therapeutic aspects of the acne problem are presented. Traditional topical and systemic measures are melded with the current effective antibiotic treatment. A positive informed approach will enable the physician to achieve success with his acne patients. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:20468974

  5. Fluorescence guided evaluation of photodynamic therapy as acne treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ericson, Marica B.; Horfelt, Camilla; Cheng, Elaine; Larsson, Frida; Larko, Olle; Wennberg, Ann-Marie

    2005-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an attractive alternative treatment for patients with acne because of its efficiency and few side effects. Propionibacterium acnes (P.acnes) are bacteria present in the skin, which produce endogenous porphyrins that act as photosensitisers. In addition, application of aminolaevulinic acid or its methyl ester (mALA) results in increased accumulation of porphyrins in the pilosebaceous units. This makes it possible to treat acne with PDT. This initial study investigates the possibility of fluorescence imaging as assessment tool in adjunct to PDT of patients with acne. Twenty-four patients with acne on the cheeks have been treated with PDT with and without mALA. Fluorescence images have been obtained before and after treatment. The clinical acne score was assessed as base line before PDT, and at every follow up visit. Additionally the amount of P.acnes was determined. The clinical evaluation showed a general improvement of acne, even though no difference between treatment with and without mALA was observed. By performing texture analysis and multivariate data analsysis on the fluorescence images, the extracted texture features were found to correlate with the corresponding clinical assessment (67%) and amount of P.acnes (72%). The analysis showed that features describing the highly fluorescent pores could be related to the clinical assessment. This result suggests that fluorescence imaging can be used as an objective assessment of acne, but further improvement of the technique is possible, for example by including colour images.

  6. Insulin resistance in severe acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Emiroğlu, Nazan; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Kemeriz, Funda

    2015-08-01

    Acne vulgaris is a pilosebaceous gland disease that usually affects people from puberty to young adulthood. It is seen especially on the face, neck, trunk and arms. Its severity differs from patient to patient and its pathogenesis is multifactorial. The main pathogenic factors of acne are high sebaceous gland secretion, follicular hyperproliferation, high androgen effects, propionibacterium acnes colonization and inflammation. Diet is always thought a probable reason for acne and many studies are done about acne and diet. To determine the effect of insulin resistance in severe acne vulgaris. Two hundred and forty-three acne vulgaris patients and 156 healthy controls were enrolled into the study. The blood levels of insulin and glucose were measured. Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) Index was calculated. The values were compared with the control group. All of the patients were in the severe acne group according to their scores on the global acne scoring scale. While fasting blood glucose levels were not different between the groups (p > 0.05, 82.91 ±9.76 vs. 80.26 ±8.33), the fasting insulin levels were significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group (p < 0.001, 14.01 ±11.94 vs. 9.12 ±3.53). Additionally, there was a highly significant difference between the patient and control groups in terms of HOMA values (p < 0.001, 2.87 ±2.56 vs. 1.63 ±0.65). These results suggest that insulin resistance may have a role in the pathogenesis of acne.

  7. Insulin resistance in severe acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Kemeriz, Funda

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acne vulgaris is a pilosebaceous gland disease that usually affects people from puberty to young adulthood. It is seen especially on the face, neck, trunk and arms. Its severity differs from patient to patient and its pathogenesis is multifactorial. The main pathogenic factors of acne are high sebaceous gland secretion, follicular hyperproliferation, high androgen effects, propionibacterium acnes colonization and inflammation. Diet is always thought a probable reason for acne and many studies are done about acne and diet. Aim To determine the effect of insulin resistance in severe acne vulgaris. Material and methods Two hundred and forty-three acne vulgaris patients and 156 healthy controls were enrolled into the study. The blood levels of insulin and glucose were measured. Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) Index was calculated. The values were compared with the control group. Results All of the patients were in the severe acne group according to their scores on the global acne scoring scale. While fasting blood glucose levels were not different between the groups (p > 0.05, 82.91 ±9.76 vs. 80.26 ±8.33), the fasting insulin levels were significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group (p < 0.001, 14.01 ±11.94 vs. 9.12 ±3.53). Additionally, there was a highly significant difference between the patient and control groups in terms of HOMA values (p < 0.001, 2.87 ±2.56 vs. 1.63 ±0.65). Conclusions These results suggest that insulin resistance may have a role in the pathogenesis of acne. PMID:26366152

  8. Multiple Activities of Punica granatum Linne against Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-Jung; Chen, Lih-Geeng; Liang, Wen-Li; Wang, Ching-Chiung

    2017-01-01

    Acne is a common skin condition with sebum overproduction, hyperkeratosis, Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) and Staphylococcus aureus, and inflammation. Punica granatum (pomegranate) is well-known for its anti-inflammatory effects; however, few studies have discussed the anti-acne effects of pomegranate. In this study, we found that pomegranate extract (PG-E) significantly reduced P. acnes-induced edema in Wistar rat ears. Therefore, an evaluation platform using multiple pathogenic mechanisms of acne was established to explore the anti-acne effects of pomegranate. Results showed that PG-E inhibited bacterial growth and lipase activity. Through a bioguided-fractionation-isolation system, four hydrolysable tannins, punicalagin (1), punicalin (2), strictinin A (3), and granatin B (4), were isolated. Compounds 1 and 2 had greater anti-bacterial activities and anti-testosterone-induced HaCaT proliferative effects than the others. Compounds 1, 3, and 4 displayed lipase inhibitory effects. Compound 4 decreased cyclooxygenase-2 expression and downregulated prostaglandin E2 production in heat-killed P. acnes-treated RAW 246.7 cells. In conclusion, PG-E is abundant in hydrolysable tannins that display multiple anti-acne capacities, including anti-bacterial, anti-lipase, anti-keratinocyte proliferation, and anti-inflammatory actions. Hence, PG-E has great potential in the application of anti-acne and skin-care products, and punicalagin (1), the most effective component in PG-E, can be employed as a quality control marker. PMID:28085116

  9. Multiple Activities of Punica granatum Linne against Acne Vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Jung; Chen, Lih-Geeng; Liang, Wen-Li; Wang, Ching-Chiung

    2017-01-12

    Acne is a common skin condition with sebum overproduction, hyperkeratosis, Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) and Staphylococcus aureus, and inflammation. Punica granatum (pomegranate) is well-known for its anti-inflammatory effects; however, few studies have discussed the anti-acne effects of pomegranate. In this study, we found that pomegranate extract (PG-E) significantly reduced P. acnes-induced edema in Wistar rat ears. Therefore, an evaluation platform using multiple pathogenic mechanisms of acne was established to explore the anti-acne effects of pomegranate. Results showed that PG-E inhibited bacterial growth and lipase activity. Through a bioguided-fractionation-isolation system, four hydrolysable tannins, punicalagin (1), punicalin (2), strictinin A (3), and granatin B (4), were isolated. Compounds 1 and 2 had greater anti-bacterial activities and anti-testosterone-induced HaCaT proliferative effects than the others. Compounds 1, 3, and 4 displayed lipase inhibitory effects. Compound 4 decreased cyclooxygenase-2 expression and downregulated prostaglandin E₂ production in heat-killed P. acnes-treated RAW 246.7 cells. In conclusion, PG-E is abundant in hydrolysable tannins that display multiple anti-acne capacities, including anti-bacterial, anti-lipase, anti-keratinocyte proliferation, and anti-inflammatory actions. Hence, PG-E has great potential in the application of anti-acne and skin-care products, and punicalagin (1), the most effective component in PG-E, can be employed as a quality control marker.

  10. Antibiotic-resistant acne: getting under the skin.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Mau; Sadhasivam, Suresh; Bhattacharyya, Anamika; Jain, Shilpi; Ghosh, Shamik; Arndt, Kenneth A; Dover, Jeffrey S; Sengupta, Shiladitya

    2016-06-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogenic factor in the development of acne. Antibiotics are the first choice of treatment for mild-to-moderate, mixed, papular/pustular, and moderate nodular acne, and an alternative choice in severe, nodular/conglobate acne. The emergence of resistance to the currently available antibiotics poses a serious set-back to this algorithm, and the reduced arsenal can diminish efficacy of treatment. This emerging situation should catalyze innovations in dermatology; for example, newer drugs and technologies such as next-generation antibiotics with excellent potency and low propensity to develop resistance, rapid diagnostic platforms to select responders and nonresponders, and delivery technologies that target the bacteria. Such innovations can dramatically expand the arsenal for dermatologists in the management of acne.

  11. P. acnes-Driven Disease Pathology: Current Knowledge and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Leheste, Joerg R; Ruvolo, Kathryn E; Chrostowski, Joanna E; Rivera, Kristin; Husko, Christopher; Miceli, Alyssa; Selig, Martin K; Brüggemann, Holger; Torres, German

    2017-01-01

    This review discusses the biology and behavior of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a dominant bacterium species of the skin biogeography thought to be associated with transmission, recurrence and severity of disease. More specifically, we discuss the ability of P. acnes to invade and persist in epithelial cells and circulating macrophages to subsequently induce bouts of sarcoidosis, low-grade inflammation and metastatic cell growth in the prostate gland. Finally, we discuss the possibility of P. acnes infiltrating the brain parenchyma to indirectly contribute to pathogenic processes in neurodegenerative disorders such as those observed in Parkinson's disease (PD).

  12. P. acnes-Driven Disease Pathology: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Leheste, Joerg R.; Ruvolo, Kathryn E.; Chrostowski, Joanna E.; Rivera, Kristin; Husko, Christopher; Miceli, Alyssa; Selig, Martin K.; Brüggemann, Holger; Torres, German

    2017-01-01

    This review discusses the biology and behavior of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a dominant bacterium species of the skin biogeography thought to be associated with transmission, recurrence and severity of disease. More specifically, we discuss the ability of P. acnes to invade and persist in epithelial cells and circulating macrophages to subsequently induce bouts of sarcoidosis, low-grade inflammation and metastatic cell growth in the prostate gland. Finally, we discuss the possibility of P. acnes infiltrating the brain parenchyma to indirectly contribute to pathogenic processes in neurodegenerative disorders such as those observed in Parkinson's disease (PD). PMID:28352613

  13. In vitro anti-propionibacterium activity by curcumin containing vesicle system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chi-Hsien; Huang, Hsin-Ying

    2013-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes acts a critical role in the development of inflammatory acne when it overgrows in pilosebaceous units. The spread of multiple drug resistance bacteria indicates a growing need for new antimicrobial agents. The objective of this study is to develop lipid vehicles to deliver curcumin and inhibit P. acnes in the skin. The inhibitory activities of the curcumin containing vehicles against P. acnes were studied by the bioluminescence assay. Curcumin accumulation patterns in neonate pig skin were studied using Franz diffusion cells and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The physicochemical properties of the curcumin containing vehicles including interfacial tension, size distribution and viscosity were analyzed. Significant curcumin accumulation (362±8 µg/g skin) was observed with the lipid vehicles developed herein. Curcumin (0.43 µg/mL) in the vehicles significantly inhibited the growth of P. acnes. Confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed the formation of curcumin reservoir in the skin by the curcumin-loaded vehicles. Curcumin-loaded vehicles could efficiently accumulate in the skin and inhibit P. acnes in vitro. Our results highlight the potential of using vehicles containing lauric acid and curcumin as an alternative treatment for acne vulgaris.

  14. [Bacterial resistance in acne? A meta-analysis of the controversy].

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Sánchez, Mariana; Rodríguez-Ayala, Ernesto; Ponce-Olivera, Rosa María; Tirado-Sánchez, Andrés; Arellano-Mendoza, María Ivonne

    2016-01-01

    Acne is one of the dermatological pathologies with the highest incidence around the world. It is a multifactorial disease and its treatment can be complex. Propionibacterium acnes play a key role in the inflammation of this dermatosis. Topical antibiotics, including mainly erythromycin and clindamycin, have been used, but there is controversy over their use due to the widely documented bacterial resistance. For this reason a meta-analysis of the publications over the past 10 years is presented in order to confirm this hypothesis. A search was made of the publications over the past 10 years that included the results of antibiogams of patients with acne. MeSH type searches were performed with the terms "acne vulgaris", "Propionibacterium acnes", "topical administration", "treatment", "erythromycin", "clindamycin", "nadifloxacin", "antibacterial agent", "bacterial drug resistance" in PubMed, Ovid, EBSCO, Cochrane, ScienceDirect and ClinicalKey meta-searches. A total of 13 articles were found that met the inclusion criteria. The mean odds ratio (OR 1.24, 95% CI) of the articles showed a slight tendency toward resistance of Propionibacterium acnes. An increase in bacterial resistance to topical erythromycin and clindamycin can be confirmed, thus the use of these antibiotics is recommended in selective cases for short periods, and in combination with benzoyl peroxide for the best clinical outcome in patients with acne vulgaris. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  15. Acne and risk of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Giovannucci, Edward; Isaacs, William B; Willett, Walter C; Platz, Elizabeth A

    2007-12-15

    In a recent study, prostatectomy specimens from which Propionibacterium acnes was cultured were more likely to have inflammation than culture-negative specimens or specimens positive for other bacteria, leading the authors to hypothesize that P. acnes-mediated inflammation may contribute to prostate carcinogenesis. To indirectly explore associations between P. acnes and prostate cancer, we investigated severe acne, as measured by tetracycline use for 4 or more years, in relation to incident prostate cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. On the 1992 follow-up questionnaire, participants were asked whether they had ever used "tetracycline for at least 2 months at a time (e.g., for acne or other reason)" and their duration of use. Prostate cancer diagnoses were ascertained on each subsequent biennial questionnaire and confirmed by medical record review. Between 1992 and 2002, 2,147 cases of prostate cancer were reported among 34,629 eligible participants. Men who used tetracycline for 4 or more years had a significantly higher risk of prostate cancer (16 cases, 1,569 person-years) than men who did not use tetracycline (2,071 cases, 304,822 person-years, multivariable-adjusted RR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.03-2.80). Although intriguing, this finding should be viewed cautiously because of the small number of exposed cases, indirect assessment of severe acne, and complex etiology of acne, which is not limited to P. acnes infection. Therefore, additional biologic and epidemiologic studies are necessary to determine and elucidate the possible role of P. acnes infection in prostate carcinogenesis.

  16. Acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Moradi Tuchayi, Sara; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Ganceviciene, Ruta; Dessinioti, Clio; Feldman, Steven R; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2015-09-17

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease - rather than a natural part of the life cycle as colloquially viewed - of the pilosebaceous unit (comprising the hair follicle, hair shaft and sebaceous gland) and is among the most common dermatological conditions worldwide. Some of the key mechanisms involved in the development of acne include disturbed sebaceous gland activity associated with hyperseborrhoea (that is, increased sebum production) and alterations in sebum fatty acid composition, dysregulation of the hormone microenvironment, interaction with neuropeptides, follicular hyperkeratinization, induction of inflammation and dysfunction of the innate and adaptive immunity. Grading of acne involves lesion counting and photographic methods. However, there is a lack of consensus on the exact grading criteria, which hampers the conduction and comparison of randomized controlled clinical trials evaluating treatments. Prevention of acne relies on the successful management of modifiable risk factors, such as underlying systemic diseases and lifestyle factors. Several treatments are available, but guidelines suffer from a lack of data to make evidence-based recommendations. In addition, the complex combination treatment regimens required to target different aspects of acne pathophysiology lead to poor adherence, which undermines treatment success. Acne commonly causes scarring and reduces the quality of life of patients. New treatment options with a shift towards targeting the early processes involved in acne development instead of suppressing the effects of end products will enhance our ability to improve the outcomes for patients with acne.

  17. Rosmarinus officinalis Extract Suppresses Propionibacterium acnes–Induced Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chuang, Lu-Te; Lien, Tsung-Jung; Liing, Yau-Rong; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in the progression of acne inflammation. The development of a new agent possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes is therefore of interest. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on P. acnes–induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ethanolic rosemary extract (ERE) significantly suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in P. acnes–stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. In an in vivo mouse model, concomitant intradermal injection of ERE attenuated the P. acnes–induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. Since ERE suppressed the P. acnes–induced nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation and mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, the suppressive effect of ERE might be due, at least partially, to diminished NF-κB activation and TLR2-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, three major constituents of ERE, carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid, exerted different immumodulatory activities in vitro. In brief, rosmarinic acid significantly suppressed IL-8 production, while the other two compounds inhibited IL-1β production. Further study is needed to explore the role of bioactive compounds of rosemary in mitigation of P. acnes–induced inflammation. PMID:23514231

  18. Self-reported acne is not associated with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Cremers, Ruben G; Aben, Katja K; Vermeulen, Sita H; den Heijer, Martin; van Oort, Inge M; van de Kerkhof, Peter C; Schalken, Jack A; Kiemeney, Lambertus A

    2014-10-01

    Some studies have suggested an inverse association between acne vulgaris and the acne-related bacterium Propionibacterium acnes and prostate cancer (PCa). Self-reported acne might be an easily obtainable marker to identify men at relatively low risk of PCa and might be incorporated into PCa risk calculators. This study aimed to evaluate the association between self-reported acne and PCa in a large case-referent study. The case group comprised 942 patients with PCa recruited from a population-based cancer registry in 2003 to 2006, 647 of whom met the criteria for aggressive PCa. The referents (n = 2,062) were a random sample of the male general population. All subjects completed a questionnaire on risk factors for cancer, including questions about acne. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using multivariable logistic regression for PCa and aggressive PCa as separate end points, while adjusting for age and family history of PCa. A history of acne was reported by 320 cases (33.9%) and 739 referents (35.8%). Self-reported acne was significantly associated neither with PCa (adjusted OR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.80-1.12) nor with aggressive PCa (adjusted OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.80-1.18). Self-reported acne is not suitable as a marker to identify men at low risk of aggressive PCa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Community-based study of acne vulgaris in adolescents in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Tan, H-H; Tan, A W H; Barkham, T; Yan, X-Y; Zhu, M

    2007-09-01

    There are few studies on the prevalence of acne vulgaris among Asian teenagers. To determine the epidemiology of acne in teenagers in Singapore. A community-based cross-sectional study in 1045 adolescents aged 13-19 years. Of these respondents, 88% identified themselves as having acne. Eight hundred and six of these respondents were examined by a dermatologist, and 51.4% were classified as having mild acne, 40% moderate acne and 8.6% severe acne. Isolation of Propionibacterium acnes was attempted in 262 subjects. Cultures were positive in 174 subjects, giving an isolation rate of 66.4%. Antibiotic-resistant strains of P. acnes were detected in 26 isolates (14.9%). Eleven of these 26 subjects (42%) had previously been treated or were presently on antibiotic treatment for acne, but the other 58% of students who had antibiotic-resistant strains of P. acnes did not give a history of prior antibiotic therapy. Teenagers expressed psychological distress over acne, and believed that hormonal factors, diet and hygiene were important factors in causing acne. There is a need for accessible, accurate education on acne and its appropriate treatment.

  20. Relationship between the severity of acne vulgaris and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria isolated from acne lesions in a hospital in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakase, Keisuke; Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Takenaka, Yuko; Hayashi, Nobukazu; Kawashima, Makoto; Noguchi, Norihisa

    2014-05-01

    Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis are normal skin inhabitants that are frequently isolated from lesions caused by acne, and these micro-organisms are considered to contribute to the inflammation of acne. In the present study, we examined the antimicrobial susceptibilities and resistance mechanisms of P. acnes and S. epidermidis isolated from patients with acne vulgaris in a university hospital in Japan from 2009 to 2010. Additionally, we analysed the relationship between the antimicrobial resistance of P. acnes and the severity of acne vulgaris. Some P. acnes strains (18.8 %; 13/69) were resistant to clindamycin. All strains had a mutation in the 23S rRNA gene, except for one strain that expressed erm(X) encoding a 23S rRNA methylase. Tetracycline-resistant P. acnes strains were found to represent 4.3 % (3/69) of the strains, and this resistance was caused by a mutation in the 16S rRNA gene. Furthermore, three strains with reduced susceptibility to nadifloxacin (MIC = 16 µg ml(-1)) were detected. When analysing the correlation between the antimicrobial resistance of P. acnes and S. epidermidis, more than 80 % of the patients who carried clindamycin-resistant P. acnes also carried clindamycin-resistant S. epidermidis. However, no epidemic strain that exhibited antimicrobial resistance was detected in the P. acnes strains when analysed by PFGE. Therefore, our results suggest that the antimicrobial resistance of P. acnes is closely related to antimicrobial therapy. Additionally, those P. acnes strains tended to be frequently found in severe acne patients rather than in mild acne patients. Consequently, the data support a relationship between using antimicrobial agents and the emergence of antimicrobial resistance.

  1. A small peptide with therapeutic potential for inflammatory acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiye; Mu, Lixian; Tang, Jing; Duan, Zilei; Wang, Fengyu; Wei, Lin; Rong, Mingqiang; Lai, Ren

    2013-01-01

    A designed peptide named LZ1 with 15 amino acid residues containing strong antimicrobial activity against bacteria pathogens of acne vulgaris including Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. aureus. Especially, it exerted strong anti-P. acnes ability. The minimal inhibitory concentration against three strains of P. acnes was only 0.6 µg/ml, which is 4 times lower than that of clindamycin. In experimental mice skin colonization model, LZ1 significantly reduced the number of P. acnes colonized on the ear, P. acnes-induced ear swelling, and inflammatory cell infiltration. It ameliorated inflammation induced by P. acnes by inhibiting the secretion of inflammatory factors including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-1β. LZ1 showed little cytotoxicity on human keratinocyte and hemolytic activity on human blood red cells. Furthermore, LZ1 was very stable in human plasma. Combined with its potential bactericidal and anti-inflammatory properties, simple structure and high stability, LZ1 might be an ideal candidate for the treatment of acne.

  2. The utility of benzoyl peroxide in hydrophase base (Brevoxyl) in the treatment of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Jeffrey M

    2006-04-01

    Available for more than 5 decades, benzoyl peroxide has been a "workhorse" of acne therapy. The benefits of this agent include reduction in Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) with decrease in inflammatory lesions, efficacy as both "leave on" and cleanser formulations and reduced emergence of antibiotic-resistant P. acnes strains. As the effect of benzoyl peroxide on P. acnes is a direct toxic effect rather than as a "true" antibiotic, resistance to benzoyl peroxide does not occur and has never been reported. Benzoyl peroxide in hydrophase base (Brevoxyl Creamy Washes and Gels) has shown significant efficacy in the treatment of acne, with lower irritancy than other benzoyl peroxide preparations. It is felt that the low irritancy of this product is related to a unique delivery vehicle containing dimethyl isosorbide, which dissolves benzoyl peroxide crystals on the skin. Clinical studies demonstrating the efficacy and safety of benzoyl peroxide in hydrophase base will be reviewed.

  3. The use of oral antibiotics in treating acne vulgaris: a new approach.

    PubMed

    Farrah, Georgia; Tan, Ernest

    2016-09-01

    Although acne is not an infectious disease, oral antibiotics have remained a mainstay of treatment over the last 40 years. The anti-inflammatory properties of oral antibiotics, particularly the tetracyclines, are efficacious in treating inflammatory acne lesions. Common prescribing practices in Dermatology exert significant selection pressure on bacteria, contributing to the development of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic use for acne not only promotes resistance in Propionibacterium acnes, but also affects other host bacteria with pathogenic potential. This review will summarize the commonly used treatments for acne vulgaris, and how they should be combined as rational treatment. The indications for using oral antibiotics in acne will be highlighted. Strategies described in the literature to conserve the utility of oral antibiotics will be summarized. These include limiting the duration of antibiotic therapy, concomitant use of a topical non-antibiotic agent, use of subantimicrobial dose doxycycline, and the introduction of topical dapsone.

  4. Combination of a new radiofrequency device and blue light for the treatment of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Braun, Martin

    2007-08-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common skin disease treated by physicians. Current topical and oral treatments may have short- and long-term negative consequences. Since radiofrequency (RF) energy has been shown to reduce sebum production and 410-nm blue light has been shown to kill Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) cells, these modalities in combination should be a highly effective treatment of acne vulgaris with little or no downtime or risk. This case report describes the efficacy and safety of RF energy (Accent, Alma Lasers Inc, Buffalo Grove, IL) and blue light (BLU-U, Dusa Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Wilmington, MA) used in combination to treat grade 4 cystic acne and acne scars in an Asian woman of skin type IV. The results were considered excellent by both investigators and the patient, with improvement in the skin tone as an added cosmetic benefit.

  5. Antimicrobial activities of ozenoxacin against isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci from Japanese patients with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Akiko; Ikeda, Fumiaki; Kanayama, Shoji; Okamoto, Kazuaki; Matsumoto, Tatsumi; Ishii, Ritsuko; Fujikawa, Akira; Takei, Katsuaki; Kawashima, Makoto

    2016-08-01

    Ozenoxacin, a novel non-fluorinated topical quinolone, was assessed for in vitro antimicrobial activity against clinical isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci according to the broth microdilution method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The isolates used in this study were collected from Japanese patients with acne vulgaris during a period from 2012 to 2013. The MIC90s of ozenoxacin against Propionibacterium acnes (n=266), Propionibacterium granulosum (n=10), Staphylococcus aureus (n=23), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=229) and other coagulase-negative staphylococci (n=82) were ≤0.06, ≤0.06, ≤0.06, 0.125 and ≤0.06 µg ml-1, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of ozenoxacin against the clinical isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci was greater than that of five reference antimicrobial agents which have been used for the treatment of acne vulgaris. The MICs of ozenoxacin were correlated with those of nadifloxacin in P. acnes and S. epidermidis isolates. However, the MICs of ozenoxacin were 0.25-0.5 µg ml-1 and 0.5-8 µg ml-1 against nadifloxacin-resistant P. acnes (MIC: ≥8 µg ml-1; n=8) and S. epidermidis (MIC: ≥64 µg ml-1; n=10), respectively. These results indicated the potent antimicrobial activity against P. acnes and S. epidermidis isolates resistant to nadifloxacin. Topical ozenoxacin could represent an alternative therapeutic drug for acne vulgaris based on its potent antimicrobial activity against the isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci from acne patients.

  6. Acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Wilson, B B

    1989-09-01

    Acne vulgaris is a disease of the pilosebaceous unit that affects nearly all persons to some degree during the teenage years. It is a disease that should be treated because of the anxiety and disfigurement it causes in the affected patient. Acne therapy is directed against the three probable pathogenic processes in acne: (1) abnormal keratinization of the sebaceous follicle, (2) excessive production of sebum, and (3) proliferation of bacteria in the follicle. Superficial acne consisting of comedones and small papulopustules will frequently respond to topical therapy such as retinoic acid, benzoyl peroxide, and topical antibiotics. Deeper lesions require systemic antibiotics of which tetracycline is the drug of choice. Severe, recalcitrant cystic acne usually responds well to the oral retinoid, isotretinoin. The severe teratogenic effects of isotretinoin on a developing fetus make this a risky drug to prescribe for women with childbearing potential. In such cases the greatest precautions should be taken to avoid pregnancy during a course of isotretinoin. Such precautions include pregnancy testing, contraceptive counseling, and the use of at least two effective forms of birth control in sexually active women.

  7. Nanoparticle Stabilized Liposomes for Acne Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Victoria

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin disease that affects over 40 million people in the United States alone. The main cause of acne vulgaris is Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), resides deep in the pores and follicles of the skin in order to feed on oil produced by the sebaceous glands. The liposome is a lipid based nanoparticle with numerous advantages over free drug molecules as an acne treatment alternative. Bare liposomes loaded with lauric acid (LipoLA) were found to show strong antimicrobial activity against P. acnes while generating minimal toxicity. However, the platform is limited by the spontaneous tendency of liposomes to fuse with each other. Attaching nanoparticles to the surface of liposomes can overcome this challenge by providing steric repulsion and reduce surface tension. Thus, carboxyl-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuC) were attached to the surface of liposomes (AuC-liposomes) loaded with doxycycline, a general tetracycline antibiotic. These particles were found to have a diameter of 120 nm and a zeta potential of 20.0 mV. Both fluorescent and antimicrobial studies demonstrated that based on electrostatic interaction, negatively charged AuC attached to the liposome's positively charged surface and stabilized liposomes in a neutral pH environment (pH = 7.4). Upon entering the skin's acidic environment (pH = 4), AuC detached from the liposome's surface and liposomes could fuse with P. acnes residing in the pores. Furthermore, toxicity studies showed that AuC-liposomes did not induce any significant toxicity, while two of the leading over-the-counter therapies, benzoyl peroxide and salicylic acid, generated substantial skin irritation.

  8. Clinical considerations in the treatment of acne vulgaris and other inflammatory skin disorders: focus on antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Leyden, James J; Del Rosso, James Q; Webster, Guy F

    2007-06-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is an anaerobic bacterium that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acne. Certain antibiotics that can inhibit P acnes colonization also have demonstrated anti-inflammatory activities in the treatment of acne, rosacea, and other noninfectious diseases. Decreased sensitivity of P acnes to antibiotics, such as erythromycin and tetracycline, has developed and may be associated with therapeutic failure. Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) is a nonantibiotic antibacterial agent that is highly effective against P acnes and for which no resistance against it has been detected to date. Retinoids are important components in combination therapy for acne, including use with antibiotics, and can serve as an alternative to these agents in maintenance therapy. By increasing our understanding of the multifaceted actions of antibiotics and the known clinical implications of antibiotic resistance, physicians can improve their decision making in prescribing these agents.

  9. An innovative approach to the topical treatment of acne.

    PubMed

    Sparavigna, Adele; Tenconi, Beatrice; De Ponti, Ileana; La Penna, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Acne is characterized by primary lesions on the face, chest, and back, and by a variety of other signs and symptoms. In particular, acne inflammatory lesions result from Propionibacterium acnes colonization and are of particular relevance as they can cause permanent scarring. Acne also causes significant psychological morbidity in affected patients. Products currently available for the treatment of acne include systemic and topical treatments. As these products can cause severe side effects, new, innovative therapies are needed. Farmaka Acne Cream (FAC) is a novel, film-forming cream developed to treat mild and moderate acne. In vitro studies have demonstrated that FAC is as effective as 5% benzoyl peroxide in inhibiting growth of P. acnes. In 32 subjects with mild or moderate acne, FAC reduced all the major signs and symptoms of the disease. These included itching, erythema, and scaling, as well as reductions in the numbers of papules, pustules, and open and closed comedones. Acne severity improved in 38% of subjects, while none worsened. FAC was found to be effective in controlling sebum secretion, and was non-comedogenic. Most subjects (90%) reported tolerability as good or very good, while clinical efficacy and cosmetic acceptability were judged as good. For assessment of contact sensitization and photosensitization, FAC was applied daily to the backs of 29 subjects in two symmetric areas for 10 days. Using a solar stimulator, one minimal erythema dose was delivered to one side of the back from days 11 to 13. The four different subareas of treated/untreated and irradiated/nonirradiated and combinations thereof were compared. No cases of contact sensitization or photosensitization were observed, and FAC is considered safe for use in intense sunlight. In vitro and in vivo studies provide evidence for the safety and clinical benefits of FAC, a promising candidate for the treatment of mild and moderate acne.

  10. An innovative approach to the topical treatment of acne

    PubMed Central

    Sparavigna, Adele; Tenconi, Beatrice; De Ponti, Ileana; La Penna, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Acne is characterized by primary lesions on the face, chest, and back, and by a variety of other signs and symptoms. In particular, acne inflammatory lesions result from Propionibacterium acnes colonization and are of particular relevance as they can cause permanent scarring. Acne also causes significant psychological morbidity in affected patients. Products currently available for the treatment of acne include systemic and topical treatments. As these products can cause severe side effects, new, innovative therapies are needed. Farmaka Acne Cream (FAC) is a novel, film-forming cream developed to treat mild and moderate acne. In vitro studies have demonstrated that FAC is as effective as 5% benzoyl peroxide in inhibiting growth of P. acnes. In 32 subjects with mild or moderate acne, FAC reduced all the major signs and symptoms of the disease. These included itching, erythema, and scaling, as well as reductions in the numbers of papules, pustules, and open and closed comedones. Acne severity improved in 38% of subjects, while none worsened. FAC was found to be effective in controlling sebum secretion, and was non-comedogenic. Most subjects (90%) reported tolerability as good or very good, while clinical efficacy and cosmetic acceptability were judged as good. For assessment of contact sensitization and photosensitization, FAC was applied daily to the backs of 29 subjects in two symmetric areas for 10 days. Using a solar stimulator, one minimal erythema dose was delivered to one side of the back from days 11 to 13. The four different subareas of treated/untreated and irradiated/nonirradiated and combinations thereof were compared. No cases of contact sensitization or photosensitization were observed, and FAC is considered safe for use in intense sunlight. In vitro and in vivo studies provide evidence for the safety and clinical benefits of FAC, a promising candidate for the treatment of mild and moderate acne. PMID:25914552

  11. Combination azelaic acid therapy for acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Webster, G

    2000-08-01

    There is no topical antiacne medication that acts against all four of the major pathophysiologic features of acne: hyperkeratinization, sebum production, bacterial proliferation, and inflammation. Topical azelaic acid cream helps both to normalize keratinization and to reduce the proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes, and has proven to be effective against both noninflammatory and inflammatory lesions. The results of a recent study now demonstrate that its efficacy can be enhanced, and patient ratings of overall impression improved, when it is used in combination with other topical medications such as benzoyl peroxide 4% gel, clindamycin 1% gel, tretinoin 0.025% cream, and erythromycin 3%/benzoyl peroxide 5% gel. Furthermore, another study has shown that azelaic acid plus benzoyl peroxide achieves greater efficacy and higher patient ratings of convenience than monotherapy with erythromycin-benzoyl peroxide gel.

  12. Effects of 420-nm intense pulsed light in an acne animal model.

    PubMed

    Fan, X; Xing, Y-Z; Liu, L-H; Liu, C; Wang, D-D; Yang, R-Y; Lapidoth, M

    2013-09-01

    Blue light in the 400-420 nm range has been shown to reduce the levels of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) in the skin. P. acnes has been postulated to be a critical trigger for inflammatory acne. Thus, treatment with 420 nm-intense pulsed light should reduce inflammatory activity in acne. To evaluate the clinical and histological effects of 420 nm-intense pulsed light treatment on acne in animal model. Inflammation acne animal model was constructed by intradermal injection of P. acnes of rat auricular. Levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), markers of inflammation implicated in acne, were assessed in treated and untreated animals by immunohistochemistry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Treatment with 420 nm intense pulsed light led to marked improvement after 6 biweekly treatments. Immunohistochemistry and PCR showed that TNF-α and MMP-2 levels correlated with the extent of acneiform activity and were reduced by treatment with 420 nm light. A 420-nm intense pulsed light may exert its beneficial effects on inflammatory acne by reducing the levels of P. acnes and secondarily reducing inflammation induced by the bacteria. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2012 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  13. Acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Kevin M

    2004-08-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common inflammatory skin condition that presents management difficulties to cosmetic surgeons. Acute management and treatment focuses on early diagnosis as well as treatment with topical agents, oral antibiotics, hormonal therapy,and nonablative chemical peel and laser applications. The treatment of postinflammatory scarring must be individualized to address potential macular dyschromia, cystic lesions,epithelial bridges, or deep pitted scars. A review of interventional options is presented to apply to the spectrum of acne scarring as well as a review of the literature to address objectively published reports on efficacy.

  14. Acne Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Dilworth, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    Acne surgery consists of comedone extraction of non-inflamed lesions, triamcinolone acetate injections of some inflamed lesions, and extraction of milia. Prevention is a very important part of comedone treatment, especially avoidance of picking, moisturizers and harsh soaps. Instruments are also very important: even the finest may be too thick and may have to be filed down. Acne surgery is only an adjunct of good medical therapy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:21283373

  15. Can I Prevent Acne?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Can I Prevent Acne? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can I Prevent Acne? A ... en español ¿Puedo prevenir el acné? What Causes Acne? Contrary to what you may have heard, acne ...

  16. Can I Prevent Acne?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Can I Prevent Acne? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can I Prevent Acne? Print ... en español ¿Puedo prevenir el acné? What Causes Acne? Contrary to what you may have heard, acne ...

  17. A Review of the Safety and Efficacy of Benzoyl Peroxide (5.3%) Emollient Foam in the Management of Truncal Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews findings of studies regarding the treatment of truncal acne with benzoyl peroxide formulations and, in particular, studies utilizing a 5.3% benzoyl peroxide foam. Its formulation of micronized benzoyl peroxide particles in an emollient foam vehicle offers significant clinical and bioavailability advantages that enhance follicular penetration and skin moisturization. A key consideration for topical management of truncal acne is whether the treatment application method allows adequate skin contact time to reduce Propionibacterium acnes colony counts. The foam formulation has demonstrated significant reduction in Propionibacterium acnes on the back when used either as a leave-on or as short-contact therapy for five minutes. Short-contact therapy with a benzoyl peroxide foam is a novel approach to minimize the risk of benzoyl peroxide bleaching of clothing in truncal acne patients. PMID:21103313

  18. A review of the safety and efficacy of benzoyl peroxide (5.3%) emollient foam in the management of truncal acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Bikowski, Joseph

    2010-11-01

    This article reviews findings of studies regarding the treatment of truncal acne with benzoyl peroxide formulations and, in particular, studies utilizing a 5.3% benzoyl peroxide foam. Its formulation of micronized benzoyl peroxide particles in an emollient foam vehicle offers significant clinical and bioavailability advantages that enhance follicular penetration and skin moisturization. A key consideration for topical management of truncal acne is whether the treatment application method allows adequate skin contact time to reduce Propionibacterium acnes colony counts. The foam formulation has demonstrated significant reduction in Propionibacterium acnes on the back when used either as a leave-on or as short-contact therapy for five minutes. Short-contact therapy with a benzoyl peroxide foam is a novel approach to minimize the risk of benzoyl peroxide bleaching of clothing in truncal acne patients.

  19. Acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Acne vulgaris affects over 80% of teenagers, and persists beyond the age of 25 years in 3% of men and 12% of women. Typical lesions of acne include comedones, inflammatory papules, and pustules. Nodules and cysts occur in more severe acne and can cause scarring and psychological distress. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of topical and oral treatments in people with acne vulgaris? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to February 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 69 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: topical treatments (adapalene, azelaic acid, benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin, erythromycin [alone or plus zinc]; isotretinoin, tetracycline, tretinoin); and oral treatments (doxycycline, isotretinoin, lymecycline, minocycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline). PMID:21477388

  20. Acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Purdy, Sarah; de Berker, David

    2011-01-05

    Acne vulgaris affects over 80% of teenagers, and persists beyond the age of 25 years in 3% of men and 12% of women. Typical lesions of acne include comedones, inflammatory papules, and pustules. Nodules and cysts occur in more severe acne and can cause scarring and psychological distress. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of topical and oral treatments in people with acne vulgaris? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to February 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 69 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: topical treatments (adapalene, azelaic acid, benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin, erythromycin [alone or plus zinc]; isotretinoin, tetracycline, tretinoin); and oral treatments (doxycycline, isotretinoin, lymecycline, minocycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline).

  1. Acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Acne vulgaris affects over 80% of teenagers, and persists beyond the age of 25 years in 3% of men and 12% of women. Typical lesions of acne include comedones, inflammatory papules, and pustules. Nodules and cysts occur in more severe acne and can cause scarring and psychological distress. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of topical and oral treatments in people with acne vulgaris? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to June 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 67 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: topical treatments (adapalene, azelaic acid, benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin, erythromycin (alone or plus zinc), isotretinoin, tetracycline, tretinoin), and oral treatments (doxycycline, isotretinoin, lymecycline, minocycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline). PMID:19450306

  2. Can Acne Scars Be Removed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Can Acne Scars Be Removed? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can Acne ... eliminar las cicatrices del acné? Different Types of Acne Scars from acne can seem like double punishment — ...

  3. Olumacostat Glasaretil, a Promising Topical Sebum-Suppressing Agent that Affects All Major Pathogenic Factors of Acne Vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2017-07-01

    Hunt et al. show that olumacostat glasaretil, an inhibitor of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, reduces saturated and monounsaturated fatty acyl chains in sebaceous lipids. Topical olumacostat glasaretil application decreases hamster ear sebaceous gland size and shows efficacy in treating patients with acne vulgaris. Olumacostat glasaretil-mediated sebum suppression may reduce Propionibacterium acnes growth and biofilm formation, comedogenesis, and inflammation. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Emerging drugs for the treatment of acne.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Imran; Fleischer, Alan; Feldman, Steve

    2015-03-01

    Acne is the most common skin condition in the US. The mainstay of acne therapy includes: topical retinoids, topical antibiotics, benzoyl peroxide (BP), and oral isotretinoin for severe cases. Although these treatment options are highly effective they do have certain drawbacks. Current acne treatment regimens often require patients to use multiple medications, some of which may have irritating side effects. Furthermore, Propionibacterium acnes resistance to antibiotics has become an increasing problem due to the rise in antibiotic use. New therapies that have either been released onto the market or that are being developed include: adapalene-BP combination agent, dapsone 5% gel, minocycline foam, topical nitric oxide-releasing agent, cortexolone 17 α-propionate, and CIP isotretinoin. Some of these new therapies address the challenges faced with existing treatment options. For instance, the relatively new combination therapy, adapalene-BP, limits antibiotic resistance and also helps simplify treatment regimens. The newly developed topical nitric oxide-releasing agent also holds potential in limiting antibiotic resistance. Many of the new therapies discussed in this paper are still in early stages of testing so it is difficult to predict their outlook; however, based on preliminary findings, these therapies seem to be promising.

  5. Synchronizing Pharmacotherapy in Acne with Review of Clinical Care

    PubMed Central

    Sacchidanand, Sarvajnamurthy Aradhya; Lahiri, Koushik; Godse, Kiran; Patwardhan, Narendra Gajanan; Ganjoo, Anil; Kharkar, Rajendra; Narayanan, Varsha; Borade, Dhammraj; D’souza, Lyndon

    2017-01-01

    Acne is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that involves the pathogenesis of four major factors, such as androgen-induced increased sebum secretion, altered keratinization, colonization of Propionibacterium acnes, and inflammation. Several acne mono-treatment and combination treatment regimens are available and prescribed in the Indian market, ranging from retinoids, benzoyl peroxide (BPO), anti-infectives, and other miscellaneous agents. Although standard guidelines and recommendations overview the management of mild, moderate, and severe acne, relevance and positioning of each category of pharmacotherapy available in Indian market are still unexplained. The present article discusses the available topical and oral acne therapies and the challenges associated with the overall management of acne in India and suggestions and recommendations by the Indian dermatologists. The experts opined that among topical therapies, the combination therapies are preferred over monotherapy due to associated lower efficacy, poor tolerability, safety issues, adverse effects, and emerging bacterial resistance. Retinoids are preferred in comedonal acne and as maintenance therapy. In case of poor response, combination therapies BPO-retinoid or retinoid-antibacterials in papulopustular acne and retinoid-BPO or BPO-antibacterials in pustular-nodular acne are recommended. Oral agents are generally recommended for severe acne. Low-dose retinoids are economical and have better patient acceptance. Antibiotics should be prescribed till the inflammation is clinically visible. Antiandrogen therapy should be given to women with high androgen levels and are added to regimen to regularize the menstrual cycle. In late-onset hyperandrogenism, oral corticosteroids should be used. The experts recommended that an early initiation of therapy is directly proportional to effective therapeutic outcomes and prevent complications. PMID:28794543

  6. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Loaded with Retinoic Acid and Lauric Acid as an Alternative for Topical Treatment of Acne Vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Silva, Elton Luiz; Carneiro, Guilherme; De Araújo, Lidiane Advíncula; Trindade, Mariana de Jesus Vaz; Yoshida, Maria Irene; Oréfice, Rodrigo Lambert; Farias, Luis de Macêdo; De Carvalho, Maria Auxiliadora Roque; Dos Santos, Simone Gonçalves; Goulart, Gisele Assis Castro; Alves, Ricardo José; Ferreira, Lucas Antônio Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Topical therapy is the first choice for the treatment of mild to moderate acne and all-trans retinoic acid is one of the most used drugs. The combination of retinoids and antimicrobials is an innovative approach for acne therapy. Recently, lauric acid, a saturated fatty acid, has shown strong antimicrobial activity against Propionibacterium acnes. However, topical application of retinoic acid is followed by high incidence of side-effects, including erythema and irritation. Solid lipid nanoparticles represent an alternative to overcome these side-effects. This work aims to develop solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with retinoic acid and lauric acid and evaluate their antibacterial activity. The influence of lipophilic stearylamine on the characteristics of solid lipid nanoparticles was investigated. Solid lipid nanoparticles were characterized for size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The in vitro inhibitory activity of retinoic acid-lauric acid-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles was evaluated against Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. High encapsulation efficiency was obtained at initial time (94 ± 7% and 100 ± 4% for retinoic acid and lauric acid, respectively) and it was demonstrated that lauric acid-loaded-solid lipid nanoparticles provided the incorporation of retinoic acid. However, the presence of stearylamine is necessary to ensure stability of encapsulation. Moreover, retinoic acid-lauric acid-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles showed growth inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus, representing an interesting alternative for the topical therapy of acne vulgaris.

  7. Acne detergicans.

    PubMed

    Mills, O H; Klingman, A M

    1975-01-01

    Popular brands of soaps and shampoos were assayed for comedogenicity in the rabbit ear. Only a small number produced hyperkeratosis when applied at a 25% concentration. Bacteriostatic substances, especially hexachlorophene, were mildly comedogenic. Conventional soaps include salts of fatty acids; the latter are known comedogens. The obsessive use of soaps by patients with acne vulgaris may aggravate the disease and result in its extension to unusual locations.

  8. Acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Aydemir, Ertuğrul H

    2014-03-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit and it is observed equally in both sexes and nearly all races. It generally begins at puberty, but the healing period is variable. There is no known etiological factor, except genetic tendency. Androgens play a very limited role in some female patients. The effects of cosmetics, foods and drinks are also discussible and too limited. There are four factors in acne pathogenesis: Increase of the sebum excretionKeratinization of infrainfundibulumBacterial colonization of the follicleInflammation It is mainly observed on the face and back, shoulders and chest. Initial lesions are comedons. Papules, pustules and cysts of severe types follow it. The most important factor in treatment is a very good patient-physician communication. Topical or systemic treatment or both can be used depending on the severity of acne. Benzoyl peroxyde, azelaic acid, AHA's antibiotics, retinoic acid and derivatives are the topical choices. For systemic treatment antibiotics are the most commonly used medicines, but isotretinoine has a very spesific place with the possibility of permanent healing. All kind of treatments need approximately six months for a good result.

  9. The Relationship of Proper Skin Cleansing to Pathophysiology, Clinical Benefits, and the Concomitant Use of Prescription Topical Therapies in Patients with Acne Vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Levin, Jacquelyn

    2016-04-01

    Patients often perceive the cause of their acne to be related to a lack of proper cleansing, therefore many patients attempt to treat their acne either alone or with prescription therapy by frequent aggressive cleansing with harsh cleansing agents. Altered epidermal barrier function, inflammation, and Propionibacterium acnes are related to acne vulgaris (AV) pathophysiology; proper cleansing can favorably modulate the development of AV. The available clinical studies support gentle cleansing in AV by showing the ability to contribute to improving AV lesion counts and severity and minimizing the irritation seen with topical AV therapies such as retinoids and BP.

  10. [Use of organic acids in acne and skin discolorations therapy].

    PubMed

    Kapuścińska, Alicja; Nowak, Izabela

    2015-03-22

    Acne is one of the most frequent skin disorders that occurs in puberty, but often adults also have acne. The most important factors responsible for acne are elevated production of sebum by hyperactive sebaceous glands and blockage of the follicle because of hyperkeratosis [14]. The third etiopathogenic factor of acne is excessive microflora reproduction [8]. The most significant bacterium that is responsible for formation of skin lesions is Propionibacterium acnes, a rod-shaped Gram-positive and aerotolerant anaerobic bacterium. It is estimated that P. acnes is responsible for acne in approximately 80% of people aged 11 to 30 [27,40]. Even healed skin lesions can often cause skin discolorations and scar formation [51]. Exfoliating chemical substances that are commonly used in dermatology and cosmetology are organic acids. Exfoliating treatment using organic acids is called "chemical peeling" and consists of controlled application of those substances on the skin [38]. The depth of exfoliation depends on organic acid concentration, type of substance and contact time with the skin [41]. Using exfoliating agents seems to be helpful in excessive keratinization - one of several factors responsible for acne. Moreover, epidermis exfoliation is a popular method of removing skin discoloration [22]. Considering chemical structure, exfoliating substances that are most often used in cosmetology contain alpha-hydroxyacids (glycolic acid, lactic acid, mandelic acid and citric acid), beta-hydroxyacids (salicylic acid) and other organic acids, such as trichloroacetic acid and pyruvic acid [47]. In this article, a literature review of use of organic acids in acne and skin discoloration therapy is presented.

  11. Preliminary evidence for vitamin D deficiency in nodulocystic acne

    PubMed Central

    Yildizgören, Mustafa Turgut; Togral, Arzu Karatas

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease, and hormonal influences, follicular plugging and follicular hyperkeratinization, increased sebum secretion, Propionibacterium acnes colonization, and inflammation are involved in its pathogenesis. Recently, a significant body of evidence has accumulated that describes the comedolytic properties of vitamin D and its roles as a modulator of the immune system, a regulator of the proliferation and differentiation of sebocytes and keratinocytes, and as an antioxidant. In this study, we aimed to compare serum vitamin D levels in a group of patients with nodulocystic acne with vitamin D levels in a group of control subjects to determine whether there was any relationship between the vitamin D and acne. Methods: Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) were measured in 43 patients with newly diagnosed nodulocystic acne and in 46 healthy control subjects, and participants were grouped according to their 25[OH]D levels as follows: normal/sufficient (>20 ng/mL) or insufficient/deficient (<20 ng/mL). Serum concentrations of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were measured. Results: Forty-three patients and 46 control individuals, with mean ages of 23.13 (± 5.78) years and 25.23 (± 4.73) years, respectively, were included in this study. There were no significant differences between the groups in relation to their body mass indices and Ca, P, ALP, and PTH levels. However, the patients with nodulocystic acne had significantly lower 25[OH]D levels than the subjects in the control group (P< 0.05). Conclusion: The patients with nodulocystic acne had relatively low serum vitamin D levels compared with the subjects in the control group. The findings from this study suggest that there is a connection between low vitamin D levels and acne. Larger epidemiologic studies are needed to confirm the status of vitamin D levels in patients with acne. PMID:26413187

  12. Topical antibiotic monotherapy prescribing practices in acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Hoover, William D; Davis, Scott A; Fleischer, Alan B; Feldman, Steven R

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the frequency of dosing topical antibiotics as monotherapy in the treatment of acne vulgaris, and physician specialty prescribing these medications. This study is a retrospective review of all visits with a sole diagnosis of acne vulgaris (ICD-9-CM code 706.1) found on the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) in 1993-2010. We recorded the number of visits surveyed where acne vulgaris was the sole diagnosis, number of visits where topical antibiotics were the only treatment prescribed, and the specialty of physician in each encounter. Topical erythromycin or clindamycin were the sole medication prescribed in 0.81% of the visits recorded, with 60% of these prescriptions arising from dermatologists and 40% from non-dermatologists. The trend of prescribing topical antibiotic monotherapy is declining (p < 0.001) over the 18-year study period. The development of resistance of Propionibacterium acnes to topical antibiotic regimens has led to the need to re-evaluate the use of topical antibiotics in the treatment of acne vulgaris. While the rate of topical antibiotic monotherapy is declining, their use should be reserved for situations where the direct need for antibiotics arises. If a clinician feels that antibiotics are a necessary component to acne therapy, they should be used as part of a combination regimen.

  13. Novel pharmacological approaches for the treatment of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Valente Duarte de Sousa, Isabel Cristina

    2014-10-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common skin disease worldwide; yet, current treatment options, although effective, are associated with unwanted side effects, chronicity, relapses and recurrences. The adequate control of the four pathogenic mechanisms, involved in the appearance of acne lesions, is paramount to treatment success. The authors discuss and evaluate the pathogenic pathways related to the mechanisms of action of novel molecules, which are currently under investigation for the treatment of acne vulgaris. The manuscript is based on comprehensive searches made through PubMed, GoogleScholar and ClinicalTrial.gov, using different combination of key words, which include acne vulgaris, pathogenesis, treatment, sebogenesis and Propionibacterium acnes. In the near future, more effective treatments with fewer side effects are expected. The use of topical antiandrogens, acetylcholine inhibitors and PPAR modulators seem to be promising options for controlling sebum production. Retinoic acid metabolism-blocking agents and IL-1α inhibitors have the potential to become legitimate alternative options to retinoid therapy in the management of infundibular dyskeratosis. Indeed, the authors believe that there will likely be a decline in the use of antibiotics for controlling P. acnes colonization and targeting the inflammation cascade.

  14. Fatty acid compositions of triglycerides and free fatty acids in sebum depend on amount of triglycerides, and do not differ in presence or absence of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Akaza, Narifumi; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Numata, Shigeki; Matsusue, Miyuki; Mashima, Yasuo; Miyawaki, Masaaki; Yamada, Shunji; Yagami, Akiko; Nakata, Satoru; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2014-12-01

    To clarify the influence of the fatty acid composition of sebum in acne vulgaris, we investigated the amounts and fatty acid compositions of triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA), and the amounts of cutaneous superficial Propionibacterium acnes in acne patients and healthy subjects. The foreheads of 18 female patients, 10 male patients, 10 healthy females and 10 healthy males were studied in a Japanese population. There were significant differences in the amounts of sebum, TG and cutaneous superficial P. acnes, as well as the fatty acid compositions of TG and FFA between acne patients and healthy subjects in females. Their fatty acid compositions were correlated with the amount of TG with or without acne. It was clarified that the fatty acid compositions of TG and FFA depended on the amount of TG, and there were no differences in the fatty acid composition in the presence and absence of acne.

  15. Optimization of genotypic and biochemical methods to profile P. acnes isolates from a patient population.

    PubMed

    Cebrián, Rubén; Arévalo, Sergio; Arias-Santiago, Salvador; Riazzo, Cristina; Rojo, M Dolores; Bermúdez, Pilar; Valdivia, Eva; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Maqueda, Mercedes

    2017-10-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a key factor in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris, although currently it is also being associated with medical-device infections. The aim of this work was to validate a safe and quick identification and typing of 24 clinical isolates of Propionibacterium acnes, applying a range of biochemical as well as genetic methods, and investigating the pathogenic potential to associate the different types with human health. RAPD-PCRs revealed the existence of two discernible clusters in correspondence with the phylogroups I and II, according to the PAtig gene polymorphism, leading them to be assigned as P. acnes subsp. acnes subsp. nov. Biotyping according to the pattern of sugar fermentation evidenced that all the isolates from acne and the majority from opportunistic infections fit the biotype I-B3. Consistent with the multiplex touchdown analysis, nearly all the isolates included in this biotype belonged to the subgroups IA1 (the exception being four strains classified as IB). The remaining ones were assigned to phylogroup II, considered to be part of the normal cutaneous microbiota. The susceptibility to three antibiotics was also investigated to explore the relations with the virulence, although no clear trend was identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Clinical variants of acne].

    PubMed

    Jansen, T; Grabbe, S; Plewig, G

    2005-11-01

    Acne is a very common dermatosis with characteristic clinical features. It is a polymorphic disease. The clinical expression ranges from non-inflammatory closed and open comedones to inflammatory papules, pustules, and nodules. Most patients have a mixture of non-inflammatory and inflammatory lesions, although some have predominantly one or the other. Acne varies in severity from a very distressing, socially disabling disorder to a state that has been regarded as physiological by some authors. The most severe forms of acne are acne fulminans and acne inversa. Although acne may occur in all age groups, it is most prevalent during adolescence. It is not known why acne subsides in most patients but persists into adulthood in some. Certain medications may be associated with provocation, perpetuation, or exacerbation of pre-existing acne or with acneiform eruptions. Acne-like disorders include rosacea, pseudofolliculitis barbae, and other conditions that share clinical features with acne.

  17. Lowering lesional surface pH in acne: a new treatment modality for Herpifix.

    PubMed

    Schürer, Nanna Y; Bock, Meike

    2009-01-01

    The acid skin surface pH has antimicrobial activities. Increased growth of Propionibacterium acnes contributes to the pathogenesis of acne. Therefore, the pH of inflammatory acne lesions was determined prior to and after lesional acidification employing Herpifix (Courage + Khazaka, Cologne, Germany), a microphoretic system. The pH was correlated with the number of acne lesions. A total of 30 volunteers with acne vulgaris participated in this crossover study applying either Herpifix or a dummy to inflammatory lesions. Prior to treatment, the pH of acne lesions was 5.7 +/- 0.2 (mean +/- SD) and 22 lesions (mean +/- 10) were counted in an 8 x 8 cm(2) facial surface area. Fifteen volunteers (group A) used Herpifix first for 3 weeks and then the dummy, while the other group of 15 volunteers (group B) used the dummy first and then Herpifix. In group A, the lesional surface pH and number of lesions decreased (p < 0.01) initially. When the dummy was used over a second 3-week treatment period, the skin surface pH and number of acne lesions increased. Findings for group B were vice versa. When both groups were compared at the end of the study, a significant difference in pH values (p < 0.001) and the number of acne lesions (p < 0.05) was obtained. Herpifix may be considered as a new therapeutic option for inflammatory acne.

  18. Proteome Analysis of Human Sebaceous Follicle Infundibula Extracted from Healthy and Acne-Affected Skin

    PubMed Central

    Bek-Thomsen, Malene; Lomholt, Hans B.; Scavenius, Carsten; Enghild, Jan J.; Brüggemann, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a very common disease of the pilosebaceous unit of the human skin. The pathological processes of acne are not fully understood. To gain further insight sebaceous follicular casts were extracted from 18 healthy and 20 acne-affected individuals by cyanoacrylate-gel biopsies and further processed for mass spectrometry analysis, aiming at a proteomic analysis of the sebaceous follicular casts. Human as well as bacterial proteins were identified. Human proteins enriched in acne and normal samples were detected, respectively. Normal follicular casts are enriched in proteins such as prohibitins and peroxiredoxins which are involved in the protection from various stresses, including reactive oxygen species. By contrast, follicular casts extracted from acne-affected skin contained proteins involved in inflammation, wound healing and tissue remodeling. Among the most distinguishing proteins were myeloperoxidase, lactotransferrin, neutrophil elastase inhibitor and surprisingly, vimentin. The most significant biological process among all acne-enriched proteins was ‘response to a bacterium’. Identified bacterial proteins were exclusively from Propionibacterium acnes. The most abundant P. acnes proteins were surface-exposed dermatan sulphate adhesins, CAMP factors, and a so far uncharacterized lipase in follicular casts extracted from normal as well as acne-affected skin. This is a first proteomic study that identified human proteins together with proteins of the skin microbiota in sebaceous follicular casts. PMID:25238151

  19. [Systemic antibiotic therapy of acne vulgaris].

    PubMed

    Ochsendorf, Falk

    2010-03-01

    Inflammatory, medium to severe acne vulgaris is treated with systemic antibiotics worldwide. The rationale is an effect on Propionibacterium acnes as well as the intrinsic anti-inflammatory properties of these antibiotics. Although there are no correlations between the number of P. acnes and the severity of the disease, associations between the degree of humoral and cellular immune-responses against P. acnes and the severity of acne have been reported. Exact data with respect to daily use of these compounds, such as differential effectiveness or side effects are unavailable. A summary of currently available studies is presented. The data of studies of systemic antibiotic therapy of acne vulgaris up to 1975, the summary of literature in English up to 1999, a systematic review of minocycline of the year 2002 as well as the data of randomized controlled studies published and listed in Medline thereafter were reviewed. Systemic tetracyclines [tetracycline 1 000 mg/d, doxycycline 100 (-200) mg/d, minocycline 100 (-200) mg/d, lymecycline 300 (-600) mg] and erythromycin 1 000 mg/d are significantly more effective than placebo in the systemic treatment of inflammatory acne. The data for tetracycline are best grounded. Similarly effective is clindamycin. Cotrimoxazole and trimethoprim are likely to be effective. Definite differences between the tetracyclines or between tetracycline and erythromycin cannot be ascertained. The data for the combination with topical treatments (topical benzoyl peroxide (BPO) or retinoids) suggest synergistic effects. Therefore systemic antibiotics should not be used as monotherapy. In case of similar efficacy, other criteria, such as pharmacokinetics (doxycycline, minocycline, lymecycline have longer half-life times than tetracyclines), the rate of side-effects (tetracycline: side effect-rate approximately 4 % mild side effects; erythromycin often gastrointestinal complaints; minocycline: rare, but potentially severe hypersensitivity reactions

  20. [Azelaic acid in the treatment of acne].

    PubMed

    Nazzaro-Porro, M; Passi, S; Picardo, M; Breathnach, A S; Zina, G

    1989-04-01

    This review is an update of the literature accumulated over the past 6 years following the original observation that topically applied azelaic acid, a non-toxic C9 dicarboxylic acid, has a beneficial therapeutic effect on acne vulgaris. These studies have shown that azelaic acid has a modulating influence on the process of keratinization, and that it acts as a keratolytic and anti-comedogenic agent. There is evidence that it inhibits mitochondrial and microsomal oxido-reductases, including 5-alpha-reductase, and that it may interfere with the process of sebogenesis. It has a spectrum of antimicrobial activity, both in vitro and in vivo, against aerobic microorganisms and is effective against the anaerobic Propionibacterium acnes. Extensive multi-centre clinical trials have established that topical azelaic acid (a 20% cream) is an effective treatment for all types of acne. It compares well with other agents, such as topical tretinoin or benzoyl-peroxide, or oral tetracycline. It is non-irritant, and does not give rise to allergic or photo-toxic reactions. Its use is not associated with teratogenicity, possible endocrine unbalance, or the disadvantages of antibiotic treatment. It can be applied for long periods, in recurrences, and as maintenance "spot" therapy against individual lesions.

  1. Acne phototherapy using UV-free high-intensity narrow-band blue light: a three-center clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalita, Alan R.; Harth, Yoram; Elman, Monica; Slatkine, Michael; Talpalariu, Gerry; Rosenberg, Yitzhak; Korman, Avner; Klein, Arieh

    2001-05-01

    Propionibacterium. acnes is a Gram positive, microaerophilic bacterium which takes a part in the pathogenesis of inflammatory acne. P. acnes is capable to produce high amounts endogenic porphyrins with no need of any trigger molecules. Light in the violet-blue range (407-420 nm) has been shown to exhibit a phototoxic effect on Propionibacterium acnes when irradiated in vitro. The purpose of our study was to test the clinical effects of a high intensity narrowband blue light source on papulo pustular acne. A total of 35 patients in 3 centers were treated twice a week with a high intensity metal halide lamp illuminating the entire face (20x20 cm2) or the back with visible light in the 407-420 nm range at an intensity of 90 mW/cm2 (CureLight Ltd.) for a total of 4 weeks. UV is totally cut off. In each treatment the patient was exposed to light for 8-15 minutes. After 8 treatments, 80% of the patients with mild to moderate papulo-pustular acne showed significant improvement at reducing the numbers of non- inflammatory, inflammatory and total facial lesions. Inflammatory lesion count decrease by a mean of 68%. No side effects to the treatment were noticed. In conclusion, full face or back illumination with the high intensity pure blue light we used exhibits a rapid significant decrease in acne lesions counts in 8 biweekly treatments.

  2. Cultural characteristics and fatty acid composition of Corynebacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Moss, C W; Dowell, V R; Lewis, V J; Schekter, M A

    1967-11-01

    A detailed study of the cultural characteristics and cellular fatty acid composition of 27 isolates of Corynebacterium acnes was performed to establish the properties by which this organism may be identified and characterized. The fatty acids were extracted directly from whole cells and examined as methyl esters by gas-liquid chromatography. Each strain possessed a similar fatty acid profile which was characterized by a large percentage of C15 branched-chain acid. Uniformity in certain biochemical reactions and cultural characteristics was also observed. All strains were catalase-positive, nonmotile, and urease-negative, reduced nitrate, liquefied gelatin, failed to hydrolyze esculin and starch, and gave a positive methyl red test. Glucose, fructose, and glycerol were fermented, but not lactose, salicin, sucrose, maltose, xylose, or arabinose. Production of hydrogen sulfide and indole, fermentation of mannitol, and hemolytic activity were variable characteristics. Two species of the genus Propionibacterium were also tested and found to be similar to C. acnes both in cultural characteristics and fatty acid composition. The results strengthen previous suggestions that C. acnes should be classified in the genus Propionibacterium.

  3. Dark chocolate exacerbates acne.

    PubMed

    Vongraviopap, Saivaree; Asawanonda, Pravit

    2016-05-01

    The effects of chocolate on acne exacerbations have recently been reevaluated. For so many years, it was thought that it had no role in worsening acne. To investigate whether 99% dark chocolate, when consumed in regular daily amounts, would cause acne to worsen in acne-prone male subjects, twenty-five acne prone male subjects were asked to consume 25 g of 99% dark chocolate daily for 4 weeks. Assessments which included Leeds revised acne scores as well as lesion counts took place weekly. Food frequency questionnaire was used, and daily activities were recorded. Statistically significant changes of acne scores and numbers of comedones and inflammatory papules were detected as early as 2 weeks into the study. At 4 weeks, the changes remained statistically significant compared to baseline. Dark chocolate when consumed in normal amounts for 4 weeks can exacerbate acne in male subjects with acne-prone skin. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  4. Antimicrobial efficacy of granulysin-derived synthetic peptides in acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hee-Sun; Chun, Seung-Min; Soung, Min-Gyu; Kim, Jenny; Kim, Seong-Jin

    2015-07-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are considered as a potential alternative to antibiotic treatment in acne vulgaris because the development of a resistant strain of Propionibacterium acnes is problematic. Granulysin can be regarded as an ideal substance with which to treat acne because it has antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. This study was performed to explore the effectiveness of granulysin-derived peptides (GDPs) in killing P. acnes in vitro under a standard microbiologic assay and to evaluate their potential use in a topical agent for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Twenty different peptides based on the known sequence of a GDP were synthesized and tested in vitro for antimicrobial activity. Thirty patients with facial acne vulgaris were instructed to apply a topical formulation containing synthetic GDP to acne lesions twice per day for 12 weeks. A newly synthesized peptide in which aspartic acid was substituted with arginine, and methionine was substituted with cysteine, showed the highest antimicrobial activity against P. acnes. Moreover, it was effective against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in vitro. After treatment with the topical formulation containing 50 ppm of synthetic peptide for 12 weeks, a significant reduction in the number of pustules was observed, regardless of the increase in the number of comedones. In addition, a significant reduction in the clinical grade of acne based on the Korean Acne Grading System (KAGS) was evident. Synthesized GDP shows strong antimicrobial activity against P. acnes in vitro. The clinical improvement observed suggests a topical formulation containing the GDP has therapeutic potential for the improvement of inflammatory-type acne vulgaris by its antimicrobial activity. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  5. New insights into synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Magrey, Marina; Khan, Muhammad A

    2009-10-01

    In 1987, synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome was proposed as an umbrella term for a group of diseases with similar musculoskeletal manifestations, in particular hyperostosis of anterior chest wall, synovitis, and multifocal aseptic osteomyelitis, observed in association with dermatologic conditions such as palmoplantar pustulosis, severe acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa. Despite recent advances in our understanding of the epidemiologic, pathophysiologic, and immunogenetic mechanisms involved in SAPHO syndrome, etiopathogenesis remains poorly understood. Propionibacterium acnes, the microorganism associated with acne, has been recovered on bone biopsy in some patients, but the possible pathogenetic role of an infectious agent in a genetically predisposed individual, resulting in exaggerated inflammatory response as "reactive osteitis," is a largely unproven hypothesis. The newly available whole-body MRI will assist early diagnosis by detecting multifocal osteitis lesions, some of them asymptomatic, in axial (anterior chest wall, spine, and jaws) and nonaxial sites. Moreover, outcomes are vastly improved by treatment with bisphosphonates and tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonists.

  6. Acne and systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Lolis, Margarita S; Bowe, Whitney P; Shalita, Alan R

    2009-11-01

    Acne is the most common disease of the skin. It affects 85% of teenagers, 42.5% of men, and 50.9% of women between the ages of 20 and 30 years.96,97 The role of hormones, particularly as a trigger of sebum production and sebaceous growth and differentiation, is well known. Excess production of hormones, specifically androgens, GH, IGF-1, insulin, CRH, and glucocorticoids, is associated with increased rates of acne development. Acne may be a feature in many endocrine disorders, including polycystic ovary disease, Cushing syndrome, CAH, androgen-secreting tumors, and acromegaly. Other nonendocrine diseases associated with acne include Apert syndrome, SAPHO syndrome, Behçet syndrome and PAPA syndrome. Acne medicamentosa is the development of acne vulgaris or an acneiform eruption with the use of certain medications. These medications include testosterone, progesterone,steroids, lithium, phenytoin, isoniazid, vitamins B2, B6, and B12, halogens, and epidermal growth factor inhibitors. Management of acne medicamentosa includes standard acne therapy. Discontinuation of the offending drug may be necessary in recalcitrant cases. Basic therapeutic interventions for acne include topical therapy, systemic antibiotics,hormonal agents, isotretinoin, and physical treatments. Generally, the severity of acne lesions determines the type of acne regimen necessary. The emergence of drug-resistant P acnes and adverse side effects are current limitations to effective acne management.

  7. The role of benzoyl peroxide in the new treatment paradigm for acne.

    PubMed

    Kircik, Leon H

    2013-06-01

    Bacterial resistance became a true clinical concern for dermatologists in the 1980s, when the first reports emerged of the resistance of Propionibacterium acnes to oral antibiotics. Subsequent studies have documented acne treatment failure associated with resistance to topical antibiotics. Beyond dermatology practice, antibiotic resistance has now become recognized as a worldwide health concern. In contrast to antibiotics commonly used in the treatment of acne, benzoyl peroxide (BP)'s mechanism of action is different. Benzoyl peroxide is a bactericidal agent. Combining BP with a topical antibiotic in a stable formulation has been proven in clinical trials to reduce total P acnes count by 99.7% after 1 week of therapy, eliminating both susceptible and resistant strains of P acnes. However, we have recently noticed BP's benefits as monotherapy in the treatment of acne. Benzoyl peroxide works rapidly on P acnes without causing antibiotic resistance. Hence, we may have to reconsider the role of topical antibiotics such as clindamycin in the treatment paradigm of acne vulgaris.

  8. Acne in ethnic skin.

    PubMed

    Halder, Rebat M; Brooks, Howard L; Callender, Valerie D

    2003-10-01

    Acne is the most common disorder observed in ethnic skin. Clinical presentation is different than in white skin. Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation is a common sequelae of acne in darker skin. The management of acne in ethnic skin is based largely on the prevention and treatment of hyperpigmentation.

  9. [Acne and hormones].

    PubMed

    Faure, Michel

    2002-04-15

    Androgens stimulate sebum production which is necessary for the development of acne. Acne in women may thus be considered as a manifestation of cutaneous androgenization. Most of acnes may be related to an idiopathic skin hyperandrogenism due to in situ enzyme activity and androgen receptor hypersensitivity, as also noted in idiopathic hirsutism. Some acne may correspond to elevated ovarian or adrenal androgen secretion. The presence of acne in women may lead to a diagnosis of functional hyperandrogenism, either polycysticovary syndrome or nonclassical 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Plasma level assays for testosterone, delta 4 androstenedione and 17-OH progesterone and ovarian echography are necessary to determine the possibility for an ovarian or adrenal hyperandrogenism, but not to better treat acne. The goal of hormonal therapy in acne is to oppose the effects of androgens on the sebaceous gland. Hormones may be used in female acne in the absence of endocrine abnormalities. Antiandrogens (cyproterone acetate or aldactone) may be useful in severe acne, hormonal contraceptives with cyproterone acetate or non androgenic progestins in mild or common acne often in association with other anti-acneic drugs. Glucocorticoids have to be administered in acne fulminans and other forms of acute, severe, inflammatory acne, for their anti-inflammatory properties.

  10. Vitamin B12 modulates the transcriptome of the skin microbiota in acne pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dezhi; Shi, Baochen; Erfe, Marie C; Craft, Noah; Li, Huiying

    2015-06-24

    Various diseases have been linked to the human microbiota, but the underlying molecular mechanisms of the microbiota in disease pathogenesis are often poorly understood. Using acne as a disease model, we aimed to understand the molecular response of the skin microbiota to host metabolite signaling in disease pathogenesis. Metatranscriptomic analysis revealed that the transcriptional profiles of the skin microbiota separated acne patients from healthy individuals. The vitamin B12 biosynthesis pathway in the skin bacterium Propionibacterium acnes was significantly down-regulated in acne patients. We hypothesized that host vitamin B12 modulates the activities of the skin microbiota and contributes to acne pathogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the skin microbiota in healthy subjects supplemented with vitamin B12. We found that the supplementation repressed the expression of vitamin B12 biosynthesis genes in P. acnes and altered the transcriptome of the skin microbiota. One of the 10 subjects studied developed acne 1 week after vitamin B12 supplementation. To further understand the molecular mechanism, we revealed that vitamin B12 supplementation in P. acnes cultures promoted the production of porphyrins, which have been shown to induce inflammation in acne. Our findings suggest a new bacterial pathogenesis pathway in acne and provide one molecular explanation for the long-standing clinical observation that vitamin B12 supplementation leads to acne development in a subset of individuals. Our study discovered that vitamin B12, an essential nutrient in humans, modulates the transcriptional activities of skin bacteria, and provided evidence that metabolite-mediated interactions between the host and the skin microbiota play essential roles in disease development.

  11. Postadolescent acne in women.

    PubMed

    Kligman, A M

    1991-07-01

    A low-grade, persistent acne is quite common in hard-working professional women in their twenties, thirties, and forties. Closed comedones are the dominant lesions, with a scattering of papulopustules. Premenstrual flares are typical. Most such patients passed through adolescence without acne. Acne cosmetica has to be ruled out. The latter is more inflammatory and the lesions are denser. It is postulated that chronic stress leads to enhanced secretion of adrenal androgens, resulting in sebaceous hyperplasia and subsequent induction of comedones. Postadolescent acne is an authentic variety of acne vulgaris; it responds well to treatment with conventional topical medicaments.

  12. Synergistic Antibacterial Effects of Chitosan-Caffeic Acid Conjugate against Antibiotic-Resistant Acne-Related Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hoon; Yu, Daeung; Eom, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Song-Hee; Oh, Junghwan; Jung, Won-Kyo; Kim, Young-Mog

    2017-01-01

    The object of this study was to discover an alternative therapeutic agent with fewer side effects against acne vulgaris, one of the most common skin diseases. Acne vulgaris is often associated with acne-related bacteria such as Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Some of these bacteria exhibit a resistance against commercial antibiotics that have been used in the treatment of acne vulgaris (tetracycline, erythromycin, and lincomycin). In the current study, we tested in vitro antibacterial effect of chitosan-phytochemical conjugates on acne-related bacteria. Three chitosan-phytochemical conjugates used in this study exhibited stronger antibacterial activity than that of chitosan (unmodified control). Chitosan-caffeic acid conjugate (CCA) showed the highest antibacterial effect on acne-related bacteria along with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC; 8 to 256 μg/mL). Additionally, the MIC values of antibiotics against antibiotic-resistant P. acnes and P. aeruginosa strains were dramatically reduced in combination with CCA, suggesting that CCA would restore the antibacterial activity of the antibiotics. The analysis of fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices clearly revealed a synergistic antibacterial effect of CCA with antibiotics. Thus, the median sum of FIC (∑FIC) values against the antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains ranged from 0.375 to 0.533 in the combination mode of CCA and antibiotics. The results of the present study suggested a potential possibility of chitosan-phytochemical conjugates in the control of infections related to acne vulgaris. PMID:28594356

  13. South-East Asia study alliance guidelines on the management of acne vulgaris in South-East Asian patients.

    PubMed

    Goh, Chee Leok; Abad-Casintahan, Flordeliz; Aw, Derrick Chen Wee; Baba, Roshidah; Chan, Lee Chin; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Leong, Hoe Nam; Medina-Oblepias, Marie Socouer; Noppakun, Nopadon; Sitohang, Irma Bernadette; Sugito, Titi Lestari; Wong, Su-Ni

    2015-10-01

    The management of acne in South-East Asia is unique, as Asian skin and local variables require a clinical approach unlike that utilized in other parts of the world. There are different treatment guidelines per country in the region, and a group of leading dermatologists from these countries convened to review these guidelines, discuss current practices and recent advances, and formulate consensus guidelines to harmonize the management of acne vulgaris in the region. Emphasis has been placed on formulating recommendations to impede the development of antibiotic resistance in Propionibacterium acnes. The group adopted the Acne Consensus Conference system for grading acne severity. The group recommends that patients may be treated with topical medications including retinoids, benzoyl peroxide (BPO), salicylic acid, a combination of retinoid and BPO, or a combination of retinoids and BPO with or without antibiotics for mild acne; topical retinoid with topical BPO and a oral antibiotic for moderate acne; and oral isotretinoin if the patient fails first-line treatment (a 6- or 8-week trial of combined oral antibiotics and topical retinoids with BPO) for severe acne. Maintenance acne treatment using topical retinoids with or without BPO is recommended. To prevent the development of antibiotic resistance, topical antibiotics should not be used as monotherapy or used simultaneously with oral antibiotics. Skin care, comprised of cleansing, moisturizing and sun protection, is likewise recommended. Patient education and good communication is recommended to improve adherence, and advice should be given about the characteristics of the skin care products patients should use.

  14. Antibacterial Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Cinnamon Bark, Honey, and Their Combination Effects against Acne-Causing Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Julianti, Elin; Rajah, Kasturi K.; Fidrianny, Irda

    2017-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the major skin bacteria that cause the formation of acne. The present study was conducted to investigate antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of cinnamon bark, honey, and their combination against acne bacteria. The antibacterial activity of extract of cinnamon bark and honey were investigated against P. acnes and S. epidermidis using disc diffusion. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were attained using Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) methods. The interaction between cinnamon bark extract and honey was determined using a checkerboards method. The results showed that the MICs of cinnamon bark extract and honey against P. acne were 256 µg/mL and 50% v/v, respectively, while those against S. epidermidis were 1024 µg/mL and 50% v/v, respectively. The MBC of cinnamon bark extract against P. acnes and S. epidermidis were more than 2048 µg/mL, whereas the MBC for honey against P. acnes and S. epidermidis were 100%. The combination of cinnamon bark extract and honey against P. acnes and S. epidermidis showed additive activity with a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) value of 0.625. Therefore, the combination of cinnamon bark extract and honey has potential activity against acne-causing bacteria. PMID:28398231

  15. Acne in women.

    PubMed

    Ramos-e-Silva, M; Ramos-e-Silva, S; Carneiro, S

    2015-07-01

    This review focuses on the subject of acne in women, a disease that is increasingly common and that can also affect men. Adult acne differs from the type of acne that occurs in teenagers, and it may persist beyond adolescence or have its onset at an older age (adult-onset acne or late acne). Acne can have a negative impact on the quality of life of patients at any age, leading to a negative body image and decrease in self-esteem, and in older patients it can result in discrimination in the workplace and in other social environments. Acne in women must be understood as a specific problem, and here we discuss the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, psychology and treatment of this very prevalent problem. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  16. [Acne vulgaris: endocrine aspects].

    PubMed

    Dekkers, O M; Thio, B H; Romijn, J A; Smit, J W A

    2006-06-10

    Androgens play an important part in the development of acne vulgaris. Androgen levels in patients with acne are higher than those in controls and people with the androgen insensitivity syndrome do not develop acne. Local factors other than androgen plasma levels, also play a part in the development of acne. The skin contains enzymes that convert precursor hormones to the more potent androgens such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Androgen synthesis can therefore be regulated locally. The effects of androgens on the skin are the result of circulating androgens and enzyme activity in local tissues and androgen receptors. Acne is a clinical manifestation of some endocrine diseases. The polycystic ovary syndrome has the highest prevalence. In women with acne that persists after puberty, in 10-200% of cases polycystic ovary syndrome is later diagnosed. The mechanism of hormonal anti-acne therapy may work by blocking the androgen-production (oestrogens) or by blocking the androgen receptor (cyproterone, spironolactone).

  17. Propionibacterium avidum as an Etiological Agent of Prosthetic Hip Joint Infection

    PubMed Central

    Brüggemann, Holger; Scholz, Christian F. P.; Leimbach, Andreas; Söderquist, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is well-established as a possible etiologic agent of prosthetic joint infections (PJIs). Other Propionibacterium spp. have occasionally been described as a cause of PJIs, but this has not previously been the case for P. avidum despite its capacity to form biofilm. We describe two patients with prosthetic hip joint infections caused by P. avidum. Both patients were primarily operated with an anteriorly curved skin incision close to the skin crease of the groin, and both were obese. Initial treatment was performed according to the DAIR procedure (debridement, antibiotics, and implant retention). In case 1, the outcome was successful, but in case 2, a loosening of the cup was present 18 months post debridement. The P. avidum isolate from case 1 and two isolates from case 2 (obtained 18 months apart) were selected for whole genome sequencing. The genome of P. avidum obtained from case 1 was approximately 60 kb larger than the genomes of the two isolates of case 2. These latter isolates were clonal with the exception of SNPs in the genome. All three strains possessed the gene cluster encoding exopolysaccharide synthesis. P. avidum has a pathogenic potential and the ability to cause clinically relevant infections, including abscess formation, in the presence of foreign bodies such as prosthetic joint components. Skin incision in close proximity to the groin or deep skin crease, such as the anteriorly curved skin incision approach, might pose a risk of PJIs by P. avidum, especially in obese patients. PMID:27355425

  18. [Drug therapy of acne].

    PubMed

    Ochsendorf, F R; Degitz, K

    2008-07-01

    Acne is treated according to the clinical picture and the pathophysiologically relevant mechanisms, such as seborrhea, follicular hyperkeratosis, P. acnes colonisation,and inflammation. In mild forms of acne, topical therapy is most appropriate. Comedonal acne can be treated with topical retinoids; papulopustular acne with a combination of retinoids and topical antimicrobial substances (benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, or azelaic acid). Moderate forms or those with extrafacial involvement can be treated with oral antibiotics combined with topical retinoids or benzoyl peroxide. Acne conglobata and other severe manifestations are treated with oral isotretinoin. Women are also treated with oral contraceptives containing anti-androgenic progestins. If inflammation is prominent, initial short term treatment with oral glucocorticoids is helpful. Second-line agents include oral zinc or dapsone. Following successful treatment, topical retinoids are suitable for maintenance therapy.

  19. Acne and anticonvulsants.

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, R; Fenwick, P B; Cunliffe, W J

    1983-01-01

    The severity of acne and rate of excretion of sebum were assessed in 243 patients with epilepsy taking various anticonvulsants who were in hospital long term and in matched controls derived from a normal population of 2176 people. Neither the prevalence of acne nor the sebum excretion rate significantly increased in the patients compared with the controls or in patients taking phenytoin compared with those not. It is concluded that anticonvulsant treatment does not cause acne. PMID:6227369

  20. Hormone therapy in acne.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Chembolli

    2013-01-01

    Underlying hormone imbalances may render acne unresponsive to conventional therapy. Relevant investigations followed by initiation of hormonal therapy in combination with regular anti-acne therapy may be necessary if signs of hyperandrogenism are present. In addition to other factors, androgen-stimulated sebum production plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acne in women. Sebum production is also regulated by other hormones, including estrogens, growth hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, glucocorticoids, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and melanocortins. Hormonal therapy may also be beneficial in female acne patients with normal serum androgen levels. An understanding of the sebaceous gland and the hormonal influences in the pathogenesis of acne would be essential for optimizing hormonal therapy. Sebocytes form the sebaceous gland. Human sebocytes express a multitude of receptors, including receptors for peptide hormones, neurotransmitters and the receptors for steroid and thyroid hormones. Various hormones and mediators acting through the sebocyte receptors play a role in the orchestration of pathogenetic lesions of acne. Thus, the goal of hormonal treatment is a reduction in sebum production. This review shall focus on hormonal influences in the elicitation of acne via the sebocyte receptors, pathways of cutaneous androgen metabolism, various clinical scenarios and syndromes associated with acne, and the available therapeutic armamentarium of hormones and drugs having hormone-like actions in the treatment of acne.

  1. [Treatment of acne].

    PubMed

    Fyrand, O

    1997-08-30

    Acne is a disfiguring disease, occurring mainly in adolescence. It is a common disorder, affecting above 80% of adolescents in some degree. 50% wish to have treatment for the condition. Acne appears in many forms; from the more common comedonal and papulopustular types to the often devastating cystic and fulminant acne. Some patients develop disfiguring scarring and keloidal reactions, which persist for the rest of their lives. With the treatment facilities available in modern medicine, acne problems can be eliminated through topical and/or systemic treatment options.

  2. [Treatment of acne].

    PubMed

    Delanoë, P; de Prost, Y

    1997-11-01

    The treatment of acne is based upon simple pathogenic arguments, but needs to be adapted to the type of acne. Patients must always be informed that it is long and difficult and that no significant response will be expected before 2 to 3 months of regular treatment. The authors present the different therapeutic agents and strategies. Isotretinoin should be used only in severe acne after failure of at least 3 months of a well conducted classical treatment and in nodulo-cystic acne; because of its major side effect of teratogenicity its use in adolescent girl's requires pregnancy testings before and during treatment and an effective contraception.

  3. Sonography of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Wortsman, Ximena; Claveria, Pedro; Valenzuela, Fernando; Molina, Maria Teresa; Wortsman, Jacobo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the sonographic morphology of the clinical and subclinical pathology of facial acne vulgaris. We studied patients with facial acne vulgaris diagnosed by certified dermatologists, and using a standardized protocol for sonographic examinations, we sequentially described the sonographic pathomorphologic characteristics. Lesions of particular interest to the referring clinician were also analyzed separately. Additionally, acne involvement was staged clinically and sonographically (SOS-Acne) using morphologic definitions of the relevant lesions and predefined scoring systems for gradation of the severity of acne lesions. A total of 245 acne lesions in 20 consecutive patients were studied. Sonographic abnormalities consisted of pseudocysts, folliculitis, fistulas, and calcinosis. Most conditions were subclinical and mostly due to lesion extensions deep into the dermis and hypodermis (52% of pseudocysts and 68% of fistulas). The statistical concordance between acne severity scores assigned by two separate clinicians was strong (κ = 0.8020), but the corresponding sonographic scores generally showed more severe and clinically occult involvement. Facial acne vulgaris often involves deeper tissues, beyond the reach of the spatially restricted clinical examination; these subclinical conditions can be detected and defined with sonography. Additionally, acne vulgaris is amenable to sonographic scoring.

  4. An update on the role of the sebaceous gland in the pathogenesis of acne

    PubMed Central

    Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Ganceviciene, Ruta

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of acne, a disease of the pilosebaceous follicle and one of the most common chronic skin disorders, is attributed to multiple factors such as increased sebum production, alteration of the quality of sebum lipids, inflammatory processes, dysregulation of the hormone microenvironment, interaction with neuropeptides, follicular hyperkeratinisation and the proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes within the follicle. In particular, the sebaceous gland plays an exquisite role in the initiation of the disease as it possesses all the enzyme machinery for the production of hormones and cytokines. In addition, in response to the altered tissue environment in the pilosebaceous follicle as well as in answer to emotional fret, stress response system mechanisms with induction of central and local expression of neuropeptides, are also initiated. This review summarises the latest advances in understanding the role of sebaceous gland cells in the pathomechanism of acne. PMID:21519409

  5. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics in acne vulgaris: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Hassanzadeh, Parvin; Bahmani, M; Mehrabani, Davood

    2008-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is one of the most common skin disorders in youth especially during the puberty. This in vitro study was performed to determine the antibiotic resistance and sensitivity in acne vulgaris. Samples were collected from normal skin and nodulocystic and pustular skin lesions of one hundred youngsters (64 girls, 36 boys) among college students in the age range of 18-24 years old. The specimens were cultured individually on blood agar and Muller-Hinton media. The cultures were then incubated under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions for 2 to 7 days. Bacteria were identified and their resistance to common antibiotics was evaluated according to the standard procedures. In aerobic culture of pustular and nodulocystic skin lesions, Staphylococcus aureus was present in 41% of subjects, Staphylococcus epidermidis in 53% and Micrococcus spp in 45% of subjects. In anaerobic bacterial culture of pustular and nodulocystic skin lesions, Staphylococcus aureus was present in 39%, Propionibacterium acne in 33% and Staphylococcus epidermidis in 21% of subjects. The results of present study revealed that clindamycin and erythromycin were the least effective antibiotics for Propionibacterium acne while tetracycline was the least effective for Staphylococcus aureus in vitro. A synergic effect of benzoyl peroxide, erythromycin or clindamycin was noticed. Rifampin was the most effective antibiotic in vitro. Our results showed that rifampin was the most sensitive antibiotic in vitro for acne vulgaris. To achieve a better treatment, a combination of rifampin with other antibiotics may be more efficient. We suggest in vivo studies for better evaluation and treatment of acne patients with rifampin.

  6. BACTERIAL RESISTANCE TO ANTIBIOTICS IN ACNE VULGARIS: AN IN VITRO STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Hassanzadeh, Parvin; Bahmani, M; Mehrabani, Davood

    2008-01-01

    Background: Acne vulgaris is one of the most common skin disorders in youth especially during the puberty. Objective: This in vitro study was performed to determine the antibiotic resistance and sensitivity in acne vulgaris. Materials and Methods: Samples were collected from normal skin and nodulocystic and pustular skin lesions of one hundred youngsters (64 girls, 36 boys) among college students in the age range of 18-24 years old. The specimens were cultured individually on blood agar and Muller-Hinton media. The cultures were then incubated under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions for 2 to 7 days. Bacteria were identified and their resistance to common antibiotics was evaluated according to the standard procedures. Results: In aerobic culture of pustular and nodulocystic skin lesions, Staphylococcus aureus was present in 41% of subjects, Staphylococcus epidermidis in 53% and Micrococcus spp in 45% of subjucts. In anaerobic bacterial culture of pustular and nodulocystic skin lesions, Staphylococcus aureus was present in 39%, Propionibacterium acne in 33% and Staphylococcus epidermidis in 21% of subjects. The results of present study revealed that clindamycin and erythromycin were the least effective antibiotics for Propionibacterium acne while tetracycline was the least effective for Staphylococcus aureus in vitro. A synergic effect of benzoyl peroxide, erythromycin or clindamycin was noticed. Rifampin was the most effective antibiotic in vitro. Conclusion: Our results showed that rifampin was the most sensitive antibiotic in vitro for acne vulgaris. To achieve a better treatment, a combination of rifampin with other antibiotics may be more efficient. We suggest in vivo studies for better evaluation and treatment of acne patients with rifampin. PMID:19882009

  7. Isotretinoin therapy changes the expression of antimicrobial peptides in acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Borovaya, Alena; Dombrowski, Yvonne; Zwicker, Stephanie; Olisova, Olga; Ruzicka, Thomas; Wolf, Ronald; Schauber, Jürgen; Sárdy, Miklós

    2014-10-01

    In acne vulgaris, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) could play a dual role; i.e., protective by acting against Propionibacterium acnes, pro-inflammatory by acting as signalling molecules. The cutaneous expression of 15 different AMPs was investigated in acne patients; furthermore, the impact of isotretinoin therapy on AMP expression was analysed in skin biopsies from 13 patients with acne vulgaris taken before, during and after a 6-month treatment cycle with isotretinoin using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cutaneous expression of the AMPs cathelicidin, human β-defensin-2 (HBD-2), lactoferrin, lysozyme, psoriasin (S100A7), koebnerisin (S100A15), and RNase 7 was upregulated in untreated acne vulgaris, whereas α-defensin-1 (HNP-1) was downregulated compared to controls. While relative expression levels of cathelicidin, HBD-2, lactoferrin, psoriasin (S100A7), and koebnerisin (S100A15) decreased during isotretinoin treatment, only those of cathelicidin and koebnerisin returned to normal after 6 months of isotretinoin therapy. The increased expression of lysozyme and RNase 7 remained unaffected by isotretinoin treatment. The levels of granulysin, RANTES (CCL5), perforin, CXCL9, substance P, chromogranin B, and dermcidin were not regulated in untreated acne patients and isotretinoin had no effect on these AMPs. In conclusion, the expression of various AMPs is altered in acne vulgaris. Isotretinoin therapy normalizes the cutaneous production of distinct AMPs while the expression of others is still increased in healing acne. Considering the antimicrobial and pro-inflammatory role of AMPs, these molecules could serve as specific targets for acne therapy and maintenance of clinical remission.

  8. Update on acne therapy.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, M N

    1999-06-01

    Current therapy of acne vulgaris is very effective. It consists of a combination of topical comedolytic agents, antibacterial agents, and combinations of both. The use of systemic therapy with antibiotics, isotretinoin, and hormones is necessary for cystic acne. The management of patients with the various combinations of topical and systemic medications is discussed.

  9. Therapy of acne.

    PubMed

    Olsen, T G

    1982-07-01

    Today acne vulgaris is a disease which can be well controlled using a combination of topical, systemic, and physical therapeutic modalities. However, successful acne management depends to a large extent on physician interest and the ability of the physician to apply therapy to the evolutionary stage of the disease and to the disturbed pathogenetic mechanisms. It is this author's opinion that grades I and II comedonal and papulopustular acne can be effectively treated solely with topical preparations, particularly the concurrent use of tretinoin with benzoyl peroxide or topical antibiotics. The majority of patients with grades III and IV inflammatory disease require oral antibiotics in addition to aggressive topical treatments. Intralesional steroids can be effective in all grades of acne when lesions develop an inflammatory nodulocystic quality. The physician should consider the use of estrogen (in females) or oral vitamin A in the small group of patients with grades III and IV inflammatory-cystic acne that has been unresponsive to conventional therapy. Combined systemic therapies of high-dose antibiotics, systemic corticosteroids, and sulfones clearly take precedence over topical preparations in conglobate acne and acne fulminans. Finally, oral isotretinoin, alone and perhaps in combination with more conventional modalities, should play an important role in the future management of severe inflammatory-cystic acne.

  10. Diet and acne.

    PubMed

    Bowe, Whitney P; Joshi, Smita S; Shalita, Alan R

    2010-07-01

    Historically, the relationship between diet and acne has been highly controversial. Before the 1960s, certain foods were thought to exacerbate acne. However, subsequent studies dispelled these alleged associations as myth for almost half a century. Several studies during the last decade have prompted dermatologists to revisit the potential link between diet and acne. This article critically reviews the literature and discusses how dermatologists might address diet when counseling patients with acne. Dermatologists can no longer dismiss the association between diet and acne. Compelling evidence exists that high glycemic load diets may exacerbate acne. Dairy ingestion appears to be weakly associated with acne, and the roles of omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants, zinc, vitamin A, and dietary fiber remain to be elucidated. This study was limited by the lack of randomized controlled trials in the literature. We hope that this review will encourage others to explore the effects of diet on acne. Copyright (c) 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Moisturizers for Acne

    PubMed Central

    Chularojanamontri, Leena; Tuchinda, Papapit; Kulthanan, Kanokvalai

    2014-01-01

    Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit that affects almost all teenagers. Different treatments offer different modes of action, but aim to target acne pathology. Topical therapies, such as benzoyl peroxide, retinoids, antibiotics with alcohol-based preparations, and salicylic acid, can cause skin irritation resulting in a lack of patient adherence. Some physicians recommend patients use moisturizers as adjunctive treatment of acne, especially when either topical benzoyl peroxide or a retinoid is prescribed. Furthermore, some evidence shows that moisturizers can contribute independently to improve signs and symptoms of acne. Moisturizers contain three main properties, which are occlusive, humectant, and emollient effects. Currently, many moisturizers claim to be suitable for acne treatment. This article aims to provide a review of the active ingredients and properties of those moisturizers. Fifty-two moisturizers for acne were included for analysis. Most of the products (92%) have anti-inflammatory properties apart from occlusive, humectant, and emollient effects. Anti-acne medications, including salicylic acid, benzoyl peroxide, and retinol, were found respectively in 35, 10, and 8 percent of the moisturizer products containing anti-inflammatory properties. More than half of the products contain dimethicone and/or glycerin for its moisturizer property. Aloe vera and witch hazel are botanical anti-inflammatories that were commonly found in this study. Scientific data regarding some ingredients are discussed to provide a guide for physicians in selecting moisturizers for acne patients. PMID:24847408

  12. [Charles Bukowski's acne].

    PubMed

    Bahmer, F A; Bahmer, J A

    2012-04-01

    In his autobiography, Charles Bukowski (1920-1994) describes his severe acne conglobata, his experience with therapy, family conflicts and emotional tension. Despite the stigmatization by his acne scars, Bukowski became a philobatic writer and a true chronist of the American way of life in the second half of the 20th century, writing in a coarse and obscene language.

  13. The balance of metagenomic elements shapes the skin microbiome in acne and health

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Emma; Shi, Baochen; Kang, Dezhi; Craft, Noah; Li, Huiying

    2016-01-01

    Studies have emphasized the importance of disease-associated microorganisms in perturbed communities, however, the protective roles of commensals are largely under recognized and poorly understood. Using acne as a model disease, we investigated the determinants of the overall virulence property of the skin microbiota when disease- and health-associated organisms coexist in the community. By ultra-deep metagenomic shotgun sequencing, we revealed higher relative abundances of propionibacteria and Propionibacterium acnes phage in healthy skin. In acne patients, the microbiome composition at the species level and at P. acnes strain level was more diverse than in healthy individuals, with enriched virulence-associated factors and reduced abundance of metabolic synthesis genes. Based on the abundance profiles of the metagenomic elements, we constructed a quantitative prediction model, which classified the clinical states of the host skin with high accuracy in both our study cohort (85%) and an independent sample set (86%). Our results suggest that the balance between metagenomic elements, not the mere presence of disease-associated strains, shapes the overall virulence property of the skin microbiota. This study provides new insights into the microbial mechanism of acne pathogenesis and suggests probiotic and phage therapies as potential acne treatments to modulate the skin microbiota and to maintain skin health. PMID:28000755

  14. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of Jeju medicinal plants against acne-inducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Suk; Kim, Ji-Young; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Chang-Gu

    2008-04-01

    Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis are pus-forming bacteria that trigger inflammation in acne. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of Jeju medicinal plants against these etiologic agents of acne vulgaris. Ethanol extracts of Jeju plants were tested for antimicrobial activities by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. The results from the disc diffusion assays revealed that four medicinal plants, Mollugo pentaphylla, Angelica anomala, Matteuccia orientalis, and Orixa japonica inhibited the growth of both pathogens. Among these, A. anomala had strong inhibitory effects. Its MIC values were 15.6 microg/ml and 125 microg/ml against P. acnes and S. epidermidis, respectively. The cytotoxic effects of the four extracts were determined by colorimetric MTT assays using two animal cell lines: human dermal fibroblasts and HaCaT cells. Although the M. orientalis root extract had moderate cytotoxicity in HaCaT cells at 200 microg/ml, most extracts exhibited low cytotoxicity at 200 microg/ml in both cell lines. In addition, the extracts reduced the P. acnes-induced secretion of interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in THP-1 cells, an indication of their anti-inflammatory effects. Based on these results, we suggest that M. pentaphylla, A. anomala, M. orientalis, and O. japonica are attractive acne-mitigating candidates for topical application.

  15. Selection of therapy for acne vulgaris: balancing concerns about antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, James Q

    2008-11-01

    The widespread use of long-term antibiotics to treat acne and rosacea has resulted in increased Propionibacterium acnes resistance to antibiotics. Although resistance may decrease treatment effectiveness in some cases, it also is clear that antimicrobial activity is not the only role antibiotics play in acne management. The anti-inflammatory activity of antibiotics contributes to antipropionibacterial efficacy. In addition, the use of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) in combination with antibiotics to reduce resistant populations of propionibacteria is widely advocated, as P acnes has not developed resistance to it. P acnes now is known to form biofilms, which are bacterial communities that live encased in a glycocalyx polymer that aids in adherence to surfaces, thereby delaying antibiotic penetration. In addition to drug resistance, patient compliance with acne treatment is an important issue. Because compliance is a function of tolerability and convenience, new moisturizing noncomedogenic vehicles and fixed BPO-antibiotic combinations can be expected to improve compliance. Better efficacy has been noted with BPO-antibiotic combination therapy.

  16. Ultraviolet-induced red fluorescence of patients with acne reflects regional casual sebum level and acne lesion distribution: qualitative and quantitative analyses of facial fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Choi, C W; Choi, J W; Park, K C; Youn, S W

    2012-01-01

    The ultraviolet (UV)-induced red fluorescence of patients with acne has been considered to be caused by Propionibacterium acnes. To study the correlation of the facial red fluorescence with the casual sebum level and the number of acne lesions and to investigate the difference in clinical features, according to both distribution and proportion of fluorescence. A total of 878 patients clinically diagnosed with acne vulgaris were included. Inflammatory and noninflammatory acne lesions were counted separately. UV fluorescent photography and casual sebum level measurements were performed. UV-induced fluorescence patterns were classified according to the facial distribution. The proportions of UV-induced red fluorescence were calculated. We identified six different fluorescence distribution patterns in the T-zone (the forehead, nose and chin) and three different patterns in the U-zone (both cheeks). The proportion of fluorescence in the U-zone showed a positive correlation with the casual sebum level and the number of acne lesions. In the T-zone, the fluorescence proportion correlated with the casual sebum level, but not with the number of acne lesions. As the patients' age and the age at onset increased, the distribution of fluorescence changed from the upper part of the T-zone to the lower part, and to the centre of the face in the U-zone. Our results support the hypothesis that the origin of facial red fluorescence is sebum. In patients with acne, analyses of the pattern and proportion of UV-induced red fluorescence can be useful for evaluating the sebum secretion and selecting efficient treatment modalities. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  17. Evaluation of serum vitamins A and E and zinc levels according to the severity of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Ozuguz, Pinar; Dogruk Kacar, Seval; Ekiz, Ozlem; Takci, Zennure; Balta, Ilknur; Kalkan, Göknur

    2014-06-01

    Although hyperseborrhea, follicular hyperkeratinization, Propionibacterium acnes colonization and inflammation are found to be responsible in the pathogenesis of acne, the exact mechanisms are unknown. Vitamin A and E are basic antioxidants vital for health. Zinc is also an essential element for human. But these parameters of the effects on skin are not fully understood. We aimed to evaluate plasma levels of vitamin A, E and zinc in acne patients in relation to the severity of the disease. There were 94 acne patients who were referred to our clinic, all new diagnosed, and 56 age and sex matched healthy volunteers as control group. All patients are assessed according to Global Acne Grading System and grouped as mild, moderate, severe and very severe. Acne patients further grouped as group 1 consist of patients with mild to moderate disease; and group 2 consist of patients with severe to very severe acne. The patients with the controls and group 1 with group 2 was compared. The level of vitamin E, vitamin A and zinc were significantly lower than the control group (Table 1,p < 0.001). When the patient group is compared among each other there was no statistically significant difference for plasma vitamin A levels between group 1 and 2 whereas vitamin E and zinc levels were significantly low in group 2 than group 1. Thus there was a negative correlation between acne severity and vitamin E and zinc levels. Our study marks the importance of diet in patients with acne. We offer supportive dietary measures with foods rich in vitamin A and E and zinc in the acne prophylaxis and treatment. Supportive treatment with these vitamins and zinc in severe acne may lead to satisfactory results.

  18. Management strategies for acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, Kristen M; Ditre, Chérie M

    2011-01-01

    Clinical question: What are the most effective treatment(s) for mild, moderate, severe, and hormonally driven acne? Results: Mild acne responds favorably to topical treatments such as benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid, and a low-dose retinoid. Moderate acne responds well to combination therapy comprising-topical benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, and/or retinoids, as well as oral antibiotics in refractory cases and oral contraceptive pills for female acne patients. Severe nodulocystic acne vulgaris responds best to oral isotretinoin therapy. In female patients with moderate to severe acne, facial hair, loss of scalp hair and irregular periods, polycystic ovarian syndrome should be considered and appropriate treatment with hormonal modulation given. Adjunctive procedures can also be considered for all acne patients. Implementation: Pitfalls to avoid when treating acne: treatment of acne in women of child-bearing age; familiarization of all acne treatments in order to individualize management for patients; indications for specialist referral. PMID:21691566

  19. [Acne therapy with topical benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics and azelaic acid].

    PubMed

    Worret, Wolf-Ingo; Fluhr, Joachim W

    2006-04-01

    Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) was introduced in the treatment of acne in 1934. Despite the fact that only few randomized trials have been published, BPO is considered the standard in topical acne treatment. Anaerobic bacteria are reduced by oxidative mechanisms and the induction of resistant strains is reduced. Topical formulations are available at concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 %. The effect is dose-dependent, but the irritation increases with higher concentrations. Usually 5 % BPO is sufficient to control acne grade I-II. Due to its strong oxidative potential, patients should be advised that BPO may bleach colored and dark clothing, bedding and even hair. BPO is safe for use in pregnant and lactating females because it is degraded to benzoic acid. It is a cost-effective treatment for acne grade I-II. Patients with papulopustular acne grade I-II, particularly with marked inflammation, show satisfactory improvement with topical antibiotic treatment. The following compounds are available and effective: erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline (the latter being less frequently used). A review in 1990 suggested that topical tetracycline was ineffective in the treatment of acne. Along with eliminating Propionibacterium acnes, the main mechanism of topical antibiotics is their antiinflammatory effect. All three penetrate the epidermal barrier well and are similarly efficacious. Randomized trials have shown that in concentrations of 2-4 %, their effects are comparable to oral tetracycline and minocycline. Combination therapy with retinoids or benzoyl peroxide (BPO) increases efficacy. Retinoids increase penetration and reduce comedones, while topical antibiotics primarily address inflammation. One side effect of topical antibacterial treatment is an increase in drug-resistant resident skin flora with gram-negative microorganisms prevailing, which can lead to gram-negative folliculitis. All three antibiotics fluoresce under black light which may produce interesting

  20. Propionibacterium, Corynebacterium, Mycobacterium and Lepra bacilli.

    PubMed

    Barksdale, L; Kim, K S

    1984-01-01

    Evidence is presented which suggests that certain key markers of lepra bacilli reside collectively in Proprionibacterium acnes, Corynebacterium tuberculostearicum and Mycobacterium leprae. The unrestricted replication of Mycobacterium leprae depends most probably upon the presence of an immune-deficiency-inducing viral agent or possibly on the combined effects of the organisms considered.

  1. Acne and smoking

    PubMed Central

    Capitanio, Bruno; Ottaviani, M; Bordignon, V; Amantea, A; Picardo, M

    2009-01-01

    Background. Post-adolescent acne is an inflammatory disorder, whose cause is unknown. Contrasting data are available on correlation between acne and smoking habit. Objectives. To verify the frequency of clinically non-inflammatory (atypical) post-adolescent acne (APAA) among women, a possible correlation with cigarette smoking, possible differences in sebum composition in a group of female smokers with acne compared to healthy smokers and non-smokers. Method and results. 1046 randomly selected women (25–50-years-old) participated at the study. In 60 selected female subjects we analyzed sebum composition for α-tocopherol, squalene and squalene monohydroperoxide. We found a high prevalence of APAA among women (74.6%), a strong correlation with smoking habit (p < 0.0001), as well as an increase in the grade of sebum peroxidation (p < 0.05) with a reduction in vitamin E (p = 0.02), in the subjects with acne compared to the controls. Conclusions. Clinical evidence and experimental data showed a straight correlation between smoking habit and post-pubertal acne in which the clinically non-inflammatory type—APAA—is the most frequent. In the more severe cases we could consider APAA as a new entity (smoker’s acne). PMID:20436880

  2. Sex hormones and acne.

    PubMed

    Ju, Qiang; Tao, Tao; Hu, Tingting; Karadağ, Ayşe Serap; Al-Khuzaei, Safaa; Chen, WenChieh

    The skin is an endocrine organ with the expression of metabolizing enzymes and hormone receptors for diverse hormones. The sebaceous gland is the main site of hormone biosynthesis, especially for androgens, and acne is the classical androgen-mediated dermatosis. In sebocytes, conversion of 17-hydroxyprogesterone directly to dihydrotestosterone bypassing testosterone has been demonstrated, while type II 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase can inactivate the action of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. The androgen receptor-dependent genomic effect of dihydrotestosterone on sebocytes is confirmed. Further evidence supports the PI3 K/Akt/FoxO1/mTOR signaling in the involvement of the interplay between androgens, insulin, insulin-like growth factor, and hyperglycemic diet in acne. Androgens not only regulate embryology and lipogenesis/sebum synthesis in sebocytes but also influence inflammation in acne. Genetic studies indicate that regulation of the androgen receptor is an important factor in severe acne. Further studies are required to understand the effect of estrogen and progesterone on sebaceous gland and comedogenesis, considering the change of acne in pregnancy and postmenopausal acne. Special attention should be paid to nonobese patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome and hyperandrogenism-insulin resistance-acanthosis nigricans syndrome. In spite of extensive gynecologic experience in the use of combined oral contraceptives for acne, evidence based on dermatologic observation should be intensified.

  3. The rationale for using a topical retinoid for inflammatory acne.

    PubMed

    Millikan, Larry E

    2003-01-01

    Both comedogenesis and the development of inflammatory lesions in acne vulgaris appear to be related to genetic as well as immune processes. The key regulatory cytokine, interleukin-1alpha, has recently been documented as playing a major role in both the hypercornification and the orchestration of immune factors, ultimately resulting in noninflammatory and inflammatory lesions. Topical retinoids, such as tretinoin, and topical retinoid analogs, such as adapalene and tazarotene, help normalize the abnormal follicular keratinocyte desquamation - a key pathophysiologic factor in comedogenesis. This normalization also helps mitigate against the development of a propitious microenvironment for Propionibacterium acnes. Preclinical data suggest that topical retinoids and retinoid analogs may also have direct anti-inflammatory effects. A wealth of clinical data confirms that topical retinoids and retinoid analogs significantly reduce inflammatory lesions. Comparative clinical trials also demonstrate that adapalene has the best cutaneous tolerability profile of all these agents. Optimal therapy for inflammatory acne would involve the use of topical retinoids or retinoid analogs combined with oral or topical antibacterials.

  4. Acne: What's New.

    PubMed

    Stein Gold, Linda F

    2016-06-01

    Acne vulgaris is one of the most prevalent skin conditions. Antibiotics, when considered, are most effective in combination with other therapies, and limited evidence suggests that submicrobial doses of antibiotics may improve acne without increasing the risk for antibiotic resistance. A small but significant risk for inflammatory bowel disease has also been identified in children treated with multiple courses of antibiotics. New topical agents are expanding therapeutic options for acne. Semin Cutan Med Surg 35(supp6):S114-S116. 2016 published by Frontline Medical Communications.

  5. Optical treatments for acne.

    PubMed

    Ross, E Victor

    2005-01-01

    Light-based treatments for acne are becoming increasingly commonplace in dermatology. This article reviews various light approaches in acne therapy. Methods are discussed from an anatomical and a functional perspective. The emphasis is on the practicality of treatment as well as the pros and cons of various devices. Also, a review of the recent literature is presented. The article is intended to give the reader a panoramic view of this still-young and developing area. Most likely, light-based acne treatment will receive more popularity as dermatologists learn how to integrate this type of therapy within the context of more established drug agents.

  6. Pregnancy Acne: What's the Best Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... week What's the best way to treat pregnancy acne? Answers from Lawrence E. Gibson, M.D. Pregnancy acne can be treated with self-care and medication. Pregnancy acne isn't a special form of acne. Some ...

  7. Investigation of the mechanism of action of nonablative pulsed-dye laser therapy in photorejuvenation and inflammatory acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Seaton, E D; Mouser, P E; Charakida, A; Alam, S; Seldon, P M; Seldon, P E; Chu, A C

    2006-10-01

    Nonablative lasers are widely used for treatment of wrinkles, atrophic scars and acne. These lasers stimulate dermal remodelling and collagen production, but the early molecular stimulus for this is unknown. The mechanism of nonablative lasers in inflammatory acne is variously suggested to be damage either to sebaceous glands or to Propionibacterium acnes. Their effects on cytokine production are unknown. To assess the in vivo effects of a short pulse duration nonablative pulsed-dye laser (NA-PDL) previously used for photorejuvenation and treatment of acne, on cytokine production, P. acnes colonization density and sebum excretion rate (SER). We examined the effect of NA-PDL (NliteV; Chromogenex Light Technologies, Llanelli, U.K.) on P. acnes colonization before and after laser therapy using a scrub-wash technique and culture at 0 and 24 h (n = 15), on SER using absorptive tape at 0, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks (n = 19) and on cytokine mRNA using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from skin biopsies at 0, 3 and 24 h (n = 8). Results NA-PDL had no effect on P. acnes or SER. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 mRNA increased fivefold after 24 h and 15-fold in two subjects (P = 0.012). TGF-beta is known to be a potent stimulus for neocollagenesis and a pivotal immunosuppressive cytokine which promotes inflammation resolution. Its upregulation by NA-PDL provides a possible unifying molecular mechanism linking stimulation of dermal remodelling in photorejuvenation with inhibition of inflammation in acne. Damage to P. acnes or sebaceous glands cannot explain the effect of this device in acne.

  8. Antimicrobial and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Endophytic Fungi Talaromyces wortmannii Extracts against Acne-Inducing Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Schwendinger, Katja; Kreiseder, Birgit; Wiederstein, Martina; Pretsch, Dagmar; Genov, Miroslav; Hollaus, Ralph; Zinssmeister, Daniela; Debbab, Abdesamad; Hundsberger, Harald; Eger, Andreas; Proksch, Peter; Wiesner, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common skin disease, causing significant psychosocial problems such as anxiety and depression similar to a chronic illness for those afflicted. Currently, obtainable agents for acne treatment have limited use. Thus, development of novel agents to treat this disease is a high medical need. The anaerobic bacterium Propionibacterium acnes has been implicated in the inflammatory phase of acne vulgaris by activating pro-inflammatory mediators such as the interleukin-8 (IL-8) via the NF-κB and MAPK pathways. Talaromyces wortmannii is an endophytic fungus, which is known to produce high bioactive natural compounds. We hypothesize that compound C but also the crude extract from T. wortmannii may possess both antibacterial activity especially against P. acnes and also anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 expression and P. acnes-induced IL-8 release. Treatment of keratinocytes (HaCaT) with P. acnes significantly increased NF-κB and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation, as well as IL-8 release. Compound C inhibited P. acnes-mediated activation of NF-κB and AP-1 by inhibiting IκB degradation and the phosphorylation of ERK and JNK MAP kinases, and IL-8 release in a dose-dependent manner. Based on these results, compound C has effective antimicrobial activity against P. acnes and anti-inflammatory activity, and we suggest that this substance or the crude extract are alternative treatments for antibiotic/anti-inflammatory therapy for acne vulgaris. PMID:24887557

  9. Lipid Mediators in Acne

    PubMed Central

    Ottaviani, Monica; Camera, Emanuela; Picardo, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Multiple factors are involved in acne pathogenesis, and sebum secretion is one of the main ones. The role sebum plays in acne development has not been completely elucidated yet; however, increasing amounts of data seem to confirm the presence of alterations in sebum from acne patients. Altered ratio between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids has been indicated as an important feature to be considered in addition to the altered amount of specific fatty acids such as linoleic acid. Furthermore, particular attention has been focused on squalene peroxide that seems to be able to induce an inflammatory response beyond cytotoxicity and comedones formation. Moreover, recent data suggest that lipid mediators are able to interfere with sebocytes differentiation and sebogenesis through the activation of pathways related to peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors. Understanding the factors and mechanisms that regulate sebum production is needed in order to identify novel therapeutic strategies for acne treatment. PMID:20871834

  10. Teens and Acne Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... those zits under control. Types of treatments Benzoyl peroxide Benzoyl peroxide wash, lotion, or gel—the most effective acne ... wash or lotion first. How to use benzoyl peroxide Start slowly—only once a day with a ...

  11. Acne scar subcision.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, Bs; Nandini, As

    2010-05-01

    Subcision is a simple and safe office surgery procedure for treatment of depressed acne scars. It can easily be combined with other treatments such as laser, dermaroller and scar revisions for maximum efficacy.

  12. Acne Scar Subcision

    PubMed Central

    Chandrashekar, BS; Nandini, AS

    2010-01-01

    Subcision is a simple and safe office surgery procedure for treatment of depressed acne scars. It can easily be combined with other treatments such as laser, dermaroller and scar revisions for maximum efficacy. PMID:21031076

  13. Atrophic Acne Scarring

    PubMed Central

    Graber, Emmy M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Scarring is an unfortunate and frequent complication of acne, resulting in significant psychological distress for patients. Fortunately, numerous treatment options exist for acne scarring. Objectives: To extensively review the literature on treatment options for atrophic acne scarring. Materials and methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted on the following topics: dermabrasion, subcision, punch techniques, chemical peels, tissue augmentation, and lasers. Results: The literature supports the use of various treatment modalities; superior results may be achieved when multiple modalities are combined for a multi-step approach to scarring. Conclusion: The safety and efficacy of various treatment devices for acne scarring is well established, but there is a paucity of split-face trials comparing modalities. PMID:25610524

  14. Acne: endocrinologic aspects.

    PubMed

    Pochi, P E

    1982-08-01

    Acne is dependent for its development on several factors, one of which is hormonal. The principal and possibly sole mechanistic link between hormones and acne is sebum, the secretory product of the sebaceous glands which is highly androgen-sensitive. Some but not all, patients with acne can be shown to have systemic androgen abnormalities. In addition, there is evidence to suggest that androgens are metabolized abnormally in the skin, possibly resulting in excessive sebaceous gland secretion. Systemic endocrine therapy of acne is designed to reduce the androgenic stimulation of the sebaceous gland. Such treatment includes the peroral cyclic administration of estrogen for ovarian inhibition and the use of low-dosage glucocorticoid for adrenocortical androgen suppression. Combined estrogen-glucocorticoid treatment induces the most telling effect in reducing sebaceous gland activity.

  15. Acne: Diet and acnegenesis

    PubMed Central

    Danby, F. William (Bill)

    2011-01-01

    Acne is a manifestation of hormonal overstimulation of the pilosebaceous units of genetically susceptible individuals. Endogenous reproductive and growth hormones, exogenous reproductive hormones, insulin and endogenous insulin-like growth hormone-1, sourced from and stimulated by dairy and high glycemic load foods, all appear to contribute to this overstimulation. A postulated molecular mechanism linking food and acne is reported and integrated into the clinical picture. PMID:23130204

  16. Acne: Diet and acnegenesis.

    PubMed

    Danby, F William Bill

    2011-01-01

    Acne is a manifestation of hormonal overstimulation of the pilosebaceous units of genetically susceptible individuals. Endogenous reproductive and growth hormones, exogenous reproductive hormones, insulin and endogenous insulin-like growth hormone-1, sourced from and stimulated by dairy and high glycemic load foods, all appear to contribute to this overstimulation. A postulated molecular mechanism linking food and acne is reported and integrated into the clinical picture.

  17. Acne Vulgaris in the Athlete.

    PubMed

    Conklin, R J; Taunton, J E

    1988-10-01

    In brief: The treatment of acne is basically the same for athletes and nonathletes. However, certain aspects of sports can affect acne adversely, and in some cases treating athletes may require a cautious approach. The best treatments are topical tretinoin for comedonal acne, benzoyl peroxide or topical antibiotics and tretinoin for comedonal and mild pustular acne, and a combination of oral antibiotics and long-term benzoyl peroxide or topical antibiotics (with the eventual aim of stopping the oral antibiotics in three to five months) for moderate to severe pustular acne. For severe cystic/nodular acne, highdose oral antibiotics and intralesional steroid injections or oral isotretinoin should be considered.

  18. Acne and diet.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ronni; Matz, Hagit; Orion, Edith

    2004-01-01

    Forbidden foods? "The first law of dietetics seems to be: If it tastes good, it's bad for you" (Isaac Asimov, Russian-born biochemist and science fiction writer). This was essentially the Magna Carta for dermatologists of the 1950s: anything coveted by the teenage palate was suspect for morning after acne. Today, half a century later, although the slant has shifted away for this line of thinking in our dermatologic textbooks, several articles on the beliefs and perceptions of acne patients showed that nothing much has changed and that they expect us to give them detailed instructions of what "acne-related" foods they should avoid. In one such study(1), diet was the third most frequently implicated factor (after hormones and genetics) as the cause of the disease, with 32% of the respondents selecting diet as the main cause, and 44% thinking that foods aggravate acne. In another study that analyzed knowledge about causes of acne among English teenagers, 11% of the responders blamed greasy food as the main cause of the disease(2), whereas in another study found that 41% of final-year medical students of the University of Melbourne chose diet as an important factor of acne exacerbation on a final examination.(3)

  19. Linking diet to acne metabolomics, inflammation, and comedogenesis: an update

    PubMed Central

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2015-01-01

    Acne vulgaris, an epidemic inflammatory skin disease of adolescence, is closely related to Western diet. Three major food classes that promote acne are: 1) hyperglycemic carbohydrates, 2) milk and dairy products, 3) saturated fats including trans-fats and deficient ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Diet-induced insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1)-signaling is superimposed on elevated IGF-1 levels during puberty, thereby unmasking the impact of aberrant nutrigenomics on sebaceous gland homeostasis. Western diet provides abundant branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), glutamine, and palmitic acid. Insulin and IGF-1 suppress the activity of the metabolic transcription factor forkhead box O1 (FoxO1). Insulin, IGF-1, BCAAs, glutamine, and palmitate activate the nutrient-sensitive kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), the key regulator of anabolism and lipogenesis. FoxO1 is a negative coregulator of androgen receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), liver X receptor-α, and sterol response element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), crucial transcription factors of sebaceous lipogenesis. mTORC1 stimulates the expression of PPARγ and SREBP-1c, promoting sebum production. SREBP-1c upregulates stearoyl-CoA- and Δ6-desaturase, enhancing the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids in sebum triglycerides. Diet-mediated aberrations in sebum quantity (hyperseborrhea) and composition (dysseborrhea) promote Propionibacterium acnes overgrowth and biofilm formation with overexpression of the virulence factor triglyceride lipase increasing follicular levels of free palmitate and oleate. Free palmitate functions as a “danger signal,” stimulating toll-like receptor-2-mediated inflammasome activation with interleukin-1β release, Th17 differentiation, and interleukin-17-mediated keratinocyte proliferation. Oleate stimulates P. acnes adhesion, keratinocyte proliferation, and comedogenesis via interleukin-1α release. Thus, diet

  20. Linking diet to acne metabolomics, inflammation, and comedogenesis: an update.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2015-01-01

    Acne vulgaris, an epidemic inflammatory skin disease of adolescence, is closely related to Western diet. Three major food classes that promote acne are: 1) hyperglycemic carbohydrates, 2) milk and dairy products, 3) saturated fats including trans-fats and deficient ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Diet-induced insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1)-signaling is superimposed on elevated IGF-1 levels during puberty, thereby unmasking the impact of aberrant nutrigenomics on sebaceous gland homeostasis. Western diet provides abundant branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), glutamine, and palmitic acid. Insulin and IGF-1 suppress the activity of the metabolic transcription factor forkhead box O1 (FoxO1). Insulin, IGF-1, BCAAs, glutamine, and palmitate activate the nutrient-sensitive kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), the key regulator of anabolism and lipogenesis. FoxO1 is a negative coregulator of androgen receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), liver X receptor-α, and sterol response element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), crucial transcription factors of sebaceous lipogenesis. mTORC1 stimulates the expression of PPARγ and SREBP-1c, promoting sebum production. SREBP-1c upregulates stearoyl-CoA- and Δ6-desaturase, enhancing the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids in sebum triglycerides. Diet-mediated aberrations in sebum quantity (hyperseborrhea) and composition (dysseborrhea) promote Propionibacterium acnes overgrowth and biofilm formation with overexpression of the virulence factor triglyceride lipase increasing follicular levels of free palmitate and oleate. Free palmitate functions as a "danger signal," stimulating toll-like receptor-2-mediated inflammasome activation with interleukin-1β release, Th17 differentiation, and interleukin-17-mediated keratinocyte proliferation. Oleate stimulates P. acnes adhesion, keratinocyte proliferation, and comedogenesis via interleukin-1α release. Thus, diet

  1. Non-invasive diagnostic evaluation of phototherapeutic effects of red light phototherapy of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Zane, Cristina; Capezzera, Rossana; Pedretti, Alessandra; Facchinetti, Elena; Calzavara-Pinton, Piergiacomo

    2008-10-01

    During the past few years, various phototherapeutic protocols with full-spectrum visible light or selected wavebands have been investigated in the treatment of acne vulgaris with variable results. Fifteen women suffering from moderate acne vulgaris of the face were exposed to 20 J/cm(2) of broad-band red (lambda: 600-750 nm) light twice weekly for 4 weeks. In addition, with the aim to improve the present knowledge of the mechanisms of action of phototherapy, we measured skin sebum, pH, hydration and trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL). Lesions of the trunk were not irradiated and served as controls. A significant improvement of acne lesions and a significant decrease of skin sebum excretion and TEWL of the face were registered at the end of the therapy and at the 3-month follow-up visit. The results could be related to a reduced follicular colonization of Propionibacterium acnes, in that it was lethally damaged by photoactivated endogenous porphyrins. The present findings seem to indicate that red light phototherapy may represent an effective, well-tolerated, safe, simple and inexpensive treatment option for moderate acne vulgaris.

  2. Comparison effect of azithromycin gel 2% with clindamycin gel 1% in patients with acne

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtari, Fatemeh; Faghihi, Gita; Basiri, Akram; Farhadi, Sadaf; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammadali; Behfar, Shadi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acne vulgaris is the most common skin disease. Local and systemic antimicrobial drugs are used for its treatment. But increasing resistance of Propionibacterium acnes to antibiotics has been reported. Materials and Methods: In a double-blind clinical trial, 40 patients with mild to moderate acne vulgaris were recruited. one side of the face was treated with Clindamycin Gel 1% and the other side with Azithromycin Topical Gel 2% BID for 8 weeks and then they were assessed. Results: Average age was 21. 8 ± 7 years. 82.5% of them were female. Average number of papules, pustules and comedones was similarly reduced in both groups and, no significant difference was observed between the two groups (P > 0.05, repeated measurs ANOVA). The mean indexes of ASI and TLC also significantly decreased during treatment in both groups, no significant difference was observed between the two groups. (P > 0.05, repeated measurs ANOVA). Also, impact of both drugs on papules and pustules was 2-3 times greater than the effect on comedones. Average satisfaction score was not significant between the two groups (P = 0.6, repeated measurs ANOVA). finally, frequency distribution of complications was not significant between the two groups (P > 0.05, Fisher Exact test). Conclusion: Azithromycin gel has medical impact at least similar to Clindamycin Gel in treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris, and it may be consider as suitable drug for resistant acne to conventional topical therapy. PMID:27169103

  3. Pro-inflammatory cytokines in patients with various kinds of acne treated with isotretinoin

    PubMed Central

    Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Acne vulgaris is the most frequently diagnosed dermatosis in patients aged between 11 and 30. It is believed that it affects about 80% of persons in this age group or even, taking into account lesions of low intensity, 100% of young people. The role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of acne is not fully known. The TLR2 receptors play a role in the aetiology of acne. Stimulation of TLR2 by Propionibacterium acnes makes the IL-8 and IL-12 concentrations increase. Aim The aim of this work was to determine IL-1β, IL-1α, IL-8 and TNF-α levels in patients’ sera used to test response to TLR2 stimulation. A decrease in the levels of the above mentioned cytokines together with a decrease in sebum production were defined as an indication of efficient treatment with isotretinoin. Material and methods The tests were performed in 155 patients treated for different clinical forms of acne with an oral isotretinoin preparation in the Dermatology Clinic of the Silesian Medical University in Katowice in 2009–2011 – I group and the patients treated with oral isotretinoin 2 and 5 years ago – II group. The control group consisted of 40 healthy individuals. Conclusions Measurements of IL-1α, IL-1β and TNF-α sera concentrations could be assessed in parallel to the improvement of the clinical condition and can constitute a good indication of the efficiency of the isotretinoin treatment. PMID:24683393

  4. Efficacy and safety of combined ethinyl estradiol/drospirenone oral contraceptives in the treatment of acne.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jerry Kl; Ediriweera, Chemanthi

    2010-08-09

    Acne is a common disorder affecting the majority of adolescents and often extends into adulthood. The central pathophysiological feature of acne is increased androgenic stimulation and/or end-organ sensitivity of pilosebaceous units leading to sebum hypersecretion and infundibular hyperkeratinization. These events lead to Propionibacterium acnes proliferation and subsequent inflammation. Hormonal therapy, including combined oral contraceptives (OCs), can attenuate the proximate androgenic trigger of this sequence. For many women, hormonal therapy is a rational option for acne treatment as it may be useful across the spectrum of severity. Drospirenone (DRSP) is a unique progestin structurally related to spironolactone with progestogenic, antimineralocorticoid, and antiandrogenic properties. It is available in 2 combined OC preparations (30 μg EE/3 mg DRSP; Yasmin(®) in a 21/7 regimen; and 20 μg EE/3 mg DRSP; Yaz(®) in a 24/4 regimen). These preparations are bereft of the fluid retentional side effects typical of other progestins and their safety has been demonstrated in large epidemiological studies in which no increased risk of vascular thromboembolic disease or arrhythmias was observed. In acne, the efficacy of DRSP-containing OCs has been shown in placebo-controlled superiority trials and in active-comparator non-inferiority trials.

  5. A novel topical ingredient derived from seaweed significantly reduces symptoms of acne vulgaris: a general literature review.

    PubMed

    Ruxton, Carrie H S; Jenkins, Gill

    2013-01-01

    Currently, benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, and retinoids are the mainstay topical treatments for acne vulgaris. However, potential benefits may be offered by natural, marine-derived ingredients, such as those derived from brown seaweed (Laminaria digitata). This article will review the available literature on two ingredients; "seaweed oligosaccharides," which are those derived from the polysaccharide membrane of Laminaria digitata, and a novel seaweed oligosaccharide-zinc complex (SOZC) (Phycosaccharide AC, The Mentholatum Company, East Kilbride, UK). Findings from a recent double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial (RCT) will also be reported and likely mechanisms discussed. The findings taken together suggest that SOZC can significantly ameliorate symptoms of acne vulgaris, particularly in terms of reducing sebum production and populations of Propionibacterium acnes.

  6. In vitro evaluation of antibacterial, anticollagenase, and antioxidant activities of hop components (Humulus lupulus) addressing acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Naoto; Satoh-Yamaguchi, Keiko; Ono, Mitsunori

    2009-04-01

    Seven naturally derived components from hop plant (Humulus lupulus L.) extracts were tested for evaluation of biological activities affecting acne vulgaris. Five strains, Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Kocuria rhizophila and, Staphylococcus pyogenes, were selected as the main acne-causing bacteria. Hop extracts xanthohumol and the lupulones showed strong inhibitory activities against all of the strains. Although hydrogenated derivatives did not show the same level of activity, naturally occurring xanthohumol, humulones, and lupulones all showed moderate to strong anticollagenase inhibitory activities. Antioxidant capacity was also evaluated with seven different methods based on different reactive oxygen species. Xanthohumol showed the highest activity in total oxygen radical absorbance capacity as well as singlet oxygen absorbance capacity.

  7. Treatment of prosthetic joint infections due to Propionibacterium

    PubMed Central

    Van Hooff, Miranda L; Meis, Jacques F; Vos, Fidel; Goosen, Jon H M

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Currently, Propionibacterium is frequently recognized as a causative microorganism of prosthetic joint infection (PJI). We assessed treatment success at 1- and 2-year follow-up after treatment of Propionibacterium-associated PJI of the shoulder, hip, and knee. Furthermore, we attempted to determine whether postoperative treatment with rifampicin is favorable. Patients and methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study in which we included patients with a primary or revision joint arthroplasty of the shoulder, hip, or knee who were diagnosed with a Propionibacterium-associated PJI between November 2008 and February 2013 and who had been followed up for at least 1 year. Results We identified 60 patients with a Propionibacterium-associated PJI with a median duration of 21 (0.1–49) months until the occurrence of treatment failure. 39 patients received rifampicin combination therapy, with a success rate of 93% (95% CI: 83–97) after 1 year and 86% (CI: 71–93) after 2 years. The success rate was similar in patients who were treated with rifampicin and those who were not. Interpretation Propionibacterium-associated PJI treated with surgery in combination with long-term antibiotic administration had a successful outcome at 1- and 2-year follow-up irrespective of whether the patient was treated with rifampicin. Prospective studies are needed to determine whether the use of rifampicin is beneficial in the treatment of Propionibacterium-associated PJI. PMID:26414972

  8. Laser treatments of active acne.

    PubMed

    Wiznia, Lauren E; Stevenson, Mary L; Nagler, Arielle R

    2017-08-04

    The utility of laser therapy is increasingly being recognized in the treatment of active acne vulgaris. We aimed to perform a narrative review of the medical literature on the use of laser therapy for the treatment of active acne vulgaris. We performed a PubMed literature search on September 1, 2016 using the search terms "active acne," "acne," "laser therapy," and "laser surgery." Case reports, case series, cohort, and controlled trials were included. Studies of lasers in the treatment of acne, including erbium glass, Nd:YAG, pulse dye laser (PDL), potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser, and laser-based photodynamic therapy, have been published. While treatment of active acne with lasers has been successful, many studies are limited by small patient number and lack of control populations and comparison to standard therapies for active acne. Laser therapies are increasingly becoming part of or an adjunct to the medical treatment of active acne and are a useful treatment modality.

  9. New developments in our understanding of acne pathogenesis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Ichiro; Danby, F William; Ju, Qiang; Wang, Xiuli; Xiang, Leihong Flora; Xia, Longqing; Chen, Wenchieh; Nagy, István; Picardo, Mauro; Suh, Dae Hun; Ganceviciene, Ruta; Schagen, Silke; Tsatsou, Fragkiski; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2009-10-01

    Interest in sebaceous gland physiology and its diseases is rapidly increasing. We provide a summarized update of the current knowledge of the pathobiology of acne vulgaris and new treatment concepts that have emerged in the last 3 years (2005-2008). We have tried to answer questions arising from the exploration of sebaceous gland biology, hormonal factors, hyperkeratinization, role of bacteria, sebum, nutrition, cytokines and toll-like receptors (TLRs). Sebaceous glands play an important role as active participants in the innate immunity of the skin. They produce neuropeptides, excrete antimicrobial peptides and exhibit characteristics of stem cells. Androgens affect sebocytes and infundibular keratinocytes in a complex manner influencing cellular differentiation, proliferation, lipogenesis and comedogenesis. Retention hyperkeratosis in closed comedones and inflammatory papules is attributable to a disorder of terminal keratinocyte differentiation. Propionibacterium acnes, by acting on TLR-2, may stimulate the secretion of cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 by follicular keratinocytes and IL-8 and -12 in macrophages, giving rise to inflammation. Certain P. acnes species may induce an immunological reaction by stimulating the production of sebocyte and keratinocyte antimicrobial peptides, which play an important role in the innate immunity of the follicle. Qualitative changes of sebum lipids induce alteration of keratinocyte differentiation and induce IL-1 secretion, contributing to the development of follicular hyperkeratosis. High glycemic load food and milk may induce increased tissue levels of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone. These new aspects of acne pathogenesis lead to the considerations of possible customized therapeutic regimens. Current research is expected to lead to innovative treatments in the near future.

  10. Indole-3-acetic acid: a potential new photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Na, Jung-Im; Kim, So-Young; Kim, Jeong-Hye; Youn, Sang-Woong; Huh, Chang-Hun; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2011-03-01

    ALA (5-aminolevulinic acid) photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new treatment option for acne. However, it needs a relatively long incubation period and adverse effects are common. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is not toxic by itself but produces free radicals with ultraviolet B. In this study we examined the potential of IAA as a photosensitizer for acne treatment. Free radical formation was measured after visible light irradiation of IAA. Antimicrobial effect was evaluated by assessing growth suppression of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus after IAA PDT. To evaluate the histological changes, skin biopsies were performed on nude mice skin after IAA PDT. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of IAA PDT, 14 acne patients were treated with the following IAA PDT regimen: three times each with a 15 minutes incubation period and a 2-week interval. The number of inflammatory lesions and the amount of sebum secretion were then assessed. IAA produced free radicals with green light irradiation. Importantly, IAA lost its photosensitizing ability after exposure to certain amount of light. This implies IAA PDT would not require post-procedure photo-protection. The growth of P. acnes and S. aureus were significantly suppressed with IAA PDT. In addition, IAA PDT treated skin showed destruction of follicular ostia epithelium. Interestingly, there was no significant difference between a 4 hours and a 30 minutes incubation, which means that longer absorption time is not necessary for IAA PDT. In the clinical study, inflammatory lesions and sebum secretion were significantly reduced. The procedure was painless and no adverse effect was observed. Photo-protection was not performed and there were no further phototoxic responses. IAA PDT has therapeutic effects on acne via its antimicrobial activities, its sebum-reducing effect and through relieving follicular occlusion. It is a very simple and safe treatment option for acne. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Anti-Acne Activity of Italian Medicinal Plants Used for Skin Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Kate; Lyles, James T.; Li, Tracy; Saitta, Alessandro; Addie-Noye, Eugenia; Tyler, Paula; Quave, Cassandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is implicated in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris, which impacts >85% of teenagers. Novel therapies are in high demand and an ethnopharmacological approach to discovering new plant sources of anti-acne therapeutics could contribute to filling this void in effective therapies. The aims of our study were two-fold: (1) To determine if species identified in ethnopharmacological field studies as having traditional uses for skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) exhibit significantly more activity against P. acnes than species with no such reported use; and (2) Chemically characterize active extracts and assess their suitability for future investigation. Extracts of Italian medicinal (for acne and other skin infection) and randomly collected plants and fungi were screened for growth-inhibitory and anti-biofilm activity in P. acnes using broth microdilution methods. Bioactive extracts were chemically characterized by HPLC and examined for cytotoxicity against human keratinocytes (HaCaTs). Following evaluation of 157 extracts from 10 fungi and 58 plants, we identified crude extracts from seven species exhibiting growth inhibitory activity (MICs 64–256 μg mL−1). All active extracts were examined for cytotoxicity against HaCaTs; extracts from one fungal and one plant species were toxic (IC50 256 μg mL−1). HPLC analysis with chemical standards revealed many of these extracts contained chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, ellagic acid, gallic acid, and tannic acid. In conclusion, species used in traditional medicine for the skin exhibited significantly greater (p < 0.05) growth inhibitory and biofilm eradication activity than random species, supporting the validity of an ethnobotanical approach to identifying new therapeutics. The anti-acne activity of three extracts is reported for the first time: Vitis vinifera leaves, Asphodelus microcarpus leaves, and Vicia sativa aerial parts. PMID:27891094

  12. Zolav®: a new antibiotic for the treatment of acne

    PubMed Central

    Dinant, Alexa; Boulos, Ramiz A

    2016-01-01

    Background Acne is a prominent skin condition affecting >80% of teenagers and young adults and ~650 million people globally. Isotretinoin, a vitamin A derivative, is currently the standard of care for treatment. However, it has a well-established teratogenic activity, a reason for the development of novel and low-risk treatment options for acne. Objective To investigate the effectiveness of Zolav®, a novel antibiotic as a treatment for acne vulgaris. Materials and methods Minimum inhibitory concentration of Zolav® against Propionibacterium acnes was determined by following a standard protocol using Mueller-Hinton broth and serial dilutions in a 96-well plate. Cytotoxicity effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells and lung cells in the presence of Zolav® were investigated by determining the growth inhibition (GI50) concentration, total growth inhibition concentration, and the lethal concentration of 50% (LC50). The tryptophan auxotrophic mutant of Escherichia coli strain, WP2 uvrA (ATCC 49979), was used for the AMES assay with the addition of Zolav® tested for its ability to reverse the mutation and induce bacterial growth. The in vivo effectiveness of Zolav® was tested in a P. acnes mouse intradermal model where the skin at the infection site was removed, homogenized, and subjected to colony-forming unit (CFU) counts. Results Susceptibility testing of Zolav® against P. acnes showed a minimum inhibitory concentration of 2 µg/mL against three strains with no cytotoxicity and no mutagenicity observed at the highest concentrations tested, 30 µM and 1,500 µg/plate, respectively. The use of Zolav® at a concentration of 50 µg/mL (q8h) elicited a two-log difference in CFU/g between the treatment group and the control. Conclusion This study demonstrates the potential of Zolav® as a novel treatment for acne vulgaris. PMID:27042015

  13. [Effective and safe pharmacotherapy of acne vulgaris and treatment of sun-damaged skin].

    PubMed

    Fendrich, Z; Jandová, E; Finsterlová, M

    2000-03-01

    An inevitable condition for the pharmacist is a basic knowledge of dermatological changes which are prominent in acne and solar impairment of the skin to be able to recommend in a qualified manner an effective and safe treatment to the patient. However, sufferers of the more serious forms of acne should always be referred to their general practitioner, or preferentially a dermatologist. Acne vulgaris is an androgen-induced disorder, but three major mechanisms for the development of the disease have been identified: hypertrophy of the sebaceous gland, hyperkatosis of the follicular epithelium, and proliferation of microbial flora, particularly Propionibacterium acnes. The basis of all lesions is the microcomedone which is developed into the ripe comedone. Inflammatory lesions are thought to be due to proliferation of P. acnes. In the selfmedication of common acne, benzoyl peroxide, which in a 5-10% lotion exerts antimicrobial and keratolytic properties, proved to be useful. Patients appreciate a lot its instant effect which is visible after just one day of treatment. Salicylic acid is another effective drug, which, when used on the long-term basis, has comedolytic properties; it reduces the number of microcomedones and counteracts plugging of the follicles. In addition, in healthy young women who take oral contraception, a triphasic combined oral preparations of contraceptives with newer progestins, notably with norgestimmate, which is practically free of androgenic effects, are recommended with advantage for the treatment of moderate acne vulgaris without any adverse effects. Solar impairment of the skin, the so-called solar ageing, is clinically indistinguishable from biological ageing. Changes connected with solar impairment appear mostly in the dermis, where solar elastosis develops, the skin gets drier and wrinkle formation appears. For the treatment, hydroxy acids are recommended, namely salicylic acid, which is very effective, because in combination with a

  14. Neonatal and infantile acne vulgaris: an update.

    PubMed

    Serna-Tamayo, Cristian; Janniger, Camila K; Micali, Giuseppe; Schwartz, Robert A

    2014-07-01

    Acne may present in neonates, infants, and small children. Neonatal and infantile acne vulgaris are not considered to be rare. The presentation of acne in this patient population sometimes represents virilization and may portend later development of severe adolescent acne. Neonatal and infantile acne vulgaris must be distinguished from other cutaneous disorders seen in newborns and infants. Infantile acne tends to be more pleomorphic and inflammatory, thus requiring more vigorous therapy than neonatal acne.

  15. Female acne - a different subtype of teenager acne?

    PubMed

    Preneau, S; Dreno, B

    2012-03-01

    Above all, acne is considered an adolescent affection. However, in literature as in daily life, female acne is becoming more and more common. According to the articles that cover this subject, the prevalence is estimated from 40% to 50%. The objective of our work was to make an overview of new data about female acne at the clinical and epidemiological level to be precise if female acne has to be considered as a subtype of acne different from teenager acne. This review shows that the most frequently recognized age when speaking about female acne is 25 years old. Most commonly it is a light to moderate acne that mainly affects the face. Two clinical forms can be identified: an inflammatory form, the most frequent, made up of papulo-pustules and nodules on the lower part of the face and a retentional form made up of blackheads and micro cysts with hyperseborrhoea. Concerning its evolution, it is characterized by three subtypes of which two are predominant: the most frequent form called 'continue acne' from adolescence to adult age and the less frequent form called 'late onset acne' that starts after 25 years of age. On a physiopathological level two main hypotheses can be proposed. Specific global assessment and therapeutic algorithm would be necessary for female acne, which in addition, in future would have to be considered separately from teenagers for the evaluation of a new drug.

  16. Consensus-Based Acne Classification System and Treatment Algorithm for Spain.

    PubMed

    López-Estebaranz, J L; Herranz-Pinto, P; Dréno, B

    2017-03-01

    Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease whose psychosocial effects can greatly impair quality of life. Various scales are used to classify the severity of acne, and several treatment algorithms are currently applied: no consensus on a common scale or treatment guidelines has been reached. A group of Spanish experts therefore met to identify a scale the majority could accept as the most appropriate for classifying severity and treating accordingly. The group chose the following classifications: comedonal acne, mild or moderate papulopustular acne, severe papulopustular acne, moderate nodular acne, and nodular-cystic acne (or acne tending to leave scars). Consensus was reached on first- and second-choice treatments for each type and on maintenance treatment. The experts also issued specific recommendations on antibiotic use (starting with mild or moderate papulopustular acne), always in combination with retinoids and/or benzoyl peroxide. The use of isotretinoin (starting at severe papulopustular or moderate nodular acne) was also covered. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Nutrition and acne.

    PubMed

    Danby, F William

    2010-01-01

    There are significant data supporting the role of diet in acne. Our Western diet includes many dairy sources containing hormones.. The natural function of milk being to stimulate growth, it contains anabolic steroids as well as true growth hormones and other growth factors. The presence of 5α-pregnanedione, 5α-androstanedione, and other precursors of 5α-dihydrotestosterone add to the potency of milk as a stimulant of acne. In addition, foods with significant sugar content and other carbohydrates yielding high glycemic loads affect serum insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels, both of which promote increased production of available androgens and the subsequent development of acne. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Acne: clinical presentations.

    PubMed

    Shalita, Alan R

    2004-01-01

    Acne vulgaris, the most common disease of the skin, can be manifested in a wide variety of clinical presentations. As a result of this clinical variation, there are almost as many classifications of acne as there are clinicians with particular interest in the disease. Thus acne has been classified as types I-IV, inflammatory versus noninflammatory, comedonal, comedopapular, papular, papulopustular, pustular, and "cystic" or nodular (even nodular-cystic). For those who are enamored of classification, there are subdivisions of the various categories, including "sandpaper comedones" and microcysts. There is even disagreement as to what constitutes a papule versus a nodule. The classic textbook definition of a nodule refers to lesions 1 cm or larger, but the early investigators of oral isotretinoin defined nodules as 4 mm or larger, and this definition has creeped into many texts, recently clarified by Bologna.(1)

  19. [Cosmetic treatments and acne].

    PubMed

    Poli, Florence

    2002-04-15

    Cosmetic products contribute to the efficacy of anti-acneic treatment. Cleaning bars without soap and lotions are to be preferred to soaps. Morning application of moisturizing creams compensate for dryness and irritation induced by topical treatment. Some of these cosmetic products may have a limited efficacy of the shiny appearance and/or acne lesions. Scrubs, abrasive sponges, masks and patches have a very limited usefulness. Make up and camouflage techniques are authorized, provided that the products have been tested non comedogenic and non acne-genic.

  20. Multilocus sequence typing of Propionibacterium freudenreichii.

    PubMed

    Dalmasso, Marion; Nicolas, Pierre; Falentin, Hélène; Valence, Florence; Tanskanen, Jarna; Jatila, Hanna; Salusjärvi, Tuomas; Thierry, Anne

    2011-01-31

    Propionibacterium freudenreichii is used as a ripening culture in Swiss cheese manufacture. This study investigates the molecular diversity and the population structure of this bacterium via multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Internal fragments of seven genes sequenced for 113 strains of different subspecies and origins allowed the resolution of 46 sequence types (STs) with occurrence frequencies ranging from 1 to 11. The core genome of the species harbours a low level of nucleotide polymorphism. In our data, single nucleotide polymorphisms account for only 2.28% of the concatenated sequences, and the average polymorphism rate in pairwise comparisons is 0.46%. The analyses reveal quantitatively comparable contributions of recombination and mutation in nucleotide changes at core genome loci along cell lineages. Remarkably, the STs exhibit little if any dairy biotope specialization. Phenotypic characterisation of the strains, based on their aptitude to use lactose and nitrate, shows that the two previously identified subspecies (freudenreichii and shermani) do not reflect the ancestral relationships in the P. freudenreichii population. The considerable phenotypic heterogeneity, found even at the ST level, suggests instead a history of recurrent switches between phenotypes.

  1. Photodynamic therapy for acne vulgaris: a pilot study of the dose-response and mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Hörfelt, Camilla; Stenquist, Bo; Larkö, Olle; Faergemann, Jan; Wennberg, Ann-Marie

    2007-01-01

    Acne vulgaris does not always respond to conventional therapy. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been proposed as a treatment option. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal light dose for effective PDT treatment of acne and to investigate whether PDT reduces sebum excretion and the amount of Propionibacterium acnes. Fifteen patients (9 men, 6 women, age range 16-44 years, mean age 25 years) with mild to severe acne were enrolled in an open, unblinded study. Aminolaevulinic acid cream (20% in Unguentum Merck) was applied on two circular areas 3 h before PDT. The areas of investigation were irradiated with red light (635 nm) from a Waldman PDT 1200 lamp. Ten patients with facial acne were treated with a light dose of 50 J/cm(2) on the right cheek and 30 J/cm(2) on the left cheek. Five patients with acne on their back were treated either with 50 J/cm(2) or with 70 J/cm(2). Clinical follow-up was performed for at least 10 weeks. In the patients with facial acne, sebum excretion was determined before PDT and at every follow-up visit. The amount of P. acnes was measured in a skin surface biopsy using a cyano-acrylate polymer to extract the content of the sebaceous follicles. In 9 patients with facial acne the improvement of lesions was the same for the two light doses. According to the patients' own assessment, 8 improved after PDT (p=0.02). No difference was found between the two doses in patients with acne on the back. Hyperpigmentation was more common at higher doses of light, and pain was experienced more often by the patients when higher doses were used. No significant reduction in P. acnes or sebum excretion was found at any time after PDT. It is concluded that PDT could be an alternative treatment of acne lesions. The lowest possible light dose should be used for minimal side-effects. Other mechanisms of action for PDT than eradication of P. acnes and sebosuppression should be considered.

  2. Topical aminolaevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy for the treatment of acne vulgaris: a study of clinical efficacy and mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Pollock, B; Turner, D; Stringer, M R; Bojar, R A; Goulden, V; Stables, G I; Cunliffe, W J

    2004-09-01

    Acne affects 83-95% of 16-year-olds of both sexes, and many seek help from a clinician. Emerging problems with conventional acne treatments, specifically antibiotic resistance of Propionibacterium acnes and fears over the safety and tolerance of oral isotretinoin, create a demand for novel treatment modalities in acne. To study the efficacy of aminolaevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) in the treatment of acne and to identify the mode of action, looking specifically at the effects on surface numbers of P. acnes and on sebum excretion. Ten patients (nine men and one woman, age range 16-40 years) with mild to moderate acne on their backs were recruited. Each patient's back was marked with four 30-cm2 areas of equal acne severity. Each site was then randomly allocated to either ALA-PDT treatment, light alone, ALA alone or an untreated control site. At baseline, numbers of inflammatory and noninflammatory acne lesions were counted, sebum excretion measured by Sebutapes (CuDerm, Dallas, TX, U.S.A.) and surface P. acnes swabs performed. ALA cream (20% in Unguentum Merck) was applied under occlusion to the ALA-PDT and ALA alone sites for 3 h. Red light from a diode laser was then delivered to the ALA-PDT and light alone sites (635 nm, 25 mW cm(-2), 15 J cm(-2)). Each patient was treated weekly for 3 weeks. At each visit acne lesion counts were performed and 3 weeks following the last treatment sebum excretion rates and P. acnes swabs were repeated. There was a statistically significant reduction in inflammatory acne lesion counts from baseline after the second treatment at the ALA-PDT site but not at any of the other sites. No statistically significant reduction in P. acnes numbers or sebum excretion was demonstrated at any sites including the ALA-PDT site. ALA-PDT is capable of clinically improving acne. An alternative mode of action for ALA-PDT other than direct damage to sebaceous glands or photodynamic killing of P. acnes is suggested from the results of this

  3. Diet and acne.

    PubMed

    Danby, F William

    2008-01-01

    Acne is caused by the action of dihydrotestosterone, derived from endogenous and exogenous precursors, likely acting synergistically with insulin-like growth factor-1. These sources and interactions are discussed. Both a mechanism of action and recommended dietary changes that limit ingestion and production of these hormones are proposed.

  4. Origin of Propionibacterium in Surgical Wounds and Evidence-Based Approach for Culturing Propionibacterium from Surgical Sites

    PubMed Central

    Matsen, Frederick A.; Butler-Wu, Susan; Carofino, Bradley C.; Jette, Jocelyn L.; Bertelsen, Alexander; Bumgarner, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Background: To explore the origin of Propionibacterium in surgical wounds and to suggest an optimized strategy for culturing this organism at the time of revision surgery, we studied the presence of this organism on the skin and in the surgical wounds of patients who underwent revision arthroplasty for reasons other than apparent infection. Methods: Specimens were cultured in broth and on aerobic and anaerobic media. The presence and degree of positivity of Propionibacterium cultures were correlated with sex. The results of dermal and deep cultures were correlated. Times to positivity and the yields of each media type and specimen source were investigated. Results: Propionibacterium grew in twenty-three of thirty cultures of specimens obtained preoperatively from the unprepared epidermis over the area where a skin incision was going to be made for a shoulder arthroplasty; males had a greater average degree of positivity than females (p < 0.002). Twelve of twenty-one male subjects and zero of twenty female subjects who had cultures of dermal specimens obtained during revision shoulder arthroplasty had positive findings for Propionibacterium (p = 0.0001). Twelve of twenty male subjects and only one of twenty female subjects had positive deep cultures (p = 0.0004). The positivity of dermal cultures for Propionibacterium was significantly associated with the positivity of deep cultures for this organism (p = 0.0001). If Propionibacterium was present in deep tissues, it was likely that it would be recovered by culture if four different specimens were obtained and cultured for a minimum of seventeen days on three different media: aerobic, anaerobic, and broth. Conclusions: Because the surgical incision of dermal sebaceous glands may be a source of Propionibacterium in deep wounds, strategies for minimizing the risk of Propionibacterium infections may need to be directed at minimizing the contamination of surgical wounds from these bacteria residing in rather than on the

  5. Effects of cosmetics containing purified honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) venom on acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Mi; Lee, Kwang Gill; Pak, Sok Cheon

    2013-09-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic dermatologic problem with multiple factors involved in its pathogenesis. Alternative solutions to acne treatment were instigated by antibiotic resistance despite of its extensive use. Purified bee venom (PBV) has been proposed as a promising candidate for that purpose. The present study was designed to confirm the antibacterial effect of PBV and access the efficacy of cosmetics containing PBV in subjects with acne vulgaris. The skin bacterium Propionibacterium acnes was incubated with PBV at various concentrations and bacterial growth was evaluated using the colony forming unit (CFU) assay. The mechanism of PBV employed in killing P. acnes was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, a total of 12 subjects were randomized in a double-blind, controlled trial to receive either cosmetics containing PBV or cosmetics without PBV for two weeks. Evaluations included lesion counts and skin microorganism. PBV exhibited antimicrobial activity in a concentration-dependent manner, reducing the number of P. acnes CFU by approximately 6 logs at a concentration of 0.5 mg. When PBV concentration was higher than 1.0 mg, no P. acnes colonies were spotted on an agar. TEM and SEM of untreated P. acnes illustrated the normal pleomorphic structure, whereas the PBV-treated bacterium lost the integrity of surface architecture. Significant difference (P=0.027) in the grading levels based on numbers of lesion counts for inflammatory and noninflammatory was observed in favour of the PBV group compared with the control group. In terms of average decrement of skin microorganism, subjects receiving cosmetics containing PBV experienced a significant 57.5% decrease of adenosine triphosphate levels, whereas participants receiving cosmetics without PBV experienced a nonsignificant decrease of 4.7%. These results show that the in vitro actions of antimicrobial activity of PBV were translated in vivo. Cosmetics

  6. Synthesis of Anti-Acne Ointment of Ethanol Extract of White Plumeria Leaves (Plumeria Alba L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ningsih, D. R.; Zusfahair; Kartika, D.; Lestari, I. T.

    2017-02-01

    Acne is a chronic inflammatory skin disease pilosebaceous follicle, where the oil- producing glands are clogged and contaminated by bacteria. Propionibacterium acne is one of the bacteria that contributes to the pathogenesis of acne. Acne treatment was done by reducing the population of bacteria using an antibacterial. One of the plants that have antibacterial activity is white plumeria. The ethanol extract of white plumeria leaves contains antibacterial secondary metabolites, which are alkaloids and saponins. The aim of this study is to formulate white plumeria leaves extract into the water leached ointment base. Characteristics of the ointment were determined by evaluating the stability of the ointment including organoleptic, adhesion test, dispersive power test, determination of pH, and the antibacterial activity test. The results showed that the ointment of ethanol extract of white plumeria leaves has some characteristics, semisolid form, white, has distinctive smell of ointment, homogeneous but not protective, has a pH of 4.57 - 6.10, dispersive power of 5.10 - 6.06 cm, the adhesiveness of 1.67 - 3 seconds, and optimum antibacterial activity at concentrations of 5 ppm providing inhibition zone of 24.00 mm.

  7. Acne vulgaris: clinical features, assessment and treatment.

    PubMed

    McWilliam, J

    Acne vulgaris is the most common form of acne. This article outlines the psychological effects of the condition and describes the treatments available. There is also a brief description of other forms of acne.

  8. Does diet really affect acne?

    PubMed

    Ferdowsian, H R; Levin, S

    2010-03-01

    Acne vulgaris has anecdotally been attributed to diet by individuals affected by this skin condition. In a 2009 systematic literature review of 21 observational studies and 6 clinical trials, the association between acne and diet was evaluated. Observational studies, including 2 large controlled prospective trials, reported that cow's milk intake increased acne prevalence and severity. Furthermore, prospective studies, including randomized controlled trials, demonstrated a positive association between a high-glycemic-load diet, hormonal mediators, and acne risk. Based on these findings, there exists convincing data supporting the role of dairy products and high-glycemic-index foods in influencing hormonal and inflammatory factors, which can increase acne prevalence and severity. Studies have been inconclusive regarding the association between acne and other foods.

  9. [Acne vulgaris. Role of cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Korting, H C; Borelli, C; Schöllmann, C

    2010-02-01

    Appropriate cosmetics for skin cleansing are capable of contributing to a reduction of especially inflammatory lesions in acne-prone patients and to support pharmacological intervention in patients with manifest acne. Cleansing of acne-prone skin should employ acidified synthetic cleansers with a pH of 5.5 rather than soap. Furthermore, the ingredients of certain skin care products, i.e. nicotinamide, lactic acid, triethyl acetate/ethyllineolate, and prebiotic plant extracts, affect different mechanisms of acne pathogenesis and therefore may contribute to a decrease in acne lesions. At least some of these ingredients underscore the concept of evidence-based cosmetics. In contrast, the problem of acne lesions caused by comedogenic ingredients in cosmetics today is negligible.

  10. [Acne and rosacea in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Bechstein, S K; Ochsendorf, F

    2017-02-01

    Acne and rosacea are common chronic inflammatory skin diseases. During pregnancy these skin disorders may become aggravated, in rare cases occurring for the first time. There are no data available for rosacea and little data for acne concerning the course of these skin disorders during pregnancy. Up to 42% of the pregnant women suffer from acne. In 90% of these women the disease existed before pregnancy. In 1/3, however, acne relapsed during pregnancy after a prior disease-free period. In 60% acne deteriorated during pregnancy. Randomized controlled trials for the treatment of acne or rosacea during pregnancy do not exist. In this article the recommendations of current guidelines are modified, so that effective treatments can be recommended without harming the embryo or fetus.

  11. Treatment of acne in children.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Lindsey; Ormerod, Anthony D

    2014-04-01

    Acne is a common skin condition in adolescents. It is not uncommon in childhood and it persists into adulthood. A broad range of acne treatments are available and have been shown to be safe and effective in adolescents and adults. However, there is limited literature regarding acne treatment in childhood and its available therapeutic options. It seems reasonable to extrapolate findings of the various studies reported on treatment of acne in the adolescent and adult age group, with the exclusion of the use of tetracycline derivatives. As clinicians, we must be more familiar with the clinical presentation of acne and available treatment options in our younger patients. Early recognition of acne with prompt and appropriate initiation of therapy in childhood will help prevent severe scarring in children.

  12. Dietary intervention in acne

    PubMed Central

    Melnik, Bodo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the endocrine signaling of Western diet, a fundamental environmental factor involved in the pathogenesis of epidemic acne. Western nutrition is characterized by high calorie uptake, high glycemic load, high fat and meat intake, as well as increased consumption of insulin- and IGF-1-level elevating dairy proteins. Metabolic signals of Western diet are sensed by the nutrient-sensitive kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which integrates signals of cellular energy, growth factors (insulin, IGF-1) and protein-derived signals, predominantly leucine, provided in high amounts by milk proteins and meat. mTORC1 activates SREBP, the master transcription factor of lipogenesis. Leucine stimulates mTORC1-SREBP signaling and leucine is directly converted by sebocytes into fatty acids and sterols for sebaceous lipid synthesis. Over-activated mTORC1 increases androgen hormone secretion and most likely amplifies androgen-driven mTORC1 signaling of sebaceous follicles. Testosterone directly activates mTORC1. Future research should investigate the effects of isotretinoin on sebocyte mTORC1 activity. It is conceivable that isotretinoin may downregulate mTORC1 in sebocytes by upregulation of nuclear levels of FoxO1. The role of Western diet in acne can only be fully appreciated when all stimulatory inputs for maximal mTORC1 activation, i.e., glucose, insulin, IGF-1 and leucine, are adequately considered. Epidemic acne has to be recognized as an mTORC1-driven disease of civilization like obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. These new insights into Western diet-mediated mTORC1-hyperactivity provide a rational basis for dietary intervention in acne by attenuating mTORC1 signaling by reducing (1) total energy intake, (2) hyperglycemic carbohydrates, (3) insulinotropic dairy proteins and (4) leucine-rich meat and dairy proteins. The necessary dietary changes are opposed to the evolution of

  13. Objective assessment of acne.

    PubMed

    Becker, Markus; Wild, Thomas; Zouboulis, Christos C

    A precise and reliable assessment of acne severity is unarguably the most essential clinical method when it comes to monitoring and choosing optimal treatment in the daily practice. Since the early 1960s, different severity assessment systems have been described in the literature. The two commonly used concepts are global gradings and lesion counting. Both systems have been controversially discussed as to which is more reliable and providing an objective outcome measurement tool; however, both have some subjectivity involved. More objective methods for assessing the severity of acne vulgaris include photography, fluorescence photography, polarized light photography, video microscopy, and multispectral imaging. Such techniques have limitations such as high cost, complex and sophisticated apparatus, and a sometimes time-consuming imaging process. There are newly developed technologies that could avoid the problems of inter- and intrarater subjectivity.

  14. [Acne and diet].

    PubMed

    Melnik, B C

    2013-04-01

    In industrialized countries acne presents as an epidemic disease of civilization affecting sebaceous follicles of adolescents and young adults, associated with increased body mass index and insulin resistance. "Western style" diet, characterized by high glycaemic load and increased consumption of insulinotropic milk proteins, plays an important role in acne pathogenesis. On the cellular level, nutrient-derived metabolic signals are sensed by the metabolic transcription factor FoxO1 and integrated by the regulatory kinase mTORC1. mTORC1, the central hub of protein- and lipid biosynthesis, cell growth and proliferation, is activated by insulin, IGF-1 and branched-chain essential amino acids, especially leucine. The understanding of Western diet-mediated nutrient signalling with over-activated mTORC1 offers a reasonable approach for dietary intervention in acne by lowering glycaemic load and consumption of milk and milk products. A suitable diet attenuating increased mTORC1 activity is a Palaeolithic-like diet with reduced intake of sugar, hyperglycaemic grains, milk and milk products but enriched consumption of vegetables and fish.

  15. Chemical peels in active acne and acne scars.

    PubMed

    Kontochristopoulos, Georgios; Platsidaki, Eftychia

    Chemical peeling is a widely used procedure in the management of acne and acne scars. It causes controlled destruction of a part of or the entire epidermis, with or without the dermis, leading to exfoliation and removal of superficial lesions, followed by regeneration of new epidermal and dermal tissues. The most frequently used peeling agents are salicylic acid, glycolic acid, pyruvic acid, lactic acid, mandelic acid, Jessner solution, trichloroacetic acid, and phenol. The appropriate peel is chosen based on the patient's skin type, acne activity, and type of acne scars. Combination peels minimize side effects. In acne scars, chemical peels may be combined with other procedures to achieve better clinical results. A series of chemical peels can lead to significant improvement over a short period, leading to patient satisfaction and maintenance of clinical results. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Polycystic ovary syndrome and acne.

    PubMed

    Chuan, Sandy S; Chang, R Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive aged women. It is typically characterized by hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation, and polycystic ovaries. Women with PCOS often experience dermatologic manifestations of hyperandrogenism, including hirsutism, acne vulgaris, and androgenic alopecia. This article will review the treatments for acne due to androgen excess in PCOS women.

  17. A Multifactorial Comparison of Ternary Combinations of Essential Oils in Topical Preparations to Current Antibiotic Prescription Therapies for the Control of Acne Vulgaris-Associated Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Owen, Lucy; Grootveld, Martin; Arroo, Randolph; Ruiz-Rodado, Victor; Price, Penny; Laird, Katie

    2017-03-01

    Acne vulgaris, a chronic condition associated with overgrowth of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, is commonly treated with antibiotics. However, the emergence of antibiotic resistance has resulted in a need for alternative therapies. The aim of this study is to develop a topical preparation incorporating essential oils (EOs) for use against acne-associated bacteria and assess its efficacy against prescription therapies Dalacin T and Stiemycin. Antimicrobial screening of rosewood, clove bud and litsea EOs was conducted before interactions between binary and ternary combinations were determined against P. acnes and S. epidermidis (type and clinical isolates) using minimum inhibitory concentrations and fractional inhibitory concentrations. The EOs were characterised by both gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. A combination of 0.53 mg/mL litsea, 0.11 mg/mL rosewood and 0.11 mg/mL clove bud was formulated into herbal distillates and compared with Dalacin T and Stiemycin against antibiotic sensitive and resistant isolates (erythromycin). The distillate with EO had synergistic activity against P. acnes (7log10 reduction) and indifferent activity against S. epidermidis (6log10 reduction); antimicrobial activity was either significantly (p ≤ 0.05) more antimicrobial or equivalent to that of Dalacin T and Stiemycin. This formulation may serve as a valuable alternative for the control of acne vulgaris-associated bacteria. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Acne pathogenesis: history of concepts.

    PubMed

    Tilles, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    From the first reliable descriptions of acne in the early 19th century, dermatologists recognized it as a disease of the pilosebaceous follicle. Until the middle of the 20th century, they hypothesized that seborrhoea, follicular keratosis and microorganisms could be individually responsible for the acne lesions. Inflammation was only regarded as the final and inescapable step of the acne process. Although the importance of these factors has been reevaluated, recent works still regarded them as mandatory. In the 1970s, the onset of isotretinoin dramatically improved acne management. It also provided great opportunities for a better understanding of the pathogenic factors of acne. This study analyzes their genesis and development from the seminal contributions until recent advances.

  19. Acne and hirsuties in teenagers.

    PubMed

    Barth, Julian H; Clark, Sheila

    2003-02-01

    Acne and body hair are both cutaneous responses to androgenic stimulation. They are normal events in adolescent girls. There is considerable variation in the evolution of the two conditions. The sebaceous gland is exquisitely sensitive to androgens, and acne appears with the onset of puberty, peaks in prevalence in the teenage years and gradually improves thereafter. Hair growth on the face, trunk and limbs develops more slowly and generally peaks in the 20s. Indications for endocrine investigation include very severe acne, onset of acne and hirsuties in the very early stage of puberty (Tanner stage 3) and systemic virilism. Treatment for acne and hirsuties can be either topical or systemic. The choice of therapy is based on the severity of the disease rather than the results of endocrine investigation. Further, since PCO is related to impaired glucose tolerance, advice relating to lifestyle changes should be offered to prevent the development of diabetes.

  20. Tropical Acne: Clinical and Laboratory Investigations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    developed in the tropical acne patients were clinically and histopathologically identical to those seen in severe pustular, cystic acne patients. The...Observations were made on the clinical, biochemical, histopathological and microbiological parameters of eleven ’tropical acne patients.’ All...tropical acne patients in the study had a previous history of mild to moderate acne vulgaris prior to their tour in Vietnam. The type of lesions which

  1. Psychological sequelae of acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Magin, Parker; Adams, Jon; Heading, Gaynor; Pond, Dimity; Smith, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the psychological sequelae of acne vulgaris. DESIGN Qualitative study using a grounded-theory approach. SETTING General practices and specialty dermatology practices in Newcastle, Australia. PARTICIPANTS Patients with current acne recruited from the practices. METHOD We used semistructured interviews and recorded participants’ comments verbatim. Data analysis was cumulative and concurrent throughout the data-collection period. Coding and analysis was done in the inductive tradition. MAIN FINDINGS Interviews were conducted with 26 subjects who represented a range of ages and acne severity. Psychological morbidity was considerable. Though participants had mood and anxiety symptoms, these symptoms tended to be subsyndromal and evanescent. More prominent symptoms were embarrassment, impaired self-image, low self-esteem, self-consciousness, frustration, and anger. Some subjects thought that acne had affected their personalities permanently and adversely. Psychological sequelae were attributed to the effects of facial acne on appearance. CONCLUSION The psychological effects of acne can be considerable. The psychological morbidity is complex and often does not conform to standard psychiatric disease criteria. Recognition and management of the psychological sequelae of acne by general practitioners is of considerable importance. PMID:17273501

  2. Factors believed by Jordanian acne patients to affect their acne condition.

    PubMed

    El-Akawi, Z; Abdel-Latif Nemr, N; Abdul-Razzak, K; Al-Aboosi, M

    2006-11-01

    This study in Jordan described the pattern of acne in 166 untreated acne patients aged 13-42 years attending dermatology clinics and assessed patients' perceptions of factors that have an effect on their acne condition. Family history of acne was positive in 69.3% of acne patients. Emotional stress, hot weather and sweating were believed to be aggravating factors by acne patients of both sexes, and premenstrual factors and cosmetics were factors among women. Many acne patients believed that their acne was exacerbated by certain aspects of diet including nuts, chocolate, fatty food, fried food, eggs, cakes and biscuits, spices and coffee and tea.

  3. Metabolic engineering of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii for xylose fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Peilian; Lin, Meng; Wang, Zhongqiang; Fu, Hongxin; Yang, Hopen; Jiang, Wenyan; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2016-11-01

    Propionibacterium freudenreichii cannot use xylose, the second most abundant sugar in lignocellulosic biomass. Although Propionibacterium acidipropionici can use xylose as a carbon source, it is difficult to genetically modify, impeding further improvement through metabolic engineering. This study identified three xylose catabolic pathway genes encoding for xylose isomerase (xylA), xylose transporter (xylT), and xylulokinase (xylB) in P. acidipropionici and overexpressed them in P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii via an expression plasmid pKHEM01, enabling the mutant to utilize xylose efficiently even in the presence of glucose without glucose-induced carbon catabolite repression. The mutant showed similar fermentation kinetics with glucose, xylose, and the mixture of glucose and xylose, respectively, as carbon source, and with or without the addition of antibiotic for selection pressure. The engineered P. shermanii thus can provide a novel cell factory for industrial production of propionic acid and other value-added products from lignocellulosic biomass.

  4. Anti-microbial and -inflammatory activity and efficacy of phytosphingosine: an in vitro and in vivo study addressing acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Pavicic, T; Wollenweber, U; Farwick, M; Korting, H C

    2007-06-01

    Lipids are important constituents of the human epidermis. Either free and organized into broad lipid bilayers in the intercorneocytes spaces, or covalently bound to the corneocyte envelope, they play a crucial role in permeability barrier function and are major contributors to cutaneous anti-microbial defense. Free sphingoid bases are a recent addition to this family of active lipids, which emerged from studies of breakdown products from ceramides. Phytosphingosine (PS) is a lipid occurring naturally in the stratum corneum, both in its free form and as a part of the major fraction of ceramides. The biotechnological production of PS patented by Degussa yields to PS with the correct configuration present in the skin. So, application of a PS containing formulation leads to its integration into the natural lipid structures of the skin. In acne, different pathogenetic factors contribute to the inflammation process, defect in keratinization, increased sebaceous gland activity and increased colonization of Propionibacterium acnes. The results of in vitro and in vivo studies confirm the previous reports on strong anti-microbial effectiveness of skin-identical PS produced by Degussa in vitro and in vivo. In addition, PS shows excellent clinical results in the context of skin care in acne, based on both anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activity. These results demonstrate the potential of PS to enhance or complement existing acne therapies acting as an active cosmetic ingredient.

  5. Interventions for acne scars.

    PubMed

    Abdel Hay, Rania; Shalaby, Khalid; Zaher, Hesham; Hafez, Vanessa; Chi, Ching-Chi; Dimitri, Sandra; Nabhan, Ashraf F; Layton, Alison M

    2016-04-03

    Acne scarring is a frequent complication of acne and resulting scars may negatively impact on an affected person's psychosocial and physical well-being. Although a wide range of interventions have been proposed, there is a lack of high-quality evidence on treatments for acne scars to better inform patients and their healthcare providers about the most effective and safe methods of managing this condition. This review aimed to examine treatments for atrophic and hypertrophic acne scars, but we have concentrated on facial atrophic scarring. To assess the effects of interventions for treating acne scars. We searched the following databases up to November 2015: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library (2015, Issue 10), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974), and LILACS (from 1982). We also searched five trials registers, and checked the reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews for further references to randomised controlled trials. We include randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which allocated participants (whether split-face or parallel arms) to any active intervention (or a combination) for treating acne scars. We excluded studies dealing only or mostly with keloid scars. Three review authors independently extracted data from each of the studies included in this review and evaluated the risks of bias. We resolved disagreements by discussion and arbitration supported by a method expert as required. Our primary outcomes were participant-reported scar improvement and any adverse effects serious enough to cause participants to withdraw from the study. We included 24 trials with 789 adult participants aged 18 years or older. Twenty trials enrolled men and women, three trials enrolled only women and one trial enrolled only men. We judged eight studies to be at low risk of bias for both sequence generation and allocation concealment. With regard to blinding we judged

  6. Light therapies for acne.

    PubMed

    Barbaric, Jelena; Abbott, Rachel; Posadzki, Pawel; Car, Mate; Gunn, Laura H; Layton, Alison M; Majeed, Azeem; Car, Josip

    2016-09-27

    Acne vulgaris is a very common skin problem that presents with blackheads, whiteheads, and inflamed spots. It frequently results in physical scarring and may cause psychological distress. The use of oral and topical treatments can be limited in some people due to ineffectiveness, inconvenience, poor tolerability or side-effects. Some studies have suggested promising results for light therapies. To explore the effects of light treatment of different wavelengths for acne. We searched the following databases up to September 2015: the Cochrane Skin Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and LILACS. We searched ISI Web of Science and Dissertation Abstracts International (from inception). We also searched five trials registers, and grey literature sources. We checked the reference lists of studies and reviews and consulted study authors and other experts in the field to identify further references to relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We updated these searches in July 2016 but these results have not yet been incorporated into the review. We included RCTs of light for treatment of acne vulgaris, regardless of language or publication status. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We included 71 studies, randomising a total of 4211 participants.Most studies were small (median 31 participants) and included participants with mild to moderate acne of both sexes and with a mean age of 20 to 30 years. Light interventions differed greatly in wavelength, dose, active substances used in photodynamic therapy (PDT), and comparator interventions (most commonly no treatment, placebo, another light intervention, or various topical treatments). Numbers of light sessions varied from one to 112 (most commonly two to four). Frequency of application varied from twice daily to once monthly.Selection and performance bias were unclear in the majority of studies. Detection bias was unclear for participant-assessed outcomes and low for investigator

  7. Can sebum reduction predict acne outcome?

    PubMed

    Janiczek-Dolphin, N; Cook, J; Thiboutot, D; Harness, J; Clucas, A

    2010-10-01

    Sebum excretion has generally been accepted as an important factor in the development of acne vulgaris. However, the relationship of sebum excretion and acne outcome has not yet been clearly demonstrated quantitatively. The objective of this analysis was to explore the correlation of sebum and acne by combining data from studies of various acne treatments that have demonstrated effects on both sebum excretion and acne outcome. Acne measures included total lesion count, inflammatory lesion count and acne severity grade. For each acne measure, data were pooled and analysed at the 3- and 4-month endpoints, when sebum reduction has generally equilibrated and efficacy in acne is approaching the maximum effect for most treatments. A linear model was used to describe the percentage reduction in each acne measure as a function of percentage reduction in sebum excretion. Slope values were similar for the three acne parameters and all were significantly different from zero (P < 0·025), suggesting a significant correlation of sebum and acne. The projected sebum reduction required to achieve 50% reduction in acne measures ranged from 30% to 50%. The results shown here suggest that the collective data across multiple studies may provide a useful generalization of the association of sebum reduction and acne outcome. As the relationship apparently remains consistent regardless of the treatment, it can be inferred that extrapolation to novel exploratory treatments may be valid. © 2010 Pfizer, Inc. Journal Compilation © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.

  8. Cosmetics in acne and rosacea.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Z D

    2001-09-01

    Cosmetics that are appropriate for use in patients with rosacea and acne must be noncomedogenic, nonacnegenic, nonirritating, and hypoallergenic. This requires a basic understanding of cosmetic fromulation and the selection of products that meet guidelines for sensitive skin.

  9. The Psychosocial Impact of Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Hazarika, Neirita; Archana, M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acne vulgaris causes erythematous papulopustular lesions in active stage and often leave behind residual scarring and pigmentation. Its onset in adolescence may add to the emotional and psychological challenges experienced during this period. Aims: To assess the impact of acne on the various psychosocial domains of daily life. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study done in the dermatology out-patient department of a tertiary care hospital from January to March 2015. A total of 100 consecutive, newly diagnosed patients of acne vulgaris, aged 15 years and above were included in this study. The relationship between acne vulgaris and its sequelae was analyzed with ten different domains of daily life by using dermatology life quality index (DLQI) questionnaire. Results: Females (56%), 15–20 year olds (61%), facial lesions (60%), and Grade II acne (70%) were most common. Acne scars were noted in 75% patients, whereas 79% cases had post-acne hyperpigmentation. Thirty-seven percent patients had DLQI scores of (6–10) interpreted as moderate effect on patient's life. Statistically significant correlation (P < 0.05) found were as follows: Physical symptoms with grade of acne; embarrassment with site and grade of acne; daily activities with grade of acne and post-acne pigmentation; choice of clothes with site of acne; social activities with gender, site and grade of acne; effect on work/study with grade of acne; interpersonal problems with site and post-acne pigmentation; sexual difficulties with grade of acne. Limitation: It was a hospital-based study with small sample size. Conclusion: Significant impact of acne and its sequelae was noted on emotions, daily activities, social activities, study/work, and interpersonal relationships. Assurance and counseling along with early treatment of acne vulgaris is important to reduce disease-related psychosocial sequelae and increase the efficacy of treatment. PMID:27688440

  10. Etanercept-induced cystic acne.

    PubMed

    Kashat, Maria; Caretti, Katherine; Kado, Jessica

    2014-07-01

    Tumor necrosis factor α antagonists are potent biologics used to treat a variety of autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn disease, psoriasis, and psoriatic arthritis. These medications are known to have many side effects (eg, infusion reactions, cytopenia, risk for infection, heart failure); however, only a few cases of acne vulgaris have been associated with the use of these biologics, particularly infliximab and adalimumab. We report a rare case of etanercept-induced cystic acne.

  11. Acne fulminans: a case report.

    PubMed

    Neely, Gregory M; Hein, Michael S

    2006-09-01

    Acne Fulminans (AF) is a severe form of cystic acne primarily affecting Caucasian adolescent males. The systemic clinical manifestations of the disease make it likely that the patient will present to his or her primary care provider rather than to a dermatologist. Promptly recognizing this disorder will aid in appropriate management, avoiding costly and invasive diagnostic procedures, multiple consultations, unnecessary pharmacologic treatments, and residual scarring of the skin. We report a case and a brief review of the literature regarding this enigmatic disorder.

  12. New insights into adolescent acne.

    PubMed

    Elsaie, M L; Choudhary, S; Kammer, J N

    2009-12-01

    Interest in sebaceous gland functioning and its diseases is increasing. This article provides a summarized update of the current knowledge of the pathophysiology of acne vulgaris and the new treatment concepts that have emerged in recent years. Recent literature is reviewed regarding teenage acne, focusing on pathogenesis, associations, controversies and considerations in therapy to further help practitioners stay current on the issues regarding this topic. Current research is expected to provide new and improved treatments in the near future.

  13. New Developments in Acne Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Stolman, Lewis P.

    1982-01-01

    Acne is a metabolic disorder of the pilosebaceous appendage in which microorganisms, hormones, inflammatory cells and fatty acids seem to contribute to the pathologic process. Through education and judicious use of therapeutic agents including benzoyl peroxide, vitamin A acid, topical and systemic antibiotics and 13 cis retinoic acid, most patients with acne can enjoy good control of their disease. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:21286149

  14. [Acne rosacea--diagnostic challenge].

    PubMed

    Wozniacka, Anna; Kruk, Małgorzata; Robak, Ewa; Sysa-Jedrzejowska, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Acne rosacea is a common skin disorder which affects adults, usually women. Erythema, papules, pustules and telangiectases, the main clinical manifestations of the disease are located on the face. Currently opinions dealing with pathogenesis and clinical forms of rosacea are presented. As the clinical picture might be confusing, similar to other illnesses, differential diagnosis with other dermatoses like acne vulgaris, erysipelas, seborrhoeic and contact eczema as well as systemic diseases like lupus erythematosus, dermatomyositis, scleroderma, sarcoidosis and leukemia were discussed.

  15. Treatment of Acne in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chien, Anna L; Qi, Ji; Rainer, Barbara; Sachs, Dana L; Helfrich, Yolanda R

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common disease of the pilosebaceous unit and affects adolescents and adults. Because high-quality guidelines regarding treatment of acne in pregnancy are scarce, management of this condition can be challenging. We describe the safety profile of common therapies and outline approaches based on available evidence. Topical azelaic acid or benzoyl peroxide can be recommended as baseline therapy. A combination of topical erythromycin or clindamycin with benzoyl peroxide is recommended for inflammatory acne. Oral erythromycin or cephalexin is generally considered safe for moderate to severe inflammatory acne when used for a few weeks. A short course of oral prednisolone may be useful for treating fulminant nodular cystic acne after the first trimester. In general, topical and oral antibiotics should not be used as monotherapy, but combined with topical benzoyl peroxide to decrease bacterial resistance. Oral retinoids are teratogenic and absolutely contraindicated for women who are pregnant or considering pregnancy. Although some complementary therapies including micronutrients and nonpharmacologic treatments seem to be well tolerated, limited data exist regarding their safety and efficacy, and they are not currently recommended during pregnancy. The risk-to-benefit ratio, efficacy, acceptability, and costs are considerations when choosing a treatment for acne in pregnancy.

  16. Combination of benzoyl peroxide 5% gel with liquid cleanser and moisturizer SPF 30 in acne treatment results in high levels of subject satisfaction, good adherence and favorable tolerability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Ran; Kerrouche, Nabil

    2017-07-05

    Skin care products (cleansers and moisturizers) to complement benzoyl peroxide (BPO) in the treatment of acne may improve treatment tolerability and adherence. Evaluate subject satisfaction after use of BPO 5% gel in combination with liquid cleanser and moisturizer SPF 30. Open-label study including subjects aged ≥12 years with mild-to-moderate facial acne; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02589405. Once daily BPO 5% gel, twice daily liquid cleanser and once daily moisturizer SPF 30 were applied for 12 weeks. Assessments included a subject satisfaction questionnaire, investigator global assessment of improvement, lesion counts, the presence of Propionibacterium acnes, and safety. Fifty subjects were enrolled. Most subjects were overall satisfied with the three-part regimen (87%) and felt better about themselves (94%). Subjects indicated the skin care products helped prepare the skin for treatment (85%), relieve itchy skin (81%) and reduce irritation (87%). Most subjects considered that the liquid cleanser (80%) and moisturizer SPF 30 (84%) were a necessary part of acne treatment. BPO reduced P. acnes load by 89% at week 1. The treatment was well tolerated. The combination of BPO 5% gel with liquid cleanser and moisturizer SPF 30 resulted in high levels of subject satisfaction, good tolerability and treatment adherence.

  17. Single low-dose red light is as efficacious as methyl-aminolevulinate--photodynamic therapy for treatment of acne: clinical assessment and fluorescence monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hörfelt, Camilla; Stenquist, Bo; Halldin, Christina B; Ericson, Marica B; Wennberg, Ann-Marie

    2009-01-01

    This controlled study investigated single low-dose red light photodynamic therapy and methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL) for treatment of moderate to severe facial acne in 19 patients. The right cheek was treated with MAL (160 mg/g) for 3 h prior to illumination. The left cheek received red light only. Both cheeks were illuminated with narrow-band red light (635 nm) at a light dose of 15 J/cm2. The global severity of acne was assessed at baseline and at follow-up, 10 and 20 weeks after treatment. Fluorescence images, clinical photographs and skin surface biopsies were obtained. Both MAL-photodynamic therapy and control areas showed a significant decrease in acne score at follow-up; no significant difference was found compared with control. MAL-photodynamic therapy was associated with adverse effects such as erythema and stinging. Fluorescence images revealed poor selectivity of MAL-induced fluorescence to the acne lesions, suggesting a general photoablating mechanism rather than selective destruction of sebaceous glands. No significant reduction in Propionibacterium acnes or sebum excretion was found.

  18. Acne vulgaris in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Schnopp, C; Mempel, M

    2011-08-01

    Acne vulgaris is a very common inflammatory skin disease originating from the pilosebaceous unit. Peak incidence is at puberty, but acne can affect all age groups. Prepubertal acne is rare, but important to recognize as diagnostic and therapeutic procedures differ from pubertal acne. Acne neonatorum is a mild, self-limiting disease, whereas acne infantum commonly presents with moderate to severe lesions and high risk of scarring thus requiring early intervention. Mid-childhood or prepubertal acne raises the suspicion of hyperandrogenemia, further investigations are indicated to rule out underlying disease. The same applies to any patient with very severe acne, acne not responding to therapy or unusual clinical presentation. Etiopathogenesis of acne is not yet fully understood. Familiy history is the most important risk factor to develop severe acne and scarring. The relevance of life style factors such as smoking or diet is controversial. Lately high carbohydrate diet and dairy products have been implicated as aggravating factors. Mild acne normally responds to topical monotherapy, in moderate disease combination of two synergistically acting substances (e.g. benzoyl peroxid plus antibiotic, benzoyl peroxid plus retinoid, retinoid plus antibiotic, benzoyl peroxid plus azelaic acid) will improve clinical response. Retinoids and/or benzoylperoxid have been shown to be effective in maintenance therapy. In patients with severe disease or high risk of scarring systemic therapy with antibiotics, oral contraceptives with antiandrogenic properties and in particularly isotretinoin as most effective acne treatment should be considered early to avoid physical and emotional scars.

  19. Acne, vulgaris on the back (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Acne frequently occurs on the back. Here, there are 2 to 6 millimeter wide erythematous (red) pustules ... Permanent scarring may follow a severe case of acne. Men are more often affected on their shoulders ...

  20. Acne, cystic on the face (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The face is the most common location of acne. Here, there are 4 to 6 millimeter red ( ... scars and fistulous tract formation (connecting passages). Severe acne may have a profound psychological impact and may ...

  1. [Adjuvant dermato-cosmetic acne therapy].

    PubMed

    Bayerl, Christiane; Degitz, Klaus; Meigel, Eva; Kerscher, Martina

    2010-03-01

    Adjuvant dermato-cosmetic therapy in acne is an essential part of the concept of treating acne after initiation and during maintenance therapy. Those are mechanical peeling, chemical peeling and its combination. It needs supervision by an experienced dermatologist.

  2. Fillers for the improvement in acne scars

    PubMed Central

    Wollina, Uwe; Goldman, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Acne is a common inflammatory disease. Scarring is an unwanted end point of acne. Both atrophic and hypertrophic scar types occur. Soft-tissue augmentation aims to improve atrophic scars. In this review, we will focus on the use of dermal fillers for acne scar improvement. Therefore, various filler types are characterized, and available data on their use in acne scar improvement are analyzed. PMID:26491364

  3. Sunflower Seed and Acne Vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Mohebbipour, Alireza; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Mansouri, Mona

    2015-09-01

    Regardless of the overall association between diet and acne which cannot be easily ignored, there might be an association between specific nutrients and acne development or improvement. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary intake of sunflower seeds on acne severity and the pattern of acne lesions. In a randomized controlled trial, 50 patients aged 15 - 30 years old with acne vulgaris were enrolled through consecutive convenient sampling, in a dermatology clinic in Ardabil, Iran. They were randomly allocated into two trial arms. Those in the control group were asked to stop eating sunflower seeds if they did before. In the intervention group, they consumed 25 g sunflower-containing food daily for seven days. The primary outcome of interest was 10% increase/decrease in the baseline acne severity index (ASI), sustained to the end of the follow-up period on day 14. The mean ASI did not change significantly through the study period in the control group, but it increased in the sunflower group from 62 at the baseline to 86.8 after two weeks (P < 0.001). The ASI mean change was 24.8 in the sunflower group compared to 4.9 in the control group (P < 0.001). The global acne grading score (GAGS) did not significantly change in any of the groups and the difference in the change of GAGS was not significant between the groups (2.4 in the sunflower group versus 1.6 in the control group). Twenty two subjects (88%) in the sunflower group versus 9 (36%) in the control group had at least 10% increment in ASI throughout the follow-up period (P < 0.001). The relative risk of developing the primary outcome in taking the sunflower seed intervention was 2.4 (95% CI: 1.4 - 4.2). The observed risk difference was 0.52 (95% CI: 0.29 - 0.75). Sunflower seed intake appears to aggravate acne vulgaris; however, further evidence is needed to ban sunflower seed intake in patients with acne. Considering the observed potential negative effect in this trial, future randomized

  4. Sunflower Seed and Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Mohebbipour, Alireza; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Mansouri, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regardless of the overall association between diet and acne which cannot be easily ignored, there might be an association between specific nutrients and acne development or improvement. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary intake of sunflower seeds on acne severity and the pattern of acne lesions. Patients and Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, 50 patients aged 15 - 30 years old with acne vulgaris were enrolled through consecutive convenient sampling, in a dermatology clinic in Ardabil, Iran. They were randomly allocated into two trial arms. Those in the control group were asked to stop eating sunflower seeds if they did before. In the intervention group, they consumed 25 g sunflower-containing food daily for seven days. The primary outcome of interest was 10% increase/decrease in the baseline acne severity index (ASI), sustained to the end of the follow-up period on day 14. Results: The mean ASI did not change significantly through the study period in the control group, but it increased in the sunflower group from 62 at the baseline to 86.8 after two weeks (P < 0.001). The ASI mean change was 24.8 in the sunflower group compared to 4.9 in the control group (P < 0.001). The global acne grading score (GAGS) did not significantly change in any of the groups and the difference in the change of GAGS was not significant between the groups (2.4 in the sunflower group versus 1.6 in the control group). Twenty two subjects (88%) in the sunflower group versus 9 (36%) in the control group had at least 10% increment in ASI throughout the follow-up period (P < 0.001). The relative risk of developing the primary outcome in taking the sunflower seed intervention was 2.4 (95% CI: 1.4 - 4.2). The observed risk difference was 0.52 (95% CI: 0.29 - 0.75). Conclusions: Sunflower seed intake appears to aggravate acne vulgaris; however, further evidence is needed to ban sunflower seed intake in patients with acne. Considering the

  5. [Acne vulgaris. Role of diet].

    PubMed

    Melnik, B

    2010-02-01

    The epidemic-like high prevalence of acne of more than 85% of adolescents exposed to westernized life style points to the role of nutritional factors. Insulinotropic foods, especially milk, dairy products and carbohydrates with high glycemic index and smoking lead to pathological exaggeration of already physiologically increased growth factor signaling of puberty. Food-derived growth factors activate the oncogenic phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway, which increases androgen receptor transcriptional activity and de-represses FoxO1-suppressed target genes of follicular keratinocyte proliferation and sebaceous lipogenesis. Thus, acne is the visible metabolic syndrome of skin exaggerated by growth factor signaling of westernized malnutrition. These insights allow a new classification of western life style acne as acne alimentaris and provide the rationale for dietary intervention. All efforts should be undertaken to eliminate the insulinotropic effector mechanism of milk in order to reduce the prevalence of acne and even more serious civilization diseases associated with malnutrition-dependent oncogenic signal transduction.

  6. Acne, dairy and cancer

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    A potent link to dairy seems to exist for three hormone-responsive glands. Acne, breast cancer and prostate cancer have all been linked epidemiologically to dairy intake. Although mechanisms postulated here remain to be accurately defined, the likely link involves Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 as a general stimulant, synergized by the steroid hormones present in milk. The IGF-1 may be either absorbed from milk, or stimulated by its ingestion, or both. The 5alpha-reduced compound 5alpha-pregnanedione (5α-P) present in milk is a direct precursor of dihydrotestosterone and may act through that pathway in prostate cancer, but 5α-P has also recently been shown to be capable of inducing estrogen receptors in breast cancer cells, upregulating cancer cells' sensitivity to estrogen. The introduction of exogenous hormones and growth factors into tissues that have not evolved defensive feedback inhibition of their corresponding endogenous sources is postulated as a direct stimulatory threat to these organ systems, whether for hyperplasia or neoplasia. PMID:20046583

  7. Novel anti-acne actions of nadifloxacin and clindamycin that inhibit the production of sebum, prostaglandin E(2) and promatrix metalloproteinase-2 in hamster sebocytes.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takashi; Shirane, Tatsuhiko; Noguchi, Norihisa; Sasatsu, Masanori; Ito, Akira

    2012-09-01

    Acne vulgaris is characteristic of excess sebum production and the induction of inflammatory reactions, for example, the augmentation of cytokine, prostaglandin (PG) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) production in sebaceous glands and pilosebaceous units. As Propionibacterium acnes is considered to be involved in the aggravation of acne vulgaris, antimicrobial agents have been found to be effective for treating acne leading to the remission of inflammation. However, it is not fully understood whether antimicrobial agents influence sebum production and/or the inflammatory reactions in sebaceous gland cells (sebocytes). In the present study, topical antimicrobial agents such as nadifloxacin (NDFX) and clindamycin (CLDM) decreased the production of triacylglycerols (TG), which are a major component of sebum in insulin-differentiated hamster sebocytes. These antibiotics also suppressed insulin-augmented gene expression and the production of perilipin, by which intracellular lipid droplet formation was concomitantly inhibited. On the other hand, peptidoglycan (PGN) from Gram-positive bacteria dose-dependently increased TG production in hamster sebocytes. The augmented TG production was decreased by treating NDFX or CLDM. Furthermore, NDFX and CLDM inhibited the PGN-augmented PGE(2) production in the sebocytes. Moreover, NDFX, but not CLDM, suppressed the PGN-augmented gene expression and production of pro-MMP-2/progelatinase A in hamster sebocytes. Therefore, these results provide novel evidence that NDFX and CLDM exhibit anti-lipogenesis and anti-inflammatory activities against insulin- or PGN-activated sebocytes which at least partly mimic acne pathology in vitro. Moreover, NDFX for acne therapy is likely to be effective in not only inhibiting microbial proliferation but also in preventing the onset of acne scar formation. © 2012 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  8. The association of acne vulgaris with diet.

    PubMed

    Veith, Whitney B; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2011-08-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common disorder of the pilosebaceous unit affecting adolescents and adults. The rise in incidence of acne in the United States may relate to the Western diet--which is rich in dairy and refined sugars, and high in glycemic load--and to the obesity epidemic. We reviewed the literature on diet and acne. Evidence exists highlighting the association of acne and high glycemic loads, certain dairy products, and refined sugar product ingestion. Future studies are required to determine if dietary modification will reduce long-term acne burden.

  9. Therapeutic Agents in Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, William D.; Maddin, Stuart; Nelson, A. J.; Danto, J. L.

    1965-01-01

    A total of 379 patients with pustular and cystic acne vulgaris were selected for study in three groups. Each group was assigned one of the following medications: benzyl penicillin, erythromycin, sulfadimethoxine, or placebo; these were to be compared with tetracycline, a medication whose effectiveness was previously demonstrated in this type of acne. The study revealed a larger number of favourable responses to tetracycline and erythromycin than to sulfadimethoxine. Sulfadimethoxine, however, produced a greater number of favourable responses than did the benzyl penicillin or the placebo; the last-named had equivalent results. PMID:20328262

  10. Polymorphisms in the promoters of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 genes in patients with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Yaykasli, Kursat Oguz; Turan, Hakan; Kaya, Ertugrul; Hatipoglu, Omer Faruk

    2013-01-01

    Acne, a chronic inflammatory skin disease, can be seen at any age but it most often occurs in adolescents and young people. Several factors, including increased sebum production, abnormal cornification of the pilosebaceous units, proliferation of Propionibacterium acne, and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, are thought to be associated with the pathogenesis of the acne. The remodeling of the ECM is regulated by a balance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors called tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). The current study investigated the potential association between MMP-2 (-1306 C/T) and TIMP-2 (-418 G/C) polymorphisms and the risk for acne in a Turkish population. The study was conducted with 85 subjects who presented to the Dermatology Department of Duzce University Hospital. DNA was isolated from 2 ml of peripheral blood taken from each subject, and their genotypes were analyzed with the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. The CC, CT, and TT genotypes for MMP-2 (-1306 C/T) polymorphism were similar between the patient and control group (24 [55.8%], 17 [39.5%], and 2 [4.7%], respectively, vs. 21 [50%], 18 [42.9%], and 3 [7.1%], respectively). However, the distribution of the GG, GC, and CC genotypes for TIMP-2 (-418 G/C) polymorphism were different between the patient and control group (30 [69.8%], 9 [14.8%] and 4 [9.3%], respectively, vs. 26 [61.9%], 14 [33.3%], and 2 [4.8%], respectively). The results demonstrated that the TIMP-2 (-418 CC) genotype was nearly two times more common in the patient group compared to the control group (p=0.686, OR=1.45). It may be possible that the TIMP-2 (-418 CC) genotype increases the tendency to develop acne vulgaris by disrupting the balance between MMPs and TIMPs. Further investigations are needed to clarify more precisely the relationship between acne and MMP-TIMP genes.

  11. Acne-associated syndromes: models for better understanding of acne pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Obermayer-Pietsch, B; Hong, J-B; Melnik, B C; Yamasaki, O; Dessinioti, C; Ju, Q; Liakou, A I; Al-Khuzaei, S; Katsambas, A; Ring, J; Zouboulis, C C

    2011-06-01

    Acne, one of the most common skin disorders, is also a cardinal component of many systemic diseases or syndromes. Their association illustrates the nature of these diseases and is indicative of the pathogenesis of acne. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and seborrhoea-acne-hirsutism-androgenetic alopecia (SAHA) syndrome highlight the role of androgen steroids, while polycystic ovary (PCO) and hyperandrogenism-insulin resistance-acanthosis nigricans (HAIR-AN) syndromes indicate insulin resistance in acne. Apert syndrome with increased fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) signalling results in follicular hyperkeratinization and sebaceous gland hypertrophy in acne. Synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis-osteitis (SAPHO) and pyogenic arthritis-pyoderma gangrenosum-acne (PAPA) syndromes highlight the attributes of inflammation to acne formation. Advances in the understanding of the manifestation and molecular mechanisms of these syndromes will help to clarify acne pathogenesis and develop novel therapeutic modalities.

  12. Chemical Peels for Acne and Acne Scars in Asians: Evidence Based Review

    PubMed Central

    Handog, Evangeline B; Datuin, Maria Suzanne L; Singzon, Ivan A

    2012-01-01

    Chemical peeling is a widely used procedure in the management of acne and acne scars, but there are very few studies on Asian populations who are more prone to develop hyper pigmentation. This article aims to summarize and evaluate the existing studies on the role of chemical peels in the treatment of acne and acne scars among Asians. An online search was conducted to identify prospective studies published in English that evaluated the use of chemical peels in active acne and acne scars in Asian populations. There were six studies for acne and eight studies for acne scars that were identified using our search parameters. Most were single-centre, open label and with small sample sizes. Acne severity was not uniformly reported and the objective outcome measures of some studies were not explicitly reported as well. The general trend of the results of the studies support the safety and efficacy of chemical peels for acne and acne scars including those of darker skin types. The existing studies support the use of chemical peels in the treatment of acne and acne scars in Asians. Further clinical trials with better study design and more subjects are needed to further establish the role of chemical peels in Asian acne patients. PMID:23378705

  13. Free radical scavenging and anti-acne activities of mangosteen fruit rind extracts prepared by different extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Pothitirat, Werayut; Chomnawang, Mullika Traidej; Supabphol, Roongtawan; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2010-02-01

    The ethanol extracts of mangosteen fruit rinds prepared by several extraction methods were examined for their contents of bioactive compounds, DPPH-scavenging activity, and anti-acne producing bacteria against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The dried powder of the fruit rind was extracted with 95% ethanol by maceration, percolation, Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction, and extraction using a magnetic stirrer. Soxhlet extraction promoted the maximum contents of crude extract (26.60% dry weight) and alpha-mangostin (13.51%, w/w of crude extract), and also gave the highest anti-acne activity with MIC 7.81 and 15.63 microg/mL and MBC 15.53 and 31.25 microg/mL against P. acnes and S. epidermidis, respectively. Ethanol 70% and 50% (v/v) were also compared in Soxhlet extraction. Ethanol 50% promoted the extract with maximum amounts of total phenolic compounds (26.96 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g extract) and total tannins (46.83 g tannic acid equivalents/100 g extract), and also exhibited the most effective DPPH-scavenging activity (EC(50) 12.84 microg/mL). Considering various factors involved in the process, Soxhlet extraction carried a low cost in terms of reagents and extraction time. It appears to be the recommended extraction method for mangosteen fruit rind. Ethanol 50% should be the appropriate solvent for extracting free radical-scavenging components, phenolic compounds, and tannins, while 95% ethanol is recommended for extraction of alpha-mangostin, a major anti-acne component from this plant.

  14. Acne as a chronic systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Zouboulis, Christos C

    2014-01-01

    Acne is the most common skin disorder. In the majority of cases, acne is a disease that changes its skin distribution and severity over time; moreover, it can be a physically (scar development) and psychologically damaging condition that lasts for years. According to its clinical characteristics, it can be defined as a chronic disease according to the World Health Organization criteria. Acne is also a cardinal component of many systemic diseases or syndromes, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia, seborrhea-acne-hirsutism-androgenetic alopecia syndrome, polycystic ovarian syndrome, hyperandrogenism-insulin resistance-acanthosis nigricans syndrome, Apert syndrome, synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis-osteitis syndrome, and pyogenic arthritis-pyoderma gangrenosum-acne syndrome. Recent studies on the Ache hunter gatherers of Paraguay detected the lack of acne in association with markedly lower rates of obesity, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and cardiovascular diseases, a finding that indicates either a nutritional or a genetic background of this impressive concomitance.

  15. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of Syzygium jambos L. (Alston) and isolated compounds on acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Acne vulgaris is a chronic skin disorder leading to inflammation as a result of the production of reactive oxygen species due to the active involvement of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) in the infection site of the skin. The current study was designed to assess the potential of the leaf extract of Syzygium jambos L. (Alston) and its compounds for antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity against the pathogenic P. acnes. Methods The broth dilution method was used to assess the antibacterial activity. The cytotoxicity investigation on mouse melanocyte (B16-F10) and human leukemic monocyte lymphoma (U937) cells was done using sodium 3’-[1-(phenyl amino-carbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis-[4-methoxy-6-nitrobenzene sulfonic acid hydrate (XTT) reagent. The non-toxic concentrations of the samples was investigated for the suppression of cytokines interleukin 8 (IL 8) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF α) by testing the supernatants in the co-culture of the human U937 cells and heat killed P. acnes using enzyme immunoassay kits (ELISA). The statistical analysis was done using the Graph Pad Prism 4 program. Results Bioassay guided isolation of ethanol extract of the leaves of S. jambos led to the isolation of three known compounds namely; squalene, an anacardic acid analogue and ursolic acid which are reported for the first time from this plant. The ethanol extract of S. jambos and one of the isolated compound namely, anacardic acid analogue were able to inhibit the growth of P. acnes with a noteworthy minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 31.3 and 7.9 μg/ml, respectively. The ethanol extract and three commercially acquired compounds namely; myricetin, myricitrin, gallic acid exhibited significant antioxidant activity with fifty percent inhibitory concentration (IC50) ranging between 0.8-1.9 μg/ml which was comparable to that of vitamin C, the reference antioxidant agent. The plant extract, compounds ursolic acid and myricitrin (commercially

  16. Androgen excess in cystic acne.

    PubMed

    Marynick, S P; Chakmakjian, Z H; McCaffree, D L; Herndon, J H

    1983-04-28

    We measured hormone levels in 59 women and 32 men with longstanding cystic acne resistant to conventional therapy. Affected women had higher serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone, and luteinizing hormone and lower levels of sex-hormone-binding globulin than controls. Affected men had higher levels of serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and 17-hydroxyprogesterone and lower levels of sex-hormone-binding globulin than controls. To lower dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, dexamethasone was given to men, and dexamethasone or an oral contraceptive pill, Demulen (or both), was given to women. Of the patients treated for six months, 97 per cent of the women and 81 per cent of the men had resolution or marked improvement in their acne. The dose of dexamethasone required to reduce dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels was low, rarely exceeding the equivalent of 20 mg of hydrocortisone per day. We conclude that most patients with therapeutically resistant cystic acne have androgen excess and that lowering elevated dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate results in improvement or remission of acne in most instances.

  17. Acne vulgaris--psychosomatic aspects.

    PubMed

    Niemeier, Volker; Kupfer, Jörg; Gieler, Uwe

    2006-12-01

    More than a cosmetic nuisance, acne can produce anxiety, depression, and other psychological problems that affect patients' lives in ways comparable to life-threatening or disabling diseases. Emotional problems due to the disease should be taken seriously and included in the treatment plan. A purely dermatological therapy by itself may not achieve its purpose. Even mild to moderate disease can be associated with significant depression and suicidal ideation, and psychologic change does not necessarily correlate with disease severity. Acne patients suffer particularly under social limitations and reduced quality of life. Psychological comorbidities in acne are probably greater than generally assumed. Attention should be paid to psychosomatic aspects especially if depressive-anxious disorders are suspected, particularly with evidence of suicidal tendencies, body dysmorphic disorders, or also in disrupted compliance.Therefore, patients who report particularly high emotional distress or dysmorphic tendencies due to the disease should be treated, if possible, by interdisciplinary therapy. The dermatologist should have some knowledge of the basics of psychotherapy and psychopharmacology, which sometimes must be combined with systemic and topical treatment of acne in conjunction with basic psychosomatic treatment.

  18. Antibiotic use in acne vulgaris and rosacea: clinical considerations and resistance issues of significance to dermatologists.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, James Q; Leyden, James J; Thiboutot, Diane; Webster, Guy F

    2008-08-01

    Antibiotics are commonly prescribed in dermatology practice for a variety of disorders, including acne vulgaris and rosacea. Importantly, they often are used long-term for these inflammatory dermatoses. Changes in bacterial ecology related to antibiotic prescribing have led to the decreased sensitivity of some bacterial organisms, such as Propionibacterium acnes, to antibiotics commonly prescribed by dermatologists. The potential clinical outcomes of altered bacterial sensitivities may vary among specific disease states and include decreased therapeutic response and the need to alter approaches in disease management. Additionally, changing patterns of antibiotic sensitivity and the emergence of more virulent pathogens, such as community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, macrolide-resistant staphylococci and streptococci, and mupirocin-resistant S aureus, have led to marked changes in how clinicians use antibiotics in clinical practice. This article reviews antibiotic prescribing in dermatology practice and provides important clinical perspectives and recommendations to preserve the therapeutic value of antibiotics based on a thorough review of current literature and clinical experience.

  19. Synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome - A challenging diagnosis not to be missed.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Petra; Curtis, Nigel

    2016-07-05

    SAPHO syndrome manifests as chronic inflammation of bones and joints, which may or may not be accompanied by skin changes. The term SAPHO is an acronym that stands for synovitis, acne, pustulosis (usually palmoplantar), hyperostosis and osteitis. The bones most commonly affected are those in the anterior chest wall (mainly the sternum, clavicles and sternocostoclavicular joints), the vertebrae and the sacroiliac joints, but peripheral and flat bones may also be involved, especially in children. There are no validated diagnostic criteria for SAPHO, and diagnosis is based on clinical and radiological findings. One of the main challenges in diagnosis is that the clinical features may occur many years apart. Additionally, patients may not develop all manifestations. Delayed diagnosis, as a result of a lack of awareness of SAPHO, can lead to patients suffering ongoing pain and disfiguring skin manifestations. One theory is that Propionibacterium acnes (isolated from bone biopsies in many SAPHO patients) triggers an auto-immune mediated chronic inflammation in genetically predisposed individuals. Treatment involves the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, intra-articular steroids, bisphosphonates and biologicals. The course of SAPHO is often prolonged but, despite the challenges in diagnosis and treatment, the long-term prognosis is good.

  20. Acne vulgaris: a disease of Western civilization.

    PubMed

    Cordain, Loren; Lindeberg, Staffan; Hurtado, Magdalena; Hill, Kim; Eaton, S Boyd; Brand-Miller, Jennie

    2002-12-01

    In westernized societies, acne vulgaris is a nearly universal skin disease afflicting 79% to 95% of the adolescent population. In men and women older than 25 years, 40% to 54% have some degree of facial acne, and clinical facial acne persists into middle age in 12% of women and 3% of men. Epidemiological evidence suggests that acne incidence rates are considerably lower in nonwesternized societies. Herein we report the prevalence of acne in 2 nonwesternized populations: the Kitavan Islanders of Papua New Guinea and the Aché hunter-gatherers of Paraguay. Additionally, we analyze how elements in nonwesternized environments may influence the development of acne. Of 1200 Kitavan subjects examined (including 300 aged 15-25 years), no case of acne (grade 1 with multiple comedones or grades 2-4) was observed. Of 115 Aché subjects examined (including 15 aged 15-25 years) over 843 days, no case of active acne (grades 1-4) was observed. The astonishing difference in acne incidence rates between nonwesternized and fully modernized societies cannot be solely attributed to genetic differences among populations but likely results from differing environmental factors. Identification of these factors may be useful in the treatment of acne in Western populations.

  1. Understanding the Burden of Adult Female Acne

    PubMed Central

    Kawata, Ariane K.; Daniels, Selena R.; Yeomans, Karen; Burk, Caroline T.; Callender, Valerie D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Typically regarded as an adolescent condition, acne among adult females is also prevalent. Limited data are available on the clinical characteristics and burden of adult female acne. The study objective was to describe clinical characteristics and psychosocial impact of acne in adult women. Design: Cross-sectional, web-based survey. Setting: Data were collected from a diverse sample of United States females. Participants: Women ages 25 to 45 years with facial acne (≥25 visible lesions). Measurements: Outcomes included sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, perceptions, coping behaviors, psychosocial impact of acne (health-related quality of life using acne-specific Quality of Life questionnaire and psychological status using Patient Health Questionnaire), and work/productivity. Results: A total of 208 women completed the survey (mean age 35±6 years), comprising White/Caucasian (51.4%), Black/African American (24.5%), Hispanic/Latino (11.1%), Asian (7.7%), and Other (5.3%). Facial acne presented most prominently on cheeks, chin, and forehead and was characterized by erythema, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, and scarring. Average age of adult onset was 25±6 years, and one-third (33.7%) were diagnosed with acne as an adult. The majority (80.3%) had 25 to 49 visible facial lesions. Acne was perceived as troublesome and impacted self-confidence. Makeup was frequently used to conceal acne. Facial acne negatively affected health-related quality of life, was associated with mild/moderate symptoms of depression and/or anxiety, and impacted ability to concentrate on work or school. Conclusion: Results highlight the multifaceted impact of acne and provide evidence that adult female acne is under-recognized and burdensome. PMID:24578779

  2. Understanding the burden of adult female acne.

    PubMed

    Tanghetti, Emil A; Kawata, Ariane K; Daniels, Selena R; Yeomans, Karen; Burk, Caroline T; Callender, Valerie D

    2014-02-01

    Typically regarded as an adolescent condition, acne among adult females is also prevalent. Limited data are available on the clinical characteristics and burden of adult female acne. The study objective was to describe clinical characteristics and psychosocial impact of acne in adult women. Cross-sectional, web-based survey. Data were collected from a diverse sample of United States females. Women ages 25 to 45 years with facial acne (≥25 visible lesions). Outcomes included sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, perceptions, coping behaviors, psychosocial impact of acne (health-related quality of life using acne-specific Quality of Life questionnaire and psychological status using Patient Health Questionnaire), and work/productivity. A total of 208 women completed the survey (mean age 35±6 years), comprising White/Caucasian (51.4%), Black/African American (24.5%), Hispanic/Latino (11.1%), Asian (7.7%), and Other (5.3%). Facial acne presented most prominently on cheeks, chin, and forehead and was characterized by erythema, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, and scarring. Average age of adult onset was 25±6 years, and one-third (33.7%) were diagnosed with acne as an adult. The majority (80.3%) had 25 to 49 visible facial lesions. Acne was perceived as troublesome and impacted self-confidence. Makeup was frequently used to conceal acne. Facial acne negatively affected health-related quality of life, was associated with mild/moderate symptoms of depression and/or anxiety, and impacted ability to concentrate on work or school. RESULTS highlight the multifaceted impact of acne and provide evidence that adult female acne is under-recognized and burdensome.

  3. NdYag Laser for Acne Keloidalis Nuchae

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-03-27

    Acne Keloidalis Nuchae; NdYag Laser; AKN; Acne Keloidalis; AK; Dermatitis Papillaris Capillitii; Folliculitis Keloidalis Nuchae; Sycosis Nuchae; Acne Keloid; Keloidal Folliculitis; Lichen Keloidalis Nuchae; Folliculitis Nuchae Scleroticans; Sycosis Framboesiformis

  4. Acne vulgaris related to androgens - a review.

    PubMed

    Khondker, L; Khan, S I

    2014-01-01

    Sebum production is stimulated by androgens and is the key in the development of acne vulgaris. Several investigators have looked for direct relationships between serum androgen levels, sebum secretion rate and the presence of acne. The presence of acne in prepubertal girls and sebum production in both sexes correlate with serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels. Although increased serum androgen levels correlate with the presence of severe nodular acne in men and women, these levels are often within the normal range in mild to moderate acne. This raises the question of whether there is an increased local production of androgens within the sebaceous gland of patients with acne vulgaris that leads to increased sebum secretion.

  5. A Review of Acne in Ethnic Skin

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Erica C.

    2010-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is one of the most common conditions for which all patients, including those with skin of color (Fitzpatrick skin types IV–VI), seek dermatological care. The multifactorial pathogenesis of acne appears to be the same in ethnic patients as in Caucasians. However, there is controversy over whether certain skin biology characteristics, such as sebum production, differ in ethnic patients. Clinically, acne lesions can appear the same as those seen in Caucasians; however, histologically, all types of acne lesions in African Americans can be associated with intense inflammation including comedones, which can also have some degree of inflammation. It is the sequelae of the disease that are the distinguishing characteristics of acne in skin of color, namely postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and keloidal or hypertrophic scarring. Although the medical and surgical treatment options are the same, it is these features that should be kept in mind when designing a treatment regimen for acne in skin of color. PMID:20725545

  6. Current therapeutic approach to acne scars.

    PubMed

    Basta-Juzbašić, Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence and incidence of acne scarring is different. Lasting for years, acne can cause both physical and psychological scarring. Scarring frequently results from severe inflammatory nodulocystic acne but may also result from more superficial inflamed lesions or from self-manipulation. There are two general types of acne scars: hypertrophic (keloid) scars, and atrophic (icepick, rolling and boxcar) scars. The management of acne scarring includes various types of resurfacing (chemical peels, lasers, lights, cryotherapy), use of dermal fillers, and surgical methods such as dermabrasion, subcision or punch excision. Individual scar characteristics, including color, texture and morphology, determine the treatment choice. Combining treatment methods may provide additional improvement compared with one method alone. It should be noted that none of the currently available treatments can achieve complete resolution of the scar. The best method of preventing or limiting scarring is to treat acne early enough to minimize the extent and duration of inflammation.

  7. Acne Scars: Pathogenesis, Classification and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fabbrocini, Gabriella; Annunziata, M. C.; D'Arco, V.; De Vita, V.; Lodi, G.; Mauriello, M. C.; Pastore, F.; Monfrecola, G.

    2010-01-01

    Acne has a prevalence of over 90% among adolescents and persists into adulthood in approximately 12%–14% of cases with psychological and social implications. Possible outcomes of the inflammatory acne lesions are acne scars which, although they can be treated in a number of ways, may have a negative psychological impact on social life and relationships. The main types of acne scars are atrophic and hypertrophic scars. The pathogenesis of acne scarring is still not fully understood, but several hypotheses have been proposed. There are numerous treatments: chemical peels, dermabrasion/microdermabrasion, laser treatment, punch techniques, dermal grafting, needling and combined therapies for atrophic scars: silicone gels, intralesional steroid therapy, cryotherapy, and surgery for hypertrophic and keloidal lesions. This paper summarizes acne scar pathogenesis, classification and treatment options. PMID:20981308

  8. Acne vulgaris and rosacea: evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Webster, G F

    2001-01-01

    Acne vulgaris, commonly termed acne, is an extremely common disease. It can be found in nearly all teenagers to some degree as well as in women in their 30s. Regardless of severity, acne often has a greater psychologic effect than cutaneous effect. Indeed, most patients overestimate the severity of their disease, while most physicians underestimate its impact on their patients. Studies have shown that people with severe acne as teens are less employable as adults and that self-esteem is low. When combined with other adolescent tensions, acne can be a difficult disease to treat. Rosacea, which usually starts in the late 20s, may affect the eyes as well as the skin. This article describes the pathogenesis of acne and rosacea and treatment approaches the primary care physician can use.

  9. Oral contraceptives in the treatment of acne.

    PubMed

    Tan, J K; Degreef, H

    2001-02-01

    Oral contraceptives (OCs) can reduce acne by lowering the production of adrenal and ovarian androgens, by inhibiting 5-alpha-reductase, which in turn, reduces the levels of dihydrotestosterone, and by stimulating sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), thus reducing the levels of free testosterone. In newer OCs, such as Tricyclen and Diane-35, the progestin component is minimally androgenic and anti-androgenic respectively, thereby enhancing the favorable profile of these products in the treatment of hyperandrogenic disorders, including acne. The efficacy of these agents and their long-term safety profile supports their use in various grades of acne in females: * As adjunctive therapy to topical agents for women with mild non-scarring acne desiring oral contraception * As primary therapy for patients with moderate non-scarring acne in combination with topical therapy and systemic antibiotics * As one of two preferred methods of contraception in patients with scarring and severe inflammatory acne being treated with systemic isotretinoin.

  10. Physical modalities for treating acne and rosacea.

    PubMed

    Jalian, H Ray; Levin, Yakir; Wanner, Molly

    2016-06-01

    Physical modalities provide an important adjunct to medical treatment of acne and rosacea. In patients who cannot tolerate or fail medical treatments, physical modalities offer an alternative approach. For cases of acne scarring, phymatous changes of rosacea, and rosacea-associated telangiectasia, physical modalities such as laser and light treatments represent the treatment of choice. We will review the use of laser and light treatments, photodynamic therapy, and other physical modalities such as targeted therapies for the treatment of acne and rosacea.

  11. [Using combined magnetotherapy in patients with acne].

    PubMed

    Kul'chitskaia, D B; Orekhova, E M; Vasil'eva, E S

    2004-01-01

    Laser Doppler flowmetry discovered microcirculatory disorders in acne patients. Affected are arterioles as well as capillaries and venules. Combination of magnetotherapy with medication improves microcirculation in acne patients. More marked positive changes occurred in the microcirculatory system due to combined treatment compared to medication therapy only. Thus, laser Doppler flowmetry is a new, noninvasive method of assessing microcirculation in acne patients and can serve an objective criterion of treatment efficacy.

  12. Acne: the role of medical nutrition therapy.

    PubMed

    Burris, Jennifer; Rietkerk, William; Woolf, Kathleen

    2013-03-01

    Acne is a common disease in Westernized nations, particularly among adolescents and young adults. Acne has substantial effects on quality of life, making treatment essential. Medical nutrition therapy as a potential treatment for acne is not new, although the literature examining diet and acne during the past 100 years is mixed. During the late 1800s and early 1900s, diet was commonly used as an adjunct treatment for acne. During the 1960s, however, the diet-acne connection fell out of favor. In recent years, dermatologists and registered dietitians have revisited the idea and become increasingly interested in the role of medical nutrition therapy in acne treatment. This article reviews the history and existing literature examining the association between diet and acne. Although the total number of studies conducted within the past 40 years is relatively small, the growing body of epidemiologic and experimental evidence suggests a relationship between diet and acne. Compared with other dietary factors, more research examines dietary glycemic load. The evidence is more convincing for high glycemic load diets, compared with other dietary factors. To date there are no randomized controlled trials investigating the relationship between frequent dairy or milk consumption and acne. Similarly, the number of research studies examining the relationship between dietary fat and/or n-3 fatty acids is sparse and the evidence is less robust. Taken together, several methodologic limitations need to be addressed, and additional research, preferably randomized controlled trials, is warranted before comprehensive evidence-based guidelines can be established. While dermatologists and registered dietitians continue to debate and research the potential relationship between diet and acne, the best dietary approach is to address each acne patient individually, carefully considering the possibility of dietary counseling. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by

  13. Zolav(®) (a p-carboethoxy-tristyrylbenzene derivative) [corrected]: a new antibiotic for the treatment of acne.

    PubMed

    Dinant, Alexa; Boulos, Ramiz A

    2016-01-01

    Acne is a prominent skin condition affecting >80% of teenagers and young adults and ~650 million people globally. Isotretinoin, a vitamin A derivative, is currently the standard of care for treatment. However, it has a well-established teratogenic activity, a reason for the development of novel and low-risk treatment options for acne. To investigate the effectiveness of Zolav(®), (a p-carboethoxy-tristyrylbenzene derivative) [corrected] a novel antibiotic as a treatment for acne vulgaris. Minimum inhibitory concentration of Zolav(®) (a p-carboethoxy-tristyrylbenzene derivative) against Propionibacterium acnes was determined by following a standard protocol using Mueller-Hinton broth and serial dilutions in a 96-well plate. Cytotoxicity effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells and lung cells in the presence of Zolav(®) (a p-carboethoxy-tristyrylbenzene derivative) were investigated by determining the growth inhibition (GI50) concentration, total growth inhibition concentration, and the lethal concentration of 50% (LC50). The tryptophan auxotrophic mutant of Escherichia coli strain, WP2 uvrA (ATCC 49979), was used for the AMES assay with the addition of Zolav(®) (a p-carboethoxy-tristyrylbenzene derivative) tested for its ability to reverse the mutation and induce bacterial growth. The in vivo effectiveness of Zolav(®) (a p-carboethoxy-tristyrylbenzene derivative) was tested in a P. acnes mouse intradermal model where the skin at the infection site was removed, homogenized, and subjected to colony-forming unit (CFU) counts. Susceptibility testing of Zolav(®) (a p-carboethoxy-tristyrylbenzene derivative) against P. acnes showed a minimum inhibitory concentration of 2 µg/mL against three strains with no cytotoxicity and no mutagenicity observed at the highest concentrations tested, 30 µM and 1,500 µg/plate, respectively. The use of Zolav(®) (a p-carboethoxy-tristyrylbenzene derivative) at a concentration of 50 µg/mL (q8h) elicited a two

  14. Therapeutic Agents in Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Wm. D.; Maddin, Stuart; Nelson, A. J.; Danto, J. L.

    1963-01-01

    A total of 120 consecutive patients with pustular and cystic acne vulgaris were selected for study. Patients were assigned a placebo and a tetracycline medication in a random method. Of the 53 patients who were given tetracycline, 45 showed some response, which was fair in 19 and excellent in 26. Of the 55 patients who received placebo, 24 showed no response while 31 showed some improvement. No side effects were reported. The difference in response between the two groups is statistically significant. It is concluded that administration of 250 mg. tetracycline four times daily, even for periods as short as two weeks, enhances the likelihood of improvement of cystic or pustular acne vulgaris. PMID:14079132

  15. Isotretinoin for acne and rosacea.

    PubMed

    Watson, Kendra D; Miest, Rachel Y; Tollefson, Megha M

    2016-06-01

    Isotretinoin is a revolutionary medicine for the treatment of acne vulgaris, with new studies showing evidence of excellent clinical outcomes in treating rosacea. After 30 years of clinical experience, new insights are being gained into dosing strategies, recurrence prevention, and dose-related side effects. Previous controversial associations with inflammatory bowel diseases and mood disorders have hampered the use of this medication in some clinical situations, with new evidence disproving these claims. The teratogenicity of this medication mandates iPLEDGE compliance with government regulations. Clinicians should be knowledgeable about this medication including its side effects, teratogenicity, and its controversies in order to adequately counsel patients, dissuade fears, and obtain the best clinical outcome when treating acne and rosacea.

  16. The Complete Genome of Propionibacterium freudenreichii CIRM-BIA1T, a Hardy Actinobacterium with Food and Probiotic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Falentin, Hélène; Deutsch, Stéphanie-Marie; Jan, Gwenaël; Loux, Valentin; Thierry, Anne; Parayre, Sandrine; Maillard, Marie-Bernadette; Dherbécourt, Julien; Cousin, Fabien J.; Jardin, Julien; Siguier, Patricia; Couloux, Arnaud; Barbe, Valérie; Vacherie, Benoit; Wincker, Patrick; Gibrat, Jean-François; Gaillardin, Claude; Lortal, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    Background Propionibacterium freudenreichii is essential as a ripening culture in Swiss-type cheeses and is also considered for its probiotic use [1]. This species exhibits slow growth, low nutritional requirements, and hardiness in many habitats. It belongs to the taxonomic group of dairy propionibacteria, in contrast to the cutaneous species P. acnes. The genome of the type strain, P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii CIRM-BIA1 (CIP 103027T), was sequenced with an 11-fold coverage. Methodology/Principal Findings The circular chromosome of 2.7 Mb of the CIRM-BIA1 strain has a GC-content of 67% and contains 22 different insertion sequences (3.5% of the genome in base pairs). Using a proteomic approach, 490 of the 2439 predicted proteins were confirmed. The annotation revealed the genetic basis for the hardiness of P. freudenreichii, as the bacterium possesses a complete enzymatic arsenal for de novo biosynthesis of aminoacids and vitamins (except panthotenate and biotin) as well as sequences involved in metabolism of various carbon sources, immunity against phages, duplicated chaperone genes and, interestingly, genes involved in the management of polyphosphate, glycogen and trehalose storage. The complete biosynthesis pathway for a bifidogenic compound is described, as well as a high number of surface proteins involved in interactions with the host and present in other probiotic bacteria. By comparative genomics, no pathogenicity factors found in P. acnes or in other pathogenic microbial species were identified in P. freudenreichii, which is consistent with the Generally Recognized As Safe and Qualified Presumption of Safety status of P. freudenreichii. Various pathways for formation of cheese flavor compounds were identified: the Wood-Werkman cycle for propionic acid formation, amino acid degradation pathways resulting in the formation of volatile branched chain fatty acids, and esterases involved in the formation of free fatty acids and esters. Conclusions

  17. [Acne inversa in Crohn's disease].

    PubMed

    Goischke, H K; Ochsendorf, F R

    2001-11-01

    We report 2 patients with the association of Crohn's disease and acne inversa (= hidradenitis suppurativa). A 50-year-old woman with a 10-year-history of Crohn's disease developed suppurative nodules and abscesses in the genitoanal region. Over several years these lesions were hidden from everybody including the family physician. In a 42-year-old female patient abscesses appeared in the axilla 4 years after the diagnosis of Crohn's disease. During the next years these draining lesions also developed in both groins and the perineum. The differential diagnosis included cutaneous manifestations of Crohn's disease in both cases. The clinical picture with draining abscesses and sinuses with communicating channels, cystic nodules, hypertrophic scars and foul-smelling discharge were typical findings of acne inversa. In the last years this entity was reported several times in patients with Crohn's disease. Acne inversa starts with a compact hyperkeratosis of the infundibulum in terminal hair follicles, followed by a segmental rupture of the follicular epithelium and a spreading inflammatory reaction. As pathogenic factors genetic disposition and smoking were discussed. The only curative therapy is excision of the affected area. The reported association should be known in order to recognize the disease and institute the right therapy.

  18. Over-the-counter Acne Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Graber, Emmy M.

    2012-01-01

    Acne is a common dermatological disorder that most frequently affects adolescents; however, individuals may be affected at all ages. Many people who suffer from acne seek treatment from both prescription and over-the-counter acne medications. Due to convenience, lower cost, and difficulty getting an appointment with a dermatologist, the use of over-the-counter acne treatments is on the rise. As the plethora of over-the-counter acne treatment options can be overwhelming, it is important that dermatologists are well-versed on this subject to provide appropriate information about treatment regimens and potential drug interactions and that their patients see them as well-informed. This article reviews the efficacy of various over-the-counter acne treatments based on the current literature. A thorough literature review revealed there are many types of over-the-counter acne treatments and each are designed to target at least one of the pathogenic pathways that are reported to be involved in the development of acne lesions. Many of the key over-the-counter ingredients are incorporated in different formulations to broaden the spectrum and consumer appeal of available products. Unfortunately, many over-the-counter products are not well-supported by clinical studies, with a conspicuous absence of double-blind or investigator-blind, randomized, vehicle-controlled studies. Most studies that do exist on over-the-counter acne products are often funded by the manufacturer. Use of over-the-counter acne treatments is a mainstay in our society and it is important that dermatologists are knowledgeable about the different options, including potential benefits and limitations. Overall, over-the-counter acne therapies can be classified into the following five major groups: cleansers, leave-on products, mechanical treatments, essential oils, and vitamins. PMID:22808307

  19. [Feminine acne: dermatologic disease or endocrine disease?].

    PubMed

    Vexiau, P; Chivot, M

    2002-01-01

    Acne is a problem of the pilo-sebaceous follicle caused by the conjunction of three factors: seborrhea, follicle obstruction, and follicle inflammation. The key element, seborrhea, is under androgenic control. Acne in women is also influenced by developments and modifications in genital life, as well as by hormonal contraceptive and replacement therapies. Acne is rare prior to puberty, when it may indicate endocrine disease. At puberty, acne is quasi-physiological, because of the relative hyperandrogenism induced by the andrenarche preceding pubarche, as well as by the relative shortage of estrogens and progesterone during the first menstrual cycles. Other signs of hyperandrogenism, such as menstrual cycle difficulties and excess weight, which favor a hormonal origin, must be sought in cases of persistent or late-onset acne in adults. There is a mirror image of puberty during the peri-menopausal period, but with decreased seborrhea, so acne is rare. Finally, a tumoral origin must be sought in the rare cases of acne occurring after menopause. Hormonal investigation of acne should not be systematic, but is justified during prepuberty when other symptoms are associated with acne that resists well-conducted dermatological treatment. The therapeutic approach should be primarily dermatological, but hormone-oriented treatment should be considered when such therapy fails, or in the presence of other signs of hyperandrogenism. Sometimes the association of isotretinoin and an anti-androgen treatment are necessary to effectively treat such acne. Finally, particular attention must be paid to contraceptive therapies and hormone treatments, which can induce or aggravate acne, especially during the peri-menopausal period.

  20. [Bacterial vaginosis: efficacy of a local treatment with a gel containing a fraction derived from propinibacterium acnes].

    PubMed

    Melis, Gian B; Marotto, Maria F; Orrù, Marisa M; Pilloni, Monica; Zedda, Pierina; D'Alterio, Maurizio; Paoletti, Anna M

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is favored by a decreased activity of vaginal immune system. The fraction derived from Propionibacterium acnes is known to activate the immune system and is used parenterally to treat respiratory and urinary infections. The employ of a fraction derived from Propionibacterium acnes locally, in the context of the vaginal immune system, is made possible by a vaginal gel in which this fraction is associated with hyaluronic acid, well-known for its moisturizing activity, and polycarbophil, capable of miming the function of cervical mucus. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether this preparation is efficacy in the treatment of vulvovaginal symptoms associated to BV. After the diagnosis of BV and the evaluation of a Visual Analogic Score >6 for vulvovaginal itch and burning, 33 women participated in this study on a voluntary basis. They were treated with a vaginal gel (Immunovag®, Depofarma, Italy) for 5 days, with one vulvovaginal application a day. The day following the last application, the subjects reported a significant reduction of vulvovaginal symptoms and a significant reduction of vulvovaginal erythema and leucorrhea. In the vaginal swab performed before the treatment, anaerobic microorganisms were positive in 82% and negative in 18% of cases; when tested the day following the end of treatment, it was positive in 25% and negative in 75% of subjects. Symptom reduction rates did not differ between the groups with positive or negative vaginal swab. The results obtained in the subjects treated with Immunovag® were similar to those obtained in a group of women with BV treated with clindamycin cream (one daily vulvovaginal application of 100 mg, for 5 days). The activation of the vaginal immune system induced by Immunovag® can antagonize the symptoms of BV and counteract the growth of vaginal anaerobic microorganisms.

  1. Adult Acne: Prevalence and Portrayal in Primary Healthcare Patients, in the Greater Porto Area, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Semedo, Diogo; Ladeiro, Filipa; Ruivo, Mariana; D'Oliveira, Carlos; De Sousa, Filipa; Gayo, Mariana; Lima, Clara; Magalhães, Frederico; Brandão, Rui; Branco, Maria; Da Silva, Isabel; Batista, Joana; Amado, João; Massa, António; Neves-Amado, João

    2016-09-01

    Introdução: A acne, apesar de caraterística no adolescente, afeta frequentemente o adulto. Em Portugal, não são conhecidos estudos sobre a prevalência da acne no adulto, nomeadamente observada nos grandes centros populacionais. Os objetivos deste estudo foram estimar a prevalência da acne nos utentes dos serviços de cuidados de saúde primários, as suas características, incluindo fatores de risco para início e/ou agravamento, além de coletar informação relacionada com a automedicação e/ou tratamento prescrito. Material e Métodos: Aplicação de questionário e exame físico a amostra composta por adultos entre os 20 - 60 anos de idade que visitaram, em dias aleatórios, cinco centros de saúde da área do Grande Porto. Resultados: Dos 1 055 adultos avaliados, a prevalência estimada de acne foi de 61,5%. Apenas 36,8% dos portadores estavam cientes da sua condição e somente 25% afirmou ter procurado tratamento. Mais de metade dos fumadores (62,3%) apresentavam acne. A zona mais afetada foi a região malar, diferindo da forma adolescente da doença. Discussão: A prevalência encontrada de acne foi mais elevada do que em outros estudos. A acne aparentou estar relacionada com a ingestão calórica aumentada, tabagismo, consumo de leite gordo ou meio gordo, hirsutismo, alopécia e seborreia. Conclusão: No contexto dos cuidados de saúde primários, mais de metade dos adultos eram portadores de acne. Estes números demonstram o quão importante pode ser a prevenção e intervenção pelos profissionais dos cuidados de saúde primários, tanto para a redução de eventuais factores de risco como para a intervenção terapêutica e consequências psicossociais relacionadas com a acne. Palavras-chave: Acne Vulgaris/epidemiologia; Adulto; Cuidados de Saúde Primários; Portugal; Prevalência.

  2. Fluorescence diagnostic imaging in patients with acne.

    PubMed

    Dobrev, Hristo

    2010-12-01

    Orange-red fluorescence in the follicle openings, induced by ultraviolet A light, originates from porphyrins, the metabolic products of Propionibacteria acnes. To investigate the relationship of orange-red follicular fluorescence with the severity of acne and the amount of sebum secretion. Twenty-five volunteers were included. The severity of acne was rated on a 4-point scale. The casual sebum level was measured using a Sebumeter and the follicular fluorescence was determined using the camera Visiopor. Casual sebum level and the intensity of fluorescence (percentage of the area and number of orange-red spots) were higher at the T zone than at the U zone in all patients regardless of their skin type. Sebum amount and area of fluorescence spots were significantly negative in correlation with the clinical grade of acne. There was a significant positive correlation between the orange-red fluorescence and the casual sebum level. The orange-red fluorescence showed stronger correlation with the presence of non-inflammatory acne lesions (comedones) and high sebum amount than the presence of inflammatory acne lesions (pustules) and low sebum amount. The fluorescence diagnostic imaging could be useful in the objective evaluation and monitoring of treatment efficacy in subjects with acne-prone skin and patients with acne. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Moisturizers for Acne: What are their Constituents?

    PubMed

    Chularojanamontri, Leena; Tuchinda, Papapit; Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Pongparit, Kamolwan

    2014-05-01

    Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit that affects almost all teenagers. Different treatments offer different modes of action, but aim to target acne pathology. Topical therapies, such as benzoyl peroxide, retinoids, antibiotics with alcohol-based preparations, and salicylic acid, can cause skin irritation resulting in a lack of patient adherence. Some physicians recommend patients use moisturizers as adjunctive treatment of acne, especially when either topical benzoyl peroxide or a retinoid is prescribed. Furthermore, some evidence shows that moisturizers can contribute independently to improve signs and symptoms of acne. Moisturizers contain three main properties, which are occlusive, humectant, and emollient effects. Currently, many moisturizers claim to be suitable for acne treatment. This article aims to provide a review of the active ingredients and properties of those moisturizers. Fifty-two moisturizers for acne were included for analysis. Most of the products (92%) have anti-inflammatory properties apart from occlusive, humectant, and emollient effects. Anti-acne medications, including salicylic acid, benzoyl peroxide, and retinol, were found respectively in 35, 10, and 8 percent of the moisturizer products containing anti-inflammatory properties. More than half of the products contain dimethicone and/or glycerin for its moisturizer property. Aloe vera and witch hazel are botanical anti-inflammatories that were commonly found in this study. Scientific data regarding some ingredients are discussed to provide a guide for physicians in selecting moisturizers for acne patients.

  4. Cardiff Acne Disability Index in Sarawak, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acne is considered a cosmetic nuisance in Malaysia since no insurance coverage is provided for its treatment. Its psychological impact is unknown. Objective The aim of this study is to determine the impact of acne on quality of life and its relationship with severity. Methods A cross-sectional study using the Cardiff acne disability index (CADI) and Global Acne Grading System for acne severity grading was done in three government-run dermatology clinics in Sarawak, Malaysia. Results The study cohort of 200 patients had a mean CADI score of 5.1. Most of the patients (59.5%) had mild CADI impairment, with the domain of feelings most affected. Patients with a family income <1,000 United States Dollor/month had a higher mean CADI (mean 5.5 vs. 4.4; p=0.04). Females, indigenous groups, and patients with tertiary education tended to have more severe CADI impairment (p>0.05). The correlation between CADI and mild acne severity was low (Pearson correlation coefficient=0.35; p<0.001) but became insignificant for moderate and severe acne. Conclusion Acne impairment in Sarawak was moderate and must be addressed. It should be viewed as a psychologically disabling disease requiring optimal management and resource allocation. PMID:22577265

  5. Heredity: a prognostic factor for acne.

    PubMed

    Ballanger, F; Baudry, P; N'Guyen, J M; Khammari, A; Dréno, B

    2006-01-01

    The role of heredity in acne severity and therapeutic response remains unclear. A prospective epidemiologic study was performed to compare clinical and evolutive features of acne and response to treatment in 151 patients with acne with (A+) or without (A-) family history of acne. A+ and A- patients were compared on clinical and therapeutic criteria. A+ patients were then distributed into subgroups (M+, F+, M+F+) following the origin of family history (father: F, mother: M). The clinical profile was similar in the A+ and A- populations. Acne occurred earlier and more often before puberty in the A+ population, in which oral treatments and relapse after isotretinoin were more frequent. Retentional lesions (number and extent) were more important in the M+ and M+F+ populations. This study confirms the importance of heredity as a prognostic factor for acne. Family history of acne is associated with earlier occurrence of acne, increased number of retentional lesions and therapeutic difficulties. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Zapping Those Zits: Helping Teens Handle Acne.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Describes five types of acne and stresses the importance of appropriate treatment. Some dermatologists believe diet is critical in improving acne. Other treatments include the use of drying lotions and soaps, astringents, abrasive cleansers, prescription drugs, face peels, and dermabrasion. (SM)

  7. [Hormonal factors in etiology of common acne].

    PubMed

    Bergler-Czop, Beata; Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia

    2004-05-01

    Common acne is steatorrhoeic chronic disease, to which specific is, among others, the presence of blackheads, papulopustular eruptions, purulent cysts and cicatrices. Such hormonal factors belong to elements inherent in etiology of the affection. Sebaceous glands have cell receptors on their surface for androgens. In etiopathogenesis of common/simple acne, a decisive role is played by a derivative of testosterone, i.e. 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). However, some experts are of opinion that there is no correlation between the increased intensity of common acne and other symptoms of hyperandrogenism. Numerous authors assume, however, that common acne-affected patients may be sometimes subjected to intense reactions caused by sebaceous glands against physiological androgens concentrations. Naturally, estrogens can inhibit release of such androgens. Under physiological conditions, natural progesterone does not conduct to intensification of the seborrhea, but the activity of sebum secretion may be triggered off by its synthetic counterparts. Hormonal etiology can be very distinctly visible in the steroid, androgenic, premenstrual, menopausal acne, as well as in juvenile acne and acne neonatorum. In case of females affected by acne, hormonal therapy should be persistently supported and consulted with dermatologists, endocrinologists and gynecologists. Antiandrogenic preparations are applied, such as: cyproterone acetate concurrently administered with estrogens and, as well as not so frequently with chlormadinone acetate (independently or during estrogenic therapy).

  8. Clinical markers of androgenicity in acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Sheehan-Dare, R A; Hughes, B R; Cunliffe, W J

    1988-12-01

    Androgenic stimulation of sebaceous glands is necessary for development of acne. If hyperandrogenaemia were a major determinant of acne in women, the frequency of other clinical markers of androgenicity should increase with acne severity. To investigate this, 268 female subjects (aged 12-44 years) were studied. Subjects were divided into groups on the basis of acne severity: physiological, moderate, and severe. With exclusion of women taking oral contraceptives or anti-androgen therapy, subjects in each group were similar with respect to age at menarche and incidence of menstrual irregularity of amenorrhoea. Reports of excessive body hair, and clinical hirsutes on examination were few and there were no significant differences between acne severity groups. No correlation was observed between acne and hirsutes grades in all subjects (rank correlation coefficient = 0.096). Mild male pattern androgenic alopecia occurred in similar proportions of subjects in the three groups. Female pattern androgenic alopecia was observed in only two subjects. We have shown no correlation between acne severity and clinical markers of androgenicity in women. This suggests that in most cases factors other than hyperandrogenaemia are necessary for the development of acne.

  9. Zapping Those Zits: Helping Teens Handle Acne.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Describes five types of acne and stresses the importance of appropriate treatment. Some dermatologists believe diet is critical in improving acne. Other treatments include the use of drying lotions and soaps, astringents, abrasive cleansers, prescription drugs, face peels, and dermabrasion. (SM)

  10. Cedarwood Oil as Complementary Treatment in Refractory Acne.

    PubMed

    Hassoun, Lauren A; Ornelas, Jennifer N; Sivamani, Raja K

    2016-03-01

    Acne vulgaris is a widely prevalent chronic skin disease. Although multiple treatments are available, acne can sometimes be refractory to these treatments. The use of alternative medical therapies has increased within dermatology and for acne. This case report describes a patient in whom the addition of cedarwood oil was helpful in controlling acne.

  11. Effect of Propionibacterium acidipropionici on the growth of Yersinia enterocolitica.

    PubMed

    Warmińska-Radyko, I; Laniewska-Moroz, L; Dajnowiec, M

    2001-01-01

    The antibacterial effect of Propionibacterium acidipropionici culture on a whey medium was determined in preparations subjected to cell inactivation with UV radiation and chloroform treatment; in concentrated biomass, centrifuged and suspended in sterile water; in a preparation subjected to cell inactivation with chloroform. The test strain was Yersinia enterocolitica 8. The preparations and culture were added, as biopreservatives, to broth media where the test strain was cultured, checking periodically the population development. It was found that a whey culture of P. acidipropionici was characterized by antibacterial activity of 64 AU/ml, but after cell inactivation this activity decreased to 16 and 8 AU/ml, depending on the method employed. The activity of concentrated biomass of live cells was at a level of 128 AU/ml, and after inactivation with chloroform--8 AU/ml. An addition of biopreservatives to the growth medium caused inhibition of test strain proliferation. Its degree depended on the antibacterial activity of the environment and population size. In the environment with activity of 42.7 AU/ml the strain Y. enterocolitica 8 whose population was hundreds of cells per ml died after 8 hours of incubation. A larger population, i.e. 10(5) cfu/ml, survived under these conditions, but did not proliferate during 24 hours of culturing.

  12. Humic Acid Reduction by Propionibacterium freudenreichii and Other Fermenting Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Benz, Marcus; Schink, Bernhard; Brune, Andreas

    1998-01-01

    Iron-reducing bacteria have been reported to reduce humic acids and low-molecular-weight quinones with electrons from acetate or hydrogen oxidation. Due to the rapid chemical reaction of amorphous ferric iron with the reduced reaction products, humic acids and low-molecular-weight redox mediators may play an important role in biological iron reduction. Since many anaerobic bacteria that are not able to reduce amorphous ferric iron directly are known to transfer electrons to other external acceptors, such as ferricyanide, 2,6-anthraquinone disulfonate (AQDS), or molecular oxygen, we tested several physiologically different species of fermenting bacteria to determine their abilities to reduce humic acids. Propionibacterium freudenreichii, Lactococcus lactis, and Enterococcus cecorum all shifted their fermentation patterns towards more oxidized products when humic acids were present; P. freudenreichii even oxidized propionate to acetate under these conditions. When amorphous ferric iron was added to reoxidize the electron acceptor, humic acids were found to be equally effective when they were added in substoichiometric amounts. These findings indicate that in addition to iron-reducing bacteria, fermenting bacteria are also capable of channeling electrons from anaerobic oxidations via humic acids towards iron reduction. This information needs to be considered in future studies of electron flow in soils and sediments. PMID:9797315

  13. Emmental Cheese Environment Enhances Propionibacterium freudenreichii Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Gagnaire, Valérie; Jardin, Julien; Rabah, Houem; Briard-Bion, Valérie; Jan, Gwénaël

    2015-01-01

    Dairy propionibacteria are actinomycetales found in various fermented food products. The main species, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, is generally recognized as safe and used both as probiotic and as cheese starter. Its probiotic efficacy tightly depends on its tolerance towards digestive stresses, which can be largely modulated by the ingested delivery vehicle. Indeed, tolerance of this bacterium is enhanced when it is consumed within a fermented dairy product, compared to a dried probiotic preparation. We investigated both stress tolerance and protein neosynthesis upon growth in i) chemically defined or ii) aqueous phase of Emmental cheeses. Although the same final population level was reached in both media, a slower growth and an enhanced survival of CIRM BIA 1 strain of P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii was observed in Emmental juice, compared to chemically defined medium. This was accompanied by differences in substrates used and products released as well as overexpression of various early stress adaptation proteins in Emmental juice, compared to chemically defined medium, implied in protein folding, in aspartate catabolism, in biosynthesis of valine, leucine and isoleucine, in pyruvate metabolism in citrate cycle, in the propionate metabolism, as well as in oxidoreductases. All these changes led to a higher digestive stress tolerance after growth in Emmental juice. Mechanisms of stress adaptation were induced in this environment, in accordance with enhanced survival. This opens perspectives for the use of hard and semi-hard cheeses as delivery vehicle for probiotics with enhanced efficacy. PMID:26275229

  14. Facial sebum affects the development of acne, especially the distribution of inflammatory acne.

    PubMed

    Choi, C W; Choi, J W; Park, K C; Youn, S W

    2013-03-01

    The increased sebum secretion has been considered as one of the pathogenic factors of acne. The goal of this study was to assess the correlation between the casual sebum level and the severity of acne using objective measuring methods in a large acne patients group. We also investigated the influence of age or gender on the correlation. A total number of 914 acne patients were recruited. The standard digital photographs were taken, and the acne lesions were counted as comedones or inflammatory lesions. The casual sebum level was measured using the Sebumeter SM 815(®) . The correlation analysis was performed. The casual sebum level showed positive correlation with the number of acne lesions. The casual sebum level markedly influenced the number of inflammatory lesions and the acne lesions located in the U-zone. In the young acne patients, the casual sebum level showed significant correlations in the U-zone, whereas in the old acne patients, there were significant correlations in the T-zone. The male acne patients were more influenced by the casual sebum level. This was the first study to report the significant correlations between the casual sebum level and the number, proportion and location of acne lesions in a large acne patients group, using an objective, bioengineering method. Moreover, we also found that the influence of sebum was prominent on the inflammatory lesions. In addition, both age and gender influenced the correlation between the casual sebum level and the acne. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  15. Anti-acne, anti-dandruff and anti-breast cancer efficacy of green synthesised silver nanoparticles using Coriandrum sativum leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Sathishkumar, Palanivel; Preethi, Johnson; Vijayan, Raji; Mohd Yusoff, Abdull Rahim; Ameen, Fuad; Suresh, Sadhasivam; Balagurunathan, Ramasamy; Palvannan, Thayumanavan

    2016-10-01

    In this present investigation, AgNPs were green synthesised using Coriandrum sativum leaf extract. The physicochemical properties of AgNPs were characterised using UV-visible spectrophotometer, field emission scanning microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (FESEM/EDX), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. Further, in vitro anti-acne, anti-dandruff and anti-breast cancer efficacy of green synthesised AgNPs were assessed against Propionibacterium acnes MTCC 1951, Malassezia furfur MTCC 1374 and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell line, respectively. The flavonoids present in the plant extract were responsible for the AgNPs synthesis. The green synthesised nanoparticles size was found to be ≈37nm. The BET analysis result shows that the surface area of the synthesised AgNPs was found to be 33.72m(2)g(-1). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AgNPs for acne causative agent P. acnes and dandruff causative agent M. furfur was found to be at 3.1 and 25μgmL(-1), respectively. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of the AgNPs for MCF-7 cells was calculated as 30.5μgmL(-1) and complete inhibition was observed at a concentration of 100μgmL(-1). Finally, our results proved that green synthesised AgNPs using C. sativum have great potential in biomedical applications such as anti-acne, anti-dandruff and anti-breast cancer treatment.

  16. Transitional forms of Corynebacterium acnes in disease.

    PubMed

    Zierdt, C H; Wertlake, P T

    1969-02-01

    A clear-cut triad of sequential Corynebacterium acnes transitional forms from disease has been discovered. This entity includes three major forms which are capable of stabilization in culture, the spherical, the intermediate, and the definitive C. acnes. During conversion or reversion among the three forms, a variety of forms with mixed characteristics was observed. The spherical form was gram-negative and osmotically fragile, but it possessed a vestigial cell wall and mesosomes which excluded it from the L forms. In lieu of the L-form designation, the term "transitional" was adopted for all forms leading up to the definitive C. acnes. Culture of the spherical form was successful only on Mycoplasma-type media. The intermediate form was gram-negative, had mixed spherical and filamentous morphology, and bore a striking resemblance to Streptobacillus moniliformis. Like the spherical form, it was nutritionally exacting. The definitive form of C. acnes was preceded by gram-positive transitional forms of C. acnes morphology. It lacked, however, the carbohydrases and proteinases of C. acnes and susceptibility to C. acnes bacteriophages. Reversion was often blocked at this stage. A series of blood cultures from a patient with endocarditis was studied. Postmortem stain sections of the heart-valve lesion included intracellular masses of gram-negative spherical organisms. Indirect fluorescent antibody staining of these masses was strongly positive with antiserum to the spherical form and weakly positive with antiserum to the intermediate form.

  17. Transitional Forms of Corynebacterium acnes in Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zierdt, C. H.; Wertlake, P. T.

    1969-01-01

    A clear-cut triad of sequential Corynebacterium acnes transitional forms from disease has been discovered. This entity includes three major forms which are capable of stabilization in culture, the spherical, the intermediate, and the definitive C. acnes. During conversion or reversion among the three forms, a variety of forms with mixed characteristics was observed. The spherical form was gram-negative and osmotically fragile, but it possessed a vestigial cell wall and mesosomes which excluded it from the L forms. In lieu of the L-form designation, the term “transitional” was adopted for all forms leading up to the definitive C. acnes. Culture of the spherical form was successful only on Mycoplasma-type media. The intermediate form was gram-negative, had mixed spherical and filamentous morphology, and bore a striking resemblance to Streptobacillus moniliformis. Like the spherical form, it was nutritionally exacting. The definitive form of C. acnes was preceded by gram-positive transitional forms of C. acnes morphology. It lacked, however, the carbohydrases and proteinases of C. acnes and susceptibility to C. acnes bacteriophages. Reversion was often blocked at this stage. A series of blood cultures from a patient with endocarditis was studied. Postmortem stain sections of the heart-valve lesion included intracellular masses of gram-negative spherical organisms. Indirect fluorescent antibody staining of these masses was strongly positive with antiserum to the spherical form and weakly positive with antiserum to the intermediate form. Images PMID:4886295

  18. Pollution and acne: is there a link?

    PubMed Central

    Krutmann, Jean; Moyal, Dominique; Liu, Wei; Kandahari, Sanjiv; Lee, Geun-Soo; Nopadon, Noppakun; Xiang, Leihong Flora; Seité, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the critical role that inflammation may play in the development and progression of acne has become increasingly recognized. The prevalence of acne is similar between Asian and Caucasian women, but Asian women have a higher prevalence of inflammatory acne. They also report their symptoms exacerbate during periods of high air pollution. The objective of this study was to review the current evidence that links air pollution to worsening of acne symptoms. Firstly, a group of five Asian and three European scientists with expertise in Dermatology reviewed the current literature and described current acne treatment practices in their countries. During this activity, they identified the need for further epidemiological and clinical research. Secondly, additional studies ensued which provided evidence that acne symptoms might exacerbate in regions of high ambient air pollution. Based on these findings, the authors suggest that people with acne should protect the natural barrier function of their skin with emollients and ultraviolet (UV)A/UVB protection. PMID:28579815

  19. ACNE VULGARIS TREATMENT : THE CURRENT SCENARIO

    PubMed Central

    Rathi, Sanjay K

    2011-01-01

    Acne Vulgaris is one of the most common skin disorders which dermatologists have to treat. It mainly affect adolescent, though may present at any age. In recent years, due to better understanding of the pathogenesis of acne, new therapeutic modalities and various permutation and combinations have been designed. In topical agents; benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, retinoids, etc are the mainstay of treatment; can be given in combinations. While systemic therapy includes oral antibiotics, hormonal therapy, and isotretinoin, depending upon the need of patients it has to be selected. Physical treatment in the form of lesion removal, photo-therapy is also helpful in few of them. Since various old and new topical and systemic agents are available to treat acne, it sometime confuse treating dermatologist. To overcome this, panel of physicians and researchers worked together as a global alliance and task force to improve outcomes in acne treatment. They have tried to give consensus recommendation for the treatment of acne. Successful management of acne needs careful selection of anti-acne agents according to clinical presentation and individual patient needs. PMID:21572783

  20. Update and future of systemic acne treatment.

    PubMed

    Zouboulis, Christos C; Piquero-Martin, Jaime

    2003-01-01

    Systemic treatment is required in patients with moderate-to-severe acne, especially when acne scars start to occur. Antibiotics with anti-inflammatory properties, such as tetracyclines (oxytetracycline, tetracycline chloride, doxycycline, minocycline and limecycline) and macrolide antibiotics (erythromycin and azithromycin) are the agents of choice for papulopustular acne, even though the emerging resistant bacterial strains are minimizing their effect, especially regarding erythromycin. Systemic antibiotics should be administered during a period of 8-12 weeks. In severe papulopustular and in nodulocystic/conglobate acne, oral isotretinoin is the treatment of choice. Hormonal treatment represents an alternative regimen in female acne, whereas it is mandatory in resistant, severe pubertal or post-adolescent forms of the disease. Compounds with anti-androgenic properties include estrogens combined with progestins, such as ethinyl estradiol with cyproterone acetate, chlormadinone acetate, desogestrel, drospirenone, levonogestrel, norethindrone acetate, norgestimate, and other anti-androgens directly blocking the androgen receptor (flutamide) or inhibiting androgen activity at various levels, corticosteroids, spironolactone, cimetidine, and ketoconazole. After 3 months of treatment control of seborrhea and acne can be obtained. Low-dose corticosteroids (prednisone, prednisolone, or dexamethasone) are indicated in patients with adrenal hyperandrogenism or acne fulminans. New developments and future trends represent low-dose long-term isotretinoin regimens, new isotretinoin formulations (micronized isotretinoin), isotretinoin metabolites, combination treatments to reduce toxicity, insulin-sensitizing agents, 5alpha-reductase type 1 inhibitors, antisense oligonucleotide molecules, and, especially, new anti-inflammatory agents, such as lipoxygenase inhibitors.

  1. Acne fulminans with synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis-osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome treated with infliximab.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Marvi; Kolodney, Michael S

    2005-05-01

    Acne fulminans is a syndrome of sudden onset hemorrhagic and ulcerative acne involving the back, chest, and face combined with systemic symptoms. It can be the dermatologic manifestation of the synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis-osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome. Current therapy for acne fulminans consists of wound care, topical and systemic corticosteroids, isotretinoin, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Infliximab, a recently developed monoclonal antibody against tumor necrosis factor-alfa, has shown efficacy in the treatment of psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis both of which share clinical similarities to the SAPHO syndrome. We report the case of a patient with the SAPHO syndrome and acne fulminans who was treated with infliximab. Ten months after initiating therapy with infliximab, the area of the patient's ulcerative lesions was reduced by 70%. Infliximab might be considered as a treatment option for patients with acne fulminans unresponsive to conventional therapies.

  2. Acne image analysis: lesion localization and classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abas, Fazly Salleh; Kaffenberger, Benjamin; Bikowski, Joseph; Gurcan, Metin N.

    2016-03-01

    Acne is a common skin condition present predominantly in the adolescent population, but may continue into adulthood. Scarring occurs commonly as a sequel to severe inflammatory acne. The presence of acne and resultant scars are more than cosmetic, with a significant potential to alter quality of life and even job prospects. The psychosocial effects of acne and scars can be disturbing and may be a risk factor for serious psychological concerns. Treatment efficacy is generally determined based on an invalidated gestalt by the physician and patient. However, the validated assessment of acne can be challenging and time consuming. Acne can be classified into several morphologies including closed comedones (whiteheads), open comedones (blackheads), papules, pustules, cysts (nodules) and scars. For a validated assessment, the different morphologies need to be counted independently, a method that is far too time consuming considering the limited time available for a consultation. However, it is practical to record and analyze images since dermatologists can validate the severity of acne within seconds after uploading an image. This paper covers the processes of region-ofinterest determination using entropy-based filtering and thresholding as well acne lesion feature extraction. Feature extraction methods using discrete wavelet frames and gray-level co-occurence matrix were presented and their effectiveness in separating the six major acne lesion classes were discussed. Several classifiers were used to test the extracted features. Correct classification accuracy as high as 85.5% was achieved using the binary classification tree with fourteen principle components used as descriptors. Further studies are underway to further improve the algorithm performance and validate it on a larger database.

  3. Epidemiology of post-adolescence acne and adolescence acne in Singapore: a 10-year retrospective and comparative study.

    PubMed

    Han, X D; Oon, H H; Goh, C L

    2016-10-01

    Acne vulgaris commonly affects adolescents. But recent reports suggest a rising prevalence of post-adolescence acne. While there are few reports on post-adolescence acne, there are even fewer reports comparing adolescence acne and post-adolescence. Epidemiological data of adolescence (<25 years) and post-adolescence (≥25 years) acne patients diagnosed between 2004 and 2013 in a tertiary dermatology referral centre was analysed. From the pool of patients seen in 2010, 80 adolescence and 84 post-adolescence acne patients' epidemiological characteristics and treatment responses were analysed. During the 10-year study period, there was an increase in the number and proportion of acne cases. In 2004, 4447 (5.77%) of all new diagnoses made were of acne vulgaris. The proportion rose to 5723 (8.13%) in 2013. There were consistently more female than male acne patients. The proportion of post-adolescent cases remained constant at about 30% of all acne patients seen. Mean age of acne vulgaris patients decreased from 23.1 years in 2004 to 22.6 years in 2013. In the subgroup analysis, there were more males than females with adolescence acne (61.3% vs. 38.8%, P < 0.01) and more females with post-adolescence acne (69.0% vs. 31.0%, P < 0.01). Thirty-four (40.5%) post-adolescence acne patients had acne from adolescence persisting into adulthood. Comedonal acne was more prevalent in the adolescence acne patients (58.8% vs. 40.5%, P = 0.019), whereas cystic acne was more prevalent in post-adolescence patients (18.1% vs. 7.5%, P = 0.044). Systemic retinoids were more often used for treatment in the adolescence acne patients than post-adolescence acne patients (23.8% vs. 10.7%, P = 0.027). Acne predominantly affects adolescents but post-adolescence acne is not uncommon. For post-adolescence acne, females predominate over males. Inflammatory and cystic acne tends to be more predominant in post-adolescence acne patients, whereas comedonal acne is more often seen in adolescence acne

  4. Hormonal treatment of acne vulgaris: an update

    PubMed Central

    Elsaie, Mohamed L

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition associated with multiple factors. Although mostly presenting alone, it can likewise present with features of hyperandrogenism and hormonal discrepancies. Of note, hormonal therapies are indicated in severe, resistant-to-treatment cases and in those with monthly flare-ups and when standard therapeutic options are inappropriate. This article serves as an update to hormonal pathogenesis of acne, discusses the basics of endocrinal evaluation for patients with suspected hormonal acne, and provides an overview of the current hormonal treatment options in women. PMID:27621661

  5. Neglected aspects in the management of acne.

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, B

    1985-01-01

    Acne is the result of excessive grease on the skin. The successful treatment of acne depends essentially on the degreasing of the skin to an extent which produces peeling, which is the observable index of adequate treatment. The use of antibiotics is supplementary to degreasing and peeling. Degreasing is best achieved by thrice daily washing with Neutrogena acne cleansing soap, followed by the application of a benzoyl peroxide preparation of a suitable strength. If necessary, further degreasing can be achieved by cleansing with isopropyl alcohol after washing with the Neutrogena soap. PMID:2941579

  6. Laser and light-based treatments of acne and acne scarring.

    PubMed

    Alexiades, Macrene

    The treatment of acne and acne scarring with lasers and light-based and energy-based technologies has become an integral component of our therapeutic arsenal. Lasers including infrared wavelengths and pulsed dye lasers; light devices including blue light, red light, and broadband light; and photodynamic therapy with aminolevulinic acid and methylaminolevulinic acid have been shown to be effective in the treatment of acne vulgaris. The optimal outcomes are achieved with photodynamic therapy combined with medical therapy. Acne scarring has been best treated with lasers, including nonablative infrared lasers, fractional nonablative and ablative laser resurfacing, and most recently needle-based radiofrequency devices.

  7. Diet in acne: further evidence for the role of nutrient signalling in acne pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2012-05-01

    Recent evidence underlines the role of Western diet in the pathogenesis of acne. Acne is absent in populations consuming Palaeolithic diets with low glycaemic load and no consumption of milk or dairy products. Two randomized controlled studies, one of which is presented in this issue of Acta Dermato-Venereologica, have provided evidence for the beneficial therapeutic effects of low glycaemic load diets in acne. Epidemiological evidence confirms that milk consumption has an acne-promoting or acne-aggravating effect. Recent progress in understanding the nutrient-sensitive kinase mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) allows a new view of nutrient signalling in acne by both high glycaemic load and increased insulin-, IGF-1-, and leucine signalling due to milk protein consumption. Acne should be regarded as an mTORC1-driven disease of civilization, like obesity, type 2 diabetes and cancer induced by Western diet. Early dietary counselling of teenage acne patients is thus a great opportunity for dermatology, which will not only help to improve acne but may reduce the long-term adverse effects of Western diet on more serious mTORC1-driven diseases of civilization.

  8. Knowledge, Beliefs, and Psychosocial Effect of Acne Vulgaris among Saudi Acne Patients

    PubMed Central

    Darwish, Magdy A.; Al-Rubaya, Ahmed A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study was conducted to assess the knowledge, beliefs, and psychosocial effect of acne vulgaris among acne patients attending referral dermatology clinic in Al-Khobar city. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted on all Saudi acne patients (males and females) attending referral dermatology clinic in Al-Khobar Governmental Hospital. The data were collected by using a structured self-administered questionnaire. Results. Like other studies conducted before, we found that 58.33% of our sample have poor knowledge about factors that affect acne vulgaris with a significant correlation with both age and gender (P = 0.012 and P = 0.031, resp.). There was significant association of reporting affected social activities with age and educational level (P = 0.023 and P = 0.013, resp.). Variation between both genders regarding reporting feeling stressed due to acne was significant (P = 0.001). The majority of our sample sought medical advice after one year. The most commonly used treatment for acne vulgaris before seeking medical help was peeling products. The majority of our patients thought that acne needs no treatment by physicians. Doctors' treatment is considered guaranteed and safe by the vast majority of our patients. Conclusion. This study showed that knowledge about acne is still insufficient among acne patients. PMID:24490080

  9. Use of lipidomics to investigate sebum dysfunction in juvenile acne[S

    PubMed Central

    Sinagra, Jo-Linda; Capitanio, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Acne is a multifactorial skin disorder frequently observed during adolescence with different grades of severity. Multiple factors centering on sebum secretion are implicated in acne pathogenesis. Despite the recognized role of sebum, its compositional complexity and limited analytical approaches have hampered investigation of alterations specifically associated with acne. To examine the profiles of lipid distribution in acne sebum, 61 adolescents (29 males and 32 females) were enrolled in this study. Seventeen subjects presented no apparent clinical signs of acne. The 44 affected individuals were clinically classified as mild (13 individuals), moderate (19 individuals), and severe (12 individuals) acne. Sebum was sampled from the forehead with SebutapeTM adhesive patches. Profiles of neutral lipids were acquired with rapid-resolution reversed-phase/HPLC-TOF/MS in positive ion mode. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses led to the identification of lipid species with significantly different levels between healthy and acne sebum. The majority of differentiating lipid species were diacylglycerols (DGs), followed by fatty acyls, sterols, and prenols. Overall, the data indicated an association between the clinical grading of acne and sebaceous lipid fingerprints and highlighted DGs as more abundant in sebum from adolescents affected with acne. PMID:27127078

  10. Papular Acne Scars of the Nose and Chin: An Under-recognised Variant of Acne Scarring

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Faisal R; Kirk, Michael; Madan, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Scarring following acne vulgaris is common and can be of profound psychosocial consequence. Aims and Objectives: We have clinically noted a variant of acne scarring, overlooked by previous categorisation schemes, which we have denominated as papular acne scars of the nose and chin. We sought to characterise these novel entities further. Materials and Methods: Initially, we identified 14 patients with papular acne scars of the nose and chin in a cosmetic dermatology clinic, of whom two were female and rest were male. We then prospectively evaluated 100 consecutive patients attending our tertiary referral acne isotretinoin clinic and 49 patients attending a general dermatology clinic. Results: Amongst 149 patients, from a general dermatology and tertiary acne clinic, soft papular scars were noted in four patients, distributed on the nose and chin. Three of the four patients were male, three patients had additional acne scars and the median age was 23.5. Conclusions: We have identified 18 patients with papular acne scars of the nose and chin and propose that this new category should be added to acne scarring classification schemes. Future work should be directed at corroborating the epidemiology of such lesions and describing effective treatment modalities. PMID:28163455

  11. Making the case for early treatment of acne.

    PubMed

    Zaenglein, Andrea L

    2010-01-01

    Early acne can be defined as the occurrence of acne at its onset, primarily in preteens, or as acne at its earliest severity (ie, mild to moderate). Although the majority of patients with acne are treated by dermatologists, most, particularly mild to moderate cases, could be successfully managed by primary care physicians. Therefore, it is important for physicians to understand the benefits of treating all types of acne, not just the most severe. Awareness of the emotional impact of acne, particularly in adolescence, as well as recognition of possible scarring are important considerations. To achieve optimal results, physicians should be familiar with classification and severity grading of acne. Also, in-depth knowledge of available acne medications will streamline and optimize treatment regimens. Recognizing, treating, and monitoring the progress of early acne may lead to quicker, better clinical outcomes and improved quality of life.

  12. Natural Acne Treatment: What's Most Effective?

    MedlinePlus

    ... helpful in reducing acne inflammation and breakouts: Tea tree oil. Gels containing 5 percent tea tree oil may be as effective as are lotions containing 5 percent benzoyl peroxide, although tea tree oil might work more slowly. Possible side effects ...

  13. [Acne vulgaris. The role of hormones].

    PubMed

    Zouboulis, C C

    2010-02-01

    Peripherally active androgens control cellular functions by binding to androgen receptors. Follicular keratinocytes and sebocytes are target cells for androgens, which, directly or indirectly, stimulate keratinocyte proliferation and the volume of sebaceous glands as well as the sebum secretion rate. Acne often begins with the adrenarche, namely with the up- regulation of adrenal synthesis of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, a hormone that is upstream to testosterone. The majority of acne patients exhibit normal levels of circulating androgens, while sebaceous glands from acne regions exhibit a stronger sensitivity to androgens than the sebaceous glands from other parts of the body. Hormone-like active lipids, hormones in diet and neuropeptides may also play a role in the development of acne lesions. The target of antiandrogen treatment of the skin is mainly the sebaceous gland and the primary effect is sebostasis.

  14. [The pathogenesis of acne vulgaris (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Gloor, M; Habedank, W D

    1976-05-14

    Stickl's method of oral treatment of acne vulgaris with antigens has been carried out on 26 test persons. During the treatment the number of comedones increased significantly and the number of papules decreased significantly. Biochemically, a significant increase of the free fatty acids and a significant decrease of the triglycerides could be demonstrated in the skin surface lipids, the total amount remaining unchanged. The following important conclusions for the pathogenesis of acne may be drawn: 1. The living conditions for Corynebacterium acnes on the surface of the skin or in the ducts of sebaceous glands respectively are influenced by the immunological system of the host. 2. The free fatty acids have a comedogenic effect in vivo. 3. The free fatty acids are not responsible for the development of inflammatory acne efflorescences.

  15. What's new in acne and rosacea?

    PubMed

    Keri, Jonette

    2016-06-01

    Acne and rosacea are common conditions seen every day by dermatologists. This review will discuss the most recent therapeutic options for patients with these conditions. Specifically, for acne, there will be a discussion of the use of isotretinoin at higher cumulative doses as well as a new formulation of isotretinoin, isotretinoin-lidose. Adult women with acne represent a growing population of patients who present for treatment of acne; the use of hormonal therapies as well as topical dapsone gel will be reviewed for these patients. For rosacea patients, the new topical agents - brimonidine gel and ivermectin cream - will be reviewed, with a discussion on possible rebound phenomenon from brimonidine. Finally, future treatments in the pipeline will be discussed.

  16. New antibiotic therapies for acne and rosacea.

    PubMed

    Mays, Rana Majd; Gordon, Rachel A; Wilson, Janice M; Silapunt, Sirunya

    2012-01-01

    Acne and rosacea compromise a substantial portion of the dermatology clinical practice. Over the past century, many treatment modalities have been introduced with antibiotics playing a major role. Today, both oral a