Science.gov

Sample records for por sensores laboratorial

  1. Laboratory test of a pyramid wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Simone; Feeney, Orla; Riccardi, Armando

    2000-07-01

    A laboratory characterization of a new wavefront sensor for adaptive optics applications called a pyramid sensor is presented. This characterization is aimed at establishing the sensor accuracy and sensitivity. To investigate the operation of the sensor in low and high order correction adaptive optics systems, its behavior for different amplitudes of incoming wavefront aberrations is studied. The sensor characterization is carried out using a two arm optical set-up that allows the comparison of the PS measurements with those of a commercial Fizeau interferometer. This is done when a certain aberration is introduced into the optical path of both instruments via a deformable mirror. The experimental data are analyzed and discussed using both geometrical and diffractive optics theory. The closed loop sensor accuracy is investigated experimentally and demonstrates closed loop wavefront correction down to 30 nm root mean square for starting aberrations whose root mean square ranges from 170 nm to 300 nm. Modal noise propagation coefficients are determined and are compared with Shack-Hartmann sensor coefficients.

  2. Sensor Enhanced Armor Non Destructive Evaluation Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-11

    multiple layers) Phased Array Ultrasonic Scanning in H20 Handheld Prototype Testing Device Embedded sensors Unclassified X-ray and mm wave image of...NDT/ NDE Laboratory Unclassified Vehicle Display Views – Healthy Armor Unclassified NDE of Transparent Materials Phased Array Ultrasound Image...Provide ultrasonic , x-ray and mmwave imaging for armor damage analysis. • Explore various NDE options to support all armor recipies Objective: • Provide

  3. Unlocking the Laboratory: Autonomous Wireless Sensor Authentication in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggard, Meriel; McGoldrick, Ciaran

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate a practical laboratory task where final year undergraduate students design, implement and validate an inferred security wireless sensor access system. Design/methodology/approach: The quality of the learning and technical environment was evaluated from a number of perspectives using a mixed methods…

  4. Micromachined sensor and actuator research at the Microelectronics Development Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.; Barron, C.C.; Fleming, J.G.; Montague, S.; Rodriguez, J.L.; Smith, B.K.; Sniegowski, J.J.

    1994-12-31

    An overview of the major sensor and actuator projects using the micromachining capabilities of the Microelectronics Development Laboratory at Sandia National Laboratories is presented. Development efforts are underway for a variety of micromechanical devices and control electronics for those devices. Surface micromachining is the predominant technology under development. Pressure sensors based on silicon nitride diaphragms have been developed. Hot polysilicon filaments for calorimetric gas sensing have been developed. Accelerometers based upon high-aspect ratio surface micromachining are under development. Actuation mechanisms employing either electrostatic or steam power are being combined with a three-level active (plus an additional passive level) polysilicon surface micromachining process to couple these actuators to external devices. Results of efforts toward integration of micromechanics with the driving electronics for actuators or the amplification/signal processing electronics for sensors is also described. This effort includes a tungsten metallization process to allow the CMOS electronics to withstand high-temperature micromechanical processing.

  5. Multi-Sensor Testing for Automated Rendezvous and Docking Sensor Testing at the Flight Robotics Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewster, L.; Johnston, A.; Howard, R.; Mitchell, J.; Cryan, S.

    2007-01-01

    The Exploration Systems Architecture defines missions that require rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking (RPOD) of two spacecraft both in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and in Low Lunar Orbit (LLO). Uncrewed spacecraft must perform automated and/or autonomous rendezvous, proximity operations and docking operations (commonly known as AR&D). The crewed missions may also perform rendezvous and docking operations and may require different levels of automation and/or autonomy, and must provide the crew with relative navigation information for manual piloting. The capabilities of the RPOD sensors are critical to the success of the Exploration Program. NASA has the responsibility to determine whether the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) contractor proposed relative navigation sensor suite will meet the requirements. The relatively low technology readiness level of AR&D relative navigation sensors has been carried as one of the CEV Project's top risks. The AR&D Sensor Technology Project seeks to reduce the risk by the testing and analysis of selected relative navigation sensor technologies through hardware-in-the-loop testing and simulation. These activities will provide the CEV Project information to assess the relative navigation sensors maturity as well as demonstrate test methods and capabilities. The first year of this project focused on a series of"pathfinder" testing tasks to develop the test plans, test facility requirements, trajectories, math model architecture, simulation platform, and processes that will be used to evaluate the Contractor-proposed sensors. Four candidate sensors were used in the first phase of the testing. The second phase of testing used four sensors simultaneously: two Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Video Guidance Sensors (AVGS), a laser-based video sensor that uses retroreflectors attached to the target vehicle, and two commercial laser range finders. The multi-sensor testing was conducted at MSFC's Flight Robotics Laboratory (FRL

  6. Testbeam and laboratory characterization of 3D CMS pixel sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubna, Mayur; Krzwyda, Alex; Alagoz, Enver; Bortoletto, Daniela

    2013-04-01

    Future generations of colliders, like High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) at CERN will deliver much higher radiation doses to the particle detectors, specifically those closer to the beam line. Inner tracker detectors will be the most affected part, causing increased occupancy and radiation damage to Silicon detectors. Planar Silicon sensors have not shown enough radiation hardness for the innermost layers where the radiation doses can reach values around 10^16 neq/cm^2. As a possible replacement of planar pixel sensors, 3D Silicon technology is under consideration as they show higher radiation hardness, and efficiencies comparable to planar sensors. Several 3D CMS pixel designs were fabricated at FBK, CNM, and SINTEF. They were bump bonded to the CMS pixel readout chip and characterized in the laboratory using radioactive source (Sr90), and at Fermilab MTEST beam test facility. Sensors were also irradiated with 800 MeV protons at Los Alamos National Lab to study post-irradiation behavior. In addition, several diodes and test structures from FBK were studied before and after irradiation. We report the laboratory and testbeam measurement results for the irradiated 3D devices.

  7. Laboratory measurements of grain-bedrock interactions using inertial sensors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maniatis, Georgios; Hoey, Trevor; Hodge, Rebecca; Valyrakis, Manousos; Drysdale, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Sediment transport in steep mountain streams is characterized by the movement of coarse particles (diameter c.100 mm) over beds that are not fully sediment-covered. Under such conditions, individual grain dynamics become important for the prediction of sediment movement and subsequently for understanding grain-bedrock interaction. Technological advances in micro-mechanical-electrical systems now provide opportunities to measure individual grain dynamics and impact forces from inside the sediments (grain inertial frame of reference) instead of trying to infer them indirectly from water flow dynamics. We previously presented a new prototype sensor specifically developed for monitoring sediment transport [Maniatis et al. EGU 2014], and have shown how the definition of the physics of the grain using the inertial frame and subsequent derived measurements which have the potential to enhance the prediction of sediment entrainment [Maniatis et al. 2015]. Here we present the latest version of this sensor and we focus on beginning of the cessation of grain motion: the initial interaction with the bed after the translation phase. The sensor is housed in a spherical case, diameter 80mm, and is constructed using solid aluminum (density = 2.7 kg.m-3) after detailed 3D-CAD modelling. A complete Inertial Measurement Unit (a combination of micro- accelerometer, gyroscope and compass) was placed at the center of the mass of the assembly, with measurement ranges of 400g for acceleration, and 1200 rads/sec for angular velocity. In a 0.9m wide laboratory flume, bed slope = 0.02, the entrainment threshold of the sensor was measured, and the water flow was then set to this value. The sensor was then rolled freely from a static cylindrical bar positioned exactly on the surface of the flowing water. As the sensor enters the flow we record a very short period of transport (1-1.5 sec) followed by the impact on the channel bed. The measured Total Kinetic Energy (Joules) includes the

  8. Air Force Research Laboratory Sensors Directorate Leadership Legacy, 1960-2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    AFRL -RY-WP-TM-2011-1017 AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY SENSORS DIRECTORATE LEADERSHIP LEGACY, 1960-2011 Compiled by Raymond C. Rang...Structures Divi- sion, Space Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory , Kirtland AFB, N.M. 7. March 1998 - July 1999, Chief, Integration and... Research Laboratory ( AFRL ), and Deputy Director of the Sensors Direc- torate, Air Force Research

  9. Laboratory characterization of the ARGOS laser wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaglia, Marco; Busoni, Lorenzo; Carbonaro, Luca; Quiròs Pacheco, Fernando; Xompero, Marco; Esposito, Simone; Orban de Xivry, Gilles; Rabien, Sebastian

    2012-07-01

    In this paper we present the integration status of the ARGOS wavefront sensor and the results of the closed loop tests performed in laboratory. ARGOS is the laser guide star adaptive optics system of the Large Binocular Telescope. It is designed to implement a Ground Layer Adaptive Optics correction for LUCI, an infrared imaging camera and multi-object spectrograph, using 3 pulsed Rayleigh beacons focused at 12km altitude. The WFS is configured as a Shack-Hartman sensor having a 15 x 15 subaspertures over the telescope pupil. In the WFS each LGS is independently stabilized for on-sky jitter and range-gated to reduce spot elongation. The 3 LGS are arranged on a single lenslet array and detector by the use of off-axis optics in the final part of the WFS. The units of WFS are in the integration and testing phase at Arcetri Observatory premises. We describe here the test aimed to demonstrate the functionality of the WFS in an adaptive optics closed loop performed using the internal light sources of the WFS and a MEMS deformable mirror.

  10. Laboratory Connections: Gas Monitoring Transducers: Relative Humidity Sensors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Michael H.; Hull, Stacey E.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the operation of five relative humidity sensors: psychrometer, hair hygrometer, resistance hygrometer, capacitance hygrometer, and resistance-capacitance hygrometer. Outlines the theory behind the electronic sensors and gives computer interfacing information. Lists sensor responses for calibration. (MVL)

  11. Laboratory and Field Tests of Ultrasonic Sensors for Precision Sprayers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reliable function of sensors under rough field conditions is required for the development of variable-rate sprayers to deliver pest control agents to tree liners in ornamental nurseries. Two ultrasonic sensors were examined to identify how their durability and detection stability would be influenced...

  12. Spectral properties of agricultural crops and soils measured from space, aerial, field, and laboratory sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator); Vanderbilt, V. C.; Robinson, B. F.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    1981-01-01

    Investigations of the multispectral reflectance characteristics of crops and soils as measured from laboratory, field, aerial, and satellite sensor systems are reviewed. The relationships of important biological and physical characteristics to the spectral properties of crops and soils are addressed.

  13. Sensor Technology Performance Characteristics- Field and Laboratory Observations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Observed Intangible Performance Characteristics RH and temperature impacts may be significant for some devices Internal battery lifetimes range from 4 to 24 hoursSensor packaging can interfere with accurate measurements (reactivity)Wireless communication protocols are not foolpr...

  14. Testbeam and laboratory characterization of CMS 3D pixel sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubna, M.; Bortoletto, D.; Alagoz, E.; Krzywda, A.; Arndt, K.; Shipsey, I.; Bolla, G.; Hinton, N.; Kok, A.; Hansen, T.-E.; Summanwar, A.; Brom, J. M.; Boscardin, M.; Chramowicz, J.; Cumalat, J.; Dalla Betta, G. F.; Dinardo, M.; Godshalk, A.; Jones, M.; Krohn, M. D.; Kumar, A.; Lei, C. M.; Mendicino, R.; Moroni, L.; Perera, L.; Povoli, M.; Prosser, A.; Rivera, R.; Solano, A.; Obertino, M. M.; Kwan, S.; Uplegger, L.; Vigani, L.; Wagner, S.

    2014-07-01

    The pixel detector is the innermost tracking device in CMS, reconstructing interaction vertices and charged particle trajectories. The sensors located in the innermost layers of the pixel detector must be upgraded for the ten-fold increase in luminosity expected at the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). As a possible replacement for planar sensors, 3D silicon technology is under consideration due to its good performance after high radiation fluence. In this paper, we report on pre- and post- irradiation measurements of CMS 3D pixel sensors with different electrode configurations from different vendors. The effects of irradiation on electrical properties, charge collection efficiency, and position resolution are discussed. Measurements of various test structures for monitoring the fabrication process and studying the bulk and surface properties of silicon sensors, such as MOS capacitors, planar and gate-controlled diodes are also presented.

  15. Isotherm Sensor Calibration Program for Mars Science Laboratory Heat Shield Flight Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santos, Jose A.; Oishi, Tomo; Martinez, Ed R.

    2011-01-01

    Seven instrumented sensor plugs were installed on the Mars Science Laboratory heat shield in December 2008 as part of the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI) project. These sensor plugs contain four in-depth thermocouples and one Hollow aErothermal Ablation and Temperature (HEAT) sensor. The HEAT sensor follows the time progression of a 700 C isotherm through the thickness of a thermal protection system (TPS) material. The data can be used to infer char depth and, when analyzed in conjunction with the thermocouple data, the thermal gradient through the TPS material can also be determined. However, the uncertainty on the isotherm value is not well defined. To address this uncertainty, a team at NASA Ames Research Center is carrying out a HEAT sensor calibration test program. The scope of this test program is described, and initial results from experiments conducted in the laboratory to study the isotherm temperature of the HEAT sensor are presented. Data from the laboratory tests indicate an isotherm temperature of 720 C 60 C. An overview of near term arc jet testing is also given, including preliminary data from 30.48cm 30.48cm PICA panels instrumented with two MEDLI sensor plugs and tested in the NASA Ames Panel Test Facility. Forward work includes analysis of the arc jet test data, including an evaluation of the isotherm value based on the instant in time when it reaches a thermocouple depth.

  16. Laboratory and field tests of the Sutron RLR-0003-1 water level sensor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, Janice M.; Bryars, R. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Three Sutron RLR-0003-1 water level sensors were tested in laboratory conditions to evaluate the accuracy of the sensor over the manufacturer’s specified operating temperature and distance-to-water ranges. The sensor was also tested for compliance to SDI-12 communication protocol and in field conditions at a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgaging site. Laboratory results were compared to the manufacturer’s accuracy specification for water level and to the USGS Office of Surface Water (OSW) policy requirement that water level sensors have a measurement uncertainty of no more than 0.01 foot or 0.20 percent of the indicated reading. Except for one sensor, the differences for the temperature testing were within 0.05 foot and the average measurements for the sensors were within the manufacturer’s accuracy specification. Two of the three sensors were within the manufacturer’s specified accuracy and met the USGS accuracy requirements for the laboratory distance to water testing. Three units passed a basic SDI-12 communication compliance test. Water level measurements made by the Sutron RLR-0003-1 during field testing agreed well with those made by the bubbler system and a Design Analysis Associates (DAA) H3613 radar, and they met the USGS accuracy requirements when compared to the wire-weight gage readings.

  17. Standard Hydrogen Test Protocols for the NREL Sensor Testing Laboratory (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-12-01

    This brochure summarizes the test protocols used in the NREL Hydrogen Sensor Test Laboratory for the quantitative assessment of critical analytical performance specifications for hydrogen sensors. Researchers at the NREL Hydrogen Safety Sensor Test Laboratory developed a variety of test protocols to quantitatively assess critical analytical performance specifications for hydrogen sensors. Many are similar to, but typically more rigorous than, the test procedures mandated by ISO Standard 26142 (Hydrogen Detector for Stationary Applications). Specific protocols were developed for linear range, short-term stability, and the impact of fluctuations in temperature (T), pressure (P), relative humidity (RH), and chemical environment. Specialized tests (e.g., oxygen requirement) may also be performed. Hydrogen safety sensors selected for evaluation are subjected to a thorough regimen of test protocols, as described. Sensor testing is performed at NREL on custom-built sensor test fixtures. Environmental parameters such as T, P, RH, and gas composition are rigorously controlled and monitored. The NREL evaluations are performed on commercial hydrogen detectors, on emerging sensing technologies, and for end users to validate sensor performance for specific application needs. Test results and data are shared with the manufacturer or client via summary reports, teleconference phone calls, and, when appropriate, site visits to manufacturer facilities. Client representatives may also monitor NREL's operation while their technologies are being tested. Manufacturers may use test data to illustrate the analytical capability of their technologies and, more importantly, to guide future developments. NREL uses the data to assess technology gaps and deployment considerations. Per NREL Sensor Testing Laboratory policy, test results are treated as proprietary and are not shared with other manufacturers or other entities without permission. The data may be used by NREL in open publications

  18. Absolute gravity acceleration measurement in atomic sensor laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, M.; Greco, F.; Pistorio, A.; Poli, N.; Prevedelli, M.; Saccorotti, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Tino, G. M.

    2012-03-01

    This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the Florence University (Italy). In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the measurement of forces with high spatial resolution are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are ( 980 492 160.6 ± 4.0) μGal and ( 980 492 048.3 ± 3.0) μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS) and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.

  19. Micromachined sensor and actuator research at Sandia`s Microelectronics Development Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.

    1996-11-01

    An overview of the surface micromachining program at the Microelectronics Development Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories is presented. Development efforts are underway for a variety of surface micromachined sensors and actuators for both defense and commercial applications. A technology that embeds micromechanical devices below the surface of the wafer prior to microelectronics fabrication has been developed for integrating microelectronics with surface-micromachined micromechanical devices. The application of chemical-mechanical polishing to increase the manufacturability of micromechanical devices is also presented.

  20. Solvent-Free Synthesis and Fluorescence of a Thiol-Reactive Sensor for Undergraduate Organic Laboratories.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Anastasia L; May, Mary D; Visser, Bryan J; Kislukhin, Alexander A; Vosburg, David A

    2013-12-10

    A green organic laboratory experiment was developed in which students synthesize a sensor for thiols using a microscale, solventless Diels-Alder reaction at room temperature or 37 °C. The molecular probe is easily purified by column chromatography in a Pasteur pipet and characterized by thin-layer chromatography and NMR spectroscopy. The thiol-reactive sensor becomes intensely fluorescent upon exposure to thiols from N-acetylcysteine, bovine serum albumin, or human hair (pretreated with a reducing agent to reveal cysteine thiols in α-keratin). This fluorescence is observable even with micrograms of probe.

  1. Solvent-Free Synthesis and Fluorescence of a Thiol-Reactive Sensor for Undergraduate Organic Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Anastasia L.; May, Mary D.; Visser, Bryan J.; Kislukhin, Alexander A.; Vosburg, David A.

    2013-01-01

    A green organic laboratory experiment was developed in which students synthesize a sensor for thiols using a microscale, solventless Diels–Alder reaction at room temperature or 37 °C. The molecular probe is easily purified by column chromatography in a Pasteur pipet and characterized by thin-layer chromatography and NMR spectroscopy. The thiol-reactive sensor becomes intensely fluorescent upon exposure to thiols from N-acetylcysteine, bovine serum albumin, or human hair (pretreated with a reducing agent to reveal cysteine thiols in α-keratin). This fluorescence is observable even with micrograms of probe. PMID:24415795

  2. Spectral properties of agricultural crops and soils measured from space, aerial, field and laboratory sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E.; Vanderbilt, V. C.; Robinson, B. F.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    1980-01-01

    It is pointed out that in order to develop the full potential of multispectral measurements acquired from satellite or aircraft sensors to monitor, map, and inventory agricultural resources, increased knowledge and understanding of the spectral properties of crops and soils are needed. The present state of knowledge is reviewed, emphasizing current investigations of the multispectral reflectance characteristics of crops and soils as measured from laboratory, field, aerial, and satellite sensor systems. The relationships of important biological and physical characteristics to their spectral properties of crops and soils are discussed. Future research needs are also indicated.

  3. The world's microbiology laboratories can be a global microbial sensor network.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Thomas F; Stelling, John

    2014-04-01

    The microbes that infect us spread in global and local epidemics, and the resistance genes that block their treatment spread within and between them. All we can know about where they are to track and contain them comes from the only places that can see them, the world's microbiology laboratories, but most report each patient's microbe only to that patient's caregiver. Sensors, ranging from instruments to birdwatchers, are now being linked in electronic networks to monitor and interpret algorithmically in real-time ocean currents, atmospheric carbon, supply-chain inventory, bird migration, etc. To so link the world's microbiology laboratories as exquisite sensors in a truly lifesaving real-time network their data must be accessed and fully subtyped. Microbiology laboratories put individual reports into inaccessible paper or mutually incompatible electronic reporting systems, but those from more than 2,200 laboratories in more than 108 countries worldwide are now accessed and translated into compatible WHONET files. These increasingly web-based files could initiate a global microbial sensor network. Unused microbiology laboratory byproduct data, now from drug susceptibility and biochemical testing but increasingly from new technologies (genotyping, MALDI-TOF, etc.), can be reused to subtype microbes of each genus/species into sub-groupings that are discriminated and traced with greater sensitivity. Ongoing statistical delineation of subtypes from global sensor network data will improve detection of movement into any patient of a microbe or resistance gene from another patient, medical center or country. Growing data on clinical manifestations and global distributions of subtypes can automate comments for patient's reports, select microbes to genotype and alert responders.

  4. Laboratory validation of MEMS-based sensors for post-earthquake damage assessment image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzi, Matteo; Zonta, Daniele; Santana, Juan; Colin, Mikael; Saillen, Nicolas; Torfs, Tom; Amditis, Angelos; Bimpas, Matthaios; Stratakos, Yorgos; Ulieru, Dumitru; Bairaktaris, Dimitirs; Frondistou-Yannas, Stamatia; Kalidromitis, Vasilis

    2011-04-01

    The evaluation of seismic damage is today almost exclusively based on visual inspection, as building owners are generally reluctant to install permanent sensing systems, due to their high installation, management and maintenance costs. To overcome this limitation, the EU-funded MEMSCON project aims to produce small size sensing nodes for measurement of strain and acceleration, integrating Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) based sensors and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags in a single package that will be attached to reinforced concrete buildings. To reduce the impact of installation and management, data will be transmitted to a remote base station using a wireless interface. During the project, sensor prototypes were produced by assembling pre-existing components and by developing ex-novo miniature devices with ultra-low power consumption and sensing performance beyond that offered by sensors available on the market. The paper outlines the device operating principles, production scheme and working at both unit and network levels. It also reports on validation campaigns conducted in the laboratory to assess system performance. Accelerometer sensors were tested on a reduced scale metal frame mounted on a shaking table, back to back with reference devices, while strain sensors were embedded in both reduced and full-scale reinforced concrete specimens undergoing increasing deformation cycles up to extensive damage and collapse. The paper assesses the economical sustainability and performance of the sensors developed for the project and discusses their applicability to long-term seismic monitoring.

  5. Synthesis and Application of Ratiometric and "Turn-On" Fluorescent pH Sensors: An Advanced Organic Undergraduate Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutt, Johnathon T.; Aron, Zachary D.

    2014-01-01

    An upper-division organic chemistry laboratory experiment exploring fluorescent sensing over two laboratory periods and part of a third is described. Two functionally distinct pH-responsive sensors are prepared through a dehydrative three-component coupling reaction. During the abbreviated (<1 h) first laboratory period, students set up…

  6. Ambient and laboratory evaluation of a low-cost particulate matter sensor.

    PubMed

    Kelly, K E; Whitaker, J; Petty, A; Widmer, C; Dybwad, A; Sleeth, D; Martin, R; Butterfield, A

    2017-02-01

    Low-cost, light-scattering-based particulate matter (PM) sensors are becoming more widely available and are being increasingly deployed in ambient and indoor environments because of their low cost and ability to provide high spatial and temporal resolution PM information. Researchers have begun to evaluate some of these sensors under laboratory and environmental conditions. In this study, a low-cost, particulate matter sensor (Plantower PMS 1003/3003) used by a community air-quality network is evaluated in a controlled wind-tunnel environment and in the ambient environment during several winter-time, cold-pool events that are associated with high ambient levels of PM. In the wind-tunnel, the PMS sensor performance is compared to two research-grade, light-scattering instruments, and in the ambient tests, the sensor performance is compared to two federal equivalent (one tapered element oscillating microbalance and one beta attenuation monitor) and gravimetric federal reference methods (FEMs/FRMs) as well as one research-grade instrument (GRIMM). The PMS sensor response correlates well with research-grade instruments in the wind-tunnel tests, and its response is linear over the concentration range tested (200-850 μg/m(3)). In the ambient tests, this PM sensor correlates better with gravimetric methods than previous studies with correlation coefficients of 0.88. However additional measurements under a variety of ambient conditions are needed. Although the PMS sensor correlated as well as the research-grade instrument to the FRM/FEMs in ambient conditions, its response varies with particle properties to a much greater degree than the research-grade instrument. In addition, the PMS sensors overestimate ambient PM concentrations and begin to exhibit a non-linear response when PM2.5 concentrations exceed 40 μg/m(3). These results have important implications for communicating results from low-cost sensor networks, and they highlight the importance of using an

  7. Laboratory Evaluation of the Shinyei PPD42NS Low-Cost Particulate Matter Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Elena; Novosselov, Igor; Seto, Edmund; Yost, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Finely resolved PM2.5 exposure measurements at the level of individual participants or over a targeted geographic area can be challenging due to the cost, size and weight of the monitoring equipment. We propose re-purposing the low-cost, portable and lightweight Shinyei PPD42NS particle counter as a particle counting device. Previous field deployment of this sensor suggests that it captures trends in ambient PM2.5 concentrations, but important characteristics of the sensor response have yet to be determined. Laboratory testing was undertaken in order to characterize performance. Methods The Shinyei sensors, in-line with a TSI Aerosol Particle Sizer (APS) model 3321, tracked particle decay within an aerosol exposure chamber. Test atmospheres were composed of monodisperse polystyrene spheres with diameters of 0.75, 1, 2 3 and 6 um as well as a polydisperse atmosphere of ASHRAE test dust #1. Results Two-minute block averages of the sensor response provide a measurement with low random error, within sensor, for particles in the 0.75–6μm range with a limit of detection of 1 μg/m3. The response slope of the sensors is idiomatic, and each sensor requires a unique response curve. A linear model captures the sensor response for concentrations below 50 μg/m3 and for concentrations above 50 μg/m3 a non-linear function captures the response and saturates at 800 μg/m3. The Limit of Detection (LOD) is 1 μg/m3. The response time is on the order of minutes, making it appropriate for tracking short-term changes in concentration. Conclusions When paired with prior evaluation, these sensors are appropriate for use as ambient particle counters for low and medium concentrations of respirable particles (< 100 ug/m3). Multiple sensors deployed over a spatial grid would provide valuable spatio-temporal variability in PM2.5 and could be used to validate exposure models. When paired with GPS tracking, these devices have the potential to provide time and space resolved

  8. Micromachined sensor and actuator research at Sandia`s Microelectronics Development Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.

    1995-08-01

    An overview of the major sensor and actuator projects using the micromachining capabilities of the Microelectronics Development Laboratory at Sandia National Laboratories are presented. Development efforts are underway for a variety of micromechanical devices and control electronics for those devices. Our efforts are concentrated in the area of surface micromachining. Pressure sensors based on silicon nitride diaphragms and hot polysilicon filaments for calorimetric gas sensing have been developed. Accelerometers based upon high-aspect ratio surface micromachining are being developed. Actuation mechanisms employing either electrostatic or steam power are being combined with a three-level active (plus an additional passive level) polysilicon surface micromachining process to couple these actuators to external devices. The results of efforts toward integration of micromechanics with the driving electronics for actuators or the amplification/signal processing electronics for sensors is also described. This effort includes a CMOS-first, tungsten metallization process to allow the CMOS electronics to withstand high-temperature micromechanical processing. Also, a unique micromechanics-first approach is being pursued in which the micromechanical devices are embedded below the surface of the starting material for the CMOS.

  9. Practical Application of Electrochemical Nitrate Sensor under Laboratory and Forest Nursery Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Caron, William-Olivier; Lamhamedi, Mohammed S.; Viens, Jeff; Messaddeq, Younès

    2016-01-01

    The reduction of nitrate leaching to ensure greater protection of groundwater quality has become a global issue. The development of new technologies for more accurate dosing of nitrates helps optimize fertilization programs. This paper presents the practical application of a newly developed electrochemical sensor designed for in situ quantification of nitrate. To our knowledge, this paper is the first to report the use of electrochemical impedance to determine nitrate concentrations in growing media under forest nursery conditions. Using impedance measurements, the sensor has been tested in laboratory and compared to colorimetric measurements of the nitrate. The developed sensor has been used in water-saturated growing medium and showed good correlation to certified methods, even in samples obtained over a multi-ion fertilisation season. A linear and significant relationship was observed between the resistance and the concentration of nitrates (R2 = 0.972), for a range of concentrations of nitrates. We also observed stability of the sensor after exposure of one month to the real environmental conditions of the forest nursery. PMID:27483266

  10. Airborne sensor systems under development at the NASA/NSTL/Earth Resources Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, James E.; Meeks, Gerald R.

    1988-01-01

    The operational characteristics of the Airborne Bathymetric System (ABS) MSS and the Airborne Multispectral Pushbroom Scanner (AMPS), which are currently being developed at NASA's Earth Resources Laboratory (ERL), are described. The ABS MSS system scans through a swath width of + or - 40 deg from nadir and the sensor incorporates onboard calibration references for the visible and short-wavelength IR channels. The AMPS uses five separate f/1.8 refractive telecentric lens systems, each incorporating nine optical elements, and a replaceable fixed bandwidth filter.

  11. Concepts, laboratory, and telescope test results of the plenoptic camera as a wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Ramos, L. F.; Montilla, I.; Fernández-Valdivia, J. J.; Trujillo-Sevilla, J. L.; Rodríguez-Ramos, J. M.

    2012-07-01

    The plenoptic camera has been proposed as an alternative wavefront sensor adequate for extended objects within the context of the design of the European Solar Telescope (EST), but it can also be used with point sources. Originated in the field of the Electronic Photography, the plenoptic camera directly samples the Light Field function, which is the four - dimensional representation of all the light entering a camera. Image formation can then be seen as the result of the photography operator applied to this function, and many other features of the light field can be exploited to extract information of the scene, like depths computation to extract 3D imaging or, as it will be specifically addressed in this paper, wavefront sensing. The underlying concept of the plenoptic camera can be adapted to the case of a telescope by using a lenslet array of the same f-number placed at the focal plane, thus obtaining at the detector a set of pupil images corresponding to every sampled point of view. This approach will generate a generalization of Shack-Hartmann, Curvature and Pyramid wavefront sensors in the sense that all those could be considered particular cases of the plenoptic wavefront sensor, because the information needed as the starting point for those sensors can be derived from the plenoptic image. Laboratory results obtained with extended objects, phase plates and commercial interferometers, and even telescope observations using stars and the Moon as an extended object are presented in the paper, clearly showing the capability of the plenoptic camera to behave as a wavefront sensor.

  12. Studying collisions in the general physics laboratory with quadrature light emitting diode sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeYoung, P. A.; Mulder, B.

    2002-12-01

    We have developed the means to measure position rapidly and precisely as a function of time in the general physics laboratory. These measurements are of sufficient quality that velocities and accelerations can be calculated from the position data using numerical derivatives. The precision of the measurements is such that any disagreement between theoretical expectations and experimental measurements is less than a few percent. Measurements of the system under study can be made as rapidly as every 200 μs, which is faster than the typical time scales over which the system changes. Measuring rapidly also allows one to investigate additional phenomena not previously accessible and to see features of the physics previously unobserved. The measurement system is based on commercially available sensors, computer hardware, and computer software (LABVIEW™). Many general physics laboratories based on this system have been developed but only an investigation of Newton's second law will be described here.

  13. Laboratory in a box: wearable sensors and its advantages for gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Bijan; Khan, Tahir; Wrobel, James

    2011-01-01

    Until recently, many gait studies explored potential gait alteration due to various disorders in the gait lab and using camera based systems and force platforms. However, these strategies may not replicate normal outdoor walking. Using this equipment, it is more difficult to measure the variability of walking which is important for maintaining balance and responding to different walking challenges. Additionally, subjects may mask their problem or exaggerate it when they are walking in a short walking distance offered by laboratory based-technology. This study overviews some of the key advantages of wearable technology compared to laboratory-based instrument. Additionally, it explored gait patterns over ample distance of walking compared to walking distance restricted to a gait laboratory environment. Walking patterns of ten healthy young subjects were examined using a wearable sensor technology in a random order over a distance of 7 m, 14 m, and 20 m. Results suggest that participants walk significantly faster by increasing walking distance on average by 15% and 3% when walking distance was increased respectively from 7 m to 14 and from 14 m to 20 m (p<0.05). Interestingly despite a high test-retest reliability for averaged gait parameters (ICC>0.89), the test-retest reliability for gait variability was only acceptable during 20 m walking distance (ICC<0.3 for 7 m and 14 m v. ICC=0.65 for 20 m). Taken together, our findings indicate that for valid and reliable assessment of gait parameters, gait should be performed over ample walking distances. Body worn sensor technology facilitates assessing gait outside of a gait laboratory, over ample walking distance, different footwear condition, different walking surface, and in environment where mimics better true environment where the subject is active in.

  14. Assessment of laboratory and daily energy expenditure estimates from consumer multi-sensor physical activity monitors

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Enhad A.; Western, Max J.; Nightingale, Thomas E.; Peacock, Oliver J.; Thompson, Dylan

    2017-01-01

    Wearable physical activity monitors are growing in popularity and provide the opportunity for large numbers of the public to self-monitor physical activity behaviours. The latest generation of these devices feature multiple sensors, ostensibly similar or even superior to advanced research instruments. However, little is known about the accuracy of their energy expenditure estimates. Here, we assessed their performance against criterion measurements in both controlled laboratory conditions (simulated activities of daily living and structured exercise) and over a 24 hour period in free-living conditions. Thirty men (n = 15) and women (n = 15) wore three multi-sensor consumer monitors (Microsoft Band, Apple Watch and Fitbit Charge HR), an accelerometry-only device as a comparison (Jawbone UP24) and validated research-grade multi-sensor devices (BodyMedia Core and individually calibrated Actiheart™). During discrete laboratory activities when compared against indirect calorimetry, the Apple Watch performed similarly to criterion measures. The Fitbit Charge HR was less consistent at measurement of discrete activities, but produced similar free-living estimates to the Apple Watch. Both these devices underestimated free-living energy expenditure (-394 kcal/d and -405 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01). The multi-sensor Microsoft Band and accelerometry-only Jawbone UP24 devices underestimated most laboratory activities and substantially underestimated free-living expenditure (-1128 kcal/d and -998 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01). None of the consumer devices were deemed equivalent to the reference method for daily energy expenditure. For all devices, there was a tendency for negative bias with greater daily energy expenditure. No consumer monitors performed as well as the research-grade devices although in some (but not all) cases, estimates were close to criterion measurements. Thus, whilst industry-led innovation has improved the accuracy of consumer monitors, these devices

  15. Assessment of laboratory and daily energy expenditure estimates from consumer multi-sensor physical activity monitors.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Enhad A; Western, Max J; Nightingale, Thomas E; Peacock, Oliver J; Thompson, Dylan

    2017-01-01

    Wearable physical activity monitors are growing in popularity and provide the opportunity for large numbers of the public to self-monitor physical activity behaviours. The latest generation of these devices feature multiple sensors, ostensibly similar or even superior to advanced research instruments. However, little is known about the accuracy of their energy expenditure estimates. Here, we assessed their performance against criterion measurements in both controlled laboratory conditions (simulated activities of daily living and structured exercise) and over a 24 hour period in free-living conditions. Thirty men (n = 15) and women (n = 15) wore three multi-sensor consumer monitors (Microsoft Band, Apple Watch and Fitbit Charge HR), an accelerometry-only device as a comparison (Jawbone UP24) and validated research-grade multi-sensor devices (BodyMedia Core and individually calibrated Actiheart™). During discrete laboratory activities when compared against indirect calorimetry, the Apple Watch performed similarly to criterion measures. The Fitbit Charge HR was less consistent at measurement of discrete activities, but produced similar free-living estimates to the Apple Watch. Both these devices underestimated free-living energy expenditure (-394 kcal/d and -405 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01). The multi-sensor Microsoft Band and accelerometry-only Jawbone UP24 devices underestimated most laboratory activities and substantially underestimated free-living expenditure (-1128 kcal/d and -998 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01). None of the consumer devices were deemed equivalent to the reference method for daily energy expenditure. For all devices, there was a tendency for negative bias with greater daily energy expenditure. No consumer monitors performed as well as the research-grade devices although in some (but not all) cases, estimates were close to criterion measurements. Thus, whilst industry-led innovation has improved the accuracy of consumer monitors, these devices

  16. The laboratory investigation of the innovative sensor for torsional effects in engineering structures' monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzych, A.; Kowalski, J. K.; Sakowicz, B.; Krajewski, Z.; Jaroszewicz, L. R.

    2016-09-01

    The main objective of this work is to characterize the performance of an interferometric fibre sensor which has been designed in order to register rotational phenomena, both in seismological observatories and engineering constructions. It is based on a well-known Sagnac effect which enables to detect one-axis rotational motions in a direct way and without any reference system. The presented optical fibre sensor - FOSREM allows to measure a component of rotation in a wide range of signal amplitude form 10-8 rad/s to 10 rad/s, as well as frequency from 0 Hz to the upper frequency from 2.56 Hz to 328.12 Hz. The laboratory investigation of our system indicated that it keeps theoretical sensitivity equal to 2·10-8 rad/s/Hz1/2 and accuracy no less than 3·1-8 to 1.6·10-6 rad/s in the above mentioned frequency band. Moreover, system size that equals 0.36×0.36×0.16 m and opportunity to remotely control the system via Internet by special server make FOSREM a mobile and autonomous device.

  17. Laboratory and marine study of photoluminescent sensors of oxygen dissolved in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasov, V. L.; Konovalov, B. V.; Mosharov, V. E.; Radchenko, V. N.; Khanaev, S. A.; Khlebnikov, D. V.

    2010-02-01

    The laboratory and marine study of photoluminescent sensors developed at the TsAGI has been conducted to create a highly sensitivity gauge of the oxygen dissolved in seawater. The advantages of the photoluminescent gauge over the electrochemical ones are the following: zero sensitivity to electromagnetic fields, the pH of the water, and the hydrogen sulphide and ions of heavy metals in the water; zero oxygen consumption; and no need for the water to be pumped through the device. A breadboard model of the photoluminescent gauge with LED excitation of the luminescence has been built. The laboratory tests of the model demonstrated the accuracy of the gauge to be as high as 0.05 ml/1 in air at a response time of 0.3 s for 63% relaxation. Comparative field tests of the breadboard model and the SBE 43 electrochemical oxygen gauge (Sea-Bird Electronics Corp.) have shown good agreement of the estimates of the oxygen content in the water and clarified the prospects of model’s performance improvement.

  18. Gas sensor technology at Sandia National Laboratories: Catalytic gate, Surface Acoustic Wave and Fiber Optic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.C.; Moreno, D.J.; Jenkins, M.W.; Rodriguez, J.L.

    1993-10-01

    Sandia`s gas sensor program encompasses three separate electronic platforms: Acoustic Wave Devices, Fiber Optic Sensors and sensors based on silicon microelectronic devices. A review of most of these activities was presented recently in a article in Science under the title ``Chemical Microsensors.`` The focus of the program has been on understanding and developing the chemical sensor coatings that are necessary for using these electronic platforms as effective chemical sensors.

  19. Laboratory Gas Dynamic Measurements of the Comet Pressure Sensor COPS on the Rosetta Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzou, Chia-Yu; Altwegg, Kathrin; Gasc, Sébastien; Rubin, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Rosetta is part of the cornerstone missions executed by the European Space Agency (ESA). It is the first space mission to orbit and also land on a comet. By the end of July 2014 Rosetta will be able to carry out a close study of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis (ROSINA) is one of the core payloads on board of the Rosetta spacecraft [Balsiger et al, 2007]. ROSINA's main objective is to determine the major atmospheric and ionospheric composition in the coma and to investigate the gas dynamics around the comet. ROSINA consists of two mass spectrometers and a pressure sensor. The Comet Pressure Sensor (COPS) is not only a pressure sensor but also plays the role of a safety instrument for Rosetta by providing high-density alerts to the other payload instruments. It includes two gauges: the "nude gauge" measures total neutral density in the coma and the "ram gauge" measures the dynamic pressure of the cometary gas flux to obtain the bulk velocity of the neutral gas. The combination of these two gauges makes COPS capable to derive the gas dynamics in the coma. We recently performed laboratory gas dynamic measurements with the identical flight-spare instrument of COPS. Using the Calibration System for The Mass Spectrometer Instrument ROSINA (CASYMIR) we produce neutral gas beams to model cometary gas jets with velocities from thermal to 2 km/s. For COPS calibration we measure gas beams with different incident angles to derive the velocity and the temperature of the gas using different mixtures expected at the comet. We demonstrate that COPS will be ready for the prime mission and it will be fascinating to compare COPS measurements with numerous observation results and computer models starting in summer 2014 to gain new insights into the gas dynamics around a comet. Reference: Balsiger, H. et al.: ROSINA-Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis, Space Science Reviews, Vol. 128, 745-801, 2007.

  20. Construction and laboratory test of a fibre optic sensor for rotational events recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzych, Anna; Krajewski, Zbigniew; Kowalski, Jerzy K.; Jaroszewicz, Leszek R.

    2016-05-01

    We present a novel and technically advanced system - Fibre-Optic System for Rotational Events & Phenomena Monitoring (FOSREM). It has been designed in order to register and monitor rotational events in seismological observatories, engineering constructions, mines and even on glaciers and in their vicinity. Its wide application field is a result of unique parameters and electronic solutions which give an opportunity to measure a component of rotation in the wide range of a signal amplitude from 10-8 rad/s to 10 rad/s, as well as a frequency from 0 Hz to the upper frequency between 2.56 Hz to 328.12 Hz. Moreover, the numerical analysis and simulations indicate that it keeps the theoretical sensitivity equal to 2·10-8 rad/s/Hz1/2. FOSREM is equipped with an advanced communication module which gives the possibility for a remote detection parameter control, as well as the recorded data receiving. It enables the sensor to assemble in any chosen place. In the paper we present laboratory investigations and tests which confirm the wide application field and practical aspects of FOSREM.

  1. Alternative catalyst and exhaust gas sensor work at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Iton, L.E.; Maroni, V.A.; Dieckman, S.L.; Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.

    1994-12-31

    Research programs at Argonne National Laboratory in the areas of automobile emissions monitoring and control are described. The mandate to improve automobile efficiency while reducing Pollution requires the development of new catalysts for exhaust emissions control that are capable of functioning efficiently under lean-burn engine operating conditions. It is also desirable that the use of expensive noble metal catalysts be avoided. NO{sub x} emissions will not be efficiently controlled by the current three-way, supported noble metal catalysts under lean-burn conditions. New catalysts are being sought that could effect the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x} by exhaust hydrocarbons in the presence of oxygen. Molecular sieve zeolites of the ZSM-5 and ferrierite types, ion-exchanged with copper ions, are the best of the catalysts known to effect this chemistry, but the mechanism of the SCR is still not understood. In this project the authors will first undertake the investigation of the SCR of NO using model reactions to test postulated mechanistic pathways. Initial experiments have been devised to investigate the possible participation of metal alkyl complexes, metal oxime complexes, N-alkyl-N-nitroso-alkylaminato-metal complexes, and metal nitrile complexes in the zeolites. ANL will also develop microsensors, based on surface acoustic wave (SAW) chemical sensing techniques, and a micro mass-spectrometer (MS) for tailpipe or engine-out emission monitoring. The sensor configurations and sensing techniques of the proposed SAW and micro-MS are described.

  2. An Architecture for Real-Time Interpretation and Visualization of Structural Sensor Data in a Laboratory Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, William; Vazquez, Sixto

    2000-01-01

    A visualization system is being developed out of the need to monitor, interpret, and make decisions based on the information from several thousand sensors during experimental testing to facilitate development and validation of structural health monitoring algorithms. As an added benefit the system will enable complete real-time sensor assessment of complex test specimens. Complex structural specimens are routinely tested that have hundreds or thousands of sensors. During a test, it is impossible for a single researcher to effectively monitor all the sensors and subsequently interesting phenomena occur that are not recognized until post-test analysis. The ability to detect and alert the researcher to these unexpected phenomena as the test progresses will significantly enhance the understanding and utilization of complex test articles. Utilization is increased by the ability to halt a test when the health monitoring algorithm response is not satisfactory or when an unexpected phenomenon occurs, enabling focused investigation potentially through the installation of additional sensors. Often if the test continues, structural changes make it impossible to reproduce the conditions that exhibited the phenomena. The prohibitive time and costs associated with fabrication, sensoring, and subsequent testing of additional test articles generally makes it impossible to further investigate the phenomena. A scalable architecture is described to address the complex computational demands of structural health monitoring algorithm development and laboratory experimental test monitoring. The researcher monitors the test using a photographic quality 3D graphical model with actual sensor locations identified. In addition, researchers can quickly activate plots displaying time or load versus selected sensor response along with the expected values and predefined limits. The architecture has several key features. First, distributed dissimilar computers may be seamlessly integrated into the

  3. Implementing the Mars Science Laboratory Terminal Descent Sensor Field Test Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, James F.; Bodie, James H.; Brown, Joseph D.; Chen, Allen; Chen, Curtis W.; Essmiller, John C.; Fisher, Charles D.; Goldberg, Hannah R.; Lee, Steven W.; Shaffer, Scott J.

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will deliver a 900 kg rover to the surface of Mars in August 2012. MSL will utilize a new pulse-Doppler landing radar, the Terminal Descent Sensor (TDS). The TDS employs six narrow-beam antennas to provide unprecedented slant range and velocity performance at Mars to enable soft touchdown of the MSL rover using a unique sky crane Entry, De-scent, and Landing (EDL) technique. Prior to use on MSL, the TDS was put through a rigorous verification and validation (V&V) process. A key element of this V&V was operating the TDS over a series of field tests, using flight-like profiles expected during the descent and landing of MSL over Mars-like terrain on Earth. Limits of TDS performance were characterized with additional testing meant to stress operational modes outside of the expected EDL flight profiles. The flight envelope over which the TDS must operate on Mars encompasses such a large range of altitudes and velocities that a variety of venues were neces-sary to cover the test space. These venues included an F/A-18 high performance aircraft, a Eurocopter AS350 AStar helicopter and 100-meter tall Echo Towers at the China Lake Naval Air Warfare Center. Testing was carried out over a five year period from July 2006 to June 2011. TDS performance was shown, in gen-eral, to be excellent over all venues. This paper describes the planning, design, and implementation of the field test campaign plus results and lessons learned.

  4. SALT segmented primary mirror: laboratory test results for FOGALE inductive edge sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzies, John; Gajjar, Hitesh; Buous, Sébastien; Buckley, David; Gillingham, Peter

    2010-07-01

    At the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), in collaboration with FOGALE Nanotech, we have been testing the recently-developed new generation inductive edge sensors. The Fogale inductive sensor is one technology being evaluated as a possible replacement for the now defunct capacitance-based edge sensing system. We present the results of exhaustive environmental testing of two variants of the inductive sensor. In addition to the environmental testing including RH and temperature cycles, the sensor was tested for sensitivity to dust and metals. We also consider long-term sensor stability, as well as that of the electronics and of the glue used to bond the sensor to its supporting structure. A prototype design for an adjustable mount is presented which will allow for in-plane gap and shear variations present in the primary mirror configuration without adversely disturbing the figure of the individual mirror segments or the measurement accuracy.

  5. Determination of dissolved oxygen in the cryosphere: a comprehensive laboratory and field evaluation of fiber optic sensors.

    PubMed

    Bagshaw, E A; Wadham, J L; Mowlem, M; Tranter, M; Eveness, J; Fountain, A G; Telling, J

    2011-01-15

    Recent advances in the Cryospheric Sciences have shown that icy environments are host to consortia of microbial communities, whose function and dynamics are often controlled by the concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) in solution. To date, only limited spot determinations of DO have been possible in these environments. They reveal the potential for rates of change that exceed realistic manual sampling rates, highlighting the need to explore methods for the continuous measurement of DO concentrations. We report the first comprehensive field and laboratory performance tests of fiber-optic sensors (PreSens, Regensburg, Germany) for measuring DO in icy ecosystems. A series of laboratory tests performed at low and standard temperatures (-5 to 20 °C) demonstrates high precision (0.3% at 50 μmol/kg and 1.3% at 300 μmol/kg), rapid response times (<20 s), and minimal drift (<0.4%). Survival of freeze thaw was problematic, unless the sensor film was mechanically fixed to the fiber and protected by a stainless steel sheath. Results of two field deployments of sensors to the Swiss Alps and Antarctica largely demonstrate a performance consistent with laboratory tests and superior to traditional methods.

  6. Multielement microelectrode array sensors and compact instrumentation development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R.S.; Balazs, G.B.; Ciarlo, D.R.; Hargrove, D.L.

    1994-08-01

    The increasing emphasis on environmental issues, waste reduction, and improved efficiency for industrial processes has spurred the development of new chemical sensors for field, or in-plant use. Specifically, sensors are needed to gauge the effectiveness of remediation efforts for sites which have become contaminated, to effect waste minimization, and to detect the presence of toxic, hazardous, or otherwise regulated chemicals in waste effluents, drinking water, and other environmental systems. In this regard, electrochemical sensors are particularly useful for the measurement of inorganics in aqueous systems. Electrochemical sensors have the attractive features of high sensitivity, low cost, small size, versatility of use, and are capable of stand-alone operation. This paper reviews our work on the development of microelectrode array sensors and user-friendly, compact instrumentation which we have developed for environmental and process control applications.

  7. Automated Rendezvous and Docking Sensor Testing at the Flight Robotics Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Williamson, Marlin L.; Johnston, Albert S.; Brewster, Linda L.; Mitchell, Jennifer D.; Cryan, Scott P.; Strack, David; Key, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    The Exploration Systems Architecture defines missions that require rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking (RPOD) of two spacecraft both in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and in Low Lunar Orbit (LLO). Uncrewed spacecraft must perform automated and/or autonomous rendezvous, proximity operations and docking operations (commonly known as Automated Rendezvous and Docking, (AR&D).) The crewed versions of the spacecraft may also perform AR&D, possibly with a different level of automation and/or autonomy, and must also provide the crew with relative navigation information for manual piloting. The capabilities of the RPOD sensors are critical to the success of the Exploration Program. NASA has the responsibility to determine whether the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) contractor-proposed relative navigation sensor suite will meet the CEV requirements. The relatively low technology readiness of relative navigation sensors for AR&D has been carried as one of the CEV Projects top risks. The AR&D Sensor Technology Project seeks to reduce this risk by increasing technology maturation of selected relative navigation sensor technologies through testing and simulation, and to allow the CEV Project to assess the relative navigation sensors.

  8. Automated Rendezvous and Docking Sensor Testing at the Flight Robotics Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J.; Johnston, A.; Howard, R.; Williamson, M.; Brewster, L.; Strack, D.; Cryan, S.

    2007-01-01

    The Exploration Systems Architecture defines missions that require rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking (RPOD) of two spacecraft both in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and in Low Lunar Orbit (LLO). Uncrewed spacecraft must perform automated and/or autonomous rendezvous, proximity operations and docking operations (commonly known as Automated Rendezvous and Docking, AR&D). The crewed versions may also perform AR&D, possibly with a different level of automation and/or autonomy, and must also provide the crew with relative navigation information for manual piloting. The capabilities of the RPOD sensors are critical to the success of the Exploration Program. NASA has the responsibility to determine whether the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) contractor-proposed relative navigation sensor suite will meet the CEV requirements. The relatively low technology readiness of relative navigation sensors for AR&D has been carried as one of the CEV Projects top risks. The AR&D Sensor Technology Project seeks to reduce this risk by increasing technology maturation of selected relative navigation sensor technologies through testing and simulation, and to allow the CEV Project to assess the relative navigation sensors.

  9. Laboratory Validation of Two Wearable Sensor Systems for Measuring Head Impact Severity in Football Players.

    PubMed

    Siegmund, Gunter P; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Marshall, Stephen W; DeMarco, Alyssa L; Bonin, Stephanie J

    2016-04-01

    Wearable sensors can measure head impact frequency and magnitude in football players. Our goal was to quantify the impact detection rate and validity of the direction and peak kinematics of two wearable sensors: a helmet system (HITS) and a mouthguard system (X2). Using a linear impactor, modified Hybrid-III headform and one helmet model, we conducted 16 impacts for each system at 12 helmet sites and 5 speeds (3.6-11.2 m/s) (N = 896 tests). Peak linear and angular accelerations (PLA, PAA), head injury criteria (HIC) and impact directions from each device were compared to reference sensors in the headform. Both sensors detected ~96% of impacts. Median angular errors for impact directions were 34° for HITS and 16° for X2. PLA, PAA and HIC were simultaneously valid at 2 sites for HITS (side, oblique) and one site for X2 (side). At least one kinematic parameter was valid at 2 and 7 other sites for HITS and X2 respectively. Median relative errors for PLA were 7% for HITS and -7% for X2. Although sensor validity may differ for other helmets and headforms, our analyses show that data generated by these two sensors need careful interpretation.

  10. Development of laboratory and process sensors to monitor particle size distribution of industrial slurries (including shape characterization). Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Pendse, H.P.; Goetz, P.J.; Sharma, A.; Han, W; Bliss, T.C.

    1996-10-01

    The overall goal of the Particle Size Distribution (PSD) sensor projects was to develop and commercialize a sensor system capable of particle analysis, in terms of size distributions, using concentrated suspensions at high solids concentrations. The early research was focused on application of ultrasonic spectroscopy of inorganic pigment slurries (e.g. titanium dioxide) commonly encountered on paper industry. During the project prototypes were tested in both academic and industrial laboratories. Work also involved successful field tests of the on-line prototype at a pigment manufacturing facility. Pen Kem continued the work at its cost beyond the initial funded period from March `92 to September `94. The first project (DE- FC05-88CE40684), which began in September 1988, culminated in a commercial laboratory instrument, Pen Kem AcoustoPhor {trademark} 8000, put on the market in June 1993. The follow-on project was aimed at investigation of shape and orientation effects on ultrasonic spectroscopy. A new cooperative agreement was awarded in September 1994 (DE-FC05-94CE40005) to develop shape characterization capabilities deemed critical by the clay industry. This follow-on project achieved following successes: A theoretical model was developed to account for the effects of size-dependent aspect ratios of spheroid particles under different orientations on ultrasound attenuation spectra of concentrated slurries. The theoretical model was confirmed by laboratory tests on kaolin slurries. An algorithm was developed to simulate evolution of particle orientation fields in simple squeezing flows.

  11. Soil Water Content Sensor Response to Organic Matter Content under Laboratory Conditions.

    PubMed

    Fares, Ali; Awal, Ripendra; Bayabil, Haimanote K

    2016-08-05

    Studies show that the performance of soil water content monitoring (SWCM) sensors is affected by soil physical and chemical properties. However, the effect of organic matter on SWCM sensor responses remains less understood. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to (i) assess the effect of organic matter on the accuracy and precision of SWCM sensors using a commercially available soil water content monitoring sensor; and (ii) account for the organic matter effect on the sensor's accuracy. Sand columns with seven rates of oven-dried sawdust (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%, 12% and 18% v/v, used as an organic matter amendment), thoroughly mixed with quartz sand, and a control without sawdust were prepared by packing quartz sand in two-liter glass containers. Sand was purposely chosen because of the absence of any organic matter or salinity, and also because sand has a relatively low cation exchange capacity that will not interfere with the treatment effect of the current work. Sensor readings (raw counts) were monitored at seven water content levels (0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.08, 0.12, 0.18, 0.24, and 0.30 cm³ cm(-3)) by uniformly adding the corresponding volumes of deionized water in addition to the oven-dry one. Sensor readings were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by the organic matter level and water content. Sensor readings were strongly correlated with the organic matter level (R² = 0.92). In addition, the default calibration equation underestimated the water content readings at the lower water content range (<0.05 cm³ cm(-3)), while it overestimated the water content at the higher water content range (>0.05 cm³ cm(-3)). A new polynomial calibration equation that uses raw count and organic matter content as covariates improved the accuracy of the sensor (RMSE = 0.01 cm³ cm(-3)). Overall, findings of this study highlight the need to account for the effect of soil organic matter content to improve the accuracy and precision of the tested sensor under different soils and

  12. Soil Water Content Sensor Response to Organic Matter Content under Laboratory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Fares, Ali; Awal, Ripendra; Bayabil, Haimanote K.

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that the performance of soil water content monitoring (SWCM) sensors is affected by soil physical and chemical properties. However, the effect of organic matter on SWCM sensor responses remains less understood. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to (i) assess the effect of organic matter on the accuracy and precision of SWCM sensors using a commercially available soil water content monitoring sensor; and (ii) account for the organic matter effect on the sensor’s accuracy. Sand columns with seven rates of oven-dried sawdust (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%, 12% and 18% v/v, used as an organic matter amendment), thoroughly mixed with quartz sand, and a control without sawdust were prepared by packing quartz sand in two-liter glass containers. Sand was purposely chosen because of the absence of any organic matter or salinity, and also because sand has a relatively low cation exchange capacity that will not interfere with the treatment effect of the current work. Sensor readings (raw counts) were monitored at seven water content levels (0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.08, 0.12, 0.18, 0.24, and 0.30 cm3 cm−3) by uniformly adding the corresponding volumes of deionized water in addition to the oven-dry one. Sensor readings were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by the organic matter level and water content. Sensor readings were strongly correlated with the organic matter level (R2 = 0.92). In addition, the default calibration equation underestimated the water content readings at the lower water content range (<0.05 cm3 cm−3), while it overestimated the water content at the higher water content range (>0.05 cm3 cm−3). A new polynomial calibration equation that uses raw count and organic matter content as covariates improved the accuracy of the sensor (RMSE = 0.01 cm3 cm−3). Overall, findings of this study highlight the need to account for the effect of soil organic matter content to improve the accuracy and precision of the tested sensor under different soils and

  13. Laboratory and testbeam results for thin and epitaxial planar sensors for HL-LHC

    DOE PAGES

    Bubna, M.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; ...

    2015-08-03

    The High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrade of the CMS pixel detector will require the development of novel pixel sensors which can withstand the increase in instantaneous luminosity to L = 5 × 1034 cm–2s–1 and collect ~ 3000fb–1 of data. The innermost layer of the pixel detector will be exposed to doses of about 1016 neq/ cm2. Hence, new pixel sensors with improved radiation hardness need to be investigated. A variety of silicon materials (Float-zone, Magnetic Czochralski and Epitaxially grown silicon), with thicknesses from 50 μm to 320 μm in p-type and n-type substrates have been fabricated using single-sided processing. The effect ofmore » reducing the sensor active thickness to improve radiation hardness by using various techniques (deep diffusion, wafer thinning, or growing epitaxial silicon on a handle wafer) has been studied. Furthermore, the results for electrical characterization, charge collection efficiency, and position resolution of various n-on-p pixel sensors with different substrates and different pixel geometries (different bias dot gaps and pixel implant sizes) will be presented.« less

  14. Laboratory and testbeam results for thin and epitaxial planar sensors for HL-LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Bubna, M.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; Shipsey, I.; Manfra, M.; Khan, K.; Arndt, K.; Hinton, N.; Godshalk, A.; Kumar, A.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Chramowicz, J.; Lei, C. M.; Prosser, A.; Rivera, R.; Uplegger, L.; Vetere, Maurizio Lo; Robutti, Enrico; Ferro, Fabrizio; Ravera, Fabio; Costa, Marco

    2015-08-03

    The High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrade of the CMS pixel detector will require the development of novel pixel sensors which can withstand the increase in instantaneous luminosity to L = 5 × 1034 cm–2s–1 and collect ~ 3000fb–1 of data. The innermost layer of the pixel detector will be exposed to doses of about 1016 neq/ cm2. Hence, new pixel sensors with improved radiation hardness need to be investigated. A variety of silicon materials (Float-zone, Magnetic Czochralski and Epitaxially grown silicon), with thicknesses from 50 μm to 320 μm in p-type and n-type substrates have been fabricated using single-sided processing. The effect of reducing the sensor active thickness to improve radiation hardness by using various techniques (deep diffusion, wafer thinning, or growing epitaxial silicon on a handle wafer) has been studied. Furthermore, the results for electrical characterization, charge collection efficiency, and position resolution of various n-on-p pixel sensors with different substrates and different pixel geometries (different bias dot gaps and pixel implant sizes) will be presented.

  15. Monitoring stage fright outside the laboratory: an example in a professional musician using wearable sensors.

    PubMed

    Kusserow, Martin; Candia, Victor; Amft, Oliver; Hildebrandt, Horst; Folkers, Gerd; Tröster, Gerhard

    2012-03-01

    We implemented and tested a wearable sensor system to measure patterns of stress responses in a professional musician under public performance conditions. Using this sensor system, we monitored the cellist's heart activity, the motion of multiple body parts, and their gradual changes during three repeated performances of a skill-demanding piece in front of a professional audience. From the cellist and her teachers, we collected stage fright self-reports and performance ratings that were related to our sensor data analysis results. Concomitant to changes in body motion and heart rate, the cellist perceived a reduction in stage fright. Performance quality was objectively improved, as technical playing errors decreased throughout repeated renditions. In particular, from performance 1 to 3, the wearable sensors measured a significant increase in the cellist's bowing motion dynamics of approximately 6% and a decrease in heart rate. Bowing motion showed a marginal correlation to the observed heart rate patterns during playing. The wearable system did not interfere with the cellist's performance, thereby allowing investigation of stress responses during natural public performances.

  16. Laboratory and testbeam results for thin and epitaxial planar sensors for HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubna, M.; Bortoletto, D.; Bolla, G.; Shipsey, I.; Manfra, M. J.; Khan, K.; Arndt, K.; Hinton, N.; Godshalk, A.; Kumar, A.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Chramowicz, J.; Lei, C. M.; Prosser, A.; Rivera, R.; Uplegger, L.; Lo Vetere, M.; Robutti, E.; Ferro, F.; Ravera, F.; Costa, Marco

    2015-08-01

    The High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrade of the CMS pixel detector will require the development of novel pixel sensors which can withstand the increase in instantaneous luminosity to L=5×1034 cm-2s-1 and collect ~ 3000 fb-1 of data. The innermost layer of the pixel detector will be exposed to doses of about 1016 neq/ cm2. Hence, new pixel sensors with improved radiation hardness need to be investigated. A variety of silicon materials (Float-zone, Magnetic Czochralski and Epitaxially grown silicon), with thicknesses from 50 μm to 320 μm in p-type and n-type substrates have been fabricated using single-sided processing. The effect of reducing the sensor active thickness to improve radiation hardness by using various techniques (deep diffusion, wafer thinning, or growing epitaxial silicon on a handle wafer) has been studied. The results for electrical characterization, charge collection efficiency, and position resolution of various n-on-p pixel sensors with different substrates and different pixel geometries (different bias dot gaps and pixel implant sizes) will be presented.

  17. A Gas-Sensor-Based Urea Enzyme Electrode: Its Construction and Use in the Undergraduate Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riechel, Thomas L.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate experiment for the potentiometric determination of urea based on the physical entrapment of urease on the tip of an ammonia gas sensor. An advantage of this technique is the ease with which the ammonia electrode can be converted to a urea electrode. (JN)

  18. Fiber Bragg grating fabrication for the implementation of sensors in the electronics and optoelectronics laboratory at BUAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracamontes Rodríguez, Y. E.; Beltrán Pérez, G.; Castillo Mixcóatl, J.; Muñoz Aguirre, S.

    2011-09-01

    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) are important optical devices since they have been quite successful not only in the field of communications but also in sensor systems and optical fiber lasers. In the sensors area they are generally used as detection elements for different physical parameters such as temperature, strain, flow, etc. In the electronics and optoelectronics laboratory at Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla (LEyO-BUAP), there are already experimental setups of sensors as well as laser systems, where FBGs are fundamental elements for their adequate performance. However, these FBGs are commercial devices and they present limited characteristics in their transmission profiles, bandwidth and reflectivity. On the other hand, in some occasions, the delivery time from the fabricant to the customer is quite long. Therefore, it is important for LEyO to implement a system to fabricate this kind of devices, which would mean LEyO independence in the technological development. In this work, results of FBGs fabrication based on the phase mask technique are presented. Such mask is optimized for UV and it has a period of 1060 nm. A Nd:YAG pulsed laser with a 5 ns pulse length and an energy of 40 mJ was used as the UV source employing the 4th harmonic generation to obtain a 266 nm wavelength. Ge-doped fiber was used to fabricate the devices.

  19. Laboratory and field performance of FOS sensors in static and dynamic strain monitoring in concrete bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benmokrane, B.; Debaiky, A.; El-Ragaby, A.; Roy, R.; El-Gamal, S.; El-Salakawy, E.

    2006-03-01

    There is a growing need for designing and constructing innovative concrete bridges using FRP reinforcing bars as internal reinforcement to avoid the corrosion problems and high costs of maintenance and repair. For efficient use and to increase the lifetime of these bridges, it is important to develop efficient monitoring systems for such innovative structures. Fabry-Perot and Bragg fibre optic sensors (FOS) that can measure the strains and temperature are promising candidates for life-long health monitoring of these structures. This article reports laboratory and field performance of Fabry-Perot and Bragg FOS sensors as well as electrical strain gauges in static and dynamic strain monitoring in concrete bridge decks. The laboratory tests include tensile testing of glass FRP bars and testing of full-scale concrete bridge deck slabs reinforced with glass and carbon FRP bars under static and cyclic concentrated loads. The field tests include static and dynamic testing of two bridges reinforced with steel and glass FRP bars. The obtained strain results showed satisfactory agreement between the different gauges.

  20. Laboratory Calibration of the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.; Stewart, Mike F.; Christian, Hugh J.; Bergstrom, James W.; Hall, John M.; Solakiewicz, Richard J.

    1994-01-01

    We present in detail the laboratory apparatus and techniques that were used to complete a full radiometric calibration of two space-based lightning detectors developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). A discussion of the methods applied to geolocate lightning and to estimate lightning detection efficiency are provided.

  1. Integration and laboratory characterization of the ARGOS laser guide star wavefront sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busoni, Lorenzo; Bonaglia, Marco; Carbonaro, Luca; Mazzoni, Tommaso; Antichi, Jacopo; Esposito, Simone; Orban De Xivry, Gilles; Rabien, Sebastian

    2013-12-01

    The integration status of the ARGOS wavefront sensors is presented. ARGOS is the laser guide star AO program for the LBT. It will implement a Ground Layer AO correction for the instruments LUCI, an infrared imaging and spectrograph camera, using 3 pulsed low-altitudes Rayleigh beacons for each LBT's eye. It profits of the LBT's adaptive secondary mirrors and of FLAO's pyramid unit for NGS sensing. Each LGS is independently stabilized for on-sky jitter and range-gated using custom Pockels cells and then sensed by a 15x15 SH sensor. The 3 pupil images are reimaged on a single lenslet array and a single detector. In the WFS are also installed 3 patrol cameras for the acquisition of the laser beacons, a system for the stabilization of the pupil images on the lenslet array and an internal source for calibration purposes. The two units are now completing the integration phase in Arcetri premises. We describe the characterization of the units and the closed-loop test realized using a deformable MEMS mirror.

  2. Study of soil moisture sensor for landslide early warning system: Experiment in laboratory scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuliza, E.; Habil, H.; Munir, M. M.; Irsyam, M.; Abdullah, M.; Khairurrijal

    2016-08-01

    The high rate of rainfall is the main trigger factor in many cases of landslides. However, each type of soils has unique characteristics and behavior concerning the rainfall infiltration. Therefore, early warning system of landslide will be more accurate by monitoring the changes of ground water condition. In this study, the monitoring of ground water changes was designed by using soil moisture sensor and simple microcontroller for data processing. The performance of soil moisture sensor was calibrated using the gravimetric method. To determine the soil characteristic and behavior with respect to water content that induce landslides, an experiment involving small-scale landslide model was conducted. From these experiments, the electric resistance of the soil increased as soil water content increases. The increase of soil water content led to the rise of the pore pressure and soil weight which could cause soil vulnerability to the movement. In addition, the various soil types were used to determine the responses of soils that induce the slope failure. Experimental results showed that each type of soils has different volumetric water content, soil matrix suction and shear strength of the slope. This condition influenced the slope stability that trigger of landslide.

  3. Cardiorespiratory fitness estimation using wearable sensors: Laboratory and free-living analysis of context-specific submaximal heart rates.

    PubMed

    Altini, Marco; Casale, Pierluigi; Penders, Julien; Ten Velde, Gabrielle; Plasqui, Guy; Amft, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we propose to use pattern recognition methods to determine submaximal heart rate (HR) during specific contexts, such as walking at a certain speed, using wearable sensors in free living, and using context-specific HR to estimate cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). CRF of 51 participants was assessed by a maximal exertion test (V̇o2 max). Participants wore a combined accelerometer and HR monitor during a laboratory-based simulation of activities of daily living and for 2 wk in free living. Anthropometrics, HR while lying down, and walking at predefined speeds in laboratory settings were used to estimate CRF. Explained variance (R(2)) was 0.64 for anthropometrics, and increased up to 0.74 for context-specific HR (0.73-0.78 when including fat-free mass). Next, we developed activity recognition and walking speed estimation algorithms to determine the same contexts (i.e., lying down and walking) in free living. Context-specific HR in free living was highly correlated with laboratory measurements (Pearson's r = 0.71-0.75). R(2) for CRF estimation was 0.65 when anthropometrics were used as predictors, and increased up to 0.77 when including free-living context-specific HR (i.e., HR while walking at 5.5 km/h). R(2) varied between 0.73 and 0.80 when including fat-free mass among the predictors. Root mean-square error was reduced from 354.7 to 281.0 ml/min by the inclusion of context-specific HR parameters (21% error reduction). We conclude that pattern recognition techniques can be used to contextualize HR in free living and estimated CRF with accuracy comparable to what can be obtained with laboratory measurements of HR response to walking.

  4. Air Force Research Laboratory Sensors Directorate Communications Branch History from 1960-2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    was formed as part of the Air Force Avionics Laboratory in 1960 up until the present date. It covers the highlights of the Branch’s activities, but is...GHz) airborne terminals which could operate with a variety of data rates up to 274 Mbps. The ABIT operational scenario consists of the Air-to-Air (A...Paramax developed the ADM hardware and delivered it to WPAFB in 1991 for installation into the flight test aircraft. The 4950th Test Wing installed

  5. Integration of a sensor based multiple robot environment for space applications: The Johnson Space Center Teleoperator Branch Robotics Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, James; Campbell, Perry; Ross, Mike; Price, Charles R.; Barron, Don

    1989-01-01

    An integrated operating environment was designed to incorporate three general purpose robots, sensors, and end effectors, including Force/Torque Sensors, Tactile Array sensors, Tactile force sensors, and Force-sensing grippers. The design and implementation of: (1) the teleoperation of a general purpose PUMA robot; (2) an integrated sensor hardware/software system; (3) the force-sensing gripper control; (4) the host computer system for dual Robotic Research arms; and (5) the Ethernet integration are described.

  6. Testing of the OBO Bettermann Peak Current Sensor System for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schoene, J; Uman, M A; Aurele, M; Rambo, K J; Jerauld, J E; Schnetzer, G

    2005-01-10

    During summer 2004 we studied the reliability of the OBO Bettermann peak current sensor (PCS) monitoring system - (1) credit card-type cards with magnetic strips and (2) a card reader. Three methods were used to generate current for testing the PCS system: (1) a Keytek current generator (2) a capacitor discharge, and (3) rocket triggered lightning. The data obtained from the cards were compared with oscilloscope measurements of the generated currents. Additionally, we tested for nearby natural and nearby rocket triggered lightning by placing cards on an airport runway lighting system lightning-protection counterpoise, on power line grounds, and on the lightning-protection system of an explosive storage igloo at Camp Blanding Army National Guard Base. In all experiments exposed cards were read multiple times to test the consistency of the measurement. Each card read zero before each experiment. The Keytek current generator produced a maximum peak current of 5 kA which was unrecorded by the PCS system despite the OBO Bettermann claim that currents larger than 3 kA could be recorded. Three cards were exposed to triggered lightning current and gave proper results (the PCS card measurement deviated less than +- 2 kA from the peak current value measured by research equipment). Cards exposed to the current of the capacitor discharge, which was initiated by triggering a spark gap, generally yielded current readings about four times higher than the actual value, but proper readings were observed with some card orientations and locations. Two of the 7 cards tested with the Keytek and 4 of the 17 cards placed on the explosive storage igloo and on the runway counterpoise yielded non-zero current on some readings and zero current on other readings, while all other cards in those locations produced zero current for all readings of the card. The cause of the apparently erroneously high current readings on the cards used in the capacitor discharge experiments is not understood

  7. Laboratory Performance of Five Selected Soil Moisture Sensors Applying Factory and Own Calibration Equations for Two Soil Media of Different Bulk Density and Salinity Levels.

    PubMed

    Matula, Svatopluk; Báťková, Kamila; Legese, Wossenu Lemma

    2016-11-15

    Non-destructive soil water content determination is a fundamental component for many agricultural and environmental applications. The accuracy and costs of the sensors define the measurement scheme and the ability to fit the natural heterogeneous conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate five commercially available and relatively cheap sensors usually grouped with impedance and FDR sensors. ThetaProbe ML2x (impedance) and ECH₂O EC-10, ECH₂O EC-20, ECH₂O EC-5, and ECH₂O TE (all FDR) were tested on silica sand and loess of defined characteristics under controlled laboratory conditions. The calibrations were carried out in nine consecutive soil water contents from dry to saturated conditions (pure water and saline water). The gravimetric method was used as a reference method for the statistical evaluation (ANOVA with significance level 0.05). Generally, the results showed that our own calibrations led to more accurate soil moisture estimates. Variance component analysis arranged the factors contributing to the total variation as follows: calibration (contributed 42%), sensor type (contributed 29%), material (contributed 18%), and dry bulk density (contributed 11%). All the tested sensors performed very well within the whole range of water content, especially the sensors ECH₂O EC-5 and ECH₂O TE, which also performed surprisingly well in saline conditions.

  8. Laboratory Performance of Five Selected Soil Moisture Sensors Applying Factory and Own Calibration Equations for Two Soil Media of Different Bulk Density and Salinity Levels

    PubMed Central

    Matula, Svatopluk; Báťková, Kamila; Legese, Wossenu Lemma

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive soil water content determination is a fundamental component for many agricultural and environmental applications. The accuracy and costs of the sensors define the measurement scheme and the ability to fit the natural heterogeneous conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate five commercially available and relatively cheap sensors usually grouped with impedance and FDR sensors. ThetaProbe ML2x (impedance) and ECH2O EC-10, ECH2O EC-20, ECH2O EC-5, and ECH2O TE (all FDR) were tested on silica sand and loess of defined characteristics under controlled laboratory conditions. The calibrations were carried out in nine consecutive soil water contents from dry to saturated conditions (pure water and saline water). The gravimetric method was used as a reference method for the statistical evaluation (ANOVA with significance level 0.05). Generally, the results showed that our own calibrations led to more accurate soil moisture estimates. Variance component analysis arranged the factors contributing to the total variation as follows: calibration (contributed 42%), sensor type (contributed 29%), material (contributed 18%), and dry bulk density (contributed 11%). All the tested sensors performed very well within the whole range of water content, especially the sensors ECH2O EC-5 and ECH2O TE, which also performed surprisingly well in saline conditions. PMID:27854263

  9. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). A description of the sensor, ground data processing facility, laboratory calibration, and first results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The papers in this document were presented at the Imaging Spectroscopy 2 Conference of the 31st International Symposium on Optical and Optoelectronic Applied Science and Engineering, in San Diego, California, on 20 and 21 August 1987. They describe the design and performance of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) sensor and its subsystems, the ground data processing facility, laboratory calibration, and first results.

  10. The National Severe Storms Laboratory's contribution to severe weather warning improvement: multiple-sensor severe weather applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumpf, Gregory J.; Smith, Travis M.; Thomas, Claire

    The National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) has played the primary role in the development and evaluation of U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) severe weather applications for the Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D). NSSL developed many of the primary detection algorithms for the radar, and is currently developing improvements to these algorithms. The traditional WSR-88D severe weather algorithms have been designed for use with a single-radar data source. Although the algorithm guidance has led to an improvement of the NWS severe weather warning statistics, it is understood that effective warning decisions can only be made via the integration of information from many sources, including input from multiple remote sensors (multiple radars, mesoscale models, satellite, lightning, etc.). Therefore, these traditional single-radar severe weather algorithms have been updated to take advantage of additional data sources in order to reduce the uncertainty of the measurements and increase the accuracy of the diagnoses of severe weather. The NSSL Warning Decision Support System-Integrated Information (WDSS-II) has provided an invaluable development environment to facilitate the development of these new applications. In just 1 year (2002), NSSL has converted its suite of single-radar severe weather detection algorithms to operate using multiple radars. NSSL has also developed a host of new radar diagnostic derivatives, including high-resolution gridded fields of vertically integrated liquid (VIL), probability of severe hail, maximum expected hail size, velocity-derived rotation, and velocity-derived divergence. Time-integrated gridded fields of some of the above have also been developed, including hail swath information (maximum size and hail damage potential) and velocity-derived rotation tracks.

  11. Microbial nar-GFP cell sensors reveal oxygen limitations in highly agitated and aerated laboratory-scale fermentors

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Jose R; Cha, Hyung J; Rao, Govind; Marten, Mark R; Bentley, William E

    2009-01-01

    Background Small-scale microbial fermentations are often assumed to be homogeneous, and oxygen limitation due to inadequate micromixing is often overlooked as a potential problem. To assess the relative degree of micromixing, and hence propensity for oxygen limitation, a new cellular oxygen sensor has been developed. The oxygen responsive E. coli nitrate reductase (nar) promoter was used to construct an oxygen reporter plasmid (pNar-GFPuv) which allows cell-based reporting of oxygen limitation. Because there are greater than 109 cells in a fermentor, one can outfit a vessel with more than 109 sensors. Our concept was tested in high density, lab-scale (5 L), fed-batch, E. coli fermentations operated with varied mixing efficiency – one verses four impellers. Results In both cases, bioreactors were maintained identically at greater than 80% dissolved oxygen (DO) during batch phase and at approximately 20% DO during fed-batch phase. Trends for glucose consumption, biomass and DO showed nearly identical behavior. However, fermentations with only one impeller showed significantly higher GFPuv expression than those with four, indicating a higher degree of fluid segregation sufficient for cellular oxygen deprivation. As the characteristic time for GFPuv expression (approx 90 min.) is much larger than that for mixing (approx 10 s), increased specific fluorescence represents an averaged effect of oxygen limitation over time and by natural extension, over space. Conclusion Thus, the pNar-GFPuv plasmid enabled bioreactor-wide oxygen sensing in that bacterial cells served as individual recirculating sensors integrating their responses over space and time. We envision cell-based oxygen sensors may find utility in a wide variety of bioprocessing applications. PMID:19146688

  12. Design and Laboratory Validation of a Capacitive Sensor for Measuring the Recession of Thin-Layered Ablator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noffz, Gregory K.; Bowman, Michael P.

    1996-01-01

    Flight vehicles are typically instrumented with subsurface thermocouples to estimate heat transfer at the surface using inverse analysis procedures. If the vehicle has an ablating heat shield, however, temperature time histories from subsurface thermocouples no longer provide enough information to estimate heat flux at the surface. In this situation, the geometry changes and thermal energy leaves the surface in the form of ablation products. The ablation rate is required to estimate heat transfer to the surface. A new concept for a capacitive sensor has been developed to measure ablator depth using the ablator's dielectric effect on a capacitor's fringe region. Relying on the capacitor's fringe region enables the gage to be flush mounted in the vehicle's permanent structure and not intrude into the ablative heat shield applied over the gage. This sensor's design allows nonintrusive measurement of the thickness of dielectric materials, in particular, the recession rates of low-temperature ablators applied in thin (0.020 to 0.060 in. (0.05 to 0.15 mm)) layers. Twenty capacitive gages with 13 different sensing element geometries were designed, fabricated, and tested. A two-dimensional finite-element analysis was performed on several candidate geometries. Calibration procedures using ablator-simulating shims are described. A one-to-one correspondence between system output and dielectric material thickness was observed out to a thickness of 0.055 in. (1.4 mm) for a material with a permittivity about three times that of air or vacuum. A novel method of monitoring the change in sensor capacitance was developed. This technical memorandum suggests further improvements in gage design and fabrication techniques.

  13. Qualification Testing of Engineering Camera and Platinum Resistance Thermometer (PRT) Sensors for Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Project under Extreme Temperatures to Assess Reliability and to Enhance Mission Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Maki, Justin N.; Cucullu, Gordon C.

    2008-01-01

    Package Qualification and Verification (PQV) of advanced electronic packaging and interconnect technologies and various other types of qualification hardware for the Mars Exploration Rover/Mars Science Laboratory flight projects has been performed to enhance the mission assurance. The qualification of hardware (Engineering Camera and Platinum Resistance Thermometer, PRT) under extreme cold temperatures has been performed with reference to various project requirements. The flight-like packages, sensors, and subassemblies have been selected for the study to survive three times (3x) the total number of expected temperature cycles resulting from all environmental and operational exposures occurring over the life of the flight hardware including all relevant manufacturing, ground operations and mission phases. Qualification has been performed by subjecting above flight-like qual hardware to the environmental temperature extremes and assessing any structural failures or degradation in electrical performance due to either overstress or thermal cycle fatigue. Experiments of flight like hardware qualification test results have been described in this paper.

  14. Ocean Virtual Laboratory: A New Way to Explore Multi-Sensor Synergy Demonstrated over the Agulhas Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collard, F.; Quartly, G. D.; Konik, M.; Johannessen, J. A.; Korosov, A.; Chapron, B.; Piolle, J.-F.; Herledan, S.; Darecki, M.; Isar, A.; Nafornita, C.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean Virtual Laboratory is an ESA-funded project to prototype the concept of a single point of access for all satellite remote-sensing data with ancillary model output and in situ measurements for a given region. The idea is to provide easy access for the non-specialist to both data and state-of-the-art processing techniques and enable their easy analysis and display. The project, led by OceanDataLab, is being trialled in the region of the Agulhas Current, as it contains signals of strong contrast (due to very energetic upper ocean dynamics) and special SAR data acquisitions have been recorded there. The project also encourages the take up of Earth Observation data by developing training material to help those not in large scientific or governmental organizations make the best use of what data are available. The website for access is: http://ovlproject.oceandatalab.com/

  15. A laboratory assessment of the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor (WIBS-4) using individual samples of pollen and fungal spore material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, David A.; O'Connor, David J.; Burke, Aoife M.; Sodeau, John R.

    2012-12-01

    A Bioaerosol sensing instrument referred to as WIBS-4, designed to continuously monitor ambient bioaerosols on-line, has been used to record a multiparameter “signature” from each of a number of Primary Biological Aerosol Particulate (PBAP) samples found in air. These signatures were obtained in a controlled laboratory environment and are based on the size, asymmetry (“shape”) and auto-fluorescence of the particles. Fifteen samples from two separate taxonomic ranks (kingdoms), Plantae (×8) and Fungi (×7) were individually introduced to the WIBS-4 for measurement along with two non-fluorescing chemical solids, common salt and chalk. Over 2000 individual-particle measurements were recorded for each sample type and the ability of the WIBS spectroscopic technique to distinguish between chemicals, pollen and fungal spore material was examined by identifying individual PBAP signatures. The results obtained show that WIBS-4 could potentially be a very useful analytical tool for distinguishing between natural airborne PBAP samples, such as the fungal spores and may potentially play an important role in detecting and discriminating the toxic fungal spore, Aspergillus fumigatus, from others in real-time. If the sizing range of the commercial instrument was customarily increased and permitted to operate simultaneously in its two sizing ranges, pollen and spores could potentially be discriminated between. The data also suggest that the gain setting sensitivity on the detector would also have to be reduced by a factor >5, to routinely detect, in-range fluorescence measurements for pollen samples.

  16. Fluorescent biological aerosol particles measured with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor WIBS-4: laboratory tests combined with a one year field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toprak, E.; Schnaiter, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper bioaerosol measurements conducted with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor mark 4 (WIBS-4) are presented. The measurements comprise aerosol chamber characterization experiments and a one-year ambient measurement period at a semi-rural site in South Western Germany. This study aims to investigate the sensitivity of WIBS-4 to biological and non-biological aerosols and detection of biological particles in the ambient aerosol. Several types of biological and non-biological aerosol samples, including fungal spores, bacteria, mineral dust, ammonium sulphate, combustion soot, and fluorescent polystyrene spheres, were analyzed by WIBS-4 in the laboratory. The results confirm the sensitivity of the ultraviolet light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF) method to biological fluorophores and show the good discrimination capabilities of the two excitation wavelengths/detection wavebands method applied in WIBS-4. However, a weak cross-sensitivity to non-biological fluorescent interferers remains and is discussed in this paper. All the laboratory studies have been undertaken in order to prepare WIBS-4 for ambient aerosol measurements. According to the one-year ambient aerosol study, number concentration of fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP) show strong seasonal and diurnal variability. The highest number concentration of FBAP was measured during the summer term and decreased towards the winter period when colder and drier conditions prevail. Diurnal FBAP concentrations start to increase after sunset and reach maximum values during the late night and early morning hours. On the other hand, the total aerosol number concentration was almost always higher during daytime than during nighttime and a sharp decrease after sunset was observed. There was no correlation observed between the FBAP concentration and the meteorological parameters temperature, precipitation, wind direction and wind speed. However, a clear correlation was identified between the FBAP

  17. Novel Networked Remote Laboratory Architecture for Open Connectivity Based on PLC-OPC-LabVIEW-EJS Integration. Application in Remote Fuzzy Control and Sensors Data Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    González, Isaías; Calderón, Antonio José; Mejías, Andrés; Andújar, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the design and implementation of a network for integrating Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), the Object-Linking and Embedding for Process Control protocol (OPC) and the open-source Easy Java Simulations (EJS) package is presented. A LabVIEW interface and the Java-Internet-LabVIEW (JIL) server complete the scheme for data exchange. This configuration allows the user to remotely interact with the PLC. Such integration can be considered a novelty in scientific literature for remote control and sensor data acquisition of industrial plants. An experimental application devoted to remote laboratories is developed to demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of the proposed approach. The experiment to be conducted is the parameterization and supervision of a fuzzy controller of a DC servomotor. The graphical user interface has been developed with EJS and the fuzzy control is carried out by our own PLC. In fact, the distinctive features of the proposed novel network application are the integration of the OPC protocol to share information with the PLC and the application under control. The user can perform the tuning of the controller parameters online and observe in real time the effect on the servomotor behavior. The target group is engineering remote users, specifically in control- and automation-related tasks. The proposed architecture system is described and experimental results are presented. PMID:27809229

  18. Novel Networked Remote Laboratory Architecture for Open Connectivity Based on PLC-OPC-LabVIEW-EJS Integration. Application in Remote Fuzzy Control and Sensors Data Acquisition.

    PubMed

    González, Isaías; Calderón, Antonio José; Mejías, Andrés; Andújar, José Manuel

    2016-10-31

    In this paper the design and implementation of a network for integrating Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), the Object-Linking and Embedding for Process Control protocol (OPC) and the open-source Easy Java Simulations (EJS) package is presented. A LabVIEW interface and the Java-Internet-LabVIEW (JIL) server complete the scheme for data exchange. This configuration allows the user to remotely interact with the PLC. Such integration can be considered a novelty in scientific literature for remote control and sensor data acquisition of industrial plants. An experimental application devoted to remote laboratories is developed to demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of the proposed approach. The experiment to be conducted is the parameterization and supervision of a fuzzy controller of a DC servomotor. The graphical user interface has been developed with EJS and the fuzzy control is carried out by our own PLC. In fact, the distinctive features of the proposed novel network application are the integration of the OPC protocol to share information with the PLC and the application under control. The user can perform the tuning of the controller parameters online and observe in real time the effect on the servomotor behavior. The target group is engineering remote users, specifically in control- and automation-related tasks. The proposed architecture system is described and experimental results are presented.

  19. Development of Poly(vinylidene flouride) Polymer Applied in Force Sensors for Gait Analysis in Wistar Mice of Physiology Research Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escoto-Mora, Germán; González-Morán, Carlos Omar; Suaste-Gómez, Ernesto

    2008-06-01

    A group of force sensors was designed and manufactured. These are based on piezoelectric poly(vinylidene diflouride) (PVDF) films. These sensors will help evaluate the revascularization process in Wistar mouse legs. The sensors were calibrated from 0.0 to 14.4 g and had an uncertainty of ±7.5 mN.

  20. Fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAPs) measured with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor WIBS-4: laboratory tests combined with a one year field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toprak, E.; Schnaiter, M.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper bioaerosol measurements conducted with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor mark 4 (WIBS-4) are presented. The measurements comprise aerosol chamber characterization experiments and a one-year ambient measurement period at a semi-rural site in South Western Germany. This study aims to investigate the sensitivity of WIBS-4 to biological and non-biological aerosols, performance of WIBS-4 for discrimination of several types of aerosols, and the detection and identification of biological particles in the ambient aerosol. Several types of biological and non-biological aerosol samples including spores, bacteria, pollen, mineral dust, ammonium sulphate, combustion soot, and fluorescent polystyrene spheres were analysed by WIBS-4 in the laboratory. The results confirm the sensitivity of the Ultra Violet Light Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) method to biological fluorophores and show the good discrimination capabilities of the two wavelengths excitation/two wavebands detection method applied in WIBS-4. However, a weak cross-sensitivity to non-biological fluorescent interferers remains and is discussed in this paper. All the laboratory studies have been undertaken in order to prepare WIBS-4 for ambient aerosol measurements. According to the one year ambient aerosol study, number concentration of fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP) show strong seasonal and diurnal variability. The highest number concentration of FBAP was measured during the summer term and it decreases towards the winter period when colder and drier conditions are prevailing. Diurnal FBAP concentrations start to increase after sunset and reach maximum values during the late night and early morning hours. On the other hand the total aerosol number concentration was always higher during day time than during night time and a sharp decrease after sunset was observed. There was no correlation observed between the FBAP concentration and the meteorological parameters temperature

  1. Laboratory evaluation of the GreenSeeker (TM) hand-held optical sensor to variations in orientation and height above canopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Handheld optical sensors recently have been introduced to the agricultural market to simplify acquisition of spectral reflectance data. These handheld sensors are able to provide operators with Normalized Difference Vegetative Index (NDVI) data when cloud cover prevents acquisition of satellite or ...

  2. Air Conditioning Overflow Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center helped a local inventor develop a prototype of an attachment for central air conditioners and heat pumps that helps monitor water levels to prevent condensation overflow. The sensor will indicate a need for drain line maintenance and prevent possible damage caused by drain pan water spillover. An engineer in the Stennis Space Center prototype Development Laboratory used SSC sensor technology in the development of the sensor.

  3. Multi-Sensor Inspection Telerobot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balaram, J.; Hayati, S.; Volpe, R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a telerobotic multi-sensor inspection system for space platforms developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A multi-sensor inspection end-effector incorporates cameras and lighting for visual inspection, as well as temperature and gas leak-detection sensors.

  4. USGS VDP Infrasound Sensor Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Slad, George William; Merchant, Bion J.

    2016-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has tested and evaluated two infrasound sensors, the model VDP100 and VDP250, built in-house at the USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory. The purpose of the infrasound sensor evaluation was to determine a measured sensitivity, self-noise, dynamic range and nominal transfer function. Notable features of the VDP sensors include novel and durable construction and compact size.

  5. End-to-End Information System design at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. [data transmission between user and space-based sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    In recognition of a pressing need of the 1980s to optimize the two-way flow of information between a ground-based user and a remote-space-based sensor, an end-to-end approach to the design of information systems has been adopted at the JPL. This paper reviews End-to-End Information System (EEIS) activity at the JPL, with attention given to the scope of the EEIS transfer function, and functional and physical elements of the EEIS. The relationship between the EEIS and the NASA End-to-End Data System program is discussed.

  6. Networked Sensor Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    R. J. Tighe

    2002-10-01

    A set of independent radiation sensors, coupled with real-time data telemetry, offers the opportunity to run correlation algorithms for the sensor array as well as to incorporate non-radiological data into the system. This may enhance the overall sensitivity of the sensors and provide an opportunity to project the location of a source within the array. In collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), we have conducted field experiments to test a prototype system. Combining the outputs of a set of distributed sensors permits the correlation that the independent sensor outputs. Combined with additional information such as traffic patterns and velocities, this can reduce random/false detections and enhance detection capability. The principle components of such a system include: (1) A set of radiation sensors. These may be of varying type and complexity, including gamma and/or neutron detectors, gross count and spectral-capable sensors, and low to high energy-resolution sensors. (2) A set of non-radiation sensors. These may include sensors such as vehicle presence and imaging sensors. (3) A communications architecture for near real-time telemetry. Depending upon existing infrastructure and bandwidth requirements, this may be a radio or hard-wire based system. (4) A central command console to pole the sensors, correlate their output, and display the data in a meaningful form to the system operator. Both sensitivity and selectivity are important considerations when evaluating the performance of a detection system. Depending on the application, the optimization of sensitivity as well as the rejection of ''nuisance'' radioactive sources may or may not be critical.

  7. Computer-Assisted Laboratory Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, William J., Hanyak, Michael E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the advantages and features of computer-assisted laboratory stations for use in a chemical engineering program. Also describes a typical experiment at such a station: determining the response times of a solid state humidity sensor at various humidity conditions and developing an empirical model for the sensor. (JN)

  8. Meteorological Sensor Array (MSA)-Phase I. Volume 3 (Pre-Field Campaign Sensor Calibration)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    ARL-TR-7362 ● JULY 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Meteorological Sensor Array (MSA)–Phase I, Volume 3 (Pre-Field Campaign... Sensor Calibration) by Gail Vaucher and Robert Edmonds Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...Meteorological Sensor Array (MSA)–Phase I, Volume 3 (Pre-Field Campaign Sensor Calibration) by Gail Vaucher and Robert Edmonds

  9. Multimodal unattended ground sensor (MMUGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Lei; Houser, Jeff; Damarla, T. Raju

    2006-05-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory has developed a real-time multi-modal sensor for the purpose of personnel detection in urban terrain. Possible system usage includes force protection and sniper early warning. The sensor system includes a network of MMUGS sensors, a third-party gateway and user interface device. A MMUGS sensor consists of the following functions: sensing, processing, and communication. Each sensor is composed of multiple sensing modalities-acoustic, passive-infrared, and seismic. A MMUGS sensor is designed to be low cost and power efficient. This paper will first present an overview of the sensor architecture and then provide detailed descriptions of sub components. The paper will conclude with a detailed analysis of system performance. This paper is intended to provide details of the design, integration, and implementation of a MMUGS unit, and demonstrate the overall sensor system performance. This paper does not discuss the network aspect of the system and its affect on performance.

  10. Sensor Technology and Performance Characteristics

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA is currently involved in detailed laboratory and/or field studies involving a wide variety of low cost air quality sensors currently being made available to potential citizen scientists. These devices include sensors associated with the monitoring of nitrogen dioxide (...

  11. Wearable Optical Chemical Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobnik, Aleksandra

    Wearable sensors can be used to provide valuable information about the wearer's health and/or monitor the wearer's surroundings, identify safety concerns and detect threats, during the wearer's daily routine within his or her natural environment. The "sensor on a textile", an integrated sensor capable of analyzing data, would enable early many forms of detection. Moreover, a sensor connected with a smart delivery system could simultaneously provide comfort and monitoring (for safety and/or health), non-invasive measurements, no laboratory sampling, continuous monitoring during the daily activity of the person, and possible multi-parameter analysis and monitoring. However, in order for the technology to be accessible, it must remain innocuous and impose a minimal intrusion on the daily activities of the wearer. Therefore, such wearable technologies should be soft, flexible, and washable in order to meet the expectations of normal clothing. Optical chemical sensors (OCSs) could be used as wearable technology since they can be embedded into textile structures by using conventional dyeing, printing processes and coatings, while fiber-optic chemical sensors (FOCSs) as well as nanofiber sensors (NFSs) can be incorporated by weaving, knitting or laminating. The interest in small, robust and sensitive sensors that can be embedded into textile structures is increasing and the research activity on this topic is an important issue.

  12. Sensor Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is the result of low cost air quality sensor performance trials conducted in the NERL’s on-site laboratories located in the Research Triangle Park, NC during 2012-2013. Such trials were viewed as highly valuable for all parties following the conclusion of the U.S. E...

  13. Exhaust gas sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Hiller, J.; Miree, T.J.

    1997-02-09

    The automotive industry needed a fast, reliable, under-the-hood method of determining nitrogen oxides in automobile exhaust. Several technologies were pursued concurrently. These sensing technologies were based on light absorption, electrochemical methods, and surface mass loading. The Y-12 plant was selected to study the methods based on light absorption. The first phase was defining the detailed technical objectives of the sensors--this was the role of the automobile companies. The second phase was to develop prototype sensors in the laboratories--the national laboratories. The final phase was testing of the prototype sensors by the automobile industries. This program was canceled a few months into what was to be a three-year effort.

  14. Current sensor

    DOEpatents

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Brubaker, Michael Allen; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane

    2007-01-16

    A current sensor is described that uses a plurality of magnetic field sensors positioned around a current carrying conductor. The sensor can be hinged to allow clamping to a conductor. The current sensor provides high measurement accuracy for both DC and AC currents, and is substantially immune to the effects of temperature, conductor position, nearby current carrying conductors and aging.

  15. Fiber optic interferometric sensors for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y. C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper addresses two fiber optic sensor development programs in the Photonics Laboratory, NASA Ames Research Center, one in progress and the other being initiated. The ongoing program involves development of advanced acoustic sensors for wind tunnel applications. The new undertaking involves development of a novel sensor technique for studies of aerodynamic transition from laminar to turbulent flow.

  16. Electronic Nose System Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has designed and built an electronic nose system -- ENose -- to take on the duty of staying alert for smells that could indicate hazardous conditions in a closed spacecraft environment. Its sensors (shown here) are tailored so they conduct electricity differently when an air stream carries a particular chemical across them. JPL has designed and built a 3-pound flight version. The active parts are 32 sensors, each with a different mix of polymers saturated with carbon. When certain chemicals latch onto a sensor, they change how the sensor conducts electricity. This signal tells how much of a compound is in the air. The electronic nose flown aboard STS-95 in 1998 was capable of successfully detecting 10 toxic compounds.

  17. Image Sensors Enhance Camera Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    In the 1990s, a Jet Propulsion Laboratory team led by Eric Fossum researched ways of improving complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors in order to miniaturize cameras on spacecraft while maintaining scientific image quality. Fossum s team founded a company to commercialize the resulting CMOS active pixel sensor. Now called the Aptina Imaging Corporation, based in San Jose, California, the company has shipped over 1 billion sensors for use in applications such as digital cameras, camera phones, Web cameras, and automotive cameras. Today, one of every three cell phone cameras on the planet feature Aptina s sensor technology.

  18. Space debris measurement program at Phillips Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dao, Phan D.; Mcnutt, Ross T.

    1992-01-01

    Ground-based optical sensing was identified as a technique for measuring space debris complementary to radar in the critical debris size range of 1 to 10 cm. The Phillips Laboratory is building a staring optical sensor for space debris measurement and considering search and track optical measurement at additional sites. The staring sensor is implemented in collaboration with Wright Laboratory using the 2.5 m telescope at Wright Patterson AFB, Dayton, Ohio. The search and track sensor is designed to detect and track orbital debris in tasked orbits. A progress report and a discussion of sensor performance and search and track strategies will be given.

  19. Hyperion 5113/GP Infrasound Sensor Evaluation.

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Bion J.

    2015-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has tested and evaluated an infrasound sensor, the 5113/GP manufactured by Hyperion. These infrasound sensors measure pressure output by a methodology developed by the University of Mississippi. The purpose of the infrasound sensor evaluation was to determine a measured sensitivity, transfer function, power, self-noise, dynamic range, and seismic sensitivity. These sensors are being evaluated prior to deployment by the U.S. Air Force.

  20. WDM Sensor Networks for Military Platforms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-19

    M. C. Wu Integrated Photonics Laboratory APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE, DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED WDM Sensor Networks for Military Platforms Ming C. Wu...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 M. C. Wu Integrated Photonics Laboratory APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE...enabled by the network M. C. Wu Integrated Photonics Laboratory APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE, DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED Ideal Sensor Networks for DOD

  1. Laboratory Tests

    MedlinePlus

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  2. A Comparative Study of Sound Speed in Air at Room Temperature between a Pressure Sensor and a Sound Sensor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amrani, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the comparison of sound speed measurements in air using two types of sensor that are widely employed in physics and engineering education, namely a pressure sensor and a sound sensor. A computer-based laboratory with pressure and sound sensors was used to carry out measurements of air through a 60 ml syringe. The fast Fourier…

  3. Coordinated in situ and orbital observations of ground temperature by the Mars Science Laboratory Ground Temperature Sensor and Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System: Implications for thermal modeling of the Martian surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, V. E.; Vasavada, A. R.; Christensen, P. R.; Mischna, M. A.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    Diurnal variations in Martian ground surface temperature probe the physical nature (mean particle size, lateral/vertical heterogeneity, cementation, etc.) of the upper few centimeters of the subsurface. Thermal modeling of measured temperatures enables us to make inferences about these physical properties, which in turn offer valuable insight into processes that have occurred over geologic timescales. Add the ability to monitor these temperature/physical variations over large distances and it becomes possible to infer a great deal about local- to regional scale geologic processes and characteristics that are valuable to scientific and engineering studies. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) instrument measures surface temperatures from orbit at a restricted range of local times (~3:00 - 6:00 am/pm). The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor (REMS GTS) on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) acquires hourly temperature measurements in the vicinity of the rover. With the additional information that MSL's full diurnal coverage offers, we are interested in correlating the thermophysical properties inferred from these local-scale measurements with those obtained from MSL's visible images and orbital THEMIS measurements at only a few times of day. To optimize the comparisons, we have been acquiring additional REMS observations simultaneously with Mars Odyssey overflights during which THEMIS is able to observe MSL's location. We also characterize surface particle size distributions within the field of view of the GTS. We will present comparisons of the temperatures derived from GTS and THEMIS, focusing on eight simultaneous observations of ground temperature acquired between sols 100 and 360. These coordinated observations allow us to cross-check temperatures derived in situ and from orbit, and compare rover-scale observations of thermophysical and particle size properties to those made at remote sensing scales.

  4. Fatigue Sensor Evaluation Program Laboratory Test Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-01

    Evaluation Program", Work Statement, Cessna Report 31HE-6918-213, Addendum H, Revision J, 2 June 1972. 1.2 BACKGROUND The A-37 Aircraft Structural...34 ’: « •IIIS ......... li : « rtrtintr : •* M» c f M i H ::::::;:• ;:« ...j . .... ..:. •f’ ::.::::: ^::|:::: n» VH ft;; ** ViH ! * 1 - •• •-•• ; i...Program", Work Statement, Cessna Report 318E-6918-213, Addendum H, Revision J, 2 June 1972. 2. Micro-Measurements Product Bulletin PB-103-2, dated 1973

  5. Time-domain fiber loop ringdown sensor and sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Malik

    Optical fibers have been mostly used in fiber optic communications, imaging optics, sensing technology, etc. Fiber optic sensors have gained increasing attention for scientific and structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. In this study, fiber loop ringdown (FLRD) sensors were fabricated for scientific, SHM, and sensor networking applications. FLRD biosensors were fabricated for both bulk refractive index (RI)- and surface RI-based DNA sensing and one type of bacteria sensing. Furthermore, the effect of glucose oxidase (GOD) immobilization at the sensor head on sensor performance was evaluated for both glucose and synthetic urine solutions with glucose concentration between 0.1% and 10%. Detection sensitivities of the glucose sensors were achieved as low as 0.05%. For chemical sensing, heavy water, ranging from 97% to 10%, and several elemental solutions were monitored by using the FLRD chemical sensors. Bulk index-based FLRD sensing showed that trace elements can be detected in deionized water. For physical sensing, water and cracking sensors were fabricated and embedded into concrete. A partially-etched single-mode fiber (SMF) was embedded into a concrete bar for water monitoring while a bare SMF without any treatment was directly embedded into another concrete bar for monitoring cracks. Furthermore, detection sensitivities of water and crack sensors were investigated as 10 ml water and 0.5 mm surface crack width, respectively. Additionally fiber loop ringdown-fiber Bragg grating temperature sensors were developed in the laboratory; two sensor units for water, crack, and temperature sensing were deployed into a concrete cube in a US Department of Energy test bed (Miami, FL). Multi-sensor applications in a real concrete structure were accomplished by testing the six FLRD sensors. As a final stage, a sensor network was assembled by multiplexing two or three FLRD sensors in series and parallel. Additionally, two FLRD sensors were combined in series and

  6. Wireless powering for electrochemical sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peplowski, Andrzej; Janczak, Daniel; Jakubowska, Małgorzata

    2016-09-01

    System of wireless energy supply for a electrochemical sensor is presented. As a first step, various theoretical models of the sensor were considered and a new model, proper for the application studied, was proposed to enable further design stages. In the experiment conducted, it was verified, that the sensor, working in an amperometric mode and in the presence of constant or quasi-constant voltage supply, could be electrically approximated as element of the constant impedance value. Given this, power-consumption was calculated for the sensor using Ohm's law and the proof of concept device was fabricated to evaluate performance of the sensor under theoretically calculated conditions. The results obtained were comparable to the data previously recorded using conventional laboratory potentiostat. For verification of the resistive character of the sensor, chronoamperometric method was employed, with sensor's response complying with the theoretical prediction for quasi-constant powering signal and being influenced only by major voltage changes. Calculated power consumption of the sensor was Pmax. = 18.23μW. Concerning sensor's requirement for quasiconstant voltage, simple half-wave rectifier was designed that was connected to the antenna used for powering signal reception. In the second experiment, calibration of the sensor was performed, yielding sensitivity s = 2.03 μA/μmol/L and linear correlation coefficient ρ = 0.986 and thus confirming proper operation of the device in the conditions considered.

  7. Earth Resources Laboratory research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The accomplishments of the Earth Resources Laboratory's research and technology program are reported. Sensors and data systems, the AGRISTARS project, applied research and data analysis, joint research projects, test and evaluation studies, and space station support activities are addressed.

  8. New technologies to improve laboratory testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtis, C. A.

    Several core technologies that are having, or will have, an impact on the clinical laboratory are discussed. These include instrument-related technologies such as computer technology, chemometrics, robotics, sensors, and biological technologies such as cell fusion and recombinant DNA.

  9. Power for sensors; sensors for power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Mel

    2016-10-01

    As sensors are increasingly deployed in locations removed from mains power and increasingly expected to operate for times that are long compared to battery lifetimes we look to means for "harvesting" or "scavenging" energy from the sensors' operating environments. Whereas many sensors are "parametric" - their interaction with the environment causes a change in one or more of their electrical parameters - many other are true transducers - they perform their sensing function by extracting energy from their environment. These kinds of sensors can thus serve - under suitable operating conditions - both as measuring devices and as power supplies. In this paper we review this background, review the fundamental restrictions on our ability to extract energy from the environment, enumerate and summarize sensing principles that are promising candidates to double as power supplies, and provide several examples that span the range from already off-the-shelf at low cost to in laboratory prototype stage to sufficiently speculative that there might be reasonable doubt regarding whether they can actually work even in principle. Possibilities examined across this spectrum include thermal noise, ambient RF scavenging (briefly), thermoelectricity, piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity, and electrochemistry, especially including electrochemistry facilitated by microorganisms.

  10. Microsystem technology development at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.

    1995-11-01

    An overview of the major sensor and actuator projects using the micromachining capabilities of the Microelectronics Development Laboratory at Sandia National Laboratories is presented. Development efforts are underway for a variety of surface micromachined sensors and actuators. A technology that embeds micromechanical devices below the surface of the wafer prior to microelectronics fabrication has also been developed for integrating microelectronics with surface micromachined micromechanical devices.

  11. Smart sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsi, Carlo

    2006-08-01

    The term "Smart Sensors" refer to sensors which contain both sensing and signal processing capabilities with objectives ranging from simple viewing to sophisticated remote sensing, surveillance, search/track, weapon guidance, robotics, perceptronics and intelligence applications. In a broad sense, they include any sensor systems covering the whole electromagnetic spectrum: this paper deals specifically with a new class of smart sensors in infrared spectral bands whose developments started some years ago, when it was recognized that the rapid advances of "very large scale integration" (VLSI) processor technology and mosaic infrared detector array technology could be combined to develop new generations of infrared smart sensor systems with much improved performance. So, sophisticated signal processing operations have been developed for these new systems by integrating microcomputers and other VLSI signal processors within or next to the sensor arrays on the same focal plane avoiding complex computing located far away from the sensors. Recently this approach is achieving higher goals by a new and revolutionary sensors concept which introduce inside the sensor some of the basic function of living eyes, such as dynamic stare, dishomogenity compensation, spatial and temporal filtering. New objectives and requirements of these new focal plane processors are presented for this type of new infrared smart sensor systems. This paper is concerned with the processing techniques for only the front end of the focal plane processing, namely, the enhancement of target-to-noise ratio by background clutter suppression and the improvement in target detection by "smart" and pattern correlation threshold.

  12. Smart sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsi, Carlo

    1991-09-01

    The term 'smart sensors' refers to sensors which contain both sensing and signal processing capabilities with objectives ranging from simple viewing to sophisticated remote sensing, surveillance, search/track, weapon guidance, robotics, perceptronics, and intelligence applications. In a broad sense, they include any sensor system covering the whole electromagnetic spectrum: this paper deals specifically with a new class of smart sensors in infrared spectral bands whose developments started some years ago, when it was recognized that the rapid advances of very large scale integration (VLSI) processor technology and mosaic infrared detector array technology could be combined to develop new generations of infrared smart sensor systems with much improved performances. Thus, sophisticated signal processing operations will be developed for these new systems by integrating microcomputers and other VLSI signal processors within or next to the sensor arrays, on the same focal plane, avoiding complex computing located far away from the sensors. Recently this approach has achieved higher goals by a new and revolutionary sensor concept which introduces inside the sensor some of the basic functions of living eyes, such as dynamic stare, dishomogeneity compensation, spatial and temporal filtering. New objectives and requirements of these new focal plane processors are presented for this type of new infrared smart sensor system. This paper concerns the processing techniques limited to the front end of the focal plane processing, namely, the enhancement of target-to-noise ratio by background clutter suppression and the improvement in target detection by a smart pattern correlation thresholding.

  13. Scout Sensor Requirements Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-21

    for Night Vision and Electrol-Optics (CNVEO). It is a distinct level of acquisition so its inclusion makes sense for our purposes. 7-3. Detection is...security were evaluated using the Night Vision Laboratory Sensor Performance Model to determine which is most restrictive. Classifying full-sized targets...systems in the field (AN/PVS-7B Night Vision Goggles, AN/PVS-4 Individual Served Weapon Sight) work very well. They assist the scout in night navigation

  14. Laboratory Connections. Gas Monitoring Transducers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Michael H.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses three types of sensors; pressure, gas detection, and relative humidity. Explains their use for laboratory measurements of gas pressure and detection of specific gaseous species. Shows diagrams of devices and circuits along with examples and applications including microcomputer interfacing. (RT)

  15. Laboratory Building

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Joshua M.

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  16. Infrasound Sensor Calibration and Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    functions with faster rise times. SUMMARY We have documented past work on the determination of the calibration constant of the LANL infrasound sensor...Monitoring Technologies 735 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated...National Laboratory ( LANL ) has operated an infrasound sensor calibration chamber that operates over a frequency range of 0.02 to 4 Hz. This chamber has

  17. Non-intrusive speed sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyett, L.

    1986-01-01

    In Phase I of the Non-Intrusive Speed Sensor program, a computerized literature search was performed to identify candidate technologies for remote, non-intrusive speed sensing applications in Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps. The three most promising technologies were subjected to experimental evaluation to quantify their performance characteristics under the harsh environmental requirements within the turbopumps. Although the infrared and microwave approaches demonstrated excellent cavitation immunity in laboratory tests, the variable-source magnetic speed sensor emerged as the most viable approach. Preliminary design of this speed sensor encountered no technical obstacles and resulted in viable and feasible speed nut, sensor housing, and sensor coil designs. Phase II of this program developed the variable-source magnetic speed sensor through the detailed design task and guided the design into breadboard fabrication. The speed sensor and its integral speed nut were evaluated at both unit and system level testing. The final room-temperature and cryogenic spin testing of the hardware demonstrated that the sensor was capable of generating sufficient output signal to enable remote speed sensing from 1500 to 40000 rpm over a speed nut/sensor separation of 3.5 inches.

  18. Sensor web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delin, Kevin A. (Inventor); Jackson, Shannon P. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A Sensor Web formed of a number of different sensor pods. Each of the sensor pods include a clock which is synchronized with a master clock so that all of the sensor pods in the Web have a synchronized clock. The synchronization is carried out by first using a coarse synchronization which takes less power, and subsequently carrying out a fine synchronization to make a fine sync of all the pods on the Web. After the synchronization, the pods ping their neighbors to determine which pods are listening and responded, and then only listen during time slots corresponding to those pods which respond.

  19. Gait Analysis Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Complete motion analysis laboratory has evolved out of analyzing walking patterns of crippled children at Stanford Children's Hospital. Data is collected by placing tiny electrical sensors over muscle groups of child's legs and inserting step-sensing switches in soles of shoes. Miniature radio transmitters send signals to receiver for continuous recording of abnormal walking pattern. Engineers are working to apply space electronics miniaturization techniques to reduce size and weight of telemetry system further as well as striving to increase signal bandwidth so analysis can be performed faster and more accurately using a mini-computer.

  20. Rain Drop Charge Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S, Sreekanth T.

    begin{center} Large Large Rain Drop Charge Sensor Sreekanth T S*, Suby Symon*, G. Mohan Kumar (1) , S. Murali Das (2) *Atmospheric Sciences Division, Centre for Earth Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram 695011 (1) D-330, Swathi Nagar, West Fort, Thiruvananthapuram 695023 (2) Kavyam, Manacaud, Thiruvananthapuram 695009 begin{center} ABSTRACT To study the inter-relations with precipitation electricity and precipitation microphysical parameters a rain drop charge sensor was designed and developed at CESS Electronics & Instrumentation Laboratory. Simultaneous measurement of electric charge and fall speed of rain drops could be done using this charge sensor. A cylindrical metal tube (sensor tube) of 30 cm length is placed inside another thick metal cover opened at top and bottom for electromagnetic shielding. Mouth of the sensor tube is exposed and bottom part is covered with metal net in the shielding cover. The instrument is designed in such a way that rain drops can pass only through unhindered inside the sensor tube. When electrically charged rain drops pass through the sensor tube, it is charged to the same magnitude of drop charge but with opposite polarity. The sensor tube is electrically connected the inverted input of a current to voltage converter operational amplifier using op-amp AD549. Since the sensor is electrically connected to the virtual ground of the op-amp, the charge flows to the ground and the generated current is converted to amplified voltage. This output voltage is recorded using a high frequency (1kHz) voltage recorder. From the recorded pulse, charge magnitude, polarity and fall speed of rain drop are calculated. From the fall speed drop diameter also can be calculated. The prototype is now under test running at CESS campus. As the magnitude of charge in rain drops is an indication of accumulated charge in clouds in lightning, this instrument has potential application in the field of risk and disaster management. By knowing the charge

  1. Aptamer Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Marrazza, Giovanna

    2017-01-01

    In the last years, great progress has been accomplished in the development of aptamer sensors with different transducers. In order to improve the sensitivity of these biosensors, several methodologies have been employed. In this Special Issue, the state of art and the future trends in the field of aptamer sensors have been explored. PMID:28054983

  2. Temperature Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Weed Instrument Inc. produces a line of thermocouples - temperature sensors - for a variety of industrial and research uses. One of the company's newer products is a thermocouple specially designed for high accuracy at extreme temperatures above 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit. Development of sensor brought substantial increases in Weed Instrument sales and employment.

  3. Smart Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsi, C.

    2007-01-01

    The term "Smart Sensors" refers to sensors which contain both sensing and signal processing capabilities with objectives ranging from simple viewing to sophisticated remote sensing, surveillance, search/track, weapon guidance, robotics, perceptronics and intelligence applications. Recently this approach is achieving higher goals by a new and revolutionary sensors concept which introduced inside the sensor some of the basic functions of living eyes, such as dynamic stare, non-uniformity compensation, spatial and temporal filtering. New objectives and requirements are presented for this type of new infrared smart sensor systems. This paper is concerned with the front end of FPA microbolometers processing, namely, the enhancement of target-to-noise ratio by background clutter suppression and the improvement in target detection by "smart" and pattern correlation thresholding.

  4. Empowering smartphone users with sensor node for air quality measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oletic, Dinko; Bilas, Vedran

    2013-06-01

    We present an architecture of a sensor node developed for use with smartphones for participatory sensing of air quality in urban environments. Our solution features inexpensive metal-oxide semiconductor gas sensors (MOX) for measurement of CO, O3, NO2 and VOC, along with sensors for ambient temperature and humidity. We focus on our design of sensor interface consisting of power-regulated heater temperature control, and the design of resistance sensing circuit. Accuracy of the sensor interface is characterized. Power consumption of the sensor node is analysed. Preliminary data obtained from the CO gas sensors in laboratory conditions and during the outdoor field-test is shown.

  5. Laboratory accreditation.

    PubMed

    Bradway, D E; Siegelman, F L

    1994-09-01

    An investigation of alleged data fraud at a pesticide analytical laboratory led EPA to take a closer look at the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) inspection program. There was special focus on changes which might be made in the program to enhance the chances of detecting fraud in regulated studies. To this end, the Assistant Administrator of the Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) requested EPA's Office of Inspector General (OIG) to examine the GLP program. Several reports were issued by the OIG, including the recommendation that a laboratory accreditation program be adopted. EPA has been examining ways to implement the OIG's recommendations, including (1) laboratory accreditation consisting of three components: document submission and assessment, site visit and assessment, and proficiency assessment; and (2) mandatory registration of all facilities participating in GLP-regulated studies, based on document submission and assessment. These two alternatives are compared, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed.

  6. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  7. Analysis of geologic terrain models for determination of optimum SAR sensor configuration and optimum information extraction for exploration of global non-renewable resources. Pilot study: Arkansas Remote Sensing Laboratory, part 1, part 2, and part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaupp, V. H.; Macdonald, H. C.; Waite, W. P.; Stiles, J. A.; Frost, F. S.; Shanmugam, K. S.; Smith, S. A.; Narayanan, V.; Holtzman, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Computer-generated radar simulations and mathematical geologic terrain models were used to establish the optimum radar sensor operating parameters for geologic research. An initial set of mathematical geologic terrain models was created for three basic landforms and families of simulated radar images were prepared from these models for numerous interacting sensor, platform, and terrain variables. The tradeoffs between the various sensor parameters and the quantity and quality of the extractable geologic data were investigated as well as the development of automated techniques of digital SAR image analysis. Initial work on a texture analysis of SEASAT SAR imagery is reported. Computer-generated radar simulations are shown for combinations of two geologic models and three SAR angles of incidence.

  8. A Prototype Tactile Sensor Array.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-15

    Active Touch Sensing. Technical Report, MIT Artificial Inteligence Laboratory, 1981. (9] Larcombe, M. Carbon Fibre Tactile Sensors. Technical Report...thesis, Carnegie-Mellon University, 1981. [13] Purbrick, John A. A Force Transducer Employing Conductive Silicone Rubber. Technical Report, MIT Artificial

  9. Sensor technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokoloski, Martin M.

    1988-01-01

    The objective is to provide necessary expertise and technology to advance space remote sensing of terrestrial, planetary, and galactic phenomena through the use of electromagnetic and electro-optic properties of gas, liquid, and solid state materials technology. The Sensor Technology Program is divided into two subprograms: a base research and development part and a Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) part. The base research and development consists of research on artificially grown materials such as quantum well and superlattice structure with the potential for new and efficient means for detecting electromagnetic phenomena. Research is also being done on materials and concepts for detector components and devices for measuring high energy phenomena such as UV, X-, and gamma rays that are required observables in astrophysis and solar physics missions. The CSTI program is more mission driven and is balanced among four major disciplines: detector sensors; submillimeter wave sensors; LIDAR/DIAL sensors; and cooler technology.

  10. Uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensors for unattended ground sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figler, Burton D.

    2001-09-01

    Starting in the early 1990's, uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensor technology began to move out of the basic development laboratories of the Honeywell Corporation in Minneapolis and into applied development at several companies which have licensed the basic technology. Now, this technology is addressing military, government, and commercial applications in the real world. Today, thousands of uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensors are being produced and sold annually. At the same time, applied research and development on the technology continues at an unabated pace. These research and development efforts have two primary goals: 1) improving sensor performance in terms of increased resolution and greater thermal sensitivity and 2) reducing sensor cost. Success is being achieved in both areas. In this paper we will describe advances in uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensor technology as they apply to the modern battlefield and to unattended ground sensor applications in particular. Improvements in sensor performance include: a) reduced size, b) increased spatial resolution, c) increased thermal sensitivity, d) reduced electrical power, and e) reduced weight. For battlefield applications, unattended sensors are used not only in fixed ground locations, but also on a variety of moving platforms, including remotely operated ground vehicles, as well as Micro and Miniature Aerial Vehicles. The use of uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensors on these platforms will be discussed, and the results from simulations, of an uncooled microbolometer sensor flying on a Micro Aerial Vehicle will be presented. Finally, we will describe microbolometer technology advancements currently being made or planned at BAE SYSTEMS. Where possible, examples of actual improvements, in the form of real imagery and/or actual performance measurements, will be provided.

  11. INSENS sensor system

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.W.; Baker, J.; Benzel, D.M.; Fuess, D.A.

    1993-09-29

    This paper describes an unattended ground sensor system that has been developed for the immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). The system, known as INSENS, was developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for use by the United States Border Patrol. This system assists in the detection of illegal entry of aliens and contraband (illegal drugs, etc.) into the United States along its land borders. Key to the system is its flexible modular design which allows future software and hardware enhancements to the system without altering the fundamental architecture of the system. Elements of the system include a sensor system capable of processing signals from multiple directional probes, a repeater system, and a handheld monitor system. Seismic, passive infrared (PIR), and magnetic probes are currently supported. The design of the INSENS system elements and their performance are described.

  12. Practical Interfacing in the Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derenzo, Stephen E.

    2003-05-01

    This text describes in practical terms how to use a desk-top computer to monitor and control laboratory experiments. The author clearly explains how to design electronic circuits and write computer programs to sense, analyse and display real-world quantities, including displacement, temperature, force, sound, light, and biomedical potentials. The book includes numerous laboratory exercises and appendices that provide practical information on microcomputer architecture and interfacing, including complete circuit diagrams and component lists. Topics include analog amplification and signal processing, digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital conversion, electronic sensors and actuators, digital and analog interfacing circuits, and programming. Only a very basic knowledge of electronics is assumed, making it ideal for college-level laboratory courses and for practising engineers and scientists. Everything you need to know about using a PC to monitor and control laboratory experiments Full of practical circuit designs and C-code examples Ideal for students and practising scientists

  13. Laboratory diagnosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the first major goals of the microbiology laboratory is to isolate or detect clinically significant microorganisms from an affected site and, if more than one type of microorganism is present, to isolate them in approximately the same ratio as occurs in vivo. Whether an isolate is “clinically...

  14. Satellite Advanced Attitude Sensors at UNINA Lab GNC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accardo, D.

    This paper presents the most recent activities at the Laboratory of Guidance, Navigation, and Control of the Department of Industrial Engineering dealing with design, development, and test of attitude sensors for space applications, in particular a micro sun sensor and a star tracker, along with laboratory facilities to test them indoors. The paper presents a detailed description of sensors as well as test facilities, and the results of two test campaigns that assessed the performance of the two devices.

  15. Infrasound Sensor Models and Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    KROMER,RICHARD P.; MCDONALD,TIMOTHY S.

    2000-07-31

    Sandia National Laboratories has continued to evaluate the performance of infrasound sensors that are candidates for use by the International Monitoring System (IMS) for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization. The performance criteria against which these sensors are assessed are specified in ``Operational Manual for Infra-sound Monitoring and the International Exchange of Infrasound Data''. This presentation includes the results of efforts concerning two of these sensors: (1) Chaparral Physics Model 5; and (2) CEA MB2000. Sandia is working with Chaparral Physics in order to improve the capability of the Model 5 (a prototype sensor) to be calibrated and evaluated. With the assistance of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Sandia is also conducting tests to evaluate the performance of the CEA MB2000. Sensor models based on theoretical transfer functions and manufacturer specifications for these two devices have been developed. This presentation will feature the results of coherence-based data analysis of signals from a huddle test, utilizing several sensors of both types, in order to verify the sensor performance.

  16. Hyperion 5113/A Infrasound Sensor Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Bion John

    2015-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has tested and evaluated an infrasound sensor, the 5113/A manufactured by Hyperion. These infrasound sensors measure pressure output by a methodology developed by the University of Mississippi. The purpose of the infrasound sensor evaluation was to determine a measured sensitivity, transfer function, power, self-noise, and dynamic range. The 5113/A infrasound sensor is a new revision of the 5000 series intended to meet the infrasound application requirements for use in the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO).

  17. MB3a Infrasound Sensor Evaluation.

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Bion J.; McDowell, Kyle D.

    2014-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has tested and evaluated a new infrasound sensor, the MB3a, manufactured by Seismo Wave. These infrasound sensors measure pressure output by a methodology developed by researchers at the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and the technology was recently licensed to Seismo Wave for production and sales. The purpose of the infrasound sensor evaluation was to determine a measured sensitivity, transfer function, power, self-noise, dynamic range, seismic sensitivity, and self- calibration ability. The MB3a infrasound sensors are being evaluated for potential use in the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty Organization (CTBTO).

  18. Electronic Tongue Containing Redox and Conductivity Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The Electronic Tongue (E-tongue 2) is an assembly of sensors for measuring concentrations of metal ions and possibly other contaminants in water. Potential uses for electronic tongues include monitoring the chemical quality of water in a variety of natural, industrial, and laboratory settings, and detecting micro-organisms indirectly by measuring microbially influenced corrosion. The device includes a heater, a temperature sensor, an oxidation/reduction (redox) sensor pair, an electrical sensor, an array of eight galvanic cells, and eight ion-specific electrodes.

  19. IEEE Sensors 2004 Conference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-27

    simulate real world conditions it is open to the environment where laboratory air is pulled through a large PVC pipe in which the CWA simulants (DCP...sensors based on nanoparticle W03 thick films They used commercial W03 nanopowder from Aldrich, this was mixed with InCl3 or BiCI3 and screen printed onto...through a large PVC pipe in which the CWA simulants each stage. In the first stage we wish to eliminate any con- (DCP (I,5-dichloropentane) - mustard

  20. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Maxence S.; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS. PMID:27630829

  1. Wireless sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perotti, Jose M.; Lucena, Angel R.; Mullenix, Pamela A.; Mata, Carlos T.

    2006-05-01

    Current and future requirements of aerospace sensors and transducers demand the design and development of a new family of sensing devices, with emphasis on reduced weight, power consumption, and physical size. This new generation of sensors and transducers will possess a certain degree of intelligence in order to provide the end user with critical data in a more efficient manner. Communication between networks of traditional or next-generation sensors can be accomplished by a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) developed by NASA's Instrumentation Branch and ASRC Aerospace Corporation at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), consisting of at least one central station and several remote stations and their associated software. The central station is application-dependent and can be implemented on different computer hardware, including industrial, handheld, or PC-104 single-board computers, on a variety of operating systems: embedded Windows, Linux, VxWorks, etc. The central stations and remote stations share a similar radio frequency (RF) core module hardware that is modular in design. The main components of the remote stations are an RF core module, a sensor interface module, batteries, and a power management module. These modules are stackable, and a common bus provides the flexibility to stack other modules for additional memory, increased processing, etc. WSN can automatically reconfigure to an alternate frequency if interference is encountered during operation. In addition, the base station will autonomously search for a remote station that was perceived to be lost, using relay stations and alternate frequencies. Several wireless remote-station types were developed and tested in the laboratory to support different sensing technologies, such as resistive temperature devices, silicon diodes, strain gauges, pressure transducers, and hydrogen leak detectors.

  2. Development of Robotics Applications in a Solid Propellant Mixing Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    weighing and prebatching, ingredient addition, mixing, propellant casting and equipment cleanup. c) Implementation of a Laboratory Information Management System...Robot configuration and end-of-arm tooling d) Laboratory information management system integration Task 2: Identify Research Robotic and Automation...Physical Sensor Parameters - Physical properties - Collection medium - Frequency, deviation and rate of sampling, etc. c) Laboratory Information Management Systems

  3. Methods for Testing the Mars Science Laboratory's Landing Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapin, Elaine; Grando, Maurio B.; Hamilton, Gary A.; Pak, Kyung S.; Pollard, Brian D.; Shaffer, Scott J.; Wu, Chialin

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory's rover named Curiosity successfully landed on Mars on August 6, 2012. One component of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) system was the Terminal Descent Sensor (TDS) landing radar. In this paper we describe laboratory testing of this radar performed before launch.

  4. Lunar laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  5. Assessment of fiber optic pressure sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Hashemian, H.M.; Black, C.L.; Farmer, J.P.

    1995-04-01

    This report presents the results of a six-month Phase 1 study to establish the state-of-the-art in fiber optic pressure sensing and describes the design and principle of operation of various fiber optic pressure sensors. This study involved a literature review, contact with experts in the field, an industrial survey, a site visit to a fiber optic sensor manufacturer, and laboratory testing of a fiber optic pressure sensor. The laboratory work involved both static and dynamic performance tests. In addition, current requirements for environmental and seismic qualification of sensors for nuclear power plants were reviewed to determine the extent of the qualification tests that fiber optic pressure sensors may have to meet before they can be used in nuclear power plants. This project has concluded that fiber optic pressure sensors are still in the research and development stage and only a few manufacturers exist in the US and abroad which supply suitable fiber optic pressure sensors for industrial applications. Presently, fiber optic pressure sensors are mostly used in special applications for which conventional sensors are not able to meet the requirements.

  6. Water Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Mike Morris, former Associate Director of STAC, formed pHish Doctor, Inc. to develop and sell a pH monitor for home aquariums. The monitor, or pHish Doctor, consists of a sensor strip and color chart that continually measures pH levels in an aquarium. This is important because when the level gets too high, ammonia excreted by fish is highly toxic; at low pH, bacteria that normally break down waste products stop functioning. Sales have run into the tens of thousands of dollars. A NASA Tech Brief Technical Support Package later led to a salt water version of the system and a DoE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant for development of a sensor for sea buoys. The company, now known as Ocean Optics, Inc., is currently studying the effects of carbon dioxide buildup as well as exploring other commercial applications for the fiber optic sensor.

  7. Laboratory accreditation

    SciTech Connect

    Pettit, R.B.

    1998-08-01

    Accreditation can offer many benefits to a testing or calibration laboratory, including increased marketability of services, reduced number of outside assessments, and improved quality of services. Compared to ISO 9000 registration, the accreditation process includes a review of the entire quality system, but in addition a review of testing or calibration procedures by a technical expert and participation in proficiency testing in the areas of accreditation. Within the DOE, several facilities have recently become accredited in the area of calibration, including Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge, AlliedSignal FM and T; Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., and Pacific Northwest National Lab. At the national level, a new non-profit organization was recently formed called the National Cooperation for Laboratory Accreditation (NACLA). The goal of NACLA is to develop procedures, following national and international requirements, for the recognition of competent accreditation bodies in the US. NACLA is a voluntary partnership between the public and private sectors with the goal of a test or calibration performed once and accepted world wide. The NACLA accreditation body recognition process is based on the requirements of ISO Guide 25 and Guide 58. A membership drive will begin some time this fall to solicit organizational members and an election of a permanent NACLA Board of Directors will follow later this year or early 1999.

  8. MIT Lincoln Laboratory Annual Report 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    map is optimized and extended in real time as the robot autonomously explores a space . ■■ Rapid prototyping continues to expand at the Laboratory...success- ful demonstration netting space and missile defense sensors in real time. On the basis of a formal military utility assessment, ESSA was... Tracking Space Sensor, test bed development for enhanced command, control, battle man- agement, and communications (C2BMC), modeling and simulation

  9. Mars Science Laboratory Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okon, Avi B.

    2010-01-01

    The Drill for the Mars Science Laboratory mission is a rotary-percussive sample acquisition device with an emphasis on toughness and robustness to handle the harsh environment on Mars. The unique challenges associated with autonomous drilling from a mobile robot are addressed. A highly compressed development schedule dictated a modular design architecture that satisfies the functional and load requirements while allowing independent development and testing of the Drill subassemblies. The Drill consists of four actuated mechanisms: a spindle that rotates the bit, a chuck that releases and engages bits, a novel voice-coil-based percussion mechanism that hammers the bit, and a linear translation mechanism. The Drill has three passive mechanisms: a replaceable bit assembly that acquires and collects sample, a contact sensor / stabilizer mechanism, and, lastly a flex harness service loop. This paper describes the various mechanisms that makeup the Drill and discusses the solutions to their unique design and development challenges.

  10. Small Sensors for Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory is actively pursuing enhancing the nation's space weather sensing capability. One aspect of this plan is the concept of flying Space Weather sensor suites on host spacecraft as secondary payloads. The emergence and advancement of the CubeSat spacecraft architecture has produced a viable platform for scientifically and operationally relevant Space Weather sensing. This talk will provide an overview of NRL's low size weight and power sensor technologies targeting Space Weather measurements. A summary of on-orbit results of past and current missions will be presented, as well as an overview of future flights that are manifested and potential constellation missions.

  11. Sensor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A [Idaho Falls, ID; Telschow, Kenneth L [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-12-22

    A sensor apparatus and method for detecting an environmental factor is shown that includes an acoustic device that has a characteristic resonant vibrational frequency and mode pattern when exposed to a source of acoustic energy and, futher, when exposed to an environmental factor, produces a different resonant vibrational frequency and/or mode pattern when exposed to the same source of acoustic energy.

  12. Chemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Lowell, Jr., James R.; Edlund, David J.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Rayfield, George W.

    1991-01-01

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising (a) a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, operatively coupled to (b) a transducer capable of directly converting said expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response.

  13. Gas sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  14. Chemical sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauh, R. David (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A sensor for detecting a chemical substance includes an insertion element having a structure which enables insertion of the chemical substance with a resulting change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element under conditions sufficient to permit effective insertion; the change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element is detected as an indication of the presence of the chemical substance.

  15. A wireless sensor enabled by wireless power.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-11-22

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network.

  16. A Wireless Sensor Enabled by Wireless Power

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-01-01

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network. PMID:23443370

  17. Virtual Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hut, P.

    At the frontier of most areas in science, computer simulations playa central role. The traditional division of natural science into experimental and theoretical investigations is now completely outdated. Instead, theory, simulation, and experimentation form three equally essential aspects, each with its own unique flavor and challenges. Yet, education in computational science is still lagging far behind, and the number of text books in this area is minuscule compared to the many text books on theoretical and experimental science. As a result, many researchers still carry out simulations in a haphazard way, without properly setting up the computational equivalent of a well equipped laboratory. The art of creating such a virtual laboratory, while providing proper extensibility and documentation, is still in its infancy. A new approach is described here, Open Knowledge, as an extension of the notion of Open Source software. Besides open source code, manuals, and primers, an open knowledge project provides simulated dialogues between code developers, thus sharing not only the code, but also the motivations behind the code.

  18. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, D.C.; Pigoski, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors.

  19. Laboratory investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Ray W.

    1988-01-01

    Laboratory studies related to cometary grains and the nuclei of comets can be broken down into three areas which relate to understanding the spectral properties, the formation mechanisms, and the evolution of grains and nuclei: (1) Spectral studies to be used in the interpretation of cometary spectra; (2) Sample preparation experiments which may shed light on the physical nature and history of cometary grains and nuclei by exploring the effects on grain emissivities resulting from the ways in which the samples are created; and (3) Grain processing experiments which should provide insight on the interaction of cometary grains with the environment in the immediate vicinity of the cometary nucleus as the comet travels from the Oort cloud through perihelion, and perhaps even suggestions regarding the relationship between interstellar grains and cometary matter. A summary is presented with a different view of lab experiments than is found in the literature, concentrating on measurement techniques and sample preparations especially relevant to cometary dust.

  20. Pressure sensor

    DOEpatents

    Mee, David K.; Ripley, Edward B.; Nienstedt, Zachary C.; Nienstedt, Alex W.; Howell, Jr., Layton N.

    2015-09-29

    Disclosed is a passive, in-situ pressure sensor. The sensor includes a sensing element having a ferromagnetic metal and a tension inducing mechanism coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The tension inducing mechanism is operable to change a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal based on a change in pressure in the sensing element. Changes in pressure are detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal when subjected to an alternating magnetic field caused by the change in the tensile stress. The sensing element is embeddable in a closed system for detecting pressure changes without the need for any penetrations of the system for power or data acquisition by detecting changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the tensile stress.

  1. Corrosion sensor

    DOEpatents

    Glass, R.S.; Clarke, W.L. Jr.; Ciarlo, D.R.

    1994-04-26

    A corrosion sensor array is described incorporating individual elements for measuring various elements and ions, such as chloride, sulfide, copper, hydrogen (pH), etc. and elements for evaluating the instantaneous corrosion properties of structural materials. The exact combination and number of elements measured or monitored would depend upon the environmental conditions and materials used which are subject to corrosive effects. Such a corrosion monitoring system embedded in or mounted on a structure exposed to the environment would serve as an early warning system for the onset of severe corrosion problems for the structure, thus providing a safety factor as well as economic factors. The sensor array is accessed to an electronics/computational system, which provides a means for data collection and analysis. 7 figures.

  2. Corrosion sensor

    DOEpatents

    Glass, Robert S.; Clarke, Jr., Willis L.; Ciarlo, Dino R.

    1994-01-01

    A corrosion sensor array incorporating individual elements for measuring various elements and ions, such as chloride, sulfide, copper, hydrogen (pH), etc. and elements for evaluating the instantaneous corrosion properties of structural materials. The exact combination and number of elements measured or monitored would depend upon the environmental conditions and materials used which are subject to corrosive effects. Such a corrosion monitoring system embedded in or mounted on a structure exposed to the environment would serve as an early warning system for the onset of severe corrosion problems for the structure, thus providing a safety factor as well as economic factors. The sensor array is accessed to an electronics/computational system, which provides a means for data collection and analysis.

  3. Chemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

    1992-06-09

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising a mechanicochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, either operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical or optical response, or adhered to a second inert polymeric strip, or doped with a conductive material. 12 figs.

  4. Chemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Lowell, Jr., James R.; Edlund, David J.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Rayfield, George W.

    1992-01-01

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising a mechanicochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, either operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical or optical response, or adhered to a second inert polymeric strip, or doped with a conductive material.

  5. Sensor assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Thomas E.; Nelson, Drew V.

    2004-04-13

    A ribbon-like sensor assembly is described wherein a length of an optical fiber embedded within a similar lengths of a prepreg tow. The fiber is ""sandwiched"" by two layers of the prepreg tow which are merged to form a single consolidated ribbon. The consolidated ribbon achieving a generally uniform distribution of composite filaments near the embedded fiber such that excess resin does not ""pool"" around the periphery of the embedded fiber.

  6. High-temperature superconductor applications development at Argonne National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, J. R.; Poeppel, R. B.

    1992-02-01

    Developments at Argonne National Laboratory of near and intermediate term applications using high-temperature superconductors are discussed. Near-term applications of liquid-nitrogen depth sensors, current leads, and magnetic bearings are discussed in detail.

  7. High-temperature superconductor applications development at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J.R.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1992-02-09

    Developments at Argonne National Laboratory of near and intermediate term applications using high-temperature superconductors are discussed. Near-term applications of liquid-nitrogen depth sensors, current leads, and magnetic bearings are discussed in detail.

  8. Autonomous Robot System for Sensor Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    David Bruemmer; Douglas Few; Frank Carney; Miles Walton; Heather Hunting; Ron Lujan

    2004-03-01

    This paper discusses an innovative application of new Markov localization techniques that combat the problem of odometry drift, allowing a novel control architecture developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to be utilized within a sensor characterization facility developed at the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) in Nevada. The new robotic capability provided by the INEEL will allow RSL to test and evaluate a wide variety of sensors including radiation detection systems, machine vision systems, and sensors that can detect and track heat sources (e.g. human bodies, machines, chemical plumes). By accurately moving a target at varying speeds along designated paths, the robotic solution allows the detection abilities of a wide variety of sensors to be recorded and analyzed.

  9. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-09-04

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

  10. Ambient and laboratory measurements of ice nuclei and their biological faction with the Fast Ice Nuclei CHamber FINCH-HALO using the new 405nm Version of the BIO-IN Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundke, U.; Nillius, B.; Bingemer, H.; Curtius, J.

    2012-04-01

    We have designed the BIO-IN detector as part of the ice nucleus counter FINCH (Fast Ice Nuclei CHamber counter) to distinguish activated Ice Nuclei (IN) ice crystals from water droplets (CCN) (Bundke et al. 2008) and their fraction of biological origin (Bundke 2010). The modified BIO-IN sensor illuminates an aerosol stream with a 405 nm laser, replacing a 365nm LED of the original BIO IN design. Particles will scatter the light and those of biological origin will show intrinsic fluorescence emissions by excitation of mainly Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2. The incident laser light is circularly polarized by introducing a quarter-wave-plate. The circular depolarization ratio (p44/p11) of the scattering matrix is measured in the backward direction by two photomultipliers at 110° scattering angle using a combination of quarter-wave-plate and a beam splitting cube to analyze the two circular polarization components. The detection limit was lowered towards particle size of about 400nm diameter (non activated particles). It is now possible to calculate the activated fraction of IN of biological origin with respect to all biological particles measured with one detector. The performance of the sensor will be demonstrated showing the circular- depolarization properties of different test aerosol, dust samples, volcanic ashes as well as different biological particles. Measurements on the mountain Puy de Dôme of IN number concentration of ambient air, as well as measurements at the AIDA facility in Karlsruhe of the IN activation curves from different bacteria are shown. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the German Research Foundation, Grant: BU 1432/3-2 BU 1432/4-1

  11. ISDSN Sensor System Phase One Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gail Heath

    2011-09-01

    This Phase 1 Test Report documents the test activities and results completed for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) sensor systems that will be deployed in the meso-scale test bed (MSTB) at Florida International University (FIU), as outlined in the ISDSN-MSTB Test Plan. This report captures the sensor system configuration tested; test parameters, testing procedure, any noted changes from the implementation plan, acquired test data sets, and processed results.

  12. JCID Compliant Thin Server for Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    JCID SST Insertion Project (JSP) is a team effort between a group at Penn State’s Applied Research Lab and Lattice/RTI of Herndon, VA to integrate a...Applied Research Lab and Lattice/RTI of Herndon, VA to integrate a flexible table-based sensor configuration capability into the the JCID/JWARN...ARO JCID Compliant Thin Server for Sensors D.C. Swanson The Applied Research Laboratory The Pennsylvania State University POB 30 State College

  13. NDE Activity at Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.

    1993-01-01

    None, This is a viewgraph outline from an oral presentation. From Intro.: Our speaker will review the NDE technology under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Emphasis will be given to Ultrasonics and application of sensors to space technology. Further, the efforts of JPL in technology transfer to the industry in the area of NDE will be covered.

  14. Studying insect motion with piezoelectric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mika, Bartosz; Lee, Hyungoo; González, Jorge M.; Vinson, S. Bradleigh; Liang, Hong

    2007-04-01

    Piezoelectric materials have been widely used in applications such as transducers, acoustic components, as well as motion, pressure and airborne sensors. Because of the material's biocompatibility and flexibility, we have been able to apply small piezoelectric sensors, made of PVDF, to cockroaches. We built a laboratory test system to study the piezoelectric properties of a bending sensor. The tested motion was compared with that of the sensor attached to a cockroach. Surface characterization and finite element analysis revealed the effects of microstructure on piezoelectric response. The sensor attachment enables us to monitor the insects' locomotion and study their behaviors. The applications of engineering materials to insects opens the door to innovating approaches to integrating biological, mechanical and electrical systems.

  15. Handheld interface for miniature sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedia, Sunny; Samson, Scott A.; Farmer, Andrew; Smith, Matthew C.; Fries, David; Bhansali, Shekhar

    2005-02-01

    Miniaturization of laboratory sensors has been enabled by continued evolution of technology. Field portable systems are often desired, because they reduce sample handling, provide rapid feedback capability, and enhance convenience. Fieldable sensor systems should include a method for initiating the analysis, storing and displaying the results, while consuming minimal power and being compact and portable. Low cost will allow widespread usage of these systems. In this paper, we discuss a reconfigurable Personal Data Assistant (PDA) based control and data collection system for use with miniature sensors. The system is based on the Handspring visor PDA and a custom designed motherboard, which connects directly to the PDA microprocessor. The PDA provides a convenient and low cost graphical user interface, moderate processing capability, and integrated battery power. The low power motherboard provides the voltage levels, data collection, and input/output (I/O) capabilities required by many MEMS and miniature sensors. These capabilities are relayed to connectors, where an application specific daughterboard is attached. In this paper, two applications are demonstrated. First, a handheld nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) detection sensor consisting of a heated and optical fluorescence detection system is discussed. Second, an electrostatically actuated MEMS micro mirror controller is realized.

  16. INL Subsurface Wireless Sensor Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis C. Kunerth; John M. Svoboda; James T. Johnson

    2005-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory is developing a versatile micro-power sensor interface platform for periodic subsurface sensing of environmental variables important to waste disposal sites such as volumetric moisture, water potential, and temperature. The key characteristics of the platform architecture are that the platform is passive until externally energized --no internal power source is required -- and that it communicates with a "reader" via short-range telemetry - no wires penetrate the subsurface. Other significant attributes include the potential for a long service life and a compact size that makes it well suited for retrofitting existing landfill structures. Functionally, the sensor package is "read" by a short-range induction coil that activates and powers the sensor platform as well as detects the sensor output via a radio frequency signal generated by the onboard programmable interface controller microchip. As a result, the platform has a functional subsurface communication range of approximately 10 to 12 ft. and can only accept sensors that require low power to operate.

  17. Sensors in Spray Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauchais, P.; Vardelle, M.

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents what is our actual knowledge about sensors, used in the harsh environment of spray booths, to improve the reproducibility and reliability of coatings sprayed with hot or cold gases. First are described, with their limitations and precisions, the different sensors following the in-flight hot particle parameters (trajectories, temperatures, velocities, sizes, and shapes). A few comments are also made about techniques, still under developments in laboratories, to improve our understanding of coating formation such as plasma jet temperature measurements in non-symmetrical conditions, hot gases heat flux, particles flattening and splats formation, particles evaporation. Then are described the illumination techniques by laser flash of either cold particles (those injected in hot gases, or in cold spray gun) or liquid injected into hot gases (suspensions or solutions). The possibilities they open to determine the flux and velocities of cold particles or visualize liquid penetration in the core of hot gases are discussed. Afterwards are presented sensors to follow, when spraying hot particles, substrate and coating temperature evolution, and the stress development within coatings during the spray process as well as the coating thickness. The different uses of these sensors are then described with successively: (i) Measurements limited to particle trajectories, velocities, temperatures, and sizes in different spray conditions: plasma (including transient conditions due to arc root fluctuations in d.c. plasma jets), HVOF, wire arc, cold spray. Afterwards are discussed how such sensor data can be used to achieve a better understanding of the different spray processes, compare experiments to calculations and improve the reproducibility and reliability of the spray conditions. (ii) Coatings monitoring through in-flight measurements coupled with those devoted to coatings formation. This is achieved by either maintaining at their set point both in-flight and

  18. Optimization Strategies for Sensor and Actuator Placement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Kincaid, Rex K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of actuator and sensor placement problems from a wide range of engineering disciplines and a variety of applications. Combinatorial optimization methods are recommended as a means for identifying sets of actuators and sensors that maximize performance. Several sample applications from NASA Langley Research Center, such as active structural acoustic control, are covered in detail. Laboratory and flight tests of these applications indicate that actuator and sensor placement methods are effective and important. Lessons learned in solving these optimization problems can guide future research.

  19. The Parray as an Acoustic Sensor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-07

    AD-A87 071 TEXAS UV Al AUSTIN APPLIED RESEARCH LABS F/B 17/1 HE PARRAY S N ACOUSTIC SENSOR.IU JUL 80 T B GOLOSBERRY N00039-78-C 0209 UNCLASSIFIED...ARLTRSDW CPY s THE PARRAY M* lACOUSIC SENSOR TOMMY G. Gotdv APPLIED RESEARCH_ LABORATORIES Pmopme x~mAUST. TEXA Wig - APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE...DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY WASHINGTON, DC 2M0 La -I2 - I , " " .C ’ THE PARRAY AS AN ACOUSTIC SENSOR • J by Tommy G i Goldsberry APPLIED RESEAkRCH

  20. Hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Duan, Yixiang; Jia, Quanxi; Cao, Wenqing

    2010-11-23

    A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

  1. Influenza sensor

    DOEpatents

    Swanson, Basil I.; Song, Xuedong; Unkefer, Clifford; Silks, III, Louis A.; Schmidt, Jurgen G.

    2003-09-30

    A sensor for the detection of tetrameric multivalent neuraminidase within a sample is disclosed, where a positive detection indicates the presence of a target virus within the sample. Also disclosed is a trifunctional composition of matter including a trifunctional linker moiety with groups bonded thereto including (a) an alkyl chain adapted for attachment to a substrate, (b) a fluorescent moiety capable of generating a fluorescent signal, and (c) a recognition moiety having a spacer group of a defined length thereon, the recognition moiety capable of binding with tetrameric multivalent neuraminidase.

  2. Influenza Sensor

    DOEpatents

    Swanson, Basil I.; Song, Xuedong; Unkefer, Clifford; Silks, III, Louis A.; Schmidt, Jurgen G.

    2005-05-17

    A sensor for the detection of tetrameric multivalent neuraminidase within a sample is disclosed, where a positive detection indicates the presence of a target virus within the sample. Also disclosed is a trifunctional composition of matter including a trifunctional linker moiety with groups bonded thereto including (a) an alkyl chain adapted for attachment to a substrate, (b) a fluorescent moiety capable of generating a fluorescent signal, and (c) a recognition moiety having a spacer group of a defined length thereon, the recognition moiety capable of binding with tetrameric multivalent neuraminidase.

  3. Influenza Sensor

    DOEpatents

    Swanson, Basil I.; Song, Xuedong; Unkefer, Clifford; Silks, III, Louis A.; Schmidt, Jurgen G.

    2006-03-28

    A sensor for the detection of tetrameric multivalent neuraminidase within a sample is disclosed, where a positive detection indicates the presence of a target virus within the sample. Also disclosed is a trifunctional composition of matter including a trifunctional linker moiety with groups bonded thereto including (a) an alkyl chain adapted for attachment to a substrate, (b) a fluorescent moiety capable of generating a fluorescent signal, and (c) a recognition moiety having a spacer group of a defined length thereon, the recognition moiety capable of binding with tetrameric multivalent neuraminidase.

  4. Robot Position Sensor Fault Tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldridge, Hal A.

    1997-01-01

    Robot systems in critical applications, such as those in space and nuclear environments, must be able to operate during component failure to complete important tasks. One failure mode that has received little attention is the failure of joint position sensors. Current fault tolerant designs require the addition of directly redundant position sensors which can affect joint design. A new method is proposed that utilizes analytical redundancy to allow for continued operation during joint position sensor failure. Joint torque sensors are used with a virtual passive torque controller to make the robot joint stable without position feedback and improve position tracking performance in the presence of unknown link dynamics and end-effector loading. Two Cartesian accelerometer based methods are proposed to determine the position of the joint. The joint specific position determination method utilizes two triaxial accelerometers attached to the link driven by the joint with the failed position sensor. The joint specific method is not computationally complex and the position error is bounded. The system wide position determination method utilizes accelerometers distributed on different robot links and the end-effector to determine the position of sets of multiple joints. The system wide method requires fewer accelerometers than the joint specific method to make all joint position sensors fault tolerant but is more computationally complex and has lower convergence properties. Experiments were conducted on a laboratory manipulator. Both position determination methods were shown to track the actual position satisfactorily. A controller using the position determination methods and the virtual passive torque controller was able to servo the joints to a desired position during position sensor failure.

  5. Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and Hardware Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    ARL-TN-0779 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and... Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and Hardware Development by Neal Tesny Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and Hardware Development 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  6. Force sensor

    DOEpatents

    Grahn, A.R.

    1993-05-11

    A force sensor and related method for determining force components is described. The force sensor includes a deformable medium having a contact surface against which a force can be applied, a signal generator for generating signals that travel through the deformable medium to the contact surface, a signal receptor for receiving the signal reflected from the contact surface, a generation controller, a reception controller, and a force determination apparatus. The signal generator has one or more signal generation regions for generating the signals. The generation controller selects and activates the signal generation regions. The signal receptor has one or more signal reception regions for receiving signals and for generating detections signals in response thereto. The reception controller selects signal reception regions and detects the detection signals. The force determination apparatus measures signal transit time by timing activation and detection and, optionally, determines force components for selected cross-field intersections. The timer which times by activation and detection can be any means for measuring signal transit time. A cross-field intersection is defined by the overlap of a signal generation region and a signal reception region.

  7. Force sensor

    DOEpatents

    Grahn, Allen R.

    1993-01-01

    A force sensor and related method for determining force components. The force sensor includes a deformable medium having a contact surface against which a force can be applied, a signal generator for generating signals that travel through the deformable medium to the contact surface, a signal receptor for receiving the signal reflected from the contact surface, a generation controller, a reception controller, and a force determination apparatus. The signal generator has one or more signal generation regions for generating the signals. The generation controller selects and activates the signal generation regions. The signal receptor has one or more signal reception regions for receiving signals and for generating detections signals in response thereto. The reception controller selects signal reception regions and detects the detection signals. The force determination apparatus measures signal transit time by timing activation and detection and, optionally, determines force components for selected cross-field intersections. The timer which times by activation and detection can be any means for measuring signal transit time. A cross-field intersection is defined by the overlap of a signal generation region and a signal reception region.

  8. Microcantilever sensor

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, T.G.; Wachter, E.A.

    1998-02-17

    An improved microcantilever sensor is fabricated with at least one microcantilever attached to a piezoelectric transducer. The microcantilever is partially surface treated with a compound selective substance having substantially exclusive affinity for a targeted compound in a monitored atmosphere. The microcantilever sensor is also provided with a frequency detection means and a bending detection means. The frequency detection means is capable of detecting changes in the resonance frequency of the vibrated microcantilever in the monitored atmosphere. The bending detection means is capable of detecting changes in the bending of the vibrated microcantilever in the monitored atmosphere coactively with the frequency detection means. The piezoelectric transducer is excited by an oscillator means which provides a signal driving the transducer at a resonance frequency inducing a predetermined order of resonance on the partially treated microcantilever. Upon insertion into a monitored atmosphere, molecules of the targeted chemical attach to the treated regions of the microcantilever resulting in a change in oscillating mass as well as a change in microcantilever spring constant thereby influencing the resonant frequency of the microcantilever oscillation. Furthermore, the molecular attachment of the target chemical to the treated regions induce areas of mechanical strain in the microcantilever consistent with the treated regions thereby influencing microcantilever bending. The rate at which the treated microcantilever accumulates the target chemical is a function of the target chemical concentration. Consequently, the extent of microcantilever oscillation frequency change and bending is related to the concentration of target chemical within the monitored atmosphere. 16 figs.

  9. Microcantilever sensor

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas G.; Wachter, Eric A.

    1998-01-01

    An improved microcantilever sensor is fabricated with at least one microcantilever attached to a piezoelectric transducer. The microcantilever is partially surface treated with a compound selective substance having substantially exclusive affinity for a targeted compound in a monitored atmosphere. The microcantilever sensor is also provided with a frequency detection means and a bending detection means. The frequency detection means is capable of detecting changes in the resonance frequency of the vibrated microcantilever in the monitored atmosphere. The bending detection means is capable of detecting changes in the bending of the vibrated microcantilever in the monitored atmosphere coactively with the frequency detection means. The piezoelectric transducer is excited by an oscillator means which provides a signal driving the transducer at a resonance frequency inducing a predetermined order of resonance on the partially treated microcantilever. Upon insertion into a monitored atmosphere, molecules of the targeted chemical attach to the treated regions of the microcantilever resulting in a change in oscillating mass as well as a change in microcantilever spring constant thereby influencing the resonant frequency of the microcantilever oscillation. Furthermore, the molecular attachment of the target chemical to the treated regions induce areas of mechanical strain in the microcantilever consistent with the treated regions thereby influencing microcantilever bending. The rate at which the treated microcantilever accumulates the target chemical is a function of the target chemical concentration. Consequently, the extent of microcantilever oscillation frequency change and bending is related to the concentration of target chemical within the monitored atmosphere.

  10. Semiconductor sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, Harry C. (Inventor); Lagowski, Jacek (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A semiconductor sensor adapted to detect with a high degree of sensitivity small magnitudes of a mechanical force, presence of traces of a gas or light. The sensor includes a high energy gap (i.e., .about. 1.0 electron volts) semiconductor wafer. Mechanical force is measured by employing a non-centrosymmetric material for the semiconductor. Distortion of the semiconductor by the force creates a contact potential difference (cpd) at the semiconductor surface, and this cpd is determined to give a measure of the force. When such a semiconductor is subjected to illumination with an energy less than the energy gap of the semiconductors, such illumination also creates a cpd at the surface. Detection of this cpd is employed to sense the illumination itself or, in a variation of the system, to detect a gas. When either a gas or light is to be detected and a crystal of a non-centrosymmetric material is employed, the presence of gas or light, in appropriate circumstances, results in a strain within the crystal which distorts the same and the distortion provides a mechanism for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the gas or the light, as the case may be.

  11. Good laboratory practice and laboratory accreditation.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, J; McQuaker, N

    1993-12-01

    Principles of good laboratory practice (GLP) and laboratory accreditation programs, particularly as they pertain to the environmental sector, are reviewed. The multitude of programs is proving costly for many laboratories and there is mounting pressure to develop reciprocity agreements between programs and to consolidate nationally and internationally. Inclusion of GLP and laboratory accreditation requirements in government regulations is resulting in a significantly increased number of laboratories participating in these programs.

  12. Handheld Universal Diagnostic Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    The rHEALTH technology is designed to shrink an entire hospital testing laboratory onto a handheld device. A physician or healthcare provider performs the test by collecting a fingerstick of blood from a patient. The tiny volume of blood is inserted into the rHEALTH device. Inside the device is a microfluidic chip that contains small channels about the width of a human hair. These channels help move the blood and analyze the blood sample. The rHEALTH sensor uses proprietary reagents called nanostrips, which are nanoscale test strips that enable the clinical assays. The readout is performed by laser-induced fluorescence. Overall, the time from blood collection through analysis is less than a minute.

  13. Echosonography with proximity sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaisiam, W.; Laithong, T.; Meekhun, S.; Chaiwathyothin, N.; Thanlarp, P.; Danworaphong, S.

    2013-03-01

    We propose the use of a commercial ultrasonic proximity sensor kit for profiling an altitude-varying surface by employing echosonography. The proximity sensor kit, two identical transducers together with its dedicated operating circuit, is used as a profiler for the construction of an image. Ultrasonic pulses are emitted from one of the transducers and received by the other. The time duration between the pulses allows us to determine the traveling distance of each pulse. In the experiment, the circuit is used with the addition of two copper wires for directing the outgoing and incoming signals to an oscilloscope. The time of flight of ultrasonic pulses can thus be determined. Square grids of 5 × 5 cm2 are made from fishing lines, forming pixels in the image. The grids are designed to hold the detection unit in place, about 30 cm above a flat surface. The surface to be imaged is constructed to be height varying and placed on the flat surface underneath the grids. Our result shows that an image of the profiled surface can be created by varying the location of the detection unit along the grid. We also investigate the deviation in relation to the time of flight of the ultrasonic pulse. Such an experiment should be valuable for conveying the concept of ultrasonic imaging to physical and medical science undergraduate students. Due to its simplicity, the setup could be made in any undergraduate laboratory relatively inexpensively and it requires no complex parts. The results illustrate the concept of echosonography.

  14. Terminal Descent Sensor Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Curtis W.

    2009-01-01

    Sulcata software simulates the operation of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) radar terminal descent sensor (TDS). The program models TDS radar antennas, RF hardware, and digital processing, as well as the physics of scattering from a coherent ground surface. This application is specific to this sensor and is flexible enough to handle end-to-end design validation. Sulcata is a high-fidelity simulation and is used for performance evaluation, anomaly resolution, and design validation. Within the trajectory frame, almost all internal vectors are represented in whatever coordinate system is used to represent platform position. The trajectory frame must be planet-fixed. The platform body frame is specified relative to arbitrary reference points relative to the platform (spacecraft or test vehicle). Its rotation is a function of time from the trajectory coordinate system specified via dynamics input (file for open loop, callback for closed loop). Orientation of the frame relative to the body is arbitrary, but constant over time. The TDS frame must have a constant rotation and translation from the platform body frame specified at run time. The DEM frame has an arbitrary, but time-constant, rotation and translation with respect to the simulation frame specified at run time. It has the same orientation as sigma0 frame, but is possibly translated. Surface sigma0 has the same arbitrary rotation and translation as DEM frame.

  15. Sensors for Entertainment.

    PubMed

    Lamberti, Fabrizio; Sanna, Andrea; Rokne, Jon

    2016-07-15

    Sensors are becoming ubiquitous in all areas of science, technology, and society. In this Special Issue on "Sensors for Entertainment", developments in progress and the current state of application scenarios for sensors in the field of entertainment is explored.

  16. Sensors, Update 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    1996-12-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Treatments include current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Furthermore, the sensor market as well as peripheral aspects such as standards are covered. Each volume is divided into four sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides an overview of suppliers and market trends for a particular section, and Sensor Standards, reviews recent legislation and requirements for sensors. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  17. Assessment of Sensor Technologies for Advanced Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, Kofi; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Vlim, R.; Kisner, Roger A.; Britton, Jr, Charles L.; Wootan, D. W.; Anheier, Jr, N. C.; Diaz, A. A.; Hirt, E. H.; Chien, H. T.; Sheen, S.; Bakhtiari, Sasan; Gopalsami, S.; Heifetz, A.; Tam, S. W.; Park, Y.; Upadhyaya, B. R.; Stanford, A.

    2016-10-01

    Sensors and measurement technologies provide information on processes, support operations and provide indications of component health. They are therefore crucial to plant operations and to commercialization of advanced reactors (AdvRx). This report, developed by a three-laboratory team consisting of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), provides an assessment of sensor technologies and a determination of measurement needs for AdvRx. It provides the technical basis for identifying and prioritizing research targets within the instrumentation and control (I&C) Technology Area under the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Reactor Technology (ART) program and contributes to the design and implementation of AdvRx concepts.

  18. Next-generation PIR security sensors: concept testing and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddiard, Kevin C.

    2009-05-01

    In previous presentations to this SPIE forum a new technology was outlined aimed at replacing pyroelectric sensors with resistance microbolometer MOEMS-based sensors capable of vastly superior performance. The technology can be implemented as either a PCB replacement to current sensors, giving extended detection range and ability to sense slow temperature change, or a 'smart' sensor with further performance enhancements and imaging capability. This paper reports the results of new laboratory and field tests of a laboratory prototype sensor and extrapolates these results to performance of production sensors. In particular, results are presented for NETD, detection range for human targets and detection of simulated electrical faults and developing fires. Previous results were reported for FPA operated without evacuation and using a low cost plastic Fresnel lens. However with wafer level packaging now becoming widely available in MEMS and CMOS foundries, much high performance can be achieved, opening up many additional applications. Performance of new FPAs designed for vacuum packaging is highlighted.

  19. Mass Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.E.

    2001-01-18

    The purpose of this CRADA was to use Honeywell's experience in low temperature cofire ceramics and traditional ceramics to assemble a relatively low-cost, mass-producible miniature mass analyzer. The specific design, given to us by Mass Sensors, LLC, was used to test for helium. The direct benefit for the participant was to have a prototype unit assembled for the purpose of proof of concept and the ability to secure venture capital investors. From that, the company would begin producing their own product for sale. The consumer/taxpayer benefits come from the wide variety of industries that can utilize this technology to improve quality of life. Medical industry can use this technology to improve diagnostic ability; manufacturing industry can use it for improved air, water, and soil monitoring to minimize pollution; and the law enforcement community can use this technology for identification of substances. These are just a few examples of the benefit of this technology. The benefits to DOE were in the area of process improvement for cofire and ceramic materials. From this project we demonstrated nonlinear thickfilm fine lines and spaces that were 5-mil wide with 5-mil spaces; determined height-to diameter-ratios for punched and filled via holes; demonstrated the ability to punch and fill 5-mil microvias; developed and demonstrated the capability to laser cut difficult geometries in 40-mil ceramic; developed and demonstrated coupling LTCC with standard alumina and achieving hermetic seals; developed and demonstrated three-dimensional electronic packaging concepts; and demonstrated printing variable resistors within 1% of the nominal value and within a tightly defined ratio. The capability of this device makes it invaluable for many industries. The device could be used to monitor air samples around manufacturing plants. It also could be used for monitoring automobile exhaust, for doing blood gas analysis, for sampling gases being emitted by volcanoes, for studying

  20. Development of a Portable DNA Sensor System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    DEVELOPMENT OF A PORTABLE DNA SENSOR SYSTEM J.J. Sumner* U.S. Army Research Laboratory Adelphi, MD 20783 P. Freudenthal Nanex,LLC Santa...Barbara, CA 93106 C.D. Meinhart , H.T. Soh, and K.W. Plaxco University of California, Santa Barbara Santa Barbara, CA 93106 ABSTRACT A...was lead by Nanex LLC with co-investigators from the US Army Research Laboratory and the University of California, Santa Barbara. This analyzer

  1. Improved, Easier-To-Use Tunneling Infrared Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Richard E.; Maker, Paul D.; Vote, Erika C.; Kaiser, William J.; Kenny, Thomas W.; Podosek, Judith A.

    1995-01-01

    Designs of electron-tunneling infrared sensors and micromachining processes used to fabricate them modified to increase sensitivity and to simplify operation, adjustment, and associated circuitry. Corrugations, pinholes, and standard packaging incorporated into design. Deflection voltages reduced, and thermal drifts eliminated. Performances exceed those of other commercially available, uncooled infrared sensors. Operation of sensors simplified to such extent, now feasible to ship them to nonexpert users for routine testing and evaluation in their laboratories.

  2. Distributed sensor coordination for advanced energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tumer, Kagan

    2015-03-12

    Motivation: The ability to collect key system level information is critical to the safe, efficient and reliable operation of advanced power systems. Recent advances in sensor technology have enabled some level of decision making directly at the sensor level. However, coordinating large numbers of sensors, particularly heterogeneous sensors, to achieve system level objectives such as predicting plant efficiency, reducing downtime or predicting outages requires sophisticated coordination algorithms. Indeed, a critical issue in such systems is how to ensure the interaction of a large number of heterogenous system components do not interfere with one another and lead to undesirable behavior. Objectives and Contributions: The long-term objective of this work is to provide sensor deployment, coordination and networking algorithms for large numbers of sensors to ensure the safe, reliable, and robust operation of advanced energy systems. Our two specific objectives are to: 1. Derive sensor performance metrics for heterogeneous sensor networks. 2. Demonstrate effectiveness, scalability and reconfigurability of heterogeneous sensor network in advanced power systems. The key technical contribution of this work is to push the coordination step to the design of the objective functions of the sensors, allowing networks of heterogeneous sensors to be controlled. By ensuring that the control and coordination is not specific to particular sensor hardware, this approach enables the design and operation of large heterogeneous sensor networks. In addition to the coordination coordination mechanism, this approach allows the system to be reconfigured in response to changing needs (e.g., sudden external events requiring new responses) or changing sensor network characteristics (e.g., sudden changes to plant condition). Impact: The impact of this work extends to a large class of problems relevant to the National Energy Technology Laboratory including sensor placement, heterogeneous sensor

  3. Building battlefield sensor environments with the VIEWS Workbench

    SciTech Connect

    Hield, C.W.; Christiansen, J.H.; Simunich, K.L.; Woyna, M.A.

    1993-08-01

    The visual Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Simulation (VIEWS) Workbench software system has been developed by Argonne National Laboratory to enable Army intelligence and electronic warfare (IEW) analysts at (UNIX) workstations to conveniently build detailed IEW battlefield scenarios, or ``sensor environments,`` to drive the Army`s high-resolution IEW sensor performance models. Views is fully object-oriented, including the underlying database.

  4. Performance Evaluation Modeling of Network Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clare, Loren P.; Jennings, Esther H.; Gao, Jay L.

    2003-01-01

    Substantial benefits are promised by operating many spatially separated sensors collectively. Such systems are envisioned to consist of sensor nodes that are connected by a communications network. A simulation tool is being developed to evaluate the performance of networked sensor systems, incorporating such metrics as target detection probabilities, false alarms rates, and classification confusion probabilities. The tool will be used to determine configuration impacts associated with such aspects as spatial laydown, and mixture of different types of sensors (acoustic, seismic, imaging, magnetic, RF, etc.), and fusion architecture. The QualNet discrete-event simulation environment serves as the underlying basis for model development and execution. This platform is recognized for its capabilities in efficiently simulating networking among mobile entities that communicate via wireless media. We are extending QualNet's communications modeling constructs to capture the sensing aspects of multi-target sensing (analogous to multiple access communications), unimodal multi-sensing (broadcast), and multi-modal sensing (multiple channels and correlated transmissions). Methods are also being developed for modeling the sensor signal sources (transmitters), signal propagation through the media, and sensors (receivers) that are consistent with the discrete event paradigm needed for performance determination of sensor network systems. This work is supported under the Microsensors Technical Area of the Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Advanced Sensors Collaborative Technology Alliance.

  5. Leak Detection and H2 Sensor Development

    SciTech Connect

    Brosha, Eric L.

    2012-07-10

    Low-cost, durable, and reliable Hydrogen safety sensor for vehicle, stationary, and infrastructure applications. A new zirconia, electrochemical-based sensor technology is being transitioned out of the laboratory and into an advanced testing phase for vehicular and stationary H{sub 2} safety applications. Mixed potential sensors are a class of electrochemical devices that develop an open-circuit electromotive force due to the difference in the kinetics of the redox reactions of various gaseous species at each electrode/electrolyte/gas interface, referred to as the triple phase boundary (TPB). Therefore, these sensors have been considered for the sensing of various reducible or oxidizable gas species in the presence of oxygen. Based on this principle, a unique sensor design was developed by LANL and LLNL. The uniqueness of this sensor derives from minimizing heterogeneous catalysis (detrimental to sensor response) by avoiding gas diffusion through a catalytically active material and minimizing diffusion path to the TPB. Unlike the conventional design of these devices that use a dense solid electrolyte and porous thin film electrodes (similar to the current state-of-the-art zirconia-based sensors and fuel cells), the design of this sensor uses dense electrodes and porous electrolytes. Such a sensor design facilitates a stable and reproducible device response, since dense electrode morphologies are easy to reproduce and are significantly more stable than the conventional porous morphologies. Moreover, these sensors develop higher mixed potentials since the gas diffusion is through the less catalytically active electrolyte than the electrode. Lastly, the choice of electrodes is primarily based on their O2 reduction kinetics and catalytic properties vis-a-vis the target gas of interest.

  6. Transducer Signal Noise Analysis for Sensor Authentication

    SciTech Connect

    John M. Svoboda; Mark J. Schanfein

    2012-07-01

    The abstract is being passed through STIMS for submision to the conference. International safeguards organizations charged with promoting the peaceful use of nuclear energy employ unattended and remote monitoring systems supplemented with onsite inspections to ensure nuclear materials are not diverted for weaponization purposes. These systems are left unattended for periods of several months between inspections. During these periods physical security means are the main deterrent used to detect intentional monitoring system tampering. The information gathering components are locked in secure and sealed rooms. The sensor components (i.e. neutron and gamma detectors) are located throughout the plant in unsecure areas where sensor tampering could take place during the periods between inspections. Sensor tampering could allow the diversion of nuclear materials from the accepted and intended use to uses not consistent with the peaceful use of nuclear energy. A method and an apparatus is presented that address the detection of sensor tampering during the periods between inspections. It was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Department of Energy (DOE) in support of the IAEA. The method is based on the detailed analysis of the sensor noise floor after the sensor signal is removed. The apparatus consists of a 2.1” x 2.6” electronic circuit board containing all signal conditioning and processing components and a laptop computer running an application that acquires and stores the analysis results between inspection periods. The sensors do not require any modification and are remotely located in their normal high radiation zones. The apparatus interfaces with the sensor signal conductors using a simple pass through connector at the normal sensor electronics interface package located in the already secure and sealed rooms. The apparatus does not require hardening against the effects of radiation due to its location. Presented is the apparatus design

  7. Multi-Sensor Testing for Automated Rendezvous and Docking Sensor Testing at the Flight Robotics Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewster, Linda L.; Howard, Richard T.; Johnston, A. S.; Carrington, Connie; Mitchell, Jennifer D.; Cryan, Scott P.

    2008-01-01

    The Exploration Systems Architecture defines missions that require rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking (RPOD) of two spacecraft both in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and in Low Lunar Orbit (LLO). Uncrewed spacecraft must perform automated and/or autonomous rendezvous, proximity operations and docking operations (commonly known as AR&D). The crewed missions may also perform rendezvous and docking operations and may require different levels of automation and/or autonomy, and must provide the crew with relative navigation information for manual piloting. The capabilities of the RPOD sensors are critical to the success ofthe Exploration Program. NASA has the responsibility to determine whether the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) contractor-proposed relative navigation sensor suite will meet the requirements. The relatively low technology readiness level of AR&D relative navigation sensors has been carried as one of the CEV Project's top risks. The AR&D Sensor Technology Project seeks to reduce the risk by the testing and analysis of selected relative navigation sensor technologies through hardware-in-the-Ioop testing and simulation. These activities will provide the CEV Project information to assess the relative navigation sensors maturity as well as demonstrate test methods and capabilities. The first year of this project focused on a series of "pathfinder" testing tasks to develop the test plans, test facility requirements, trajectories, math model architecture, simulation platform, and processes that will be used to evaluate the Contractor-proposed sensors. Four candidate sensors were used in the first phase of the testing. The second phase of testing used four sensors simultaneously: two Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Video Guidance Sensors (AVGS), a laser-based video sensor that uses retroreflectors attached to the target vehicle, and two commercial laser range finders. The multi-sensor testing was conducted at MSFC's Flight Robotics Laboratory (FRL

  8. Optical fiber sensors for spacecraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friebele, E. J.; Askins, C. G.; Bosse, A. B.; Kersey, A. D.; Patrick, H. J.; Pogue, W. R.; Putnam, M. A.; Simon, W. R.; Tasker, F. A.; Vincent, W. S.; Vohra, S. T.

    1999-12-01

    Optical fiber sensors offer a number of advantages for spacecraft applications. A principal application is strain sensing for structural health monitoring, shape determination, and spacecraft qualification testing. This paper will review the results of recent work at the Naval Research Laboratory where optical fiber strain sensors have been used on spacecraft structures and ground test hardware. The sensors have been both surface mounted to the structure and embedded in fiber-reinforced polymer composites. The issue of potential strength reduction of high-performance composites due to embedded optical fiber sensors and leads has been studied, low-cost fabrication of tubular struts with embedded sensors has been demonstrated, and a novel technique for fiber ingress-egress from composite parts has been developed. Applications of fiber sensors discussed in this paper include distributed dynamic strain monitoring of a honeycomb composite plate and a lightweight reflector during acoustic qualification tests, ultrahigh-sensitivity static strain and temperature measurements for precision structures, and on-line system identification of a lightweight laboratory truss.

  9. Orlando 737 Windshear Sensor Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center's 737 'flying laboratory' flight tested three advance warning windshear sensors. The laser beams seen in the photograph were used to align the optical hardware of the infrared (located in front of the windows) and LIDAR (Light Detecting And Ranging) systems. In addition, a microwave doppler radar system is installed in the aircraft nose.

  10. Description of the Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Jeffrey P.; Rallo, Rosemary A.

    1987-01-01

    A laboratory facility for the study of control laws for large flexible spacecraft is described. The facility fulfills the requirements of the Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) design challenge for laboratory experiments, which will allow slew maneuvers and pointing operations. The structural apparatus is described in detail sufficient for modelling purposes. The sensor and actuator types and characteristics are described so that identification and control algorithms may be designed. The control implementation computer and real-time subroutines are also described.

  11. Description of the Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Jeffrey P.; Rallo, Rosemary A.

    1987-01-01

    A laboratory facility for the study of control laws for large flexible spacecraft is described. The facility fulfills the requirements of the Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) design challenge for a laboratory experiment, which will allow slew maneuvers and pointing operations. The structural apparatus is described in detail sufficient for modelling purposes. The sensor and actuator types and characteristics are described so that identification and control algorithms may be designed. The control implementation computer and real-time subroutines are also described.

  12. Active self-testing noise measurement sensors for large-scale environmental sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Federico; Cuong, Nguyen The; Reinoso, Felipe; Touhafi, Abdellah; Steenhaut, Kris

    2013-12-13

    Large-scale noise pollution sensor networks consist of hundreds of spatially distributed microphones that measure environmental noise. These networks provide historical and real-time environmental data to citizens and decision makers and are therefore a key technology to steer environmental policy. However, the high cost of certified environmental microphone sensors render large-scale environmental networks prohibitively expensive. Several environmental network projects have started using off-the-shelf low-cost microphone sensors to reduce their costs, but these sensors have higher failure rates and produce lower quality data. To offset this disadvantage, we developed a low-cost noise sensor that actively checks its condition and indirectly the integrity of the data it produces. The main design concept is to embed a 13 mm speaker in the noise sensor casing and, by regularly scheduling a frequency sweep, estimate the evolution of the microphone's frequency response over time. This paper presents our noise sensor's hardware and software design together with the results of a test deployment in a large-scale environmental network in Belgium. Our middle-range-value sensor (around €50) effectively detected all experienced malfunctions, in laboratory tests and outdoor deployments, with a few false positives. Future improvements could further lower the cost of our sensor below €10.

  13. Active Self-Testing Noise Measurement Sensors for Large-Scale Environmental Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, Federico; Cuong, Nguyen The; Reinoso, Felipe; Touhafi, Abdellah; Steenhaut, Kris

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale noise pollution sensor networks consist of hundreds of spatially distributed microphones that measure environmental noise. These networks provide historical and real-time environmental data to citizens and decision makers and are therefore a key technology to steer environmental policy. However, the high cost of certified environmental microphone sensors render large-scale environmental networks prohibitively expensive. Several environmental network projects have started using off-the-shelf low-cost microphone sensors to reduce their costs, but these sensors have higher failure rates and produce lower quality data. To offset this disadvantage, we developed a low-cost noise sensor that actively checks its condition and indirectly the integrity of the data it produces. The main design concept is to embed a 13 mm speaker in the noise sensor casing and, by regularly scheduling a frequency sweep, estimate the evolution of the microphone's frequency response over time. This paper presents our noise sensor's hardware and software design together with the results of a test deployment in a large-scale environmental network in Belgium. Our middle-range-value sensor (around €50) effectively detected all experienced malfunctions, in laboratory tests and outdoor deployments, with a few false positives. Future improvements could further lower the cost of our sensor below €10. PMID:24351634

  14. Multi-sensor fusion development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bish, Sheldon; Rohrer, Matthew; Scheffel, Peter; Bennett, Kelly

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and McQ Inc. are developing a generic sensor fusion architecture that involves several diverse processes working in combination to create a dynamic task-oriented, real-time informational capability. Processes include sensor data collection, persistent and observational data storage, and multimodal and multisensor fusion that includes the flexibility to modify the fusion program rules for each mission. Such a fusion engine lends itself to a diverse set of sensing applications and architectures while using open-source software technologies. In this paper, we describe a fusion engine architecture that combines multimodal and multi-sensor fusion within an Open Standard for Unattended Sensors (OSUS) framework. The modular, plug-and-play architecture of OSUS allows future fusion plugin methodologies to have seamless integration into the fusion architecture at the conceptual and implementation level. Although beyond the scope of this paper, this architecture allows for data and information manipulation and filtering for an array of applications.

  15. Remote Attitude Measurement Sensor (RAMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, H. W.

    1989-01-01

    Remote attitude measurement sensor (RAMS) offers a low-cost, low-risk, proven design concept that is based on mature, demonstrated space sensor technology. The electronic design concepts and interpolation algorithms were tested and proven in space hardware like th Retroreflector Field Tracker and various star trackers. The RAMS concept is versatile and has broad applicability to both ground testing and spacecraft needs. It is ideal for use as a precision laboratory sensor for structural dynamics testing. It requires very little set-up or preparation time and the output data is immediately usable without integration or extensive analysis efforts. For on-orbit use, RAMS rivals any other type of dynamic structural sensor (accelerometer, lidar, photogrammetric techniques, etc.) for overall performance, reliability, suitability, and cost. Widespread acceptance and extensive usage of RAMS will occur only after some interested agency, such as OAST, adopts the RAMS concept and provides the funding support necessary for further development and implementation of RAMS for a specific program.

  16. Combustion Sensors: Gas Turbine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Human, Mel

    2002-01-01

    This report documents efforts to survey the current research directions in sensor technology for gas turbine systems. The work is driven by the current and future requirements on system performance and optimization. Accurate real time measurements of velocities, pressure, temperatures, and species concentrations will be required for objectives such as combustion instability attenuation, pollutant reduction, engine health management, exhaust profile control via active control, etc. Changing combustor conditions - engine aging, flow path slagging, or rapid maneuvering - will require adaptive responses; the effectiveness of such will be only as good as the dynamic information available for processing. All of these issues point toward the importance of continued sensor development. For adequate control of the combustion process, sensor data must include information about the above mentioned quantities along with equivalence ratios and radical concentrations, and also include both temporal and spatial velocity resolution. Ultimately these devices must transfer from the laboratory to field installations, and thus must become low weight and cost, reliable and maintainable. A primary conclusion from this study is that the optics-based sensor science will be the primary diagnostic in future gas turbine technologies.

  17. Six component robotic force-torque sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grahn, Allen R.; Hutchings, Brad L.; Johnston, David R.; Parsons, David C.; Wyatt, Roland F.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a two-phase contract studying the feasibility of a miniaturized six component force-torque sensor and development of a working laboratory system were described. The principle of operation is based upon using ultrasonic pulse-echo ranging to determine the position of ultrasonic reflectors attached to a metal or ceramic cover plate. Because of the small size of the sensor, this technology may have application in robotics, to sense forces and torques at the finger tip of a robotic end effector. Descriptions are included of laboratory experiments evaluating materials and techniques for sensor fabrication and of the development of support electronics for data acquisition, computer interface, and operator display.

  18. Carbon Dioxide Sensor Technology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    identify the promising sensor concepts is provided in this section along with the basic conclusions that were reached regarding avail- able sensor techniques ...63 Estimated Operating Characteristics ... .......... 65 Conclusions and Recommendations (SAW) ... ......... 68 Calorimetric Technique ...Desired Sensor Properties. .. .. ... .. ... .. ..... 8 Table 2A. Candidate Sensor Techniques . .. .. ... .. ... .. ... 14 Selected for Further Analysis

  19. Sensor response rate accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Vogt, Michael C.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for sensor signal prediction and for improving sensor signal response time, is disclosed. An adaptive filter or an artificial neural network is utilized to provide predictive sensor signal output and is further used to reduce sensor response time delay.

  20. Wireless ferroelectric resonating sensor.

    PubMed

    Viikari, Ville; Seppa, Heikki; Mattila, Tomi; Alastalo, Ari

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a passive wireless resonating sensor that is based on a ferroelectric varactor. The sensor replies with its data at an intermodulation frequency when a reader device illuminates it at 2 closely located frequencies. The paper derives a theoretical equation for the response of such a sensor, verifies the theory by simulations, and demonstrates a temperature sensor based on a ferroelectric varactor.

  1. Performance of an Ultrasonic Ranging Sensor in Apple Tree Canopies

    PubMed Central

    Escolà, Alexandre; Planas, Santiago; Rosell, Joan Ramon; Pomar, Jesús; Camp, Ferran; Solanelles, Francesc; Gracia, Felip; Llorens, Jordi; Gil, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Electronic canopy characterization is an important issue in tree crop management. Ultrasonic and optical sensors are the most used for this purpose. The objective of this work was to assess the performance of an ultrasonic sensor under laboratory and field conditions in order to provide reliable estimations of distance measurements to apple tree canopies. To this purpose, a methodology has been designed to analyze sensor performance in relation to foliage ranging and to interferences with adjacent sensors when working simultaneously. Results show that the average error in distance measurement using the ultrasonic sensor in laboratory conditions is ±0.53 cm. However, the increase of variability in field conditions reduces the accuracy of this kind of sensors when estimating distances to canopies. The average error in such situations is ±5.11 cm. When analyzing interferences of adjacent sensors 30 cm apart, the average error is ±17.46 cm. When sensors are separated 60 cm, the average error is ±9.29 cm. The ultrasonic sensor tested has been proven to be suitable to estimate distances to the canopy in field conditions when sensors are 60 cm apart or more and could, therefore, be used in a system to estimate structural canopy parameters in precision horticulture. PMID:22163749

  2. Performance of an ultrasonic ranging sensor in apple tree canopies.

    PubMed

    Escolà, Alexandre; Planas, Santiago; Rosell, Joan Ramon; Pomar, Jesús; Camp, Ferran; Solanelles, Francesc; Gracia, Felip; Llorens, Jordi; Gil, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Electronic canopy characterization is an important issue in tree crop management. Ultrasonic and optical sensors are the most used for this purpose. The objective of this work was to assess the performance of an ultrasonic sensor under laboratory and field conditions in order to provide reliable estimations of distance measurements to apple tree canopies. To this purpose, a methodology has been designed to analyze sensor performance in relation to foliage ranging and to interferences with adjacent sensors when working simultaneously. Results show that the average error in distance measurement using the ultrasonic sensor in laboratory conditions is ±0.53 cm. However, the increase of variability in field conditions reduces the accuracy of this kind of sensors when estimating distances to canopies. The average error in such situations is ±5.11 cm. When analyzing interferences of adjacent sensors 30 cm apart, the average error is ±17.46 cm. When sensors are separated 60 cm, the average error is ±9.29 cm. The ultrasonic sensor tested has been proven to be suitable to estimate distances to the canopy in field conditions when sensors are 60 cm apart or more and could, therefore, be used in a system to estimate structural canopy parameters in precision horticulture.

  3. Autonomous collection of dynamically-cued multi-sensor imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, Brian; Wilson, Michael L.; Edelberg, Jason; Jensen, Mark; Johnson, Troy; Anderson, Scott

    2011-05-01

    The availability of imagery simultaneously collected from sensors of disparate modalities enhances an image analyst's situational awareness and expands the overall detection capability to a larger array of target classes. Dynamic cooperation between sensors is increasingly important for the collection of coincident data from multiple sensors either on the same or on different platforms suitable for UAV deployment. Of particular interest is autonomous collaboration between wide area survey detection, high-resolution inspection, and RF sensors that span large segments of the electromagnetic spectrum. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in conjunction with the Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL) is building sensors with such networked communications capability and is conducting field tests to demonstrate the feasibility of collaborative sensor data collection and exploitation. Example survey / detection sensors include: NuSAR (NRL Unmanned SAR), a UAV compatible synthetic aperture radar system; microHSI, an NRL developed lightweight hyper-spectral imager; RASAR (Real-time Autonomous SAR), a lightweight podded synthetic aperture radar; and N-WAPSS-16 (Nighttime Wide-Area Persistent Surveillance Sensor-16Mpix), a MWIR large array gimbaled system. From these sensors, detected target cues are automatically sent to the NRL/SDL developed EyePod, a high-resolution, narrow FOV EO/IR sensor, for target inspection. In addition to this cooperative data collection, EyePod's real-time, autonomous target tracking capabilities will be demonstrated. Preliminary results and target analysis will be presented.

  4. Experimental Robot Position Sensor Fault Tolerance Using Accelerometers and Joint Torque Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldridge, Hal A.; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1997-01-01

    Robot systems in critical applications, such as those in space and nuclear environments, must be able to operate during component failure to complete important tasks. One failure mode that has received little attention is the failure of joint position sensors. Current fault tolerant designs require the addition of directly redundant position sensors which can affect joint design. The proposed method uses joint torque sensors found in most existing advanced robot designs along with easily locatable, lightweight accelerometers to provide a joint position sensor fault recovery mode. This mode uses the torque sensors along with a virtual passive control law for stability and accelerometers for joint position information. Two methods for conversion from Cartesian acceleration to joint position based on robot kinematics, not integration, are presented. The fault tolerant control method was tested on several joints of a laboratory robot. The controllers performed well with noisy, biased data and a model with uncertain parameters.

  5. Nanotube Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEuen, Paul L.

    2002-01-01

    Under this project, we explored the feasibility of utilizing carbon nanotubes in sensing applications. The grant primarily supported a graduate student, who worked on a number of aspects of the electrical properties of carbon nanotubes in collaboration with other researchers in my group. The two major research accomplishments are described below. The first accomplishment is the demonstration that solution carbon nanotube transistors functioned well in an electrolyte environment. This was important for two reasons. First, it allowed us to explore the ultimate limits of nanotube electronic performance by using the electrolyte as a highly effective gate, with a dielectric constant of approximately 80 and an effective insulator thickness of approximately 1 nm. Second, it showed that nanotubes function well under biologically relevant conditions (salty water) and therefore offer great promise as biological sensors. The second accomplishment was the demonstration that a voltage pulse applied to an AFM tip could be used to electrically cut carbon nanotubes. We also showed that a carefully applied pulse could also 'nick' a nanotube, creating a tunnel barrier without completely breaking the tube. Nicking was employed to make, for example, a quantum dot within a nanotube.

  6. Multi-sensor Testing for Automated Rendezvous and Docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Carrington, Connie K.

    2008-01-01

    During the past two years, many sensors have been tested in an open-loop fashion in the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Flight Robotics Laboratory (FRL) to both determine their suitability for use in Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) systems and to ensure the test facility is prepared for future multi-sensor testing. The primary focus of this work was in support of the CEV AR&D system, because the AR&D sensor technology area was identified as one of the top risks in the program. In 2006, four different sensors were tested individually or in a pair in the MSFC FRL. In 2007, four sensors, two each of two different types, were tested simultaneously. In each set of tests, the target was moved through a series of pre-planned trajectories while the sensor tracked it. In addition, a laser tracker "truth" sensor also measured the target motion. The tests demonstrated the functionality of testing four sensors simultaneously as well as the capabilities (both good and bad) of all of the different sensors tested. This paper outlines the test setup and conditions, briefly describes the facility, summarizes the earlier results of the individual sensor tests, and describes in some detail the results of the four-sensor testing. Post-test analysis includes data fusion by minimum variance estimation and sequential Kalman filtering. This Sensor Technology Project work was funded by NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program.

  7. Fiber optic sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, J.; Sohler, W.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of the developments in the field of fiber optics sensor technology is presented along with a discussion of the advantages of optical measuring instruments as compared with electronic sensors. The two primary types of fiber optics sensors, specifically those with multiwave fibers and those with monowave fibers, are described. Examples of each major sensor type are presented and discussed. Multiwave detectors include external and internal fiber optics sensors. Among the monowave detectors are Mach-Zender interferometers, Michelson interferometers, Sagnac interferometers (optical gyroscopes), waveguide resonators, and polarimeter sensors. Integrated optical sensors and their application in spectroscopy are briefly discussed.

  8. Sensors, Update 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    1996-10-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Furthermore, the sensor market as well as peripheral aspects such as standards are covered. Each volume is divided into four sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  9. EDITORIAL: Humidity sensors Humidity sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regtien, Paul P. L.

    2012-01-01

    produced at relatively low cost. Therefore, they find wide use in lots of applications. However, the method requires a material that possesses some conflicting properties: stable and reproducible relations between air humidity, moisture uptake and a specific property (for instance the length of a hair, the electrical impedance of the material), fast absorption and desorption of the water vapour (to obtain a short response time), small hysteresis, wide range of relative humidity (RH) and temperature-independent output (only responsive to RH). For these reasons, much research is done and is still going on to find suitable materials that combine high performance and low price. In this special feature, three of the four papers report on absorption sensors, all with different focus. Aziz et al describe experiments with newly developed materials. The surface structure is extensively studied, in view of its ability to rapidly absorb water vapour and exhibit a reproducible change in the resistance and capacitance of the device. Sanchez et al employ optical fibres coated with a thin moisture-absorbing layer as a sensitive humidity sensor. They have studied various coating materials and investigated the possibility of using changes in optical properties of the fibre (here the lossy mode resonance) due to a change in humidity of the surrounding air. The third paper, by Weremczuk et al, focuses on a cheap fabrication method for absorption-based humidity sensors. The inkjet technology appears to be suitable for mass fabrication of such sensors, which is demonstrated by extensive measurements of the electrical properties (resistance and capacitance) of the absorbing layers. Moreover, they have developed a model that describes the relation between humidity and the electrical parameters of the moisture-sensitive layer. Despite intensive research, absorption sensors still do not meet the requirements for high accuracy applications. The dew-point temperature method is more appropriate

  10. Novel Corrosion Sensor for Vision 21 Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Heng Ban; Bharat Soni

    2007-03-31

    Advanced sensor technology is identified as a key component for advanced power systems for future energy plants that would have virtually no environmental impact. This project intends to develop a novel high temperature corrosion sensor and subsequent measurement system for advanced power systems. Fireside corrosion is the leading mechanism for boiler tube failures and has emerged to be a significant concern for current and future energy plants due to the introduction of technologies targeting emissions reduction, efficiency improvement, or fuel/oxidant flexibility. Corrosion damage can lead to catastrophic equipment failure, explosions, and forced outages. Proper management of corrosion requires real-time indication of corrosion rate. However, short-term, on-line corrosion monitoring systems for fireside corrosion remain a technical challenge to date due to the extremely harsh combustion environment. The overall goal of this project is to develop a technology for on-line fireside corrosion monitoring. This objective is achieved by the laboratory development of sensors and instrumentation, testing them in a laboratory muffle furnace, and eventually testing the system in a coal-fired furnace. This project successfully developed two types of sensors and measurement systems, and successful tested them in a muffle furnace in the laboratory. The capacitance sensor had a high fabrication cost and might be more appropriate in other applications. The low-cost resistance sensor was tested in a power plant burning eastern bituminous coals. The results show that the fireside corrosion measurement system can be used to determine the corrosion rate at waterwall and superheater locations. Electron microscope analysis of the corroded sensor surface provided detailed picture of the corrosion process.

  11. Advanced Sensor Arrays and Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ryter, John Wesley; Romero, Christopher J.; Ramaiyan, Kannan; Brosha, Eric L.

    2016-08-11

    Novel sensor packaging elements were designed, fabricated, and tested in order to facilitate the transition of electrochemical mixed-potential sensors toward commercialization. Of the two designs completed, the first is currently undergoing field trials, taking direct measurements within vehicle exhaust streams, while the second is undergoing preliminary laboratory testing. The sensors’ optimal operating conditions, sensitivity to hydrogen, and long-­term baseline stability were also investigated. The sensing capabilities of lanthanum chromite (La0.8Sr0.2CrO3) and indium-­doped tin oxide (ITO) working electrodes were compared, and the ITO devices were selected for pre-­commercial field trials testing at a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle fueling station in California. Previous data from that fueling station were also analyzed, and the causes of anomalous baseline drift were identified.

  12. Compact networked radars for Army unattended ground sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wikner, David A.; Viveiros, Edward A.; Wellman, Ronald; Clark, John; Kurtz, Jim; Pulskamp, Jeff; Proie, Robert; Ivanov, Tony; Polcawich, Ronald G.; Adler, Eric D.

    2010-04-01

    The Army Research Laboratory is in partnership with the University of Florida - Electronics Communications Laboratory to develop compact radar technology and demonstrate that it is scalable to a variety of ultra-lightweight platforms (<10 lbs.) to meet Army mission needs in persistent surveillance, unattended ground sensor (UGS), unmanned systems, and man-portable sensor applications. The advantage of this compact radar is its steerable beam technology and relatively long-range capability compared to other small, battery-powered radar concepts. This paper will review the ongoing development of the sensor and presents a sample of the collected data thus far.

  13. Sensor sentinel computing device

    DOEpatents

    Damico, Joseph P.

    2016-08-02

    Technologies pertaining to authenticating data output by sensors in an industrial environment are described herein. A sensor sentinel computing device receives time-series data from a sensor by way of a wireline connection. The sensor sentinel computing device generates a validation signal that is a function of the time-series signal. The sensor sentinel computing device then transmits the validation signal to a programmable logic controller in the industrial environment.

  14. Liquid Bismuth Propellant Flow Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Stanojev, B. J.; Korman, V.

    2007-01-01

    Quantifying the propellant mass flow rate in liquid bismuth-fed electric propulsion systems has two challenging facets. First, the flow sensors must be capable of providing a resolvable measurement at propellant mass flow rates on the order of 10 mg/see with and uncertainty of less that 5%. The second challenge has to do with the fact that the materials from which the flow sensors are fabricated must be capable of resisting any of the corrosive effects associated with the high-temperature propellant. The measurement itself is necessary in order to properly assess the performance (thrust efficiency, Isp) of thruster systems in the laboratory environment. The hotspot sensor[I] has been designed to provide the bismuth propellant mass flow rate measurement. In the hotspot sensor, a pulse of thermal energy (derived from a current pulse and associated joule heating) is applied near the inlet of the sensor. The flow is "tagged" with a thermal feature that is convected downstream by the flowing liquid metal. Downstream, a temperature measurement is performed to detect a "ripple" in the local temperature associated with the passing "hotspot" in the propellant. By measuring the time between the upstream generation and downstream detection of the thermal feature, the flow speed can be calculated using a "time of flight" analysis. In addition, the system can be calibrated by measuring the accumulated mass exiting the system as a-function of time and correlating this with the time it takes the hotspot to convect through the sensor. The primary advantage of this technique is that it doesn't depend on an absolute measurement of temperature but, instead, relies on the observation of thermal features. This makes the technique insensitive to other externally generated thermal fluctuations. In this paper, we describe experiments performed using the hotspot flow sensor aimed at quantifying the resolution of the sensor technology. Propellant is expelled onto an electronic scale to

  15. Surface micromachined sensors and actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Sniegowski, J.J.

    1995-08-01

    A description of a three-level mechanical polysilicon surface-micromachining technology including a discussion of the advantages of this level of process complexity is presented. This technology is capable of forming mechanical elements ranging from simple cantilevered beams to complex, interconnected, interactive, microactuated micromechanisms. The inclusion of a third deposited layer of mechanical polysilicon greatly extends the degree of complexity available for micromechanism design. Additional features of the Sandia three-level process include the use of Chemical-Mechanical Polishing (CMP) for planarization, and the integration of micromechanics with the Sandia CMOS circuit process. The latter effort includes a CMOS-first, tungsten metallization process to allow the CMOS electronics to withstand high-temperature micromechanical processing. Alternatively, a novel micromechanics-first approach wherein the micromechanical devices are processed first in a well below the surface of the CMOS starting material followed by the standard, aluminum metallization CMOS process is also being pursued. Following the description of the polysilicon surface micromachining are examples of the major sensor and actuator projects based on this technology at the Microelectronics Development Laboratory (MDL) at Sandia National Laboratories. Efforts at the MDL are concentrated in the technology of surface micromachining due to the availability of and compatibility with standard CMOS processes. The primary sensors discussed are a silicon nitride membrane pressure sensor, hot polysilicon filaments for calorimetric gas sensing, and a smart hydrogen sensor. Examples of actuation mechanisms coupled to external devices are also presented. These actuators utilize the three-level process (plus an additional passive level) and employ either surface tension or electrostatic forces.

  16. [Theme: Using Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Jack; Braker, Clifton

    1982-01-01

    Pritchard discusses the opportunities for applied learning afforded by laboratories. Braker describes the evaluation of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor skills in the agricultural mechanics laboratory. (SK)

  17. Battery-free Wireless Sensor Network For Advanced Fossil-Fuel Based Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Yi Jia

    2011-02-28

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the project supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-FG26-07NT4306. The aim of the project was to conduct basic research into battery-free wireless sensing mechanism in order to develop novel wireless sensors and sensor network for physical and chemical parameter monitoring in a harsh environment. Passive wireless sensing platform and five wireless sensors including temperature sensor, pressure sensor, humidity sensor, crack sensor and networked sensors developed and demonstrated in our laboratory setup have achieved the objective for the monitoring of various physical and chemical parameters in a harsh environment through remote power and wireless sensor communication, which is critical to intelligent control of advanced power generation system. This report is organized by the sensors developed as detailed in each progress report.

  18. Laboratory for Radiokrypton Dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Bailey, K.; Jiang, W.; Müller, P.; O'Connor, T. P.; Zappala, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    of Bern, and International Atomic Energy Agency. ATTA is a laser-based atom counting method, not a mass spectrometry method. A magneto-optical trap is used to capture neutral atoms (rather than ions) of the desired isotope using laser beams. A photo-sensor detects the laser induced fluorescence emitted by the individual trapped atoms. ATTA is unique among trace analysis techniques in that it is free of interferences from any other isotopes, isobars, atomic or molecular species. In an experiment demonstrating that ATTA-3 can analyze 39Ar/Ar ratios in environmental samples, no interference from other atomic or molecular species was observed at the 1x10^-16 level (Jiang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 103001; 2011). This work proved the feasibility of performing 39Ar dating using the ATTA method. We are supported by DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics, under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357, and by Argonne National Laboratory.

  19. Authentication in Reprogramming of Sensor Networks for Mote Class Adversaries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Authentication in Reprogramming of Sensor Networks for Mote Class Adversaries 1 Limin Wang Sandeep S. Kulkarni Software Engineering and Network...Systems Laboratory Department of Computer Science and Engineering Michigan State University East Lansing MI 48824 USA Abstract Reprogramming is an... Engineering ,Software Engineering and Network Systems Laboratory,East Lansing,MI,48824 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING

  20. Non-intrusive speed sensor. [space shuttle main engine turbopumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maram, J.; Wyett, L.

    1984-01-01

    A computerized literature search was performed to identify candidate technologies for remote, non-intrusive speed sensing applications in Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps. The three most promising technologies were subjected to experimental evaluation to quantify their performance characteristics under the harsh environmental requirements within the turbopumps. Although the infrared and microwave approaches demonstrated excellent cavitation immunity in laboratory tests, the variable-source magnetic speed sensor emerged as the most viable approach. Preliminary design of this speed sensor encountered no technical obstacles and resulted in viable and feasible speed nut, sensor housing, and sensor coil designs.

  1. Development and evaluation of a lightweight sensor system ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A new sensor system for mobile and aerial emission sampling was developed for open area pollutant sources, such as prescribed forest burns. The sensor system, termed “Kolibri”, consists of multiple low-cost air quality sensors measuring CO2, CO, samplers for particulate matter with diameter of 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This extended abstract, intended for oral presentation or poster presentation at this summer's AWMA conference, presents some of the first verification data from laboratory and burn calibration of a newly developed sensor and sampler system for ground and aerial sampling.

  2. Evaluation for Electrochemical Impedance Measurement of Carbon Nanotube Taste Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Naoki; Hirata, Takamichi; Akiya, Masahiro

    In our laboratory, a nano-bio taste sensor based on carbon nanotubes has been developed. However, previous technique cannot separate elements such as CNT random network or electrode surface etc., because of sensor impedance change in fixed frequency. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) revealed CNT taste sensor with two R/C parallel circuits. Experimental complex plane plots were reproduced using a computer simulation program based upon the lumped equivalent circuit approach. It was found that the sensor has two relaxation times, and also that these circuits consist of two elements such as electrode surface and CNT random network.

  3. Renewable-reagent electrochemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Joseph; Olsen, Khris B.

    1999-01-01

    A new electrochemical probe(s) design allowing for continuous (renewable) reagent delivery. The probe comprises an integrated membrane-sampling/electrochemical sensor that prevents interferences from surface-active materials and greatly extends the linear range. The probe(s) is useful for remote or laboratory-based monitoring in connection with microdialysis sampling and electrochemical measurements of metals and organic compounds that are not readily detected in the absence of reacting with the compound. Also disclosed is a method of using the probe(s).

  4. Renewable-reagent electrochemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Wang, J.; Olsen, K.B.

    1999-08-24

    A new electrochemical probe(s) design allowing for continuous (renewable) reagent delivery is described. The probe comprises an integrated membrane sampling/electrochemical sensor that prevents interferences from surface-active materials and greatly extends the linear range. The probe(s) is useful for remote or laboratory-based monitoring in connection with microdialysis sampling and electrochemical measurements of metals and organic compounds that are not readily detected in the absence of reacting with the compound. Also disclosed is a method of using the probe(s). 19 figs.

  5. Sensor modules for wireless distributed sensor networks

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A P; McConaghy, C F; Simon, J N; Benett, W; Jones, L; Trevino, J

    1999-02-22

    A national security need as well as environmental monitoring need exists for networks of sensors. The advantages of a network of sensors over a single sensor are improved range, sensitivity, directionality, and data readability. Depending upon the particular application, sensors can be acoustic, chemical, biological, thermal or inertial. A major desire in these sensor networks is to have the individual sensor and associated electronics small and low enough in power that the battery can also be small and of long life. Smaller, low power sensor nodes can allow more nodes per network. A typical network for security applications is depicted in Figure 1. Here a number of sensor nodes are deployed around a central hub node in a star configuration. In this scenario the hubs communicate with each other and ultimately relay information to a satellite. Future networks might follow this scenario or some other network architecture such as a hopping network where individual nodes communicate directly with each other. The focus of our research has been on development of the small low power nodes and less on the overall network topology. However, some consideration of the network must be given when designing the nodes and some consideration of the nodes must be given when designing the network. An individual sensor node contains not only the sensor but also the sensor interface electronics, analog to digital (A/D) converter, logic, RF communication link, antenna, and the battery. Future nodes will also contain some form of signal processing to allow more sophisticated network architectures. The FY98 goal for this project was to make a sensor node with a physical form factor of a 2 inch x 2 inch x 2 inch cube.

  6. Sensors, Update 9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    2001-10-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  7. Sensors, Update 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Fedder, Gary K.; Korvink, Jan G.

    2002-04-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  8. Sensors, Update 12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Fedder, Gary K.; Korvink, Jan G.

    2003-04-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  9. Sensors, Update 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    2001-02-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections: Sensor Technology reviews highlights in applied and basic research, while Sensor Applications covers new or improved applications of sensors, and Sensor Markets provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be invaluable to scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  10. Laboratory Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Henricks, Walter H

    2015-06-01

    Laboratory information systems (LISs) supply mission-critical capabilities for the vast array of information-processing needs of modern laboratories. LIS architectures include mainframe, client-server, and thin client configurations. The LIS database software manages a laboratory's data. LIS dictionaries are database tables that a laboratory uses to tailor an LIS to the unique needs of that laboratory. Anatomic pathology LIS (APLIS) functions play key roles throughout the pathology workflow, and laboratories rely on LIS management reports to monitor operations. This article describes the structure and functions of APLISs, with emphasis on their roles in laboratory operations and their relevance to pathologists.

  11. Accurate, reliable prototype earth horizon sensor head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, F.; Cohen, H.

    1973-01-01

    The design and performance is described of an accurate and reliable prototype earth sensor head (ARPESH). The ARPESH employs a detection logic 'locator' concept and horizon sensor mechanization which should lead to high accuracy horizon sensing that is minimally degraded by spatial or temporal variations in sensing attitude from a satellite in orbit around the earth at altitudes in the 500 km environ 1,2. An accuracy of horizon location to within 0.7 km has been predicted, independent of meteorological conditions. This corresponds to an error of 0.015 deg-at 500 km altitude. Laboratory evaluation of the sensor indicates that this accuracy is achieved. First, the basic operating principles of ARPESH are described; next, detailed design and construction data is presented and then performance of the sensor under laboratory conditions in which the sensor is installed in a simulator that permits it to scan over a blackbody source against background representing the earth space interface for various equivalent plant temperatures.

  12. Fibre optic sensors for heat transfer studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Pranay G.

    This thesis describes the design and development of a prototype sensor, based on a miniature optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer, for heat transfer studies on model turbomachinery components in transient flow wind tunnels. These sensors overcome a number of difficulties which are often encountered in using conventional electrical thin-film resistance gauges such as in the measurement of rapidly varying heat transfer rates, spatial resolution, electromagnetic interference, calibration and signal processing. The special features of the optical sensor are: (1) short length (less than 5 mm), and therefore embeddable in thin structures of model components; (2) direct measurement of heat flux rates; (3) calorimetric operation with temperature resolution of less than 25 mK over a measurement bandwidth of 100 kHz; (4) capability of measuring heat flux less than 5 kWm(exp -2) with measurement range in excess of 10 MWm(exp -2); (5) temporal response time of less than 10 microseconds; (6) minimal thermal disturbances because models are often made of ceramic materials with thermal properties similar to those of the optical fiber from which sensors are made;(7) possibility of using in models with dissimilar thermal properties to the optical fiber, for example, metals; (8) spatial resolution of less than 5 microns; (9) remote operation; (10) an ability to be multiplexed; and (11) immunity to electromagnetic interference. A detailed discussion of the design considerations for the sensor, system development, evaluation of the sensor performance both in the laboratory and wind tunnel environments is presented in this thesis. The performance of the sensor compared favorably with electrical gauges namely, platinum thin-film resistance thermometers. A 4-sensor multiplexed system has been successfully operated, and is reported in the thesis. A brief discussion is also included to indicate that the same sensor design may be considered for applications in other engineering areas.

  13. Fibre Optic Sensors for Heat Transfer Studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Pranay G.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. This thesis describes the design and development of a prototype sensor, based on a miniature optical fibre Fabry-Perot interferometer, for heat transfer studies on model turbomachinery components in transient flow wind tunnels. These sensors overcome a number of difficulties which are often encountered in using conventional electrical thin-film resistance gauges such as in the measurement of rapidly varying heat transfer rates, spatial resolution, electromagnetic interference, calibration and signal processing. The special features of the optical sensor are: (i) short length (<5 mm), and therefore embeddable in thin structures of model components; (ii) direct measurement of heat flux rates; (iii) calorimetric operation with temperature resolution of <25 mK over a measurement bandwidth of 100 kHz: (iv) capability of measuring heat flux <5 kWm^ {-2} with measurement range in excess of 10 MWm^{-2}; (v) temporal response time of <10 mus; (vi) minimal thermal disturbances because models are often made of ceramic materials with thermal properties similar to those of the optical fibre from which sensors are made; (vii) possibility of using in models with dissimilar thermal properties to the optical fibre, for example, metals; (viii) spatial resolution of <5 mu m; (ix) remote operation; (x) an ability to be multiplexed; and (xi) immunity to electromagnetic interference. A detailed discussion of the design considerations for the sensor, system development, evaluation of the sensor performance both in the laboratory and wind tunnel environments is presented in this thesis. The performance of the sensor compared favourably with electrical gauges namely, platinum thin-film resistance thermometers. A 4-sensor multiplexed system has been sucessfully operated, and is reported in the thesis. A brief discussion is also included to indicate that the same sensor design may be considered for applications in other engineering

  14. Laboratory Animal Facilities. Laboratory Design Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Albert M.

    1965-01-01

    Design of laboratory animal facilities must be functional. Accordingly, the designer should be aware of the complex nature of animal research and specifically the type of animal research which will be conducted in a new facility. The building of animal-care facilities in research institutions requires special knowledge in laboratory animal…

  15. Learning sensor models for wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertin, Emre

    2007-04-01

    Sensor data generation is a key component of high fidelity design and testing of applications at scale. In addition to its utility in validation of applications and network services, it provides a theoretical basis for the design of algorithms for efficient sampling, compression and exfiltration of the sensor readings. Modeling of the environmental processes that gives rise to sensor readings is the core problem in physical sciences. Sensor modeling for wireless sensor networks combine the physics of signal generation and propagation with models of transducer saturation and fault models for hardware. In this paper we introduce a novel modeling technique for constructing probabilistic models for censored sensor readings. The model is an extension of the Gaussian process regression and applies to continuous valued readings subject to censoring. We illustrate the performance of the proposed technique in modeling wireless propagation between nodes of a wireless sensor network. The model can capture the non-isotropic nature of the propagation characteristics and utilizes the information from the packet reception failures. We use measured data set from the Kansei sensor network testbed using 802.15.4 radios.

  16. Air Force Astronautics Laboratory smart structures and skins program overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehart, Douglas W.

    1990-02-01

    The smart structure/skins systems envisioned by the USAF Astronautics Laboratory for such future spacecraft as the Space Based Radar and Space Based Laser will employ embedded sensors, actuators, and microprocessors to sense, evaluate, and damp, all natural and spurious vibrations; the health-monitoring system also figured by the smart structure will sense any deterioration of structural soundness. Fiber-optics constitutes the sensor technology of choice, due to its lightness, immunity to EM interference, and easy incorporation into composite materials.

  17. Using the Xbox Kinect sensor for positional data acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballester, Jorge; Pheatt, Chuck

    2013-01-01

    The Kinect sensor was introduced in November 2010 by Microsoft for the Xbox 360 video game system. It is designed to be positioned above or below a video display to track player body and hand movements in three dimensions (3D). The sensor contains a red, green, and blue (RGB) camera, a depth sensor, an infrared (IR) light source, a three-axis accelerometer, and a multi-array microphone, as well as hardware required to transmit sensor information to an external receiver. In this article, we evaluate the capabilities of the Kinect sensor as a 3D data-acquisition platform for use in physics experiments. Data obtained for a simple pendulum, a spherical pendulum, projectile motion, and a bouncing basketball are presented. Overall, the Kinect sensor is found to be a useful data-acquisition tool for motion studies in the physics laboratory.

  18. Electrochemical Sensors: Functionalized Silica

    SciTech Connect

    Fryxell, Glen E.; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana

    2009-03-24

    This chapter summarizes recent devellopment of electrochemical sensors based on functionlized mesoporous silica materials. The nanomatrials based sensors have been developed for sensitive and selective enrironmental detection of toxic heavy metal and uranium ions.

  19. Air Sensor Toolbox

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Air Sensor Toolbox provides information to citizen scientists, researchers and developers interested in learning more about new lower-cost compact air sensor technologies and tools for measuring air quality.

  20. Multi Sensor Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Immer, Christopher; Voska, Ned (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on the Multi Sensor Array. The topics include: 1) MSA Algorithm; 2) Types of Sensors for the MSA; 3) How to test the MSA; 4) Monte Carlo Simulation; and 5) Accelerated Life Tests.

  1. Plantar pressure cartography reconstruction from 3 sensors.

    PubMed

    Abou Ghaida, Hussein; Mottet, Serge; Goujon, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Foot problem diagnosis is often made by using pressure mapping systems, unfortunately located and used in the laboratories. In the context of e-health and telemedicine for home monitoring of patients having foot problems, our focus is to present an acceptable system for daily use. We developed an ambulatory instrumented insole using 3 pressures sensors to visualize plantar pressure cartographies. We show that a standard insole with fixed sensor position could be used for different foot sizes. The results show an average error measured at each pixel of 0.01 daN, with a standard deviation of 0.005 daN.

  2. Lighting up Protons with MorphFl, a Fluorescein-Morpholine Dyad: An Experiment for the Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Tyson A.; Spangler, Michael; Burdette, Shawn C.

    2011-01-01

    A two-period organic laboratory experiment that includes fluorescence sensing is presented. The pH-sensitive sensor MorphFl is prepared using a Mannich reaction between a fluorescein derivative and the iminium ion of morpholine. During the first laboratory, students prepare MorphFl. The second session begins with characterizing the sensor using…

  3. Wake Vortex Sensors Requirements Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation includes discussions of primary wake vortex system requirements, evolution models, sensor evolution, site specific sensor tradeoffs, wake sensor functions, deployment considerations, the operational test bed system and additional sensor requirements.

  4. Digital Sensor Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ted Quinn; Jerry Mauck; Richard Bockhorst; Ken Thomas

    2013-07-01

    The nuclear industry has been slow to incorporate digital sensor technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns with digital qualification issues. However, the benefits of digital sensor technology for nuclear plant instrumentation are substantial in terms of accuracy, reliability, availability, and maintainability. This report demonstrates these benefits in direct comparisons of digital and analog sensor applications. It also addresses the qualification issues that must be addressed in the application of digital sensor technology.

  5. Secure Sensor Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Ross, Barry Schoeneman

    2010-08-25

    The Secure Sensor Platform (SSP) software provides a framework of functionality to support the development of low-power autonomous sensors for nuclear safeguards. This framework provides four primary functional blocks of capabilities required to implement autonomous sensors. The capabilities are: communications, security, power management, and cryptography. Utilizing this framework establishes a common set of functional capabilities for seamless interoperability of any sensor based upon the SSP concept.

  6. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Homuth, Emil F.

    1991-01-01

    A fiber optic geophysical sensor in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects.

  7. Giant magnetoresistive sensor

    DOEpatents

    Stearns, Daniel G.; Vernon, Stephen P.; Ceglio, Natale M.; Hawryluk, Andrew M.

    1999-01-01

    A magnetoresistive sensor element with a three-dimensional micro-architecture is capable of significantly improved sensitivity and highly localized measurement of magnetic fields. The sensor is formed of a multilayer film of alternately magnetic and nonmagnetic materials. The sensor is optimally operated in a current perpendicular to plane mode. The sensor is useful in magnetic read/write heads, for high density magnetic information storage and retrieval.

  8. Directional Acoustic Density Sensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-13

    fluctuations of fluid density at a point . (2) DESCRIPTION OF THE PRIOR ART [0004] Conventional vector sensors measure particle velocity, v (vx,Vytvz...dipole-type or first order sensor that is realized by measuring particle velocity at a point , (which is the vector sensor sensing approach for...underwater sensors), or by measuring the gradient of the acoustic pressure at two closely spaced (less than the wavelength of an acoustic wave) points as it

  9. High temperature sensor

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1982-01-01

    A high temperature sensor includes a pair of electrical conductors separated by a mass of electrical insulating material. The insulating material has a measurable resistivity within the sensor that changes in relation to the temperature of the insulating material within a high temperature range (1,000 to 2,000 K.). When required, the sensor can be encased within a ceramic protective coating.

  10. Automotive vehicle sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

  11. Sensors for Entertainment

    PubMed Central

    Lamberti, Fabrizio; Sanna, Andrea; Rokne, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Sensors are becoming ubiquitous in all areas of science, technology, and society. In this Special Issue on “Sensors for Entertainment”, developments in progress and the current state of application scenarios for sensors in the field of entertainment is explored. PMID:27428981

  12. Micro sun sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebe, C. C.; Mobasser, S.; Wrigley, C. J.; Bae, Y.; Howard, A.; Schroeder, J.

    2002-01-01

    A new generation of sun sensors is emerging. These sun sensors utilize an imaging detector and the sun sensor determines the sun angles based on an image of fringes or centroids on the detector plane. Typically determines the sun angle in two axes.

  13. Sensor readout detector circuit

    DOEpatents

    Chu, D.D.; Thelen, D.C. Jr.

    1998-08-11

    A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems. 6 figs.

  14. Sensor readout detector circuit

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Dahlon D.; Thelen, Jr., Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems.

  15. Environmental laboratory design

    SciTech Connect

    Newill, R.F.

    1996-11-01

    An effective, efficient laboratory building, operating at a reasonable cost within performance parameters set by the owner, determines quality control, employee morale and retention, operating costs, maintenance costs and renovation costs for the next thirty years. For better or worse, a new laboratory is managerial policy cast in stone. This paper, based on the author`s environmental laboratory design experience, offers an understanding of the relationship between costs, flexibility, function and quality in environmental laboratory design and construction. The comments are generally structured around publicly owned laboratories, with notes regarding private laboratories where appropriate.

  16. Precision Fiber Optic Sensor Market Forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Jeff D.; Glasco, Jon; Dixon, Frank W.

    1986-01-01

    The worldwide market for precision fiber optic sensors is forecasted, 1984-1994. The forecast is based upon o Analysis of fiber optic sensor and related component current technology, and a forecast of technology advancement o Review and projection of demand for precision sensing, and the penetration which fiber optics will make into this market The analysis and projections are based mainly on interviews conducted worldwide with research teams, government agencies, systems contractors, medical and industrial laboratories, component suppliers and others. The worldwide market for precision (interferometric) fiber optic sensing systems is forecasted to exceed $0.8 billion by 1994. The forecast is segmented by geographical region (Europe, Japan and North America) and by function; o Gyroscope o Sonar o Gradiometer/Magnetometer o Other - Chemical Composition - Atmospheric Acoustic - Temperature - Position - Pressure Requirements for components are reviewed. These include special fiber, emitters and detectors, modulators, couplers, switches, integrated optical circuits and integrated optoelectronics. The advancement in component performance is forecasted. The major driving forces creating fiber optic sensor markets are reviewed. These include fiber optic sensor technical and economic advantages, increasingly stringent operational requirements, and technology evolution. The leading fiber optic sensor and related component development programs are reviewed. Component sources are listed. Funding sources for sensor and component development are outlined, and trends forecasted.

  17. Remote environmental sensor array system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Geoffrey G.

    This thesis examines the creation of an environmental monitoring system for inhospitable environments. It has been named The Remote Environmental Sensor Array System or RESA System for short. This thesis covers the development of RESA from its inception, to the design and modeling of the hardware and software required to make it functional. Finally, the actual manufacture, and laboratory testing of the finished RESA product is discussed and documented. The RESA System is designed as a cost-effective way to bring sensors and video systems to the underwater environment. It contains as water quality probe with sensors such as dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, specific conductivity, oxidation-reduction potential and chlorophyll a. In addition, an omni-directional hydrophone is included to detect underwater acoustic signals. It has a colour, high-definition and a low-light, black and white camera system, which it turn are coupled to a laser scaling system. Both high-intensity discharge and halogen lighting system are included to illuminate the video images. The video and laser scaling systems are manoeuvred using pan and tilt units controlled from an underwater computer box. Finally, a sediment profile imager is included to enable profile images of sediment layers to be acquired. A control and manipulation system to control the instruments and move the data across networks is integrated into the underwater system while a power distribution node provides the correct voltages to power the instruments. Laboratory testing was completed to ensure that the different instruments associated with the RESA performed as designed. This included physical testing of the motorized instruments, calibration of the instruments, benchmark performance testing and system failure exercises.

  18. Shipboard Elevator Magnetic Sensor Development. Phase I, Laboratory Investigations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-19

    The meter consists of a D’Arsenval type galvanometer with a nearly torsionless suspension and a very high critical damping resistance. When connected to...coil, however, the de- flection is quick and responsive. The motion is such that the change of flux-turns in the galvanometer coil is equal and opposite...to that in the test coil. In other words, electromagnetic forces move the galvanometer coil to such a position that the flux threading the entire

  19. Laboratory demonstration of aircraft estimation using low-cost sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Four nonlinear state estimators were devised which provide techniques for obtaining the angular orientation (attitude) of the aircraft. An extensive FORTRAN computer program was developed to demonstrate and evaluate the estimators by using recorded flight test data. This program simulates the estimator operation, and it compares the state estimates with actual state measurements. The program was used to evaluate the state estimators with data recorded on the NASA Ames CV-990 and CESSNA 402B aircraft. A preliminary assessment was made of the memory, word length, and timing requirements for implementing the selected state estimator on a typical microcomputer.

  20. A Vision-Based Motion Sensor for Undergraduate Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salumbides, Edcel John; Maristela, Joyce; Uy, Alfredson; Karremans, Kees

    2002-01-01

    Introduces an alternative method to determine the mechanics of a moving object that uses computer vision algorithms with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera as a recording device. Presents two experiments, pendulum motion and terminal velocity, to compare results of the alternative and conventional methods. (YDS)

  1. Laboratory comparisons of acoustic and optical sensors for microbubble measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ming Yang; Todoroff, Douglas; Cartmill, John

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a recent comparison between three microbubble size spectrum measurement systems. These systems are the light-scattering bubble counter, the photographic bubble-imaging system, and the acoustic resonator array. Good agreement was formed among these three systems over the bubble size range appropriate for each system.

  2. Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation is based on the concept of smart sensor technology for testing with intelligence needed to perform sell-diagnosis of health, and to participate in a hierarchy of health determination at sensor, process, and system levels. A virtual sensor test instrumentation consists of five elements: (1) a common sensor interface, (2) microprocessor, (3) wireless interface, (4) signal conditioning and ADC/DAC (analog-to-digital conversion/ digital-to-analog conversion), and (5) onboard EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) for metadata storage and executable software to create powerful, scalable, reconfigurable, and reliable embedded and distributed test instruments. In order to maximize the efficient data conversion through the smart sensor node, plug-and-play functionality is required to interface with traditional sensors to enhance their identity and capabilities for data processing and communications. Virtual sensor test instrumentation can be accessible wirelessly via a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP) or a Smart Transducer Interlace Module (STIM) that may be managed under real-time rule engines for mission-critical applications. The transducer senses the physical quantity being measured and converts it into an electrical signal. The signal is fed to an A/D converter, and is ready for use by the processor to execute functional transformation based on the sensor characteristics stored in a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS). Virtual sensor test instrumentation is built upon an open-system architecture with standardized protocol modules/stacks to interface with industry standards and commonly used software. One major benefit for deploying the virtual sensor test instrumentation is the ability, through a plug-and-play common interface, to convert raw sensor data in either analog or digital form, to an IEEE 1451 standard-based smart sensor, which has instructions to program sensors for a wide variety of

  3. Mars Science Laboratory Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okon, Avi B.; Brown, Kyle M.; McGrath, Paul L.; Klein, Kerry J.; Cady, Ian W.; Lin, Justin Y.; Ramirez, Frank E.; Haberland, Matt

    2012-01-01

    This drill (see Figure 1) is the primary sample acquisition element of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) that collects powdered samples from various types of rock (from clays to massive basalts) at depths up to 50 mm below the surface. A rotary-percussive sample acquisition device was developed with an emphasis on toughness and robustness to handle the harsh environment on Mars. It is the first rover-based sample acquisition device to be flight-qualified (see Figure 2). This drill features an autonomous tool change-out on a mobile robot, and novel voice-coil-based percussion. The drill comprises seven subelements. Starting at the end of the drill, there is a bit assembly that cuts the rock and collects the sample. Supporting the bit is a subassembly comprising a chuck mechanism to engage and release the new and worn bits, respectively, and a spindle mechanism to rotate the bit. Just aft of that is a percussion mechanism, which generates hammer blows to break the rock and create the dynamic environment used to flow the powdered sample. These components are mounted to a translation mechanism, which provides linear motion and senses weight-on-bit with a force sensor. There is a passive-contact sensor/stabilizer mechanism that secures the drill fs position on the rock surface, and flex harness management hardware to provide the power and signals to the translating components. The drill housing serves as the primary structure of the turret, to which the additional tools and instruments are attached. The drill bit assembly (DBA) is a passive device that is rotated and hammered in order to cut rock (i.e. science targets) and collect the cuttings (powder) in a sample chamber until ready for transfer to the CHIMRA (Collection and Handling for Interior Martian Rock Analysis). The DBA consists of a 5/8-in. (.1.6- cm) commercial hammer drill bit whose shank has been turned down and machined with deep flutes designed for aggressive cutting removal. Surrounding the shank of the

  4. Multifuctional integrated sensors (MFISES).

    SciTech Connect

    Homeijer, Brian D.; Roozeboom, Clifton

    2015-10-01

    Many emerging IoT applications require sensing of multiple physical and environmental parameters for: completeness of information, measurement validation, unexpected demands, improved performance. For example, a typical outdoor weather station measures temperature, humidity, barometric pressure, light intensity, rainfall, wind speed and direction. Existing sensor technologies do not directly address the demand for cost, size, and power reduction in multi-paramater sensing applications. Industry sensor manufacturers have developed integrated sensor systems for inertial measurements that combine accelerometers, gyroscopes, and magnetometers, but do not address environmental sensing functionality. In existing research literature, a technology gap exists between the functionality of MEMS sensors and the real world applications of the sensors systems.

  5. Superfund Contract Laboratory Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Contract Laboratory Program (CLP) is a national network of EPA personnel, commercial laboratories, and support contractors whose primary mission is to provide data of known and documented quality to the Superfund program.

  6. [Laboratory of Biopolymer Compounds].

    PubMed

    Ostapchuk, A M

    2008-01-01

    General information is presented concerning the Laboratory of Biological Polymeric Compounds at the Institute of Microbiology and Virology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine; equipment, analytical and biophysical methods applied in the laboratory are listed.

  7. The Microscale Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zipp, Arden P.

    1990-01-01

    The materials needed and the procedures used in three microscale chemical laboratory experiments are detailed. Included are a microscale organic synthesis, a two-step synthetic sequence for the microscale organic laboratory, and a small-scale equilibrium experiment. (CW)

  8. An Electronics "Unit Laboratory"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, E. R.; Penton, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a laboratory teaching technique in which a single topic (in this case, bipolar junction transistors) is studied over a period of weeks under the supervision of one staff member, who also designs the laboratory work. (MLH)

  9. Environmental Response Laboratory Network (ERLN) Laboratory Requirements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Environmental Response Laboratory Network requires its member labs follow specified quality systems, sample management, data reporting, and general, in order to ensure consistent analytical data of known and documented quality.

  10. RSTA sensor integration onto PackBot for urban operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Stuart H.; Martin, Patrick

    2004-09-01

    As the Army transforms to the Objective Force, particular attention must be paid to operations in Complex and Urban Terrain. Because our adversaries realize that we don"t have battlefield dominance in the urban environment, and because population growth and migration to urban environments is still on the increase, our adversaries will continue to draw us into operations in the urban environment. The Army Research Laboratory (ARL) is developing technology to equip our soldiers for the urban operations of the future. Sophisticated small robotic platforms with diverse sensor suites will be an integral part of the Future Force, and must be able to collaborate not only amongst themselves but also with their manned partners. The Army Research Laboratory has developed a Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA) sensor payload for integration onto an iRobot Packbot. The RSTA sensor payload is equipped with an acoustic array that will detect and localize on an impulsive noise event, such as a sniper's weapon firing. Additionally, the robot sensor head is equipped with visible and thermal camera for operations both day and night. The RSTA sensor head equipped Packbot can then be deployed by dismounted soldiers to enhance their situational awareness in the urban environment. The information from one Packbot can then be fused with other sensors as part of a sensor network. Sensor equipped Packbots provides an awesome capability to the future dismounted infantry soldier during warfighting and peacekeeping operations in complex and urban terrain by enhancing their situational awareness and improving their survivability.

  11. Evaluation of subsurface oxygen sensors for remediation monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.X.; Lundegard, P.D.

    1996-05-01

    Continuous remediation monitoring using sensors is potentially a more effective and inexpensive alternative to current methods of sample collection and analysis. Gaseous components of a system are the most mobile and easiest to monitor. Continuous monitoring of soil gases such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, and contaminant vapors can provide important quantitative information regarding the progress of bioremediation efforts and the area of influence of air sparging or soil venting. Laboratory and field tests of a commercially available oxygen sensor show that the subsurface oxygen sensor provides rapid and accurate data on vapor phase oxygen concentrations. The sensor is well suited for monitoring gas flow and oxygen consumption in the vadose zone during air sparging and bioventing. The sensor performs well in permeable, unsaturated soil environments and recovers completely after being submerged during temporary saturated conditions. Calibrations of the in situ oxygen sensors were found to be stable after one year of continuous subsurface operation. However, application of the sensor in saturated soil conditions is limited. The three major advantages of this sensor for in situ monitoring are as follows: (1) it allows data acquisition at any specified time interval; (2) it provides potentially more accurate data by minimizing disturbance of subsurface conditions; and (3) it minimizes the cost of field and laboratory procedures involved in sample retrieval and analysis.

  12. Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Miller, David H [Redondo Beach, CA

    2012-04-10

    Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies are provided. In an embodiment, by way of example only, a sensor mount assembly includes a busbar, a main body, a backing surface, and a first finger. The busbar has a first end and a second end. The main body is overmolded onto the busbar. The backing surface extends radially outwardly relative to the main body. The first finger extends axially from the backing surface, and the first finger has a first end, a second end, and a tooth. The first end of the first finger is disposed on the backing surface, and the tooth is formed on the second end of the first finger.

  13. EPA Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Chemistry Laboratory (ECL) is a national program laboratory specializing in residue chemistry analysis under the jurisdiction of the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs in Washington, D.C. At Stennis Space Center, the laboratory's work supports many federal anti-pollution laws. The laboratory analyzes environmental and human samples to determine the presence and amount of agricultural chemicals and related substances. Pictured, ECL chemists analyze environmental and human samples for the presence of pesticides and other pollutants.

  14. Multimission unattended ground sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado, Gervasio; Succi, George P.; Fitzgerald, James; Clapp, Daniel; Gampert, Robert; Martel, Philip O.

    2002-08-01

    Technological advances in a number of fields have allowed SenTech to develop a highly capable Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) able to perform a number of critical missions such as ground and air vehicle surveillance, personnel detection and tracking and sniper localization. These sensors have also been combined with electro-optic sensors to provide target images and improved tracking accuracy. Processing is done in a highly integrated processing module developed under DARPA's IUGS program. Acoustic sensors have been engineered to achieve a three-pound unit with a 15 day field life and long range VHF communications. These sensors will be delivered in early 2002 for testing during field exercises. Extensive testing of the algorithms and software has been conducted over the last few years at a variety of government-sponsored tests and demonstrations. A Gateway unit has been developed which can manage the operation of an eight-sensor field and perform two-dimensional sensor fusion.

  15. Silicon force sensor

    DOEpatents

    Galambos, Paul C.; Crenshaw, Thomas B.; Nishida, Erik E.; Burnett, Damon J.; Lantz, Jeffrey W.

    2016-07-05

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a sensor for measurement of high forces and/or high load shock rate(s), whereby the sensor utilizes silicon as the sensing element. A plate of Si can have a thinned region formed therein on which can be formed a number of traces operating as a Wheatstone bridge. The brittle Si can be incorporated into a layered structure comprising ductile and/or compliant materials. The sensor can have a washer-like configuration which can be incorporated into a nut and bolt configuration, whereby tightening of the nut and bolt can facilitate application of a compressive preload upon the sensor. Upon application of an impact load on the bolt, the compressive load on the sensor can be reduced (e.g., moves towards zero-load), however the magnitude of the preload can be such that the load on the sensor does not translate to tensile stress being applied to the sensor.

  16. Passive sensor systems for nuclear material monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M.L.; Boatner, L.A.; Holcomb, D.E.; McElhaney, S.A.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Muhs, J.D.; Roberts, M.R.; Hill, N.W.

    1993-09-01

    Passive fiber optic sensor systems capable of confirming the presence of special nuclear materials in storage or process facilities are being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These sensors provide completely passive, remote measurement capability. No power supplies, amplifiers, or other active components that could degrade system reliability are required at the sensor location. ORNL, through its research programs in scintillator materials, has developed a variety of materials for use in alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and neutron-sensitive scintillator detectors. In addition to sensors for measuring radiation flux, new sensor materials have been developed which are capable of measuring weight, temperature, and source location. An example of a passive sensor for temperature measurement is the combination of a thermophosphor (e.g., rare-earth activated Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) with {sup 6}LiF (95% {sup 6}Li). This combination results in a new class of scintillators for thermal neutrons that absorb energy from the radiation particles and remit the energy as a light pulse, the decay rate of which, over a specified temperature range, is temperature dependent. Other passive sensors being developed include pressure-sensitive triboluminescent materials, weight-sensitive silicone rubber fibers, scintillating fibers, and other materials for gamma and neutron detection. The light from the scintillator materials of each sensor would be sent through optical fibers to a monitoring station, where the attribute quantity could be measured and compared with previously recorded emission levels. Confirmatory measurement applications of these technologies are being evaluated to reduce the effort, costs, and employee exposures associated with inventorying stockpiles of highly enriched uranium at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant.

  17. Theme: Laboratory Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, Thomas H.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A series of theme articles discuss setting up laboratory hydroponics units, the school farm at the Zuni Pueblo in New Mexico, laboratory experiences in natural resources management and urban horticulture, the development of teaching labs at Derry (PA) High School, management of instructional laboratories, and industry involvement in agricultural…

  18. Laboratory Ventilation and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steere, Norman V.

    1965-01-01

    In order to meet the needs of both safety and economy, laboratory ventilation systems must effectively remove air-borne toxic and flammable materials and at the same time exhaust a minimum volume of air. Laboratory hoods are the most commonly used means of removing gases, dusts, mists, vapors, and fumed from laboratory operations. To be effective,…

  19. Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammel, Edward F., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Current and post World War II scientific research at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (New Mexico) is discussed. The operation of the laboratory, the Los Alamos consultant program, and continuation education, and continuing education activities at the laboratory are also discussed. (JN)

  20. Laboratory Activities in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Barnea, Nitza

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory activities have long had a distinctive and central role in the science curriculum, and science educators have suggested that many benefits accrue from engaging students in science laboratory activities. Many research studies have been conducted to investigate the educational effectiveness of laboratory work in science education in…

  1. Echocardiography laboratory accreditation.

    PubMed

    Katanick, S L

    1998-01-01

    In response to the need for standardization and improvement in the quality of echocardiographic laboratories an intersocietal commission has been created. The intent of the accreditation process is designed to recognize laboratories that provide quality services and to be used as an educational tool to improve the overall quality of the laboratory.

  2. LABORATORY-ACQUIRED MYCOSES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    laboratory- acquired mycoses . Insofar as possible, the etiological fungus, type of laboratory, classification of personnel, type of work conducted, and other...pertinent data have been listed in this study. More than 288 laboratory- acquired mycoses are described here, including 108 cases of

  3. Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Fay, Michael; Bruck, Laura B.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2013-01-01

    Forty chemistry faculty from American Chemical Society-approved departments were interviewed to determine their goals for undergraduate chemistry laboratory. Faculty were stratified by type of institution, departmental success with regard to National Science Foundation funding for laboratory reform, and level of laboratory course. Interview…

  4. A laboratory perspective on environmental laboratory certification

    SciTech Connect

    Herdlick, M.J.

    1996-11-01

    With the approach of the end of the millennium, one issue stands at the forefront in the minds of politicians, scholars, and the world in general: The constant need and desire to protect, to beautify, and to heal the environment and the earth`s resources. A crucial and integral part of this plan is the environmental testing laboratory which, for the most part, bursted into existence with the formation of the United States Environmental Protection Agency in the 1970`s. The need for good quality labs is an on-going concern since the federal and state regulations are constantly in a state of flux. Just like any other business sector, the laboratory is monitored by its peer groups including its respective clients, state authorities, and regional EPA personnel through the process of accreditation and certification. Unfortunately, the laboratory certification program for environmental laboratories is a complicated process since no true national program exists that blankets the entire regulatory dilemma. It is the purpose of my poster session to discuss the current state of the formal laboratory certification process for a typical testing laboratory that operates in many states for a wide variety of clients.

  5. Digital Sensor Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Ken D.; Quinn, Edward L.; Mauck, Jerry L.; Bockhorst, Richard M.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear industry has been slow to incorporate digital sensor technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns with digital qualification issues. However, the benefits of digital sensor technology for nuclear plant instrumentation are substantial in terms of accuracy and reliability. This paper, which refers to a final report issued in 2013, demonstrates these benefits in direct comparisons of digital and analog sensor applications. Improved accuracy results from the superior operating characteristics of digital sensors. These include improvements in sensor accuracy and drift and other related parameters which reduce total loop uncertainty and thereby increase safety and operating margins. An example instrument loop uncertainty calculation for a pressure sensor application is presented to illustrate these improvements. This is a side-by-side comparison of the instrument loop uncertainty for both an analog and a digital sensor in the same pressure measurement application. Similarly, improved sensor reliability is illustrated with a sample calculation for determining the probability of failure on demand, an industry standard reliability measure. This looks at equivalent analog and digital temperature sensors to draw the comparison. The results confirm substantial reliability improvement with the digital sensor, due in large part to ability to continuously monitor the health of a digital sensor such that problems can be immediately identified and corrected. This greatly reduces the likelihood of a latent failure condition of the sensor at the time of a design basis event. Notwithstanding the benefits of digital sensors, there are certain qualification issues that are inherent with digital technology and these are described in the report. One major qualification impediment for digital sensor implementation is software common cause failure (SCCF).

  6. Long Wave Infrared Cavity Enhanced Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Taubman, Matthew S.; Scott, David C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Myers, Tanya L.; Munley, John T.; Nguyen, Vinh T.; Schultz, John F.

    2005-12-01

    The principal goal of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL's) long wave infrared (LWIR) cavity enhanced sensor (CES) task is to explore ultra-sensitive spectroscopic chemical sensing techniques and apply them to detecting proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Our primary application is detecting signatures of WMD production, but LWIR CES techniques are also capable of detecting chemical weapons. The LWIR CES task is concerned exclusively with developing novel point sensors; stand-off detection is addressed by other PNNL tasks and projects. PNNL's LWIR CES research is distinguished from that done by others by the use quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) as the light source. QCLs are novel devices, and a significant fraction of our research has been devoted to developing the procedures and hardware required to implement them most effectively for chemical sensing. This report details the progress we have made on LWIR CES sensor development.

  7. Sensors and Controls Workshop Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Susan Maley; Robert R. Romanosky

    2001-11-30

    Higher operating efficiencies, emission reductions, improved reliability, and lower operating costs are benefits that the power industry can realize with the utilization of sensors and controls. However, for the power industry to derive the maximum benefit from sensors and controls, improvements in existing technologies and novel approaches to challenging measurements are needed. Recognizing the importance of sensors and controls, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) sponsored a sensors and controls workshop on April 17 to 18, 2001, in Washington, DC. The workshop focused on identifying technology needs in sensors and controls for existing fossil-energy power plants as well as future facilities conceived under the Vision 21 Program. Forty-six experts from 29 organizations, including private industry, research laboratories, academia, and government agencies, attended the workshop. The meeting opened with keynote speakers from NETL and the private sector. NETL officials spoke of the Vision 21 and advanced research programs. Speakers from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Delphi Automotive Systems Research Laboratory discussed the improvements realized with their respective operation through the use of sensors and controls. NETL keynote speakers Robert Romanosky and Carl Bauer emphasized that developing sensor and control systems plays a critical role in DOE Office of Fossil Energy Vision 21 Program, clean coal activities under the Power Plant Improvement Initiative, and the proposed Clean Coal Power Initiative. The Vision 21 Program is aimed at providing technologies for ultra-clean fossil-fuel-based energy production with 60- to 75-percent efficiencies and near zero emissions. The program also uses a modular approach to present opportunities to not only generate power, but also co-produce clean fuels, chemicals, steam, and other useful products. The ultra-high efficiency and environmental performance goals

  8. Miniaturization and globalization of clinical laboratory activities.

    PubMed

    Melo, Murilo R; Clark, Samantha; Barrio, Daniel

    2011-04-01

    Clinical laboratories provide an invaluable service to millions of people around the world in the form of quality diagnostic care. Within the clinical laboratory industry the impetus for change has come from technological development (miniaturization, nanotechnology, and their collective effect on point-of-care testing; POCT) and the increasingly global nature of laboratory services. Potential technological gains in POCT include: the development of bio-sensors, microarrays, genetics and proteomics testing, and enhanced web connectivity. In globalization, prospective opportunities lie in: medical tourism, the migration of healthcare workers, cross-border delivery of testing, and the establishment of accredited laboratories in previously unexplored markets. Accompanying these impressive opportunities are equally imposing challenges. Difficulty transitioning from research to clinical use, poor infrastructure in developing countries, cultural differences and national barriers to global trade are only a few examples. Dealing with the issues presented by globalization and the impact of developing technology on POCT, and on the clinical laboratory services industry in general, will be a daunting task. Despite such concerns, with appropriate countermeasures it will be possible to address the challenges posed. Future laboratory success will be largely dependent on one's ability to adapt in this perpetually shifting landscape.

  9. Laboratory Turnaround Time

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Turnaround time (TAT) is one of the most noticeable signs of laboratory service and is often used as a key performance indicator of laboratory performance. This review summarises the literature regarding laboratory TAT, focusing on the different definitions, measures, expectations, published data, associations with clinical outcomes and approaches to improve TAT. It aims to provide a consolidated source of benchmarking data useful to the laboratory in setting TAT goals and to encourage introduction of TAT monitoring for continuous quality improvement. A 90% completion time (sample registration to result reporting) of <60 minutes for common laboratory tests is suggested as an initial goal for acceptable TAT. PMID:18392122

  10. Sensor-based architecture for medical imaging workflow analysis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luís A Bastião; Campos, Samuel; Costa, Carlos; Oliveira, José Luis

    2014-08-01

    The growing use of computer systems in medical institutions has been generating a tremendous quantity of data. While these data have a critical role in assisting physicians in the clinical practice, the information that can be extracted goes far beyond this utilization. This article proposes a platform capable of assembling multiple data sources within a medical imaging laboratory, through a network of intelligent sensors. The proposed integration framework follows a SOA hybrid architecture based on an information sensor network, capable of collecting information from several sources in medical imaging laboratories. Currently, the system supports three types of sensors: DICOM repository meta-data, network workflows and examination reports. Each sensor is responsible for converting unstructured information from data sources into a common format that will then be semantically indexed in the framework engine. The platform was deployed in the Cardiology department of a central hospital, allowing identification of processes' characteristics and users' behaviours that were unknown before the utilization of this solution.

  11. HEAT Sensor: Harsh Environment Adaptable Thermionic Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Limb, Scott J.

    2016-05-31

    This document is the final report for the “HARSH ENVIRONMENT ADAPTABLE THERMIONIC SENSOR” project under NETL’s Crosscutting contract DE-FE0013062. This report addresses sensors that can be made with thermionic thin films along with the required high temperature hermetic packaging process. These sensors can be placed in harsh high temperature environments and potentially be wireless and self-powered.

  12. Skylab mobile laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primeaux, G. R.; Larue, M. A.

    1975-01-01

    The Skylab mobile laboratory was designed to provide the capability to obtain necessary data on the Skylab crewmen 30 days before lift-off, within 1 hour after recovery, and until preflight physiological baselines were reattained. The mobile laboratory complex consisted of six laboratories that supported cardiovascular, metabolic, nutrition and endocrinology, operational medicine, blood, and microbiology experiments; a utility package; and two shipping containers. The objectives and equipment requirements of the Skylab mobile laboratory and the data acquisition systems are discussed along with processes such as permanently mounting equipment in the individual laboratories and methods of testing and transporting the units. The operational performance, in terms of amounts of data collected, and the concept of mobile laboratories for medical and scientific experiments are evaluated. The Skylab mobile laboratory succeeded in facilitating the data collection and sample preservation associated with the three Skylab manned flights.

  13. Solid State Humidity Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Song-Lin

    There are only a few solid state humidity sensors available today. Most of those sensors use a porous oxide material as a principal part of the device. The devices work on the basis of a change in resistance as the moisture in the air varies. In this experiment, two solid state humidity sensors have been developed for use under practical conditions. One is a Polymer Oxide Semiconductor device with a POLYOX film that absorbs the moisture from the air. The amount of water dipoles absorbed by the polymer is a function of relative humidity. This sensor can measure relative humidity from 20% to 90%. The other is a Dew Point sensor. The sensor is in contact with the upper surface of a miniature Peltier cooler. Water molecules deposited on the sensor surface cause the electrical current through the sensor to increase. The operator adjusts the temperature of the Peltier cooler until a saturated current through the sensor is reached. About one min. is required to measure low relative humidities. The Dew Point sensor can measure a range of relative humidities of 30% to 80%.

  14. Sensor capabilities for the HERMIES experimental robot

    SciTech Connect

    Killough, S.M.; Hamel, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    The Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed an experimental robot, the HERMIES, to test artificial intelligence concepts. This paper describes the capabilities provided for navigation and control. The authors conclude that the sensor suite, which enables the robot to recognize, locate, and grasp objects, makes HERMIES IIB a powerful tool for robotics and artificial intelligence research. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  15. Thin-Membrane Sensor With Biochemical Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, George D.; Worley, Jennings F.

    1992-01-01

    Modular sensor electrochemically detects chemical or biological agent, indicating presence of agent via gate-membrane-crossing ion current triggered by chemical reaction between agent and recognition protein conjugated to channel blocker. Used in such laboratory, industrial, or field applications as detection of bacterial toxins in food, military chemical agents in air, and pesticides or other contaminants in environment. Also used in biological screening for hepatitis, acquired immune-deficiency syndrome, and like.

  16. Variety of neutron sensors based on scintillating glass waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliss, Mary; Craig, Richard A.

    1995-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has fabricated cerium-activated lithium silicate glass scintillating fiber waveguide neutron sensors via a hot-downdraw process. These fibers typically have a transmission length (e-1 length) of greater than 2 meters. The underlying physics of, the properties of, and selected devices incorporating these fibers are described. These fibers constitute an enabling technology for a wide variety of neutron sensors.

  17. Passive optical sensor for lightning detection on overhead power lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosolem, J. B.; Barbosa, C. F.; Florídia, C.; Bezerra, E. L.

    2009-10-01

    In this work we present the results of a passive optical sensor for monitoring lightning strikes on overhead power lines, which can also be used for several other applications. The optic sensor is very simple and cheap and basically consists in the use of an antenna connected directly to a semiconductor laser. No batteries and solar panels are necessary to implement this sensing system in power lines towers. It was tested in laboratory and showed a good performance.

  18. Oscillations studied with the smartphone ambient light sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sans, J. A.; Manjón, F. J.; Pereira, A. L. J.; Gomez-Tejedor, J. A.; Monsoriu, J. A.

    2013-11-01

    This paper makes use of a smartphone's ambient light sensor to analyse a system of two coupled springs undergoing either simple or damped oscillatory motion. The period, frequency and stiffness of the spring, together with the damping constant and extinction time, are extracted from light intensity curves obtained using a free Android application. The results demonstrate the instructional value of mobile phone sensors as a tool in the physics laboratory.

  19. MITRE sensor layer prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duff, Francis; McGarry, Donald; Zasada, David; Foote, Scott

    2009-05-01

    The MITRE Sensor Layer Prototype is an initial design effort to enable every sensor to help create new capabilities through collaborative data sharing. By making both upstream (raw) and downstream (processed) sensor data visible, users can access the specific level, type, and quantities of data needed to create new data products that were never anticipated by the original designers of the individual sensors. The major characteristic that sets sensor data services apart from typical enterprise services is the volume (on the order of multiple terabytes) of raw data that can be generated by most sensors. Traditional tightly coupled processing approaches extract pre-determined information from the incoming raw sensor data, format it, and send it to predetermined users. The community is rapidly reaching the conclusion that tightly coupled sensor processing loses too much potentially critical information.1 Hence upstream (raw and partially processed) data must be extracted, rapidly archived, and advertised to the enterprise for unanticipated uses. The authors believe layered sensing net-centric integration can be achieved through a standardize-encapsulate-syndicateaggregate- manipulate-process paradigm. The Sensor Layer Prototype's technical approach focuses on implementing this proof of concept framework to make sensor data visible, accessible and useful to the enterprise. To achieve this, a "raw" data tap between physical transducers associated with sensor arrays and the embedded sensor signal processing hardware and software has been exploited. Second, we encapsulate and expose both raw and partially processed data to the enterprise within the context of a service-oriented architecture. Third, we advertise the presence of multiple types, and multiple layers of data through geographic-enabled Really Simple Syndication (GeoRSS) services. These GeoRSS feeds are aggregated, manipulated, and filtered by a feed aggregator. After filtering these feeds to bring just the type

  20. Liquid level sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, Atul; Karekar, R.N.; Aiyer, R.C.

    2005-10-15

    The article reports an idea of using a simple, cantilever-type load cell with a rod as a level sensor for continuous liquid level measurements. The sensor is based on the principle of the Archimedes buoyancy principle. The density and geometry of the rod govern the choice of the load cell. The length of the rod is governed by the height of the tank. A series of cyclic tests have demonstrated a highly repeatable response of the sensor. The accuracy of this low-cost sensor is field tested and found to be {+-}0.5% of the full range, for a 10 m level of water in a tank, and is working reliably for the period of 18 months. The sensor range can be easily extended to lower and higher tank heights. The sensor is crowned by its easy installation and calibration.

  1. Magnetic current sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, Jr., William C. (Inventor); Hermann, Theodore M. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A current determiner having an output at which representations of input currents are provided having an input conductor for the input current and a current sensor supported on a substrate electrically isolated from one another but with the sensor positioned in the magnetic fields arising about the input conductor due to any input currents. The sensor extends along the substrate in a direction primarily perpendicular to the extent of the input conductor and is formed of at least a pair of thin-film ferromagnetic layers separated by a non-magnetic conductive layer. The sensor can be electrically connected to a electronic circuitry formed in the substrate including a nonlinearity adaptation circuit to provide representations of the input currents of increased accuracy despite nonlinearities in the current sensor, and can include further current sensors in bridge circuits.

  2. Intelligent Sensors Security

    PubMed Central

    Bialas, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    The paper is focused on the security issues of sensors provided with processors and software and used for high-risk applications. Common IT related threats may cause serious consequences for sensor system users. To improve their robustness, sensor systems should be developed in a restricted way that would provide them with assurance. One assurance creation methodology is Common Criteria (ISO/IEC 15408) used for IT products and systems. The paper begins with a primer on the Common Criteria, and then a general security model of the intelligent sensor as an IT product is discussed. The paper presents how the security problem of the intelligent sensor is defined and solved. The contribution of the paper is to provide Common Criteria (CC) related security design patterns and to improve the effectiveness of the sensor development process. PMID:22315571

  3. Yeast Based Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimomura-Shimizu, Mifumi; Karube, Isao

    Since the first microbial cell sensor was studied by Karube et al. in 1977, many types of yeast based sensors have been developed as analytical tools. Yeasts are known as facultative anaerobes. Facultative anaerobes can survive in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The yeast based sensor consisted of a DO electrode and an immobilized omnivorous yeast. In yeast based sensor development, many kinds of yeast have been employed by applying their characteristics to adapt to the analyte. For example, Trichosporon cutaneum was used to estimate organic pollution in industrial wastewater. Yeast based sensors are suitable for online control of biochemical processes and for environmental monitoring. In this review, principles and applications of yeast based sensors are summarized.

  4. Clementine sensor suite

    SciTech Connect

    Ledebuhr, A.G.

    1994-11-15

    LLNL designed and built the suite of six miniaturized light-weight space-qualified sensors utilized in the Clementine mission. A major goal of the Clementine program was to demonstrate technologies originally developed for Ballistic Missile Defense Organization Programs. These sensors were modified to gather data from the moon. This overview presents each of these sensors and some preliminary on-orbit performance estimates. The basic subsystems of these sensors include optical baffles to reject off-axis stray light, light-weight ruggedized optical systems, filter wheel assemblies, radiation tolerant focal plane arrays, radiation hardened control and readout electronics and low mass and power mechanical cryogenic coolers for the infrared sensors. Descriptions of each sensor type are given along with design specifications, photographs and on-orbit data collected.

  5. Working Group Report: Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Artuso, M.; et al.,

    2013-10-18

    Sensors play a key role in detecting both charged particles and photons for all three frontiers in Particle Physics. The signals from an individual sensor that can be used include ionization deposited, phonons created, or light emitted from excitations of the material. The individual sensors are then typically arrayed for detection of individual particles or groups of particles. Mounting of new, ever higher performance experiments, often depend on advances in sensors in a range of performance characteristics. These performance metrics can include position resolution for passing particles, time resolution on particles impacting the sensor, and overall rate capabilities. In addition the feasible detector area and cost frequently provides a limit to what can be built and therefore is often another area where improvements are important. Finally, radiation tolerance is becoming a requirement in a broad array of devices. We present a status report on a broad category of sensors, including challenges for the future and work in progress to solve those challenges.

  6. Capacitive chemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Manginell, Ronald P; Moorman, Matthew W; Wheeler, David R

    2014-05-27

    A microfabricated capacitive chemical sensor can be used as an autonomous chemical sensor or as an analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator in a larger microanalytical system. The capacitive chemical sensor detects changes in sensing film dielectric properties, such as the dielectric constant, conductivity, or dimensionality. These changes result from the interaction of a target analyte with the sensing film. This capability provides a low-power, self-heating chemical sensor suitable for remote and unattended sensing applications. The capacitive chemical sensor also enables a smart, analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator. After sorption of the sample by the sensing film, the film can be rapidly heated to release the sample for further analysis. Therefore, the capacitive chemical sensor can optimize the sample collection time prior to release to enable the rapid and accurate analysis of analytes by a microanalytical system.

  7. Sensors reduce car emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Paula, G.

    1996-11-01

    Advanced control and diagnostic sensors play a key role in antipollution devices such as catalytic converters, electronic fuel injection, and exhaust-gas recirculation systems. Technologies such as catalytic converters, electronic fuel injection, and exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) systems have decreased automobile emissions approximately 90 percent from their 1960 levels. The cornerstone of many of these emissions-control technologies are sensors that provide feedback and control. Any sensor--particularly those installed under an automobile hood--must withstand harsh conditions, such as intense heat, shock, continual vibration, corrosive gases, and electromagnetic fields. As a result microelectromechanical-system sensors, though widely used in automobiles, have not been applied to emissions monitoring and pollution control because they are not rugged enough to survive inside an engine. Most automobile sensors use mature technologies, but newer technologies such as fiber-optic sensors will be installed in vehicles within the next few years.

  8. Standards Laboratory environments

    SciTech Connect

    Braudaway, D.W.

    1990-09-01

    Standards Laboratory environments need to be carefully selected to meet the specific mission of each laboratory. The mission of the laboratory depends on the specific work supported, the measurement disciplines required and the level of uncertainty required in the measurements. This document reproduces the contents of the Sandia National Laboratories Primary Standards Laboratory Memorandum Number 3B (PSLM-3B) which was issued on May 16, 1988, under the auspices of the Department of Energy, Albuquerque Operations Office, to guide the laboratories of the Nuclear Weapons Complex in selecting suitable environments. Because of both general interest and specific interest in Standards Laboratory environments this document is being issued in a more available form. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance in selection of laboratory environments suitable for standards maintenance and calibration operations. It is not intended to mandate a specific environment for a specific calibration but to direct selection of the environment and to offer suggestions on how to extend precision in an existing and/or achievable (practical) environment. Although this documents pertains specifically to standards laboratories, it can be applied to any laboratory requiring environmental control.

  9. Development of a Pyramid Wave-front Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hadi, Kacem; Vignaux, Mael; Fusco, Thierry

    2013-12-01

    Within the framework of the E-ELT studies, several laboratories are involved on some instruments: HARMONY with its ATLAS adaptive optics [AO] system, EAGLE or EPICS. Most of the AO systems will probably integrate one or several pyramidal wavefront sensors, PWFS (R. Ragazzoni [1]). The coupling in an AO loop and the control in laboratory (then on sky) of this type of sensor is fundamental for the continuation of the projects related to OA systems on the E-ELT. LAM (Laboratory of Astrophysics of Marseille) is involved in particular in the VLT-SPHERE, ATLAS, EPICS projects. For the last few years, our laboratory has been carrying out different R&D activities in AO instrumentation for ELTs. An experimental AO bench is designed and being developed to allow the validation of new wave-front sensing and control concepts [2]. One the objectives of this bench, is the experimental validation of a pyramid WFS. Theoretical investigations on its behavior have been already made. The world's fastest and most sensitive camera system (OCAM2) has been recently developed at LAM (J.L Gach [3], First Light Imaging). Conjugating this advantage with the pyramid concept, we plan to demonstrate a home made Pyramid sensor for Adaptive Optics whose the speed and the precision are the key points. As a joint collaboration with ONERA and Shaktiware, our work aims at the optimization (measurement process, calibration and operation) in laboratory then on the sky of a pyramid sensor dedicated to the first generation instruments for ELTs. The sensor will be implemented on the ONERA ODISSEE AO bench combining thus a pyramid and a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors. What would give the possibility to compare strictly these two WFS types and make this bench unique in France and even in Europe. Experimental work on laboratory demonstration is undergoing. The status of our development will presented at the conference.

  10. Optical sensors for process control and emissions monitoring in industry

    SciTech Connect

    S. W. Allendorf; D. K. Ottesen; D. W. Hahn; T. J. Kulp; U. B. Goers

    1998-11-02

    Sandia National Laboratories has a number of ongoing projects developing optical sensors for industrial environments. Laser-based sensors can be attractive for relatively harsh environments where extractive sampling is difficult, inaccurate, or impractical. Tools developed primarily for laboratory research can often be adapted for the real world and applied to problems far from their original uses. Spectroscopic techniques, appropriately selected, have the potential to impact the bottom of line of a number of industries and industrial processes. In this paper the authors discuss three such applications: a laser-based instrument for process control in steelmaking, a laser-induced breakdown method for hazardous metal detection in process streams, and a laser-based imaging sensor for evaluating surface cleanliness. Each has the potential to provide critical, process-related information in a real-time, continuous manner. These sensor techniques encompass process control applications and emissions monitoring for pollution prevention. They also span the range from a field-tested pre-commercial prototype to laboratory instrumentation. Finally, these sensors employ a wide range of sophistication in both the laser source and associated analytical spectroscopy. In the ultimate applications, however, many attributes of the sensors are in common, such as the need for robust operation and hardening for harsh industrial environments.

  11. Optical sensors for process control and emissions monitoring in industry

    SciTech Connect

    S. W. Alendorf; D. K. Ottensen; D. W. Hahn; T. J. Kulp; U. B. Goers

    1999-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has a number of ongoing projects developing optical sensors for industrial environments. Laser-based sensors can be attractive for relatively harsh environments where extractive sampling is difficult, inaccurate, or impractical. Tools developed primarily for laboratory research can often be adapted for the real world and applied to problems far from their original uses. Spectroscopic techniques, appropriately selected, have the potential to impact the bottom line of a number of industries and industrial processes. In this paper the authors discuss three such applications: a laser-based instrument for process control in steelmaking, a laser-induced breakdown method for hazardous metal detection in process streams, and a laser-based imaging sensor for evaluating surface cleanliness. Each has the potential to provide critical, process-related information in a real-time, continuous manner. These sensor techniques encompass process control applications and emissions monitoring for pollution prevention. They also span the range from a field-tested pre-commercial prototype to laboratory instrumentation. Finally, these sensors employ a wide range of sophistication in both the laser source and associated analytical spectroscopy. In the ultimate applications, however, many attributes of the sensors are in common, such as the need for robust operation and hardening for harsh industrial environments.

  12. Development and Testing of Prototype Commercial Gasifier Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Zelepouga, Serguei; Moery, Nathan; Wu, Mengbai; Saveliev, Alexei

    2015-01-31

    This report presents the results of the sensor development and testing at the Wabash River gasifier. The project work was initiated with modification of the sensor software (Task 2) to enable real time temperature data acquisition, and to process and provide the obtained gasifier temperature information to the gasifier operators. The software modifications were conducted by the North Carolina State University (NCSU) researchers. The modified software was tested at the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) combustion laboratory to assess the temperature recognition algorithm accuracy and repeatability. Task 3 was focused on the sensor hardware modifications needed to improve reliability of the sensor system. NCSU conducted numerical modeling of the sensor probe’s purging flow. Based on the modeling results the probe purging system was redesigned to prevent carbon particulates deposition on the probe’s sapphire window. The modified design was evaluated and approved by the Wabash representative. The modified gasifier sensor was built and installed at the Wabash River gasifier on May 1 2014. (Task 4) The sensor was tested from the startup of the gasifier on May 5, 2015 until the planned autumn gasifier outage starting in the beginning of October, 2015. (Task 5) The project team successfully demonstrated the Gasifier Sensor system’s ability to monitor gasifier temperature while maintaining unobstructed optical access for six months without any maintenance. The sensor examination upon completion of the trial revealed that the system did not sustain any damage.

  13. Transient multivariable sensor evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Vilim, Richard B.; Heifetz, Alexander

    2017-02-21

    A method and system for performing transient multivariable sensor evaluation. The method and system includes a computer system for identifying a model form, providing training measurement data, generating a basis vector, monitoring system data from sensor, loading the system data in a non-transient memory, performing an estimation to provide desired data and comparing the system data to the desired data and outputting an alarm for a defective sensor.

  14. High-temperature sensor

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1981-01-29

    A high temperature sensor is described which includes a pair of electrical conductors separated by a mass of electrical insulating material. The insulating material has a measurable resistivity within the sensor that changes in relation to the temperature of the insulating material within a high temperature range (1000 to 2000/sup 0/K). When required, the sensor can be encased within a ceramic protective coating.

  15. Vehicle Based Vector Sensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-28

    300001 1 of 16 VEHICLE-BASED VECTOR SENSOR STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured and...unmanned underwater vehicle that can function as an acoustic vector sensor . (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004] It is known that a propagating...mechanics. An acoustic vector sensor measures the particle motion via an accelerometer and combines Attorney Docket No. 300001 2 of 16 the

  16. Remote electrochemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Joseph; Olsen, Khris; Larson, David

    1997-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor for remote detection, particularly useful for metal contaminants and organic or other compounds. The sensor circumvents technical difficulties that previously prevented in-situ remote operations. The microelectrode, connected to a long communications cable, allows convenient measurements of the element or compound at timed and frequent intervals and instrument/sample distances of ten feet to more than 100 feet. The sensor is useful for both downhole groundwater monitoring and in-situ water (e.g., shipboard seawater) analysis.

  17. Beam imaging sensor

    DOEpatents

    McAninch, Michael D.; Root, Jeffrey J.

    2016-07-05

    The present invention relates generally to the field of sensors for beam imaging and, in particular, to a new and useful beam imaging sensor for use in determining, for example, the power density distribution of a beam including, but not limited to, an electron beam or an ion beam. In one embodiment, the beam imaging sensor of the present invention comprises, among other items, a circumferential slit that is either circular, elliptical or polygonal in nature.

  18. Contact stress sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kotovsky, Jack [Oakland, CA

    2012-02-07

    A contact stress sensor includes one or more MEMS fabricated sensor elements, where each sensor element of includes a thin non-recessed portion, a recessed portion and a pressure sensitive element adjacent to the recessed portion. An electric circuit is connected to the pressure sensitive element. The circuit includes a thermal compensator and a pressure signal circuit element configured to provide a signal upon movement of the pressure sensitive element.

  19. Contact stress sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kotovsky, Jack

    2014-02-11

    A method for producing a contact stress sensor that includes one or more MEMS fabricated sensor elements, where each sensor element of includes a thin non-recessed portion, a recessed portion and a pressure sensitive element adjacent to the recessed portion. An electric circuit is connected to the pressure sensitive element. The circuit includes a pressure signal circuit element configured to provide a signal upon movement of the pressure sensitive element.

  20. Miniature Airflow Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kershner, D. D.

    1984-01-01

    Miniature flow-angle and airspeed sensor quickly mounted on light aircraft wing with two-sided tape since conventional sensors are restricted to large aircraft. Sensor operates as free-trailing wind vane selfalineing in airstream through two independent axes. Vane attached to wing surface through hollow mounting boom that fits on mounting plate attached to wing with two-sided neoprene-foam tape. Method shown strong enough for loads of low-speed flight.

  1. Rolamite acceleration sensor

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, Joseph P.; Briner, Clifton F.; Martin, Samuel B.

    1993-01-01

    A rolamite acceleration sensor which has a failsafe feature including a housing, a pair of rollers, a tension band wrapped in an S shaped fashion around the rollers, wherein the band has a force-generation cut out and a failsafe cut out or weak portion. The failsafe cut out or weak portion breaks when the sensor is subjected to an excessive acceleration so that the sensor fails in an open circuit (non-conducting) state permanently.

  2. Rolamite acceleration sensor

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, J.P.; Briner, C.F.; Martin, S.B.

    1993-12-21

    A rolamite acceleration sensor is described which has a failsafe feature including a housing, a pair of rollers, a tension band wrapped in an S shaped fashion around the rollers, wherein the band has a force-generation cut out and a failsafe cut out or weak portion. The failsafe cut out or weak portion breaks when the sensor is subjected to an excessive acceleration so that the sensor fails in an open circuit (non-conducting) state permanently. 6 figures.

  3. A passive opto-electronic lightning sensor based on electromagnetic field detection for utilities applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosolem, J. B.; Barbosa, C. F.; Floridia, C.; Bezerra, E. W.

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents the results of a passive optical lightning sensor for utilities applications. The main sensor application is for the location of lightning strikes in overhead power lines, but it can also be used in substations or in power generation plants. The proposed sensor detects lightning indirectly by means of detecting lightning electromagnetic pulses, which are used to modulate directly a semiconductor laser coupled to a fibre optic pigtail. No solar panels, batteries or electronic control circuits are necessary to implement this sensing technique. This paper shows the results of the sensor characterization made only in laboratory and the possibilities of its use in an optical WDM sensor network.

  4. Correct use of cone penetrometer sensors to predict subsurface conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.L.; Rose, C.M.; Armstrong, S.C.; Burton, J.C.

    1997-09-01

    When cone penetrometer testing (CPT) technology is used with in-situ sensors and probes to characterize subsurface conditions in environmental investigations, each sensor must be calibrated with high quality, site specific data to establish essential interpretation criteria. Mechanical, geophysical, and chemical sensor data collected for a site in South Carolina without such controls were misleading. Core logs obtained subsequently had major lithologic discrepancies with the soil classification based on the CPT sensor data. In addition, detailed core sampling and laboratory analysis showed that the sensor data on chemical contaminants included false positive and false negative results. In contrast, for a site in Nebraska, CPT data calibrated with high quality site controls provided a detailed interpretation of subsurface conditions relevant to contaminant fate and transport. On the basis of the work in Nebraska, Argonne scientists are continuing to develop criteria to improve the interpretation of complex subsurface stratigraphy.

  5. Safety monitoring of rail transit by fiber grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaomei; Li, Xuejin; Deng, Yuanlong; Liu, Xiaoqing; Yu, Yongqin; Zhou, Huasheng

    2013-12-01

    The subway is a representative form of the rail transit, and its catenary suspension system is a very important aspect to the safety of the whole system. The safety monitoring of the subway catenary suspension system is studied in this paper. A demonstrate model is set up in the laboratory, and some fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors including strain sensors and displacement sensors were utilized in the demonstrate system. It is shown that the used sensors could indicate the safety information of the system effectively. Especially, the designed displacement sensor that is packaged by athermal technique can abandon the influence of the environment temperature in a certain degree. Its engineering applicability is greatly improved.

  6. Fiber optic, Fabry-Perot high temperature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, K.; Quick, B.

    1984-01-01

    A digital, fiber optic temperature sensor using a variable Fabry-Perot cavity as the sensor element was analyzed, designed, fabricated, and tested. The fiber transmitted cavity reflection spectra is dispersed then converted from an optical signal to electrical information by a charged coupled device (CCD). A microprocessor-based color demodulation system converts the wavelength information to temperature. This general sensor concept not only utilizes an all-optical means of parameter sensing and transmitting, but also exploits microprocessor technology for automated control, calibration, and enhanced performance. The complete temperature sensor system was evaluated in the laboratory. Results show that the Fabry-Perot temperature sensor has good resolution (0.5% of full seale), high accuracy, and potential high temperature ( 1000 C) applications.

  7. Thin-film Sensors for Space Propulsion Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, W. S.; Englund, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    SSME components such as the turbine blades of the high pressure fuel turbopump are subjected to rapid and extreme thermal transients that contribute to blade cracking and subsequent failure. The objective was to develop thin film sensors for SSME components. The technology established for aircraft gas turbine engines was adopted to the materials and environment encountered in the SSME. Specific goals are to expand the existing thin film sensor technology, to continue developing improved sensor processing techniques, and to test the durability of aircraft gas turbine engine technology in the SSME environment. A thin film sensor laboratory is being installed in a refurbished clean room, and new sputtering and photoresist exposure equipment is being acquired. Existing thin film thermocouple technology in an SSME environment are being tested. Various coatings and their insulating films are being investigated for use in sensor development.

  8. Magnet options for sensors for the pulp and paper industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, M. A.; Barale, P. J.; Fong, C. G.; Luft, P. A.; Reimer, J. A.; Yahnke, M. S.

    2002-05-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been developing sensors for the pulp and paper industry that use a magnetic field. The applications for magnetic sensors that have been studied include 1) sensors for the measurement of the water and ice content of wood chips entering the pulping mill, 2) sensors for measuring the water content and other constituents of the black liquor leaving the paper digester, and 3) sensors for measuring paper thickness and water content as the paper is being processed. These tasks can be done using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The magnetic field used for doing the NMR can come from either permanent magnets or superconducting magnets. The choice of the magnet is dependent on a number of factors, which include the size of the sample and field strength needed to do the sensing task at hand. This paper describes some superconducting magnet options that can be used in the pulp and paper industry.

  9. The utility of diamond sensors for space flight

    SciTech Connect

    Higbie, P.R.; Han, S.S.; Wagner, R.S.

    1996-03-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed diamond sensors with interdigitated electrodes that operate in a photoconducting mode. The specific application for this work was for the Department of Energy`s instruments flown on the Global Positioning System satellites. Sensors have been fabricated and tested for their response to low-energy x-rays. These sensors can be operated to extremely high volumetric radiation doses. We find that the sensors are extremely useful for situations where the surface radiation dose is not excessive, but that this limit is exceeded for the GPS orbit. It is possible that further studies and special detector arrangements or auxiliary heating of the sensor may push this limit to higher values.

  10. Solid-state, resistive hydrogen sensors for safety monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffheins, B.S.; Lauf, R.J.; Fleming, P.H.; Nave, S.E.

    1993-07-01

    Solid-state, resistive hydrogen sensors have been designed and fabricated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Sensor response has been successfully tested with H{sub 2} gas in argon and air under ambient temperature and pressure, while immersed in transformer oil at temperatures between 25{degrees}C and 90{degrees}C, and under site-specific conditions at Westinghouse Savannah River Co. Current versions of the sensors (25 {times} 25 {times} 0.6 mm) are small enough to be incorporated into hand-held leak detectors or distributed sensor systems for safety monitoring throughout a large area. Another foreseeable application is in electrical power transformers where the buildup of hydrogen gas accompanies oil breakdown. The use of these sensors to monitor transformer oil changes could help predict and prevent catastrophic failure.

  11. Long Wave Infrared Cavity Enhanced Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Taubman, Matthew S.; Scott, David C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Myers, Tanya L.; Bonebrake, Christopher A.; Aker, Pam M.; Wojcik, Michael D.; Munley, John T.; Nguyen, Vinh T.; Schultz, John F.

    2004-10-01

    The principal goal of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL's) long wave infrared (LWIR) cavity enhanced sensor (CES) project is to explore ultra-sensitive spectroscopic techniques and apply them to the development of LWIR chemical sensors needed for detecting weapons proliferation. This includes detecting not only the weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) themselves, but also signatures of their production and/or detonation. The LWIR CES project is concerned exclusively with developing point sensors; other portions of PNNL's IR Sensors program address stand off detection. PNNL's LWIR CES research is distinguished from that done by others by the use quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) as the light source. QCLs are novel devices, and a significant fraction of our research has been devoted to developing the procedures and hardware required to implement them most effectively for chemical sensing. This report details the progress we have made on our LWIR CES sensor development. During FY02, PNNL investigated three LWIR CES implementations beginning with the easiest to implement, direct cavity-enhanced detection (simple CES), including a technique of intermediate difficulty, cavity-dithered phase-sensitive detection (FM recovery CES) through to the most complex technique, that of resonant sideband cavity-enhanced detection also known as noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy, or NICE-OHMS.

  12. Allegany Ballistics Lab: sensor test target system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, Deran S.

    2011-06-01

    Leveraging the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head Division's historical experience in weapon simulation, Naval Sea Systems Command commissioned development of a remote-controlled, digitally programmable Sensor Test Target as part of a modern, outdoor hardware-in-the-loop test system for ordnance-related guidance, navigation and control systems. The overall Target system design invokes a sciences-based, "design of automated experiments" approach meant to close the logistical distance between sensor engineering and developmental T&E in outdoor conditions over useful real world distances. This enables operating modes that employ broad spectrum electromagnetic energy in many a desired combination, variably generated using a Jet Engine Simulator, a multispectral infrared emitter array, optically enhanced incandescent Flare Simulators, Emitter/Detector mounts, and an RF corner reflector kit. As assembled, the recently tested Sensor Test Target prototype being presented can capably provide a full array of useful RF and infrared target source simulations for RDT&E use with developmental and existing sensors. Certain Target technologies are patent pending, with potential spinoffs in aviation, metallurgy and biofuels processing, while others are variations on well-established technology. The Sensor Test Target System is planned for extended installation at Allegany Ballistics Laboratory (Rocket Center, WV).

  13. Internal Reflection Sensor for the Cone Penetrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Job Bello

    1998-05-29

    The objectives of this project are to design, assemble, test, and demonstrate a prototype Internal Reflection Sensor (IRS) for the cone penetrometer. The sensor will ultimately be deployed during site characterization with the goal of providing real-time, in situ detection of NonAqueous Phase Liquids (NAPLs) in the subsurface. In the first phase of this program, we have designed and assembled an IRS module that interfaces directly to a standard cone penetrometer system. Laboratory tests demonstrated that the sensor responds in real-time to a wide variety of free phase NAPLs without interference from natural materials such as water and soil of various types or dissolved contaminants. In a preliminary field test, the sensor was able to locate NAPLs at thin, discrete depths in a soil test pit when deployed with a cone penetrometer. Ruggedness of the device was tested with a series of penetrometer pushes to the depth of refusal at a clean location. There was no visible damage to the sensor and its performance did not change in the course of these experiments. Based on the successes of the Phase I program, it is recommended that the project proceed to full-scale demonstration in Phase II.

  14. Improved Capacitive Liquid Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldman, Francis A.

    1992-01-01

    Improved capacitive sensor used to detect presence and/or measure thickness of layer of liquid. Electrical impedance or admittance of sensor measured at prescribed frequency, and thickness of liquid inferred from predetermined theoretical or experimental relationship between impedance and thickness. Sensor is basically a three-terminal device. Features interdigitated driving and sensing electrodes and peripheral coplanar ground electrode that reduces parasitic effects. Patent-pending because first to utilize ground plane as "shunting" electrode. System less expensive than infrared, microwave, or refractive-index systems. Sensor successfully evaluated in commercial production plants to characterize emulsions, slurries, and solutions.

  15. Fiber optic temperature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawatari, Takeo (Inventor); Gaubis, Philip A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A fiber optic temperature sensor uses a light source which transmits light through an optical fiber to a sensor head at the opposite end of the optical fiber from the light source. The sensor head has a housing coupled to the end of the optical fiber. A metallic reflective surface is coupled to the housing adjacent the end of the optical fiber to form a gap having a predetermined length between the reflective surface and the optical fiber. A detection system is also coupled to the optical fiber which determines the temperature at the sensor head from an interference pattern of light which is reflected from the reflective surface.

  16. Fiber optic temperature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawatari, Takeo (Inventor); Gaubis, Philip A. (Inventor); Mattes, Brenton L. (Inventor); Charnetski, Clark J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A fiber optic temperature sensor uses a light source which transmits light through an optical fiber to a sensor head at the opposite end of the optical fiber from the light source. The sensor head has a housing coupled to the end of the optical fiber. A metallic reflective surface is coupled to the housing adjacent the end of the optical fiber to form a gap having a predetermined length between the reflective surface and the optical fiber. A detection system is also coupled to the optical fiber which determines the temperature at the sensor head from an interference pattern of light which is reflected from the reflective surface.

  17. Perforated diode neutron sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeil, Walter J.

    A novel design of neutron sensor was investigated and developed. The perforated, or micro-structured, diode neutron sensor is a concept that has the potential to enhance neutron sensitivity of a common solid-state sensor configuration. The common thin-film coated diode neutron sensor is the only semiconductor-based neutron sensor that has proven feasible for commercial use. However, the thin-film coating restricts neutron counting efficiency and severely limits the usefulness of the sensor. This research has shown that the perforated design, when properly implemented, can increase the neutron counting efficiency by greater than a factor of 4. Methods developed in this work enable detectors to be fabricated to meet needs such as miniaturization, portability, ruggedness, and adaptability. The new detectors may be used for unique applications such as neutron imaging or the search for special nuclear materials. The research and developments described in the work include the successful fabrication of variant perforated diode neutron detector designs, general explanations of fundamental radiation detector design (with added focus on neutron detection and compactness), as well as descriptive theory and sensor design modeling useful in predicting performance of these unique solid-state radiation sensors. Several aspects in design, fabrication, and operational performance have been considered and tested including neutron counting efficiency, gamma-ray response, perforation shapes and depths, and silicon processing variations. Finally, the successfully proven technology was applied to a 1-dimensional neutron sensor array system.

  18. Smart and Intelligent Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansaw, John; Schmalzel, John; Figueroa, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) provides rocket engine propulsion testing for NASA's space programs. Since the development of the Space Shuttle, every Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) has undergone acceptance testing at SSC before going to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for integration into the Space Shuttle. The SSME is a large cryogenic rocket engine that uses Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) as the fuel. As NASA moves to the new ARES V launch system, the main engines on the new vehicle, as well as the upper stage engine, are currently base lined to be cryogenic rocket engines that will also use LH2. The main rocket engines for the ARES V will be larger than the SSME, while the upper stage engine will be approximately half that size. As a result, significant quantities of hydrogen will be required during the development, testing, and operation of these rocket engines.Better approaches are needed to simplify sensor integration and help reduce life-cycle costs. 1.Smarter sensors. Sensor integration should be a matter of "plug-and-play" making sensors easier to add to a system. Sensors that implement new standards can help address this problem; for example, IEEE STD 1451.4 defines transducer electronic data sheet (TEDS) templates for commonly used sensors such as bridge elements and thermocouples. When a 1451.4 compliant smart sensor is connected to a system that can read the TEDS memory, all information needed to configure the data acquisition system can be uploaded. This reduces the amount of labor required and helps minimize configuration errors. 2.Intelligent sensors. Data received from a sensor be scaled, linearized; and converted to engineering units. Methods to reduce sensor processing overhead at the application node are needed. Smart sensors using low-cost microprocessors with integral data acquisition and communication support offer the means to add these capabilities. Once a processor is embedded, other features can be added; for example, intelligent sensors can make

  19. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Homuth, E.F.

    1991-03-19

    A fiber optic geophysical sensor is described in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects. 2 figures.

  20. Panoramic attitude sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meek, I. C.

    1976-01-01

    Each subassembly, design analysis, and final calibration data on all assemblies for the Panormic Attitude Sensor (PAS) are described. The PAS is used for course attitude determination on the International Ultraviolet Explorer Spacecraft (IUE). The PAS contains a sun sensor which is sensitive only to the sun's radiation and a mechanically scanned sensor which is sensitive to the earth, moon, and the sun. The signals from these two sensors are encoded and sent back in the telemetry data stream to determine the spacecraft attitude.

  1. Multi-sensor electrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gompf, Raymond (Inventor); Buehler, Martin C. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An array of triboelectric sensors is used for testing the electrostatic properties of a remote environment. The sensors may be mounted in the heel of a robot arm scoop. To determine the triboelectric properties of a planet surface, the robot arm scoop may be rubbed on the soil of the planet and the triboelectrically developed charge measured. By having an array of sensors, different insulating materials may be measured simultaneously. The insulating materials may be selected so their triboelectric properties cover a desired range. By mounting the sensor on a robot arm scoop, the measurements can be obtained during an unmanned mission.

  2. Microfabricated Formaldehyde Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Flueckiger, Jonas; Ko, Frank K.; Cheung, Karen C.

    2009-01-01

    Formaldehyde is a volatile organic compound that is widely used in textiles, paper, wood composites, and household materials. Formaldehyde will continuously outgas from manufactured wood products such as furniture, with adverse health effects resulting from prolonged low-level exposure. New, microfabricated sensors for formaldehyde have been developed to meet the need for portable, low-power gas detection. This paper reviews recent work including silicon microhotplates for metal oxide-based detection, enzyme-based electrochemical sensors, and nanowire-based sensors. This paper also investigates the promise of polymer-based sensors for low-temperature, low-power operation. PMID:22291561

  3. Smart Sensor Demonstration Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzel, John; Bracey, Andrew; Rawls, Stephen; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark; Franzl, Richard; Figueroa, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Sensors are a critical element to any monitoring, control, and evaluation processes such as those needed to support ground based testing for rocket engine test. Sensor applications involve tens to thousands of sensors; their reliable performance is critical to achieving overall system goals. Many figures of merit are used to describe and evaluate sensor characteristics; for example, sensitivity and linearity. In addition, sensor selection must satisfy many trade-offs among system engineering (SE) requirements to best integrate sensors into complex systems [1]. These SE trades include the familiar constraints of power, signal conditioning, cabling, reliability, and mass, and now include considerations such as spectrum allocation and interference for wireless sensors. Our group at NASA s John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) works in the broad area of integrated systems health management (ISHM). Core ISHM technologies include smart and intelligent sensors, anomaly detection, root cause analysis, prognosis, and interfaces to operators and other system elements [2]. Sensor technologies are the base fabric that feed data and health information to higher layers. Cost-effective operation of the complement of test stands benefits from technologies and methodologies that contribute to reductions in labor costs, improvements in efficiency, reductions in turn-around times, improved reliability, and other measures. ISHM is an active area of development at SSC because it offers the potential to achieve many of those operational goals [3-5].

  4. Ion mobility sensor

    DOEpatents

    Koo, Jackson C.; Yu, Conrad M.

    2005-08-23

    An ion mobility sensor which can detect both ion and molecules simultaneously. Thus, one can measure the relative arrival times between various ions and molecules. Different ions have different mobility in air, and the ion sensor enables measurement of ion mobility, from which one can identify the various ions and molecules. The ion mobility sensor which utilizes a pair of glow discharge devices may be designed for coupling with an existing gas chromatograph, where various gas molecules are already separated, but numbers of each kind of molecules are relatively small, and in such cases a conventional ion mobility sensor cannot be utilized.

  5. The Sensor Fish - Making Dams More Salmon-Friendly

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Keilman, Geogre

    2004-07-31

    This article describes the Sensor Fish, an instrument package that travels through hydroelectric dams collecting data on the hazardous conditions that migrating salmon smolt encounter. The Sensor Fish was developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory with funding from DOE and the US Army Corps of Engineers and has been used at several federal and utility-run hydroelectric projects on the Snake and Columbia Rivers of the US Pacific Northwest. The article describes the evolution of the Sensor Fish design and provides examples of its use at McNary and Ice Harbor dams.

  6. The Confederate medical laboratories.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Guy R; Hambrecht, F Terry

    2003-12-01

    During the Civil War, the scarcity and expense of imported drugs forced the Confederate Army to establish several medical laboratories to manufacture drugs for military use. The laboratories produced medicines from indigenous plants and also made non-plant-based drugs. The Confederate Surgeon General and the Chief Purveyor in Richmond, VA, coordinated activities of most of the laboratories. The laboratories employed talented and resourceful personnel and manufactured a large volume and wide variety of drugs, the most useful of which included ether, chloroform, and opiates. The pharmaceutical quality of the laboratories' output was evidently uneven. Empirical testing in military hospitals helped determine the clinical value of indigenous remedies. The Confederate medical laboratories participated in a coordinated effort to supply the Army with substitutes for drugs whose availability was curtailed or uncertain.

  7. Teaching Electronics and Laboratory Automation Using Microcontroller Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabbott, Gary A.

    2014-01-01

    Modern microcontroller boards offer the analytical chemist a powerful and inexpensive means of interfacing computers and laboratory equipment. The availability of a host of educational materials, compatible sensors, and electromechanical devices make learning to implement microcontrollers fun and empowering. This article describes the advantages…

  8. An Easily Assembled Laboratory Exercise in Computed Tomography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mylott, Elliot; Klepetka, Ryan; Dunlap, Justin C.; Widenhorn, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a laboratory activity in computed tomography (CT) primarily composed of a photogate and a rotary motion sensor that can be assembled quickly and partially automates data collection and analysis. We use an enclosure made with a light filter that is largely opaque in the visible spectrum but mostly transparent to the near…

  9. Advanced Sensor Technologies for Next-Generation Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, S H; Chien, H T; Gopalsami, N; Jendrzejczyk, A; Raptis, A C

    2002-01-30

    This report summarizes the development of automobile emissions sensors at Argonne National Laboratory. Three types of sensor technologies, i.e., ultrasound, microwave, and ion-mobility spectrometry (IMS), were evaluated for engine-out emissions monitoring. Two acoustic sensor technologies, i.e., surface acoustic wave and flexural plate wave, were evaluated for detection of hydrocarbons. The microwave technique involves a cavity design and measures the shifts in resonance frequency that are a result of the presence of trace organic compounds. The IMS technique was chosen for further development into a practical emissions sensor. An IMS sensor with a radioactive {sup 63}Ni ion source was initially developed and applied to measurement of hydrocarbons and NO{sub x} emissions. For practical applications, corona and spark discharge ion sources were later developed and applied to NO{sub x} emission measurement. The concentrations of NO{sub 2} in dry nitrogen and in a typical exhaust gas mixture are presented. The sensor response to moisture was evaluated, and a cooling method to control the moisture content in the gas stream was examined. Results show that the moisture effect can be reduced by using a thermoelectric cold plate. The design and performance of a laboratory prototype sensor are described.

  10. Inertial Sensor Error Reduction through Calibration and Sensor Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Lambrecht, Stefan; Nogueira, Samuel L.; Bortole, Magdo; Siqueira, Adriano A. G.; Terra, Marco H.; Rocon, Eduardo; Pons, José L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the comparison between cooperative and local Kalman Filters (KF) for estimating the absolute segment angle, under two calibration conditions. A simplified calibration, that can be replicated in most laboratories; and a complex calibration, similar to that applied by commercial vendors. The cooperative filters use information from either all inertial sensors attached to the body, Matricial KF; or use information from the inertial sensors and the potentiometers of an exoskeleton, Markovian KF. A one minute walking trial of a subject walking with a 6-DoF exoskeleton was used to assess the absolute segment angle of the trunk, thigh, shank, and foot. The results indicate that regardless of the segment and filter applied, the more complex calibration always results in a significantly better performance compared to the simplified calibration. The interaction between filter and calibration suggests that when the quality of the calibration is unknown the Markovian KF is recommended. Applying the complex calibration, the Matricial and Markovian KF perform similarly, with average RMSE below 1.22 degrees. Cooperative KFs perform better or at least equally good as Local KF, we therefore recommend to use cooperative KFs instead of local KFs for control or analysis of walking. PMID:26901198

  11. Inertial Sensor Error Reduction through Calibration and Sensor Fusion.

    PubMed

    Lambrecht, Stefan; Nogueira, Samuel L; Bortole, Magdo; Siqueira, Adriano A G; Terra, Marco H; Rocon, Eduardo; Pons, José L

    2016-02-17

    This paper presents the comparison between cooperative and local Kalman Filters (KF) for estimating the absolute segment angle, under two calibration conditions. A simplified calibration, that can be replicated in most laboratories; and a complex calibration, similar to that applied by commercial vendors. The cooperative filters use information from either all inertial sensors attached to the body, Matricial KF; or use information from the inertial sensors and the potentiometers of an exoskeleton, Markovian KF. A one minute walking trial of a subject walking with a 6-DoF exoskeleton was used to assess the absolute segment angle of the trunk, thigh, shank, and foot. The results indicate that regardless of the segment and filter applied, the more complex calibration always results in a significantly better performance compared to the simplified calibration. The interaction between filter and calibration suggests that when the quality of the calibration is unknown the Markovian KF is recommended. Applying the complex calibration, the Matricial and Markovian KF perform similarly, with average RMSE below 1.22 degrees. Cooperative KFs perform better or at least equally good as Local KF, we therefore recommend to use cooperative KFs instead of local KFs for control or analysis of walking.

  12. Medical Laboratory Assistant. Laboratory Occupations Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for medical laboratory assistant is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a career ladder, a matrix relating duty/task numbers to job titles, and a task list. Each…

  13. Sandia National Laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliom, Laura R.

    1992-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has identified technology transfer to U.S. industry as a laboratory mission which complements our national security mission and as a key component of the Laboratory's future. A number of technology transfer mechanisms - such as CRADA's, licenses, work-for-others, and consortia - are identified and specific examples are given. Sandia's experience with the Specialty Metals Processing Consortium is highlighted with a focus on the elements which have made it successful. A brief discussion of Sandia's potential interactions with NASA under the Space Exploration Initiative was included as an example of laboratory-to-NASA technology transfer. Viewgraphs are provided.

  14. Laboratory Astrophysics White Paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickhouse, Nancy; Federman, Steve; Kwong, Victor; Salama, Farid; Savin, Daniel; Stancil, Phillip; Weingartner, Joe; Ziurys, Lucy

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory astrophysics and complementary theoretical calculations are the foundations of astronomical and planetary research and will remain so for many generations to come. From the level of scientific conception to that of the scientific return, it is our understanding of the underlying processes that allows us to address fundamental questions regarding the origins and evolution of galaxies, stars, planetary systems, and life in the cosmos. In this regard, laboratory astrophysics is much like detector and instrument development at NASA and NSF; these efforts are necessary for the astronomical research being funded by the agencies. The NASA Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop met at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) from 14-16 February, 2006 to identify the current laboratory data needed to support existing and future NASA missions and programs in the Astrophysics Division of the Science Mission Directorate (SMD). Here we refer to both laboratory and theoretical work as laboratory astrophysics unless a distinction is necessary. The format for the Workshop involved invited talks by users of laboratory data, shorter contributed talks and poster presentations by both users and providers that highlighted exciting developments in laboratory astrophysics, and breakout sessions where users and providers discussed each others' needs and limitations. We also note that the members of the Scientific Organizing Committee are users as well as providers of laboratory data. As in previous workshops, the focus was on atomic, molecular, and solid state physics.

  15. Leak Detection and H2 Sensor Development for Hydrogen Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brosha, Eric L.

    2012-07-10

    The objectives of this report are: (1) Develop a low cost, low power, durable, and reliable hydrogen safety sensor for a wide range of vehicle and infrastructure applications; (2) Continually advance test prototypes guided by materials selection, sensor design, electrochemical R&D investigation, fabrication, and rigorous life testing; (3) Disseminate packaged sensor prototypes and control systems to DOE Laboratories and commercial parties interested in testing and fielding advanced prototypes for cross-validation; (4) Evaluate manufacturing approaches for commercialization; and (5) Engage an industrial partner and execute technology transfer. Recent developments in the search for sustainable and renewable energy coupled with the advancements in fuel cell powered vehicles (FCVs) have augmented the demand for hydrogen safety sensors. There are several sensor technologies that have been developed to detect hydrogen, including deployed systems to detect leaks in manned space systems and hydrogen safety sensors for laboratory and industrial usage. Among the several sensing methods electrochemical devices that utilize high temperature-based ceramic electrolytes are largely unaffected by changes in humidity and are more resilient to electrode or electrolyte poisoning. The desired sensing technique should meet a detection threshold of 1% (10,000 ppm) H{sub 2} and response time of {approx_equal}1 min, which is a target for infrastructure and vehicular uses. Further, a review of electrochemical hydrogen sensors by Korotcenkov et.al and the report by Glass et.al suggest the need for inexpensive, low power, and compact sensors with long-term stability, minimal cross-sensitivity, and fast response. This view has been largely validated and supported by the fuel cell and hydrogen infrastructure industries by the NREL/DOE Hydrogen Sensor Workshop held on June 8, 2011. Many of the issues preventing widespread adoption of best-available hydrogen sensing technologies available today

  16. Semantic Sensor Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, A.; Henson, C.; Thirunarayan, K.

    2008-12-01

    Sensors are distributed across the globe leading to an avalanche of data about our environment. It is possible today to utilize networks of sensors to detect and identify a multitude of observations, from simple phenomena to complex events and situations. The lack of integration and communication between these networks, however, often isolates important data streams and intensifies the existing problem of too much data and not enough knowledge. With a view to addressing this problem, the Semantic Sensor Web (SSW) [1] proposes that sensor data be annotated with semantic metadata that will both increase interoperability and provide contextual information essential for situational knowledge. Kno.e.sis Center's approach to SSW is an evolutionary one. It adds semantic annotations to the existing standard sensor languages of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) defined by OGC. These annotations enhance primarily syntactic XML-based descriptions in OGC's SWE languages with microformats, and W3C's Semantic Web languages- RDF and OWL. In association with semantic annotation and semantic web capabilities including ontologies and rules, SSW supports interoperability, analysis and reasoning over heterogeneous multi-modal sensor data. In this presentation, we will also demonstrate a mashup with support for complex spatio-temporal-thematic queries [2] and semantic analysis that utilize semantic annotations, multiple ontologies and rules. It uses existing services (e.g., GoogleMap) and semantics enhanced SWE's Sensor Observation Service (SOS) over weather and road condition data from various sensors that are part of Ohio's transportation network. Our upcoming plans are to demonstrate end to end (heterogeneous sensor to application) semantics support and study scalability of SSW involving thousands of sensors to about a billion triples. Keywords: Semantic Sensor Web, Spatiotemporal thematic queries, Semantic Web Enablement, Sensor Observation Service [1] Amit Sheth, Cory Henson, Satya

  17. Carbon nanotube sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Liming

    2002-07-01

    Measurement represents one of the oldest methods used by human beings to better understand and control the world. Many measurement systems are primarily physical sensors, which measure time, temperature, weight, distance, and various other physical parameters. The need for cheaper, faster, and more accurate meansurements has been a driving force for the development of new systems and technologies for measurements of materials, both chemical and biological. In fact, chemical and biological sensors (or biosensors) are the evolved products of physical measurement technologies. Chemical sensors are measurement devices that convert a chemical or physical change of a specific analyte into a measurable signal, whose magnitude is normally proportional to the concentration of the analyte. On the other hand, biosensors are a subset of chemical sensors that employ a biological sensing element connected to a transducer to recognize the physiochemical change and to produce the measurable signal from particular analytes, which are not necessary to be biological materials themselves, although sometimes they are. Depending on the basis of the transduction principle, chemical and biological sensors can be classified into three major classes with different transducers: sensors with electrical transducers, sensors with optical transducers, and sensors with other transducers (e.g. mass change). The unique properties of carbon nanotubes have led to their use in areas as diverse as sensors, actuators, field-emitting flat panel displays, energy and gas storages (Dai and Mau, 2001). As we shall see below, the principles for carbon nanotube sensors to detect the nature of gases and to determine their concentrations are based on change in electrical properties induced by charge transfer with the gas molecules (e.g. O2, H2, CO2) or in mass due to physical adsorption. This article provides a status report on the research and development of carbon nanotube sensors.

  18. Maritime security laboratory for maritime security research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunin, Barry J.; Sutin, Alexander; Bruno, Michael S.

    2007-04-01

    Stevens Institute of Technology has established a new Maritime Security Laboratory (MSL) to facilitate advances in methods and technologies relevant to maritime security. MSL is designed to enable system-level experiments and data-driven modeling in the complex environment of an urban tidal estuary. The initial focus of the laboratory is on the threats posed by divers and small craft with hostile intent. The laboratory is, however, evolvable to future threats as yet unidentified. Initially, the laboratory utilizes acoustic, environmental, and video sensors deployed in and around the Hudson River estuary. Experimental data associated with boats and SCUBA divers are collected on a computer deployed on board a boat specifically designed and equipped for these experiments and are remotely transferred to a Visualization Center on campus. Early experiments utilizing this laboratory have gathered data to characterize the relevant parameters of the estuary, acoustic signals produced by divers, and water and air traffic. Hydrophones were deployed to collect data to enable the development of passive acoustic methodologies for maximizing SCUBA diver detection distance. Initial results involving characteristics of the estuary, acoustic signatures of divers, ambient acoustic noise in an urban estuary, and transmission loss of acoustic signals in a wide frequency band are presented. These results can also be used for the characterization of abnormal traffic and improvement of underwater communication in a shallow water estuary.

  19. Sensor Science for National Security

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, Jim E; Warmack, Robert J Bruce; Lavrik, Nickolay V; Datskos, Panos G; BRITTONJr., CHARLES L.

    2009-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has over 200 professionals engaged in measurement science research and development. This work includes transduction techniques, advanced microelectronics, signal and image processing, modeling and simulation, material synthesis and characterization, and system engineering issues for packaging, miniaturization, integration, and communications (e.g. wireless networks). ORNL is applying this expertise to detecting, preventing, and reversing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, deploying integrated systems for incident awareness, detection, and response, providing technology for detection of explosives, and delivering enhanced protection and new capabilities to first responders and warfighters. Sensor systems include micro- and nano-arrays, optical, chemical, and biological technologies. Electronics research has focused on low-power, low-cost, and wireless functionality. Signal processing advancements encompass data flow with conversion to information and knowledge for intelligent decision making.

  20. Neural network applications in an Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, R.E.; Kouzes, R.T.; Kangas, L.J.

    1993-07-01

    The construction of the Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory is currently in the planning stages. This facility will assist in the overall environmental restoration and waste management mission at the Hanford Site by providing basic and applied research support. This paper identifies several applications in the Envirorunental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory where neural network solutions can potentially be beneficial. These applications including real-time sensor data acquisition and analysis, spectral analysis, process control, theoretical modeling, and data compression.

  1. An Integrated MEMS Sensor Cluster System for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahng, Seun; Scott, Michael A.; Beeler, George B.; Bartlett, James E.; Collins, Richard S.

    2000-01-01

    Efforts to reduce viscous drag on airfoils could results in a considerable saving for the operation of flight vehicles including those of space transportation. This reduction of viscous drag effort requires measurement and active control of boundary layer flow property on an airfoil. Measurement of viscous drag of the boundary layer flow over an airfoil with minimal flow disturbance is achievable with newly developed MEMS sensor clusters. These sensor clusters provide information that can be used to actively control actuators to obtain desired flow properties or design a vehicle to satisfy particular boundary layer flow criteria. A series of MEMS sensor clusters has been developed with a data acquisition and control module for local measurements of shear stress, pressure, and temperature on an airfoil. The sensor cluster consists of two shear stress sensors, two pressure sensors, and two temperature sensors on a surface area of 1.24 mm x 1.86 mm. Each sensor is 300 microns square and is placed on a flexible polyimide sheet. The shear stress sensor is a polysilicon hot-film resistor, which is insulated by a vacuum cavity of 200 x 200 x 2 microns. The pressure sensors are silicon piezoresistive type, and the temperature sensors are also hot film polysilicon resistors. The total size of the cluster including sensors and electrical leads is 1 Omm x 1 Omm x 0.1 mm. A typical sensitivity of shear stress sensor is 150 mV/Pascal, the pressure sensors are an absolute type with a measurement range from 9 to 36 psia with 0.8mV/V/psi sensitivity, and the temperature sensors have a measurement resolution of 0.1 degree C. The sensor clusters are interfaced to a data acquisition and control module that consists of two custom ASICs (Application Specific Integrated Circuits) and a micro-controller. The data acquisition and control module transfers data to a host PC that configures and controls a total of three sensor clusters. Functionality of the entire system has been tested in

  2. REMS Wind Sensor Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De La Torre Juarez, M.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Navarro, S.; Marin, M.; Torres, J.; Rafkin, S. C.; Newman, C. E.; Pla-García, J.

    2015-12-01

    The REMS instrument is part of the Mars Science Laboratory payload. It is a sensor suite distributed over several parts of the rover. The wind sensor, which is composed of two booms equipped with a set of hot plate anemometers, is installed on the Rover Sensing Mast (RSM). During landing most of the hot plates of one boom were damaged, most likely by the pebbles lifted by the Sky Crane thruster. The loss of one wind boom necessitated a full review of the data processing strategy. Different algorithms have been tested on the readings of the first Mars year, and these results are now archived in the Planetary Data System (PDS), The presentation will include a description of the data processing methods and of the resulting products, including the typical evolution of wind speed and direction session-by-session, hour-by-hour and other kinds of statistics . A review of the wind readings over the first Mars year will also be presented.

  3. Overview of the U.S. DOE Hydrogen Safety, Codes and Standards Program. Part 4: Hydrogen Sensors; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Buttner, William J.; Rivkin, Carl; Burgess, Robert; Brosha, Eric; Mukundan, Rangachary; James, C. Will; Keller, Jay

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogen sensors are recognized as a critical element in the safety design for any hydrogen system. In this role, sensors can perform several important functions including indication of unintended hydrogen releases, activation of mitigation strategies to preclude the development of dangerous situations, activation of alarm systems and communication to first responders, and to initiate system shutdown. The functionality of hydrogen sensors in this capacity is decoupled from the system being monitored, thereby providing an independent safety component that is not affected by the system itself. The importance of hydrogen sensors has been recognized by DOE and by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office's Safety and Codes Standards (SCS) program in particular, which has for several years supported hydrogen safety sensor research and development. The SCS hydrogen sensor programs are currently led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The current SCS sensor program encompasses the full range of issues related to safety sensors, including development of advance sensor platforms with exemplary performance, development of sensor-related code and standards, outreach to stakeholders on the role sensors play in facilitating deployment, technology evaluation, and support on the proper selection and use of sensors.

  4. Air Sensor Guidebook

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Air Sensor Guidebook has been developed by the U.S. EPA to assist those interested in potentially using lower cost air quality sensor technologies for air quality measurements. Its development was in direct response to a request for such a document following a recent scienti...

  5. Reactive Sensor Networks (RSN)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-01

    Networks,” Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems DARS 2000, pp. 471-472, Springer Verlag, Tokyo. R. R. Brooks. “Stigmergy an intelligence metric...Paper, March 2003. • R. Brooks, et al. “Reactive Sensor Networks: Mobile Code Support for Autonomous Sensor Networks,” Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems DARS

  6. Nanophotonic Image Sensors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qin; Hu, Xin; Wen, Long; Yu, Yan; Cumming, David R S

    2016-09-01

    The increasing miniaturization and resolution of image sensors bring challenges to conventional optical elements such as spectral filters and polarizers, the properties of which are determined mainly by the materials used, including dye polymers. Recent developments in spectral filtering and optical manipulating techniques based on nanophotonics have opened up the possibility of an alternative method to control light spectrally and spatially. By integrating these technologies into image sensors, it will become possible to achieve high compactness, improved process compatibility, robust stability and tunable functionality. In this Review, recent representative achievements on nanophotonic image sensors are presented and analyzed including image sensors with nanophotonic color filters and polarizers, metamaterial-based THz image sensors, filter-free nanowire image sensors and nanostructured-based multispectral image sensors. This novel combination of cutting edge photonics research and well-developed commercial products may not only lead to an important application of nanophotonics but also offer great potential for next generation image sensors beyond Moore's Law expectations.

  7. Sensor Data Integrity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Alempijevic, S.R. Kodagoda, J.P. Underwood, S. Kumar, and G. Dissanayake. Mutual information based sensor registration and calibration. In Procedings of...Steven Scheding. Calibration of range sensor pose on mobile platforms. In Procedings of the 2007 IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems

  8. Steerable Capacitive Proximity Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenstrom, Del T.; Mcconnell, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    Steerable capacitive proximity sensor of "capaciflector" type based partly on sensing units described in GSC-13377 and GSC-13475. Position of maximum sensitivity adjusted without moving sensor. Voltage of each driven shield adjusted separately to concentrate sensing electric field more toward one side or other.

  9. Fiber optic temperature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quick, William H. (Inventor); August, Rudolf R. (Inventor); James, Kenneth A. (Inventor); Strahan, Jr., Virgil H. (Inventor); Nichols, Donald K. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An inexpensive, lightweight fiber optic micro-sensor that is suitable for applications which may require remote temperature sensing. The disclosed temperature sensor includes a phosphor material that, after receiving incident light stimulation, is adapted to emit phosphorescent radiation output signals, the amplitude decay rate and wavelength of which are functions of the sensed temperature.

  10. Stripe sensor tomography.

    PubMed

    Barbic, Mladen; Vltava, Lvcian; Barrett, Christopher P; Emery, Teresa H; Scherer, Axel

    2008-03-01

    We introduce a general concept of tomographic imaging for the case of an imaging sensor that has a stripelike shape. We first show that there is no difference, in principle, between two-dimensional tomography using conventional electromagnetic or particle radiation and tomography where a stripe sensor is mechanically scanned over a sample at a sequence of different angles. For a single stripe detector imaging, linear motion and angular rotation are required. We experimentally demonstrate single stripe sensor imaging principle using an elongated inductive coil detector. By utilizing an array of parallel stripe sensors that can be individually addressed, two-dimensional imaging can be performed with rotation only, eliminating the requirement for linear motion, as we also experimentally demonstrate with parallel coil array. We conclude that imaging with a stripe-type sensor of particular width and thickness (where the width is much larger than the thickness) is resolution limited only by the thickness (smaller parameter) of the sensor. We give examples of multiple sensor families where this imaging technique may be beneficial such as magnetoresistive, inductive, superconducting quantum interference device, and Hall effect sensors, and, in particular, discuss the possibilities of the technique in the field of magnetic resonance imaging.

  11. Wireless Sensors Network (Sensornet)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Wireless Sensor Network System presented in this paper provides a flexible reconfigurable architecture that could be used in a broad range of applications. It also provides a sensor network with increased reliability; decreased maintainability costs, and assured data availability by autonomously and automatically reconfiguring to overcome communication interferences.

  12. Attitude Sensor Pseudonoise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashmall, Joseph A.; Lennox, Scott E.

    2005-01-01

    Even assuming perfect attitude sensors and gyros, sensor measurements on a vibrating spacecraft have apparent errors. These apparent sensor errors, referred to as pseudonoise, arise because gyro and sensor measurements are performed at discrete times. This paper explains the concept of pseudonoise, quantifies its behavior, and discusses the effect of vibrations that are nearly commensurate with measurement periods. Although pseudonoise does not usually affect attitude determination it does affect sensor performance evaluation. Attitude rates are usually computed from differences between pairs of accumulated angle measurements at different times and are considered constant in the periods between measurements. Propagation using these rates does not reproduce exact instantaneous spacecraft attitudes except at the gyro measurement times. Exact sensor measurements will therefore be inconsistent with estimates based on the propagated attitude. This inconsistency produces pseudonoise. The characteristics of pseudonoise were determined using a simple, one-dimensional model of spacecraft vibration. The statistical properties of the deviations of measurements from model truth were determined using this model and a range of different periods of sensor and rate measurements. This analysis indicates that the magnitude of pseudonoise depends on the ratio of the spacecraft vibration period to the time between gyro measurements and can be as much as twice the amplitude of the vibration. In cases where the vibration period and gyro or sensor measurement period are nearly commensurate, unexpected changes in pseudonoise occur.

  13. Sensors Workshop summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A review of the efforts of three workshops is presented. The presentation describes those technological developments that would contribute most to sensor subsystem optimization and improvement of NASA's data acquisition capabilities, and summarizes the recommendations of the sensor technology panels from the most recent workshops.

  14. Durability of oxygen sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snapp, L.

    1985-03-01

    This report describes the results of dynamometer and vehicle durability testing from a variety of sources, as well as common causes of failure for oxygen sensors. The data indicates that oxygen sensors show low failure rates, even at mileages of 80,000 miles and beyond.

  15. Medical Laboratory Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of medical laboratory technician, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 18 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 8 units specific to the occupation of medical laboratory technician. The following…

  16. The Regional Educational Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. Office of Reform Assistance and Dissemination.

    The Regional Educational Laboratory Program is the U.S. Department of Education's largest research and development investment designed to help educators, policymakers, and communities improve schools and help all students attain their potential. The network of 10 regional laboratories works to ensure that those involved in education improvement at…

  17. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.; Love, L.J.

    1999-09-01

    The growth of the Internet has provided a unique opportunity to expand research collaborations between industry, universities, and the national laboratories. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory (VRL) is an innovative program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that is focusing on the issues related to collaborative research through controlled access of laboratory equipment using the World Wide Web. The VRL will provide different levels of access to selected ORNL laboratory secondary education programs. In the past, the ORNL Robotics and Process Systems Division has developed state-of-the-art robotic systems for the Army, NASA, Department of Energy, Department of Defense, as well as many other clients. After proof of concept, many of these systems sit dormant in the laboratories. This is not out of completion of all possible research topics. but from completion of contracts and generation of new programs. In the past, a number of visiting professors have used this equipment for their own research. However, this requires that the professor, and possibly his/her students, spend extended periods at the laboratory facility. In addition, only a very exclusive group of faculty can gain access to the laboratory and hardware. The VRL is a tool that enables extended collaborative efforts without regard to geographic limitations.

  18. Biotechnology Laboratory Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert H.; Kompala, Dhinakar S.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a course entitled "Biotechnology Laboratory" which introduces a variety of laboratory methods associated with biotechnology. Describes the history, content, and seven experiments of the course. The seven experiments are selected from microbiology and molecular biology, kinetics and fermentation, and downstream…

  19. Dental Laboratory Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of dental laboratory technician, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 13 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 8 units to the occupation of dental laboratory technician. The following skill areas…

  20. Technology Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brame, Ray; And Others

    This guide contains 43 modules of laboratory activities for technology education courses. Each module includes an instructor's resource sheet and the student laboratory activity. Instructor's resource sheets include some or all of the following elements: module number, course title, activity topic, estimated time, essential elements, objectives,…

  1. Primary Standards Laboratory report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories operates the Primary Standards Laboratory (PSL) for the Department of Energy, Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE/AL). This report summarizes metrology activities that received emphasis in the first half of 1990 and provides information pertinent to the operation of the DOE/AL system-wide Standards and Calibration Program.

  2. The Language Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocking, Elton

    This condensed article on the language laboratory describes educational and financial possibilities and limitations, often citing the foreign language program at Purdue University as an example. The author discusses: (1) costs and amortization, (2) preventive maintenance, (3) laboratory design, (4) the multichannel recorder, and (5) visuals. Other…

  3. Practical Laboratory Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, W. R.

    This book is intended as a guide for people who are planning chemistry and physics research laboratories. It deals with the importance of effective communication between client and architect, the value of preliminary planning, and the role of the project officer. It also discusses the size and layout of individual laboratories, the design of…

  4. Dental Laboratory Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Air Force, Washington, DC.

    The Air Force dental laboratory technology manual is designed as a basic training text as well as a reference source for dental laboratory technicians, a specialty occupation concerned with the design, fabrication, and repair of dental prostheses. Numerous instructive diagrams and photographs are included throughout the manual. The comprehensive…

  5. Laboratory for Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A review is made of the activities of the Laboratory for Oceans. The staff and the research activities are nearly evenly divided between engineering and scientific endeavors. The Laboratory contributes engineering design skills to aircraft and ground based experiments in terrestrial and atmospheric sciences in cooperation with scientists from labs in Earth sciences.

  6. Quality in Teaching Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubington, John F.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a Japanese process-oriented approach called KAIZEN for improving the quality of existing teaching laboratories. It provides relevant quality measurements and indicates how quality can be improved. Use of process criteria sidesteps the difficulty of defining quality for laboratory experiments and allows separation of student assessment…

  7. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.; Love, L.J.

    1997-03-01

    The growth of the Internet has provided a unique opportunity to expand research collaborations between industry, universities, and the national laboratories. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory (VRL) is an innovative program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that is focusing on the issues related to collaborative research through controlled access of laboratory equipment using the World Wide Web. The VRL will provide different levels of access to selected ORNL laboratory equipment to outside universities, industrial researchers, and elementary and secondary education programs. In the past, the ORNL Robotics and Process Systems Division (RPSD) has developed state-of-the-art robotic systems for the Army, NASA, Department of Energy, Department of Defense, as well as many other clients. After proof of concept, many of these systems sit dormant in the laboratories. This is not out of completion of all possible research topics, but from completion of contracts and generation of new programs. In the past, a number of visiting professors have used this equipment for their own research. However, this requires that the professor, and possibly his students, spend extended periods at the laboratory facility. In addition, only a very exclusive group of faculty can gain access to the laboratory and hardware. The VRL is a tool that enables extended collaborative efforts without regard to geographic limitations.

  8. NVLAP calibration laboratory program

    SciTech Connect

    Cigler, J.L.

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the progress up to April 1993 in the development of the Calibration Laboratories Accreditation Program within the framework of the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

  9. Cryogenic High Pressure Sensor Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  10. Cryogenic, Absolute, High Pressure Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams. Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  11. Sensor Fish Communicator

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-09

    The Sensor Fish collects information that can be used to evaluate conditions encountered by juvenile salmonids and other fish as they pass through hydroelectric dams on their way to the ocean. Sensor Fish are deployed in turbines, spillways, and sluiceways and measure changes in pressure, angular rate of change, and linear acceleration during passage. The software is need to make Sensor Fish fully functional and easy to use. Sensor Fish Communicator (SFC) links to Sensor Fish, allowing users to control data collection settings and download data. It may also be used to convert native raw data (.raw2) files into Comma Separated Variable (.csv) files and plot the results. The multiple capabilities of the SFC allow hardware communication, data conversion, and data plotting with one application.

  12. Pressure Measurement Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    FFPI Industries Inc. is the manufacturer of fiber-optic sensors that furnish accurate pressure measurements in internal combustion chambers. Such an assessment can help reduce pollution emitted by these engines. A chief component in the sensor owes its seven year- long development to Lewis Research Center funding to embed optical fibers and sensors in metal parts. NASA support to Texas A&M University played a critical role in developing this fiber optic technology and led to the formation of FFPI Industries and the production of fiber sensor products. The simple, rugged design of the sensor offers the potential for mass production at low cost. Widespread application of the new technology is forseen, from natural gas transmission, oil refining and electrical power generation to rail transport and the petrochemical paper product industry.

  13. Fiber optic gas sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Peng (Inventor); Buric, Michael P. (Inventor); Swinehart, Philip R. (Inventor); Maklad, Mokhtar S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A gas sensor includes an in-fiber resonant wavelength device provided in a fiber core at a first location. The fiber propagates a sensing light and a power light. A layer of a material is attached to the fiber at the first location. The material is able to absorb the gas at a temperature dependent gas absorption rate. The power light is used to heat the material and increases the gas absorption rate, thereby increasing sensor performance, especially at low temperatures. Further, a method is described of flash heating the gas sensor to absorb more of the gas, allowing the sensor to cool, thereby locking in the gas content of the sensor material, and taking the difference between the starting and ending resonant wavelengths as an indication of the concentration of the gas in the ambient atmosphere.

  14. MEMS packaging efforts at Sandia National Laboratories.

    SciTech Connect

    Custer, Jonathan Sloane

    2003-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has programs covering a broad range of MEMS technologies from LIGA to bulk to surface micromachining. These MEMS technologies are being considered for an equally broad range of applications, including sensors, actuators, optics, and microfluidics. As these technologies have moved from the research to the prototype product stage, packaging has been required to develop new capabilities to integrated MEMS and other technologies into functional microsystems. This paper discusses several of Sandia's MEMS packaging efforts, focusing mainly on inserting Sandia's SUMMIT V (5-level polysilicon) surface micromachining technology into fieldable microsystems.

  15. Rainfall estimation using moving cars as rain gauges - laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabiei, E.; Haberlandt, U.; Sester, M.; Fitzner, D.

    2013-11-01

    The spatial assessment of short time-step precipitation is a challenging task. Low density of observation networks, as well as the bias in radar rainfall estimation motivated the new idea of exploiting cars as moving rain gauges with windshield wipers or optical sensors as measurement devices. In a preliminary study, this idea has been tested with computer experiments (Haberlandt and Sester, 2010). The results have shown that a high number of possibly inaccurate measurement devices (moving cars) provide more reliable areal rainfall estimations than a lower number of precise measurement devices (stationary gauges). Instead of assuming a relationship between wiper frequency (W) and rainfall intensity (R) with an arbitrary error, the main objective of this study is to derive valid W-R relationships between sensor readings and rainfall intensity by laboratory experiments. Sensor readings involve the wiper speed, as well as optical sensors which can be placed on cars and are usually made for automating wiper activities. A rain simulator with the capability of producing a wide range of rainfall intensities is designed and constructed. The wiper speed and two optical sensors are used in the laboratory to measure rainfall intensities, and compare it with tipping bucket readings as reference. Furthermore, the effect of the car speed on the estimation of rainfall using a car speed simulator device is investigated. The results show that the sensor readings, which are observed from manual wiper speed adjustment according to the front visibility, can be considered as a strong indicator for rainfall intensity, while the automatic wiper adjustment show weaker performance. Also the sensor readings from optical sensors showed promising results toward measuring rainfall rate. It is observed that the car speed has a significant effect on the rainfall measurement. This effect is highly dependent on the rain type as well as the windshield angle.

  16. Selection of a battery of rapid toxicity sensors for drinking water evaluation.

    PubMed

    van der Schalie, William H; James, Ryan R; Gargan, Thomas P

    2006-07-15

    Comprehensive identification of chemical contaminants in Army field water supplies can be a lengthy process, but rapid analytical methods suitable for field use are limited. A complementary approach is to directly measure toxicity instead of individual chemical constituents. Ten toxicity sensors utilizing enzymes, bacteria, or vertebrate cells were tested to determine the minimum number of sensors that could rapidly identify toxicity in water samples containing one of 12 industrial chemicals. The ideal sensor would respond at a concentration just exceeding the Military Exposure Guideline (MEG) level for the chemical (an estimated threshold for adverse effects) but below the human lethal concentration. Chemical solutions were provided to testing laboratories as blind samples. No sensors responded to deionized water blanks, and only one sensor responded to a hard water blank. No single toxicity sensor responded to more than six chemicals in the desired response range, and one chemical (nicotine) was not detected by any sensor with the desired sensitivity. A combination of three sensors (Microtox, the Electric Cell Substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) test, and the Hepatocyte low density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake test) responded appropriately to nine of twelve chemicals. Adding a fourth sensor (neuronal microelectrode array) to the test battery allowed detection of two additional chemicals (aldicarb and methamidophos), but the neuronal microelectrode array was overly sensitive to paraquat. Evaluating sensor performance using a standard set of chemicals and a desired sensitivity range provides a basis both for selecting among available toxicity sensors and for evaluating emerging sensor technologies. Recommendations for future toxicity sensor evaluations are discussed.

  17. Nanowire sensor, sensor array, and method for making the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, Minhee (Inventor); Myung, Nosang (Inventor); Vasquez, Richard (Inventor); Homer, Margie (Inventor); Ryan, Margaret (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Pin (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar (Inventor); Choi, Daniel (Inventor); Goddard, William (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a nanowire sensor and method for forming the same. More specifically, the nanowire sensor comprises at least one nanowire formed on a substrate, with a sensor receptor disposed on a surface of the nanowire, thereby forming a receptor-coated nanowire. The nanowire sensor can be arranged as a sensor sub-unit comprising a plurality of homogeneously receptor-coated nanowires. A plurality of sensor subunits can be formed to collectively comprise a nanowire sensor array. Each sensor subunit in the nanowire sensor array can be formed to sense a different stimulus, allowing a user to sense a plurality of stimuli. Additionally, each sensor subunit can be formed to sense the same stimuli through different aspects of the stimulus. The sensor array is fabricated through a variety of techniques, such as by creating nanopores on a substrate and electrodepositing nanowires within the nanopores.

  18. Update on Ultrasonic Thermometry Development at Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Joshua Daw; Joy Rempe; John Crepeau

    2012-07-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has initiated an effort to evaluate the viability of using ultrasonic thermometry technology as an improved sensor for detecting temperature during irradiation testing of advanced fuels proposed within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE). Ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) work on the principle that the speed at which sound travels through a material (acoustic velocity) is dependent on the temperature of the material. UTs have several advantages over other types of temperature sensors . UTs can be made very small, as the sensor consists only of a small diameter rod which may or may not require a sheath. Measurements may be made up to very high temperature (near the melting point of the sensor material) and, as no electrical insulation is required, shunting effects observed in traditional high temperature thermocouple applications are avoided. Most attractive, however, is the ability to introduce multiple acoustic discontinuities into the sensor, as this enables temperature profiling with a single sensor. The current paper presents initial results from FCR&D UT development efforts. These developments include improved methods for fabricating magnetostrictive transducers and joining them to waveguides, characterization of candidate sensor materials appropriate for use in FCR&D fuels irradiations (both ceramic fuels in inert gas and sodium bonded metallic fuels), enhanced signal processing techniques, and tests to determine potential accuracy and resolution.

  19. Using Fisher Information Criteria for Chemical Sensor Selection via Convex Optimization Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-16

    best sensors after an optimization procedure. Due to the positive definite nature of the Fisher information matrix, convex optimization may be used to...parametrized to select the best sensors after an optimization procedure. Due to the positive definite nature of the Fisher information matrix, convex op...Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6180--16-9711 Using Fisher Information Criteria for Chemical Sensor Selection via Convex

  20. Development of Sensors for Ceramic Components in Advanced Propulsion Systems. Phase 2; Temperature Sensor Systems Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Cyr, M. A.; Strange, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    The 'development of sensors for ceramic components in advanced propulsion systems' program is divided into two phases. The objectives of Phase 1 were to analyze, evaluate and recommend sensor concepts for the measurement of surface temperature, strain and heat flux on ceramic components for advanced propulsion systems. The results of this effort were previously published in NASA CR-182111. As a result of Phase 1, three approaches were recommended for further development: pyrometry, thin-film sensors, and thermographic phosphors. The objective of Phase 2 were to fabricate and conduct laboratory demonstration tests of these systems. Six materials, mutually agreed upon by NASA and Pratt & Whitney, were investigated under this program. This report summarizes the Phase 2 effort and provides conclusions and recommendations for each of the categories evaluated.

  1. A Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (MIP)-Coated Microbeam MEMS Sensor for Chemical Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Bulovic, Sensitivity gains in chemosensing by lasing action in organic polymers . Nature 434, 876 (2005). [11] C. Xie et al., Molecular imprinting at walls...ARL-RP-0536 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory A Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (MIP)- Coated Microbeam MEMS Sensor for...ARL-RP-0536 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory A Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (MIP)- Coated Microbeam MEMS Sensor for Chemical

  2. Toward the Realization of a Compact Chemical Sensor Platform using Quantum Cascade Lasers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    integration of photoacoustic detection with a microfabricated chemical reactor system. JMEMS 10, 232 (2001). [9] S. L. Firebaugh, K. F. Jensen, M. A...ARL-RP-0550 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Toward the Realization of a Compact Chemical Sensor Platform using Quantum...ARL-RP-0550 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Toward the Realization of a Compact Chemical Sensor Platform using Quantum Cascade

  3. Sensor Systems for Biological Agent Attacks: Protecting Buildings and Military Bases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    for Advanced Sensors Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences...PROCESSES FOR ADVANCED SENSORS JOHN VITKO, JR., Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California, Chair DAVID R. FRANZ, Midwest Research Institute...Michigan ANGELO M. NINIVAGGI, JR., Plexus Corporation, Nampa, Idaho JAMES B. O’DWYER, PPG Industries , Allison Park, Pennsylvania HERSCHEL REESE

  4. Flexural Vibration Test of a Cantilever Beam with a Force Sensor: Fast Determination of Young's Modulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Digilov, Rafael M.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a simple and very inexpensive undergraduate laboratory experiment for fast determination of Young's modulus at moderate temperatures with the aid of a force sensor. A strip-shaped specimen rigidly bolted to the force sensor forms a clamped-free cantilever beam. Placed in a furnace, it is subjected to free-bending vibrations followed by…

  5. A pH Sensor Based on a Stainless Steel Electrode Electrodeposited with Iridium Oxide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, C. C. M.; Madrid, R. E.; Felice, C. J.

    2009-01-01

    A simple procedure to make an iridium oxide (IrO[subscript 2]) electrodeposited pH sensor, that can be used in a chemical, biomedical, or materials laboratory, is presented here. Some exercises, based on this sensor, that can be used to teach important concepts in the field of biomedical, biochemical, tissue, or materials engineering, are also…

  6. [Accreditation of medical laboratories].

    PubMed

    Horváth, Andrea Rita; Ring, Rózsa; Fehér, Miklós; Mikó, Tivadar

    2003-07-27

    In Hungary, the National Accreditation Body was established by government in 1995 as an independent, non-profit organization, and has exclusive rights to accredit, amongst others, medical laboratories. The National Accreditation Body has two Specialist Advisory Committees in the health care sector. One is the Health Care Specialist Advisory Committee that accredits certifying bodies, which deal with certification of hospitals. The other Specialist Advisory Committee for Medical Laboratories is directly involved in accrediting medical laboratory services of health care institutions. The Specialist Advisory Committee for Medical Laboratories is a multidisciplinary peer review group of experts from all disciplines of in vitro diagnostics, i.e. laboratory medicine, microbiology, histopathology and blood banking. At present, the only published International Standard applicable to laboratories is ISO/IEC 17025:1999. Work has been in progress on the official approval of the new ISO 15189 standard, specific to medical laboratories. Until the official approval of the International Standard ISO 15189, as accreditation standard, the Hungarian National Accreditation Body has decided to progress with accreditation by formulating explanatory notes to the ISO/IEC 17025:1999 document, using ISO/FDIS 15189:2000, the European EC4 criteria and CPA (UK) Ltd accreditation standards as guidelines. This harmonized guideline provides 'explanations' that facilitate the application of ISO/IEC 17025:1999 to medical laboratories, and can be used as a checklist for the verification of compliance during the onsite assessment of the laboratory. The harmonized guideline adapted the process model of ISO 9001:2000 to rearrange the main clauses of ISO/IEC 17025:1999. This rearrangement does not only make the guideline compliant with ISO 9001:2000 but also improves understanding for those working in medical laboratories, and facilitates the training and education of laboratory staff. With the

  7. The Spatial Sensitivity Function of a Light Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakar, N. K.; Mesiti, A. J.; Knuth, K. H.

    2009-12-01

    The Spatial Sensitivity Function (SSF) is used to quantify a detector's sensitivity to a spatially-distributed input signal. By weighting the incoming signal with the SSF and integrating, the overall scalar response of the detector can be estimated. This project focuses on estimating the SSF of a light intensity sensor consisting of a photodiode. This light sensor has been used previously in the Knuth Cyberphysics Laboratory on a robotic arm that performs its own experiments to locate a white circle in a dark field (Knuth et al., 2007). To use the light sensor to learn about its surroundings, the robot's inference software must be able to model and predict the light sensor's response to a hypothesized stimulus. Previous models of the light sensor treated it as a point sensor and ignored its spatial characteristics. Here we propose a parametric approach where the SSF is described by a mixture of Gaussians (MOG). By performing controlled calibration experiments with known stimulus inputs, we used nested sampling to estimate the SSF of the light sensor using an MOG model with the number of Gaussians ranging from one to five. By comparing the evidence computed for each MOG model, we found that one Gaussian is sufficient to describe the SSF to the accuracy we require. Future work will involve incorporating this more accurate SSF into the Bayesian machine learning software for the robotic system and studying how this detailed information about the properties of the light sensor will improve robot's ability to learn.

  8. Synthetic Event Reconstruction Experiments for Defining Sensor Network Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Lundquist, J K; Kosovic, B; Belles, R

    2005-12-15

    An event reconstruction technology system has been designed and implemented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This system integrates sensor observations, which may be sparse and/or conflicting, with transport and dispersion models via Bayesian stochastic sampling methodologies to characterize the sources of atmospheric releases of hazardous materials. We demonstrate the application of this event reconstruction technology system to designing sensor networks for detecting and responding to atmospheric releases of hazardous materials. The quantitative measure of the reduction in uncertainty, or benefit of a given network, can be utilized by policy makers to determine the cost/benefit of certain networks. Herein we present two numerical experiments demonstrating the utility of the event reconstruction methodology for sensor network design. In the first set of experiments, only the time resolution of the sensors varies between three candidate networks. The most ''expensive'' sensor network offers few advantages over the moderately-priced network for reconstructing the release examined here. The second set of experiments explores the significance of the sensors detection limit, which can have a significant impact on sensor cost. In this experiment, the expensive network can most clearly define the source location and source release rate. The other networks provide data insufficient for distinguishing between two possible clusters of source locations. When the reconstructions from all networks are aggregated into a composite plume, a decision-maker can distinguish the utility of the expensive sensor network.

  9. Six-degree-of-freedom Sensor Fish design and instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2007-12-19

    Fish passing through dams may be injured or killed despite advances in turbine design, project operations and other fish bypass systems. The Six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) Sensor Fish device is an autonomous sensor package designed to characterize the physical conditions and physical stresses fish are exposed to when they pass through complex hydraulic environments. It has been used to identify the locations and operations where conditions are severe enough to injure or kill fish. During the design process, a set of governing equations of motion for the device was derived and simulated in order to understand the design implications of instrument selection and placement within the body of the device. The sensor package includes three rotation sensors, three acceleration sensors, a pressure sensor, and a temperature sensor with a sampling frequency of 2,000 Hz. Its housing is constructed of clear polycarbonate plastic. It is 24.5 mm in diameter and 90 mm in length, weighs about 43 grams, similar to the size and density of a yearling salmon smolt. The relative errors of both the linear acceleration and angular velocity measurements were determined to be less than 5% from laboratory acceptance tests. Since its development in 2005, the 6DOF Sensor Fish device has been successfully deployed at many major dams in the United States.

  10. Laboratory Calibration and Characterization of Video Cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.; Snow, W. L.; Shortis, M. R.; Goad, W. K.

    1989-01-01

    Some techniques for laboratory calibration and characterization of video cameras used with frame grabber boards are presented. A laser-illuminated displaced reticle technique (with camera lens removed) is used to determine the camera/grabber effective horizontal and vertical pixel spacing as well as the angle of non-perpendicularity of the axes. The principal point of autocollimation and point of symmetry are found by illuminating the camera with an unexpanded laser beam, either aligned with the sensor or lens. Lens distortion and the principal distance are determined from images of a calibration plate suitable aligned with the camera. Calibration and characterization results for several video cameras are presented. Differences between these laboratory techniques and test range and plumb line calibration are noted.

  11. Laboratory calibration and characterization of video cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burner, A. W.; Snow, W. L.; Shortis, M. R.; Goad, W. K.

    1990-08-01

    Some techniques for laboratory calibration and characterization of video cameras used with frame grabber boards are presented. A laser-illuminated displaced reticle technique (with camera lens removed) is used to determine the camera/grabber effective horizontal and vertical pixel spacing as well as the angle of nonperpendicularity of the axes. The principal point of autocollimation and point of symmetry are found by illuminating the camera with an unexpanded laser beam, either aligned with the sensor or lens. Lens distortion and the principal distance are determined from images of a calibration plate suitably aligned with the camera. Calibration and characterization results for several video cameras are presented. Differences between these laboratory techniques and test range and plumb line calibration are noted.

  12. Extension of a Virtual Refrigerant Charge Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Woohyun; Braun, J.

    2015-07-01

    The primary goal of the work described in this paper was to evaluate and extend a virtual refrigerant charge sensor (VRC) for determining refrigerant charge for equipment having variable-speed compressors and fans. To evaluate the accuracy of the VRC, data were first collected from previous laboratory tests for different systems and over a wide range of operating conditions. In addition, new laboratory tests were performed to consider conditions not available within the existing data set. The systems for the new laboratory tests were two residential ductless split heat pump systems that employ a variable-speed compressor and R-410a as the refrigerant. Based on the evaluations, the original virtual charge sensor (termed model I) was found to work well in estimating the refrigerant charge for systems with a variable-speed compressor under many operating conditions. However, for extreme test conditions such as low outdoor temperatures and low compressor speed, the VRC needed to be improved. To overcome the limitations, the model associated with the VRC sensor was modified to include a term involving the inlet quality to the evaporator estimated from the condenser outlet condition (termed model II). Both model I and II showed good performance in terms of predicting charge levels for systems with a constant speed compressor, but model II gave better performance for systems with a variable-speed compressor. However, when the superheat of the compressor was zero, neither model I nor II could accurately predict charge level. Therefore, a third approach (Model III) was developed that includes the discharge superheat of the compressor. This model improved performance for a laboratory-tested system that included a number of points with no superheat entering the compressor.

  13. Carbon Characterization Laboratory Report

    SciTech Connect

    David Swank; William Windes; D.C. Haggard; David Rohrbaugh; Karen Moore

    2009-03-01

    The newly completed Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Carbon Characterization Laboratory (CCL) is located in Lab-C20 of the Idaho National Laboratory Research Center. This laboratory was established under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project to support graphite research and development activities. The CCL is designed to characterize and test carbon-based materials such as graphite, carbon-carbon composites, and silicon-carbide composite materials. The laboratory is fully prepared to measure material properties for nonirradiated carbon-based materials. Plans to establish the laboratory as a radiological facility within the next year are definitive. This laboratory will be modified to accommodate irradiated materials, after which it can be used to perform material property measurements on both irradiated and nonirradiated carbon-based material. Instruments, fixtures, and methods are in place for preirradiation measurements of bulk density, thermal diffusivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, Young’s modulus, Shear modulus, Poisson ratio, and electrical resistivity. The measurement protocol consists of functional validation, calibration, and automated data acquisition.

  14. The Gran Sasso Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votano, L.

    2012-09-01

    The Gran Sasso underground laboratory is one of the four national laboratories run by the INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). It is located under the Gran Sasso massif, in central Italy, between the cities of L'Aquila and Teramo, 120 km far from Rome. It is the largest underground laboratory for astroparticle physics in the world and the most advanced in terms of complexity and completeness of its infrastructures. The scientific program at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories (Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, LNGS)is mainly focused on astroparticle, particle and nuclear physics. The laboratory presently hosts many experiments as well as R&D activities, including world-leading research in the fields of solar neutrinos, accelerator neutrinos (CNGS neutrino beam from CERN to Gran Sasso), dark matter, neutrinoless double-beta decay and nuclear cross-section of astrophysical interest. Associate sciences like earth physics, biology and fundamental physics complement the activities. The laboratory is operated as an international science facility and hosts experiments whose scientific merit is assessed by an international advisory Scientific Committee. A review of the main experiments carried out at LNGS will be given, together with the most recent and relevant scientific results achieved.

  15. Electric-field sensors for bullet detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinci, Stephen; Hull, David; Ghionea, Simon; Ludwig, William; Deligeorges, Socrates; Gudmundsson, Thorkell; Noras, Maciej

    2014-06-01

    Research and experimental trials have shown that electric-field (E-field) sensors are effective at detecting charged projectiles. E-field sensors can likely complement traditional acoustic sensors, and help provide a more robust and effective solution for bullet detection and tracking. By far, the acoustic sensor is the most prevalent technology in use today for hostile fire defeat systems due to compact size and low cost, yet they come with a number of challenges that include multipath, reverberant environments, false positives and low signal-to-noise. Studies have shown that these systems can benefit from additional sensor modalities such as E-field sensors. However, E-field sensors are a newer technology that is relatively untested beyond basic experimental trials; this technology has not been deployed in any fielded systems. The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has conducted live-fire experiments at Aberdeen Proving Grounds (APG) to collect data from E-field sensors. Three types of E-field sensors were included in these experiments: (a) an electric potential gradiometer manufactured by Quasar Federal Systems (QFS), (b) electric charge induction, or "D-dot" sensors designed and built by the Army Research Lab (ARL), and (c) a varactor based E-field sensor prototype designed by University of North Carolina-Charlotte (UNCC). Sensors were placed in strategic locations near the bullet trajectories, and their data were recorded. We analyzed the performance of each E-field sensor type in regard to small-arms bullet detection capability. The most recent experiment in October 2013 allowed demonstration of improved versions of the varactor and D-dot sensor types. Results of new real-time analysis hardware employing detection algorithms were also tested. The algorithms were used to process the raw data streams to determine when bullet detections occurred. Performance among the sensor types and algorithm effectiveness were compared to estimates from acoustics signatures

  16. Fatigue crack monitoring with coupled piezoelectric film acoustic emission sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Changjiang

    monitoring on large-scale steel test specimens using piezoelectric film AE sensors. Continuous monitoring of fatigue crack growth in steel structures is demonstrated in these fatigue test specimens. The use of piezoelectric film AE sensor for field monitoring of existing fatigue crack is also demonstrated in a real steel I-girder bridge located in Maryland. The sensor couple theory based AE source localization is validated using a limited number of piezoelectric film AE sensor data from both fatigue test specimens and field monitoring bridge. Through both laboratory fatigue test and field monitoring of steel structures with active fatigue cracks, the signal characteristics of piezoelectric film AE sensor have been studied in real-world environment.

  17. Final report on the PNL program to develop an alumina sensor. Sensors Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Windisch, C.F. Jr.; Brenden, B.B.; Koski, O.H.; Williford, R.E.

    1992-10-01

    An alumina concentration sensor was required to ensure safe operating conditions for cermet inert anodes that were under development at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL)(a) for the electrolytic production of aluminum metal. The Sensors Development Program at PNL was conducted in response to this need for an alumina sensor. In all, eight different approaches to developing an alumina sensor were evaluated as part of this program. Each approach sought to correlate alumina concentration either to some spectral, physical, or electrical property of the molten electrolytic, or alternatively, to some operational characteristic of the reduction cell such as the integrity of the cermet anodes or the electrical noise generated by them during cell operation. The studies on electrical noise were performed using a large number of digital signal analysis (DSA) methods. There were two primary requirements for success for an alumina sensor to be used in conjunction with cermet anodes: (1) adequate sensitivity to alumina concentration at concentrations close to saturation, and (2) ease of use in an industrial setting. After numerous laboratory experiments as well as field studies in some cases, it was concluded that none of the approaches sufficiently satisfied the two criteria to serve as the basis for an alumina sensor. If further work is to continue in this area, it is recommended that the research focus on altemative DSA approaches, primarily because DSA methods would be so easy to use in an industrial environment. Due to the lack of correlation using DSA in the present work, however, it is recommended that altemative strategies for data collection and analysis be used in any further development activities.

  18. Six-Degree-of-Freedom Sensor Fish Design and Instrumentation

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2007-01-01

    Fish passing through dams may be injured or killed despite advances in turbine design, project operations and other fish bypass systems. The six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) Sensor Fish device is an autonomous sensor package that characterizes the physical conditions and physical stresses to which fish are exposed when they pass through complex hydraulic environments. It has been used to identify the locations and operations where conditions are severe enough to injure or kill fish. During the design process, a set of governing equations of motion for the Sensor Fish was derived and simulated to understand the design implications of instrument selection and placement within the body of the device. The Sensor Fish package includes three rotation sensors, three acceleration sensors, a pressure sensor, and a temperature sensor with a sampling frequency of 2,000 Hz. Its housing is constructed of clear polycarbonate plastic. It is 24.5 mm in diameter and 90 mm in length and weighs about 43 g, similar to the size and density of a yearling salmon smolt. The accuracy of the pressure sensor was determined to be within 0.2 psi. In laboratory acceptance tests, the relative errors of both the linear acceleration and angular velocity measurements were determined to be less than 5%. An exposure is defined as a significant event when the acceleration reaches predefined thresholds. Based on the different characteristic of acceleration and rotation velocities, the exposure event is categorized as either a collision between the Sensor Fish and a solid structure or shear caused by turbulence. Since its development in 2005, the 6DOF Sensor Fish has been deployed successfully at many major dams in the United States.

  19. Distributed adaptive diagnosis of sensor faults using structural response data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragos, Kosmas; Smarsly, Kay

    2016-10-01

    The reliability and consistency of wireless structural health monitoring (SHM) systems can be compromised by sensor faults, leading to miscalibrations, corrupted data, or even data loss. Several research approaches towards fault diagnosis, referred to as ‘analytical redundancy’, have been proposed that analyze the correlations between different sensor outputs. In wireless SHM, most analytical redundancy approaches require centralized data storage on a server for data analysis, while other approaches exploit the on-board computing capabilities of wireless sensor nodes, analyzing the raw sensor data directly on board. However, using raw sensor data poses an operational constraint due to the limited power resources of wireless sensor nodes. In this paper, a new distributed autonomous approach towards sensor fault diagnosis based on processed structural response data is presented. The inherent correlations among Fourier amplitudes of acceleration response data, at peaks corresponding to the eigenfrequencies of the structure, are used for diagnosis of abnormal sensor outputs at a given structural condition. Representing an entirely data-driven analytical redundancy approach that does not require any a priori knowledge of the monitored structure or of the SHM system, artificial neural networks (ANN) are embedded into the sensor nodes enabling cooperative fault diagnosis in a fully decentralized manner. The distributed analytical redundancy approach is implemented into a wireless SHM system and validated in laboratory experiments, demonstrating the ability of wireless sensor nodes to self-diagnose sensor faults accurately and efficiently with minimal data traffic. Besides enabling distributed autonomous fault diagnosis, the embedded ANNs are able to adapt to the actual condition of the structure, thus ensuring accurate and efficient fault diagnosis even in case of structural changes.

  20. Nanomaterials for sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago, Francisco; Boulais, Kevin; Rayms-Kelleran, Alfredo; Gehman, Victor H., Jr.; Long, Karen J.; Szu, Harold

    2009-04-01

    There is a lot of interest by society at large for reliable and affordable sensor and detection systems. Recent threats regarding public exposure to both biological and chemical agents have helped focus attention to the development of new sensor and detector technologies. Unfortunately, there is not even consensus in the scientific community on a uniform terminology of the subject. A large body of knowledge in sensor materials is available but most existing sensor materials are very limited in their ability to sense and discriminate small amounts of harmful agents embedded in large amounts of chemically inert but complex background. New materials are needed to meet the challenges ahead. Nanomaterials may be a solution to this problem. In this work we review the current state of the sensor lexicon. This is followed by a proposition of a consistent definition of terms used in the sensor and detection technology. Finally, we review a promising IR sensor system being developed using nanomaterials and several detector systems also developed using nanomaterials for nano solar cells and nano smart materials.

  1. Realistic Sensor Tasking Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frueh, C.; Fiedler, H.; Herzog, J.

    2016-09-01

    Efficient sensor tasking is a crucial step in building up and maintaining a catalog of space objects at the highest possible orbit quality. Sensor resources are limited; sensor location and setup (hardware and processing software) influence the quality of observations for initial orbit determination or orbit improvement that can be obtained. Furthermore, improved sensing capabilities are expected to lead to an increase of objects that are sought to be maintained in a catalog, easily reaching over 100'000 objects. Sensor tasking methods hence need to be computationally efficient in order to be successfully applied to operational systems, and need to take realistic constraints, such as limited visibility of objects, time-varying probability of detection and the specific capabilities in software and hardware for the specific sensors into account. This paper shows a method to formulate sensor tasking as an optimization problem and introduces a new method to provide fast and computationally efficient real time, near optimal sensor tasking solutions. Simulations are preformed using the USSTRATCOM TLE catalog of all geosynchronous objects. The results are compared to state of the art observation strategies.

  2. Chemochromic Hydrogen Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiggins, Bryan C.

    2007-01-01

    As fossil fuel supplies decline, hydrogen is quickly becoming an increasingly important fuel source. Currently hydrogen is the prime fuel of today's space vehicles (e.g., Space Shuttle) and featured as a fuel for some prototype vehicles such as the BMW seven series model. Hydrogen is a colorless, odorless gas with a 4% lower explosive limit which makes leak detection a priority. In an effort to support the use of hydrogen, a chemochromic (color changing) sensor was developed that is robust, simple to use, and does not require active operation. It can be made into a thin tape which can be conveniently used for leak detection at flanges, valves, or outlets. Chemochromic sensors can be either reversible or irreversible; however, irreversible chemochromic sensors will be analyzed in this report. The irreversible sensor is useful during hazardous operations when personnel cannot be present. To actively monitor leaks, testing of the irreversible sensor against environmental effects was completed and results indicated this material is suitable for outdoor use in the harsh beachside environment of Kennedy Space Center. The experiments in this report will give additional results to the environmental testing by adding solid rocket booster residue as a variable. The primary motivation for these experiments is to prepare the sensors for the launch pad environment at the Kennedy Space Center. In an effort to simulate the atmosphere at the pads before and after launch, the chemochromic sensors are exposed to solid rocket residue under various conditions.

  3. A Coastal Environment Field and Laboratory Activity for an Undergraduate Geomorphology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Jean T.; Rindfleisch, Paul R.

    2006-01-01

    A field and laboratory exercise for an undergraduate geomorphology class is described that focuses on the beach. The project requires one day of fieldwork and two laboratory sessions. In the field, students measure water surface fluctuations (waves) with a pressure sensor, survey beach profiles, collect sediment samples, and observe the beach…

  4. A Novel Laboratory Approach for the Demonstration of Hemodynamic Principles: The Arterial Blood Flow Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djelic, Marina; Mazic, Sanja; Zikic, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    In the frame of a laboratory training course for medicine students, a new approach for laboratory exercises has been applied to teach the phenomena of circulation. The exercise program included measurements of radial artery blood flow waveform for different age groups using a noninvasive optical sensor. Arterial wave reflection was identified by…

  5. Laboratory Automation and Middleware.

    PubMed

    Riben, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The practice of surgical pathology is under constant pressure to deliver the highest quality of service, reduce errors, increase throughput, and decrease turnaround time while at the same time dealing with an aging workforce, increasing financial constraints, and economic uncertainty. Although not able to implement total laboratory automation, great progress continues to be made in workstation automation in all areas of the pathology laboratory. This report highlights the benefits and challenges of pathology automation, reviews middleware and its use to facilitate automation, and reviews the progress so far in the anatomic pathology laboratory.

  6. Laboratory Accreditation in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Acuña, María Amelia; Collino, Cesar; Chiabrando, Gustavo A

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory accreditation is an essential element in the healthcare system since it contributes substantially to decision-making, in the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of the health status of the patients, as well as in the organization and management of public healthcare. Therefore, the clinical biochemistry professional works continuously to provide reliable results and contributes to the optimization of operational logistics and integration of a laboratory into the health system. ISO 15189 accreditation, ensures compliance of the laboratory to minimize instances of error through the planning, prevention, implementation, evaluation and improvement of its procedures, which provides skill areas that involve both training undergraduate and graduate professionals in clinical biochemistry.

  7. Standards for laboratory accreditation.

    PubMed

    1982-12-01

    After years of review by all of the CAP resource and other committees and councils, the Commission on Laboratory Accreditation developed a revised Standards for Accreditation of Medical Laboratories (Last revision, 1974). They were approved by the House of Delegates and, in the February issue of Pathologist '82, comments were solicited from the entire membership. Presented in the following pages are the final Standards for Laboratory Accreditation, which the Board of Governors adopted as CAP policy at its Sept. 2-4 meeting in Traverse City, Mich.

  8. The laboratory module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Of the five modules comprising the Orbiting Quarantine Facility, the Laboratory Module must provide not only an extensive research capability to permit execution of the protocol, but also the flexibility to accommodate second-order testing if nonterrestrial life is discovered in the sample. The biocontainment barriers that protect the sample and the researchers from cross contamination are described. Specifically, the laboratory layout, laboratory equipment, the environmental control and life support system, and containment assurance procedures are discussed. The metal manipulation arm proposed for use within the biocontainment cabinets is described. Sample receipt and processing procedures are outlined.

  9. The laboratory module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Of the five modules comprising the Orbiting Quarantine Facility, the Laboratory Module must provide not only an extensive research capability to permit execution of the protocol, but also the flexibility to accommodate second-order testing if nonterrestrial life is discovered in the sample. The biocontainment barriers that protect the sample and the researchers from cross contamination are described. Specifically, the laboratory layout, laboratory equipment, the environmental control and life support system, and containment assurance procedures are discussed. The metal manipulation arm proposed for use within the biocontainment cabinets is described. Sample receipt and processing procedures are outlined.

  10. Air Force Research Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-08

    Air Force Research Laboratory 8 June 2009 Mr. Leo Marple Ai F R h L b t r orce esearc a ora ory Leo.Marple@wpafb.af.mil DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Air Force Research Laboratory 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air Force Research Laboratory ,Wright

  11. Sonication standard laboratory module

    DOEpatents

    Beugelsdijk, Tony; Hollen, Robert M.; Erkkila, Tracy H.; Bronisz, Lawrence E.; Roybal, Jeffrey E.; Clark, Michael Leon

    1999-01-01

    A standard laboratory module for automatically producing a solution of cominants from a soil sample. A sonication tip agitates a solution containing the soil sample in a beaker while a stepper motor rotates the sample. An aspirator tube, connected to a vacuum, draws the upper layer of solution from the beaker through a filter and into another beaker. This beaker can thereafter be removed for analysis of the solution. The standard laboratory module encloses an embedded controller providing process control, status feedback information and maintenance procedures for the equipment and operations within the standard laboratory module.

  12. Chemical sensors technology development planning workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Bastiaans, G.J.; Haas, W.J. Jr.; Junk, G.A.

    1993-03-01

    The workshop participants were asked to: (1) Assess the current capabilities of chemical sensor technologies for addressing US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) needs; (2) Estimate potential near term (one to two years) and intermediate term (three to five years) capabilities for addressing those needs; and (3) Generate a ranked list of specific recommendations on what research and development (R&D) should be funded to provide the necessary capabilities. The needs were described in terms of two pervasive EM problems, the in situ determination of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and selected metals in various matrices at DOE sites. The R&D recommendations were to be ranked according to the estimated likelihood that the product technology will be ready for application within the time frame it is needed and the estimated return on investment. The principal conclusions and recommendations of the workshop are as follows: Chemical sensors capable of in situ determinations can significantly reduce analytical costs; Chemical sensors have been developed for certain VOCs in gases and water but none are currently capable of in situ determination of VOCs in soils; The DOE need for in situ determination of metals in soils cannot be addressed with existing chemical sensors and the prospects for their availability in three to five years are uncertain; Adaptation, if necessary, and field application of laboratory analytical instruments and those few chemical sensors that are already in field testing is the best approach for the near term; The chemical sensor technology development plan should include balanced support for near- and intermediate-term efforts.

  13. Portable sensor technology for rotational ground motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernauer, Felix; Wassermann, Joachim; Guattari, Frédéric; Igel, Heiner

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution we present performance characteristics of a single component interferometric fiber-optic gyroscope (IFOG). The prototype sensor is provided by iXBlue, France. It is tested in the framework of the European Research Council Project, ROMY (Rotational motions - a new observable for seismology), on its applicability as a portable and field-deployable sensor for rotational ground motions. To fully explore the benefits of this new seismic observable especially in the fields of vulcanology, ocean generated noise and geophysical exploration, such a sensor has to fulfill certain requirements regarding portability, power consumption, time stamping stability and dynamic range. With GPS-synchronized time stamping and miniseed output format, data acquisition is customized for the use in seismology. Testing time stamping accuracy yields a time shift of less than 0.0001 s and a correlation coefficient of 0.99 in comparison to a commonly used data acquisition system, Reftek 120. Sensor self-noise is below 5.0 ṡ 10-8 rads-1Hz-1/2 for a frequency band from 0.001 Hz to 5.0 Hz. Analysis of Allan deviation shows an angle random walk of 3.5 ṡ 10-8 rads-1Hz-1/2. Additionally, the operating range diagram is shown and ambient noise analysis is performed. The sensitivity of sensor self-noise to variations in surrounding temperature and magnetic field is tested in laboratory experiments. With a power consumption of less than 10 W, the whole system (single component sensor + data acquisition) is appropriate for field use with autonomous power supply.

  14. Single-Crystal Sapphire Optical Fiber Sensor Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, Gary; Scott, Brian; Wang, Anbo; Yu, Zhihao

    2013-12-31

    This report summarizes technical progress on the program “Single-Crystal Sapphire Optical Fiber Sensor Instrumentation,” funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. This project was completed in three phases, each with a separate focus. Phase I of the program, from October 1999 to April 2002, was devoted to development of sensing schema for use in high temperature, harsh environments. Different sensing designs were proposed and tested in the laboratory. Phase II of the program, from April 2002 to April 2009, focused on bringing the sensor technologies, which had already been successfully demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensors could be deployed in harsh industrial environments and eventually become commercially viable through a series of field tests. Also, a new sensing scheme was developed and tested with numerous advantages over all previous ones in Phase II. Phase III of the program, September 2009 to December 2013, focused on development of the new sensing scheme for field testing in conjunction with materials engineering of the improved sensor packaging lifetimes. In Phase I, three different sensing principles were studied: sapphire air-gap extrinsic Fabry-Perot sensors; intensity-based polarimetric sensors; and broadband polarimetric sensors. Black body radiation tests and corrosion tests were also performed in this phase. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. At the beginning of Phase II, in June 2004, the BPDI sensor was tested at the Wabash River coal gasifier

  15. RF current sensor

    DOEpatents

    Moore, James A.; Sparks, Dennis O.

    1998-11-10

    An RF sensor having a novel current sensing probe and a voltage sensing probe to measure voltage and current. The current sensor is disposed in a transmission line to link all of the flux generated by the flowing current in order to obtain an accurate measurement. The voltage sensor is a flat plate which operates as a capacitive plate to sense voltage on a center conductor of the transmission line, in which the measured voltage is obtained across a resistance leg of a R-C differentiator circuit formed by the characteristic impedance of a connecting transmission line and a capacitance of the plate, which is positioned proximal to the center conductor.

  16. Advanced sensors technology survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Tommy G.; Costello, David J.; Davis, Jerry G.; Horst, Richard L.; Lessard, Charles S.; Peel, H. Herbert; Tolliver, Robert

    1992-01-01

    This project assesses the state-of-the-art in advanced or 'smart' sensors technology for NASA Life Sciences research applications with an emphasis on those sensors with potential applications on the space station freedom (SSF). The objectives are: (1) to conduct literature reviews on relevant advanced sensor technology; (2) to interview various scientists and engineers in industry, academia, and government who are knowledgeable on this topic; (3) to provide viewpoints and opinions regarding the potential applications of this technology on the SSF; and (4) to provide summary charts of relevant technologies and centers where these technologies are being developed.

  17. Electrocatalytic cermet sensor

    DOEpatents

    Shoemaker, Erika L.; Vogt, Michael C.

    1998-01-01

    A sensor for O.sub.2 and CO.sub.2 gases. The gas sensor includes a plurality of layers driven by a cyclic voltage to generate a unique plot characteristic of the gas in contact with the sensor. The plurality of layers includes an alumina substrate, a reference electrode source of anions, a lower electrical reference electrode of Pt coupled to the reference source of anions, a solid electrolyte containing tungsten and coupled to the lower reference electrode, a buffer layer for preventing flow of Pt ions into the solid electrolyte and an upper catalytically active Pt electrode coupled to the buffer layer.

  18. Electrocatalytic cermet sensor

    DOEpatents

    Shoemaker, E.L.; Vogt, M.C.

    1998-06-30

    A sensor is described for O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} gases. The gas sensor includes a plurality of layers driven by a cyclic voltage to generate a unique plot characteristic of the gas in contact with the sensor. The plurality of layers includes an alumina substrate, a reference electrode source of anions, a lower electrical reference electrode of Pt coupled to the reference source of anions, a solid electrolyte containing tungsten and coupled to the lower reference electrode, a buffer layer for preventing flow of Pt ions into the solid electrolyte and an upper catalytically active Pt electrode coupled to the buffer layer. 16 figs.

  19. Sensor Suitcase Tablet Software

    SciTech Connect

    2016-10-06

    The Retrocommissioning Sensor Suitcase is targeted for use in small commercial buildings of less than 50,000 square feet of floor space that regularly receive basic services such as maintenance and repair, but don't have in-house energy management staff or buildings experts. The Suitcase is designed to be easy-to-use by building maintenance staff, or other professionals such as telecom and alarm technicians. The software in the hand-held is designed to guide the staff to input the building and system information, deploy the sensors in proper location, configure the sensor hardware, and start the data collection.

  20. Electrochemical micro sensor

    DOEpatents

    Setter, Joseph R.; Maclay, G. Jordan

    1989-09-12

    A micro-amperometric electrochemical sensor for detecting the presence of a pre-determined species in a fluid material is disclosed. The sensor includes a smooth substrate having a thin coating of solid electrolytic material deposited thereon. The working and counter electrodes are deposited on the surface of the solid electrolytic material and adhere thereto. Electrical leads connect the working and counter electrodes to a potential source and an apparatus for measuring the change in an electrical signal caused by the electrochemical oxidation or reduction of the species. Alternatively, the sensor may be fabricated in a sandwich structure and also may be cylindrical, spherical or other shapes.

  1. Remote electrochemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Wang, J.; Olsen, K.; Larson, D.

    1997-10-14

    An electrochemical sensor is described for remote detection, particularly useful for metal contaminants and organic or other compounds. The sensor circumvents technical difficulties that previously prevented in-situ remote operations. The microelectrode, connected to a long communications cable, allows convenient measurements of the element or compound at timed and frequent intervals and instrument/sample distances of ten feet to more than 100 feet. The sensor is useful for both downhole groundwater monitoring and in-situ water (e.g., shipboard seawater) analysis. 21 figs.

  2. [Columbia Sensor Diagrams]. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A two dimensional graphical event sequence of the time history of relevant sensor information located in the left wing and wheel well areas of the Space Shuttle Columbia Orbiter is presented. Information contained in this graphical event sequence include: 1) Sensor location on orbiter and its associated wire bindle in X-Y plane; 2) Wire bundle routing; 3) Description of each anomalous sensor event; 4) Time annotation by (a) GMT, (b) time relative to LOS, (c) time history bar, and (d) ground track; and 5) Graphical display of temperature rise (based on delta temperature from point it is determined to be anomalous).

  3. Wireless passive radiation sensor

    DOEpatents

    Pfeifer, Kent B; Rumpf, Arthur N; Yelton, William G; Limmer, Steven J

    2013-12-03

    A novel measurement technique is employed using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, passive RF, and radiation-sensitive films to provide a wireless passive radiation sensor that requires no batteries, outside wiring, or regular maintenance. The sensor is small (<1 cm.sup.2), physically robust, and will operate unattended for decades. In addition, the sensor can be insensitive to measurement position and read distance due to a novel self-referencing technique eliminating the need to measure absolute responses that are dependent on RF transmitter location and power.

  4. Uncooled thermal imaging sensors for unattended sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohin, Margaret; Figler, Burton D.; Blackwell, Richard J.; Butler, Neal R.; Backer, Brian S.; Gurnee, Mark N.; Murphy, Bob H.

    2002-08-01

    320×240 and 640×480 small pixel uncooled microbolometer focal plane arrays have been developed that reduce overall sensor size, weight, power consumption, and cost. At the same time, these sensors still provide the high quality image resolution needed for target recognition and identification. These newly developed small uncooled thermal imaging sensors are being demonstrated in several attended and unattended sensor applications that include Unattended Ground Sensors, Micro Air Vehicles, and Infrared Helmet Sights. This paper describes recent developments at BAE SYSTEMS in uncooled microbolometer sensor technology for unattended sensor applications and presents the latest performance and image data for our 2nd generation systems.

  5. Fibre optic sensor with disturbance localization in one optical fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyczkowski, M.; Ciurapinski, W.

    2007-05-01

    Ordinary perimeter security systems consist of many individual sensors with detection range 200-300 meters. These limitations are connected with physical phenomena that are used in microwave and infrared barriers as well as in ground and fence cable sensors. On the contrary, fiber optic perimeter sensors can be applied in the range of many kilometers and zone length 200-300 meters is degradation of their possibilities. This paper presents investigation results of a new generation of the fiber optic perimeter sensor in a two Sagnac and Sagna'c interferometers configuration. This system can detect a potential intruder and determine its position along a protected zone. We propose a method that makes use of the inherent properties of both interferometers. After demodulation of signals from both interferometers, obtained amplitude characteristic of the Sagnac interferometer depends on position of a disturbance along the both interferometer. So, quotient of both demodulated characteristics is proportional to the position of the disturbance. Arrangement of a laboratory model of the sensor and its signal processing scheme is presented. During research of a laboratory model, it was possible to detect the position of the disturbance with resolution of about 50m along a 10-km long sensor.

  6. Environmental Response Laboratory Network

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The ERLN as a national network of laboratories that can be ramped up as needed to support large scale environmental responses. It integrates capabilities of existing public and private sector labs, providing consistent capacity and quality data.

  7. Safety in Science Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents 12 amendments to the second edition of Safety in Science Laboratories. Covers topics such as regular inspection of equipment, wearing safety glasses, dating stock chemicals, and safe use of chemicals. (MA)

  8. Tethered gravity laboratories study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchetti, F.

    1989-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: (1) thermal control issues; (2) attitude control sybsystem; (3) configuration constraints; (4) payload; (5) acceleration requirements on Variable Gravity Laboratory (VGL); and (6) VGL configuration highlights.

  9. The Microscale Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zipp, Arden P., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Described are two microscale chemistry laboratory experiments including "Microscale Syntheses of Heterocyclic Compounds," and "Microscale Acid-Base Extraction--A Colorful Introduction." Materials, procedures and probable results are discussed. (CW)

  10. Tethered gravity laboratories study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchetti, F.

    1989-01-01

    Variable Gravity Laboratory studies are discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) conceptual design and engineering analysis; (2) control strategies (fast crawling maneuvers, main perturbations and their effect upon the acceleration level); and (3) technology requirements.

  11. National Exposure Research Laboratory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Ecosystems Research Division of EPA’s National Exposure Research Laboratory, conducts research on organic and inorganic chemicals, greenhouse gas biogeochemical cycles, and land use perturbations that create stressor exposures and potentia risk

  12. Physics Laboratory in UEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Tohru; Nakamura, Jin; Suzuki, Masaru

    All the first-year students in the University of Electro-Communications (UEC) take "Basic Physics I", "Basic Physics II" and "Physics Laboratory" as required subjects; Basic Physics I and Basic Physics II are calculus-based physics of mechanics, wave and oscillation, thermal physics and electromagnetics. Physics Laboratory is designed mainly aiming at learning the skill of basic experimental technique and technical writing. Although 95% students have taken physics in the senior high school, they poorly understand it by connecting with experience, and it is difficult to learn Physics Laboratory in the university. For this reason, we introduced two ICT (Information and Communication Technology) systems of Physics Laboratory to support students'learning and staff's teaching. By using quantitative data obtained from the ICT systems, we can easily check understanding of physics contents in students, and can improve physics education.

  13. NETL - Thermogravimetric Analysis Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, George

    2013-06-12

    Researchers in NETL's Thermal Analysis Laboratory are investigating chemical looping combustion. As a clean and efficient fossil fuel technology, chemical looping combustion controls CO2 emissions and offers a promising alternative to traditional combustion.

  14. NETL - Thermogravimetric Analysis Laboratory

    ScienceCinema

    Richards, George

    2016-07-12

    Researchers in NETL's Thermal Analysis Laboratory are investigating chemical looping combustion. As a clean and efficient fossil fuel technology, chemical looping combustion controls CO2 emissions and offers a promising alternative to traditional combustion.

  15. Ecosystems in the Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madders, M.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the materials and laboratory techniques for the study of food chains and food webs, pyramids of numbers and biomass, energy pyramids, and oxygen gradients. Presents a procedure for investigating the effects of various pollutants on an entire ecosystem. (GS)

  16. Retainer for laboratory animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    Bio-retainer holds laboratory animals in fixed position for research and clinical experiments. Retainer allows full access to animals and can be rapidly opened and closed to admit and release specimens.

  17. Organic Laboratory Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sherrel

    1990-01-01

    Detailed is a method in which short pieces of teflon tubing may be used for collection tubes for collecting preparative fractions from gas chromatographs. Material preparation, laboratory procedures, and results of this method are discussed. (CW)

  18. Environmental Laboratory Advisory Board

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Environmental Laboratory Advisory Board (ELAB) was established to provide consensus advice, information and recommendations on issues related to EPA measurement programs, and operation of the national accreditation program

  19. Microcontrollers in the Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ron

    1989-01-01

    Described is the use of automated control using microcomputers. Covers the development of the microcontroller and describes advantages and characteristics of several brands of chips. Provides several recent applications of microcontrollers in laboratory automation. (MVL)

  20. Coordinated Optimization of Aircraft Routes and Locations of Ground Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-17

    Routes and Locations of Ground Sensors Sergey N. Vecherin and D. Keith Wilson Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) U.S. Army...9 3.1.1 Information fusion in the probability space...9 3.1.2 Information fusion in the signal space

  1. Monitoring soil health with a sensor fusion approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sensor-based approaches to assessment and quantification of soil health are important to facilitate cost-effective, site-specific soil management. While traditional laboratory analysis is effective for assessing soil health (or soil quality) at a few sites, such an approach quickly becomes infeasibl...

  2. Biomedical engineering at Sandia National Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanner, Mary Ann

    1994-12-01

    The potential exists to reduce or control some aspects of the U.S. health care expenditure without compromising health care delivery by developing carefully selected technologies which impact favorably on the health care system. A focused effort to develop such technologies is underway at Sandia National Laboratories. As a DOE National Laboratory, Sandia possesses a wealth of engineering and scientific expertise that can be readily applied to this critical national need. Appropriate mechanisms currently exist to allow transfer of technology from the laboratory to the private sector. Sandia's Biomedical Engineering Initiative addresses the development of properly evaluated, cost-effective medical technologies through team collaborations with the medical community. Technology development is subjected to certain criteria including wide applicability, earlier diagnoses, increased efficiency, cost-effectiveness and dual-use. Examples of Sandia's medical technologies include a noninvasive blood glucose sensor, computer aided mammographic screening, noninvasive fetal oximetry and blood gas measurement, burn diagnostics and laser debridement, telerobotics and ultrasonic scanning for prosthetic devices. Sandia National Laboratories has the potential to aid in directing medical technology development efforts which emphasize health care needs, earlier diagnosis, cost containment and improvement of the quality of life.

  3. Fiber optic chemical sensors for characterizing the carbon cycle in ocean margin regions. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    DeGrandpre, M.D.; Sayles, F.L.

    1993-04-13

    The overall objective of our DOE-Ocean Margins Programs grant is to develop a pCO{sub 2} sensor for long-term monitoring of pCO{sub 2} in the ocean margins and to establish a proving ground for the development of other chemical sensors for characterizing the carbon cycle in these regions. We have succeeded in keeping with the approximate timeline outlined in the original proposal, which, for year 1 included the following objectives: Continue sensor optimization, test response characteristics (reagent and sample flow rates, temperature), introduce position sensitive photodiode and photodiode array spectrophotometers and evaluate, develop reliable and reproducible fabrication techniques, develop sensor based on preliminary studies optimized for field measurements (minimize size and power requirements), test long-term stability of the sensor in the laboratory, determine susceptibility to fouling and corrosion. This work is summarized below along with a brief review of the sensor`s operating principle.

  4. Development of a reliable transmission-based laser sensor system for intelligent transportation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Mashrur A.; Banerjee, Partha; Nehmetallah, Georges; Goodhue, Paul C.; Das, Arobindu; Atluri, Mahesh

    2004-10-01

    The transportation community has applied sensors for various traffic management purposes, such as in traffic signal control, ramp metering, traveler information development, and incident detection by collecting and processing real-time vehicle position and speed. The U.S. transportation community has not adopted any single newer traffic detectors as the most accepted choice. The objective of this research is to develop an infrared sensor system in the laboratory that will provide improved estimates of vehicle speed compared to those available from current infrared sensors, to model the sensor"s failure conditions and probabilities, and ultimately refine the sensor to provide the most reliable data under various environmental conditions. This paper presents the initial development of the proposed sensor system. This system will be implemented in a highway segment to evaluate its the risks of failure under various environmental conditions. A modified design will then be developed based on the field evaluations.

  5. Power dissipation studies on planar n+-in-n pixel sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingenberg, R.; Altenheiner, S.; Bryan, D.; Dungs, S.; Gisen, A.; Gößling, C.; Hillringhaus, B.; Kröninger, K.; Ratering, C.; Wittig, T.

    2016-09-01

    Research and development laboratory measurements of non-irradiated and irradiated planar n+-in-n pixel sensor structures are systematically investigated to determine the power dissipation of those sensors. Measurements were taken at different operation temperatures, sensor bias voltages, bulk thicknesses, sensor areas, and irradiation fluences. For planar n+-in-n pixel sensors irradiated to HL-LHC fluences of some 1016neqcm-2 a power dissipation area density of (126±8) mW cm-2 at a temperature of -25 °C and at an operation voltage of 800 V is derived for small sensors with an area of about 0.7cm2 . For large sensors as planned for the ATLAS phase-II upgrade a power dissipation of 100 mW cm-2 is expected.

  6. Theory and laboratory astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, David N.; Mckee, Christopher F.; Alcock, Charles; Allamandola, Lou; Chevalier, Roger A.; Cline, David B.; Dalgarno, Alexander; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Fall, S. Michael; Ferland, Gary J.

    1991-01-01

    Science opportunities in the 1990's are discussed. Topics covered include the large scale structure of the universe, galaxies, stars, star formation and the interstellar medium, high energy astrophysics, and the solar system. Laboratory astrophysics in the 1990's is briefly surveyed, covering such topics as molecular, atomic, optical, nuclear and optical physics. Funding recommendations are given for the National Science Foundation, NASA, and the Department of Energy. Recommendations for laboratory astrophysics research are given.

  7. Virtual and Remote Robotic Laboratory Using EJS, MATLAB and Lab VIEW

    PubMed Central

    Chaos, Dictino; Chacón, Jesús; Lopez-Orozco, Jose Antonio; Dormido, Sebastián

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a virtual and remote laboratory based on Easy Java Simulations (EJS) and LabVIEW. The main application of this laboratory is to improve the study of sensors in Mobile Robotics, dealing with the problems that arise on the real world experiments. This laboratory allows the user to work from their homes, tele-operating a real robot that takes measurements from its sensors in order to obtain a map of its environment. In addition, the application allows interacting with a robot simulation (virtual laboratory) or with a real robot (remote laboratory), with the same simple and intuitive graphical user interface in EJS. Thus, students can develop signal processing and control algorithms for the robot in simulation and then deploy them on the real robot for testing purposes. Practical examples of application of the laboratory on the inter-University Master of Systems Engineering and Automatic Control are presented. PMID:23429578

  8. Virtual and remote robotic laboratory using EJS, MATLAB and LabVIEW.

    PubMed

    Chaos, Dictino; Chacón, Jesús; Lopez-Orozco, Jose Antonio; Dormido, Sebastián

    2013-02-21

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a virtual and remote laboratory based on Easy Java Simulations (EJS) and LabVIEW. The main application of this laboratory is to improve the study of sensors in Mobile Robotics, dealing with the problems that arise on the real world experiments. This laboratory allows the user to work from their homes, tele-operating a real robot that takes measurements from its sensors in order to obtain a map of its environment. In addition, the application allows interacting with a robot simulation (virtual laboratory) or with a real robot (remote laboratory), with the same simple and intuitive graphical user interface in EJS. Thus, students can develop signal processing and control algorithms for the robot in simulation and then deploy them on the real robot for testing purposes. Practical examples of application of the laboratory on the inter-University Master of Systems Engineering and Automatic Control are presented.

  9. Remotely deployable aerial inspection using tactile sensors

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, C. N.; Cao, J.; Pierce, S. G.; Dobie, G.; Summan, R.; Sullivan, J. C.; Pipe, A. G.

    2014-02-18

    For structural monitoring applications, the use of remotely deployable Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) inspection platforms offer many advantages, including improved accessibility, greater safety and reduced cost, when compared to traditional manual inspection techniques. The use of such platforms, previously reported by researchers at the University Strathclyde facilitates the potential for rapid scanning of large areas and volumes in hazardous locations. A common problem for both manual and remote deployment approaches lies in the intrinsic stand-off and surface coupling issues of typical NDE probes. The associated complications of these requirements are obviously significantly exacerbated when considering aerial based remote inspection and deployment, resulting in simple visual techniques being the preferred sensor payload. Researchers at Bristol Robotics Laboratory have developed biomimetic tactile sensors modelled on the facial whiskers (vibrissae) of animals such as rats and mice, with the latest sensors actively sweeping their tips across the surface in a back and forth motion. The current work reports on the design and performance of an aerial inspection platform and the suitability of tactile whisking sensors to aerial based surface monitoring applications.

  10. Multiparameter integrated sensor development involving alternate materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajic, Slobodan; Datskos, Panos G.

    2001-11-01

    The sensor community has long been presented with the problem of prioritizing among several competing sensor system variables due to the inability to produce a high confidence, low-cost, reliable, and compact device. Typically a solution for very critical scenarios has been a high-cost scale reduction of larger more laboratory based instrumentation. This often produces data on a single parameter that is beyond reproach, however this can also produce a very delicate, bulky, and costly system often requiring a vacuum system of some sort. An alternative approach involves using micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS) based sensors. This typically results in low-cost and extremely compact devices that often produce dubious or insufficient data. Our approach integrates multiple orthogonal stimuli within a single chip to produce a MOEMS based sensor that has a very high degree of signal confidence. The combination of multiple independent parameters significantly improves detection reliability in a small low-cost package. However, it is often the case that the most efficient MOEMS sensing methods require the use of material properties other than the conventional microlithograph based Si, SiNx, SiO2 and metals. Thus we have been developing techniques to employ more exotic semiconductors for various sensing applications. The group III-V and II-VI compound semiconductors form a very important and versatile collection of material property variables (thermal, optical, mechanical, electrical) available to the MOEMS designer.

  11. Applications of the Sensor Fish Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2007-08-28

    The Sensor Fish is an autonomous device developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Army Corps of Engineers (COE) to better understand the physical conditions fish experience during passage through hydro-turbines and other dam bypass alternatives. Since its initial development in 1997, the Sensor Fish has undergone several design changes to improve its function and extend the range of its use. The most recent Sensor Fish design, the six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) device, has been deployed successfully to characterize the environment fish experience when they pass through several hydroelectric projects along main stem Columbia and Snake Rivers in the Pacific Northwest. Just as information gathered from crash test dummies can affect automobile design with the installation of protective designs to lessen or prevent human injury, having sensor fish data to quantify accelerations, rotations, and pressure changes, helps identify fish injury mechanisms such as strike, turbulent shear, pressure, and inertial effects, including non-lethal ones such as stunning or signs of vestibular disruption that expose fish to a higher risk of predation by birds and piscivorous fish downstream following passage.

  12. Digital Sun Sensor Multi-Spot Operation

    PubMed Central

    Rufino, Giancarlo; Grassi, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The operation and test of a multi-spot digital sun sensor for precise sun-line determination is described. The image forming system consists of an opaque mask with multiple pinhole apertures producing multiple, simultaneous, spot-like images of the sun on the focal plane. The sun-line precision can be improved by averaging multiple simultaneous measures. Nevertheless, the sensor operation on a wide field of view requires acquiring and processing images in which the number of sun spots and the related intensity level are largely variable. To this end, a reliable and robust image acquisition procedure based on a variable shutter time has been considered as well as a calibration function exploiting also the knowledge of the sun-spot array size. Main focus of the present paper is the experimental validation of the wide field of view operation of the sensor by using a sensor prototype and a laboratory test facility. Results demonstrate that it is possible to keep high measurement precision also for large off-boresight angles. PMID:23443388

  13. Replaceable Sensor System for Bioreactor Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, Mike; Savoy, Steve; Bruno, John

    2006-01-01

    A sensor system was proposed that would monitor spaceflight bioreactor parameters. Not only will this technology be invaluable in the space program for which it was developed, it will find applications in medical science and industrial laboratories as well. Using frequency-domain-based fluorescence lifetime technology, the sensor system will be able to detect changes in fluorescence lifetime quenching that results from displacement of fluorophorelabeled receptors bound to target ligands. This device will be used to monitor and regulate bioreactor parameters including glucose, pH, oxygen pressure (pO2), and carbon dioxide pressure (pCO2). Moreover, these biosensor fluorophore receptor-quenching complexes can be designed to further detect and monitor for potential biohazards, bioproducts, or bioimpurities. Biosensors used to detect biological fluid constituents have already been developed that employ a number of strategies, including invasive microelectrodes (e.g., dark electrodes), optical techniques including fluorescence, and membrane permeable systems based on osmotic pressure. Yet the longevity of any of these sensors does not meet the demands of extended use in spacecraft habitat or bioreactor monitoring. It was therefore necessary to develop a sensor platform that could determine not only fluid variables such as glucose concentration, pO2, pCO2, and pH but can also regulate these fluid variables with controlled feedback loop.

  14. Biomimetic optical sensor for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Gorospe, George E.; Wright, Cameron H. G.; Barrett, Steven F.

    2015-05-01

    We report on a fiber optic sensor based on the physiological aspects of the eye and vision-related neural layers of the common housefly (Musca domestica) that has been developed and built for aerospace applications. The intent of the research is to reproduce select features from the fly's vision system that are desirable in image processing, including high functionality in low-light and low-contrast environments, sensitivity to motion, compact size, lightweight, and low power and computation requirements. The fly uses a combination of overlapping photoreceptor responses that are well approximated by Gaussian distributions and neural superposition to detect image features, such as object motion, to a much higher degree than just the photoreceptor density would imply. The Gaussian overlap in the biomimetic sensor comes from the front-end optical design, and the neural superposition is accomplished by subsequently combining the signals using analog electronics. The fly eye sensor is being developed to perform real-time tracking of a target on a flexible aircraft wing experiencing bending and torsion loads during flight. We report on results of laboratory experiments using the fly eye sensor to sense a target moving across its field of view.

  15. Strain sensors for high field pulse magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Christian; Zheng, Yan; Easton, Daniel; Farinholt, Kevin M; Park, Gyuhae

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an investigation into several strain sensing technologies that are being considered to monitor mechanical deformation within the steel reinforcement shells used in high field pulsed magnets. Such systems generally operate at cryogenic temperatures to mitigate heating issues that are inherent in the coils of nondestructive, high field pulsed magnets. The objective of this preliminary study is to characterize the performance of various strain sensing technologies at liquid nitrogen temperatures (-196 C). Four sensor types are considered in this investigation: fiber Bragg gratings (FBG), resistive foil strain gauges (RFSG), piezoelectric polymers (PVDF), and piezoceramics (PZT). Three operational conditions are considered for each sensor: bond integrity, sensitivity as a function of temperature, and thermal cycling effects. Several experiments were conducted as part of this study, investigating adhesion with various substrate materials (stainless steel, aluminum, and carbon fiber), sensitivity to static (FBG and RFSG) and dynamic (RFSG, PVDF and PZT) load conditions, and sensor diagnostics using PZT sensors. This work has been conducted in collaboration with the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL), and the results of this study will be used to identify the set of sensing technologies that would be best suited for integration within high field pulsed magnets at the NHMFL facility.

  16. Calibration-free optical chemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    DeGrandpre, Michael D.

    2006-04-11

    An apparatus and method for taking absorbance-based chemical measurements are described. In a specific embodiment, an indicator-based pCO2 (partial pressure of CO2) sensor displays sensor-to-sensor reproducibility and measurement stability. These qualities are achieved by: 1) renewing the sensing solution, 2) allowing the sensing solution to reach equilibrium with the analyte, and 3) calculating the response from a ratio of the indicator solution absorbances which are determined relative to a blank solution. Careful solution preparation, wavelength calibration, and stray light rejection also contribute to this calibration-free system. Three pCO2 sensors were calibrated and each had response curves which were essentially identical within the uncertainty of the calibration. Long-term laboratory and field studies showed the response had no drift over extended periods (months). The theoretical response, determined from thermodynamic characterization of the indicator solution, also predicted the observed calibration-free performance.

  17. Hierarchical Nanoceramics for Industrial Process Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Ruud, James, A.; Brosnan, Kristen, H.; Striker, Todd; Ramaswamy, Vidya; Aceto, Steven, C.; Gao, Yan; Willson, Patrick, D.; Manoharan, Mohan; Armstrong, Eric, N., Wachsman, Eric, D.; Kao, Chi-Chang

    2011-07-15

    This project developed a robust, tunable, hierarchical nanoceramics materials platform for industrial process sensors in harsh-environments. Control of material structure at multiple length scales from nano to macro increased the sensing response of the materials to combustion gases. These materials operated at relatively high temperatures, enabling detection close to the source of combustion. It is anticipated that these materials can form the basis for a new class of sensors enabling widespread use of efficient combustion processes with closed loop feedback control in the energy-intensive industries. The first phase of the project focused on materials selection and process development, leading to hierarchical nanoceramics that were evaluated for sensing performance. The second phase focused on optimizing the materials processes and microstructures, followed by validation of performance of a prototype sensor in a laboratory combustion environment. The objectives of this project were achieved by: (1) synthesizing and optimizing hierarchical nanostructures; (2) synthesizing and optimizing sensing nanomaterials; (3) integrating sensing functionality into hierarchical nanostructures; (4) demonstrating material performance in a sensing element; and (5) validating material performance in a simulated service environment. The project developed hierarchical nanoceramic electrodes for mixed potential zirconia gas sensors with increased surface area and demonstrated tailored electrocatalytic activity operable at high temperatures enabling detection of products of combustion such as NOx close to the source of combustion. Methods were developed for synthesis of hierarchical nanostructures with high, stable surface area, integrated catalytic functionality within the structures for gas sensing, and demonstrated materials performance in harsh lab and combustion gas environments.

  18. Complex pendulum biomass sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Perrenoud, Ben C.

    2007-12-25

    A complex pendulum system biomass sensor having a plurality of pendulums. The plurality of pendulums allow the system to detect a biomass height and density. Each pendulum has an angular deflection sensor and a deflector at a unique height. The pendulums are passed through the biomass and readings from the angular deflection sensors are fed into a control system. The control system determines whether adjustment of machine settings is appropriate and either displays an output to the operator, or adjusts automatically adjusts the machine settings, such as the speed, at which the pendulums are passed through the biomass. In an alternate embodiment, an entanglement sensor is also passed through the biomass to determine the amount of biomass entanglement. This measure of entanglement is also fed into the control system.

  19. Laminar-Separation Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manuel, G. S.; Carraway, D. L.; Lee, C. C.

    1991-01-01

    Reduction of viscous drag on airplanes explores limits of practical applications of natural laminar flow. Wind-tunnel and flight tests conducted to explore abilities of hot-film sensors to identify separation of laminar flow as principal mode of amplification of instability leading to transition from laminar to turbulent flow. Two different laminar-separation-sensor configurations developed and used to detect boundary-layer transitions. Results show hot-film laminar-separation-sensor technique viable means for detecting existence of transition as well as for indicating reversed flow in laminar-separation bubble. Refinement of sensor configurations provides tools necessary to explore, in all speed regimes, practical limits of laminar-flow applications and viscous-drag-reduction technology.

  20. Uncooled tunneling infrared sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Thomas W. (Inventor); Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Podosek, Judith A. (Inventor); Vote, Erika C. (Inventor); Rockstad, Howard K. (Inventor); Reynolds, Joseph K. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An uncooled infrared tunneling sensor in which the only moving part is a diaphragm which is deflected into contact with a micromachined silicon tip electrode prepared by a novel lithographic process. Similarly prepared deflection electrodes employ electrostatic force to control the deflection of a silicon nitride, flat diaphragm membrane. The diaphragm exhibits a high resonant frequency which reduces the sensor's sensitivity to vibration. A high bandwidth feedback circuit controls the tunneling current by adjusting the deflection voltage to maintain a constant deflection of the membrane which would otherwise change deflection depending upon incident infrared radiation. The resulting infrared sensor will meet or exceed the performance of all other broadband, uncooled, infrared sensors and can be miniaturized to pixel dimensions smaller than 100 .mu.m. The technology is readily implemented as a small-format linear array suitable for commercial and spacecraft applications.